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Sample records for quorum sensing inhibitors

  1. Attenuation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa virulence by quorum sensing inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Hentzer, Morten; Wu, Hong; Andersen, Jens Bo; Riedel, Kathrin; Rasmussen, Thomas B.; Bagge, Niels; Kumar, Naresh; Schembri, Mark A.; Song, Zhijun; Kristoffersen, Peter; Manefield, Mike; Costerton, John W.; Molin, Søren; Eberl, Leo; Steinberg, Peter; Kjelleberg, Staffan; Høiby, Niels; Givskov, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Traditional treatment of infectious diseases is based on compounds that kill or inhibit growth of bacteria. A major concern with this approach is the frequent development of resistance to antibiotics. The discovery of communication systems (quorum sensing systems) regulating bacterial virulence has afforded a novel opportunity to control infectious bacteria without interfering with growth. Compounds that can override communication signals have been found in the marine environment. Using Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 as an example of an opportunistic human pathogen, we show that a synthetic derivate of natural furanone compounds can act as a potent antagonist of bacterial quorum sensing. We employed GeneChip® microarray technology to identify furanone target genes and to map the quorum sensing regulon. The transcriptome analysis showed that the furanone drug specifically targeted quorum sensing systems and inhibited virulence factor expression. Application of the drug to P.aeruginosa biofilms increased bacterial susceptibility to tobramycin and SDS. In a mouse pulmonary infection model, the drug inhibited quorum sensing of the infecting bacteria and promoted their clearance by the mouse immune response. PMID:12881415

  2. Glycosylflavonoids from Cecropia pachystachya Trécul are quorum sensing inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Brango-Vanegas, J; Costa, G M; Ortmann, C F; Schenkel, E P; Reginatto, F H; Ramos, F A; Arévalo-Ferro, C; Castellanos, L

    2014-04-15

    The Cecropia genus is widely distributed in Latin America including at least 60 species, and some of them are commonly used in traditional medicine for the treatment of several diseases. We used Cecropia pachystachya Trécul to search for quorum sensing (QS) inhibitors compounds and found that the aqueous extract of C. pachystachya leaves is a promising source of substances with this activity. Using as biosensor Chromobacterium violaceum ATCC 31532 and Escherichia coli pSB403, the compounds chlorogenic acid (2), isoorientin (3), orientin (4), isovitexin (6), vitexin (7), and rutin (9) were identified as QS inhibitors. None of these compounds inhibited the growth of neither the used biosensors nor the microorganisms Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 23591, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, used here as growth inhibition controls. Along with the rutin, here we presented for the first time the QS-inhibition potential of the C-glycosyl flavonoids. The prospective of this evidence lead to the use of these compounds as antipathogenic drugs or antifoulants. PMID:24548722

  3. Food as a Source for Quorum Sensing Inhibitors: Iberin from Horseradish Revealed as a Quorum Sensing Inhibitor of Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Jakobsen, Tim Holm; Bragason, Steinn Kristinn; Phipps, Richard Kerry; Christensen, Louise Dahl; van Gennip, Maria; Alhede, Morten; Skindersoe, Mette; Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld; Høiby, Niels; Bjarnsholt, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Foods with health-promoting effects beyond nutritional values have been gaining increasing research focus in recent years, although not much has been published on this subject in relation to bacterial infections. With respect to treatment, a novel antimicrobial strategy, which is expected to transcend problems with selective pressures for antibiotic resistance, is to interrupt bacterial communication, also known as quorum sensing (QS), by means of signal antagonists, the so-called QS inhibitors (QSIs). Furthermore, QSI agents offer a potential solution to the deficiencies associated with use of traditional antibiotics to treat infections caused by bacterial biofilms and multidrug-resistant bacteria. Several QSIs of natural origin have been identified, and in this study, several common food products and plants were extracted and screened for QSI activity in an attempt to isolate and characterize previously unknown QSI compounds active against the common opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Several extracts displayed activity, but horseradish exhibited the highest activity. Chromatographic separation led to the isolation of a potent QSI compound that was identified by liquid chromatography-diode array detector-mass spectrometry (LC-DAD-MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy as iberin—an isothiocyanate produced by many members of the Brassicaceae family. Real-time PCR (RT-PCR) and DNA microarray studies showed that iberin specifically blocks expression of QS-regulated genes in P. aeruginosa. PMID:22286987

  4. Colostrum Hexasaccharide, a Novel Staphylococcus aureus Quorum-Sensing Inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, A.; Deepak, D.; Singh, B. R.

    2015-01-01

    The discovery of quorum-sensing (QS) systems regulating antibiotic resistance and virulence factors (VFs) has afforded a novel opportunity to prevent bacterial pathogenicity. Dietary molecules have been demonstrated to attenuate QS circuits of bacteria. But, to our knowledge, no study exploring the potential of colostrum hexasaccharide (CHS) in regulating QS systems has been published. In this study, we analyzed CHS for inhibiting QS signaling in Staphylococcus aureus. We isolated and characterized CHS from mare colostrum by high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC), reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography evaporative light-scattering detection (RP-HPLC-ELSD), 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). Antibiofilm activity of CHS against S. aureus and its possible interference with bacterial QS systems were determined. The inhibition and eradication potentials of the biofilms were studied by microscopic analyses and quantified by 96-well-microtiter-plate assays. Also, the ability of CHS to interfere in bacterial QS by degrading acyl-homoserine lactones (AHLs), one of the most studied signal molecules for Gram-negative bacteria, was evaluated. The results revealed that CHS exhibited promising inhibitory activities against QS-regulated secretion of VFs, including spreading ability, hemolysis, protease, and lipase activities, when applied at a rate of 5 mg/ml. The results of biofilm experiments indicated that CHS is a strong inhibitor of biofilm formation and also has the ability to eradicate it. The potential of CHS to interfere with bacterial QS systems was also examined by degradation of AHLs. Furthermore, it was documented that CHS decreased antibiotic resistance in S. aureus. The results thus give a lead that mare colostrum can be a promising source for isolating a next-generation antibacterial. PMID:25645850

  5. Colostrum hexasaccharide, a novel Staphylococcus aureus quorum-sensing inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, A; Singh, B N; Deepak, D; Rawat, A K S; Singh, B R

    2015-04-01

    The discovery of quorum-sensing (QS) systems regulating antibiotic resistance and virulence factors (VFs) has afforded a novel opportunity to prevent bacterial pathogenicity. Dietary molecules have been demonstrated to attenuate QS circuits of bacteria. But, to our knowledge, no study exploring the potential of colostrum hexasaccharide (CHS) in regulating QS systems has been published. In this study, we analyzed CHS for inhibiting QS signaling in Staphylococcus aureus. We isolated and characterized CHS from mare colostrum by high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC), reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography evaporative light-scattering detection (RP-HPLC-ELSD), (1)H and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). Antibiofilm activity of CHS against S. aureus and its possible interference with bacterial QS systems were determined. The inhibition and eradication potentials of the biofilms were studied by microscopic analyses and quantified by 96-well-microtiter-plate assays. Also, the ability of CHS to interfere in bacterial QS by degrading acyl-homoserine lactones (AHLs), one of the most studied signal molecules for Gram-negative bacteria, was evaluated. The results revealed that CHS exhibited promising inhibitory activities against QS-regulated secretion of VFs, including spreading ability, hemolysis, protease, and lipase activities, when applied at a rate of 5 mg/ml. The results of biofilm experiments indicated that CHS is a strong inhibitor of biofilm formation and also has the ability to eradicate it. The potential of CHS to interfere with bacterial QS systems was also examined by degradation of AHLs. Furthermore, it was documented that CHS decreased antibiotic resistance in S. aureus. The results thus give a lead that mare colostrum can be a promising source for isolating a next-generation antibacterial. PMID:25645850

  6. Identification of poultry meat-derived fatty acids functioning as quorum sensing signal inhibitors of autoinducer-2 (AI-2)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Autoinducer-2 (AI-2) is a compound that plays a key role in bacterial cell-to-cell communication (quorum sensing). Previous research has shown certain food matrices inhibit this signaling compound. Using the reporter strain, Vibrio harveyi BB170, quorum sensing inhibitors contained in poultry meat...

  7. Quorum Sensing Inhibitors for Staphylococcus aureus from Italian Medicinal Plants

    PubMed Central

    Quave, Cassandra L.; Plano, Lisa R.W.; Bennett, Bradley C.

    2010-01-01

    Morbidity and mortality estimates due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections continue to rise. Therapeutic options are limited by antibiotic resistance. Anti-pathogenic compounds, which inhibit quorum sensing (QS) pathways, may be a useful alternative to antibiotics. Staphylococcal QS is encoded by the agr locus and is responsible for the production of ?-hemolysin. Quantification of ?-hemolysin found in culture supernatants permits the analysis of agr activity at the translational, rather than transcriptional, level. We employed RP-HPLC techniques to investigate the anti-QS activity of 168 extracts from 104 Italian plants through quantification of ?-hemolysin. Extracts from three medicinal plants (Ballota nigra, Castanea sativa, and Sambucus ebulus) exhibited a dose-dependent response in the production of ?-hemolysin, indicating strong anti-QS activity in a pathogenic MRSA isolate. PMID:20645243

  8. Quorum Sensing and Phytochemicals

    PubMed Central

    Nazzaro, Filomena; Fratianni, Florinda; Coppola, Raffaele

    2013-01-01

    Most infectious diseases are caused by bacteria, which proliferate within quorum sensing (QS)-mediated biofilms. Efforts to block QS in bacteria and disrupt biofilms have enabled the identification of bioactive molecules that are also produced by plants. This mini review primarily focuses on natural QS inhibitors, which display potential for treating bacterial infections and also enhance the safety of food supply. PMID:23774835

  9. Bacterial quorum sensing inhibitors: attractive alternatives for control of infectious pathogens showing multiple drug resistance.

    PubMed

    Bhardwaj, Ashima K; Vinothkumar, Kittappa; Rajpara, Neha

    2013-04-01

    Quorum sensing (QS) is a bacterial communication process that depends on the bacterial population density. It involves small diffusible signaling molecules which activate the expression of myriad genes that control diverse array of functions like bioluminescence, virulence, biofilm formation, sporulation, to name a few. Since QS is responsible for virulence in the clinically relevant bacteria, inhibition of QS appears to be a promising strategy to control these pathogenic bacteria. With indiscriminate use of antibiotics, there has been an alarming increase in the number of antibiotic resistant pathogens. Antibiotics are no longer the magic bullets they were once thought to be and therefore there is a need for development of new antibiotics and/or other novel strategies to combat the infections caused by multidrug resistant organisms. Quorum sensing inhibition or quorum quenching has been pursued as one of such novel strategies. While antibiotics kill or slow down the growth of bacteria, quorum sensing inhibitors (QSIs) or quorum quenchers (QQs) attenuate bacterial virulence. A large body of work on QS has been carried out in deadly pathogens like Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Vibrio fischeri, V. harveyi, Escherichia coli and V. cholerae etc to unravel the mechanisms of QS as well as identify and study QSIs. This review describes various aspects of QS, QSI, different model systems to study these phenomena and recent patents on various QSIs. It suggests QSIs as attractive alternatives for controlling human, animal and plant pathogens and their utility in agriculture and other industries. PMID:23394143

  10. Inhibition of marine biofouling by bacterial quorum sensing inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Dobretsov, Sergey; Teplitski, Max; Bayer, Mirko; Gunasekera, Sarath; Proksch, Peter; Paul, Valerie J

    2012-01-01

    Seventy eight natural products from chemical libraries containing compounds from marine organisms (sponges, algae, fungi, tunicates and cyanobacteria) and terrestrial plants, were screened for the inhibition of bacterial quorum sensing (QS) using a reporter strain Chromobacterium violaceum CV017. About half of the natural products did not show any QS inhibition. Twenty four percent of the tested compounds inhibited QS of the reporter without causing toxicity. The QS inhibitory activities of the most potent and abundant compounds were further investigated using the LuxR-based reporter E. coli pSB401 and the LasR-based reporter E. coli pSB1075. Midpacamide and tenuazonic acid were toxic to the tested reporters. QS-dependent luminescence of the LasR-based reporter, which is normally induced by N-3-oxo-dodecanoyl-L-homoserine lactone, was reduced by demethoxy encecalin and hymenialdisin at concentrations 46.6 ?M and 15?M, respectively. Hymenialdisin, demethoxy encecalin, microcolins A and B and kojic acid inhibited responses of the LuxR-based reporter induced by N-3-oxo-hexanoyl-L-homoserine lactone at concentrations 40.2 ?M, 2.2 ?M, 1.5 ?M, 15 ?M and 36 ?M, respectively. The ability to prevent microfouling by one of the compounds screened in this study (kojic acid; final concentrations 330 ?M and 1 mM) was tested in a controlled mesocosm experiment. Kojic acid inhibited formation of microbial communities on glass slides, decreasing the densities of bacteria and diatoms in comparison with the control lacking kojic acid. The study suggests that natural products with QS inhibitory properties can be used for controlling biofouling communities. PMID:21882898

  11. Discovery of potent inhibitors of pseudomonal quorum sensing via pharmacophore modeling and in silico screening.

    PubMed

    Taha, Mutasem O; Al-Bakri, Amal G; Zalloum, Waleed A

    2006-11-15

    HipHop-Refine was employed to derive a binding hypothesis for pseudomonal quorum sensing (QS) antagonists. The model was employed as 3D search query to screen the National Cancer Institute (NCI) database. One of the hits illustrated nanomolar QS inhibitory activity. The fact that this compound contained tetravalent lead (Pb) prompted us to evaluate the activities of phenyl mercuric nitrate and thimerosal, both fit the binding pharmacophore. The two mercurials illustrated nanomolar to low micromolar IC50 inhibitory values against pseudomonal QS. The three compounds represent a new class of QS inhibitors. PMID:16945524

  12. Identification of Quorum-Sensing Inhibitors Disrupting Signaling between Rgg and Short Hydrophobic Peptides in Streptococci

    PubMed Central

    Aggarwal, Chaitanya; Jimenez, Juan Cristobal; Lee, Hyun; Chlipala, George E.; Ratia, Kiira

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Bacteria coordinate a variety of social behaviors, important for both environmental and pathogenic bacteria, through a process of intercellular chemical signaling known as quorum sensing (QS). As microbial resistance to antibiotics grows more common, a critical need has emerged to develop novel anti-infective therapies, such as an ability to attenuate bacterial pathogens by means of QS interference. Rgg quorum-sensing pathways, widespread in the phylum Firmicutes, employ cytoplasmic pheromone receptors (Rgg transcription factors) that directly bind and elicit gene expression responses to imported peptide signals. In the human-restricted pathogen Streptococcus pyogenes, the Rgg2/Rgg3 regulatory circuit controls biofilm development in response to the short hydrophobic peptides SHP2 and SHP3. Using Rgg-SHP as a model receptor-ligand target, we sought to identify chemical compounds that could specifically inhibit Rgg quorum-sensing circuits. Individual compounds from a diverse library of known drugs and drug-like molecules were screened for their ability to disrupt complexes of Rgg and FITC (fluorescein isothiocyanate)-conjugated SHP using a fluorescence polarization (FP) assay. The best hits were found to bind Rgg3 in vitro with submicromolar affinities, to specifically abolish transcription of Rgg2/3-controlled genes, and to prevent biofilm development in S. pyogenes without affecting bacterial growth. Furthermore, the top hit, cyclosporine A, as well as its nonimmunosuppressive analog, valspodar, inhibited Rgg-SHP pathways in multiple species of Streptococcus. The Rgg-FITC-peptide-based screen provides a platform to identify inhibitors specific for each Rgg type. Discovery of Rgg inhibitors constitutes a step toward the goal of manipulating bacterial behavior for purposes of improving health. PMID:25968646

  13. Mini Review of Phytochemicals and Plant Taxa with Activity as Microbial Biofilm and Quorum Sensing Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Ta, Chieu Anh Kim; Arnason, John Thor

    2015-01-01

    Microbial biofilms readily form on many surfaces in nature including plant surfaces. In order to coordinate the formation of these biofilms, microorganisms use a cell-to-cell communication system called quorum sensing (QS). As formation of biofilms on vascular plants may not be advantageous to the hosts, plants have developed inhibitors to interfere with these processes. In this mini review, research papers published on plant-derived molecules that have microbial biofilm or quorum sensing inhibition are reviewed with the objectives of determining the biosynthetic classes of active compounds, their biological activity in assays, and their families of occurrence and range. The main findings are the identification of plant phenolics, including benzoates, phenyl propanoids, stilbenes, flavonoids, gallotannins, proanthocyanidins and coumarins as important inhibitors with both activities. Some terpenes including monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, diterpenes and triterpenes also have anti-QS and anti-biofilm activities. Relatively few alkaloids were reported. Quinones and organosulfur compounds, especially from garlic, were also active. A common feature is the polar nature of these compounds. Phytochemicals with these activities are widespread in Angiosperms in temperate and tropical regions, but gymnosperms, bryophytes and pteridophytes were not represented. PMID:26712734

  14. Synthesis of cembranoid analogues and evaluation of their potential as quorum sensing inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Tello, Edisson; Castellanos, Leonardo; Duque, Carmenza

    2013-01-01

    Natural cembranoids have shown Quorum Sensing Inhibitory (QSI) activity, but their structure-function interactions are not well understood. Thirty-four cembranoid analogues were synthesized using six natural cembranoids (1-6) previously isolated from the Colombian Caribbean octocorals Eunicea knighti and Pseudoplexaura flagellosa as lead compounds. The analogues (7-40) obtained through the selected chemical transformations were tested in vitro against the QS systems of a Chromobacterium violaceum biosensor. Half of the cembranoid analogues assayed showed superior QSI activity to the lead compounds; three (8, 13, and 18) displayed remarkable potency up to three times higher than the natural compounds. Thereby, we have synthesized a pool of cembranoid QS inhibitors that can be used in concert with natural compounds to develop antipathogenic drugs and antifouling agents. PMID:23177728

  15. Identification of Five Structurally Unrelated Quorum-Sensing Inhibitors of Pseudomonas aeruginosa from a Natural-Derivative Database

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Sean Yang-Yi; Chua, Song-Lin; Chen, Yicai; Rice, Scott A.; Kjelleberg, Staffan; Nielsen, Thomas E.; Givskov, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Bacteria communicate by means of small signal molecules in a process termed quorum sensing (QS). QS enables bacteria to organize their activities at the population level, including the coordinated secretion of virulence factors. Certain small-molecule compounds, known as quorum-sensing inhibitors (QSIs), have been shown to effectively block QS and subsequently attenuate the virulence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, as well as increasing its susceptibility to both antibiotics and the immune system. In this study, a structure-based virtual screening (SB-VS) approach was used for the discovery of novel QSI candidates. Three-dimensional structures of 3,040 natural compounds and their derivatives were obtained, after which molecular docking was performed using the QS receptor LasR as a target. Based on docking scores and molecular masses, 22 compounds were purchased to determine their efficacies as quorum-sensing inhibitors. Using a live reporter assay for quorum sensing, 5 compounds were found to be able to inhibit QS-regulated gene expression in P. aeruginosa in a dose-dependent manner. The most promising compound, G1, was evaluated by isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ)-based proteomic analysis, and it was found to significantly affect the abundance of 46 proteins (19 were upregulated; 27 were downregulated) in P. aeruginosa PAO1. It specifically reduced the expression of several quorum-sensing-regulated virulence factors, such as protease IV, chitinase, and pyoverdine synthetases. G1 was also able to reduce extracellular DNA release and inhibited the secretion of the virulence factor, elastase, whose expression is regulated by LasR. These results demonstrate the utility of SB-VS for the discovery of target-specific QSIs. PMID:24002091

  16. Mechanistic analysis of a synthetic inhibitor of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa LasI quorum-sensing signal synthase.

    PubMed

    Lidor, O; Al-Quntar, A; Pesci, E C; Steinberg, D

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic Gram-negative pathogen responsible for many human infections. LasI is an acyl-homoserine lactone synthase that produces a quorum-sensing (QS) signal that positively regulates numerous P. aeruginosa virulence determinants. The inhibition of the LasI protein is therefore an attractive drug target. In this study, a novel in silico to in vitro complementation was applied to screen thiazolidinedione-type compounds for their ability to inhibit biofilm formation at concentrations not affecting bacterial growth. The compound (z)-5-octylidenethiazolidine-2, 4-dione (TZD-C8) was a strong inhibitor of biofilm formation and chosen for further study. Structural exploration of in silico docking predicted that the compound had high affinity for the LasI activity pocket. The TZD-C8 compound was also predicted to create hydrogen bonds with residues Arg30 and Ile107. Site-directed mutagenesis (SDM) of these two sites demonstrated that TZD-C8 inhibition was abolished in the lasI double mutant PAO-R30D, I107S. In addition, in vitro swarming motility and quorum sensing signal production were affected by TZD-C 8, confirming this compound alters the cell to cell signalling circuitry. Overall, this novel inhibitor of P. aeruginosa quorum sensing shows great promise and validates our mechanistic approach to discovering inhibitors of LuxI-type acyl-homoserine lactone synthases. PMID:26593271

  17. Mechanistic analysis of a synthetic inhibitor of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa LasI quorum-sensing signal synthase

    PubMed Central

    Lidor, O.; Al-Quntar, A.; Pesci, E. C.; Steinberg, D.

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic Gram-negative pathogen responsible for many human infections. LasI is an acyl-homoserine lactone synthase that produces a quorum-sensing (QS) signal that positively regulates numerous P. aeruginosa virulence determinants. The inhibition of the LasI protein is therefore an attractive drug target. In this study, a novel in silico to in vitro complementation was applied to screen thiazolidinedione-type compounds for their ability to inhibit biofilm formation at concentrations not affecting bacterial growth. The compound (z)-5-octylidenethiazolidine-2, 4-dione (TZD-C8) was a strong inhibitor of biofilm formation and chosen for further study. Structural exploration of in silico docking predicted that the compound had high affinity for the LasI activity pocket. The TZD-C8 compound was also predicted to create hydrogen bonds with residues Arg30 and Ile107. Site-directed mutagenesis (SDM) of these two sites demonstrated that TZD-C8 inhibition was abolished in the lasI double mutant PAO-R30D, I107S. In addition, in vitro swarming motility and quorum sensing signal production were affected by TZD-C 8, confirming this compound alters the cell to cell signalling circuitry. Overall, this novel inhibitor of P. aeruginosa quorum sensing shows great promise and validates our mechanistic approach to discovering inhibitors of LuxI-type acyl-homoserine lactone synthases. PMID:26593271

  18. A quorum-sensing inhibitor blocks Pseudomonas aeruginosa virulence and biofilm formation

    PubMed Central

    O’Loughlin, Colleen T.; Miller, Laura C.; Siryaporn, Albert; Drescher, Knut; Semmelhack, Martin F.; Bassler, Bonnie L.

    2013-01-01

    Quorum sensing is a chemical communication process that bacteria use to regulate collective behaviors. Disabling quorum-sensing circuits with small molecules has been proposed as a potential strategy to prevent bacterial pathogenicity. The human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa uses quorum sensing to control virulence and biofilm formation. Here, we analyze synthetic molecules for inhibition of the two P. aeruginosa quorum-sensing receptors, LasR and RhlR. Our most effective compound, meta-bromo-thiolactone (mBTL), inhibits both the production of the virulence factor pyocyanin and biofilm formation. mBTL also protects Caenorhabditis elegans and human lung epithelial cells from killing by P. aeruginosa. Both LasR and RhlR are partially inhibited by mBTL in vivo and in vitro; however, RhlR, not LasR, is the relevant in vivo target. More potent antagonists do not exhibit superior function in impeding virulence. Because LasR and RhlR reciprocally control crucial virulence factors, appropriately tuning rather than completely inhibiting their activities appears to hold the key to blocking pathogenesis in vivo. PMID:24143808

  19. Quorum Sensing Inhibitors Increase the Susceptibility of Bacterial Biofilms to Antibiotics In Vitro and In Vivo?†

    PubMed Central

    Brackman, Gilles; Cos, Paul; Maes, Louis; Nelis, Hans J.; Coenye, Tom

    2011-01-01

    Although the exact role of quorum sensing (QS) in various stages of biofilm formation, maturation, and dispersal and in biofilm resistance is not entirely clear, the use of QS inhibitors (QSI) has been proposed as a potential antibiofilm strategy. We have investigated whether QSI enhance the susceptibility of bacterial biofilms to treatment with conventional antimicrobial agents. The QSI used in our study target the acyl-homoserine lactone-based QS system present in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Burkholderia cepacia complex organisms (baicalin hydrate, cinnamaldehyde) or the peptide-based system present in Staphylococcus aureus (hamamelitannin). The effect of tobramycin (P. aeruginosa, B. cepacia complex) and clindamycin or vancomycin (S. aureus), alone or in combination with QSI, was evaluated in various in vitro and in vivo biofilm model systems, including two invertebrate models and one mouse pulmonary infection model. In vitro the combined use of an antibiotic and a QSI generally resulted in increased killing compared to killing by an antibiotic alone, although reductions were strain and model dependent. A significantly higher fraction of infected Galleria mellonella larvae and Caenorhabditis elegans survived infection following combined treatment, compared to treatment with an antibiotic alone. Finally, the combined use of tobramycin and baicalin hydrate reduced the microbial load in the lungs of BALB/c mice infected with Burkholderia cenocepacia more than tobramycin treatment alone. Our data suggest that QSI may increase the success of antibiotic treatment by increasing the susceptibility of bacterial biofilms and/or by increasing host survival following infection. PMID:21422204

  20. Discovery of a quorum-sensing inhibitor of drug-resistant staphylococcal infections by structure-based virtual screening.

    PubMed

    Kiran, Madanahally D; Adikesavan, Nallini Vijayarangan; Cirioni, Oscar; Giacometti, Andrea; Silvestri, Carmela; Scalise, Giorgio; Ghiselli, Roberto; Saba, Vittorio; Orlando, Fiorenza; Shoham, Menachem; Balaban, Naomi

    2008-05-01

    Staphylococci are a major health threat because of increasing resistance to antibiotics. An alternative to antibiotic treatment is preventing virulence by inhibition of bacterial cell-to-cell communication using the quorum-sensing inhibitor RNAIII-inhibiting peptide (RIP). In this work, we identified 2',5-di-O-galloyl-d-hamamelose (hamamelitannin) as a nonpeptide analog of RIP by virtual screening of a RIP-based pharmacophore against a database of commercially available small-molecule compounds. Hamamelitannin is a natural product found in the bark of Hamamelis virginiana (witch hazel), and it has no effect on staphylococcal growth in vitro; but like RIP, it does inhibit the quorum-sensing regulator RNAIII. In a rat graft model, hamamelitannin prevented device-associated infections in vivo, including infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis strains. These findings suggest that hamamelitannin may be used as a suppressor to staphylococcal infections. PMID:18314496

  1. At a Supra-Physiological Concentration, Human Sexual Hormones Act as Quorum-Sensing Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Beury-Cirou, Amélie; Tannières, Mélanie; Minard, Corinne; Soulère, Laurent; Rasamiravaka, Tsiry; Dodd, Robert H.; Queneau, Yves; Dessaux, Yves; Guillou, Catherine; Vandeputte, Olivier M.; Faure, Denis

    2013-01-01

    N-Acylhomoserine lactone (AHL)-mediated quorum-sensing (QS) regulates virulence functions in plant and animal pathogens such as Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. A chemolibrary of more than 3500 compounds was screened using two bacterial AHL-biosensors to identify QS-inhibitors (QSIs). The purity and structure of 15 QSIs selected through this screening were verified using HPLC MS/MS tools and their activity tested on the A. tumefaciens and P. aeruginosa bacterial models. The IC50 value of the identified QSIs ranged from 2.5 to 90 µg/ml, values that are in the same range as those reported for the previously identified QSI 4-nitropyridine-N-oxide (IC50 24 µg/ml). Under the tested culture conditions, most of the identified QSIs did not exhibit bacteriostatic or bactericidal activities. One third of the tested QSIs, including the plant compound hordenine and the human sexual hormone estrone, decreased the frequency of the QS-regulated horizontal transfer of the tumor-inducing (Ti) plasmid in A. tumefaciens. Hordenine, estrone as well as its structural relatives estriol and estradiol, also decreased AHL accumulation and the expression of six QS-regulated genes (lasI, lasR, lasB, rhlI, rhlR, and rhlA) in cultures of the opportunist pathogen P. aeruginosa. Moreover, the ectopic expression of the AHL-receptors RhlR and LasR of P. aeruginosa in E. coli showed that their gene-regulatory activity was affected by the QSIs. Finally, modeling of the structural interactions between the human hormones and AHL-receptors LasR of P. aeruginosa and TraR of A. tumefaciens confirmed the competitive binding capability of the human sexual hormones. This work indicates potential interferences between bacterial and eukaryotic hormonal communications. PMID:24376718

  2. Bioactive proteins from Solanaceae as quorum sensing inhibitors against virulence in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Singh, Gurpreet; Tamboli, Ekant; Acharya, Aurovind; Kumarasamy, Chellan; Mala, Kanchana; Raman, Pachaiappan

    2015-06-01

    Cell-to-cell communication or quorum sensing (QS) is a generic event in bacteria that is used to coordinate gene expression among local populations. The phenomenon of QS depends on the fact that presence of sufficient bacteria ascertains a threshold level of autoinducer concentration that allows bacteria to sense a critical cell mass and to activate or repress target genes. Thus, QS has been an attractive target for the development of anti-infective strategies that are not based on the use of antibiotics. Several anti-QS approaches have been demonstrated including natural products from plant-based secondary metabolites. However, the role of plant bioactive proteins as an anti-QS peptide is yet to be deciphered. Against a backdrop of ever-increasing antibiotic resistant pathogens, there is a strong need for development of alternative therapeutic strategies. Thus, our hypothesis is that bioactive proteins from the plant family Solanaceae are quorum quenching molecules that can be exploited to develop a therapeutic strategy against virulence. We presume that bioactive proteins will inactivate or inhibit or degrade QS signals from bacteria to prevent cell-to-cell communication and thus inhibit development of virulence in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Further, the use of proteins as quorum quenchers will delay the bacteria to develop resistance against these quenching molecules. PMID:25777471

  3. Nanoporous Superhydrophobic Coatings that Promote the Extended Release of Water-Labile Quorum Sensing Inhibitors and Enable Long-Term Modulation of Quorum Sensing in Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Materials and coatings that inhibit bacterial colonization are of interest in a broad range of biomedical, environmental, and industrial applications. In view of the rapid increase in bacterial resistance to conventional antibiotics, the development of new strategies that target nonessential pathways in bacterial pathogens—and that thereby limit growth and reduce virulence through nonbiocidal means—has attracted considerable attention. Bacterial quorum sensing (QS) represents one such target, and is intimately connected to virulence in many human pathogens. Here, we demonstrate that the properties of nanoporous, polymer-based superhydrophobic coatings can be exploited to host and subsequently sustain the extended release of potent and water-labile peptide-based inhibitors of QS (QSIs) in Staphylococcus aureus. Our results demonstrate that these peptidic QSIs can be released into surrounding media for periods of at least 8 months, and that they strongly inhibit agr-based QS in S. aureus for at least 40 days. These results also suggest that these extremely nonwetting coatings can confer protection against the rapid hydrolysis of these water-labile peptides, thereby extending their useful lifetimes. Finally, we demonstrate that these peptide-loaded superhydrophobic coatings can strongly modulate the QS-controlled formation of biofilm in wild-type S. aureus. These nanoporous superhydrophobic films provide a new, useful, and nonbiocidal approach to the design of coatings that attenuate bacterial virulence. This approach has the potential to be general, and could prove suitable for the encapsulation, protection, and release of other classes of water-sensitive agents. We anticipate that the materials, strategies, and concepts reported here will enable new approaches to the long-term attenuation of QS and associated bacterial phenotypes in a range of basic research and applied contexts. PMID:26501126

  4. Polyhydroxyanthraquinones as Quorum Sensing Inhibitors from the Guttates of Penicillium restrictum and Their Analysis by Desorption Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The endophytic fungus Penicillium restrictum was isolated from the stems of a milk thistle (Silybum marianum) plant. In culture, the fungus produced distinct red guttates, which have been virtually uninvestigated, particularly from the standpoint of chemistry. Hence, this study examined the chemical mycology of P. restrictum and, in doing so, uncovered a series of both known and new polyhydroxyanthraquinones (1–9). These compounds were quorum sensing inhibitors in a clinical isolate of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), with IC50 values ranging from 8 to 120 ?M, suggesting antivirulence potential for the compounds. Moreover, the spatial and temporal distribution of the polyhydroxyanthraquinones was examined in situ via desorption electrospray ionization–mass spectrometry (DESI-MS) imaging, demonstrating the first application of this technique to a guttate-forming fungus and revealing both the concentration of secondary metabolites at the ventral surface of the fungus and their variance in colonies of differing ages. PMID:24911880

  5. Design, synthesis and evaluation of N-aryl-glyoxamide derivatives as structurally novel bacterial quorum sensing inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Nizalapur, Shashidhar; Kimyon, Önder; Biswas, Nripendra Nath; Gardner, Christopher R; Griffith, Renate; Rice, Scott A; Manefield, Mike; Willcox, Mark; Black, David StC; Kumar, Naresh

    2015-12-23

    Bacteria cooperatively regulate the expression of many phenotypes through a mechanism called quorum sensing (QS). Many Gram-negative bacteria use an N-acyl homoserine lactone (AHL)-mediated QS system to control biofilm formation and virulence factor production. In recent years, quorum sensing inhibitors (QSIs) have become attractive tools to overcome antimicrobial resistance exhibited by various pathogenic bacteria. In the present study, we report the design and synthesis of novel N-arylisatin-based glyoxamide derivatives via the ring-opening reaction of N-aryl isatins with cyclic and acylic amines, and amino acid esters. The QSI activity of the synthesized compounds was determined in the LasR-expressing Pseudomonas aeruginosa MH602 and LuxR-expressing Escherichia coli MT102 reporter strains. Compounds and exhibited the greatest QSI activity in P. aeruginosa MH602, with 48.7% and 42.7% reduction in QS activity at 250 ?M, respectively, while compounds and showed 73.6% and 43.7% QSI activity in E. coli MT102. In addition, the ability of these compounds to inhibit the production of pyocyanin in P. aeruginosa (PA14) was also determined, with compound showing 47% inhibition at 250 ?M. Furthermore, computational docking studies were performed on the LasR receptor protein of P. aeruginosa, which showed that formation of a hydrogen bonding network played a major role in influencing the QS inhibitory activity. We envisage that these novel non-AHL glyoxamide derivatives could become a new tool for the study of QS and potentially for the treatment of bacterial infections. PMID:26552577

  6. Non-antibiotic quorum sensing inhibitors acting against N-acyl homoserine lactone synthase as druggable target

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Chien-Yi; Krishnan, Thiba; Wang, Hao; Chen, Ye; Yin, Wai-Fong; Chong, Yee-Meng; Tan, Li Ying; Chong, Teik Min; Chan, Kok-Gan

    2014-01-01

    N-acylhomoserine lactone (AHL)-based quorum sensing (QS) is important for the regulation of proteobacterial virulence determinants. Thus, the inhibition of AHL synthases offers non-antibiotics-based therapeutic potentials against QS-mediated bacterial infections. In this work, functional AHL synthases of Pseudomonas aeruginosa LasI and RhlI were heterologously expressed in an AHL-negative Escherichia coli followed by assessments on their AHLs production using AHL biosensors and high resolution liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LCMS). These AHL-producing E. coli served as tools for screening AHL synthase inhibitors. Based on a campaign of screening synthetic molecules and natural products using our approach, three strongest inhibitors namely are salicylic acid, tannic acid and trans-cinnamaldehyde have been identified. LCMS analysis further confirmed tannic acid and trans-cinnemaldehyde efficiently inhibited AHL production by RhlI. We further demonstrated the application of trans-cinnemaldehyde inhibiting Rhl QS system regulated pyocyanin production in P. aeruginosa up to 42.06%. Molecular docking analysis suggested that trans-cinnemaldehyde binds to the LasI and EsaI with known structures mainly interacting with their substrate binding sites. Our data suggested a new class of QS-inhibiting agents from natural products targeting AHL synthase and provided a potential approach for facilitating the discovery of anti-QS signal synthesis as basis of novel anti-infective approach. PMID:25430794

  7. Bacterial quorum sensing and biofilm formation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Quorum sensing is a cell density-dependent signaling system by which bacteria can regulate gene expression through the production, secretion, and subsequent detection of extracellular signaling molecules called autoinducers. Bacteria use quorum sensing to regulate various physiological activities, ...

  8. Quorum Sensing Inhibition, Relevance to Periodontics

    PubMed Central

    Yada, Sudheer; Kamalesh, B; Sonwane, Siddharth; Guptha, Indra; Swetha, R K

    2015-01-01

    Quorum sensing helps bacteria to communicate with each other and in coordinating their behavior. Many diseases of human beings, plants, and animals are mediated by quorum sensing. Various approaches are being tried to inhibit this communication to control the diseases caused by bacteria. Periodontal pathogens also communicate through quorum sensing and new approaches to treat periodontal disease using quorum sensing inhibition need to explored. PMID:25709373

  9. Optimal Census by Quorum Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Taillefumier, Thibaud; Wingreen, Ned S.

    2015-01-01

    Quorum sensing is the regulation of gene expression in response to changes in cell density. To measure their cell density, bacterial populations produce and detect diffusible molecules called autoinducers. Individual bacteria internally represent the external concentration of autoinducers via the level of monitor proteins. In turn, these monitor proteins typically regulate both their own production and the production of autoinducers, thereby establishing internal and external feedbacks. Here, we ask whether feedbacks can increase the information available to cells about their local density. We quantify available information as the mutual information between the abundance of a monitor protein and the local cell density for biologically relevant models of quorum sensing. Using variational methods, we demonstrate that feedbacks can increase information transmission, allowing bacteria to resolve up to two additional ranges of cell density when compared with bistable quorum-sensing systems. Our analysis is relevant to multi-agent systems that track an external driver implicitly via an endogenously generated signal. PMID:25965377

  10. Competition Studies Confirm Two Major Barriers That Can Preclude the Spread of Resistance to Quorum-Sensing Inhibitors in Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The growing threat of antibiotic resistance necessitates the development of novel antimicrobial therapies. Antivirulence agents that target group-beneficial traits in microorganisms (i.e., phenotypes that help the cells surrounding the producer cell instead of selfishly benefiting only the producer cell) represent a new antimicrobial approach that may be robust against the spread of resistant mutants. One prominent group-beneficial antivirulence target in bacteria is quorum sensing (QS). While scientists are producing new QS inhibitors (QSIs) at an increasing pace for use as research tools and potential therapeutic leads, substantial work remains in empirically demonstrating a robustness against resistance. Herein we report the results of in vitro competition studies in Pseudomonas aeruginosa that explicitly confirm that two separate barriers can impede the spread of resistance to QSIs: (1) insufficient native QS signal levels prevent rare QSI-resistant bacteria from expressing their QS regulon, and (2) group-beneficial QS-regulated phenotypes produced by resistant bacteria are susceptible to cheating by QSI-sensitive neighbors, even when grown on a solid substrate with limited mixing to mimic infected tissue. These results underscore the promise of QSIs and other antivirulence molecules that target group beneficial traits as resistance-robust antimicrobial treatments and provide support for their further development. PMID:25105594

  11. Screening for Quorum-Sensing Inhibitors (QSI) by Use of a Novel Genetic System, the QSI Selector

    PubMed Central

    Rasmussen, Thomas Bovbjerg; Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Skindersoe, Mette Elena; Hentzer, Morten; Kristoffersen, Peter; Köte, Manuela; Nielsen, John; Eberl, Leo; Givskov, Michael

    2005-01-01

    With the widespread appearance of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, there is an increasing demand for novel strategies to control infectious diseases. Furthermore, it has become apparent that the bacterial life style also contributes significantly to this problem. Bacteria living in the biofilm mode of growth tolerate conventional antimicrobial treatments. The discovery that many bacteria use quorum-sensing (QS) systems to coordinate virulence and biofilm development has pointed out a new, promising target for antimicrobial drugs. We constructed a collection of screening systems, QS inhibitor (QSI) selectors, which enabled us to identify a number of novel QSIs among natural and synthetic compound libraries. The two most active were garlic extract and 4-nitro-pyridine-N-oxide (4-NPO). GeneChip-based transcriptome analysis revealed that garlic extract and 4-NPO had specificity for QS-controlled virulence genes in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. These two QSIs also significantly reduced P. aeruginosa biofilm tolerance to tobramycin treatment as well as virulence in a Caenorhabditis elegans pathogenesis model. PMID:15716452

  12. GENE EXPRESSION IN SALMONELLA ENTERICA SEROTYPE TYPHIMURIUM LUXS MUTANT IN RESPONSE TO QUORUM SENSING SIGNALS AND A POULTRY MEAT-DERIVED QUORUM SENSING INHIBITOR USING MICROARRAY-BASED STUDIES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Quorum sensing describes the processes in which bacteria cells produce, secrete, and communicate using chemical signal molecules. There is evidence that these sensing signals, especially AI-2, can influence bacterial gene expression. We have previously shown that food matrices, such as poultry wash ...

  13. Quorum Sensing in Extreme Environments

    PubMed Central

    Montgomery, Kate; Charlesworth, James C.; LeBard, Rebecca; Visscher, Pieter T.; Burns, Brendan P.

    2013-01-01

    Microbial communication, particularly that of quorum sensing, plays an important role in regulating gene expression in a range of organisms. Although this phenomenon has been well studied in relation to, for example, virulence gene regulation, the focus of this article is to review our understanding of the role of microbial communication in extreme environments. Cell signaling regulates many important microbial processes and may play a pivotal role in driving microbial functional diversity and ultimately ecosystem function in extreme environments. Several recent studies have characterized cell signaling in modern analogs to early Earth communities (microbial mats), and characterization of cell signaling systems in these communities may provide unique insights in understanding the microbial interactions involved in function and survival in extreme environments. Cell signaling is a fundamental process that may have co-evolved with communities and environmental conditions on the early Earth. Without cell signaling, evolutionary pressures may have even resulted in the extinction rather than evolution of certain microbial groups. One of the biggest challenges in extremophile biology is understanding how and why some microbial functional groups are located where logically they would not be expected to survive, and tightly regulated communication may be key. Finally, quorum sensing has been recently identified for the first time in archaea, and thus communication at multiple levels (potentially even inter-domain) may be fundamental in extreme environments. PMID:25371335

  14. Global convergence of quorum-sensing networks

    E-print Network

    Slotine, Jean-Jacques E.

    In many natural synchronization phenomena, communication between individual elements occurs not directly but rather through the environment. One of these instances is bacterial quorum sensing, where bacteria release signaling ...

  15. Quorum sensing and the confusion about diffusion

    E-print Network

    West, Stuart

    Quorum sensing and the confusion about diffusion Stuart A. West1 , Klaus Winzer2 , Andy Gardner1 with both social interactions and a role of diffusion; (v) alternate hypotheses, such as efficiency sensing to cell density. Bacteria produce and release small diffusible molecules, usually termed signals (see

  16. Cross-species induction of antimicrobial compounds, biosurfactants and quorum-sensing inhibitors in tropical marine epibiotic bacteria by pathogens and biofouling microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Dusane, Devendra H; Matkar, Pratiek; Venugopalan, Valayam P; Kumar, Ameeta Ravi; Zinjarde, Smita S

    2011-03-01

    Enhancement or induction of antimicrobial, biosurfactant, and quorum-sensing inhibition property in marine bacteria due to cross-species and cross-genera interactions was investigated. Four marine epibiotic bacteria (Bacillus sp. S3, B. pumilus S8, B. licheniformis D1, and Serratia marcescens V1) displaying antimicrobial activity against pathogenic or biofouling fungi (Candida albicans CA and Yarrowia lipolytica YL), and bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA and Bacillus pumilus BP) were chosen for this study. The marine epibiotic bacteria when co-cultivated with the aforementioned fungi or bacteria showed induction or enhancement in antimicrobial activity, biosurfactant production, and quorum-sensing inhibition. Antifungal activity against Y. lipolytica YL was induced by co-cultivation of the pathogens or biofouling strains with the marine Bacillus sp. S3, B. pumilus S8, or B. licheniformis D1. Antibacterial activity against Ps. aeruginosa PA or B. pumilus BP was enhanced in most of the marine isolates after co-cultivation. Biosurfactant activity was significantly increased when cells of B. pumilus BP were co-cultivated with S. marcescens V1, B. pumilus S8, or B. licheniformis D1. Pigment reduction in the quorum-sensing inhibition indicator strain Chromobacterium violaceum 12472 was evident when the marine strain of Bacillus sp. S3 was grown in the presence of the inducer strain Ps. aeruginosa PA, suggesting quorum-sensing inhibition. The study has important ecological and biotechnological implications in terms of microbial competition in natural environments and enhancement of secondary metabolite production. PMID:21086131

  17. AI-2 Quorum Sensing in Campylobacter jejuni

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Quorum sensing response modulates many physiological attributes, such as bacterial virulence/pathogenesis, competence, and biofilm formation, when the bacterial population has reached a certain threshold. Among the various signaling compounds, autoinducer-2 (AI-2) is produced by most bacterial spec...

  18. Collective sensing and collective responses in quorum-sensing bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Popat, R.; Cornforth, D. M.; McNally, L.; Brown, S. P.

    2015-01-01

    Bacteria often face fluctuating environments, and in response many species have evolved complex decision-making mechanisms to match their behaviour to the prevailing conditions. Some environmental cues provide direct and reliable information (such as nutrient concentrations) and can be responded to individually. Other environmental parameters are harder to infer and require a collective mechanism of sensing. In addition, some environmental challenges are best faced by a group of cells rather than an individual. In this review, we discuss how bacteria sense and overcome environmental challenges as a group using collective mechanisms of sensing, known as ‘quorum sensing’ (QS). QS is characterized by the release and detection of small molecules, potentially allowing individuals to infer environmental parameters such as density and mass transfer. While a great deal of the molecular mechanisms of QS have been described, there is still controversy over its functional role. We discuss what QS senses and how, what it controls and why, and how social dilemmas shape its evolution. Finally, there is a growing focus on the use of QS inhibitors as antibacterial chemotherapy. We discuss the claim that such a strategy could overcome the evolution of resistance. By linking existing theoretical approaches to data, we hope this review will spur greater collaboration between experimental and theoretical researchers. PMID:25505130

  19. The impact of quorum sensing on the virulence of Aeromonas hydrophila and Aeromonas salmonicida towards burbot (Lota lota L.) larvae.

    PubMed

    Natrah, F M I; Alam, Md Iftakharul; Pawar, Sushant; Harzevili, A Shiri; Nevejan, Nancy; Boon, Nico; Sorgeloos, Patrick; Bossier, Peter; Defoirdt, Tom

    2012-09-14

    In this study, the link between quorum sensing in Aeromonas spp. and its virulence towards burbot (Lota lota) was investigated. High mortality occurred in burbot juveniles challenged with Aeromonas salmonicida HN-00, but not in juveniles challenged with Aeromonas hydrophila AH-1N. Meanwhile, both A. hydrophila AH-1N and A. salmonicida HN-00 were virulent towards larvae. The effect of quorum sensing on the virulence of A. hydrophila AH-1N towards burbot larvae was further investigated using quorum sensing mutants (N-(butyryl)-L-homoserine lactone production and receptor mutants). Challenge with these mutants resulted in higher survival of burbot larvae when compared to challenge with the wild type, and the addition of the signal molecule N-butyryl-L-homoserine lactone restored the virulence of the quorum sensing production mutant. Moreover, quorum sensing inhibitors protected the burbot larvae from both Aeromonas strains. Finally, the freshwater micro-algae Chlorella saccharophila and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, which are able to interfere with quorum sensing, also protected burbot from the pathogens. However, QS interference was unlikely to be the only mechanism. This study revealed that the virulence of Aeromonas spp. towards burbot is regulated by quorum sensing and that quorum sensing inhibitors and micro-algae are promising biocontrol agents. PMID:22465799

  20. Exploiting Quorum Sensing To Confuse Bacterial Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    LaSarre, Breah

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Cell-cell communication, or quorum sensing, is a widespread phenomenon in bacteria that is used to coordinate gene expression among local populations. Its use by bacterial pathogens to regulate genes that promote invasion, defense, and spread has been particularly well documented. With the ongoing emergence of antibiotic-resistant pathogens, there is a current need for development of alternative therapeutic strategies. An antivirulence approach by which quorum sensing is impeded has caught on as a viable means to manipulate bacterial processes, especially pathogenic traits that are harmful to human and animal health and agricultural productivity. The identification and development of chemical compounds and enzymes that facilitate quorum-sensing inhibition (QSI) by targeting signaling molecules, signal biogenesis, or signal detection are reviewed here. Overall, the evidence suggests that QSI therapy may be efficacious against some, but not necessarily all, bacterial pathogens, and several failures and ongoing concerns that may steer future studies in productive directions are discussed. Nevertheless, various QSI successes have rightfully perpetuated excitement surrounding new potential therapies, and this review highlights promising QSI leads in disrupting pathogenesis in both plants and animals. PMID:23471618

  1. Noisy neighbourhoods: quorum sensing in fungal-polymicrobial infections.

    PubMed

    Dixon, Emily F; Hall, Rebecca A

    2015-10-01

    Quorum sensing was once considered a way in which a species was able to sense its cell density and regulate gene expression accordingly. However, it is now becoming apparent that multiple microbes can sense particular quorum-sensing molecules, enabling them to sense and respond to other microbes in their neighbourhood. Such interactions are significant within the context of polymicrobial disease, in which the competition or cooperation of microbes can alter disease progression. Fungi comprise a small but important component of the human microbiome and are in constant contact with bacteria and viruses. The discovery of quorum-sensing pathways in fungi has led to the characterization of a number of interkingdom quorum-sensing interactions. Here, we review the recent developments in quorum sensing in medically important fungi, and the implications these interactions have on the host's innate immune response. PMID:26243526

  2. Antibiotic-free nanotherapeutics: ultra-small, mucus-penetrating solid lipid nanoparticles enhance the pulmonary delivery and anti-virulence efficacy of novel quorum sensing inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Nafee, Noha; Husari, Ayman; Maurer, Christine K; Lu, Cenbin; de Rossi, Chiara; Steinbach, Anke; Hartmann, Rolf W; Lehr, Claus-Michael; Schneider, Marc

    2014-10-28

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a genetic disease mainly manifested in the respiratory tract. Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) is the most common pathogen identified in cultures of the CF airways, however, its eradication with antibiotics remains challenging as it grows in biofilms that counterwork human immune response and dramatically decrease susceptibility to antibiotics. P. aeruginosa regulates pathogenicity via a cell-to-cell communication system known as quorum sensing (QS) involving the virulence factor (pyocyanin), thus representing an attractive target for coping with bacterial pathogenicity. The first in vivo potent QS inhibitor (QSI) was recently developed. Nevertheless, its lipophilic nature might hamper its penetration of non-cellular barriers such as mucus and bacterial biofilms, which limits its biomedical application. Successful anti-infective inhalation therapy necessitates proper design of a biodegradable nanocarrier allowing: 1) high loading and prolonged release, 2) mucus penetration, 3) effective pulmonary delivery, and 4) maintenance of the anti-virulence activity of the QSI. In this context, various pharmaceutical lipids were used to prepare ultra-small solid lipid nanoparticles (us-SLNs) by hot melt homogenization. Plain and QSI-loaded SLNs were characterized in terms of colloidal properties, drug loading, in vitro release and acute toxicity on Calu-3 cells. Mucus penetration was studied using a newly-developed confocal microscopy technique based on 3D-time-lapse imaging. For pulmonary application, nebulization efficiency of SLNs and lung deposition using next generation impactor (NGI) were performed. The anti-virulence efficacy was investigated by pyocyanin formation in P. aeruginosa cultures. Ultra-small SLNs (<100nm diameter) provided high encapsulation efficiency (68-95%) according to SLN composition, high burst in phosphate buffer saline compared to prolonged release of the payload over >8h in simulated lung fluid with minor burst. All types and concentrations of plain and QSI-loaded SLNs maintained the viability of Calu-3 cells. 3D time-lapse confocal imaging proved the ability of SLNs to penetrate into artificial sputum model. SLNs were efficiently nebulized; NGI experiments revealed their deposition in the bronchial region. Overall, nanoencapsulated QSI showed up to sevenfold superior anti-virulence activity to the free compound. Most interestingly, the plain SLNs exhibited anti-virulence properties themselves, which was shown to be related to anti-virulence effects of the emulsifiers used. These startling findings represent a new perspective of ultimate significance in the area of nano-based delivery of novel anti-infectives. PMID:24997276

  3. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Quorum-sensing signals in the microbial

    E-print Network

    Handelsman, Jo

    ORIGINAL ARTICLE Quorum-sensing signals in the microbial community of the cabbage white butterfly by an indigenous member and an invading pathogen of the microbial community of the cabbage white butterfly (CWB; Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1; cabbage white butterfly Introduction Quorum sensing (QS) is the cell density

  4. Quorum-sensing and cheating in bacterial biofilms

    E-print Network

    West, Stuart

    Quorum-sensing and cheating in bacterial biofilms Roman Popat1,, Shanika A. Crusz1, Marco Messina1-to-cell signalling (quorum-sensing, QS). We found that: (i) QS cheating occurs in biofilm populations owing to exploitation of QS-regulated public goods; (ii) the thickness and density of biofilms was reduced

  5. Information processing and signal integration in bacterial quorum sensing

    E-print Network

    Mehta, Pankaj

    for analyzing signal integration on the basis of information theory and use it to analyze quorum sensing in V: biophysics; information theory; quorum sensing; signal integration; signal transduction This is an open for understanding signal integration based on information theory (Shannon, 1948) and we use it to study information

  6. Cooperation, Quorum Sensing, and Evolution of Virulence in Staphylococcus aureus

    E-print Network

    West, Stuart

    Cooperation, Quorum Sensing, and Evolution of Virulence in Staphylococcus aureus Eric J. G. Pollitt Staphylococcus aureus are associated with a cell-to-cell signaling mechanism known as quorum sensing (QS). QS widespread, evolution for signaling to coordinate cooperation in bacteria. Staphylococcus aureus is a major

  7. Bacterial quorum sensing and metabolic incentives to cooperate.

    PubMed

    Dandekar, Ajai A; Chugani, Sudha; Greenberg, E Peter

    2012-10-12

    The opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa uses a cell-cell communication system termed "quorum sensing" to control production of public goods, extracellular products that can be used by any community member. Not all individuals respond to quorum-sensing signals and synthesize public goods. Such social cheaters enjoy the benefits of the products secreted by cooperators. There are some P. aeruginosa cellular enzymes controlled by quorum sensing, and we show that quorum sensing-controlled expression of such private goods can put a metabolic constraint on social cheating and prevent a tragedy of the commons. Metabolic constraint of social cheating provides an explanation for private-goods regulation by a cooperative system and has general implications for population biology, infection control, and stabilization of quorum-sensing circuits in synthetic biology. PMID:23066081

  8. Metagenomic approaches to understanding phylogenetic diversity in quorum sensing

    PubMed Central

    Kimura, Nobutada

    2014-01-01

    Quorum sensing, a form of cell–cell communication among bacteria, allows bacteria to synchronize their behaviors at the population level in order to control behaviors such as luminescence, biofilm formation, signal turnover, pigment production, antibiotics production, swarming, and virulence. A better understanding of quorum-sensing systems will provide us with greater insight into the complex interaction mechanisms used widely in the Bacteria and even the Archaea domain in the environment. Metagenomics, the use of culture-independent sequencing to study the genomic material of microorganisms, has the potential to provide direct information about the quorum-sensing systems in uncultured bacteria. This article provides an overview of the current knowledge of quorum sensing focused on phylogenetic diversity, and presents examples of studies that have used metagenomic techniques. Future technologies potentially related to quorum-sensing systems are also discussed. PMID:24429899

  9. [Quorum sensing in bacteria and yeast].

    PubMed

    March Rosselló, Gabriel Alberto; Eiros Bouza, José María

    2013-10-19

    Bacterial sets are complex dynamic systems, which interact with each other and through the interaction, bacteria coexist, collaborate, compete and share information in a coordinated manner. A way of bacterial communication is quorum sensing. Through this mechanism the bacteria can recognize its concentration in a given environment and they can decide the time at which the expression of a particular set of genes should be started for developing a specific and simultaneous response. The result of these interconnections raises properties that cannot be explained from a single isolated bacterial cell. PMID:23622893

  10. Transition state analogs of 5'-methylthioadenosine nucleosidase disrupt quorum sensing.

    SciTech Connect

    Gutierrez, J.; Crowder, T; Rinaldo-Matthis, A; Ho, M; Almo, S; Schramm, V

    2009-01-01

    5'-Methylthioadenosine/S-adenosylhomocysteine nucleosidase (MTAN) is a bacterial enzyme involved in S-adenosylmethionine-related quorum sensing pathways that induce bacterial pathogenesis factors. Transition state analogs MT-DADMe-Immucillin-A, EtT-DADMe-Immucillin-A and BuT-DADMe-Immucillin-A are slow-onset, tight-binding inhibitors of Vibrio cholerae MTAN (VcMTAN), with equilibrium dissociation constants of 73, 70 and 208 pM, respectively. Structural analysis of VcMTAN with BuT-DADMe-Immucillin-A revealed interactions contributing to the high affinity. We found that in V. cholerae cells, these compounds are potent MTAN inhibitors with IC50 values of 27, 31 and 6 nM for MT-, EtT- and BuT-DADMe-Immucillin-A, respectively; the compounds disrupt autoinducer production in a dose-dependent manner without affecting growth. MT- and BuT-DADMe-Immucillin-A also inhibited autoinducer-2 production in enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 with IC{sub 50} values of 600 and 125 nM, respectively. BuT-DADMe-Immucillin-A inhibition of autoinducer-2 production in both strains persisted for several generations and caused reduction in biofilm formation. These results support MTAN's role in quorum sensing and its potential as a target for bacterial anti-infective drug design.

  11. Quorum sensing and policing of Pseudomonas aeruginosa social cheaters

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Meizhen; Schaefer, Amy L.; Dandekar, Ajai A.; Greenberg, E. Peter

    2015-01-01

    The bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic human pathogen that uses a quorum sensing signal cascade to activate expression of dozens of genes when sufficient population densities have been reached. Quorum sensing controls production of several key virulence factors, including secreted proteases such as elastase. Cooperating groups of bacteria growing on protein are susceptible to social cheating by quorum-sensing defective mutants. A possible way to restrict cheater emergence is by policing where cooperators produce costly goods to sanction or punish cheats. The P. aeruginosa LasR-LasI quorum sensing system controls genes including those encoding proteases and also those encoding a second quorum-sensing system, the RhlR-RhlI system, which controls numerous genes including those for cyanide production. By using RhlR quorum sensing mutants and cyanide synthesis mutants, we show that cyanide production is costly and cyanide-producing cooperators use cyanide to punish LasR-null social cheaters. Cooperators are less susceptible to cyanide than are LasR mutants. These experiments demonstrate policing in P. aeruginosa, provide a mechanistic understanding of policing, and show policing involves the cascade organization of the two quorum sensing systems in this bacterium. PMID:25646454

  12. Kin selection, quorum sensing and virulence in pathogenic bacteria

    E-print Network

    West, Stuart

    Kin selection, quorum sensing and virulence in pathogenic bacteria Kendra P. Rumbaugh1, Urvish. INTRODUCTION The growth and virulence of pathogenic bacteria often depends on the cooperative production pathogen of plants and ani- mals, inc

  13. A quorum sensing inspired algorithm for dynamic clustering

    E-print Network

    Slotine, Jean-Jacques E.

    Quorum sensing is a decentralized biological process, through which a community of cells with no global awareness coordinate their functional behaviors based only on cell-medium interactions and local decisions. This paper ...

  14. A Mathematical Model of Quorum Sensing Induced Biofilm Detachment

    PubMed Central

    Emerenini, Blessing O.; Hense, Burkhard A.; Kuttler, Christina; Eberl, Hermann J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Cell dispersal (or detachment) is part of the developmental cycle of microbial biofilms. It can be externally or internally induced, and manifests itself in discrete sloughing events, whereby many cells disperse in an instance, or in continuous slower dispersal of single cells. One suggested trigger of cell dispersal is quorum sensing, a cell-cell communication mechanism used to coordinate gene expression and behavior in groups based on population densities. Method To better understand the interplay of colony growth and cell dispersal, we develop a dynamic, spatially extended mathematical model that includes biofilm growth, production of quorum sensing molecules, cell dispersal triggered by quorum sensing molecules, and re-attachment of cells. This is a highly nonlinear system of diffusion-reaction equations that we study in computer simulations. Results Our results show that quorum sensing induced cell dispersal can be an efficient mechanism for bacteria to control the size of a biofilm colony, and at the same time enhance its downstream colonization potential. In fact we find that over the lifetime of a biofilm colony the majority of cells produced are lost into the aqueous phase, supporting the notion of biofilms as cell nurseries. We find that a single quorum sensing based mechanism can explain both, discrete dispersal events and continuous shedding of cells from a colony. Moreover, quorum sensing induced cell dispersal affects the structure and architecture of the biofilm, for example it might lead to the formation of hollow inner regions in a biofilm colony. PMID:26197231

  15. Structure-Activity Relationship of Cinnamaldehyde Analogs as Inhibitors of AI-2 Based Quorum Sensing and Their Effect on Virulence of Vibrio spp

    PubMed Central

    Brackman, Gilles; Celen, Shari; Hillaert, Ulrik; Van Calenbergh, Serge; Cos, Paul; Maes, Louis; Nelis, Hans J.; Coenye, Tom

    2011-01-01

    Background Many bacteria, including Vibrio spp., regulate virulence gene expression in a cell-density dependent way through a communication process termed quorum sensing (QS). Hence, interfering with QS could be a valuable novel antipathogenic strategy. Cinnamaldehyde has previously been shown to inhibit QS-regulated virulence by decreasing the DNA-binding ability of the QS response regulator LuxR. However, little is known about the structure-activity relationship of cinnamaldehyde analogs. Methodology/Principal Findings By evaluating the QS inhibitory activity of a series of cinnamaldehyde analogs, structural elements critical for autoinducer-2 QS inhibition were identified. These include an ?,? unsaturated acyl group capable of reacting as Michael acceptor connected to a hydrophobic moiety and a partially negative charge. The most active cinnamaldehyde analogs were found to affect the starvation response, biofilm formation, pigment production and protease production in Vibrio spp in vitro, while exhibiting low cytotoxicity. In addition, these compounds significantly increased the survival of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans infected with Vibrio anguillarum, Vibrio harveyi and Vibrio vulnificus. Conclusions/Significance Several new and more active cinnamaldehyde analogs were discovered and they were shown to affect Vibrio spp. virulence factor production in vitro and in vivo. Although ligands for LuxR have not been identified so far, the nature of different cinnamaldehyde analogs and their effect on the DNA binding ability of LuxR suggest that these compounds act as LuxR-ligands. PMID:21249192

  16. Choosing an Appropriate Infection Model to Study Quorum Sensing Inhibition in Pseudomonas Infections

    PubMed Central

    Papaioannou, Evelina; Utari, Putri Dwi; Quax, Wim J.

    2013-01-01

    Bacteria, although considered for decades to be antisocial organisms whose sole purpose is to find nutrients and multiply are, in fact, highly communicative organisms. Referred to as quorum sensing, cell-to-cell communication mechanisms have been adopted by bacteria in order to co-ordinate their gene expression. By behaving as a community rather than as individuals, bacteria can simultaneously switch on their virulence factor production and establish successful infections in eukaryotes. Understanding pathogen-host interactions requires the use of infection models. As the use of rodents is limited, for ethical considerations and the high costs associated with their use, alternative models based on invertebrates have been developed. Invertebrate models have the benefits of low handling costs, limited space requirements and rapid generation of results. This review presents examples of such models available for studying the pathogenicity of the Gram-negative bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Quorum sensing interference, known as quorum quenching, suggests a promising disease-control strategy since quorum-quenching mechanisms appear to play important roles in microbe-microbe and host-pathogen interactions. Examples of natural and synthetic quorum sensing inhibitors and their potential as antimicrobials in Pseudomonas-related infections are discussed in the second part of this review. PMID:24065108

  17. Quorum Sensing Peptides Selectively Penetrate the Blood-Brain Barrier

    PubMed Central

    Wynendaele, Evelien; Verbeke, Frederick; Stalmans, Sofie; Gevaert, Bert; Janssens, Yorick; Van De Wiele, Christophe; Peremans, Kathelijne; Burvenich, Christian; De Spiegeleer, Bart

    2015-01-01

    Bacteria communicate with each other by the use of signaling molecules, a process called ‘quorum sensing’. One group of quorum sensing molecules includes the oligopeptides, which are mainly produced by Gram-positive bacteria. Recently, these quorum sensing peptides were found to biologically influence mammalian cells, promoting i.a. metastasis of cancer cells. Moreover, it was found that bacteria can influence different central nervous system related disorders as well, e.g. anxiety, depression and autism. Research currently focuses on the role of bacterial metabolites in this bacteria-brain interaction, with the role of the quorum sensing peptides not yet known. Here, three chemically diverse quorum sensing peptides were investigated for their brain influx (multiple time regression technique) and efflux properties in an in vivo mouse model (ICR-CD-1) to determine blood-brain transfer properties: PhrCACET1 demonstrated comparatively a very high initial influx into the mouse brain (Kin = 20.87 ?l/(g×min)), while brain penetrabilities of BIP-2 and PhrANTH2 were found to be low (Kin = 2.68 ?l/(g×min)) and very low (Kin = 0.18 ?l/(g×min)), respectively. All three quorum sensing peptides were metabolically stable in plasma (in vitro) during the experimental time frame and no significant brain efflux was observed. Initial tissue distribution data showed remarkably high liver accumulation of BIP-2 as well. Our results thus support the potential role of some quorum sensing peptides in different neurological disorders, thereby enlarging our knowledge about the microbiome-brain axis. PMID:26536593

  18. Quorum sensing in fungi – a review

    PubMed Central

    ALBUQUERQUE, PATRÍCIA; CASADEVALL, ARTURO

    2015-01-01

    Quorum sensing (QS) is a mechanism of microbial communication dependent on cell density that can regulate several behaviors in bacteria such as secretion of virulence factors, biofilm formation, competence and bioluminescence. The existence of fungal QS systems was revealed ten years ago after the discovery that farnesol controls filamentation in the pathogenic polymorphic fungus Candida albicans. In the past decade, farnesol has been shown to play multiple roles in C. albicans physiology as a signaling molecule and inducing detrimental effects on host cells and other microbes. In addition to farnesol, the aromatic alcohol tyrosol was also found to be a C. albicans QS molecule (QSM) controlling growth, morphogenesis and biofilm formation. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, two other aromatic alcohols, phenylethanol and tryptophol were found to be QSMs regulating morphogenesis during nitrogen starvation conditions. Additionally, population density-dependent behaviors that resemble QS have been described in several other fungal species. Although fungal QS research is still in its infancy, its discovery has changed our views about the fungal kingdom and could eventually lead to the development of new antifungal therapeutics. PMID:22268493

  19. Quorum sensing in group A Streptococcus

    PubMed Central

    Jimenez, Juan Cristobal; Federle, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Quorum sensing (QS) is a widespread phenomenon in the microbial world that has important implications in the coordination of population-wide responses in several bacterial pathogens. In Group A Streptococcus (GAS), many questions surrounding QS systems remain to be solved pertaining to their function and their contribution to the GAS lifestyle in the host. The QS systems of GAS described to date can be categorized into four groups: regulator gene of glucosyltransferase (Rgg), Sil, lantibiotic systems, and LuxS/AI-2. The Rgg family of proteins, a conserved group of transcription factors that modify their activity in response to signaling peptides, has been shown to regulate genes involved in virulence, biofilm formation and competence. The sil locus, whose expression is regulated by the activity of signaling peptides and a putative two-component system (TCS), has been implicated on regulating genes involved with invasive disease in GAS isolates. Lantibiotic regulatory systems are involved in the production of bacteriocins and their autoregulation, and some of these genes have been shown to target both bacterial organisms as well as processes of survival inside the infected host. Finally AI-2 (dihydroxy pentanedione, DPD), synthesized by the LuxS enzyme in several bacteria including GAS, has been proposed to be a universal bacterial communication molecule. In this review we discuss the mechanisms of these four systems, the putative functions of their targets, and pose critical questions for future studies. PMID:25309879

  20. Quorum Sensing in Staphylococcus aureus Biofilms

    PubMed Central

    Yarwood, Jeremy M.; Bartels, Douglas J.; Volper, Esther M.; Greenberg, E. Peter

    2004-01-01

    Several serious diseases are caused by biofilm-associated Staphylococcus aureus, infections in which the accessory gene regulator (agr) quorum-sensing system is thought to play an important role. We studied the contribution of agr to biofilm development, and we examined agr-dependent transcription in biofilms. Under some conditions, disruption of agr expression had no discernible influence on biofilm formation, while under others it either inhibited or enhanced biofilm formation. Under those conditions where agr expression enhanced biofilm formation, biofilms of an agr signaling mutant were particularly sensitive to rifampin but not to oxacillin. Time lapse confocal scanning laser microscopy showed that, similar to the expression of an agr-independent fluorescent reporter, biofilm expression of an agr-dependent reporter was in patches within cell clusters and oscillated with time. In some cases, loss of fluorescence appeared to coincide with detachment of cells from the biofilm. Our studies indicate that the role of agr expression in biofilm development and behavior depends on environmental conditions. We also suggest that detachment of cells expressing agr from biofilms may have important clinical implications. PMID:14996815

  1. Role of quorum sensing in bacterial infections

    PubMed Central

    Castillo-Juárez, Israel; Maeda, Toshinari; Mandujano-Tinoco, Edna Ayerim; Tomás, María; Pérez-Eretza, Berenice; García-Contreras, Silvia Julieta; Wood, Thomas K; García-Contreras, Rodolfo

    2015-01-01

    Quorum sensing (QS) is cell communication that is widely used by bacterial pathogens to coordinate the expression of several collective traits, including the production of multiple virulence factors, biofilm formation, and swarming motility once a population threshold is reached. Several lines of evidence indicate that QS enhances virulence of bacterial pathogens in animal models as well as in human infections; however, its relative importance for bacterial pathogenesis is still incomplete. In this review, we discuss the present evidence from in vitro and in vivo experiments in animal models, as well as from clinical studies, that link QS systems with human infections. We focus on two major QS bacterial models, the opportunistic Gram negative bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa and the Gram positive Staphylococcus aureus, which are also two of the main agents responsible of nosocomial and wound infections. In addition, QS communication systems in other bacterial, eukaryotic pathogens, and even immune and cancer cells are also reviewed, and finally, the new approaches proposed to combat bacterial infections by the attenuation of their QS communication systems and virulence are also discussed. PMID:26244150

  2. Quorum Sensing in the Squid-Vibrio Symbiosis

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Subhash C.; Miyashiro, Tim

    2013-01-01

    Quorum sensing is an intercellular form of communication that bacteria use to coordinate group behaviors such as biofilm formation and the production of antibiotics and virulence factors. The term quorum sensing was originally coined to describe the mechanism underlying the onset of luminescence production in cultures of the marine bacterium Vibrio fischeri. Luminescence and, more generally, quorum sensing are important for V. fischeri to form a mutualistic symbiosis with the Hawaiian bobtail squid, Euprymna scolopes. The symbiosis is established when V. fischeri cells migrate via flagella-based motility from the surrounding seawater into a specialized structure injuvenile squid called the light organ. The cells grow to high cell densities within the light organ where the infection persists over the lifetime of the animal. A hallmark of a successful symbiosis is the luminescence produced by V. fischeri that camouflages the squid at night by eliminating its shadow within the water column. While the regulatory networks governing quorum sensing are critical for properly regulating V. fischeri luminescence within the squid light organ, they also regulate luminescence-independent processes during symbiosis. In this review, we discuss the quorum-sensing network of V. fischeri and highlight its impact at various stages during host colonization. PMID:23965960

  3. Integrated analysis of bacterial quorum-sensing networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulkarni, Rahul

    2005-11-01

    The regulation of gene expression is fundamental to most processes in cellular biology. At the transcriptional level, regulation occurs by the binding of specific proteins called transcription factors to DNA. Post-transcriptional regulation is often carried out by small RNAs which have become the focus of intense research activity recently. The talk will discuss the physics and biology of these two regulatory mechanisms by focusing on a specific biological system: quorum-sensing networks in bacteria. Quorum sensing is the process by which bacteria communicate to regulate gene expression in response to cell population density. Using an integrated approach which combines computational modeling, bioinformatics and experimental molecular biology, we are studying quorum-sensing pathways in bacteria. This approach led to the discovery of multiple regulatory small RNAs which are an integral part of the quorum-sensing pathway in Vibrio cholerae and Vibrio harveyi. Modeling of regulation of and by small RNAs in quorum sensing reveals the circuit characteristics controlling the transition from the low cell-density response to the high cell-density response.

  4. A structural perspective on the mechanisms of quorum sensing activation in bacteria.

    PubMed

    Lixa, Carolina; Mujo, Amanda; Anobom, Cristiane D; Pinheiro, Anderson S

    2015-12-01

    Bacteria are able to synchronize the population behavior in order to regulate gene expression through a cell-to-cell communication mechanism called quorum sensing. This phenomenon involves the production, detection and the response to extracellular signaling molecules named autoinducers, which directly or indirectly regulate gene expression in a cell density-dependent manner. Quorum sensing may control a wide range of biological processes in bacteria, such as bioluminescence, virulence factor production, biofilm formation and antibiotic resistance. The autoinducers are recognized by specific receptors that can either be membrane-bound histidine kinase receptors, which work by activating cognate cytoplasmic response regulators, or cytoplasmic receptors acting as transcription factors. In this review, we focused on the cytosolic quorum sensing regulators whose three-dimensional structures helped elucidate their mechanisms of action. Structural studies of quorum sensing receptors may enable the rational design of inhibitor molecules. Ultimately, this approach may represent an effective alternative to treat infections where classical antimicrobial therapy fails to overcome the microorganism virulence. PMID:26247154

  5. Quorum sensing and the population-dependent control of virulence.

    PubMed Central

    Williams, P; Camara, M; Hardman, A; Swift, S; Milton, D; Hope, V J; Winzer, K; Middleton, B; Pritchard, D I; Bycroft, B W

    2000-01-01

    One crucial feature of almost all bacterial infections is the need for the invading pathogen to reach a critical cell population density sufficient to overcome host defences and establish the infection. Controlling the expression of virulence determinants in concert with cell population density may therefore confer a significant survival advantage on the pathogen such that the host is overwhelmed before a defence response can be fully initiated. Many different bacterial pathogens are now known to regulate diverse physiological processes including virulence in a cell-density-dependent manner through cell-cell communication. This phenomenon, which relies on the interaction of a diffusible signal molecule (e.g. an N-acylhomoserine lactone) with a sensor or transcriptional activator to couple gene expression with cell population density, has become known as 'quorum sensing'. Although the size of the 'quorum' is likely to be highly variable and influenced by the diffusibility of the signal molecule within infected tissues, nevertheless quorum-sensing signal molecules can be detected in vivo in both experimental animal model and human infections. Furthermore, certain quorum-sensing molecules have been shown to possess pharmacological and immunomodulatory activity such that they may function as virulence determinants per se. As a consequence, quorum sensing constitutes a novel therapeutic target for the design of small molecular antagonists capable of attenuating virulence through the blockade of bacterial cell-cell communication. PMID:10874739

  6. Modeling of signal transduction in bacterial quorum-sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fenley, Andrew; Banik, Suman; Kulkarni, Rahul

    2006-03-01

    Several species of bacteria are able to coordinate gene regulation in response to population density, a process known as ``quorum-sensing''. Quorum-sensing bacteria produce, secrete, and detect signal molecules called autoinducers. For several species of bacteria in the Vibrio genus, recent results have shown that the external autoinducer concentrations control the expression of regulatory small RNA(s) which are critical to the process of quorum-sensing. We present a theoretical analysis of the network which relates the rate of small RNA expression to the external autoinducer concentrations. We relate the results from our modeling to previous experimental observations and suggest new experiments based on testable predictions of the model.

  7. Information processing and signal integration in bacterial quorum sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehta, Pankaj

    2009-03-01

    Bacteria communicate with each other using secreted chemical signaling molecules called autoinducers (AIs) in a process known as quorum sensing. Quorum sensing enables bacteria to collectively regulate their behavior depending on the number and/or species of bacteria present. The quorum-sensing network of the marine-bacteria Vibrio harveyi consists of three AIs encoding distinct ecological information, each detected by its own histidine-kinase sensor protein. The sensor proteins all phosphorylate a common response regulator and transmit sensory information through a shared phosphorelay that regulates expression of downstream quorum-sensing genes. Despite detailed knowledge of the Vibrio quorum-sensing circuit, it is still unclear how and why bacteria integrate information from multiple input signals to coordinate collective behaviors. Here we develop a mathematical framework for analyzing signal integration based on Information Theory and use it to show that bacteria must tune the kinase activities of sensor proteins in order to transmit information from multiple inputs. This is demonstrated within a quantitative model that allows us to quantify how much Vibrio's learn about individual inputs and explains experimentally measured input-output relations. Furthermore, we predicted and experimentally verified that bacteria manipulate the production rates of AIs in order to increase information transmission and argue that the quorum-sensing circuit is designed to coordinate a multi-cellular developmental program. Our results show that bacteria can successfully learn about multiple signals even when they are transmitted through a shared pathway and suggest that Information Theory may be a powerful tool for analyzing biological signaling networks.

  8. Quorum Sensing and Self-Quorum Quenching in the Intracellular Pathogen Brucellamelitensis

    PubMed Central

    Terwagne, Matthieu; Mirabella, Aurélie; Lemaire, Julien; Deschamps, Chantal; De Bolle, Xavier; Letesson, Jean-Jacques

    2013-01-01

    Brucella quorum sensing has been described as an important regulatory system controlling crucial virulence determinants such as the VirB type IV secretion system and the flagellar genes. However, the basis of quorum sensing, namely the production of autoinducers in Brucella has been questioned. Here, we report data obtained from the use of a genetic tool allowing the in situ detection of long-chain N-acyl-homoserine lactones (AHL) activity at single bacterium level in Brucella melitensis. These data are consistent with an intrinsic production of AHL by B. melitensis in low concentration both during in vitro growth and macrophage infection. Moreover, we identified a protein, named AibP, which is homologous to the AHL-acylases of various bacterial species. In vitro and during infection, expression of aibP coincided with a decrease in endogenous AHL activity within B. melitensis, suggesting that AibP could efficiently impair AHL accumulation. Furthermore, we showed that deletion of aibP in B. melitensis resulted in enhanced virB genes expression and VirB8 production as well as in a reduced flagellar genes expression and production of FlgE (hook protein) and FliC (flagellin) in vitro. Altogether, these results suggest that AHL-dependent quorum sensing and AHL-quorum quenching coexist in Brucella, at least to regulate its virulence. PMID:24349302

  9. Inhibition of quorum-sensing signals by essential oils.

    PubMed

    Szabó, Mira Agnes; Varga, Gábor Zoltán; Hohmann, Judit; Schelz, Zsuzsanna; Szegedi, Erno; Amaral, Leonard; Molnár, József

    2010-05-01

    The role of quorum sensing (QS) is well known in microbial pathogenicity and antibiotic resistance. QS is responsible for motility, swarming, and biofilm production based on the signal molecules, e.g., acylated homoserine lactones (AHLs) produced by micro-organisms above certain population density. The inhibition of QS may reduce pathogenicity, antibiotic resistance and biofilm formation in systemic and local infections. The homoserine lactones and other transmitters contribute to antibiotic resistance and pathogenicity of several bacteria; consequently the inhibition of QS signals reduces the problem of resistance and virulence. Due to the increasing number of persistent non-treatable infections, there is an urgent need to develop new strategies to combat infections that destabilize bacterial communities in the host. The effect of essential oils on bacterial growth and QS were evaluated using the sensor strain Chromobacterium violaceum CV026 and N-acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) producing Escherichia coli ATTC 31298 and the grapevine colonizing Ezf 10-17 strains. Of the tested oils, rose, geranium, lavender and rosemary oils were the most potent QS inhibitors. Eucalyptus and citrus oils moderately reduced pigment production by CV026, whereas the chamomile, orange and juniper oils were ineffective. PMID:19827025

  10. Transcriptome Analysis of Acetyl-Homoserine Lactone-Based Quorum Sensing Regulation in Yersinia pestis

    PubMed Central

    Horswill, Alexander R.; Parsek, Matthew R.; Minion, F. Chris

    2013-01-01

    The etiologic agent of bubonic plague, Yersinia pestis, senses self-produced, secreted chemical signals in a process named quorum sensing. Though the closely related enteric pathogen Y. pseudotuberculosis uses quorum sensing system to regulate motility, the role of quorum sensing in Y. pestis has been unclear. In this study we performed transcriptional profiling experiments to identify Y. pestis quorum sensing regulated functions. Our analysis revealed that acyl-homoserine lactone-based quorum sensing controls the expression of several metabolic functions. Maltose fermentation and the glyoxylate bypass are induced by acyl-homoserine lactone signaling. This effect was observed at 30°C, indicating a potential role for quorum sensing regulation of metabolism at temperatures below the normal mammalian temperature. It is proposed that utilization of alternative carbon sources may enhance growth and/or survival during prolonged periods in natural habitats with limited nutrient sources, contributing to maintenance of plague in nature. PMID:23620823

  11. RETRACTED ARTICLE: Quorum-sensing of bacteria and its application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Guoliang; Su, Mingxia

    2009-12-01

    Quorum sensing, or auto induction, as a cell density dependent signaling mechanism in many microorganisms, is triggered via auto inducers which passively diffuse across the bacterial envelope and therefore intracellulaly accumulate only at higher bacterial densities to regulate specialized processes such as genetic competence, bioluminescence, virulence and sporulation. N-acyl homoserine lactones are the most common type of signal molecules. Aquaculture is one of the fastest-growing food-producing industries, but disease outbreaks caused by pathogenic bacteria are a significant constraint on the development of the sector worldwide. Many of these pathogens have been found to be controlled by their quorum sensing systems. As there is relevance between the pathogenic bacteria's virulence factor expression and their auto inducers, quorum quenching is a new effective anti-infective strategy to control infections caused by bacterial pathogens in aquaculture. The techniques used to do this mainly include the following: (1) the inhibition of signal molecule biosynthesis, (2) blocking signal transduction, and (3) chemical inactivation and biodegradation of signal molecules. To provide a basis for finding alternative means of controlling aquatic diseases by quorum quenching instead of treatment by antibiotics and disinfectants, we will discuss the examination, purification and identification of auto inducers in this paper.

  12. Analysis of Autoinducer-2 Quorum Sensing in Yersinia pestis

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Jing; Madsen, Melissa L.; Carruthers, Michael D.; Phillips, Gregory J.; Kavanaugh, Jeffrey S.; Boyd, Jeff M.; Horswill, Alexander R.

    2013-01-01

    The autoinducer-2 (AI-2) quorum-sensing system has been linked to diverse phenotypes and regulatory changes in pathogenic bacteria. In the present study, we performed a molecular and biochemical characterization of the AI-2 system in Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of plague. In strain CO92, the AI-2 signal is produced in a luxS-dependent manner, reaching maximal levels of 2.5 ?M in the late logarithmic growth phase, and both wild-type and pigmentation (pgm) mutant strains made equivalent levels of AI-2. Strain CO92 possesses a chromosomal lsr locus encoding factors involved in the binding and import of AI-2, and confirming this assignment, an lsr deletion mutant increased extracellular pools of AI-2. To assess the functional role of AI-2 sensing in Y. pestis, microarray studies were conducted by comparing ?pgm strain R88 to a ?pgm ?luxS mutant or a quorum-sensing-null ?pgm ?ypeIR ?yspIR ?luxS mutant at 37°C. Our data suggest that AI-2 quorum sensing is associated with metabolic activities and oxidative stress genes that may help Y. pestis survive at the host temperature. This was confirmed by observing that the luxS mutant was more sensitive to killing by hydrogen peroxide, suggesting a potential requirement for AI-2 in evasion of oxidative damage. We also show that a large number of membrane protein genes are controlled by LuxS, suggesting a role for quorum sensing in membrane modeling. Altogether, this study provides the first global analysis of AI-2 signaling in Y. pestis and identifies potential roles for the system in controlling genes important to disease. PMID:23959719

  13. Specific quorum sensing-disrupting activity (AQSI) of thiophenones and their therapeutic potential

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Qian; Aamdal Scheie, Anne; Benneche, Tore; Defoirdt, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Disease caused by antibiotic resistant pathogens is becoming a serious problem, both in human and veterinary medicine. The inhibition of quorum sensing, bacterial cell-to-cell communication, is a promising alternative strategy to control disease. In this study, we determined the quorum sensing-disrupting activity of 20 thiophenones towards the quorum sensing model bacterium V. harveyi. In order to exclude false positives, we propose a new parameter (AQSI) to describe specific quorum sensing activity. AQSI is defined as the ratio between inhibition of quorum sensing-regulated activity in a reporter strain and inhibition of the same activity when it is independent of quorum sensing. Calculation of AQSI allowed to exclude five false positives, whereas the six most active thiophenones (TF203, TF307, TF319, TF339, TF342 and TF403) inhibited quorum sensing at 0.25??M, with AQSI higher than 10. Further, we determined the protective effect and toxicity of the thiophenones in a highly controlled gnotobiotic model system with brine shrimp larvae. There was a strong positive correlation between the specific quorum sensing-disrupting activity of the thiophenones and the protection of brine shrimp larvae against pathogenic V. harveyi. Four of the most active quorum sensing-disrupting thiophenones (TF 203, TF319, TF339 and TF342) were considered to be promising since they have a therapeutic potential of at least 10. PMID:26647822

  14. Specific quorum sensing-disrupting activity (AQSI) of thiophenones and their therapeutic potential.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qian; Aamdal Scheie, Anne; Benneche, Tore; Defoirdt, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Disease caused by antibiotic resistant pathogens is becoming a serious problem, both in human and veterinary medicine. The inhibition of quorum sensing, bacterial cell-to-cell communication, is a promising alternative strategy to control disease. In this study, we determined the quorum sensing-disrupting activity of 20 thiophenones towards the quorum sensing model bacterium V. harveyi. In order to exclude false positives, we propose a new parameter (AQSI) to describe specific quorum sensing activity. AQSI is defined as the ratio between inhibition of quorum sensing-regulated activity in a reporter strain and inhibition of the same activity when it is independent of quorum sensing. Calculation of AQSI allowed to exclude five false positives, whereas the six most active thiophenones (TF203, TF307, TF319, TF339, TF342 and TF403) inhibited quorum sensing at 0.25??M, with AQSI higher than 10. Further, we determined the protective effect and toxicity of the thiophenones in a highly controlled gnotobiotic model system with brine shrimp larvae. There was a strong positive correlation between the specific quorum sensing-disrupting activity of the thiophenones and the protection of brine shrimp larvae against pathogenic V. harveyi. Four of the most active quorum sensing-disrupting thiophenones (TF 203, TF319, TF339 and TF342) were considered to be promising since they have a therapeutic potential of at least 10. PMID:26647822

  15. Quorum Sensing in the Context of Food Microbiology

    PubMed Central

    Skandamis, Panagiotis N.

    2012-01-01

    Food spoilage may be defined as a process that renders a product undesirable or unacceptable for consumption and is the outcome of the biochemical activity of a microbial community that eventually dominates according to the prevailing ecological determinants. Although limited information are reported, this activity has been attributed to quorum sensing (QS). Consequently, the potential role of cell-to-cell communication in food spoilage and food safety should be more extensively elucidated. Such information would be helpful in designing approaches for manipulating these communication systems, thereby reducing or preventing, for instance, spoilage reactions or even controlling the expression of virulence factors. Due to the many reports in the literature on the fundamental features of QS, e.g., chemistry and definitions of QS compounds, in this minireview, we only allude to the types and chemistry of QS signaling molecules per se and to the (bioassay-based) methods of their detection and quantification, avoiding extensive documentation. Conversely, we attempt to provide insights into (i) the role of QS in food spoilage, (ii) the factors that may quench the activity of QS in foods and review the potential QS inhibitors that might “mislead” the bacterial coordination of spoilage activities and thus may be used as biopreservatives, and (iii) the future experimental approaches that need to be undertaken in order to explore the “gray” or “black” areas of QS, increase our understanding of how QS affects microbial behavior in foods, and assist in finding answers as to how we can exploit QS for the benefit of food preservation and food safety. PMID:22706047

  16. Can the natural diversity of quorum-sensing advance synthetic biology?

    PubMed

    Davis, René Michele; Muller, Ryan Yue; Haynes, Karmella Ann

    2015-01-01

    Quorum-sensing networks enable bacteria to sense and respond to chemical signals produced by neighboring bacteria. They are widespread: over 100 morphologically and genetically distinct species of eubacteria are known to use quorum sensing to control gene expression. This diversity suggests the potential to use natural protein variants to engineer parallel, input-specific, cell-cell communication pathways. However, only three distinct signaling pathways, Lux, Las, and Rhl, have been adapted for and broadly used in engineered systems. The paucity of unique quorum-sensing systems and their propensity for crosstalk limits the usefulness of our current quorum-sensing toolkit. This review discusses the need for more signaling pathways, roadblocks to using multiple pathways in parallel, and strategies for expanding the quorum-sensing toolbox for synthetic biology. PMID:25806368

  17. Can the Natural Diversity of Quorum-Sensing Advance Synthetic Biology?

    PubMed Central

    Davis, René Michele; Muller, Ryan Yue; Haynes, Karmella Ann

    2015-01-01

    Quorum-sensing networks enable bacteria to sense and respond to chemical signals produced by neighboring bacteria. They are widespread: over 100 morphologically and genetically distinct species of eubacteria are known to use quorum sensing to control gene expression. This diversity suggests the potential to use natural protein variants to engineer parallel, input-specific, cell–cell communication pathways. However, only three distinct signaling pathways, Lux, Las, and Rhl, have been adapted for and broadly used in engineered systems. The paucity of unique quorum-sensing systems and their propensity for crosstalk limits the usefulness of our current quorum-sensing toolkit. This review discusses the need for more signaling pathways, roadblocks to using multiple pathways in parallel, and strategies for expanding the quorum-sensing toolbox for synthetic biology. PMID:25806368

  18. Structure and Inhibition of Quorum Sensing Target from Streptococcus pneumoniae

    SciTech Connect

    Singh,V.; Shi, W.; Almo, S.; Evans, G.; Furneaux, R.; Tyler, P.; Painter, G.; Lenz, D.; Mee, S.; et al.

    2006-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae 5'-methylthioadenosine/S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase (MTAN) catalyzes the hydrolytic deadenylation of its substrates to form adenine and 5-methylthioribose or S-ribosylhomocysteine (SRH). MTAN is not found in mammals but is involved in bacterial quorum sensing. MTAN gene disruption affects the growth and pathogenicity of bacteria, making it a target for antibiotic design. Kinetic isotope effects and computational studies have established a dissociative S{sub N}1 transition state for Escherichia coli MTAN, and transition state analogues resembling the transition state are powerful inhibitors of the enzyme [Singh, V., Lee, J. L., Nunez, S., Howell, P. L., and Schramm, V. L. (2005) Biochemistry 44, 11647-11659]. The sequence of MTAN from S. pneumoniae is 40% identical to that of E. coli MTAN, but S. pneumoniae MTAN exhibits remarkably distinct kinetic and inhibitory properties. 5'-Methylthio-Immucillin-A (MT-ImmA) is a transition state analogue resembling an early S{sub N}1 transition state. It is a weak inhibitor of S. pneumoniae MTAN with a K{sub i} of 1.0 {mu}M. The X-ray structure of S. pneumoniae MTAN with MT-ImmA indicates a dimer with the methylthio group in a flexible hydrophobic pocket. Replacing the methyl group with phenyl (PhT-ImmA), tolyl (p-TolT-ImmA), or ethyl (EtT-ImmA) groups increases the affinity to give K{sub i} values of 335, 60, and 40 nM, respectively. DADMe-Immucillins are geometric and electrostatic mimics of a fully dissociated transition state and bind more tightly than Immucillins. MT-DADMe-Immucillin-A inhibits with a K{sub i} value of 24 nM, and replacing the 5'-methyl group with p-Cl-phenyl (p-Cl-PhT-DADMe-ImmA) gave a K{sub i}* value of 0.36 nM. The inhibitory potential of DADMe-Immucillins relative to the Immucillins supports a fully dissociated transition state structure for S. pneumoniae MTAN. Comparison of active site contacts in the X-ray crystal structures of E. coli and S. pneumoniae MTAN with MT-ImmA would predict equal binding, yet most analogues bind 10{sup 3}-10{sup 4}-fold more tightly to the E. coli enzyme. Catalytic site efficiency is primarily responsible for this difference since k{sub cat}/K{sub m} for S. pneumoniae MTAN is decreased 845-fold relative to that of E. coli MTAN.

  19. A mathematical model of quorum sensing regulated EPS production in biofilm communities

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Biofilms are microbial communities encased in a layer of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). The EPS matrix provides several functional purposes for the biofilm, such as protecting bacteria from environmental stresses, and providing mechanical stability. Quorum sensing is a cell-cell communication mechanism used by several bacterial taxa to coordinate gene expression and behaviour in groups, based on population densities. Model We mathematically model quorum sensing and EPS production in a growing biofilm under various environmental conditions, to study how a developing biofilm impacts quorum sensing, and conversely, how a biofilm is affected by quorum sensing-regulated EPS production. We investigate circumstances when using quorum-sensing regulated EPS production is a beneficial strategy for biofilm cells. Results We find that biofilms that use quorum sensing to induce increased EPS production do not obtain the high cell populations of low-EPS producers, but can rapidly increase their volume to parallel high-EPS producers. Quorum sensing-induced EPS production allows a biofilm to switch behaviours, from a colonization mode (with an optimized growth rate), to a protection mode. Conclusions A biofilm will benefit from using quorum sensing-induced EPS production if bacteria cells have the objective of acquiring a thick, protective layer of EPS, or if they wish to clog their environment with biomass as a means of securing nutrient supply and outcompeting other colonies in the channel, of their own or a different species. PMID:21477365

  20. INHIBITION OF QUORUM SENSING IN CLOSTRIDIUM PERFRINGENS AS A MEANS TOWARD FOOD SAFETY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cell density-dependent signaling through the use of autoinducers, classified as quorum sensing, may play a role in the survival and virulence of Clostridium perfringens in foods. The natural 2-(5H)-furanone, ascorbic acid (vitamin C), was chosen for evaluation as a quorum sensing analogue due to it...

  1. Microarray Analysis of Quorum-Sensing Regulated Gene Expression in Campylobacter jejuni

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Quorum-sensing (QS) is defined as cell-to-cell communication in response to population density in bacteria. Autoinducer-2 (AI-2)-dependent quorum-sensing has been shown to control a variety of cellular processes such as expression of virulence factors, toxin production, biofilm formation, and swarm...

  2. Small Molecule Inhibitors of AI-2 Signaling in Bacteria: State-of-the-Art and Future Perspectives for Anti-Quorum Sensing Agents

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Min; Gamby, Sonja; Zheng, Yue; Sintim, Herman O.

    2013-01-01

    Bacteria respond to different small molecules that are produced by other neighboring bacteria. These molecules, called autoinducers, are classified as intraspecies (i.e., molecules produced and perceived by the same bacterial species) or interspecies (molecules that are produced and sensed between different bacterial species). AI-2 has been proposed as an interspecies autoinducer and has been shown to regulate different bacterial physiology as well as affect virulence factor production and biofilm formation in some bacteria, including bacteria of clinical relevance. Several groups have embarked on the development of small molecules that could be used to perturb AI-2 signaling in bacteria, with the ultimate goal that these molecules could be used to inhibit bacterial virulence and biofilm formation. Additionally, these molecules have the potential to be used in synthetic biology applications whereby these small molecules are used as inputs to switch on and off AI-2 receptors. In this review, we highlight the state-of-the-art in the development of small molecules that perturb AI-2 signaling in bacteria and offer our perspective on the future development and applications of these classes of molecules. PMID:23994835

  3. Prediction by promoter logic in bacterial quorum sensing.

    PubMed

    Rai, Navneet; Anand, Rajat; Ramkumar, Krishna; Sreenivasan, Varun; Dabholkar, Sugat; Venkatesh, K V; Thattai, Mukund

    2012-01-01

    Quorum-sensing systems mediate chemical communication between bacterial cells, coordinating cell-density-dependent processes like biofilm formation and virulence-factor expression. In the proteobacterial LuxI/LuxR quorum sensing paradigm, a signaling molecule generated by an enzyme (LuxI) diffuses between cells and allosterically stimulates a transcriptional regulator (LuxR) to activate its cognate promoter (pR). By expressing either LuxI or LuxR in positive feedback from pR, these versatile systems can generate smooth (monostable) or abrupt (bistable) density-dependent responses to suit the ecological context. Here we combine theory and experiment to demonstrate that the promoter logic of pR - its measured activity as a function of LuxI and LuxR levels - contains all the biochemical information required to quantitatively predict the responses of such feedback loops. The interplay of promoter logic with feedback topology underlies the versatility of the LuxI/LuxR paradigm: LuxR and LuxI positive-feedback systems show dramatically different responses, while a dual positive/negative-feedback system displays synchronized oscillations. These results highlight the dual utility of promoter logic: to probe microscopic parameters and predict macroscopic phenotype. PMID:22275861

  4. Quorum sensing between Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms accelerates cell growth.

    PubMed

    Flickinger, Shane T; Copeland, Matthew F; Downes, Eric M; Braasch, Andrew T; Tuson, Hannah H; Eun, Ye-Jin; Weibel, Douglas B

    2011-04-20

    This manuscript describes the fabrication of arrays of spatially confined chambers embossed in a layer of poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA) and their application to studying quorum sensing between communities of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. We hypothesized that biofilms may produce stable chemical signaling gradients in close proximity to surfaces, which influence the growth and development of nearby microcolonies into biofilms. To test this hypothesis, we embossed a layer of PEGDA with 1.5-mm wide chambers in which P. aeruginosa biofilms grew, secreted homoserine lactones (HSLs, small molecule regulators of quorum sensing), and formed spatial and temporal gradients of these compounds. In static growth conditions (i.e., no flow), nascent biofilms secreted N-(3-oxododecanoyl) HSL that formed a gradient in the hydrogel and was detected by P. aeruginosa cells that were ?8 mm away. Diffusing HSLs increased the growth rate of cells in communities that were <3 mm away from the biofilm, where the concentration of HSL was >1 ?M, and had little effect on communities farther away. The HSL gradient had no observable influence on biofilm structure. Surprisingly, 0.1-10 ?M of N-(3-oxododecanoyl) HSL had no effect on cell growth in liquid culture. The results suggest that the secretion of HSLs from a biofilm enhances the growth of neighboring cells in contact with surfaces into communities and may influence their composition, organization, and diversity. PMID:21434644

  5. Quorum sensing between Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms accelerates cell growth

    PubMed Central

    Flickinger, Shane T.; Copeland, Matthew F.; Downes, Eric M.; Braasch, Andrew T.; Tuson, Hannah H.; Eun, Ye-Jin; Weibel, Douglas B.

    2011-01-01

    This manuscript describes the fabrication of arrays of spatially confined chambers embossed in a layer of poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA) and their application to studying quorum sensing between communities of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. We hypothesized that biofilms may produce stable chemical signaling gradients in close proximity to surfaces, which influence the growth and development of nearby microcolonies into biofilms. To test this hypothesis we embossed a layer of PEGDA with 1.5-mm wide chambers in which P. aeruginosa biofilms grew, secreted homoserine lactones (HSLs, small molecule regulators of quorum sensing), and formed spatial and temporal gradients of these compounds. In static growth conditions (i.e. no flow), nascent biofilms secreted N-(3-oxododecanoyl) HSL that formed a gradient in the hydrogel and was detected by P. aeruginosa cells that were ? 8 mm away. Diffusing HSLs increased the growth rate of cells in communities that were < 3 mm away from the biofilm, where the concentration of HSL was > 1 µM, and had little effect on communities farther away. The HSL gradient had no observable influence on biofilm structure. Surprisingly, 0.1–10 µM of N-(3-oxododecanoyl) HSL had no effect on cell growth in liquid culture. The results suggest that the secretion of HSLs from a biofilm enhances the growth of neighboring cells in contact with surfaces into communities and may influence their composition, organization, and diversity. PMID:21434644

  6. Ellagitannins as Inhibitors of Bacterial Quorum Sensing

    E-print Network

    Chen, Shu-Ching

    pathogenic bacteria non-virulent. Benefits of Technology Independent formulation or supplement is continuing. Ellagitannin-containing plant extracts were tested against three different species of bacteria opportunistic pathogens, whereas A. tumefaciens is a plant pathogen showing the scope and potential application

  7. Non-native acylated homoserine lactones reveal that LuxIR quorum sensing promotes symbiont stability

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Jessica S.; Geske, Grant D.; Blackwell, Helen E.; Ruby, Edward G.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Quorum sensing, a group behavior coordinated by a diffusible pheromone signal and a cognate receptor, is typical of bacteria that form symbioses with plants and animals. LuxIR-type acyl homoserine-lactone (AHL) quorum sensing is common in Gram-negative proteobacteria, and many members of this group have additional quorum-sensing networks. The bioluminescent symbiont Vibrio fischeri encodes two AHL signal synthases: AinS and LuxI. AinS-dependent quorum sensing converges with LuxI-dependent quorum sensing at the LuxR regulatory element. Both AinS- and LuxI-mediated signaling are required for efficient and persistent colonization of the squid host, Euprymna scolopes. The basis of the mutualism is symbiont bioluminescence, which is regulated by both LuxI- and AinS-dependent quorum sensing, and is essential for maintaining a colonization of the host. Here, we used chemical and genetic approaches to probe the dynamics of LuxI- and AinS-mediated regulation of bioluminescence during symbiosis. We demonstrate that both native AHLs and non-native AHL analogs can be used to non-invasively and specifically modulate induction of symbiotic bioluminescence via LuxI-dependent quorum sensing. Our data suggest that the first day of colonization, during which symbiont bioluminescence is induced by LuxIR, is a critical period that determines the stability of the V. fischeri population once symbiosis is established. PMID:24191970

  8. Quorum Sensing Activity of Enterobacter asburiae Isolated from Lettuce Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Yin Yin; Sulaiman, Joanita; Chen, Jian Woon; Yin, Wai-Fong; Chan, Kok-Gan

    2013-01-01

    Bacterial communication or quorum sensing (QS) is achieved via sensing of QS signaling molecules consisting of oligopeptides in Gram-positive bacteria and N-acyl homoserine lactones (AHL) in most Gram-negative bacteria. In this study, Enterobacteriaceae isolates from Batavia lettuce were screened for AHL production. Enterobacter asburiae, identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) was found to produce short chain AHLs. High resolution triple quadrupole liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC/MS) analysis of the E. asburiae spent supernatant confirmed the production of N-butanoyl homoserine lactone (C4-HSL) and N–hexanoyl homoserine lactone (C6-HSL). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of AHL production by E. asburiae. PMID:24152877

  9. Can resistance against quorum-sensing interference be selected?

    PubMed

    García-Contreras, Rodolfo; Maeda, Toshinari; Wood, Thomas K

    2016-01-01

    Quorum-sensing (QS) interference is a novel therapy to fight bacterial infections that, unlike conventional antibiotic treatments, is focused on reducing the damage caused by pathogens (virulence) rather than focused on inhibiting their growth. Given this ideal, it was predicted that this approach will be impervious to or at least much less prone to resistance in bacterial populations. However, recently, resistance mechanisms against well-characterized quorum quenchers (QQs) have been found in the laboratory as well as in clinical strains, demonstrating that the rise of resistance against these kinds of compounds is possible. Nevertheless, it has been argued that even if resistance mechanisms against QS interference exist, this fact does not guarantee that resistance will spread. In the present work, we discuss recent insights derived from the latest experiments to address this question. In addition, we explain how environmental conditions like the stress produced by the host immune system may influence the selection of resistance and eventually lead to the selection of QS interference-resistant bacteria in a clinical setting. PMID:26023871

  10. Composition, anti-quorum sensing and antimicrobial activity of essential oils from Lippia alba

    PubMed Central

    Olivero-Verbel, Jesus; Barreto-Maya, Ana; Bertel-Sevilla, Angela; Stashenko, Elena E.

    2014-01-01

    Many Gram-negative pathogens have the ability to produce N-acylhomoserine lactones (AHLs) as signal molecules for quorum sensing (QS). This cell-cell communication system allows them to coordinate gene expression and regulate virulence. Strategies to inhibit QS are promising for the control of infectious diseases or antibiotic resistant bacterial pathogens. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anti-quorum sensing (anti-QS) and antibacterial potential of five essential oils isolated from Lippia alba on the Tn-5 mutant of Chromobacterium violaceum CV026, and on the growth of the gram-positive bacteria S. aureus ATCC 25923. The anti-QS activity was detected through the inhibition of the QS-controlled violacein pigment production by the sensor bacteria. Results showed that two essential oils from L. alba, one containing the greatest geranial:neral and the other the highest limonene:carvone concentrations, were the most effective QS inhibitors. Both oils also had small effects on cell growth. Moreover, the geranial/neral chemotype oil also produced the maximum zone of growth inhibition against S. aureus ATCC 25923. These data suggest essential oils from L. alba have promising properties as QS modulators, and present antibacterial activity on S. aureus. PMID:25477905

  11. Quorum Sensing Protects Pseudomonas aeruginosa against Cheating by Other Species in a Laboratory Coculture Model

    E-print Network

    Smalley, Nicole E.; An, Dingding; Parsek, Matthew R.; Chandler, Josephine R.; Dandekar, Ajai A.

    2015-10-01

    Many species of bacteria use a cell-cell communication system called quorum sensing (QS) to coordinate group activities. QS systems frequently regulate the production of exoproducts. Some of these products, such as proteases, ...

  12. Bacteria clustering by polymers induces the expression of quorum sense controlled phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Lui, Leong T.; Xue, Xuan; Sui, Cheng; Brown, Alan; Pritchard, David I.; Halliday, Nigel; Winzer, Klaus; Howdle, Steven M.; Fernandez-Trillo, Francisco; Krasnogor, Natalio; Alexander, Cameron

    2014-01-01

    Bacteria deploy a range of chemistries to regulate their behaviour and respond to their environment. Quorum sensing is one mean by which bacteria use chemical reactions to modulate pre-infection behaviour such as surface attachment. Polymers that can interfere with bacterial adhesion or the chemical reactions used for quorum sensing are thus a potential means to control bacterial population responses. Here we report how polymeric “bacteria sequestrants”, designed to bind to bacteria through electrostatic interactions and thus inhibit bacterial adhesion to surfaces, induce the expression of quorum sensing controlled phenotypes as a consequence of cell clustering. A combination of polymer and analytical chemistry, biological assays and computational modelling has been used to characterise the feedback between bacteria clustering and quorum sensing signaling. We have also derived design principles and chemical strategies for controlling bacterial behaviour at the population level. PMID:24256871

  13. Autoinducer 2-based quorum sensing response of Escherichia coli to sub-therapeutic tetracycline exposure 

    E-print Network

    Lu, Lingeng

    2006-10-30

    Autoinducer 2 (AI-2) is a quorum sensing signal employed by bacteria to coordinate their response to environmental stresses. The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between presence of AI-2 molecules, exposure to sub...

  14. Nickel and cadmium ions inhibit quorum sensing and biofilm formation without affecting viability in Burkholderia multivorans

    E-print Network

    Alvarez, Pedro J.

    Nickel and cadmium ions inhibit quorum sensing and biofilm formation without affecting viability transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (q-PCR) assays, we show that sub-millimolar concentrations of nickel (Ni

  15. Acyl-Homoserine Lactone Quorum Sensing in the Roseobacter Clade

    PubMed Central

    Zan, Jindong; Liu, Yue; Fuqua, Clay; Hill, Russell T.

    2014-01-01

    Members of the Roseobacter clade are ecologically important and numerically abundant in coastal environments and can associate with marine invertebrates and nutrient-rich marine snow or organic particles, on which quorum sensing (QS) may play an important role. In this review, we summarize current research progress on roseobacterial acyl-homoserine lactone-based QS, particularly focusing on three relatively well-studied representatives, Phaeobacter inhibens DSM17395, the marine sponge symbiont Ruegeria sp. KLH11 and the dinoflagellate symbiont Dinoroseobacter shibae. Bioinformatic survey of luxI homologues revealed that over 80% of available roseobacterial genomes encode at least one luxI homologue, reflecting the significance of QS controlled regulatory pathways in adapting to the relevant marine environments. We also discuss several areas that warrant further investigation, including studies on the ecological role of these diverse QS pathways in natural environments. PMID:24402124

  16. Quorum-sensing regulation in staphylococci—an overview

    PubMed Central

    Le, Katherine Y.; Otto, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococci are frequent human commensals and some species can cause disease. Staphylococcus aureus in particular is a dangerous human pathogen. In staphylococci, the ability to sense the bacterial cell density, or quorum, and to respond with genetic adaptations is due to one main system, which is called accessory gene regulator (Agr). The extracellular signal of Agr is a post-translationally modified peptide containing a thiolactone structure. Under conditions of high cell density, Agr is responsible for the increased expression of many toxins and degradative exoenzymes, and decreased expression of several colonization factors. This regulation is important for the timing of virulence factor expression during infection and the development of acute disease, while low activity of Agr is associated with chronic staphylococcal infections, such as those involving biofilm formation. Accordingly, drugs inhibiting Agr are being evaluated for their capacity to control acute forms of S. aureus infection. PMID:26579084

  17. Modeling a synthetic multicellular clock: Repressilators coupled by quorum sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Ojalvo, Jordi; Elowitz, Michael B.; Strogatz, Steven H.

    2004-07-01

    Diverse biochemical rhythms are generated by thousands of cellular oscillators that somehow manage to operate synchronously. In fields ranging from circadian biology to endocrinology, it remains an exciting challenge to understand how collective rhythms emerge in multicellular structures. Using mathematical and computational modeling, we study the effect of coupling through intercell signaling in a population of Escherichia coli cells expressing a synthetic biological clock. Our results predict that a diverse and noisy community of such genetic oscillators interacting through a quorum-sensing mechanism should self-synchronize in a robust way, leading to a substantially improved global rhythmicity in the system. As such, the particular system of coupled genetic oscillators considered here might be a good candidate to provide the first quantitative example of a synchronization transition in a population of biological oscillators.

  18. BACTERIAL ATTRACTION AND QUORUM SENSING INHIBITION IN CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS EXUDATES

    PubMed Central

    KAPLAN, FATMA; BADRI, DAYAKAR V.; ZACHARIAH, CHERIAN; AJREDINI, RAMADAN; SANDOVAL, FRANCISCO J; ROJE, SANJA; LEVINE, LANFANG H.; ZHANG, FENGLI; ROBINETTE, STEVEN L.; ALBORN, HANS T.; ZHAO, WEI; STADLER, MICHAEL; NIMALENDRAN, RATHIKA; DOSSEY, AARON T.; BRÜSCHWEILER, RAFAEL; VIVANCO, JORGE M.; EDISON, ARTHUR S.

    2014-01-01

    Caenorhabditis elegans, a bacterivorous nematode, lives in complex rotting fruit, soil, and compost environments, and chemical interactions are required for mating, monitoring population density, recognition of food, avoidance of pathogenic microbes, and other essential ecological functions. Despite being one of the best-studied model organisms in biology, relatively little is known about the signals that C. elegans uses to chemically interact with its environment or as defense. C. elegans exudates were analyzed using several analytical methods and found to contain 36 common metabolites including organic acids, amino acids and sugars, all in relatively high abundance. Furthermore, the concentrations of amino acids in the exudates were dependent on developmental stage. The C. elegans exudates were tested for bacterial chemotaxis using Pseudomonas putida (KT2440), a plant growth promoting rhizobacterium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PAO1), a soil bacterium pathogenic to C. elegans, and E. coli (OP50), a non-motile bacterium tested as a control. The C. elegans exudates attracted the two Psuedomonas species, but had no detectable antibacterial activity against P. aeruginosa. To our surprise, the exudates of young adult and adult life stages of C. elegans exudates inhibited quorum sensing in the reporter system based on the LuxR bacterial quorum sensing (QS) system, which regulates bacterial virulence and other factors in Vibrio fischeri. We were able to fractionate the QS inhibition and bacterial chemotaxis activities, demonstrating that these activities are chemically distinct. Our results demonstrate that C. elegans can attract its bacterial food and has the potential of partially regulating the virulence of bacterial pathogens by inhibiting specific QS systems. PMID:19649780

  19. Plant-Derived Natural Products as Sources of Anti-Quorum Sensing Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Koh, Chong-Lek; Sam, Choon-Kook; Yin, Wai-Fong; Tan, Li Ying; Krishnan, Thiba; Chong, Yee Meng; Chan, Kok-Gan

    2013-01-01

    Quorum sensing is a system of stimuli and responses in relation to bacterial cell population density that regulates gene expression, including virulence determinants. Consequently, quorum sensing has been an attractive target for the development of novel anti-infective measures that do not rely on the use of antibiotics. Anti-quorum sensing has been a promising strategy to combat bacterial infections as it is unlikely to develop multidrug resistant pathogens since it does not impose any selection pressure. A number of anti-quorum sensing approaches have been documented and plant-based natural products have been extensively studied in this context. Plant matter is one of the major sources of chemicals in use today in various industries, ranging from the pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and food biotechnology to the textile industries. Just like animals and humans, plants are constantly exposed to bacterial infections, it is therefore logical to expect that plants have developed sophisticated of chemical mechanisms to combat pathogens. In this review, we have surveyed the various types of plant-based natural products that exhibit anti-quorum sensing properties and their anti-quorum sensing mechanisms. PMID:23669710

  20. Inhibition of quorum sensing-mediated biofilm formation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa by a locally isolated Bacillus cereus.

    PubMed

    Wahman, Shaimaa; Emara, Mohamed; Shawky, Riham M; El-Domany, Ramadan A; Aboulwafa, Mohammad Mabrouk

    2015-12-01

    Quorum sensing has been shown to play a crucial role in Pseudomonas aeruginosa pathogenesis where it activates expression of myriad genes that regulate the production of important virulence factors such as biofilm formation. Antagonism of quorum sensing is an excellent target for antimicrobial therapy and represents a novel approach to combat drug resistance. In this study, Chromobacterium violaceum biosensor strain was employed as a fast, sensitive, reliable, and easy to use tool for rapid screening of soil samples for Quorum Sensing Inhibitors (QSI) and the optimal conditions for maximal QSI production were scrutinized. Screening of 127 soil isolates showed that 43 isolates were able to breakdown the HHL signal. Out of the 43 isolates, 38 isolates were able to inhibit the violet color of the biosensor and to form easily detectable zones of color inhibition around their growth. A confirmatory bioassay was carried out after concentrating the putative positive cell-free lysates. Three different isolates that belonged to Bacillus cereus group were shown to have QSI activities and their QSI activities were optimized by changing their culture conditions. Further experiments revealed that the cell-free lysates of these isolates were able to inhibit biofilm formation by P. aeruginosa clinical isolates. PMID:26288125

  1. Quorum sensing and social networking in the microbial world

    PubMed Central

    Atkinson, Steve; Williams, Paul

    2009-01-01

    For many years, bacterial cells were considered primarily as selfish individuals, but, in recent years, it has become evident that, far from operating in isolation, they coordinate collective behaviour in response to environmental challenges using sophisticated intercellular communication networks. Cell-to-cell communication between bacteria is mediated by small diffusible signal molecules that trigger changes in gene expression in response to fluctuations in population density. This process, generally referred to as quorum sensing (QS), controls diverse phenotypes in numerous Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Recent advances have revealed that bacteria are not limited to communication within their own species but are capable of ‘listening in’ and ‘broadcasting to’ unrelated species to intercept messages and coerce cohabitants into behavioural modifications, either for the good of the population or for the benefit of one species over another. It is also evident that QS is not limited to the bacterial kingdom. The study of two-way intercellular signalling networks between bacteria and both uni- and multicellular eukaryotes as well as between eukaryotes is just beginning to unveil a rich diversity of communication pathways. PMID:19674996

  2. Mycofabricated biosilver nanoparticles interrupt Pseudomonas aeruginosa quorum sensing systems.

    PubMed

    Singh, Braj R; Singh, Brahma N; Singh, Akanksha; Khan, Wasi; Naqvi, Alim H; Singh, Harikesh B

    2015-01-01

    Quorum sensing (QS) is a chemical communication process that Pseudomonas aeruginosa uses to regulate virulence and biofilm formation. Disabling of QS is an emerging approach for combating its pathogenicity. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have been widely applied as antimicrobial agents against human pathogenic bacteria and fungi, but not for the attenuation of bacterial QS. Here we mycofabricated AgNPs (mfAgNPs) using metabolites of soil fungus Rhizopus arrhizus BRS-07 and tested their effect on QS-regulated virulence and biofilm formation of P. aeruginosa. Transcriptional studies demonstrated that mfAgNPs reduced the levels of LasIR-RhlIR. Treatment of mfAgNPs inhibited biofilm formation, production of several virulence factors (e.g. LasA protease, LasB elastrase, pyocyanin, pyoverdin, pyochelin, rhamnolipid, and alginate) and reduced AHLs production. Further genes quantification analyses revealed that mfAgNPs significantly down-regulated QS-regulated genes, specifically those encoded to the secretion of virulence factors. The results clearly indicated the anti-virulence property of mfAgNPs by inhibiting P. aeruginosa QS signaling. PMID:26347993

  3. Quorum Sensing in Some Representative Species of Halomonadaceae

    PubMed Central

    Tahrioui, Ali; Schwab, Melanie; Quesada, Emilia; Llamas, Inmaculada

    2013-01-01

    Cell-to-cell communication, or quorum-sensing (QS), systems are employed by bacteria for promoting collective behaviour within a population. An analysis to detect QS signal molecules in 43 species of the Halomonadaceae family revealed that they produced N-acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs), which suggests that the QS system is widespread throughout this group of bacteria. Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) analysis of crude AHL extracts, using Agrobacterium tumefaciens NTL4 (pZLR4) as biosensor strain, resulted in different profiles, which were not related to the various habitats of the species in question. To confirm AHL production in the Halomonadaceae species, PCR and DNA sequencing approaches were used to study the distribution of the luxI-type synthase gene. Phylogenetic analysis using sequence data revealed that 29 of the species studied contained a LuxI homolog. Phylogenetic analysis showed that sequences from Halomonadaceae species grouped together and were distinct from other members of the Gammaproteobacteria and also from species belonging to the Alphaproteobacteria and Betaproteobacteria. PMID:25371343

  4. Identification of quorum sensing-controlled genes in Burkholderia ambifaria

    PubMed Central

    Chapalain, Annelise; Vial, Ludovic; Laprade, Natacha; Dekimpe, Valérie; Perreault, Jonathan; Déziel, Eric

    2013-01-01

    The Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) comprises strains with a virulence potential toward immunocompromised patients as well as plant growth–promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR). Owing to the link between quorum sensing (QS) and virulence, most studies among Bcc species have been directed toward QS of pathogenic bacteria. We have investigated the QS of B. ambifaria, a PGPR only infrequently recovered from patients. The cepI gene, responsible for the synthesis of the main signaling molecule N-octanoylhomoserine lactone (C8-HSL), was inactivated. Phenotypes of the B. ambifaria cepI mutant we observed, such as increased production of siderophores and decreased proteolytic and antifungal activities, are in agreement with those of other Bcc cepI mutants. The cepI mutant was then used as background strain for a whole-genome transposon-insertion mutagenesis strategy, allowing the identification of 20 QS-controlled genes, corresponding to 17 loci. The main functions identified are linked to antifungal and antimicrobial properties, as we have identified QS-controlled genes implicated in the production of pyrrolnitrin, burkholdines (occidiofungin-like molecules), and enacyloxins. This study provides insights in the QS-regulated functions of a PGPR, which could lead to beneficial potential biotechnological applications. PMID:23382083

  5. Mycofabricated biosilver nanoparticles interrupt Pseudomonas aeruginosa quorum sensing systems

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Braj R.; Singh, Brahma N.; Singh, Akanksha; Khan, Wasi; Naqvi, Alim H.; Singh, Harikesh B.

    2015-01-01

    Quorum sensing (QS) is a chemical communication process that Pseudomonas aeruginosa uses to regulate virulence and biofilm formation. Disabling of QS is an emerging approach for combating its pathogenicity. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have been widely applied as antimicrobial agents against human pathogenic bacteria and fungi, but not for the attenuation of bacterial QS. Here we mycofabricated AgNPs (mfAgNPs) using metabolites of soil fungus Rhizopus arrhizus BRS-07 and tested their effect on QS-regulated virulence and biofilm formation of P. aeruginosa. Transcriptional studies demonstrated that mfAgNPs reduced the levels of LasIR-RhlIR. Treatment of mfAgNPs inhibited biofilm formation, production of several virulence factors (e.g. LasA protease, LasB elastrase, pyocyanin, pyoverdin, pyochelin, rhamnolipid, and alginate) and reduced AHLs production. Further genes quantification analyses revealed that mfAgNPs significantly down-regulated QS-regulated genes, specifically those encoded to the secretion of virulence factors. The results clearly indicated the anti-virulence property of mfAgNPs by inhibiting P. aeruginosa QS signaling. PMID:26347993

  6. Bacterial quorum sensing and nitrogen cycling in rhizosphere soil

    SciTech Connect

    DeAngelis, K.M.; Lindow, S.E.; Firestone, M.K.

    2008-10-01

    Plant photosynthate fuels carbon-limited microbial growth and activity, resulting in increased rhizosphere nitrogen (N)-mineralization. Most soil organic N is macromolecular (chitin, protein, nucleotides); enzymatic depolymerization is likely rate-limiting for plant N accumulation. Analyzing Avena (wild oat) planted in microcosms containing sieved field soil, we observed increased rhizosphere chitinase and protease specific activities, bacterial cell densities, and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) compared to bulk soil. Low-molecular weight DON (<3000 Da) was undetectable in bulk soil but comprised 15% of rhizosphere DON. Extracellular enzyme production in many bacteria requires quorum sensing (QS), cell-density dependent group behavior. Because proteobacteria are considered major rhizosphere colonizers, we assayed the proteobacterial QS signals acyl-homoserine lactones (AHLs), which were significantly increased in the rhizosphere. To investigate the linkage between soil signaling and N cycling, we characterized 533 bacterial isolates from Avena rhizosphere: 24% had chitinase or protease activity and AHL production; disruption of QS in 7 of 8 eight isolates disrupted enzyme activity. Many {alpha}-Proteobacteria were newly found with QS-controlled extracellular enzyme activity. Enhanced specific activities of N-cycling enzymes accompanied by bacterial density-dependent behaviors in rhizosphere soil gives rise to the hypothesis that QS could be a control point in the complex process of rhizosphere N-mineralization.

  7. Genome Sequence Analysis Reveals Evidence of Quorum-Sensing Genes Present in Aeromonas hydrophila strain KOR1, Isolated from a Mangrove Plant (Kandelia obovata).

    PubMed

    Yin, Mengqing; Ma, Zhiping; Cai, Zhonghua; Lin, Guanghui; Zhou, Jin

    2015-01-01

    Aeromonas hydrophila strain KOR1, isolated from mangrove rhizosphere soil, has the ability to produce the quorum-sensing signal molecule. Here, we report the 4.78-Mb genome sequence of strain KOR1, and found its quorum-sensing encoding gene LuxR. The data will be crucial to understanding the quorum-sensing-dependent phenotypes of this bacterium. PMID:26659690

  8. Genome Sequence Analysis Reveals Evidence of Quorum-Sensing Genes Present in Aeromonas hydrophila strain KOR1, Isolated from a Mangrove Plant (Kandelia obovata)

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Mengqing; Ma, Zhiping; Cai, Zhonghua

    2015-01-01

    Aeromonas hydrophila strain KOR1, isolated from mangrove rhizosphere soil, has the ability to produce the quorum-sensing signal molecule. Here, we report the 4.78-Mb genome sequence of strain KOR1, and found its quorum-sensing encoding gene LuxR. The data will be crucial to understanding the quorum-sensing-dependent phenotypes of this bacterium. PMID:26659690

  9. The Role of the QseC Sensor Kinase in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium Quorum Sensing and Swine Colonization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    At least two quorum sensing molecules, autoinducer-3 (AI-3) and norepinephrine (NE), are present in the gastrointestinal tract and activate the E. coli QseBC quorum sensing system. AI-3 is produced by enteric bacteria, whereas NE is produced by the animal host, often during stress. Both 10% pre-co...

  10. Organ-Level Quorum Sensing Directs Regeneration in Hair Stem Cell Populations

    E-print Network

    Chuong, Cheng-Ming

    Article Organ-Level Quorum Sensing Directs Regeneration in Hair Stem Cell Populations Graphical Sensing Directs Regeneration in Hair Stem Cell Populations Chih-Chiang Chen,1,2,3 Lei Wang,4 Maksim V molecular diffusion and cell mobility achieves a long signaling length scale d Stem cell social behavior can

  11. N-Acyl Homoserine Lactone-Mediated Quorum Sensing with Special Reference to Use of Quorum Quenching Bacteria in Membrane Biofouling Control

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Diby

    2014-01-01

    Membrane biofouling remains a severe problem to be addressed in wastewater treatment systems affecting reactor performance and economy. The finding that many wastewater bacteria rely on N-acyl homoserine lactone-mediated quorum sensing to synchronize their activities essential for biofilm formations; the quenching bacterial quorum sensing suggests a promising approach for control of membrane biofouling. A variety of quorum quenching compounds of both synthetic and natural origin have been identified and found effective in inhibition of membrane biofouling with much less environmental impact than traditional antimicrobials. Work over the past few years has demonstrated that enzymatic quorum quenching mechanisms are widely conserved in several prokaryotic organisms and can be utilized as a potent tool for inhibition of membrane biofouling. Such naturally occurring bacterial quorum quenching mechanisms also play important roles in microbe-microbe interactions and have been used to develop sustainable nonantibiotic antifouling strategies. Advances in membrane fabrication and bacteria entrapment techniques have allowed the implication of such quorum quenching bacteria for better design of membrane bioreactor with improved antibiofouling efficacies. In view of this, the present paper is designed to review and discuss the recent developments in control of membrane biofouling with special emphasis on quorum quenching bacteria that are applied in membrane bioreactors. PMID:25147787

  12. Influence of polyphenols on bacterial biofilm formation and quorum-sensing.

    PubMed

    Huber, Birgit; Eberl, Leo; Feucht, Walter; Polster, Jürgen

    2003-01-01

    Many bacteria utilize sophisticated regulatory systems to ensure that some functions are only expressed when a particular population density has been reached. The term 'quorum-sensing' has been coined to describe this form of density-dependent gene regulation which relies on the production and perception of small signal molecules by bacterial cells. As in many pathogenic bacteria the production of virulence factors is quorum-sensing regulated, it has been suggested that this form of gene regulation allows the bacteria to remain invisible to the defence systems of the host until the population is sufficiently large to successfully establish the infection. Here we present first evidence that polyphenolic compounds can interfere with bacterial quorum-sensing. Since polyphenols are widely distributed in the plant kingdom, they may be important for promoting plant fitness. PMID:14713169

  13. Quorum Sensing Controls Swarming Motility of Burkholderia glumae through Regulation of Rhamnolipids

    PubMed Central

    Nickzad, Arvin; Lépine, François; Déziel, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Burkholderia glumae is a plant pathogenic bacterium that uses an acyl-homoserine lactone-mediated quorum sensing system to regulate protein secretion, oxalate production and major virulence determinants such as toxoflavin and flagella. B. glumae also releases surface-active rhamnolipids. In Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Burkholderia thailandensis, rhamnolipids, along with flagella, are required for the social behavior called swarming motility. In the present study, we demonstrate that quorum sensing positively regulates the production of rhamnolipids in B. glumae and that rhamnolipids are necessary for swarming motility also in this species. We show that a rhlA- mutant, which is unable to produce rhamnolipids, loses its ability to swarm, and that this can be complemented by providing exogenous rhamnolipids. Impaired rhamnolipid production in a quorum sensing-deficient B. glumae mutant is the main factor responsible for its defective swarming motility behaviour. PMID:26047513

  14. The Effect of Magnetic Fields on the Quorum Sensing-Regulated Luminescence of Vibrio fischeri

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barron, Addie; Hagen, Steve; Son, Minjun

    2015-03-01

    Quorum sensing (QS) is a mechanism by which bacteria communicate through the secretion and detection of extracellular signaling molecules known as autoinducers. This research focuses on the quorum sensing regulated bioluminescence of Vibrio fischeri, a marine bacterium that lives in symbiosis with certain fish and squid species. Previous studies of V. harveyi, a close relative of V. fisheri, indicate that a strong magnetic field has a positive effect on V.harveyi bioluminescence. However the effect of magnetic fields on quorum sensing-regulated luminescence is in general poorly understood. We grew V. fischeri in solid and liquid growth media, subject to strong static magnetic fields, and imaged the bioluminescence over a period of forty-eight hours. Luminescence patterns were analyzed in both the spatial and time dimensions. We find no indication that a magnetic field influences Vibrio fischeri luminescence either positively or negatively. This research was funded by the Grant Number NSF DMR-1156737.

  15. Synthesis, quorum sensing inhibition and docking studies of 1,5-dihydropyrrol-2-ones.

    PubMed

    Goh, Wai-Kean; Gardner, Christopher R; Chandra Sekhar, Kondapalli V G; Biswas, Nripendra N; Nizalapur, Shashidhar; Rice, Scott A; Willcox, Mark; Black, David StC; Kumar, Naresh

    2015-12-01

    Gram-negative bacteria such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli use N-acylated l-homoserine lactones (AHLs) as autoinducers (AIs) for quorum sensing (QS), a chief regulatory and cell-to-cell communication system. QS is responsible for social adaptation, virulence factor production, biofilm production and antibiotic resistance in bacteria. Fimbrolides, a class of halogenated furanones isolated from the red marine alga Delisea pulchra, have been shown to exhibit promising QS inhibitory activity against various Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacterial strains. In this work, various lactam analogues of fimbrolides viz., 1,5-dihydropyrrol-2-ones, were designed and synthesized via an efficient lactamization protocol. All the synthesized analogues were tested for QS inhibition against the E. coli AHL-monitor strain JB357 gfp (ASV). Compound 17a emerged as the most potent compound, followed by 9c, with AIC40 values (the ratio of synthetic inhibitor to natural AHL signaling molecule that is required to lower GFP expression to 40%) of 1.95 and 19.00, respectively. Finally, the potential binding interactions between the synthesized molecules and the LasR QS receptor were studied by molecular docking. Our results indicate that 1,5-dihydropyrrol-2-ones have the ability to serve as potential leads for the further development of novel QS inhibitors as antimicrobial therapeutics. PMID:26547407

  16. Quercetin Influences Quorum Sensing in Food Borne Bacteria: In-Vitro and In-Silico Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Gopu, Venkadesaperumal; Meena, Chetan Kumar; Shetty, Prathapkumar Halady

    2015-01-01

    Quorum sensing (QS) plays a vital role in regulating the virulence factor of many food borne pathogens, which causes severe public health risk. Therefore, interrupting the QS signaling pathway may be an attractive strategy to combat microbial infections. In the current study QS inhibitory activity of quercetin and its anti-biofilm property was assessed against food-borne pathogens using a bio-sensor strain. In addition in-silico techniques like molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulation studies were applied to screen the quercetin’s potentiality as QS inhibitor. Quercetin (80?g/ml) showed the significant reduction in QS-dependent phenotypes like violacein production, biofilm formation, exopolysaccharide (EPS) production, motility and alginate production in a concentration-dependent manner. Synergistic activity of conventional antibiotics with quercetin enhanced the susceptibility of all tested pathogens. Furthermore, Molecular docking analysis revealed that quercetin binds more rigidly with LasR receptor protein than the signaling compound with docking score of -9.17Kcal/mol. Molecular dynamics simulation predicted that QS inhibitory activity of quercetin occurs through the conformational changes between the receptor and quercetin complex. Above findings suggest that quercetin can act as a competitive inhibitor for signaling compound towards LasR receptor pathway and can serve as a novel QS-based antibacterial/anti-biofilm drug to manage food-borne pathogens. PMID:26248208

  17. Targeting quorum sensing and competence stimulation for antimicrobial chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Shepherd, Nicholas E; Harrison, Rosemary S; Fairlie, David P

    2012-10-01

    Bacterial resistance to antibiotics is now a serious problem, with traditional classes of antibiotics having gradually become ineffective. New drugs are therefore needed to target and inhibit novel pathways that affect the growth of bacteria. An important feature in the survival of bacteria is that they coordinate their efforts together as a colony via secreted auto-inducing molecules. Competence stimulating peptides (CSPs) are among the quorum sensing pheromones involved in this coordination. These peptides activate a two-component system in gram-negative bacteria, binding to and activating a histidine kinase receptor called ComD, which phosphorylates a response regulator called ComE, leading to gene expression and induction of competence. Competent bacteria are able to take up exogenous DNA and incorporate it into their own genome. By this mechanism bacteria are able to acquire and share genes encoding antibiotic resistance. Despite having been studied for over 30 years, this pathway has only recently begun to be explored as a novel approach to modulating bacterial growth. Antagonists of ComD might block the signaling cascade that leads to competence, while overstimulation of ComD might also reduce bacterial growth. One possible approach to inhibiting ComD is to examine peptide sequences of CSPs that activate ComD and attempt to constrain them to bioactive conformations, likely to have higher affinity due to pre-organization for recognition by the receptor. Thus, small molecules that mimic an alpha helical epitope of CSPs, the putative ComD binding domain, have been shown here to inhibit growth of bacteria such as S. pneumoniae. Such alpha helix mimetics may be valuable clues to antibacterial chemotherapeutic agents that utilize a new mechanism to control bacterial growth. PMID:22664089

  18. A model for signal transduction during quorum sensing in Vibrio harveyi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banik, Suman K.; Fenley, Andrew T.; Kulkarni, Rahul V.

    2009-12-01

    We present a framework for analyzing luminescence regulation during quorum sensing in the bioluminescent bacterium Vibrio harveyi. Using a simplified model for signal transduction in the quorum sensing pathway, we identify key dimensionless parameters that control the system's response. These parameters are estimated using experimental data on luminescence phenotypes for different mutant strains. The corresponding model predictions are consistent with results from other experiments which did not serve as input for determining model parameters. Furthermore, the proposed framework leads to novel testable predictions for luminescence phenotypes and for responses of the network to different perturbations.

  19. Assessment of Anti-Quorum Sensing Activity for Some Ornamental and Medicinal Plants Native to Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Zaki, Ahmed A.; Shaaban, Mona I.; Hashish, Nadia E.; Amer, Mohamed A.; Lahloub, Mohamed-Farid

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of some plant extracts on the bacterial communication system, expressed as quorum sensing (QS) activity. Quorum sensing has a directly proportional effect on the amount of certain compounds, such as pigments, produced by the bacteria. Alcohol extracts of 23 ornamental and medicinal plants were tested for anti-QS activity by the Chromobacterium violaceum assay using the agar cup diffusion method. The screening revealed the anti-QS activity of six plants; namely the leaves of Adhatoda vasica Nees, Bauhinia purpurea L., Lantana camara L., Myoporum laetum G. Forst.; the fruits of Piper longum L.; and the aerial parts of Taraxacum officinale F.H. Wigg. PMID:23641343

  20. Artificially Constructed Quorum-Sensing Circuits Are Used for Subtle Control of Bacterial Population Density

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhaoshou; Wu, Xin; Peng, Jianghai; Hu, Yidan; Fang, Baishan; Huang, Shiyang

    2014-01-01

    Vibrio fischeri is a typical quorum-sensing bacterium for which lux box, luxR, and luxI have been identified as the key elements involved in quorum sensing. To decode the quorum-sensing mechanism, an artificially constructed cell–cell communication system has been built. In brief, the system expresses several programmed cell-death BioBricks and quorum-sensing genes driven by the promoters lux pR and PlacO-1 in Escherichia coli cells. Their transformation and expression was confirmed by gel electrophoresis and sequencing. To evaluate its performance, viable cell numbers at various time periods were investigated. Our results showed that bacteria expressing killer proteins corresponding to ribosome binding site efficiency of 0.07, 0.3, 0.6, or 1.0 successfully sensed each other in a population-dependent manner and communicated with each other to subtly control their population density. This was also validated using a proposed simple mathematical model. PMID:25119347

  1. Artificially constructed quorum-sensing circuits are used for subtle control of bacterial population density.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhaoshou; Wu, Xin; Peng, Jianghai; Hu, Yidan; Fang, Baishan; Huang, Shiyang

    2014-01-01

    Vibrio fischeri is a typical quorum-sensing bacterium for which lux box, luxR, and luxI have been identified as the key elements involved in quorum sensing. To decode the quorum-sensing mechanism, an artificially constructed cell-cell communication system has been built. In brief, the system expresses several programmed cell-death BioBricks and quorum-sensing genes driven by the promoters lux pR and PlacO-1 in Escherichia coli cells. Their transformation and expression was confirmed by gel electrophoresis and sequencing. To evaluate its performance, viable cell numbers at various time periods were investigated. Our results showed that bacteria expressing killer proteins corresponding to ribosome binding site efficiency of 0.07, 0.3, 0.6, or 1.0 successfully sensed each other in a population-dependent manner and communicated with each other to subtly control their population density. This was also validated using a proposed simple mathematical model. PMID:25119347

  2. Novel Glycolipids Synthesized Using Plant Essential Oils and Their Application in Quorum Sensing Inhibition and as Antibiofilm Agents

    PubMed Central

    Prabhune, Asmita

    2014-01-01

    Essential oils (EOs) form an important part of traditional medicine so their anti-microbial and, in the recent past, antiquorum sensing activity has been well studied. However it is likely that due to their hydrophobic nature and reduced solubility in aqueous environments full potential of their activity cannot be realized. hence it is only rational to formulate a process to make these molecules more polar in nature. The present paper reports synthesis of sophorolipids using 12 different essential oils as substrates, thus providing surfactant-like properties to these EOs. The synthesis protocol makes the use of Candida bombicola ATCC 22214 as producer organism. The production process required 7 days of incubation at 28°C and 180?rpm. Preliminary characterization of the synthesized essential oil sophorolipids (EOSLs) was performed using thin layer chromatography (TLC) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Additionally, essential oils that were incapable of mediating quorum sensing inhibition (QSI) on their own became potent quorum sensing inhibitors upon conversion into their corresponding EOSLs. Antibiofilm potential of these EOSLs was also demonstrated using V. cholerae as test organism. Use of essential oils as substrates for glycolipid synthesis has not been attempted previously, and hence this is the first report. PMID:24558341

  3. SigMol: repertoire of quorum sensing signaling molecules in prokaryotes

    PubMed Central

    Rajput, Akanksha; Kaur, Karambir; Kumar, Manoj

    2016-01-01

    Quorum sensing is a widespread phenomenon in prokaryotes that helps them to communicate among themselves and with eukaryotes. It is driven through quorum sensing signaling molecules (QSSMs) in a density dependent manner that assists in numerous biological functions like biofilm formation, virulence factors secretion, swarming motility, bioluminescence, etc. Despite immense implications, dedicated resources of QSSMs are lacking. Therefore, we have developed SigMol (http://bioinfo.imtech.res.in/manojk/sigmol), a specialized repository of these molecules in prokaryotes. SigMol harbors information on QSSMs pertaining to different quorum sensing signaling systems namely acylated homoserine lactones (AHLs), diketopiperazines (DKPs), 4-hydroxy-2-alkylquinolines (HAQs), diffusible signal factors (DSFs), autoinducer-2 (AI-2) and others. Database contains 1382 entries of 182 unique signaling molecules from 215 organisms. It encompasses biological as well as chemical aspects of signaling molecules. Biological information includes genes, preliminary bioassays, identification assays and applications, while chemical detail comprises of IUPAC name, SMILES and structure. We have provided user-friendly browsing and searching facilities for easy data retrieval and comparison. We have gleaned information of diverse QSSMs reported in literature at a single platform ‘SigMol’. This comprehensive resource will assist the scientific community in understanding intraspecies, interspecies or interkingdom networking and further help to unfold different facets of quorum sensing and related therapeutics. PMID:26490957

  4. Measurement of the copy number of the master quorum-sensing regulator of a bacterial cell

    E-print Network

    Ong, N. P.

    and fluctuations in gene expression in other systems. Considerable progress in understanding stochasticity in gene regulation has come from applying in vivo imaging techniques based on fluorescent reporter genes and fusionMeasurement of the copy number of the master quorum-sensing regulator of a bacterial cell Shu

  5. Pseudomonas aeruginosa quorum sensing molecules correlate with clinical status in cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Barr, Helen L; Halliday, Nigel; Cámara, Miguel; Barrett, David A; Williams, Paul; Forrester, Douglas L; Simms, Rebecca; Smyth, Alan R; Honeybourne, David; Whitehouse, Joanna L; Nash, Edward F; Dewar, Jane; Clayton, Andrew; Knox, Alan J; Fogarty, Andrew W

    2015-10-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa produces quorum sensing signal molecules that are potential biomarkers for infection.A prospective study of 60 cystic fibrosis patients with chronic P. aeruginosa, who required intravenous antibiotics for pulmonary exacerbations, was undertaken. Clinical measurements and biological samples were obtained at the start and end of the treatment period. Additional data were available for 29 of these patients when they were clinically stable.Cross-sectionally, quorum sensing signal molecules were detectable in the sputum, plasma and urine of 86%, 75% and 83% patients, respectively. They were positively correlated between the three biofluids. Positive correlations were observed for most quorum sensing signal molecules in sputum, plasma and urine, with quantitative measures of pulmonary P. aeruginosa load at the start of a pulmonary exacerbation. Plasma concentrations of 2-nonyl-4-hydroxy-quinoline (NHQ) were significantly higher at the start of a pulmonary exacerbation compared to clinical stability (p<0.01). Following the administration of systemic antibiotics, plasma 2-heptyl-4-hydroxyquinoline (p=0.02) and NHQ concentrations (p<0.01) decreased significantly.In conclusion, quorum sensing signal molecules are detectable in cystic fibrosis patients with pulmonary P. aeruginosa infection and are positively correlated with quantitative measures of P. aeruginosa. NHQ correlates with clinical status and has potential as a novel biomarker for P. aeruginosa infection. PMID:26022946

  6. MicroBQs: a centralized database for use in studying bacterial biofilms and quorum sensing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biofilm formation in many bacterial species may be negatively or positively regulated by cell-to-cell signaling systems referred to as quorum sensing (QS). To assist in understanding research related to biofilms, QS, and the role of QS in biofilm formation, a comprehensive, centralized database, kn...

  7. Quorum sensing and bacterial cross-talk in biotechnology John C March and William E Bentley

    E-print Network

    Fernando, Chrisantha

    /repressor motifs homologous to the lac operon to the recently discovered interfering RNAs. Further characterisationQuorum sensing and bacterial cross-talk in biotechnology John C March and William E BentleyÃ? Only, College Park, MD, 20742, USA Ã? e-mail: bentley@eng.umd.edu Current Opinion in Biotechnology 2004, 15

  8. Pseudomonas aeruginosa quorum sensing molecules correlate with clinical status in cystic fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Halliday, Nigel; Cámara, Miguel; Barrett, David A.; Williams, Paul; Forrester, Douglas L.; Simms, Rebecca; Smyth, Alan R.; Honeybourne, David; Whitehouse, Joanna L.; Nash, Edward F.; Dewar, Jane; Clayton, Andrew; Knox, Alan J.; Fogarty, Andrew W.

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa produces quorum sensing signal molecules that are potential biomarkers for infection. A prospective study of 60 cystic fibrosis patients with chronic P. aeruginosa, who required intravenous antibiotics for pulmonary exacerbations, was undertaken. Clinical measurements and biological samples were obtained at the start and end of the treatment period. Additional data were available for 29 of these patients when they were clinically stable. Cross-sectionally, quorum sensing signal molecules were detectable in the sputum, plasma and urine of 86%, 75% and 83% patients, respectively. They were positively correlated between the three biofluids. Positive correlations were observed for most quorum sensing signal molecules in sputum, plasma and urine, with quantitative measures of pulmonary P. aeruginosa load at the start of a pulmonary exacerbation. Plasma concentrations of 2-nonyl-4-hydroxy-quinoline (NHQ) were significantly higher at the start of a pulmonary exacerbation compared to clinical stability (p<0.01). Following the administration of systemic antibiotics, plasma 2-heptyl-4-hydroxyquinoline (p=0.02) and NHQ concentrations (p<0.01) decreased significantly. In conclusion, quorum sensing signal molecules are detectable in cystic fibrosis patients with pulmonary P. aeruginosa infection and are positively correlated with quantitative measures of P. aeruginosa. NHQ correlates with clinical status and has potential as a novel biomarker for P. aeruginosa infection. PMID:26022946

  9. SigMol: repertoire of quorum sensing signaling molecules in prokaryotes.

    PubMed

    Rajput, Akanksha; Kaur, Karambir; Kumar, Manoj

    2016-01-01

    Quorum sensing is a widespread phenomenon in prokaryotes that helps them to communicate among themselves and with eukaryotes. It is driven through quorum sensing signaling molecules (QSSMs) in a density dependent manner that assists in numerous biological functions like biofilm formation, virulence factors secretion, swarming motility, bioluminescence, etc. Despite immense implications, dedicated resources of QSSMs are lacking. Therefore, we have developed SigMol (http://bioinfo.imtech.res.in/manojk/sigmol), a specialized repository of these molecules in prokaryotes. SigMol harbors information on QSSMs pertaining to different quorum sensing signaling systems namely acylated homoserine lactones (AHLs), diketopiperazines (DKPs), 4-hydroxy-2-alkylquinolines (HAQs), diffusible signal factors (DSFs), autoinducer-2 (AI-2) and others. Database contains 1382: entries of 182: unique signaling molecules from 215: organisms. It encompasses biological as well as chemical aspects of signaling molecules. Biological information includes genes, preliminary bioassays, identification assays and applications, while chemical detail comprises of IUPAC name, SMILES and structure. We have provided user-friendly browsing and searching facilities for easy data retrieval and comparison. We have gleaned information of diverse QSSMs reported in literature at a single platform 'SigMol'. This comprehensive resource will assist the scientific community in understanding intraspecies, interspecies or interkingdom networking and further help to unfold different facets of quorum sensing and related therapeutics. PMID:26490957

  10. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Interference with the quorum sensing systems in a Vibrio

    E-print Network

    Wood, Thomas K.

    as valuable and indispensable live food organisms in the industrial larvi- culture of many marine fish-feeding organism (Skjermo and Vadstein 1993; Verdonck et al. 1997; Savas et al. 2005), which increases the risk organisms. Challenge tests were performed with 11 V. harveyi strains and different quorum sensing mutants

  11. LuxU connects quorum sensing to biofilm formation in Vibrio fischeri

    E-print Network

    McFall-Ngai, Margaret

    LuxU connects quorum sensing to biofilm formation in Vibrio fischeri Valerie A. Ray and Karen L, USA. Summary Biofilm formation by Vibrio fischeri is a complex process involving multiple regulators integration via two-component regula- tors is the Lux pathway in the marine bioluminescent bacterium Vibrio

  12. A new class of bacterial quorum sensing antagonists: glycomonoterpenols synthesized using linalool and alpha terpineol.

    PubMed

    Mukherji, Ruchira; Prabhune, Asmita

    2015-06-01

    With increasing burden of antibiotic resistant microorganism search for newer drug targets and potent drug molecules is a never ending scenario. Quorum sensing (QS), the phenomenon of bacterial cross-talk, is one such target that has captured the attention of many and has been touted as the future of new age antimicrobials. Quorum sensing has the potential to regulate a plethora of bacterial virulence phenotypes and search of molecules with powerful quorum sensing inhibitory (QSI) capacity are underway. Monoterpene alcohols like linalool and alpha terpineol have been shown to possess antimicrobial and anti-biofilm activity. However in this article we attempt to bring forth a new class of compounds, glycomonoterpenols, derived from monoterpenoids alcohols. These glycomonoterpenols have been synthesized using Candida bombicola ATCC 22214 by feeding the cells with linalool and alpha terpineol respectively as substrates in 10% glucose, production medium. The advantage of these molecules over their parent compound is their additional surfactant like property, increased solubility and enhanced QSI potential. A variety of gram-negative bacteria capable of elaborating quorum sensing mediated phenotypes have been selected and both these glycoterpenoid derivatives have been shown to possess strong anti-QS activity. PMID:25931373

  13. Density-dependent fitness benefits in quorum-sensing bacterial populations

    E-print Network

    West, Stuart

    Density-dependent fitness benefits in quorum-sensing bacterial populations Sophie E. Darcha beneficial at higher cell densities. However, this fundamental assumption has never been tested experimentally. Here, we directly test this by independently manipulating pop- ulation density and the induction

  14. Quorum Sensing Determines the Choice of Antiphage Defense Strategy in Vibrio anguillarum

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Demeng; Svenningsen, Sine Lo

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Selection for phage resistance is a key driver of bacterial diversity and evolution, and phage-host interactions may therefore have strong influence on the genetic and functional dynamics of bacterial communities. In this study, we found that an important, but so far largely overlooked, determinant of the outcome of phage-bacterial encounters in the fish pathogen Vibrio anguillarum is bacterial cell-cell communication, known as quorum sensing. Specifically, V. anguillarum PF430-3 cells locked in the low-cell-density state (?vanT mutant) express high levels of the phage receptor OmpK, resulting in a high susceptibility to phage KVP40, but achieve protection from infection by enhanced biofilm formation. By contrast, cells locked in the high-cell-density state (?van? mutant) are almost completely unsusceptible due to quorum-sensing-mediated downregulation of OmpK expression. The phenotypes of the two quorum-sensing mutant strains are accurately reflected in the behavior of wild-type V. anguillarum, which (i) displays increased OmpK expression in aggregated cells compared to free-living variants in the same culture, (ii) displays a clear inverse correlation between ompK mRNA levels and the concentration of N-acylhomoserine lactone quorum-sensing signals in the culture medium, and (iii) survives mainly by one of these two defense mechanisms, rather than by genetic mutation to phage resistance. Taken together, our results demonstrate that V. anguillarum employs quorum-sensing information to choose between two complementary antiphage defense strategies. Further, the prevalence of nonmutational defense mechanisms in strain PF430-3 suggests highly flexible adaptations to KVP40 phage infection pressure, possibly allowing the long-term coexistence of phage and host. PMID:26081633

  15. How ants use quorum sensing to estimate the average quality of a fluctuating resource

    PubMed Central

    Franks, Nigel R.; Stuttard, Jonathan P.; Doran, Carolina; Esposito, Julian C.; Master, Maximillian C.; Sendova-Franks, Ana B.; Masuda, Naoki; Britton, Nicholas F.

    2015-01-01

    We show that one of the advantages of quorum-based decision-making is an ability to estimate the average value of a resource that fluctuates in quality. By using a quorum threshold, namely the number of ants within a new nest site, to determine their choice, the ants are in effect voting with their feet. Our results show that such quorum sensing is compatible with homogenization theory such that the average value of a new nest site is determined by ants accumulating within it when the nest site is of high quality and leaving when it is poor. Hence, the ants can estimate a surprisingly accurate running average quality of a complex resource through the use of extraordinarily simple procedures. PMID:26153535

  16. Inhibition of quorum sensing, biofilm, and spoilage potential in Shewanella baltica by green tea polyphenols.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Junli; Huang, Xuzheng; Zhang, Fang; Feng, Lifang; Li, Jianrong

    2015-12-01

    We investigated the quorum sensing (QS) system of Shewanella baltica and the anti-QS related activities of green tea polyphenols (TP) against spoilage bacteria in refrigerated large yellow croaker. Autoinducer-2 (AI-2) and the diketopiperazines (DKPs) cyclo-(L-Pro-L-Leu) and cyclo-(L-Pro-L-Phe) were detected in the culture extract of S. baltica XH2, however, no N-acylhomoserine lactones (AHLs) activity was observed. Green TP at sub-inhibitory concentrations interfered with AI-2 and DKPs activities of S. baltica without inhibiting cell growth and promoted degradation of AI-2. The green TP treatment inhibited biofilm development, exopolysaccharide production and swimming motility of S. baltica in a concentration- dependent manner. In addition, green TP decreased extracellular protease activities and trimethylamine production in S. baltica. A transcriptional analysis showed that green TP repressed the luxS and torA genes in S. baltica, which agreed with the observed reductions in QS activity and the spoilage phenotype. Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG)-enriched in green TP significantly inhibited AI-2 activity of S. baltica. These findings strongly suggest that green TP could be developed as a new QS inhibitor for seafood preservation to enhance shelf life. PMID:26626353

  17. Tea polyphenols as an antivirulence compound Disrupt Quorum-Sensing Regulated Pathogenicity of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Yin, Honging; Deng, Yifeng; Wang, Huafu; Liu, Wugao; Zhuang, Xiyi; Chu, Weihua

    2015-01-01

    Green tea, a water extract of non-fermented leaves of Camellia sinensis L., is one of the nonalcoholic beverages in China. It is becoming increasingly popular worldwide, because of its refreshing, mild stimulant and medicinal properties. Here we examined the quorum sensing inhibitory potentials of tea polyphenols (TP) as antivirulence compounds both in vitro and in vivo. Biosensor assay data suggested minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of TP against selected pathogens were 6.25?~?12.5?mg/mL. At sub-MIC, TP can specifically inhibit the production of violacein in Chromobacterium violaceum 12472 with almost 98% reduction at 3.125?mg/mL without affecting its growth rate. Moreover, TP exhibited inhibitory effects on virulence phenotypes regulated by QS in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The total proteolytic activity, elastase, swarming motility and biofilm formation were reduced in a concentration-dependent manner. In vivo, TP treatment resulted in the reduction of P. aeruginosa pathogenicity in Caenorhabditis elegans. When its concentration was 3.125?mg/mL, the survival rate reached 63.3%. In the excision wound infection model, the wound contraction percentage in treatment groups was relatively increased and the colony-forming units (CFU) in the wound area were significantly decreased. These results suggested that TP could be developed as a novel non-antibiotic QS inhibitor without killing the bacteria but as an antivirulence compound to control bacterial infection. PMID:26548447

  18. Tea polyphenols as an antivirulence compound Disrupt Quorum-Sensing Regulated Pathogenicity of Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Honging; Deng, Yifeng; Wang, Huafu; Liu, Wugao; Zhuang, Xiyi; Chu, Weihua

    2015-01-01

    Green tea, a water extract of non-fermented leaves of Camellia sinensis L., is one of the nonalcoholic beverages in China. It is becoming increasingly popular worldwide, because of its refreshing, mild stimulant and medicinal properties. Here we examined the quorum sensing inhibitory potentials of tea polyphenols (TP) as antivirulence compounds both in vitro and in vivo. Biosensor assay data suggested minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of TP against selected pathogens were 6.25?~?12.5?mg/mL. At sub-MIC, TP can specifically inhibit the production of violacein in Chromobacterium violaceum 12472 with almost 98% reduction at 3.125?mg/mL without affecting its growth rate. Moreover, TP exhibited inhibitory effects on virulence phenotypes regulated by QS in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The total proteolytic activity, elastase, swarming motility and biofilm formation were reduced in a concentration-dependent manner. In vivo, TP treatment resulted in the reduction of P. aeruginosa pathogenicity in Caenorhabditis elegans. When its concentration was 3.125?mg/mL, the survival rate reached 63.3%. In the excision wound infection model, the wound contraction percentage in treatment groups was relatively increased and the colony-forming units (CFU) in the wound area were significantly decreased. These results suggested that TP could be developed as a novel non-antibiotic QS inhibitor without killing the bacteria but as an antivirulence compound to control bacterial infection. PMID:26548447

  19. Ajoene, a sulfur-rich molecule from garlic, inhibits genes controlled by quorum sensing.

    PubMed

    Jakobsen, Tim Holm; van Gennip, Maria; Phipps, Richard Kerry; Shanmugham, Meenakshi Sundaram; Christensen, Louise Dahl; Alhede, Morten; Skindersoe, Mette Eline; Rasmussen, Thomas Bovbjerg; Friedrich, Karlheinz; Uthe, Friedrich; Jensen, Peter Østrup; Moser, Claus; Nielsen, Kristian Fog; Eberl, Leo; Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld; Tanner, David; Høiby, Niels; Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Givskov, Michael

    2012-05-01

    In relation to emerging multiresistant bacteria, development of antimicrobials and new treatment strategies of infections should be expected to become a high-priority research area. Quorum sensing (QS), a communication system used by pathogenic bacteria like Pseudomonas aeruginosa to synchronize the expression of specific genes involved in pathogenicity, is a possible drug target. Previous in vitro and in vivo studies revealed a significant inhibition of P. aeruginosa QS by crude garlic extract. By bioassay-guided fractionation of garlic extracts, we determined the primary QS inhibitor present in garlic to be ajoene, a sulfur-containing compound with potential as an antipathogenic drug. By comprehensive in vitro and in vivo studies, the effect of synthetic ajoene toward P. aeruginosa was elucidated. DNA microarray studies of ajoene-treated P. aeruginosa cultures revealed a concentration-dependent attenuation of a few but central QS-controlled virulence factors, including rhamnolipid. Furthermore, ajoene treatment of in vitro biofilms demonstrated a clear synergistic, antimicrobial effect with tobramycin on biofilm killing and a cease in lytic necrosis of polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Furthermore, in a mouse model of pulmonary infection, a significant clearing of infecting P. aeruginosa was detected in ajoene-treated mice compared to a nontreated control group. This study adds to the list of examples demonstrating the potential of QS-interfering compounds in the treatment of bacterial infections. PMID:22314537

  20. Bridging adaptive estimation and control with modern machine learning : a quorum sensing inspired algorithm for dynamic clustering

    E-print Network

    Tan, Feng, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2012-01-01

    Quorum sensing is a decentralized biological process, by which a community of bacterial cells with no global awareness can coordinate their functional behaviors based only on local decision and cell-medium interaction. ...

  1. Ligand-Induced Asymmetry in Histidine Sensor Kinase Complex Regulates Quorum Sensing

    SciTech Connect

    Neiditch,M.; Federle, M.; Pompeani, A.; Kelly, R.; Swem, D.; Jeffrey, P.; Bassler, B.; Hughson, F.

    2006-01-01

    Bacteria sense their environment using receptors of the histidine sensor kinase family, but how kinase activity is regulated by ligand binding is not well understood. Autoinducer-2 (AI-2), a secreted signaling molecule originally identified in studies of the marine bacterium Vibrio harveyi, regulates quorum-sensing responses and allows communication between different bacterial species. AI-2 signal transduction in V. harveyi requires the integral membrane receptor LuxPQ, comprised of periplasmic binding protein (LuxP) and histidine sensor kinase (LuxQ) subunits. Combined X-ray crystallographic and functional studies show that AI-2 binding causes a major conformational change within LuxP, which in turn stabilizes a quaternary arrangement in which two LuxPQ monomers are asymmetrically associated. We propose that formation of this asymmetric quaternary structure is responsible for repressing the kinase activity of both LuxQ subunits and triggering the transition of V. harveyi into quorum-sensing mode.

  2. Dynamical quorum-sensing in oscillators coupled through an external medium

    PubMed Central

    Schwab, David J.; Baetica, Ania; Mehta, Pankaj

    2012-01-01

    Many biological and physical systems exhibit population-density dependent transitions to synchronized oscillations in a process often termed “dynamical quorum sensing”. Synchronization frequently arises through chemical communication via signaling molecules distributed through an external medium. We study a simple theoretical model for dynamical quorum sensing: a heterogenous population of limit-cycle oscillators diffusively coupled through a common medium. We show that this model exhibits a rich phase diagram with four qualitatively distinct physical mechanisms that can lead to a loss of coherent population-level oscillations, including a novel mechanism arising from effective time-delays introduced by the external medium. We derive a single pair of analytic equations that allow us to calculate phase boundaries as a function of population density and show that the model reproduces many of the qualitative features of recent experiments on BZ catalytic particles as well as synthetically engineered bacteria. PMID:23087494

  3. Inhibiting N-acyl-homoserine lactone synthesis and quenching Pseudomonas quinolone quorum sensing to attenuate virulence

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Kok-Gan; Liu, Yi-Chia; Chang, Chien-Yi

    2015-01-01

    Bacteria sense their own population size, tune the expression of responding genes, and behave accordingly to environmental stimuli by secreting signaling molecules. This phenomenon is termed as quorum sensing (QS). By exogenously manipulating the signal transduction bacterial population behaviors could be controlled, which may be done through quorum quenching (QQ). QS related regulatory networks have been proven their involvement in regulating many virulence determinants in pathogenic bacteria in the course of infections. Interfering with QS signaling system could be a novel strategy against bacterial infections and therefore requires more understanding of their fundamental mechanisms. Here we review the development of studies specifically on the inhibition of production of N-acyl-homoserine lactone (AHL), a common proteobacterial QS signal. The opportunistic pathogen, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, equips the alkylquinolone (AQ)-mediated QS which also plays crucial roles in its pathogenicity. The studies in QQ targeting on AQ are also discussed. PMID:26539190

  4. Quorum Sensing Activity of Aeromonas Caviae Strain YL12, A Bacterium Isolated from Compost

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Yan-Lue; Ee, Robson; Yin, Wai-Fong; Chan, Kok-Gan

    2014-01-01

    Quorum sensing is a well-studied cell-to-cell communication method that involves a cell-density dependent regulation of genes expression mediated by signalling molecules. In this study, a bacterium isolated from a plant material compost pile was found to possess quorum sensing activity based on bioassay screening. Isolate YL12 was identified using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry and molecular typing using rpoD gene which identified the isolate as Aeromonas caviae. High resolution tandem mass spectrometry was subsequently employed to identify the N-acyl homoserine lactone profile of Aeromonas caviae YL12 and confirmed that this isolate produced two short chain N-acyl homoserine lactones, namely C4-HSL and C6, and the production was observed to be cell density-dependent. Using the thin layer chromatography (TLC) bioassay, both AHLs were found to activate C. violaceum CV026, whereas only C6-HSL was revealed to induce bioluminescence expression of E. coli [pSB401]. The data presented in this study will be the leading steps in understanding the role of quorum sensing in Aeromonas caviae strain YL12. PMID:24759107

  5. From deep-sea volcanoes to human pathogens: a conserved quorum-sensing signal in Epsilonproteobacteria.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Rodríguez, Ileana; Bolognini, Marie; Ricci, Jessica; Bini, Elisabetta; Vetriani, Costantino

    2015-05-01

    Chemosynthetic Epsilonproteobacteria from deep-sea hydrothermal vents colonize substrates exposed to steep thermal and redox gradients. In many bacteria, substrate attachment, biofilm formation, expression of virulence genes and host colonization are partly controlled via a cell density-dependent mechanism involving signal molecules, known as quorum sensing. Within the Epsilonproteobacteria, quorum sensing has been investigated only in human pathogens that use the luxS/autoinducer-2 (AI-2) mechanism to control the expression of some of these functions. In this study we showed that luxS is conserved in Epsilonproteobacteria and that pathogenic and mesophilic members of this class inherited this gene from a thermophilic ancestor. Furthermore, we provide evidence that the luxS gene is expressed--and a quorum-sensing signal is produced--during growth of Sulfurovum lithotrophicum and Caminibacter mediatlanticus, two Epsilonproteobacteria from deep-sea hydrothermal vents. Finally, we detected luxS transcripts in Epsilonproteobacteria-dominated biofilm communities collected from deep-sea hydrothermal vents. Taken together, our findings indicate that the epsiloproteobacterial lineage of the LuxS enzyme originated in high-temperature geothermal environments and that, in vent Epsilonproteobacteria, luxS expression is linked to the production of AI-2 signals, which are likely produced in situ at deep-sea vents. We conclude that the luxS gene is part of the ancestral epsilonproteobacterial genome and represents an evolutionary link that connects thermophiles to human pathogens. PMID:25397946

  6. Garlic blocks quorum sensing and attenuates the virulence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Harjai, Kusum; Kumar, Ravi; Singh, Sukhvinder

    2010-03-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen that colonizes urinary catheters, forms biofilms, and is responsible for causing persistent and recurrent nosocomial catheter-associated urinary tract infections (UTIs). These infections show increased morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients. Quorum sensing in P. aeruginosa plays a key role in biofilm formation, virulence factor production and antimicrobial resistance. Because of emerging antimicrobial resistance in P. aeruginosa, there is a need to find an alternate nonantibiotic agent for the control of infections caused by this organism. In the present study, garlic was evaluated as a prophylactic agent in vivo in a mouse UTI model. Oral treatment with garlic significantly lowered renal bacterial counts and protected mouse kidney from tissue destruction. In vitro data showed decreased elaboration of virulence factors and reduced production of quorum-sensing signals by P. aeruginosa in the presence of fresh garlic extract. The results suggest that decreased virulence of P. aeruginosa in garlic-fed mice can be attributed to the quorum-sensing inhibitory property of garlic. This might have contributed towards reduced production of virulence factors, as seen in vitro. PMID:19878318

  7. Antibacterial and Anti-Quorum Sensing Molecular Composition Derived from Quercus cortex (Oak bark) Extract.

    PubMed

    Deryabin, Dmitry G; Tolmacheva, Anna A

    2015-01-01

    Quercus cortex (Oak bark) has been used in European folk medicine since medieval times for treatment of diarrhea, stomatitis, pharyngitis and skin inflammations. Its antimicrobial activity is a well-known therapeutic property of oak bark, and its novel anti-quorum sensing (QS) ability has also been described recently. In this study, we examined the bioactive compounds of Quercus cortex extract and compared their direct antibacterial and regulatory anti-QS effects against Chromobacterium violaceum CV026 in a biotest. Evaluation of the original Quercus cortex extract showed weak antibacterial and prominent anti-QS activities that were retained and completely restored when the samples were dried and re-hydrated. The one-step liquid chromatography result indicated that the anti-QS activity might be determined by hydrophobic compounds; however, the subsequent reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography led to dissipation and loss of the activity. The gas chromatography-mass spectrometry gave excellent resolution between a majority of the compounds. Based on this result, 10 of the 35 identified small molecules were selected for further screening. The subsequent investigation indicated several compounds determined both the antibacterial and anti-QS activities of the Quercus cortex extract. Direct antibacterial activity was shown for 1,2,3-benzenetriol and 4-propyl-1,3-benzenediol, while sub-inhibitory concentrations of these compounds led to anti-QS effects. Five compounds: 4-(3-hydroxy-1-propenyl)-2-methoxy-phenol; 3,4,5-trimethoxyphenol; 4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde; 7-hydroxy-6-methoxy-2H-1-benzopyran-2-one and 2H-1-benzopyran-2-one were characterized as QS inhibitors independent of any effect on bacterial growth. Biologically relevant concentrations of each single component showed weak activity only while reconstruction of the small molecule composition derived from the Quercus cortex extract provided comparable complementary activity against C. violaceum CV026 in the biotest as the crude extract. PMID:26393551

  8. New Life for an Old Drug: the Anthelmintic Drug Niclosamide Inhibits Pseudomonas aeruginosa Quorum Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Imperi, Francesco; Massai, Francesco; Ramachandran Pillai, Cejoice; Longo, Francesca; Zennaro, Elisabetta; Rampioni, Giordano; Visca, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    The need for novel antibacterial strategies and the awareness of the importance of quorum sensing (QS) in bacterial infections have stimulated research aimed at identifying QS inhibitors (QSIs). However, clinical application of QSIs identified so far is still distant, likely due to their unsuitability for use in humans. A promising way to overcome this problem is searching for anti-QS side activity among the thousands of drugs approved for clinical use in the treatment of different diseases. Here, we applied this strategy to the search for QSIs, by screening a library of FDA-approved compounds for their ability to inhibit the QS response in the Gram-negative pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. We found that the anthelmintic drug niclosamide strongly inhibits the P. aeruginosa QS response and production of acyl-homoserine lactone QS signal molecules. Microarray analysis showed that niclosamide affects the transcription of about 250 genes, with a high degree of target specificity toward the QS-dependent regulon. Phenotypic assays demonstrated that niclosamide suppresses surface motility and production of the secreted virulence factors elastase, pyocyanin, and rhamnolipids, and it reduces biofilm formation. In accordance with the strong antivirulence activity disclosed in vitro, niclosamide prevented P. aeruginosa pathogenicity in an insect model of acute infection. Besides the finding that an FDA-approved drug has a promising antivirulence activity against one of the most antibiotic-resistant bacterial pathogens, this work provides a proof of concept that a lateral anti-QS activity can be detected among drugs already used in humans, validating a new approach to identify QSIs that could easily move into clinical applications. PMID:23254430

  9. Natural Guided Genome Engineering Reveals Transcriptional Regulators Controlling Quorum-Sensing Signal Degradation

    PubMed Central

    Mothe, Nicolas; Velours, Christophe; Legrand, Pierre; Moréra, Solange; Faure, Denis

    2015-01-01

    Quorum-quenching (QQ) are natural or engineered processes disrupting the quorum-sensing (QS) signalling which controls virulence and persistence (e.g. biofilm) in numerous bacteria. QQ involves different enzymes including lactonases, amidases, oxidases and reductases which degrade the QS molecules such as N-acylhomoserine lactones (NAHL). Rhodococcus erythropolis known to efficiently degrade NAHL is proposed as a biocontrol agent and a reservoir of QQ-enzymes for biotechnology. In R. erythropolis, regulation of QQ-enzymes remains unclear. In this work, we performed genome engineering on R. erythropolis, which is recalcitrant to reverse genetics, in order to investigate regulation of QQ-enzymes at a molecular and structural level with the aim to improve the QQ activity. Deep-sequencing of the R. erythropolis enhanced variants allowed identification of a punctual mutation in a key-transcriptional factor QsdR (Quorum sensing degradation Regulation) which regulates the sole QQ-lactonase QsdA identified so far. Using biophysical and structural studies on QsdR, we demonstrate that QQ activity can be improved by modifying the regulation of QQ-enzymes degrading QS signal. This modification requiring the change of only one amino-acid in a transcriptional factor leads to an enhanced R. erythropolis in which the QS-signal degradation pathway is strongly activated. PMID:26554837

  10. Modulation of Host Biology by Pseudomonas aeruginosa Quorum Sensing Signal Molecules: Messengers or Traitors

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yi-Chia; Chan, Kok-Gan; Chang, Chien-Yi

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial cells sense their population density and respond accordingly by producing various signal molecules to the surrounding environments thereby trigger a plethora of gene expression. This regulatory pathway is termed quorum sensing (QS). Plenty of bacterial virulence factors are controlled by QS or QS-mediated regulatory systems and QS signal molecules (QSSMs) play crucial roles in bacterial signaling transduction. Moreover, bacterial QSSMs were shown to interfere with host cell signaling and modulate host immune responses. QSSMs not only regulate the expression of bacterial virulence factors but themselves act in the modulation of host biology that can be potential therapeutic targets. PMID:26617576

  11. The role of quorum sensing in Escherichia coli (ETEC) virulence factors.

    PubMed

    Sturbelle, Régis Tuchtenhagen; Avila, Luciana Farias da Costa de; Roos, Talita Bandeira; Borchardt, Jéssica Lopes; de Cássia Dos Santos da Conceição, Rita; Dellagostin, Odir Antonio; Leite, Fábio Pereira Leivas

    2015-11-18

    Quorum sensing (QS) is a signaling system among bacteria mediated by auto-inducer substances (AI). Whenever the concentration of these molecules reaches a threshold corresponding to a high cell density or quorum, the whole population starts a coordinated expression of specific genes. Studies have shown that epinephrine is also responsible for activating specific bacterial genes. This work aimed to investigate the role of conditioned medium (containing AI), epinephrine and their association on growth, motility, F4 fimbriae and heat-labile toxin (LT) expression on enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC, E68). A significant increase in motility, F4 and LT expression, was observed in the ETEC culture supplemented with conditioned medium and epinephrine. These findings suggest that ETEC uses some components of conditioned medium (e.g., AI molecules), host molecules (epinephrine), and their association to modulate the expression of important virulence genes. PMID:26386492

  12. Organ-level quorum sensing directs regeneration in hair stem cell populations.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chih-Chiang; Wang, Lei; Plikus, Maksim V; Jiang, Ting Xin; Murray, Philip J; Ramos, Raul; Guerrero-Juarez, Christian F; Hughes, Michael W; Lee, Oscar K; Shi, Songtao; Widelitz, Randall B; Lander, Arthur D; Chuong, Cheng Ming

    2015-04-01

    Coordinated organ behavior is crucial for an effective response to environmental stimuli. By studying regeneration of hair follicles in response to patterned hair plucking, we demonstrate that organ-level quorum sensing allows coordinated responses to skin injury. Plucking hair at different densities leads to a regeneration of up to five times more neighboring, unplucked resting hairs, indicating activation of a collective decision-making process. Through data modeling, the range of the quorum signal was estimated to be on the order of 1 mm, greater than expected for a diffusible molecular cue. Molecular and genetic analysis uncovered a two-step mechanism, where release of CCL2 from injured hairs leads to recruitment of TNF-?-secreting macrophages, which accumulate and signal to both plucked and unplucked follicles. By coupling immune response with regeneration, this mechanism allows skin to respond predictively to distress, disregarding mild injury, while meeting stronger injury with full-scale cooperative activation of stem cells. PMID:25860610

  13. Expression and Quorum Sensing Regulation of Type III Secretion System Genes of Vibrio harveyi during Infection of Gnotobiotic Brine Shrimp

    PubMed Central

    Ruwandeepika, H. A. Darshanee; Karunasagar, Indrani; Bossier, Peter; Defoirdt, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Type III secretion systems enable pathogens to inject their virulence factors directly into the cytoplasm of the host cells. The type III secretion system of Vibrio harveyi, a major pathogen of aquatic organisms and a model species in quorum sensing studies, is repressed by the quorum sensing master regulator LuxR. In this study, we found that during infection of gnotobiotic brine shrimp larvae, the expression levels of three type III secretion operons in V. harveyi increased within the first 12h after challenge and decreased again thereafter. The in vivo expression levels were highest in a mutant with a quorum sensing system that is locked in low cell density configuration (minimal LuxR levels) and lowest in a mutant with a quorum sensing system that is locked in the high cell density configuration (maximal LuxR levels), which is consistent with repression of type III secretion by LuxR. Remarkably, in vivo expression levels of the type III secretion system genes were much (> 1000 fold) higher than the in vitro expression levels, indicating that (currently unknown) host factors significantly induce the type III secretion system. Given the fact that type III secretion is energy-consuming, repression by the quorum sensing master regulators might be a mechanism to save energy under conditions where it does not provide an advantage to the cells. PMID:26636765

  14. RpoN Regulates Virulence Factors of Pseudomonas aeruginosa via Modulating the PqsR Quorum Sensing Regulator

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Zhao; Liu, Yang; Chen, Yicai; Yam, Joey Kuok Hoong; Chew, Su Chuen; Chua, Song Lin; Wang, Ke; Givskov, Michael; Yang, Liang

    2015-01-01

    The alternative sigma factor RpoN regulates many cell functions, such as motility, quorum sensing, and virulence in the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa). P. aeruginosa often evolves rpoN-negative variants during the chronic infection in cystic fibrosis patients. It is unclear how RpoN interacts with other regulatory mechanisms to control virulence of P. aeruginosa. In this study, we show that RpoN modulates the function of PqsR, a quorum sensing receptor regulating production of virulence factors including the phenazine pyocyanin. The ?rpoN mutant is able to synthesize 4-quinolone signal molecule HHQ but unable to activate PqsR and Pseudomonas quinolone signal (pqs) quorum sensing. The ?rpoN mutant produces minimal level of pyocyanin and is unable to produce the anti-staphylococcal agents. Providing pqsR in trans in the ?rpoN mutant restores its pqs quorum sensing and virulence factor production to the wild-type level. Our study provides evidence that RpoN has a regulatory effect on P. aeruginosa virulence through modulating the function of the PqsR quorum sensing regulator. PMID:26633362

  15. RpoN Regulates Virulence Factors of Pseudomonas aeruginosa via Modulating the PqsR Quorum Sensing Regulator.

    PubMed

    Cai, Zhao; Liu, Yang; Chen, Yicai; Yam, Joey Kuok Hoong; Chew, Su Chuen; Chua, Song Lin; Wang, Ke; Givskov, Michael; Yang, Liang

    2015-01-01

    The alternative sigma factor RpoN regulates many cell functions, such as motility, quorum sensing, and virulence in the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa). P. aeruginosa often evolves rpoN-negative variants during the chronic infection in cystic fibrosis patients. It is unclear how RpoN interacts with other regulatory mechanisms to control virulence of P. aeruginosa. In this study, we show that RpoN modulates the function of PqsR, a quorum sensing receptor regulating production of virulence factors including the phenazine pyocyanin. The ?rpoN mutant is able to synthesize 4-quinolone signal molecule HHQ but unable to activate PqsR and Pseudomonas quinolone signal (pqs) quorum sensing. The ?rpoN mutant produces minimal level of pyocyanin and is unable to produce the anti-staphylococcal agents. Providing pqsR in trans in the ?rpoN mutant restores its pqs quorum sensing and virulence factor production to the wild-type level. Our study provides evidence that RpoN has a regulatory effect on P. aeruginosa virulence through modulating the function of the PqsR quorum sensing regulator. PMID:26633362

  16. Quorum Sensing Inhibition by Asparagopsis taxiformis, a Marine Macro Alga: Separation of the Compound that Interrupts Bacterial Communication

    PubMed Central

    Jha, Bhavanath; Kavita, Kumari; Westphal, Jenny; Hartmann, Anton; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    The majority of the marine algal species, though completing their life cycle in seawater, are rarely susceptible to fouling, making them an important source of quorum sensing (QS) inhibitory substances. The separation and characterization of QS inhibitors are crucial for any potential application. Thirty marine macroalgae were tested for QS inhibition activity by using Chromobacterium violaceum CV026 as the reporter strain, and among them, Asparagopsis taxiformis showed antibacterial, as well as antiquorum, sensing activities. Cinnamaldehyde (75 mM) and methanol were used as positive and negative controls, respectively. The antiquorum sensing activity of A. taxiformis was further confirmed using the sensor strain, Serratia liquefaciens MG44, having green fluorescent protein (gfp). Methanolic extract of the alga was fractionated by solid phase extraction (SPE), and each fraction was tested for QS inhibition. Two types of activities were observed—zone of clearance (antibacterial activity) and zone of inhibition with or without finger-like projections (QS inhibition). Out of five SPE cartridges, Bond Elut PH showed clear separation of these two fractions. The Ion Cyclotron Resonance Fourier Transformation Mass Spectrometer (ICR-FT/MS) analysis of the fractions further supported the bioassay results. The presence of strong QS inhibitory compound in A. taxiformis indicates its potential use in antifouling preparations. PMID:23344114

  17. Streptomyces-derived quorum-sensing systems engineered for adjustable transgene expression in mammalian cells and mice

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Wilfried; Schoenmakers, Ronald; Spielmann, Manuela; El-Baba, Marie Daoud; Folcher, Marc; Keller, Bettina; Weber, Cornelia C.; Link, Nils; van de Wetering, Petra; Heinzen, Christoph; Jolivet, Benoît; Séquin, Urs; Aubel, Dominique; Thompson, Charles J.; Fussenegger, Martin

    2003-01-01

    Prokaryotic transcriptional regulatory elements have been adopted for controlled expression of cloned genes in mammalian cells and animals, the cornerstone for gene-function correlations, drug discovery, biopharmaceutical manufacturing as well as advanced gene therapy and tissue engineering. Many prokaryotes have evolved specific molecular communication systems known as quorum-sensing to coordinate population-wide responses to physiological and/or physicochemical signals. A generic bacterial quorum-sensing system is based on a diffusible signal molecule that prevents binding of a repressor to corresponding operator sites thus resulting in derepression of a target regulon. In Streptomyces, a family of butyrolactones and their corresponding receptor proteins, serve as quorum-sensing systems that control morphological development and antibiotic biosynthesis. Fusion of the Streptomyces coelicolor quorum-sensing receptor (ScbR) to a eukaryotic transactivation domain (VP16) created a mammalian transactivator (SCA) which binds and adjusts transcription from chimeric promoters containing an SCA-specific operator module (PSPA). Expression of erythropoietin or the human secreted alkaline phosphatase (SEAP) by this quorum-sensor-regulated gene expression system (QuoRex) could be fine-tuned by non-toxic butyrolactones in a variety of mammalian cells including human primary and mouse embryonic stem cells. Following intraperitoneal implantation of microencapsulated Chinese hamster ovary cells transgenic for QuoRex-controlled SEAP expression into mice, the serum levels of this model glycoprotein could be adjusted to desired concentrations using different butyrolactone dosing regimes. PMID:12853648

  18. Quorum Sensing Signal Synthesis May Represent a Selective Advantage Independent of Its Role in Regulation of Bioluminescence in Vibrio fischeri

    PubMed Central

    Chong, Grace; Kimyon, Önder; Manefield, Mike

    2013-01-01

    The evolution of biological signalling systems and apparently altruistic or cooperative traits in diverse organisms has required selection against the subversive tendencies of self-interested biological entities. The bacterial signalling and response system known as quorum sensing or Acylated Homoserine Lactone (AHL) mediated gene expression is thought to have evolved through kin selection. In this in vitro study on the model quorum sensing bioluminescent marine symbiont Vibrio fischeri, competition and long-term sub culturing experiments suggest that selection for AHL synthesis (encoded by the AHL synthase gene luxI) is independent of the quorum sensing regulated phenotype (bioluminescence encoded by luxCDABE). Whilst results support the hypothesis that signal response (AHL binding and transcriptional activation encoded by the luxR gene) is maintained through indirect fitness benefits (kin selection), signal synthesis is maintained in the V. fischeri genome over evolutionary time through direct fitness benefits at the individual level from an unknown function. PMID:23825662

  19. Distribution of Quorum-Sensing Genes in the Burkholderia cepacia Complex

    PubMed Central

    Lutter, E.; Lewenza, S.; Dennis, J. J.; Visser, M. B.; Sokol, P. A.

    2001-01-01

    The distribution of quorum-sensing genes among strains from seven genomovars of the Burkholderia cepacia complex was examined by PCR. cepR and cepI were amplified from B. cepacia genomovars I and III, B. stabilis, and B. vietnamiensis. cepR was also amplified from B. multivorans and B. cepacia genomovar VI. bviIR were amplified from B. vietnamiensis. All genomovars produced N-octanoyl-l-homoserine lactone and N-hexanoyl-l-homoserine lactone. B. vietnamiensis and B. cepacia genomovar VII produced additional N-acyl-l-homoserine lactones. PMID:11402012

  20. Engineering quorum sensing signaling of Pseudomonas for enhanced wastewater treatment and electricity harvest: A review.

    PubMed

    Yong, Yang-Chun; Wu, Xiang-Yang; Sun, Jian-Zhong; Cao, Ying-Xiu; Song, Hao

    2015-12-01

    Cell-cell communication that enables synchronized population behaviors in microbial communities dictates various biological processes. It is of great interest to unveil the underlying mechanisms of fine-tuning cell-cell communication to achieve environmental and energy applications. Pseudomonas is a ubiquitous microbe in environments that had wide applications in bioremediation and bioenergy generation. The quorum sensing (QS, a generic cell-cell communication mechanism) systems of Pseudomonas underlie the aromatics biodegradation, denitrification and electricity harvest. Here, we reviewed the recent progresses of the genetic strategies in engineering QS circuits to improve efficiency of wastewater treatment and the performance of microbial fuel cells. PMID:25455678

  1. N-acylhomoserine lactones antagonize virulence gene expression and quorum sensing in Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Qazi, Saara; Middleton, Barry; Muharram, Siti Hanna; Cockayne, Alan; Hill, Philip; O'Shea, Paul; Chhabra, Siri Ram; Cámara, Miguel; Williams, Paul

    2006-02-01

    Many gram-negative bacteria employ N-acylhomoserine lactone (AHL)-mediated quorum sensing to control virulence. To determine whether gram-positive bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus respond to AHLs, we used a growth-dependent lux reporter fusion. Exposure of S. aureus to different AHLs revealed that 3-oxo-substituted AHLs with C10 to C14 acyl chains inhibited light output and growth in a concentration-dependent manner, while short-chain AHLs had no effect. N-(3-Oxododecanoyl)-L-homoserine lactone (3-oxo-C12-HSL) inhibited the production of exotoxins and cell wall fibronectin-binding proteins but enhanced protein A expression. Since these processes are reciprocally regulated via the S. aureus agr quorum-sensing system, which in turn, is regulated via sar, we examined the effect of AHLs on sarA and agr. At sub-growth-inhibitory concentrations of 3-oxo-C12-HSL, both sarA expression and agr expression were inhibited, indicating that the action of 3-oxo-C12-HSL is mediated at least in part through antagonism of quorum sensing in S. aureus. Spent culture supernatants from Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which produces both 3-oxo-C12-HSL and N-butanoyl-homoserine lactone (C4-HSL), also inhibited agr expression, although C4-HSL itself was inactive in this assay. Since quorum sensing in S. aureus depends on the activities of membrane-associated proteins, such as AgrB, AgrC, and AgrD, we investigated whether AHLs perturbed S. aureus membrane functionality by determining their influence on the membrane dipole potential. From the binding curves obtained, a dissociation constant of 7 muM was obtained for 3-oxo-C12-HSL, indicating the presence of a specific saturable receptor, whereas no binding was observed for C4-HSL. These data demonstrate that long-chain 3-oxo-substituted AHLs, such as 3-oxo-C12-HSL, are capable of interacting with the S. aureus cytoplasmic membrane in a saturable, specific manner and at sub-growth-inhibitory concentrations, down-regulating exotoxin production and both sarA and agr expression. PMID:16428734

  2. Oregano essential oil-pectin edible films as anti-quorum sensing and food antimicrobial agents

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez, Maria V.; Ortega-Ramirez, Luis A.; Gutierrez-Pacheco, M. Melissa; Bernal-Mercado, A. Thalia; Rodriguez-Garcia, Isela; Gonzalez-Aguilar, Gustavo A.; Ponce, Alejandra; Moreira, Maria del R.; Roura, Sara I.; Ayala-Zavala, J. Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Edible films can be used as carriers for antimicrobial compounds to assure food safety and quality; in addition, pathogenesis of food bacteria is related to a cell to cell communication mechanism called quorum sensing (QS). Oregano essential oil (OEO) has proved to be useful as food antimicrobial; however, its food applications can be compromised by the volatile character of its active constituents. Therefore, formulation of edible films containing OEO can be an alternative to improve its food usages. QS inhibitory activity of OEO and pectin-OEO films was evaluated using Chromobacterium violaceum as bacterial model. Additionally, antibacterial activity was tested against Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Choleraesuis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Listeria monocytogenes. OEO was effective to inhibit bacterial growth at MIC of 0.24 mg/mL for all tested bacteria and MBC of 0.24, 0.24, 0.48, and 0.24 mg/mL against E. coli O157:H7, S. Choleraesuis, S. aureus, and L. monocytogenes, respectively. Pectin-films incorporated with 36.1 and 25.9 mg/mL of OEO showed inhibition diameters of 16.3 and 15.2 mm for E. coli O157:H7; 18.1 and 24.2 mm for S. Choleraesuis; 20.8 and 20.3 mm for S. aureus; 21.3 and 19.3 mm for L. monocytogenes, respectively. Pectin-OEO film (15.7 mg/mL) was effective against E. coli O157:H7 (9.3 mm), S. aureus (9.7 mm), and L. monocytogenes (9.2 mm), but not for S. Choleraesuis. All concentrations of OEO (0.0156, 0.0312, 0.0625 and 0.125 mg/mL) and pectin-OEO films (15.7, 25.9 and 36.1 mg/mL) showed a significant anti-QS activity expressed as inhibition of violacein production by C. violaceum. Additionally, the application of pectin-OEO films was effective reducing total coliforms, yeast, and molds of shrimp and cucumber slices stored at 4°C during 15 d. These results demonstrated the potential of pectin films enriched with OEO as food related microorganisms and QS inhibitors. PMID:25566215

  3. Turnover of quorum sensing signal molecules modulates cross-kingdom signalling.

    PubMed

    Tait, Karen; Williamson, Holly; Atkinson, Steve; Williams, Paul; Cámara, Miguel; Joint, Ian

    2009-07-01

    N-acylhomoserine lactone (AHL) quorum-sensing molecules modulate the swimming behaviour of zoospores of the macroalga Ulva to facilitate the location of bacterial biofilms. Here we show that the intertidal surfaces colonized by Ulva are dominated by Alphaproteobacteria, particularly the Rhodobacteraceae family, and the Bacteroidetes family Flavobacteriaceae, and that this diverse assemblage both produces and degrades AHLs. N-acylhomoserine lactones could also be extracted from the surfaces of pebbles recovered from intertidal rock-pools. Bacteria representative of this assemblage were isolated and tested for the production and degradation of AHLs, and for their ability to modulate zoospore settlement at different biofilm densities. Of particular interest was a Shewanella sp. This strain produced three major AHLs (OC4, OC10 and OC12) in the late exponential phase, but the longer-chain AHLs were rapidly degraded in the stationary phase. Degradation occurred via both lactonase and amidase activity. A close relationship was found between AHL synthesis and Ulva zoospore settlement. The Shewanella isolate also interfered with AHL production by a Sulfitobacter isolate and its ability to enhance zoospore settlement in a polymicrobial biofilm. This influence on the attachment of Ulva zoospores suggests that AHL-degrading strains can affect bacterial community behaviour by interfering with quorum sensing between neighbouring bacteria. More importantly, these interactions may exert wider ecological effects across different kingdoms. PMID:19508552

  4. Sustained Release of a Novel Anti-Quorum-Sensing Agent against Oral Fungal Biofilms

    PubMed Central

    Feldman, Mark; Shenderovich, Julia; Al-Quntar, Abed Al Aziz; Friedman, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Thiazolidinedione-8 (S-8) has recently been identified as a potential anti-quorum-sensing/antibiofilm agent against bacteria and fungi. Based on these results, we investigated the possibility of incorporating S-8 in a sustained-release membrane (SRM) to increase its pharmaceutical potential against Candida albicans biofilm. We demonstrated that SRM containing S-8 inhibits fungal biofilm formation in a time-dependent manner for 72 h, due to prolonged release of S-8. Moreover, the SRM effectively delivered the agent in its active form to locations outside the membrane reservoir. In addition, eradication of mature biofilm by the SRM containing S-8 was also significant. Of note, S-8-containing SRM affected the characteristics of mature C. albicans biofilm, such as thickness, exopolysaccharide (EPS) production, and morphogenesis of fungal cells. The concept of using an antibiofilm agent with no antifungal activity incorporated into a sustained-release delivery system is new in medicine and dentistry. This concept of an SRM containing a quorum-sensing quencher with an antibiofilm effect could pave the way for combating oral fungal infectious diseases. PMID:25645835

  5. Quorum sensing and biofilm formation investigated using laser-trapped bacterial arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, Vernita; Butler, John; Smalyukh, Ivan; Parsek, Matthew; Wong, Gerard

    2008-03-01

    Studies of individual, free-swimming (planktonic) bacteria have yielded much information about their genetic and phenotypic characteristics and about ``quorum sensing,'' the autoinducing process by which bacteria detect high concentrations of other bacteria. However, in most environments the majority of bacteria are not in the planktonic form but are rather in biofilms, which are highly-structured, dynamic communities of multiple bacteria that adhere to a surface and to each other using an extracellular polysaccharide matrix. Bacteria in biofilms are phenotypically very different from their genetically-identical planktonic counterparts. Among other characteristics, they are much more antibiotic-resistant and virulent. Such biofilms form persistent infections on medical implants and in the lungs of cystic fibrosis patients, where Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms are the leading cause of lung damage and, ultimately, death. To understand the importance of different extracellular materials, motility mechanisms, and quorum sensing for biofilm formation and stability, we use single-gene knockout mutants and an infrared laser trap to create a bacterial aggregate that serves as a model biofilm and allows us to measure the importance of these factors as a function of trapping time, surface, and nutritional environment.

  6. Anti-quorum sensing activity of essential oils from Colombian plants.

    PubMed

    Jaramillo-Colorado, Beatriz; Olivero-Verbel, Jesus; Stashenko, Elena E; Wagner-Döbler, Irene; Kunze, Brigitte

    2012-01-01

    Essential oils from Colombian plants were characterised by GC-MS, and assayed for anti-quorum sensing activity in bacteria sensor strains. Two major chemotypes were found for Lippia alba, the limonene-carvone and the citral (geranial-neral). For other species, the main components included ?-pinene (Ocotea sp.), ?-pinene (Swinglea glutinosa), cineol (Elettaria cardamomun), ?-zingiberene (Zingiber officinale) and pulegone (Minthostachys mollis). Several essential oils presented promising inhibitory properties for the short chain AHL quorum sensing (QS) system, in Escherichia coli containing the biosensor plasmid pJBA132, in particular Lippia alba. Moderate activity as anti-QS using the same plasmid, were also found for selected constituents of essential oils studied here, such as citral, carvone and ?-pinene, although solely at the highest tested concentration (250?µg?mL(-1)). Only citral presented some activity for the long chain AHL QS system, in Pseudomonas putida containing the plasmid pRK-C12. In short, essential oils from Colombian flora have promising properties as QS modulators. PMID:21936639

  7. Quorum-Sensing Regulation of the Production of Blp Bacteriocins in Streptococcus thermophilus? †

    PubMed Central

    Fontaine, Laetitia; Boutry, Céline; Guédon, Eric; Guillot, Alain; Ibrahim, Mariam; Grossiord, Benoît; Hols, Pascal

    2007-01-01

    The blp gene cluster identified in the genome sequences of Streptococcus thermophilus (blpSt) LMG18311, CNRZ1066, and LMD-9 displays all the characteristics of a class II bacteriocin locus. In the present study, we showed that the blpSt locus is only fully functional in strain LMD-9 and regulates the production of antimicrobial peptides that inhibit strains LMG18311 and CNRZ1066. The blpSt cluster of LMD-9 contains 23 genes that are transcriptionally organized in six operons: blpABCSt (peptide transporter genes and pheromone gene); blpRHSt (two-component regulatory system genes); blpDSt-orf1, blpUSt-orf3, and blpE-FSt (bacteriocin precursors and immunity genes); and blpG-XSt (unknown function). All the operons, except the regulatory unit blpRHSt, were shown to be coregulated at the transcriptional level by a quorum-sensing mechanism involving the mature S. thermophilus pheromone BlpC* (BlpC*St), which was extracellularly detected as two active forms (30 and 19 amino acids). These operons are differentially transcribed depending on growth phase and pheromone concentration. They all contain a motif with two imperfect direct repeats in their mapped promoter regions that could serve as binding sites of the response regulator BlpRSt. Through the construction of deletion mutants, the blpSt locus of strain LMD-9 was shown to encode all the essential functions associated with bacteriocin production, quorum-sensing regulation, and immunity. PMID:17693498

  8. Regulation of Yersina pestis Virulence by AI-2 Mediated Quorum Sensing

    SciTech Connect

    Segelke, B; Hok, S; Lao, V; Corzett, M; Garcia, E

    2010-03-29

    The proposed research was motivated by an interest in understanding Y. pestis virulence mechanisms and bacteria cell-cell communication. It is expected that a greater understanding of virulence mechanisms will ultimately lead to biothreat countermeasures and novel therapeutics. Y. pestis is the etiological agent of plague, the most devastating disease in human history. Y. pestis infection has a high mortality rate and a short incubation before mortality. There is no widely available and effective vaccine for Y. pestis and multi-drug resistant strains are emerging. Y. pestis is a recognized biothreat agent based on the wide distribution of the bacteria in research laboratories around the world and on the knowledge that methods exist to produce and aerosolize large amounts of bacteria. We hypothesized that cell-cell communication via signaling molecules, or quorum sensing, by Y. pestis is important for the regulation of virulence factor gene expression during host invasion, though a causative link had never been established. Quorum sensing is a mode of intercellular communication which enables orchestration of gene expression for many bacteria as a function of population density and available evidence suggests there may be a link between quorum sensing and regulation of Y. pesits virulence. Several pathogenic bacteria have been shown to regulate expression of virulence factor genes, including genes encoding type III secretion, via quorum sensing. The Y. pestis genome encodes several cell-cell signaling pathways and the interaction of at least three of these are thought to be involved in one or more modes of host invasion. Furthermore, Y. pestis gene expression array studies carried out at LLNL have established a correlation between expression of known virulence factors and genes involved in processing of the AI-2 quorum sensing signal. This was a basic research project that was intended to provide new insights into bacterial intercellular communication and how it is used to regulate virulence in Y. pestis. It is known that many bacteria use intercellular signaling molecules to orchestrate gene expression and cellular function. A fair amount is known about production and uptake of signaling molecules, but very little is known about how intercellular signaling regulates other pathways. Although several studies demonstrate that intercellular signaling plays a role in regulating virulence in other pathogens, the link between signaling and regulation of virulence has not been established. Very little work had been done directly with Y. pestis intercellular signaling apart from the work carried out at LLNL. The research we proposed was intended to both establish a causative link between AI-2 intercellular signaling and regulation of virulence in Y. pestis and elucidate the fate of the AI-2 signaling molecule after it is taken up and processed by Y. pestis. Elucidating the fate of AI-2 was expected to lead directly to the understanding of how AI-2 signal processing regulates other pathways as well as provide new insights in this direction.

  9. Effect of a BlpC-based quorum-sensing induction peptide on bacteriocin production in Streptococcus thermophiles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bacteriocin synthesis in Streptococcus thermophilus is controlled by a complex blp locus. High levels of bacteriocin are produced only if the quorum-sensing regulatory mechanism is activated by the 30mer induction peptide (QSIP) which is embedded in the BlpC protein product of the blpC component. T...

  10. Pandoraea sp. Strain E26: Discovery of Its Quorum-Sensing Properties via Whole-Genome Sequence Analysis.

    PubMed

    Chan, Kok-Gan; Yin, Wai-Fong; Tee, Kok Keng; Chang, Chien-Yi; Priya, Kumutha

    2015-01-01

    We report the draft genome sequence of Pandoraea sp. strain E26 isolated from a former landfill site, sequenced by the Illumina MiSeq platform. This genome sequence will be useful to further understand the quorum-sensing system of this isolate. PMID:26021935

  11. Integration of Metabolic and Quorum Sensing Signals Governing the Decision to Cooperate in a Bacterial Social Trait

    PubMed Central

    Boyle, Kerry E.; Monaco, Hilary; van Ditmarsch, Dave; Deforet, Maxime; Xavier, Joao B.

    2015-01-01

    Many unicellular organisms live in multicellular communities that rely on cooperation between cells. However, cooperative traits are vulnerable to exploitation by non-cooperators (cheaters). We expand our understanding of the molecular mechanisms that allow multicellular systems to remain robust in the face of cheating by dissecting the dynamic regulation of cooperative rhamnolipids required for swarming in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. We combine mathematical modeling and experiments to quantitatively characterize the integration of metabolic and population density signals (quorum sensing) governing expression of the rhamnolipid synthesis operon rhlAB. The combined computational/experimental analysis reveals that when nutrients are abundant, rhlAB promoter activity increases gradually in a density dependent way. When growth slows down due to nutrient limitation, rhlAB promoter activity can stop abruptly, decrease gradually or even increase depending on whether the growth-limiting nutrient is the carbon source, nitrogen source or iron. Starvation by specific nutrients drives growth on intracellular nutrient pools as well as the qualitative rhlAB promoter response, which itself is modulated by quorum sensing. Our quantitative analysis suggests a supply-driven activation that integrates metabolic prudence with quorum sensing in a non-digital manner and allows P. aeruginosa cells to invest in cooperation only when the population size is large enough (quorum sensing) and individual cells have enough metabolic resources to do so (metabolic prudence). Thus, the quantitative description of rhlAB regulatory dynamics brings a greater understating to the regulation required to make swarming cooperation stable. PMID:26102206

  12. Targeting quorum sensing by designing azoline derivatives to inhibit the N-hexanoyl homoserine lactone-receptor CviR: Synthesis as well as biological and theoretical evaluations.

    PubMed

    Bucio-Cano, Alejandro; Reyes-Arellano, Alicia; Correa-Basurto, José; Bello, Martiniano; Torres-Jaramillo, Jenifer; Salgado-Zamora, Héctor; Curiel-Quesada, Everardo; Peralta-Cruz, Javier; Avila-Sorrosa, Alcives

    2015-12-15

    To counteract bacterial resistance, we investigated the interruption of quorum sensing mediated by non-classical bioisosteres of the N-hexanoyl homoserine lactone with an azoline core. For this purpose, a set of selected 2-substituted azolines was synthesized, establishing the basis for a new protocol to synthesize 2-amino imidazolines. The synthesized compounds were evaluated as inhibitors of violacein production in Chromobacterium violaceum. Theoretical studies on bioisostere-protein interactions were performed using CviR. The results show that some azolines decreased violacein production, suggesting an antiquorum sensing profile against Gram-negative bacteria. Docking and molecular dynamic simulations together with binding free energy calculations revealed the exact binding and inhibitory profiles. These theoretical results show relationship with the in vitro activity of the azoline series. PMID:26654469

  13. Complete genome sequence of Rhodococcus erythropolis BG43 (DSM 46869), a degrader of Pseudomonas aeruginosa quorum sensing signal molecules.

    PubMed

    Rückert, Christian; Birmes, Franziska S; Müller, Christine; Niewerth, Heiko; Winkler, Anika; Fetzner, Susanne; Kalinowski, Jörn

    2015-10-10

    Rhodococcus erythropolis BG43 was isolated from soil and characterized as a degrader of the quorum sensing signal molecules 2-heptyl-3-hydroxy-4(1H)-quinolone (the Pseudomonas quinolone signal, PQS) and 2-heptyl-4(1H)-quinolone, produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The complete genome of R. erythropolis BG43 consists of a circular chromosome and three plasmids, one of them circular and two linear ones. In total, 6158 protein-coding regions were identified. With this genome sequence, the genetic basis of its quorum-quenching ability and possible biotechnological applications can be explored further. PMID:26210289

  14. n-Alkylboronic acid inhibitors reveal determinants of ligand specificity in the quorum-quenching and siderophore biosynthetic enzyme PvdQ.

    PubMed

    Clevenger, Kenneth D; Wu, Rui; Liu, Dali; Fast, Walter

    2014-10-28

    The enzyme PvdQ (E.C. 3.5.1.97) from Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an N-terminal nucleophile hydrolase that catalyzes the removal of an N-myristyl substituent from a biosynthetic precursor of the iron-chelating siderophore pyoverdine. Inhibitors of pyoverdine biosynthesis are potential antibiotics since iron is essential for growth and scarce in most infections. PvdQ also catalyzes hydrolytic amide bond cleavage of selected N-acyl-l-homoserine lactone quorum-sensing signals used by some Gram-negative pathogens to coordinate the transcription of virulence factors. The resulting quorum-quenching activity of PvdQ has potential applications in antivirulence therapies. To inform both inhibitor design and enzyme engineering efforts, a series of n-alkylboronic acid inhibitors of PvdQ was characterized to reveal determinants of ligand selectivity. A simple homologation series results in compounds with Ki values that span from 4.7 mM to 190 pM, with a dependence of ?Gbind values on chain length of -1.0 kcal/mol/CH2. X-ray crystal structures are determined for the PvdQ complexes with 1-ethyl-, 1-butyl-, 1-hexyl-, and 1-octylboronic acids at 1.6, 1.8, 2.0, and 2.1 Å resolution, respectively. The 1-hexyl- and 1-octylboronic acids form tetrahedral adducts with the active-site N-terminal Ser217 in the ?-subunit of PvdQ, and the n-alkyl substituents are bound in the acyl-group binding site. The 1-ethyl- and 1-butylboronic acids also form adducts with Ser217 but instead form trigonal planar adducts and extend their n-alkyl substituents into an alternative binding site. These results are interpreted to propose a ligand discrimination model for PvdQ that informs the development of PvdQ-related tools and therapeutics. PMID:25290020

  15. Exposure to Static Magnetic Field Stimulates Quorum Sensing Circuit in Luminescent Vibrio Strains of the Harveyi Clade

    PubMed Central

    Talà, Adelfia; Delle Side, Domenico; Buccolieri, Giovanni; Tredici, Salvatore Maurizio; Velardi, Luciano; Paladini, Fabio; De Stefano, Mario; Nassisi, Vincenzo; Alifano, Pietro

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the evidence of electron-dense magnetic inclusions with polyhedral shape in the cytoplasm of Harveyi clade Vibrio strain PS1, a bioluminescent bacterium living in symbiosis with marine organisms, led us to investigate the behavior of this bacterium under exposure to static magnetic fields ranging between 20 and 2000 Gauss. When compared to sham-exposed, the light emission of magnetic field-exposed bacteria growing on solid medium at 18°C ±0.1°C was increased up to two-fold as a function of dose and growth phase. Stimulation of bioluminescence by magnetic field was more pronounced during the post-exponential growth and stationary phase, and was lost when bacteria were grown in the presence of the iron chelator deferoxamine, which caused disassembly of the magnetic inclusions suggesting their involvement in magnetic response. As in luminescent Vibrio spp. bioluminescence is regulated by quorum sensing, possible effects of magnetic field exposure on quorum sensing were investigated. Measurement of mRNA levels by reverse transcriptase real time-PCR demonstrated that luxR regulatory gene and luxCDABE operon coding for luciferase and fatty acid reductase complex were significantly up-regulated in magnetic field-exposed bacteria. In contrast, genes coding for a type III secretion system, whose expression was negatively affected by LuxR, were down-regulated. Up-regulation of luxR paralleled with down-regulation of small RNAs that mediate destabilization of luxR mRNA in quorum sensing signaling pathways. The results of experiments with the well-studied Vibrio campbellii strain BB120 (originally classified as Vibrio harveyi) and derivative mutants unable to synthesize autoinducers suggest that the effects of magnetic fields on quorum sensing may be mediated by AI-2, the interspecies quorum sensing signal molecule. PMID:24960170

  16. Disruption of epithelial barrier by quorum-sensing N-3-(oxododecanoyl)-homoserine lactone is mediated by matrix metalloproteinases.

    PubMed

    Eum, Sung Yong; Jaraki, Dima; Bertrand, Luc; András, Ibolya E; Toborek, Michal

    2014-06-01

    The intestinal epithelium forms a selective barrier maintained by tight junctions (TJs) and separating the luminal environment from the submucosal tissues. N-acylhomoserine lactone (AHL) quorum-sensing molecules produced by gram-negative bacteria in the gut can influence homeostasis of the host intestinal epithelium. In the present study, we evaluated the regulatory mechanisms affecting the impact of two representative long- and short-chain AHLs, N-3-(oxododecanoyl)-homoserine lactone (C12-HSL) and N-butyryl homoserine lactone (C4-HSL), on barrier function of human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells. Treatment with C12-HSL, but not with C4-HSL, perturbed Caco-2 barrier function; the effect was associated with decreased levels of the TJ proteins occludin and tricellulin and their delocalization from the TJs. C12-HSL also induced matrix metalloprotease (MMP)-2 and MMP-3 activation via lipid raft- and protease-activated receptor (PAR)-dependent signaling. Pretreatment with lipid raft disruptors, PAR antagonists, or MMP inhibitors restored the C12-HSL-induced loss of the TJ proteins and increased permeability of Caco-2 cell monolayers. These results indicate that PAR/lipid raft-dependent MMP-2 and -3 activation followed by degradation of occludin and tricellulin are involved in C12-HSL-induced alterations of epithelial paracellular barrier functions. PMID:24742991

  17. Using Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering to Analyze the Interactions of Protein Receptors with Bacterial Quorum Sensing Modulators

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Many members of the LuxR family of quorum sensing (QS) transcriptional activators, including LasR of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, are believed to require appropriate acyl-homoserine lactone (acyl-HSL) ligands to fold into an active conformation. The failure to purify ligand-free LuxR homologues in nonaggregated form at the high concentrations required for their structural characterization has limited the understanding of the mechanisms by which QS receptors are activated. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) is a vibrational spectroscopy technique that can be applied to study proteins at extremely low concentrations in their active state. The high sensitivity of SERS has allowed us to detect molecular interactions between the ligand-binding domain of LasR (LasRLBD) as a soluble apoprotein and modulators of P. aeruginosa QS. We found that QS activators and inhibitors produce differential SERS fingerprints in LasRLBD, and in combination with molecular docking analysis provide insight into the relevant interaction mechanism. This study reveals signal-specific structural changes in LasR upon ligand binding, thereby confirming the applicability of SERS to analyze ligand-induced conformational changes in proteins. PMID:25927541

  18. Novel Reporter for Identification of Interference with Acyl Homoserine Lactone and Autoinducer-2 Quorum Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Weiland-Bräuer, Nancy; Pinnow, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    Two reporter strains were established to identify novel biomolecules interfering with bacterial communication (quorum sensing [QS]). The basic design of these Escherichia coli-based systems comprises a gene encoding a lethal protein fused to promoters induced in the presence of QS signal molecules. Consequently, these E. coli strains are unable to grow in the presence of the respective QS signal molecules unless a nontoxic QS-interfering compound is present. The first reporter strain designed to detect autoinducer-2 (AI-2)-interfering activities (AI2-QQ.1) contained the E. coli ccdB lethal gene under the control of the E. coli lsrA promoter. The second reporter strain (AI1-QQ.1) contained the Vibrio fischeri luxI promoter fused to the ccdB gene to detect interference with acyl-homoserine lactones. Bacteria isolated from the surfaces of several marine eukarya were screened for quorum-quenching (QQ) activities using the established reporter systems AI1-QQ.1 and AI2-QQ.1. Out of 34 isolates, two interfered with acylated homoserine lactone (AHL) signaling, five interfered with AI-2 QS signaling, and 10 were demonstrated to interfere with both signal molecules. Open reading frames (ORFs) conferring QQ activity were identified for three selected isolates (Photobacterium sp., Pseudoalteromonas sp., and Vibrio parahaemolyticus). Evaluation of the respective heterologously expressed and purified QQ proteins confirmed their ability to interfere with the AHL and AI-2 signaling processes. PMID:25527543

  19. Plausible Drug Targets in the Streptococcus mutans Quorum Sensing Pathways to Combat Dental Biofilms and Associated Risks.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Gurmeet; Rajesh, Shrinidhi; Princy, S Adline

    2015-12-01

    Streptococcus mutans, a Gram positive facultative anaerobe, is one among the approximately seven hundred bacterial species to exist in human buccal cavity and cause dental caries. Quorum sensing (QS) is a cell-density dependent communication process that respond to the inter/intra-species signals and elicit responses to show behavioral changes in the bacteria to an aggressive forms. In accordance to this phenomenon, the S. mutans also harbors a Competing Stimulating Peptide (CSP)-mediated quorum sensing, ComCDE (Two-component regulatory system) to regulate several virulence-associated traits that includes the formation of the oral biofilm (dental plaque), genetic competence and acidogenicity. The QS-mediated response of S. mutans adherence on tooth surface (dental plaque) imparts antibiotic resistance to the bacterium and further progresses to lead a chronic state, known as periodontitis. In recent years, the oral streptococci, S. mutans are not only recognized for its cariogenic potential but also well known to worsen the infective endocarditis due to its inherent ability to colonize and form biofilm on heart valves. The review significantly appreciate the increasing complexity of the CSP-mediated quorum-sensing pathway with a special emphasis to identify the plausible drug targets within the system for the development of anti-quorum drugs to control biofilm formation and associated risks. PMID:26543259

  20. Role of quorum sensing in bacterial infections Israel Castillo-Jurez, Toshinari Maeda, Edna Ayerim Mandujano-Tinoco, Mara Toms, Berenice Prez-Eretza,

    E-print Network

    Wood, Thomas K.

    Role of quorum sensing in bacterial infections Israel Castillo-Juárez, Toshinari Maeda, Edna Ayerim, Rodolfo García-Contreras Israel Castillo-Juárez, Colegio de Postgraduados, Campus Montecillo, Texcoco

  1. Inhibition of Quorum Sensing-Controlled Virulence Factor Production in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 by Ayurveda Spice Clove (Syzygium Aromaticum) Bud Extract

    PubMed Central

    Krishnan, Thiba; Yin, Wai-Fong; Chan, Kok-Gan

    2012-01-01

    Quorum sensing controls the virulence determinants in most proteobacteria. In this work, the hexane, chloroform and methanol extracts of an Ayurveda spice, namely clove (Syzygium aromaticum), shown anti-quorum sensing activity. Hexane and methanol extracts of clove inhibited the response of C. violaceum CV026 to exogenously supplied N?hexanoylhomoserine lactone, in turn preventing violacein production. Chloroform and methanol extracts of clove significantly reduced bioluminescence production by E. coli [pSB1075] grown in the presence of N-(3-oxododecanoyl)-l-homoserine lactone. We demonstrated that clove extract inhibited quorum sensing-regulated phenotypes in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA01, including expression of lecA::lux (by hexane extract), swarming (maximum inhibition by methanol extract), pyocyanin (maximum inhibition by hexane extract). This study shows that the presence of natural compounds that exhibit anti-quorum sensing activity in the clove extracts may be useful as the lead of anti-infective drugs. PMID:22666015

  2. Inhibition of quorum sensing-controlled virulence factor production in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 by Ayurveda spice clove (Syzygium aromaticum) bud extract.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Thiba; Yin, Wai-Fong; Chan, Kok-Gan

    2012-01-01

    Quorum sensing controls the virulence determinants in most proteobacteria. In this work, the hexane, chloroform and methanol extracts of an Ayurveda spice, namely clove (Syzygium aromaticum), shown anti-quorum sensing activity. Hexane and methanol extracts of clove inhibited the response of C. violaceum CV026 to exogenously supplied N-hexanoylhomoserine lactone, in turn preventing violacein production. Chloroform and methanol extracts of clove significantly reduced bioluminescence production by E. coli [pSB1075] grown in the presence of N-(3-oxododecanoyl)-L-homoserine lactone. We demonstrated that clove extract inhibited quorum sensing-regulated phenotypes in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA01, including expression of lecA::lux (by hexane extract), swarming (maximum inhibition by methanol extract), pyocyanin (maximum inhibition by hexane extract). This study shows that the presence of natural compounds that exhibit anti-quorum sensing activity in the clove extracts may be useful as the lead of anti-infective drugs. PMID:22666015

  3. Dynamics and Mechanism of A Quorum Sensing Network Regulated by Small RNAs in Vibrio Harveyi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Jian-Wei

    2011-03-01

    Bacterial quorum sensing (QS) has attracted much interests and it is an important process of cell communication. Recently, Bassler et al. studied the phenomena of QS regulated by small RNAs and the experimental data showed that small RNAs played important role in the QS of Vibrio harveyi and it can permit the fine-tuning of gene regulation and maintenance of homeostasis. According to Michaelis—Menten kinetics and mass action law in this paper, we construct a mathematical model to investigate the mechanism induced QS by coexist of small RNA and signal molecular (AI) and show that there are periodic oscillation when the time delay and Hill coefficient exceed a critical value and the periodic oscillation produces the change of concentration and induces QS. These results are fit to the experimental results. In the meanwhile, we also get some theoretical value of Hopf Bifurcation on time deday. In addition, we also find this network is robust against noise.

  4. Synthesis and biological evaluation of novel N-?-haloacylated homoserine lactones as quorum sensing modulators

    PubMed Central

    Syrpas, Michail; Ruysbergh, Ewout; Stevens, Christian V; De Kimpe, Norbert

    2014-01-01

    Summary Novel N-?-haloacylated homoserine lactones, in which a halogen atom was introduced at the ?-position of the carbonyl function of the N-acyl chain, have been studied as quorum sensing (QS) modulators and compared with a library of natural N-acylated homoserine lactones (AHLs). The series of novel analogues consists of ?-chloro, ?-bromo and ?-iodo AHL analogues. Furthermore, the biological QS activity of the synthetic AHL analogues compared to the natural AHLs was evaluated. Halogenated analogues demonstrated a reduced activity in the Escherichia coli JB523 bioassay, with the ?-iodo lactones being the less active ones and the ?-chloro AHLs the most potent QS agonists. Most of the ?-haloacylated analogues did not exhibit a significant reduction when tested in the QS inhibition test. Therefore, these novel analogues could be utilized as chemical probes for QS structure–activity studies. PMID:25383125

  5. Small RNA-mediated switch-like regulation in bacterial quorum sensing.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xi; Zhou, Peipei; Wang, Ruiqi

    2013-10-01

    Quorum sensing (QS) is a signalling mechanism by which bacteria produce, release and then detect and respond to changes in their density and biosignals called autoinducers (AIs). There are multiple feedback loops in the QS system of Vibrio harveyi. However, how these feedback loops function to control signal processing remains unclear. In this study, the authors present a computational model for the switch-like regulation of signal transduction by small regulatory RNA-mediated QS based on intertwined network involving AIs, LuxO, LuxU, Qrr sRNAs and LuxR. In agreement with experimental observations, the model suggests that different feedbacks play critical roles in the switch-like regulation. The authors results reveal that V. harveyi uses multiple feedbacks to precisely control signal transduction. PMID:24067418

  6. Anti-quorum sensing activity of selected sponge extracts: a case study of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Pejin, Boris; Talevska, Aleksandra; Ciric, Ana; Glamoclija, Jasmina; Nikolic, Milos; Talevski, Trajce; Sokovic, Marina

    2014-01-01

    The anti-quorum sensing activities towards the bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA01 (pyocyanin production, biofilm formation and twitching and flagella motility) of two crude extracts (methanol and acetone) of the freshwater sponge Ochridaspongia rotunda (Arndt, 1937) were evaluated in vitro for the first time. Both extracts demonstrated P. aeruginosa pyocyanin inhibitory activity, reducing its production for 49.90% and 42.44%, respectively. In addition, they both showed higher anti-biofilm activity (48.29% and 53.99%, respectively) than ampicillin (30.84%). Finally, O. rotunda extracts effectively reduced twitching and flagella motility of P. aeruginosa. Taken all together, these results suggest that endemic sponge species from the oldest lake in Europe may offer novel bioactive natural products with promising medicinal potential towards P. aeruginosa infections. PMID:25039944

  7. 6-Gingerol reduces Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm formation and virulence via quorum sensing inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Han-Shin; Lee, Sang-Hoon; Byun, Youngjoo; Park, Hee-Deung

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a well-known pathogenic bacterium that forms biofilms and produces virulence factors via quorum sensing (QS). Interfering with normal QS interactions between signal molecules and their cognate receptors is a developing strategy for attenuating its virulence. Here we tested the hypothesis that 6-gingerol, a pungent oil of fresh ginger, reduces biofilm formation and virulence by antagonistically binding to P. aeruginosa QS receptors. In silico studies demonstrated molecular binding occurs between 6-gingerol and the QS receptor LasR through hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic interactions. Experimentally 6-gingerol reduced biofilm formation, several virulence factors (e.g., exoprotease, rhamnolipid, and pyocyanin), and mice mortality. Further transcriptome analyses demonstrated that 6-gingerol successfully repressed QS-induced genes, specifically those related to the production of virulence factors. These results strongly support our hypothesis and offer insight into the molecular mechanism that caused QS gene repression. PMID:25728862

  8. Cross-strain quorum sensing inhibition by Staphylococcus aureus. Part 2: A spatially inhomogeneous model.

    PubMed

    Jabbari, Sara; King, John R; Williams, Paul

    2012-06-01

    Staphylococcus aureus uses quorum sensing (QS) to enhance its pathogenicity. An intriguing aspect of this is that different strains are capable of inactivating the QS systems of opposing strains. In Part 1 of this study, we presented a model of this phenomenon in a well-mixed environment; here, we incorporate spatial structure. Two competitive strains occupying adjacent habitats with freely diffusing QS signal molecules (QSSMs) are considered. We investigate the effect of the QSSM diffusion coefficient and the relative size of the two populations on the ability of one population to dominate the other. Regarding population size, a larger population is generally at an advantage (initial conditions permitting), while the implications of different diffusivities are more complex and depend upon the sizes of the populations. PMID:22108738

  9. Microbial Communication, Cooperation and Cheating: Quorum Sensing Drives the Evolution of Cooperation in Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Czárán, Tamás; Hoekstra, Rolf F.

    2009-01-01

    An increasing body of empirical evidence suggests that cooperation among clone-mates is common in bacteria. Bacterial cooperation may take the form of the excretion of “public goods”: exoproducts such as virulence factors, exoenzymes or components of the matrix in biofilms, to yield significant benefit for individuals joining in the common effort of producing them. Supposedly in order to spare unnecessary costs when the population is too sparse to supply the sufficient exoproduct level, many bacteria have evolved a simple chemical communication system called quorum sensing (QS), to “measure” the population density of clone-mates in their close neighborhood. Cooperation genes are expressed only above a threshold rate of QS signal molecule re-capture, i.e., above the local quorum of cooperators. The cooperative population is exposed to exploitation by cheaters, i.e., mutants who contribute less or nil to the effort but fully enjoy the benefits of cooperation. The communication system is also vulnerable to a different type of cheaters (“Liars”) who may produce the QS signal but not the exoproduct, thus ruining the reliability of the signal. Since there is no reason to assume that such cheaters cannot evolve and invade the populations of honestly signaling cooperators, the empirical fact of the existence of both bacterial cooperation and the associated QS communication system seems puzzling. Using a stochastic cellular automaton approach and allowing mutations in an initially non-cooperating, non-communicating strain we show that both cooperation and the associated communication system can evolve, spread and remain persistent. The QS genes help cooperative behavior to invade the population, and vice versa; cooperation and communication might have evolved synergistically in bacteria. Moreover, in good agreement with the empirical data recently available, this synergism opens up a remarkably rich repertoire of social interactions in which cheating and exploitation are commonplace. PMID:19684853

  10. A Synthetic Quorum Sensing System Reveals a Potential Private Benefit for Public Good Production in a Biofilm

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Fang; Kwan, Anna; Xu, Amy; Süel, Gürol M.

    2015-01-01

    Bacteria predominantly reside in microbial communities known as biofilms, where cells are encapsulated and protected by the extracellular matrix (ECM). While all biofilm cells benefit from the ECM, only a subgroup of cells carries the burden of producing this public good. This dilemma provokes the question of how these cells balance the cost of ECM production. Here we show that ECM producing cells have a higher gene expression response to quorum sensing (QS) signals, which can lead to a private benefit. Specifically, we constructed a synthetic quorum-sensing system with designated “Sender” and “Receiver” cells in Bacillus subtilis. This synthetic QS system allowed us to uncouple and independently investigate ECM production and QS in both biofilms and single cells. Results revealed that ECM production directly enhances the response to QS signals, which may offset the cost of ECM production. PMID:26196509

  11. Quorum sensing signals affect spoilage of refrigerated large yellow croaker (Pseudosciaena crocea) by Shewanella baltica.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Junli; Zhao, Aifei; Feng, Lifang; Gao, Haichun

    2016-01-18

    In this work we investigated the specific spoilage organism (SSO) of large yellow croaker (Pseudosciaena crocea) stored at 4°C and role of quorum sensing (QS) system of SSO isolated from the spoiled fish. According to microbial count and 16S rRNA gene of the isolated pure strains, Shewanella, mainly Shewanella baltica and Shewanella putrefaciens, was predominant genera at the end of shelf-life of P. crocea. Among Shewanella isolates, S.baltica02 was demonstrated as SSO in spoilage potential characteristics by inoculation into sterile fish juice using sensory and chemical analyses. Autoinducer 2 and two cyclic dipeptides (DKPs) including cyclo-(l-Pro-l-Leu) and cyclo-(l-Pro-l-Phe), no any AHLs, were detected in cell-free S. baltica culture. Interestingly, S.baltica02 had the highest QS activity among three spoilers of S. baltica. The production of biofilm, trimethylamines (TMA) and putrescine in these spoilers significantly increased in the presence of cyclo-(l-Pro-l-Leu), rather than cyclo-(l-Pro-l-Phe) and 4,5-dihydroxy-2,3-pentanedione (the AI-2 precursor, DPD). In accordance with the effect of signal molecules on the spoilage phenotype, exposure to exogenous cyclo-(l-Pro-l-Leu) was also showed to up-regulate the transcription levels of luxR, torA and ODC, and no effect of luxS indicated that S. baltica could sense cyclo-(l-Pro-l-Leu). In the fish homogenate, exogenous cyclo-(l-Pro-l-Leu) shortened lag phase durations and enhanced growth rates of the dominant bacteria, H2S producing bacteria, under refrigerated storage, while exogenous DPD retarded growth of competing bacteria, such as Enterobacteriaceae. Meanwhile, cyclo-(l-Pro-l-Leu) also promoted the accumulation of metabolites on the spoilage process of homogenate. S.baltica02 luxS mutant preliminarily proved that AI-2 might not play a signaling role in the spoilage. The present study suggested that the spoilage potential of S. baltica in P. crocea might be regulated by DKP-based quorum sensing. PMID:26519730

  12. Quorum sensing signalling and biofilm formation of brewery-derived bacteria, and inhibition of signalling by natural compounds.

    PubMed

    Priha, O; Virkajärvi, V; Juvonen, R; Puupponen-Pimiä, R; Nohynek, L; Alakurtti, S; Pirttimaa, M; Storgårds, E

    2014-11-01

    Bacteria use quorum sensing signalling in various functions, e.g. while forming biofilms, and inhibition of this signalling could be one way to control biofilm formation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the production of signalling molecules and its correlation with the biofilm formation capability of bacteria isolated from brewery filling process. A further aim was to study berry extracts and wood-derived terpenes for their possible quorum sensing inhibitory effects. Out of the twenty bacteria studied, five produced short-chain and five long-chain AHL (acyl homoserine lactone) signalling molecules when tested with the Chromobacterium violaceum CV026 reporter bacterium. Production of AI-2 (autoinducer-2) signalling molecules was detected from nine strains with the Vibrio harveyi BB170 bioassay. Over half of the strains produced biofilm in the microtitre plate assay, but the production of AHL and AI-2 signalling molecules and biofilm formation capability did not directly correlate with each other. Out of the 13 berry extracts and wood-derived terpenes screened, four compounds decreased AHL signalling without effect on growth. These were betulin, raspberry extract and two cloudberry extracts. The effect of these compounds on biofilm formation of the selected six bacterial strains varied. The phenolic extract of freeze-dried cloudberry fruit caused a statistically significant reduction of biofilm formation of Obesumbacterium proteus strain. Further experiments should aim at identifying the active compounds and revealing whether quorum sensing inhibition causes structural changes in the biofilms formed. PMID:24944110

  13. Influence of the AgrC-AgrA Complex on the Response Time of Staphylococcus aureus Quorum Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Sandeep K.; Rajasree, Kalagiri; Fasim, Aneesa; Arakere, Gayathri

    2014-01-01

    The Staphylococcus aureus agr quorum-sensing system plays a major role in the transition from the persistent to the virulent phenotype. S. aureus agr type I to IV strains are characterized by mutations in the sensor domain of the histidine kinase AgrC and differences in the sequences of the secreted autoinducing peptides (AIP). Here we demonstrate that interactions between the cytosolic domain of AgrC (AgrCCyto) and the response regulator domain of AgrA (AgrARR) dictate the spontaneity of the cellular response to AIP stimuli. The crystal structure of AgrCCyto provided a basis for a mechanistic model of AgrC-AgrA interactions. This model enabled an analysis of the biochemical and biophysical parameters of AgrC-AgrA interactions in the context of the conformational features of the AgrC-AgrA complex. This analysis revealed distinct sequence and conformational features that determine the affinity, specificity, and kinetics of the phosphotransfer reaction. This step, which governs the response time for transcriptional reengineering triggered by an AIP stimulus, is independent of the agr type and similar for agonist and antagonist stimuli. These experimental data could serve as a basis on which to validate simulations of the quorum-sensing response and for strategies that employ the agr quorum-sensing system to combat biofilm formation in S. aureus infections. PMID:24858185

  14. Silencing the mob: disrupting quorum sensing as a means to fight plant disease.

    PubMed

    Helman, Yael; Chernin, Leonid

    2015-04-01

    Bacteria are able to sense their population's density through a cell-cell communication system, termed 'quorum sensing' (QS). This system regulates gene expression in response to cell density through the constant production and detection of signalling molecules. These molecules commonly act as auto-inducers through the up-regulation of their own synthesis. Many pathogenic bacteria, including those of plants, rely on this communication system for infection of their hosts. The finding that the countering of QS-disrupting mechanisms exists in many prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms offers a promising novel method to fight disease. During the last decade, several approaches have been proposed to disrupt QS pathways of phytopathogens, and hence to reduce their virulence. Such studies have had varied success in?vivo, but most lend promising support to the idea that QS manipulation could be a potentially effective method to reduce bacterial-mediated plant disease. This review discusses the various QS-disrupting mechanisms found in both bacteria and plants, as well as the different approaches applied artificially to interfere with QS pathways and thus protect plant health. PMID:25113857

  15. Functional Analysis of the Quorum-Sensing Streptococcal Invasion Locus (sil)

    PubMed Central

    Belotserkovsky, Ilia; Baruch, Moshe; Peer, Asaf; Dov, Eran; Ravins, Miriam; Mishalian, Inbal; Persky, Merav; Smith, Yoav; Hanski, Emanuel

    2009-01-01

    Group A streptococcus (GAS) causes a wide variety of human diseases, and at the same time, GAS can also circulate without producing symptoms, similar to its close commensal relative, group G streptococcus (GGS). We previously identified, by transposon-tagged mutagenesis, the streptococcal invasion locus (sil). sil is a quorum-sensing regulated locus which is activated by the autoinducer peptide SilCR through the two-component system SilA-SilB. Here we characterize the DNA promoter region necessary for SilA-mediated activation. This site is composed of two direct repeats of 10 bp, separated by a spacer of 11 bp. Fusion of this site to gfp allowed us to systematically introduce single-base substitutions in the repeats region and to assess the relative contribution of various positions to promoter strength. We then developed an algorithm giving different weights to these positions, and performed a chromosome-wide bioinformatics search which was validated by transcriptome analysis. We identified 13 genes, mostly bacteriocin related, that are directly under the control of SilA. Having developed the ability to quantify SilCR signaling via GFP accumulation prompted us to search for GAS and GGS strains that sense and produce SilCR. While the majority of GAS strains lost sil, all GGS strains examined still possess the locus and ?63% are able to respond to exogenously added SilCR. By triggering the autoinduction circle using a minute concentration of synthetic SilCR, we identified GAS and GGS strains that are capable of sensing and naturally producing SilCR, and showed that SilCR can be sensed across these streptococci species. These findings suggest that sil may be involved in colonization and establishment of commensal host-bacterial relationships. PMID:19893632

  16. Quorum Sensing Is Accompanied by Global Metabolic Changes in the Opportunistic Human Pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Davenport, Peter W.; Griffin, Julian L.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Pseudomonas aeruginosa uses N-acyl-homoserine lactone (AHL)-dependent quorum sensing (QS) systems to control the expression of secreted effectors. These effectors can be crucial to the ecological fitness of the bacterium, playing roles in nutrient acquisition, microbial competition, and virulence. In this study, we investigated the metabolic consequences of AHL-dependent QS by monitoring the metabolic profile(s) of a lasI rhlI double mutant (unable to make QS signaling molecules) and its wild-type progenitor as they progressed through the growth curve. Analysis of culture supernatants by 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) spectroscopy revealed that at the point where AHL concentrations peaked in the wild type, the metabolic footprints (i.e., extracellular metabolites) of the wild-type and lasI rhlI mutant diverged. Subsequent gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS)-based analysis of the intracellular metabolome revealed QS-dependent perturbations in around one-third of all identified metabolites, including altered concentrations of tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediates, amino acids, and fatty acids. Further targeted fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) GC-MS-based profiling of the cellular total fatty acid pools revealed that QS leads to changes associated with decreased membrane fluidity and higher chemical stability. However, not all of the changes we observed were necessarily a direct consequence of QS; liquid chromatography (LC)-MS analyses revealed that polyamine levels were elevated in the lasI rhlI mutant, perhaps a response to the absence of QS-dependent adaptations. Our data suggest that QS leads to a global readjustment in central metabolism and provide new insight into the metabolic changes associated with QS during stationary-phase adaptation. IMPORTANCE Quorum sensing (QS) is a transcriptional regulatory mechanism that allows bacteria to coordinate their gene expression profile with the population cell density. The opportunistic human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa uses QS to control the production of secreted virulence factors. In this study, we show that QS elicits a global “metabolic rewiring” in P. aeruginosa. This metabolic rerouting of fluxes is consistent with a variety of drivers, ranging from altered QS-dependent transcription of “metabolic genes” through to the effect(s) of global “metabolic readjustment” as a consequence of QS-dependent exoproduct synthesis, as well as a general stress response, among others. To our knowledge, this is the first study of its kind to assess the global impact of QS on the metabolome. PMID:25868647

  17. Characterization of a Phosphotriesterase-Like Lactonase from Sulfolobus solfataricus and Its Immobilization for Disruption of Quorum Sensing? †

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Filomena S. W.; Wright, Daniel M.; Seah, Stephen Y. K.

    2011-01-01

    SsoPox, a bifunctional enzyme with organophosphate hydrolase and N-acyl homoserine lactonase activities from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus, was overexpressed and purified from recombinant Pseudomonas putida KT2440 with a yield of 9.4 mg of protein per liter of culture. The enzyme has a preference for N-acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs) with acyl chain lengths of at least 8 carbon atoms, mainly due to lower Km values for these substrates. The highest specificity constant obtained was for N-3-oxo-decanoyl homoserine lactone (kcat/Km = 5.5 × 103 M?1·s?1), but SsoPox can also degrade N-butyryl homoserine lactone (C4-HSL) and N-oxo-dodecanoyl homoserine lactone (oxo-C12-HSL), which are important for quorum sensing in our Pseudomonas aeruginosa model system. When P. aeruginosa PAO1 cultures were grown in the presence of SsoPox-immobilized membranes, the production of C4-HSL- and oxo-C12-HSL-regulated virulence factors, elastase, protease, and pyocyanin were significantly reduced. This is the first demonstration that immobilized quorum-quenching enzymes can be used to attenuate the production of virulence factors controlled by quorum-sensing signals. PMID:21183649

  18. The presence and role of bacterial quorum sensing in activated sludge

    PubMed Central

    Chong, Grace; Kimyon, Onder; Rice, Scott A.; Kjelleberg, Staffan; Manefield, Mike

    2012-01-01

    Summary Activated sludge used for wastewater treatment globally is composed of a high?density microbial community of great biotechnological significance. In this study the presence and purpose of quorum sensing via N?acylated?l?homoserine lactones (AHLs) in activated sludge was explored. The presence of N?heptanoyl?l?homoserine lactone in organic extracts of sludge was demonstrated along with activation of a LuxR?based AHL monitor strain deployed in sludge, indicating AHL?mediated gene expression is active in sludge flocculates but not in the bulk aqueous phase. Bacterial isolates from activated sludge were screened for AHL production and expression of phenotypes commonly but not exclusively regulated by AHL?mediated gene transcription. N?acylated?l?homoserine lactone and exoenzyme production were frequently observed among the isolates. N?acylated?l?homoserine lactone addition to sludge upregulated chitinase activity and an AHL? and chitinase?producing isolate closely related to Aeromonas hydrophila was shown to respond to AHL addition with upregulation of chitinase activity. N?acylated?l?homoserine lactones produced by this strain were identified and genes ahyI/R and chiA, encoding AHL production and response and chitinase activity respectively, were sequenced. These experiments provide insight into the relationship between AHL?mediated gene expression and exoenzyme activity in activated sludge and may ultimately create opportunities to improve sludge performance. PMID:22583685

  19. Caenorhabditis elegans Recognizes a Bacterial Quorum-sensing Signal Molecule through the AWCON Neuron*

    PubMed Central

    Werner, Kristen M.; Perez, Lark J.; Ghosh, Rajarshi; Semmelhack, Martin F.; Bassler, Bonnie L.

    2014-01-01

    In a process known as quorum sensing, bacteria use chemicals called autoinducers for cell-cell communication. Population-wide detection of autoinducers enables bacteria to orchestrate collective behaviors. In the animal kingdom detection of chemicals is vital for success in locating food, finding hosts, and avoiding predators. This behavior, termed chemotaxis, is especially well studied in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Here we demonstrate that the Vibrio cholerae autoinducer (S)-3-hydroxytridecan-4-one, termed CAI-1, influences chemotaxis in C. elegans. C. elegans prefers V. cholerae that produces CAI-1 over a V. cholerae mutant defective for CAI-1 production. The position of the CAI-1 ketone moiety is the key feature driving CAI-1-directed nematode behavior. CAI-1 is detected by the C. elegans amphid sensory neuron AWCON. Laser ablation of the AWCON cell, but not other amphid sensory neurons, abolished chemoattraction to CAI-1. These analyses define the structural features of a bacterial-produced signal and the nematode chemosensory neuron that permit cross-kingdom interaction. PMID:25092291

  20. A Quorum Sensing Small Volatile Molecule Promotes Antibiotic Tolerance in Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Strobel, Benjamin; Maura, Damien; He, Jianxin; Kesarwani, Meenu; Panopoulos, Panagiotis; Tsurumi, Amy; Giddey, Marlyse; Wilhelmy, Julie; Mindrinos, Michael N.; Rahme, Laurence G.

    2013-01-01

    Bacteria can be refractory to antibiotics due to a sub-population of dormant cells, called persisters that are highly tolerant to antibiotic exposure. The low frequency and transience of the antibiotic tolerant “persister” trait has complicated elucidation of the mechanism that controls antibiotic tolerance. In this study, we show that 2’ Amino-acetophenone (2-AA), a poorly studied but diagnostically important small, volatile molecule produced by the recalcitrant gram-negative human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa, promotes antibiotic tolerance in response to quorum-sensing (QS) signaling. Our results show that 2-AA mediated persister cell accumulation occurs via alteration of the expression of genes involved in the translational capacity of the cell, including almost all ribosomal protein genes and other translation-related factors. That 2-AA promotes persisters formation also in other emerging multi-drug resistant pathogens, including the non 2-AA producer Acinetobacter baumannii implies that 2-AA may play an important role in the ability of gram-negative bacteria to tolerate antibiotic treatments in polymicrobial infections. Given that the synthesis, excretion and uptake of QS small molecules is a common hallmark of prokaryotes, together with the fact that the translational machinery is highly conserved, we posit that modulation of the translational capacity of the cell via QS molecules, may be a general, widely distributed mechanism that promotes antibiotic tolerance among prokaryotes. PMID:24367477

  1. The quorum-sensing inhibiting effects of stilbenoids and their potential structure-activity relationship.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Ji-Yang; Chen, Tong-Tong; Tan, Xiao-Juan; Chen, Ting; Jia, Ai-Qun

    2015-11-15

    Stilbenoids, known an important phytoalexins in plants, were renowned for their beneficial effects on cardiovascular, neurological and hepatic systems. In the present study, quorum sensing inhibition activity of ten stilbenoids were tested using Chromobacterium violaceum CV026 as the bio-indicator strain and the structure-activity relationship was also investigated. Among them, resveratrol (1), piceatannol (2) and oxyresveratrol (3) showed potential anti-QS activities. At the sub-MIC concentrations, 1-3 demonstrated a statistically significant reduction of violacein in C. violaceum CV026 in a concentration dependent manner. Furthermore, the effects of 1-3 on QS regulated virulence factors in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 were also evaluated. Our results showed that the stilbenoids 1-3 can markedly decreased the production of pyocyanin and swarming motility of P. aeruginosa PAO1. Further transcriptome analyses showed that 1-3 suppressed the expression of QS-induced genes: lasR, lasI, rhlR and rhlI. PMID:26453007

  2. Death and survival in Streptococcus mutans: differing outcomes of a quorum-sensing signaling peptide

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Vincent; Dufour, Delphine; Lévesque, Céline M.

    2015-01-01

    Bacteria are considered “social” organisms able to communicate with one another using small hormone-like molecules (pheromones) in a process called quorum-sensing (QS). These signaling molecules increase in concentration as a function of bacterial cell density. For most human pathogens, QS is critical for virulence and biofilm formation, and the opportunity to interfere with bacterial QS could provide a sophisticated means for manipulating the composition of pathogenic biofilms, and possibly eradicating the infection. Streptococcus mutans is a well-characterized resident of the dental plaque biofilm, and is the major pathogen of dental caries (cavities). In S. mutans, its CSP QS signaling peptide does not act as a classical QS signal by accumulating passively in proportion to cell density. In fact, particular stresses such as those encountered in the oral cavity, induce the production of the CSP pheromone, suggesting that the pheromone most probably functions as a stress-inducible alarmone by triggering the signaling to the bacterial population to initiate an adaptive response that results in different phenotypic outcomes. This mini-review discusses two different CSP-induced phenotypes, bacterial “suicide” and dormancy, and the underlying mechanisms by which S. mutans utilizes the same QS signaling peptide to regulate two opposite phenotypes. PMID:26557114

  3. ?-Hydroxyemodin Limits Staphylococcus aureus Quorum Sensing-Mediated Pathogenesis and Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Daly, Seth M.; Elmore, Bradley O.; Kavanaugh, Jeffrey S.; Triplett, Kathleen D.; Figueroa, Mario; Raja, Huzefa A.; El-Elimat, Tamam; Crosby, Heidi A.; Femling, Jon K.; Cech, Nadja B.; Horswill, Alexander R.; Oberlies, Nicholas H.

    2015-01-01

    Antibiotic-resistant pathogens are a global health threat. Small molecules that inhibit bacterial virulence have been suggested as alternatives or adjuncts to conventional antibiotics, as they may limit pathogenesis and increase bacterial susceptibility to host killing. Staphylococcus aureus is a major cause of invasive skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) in both the hospital and community settings, and it is also becoming increasingly antibiotic resistant. Quorum sensing (QS) mediated by the accessory gene regulator (agr) controls virulence factor production essential for causing SSTIs. We recently identified ?-hydroxyemodin (OHM), a polyhydroxyanthraquinone isolated from solid-phase cultures of Penicillium restrictum, as a suppressor of QS and a compound sought for the further characterization of the mechanism of action. At concentrations that are nontoxic to eukaryotic cells and subinhibitory to bacterial growth, OHM prevented agr signaling by all four S. aureus agr alleles. OHM inhibited QS by direct binding to AgrA, the response regulator encoded by the agr operon, preventing the interaction of AgrA with the agr P2 promoter. Importantly, OHM was efficacious in a mouse model of S. aureus SSTI. Decreased dermonecrosis with OHM treatment was associated with enhanced bacterial clearance and reductions in inflammatory cytokine transcription and expression at the site of infection. Furthermore, OHM treatment enhanced the immune cell killing of S. aureus in vitro in an agr-dependent manner. These data suggest that bacterial disarmament through the suppression of S. aureus QS may bolster the host innate immune response and limit inflammation. PMID:25645827

  4. Evidence for Autoinduction and Quorum Sensing in White Band Disease-Causing Microbes on Acropora cervicornis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Certner, Rebecca H.; Vollmer, Steven V.

    2015-06-01

    Coral reefs have entered a state of global decline party due to an increasing incidence of coral disease. However, the diversity and complexity of coral-associated bacterial communities has made identifying the mechanisms underlying disease transmission and progression extremely difficult. This study explores the effects of coral cell-free culture fluid (CFCF) and autoinducer (a quorum sensing signaling molecule) on coral-associated bacterial growth and on coral tissue loss respectively. All experiments were conducted using the endangered Caribbean coral Acropora cervicornis. Coral-associated microbes were grown on selective media infused with CFCF derived from healthy and white band disease-infected A. cervicornis. Exposure to diseased CFCF increased proliferation of Cytophaga-Flavobacterium spp. while exposure to healthy CFCF inhibited growth of this group. Exposure to either CFCF did not significantly affect Vibrio spp. growth. In order to test whether disease symptoms can be induced in healthy corals, A. cervicornis was exposed to bacterial assemblages supplemented with exogenous, purified autoinducer. Incubation with autoinducer resulted in complete tissue loss in all corals tested in less than one week. These findings indicate that white band disease in A. cervicornis may be caused by opportunistic pathogenesis of resident microbes.

  5. Quorum sensing triggers the stochastic escape of individual cells from Pseudomonas putida biofilms

    PubMed Central

    Cárcamo-Oyarce, Gerardo; Lumjiaktase, Putthapoom; Kümmerli, Rolf; Eberl, Leo

    2015-01-01

    The term ‘quorum sensing’ (QS) is generally used to describe the phenomenon that bacteria release and perceive signal molecules to coordinate cooperative behaviour in response to their population size. QS-based communication has therefore been considered a social trait. Here we show that QS signals (N-acyl-homoserine lactones, AHLs) are stochastically produced in young biofilms of Pseudomonas putida and act mainly as self-regulatory signals rather than inducing neighbouring cells. We demonstrate that QS induces the expression of putisolvin biosurfactants that are not public goods, thereby triggering asocial motility of induced cells out of microcolonies. Phenotypic heterogeneity is most prominent in the early stages of biofilm development, whereas at later stages behaviour patterns across cells become more synchronized. Our findings broaden our perspective on QS by showing that AHLs can control the expression of asocial (self-directed) traits, and that heterogeneity in QS can serve as a mechanism to drive phenotypic heterogeneity in self-directed behaviour. PMID:25592773

  6. Quorum-sensing regulators in Gram-positive bacteria: 'cherchez le peptide'.

    PubMed

    Monnet, V; Gardan, R

    2015-07-01

    Gram-positive bacteria can regulate gene expression at the population level via a mechanism known as quorum sensing. Oligopeptides serve as the signaling molecules; they are secreted and then are either detected at the bacterial surface by two-component systems or reinternalized via an oligopeptide transport system. In the latter case, imported peptides interact with cognate regulators (phosphatases or transcriptional regulators) that modulate the expression of target genes. These regulators help control crucial functions such as virulence, persistence, conjugation and competence and have been reported in bacilli, enterococci and streptococci. They form the rapidly growing RRNPP group. In this issue of Molecular?Microbiology, Hoover et?al. (2015) highlight the group's importance: they have identified a new family of regulators, Tprs (Transcription factor regulated by a Phr peptide), which work with internalized Phr-like peptides. The mechanisms underlying the expression of the genes that encode these internalized peptides are poorly documented. However, Hoover et?al. (2015) have provided a new insight: an environmental molecule, glucose, can inhibit expression of the Phr-like peptide gene via catabolic repression. This previously undescribed regulatory pathway, controlling the production of a bacteriocin, might influence Streptococcus pneumonia's fitness in the nasopharynx, where galactose is present. PMID:25988215

  7. Surface enhanced Raman scattering for detection of Pseudomonas aeruginosa quorum sensing compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thrift, Will; Bhattacharjee, Arunima; Darvishzadeh-Varcheie, Mahsa; Lu, Ying; Hochbaum, Allon; Capolino, Filippo; Whiteson, Katrine; Ragan, Regina

    2015-08-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA), a biofilm forming bacterium, commonly affects cystic fibrosis, burn victims, and immunocompromised patients. PA produces pyocyanin, an aromatic, redox active, secondary metabolite as part of its quorum sensing signaling system activated during biofilm formation. Surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) sensors composed of Au nanospheres chemically assembled into clusters on diblock copolymer templates were fabricated and the ability to detect pyocyanin to monitor biofilm formation was investigated. Electromagnetic full wave simulations of clusters observed in scanning electron microcopy images show that the localized surface plasmon resonance wavelength is 696 nm for a dimer with a gap spacing of 1 nm in an average dielectric environment of the polymer and analyte; the local electric field enhancement is on the order of 400 at resonance, relative to free space. SERS data acquired at 785 nm excitation from a monolayer of benzenethiol on fabricated samples was compared with Raman data of pure benzenethiol and enhancement factors as large as 8×109 were calculated that are consistent with simulated field enhancements. Using this system, the limit of detection of pyocyanin in pure gradients was determined to be 10 parts per billion. In SERS data of the supernatant from the time dependent growth of PA shaking cultures, pyocyanin vibrational modes were clearly observable during the logarithmic growth phase corresponding to activation of genes related to biofilm formation. These results pave the way for the use of SERS sensors for the early detection of biofilm formation, leading to reduced healthcare costs and better patient outcomes.

  8. Inhibition of Bacterial Quorum Sensing by Extracts from Aquatic Fungi: First Report from Marine Endophytes

    PubMed Central

    Martín-Rodríguez, Alberto J.; Reyes, Fernando; Martín, Jesús; Pérez-Yépez, Juan; León-Barrios, Milagros; Couttolenc, Alan; Espinoza, César; Trigos, Ángel; Martín, Víctor S.; Norte, Manuel; Fernández, José J.

    2014-01-01

    In our search for quorum-sensing (QS) disrupting molecules, 75 fungal isolates were recovered from reef organisms (endophytes), saline lakes and mangrove rhizosphere. Their QS inhibitory activity was evaluated in Chromobacterium violaceum CVO26. Four strains of endophytic fungi stood out for their potent activity at concentrations from 500 to 50 ?g mL?1. The molecular characterization, based on the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region sequences (ITS1, 5.8S and ITS2) between the rRNA of 18S and 28S, identified these strains as belonging to four genera: Sarocladium (LAEE06), Fusarium (LAEE13), Epicoccum (LAEE14), and Khuskia (LAEE21). Interestingly, three came from coral species and two of them came from the same organism, the coral Diploria strigosa. Metabolic profiles obtained by Liquid Chromatography-High Resolution Mass Spectrometry (LC-HRMS) suggest that a combination of fungal secondary metabolites and fatty acids could be the responsible for the observed activities. The LC-HRMS analysis also revealed the presence of potentially new secondary metabolites. This is, to the best of our knowledge, the first report of QS inhibition by marine endophytic fungi. PMID:25415350

  9. Hydrophobic interactions drive ligand-receptor recognition for activation and inhibition of staphylococcal quorum sensing

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Jesse S.; Lyon, Gholson J.; George, Elizabeth A.; Muir, Tom W.; Novick, Richard P.

    2004-01-01

    Two-component systems represent the most widely used signaling paradigm in living organisms. Encoding the prototypical two-component system in Gram-positive bacteria, the staphylococcal agr (accessory gene regulator) operon uses a polytopic receptor, AgrC, activated by an autoinducing peptide (AIP), to coordinate quorum sensing with the global synthesis of virulence factors. The agr locus has undergone evolutionary divergence, resulting in the formation of several distinct inter- and intraspecies specificity groups, such that most cross-group AIP-receptor interactions are mutually inhibitory. We have exploited this natural diversity by constructing and analyzing AgrC chimeras generated by exchange of intradomain segments between receptors of different agr groups. Functional chimeras fell into three general classes: receptors with broadened specificity, receptors with tightened specificity, and receptors that lack activation specificity. Testing of these chimeric receptors against a battery of AIP analogs localized the primary ligand recognition site to the receptor distal subdomain and revealed that the AIPs bind primarily to a putative hydrophobic pocket in the receptor. This binding is mediated by a highly conserved hydrophobic patch on the AIPs and is an absolute requirement for interactions in self-activation and cross-inhibition of the receptors. It is suggested that this recognition scheme provides the fundamental basis for agr activation and interference. PMID:15528279

  10. Methylobacterium-plant interaction genes regulated by plant exudate and quorum sensing molecules

    PubMed Central

    Dourado, Manuella Nóbrega; Bogas, Andrea Cristina; Pomini, Armando M.; Andreote, Fernando Dini; Quecine, Maria Carolina; Marsaioli, Anita J.; Araújo, Welington Luiz

    2013-01-01

    Bacteria from the genus Methylobacterium interact symbiotically (endophytically and epiphytically) with different plant species. These interactions can promote plant growth or induce systemic resistance, increasing plant fitness. The plant colonization is guided by molecular communication between bacteria-bacteria and bacteria-plants, where the bacteria recognize specific exuded compounds by other bacteria (e.g. homoserine molecules) and/or by the plant roots (e.g. flavonoids, ethanol and methanol), respectively. In this context, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of quorum sensing molecules (N-acyl-homoserine lactones) and plant exudates (including ethanol) in the expression of a series of bacterial genes involved in Methylobacterium-plant interaction. The selected genes are related to bacterial metabolism (mxaF), adaptation to stressful environment (crtI, phoU and sss), to interactions with plant metabolism compounds (acdS) and pathogenicity (patatin and phoU). Under in vitro conditions, our results showed the differential expression of some important genes related to metabolism, stress and pathogenesis, thereby AHL molecules up-regulate all tested genes, except phoU, while plant exudates induce only mxaF gene expression. In the presence of plant exudates there is a lower bacterial density (due the endophytic and epiphytic colonization), which produce less AHL, leading to down regulation of genes when compared to the control. Therefore, bacterial density, more than plant exudate, influences the expression of genes related to plant-bacteria interaction. PMID:24688531

  11. Chemical Composition and Disruption of Quorum Sensing Signaling in Geographically Diverse United States Propolis

    PubMed Central

    Savka, Michael A.; Dailey, Lucas; Popova, Milena; Mihaylova, Ralitsa; Merritt, Benjamin; Masek, Marissa; Le, Phuong; Nor, Sharifah Radziah Mat; Ahmad, Muhammad; Hudson, André O.; Bankova, Vassya

    2015-01-01

    Propolis or bee glue has been used for centuries for various purposes and is especially important in human health due to many of its biological and pharmacological properties. In this work we showed quorum sensing inhibitory (QSI) activity of ten geographically distinct propolis samples from the United States using the acyl-homoserine lactone- (AHL-) dependent Chromobacterium violaceum strain CV026. Based on GC-MS chemical profiling the propolis samples can be classified into several groups that are as follows: (1) rich in cinnamic acid derivatives, (2) rich in flavonoids, and (3) rich in triterpenes. An in-depth analysis of the propolis from North Carolina led to the isolation and identification of a triterpenic acid that was recently isolated from Hondurian propolis (Central America) and ethyl ether of p-coumaric alcohol not previously identified in bee propolis. QSI activity was also observed in the second group US propolis samples which contained the flavonoid pinocembrin in addition to other flavonoid compounds. The discovery of compounds that are involved in QSI activity has the potential to facilitate studies that may lead to the development of antivirulence therapies that can be complementary and/or alternative treatments against antibiotic resistant bacterial pathogens and/or emerging pathogens that have yet to be identified. PMID:25960752

  12. Identification of a Quorum-Sensing Signal Molecule in the Facultative Intracellular Pathogen Brucella melitensis

    PubMed Central

    Taminiau, Bernard; Daykin, Mavis; Swift, Simon; Boschiroli, Maria-Laura; Tibor, Anne; Lestrate, Pascal; De Bolle, Xavier; O'Callaghan, David; Williams, Paul; Letesson, Jean-Jacques

    2002-01-01

    Brucella melitensis is a gram-negative alpha2-proteobacterium responsible for abortion in goats and for Malta fever in humans. This facultative intracellular pathogen invades and survives within both professional and nonprofessional phagocytes. A dichloromethane extract of spent culture supernatant from B. melitensis induces bioluminescence in an Escherichia coli acyl-homoserine lactone (acyl-HSL) biosensor strain based upon the activity of the LasR protein of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. HPLC fractionation of the extract, followed by mass spectrometry, identified the major active molecule as N-dodecanoylhomoserine lactone (C12-HSL). This is the first report of the production of an acyl-HSL by an intracellular pathogen. The addition of synthetic C12-HSL to an early log phase culture of either B. melitensis or Brucella suis 1330 reduces the transcription of the virB operon, which contains virulence genes known to be required for intracellular survival. This mimics events seen during the stationary phase of growth and suggests that quorum sensing may play a role in the control of virulence in Brucella. PMID:12010991

  13. Quorum Sensing-Dependent Regulation and Blockade of Exoprotease Production in Aeromonas hydrophila

    PubMed Central

    Swift, Simon; Lynch, Martin J.; Fish, Leigh; Kirke, David F.; Tomás, Juan M.; Stewart, Gordon S. A. B.; Williams, Paul

    1999-01-01

    In Aeromonas hydrophila, the ahyI gene encodes a protein responsible for the synthesis of the quorum sensing signal N-butanoyl-l-homoserine lactone (C4-HSL). Inactivation of the ahyI gene on the A. hydrophila chromosome abolishes C4-HSL production. The exoprotease activity of A. hydrophila consists of both serine protease and metalloprotease activities; in the ahyI-negative strain, both are substantially reduced but can be restored by the addition of exogenous C4-HSL. In contrast, mutation of the LuxR homolog AhyR results in the loss of both exoprotease activities, which cannot be restored by exogenous C4-HSL. Furthermore, a substantial reduction in the production of exoprotease by the ahyI+ parent strain is obtained by the addition of N-acylhomoserine lactone analogs that have acyl side chains of 10, 12, or 14 carbons. The inclusion of N-(3-oxododecanoyl)-l-homoserine lactone or N-(3-oxotetradecanoyl)-l-homoserine lactone at 10 ?M in overnight cultures of A. hydrophila abolishes exoprotease production in azocasein assays and reduces the activity of all the exoprotease species seen in zymograms. PMID:10496895

  14. Microbial inhibition of oral epithelial wound recovery: potential role for quorum sensing molecules?

    PubMed

    De Ryck, Tine; Vanlancker, Eline; Grootaert, Charlotte; Roman, Bart I; De Coen, Laurens M; Vandenberghe, Isabel; Stevens, Christian V; Bracke, Marc; Van de Wiele, Tom; Vanhoecke, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Awareness of the impact of microbiota in both health and disease is growing. Using a new in vitro oral mucosa co-culture model, we recently showed a clear inhibition of epithelial wound healing in the presence of an oral microbial community. In this paper, we have used the same model in combination with specific oral microbial species to obtain a better insight into the role of the oral microbiota in wound healing. Monocultures of Klebsiella oxytoca and Lactobacillus salivarius significantly inhibited wound healing with ~20%, whereas Streptococcus mitis and S. oralis enhanced the healing process with ~15% in 24 h. Yet, neither S. oralis or S. mitis were able to counteract the inhibitory effects from K. oxytoca on wound healing. Other tested microbial species had no effect on wound healing. Apart from this species-dependency, the inhibitory effect on wound healing depended on a microbial threshold concentration. Further mechanistic experiments with K. oxytoca excluded different microbial factors and hypothesized that quorum sensing molecules might play a role in the inter-kingdom signalling during wound healing. These results are important for the development of new strategies for the management of (infected) wounds and ulcerations. PMID:25995981

  15. Inhibition of bacterial quorum sensing by extracts from aquatic fungi: first report from marine endophytes.

    PubMed

    Martín-Rodríguez, Alberto J; Reyes, Fernando; Martín, Jesús; Pérez-Yépez, Juan; León-Barrios, Milagros; Couttolenc, Alan; Espinoza, César; Trigos, Angel; Martín, Víctor S; Norte, Manuel; Fernández, José J

    2014-11-01

    In our search for quorum-sensing (QS) disrupting molecules, 75 fungal isolates were recovered from reef organisms (endophytes), saline lakes and mangrove rhizosphere. Their QS inhibitory activity was evaluated in Chromobacterium violaceum CVO26. Four strains of endophytic fungi stood out for their potent activity at concentrations from 500 to 50 ?g mL-1. The molecular characterization, based on the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region sequences (ITS1, 5.8S and ITS2) between the rRNA of 18S and 28S, identified these strains as belonging to four genera: Sarocladium (LAEE06), Fusarium (LAEE13), Epicoccum (LAEE14), and Khuskia (LAEE21). Interestingly, three came from coral species and two of them came from the same organism, the coral Diploria strigosa. Metabolic profiles obtained by Liquid Chromatography-High Resolution Mass Spectrometry (LC-HRMS) suggest that a combination of fungal secondary metabolites and fatty acids could be the responsible for the observed activities. The LC-HRMS analysis also revealed the presence of potentially new secondary metabolites. This is, to the best of our knowledge, the first report of QS inhibition by marine endophytic fungi. PMID:25415350

  16. Comprehensive analysis reveals how single nucleotides contribute to noncoding RNA function in bacterial quorum sensing.

    PubMed

    Rutherford, Steven T; Valastyan, Julie S; Taillefumier, Thibaud; Wingreen, Ned S; Bassler, Bonnie L

    2015-11-01

    Five homologous noncoding small RNAs (sRNAs), called the Qrr1-5 sRNAs, function in the Vibrio harveyi quorum-sensing cascade to drive its operation. Qrr1-5 use four different regulatory mechanisms to control the expression of ?20 mRNA targets. Little is known about the roles individual nucleotides play in mRNA target selection, in determining regulatory mechanism, or in defining Qrr potency and dynamics of target regulation. To identify the nucleotides vital for Qrr function, we developed a method we call RSort-Seq that combines saturating mutagenesis, fluorescence-activated cell sorting, high-throughput sequencing, and mutual information theory to explore the role that every nucleotide in Qrr4 plays in regulation of two mRNA targets, luxR and luxO. Companion biochemical assays allowed us to assign specific regulatory functions/underlying molecular mechanisms to each important base. This strategy yielded a regional map of nucleotides in Qrr4 vital for stability, Hfq interaction, stem-loop formation, and base pairing to both luxR and luxO, to luxR only, and to luxO only. In terms of nucleotides critical for sRNA function, the RSort-Seq analysis provided strikingly different results from those predicted by commonly used regulatory RNA-folding algorithms. This approach is applicable to any RNA-RNA interaction, including sRNAs in other bacteria and regulatory RNAs in higher organisms. PMID:26483489

  17. Bioinformatic prediction of gene functions regulated by quorum sensing in the bioleaching bacterium Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans.

    PubMed

    Banderas, Alvaro; Guiliani, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    The biomining bacterium Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans oxidizes sulfide ores and promotes metal solubilization. The efficiency of this process depends on the attachment of cells to surfaces, a process regulated by quorum sensing (QS) cell-to-cell signalling in many Gram-negative bacteria. At. ferrooxidans has a functional QS system and the presence of AHLs enhances its attachment to pyrite. However, direct targets of the QS transcription factor AfeR remain unknown. In this study, a bioinformatic approach was used to infer possible AfeR direct targets based on the particular palindromic features of the AfeR binding site. A set of Hidden Markov Models designed to maintain palindromic regions and vary non-palindromic regions was used to screen for putative binding sites. By annotating the context of each predicted binding site (PBS), we classified them according to their positional coherence relative to other putative genomic structures such as start codons, RNA polymerase promoter elements and intergenic regions. We further used the Multiple EM for Motif Elicitation algorithm (MEME) to further filter out low homology PBSs. In summary, 75 target-genes were identified, 34 of which have a higher confidence level. Among the identified genes, we found afeR itself, zwf, genes encoding glycosyltransferase activities, metallo-beta lactamases, and active transport-related proteins. Glycosyltransferases and Zwf (Glucose 6-phosphate-1-dehydrogenase) might be directly involved in polysaccharide biosynthesis and attachment to minerals by At. ferrooxidans cells during the bioleaching process. PMID:23959118

  18. Cross-strain quorum sensing inhibition by Staphylococcus aureus. Part 1: A spatially homogeneous model.

    PubMed

    Jabbari, Sara; King, John R; Williams, Paul

    2012-06-01

    Staphylococcus aureus uses the agr quorum sensing (QS) system to regulate reciprocally colonisation and virulence factor production. S. aureus strains can be divided into four agr groups: those within a specific agr group activate the QS systems of strains belonging to the same group, while inhibiting agr expression in strains of other groups. Furthermore, agr homologues exist in many more species of gram-positive bacteria, raising the likelihood of cross-species interference. In principle, a non-pathogenic strain of S. aureus or other species of bacteria employing agr could be engineered to inhibit the QS systems of pathogenic strains using agr, thus down-regulating their production of virulence factors. We present three models of the agr operon belonging to strains competing for dominance, each comprising one of the three possible phosphorylation cascades governing the two component system (TCS) of the agr system. Bifurcation analyses clarify the aspects of QS most crucial in determining the efficacy of using a non-pathogenic strain for therapeutic purposes if the target TCS cascade is known and illustrate the qualitative and quantitative differences which occur as a result of mechanistic differences between the models. We highlight those results that, in concert with appropriate experimental data, would be most useful in ascertaining whether or not a classical TCS is in operation in a particular strain if this information is unknown. PMID:22108737

  19. Bioinformatic Prediction of Gene Functions Regulated by Quorum Sensing in the Bioleaching Bacterium Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans

    PubMed Central

    Banderas, Alvaro; Guiliani, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    The biomining bacterium Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans oxidizes sulfide ores and promotes metal solubilization. The efficiency of this process depends on the attachment of cells to surfaces, a process regulated by quorum sensing (QS) cell-to-cell signalling in many Gram-negative bacteria. At. ferrooxidans has a functional QS system and the presence of AHLs enhances its attachment to pyrite. However, direct targets of the QS transcription factor AfeR remain unknown. In this study, a bioinformatic approach was used to infer possible AfeR direct targets based on the particular palindromic features of the AfeR binding site. A set of Hidden Markov Models designed to maintain palindromic regions and vary non-palindromic regions was used to screen for putative binding sites. By annotating the context of each predicted binding site (PBS), we classified them according to their positional coherence relative to other putative genomic structures such as start codons, RNA polymerase promoter elements and intergenic regions. We further used the Multiple EM for Motif Elicitation algorithm (MEME) to further filter out low homology PBSs. In summary, 75 target-genes were identified, 34 of which have a higher confidence level. Among the identified genes, we found afeR itself, zwf, genes encoding glycosyltransferase activities, metallo-beta lactamases, and active transport-related proteins. Glycosyltransferases and Zwf (Glucose 6-phosphate-1-dehydrogenase) might be directly involved in polysaccharide biosynthesis and attachment to minerals by At. ferrooxidans cells during the bioleaching process. PMID:23959118

  20. Clinical and environmental genotypes of Vibrio vulnificus display distinct, quorum-sensing-mediated, chitin detachment dynamics.

    PubMed

    Phippen, Britney L; Oliver, James D

    2015-11-01

    The ability for bacteria to attach to and detach from various substrata is important for colonization, survival and transitioning to new environments. An opportunistic human pathogen, Vibrio vulnificus, can cause potentially fatal septicemia after ingestion of undercooked seafood. Based on genetic polymorphisms, strains of this species are subtyped into clinical (C) and environmental (E) genotypes. Vibrio vulnificus readily associates with chitin, thus we investigated chitin detachment dynamics in these disparate genotypes. We found that C-genotypes detach significantly more than E-genotypes after 24 hours in aerobic as well as anaerobic conditions. Furthermore, expression of genes involved in type IV pilin production was significantly downregulated in C-genotypes compared to E-genotypes, suggesting an importance in detachment. Interestingly, gbpA, a gene that has been shown to be important in host colonization in V. cholerae, was upregulated in the C-genotypes during detachment. Additionally, we found that C-genotypes detached to a greater extent, and produced more quorum-sensing (QS) autoinducer-2 molecules relative to E-genotypes, which suggests a role for QS in detachment. These findings suggest that for V. vulnificus, QS-mediated detachment may be a potential mechanism for transitioning into a human host for C-genotypes, while facilitating E-genotype maintenance in the estuarine environment. PMID:26377182

  1. Crystal Structure of the Vibrio Cholerae Quorum-Sensing Regulatory Protein HapR

    SciTech Connect

    DeSilva,R.; Kovacikova, G.; Lin, W.; Taylor, R.; Skorupski, K.; Kull, F.

    2007-01-01

    Quorum sensing in Vibrio cholerae involves signaling between two-component sensor protein kinases and the response regulator LuxO to control the expression of the master regulator HapR. HapR, in turn, plays a central role in regulating a number of important processes, such as virulence gene expression and biofilm formation. We have determined the crystal structure of HapR to 2.2- Angstroms resolution. Its structure reveals a dimeric, two-domain molecule with an all-helical structure that is strongly conserved with members of the TetR family of transcriptional regulators. The N-terminal DNA-binding domain contains a helix-turn-helix DNA-binding motif and alteration of certain residues in this domain completely abolishes the ability of HapR to bind to DNA, alleviating repression of both virulence gene expression and biofilm formation. The C-terminal dimerization domain contains a unique solvent accessible tunnel connected to an amphipathic cavity, which by analogy with other TetR regulators, may serve as a binding pocket for an as-yet-unidentified ligand.

  2. Global and Phylogenetic Distribution of Quorum Sensing Signals, Acyl Homoserine Lactones, in the Family of Vibrionaceae

    PubMed Central

    Barker Rasmussen, Bastian; Fog Nielsen, Kristian; Machado, Henrique; Melchiorsen, Jette; Gram, Lone; Sonnenschein, Eva C.

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial quorum sensing (QS) and the corresponding signals, acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs), were first described for a luminescent Vibrio species. Since then, detailed knowledge has been gained on the functional level of QS; however, the abundance of AHLs in the family of Vibrionaceae in the environment has remained unclear. Three hundred and one Vibrionaceae strains were collected on a global research cruise and the prevalence and profile of AHL signals in this global collection were determined. AHLs were detected in 32 of the 301 strains using Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Chromobacterium violaceum reporter strains. Ethyl acetate extracts of the cultures were analysed by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (MS) with automated tandem MS confirmation for AHLs. N-(3-hydroxy-hexanoyl) (OH-C6) and N-(3-hydroxy-decanoyl) (OH-C10) homoserine lactones were the most common AHLs found in 17 and 12 strains, respectively. Several strains produced a diversity of different AHLs, including N-heptanoyl (C7) HL. AHL-producing Vibrionaceae were found in polar, temperate and tropical waters. The AHL profiles correlated with strain phylogeny based on gene sequence homology, however not with geographical location. In conclusion, a wide range of AHL signals are produced by a number of clades in the Vibrionaceae family and these results will allow future investigations of inter- and intra-species interactions within this cosmopolitan family of marine bacteria. PMID:25419995

  3. Influence of quorum sensing in multiple phenotypes of the bacterial pathogen Chromobacterium violaceum.

    PubMed

    de Oca-Mejía, Marielba Montes; Castillo-Juárez, Israel; Martínez-Vázquez, Mariano; Soto-Hernandez, Marcos; García-Contreras, Rodolfo

    2015-03-01

    Chromobacterium violaceum is a bacterial pathogen that communicates through quorum sensing (QS), via the C6-homoserine lactone signal (C6-HSL). It is well known that the production of the pigment violacein is controlled by QS in this microorganism, in fact QS-dependent violacein production is widely used as a marker to evaluate the efficiency of potential anti-QS molecules, such as those extracted from plants. In addition to violacein, the production of chitinase is also known to be controlled by QS, but besides those two phenotypes there is a lack of experimental studies aimed to discover additional process controlled by QS in this organism; therefore, in this work the production of exoprotease, aggregation, biofilm formation, swarming motility, H2O2 resistance as well as carbon and nitrogen utilization was determined in the wild-type strain and the QS negative mutant CVO26. Our results indicate that alkaline exoprotease activity is QS controlled in this organism, that QS increases aggregation, biofilm formation, swarming, that may increase H2O2 stress tolerance, and that it may influence the utilization of several carbon and nitrogen sources. PMID:25722489

  4. Cinnamaldehyde and cinnamaldehyde derivatives reduce virulence in Vibrio spp. by decreasing the DNA-binding activity of the quorum sensing response regulator LuxR

    PubMed Central

    Brackman, Gilles; Defoirdt, Tom; Miyamoto, Carol; Bossier, Peter; Van Calenbergh, Serge; Nelis, Hans; Coenye, Tom

    2008-01-01

    Background To date, only few compounds targeting the AI-2 based quorum sensing (QS) system are known. In the present study, we screened cinnamaldehyde and substituted cinnamaldehydes for their ability to interfere with AI-2 based QS. The mechanism of QS inhibition was elucidated by measuring the effect on bioluminescence in several Vibrio harveyi mutants. We also studied in vitro the ability of these compounds to interfere with biofilm formation, stress response and virulence of Vibrio spp. The compounds were also evaluated in an in vivo assay measuring the reduction of Vibrio harveyi virulence towards Artemia shrimp. Results Our results indicate that cinnamaldehyde and several substituted derivatives interfere with AI-2 based QS without inhibiting bacterial growth. The active compounds neither interfered with the bioluminescence system as such, nor with the production of AI-2. Study of the effect in various mutants suggested that the target protein is LuxR. Mobility shift assays revealed a decreased DNA-binding ability of LuxR. The compounds were further shown to (i) inhibit biofilm formation in several Vibrio spp., (ii) result in a reduced ability to survive starvation and antibiotic treatment, (iii) reduce pigment and protease production in Vibrio anguillarum and (iv) protect gnotobiotic Artemia shrimp against virulent Vibrio harveyi BB120. Conclusion Cinnamaldehyde and cinnamaldehyde derivatives interfere with AI-2 based QS in various Vibrio spp. by decreasing the DNA-binding ability of LuxR. The use of these compounds resulted in several marked phenotypic changes, including reduced virulence and increased susceptibility to stress. Since inhibitors of AI-2 based quorum sensing are rare, and considering the role of AI-2 in several processes these compounds may be useful leads towards antipathogenic drugs. PMID:18793453

  5. Genome wide dissection of the quorum sensing signaling pathway in Trypanosoma brucei

    PubMed Central

    Ivens, Alasdair; Rojas, Federico; Cowton, Andrew; Young, Julie; Horn, David; Matthews, Keith

    2013-01-01

    The protozoan parasites Trypanosoma brucei spp. cause important human and livestock diseases in sub Saharan Africa. In the mammalian blood, two developmental forms of the parasite exist: proliferative ‘slender’ forms and arrested ‘stumpy’ forms that are responsible for transmission to tsetse flies. The slender to stumpy differentiation is a density-dependent response that resembles quorum sensing (QS) in microbial systems and is crucial for the parasite life cycle, ensuring both infection chronicity and disease transmission1. This response is triggered by an elusive ‘stumpy induction factor’ (SIF) whose intracellular signaling pathway is also uncharacterized. Laboratory-adapted (monomorphic) trypanosome strains respond inefficiently to SIF but can generate forms with stumpy characteristics when exposed to cell permeable cAMP and AMP analogues. Exploiting this, we have used a genome-wide RNAi library screen to identify the signaling components driving stumpy formation. In separate screens, monomorphic parasites were exposed to 8-(4-chlorophenylthio)-cAMP (pCPTcAMP) or 8-pCPT-2?-O-Me-5?-AMP to select cells that were unresponsive to these signals and hence remained proliferative. Genome-wide ion torrent-based RNA interference Target sequencing identified cohorts of genes implicated in each step of the signaling pathway, from purine metabolism, through signal transducers (kinases, phosphatases) to gene expression regulators. Genes at each step were independently validated in cells naturally capable of stumpy formation, confirming their role in density sensing in vivo, whilst the putative RNA-binding protein, RBP7, was required for normal QS and promoted cell-cycle arrest and transmission competence when overexpressed. This study reveals that QS signaling in trypanosomes shares similarities to fundamental quiescence pathways in eukaryotic cells, its components providing targets for QS-interference based therapeutics. PMID:24336212

  6. Secondary Metabolites Produced by the Marine Bacterium Halobacillus salinus That Inhibit Quorum Sensing-Controlled Phenotypes in Gram-Negative Bacteria?

    PubMed Central

    Teasdale, Margaret E.; Liu, Jiayuan; Wallace, Joselynn; Akhlaghi, Fatemeh; Rowley, David C.

    2009-01-01

    Certain bacteria use cell-to-cell chemical communication to coordinate community-wide phenotypic expression, including swarming motility, antibiotic biosynthesis, and biofilm production. Here we present a marine gram-positive bacterium that secretes secondary metabolites capable of quenching quorum sensing-controlled behaviors in several gram-negative reporter strains. Isolate C42, a Halobacillus salinus strain obtained from a sea grass sample, inhibits bioluminescence production by Vibrio harveyi in cocultivation experiments. With the use of bioassay-guided fractionation, two phenethylamide metabolites were identified as the active agents. The compounds additionally inhibit quorum sensing-regulated violacein biosynthesis by Chromobacterium violaceum CV026 and green fluorescent protein production by Escherichia coli JB525. Bacterial growth was unaffected at concentrations below 200 ?g/ml. Evidence is presented that these nontoxic metabolites may act as antagonists of bacterial quorum sensing by competing with N-acyl homoserine lactones for receptor binding. PMID:19060172

  7. Targeting agr- and agr-Like Quorum Sensing Systems for Development of Common Therapeutics to Treat Multiple Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Brian; Hall, Pamela; Gresham, Hattie

    2013-01-01

    Invasive infection by the Gram-positive pathogen Staphylococcus aureus is controlled by a four gene operon, agr that encodes a quorum sensing system for the regulation of virulence. While agr has been well studied in S. aureus, the contribution of agr homologues and analogues in other Gram-positive pathogens is just beginning to be understood. Intriguingly, other significant human pathogens, including Clostridium perfringens, Listeria monocytogenes, and Enterococcus faecalis contain agr or analogues linked to virulence. Moreover, other significant human Gram-positive pathogens use peptide based quorum sensing systems to establish or maintain infection. The potential for commonality in aspects of these signaling systems across different species raises the prospect of identifying therapeutics that could target multiple pathogens. Here, we review the status of research into these agr homologues, analogues, and other peptide based quorum sensing systems in Gram-positive pathogens as well as the potential for identifying common pathways and signaling mechanisms for therapeutic discovery. PMID:23598501

  8. Synthetic analogs of bacterial quorum sensors

    DOEpatents

    Iyer, Rashi S.; Ganguly, Kumkum; Silks, Louis A.

    2013-01-08

    Bacterial quorum-sensing molecule analogs having the following structures: ##STR00001## and methods of reducing bacterial pathogenicity, comprising providing a biological system comprising pathogenic bacteria which produce natural quorum-sensing molecule; providing a synthetic bacterial quorum-sensing molecule having the above structures and introducing the synthetic quorum-sensing molecule into the biological system comprising pathogenic bacteria. Further is provided a method of targeted delivery of an antibiotic, comprising providing a synthetic quorum-sensing molecule; chemically linking the synthetic quorum-sensing molecule to an antibiotic to produce a quorum-sensing molecule-antibiotic conjugate; and introducing the conjugate into a biological system comprising pathogenic bacteria susceptible to the antibiotic.

  9. Synthetic analogs of bacterial quorum sensors

    DOEpatents

    Iyer, Rashi (Los Alamos, NM); Ganguly, Kumkum (Los Alamos, NM); Silks, Louis A. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2011-12-06

    Bacterial quorum-sensing molecule analogs having the following structures: ##STR00001## and methods of reducing bacterial pathogenicity, comprising providing a biological system comprising pathogenic bacteria which produce natural quorum-sensing molecule; providing a synthetic bacterial quorum-sensing molecule having the above structures and introducing the synthetic quorum-sensing molecule into the biological system comprising pathogenic bacteria. Further is provided a method of targeted delivery of an antibiotic, comprising providing a synthetic quorum-sensing molecule; chemically linking the synthetic quorum-sensing molecule to an antibiotic to produce a quorum-sensing molecule-antibiotic conjugate; and introducing the conjugate into a biological system comprising pathogenic bacteria susceptible to the antibiotic.

  10. Marine-Derived Quorum-Sensing Inhibitory Activities Enhance the Antibacterial Efficacy of Tobramycin against Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Busetti, Alessandro; Shaw, George; Megaw, Julianne; Gorman, Sean P.; Maggs, Christine A.; Gilmore, Brendan F.

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial epiphytes isolated from marine eukaryotes were screened for the production of quorum sensing inhibitory compounds (QSIs). Marine isolate KS8, identified as a Pseudoalteromonas sp., was found to display strong quorum sensing inhibitory (QSI) activity against acyl homoserine lactone (AHL)-based reporter strains Chromobacterium violaceum ATCC 12472 and CV026. KS8 supernatant significantly reduced biofilm biomass during biofilm formation (?63%) and in pre-established, mature P. aeruginosa PAO1 biofilms (?33%). KS8 supernatant also caused a 0.97-log reduction (?89%) and a 2-log reduction (?99%) in PAO1 biofilm viable counts in the biofilm formation assay and the biofilm eradication assay respectively. The crude organic extract of KS8 had a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 2 mg/mL against PAO1 but no minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) was observed over the concentration range tested (MBC > 16 mg/mL). Sub-MIC concentrations (1 mg/mL) of KS8 crude organic extract significantly reduced the quorum sensing (QS)-dependent production of both pyoverdin and pyocyanin in P. aeruginosa PAO1 without affecting growth. A combinatorial approach using tobramycin and the crude organic extract at 1 mg/mL against planktonic P. aeruginosa PAO1 was found to increase the efficacy of tobramycin ten-fold, decreasing the MIC from 0.75 to 0.075 µg/mL. These data support the validity of approaches combining conventional antibiotic therapy with non-antibiotic compounds to improve the efficacy of current treatments. PMID:25546516

  11. Endophytic Bacteria Isolated from Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) Exhibiting High Variability Showed Antimicrobial Activity and Quorum Sensing Inhibition.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Ralf Bruno Moura; Costa, Leonardo Emanuel de Oliveira; Vanetti, Maria Cristina Dantas; de Araújo, Elza Fernandes; de Queiroz, Marisa Vieira

    2015-10-01

    Endophytic bacteria play a key role in the biocontrol of phytopathogenic microorganisms. In this study, genotypic diversity was analyzed via repetitive element PCR (rep-PCR) of endophytic isolates of the phylum Actinobacteria that were previously collected from leaves of cultivars of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). Considerable variability was observed, which has not been reported previously for this phylum of endophytic bacteria of the common bean. Furthermore, the ethanol extracts from cultures of various isolates inhibited the growth of pathogenic bacteria in vitro, especially Gram-positive pathogens. Extracts from cultures of Microbacterium testaceum BAC1065 and BAC1093, which were both isolated from the 'Talismã' cultivar, strongly inhibited most of the pathogenic bacteria tested. Bean endophytic bacteria were also demonstrated to have the potential to inhibit the quorum sensing of Gram-negative bacteria. This mechanism may regulate the production of virulence factors in pathogens. The ability to inhibit quorum sensing has also not been reported previously for endophytic microorganisms of P. vulgaris. Furthermore, M. testaceum with capacity to inhibit quorum sensing appears to be widespread in common bean. The genomic profiles of M. testaceum were also analyzed via pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, and greater differentiation was observed using this method than rep-PCR; in general, no groups were formed based on the cultivar of origin. This study showed for the first time that endophytic bacteria from common bean plants exhibit high variability and may be useful for the development of strategies for the biological control of diseases in this important legume plant. PMID:26202846

  12. Pyocyanin Stimulates Quorum Sensing-Mediated Tolerance to Oxidative Stress and Increases Persister Cell Populations in Acinetobacter baumannii

    PubMed Central

    Bhargava, Nidhi; Sharma, Prince

    2014-01-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa are nosocomial pathogens with overlapping sites of infection. This work reports that the two can coexist stably in mixed-culture biofilms. In a study intended to improve our understanding of the mechanism of their coexistence, it was found that pyocyanin, produced by P. aeruginosa that generally eliminates competition from other pathogens, led to the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in A. baumannii cells, which in response showed a significant (P ? 0.05) increase in production of enzymes, specifically, catalase and superoxide dismutase (SOD). This work shows for the first time that the expression of catalase and SOD is under the control of a quorum-sensing system in A. baumannii. In support of this observation, a quorum-sensing mutant of A. baumannii (abaI::Km) was found to be sensitive to pyocyanin compared to its wild type and showed significantly (P ? 0.001) lower levels of the antioxidant enzymes, which increased on addition of 5 ?M N-(3-hydroxydodecanoyl)-l-homoserine lactone. Likewise, in wild-type A. baumannii, there was a significant (P < 0.01) decrease in the level of anti-oxidant enzymes in the presence of salicylic acid, a known quencher of quorum sensing. In the presence of amikacin and carbenicillin, A. baumannii formed 0.07 and 0.02% persister cells, which increased 4- and 3-fold, respectively, in the presence of pyocyanin. These findings show that pyocyanin induces a protective mechanism in A. baumannii against oxidative stress and also increases its persistence against antibiotics which could be of clinical significance in the case of coinfections with A. baumannii and P. aeruginosa. PMID:24891106

  13. Ribosomal frameshifting and dual-target antiactivation restrict quorum-sensing-activated transfer of a mobile genetic element.

    PubMed

    Ramsay, Joshua P; Tester, Laura G L; Major, Anthony S; Sullivan, John T; Edgar, Christina D; Kleffmann, Torsten; Patterson-House, Jackson R; Hall, Drew A; Tate, Warren P; Hynes, Michael F; Ronson, Clive W

    2015-03-31

    Symbiosis islands are integrative and conjugative mobile genetic elements that convert nonsymbiotic rhizobia into nitrogen-fixing symbionts of leguminous plants. Excision of the Mesorhizobium loti symbiosis island ICEMlSym(R7A) is indirectly activated by quorum sensing through TraR-dependent activation of the excisionase gene rdfS. Here we show that a +1 programmed ribosomal frameshift (PRF) fuses the coding sequences of two TraR-activated genes, msi172 and msi171, producing an activator of rdfS expression named Frameshifted excision activator (FseA). Mass-spectrometry and mutational analyses indicated that the PRF occurred through +1 slippage of the tRNA(phe) from UUU to UUC within a conserved msi172-encoded motif. FseA activated rdfS expression in the absence of ICEMlSym(R7A), suggesting that it directly activated rdfS transcription, despite being unrelated to any characterized DNA-binding proteins. Bacterial two-hybrid and gene-reporter assays demonstrated that FseA was also bound and inhibited by the ICEMlSym(R7A)-encoded quorum-sensing antiactivator QseM. Thus, activation of ICEMlSym(R7A) excision is counteracted by TraR antiactivation, ribosomal frameshifting, and FseA antiactivation. This robust suppression likely dampens the inherent biological noise present in the quorum-sensing autoinduction circuit and ensures that ICEMlSym(R7A) transfer only occurs in a subpopulation of cells in which both qseM expression is repressed and FseA is translated. The architecture of the ICEMlSym(R7A) transfer regulatory system provides an example of how a set of modular components have assembled through evolution to form a robust genetic toggle that regulates gene transcription and translation at both single-cell and cell-population levels. PMID:25787256

  14. Decoding the genetic and functional diversity of the DSF quorum-sensing system in Stenotrophomonas maltophilia

    PubMed Central

    Huedo, Pol; Yero, Daniel; Martinez-Servat, Sònia; Ruyra, Àngels; Roher, Nerea; Daura, Xavier; Gibert, Isidre

    2015-01-01

    Stenotrophomonas maltophilia uses the Diffusible Signal Factor (DSF) quorum sensing (QS) system to mediate intra- and inter-specific signaling and regulate virulence-related processes. The components of this system are encoded by the rpf cluster, with genes rpfF and rpfC encoding for the DSF synthase RpfF and sensor RpfC, respectively. Recently, we have shown that there exist two variants of the rpf cluster (rpf-1 and rpf-2), distinguishing two groups of S. maltophilia strains. Surprisingly, only rpf-1 strains produce detectable DSF, correlating with their ability to control biofilm formation, swarming motility and virulence. The evolutive advantage of acquiring two different rpf clusters, the phylogenetic time point and mechanism of this acquisition and the conditions that activate DSF production in rpf-2 strains, are however not known. Examination of this cluster in various species suggests that its variability originated most probably by genetic exchange between rhizosphere bacteria. We propose that rpf-2 variant strains make use of a strategy recently termed as “social cheating.” Analysis of cellular and extracellular fatty acids (FAs) of strains E77 (rpf-1) and M30 (rpf-2) suggests that their RpfFs have also a thioesterase activity that facilitates the release of unspecific FAs to the medium in addition to DSF. Production of DSF in rpf-1 strains appears in fact to be modulated by some of these extracellular FAs in addition to other factors such as temperature and nutrients, while in rpf-2 strains DSF biosynthesis is derepressed only upon detection of DSF itself, suggesting that they require cohabitation with DSF-producer bacteria to activate their DSF regulatory machinery. Finally, we show that the mixed rpf-1/rpf-2 population presents synergism in DSF production and virulence capacity in an in vivo infection model. Recovery and quantification of DSF from co-infected animals correlates with the observed mortality rate. PMID:26284046

  15. Staphylococcus epidermidis agr Quorum-Sensing System: Signal Identification, Cross Talk, and Importance in Colonization

    PubMed Central

    Olson, Michael E.; Todd, Daniel A.; Schaeffer, Carolyn R.; Paharik, Alexandra E.; Van Dyke, Michael J.; Büttner, Henning; Dunman, Paul M.; Rohde, Holger; Cech, Nadja B.; Fey, Paul D.

    2014-01-01

    Staphylococcus epidermidis is an opportunistic pathogen that is one of the leading causes of medical device infections. Global regulators like the agr quorum-sensing system in this pathogen have received a limited amount of attention, leaving important questions unanswered. There are three agr types in S. epidermidis strains, but only one of the autoinducing peptide (AIP) signals has been identified (AIP-I), and cross talk between agr systems has not been tested. We structurally characterized all three AIP types using mass spectrometry and discovered that the AIP-II and AIP-III signals are 12 residues in length, making them the largest staphylococcal AIPs identified to date. S. epidermidis agr reporter strains were developed for each system, and we determined that cross-inhibitory interactions occur between the agr type I and II systems and between the agr type I and III systems. In contrast, no cross talk was observed between the type II and III systems. To further understand the outputs of the S. epidermidis agr system, an RNAIII mutant was constructed, and microarray studies revealed that exoenzymes (Ecp protease and Geh lipase) and low-molecular-weight toxins were downregulated in the mutant. Follow-up analysis of Ecp confirmed the RNAIII is required to induce protease activity and that agr cross talk modulates Ecp activity in a manner that mirrors the agr reporter results. Finally, we demonstrated that the agr system enhances skin colonization by S. epidermidis using a porcine model. This work expands our knowledge of S. epidermidis agr system function and will aid future studies on cell-cell communication in this important opportunistic pathogen. PMID:25070736

  16. Identification and Characterization of a Second Quorum-Sensing System in Agrobacterium tumefaciens A6

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chao; Yan, Chunlan; Fuqua, Clay

    2014-01-01

    Quorum sensing (QS) is a widespread mechanism of bacterial communication in which individual cells produce and respond to small chemical signals. In Agrobacterium tumefaciens, an acylhomoserine lactone-dependent QS mechanism is known to regulate the replication and conjugation of the tumor-inducing (Ti) plasmid. Most of the QS regulatory proteins are encoded within the Ti plasmid. Among them, TraI is the LuxI-type enzyme synthesizing the QS signal N-3-oxooctanoyl-l-homoserine lactone (3OC8HSL), TraR is the LuxR-type transcriptional factor that recognizes 3OC8HSL, and TraM is an antiactivator that antagonizes TraR. Recently, we identified a TraM homolog encoded by the traM2 gene in the chromosomal background of A. tumefaciens A6. In this study, we further identified additional homologs (TraI2 and TraR2) of TraI and TraR in this strain. We showed that similar to TraI, TraI2 could predominantly synthesize the QS signal 3OC8HSL. We also showed that TraR2 could recognize 3OC8HSL and activate the tra box-containing promoters as efficiently as TraR. Further analysis showed that traM2, traI2, and traR2 are physically linked on a mobile genetic element that is not related to the Ti plasmid. These findings indicate that A. tumefaciens A6 carries a second QS system that may play a redundant role in the regulation of the replication and conjugation of the Ti plasmid. PMID:24464459

  17. Quadruple quorum-sensing inputs control Vibrio cholerae virulence and maintain system robustness.

    PubMed

    Jung, Sarah A; Chapman, Christine A; Ng, Wai-Leung

    2015-04-01

    Bacteria use quorum sensing (QS) for cell-cell communication to carry out group behaviors. This intercellular signaling process relies on cell density-dependent production and detection of chemical signals called autoinducers (AIs). Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of cholera, detects two AIs, CAI-1 and AI-2, with two histidine kinases, CqsS and LuxQ, respectively, to control biofilm formation and virulence factor production. At low cell density, these two signal receptors function in parallel to activate the key regulator LuxO, which is essential for virulence of this pathogen. At high cell density, binding of AIs to their respective receptors leads to deactivation of LuxO and repression of virulence factor production. However, mutants lacking CqsS and LuxQ maintain a normal LuxO activation level and remain virulent, suggesting that LuxO is activated by additional, unidentified signaling pathways. Here we show that two other histidine kinases, CqsR (formerly known as VC1831) and VpsS, act upstream in the central QS circuit of V. cholerae to activate LuxO. V. cholerae strains expressing any one of these four receptors are QS proficient and capable of colonizing animal hosts. In contrast, mutants lacking all four receptors are phenotypically identical to LuxO-defective mutants. Importantly, these four functionally redundant receptors act together to prevent premature induction of a QS response caused by signal perturbations. We suggest that the V. cholerae QS circuit is composed of quadruple sensory inputs and has evolved to be refractory to sporadic AI level perturbations. PMID:25874462

  18. Cold Plasma Inactivation of Bacterial Biofilms and Reduction of Quorum Sensing Regulated Virulence Factors

    PubMed Central

    Ziuzina, Dana; Boehm, Daniela; Patil, Sonal; Cullen, P. J.; Bourke, Paula

    2015-01-01

    The main objectives of this work were to investigate the effect of atmospheric cold plasma (ACP) against a range of microbial biofilms commonly implicated in foodborne and healthcare associated human infections and against P. aeruginosa quorum sensing (QS)-regulated virulence factors, such as pyocyanin, elastase (Las B) and biofilm formation capacity post-ACP treatment. The effect of processing factors, namely treatment time and mode of plasma exposure on antimicrobial activity of ACP were also examined. Antibiofilm activity was assessed for E. coli, L. monocytogenes and S. aureus in terms of reduction of culturability and retention of metabolic activity using colony count and XTT assays, respectively. All samples were treated ‘inpack’ using sealed polypropylene containers with a high voltage dielectric barrier discharge ACP generated at 80 kV for 0, 60, 120 and 300 s and a post treatment storage time of 24 h. According to colony counts, ACP treatment for 60 s reduced populations of E. coli to undetectable levels, whereas 300 s was necessary to significantly reduce populations of L. monocytogenes and S. aureus biofilms. The results obtained from XTT assay indicated possible induction of viable but non culturable state of bacteria. With respect to P. aeruginosa QS-related virulence factors, the production of pyocyanin was significantly inhibited after short treatment times, but reduction of elastase was notable only after 300 s and no reduction in actual biofilm formation was achieved post-ACP treatment. Importantly, reduction of virulence factors was associated with reduction of the cytotoxic effects of the bacterial supernatant on CHO-K1 cells, regardless of mode and duration of treatment. The results of this study point to ACP technology as an effective strategy for inactivation of established biofilms and may play an important role in attenuation of virulence of pathogenic bacteria. Further investigation is warranted to propose direct evidence for the inhibition of QS and mechanisms by which this may occur. PMID:26390435

  19. Acyl-Homoserine Lactone Recognition and Response Hindering the Quorum-Sensing Regulator EsaR

    PubMed Central

    Schu, Daniel J.; Scruggs, Jessica M.; Geissinger, Jared S.; Michel, Katherine G.; Stevens, Ann M.

    2014-01-01

    During quorum sensing in the plant pathogen Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii, EsaI, an acyl-homoserine lactone (AHL) synthase, and the transcription factor EsaR coordinately control capsular polysaccharide production. The capsule is expressed only at high cell density when AHL levels are high, leading to inactivation of EsaR. In lieu of detailed structural information, the precise mechanism whereby EsaR recognizes AHL and is hindered by it, in a response opposite to that of most other LuxR homologues, remains unresolved. Hence, a random mutagenesis genetic approach was designed to isolate EsaR* variants that are immune to the effects of AHL. Error-prone PCR was used to generate the desired mutants, which were subsequently screened for their ability to repress transcription in the presence of AHL. Following sequencing, site-directed mutagenesis was used to generate all possible mutations of interest as single, rather than multiple amino acid substitutions. Eight individual amino acids playing a critical role in the AHL-insensitive phenotype have been identified. The ability of EsaR* variants to bind AHL and the effect of individual substitutions on the overall conformation of the protein were examined through in vitro assays. Six EsaR* variants had a decreased ability to bind AHL. Fluorescence anisotropy was used to examine the relative DNA binding affinity of the final two EsaR* variants, which retained some AHL binding capability but remained unresponsive to it, perhaps due to an inability of the N-terminal domain to transduce information to the C-terminal domain. PMID:25238602

  20. Non-social adaptation defers a tragedy of the commons in Pseudomonas aeruginosa quorum sensing.

    PubMed

    Asfahl, Kyle L; Walsh, Jessica; Gilbert, Kerrigan; Schuster, Martin

    2015-08-01

    In a process termed quorum sensing (QS), the opportunistic bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa uses diffusible signaling molecules to regulate the expression of numerous secreted factors or public goods that are shared within the population. But not all cells respond to QS signals. These social cheaters typically harbor a mutation in the QS receptor gene lasR and exploit the public goods produced by cooperators. Here we show that non-social adaptation under growth conditions that require QS-dependent public goods increases tolerance to cheating and defers a tragedy of the commons. The underlying mutation is in the transcriptional repressor gene psdR. This mutation has no effect on public goods expression but instead increases individual fitness by derepressing growth-limiting intracellular metabolism. Even though psdR mutant populations remain susceptible to invasion by isogenic psdR lasR cheaters, they bear a lower cheater load than do wild-type populations, and they are completely resistant to invasion by lasR cheaters with functional psdR. Mutations in psdR also sustain growth near wild-type levels when paired with certain partial loss-of-function lasR mutations. Targeted sequencing of multiple evolved isolates revealed that mutations in psdR arise before mutations in lasR, and rapidly sweep through the population. Our results indicate that a QS-favoring environment can lead to adaptations in non-social, intracellular traits that increase the fitness of cooperating individuals and thereby contribute to population-wide maintenance of QS and associated cooperative behaviors. PMID:25615439

  1. Punicalagin Inhibits Salmonella Virulence Factors and Has Anti-Quorum-Sensing Potential

    PubMed Central

    Li, Guanghui; Yan, Chunhong; Xu, Yunfeng; Feng, Yuqing; Wu, Qian; Lv, Xiaoying; Yang, Baowei; Wang, Xin

    2014-01-01

    Punicalagin, an essential component of pomegranate rind, has been demonstrated to possess antimicrobial activity against several food-borne pathogens, but its activity on the virulence of pathogens and its anti-quorum-sensing (anti-QS) potential have been rarely reported. This study investigated the efficacy of subinhibitory concentrations of punicalagin on Salmonella virulence factors and QS systems. A broth microdilution method was used to determine the MICs of punicalagin for 10 Salmonella strains. Motility assay and quantitative reverse transcription (RT)-PCR were performed to evaluate the effects of punicalagin on the virulence attributes and QS-related genes of Salmonella. The MICs of punicalagin for several Salmonella strains ranged from 250 to 1,000 ?g/ml. Motility assays showed that punicalagin, at 1/16× MIC and 1/32× MIC, significantly decreased bacterial swimming and swarming motility, which corresponded to downregulation of the motility-related genes (fliA, fliY, fljB, flhC, and fimD) in RT-PCR assays. RT-PCR also revealed that punicalagin downregulated the expression of most of the selected genes involved in Salmonella virulence. Moreover, a QS inhibition assay indicated that punicalagin dose dependently inhibited the production of violacein by Chromobacterium violaceum and repressed the expression of QS-related genes (sdiA and srgE) in Salmonella. In addition, punicalagin significantly reduced Salmonella invasion of colonic cells (P < 0.01) with no impact on adhesion. These findings suggest that punicalagin has the potential to be developed as an alternative or supplemental agent for prevention of Salmonella infection. PMID:25085489

  2. Cold Plasma Inactivation of Bacterial Biofilms and Reduction of Quorum Sensing Regulated Virulence Factors.

    PubMed

    Ziuzina, Dana; Boehm, Daniela; Patil, Sonal; Cullen, P J; Bourke, Paula

    2015-01-01

    The main objectives of this work were to investigate the effect of atmospheric cold plasma (ACP) against a range of microbial biofilms commonly implicated in foodborne and healthcare associated human infections and against P. aeruginosa quorum sensing (QS)-regulated virulence factors, such as pyocyanin, elastase (Las B) and biofilm formation capacity post-ACP treatment. The effect of processing factors, namely treatment time and mode of plasma exposure on antimicrobial activity of ACP were also examined. Antibiofilm activity was assessed for E. coli, L. monocytogenes and S. aureus in terms of reduction of culturability and retention of metabolic activity using colony count and XTT assays, respectively. All samples were treated 'inpack' using sealed polypropylene containers with a high voltage dielectric barrier discharge ACP generated at 80 kV for 0, 60, 120 and 300 s and a post treatment storage time of 24 h. According to colony counts, ACP treatment for 60 s reduced populations of E. coli to undetectable levels, whereas 300 s was necessary to significantly reduce populations of L. monocytogenes and S. aureus biofilms. The results obtained from XTT assay indicated possible induction of viable but non culturable state of bacteria. With respect to P. aeruginosa QS-related virulence factors, the production of pyocyanin was significantly inhibited after short treatment times, but reduction of elastase was notable only after 300 s and no reduction in actual biofilm formation was achieved post-ACP treatment. Importantly, reduction of virulence factors was associated with reduction of the cytotoxic effects of the bacterial supernatant on CHO-K1 cells, regardless of mode and duration of treatment. The results of this study point to ACP technology as an effective strategy for inactivation of established biofilms and may play an important role in attenuation of virulence of pathogenic bacteria. Further investigation is warranted to propose direct evidence for the inhibition of QS and mechanisms by which this may occur. PMID:26390435

  3. The DSF Quorum Sensing System Controls the Positive Influence of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia on Plants

    PubMed Central

    Alavi, Peyman; Müller, Henry; Cardinale, Massimiliano; Zachow, Christin; Sánchez, María B.; Martínez, José Luis; Berg, Gabriele

    2013-01-01

    The interaction of the Gram-negative bacterium Stenotrophomonas maltophilia with eukaryotes can improve overall plant growth and health, but can also cause opportunistic infections in humans. While the quorum sensing molecule DSF (diffusible signal factor) is responsible for the regulation of phenotypes in pathogenic Stenotrophomonas, up until now, no beneficial effects were reported to be controlled by it. Our objective was to study the function of DSF in the plant growth promoting model strain S. maltophilia R551-3 using functional and transcriptomic analyses. For this purpose, we compared the wild-type strain with a mutant deficient in the rpfF (regulation of pathogenicity factors) gene that is essential for the synthesis of DSF. Oilseed rape seeds treated with the wild-type strain showed a statistically significant increase in germination rate compared with those treated with the rpfF mutant. Similarly, the wild-type strain exhibited better plant growth promotion and a greater efficiency in colonizing oilseed rape compared to the mutant strain. Moreover, only the wild-type was capable of forming structured cell aggregates both in vitro and in the rhizosphere, a characteristic mediated by DSF. Gene transcription analyses showed that numerous genes known to play a role in plant colonization (e.g. chemotaxis, cell motility, biofilm formation, multidrug efflux pumps) are controlled by the rpf/DSF system in S. maltophilia. In addition, we detected new potential functions of spermidine, primarily for both growth promotion and stress protection. Overall, our results showed a correspondence between the regulation of DSF and the positive interaction effect with the plant host. PMID:23874407

  4. Quercetin Sensitizes Fluconazole-Resistant Candida albicans To Induce Apoptotic Cell Death by Modulating Quorum Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Singh, B. R.; Pandey, G.; Verma, S.; Roy, S.; Naqvi, A. H.

    2015-01-01

    Quorum sensing (QS) regulates group behaviors of Candida albicans such as biofilm, hyphal growth, and virulence factors. The sesquiterpene alcohol farnesol, a QS molecule produced by C. albicans, is known to regulate the expression of virulence weapons of this fungus. Fluconazole (FCZ) is a broad-spectrum antifungal drug that is used for the treatment of C. albicans infections. While FCZ can be cytotoxic at high concentrations, our results show that at much lower concentrations, quercetin (QC), a dietary flavonoid isolated from an edible lichen (Usnea longissima), can be implemented as a sensitizing agent for FCZ-resistant C. albicans NBC099, enhancing the efficacy of FCZ. QC enhanced FCZ-mediated cell killing of NBC099 and also induced cell death. These experiments indicated that the combined application of both drugs was FCZ dose dependent rather than QC dose dependent. In addition, we found that QC strongly suppressed the production of virulence weapons—biofilm formation, hyphal development, phospholipase, proteinase, esterase, and hemolytic activity. Treatment with QC also increased FCZ-mediated cell death in NBC099 biofilms. Interestingly, we also found that QC enhances the anticandidal activity of FCZ by inducing apoptotic cell death. We have also established that this sensitization is reliant on the farnesol response generated by QC. Molecular docking studies also support this conclusion and suggest that QC can form hydrogen bonds with Gln969, Thr1105, Ser1108, Arg1109, Asn1110, and Gly1061 in the ATP binding pocket of adenylate cyclase. Thus, this QS-mediated combined sensitizer (QC)-anticandidal agent (FCZ) strategy may be a novel way to enhance the efficacy of FCZ-based therapy of C. albicans infections. PMID:25645848

  5. The Fungal Quorum-Sensing Molecule Farnesol Activates Innate Immune Cells but Suppresses Cellular Adaptive Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Leonhardt, Ines; Spielberg, Steffi; Weber, Michael; Albrecht-Eckardt, Daniela; Bläss, Markus; Claus, Ralf; Barz, Dagmar; Scherlach, Kirstin; Hertweck, Christian; Löffler, Jürgen; Hünniger, Kerstin

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Farnesol, produced by the polymorphic fungus Candida albicans, is the first quorum-sensing molecule discovered in eukaryotes. Its main function is control of C. albicans filamentation, a process closely linked to pathogenesis. In this study, we analyzed the effects of farnesol on innate immune cells known to be important for fungal clearance and protective immunity. Farnesol enhanced the expression of activation markers on monocytes (CD86 and HLA-DR) and neutrophils (CD66b and CD11b) and promoted oxidative burst and the release of proinflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor alpha [TNF-?] and macrophage inflammatory protein 1 alpha [MIP-1?]). However, this activation did not result in enhanced fungal uptake or killing. Furthermore, the differentiation of monocytes to immature dendritic cells (iDC) was significantly affected by farnesol. Several markers important for maturation and antigen presentation like CD1a, CD83, CD86, and CD80 were significantly reduced in the presence of farnesol. Furthermore, farnesol modulated migrational behavior and cytokine release and impaired the ability of DC to induce T cell proliferation. Of major importance was the absence of interleukin 12 (IL-12) induction in iDC generated in the presence of farnesol. Transcriptome analyses revealed a farnesol-induced shift in effector molecule expression and a down-regulation of the granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) receptor during monocytes to iDC differentiation. Taken together, our data unveil the ability of farnesol to act as a virulence factor of C. albicans by influencing innate immune cells to promote inflammation and mitigating the Th1 response, which is essential for fungal clearance. PMID:25784697

  6. Interference of quorum sensing in urinary pathogen Serratia marcescens by Anethum graveolens.

    PubMed

    Salini, Ramesh; Pandian, Shunmugiah Karutha

    2015-08-01

    Serratia marcescens is an opportunistic turned obligate pathogen frequently associated with urinary tract infections (UTI) and are multidrug resistant at most instances. Quorum sensing (QS) system, a population-dependent global regulatory system, controls the pathogenesis machinery of S. marcescens as it does in other pathogens. In the present study, methanol extract of a common herb and spice, Anethum graveolens (AGME) was assessed for its anti-QS potential against the clinical isolate of S. marcescens. AGME notably reduced the biofilm formation and QS-dependent virulence factors production in a concentration-dependent manner (64-1024 ?g mL(-1)). The light and confocal microscopic images clearly evidenced the antibiofilm activity of AGME (256 ?g mL(-1)) at its minimal biofilm inhibitory concentration. Besides, in support of biochemical assays, the expression analysis of QS-regulated genes fimC, bsmA and flhD which are crucial for initial adhesion and motility confirmed their downregulation upon exposure to AGME. LC-MS analysis of AGME revealed 3-O-methyl ellagic acid (3-O-ME) as one of its active principles having nearly similar antibiofilm activity and a reduced inhibition of prodigiosin (27%) and protease (15%) compared to AGME [prodigiosin (47%) and protease (50%)]. UFLC analysis revealed that 0.355 mg g(-1) of 3-O-ME was present in the AGME. AGME and the 3-O-ME significantly interfered the QS system of a QS model strain S. marcescens MG1 and its mutant S. marcescens MG44 which in turn corroborates the anti-QS mechanism of AGME. PMID:26013821

  7. Quorum sensing-regulated chitin metabolism provides grazing resistance to Vibrio cholerae biofilms

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Shuyang; Tay, Qi Xiang Martin; Kjelleberg, Staffan; Rice, Scott A; McDougald, Diane

    2015-01-01

    Association of Vibrio cholerae with chitinous surfaces of zooplankton is important for its persistence in marine environments, as it provides accessibility to nutrients and resistance to stresses. Predation by heterotrophic protists has a major impact on the survival of V. cholerae. V. cholerae forms biofilms as its main defensive strategy, and quorum sensing (QS) additionally regulates the production of antiprotozoal factors. The role of chitin and QS regulation in V. cholerae grazing resistance was investigated by exposing V. cholerae wild-type (WT) and QS mutant biofilms grown on chitin flakes to the bacteriotrophic, surface-feeding flagellate Rhynchomonas nasuta. V. cholerae formed more biofilm biomass on chitin flakes compared with nonchitinous surfaces. The growth of R. nasuta was inhibited by WT biofilms grown on chitin flakes, whereas the inhibition was attenuated in QS mutant biofilms. The chitin-dependent toxicity was also observed when the V. cholerae biofilms were developed under continuous flow or grown on a natural chitin source, the exoskeleton of Artemia. In addition, the antiprotozoal activity and ammonium concentration of V. cholerae biofilm supernatants were quantified. The ammonium levels (3.5?mM) detected in the supernatants of V. cholerae WT biofilms grown on chitin flakes were estimated to reduce the number of R. nasuta by >80% in add-back experiments, and the supernatant of QS mutant biofilms was less toxic owing to a decrease in ammonium production. Transcriptomic analysis revealed that the majority of genes involved in chitin metabolism and chemotaxis were significantly downregulated in QS mutant biofilms when grown on chitin compared with the WT biofilms. PMID:25615438

  8. Anaerobiosis-Induced Loss of Cytotoxicity Is Due to Inactivation of Quorum Sensing in Pseudomonas aeruginosa ? †

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kang-Mu; Yoon, Mi Young; Park, Yongjin; Lee, Joon-Hee; Yoon, Sang Sun

    2011-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa, an opportunistic pathogen of clinical importance, causes chronic airway infections in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Current literature suggests that pockets with reduced oxygen tension exist in the CF airway mucus. However, virulence features of this opportunistic pathogen under such conditions are largely unknown. Cell-free supernatant of the standard laboratory P. aeruginosa strain PAO1 obtained from anaerobic culture, but not aerobic culture, failed to kill A549 human airway epithelial cells. Further investigation revealed that this reduced cytotoxicity upon anaerobiosis was due to the suppressed secretion of elastase, a virulence factor controlled by P. aeruginosa quorum sensing (QS). Both a lacZ-reporter fusion assay and quantitative real-time PCR (RT-PCR) analysis demonstrated that transcription of the elastase-encoding lasB gene was substantially decreased during anaerobic growth compared with aerobic growth. Moreover, transcription of other genes controlled by the LasI/R QS system, such as rhlR, vqsR, mvfR, and rsaL, was also repressed under the same anaerobic growth conditions. Importantly, synthesis of 3-oxo-C12-HSL (PAI-1), an autoinducer molecule that mediates induction of the LasI/R QS system, was >22-fold decreased during anaerobic growth while C4-HSL (PAI-2), which mediates RhlI/R QS, was nondetectable under the same growth conditions. Transcription of the lasB gene was restored by exogenous supplementation with autoinducers, with PAI-2 more effective than PAI-1 or Pseudomonas quinolone signal (PQS) at restoring transcription of the lasB gene. Together, these results suggest that anaerobiosis deprives P. aeruginosa of the ability to regulate its virulence via QS and this misregulation attenuates the pathogenic potential of this important pathogen. PMID:21555402

  9. Characterization of Type 2 Quorum Sensing in Klebsiella pneumoniae and Relationship with Biofilm Formation

    PubMed Central

    Balestrino, Damien; Haagensen, Janus A. J.; Rich, Chantal; Forestier, Christiane

    2005-01-01

    Quorum sensing is a process by which bacteria communicate by using secreted chemical signaling molecules called autoinducers. Many bacterial species modulate the expression of a wide variety of physiological functions in response to changes in population density by this mechanism. In this study, the opportunistic pathogen Klebsiella pneumoniae was observed to secrete type 2 signaling molecules. A homologue of luxS, the gene required for AI-2 synthesis in Vibrio harveyi, was isolated from the K. pneumoniae genome. A V. harveyi bioassay showed the luxS functionality in K. pneumoniae and its ability to complement the luxS-negative phenotype of Escherichia coli DH5?. Autoinducer activity was detected in the supernatant, and maximum expression of specific messengers detected by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR analysis occurred during the late exponential phase. The highest levels of AI-2 were observed in minimal medium supplemented with glycerol. To determine the potential role of luxS in colonization processes, a K. pneumoniae luxS isogenic mutant was constructed and tested for its capacity to form biofilms in vitro on an abiotic surface and to colonize the intestinal tract in a murine model. No difference was observed in the level of intestinal colonization between the wild-type strain and the luxS mutant. Microscopic analysis of biofilm structures revealed that the luxS mutant was able to form a mature biofilm but with reduced capacities in the development of microcolonies, mostly in the early steps of biofilm formation. These data suggest that a LuxS-dependent signal plays a role in the early stages of biofilm formation by K. pneumoniae. PMID:15805533

  10. Regulation of Universal Stress Protein Genes by Quorum Sensing and RpoS in Burkholderia glumae

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hongsup; Goo, Eunhye; Kang, Yongsung; Kim, Jinwoo

    2012-01-01

    Burkholderia glumae possesses a quorum-sensing (QS) system mediated by N-octanoyl-homoserine lactone (C8-HSL) and its cognate receptor TofR. TofR/C8-HSL regulates the expression of a transcriptional regulator, qsmR. We identified one of the universal stress proteins (Usps), Usp2, from a genome-wide analysis of QS-dependent proteomes of B. glumae. In the whole genome of B. glumae BGR1, 11 usp genes (usp1 to usp11) were identified. Among the stress conditions tested, usp1 and usp2 mutants died 1 h after heat shock stress, whereas the other usp mutants and the wild-type strain survived for more than 3 h at 45°C. The expressions of all usp genes were positively regulated by QS, directly by QsmR. In addition, the expressions of usp1 and usp2 were dependent on RpoS in the stationary phase, as confirmed by the direct binding of RpoS-RNA holoenzyme to the promoter regions of the usp1 and usp2 genes. The expression of usp1 was upregulated upon a temperature shift from 37°C to either 28°C or 45°C, whereas the expression of usp2 was independent of temperature stress. This indicates that the regulation of usp1 and usp2 expression is different from what is known about Escherichia coli. Compared to the diverse roles of Usps in E. coli, Usps in B. glumae are dedicated to heat shock stress. PMID:22178971

  11. Quadruple Quorum-Sensing Inputs Control Vibrio cholerae Virulence and Maintain System Robustness

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Sarah A.; Chapman, Christine A.; Ng, Wai-Leung

    2015-01-01

    Bacteria use quorum sensing (QS) for cell-cell communication to carry out group behaviors. This intercellular signaling process relies on cell density-dependent production and detection of chemical signals called autoinducers (AIs). Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of cholera, detects two AIs, CAI-1 and AI-2, with two histidine kinases, CqsS and LuxQ, respectively, to control biofilm formation and virulence factor production. At low cell density, these two signal receptors function in parallel to activate the key regulator LuxO, which is essential for virulence of this pathogen. At high cell density, binding of AIs to their respective receptors leads to deactivation of LuxO and repression of virulence factor production. However, mutants lacking CqsS and LuxQ maintain a normal LuxO activation level and remain virulent, suggesting that LuxO is activated by additional, unidentified signaling pathways. Here we show that two other histidine kinases, CqsR (formerly known as VC1831) and VpsS, act upstream in the central QS circuit of V. cholerae to activate LuxO. V. cholerae strains expressing any one of these four receptors are QS proficient and capable of colonizing animal hosts. In contrast, mutants lacking all four receptors are phenotypically identical to LuxO-defective mutants. Importantly, these four functionally redundant receptors act together to prevent premature induction of a QS response caused by signal perturbations. We suggest that the V. cholerae QS circuit is composed of quadruple sensory inputs and has evolved to be refractory to sporadic AI level perturbations. PMID:25874462

  12. Global Analysis of Quorum Sensing Targets in the Intracellular Pathogen Brucella melitensis 16 M

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Many pathogenic bacteria use a regulatory process termed quorum sensing (QS) to produce and detect small diffusible molecules to synchronize gene expression within a population. In Gram-negative bacteria, the detection of, and response to, these molecules depends on transcriptional regulators belonging to the LuxR family. Such a system has been discovered in the intracellular pathogen Brucella melitensis, a Gram-negative bacterium responsible for brucellosis, a worldwide zoonosis that remains a serious public health concern in countries were the disease is endemic. Genes encoding two LuxR-type regulators, VjbR and BabR, have been identified in the genome of B. melitensis 16 M. A ?vjbR mutant is highly attenuated in all experimental models of infection tested, suggesting a crucial role for QS in the virulence of Brucella. At present, no function has been attributed to BabR. The experiments described in this report indicate that 5% of the genes in the B. melitensis 16 M genome are regulated by VjbR and/or BabR, suggesting that QS is a global regulatory system in this bacterium. The overlap between BabR and VjbR targets suggest a cross-talk between these two regulators. Our results also demonstrate that VjbR and BabR regulate many genes and/or proteins involved in stress response, metabolism, and virulence, including those potentially involved in the adaptation of Brucella to the oxidative, pH, and nutritional stresses encountered within the host. These findings highlight the involvement of QS as a major regulatory system in Brucella and lead us to suggest that this regulatory system could participate in the spatial and sequential adaptation of Brucella strains to the host environment. PMID:20387905

  13. Serum Lipoproteins Are Critical for Pulmonary Innate Defense against Staphylococcus aureus Quorum Sensing.

    PubMed

    Manifold-Wheeler, Brett C; Elmore, Bradley O; Triplett, Kathleen D; Castleman, Moriah J; Otto, Michael; Hall, Pamela R

    2016-01-01

    Hyperlipidemia has been extensively studied in the context of atherosclerosis, whereas the potential health consequences of the opposite extreme, hypolipidemia, remain largely uninvestigated. Circulating lipoproteins are essential carriers of insoluble lipid molecules and are increasingly recognized as innate immune effectors. Importantly, severe hypolipidemia, which may occur with trauma or critical illness, is clinically associated with bacterial pneumonia. To test the hypothesis that circulating lipoproteins are essential for optimal host innate defense in the lung, we used lipoprotein-deficient mice and a mouse model of Staphylococcus aureus pneumonia in which invasive infection requires virulence factor expression controlled by the accessory gene regulator (agr) operon. Activation of agr and subsequent virulence factor expression is inhibited by apolipoprotein B, the structural protein of low-density lipoprotein, which binds and sequesters the secreted agr-signaling peptide (AIP). In this article, we report that lipoprotein deficiency impairs early pulmonary innate defense against S. aureus quorum-sensing-dependent pathogenesis. Specifically, apolipoprotein B levels in the lung early postinfection are significantly reduced with lipoprotein deficiency, coinciding with impaired host control of S. aureus agr-signaling and increased agr-dependent morbidity (weight loss) and inflammation. Given that lipoproteins also inhibit LTA- and LPS-mediated inflammation, these results suggest that hypolipidemia may broadly impact posttrauma pneumonia susceptibility to both Gram-positive and -negative pathogens. Together with previous reports demonstrating that hyperlipidemia also impairs lung innate defense, these results suggest that maintenance of normal serum lipoprotein levels is necessary for optimal host innate defense in the lung. PMID:26608923

  14. Quorum quenching enzymes.

    PubMed

    Fetzner, Susanne

    2015-05-10

    Bacteria use cell-to-cell communication systems based on chemical signal molecules to coordinate their behavior within the population. These quorum sensing systems are potential targets for antivirulence therapies, because many bacterial pathogens control the expression of virulence factors via quorum sensing networks. Since biofilm maturation is also usually influenced by quorum sensing, quenching these systems may contribute to combat biofouling. One possibility to interfere with quorum sensing is signal inactivation by enzymatic degradation or modification. Such quorum quenching enzymes are wide-spread in the bacterial world and have also been found in eukaryotes. Lactonases and acylases that hydrolyze N-acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) signaling molecules have been investigated most intensively, however, different oxidoreductases active toward AHLs or 2-alkyl-4(1H)-quinolone signals as well as other signal-converting enzymes have been described. Several approaches have been assessed which aim at alleviating virulence, or biofilm formation, by reducing the signal concentration in the bacterial environment. These involve the application or stimulation of signal-degrading bacteria as biocontrol agents in the protection of crop plants against soft-rot disease, the use of signal-degrading bacteria as probiotics in aquaculture, and the immobilization or entrapment of quorum quenching enzymes or bacteria to control biofouling in membrane bioreactors. While most approaches to use quorum quenching as antivirulence strategy are still in the research phase, the growing number of organisms and enzymes known to interfere with quorum sensing opens up new perspectives for the development of innovative antibacterial strategies. PMID:25220028

  15. Detection of AI-2 Receptors in Genomes of Enterobacteriaceae Suggests a Role of Type-2 Quorum Sensing in Closed Ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Rezzonico, Fabio; Smits, Theo H. M.; Duffy, Brion

    2012-01-01

    The LuxS enzyme, an S-ribosyl-homocysteine lyase, catalyzes the production of the signal precursor for autoinducer-2 mediated quorum sensing (QS-2) in Vibrio. Its widespread occurrence among bacteria is often considered the evidence for a universal language for interspecies communication. Presence of the luxS gene and production of the autoinducer-2 (AI-2) signal have repeatedly been the only evidences presented to assign a functional QS-2 to the most diverse species. In fact, LuxS has a primary metabolic role as part of the activated methyl cycle. In this review we have analyzed the distribution of QS-2 related genes in Enterobacteriaceae by moving the focus of the investigation from AI-2 production to the detection of potential AI-2 receptors. The latter are common in pathogens or endosymbionts of animals, but were also found in a limited number of Enterobacteriaceae of the genera Enterobacter, Klebsiella, and Pantoea that live in close association with plants or fungi. Although a precise function of QS-2 in these species has not been identified, they all show an endophytic or endosymbiontic lifestyle that suggests a role of type-2 quorum sensing in the adaptation to closed ecosystems. PMID:22778662

  16. Cross-Species Comparison of the Burkholderia pseudomallei, Burkholderia thailandensis, and Burkholderia mallei Quorum-Sensing Regulons

    PubMed Central

    Majerczyk, Charlotte D.; Brittnacher, Mitchell J.; Jacobs, Michael A.; Armour, Christopher D.; Radey, Matthew C.; Bunt, Richard; Hayden, Hillary S.; Bydalek, Ryland

    2014-01-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei, Burkholderia thailandensis, and Burkholderia mallei (the Bptm group) are close relatives with very different lifestyles: B. pseudomallei is an opportunistic pathogen, B. thailandensis is a nonpathogenic saprophyte, and B. mallei is a host-restricted pathogen. The acyl-homoserine lactone quorum-sensing (QS) systems of these three species show a high level of conservation. We used transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq) to define the quorum-sensing regulon in each species, and we performed a cross-species analysis of the QS-controlled orthologs. Our analysis revealed a core set of QS-regulated genes in all three species, as well as QS-controlled factors shared by only two species or unique to a given species. This global survey of the QS regulons of B. pseudomallei, B. thailandensis, and B. mallei serves as a platform for predicting which QS-controlled processes might be important in different bacterial niches and contribute to the pathogenesis of B. pseudomallei and B. mallei. PMID:25182491

  17. A Modular View of the Diversity of Cell-Density-Encoding Schemes in Bacterial Quorum-Sensing Systems

    PubMed Central

    Drees, Bastian; Reiger, Matthias; Jung, Kirsten; Bischofs, Ilka B.

    2014-01-01

    Certain environmental parameters are accessible to cells only indirectly and require an encoding step for cells to retrieve the relevant information. A prominent example is the phenomenon of quorum sensing by microorganisms, where information about cell density is encoded by means of secreted signaling molecules. The mapping of cell density to signal molecule concentration and the corresponding network modules involved have been at least partially characterized in many bacteria, and vary markedly between different systems. In this study, we investigate theoretically how differences in signal transport, signal modification, and site of signal detection shape the encoding function and affect the sensitivity and the noise characteristics of the cell-density-encoding process. We find that different modules are capable of implementing both fairly basic as well as more complex encoding schemes, whose qualitative characteristics vary with cell density and are linked to network architecture, providing the basis for a hierarchical classification scheme. We exploit the tight relationship between encoding behavior and network architecture to constrain the network topology of partially characterized natural systems, and verify one such prediction by showing experimentally that Vibrio harveyi is capable of importing Autoinducer 2. The framework developed in this research can serve not only to guide reverse engineering of natural systems but also to stimulate the design of synthetic systems and generally facilitate a better understanding of the complexities arising in the quorum-sensing process because of variations in the physical organization of the encoder network module. PMID:24988360

  18. Effects of allicin on the formation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofinm and the production of quorum-sensing controlled virulence factors.

    PubMed

    Lihua, Lin; Jianhuit, Wang; Jialini, Yu; Yayin, Li; Guanxin, Liu

    2013-01-01

    The Gram-negative Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacterial pathogen is reputed for its resistance to multiple antibiotics, and this property is strongly associated with the development of biofilms. Bacterial biofilms form by aggregation of microorganisms on a solid surface and secretion of an extracellular polysaccharide substances that acts as a physical protection barrier for the encased bacteria. In addition, the P aeruginosa quorum-sensing system contributes to antibiotic resistance by regulating the expression of several virulence factors, including exotoxin A, elastase, pyoverdin and rhamnolipid. The organosulfur compound allicin, derived from garlic, has been shown to inhibit both surface-adherence of bacteria and production of virulence factors. In this study, the effects of allicin on P aeruginosa biofilm formation and the production of quorum-sensing controlled virulence factors were investigated. The results demonstrated that allicin could inhibit early bacterial adhesion, reduce EPS secretion, and down-regulate virulence factors' production. Collectively, these findings suggest the potential of allicin as a therapeutic agent for controlling P aeruginosa biofilm. PMID:24459829

  19. The Vibrio cholerae quorum-sensing autoinducer CAI-1: analysis of the biosynthetic enzyme CqsA

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, R.; Bolitho, M; Higgins, D; Lu, W; Ng, W; Jeffrey, P; Rabinowitz, J; Semmelhack, M; Hughson, F; Bassler, B

    2009-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae, the bacterium that causes the disease cholera, controls virulence factor production and biofilm development in response to two extracellular quorum-sensing molecules, called autoinducers. The strongest autoinducer, called CAI-1 (for cholera autoinducer-1), was previously identified as (S)-3-hydroxytridecan-4-one. Biosynthesis of CAI-1 requires the enzyme CqsA. Here, we determine the CqsA reaction mechanism, identify the CqsA substrates as (S)-2-aminobutyrate and decanoyl coenzyme A, and demonstrate that the product of the reaction is 3-aminotridecan-4-one, dubbed amino-CAI-1. CqsA produces amino-CAI-1 by a pyridoxal phosphate-dependent acyl-CoA transferase reaction. Amino-CAI-1 is converted to CAI-1 in a subsequent step via a CqsA-independent mechanism. Consistent with this, we find cells release {ge}100 times more CAI-1 than amino-CAI-1. Nonetheless, V. cholerae responds to amino-CAI-1 as well as CAI-1, whereas other CAI-1 variants do not elicit a quorum-sensing response. Thus, both CAI-1 and amino-CAI-1 have potential as lead molecules in the development of an anticholera treatment.

  20. Detection of Quorum Sensing Signal Molecules and Identification of an Autoinducer Synthase Gene among Biofilm Forming Clinical Isolates of Acinetobacter spp.

    PubMed Central

    Anbazhagan, Deepa; Mansor, Marzida; Yan, Gracie Ong Siok; Md Yusof, Mohd Yasim; Hassan, Hamimah; Sekaran, Shamala Devi

    2012-01-01

    Background Quorum sensing is a term that describes an environmental sensing system that allows bacteria to monitor their own population density which contributes significantly to the size and development of the biofilm. Many gram negative bacteria use N-acyl-homoserine lactones as quorum sensing signal molecules. In this study, we sought to find out if the biofilm formation among clinical isolates of Acinetobacter spp. is under the control of autoinducing quorum sensing molecules. Methodology/Principal Findings Biofilm formation among clinical isolates of Acinetobacter spp. was assessed and the production of signal molecules were detected with Chromobacterium violaceum CV026 biosensor system. Characterisation of autoinducers was carried out by mass spectrometric analysis. We have also reported the identification of an autoinducer synthase gene, aba? among the isolates that produce quorum sensing signal molecules and have reported that the mutation in the abaI gene influences their biofilm forming capabilities. Using a microtitre-plate assay it was shown that 60% of the 50 Acinetobacter spp. isolates significantly formed biofilms. Further detection with the biosensor strain showed that some of these isolates produced long chain signal molecules. Mass spectrometric analysis revealed that five of these isolates produced N-decanoyl homoserine lactone and two isolates produced acyl-homoserine lactone with a chain length equal to C12. The aba? gene was identified and a tetracycline mutant of the aba? gene was created and the inhibition in biofilm formation in the mutant was shown. Conclusions/Significance These data are of great significance as the signal molecules aid in biofilm formation which in turn confer various properties of pathogenicity to the clinical isolates including drug resistance. The use of quorum sensing signal blockers to attenuate bacterial pathogenicity is therefore highly attractive, particularly with respect to the emergence of multi antibiotic resistant bacteria. PMID:22815678

  1. Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 requires quorum sensing transcriptional regulators QseA and SdiA for colonization and persistence in the bovine intestinal tract

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    QseA and SdiA are two of several transcriptional regulators that regulate virulence gene expression of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7 via quorum sensing (QS). QseA regulates the expression of the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE). LEE encodes for a type III secretion (T3S) sys...

  2. Escherichia coli O157:H7 lacking qseBC encoded quorum sensing system outcompetes the parent strain in colonization of cattle intestine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The qseBC encoded quorum-sensing system (QS) regulates motility of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7 in response to bacterial autoinducer-3 (AI-3) and mammalian stress hormones epinephrine (E) and norepinephrine (NE). The qseC gene encodes a sensory kinase that post-autophosphorylati...

  3. Molecular Basis for the Recognition of Structurally Distinct Autoinducer Mimics by the Pseudomonas aeruginosa LasR Quorum-Sensing Signaling Receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Zou, Yaozhong; Nair, Satish K.

    2010-01-12

    The human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa coordinates the expression of virulence factors using quorum sensing, a signaling cascade triggered by the activation of signal receptors by small-molecule autoinducers. These homoserine lactone autoinducers stabilize their cognate receptors and activate their functions as transcription factors. Because quorum sensing regulates the progression of infection and host immune resistance, significant efforts have been devoted toward the identification of small molecules that disrupt this process. Screening efforts have identified a class of triphenyl compounds that are structurally distinct from the homoserine lactone autoinducer, yet interact specifically and potently with LasR receptor to modulate quorum sensing (Muh et al., 2006a). Here we present the high-resolution crystal structures of the ligand binding domain of LasR in complex with the autoinducer N-3-oxo-dodecanoyl homoserine lactone (1.4 {angstrom} resolution), and with the triphenyl mimics TP-1, TP-3, and TP-4 (to between 1.8 {angstrom} and 2.3 {angstrom} resolution). These crystal structures provide a molecular rationale for understanding how chemically distinct compounds can be accommodated by a highly selective receptor, and provide the framework for the development of novel quorum-sensing regulators, utilizing the triphenyl scaffold.

  4. The VarS/VarA two-component system modulates the activity of the Vibrio cholerae quorum-sensing transcriptional regulator HapR.

    PubMed

    Tsou, Amy M; Liu, Zhi; Cai, Tao; Zhu, Jun

    2011-06-01

    The human pathogen Vibrio cholerae uses quorum sensing to regulate the expression of a number of phenotypes, including virulence factor production, in response to changes in cell density. It produces small molecules called autoinducers that increase in concentration as cell density increases, and these autoinducers bind to membrane sensors once they reach a certain threshold. This binding leads to signalling through a downstream phosphorelay pathway to alter the expression of the transcriptional regulator HapR. Previously, it was shown that the VarS/VarA two-component system acts on a component of the phosphorelay pathway upstream of HapR to regulate HapR expression levels. Here, we show that in addition to this mechanism of regulation, VarS and VarA also indirectly modulate HapR protein activity. This modulation is mediated by the small RNA CsrB but is independent of the known quorum-sensing system that links the autoinducers to HapR. Thus, the VarS/VarA two-component system intersects with the quorum-sensing network at two levels. In both cases, the effect of VarS and VarA on quorum sensing is dependent on the Csr small RNAs, which regulate carbon metabolism, suggesting that V. cholerae may integrate nutrient status and cell density sensory inputs to tailor its gene expression profile more precisely to surrounding conditions. PMID:21393367

  5. The influence of quorum sensing in compartment II of the MELiSSA loop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Condori, Sandra; Mastroleo, Felice; Wattiez, Ruddy; Leys, Natalie

    MELiSSA (Micro-Ecological Life Support System Alternative) has been conceived as a 5 compartments microorganisms and higher plants recycling system for long haul space flights. Rhodospirillum rubrum S1H colonizes compartment II. Previous work reported that continuous culture of the bacterium in a photobioreactor could lead to thick biofilm formation, leading to bioreactor arrest. Our aim is to investigate the unknown quorum sensing (QS) system of R. rubrum S1H, specifically under MELiSSA relevant culture conditions meaning light anaerobic (LAN) and using acetate as carbon source. In that purpose an autoinducer synthase gene (Rru_A3396) knockout mutant was constructed by allelic exchange generating strain M68. In addition phenotypic comparison between wild type (WT) and M68 was performed. Results of thin layer chromatography assay where Agrobacterium tumefaciens NT1 have been used as reporter strain showed that WT produces acyl-homoserine lactones (AHLs) from C4 to C12 acyl carbon chain length; however, in M68 no AHLs were detected confirming that gene Rru_A3396 (named rruI) encodes an autoinducer synthase. Interestingly under a low shear or static environment M68 showed cell aggregation similar as reported in a closely related bacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides (cerI mutant). In contrast to WT, M68 did not form biofilm and exhibited a decreased motility and pigment content. M68 vs wild type transcriptomics results showed that 326 genes were statistically significant differentially expressed. Downregulation of genes related to photosynthesis e.g., reaction center subunits, light harvesting complex and photosynthetic assembly proteins was observed. Similar results were obtained for preliminary proteomic analysis. Results obtained showed that in R. rubrum S1H the AHL-based QS system regulates almost 8% of the genome which is linked to biofilm formation among other biological processes described above. Since strain M68 could not be used in compartment II due to its less effective photosynthetic apparatus (among other cellular functions) we are investigating other alternatives to avoid biofilm formation.

  6. An evolving perspective on the Pseudomonas aeruginosa orphan quorum sensing regulator QscR

    PubMed Central

    Chugani, Sudha; Greenberg, Everett P.

    2014-01-01

    Many Proteobacteria govern responses to changes in cell density by using acyl-homoserine lactone (AHL) quorum-sensing (QS) signaling. Similar to the LuxI-LuxR system described in Vibrio fischeri, a minimal AHL QS circuit comprises a pair of genes, a luxI-type synthase gene encoding an enzyme that synthesizes an AHL and a luxR-type AHL-responsive transcription regulator gene. In most bacteria that utilize AHL QS, cognate luxI and luxR homologs are found in proximity to each other on the chromosome. However, a number of recent reports have identified luxR homologs that are not linked to luxI homologs; in some cases luxR homologs have been identified in bacteria that have no luxI homologs. A luxR homolog without a linked luxI homologs is termed an orphan or solo. One of the first reports of an orphan was on QscR in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The qscR gene was revealed by whole genome sequencing and has been studied in some detail. P. aeruginosa encodes two AHL synthases and three AHL responsive receptors, LasI-LasR form a cognate synthase-receptor pair as do RhlI-RhlR. QscR lacks a linked synthase and responds to the LasI-generated AHL. QS regulation of gene expression in P. aeruginosa employs multiple signals and occurs in the context of other interconnected regulatory circuits that control diverse physiological functions. QscR affects virulence of P. aeruginosa, and although it shows sensitivity to the LasI-generated AHL, 3-oxo-dodecanoylhomoserine lactone, it's specificity is relaxed compared to LasR and can respond equally well to several AHLs. QscR controls a set of genes that overlaps the set regulated by LasR. QscR is comparatively easy to purify and study in vitro, and has become a model for understanding the biochemistry of LuxR homologs. In fact there is a crystal structure of QscR bound to the LasI-generated AHL. Here, we review the current state of research concerning QscR and highlight recent advances in our understanding of its structure and biochemistry. PMID:25389523

  7. Sub-MICs of Mentha piperita essential oil and menthol inhibits AHL mediated quorum sensing and biofilm of Gram-negative bacteria.

    PubMed

    Husain, Fohad M; Ahmad, Iqbal; Khan, Mohammad S; Ahmad, Ejaz; Tahseen, Qudisa; Khan, Mohd Shahnawaz; Alshabib, Nasser A

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial quorum sensing (QS) is a density dependent communication system that regulates the expression of certain genes including production of virulence factors in many pathogens. Bioactive plant extract/compounds inhibiting QS regulated gene expression may be a potential candidate as antipathogenic drug. In this study anti-QS activity of peppermint (Mentha piperita) oil was first tested using the Chromobacterium violaceum CVO26 biosensor. Further, the findings of the present investigation revealed that peppermint oil (PMO) at sub-Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (sub-MICs) strongly interfered with acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) regulated virulence factors and biofilm formation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Aeromonas hydrophila. The result of molecular docking analysis attributed the QS inhibitory activity exhibited by PMO to menthol. Assessment of ability of menthol to interfere with QS systems of various Gram-negative pathogens comprising diverse AHL molecules revealed that it reduced the AHL dependent production of violacein, virulence factors, and biofilm formation indicating broad-spectrum anti-QS activity. Using two Escherichia coli biosensors, MG4/pKDT17 and pEAL08-2, we also confirmed that menthol inhibited both the las and pqs QS systems. Further, findings of the in vivo studies with menthol on nematode model Caenorhabditis elegans showed significantly enhanced survival of the nematode. Our data identified menthol as a novel broad spectrum QS inhibitor. PMID:26029178

  8. Mining quorum sensing regulated proteins - Role of bacterial cell-to-cell communication in global gene regulation as assessed by proteomics.

    PubMed

    Eberl, Leo; Riedel, Katharina

    2011-08-01

    Many bacteria utilize cell-to-cell communication systems that rely on small diffusible signal molecules to monitor the size of their population in a process known as quorum sensing (QS). QS plays a central role in coordinating genes that are generally mediating prokaryotic interactions with its eukaryotic host. In pathogens, this form of gene regulation is, for instance, believed to ensure that the cells remain invisible to the immune system until the pathogen has reached a critical population density sufficient to overwhelm host defenses and to establish an infection. This review summarizes proteome analyses to identify QS-regulated proteins focussing on Gram-negative bacteria interacting with their eukaryotic hosts either as symbionts or as pathogens. In most studies, the power of comparative 2-D PAGE coupled to MS analysis has been employed to recognize and identify QS-controlled proteins. The high number of QS-regulated proteins in the majority of the investigated species strongly supports the importance of QS as global regulatory system and suggests that it also operates via post-transcriptional mechanisms. As QS has been proven to be a central regulator for the expression of pathogenic traits and biofilm formation in various opportunistic pathogens, it represents a highly attractive target for the development of novel antibacterial drugs. Proteomics has also been exploited to validate the target specificity of natural and synthetic QS inhibitors that have a great potential as alternative therapeutics for the treatment of bacterial infections. PMID:21548094

  9. Sub-MICs of Mentha piperita essential oil and menthol inhibits AHL mediated quorum sensing and biofilm of Gram-negative bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Husain, Fohad M.; Ahmad, Iqbal; Khan, Mohammad S.; Ahmad, Ejaz; Tahseen, Qudisa; Khan, Mohd Shahnawaz; Alshabib, Nasser A.

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial quorum sensing (QS) is a density dependent communication system that regulates the expression of certain genes including production of virulence factors in many pathogens. Bioactive plant extract/compounds inhibiting QS regulated gene expression may be a potential candidate as antipathogenic drug. In this study anti-QS activity of peppermint (Mentha piperita) oil was first tested using the Chromobacterium violaceum CVO26 biosensor. Further, the findings of the present investigation revealed that peppermint oil (PMO) at sub-Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (sub-MICs) strongly interfered with acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) regulated virulence factors and biofilm formation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Aeromonas hydrophila. The result of molecular docking analysis attributed the QS inhibitory activity exhibited by PMO to menthol. Assessment of ability of menthol to interfere with QS systems of various Gram-negative pathogens comprising diverse AHL molecules revealed that it reduced the AHL dependent production of violacein, virulence factors, and biofilm formation indicating broad-spectrum anti-QS activity. Using two Escherichia coli biosensors, MG4/pKDT17 and pEAL08-2, we also confirmed that menthol inhibited both the las and pqs QS systems. Further, findings of the in vivo studies with menthol on nematode model Caenorhabditis elegans showed significantly enhanced survival of the nematode. Our data identified menthol as a novel broad spectrum QS inhibitor. PMID:26029178

  10. Lagerstroemia speciosa fruit extract modulates quorum sensing-controlled virulence factor production and biofilm formation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Singh, Brahma N; Singh, H B; Singh, Akanksha; Singh, Braj R; Mishra, Aradhana; Nautiyal, C S

    2012-02-01

    Lagerstroemia speciosa (Lythraceae) is a south-east Asian tree more commonly known as 'Jarul'. Research on health benefits suggests that the L. speciosa plant contains phytomolecules that may have antioxidant, anti-diabetic and anti-obesity properties. However, antimicrobial activities have not been reported for this plant. The ability of L. speciosa fruit extract (LSFE) to antagonize cell-to-cell communication, expression of virulence genes and factors, and biofilm formation was evaluated in Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain PAO1. Our results suggested that LSFE caused downregulation of quorum sensing (QS)-related genes (las and rhl) and their respective signalling molecules, N-acylhomoserine lactones, without affecting the growth of P. aeruginosa PAO1. Significant inhibition of virulence factors: LasA protease, LasB elastase, and pyoverdin production, was also recorded. Application of LSFE to P. aeruginosa PAO1 biofilms increased bacterial susceptibility to tobramycin. These data suggest a possible role for quorum-quenching mechanisms unrelated to static or cidal effects, and also suggest that L. speciosa could serve as a cost-effective source in the development of new QS-based antibacterial drugs. PMID:22117007

  11. A mathematical model and quantitative comparison of the small RNA circuit in the Vibrio harveyi and Vibrio cholerae quorum sensing systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunter, G. A. M.; Guevara Vasquez, F.; Keener, J. P.

    2013-08-01

    Quorum sensing is the process by which bacteria regulate their gene expression based on the local cell-population density. The quorum sensing systems of Vibrio harveyi and Vibrio cholerae are comprised of a phosphorelay cascade coupled to a small RNA (sRNA) circuit. The sRNA circuit contains multiple quorum regulated small RNA (Qrr) that regulate expression of the homologous master transcriptional regulators LuxR (in V. harveyi) and HapR (in V. cholerae). Their quorum sensing systems are topologically similar and homologous thereby making it difficult to understand why repression of HapR is more robust than LuxR to changes in Qrr. In this work we formulate and parameterize a novel mathematical model of the V. harveyi and V. cholerae sRNA circuit. We parameterize the model by fitting it to a variety of empirical data from both species. We show that we can distinguish all of the parameters and that the parameterizations (one for each species) are robust to errors in the data. We then use our model to propose some experiments to identify and explain kinetic differences between the species. We find that V. cholerae Qrr are more abundant and more sensitive to changes in LuxO than V. harveyi Qrr and argue that this is why expression of HapR is more robust than LuxR to changes in Qrr.

  12. A Pyranose-2-Phosphate Motif Is Responsible for Both Antibiotic Import and Quorum-Sensing Regulation in Agrobacterium tumefaciens.

    PubMed

    El Sahili, Abbas; Li, Si-Zhe; Lang, Julien; Virus, Cornelia; Planamente, Sara; Ahmar, Mohammed; Guimaraes, Beatriz G; Aumont-Nicaise, Magali; Vigouroux, Armelle; Soulère, Laurent; Reader, John; Queneau, Yves; Faure, Denis; Moréra, Solange

    2015-08-01

    Periplasmic binding proteins (PBPs) in association with ABC transporters select and import a wide variety of ligands into bacterial cytoplasm. They can also take up toxic molecules, as observed in the case of the phytopathogen Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain C58. This organism contains a PBP called AccA that mediates the import of the antibiotic agrocin 84, as well as the opine agrocinopine A that acts as both a nutrient and a signalling molecule for the dissemination of virulence genes through quorum-sensing. Here, we characterized the binding mode of AccA using purified agrocin 84 and synthetic agrocinopine A by X-ray crystallography at very high resolution and performed affinity measurements. Structural and affinity analyses revealed that AccA recognizes an uncommon and specific motif, a pyranose-2-phosphate moiety which is present in both imported molecules via the L-arabinopyranose moiety in agrocinopine A and the D-glucopyranose moiety in agrocin 84. We hypothesized that AccA is a gateway allowing the import of any compound possessing a pyranose-2-phosphate motif at one end. This was structurally and functionally confirmed by experiments using four synthetic compounds: agrocinopine 3'-O-benzoate, L-arabinose-2-isopropylphosphate, L-arabinose-2-phosphate and D-glucose-2-phosphate. By combining affinity measurements and in vivo assays, we demonstrated that both L-arabinose-2-phosphate and D-glucose-2-phosphate, which are the AccF mediated degradation products of agrocinopine A and agrocin 84 respectively, interact with the master transcriptional regulator AccR and activate the quorum-sensing signal synthesis and Ti plasmid transfer in A. tumefaciens C58. Our findings shed light on the role of agrocinopine and antibiotic agrocin 84 on quorum-sensing regulation in A. tumefaciens and reveal how the PBP AccA acts as vehicle for the importation of both molecules by means of a key-recognition motif. It also opens future possibilities for the rational design of antibiotic and anti-virulence compounds against A. tumefaciens or other pathogens possessing similar PBPs. PMID:26244338

  13. The quorum sensing transcriptional regulator TraR has separate binding sites for DNA and the anti-activator

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Zhida; Fuqua, Clay; Chen, Lingling

    2012-02-10

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Quorum sensing transcription factor TraR is inhibited by forming TraR-TraM complex. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer K213 is a key DNA binding residue, but not involved in interaction with TraM. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mutations of TraM-interacting TraR residues did not affect DNA-binding of TraR. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mutations of TraR residues reduced the TraR-TraM interaction more than those of TraM. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TraM inhibition on DNA-binding of TraR is driven by thermodynamics. -- Abstract: Quorum sensing represents a mechanism by which bacteria control their genetic behaviors via diffusible signals that reflect their population density. TraR, a quorum sensing transcriptional activator in the Rhizobiaceae family, is regulated negatively by the anti-activator TraM via formation of a TraR-TraM heterocomplex. Prior structural analysis suggests that TraM and DNA bind to TraR in distinct sites. Here we combined isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) and electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA) to investigate roles of TraR residues from Rhizobium sp. NGR234 in binding of both TraM and DNA. We found that K213A mutation of TraR{sub NGR} abolished DNA binding, however, did not alter TraM binding. Mutations of TraM-interfacing TraR{sub NGR} residues decreased the TraR-TraM interaction, but did not affect the DNA-binding activity of TraR{sub NGR}. Thus, our biochemical studies support the independent binding sites on TraR for TraM and DNA. We also found that point mutations in TraR{sub NGR} appeared to decrease the TraR-TraM interaction more effectively than those in TraM{sub NGR}, consistent with structural observations that individual TraR{sub NGR} residues contact with more TraM{sub NGR} residues than each TraM{sub NGR} residues with TraR{sub NGR} residues. Finally, we showed that TraM inhibition on DNA-binding of TraR was driven thermodynamically. We discussed subtle mechanistic differences in TraM anti-activation on TraR activity between homologous systems.

  14. A Pyranose-2-Phosphate Motif Is Responsible for Both Antibiotic Import and Quorum-Sensing Regulation in Agrobacterium tumefaciens

    PubMed Central

    El Sahili, Abbas; Li, Si-Zhe; Lang, Julien; Virus, Cornelia; Planamente, Sara; Ahmar, Mohammed; Guimaraes, Beatriz G.; Aumont-Nicaise, Magali; Vigouroux, Armelle; Soulère, Laurent; Reader, John; Queneau, Yves; Faure, Denis; Moréra, Solange

    2015-01-01

    Periplasmic binding proteins (PBPs) in association with ABC transporters select and import a wide variety of ligands into bacterial cytoplasm. They can also take up toxic molecules, as observed in the case of the phytopathogen Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain C58. This organism contains a PBP called AccA that mediates the import of the antibiotic agrocin 84, as well as the opine agrocinopine A that acts as both a nutrient and a signalling molecule for the dissemination of virulence genes through quorum-sensing. Here, we characterized the binding mode of AccA using purified agrocin 84 and synthetic agrocinopine A by X-ray crystallography at very high resolution and performed affinity measurements. Structural and affinity analyses revealed that AccA recognizes an uncommon and specific motif, a pyranose-2-phosphate moiety which is present in both imported molecules via the L-arabinopyranose moiety in agrocinopine A and the D-glucopyranose moiety in agrocin 84. We hypothesized that AccA is a gateway allowing the import of any compound possessing a pyranose-2-phosphate motif at one end. This was structurally and functionally confirmed by experiments using four synthetic compounds: agrocinopine 3’-O-benzoate, L-arabinose-2-isopropylphosphate, L-arabinose-2-phosphate and D-glucose-2-phosphate. By combining affinity measurements and in vivo assays, we demonstrated that both L-arabinose-2-phosphate and D-glucose-2-phosphate, which are the AccF mediated degradation products of agrocinopine A and agrocin 84 respectively, interact with the master transcriptional regulator AccR and activate the quorum-sensing signal synthesis and Ti plasmid transfer in A. tumefaciens C58. Our findings shed light on the role of agrocinopine and antibiotic agrocin 84 on quorum-sensing regulation in A. tumefaciens and reveal how the PBP AccA acts as vehicle for the importation of both molecules by means of a key-recognition motif. It also opens future possibilities for the rational design of antibiotic and anti-virulence compounds against A. tumefaciens or other pathogens possessing similar PBPs. PMID:26244338

  15. Structure-Function Analysis of Peptide Signaling in the Clostridium perfringens Agr-Like Quorum Sensing System

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Menglin; Li, Jihong

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The accessory growth regulator (Agr)-like quorum sensing (QS) system of Clostridium perfringens controls the production of many toxins, including beta toxin (CPB). We previously showed (J. E. Vidal, M. Ma, J. Saputo, J. Garcia, F. A. Uzal, and B. A. McClane, Mol Microbiol 83:179–194, 2012, http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2958.2011.07925.x) that an 8-amino-acid, AgrD-derived peptide named 8-R upregulates CPB production by this QS system. The current study synthesized a series of small signaling peptides corresponding to sequences within the C. perfringens AgrD polypeptide to investigate the C. perfringens autoinducing peptide (AIP) structure-function relationship. When both linear and cyclic ring forms of these peptides were added to agrB null mutants of type B strain CN1795 or type C strain CN3685, the 5-amino-acid peptides, whether in a linear or ring (thiolactone or lactone) form, induced better signaling (more CPB production) than peptide 8-R for both C. perfringens strains. The 5-mer thiolactone ring peptide induced faster signaling than the 5-mer linear peptide. Strain-related variations in sensing these peptides were detected, with CN3685 sensing the synthetic peptides more strongly than CN1795. Consistent with those synthetic peptide results, Transwell coculture experiments showed that CN3685 exquisitely senses native AIP signals from other isolates (types A, B, C, and D), while CN1795 barely senses even its own AIP. Finally, a C. perfringens AgrD sequence-based peptide with a 6-amino-acid thiolactone ring interfered with CPB production by several C. perfringens strains, suggesting potential therapeutic applications. These results indicate that AIP signaling sensitivity and responsiveness vary among C. perfringens strains and suggest C. perfringens prefers a 5-mer AIP to initiate Agr signaling. IMPORTANCE Clostridium perfringens possesses an Agr-like quorum sensing (QS) system that regulates virulence, sporulation, and toxin production. The current study used synthetic peptides to identify the structure-function relationship for the signaling peptide that activates this QS system. We found that a 5-mer peptide induces optimal signaling. Unlike other Agr systems, a linear version of this peptide (in addition to thiolactone and lactone versions) could induce signaling. Two C. perfringens strains were found to vary in sensitivity to these peptides. We also found that a 6-mer peptide can inhibit toxin production by some strains, suggesting therapeutic applications. PMID:25777675

  16. Structural and Mechanistic Roles of Novel Chemical Ligands on the SdiA Quorum-Sensing Transcription Regulator

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Nguyen, Y.; Nguyen, Nam X.; Rogers, Jamie L.; Liao, Jun; MacMillan, John B.; Jiang, Youxing; Sperandio, Vanessa

    2015-05-19

    Bacteria engage in chemical signaling, termed quorum sensing (QS), to mediate intercellular communication, mimicking multicellular organisms. The LuxR family of QS transcription factors regulates gene expression, coordinating population behavior by sensing endogenous acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs). However, some bacteria (such as Escherichia coli) do not produce AHLs. These LuxR orphans sense exogenous AHLs but also regulate transcription in the absence of AHLs. Importantly, this AHL-independent regulatory mechanism is still largely unknown. Here we present several structures of one such orphan LuxR-type protein, SdiA, from enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC), in the presence and absence of AHL. SdiA is actually not inmore »an apo state without AHL but is regulated by a previously unknown endogenous ligand, 1-octanoyl-rac-glycerol (OCL), which is ubiquitously found throughout the tree of life and serves as an energy source, signaling molecule, and substrate for membrane biogenesis. While exogenous AHL renders to SdiA higher stability and DNA binding affinity, OCL may function as a chemical chaperone placeholder that stabilizes SdiA, allowing for basal activity. Structural comparison between SdiA-AHL and SdiA-OCL complexes provides crucial mechanistic insights into the ligand regulation of AHL-dependent and -independent function of LuxR-type proteins. Importantly, in addition to its contribution to basic science, this work has implications for public health, inasmuch as the SdiA signaling system aids the deadly human pathogen EHEC to adapt to a commensal lifestyle in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract of cattle, its main reservoir. These studies open exciting and novel avenues to control shedding of this human pathogen in the environment. IMPORTANCE Quorum sensing refers to bacterial chemical signaling. The QS acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) signals are recognized by LuxR-type receptors that regulate gene transcription. However, some bacteria have orphan LuxR-type receptors and do not produce AHLs, sensing them from other bacteria. We solved three structures of the E. coli SdiA orphan, in the presence and absence of AHL. SdiA with no AHL is not in an apo state but is regulated by a previously unknown endogenous ligand, 1-octanoyl-rac-glycerol (OCL). OCL is ubiquitously found in prokaryotes and eukaryotes and is a phospholipid precursor for membrane biogenesis and a signaling molecule. While AHL renders to SdiA higher stability and DNA-binding affinity, OCL functions as a chemical chaperone placeholder, stabilizing SdiA and allowing for basal activity. Our studies provide crucial mechanistic insights into the ligand regulation of SdiA activity.« less

  17. Structural and Mechanistic Roles of Novel Chemical Ligands on the SdiA Quorum-Sensing Transcription Regulator

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, Y.; Nguyen, Nam X.; Rogers, Jamie L.; Liao, Jun; MacMillan, John B.; Jiang, Youxing; Sperandio, Vanessa

    2015-05-19

    Bacteria engage in chemical signaling, termed quorum sensing (QS), to mediate intercellular communication, mimicking multicellular organisms. The LuxR family of QS transcription factors regulates gene expression, coordinating population behavior by sensing endogenous acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs). However, some bacteria (such as Escherichia coli) do not produce AHLs. These LuxR orphans sense exogenous AHLs but also regulate transcription in the absence of AHLs. Importantly, this AHL-independent regulatory mechanism is still largely unknown. Here we present several structures of one such orphan LuxR-type protein, SdiA, from enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC), in the presence and absence of AHL. SdiA is actually not in an apo state without AHL but is regulated by a previously unknown endogenous ligand, 1-octanoyl-rac-glycerol (OCL), which is ubiquitously found throughout the tree of life and serves as an energy source, signaling molecule, and substrate for membrane biogenesis. While exogenous AHL renders to SdiA higher stability and DNA binding affinity, OCL may function as a chemical chaperone placeholder that stabilizes SdiA, allowing for basal activity. Structural comparison between SdiA-AHL and SdiA-OCL complexes provides crucial mechanistic insights into the ligand regulation of AHL-dependent and -independent function of LuxR-type proteins. Importantly, in addition to its contribution to basic science, this work has implications for public health, inasmuch as the SdiA signaling system aids the deadly human pathogen EHEC to adapt to a commensal lifestyle in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract of cattle, its main reservoir. These studies open exciting and novel avenues to control shedding of this human pathogen in the environment. IMPORTANCE Quorum sensing refers to bacterial chemical signaling. The QS acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) signals are recognized by LuxR-type receptors that regulate gene transcription. However, some bacteria have orphan LuxR-type receptors and do not produce AHLs, sensing them from other bacteria. We solved three structures of the E. coli SdiA orphan, in the presence and absence of AHL. SdiA with no AHL is not in an apo state but is regulated by a previously unknown endogenous ligand, 1-octanoyl-rac-glycerol (OCL). OCL is ubiquitously found in prokaryotes and eukaryotes and is a phospholipid precursor for membrane biogenesis and a signaling molecule. While AHL renders to SdiA higher stability and DNA-binding affinity, OCL functions as a chemical chaperone placeholder, stabilizing SdiA and allowing for basal activity. Our studies provide crucial mechanistic insights into the ligand regulation of SdiA activity.

  18. Draft Genome Sequence of the Quorum-Sensing and Biofilm-Producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa Strain Pae221, Belonging to the Epidemic High-Risk Clone Sequence Type 274

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Martínez, Marta; Cabot, Gabriel; Tubau, Fé; Oliver, Antonio; Martínez-Martínez, Luis

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa Pae221 is a clinical isolate from blood culture. Pae221 was found to be a strong quorum-sensing and biofilm-producing strain and also demonstrates a notable production of phenazines. This strain belongs to sequence type 274 (ST274), an epidemic high-risk clone. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of P. aeruginosa Pae221. PMID:25593247

  19. The role of luxS in the fire blight pathogen Erwinia amylovora is limited to metabolism and does not involve quorum sensing.

    PubMed

    Rezzonico, Fabio; Duffy, Brion

    2007-10-01

    Erwinia amylovora is a gram-negative phytopathogen that causes fire blight of pome fruit and related members of the family Rosaceae. We sequenced the putative autoinducer-2 (AI-2) synthase gene luxS from E. amylovora. Diversity analysis indicated that this gene is extremely conserved among E. amylovora strains. Quorum sensing mediated by LuxS has been implicated in coordinated gene expression, growth, and virulence in other enterobacteria; however, our evidence suggests this is not the function in E. amylovora. Mutational analysis pointed to a role in colonization of apple blossoms, the primary infection court for fire blight, although little if any role in virulence on apple shoots and pear fruit was observed. Expression of key virulence genes hrpL and dspA/E was reduced in mutants of two E. amylovora strains. Stronger effects on gene expression were observed for metabolic genes involved in the activated methyl cycle with mutants having greater levels of expression. No quorum-sensing effect was observed in coculture experiments with wild-type and mutant strains either in vitro or in apple blossoms. Known receptors essential for AI-2 quorum sensing, the LuxPQ sensor kinase or the Lsr ABC-transporter, are absent in E. amylovora, further suggesting a primarily metabolic role for luxS in this bacterium. PMID:17918630

  20. The DSF type quorum sensing signalling system RpfF/R regulates diverse phenotypes in the opportunistic pathogen Cronobacter.

    PubMed

    Suppiger, Angela; Eshwar, Athmanya Konegadde; Stephan, Roger; Kaever, Volkhard; Eberl, Leo; Lehner, Angelika

    2016-01-01

    Several bacterial pathogens produce diffusible signal factor (DSF)-type quorum sensing (QS) signals to control biofilm formation and virulence. Previous work showed that in Burkholderia cenocepacia the RpfFBc/RpfR system is involved in sensing and responding to DSF signals and that this signal/sensor gene pair is highly conserved in several bacterial species including Cronobacter spp. Here we show that C. turicensis LMG 23827(T) possesses a functional RpfF/R system that is involved in the regulation of various phenotypes, including colony morphology, biofilm formation and swarming motility. In vivo experiments using the zebrafish embryo model revealed a role of this regulatory system in virulence of this opportunistic pathogen. We provide evidence that the RpfF/R system modulates the intracellular c-di-GMP level of the organism, an effect that may underpin the alteration in phenotype and thus the regulated phenotypes may be a consequence thereof. This first report on an RpfF/R-type QS system of an organism outside the genus Burkholderia revealed that both the underlying molecular mechanisms as well as the regulated functions show a high degree of conservation. PMID:26725701

  1. A Comparative Analysis of Synthetic Quorum Sensing Modulators in Pseudomonas aeruginosa: New Insights into Mechanism, Active Efflux Susceptibility, Phenotypic Response, and Next-Generation Ligand Design.

    PubMed

    Moore, Joseph D; Rossi, Francis M; Welsh, Michael A; Nyffeler, Kayleigh E; Blackwell, Helen E

    2015-11-25

    Quorum sensing (QS) is a chemical signaling mechanism that allows bacterial populations to coordinate gene expression in response to social and environmental cues. Many bacterial pathogens use QS to initiate infection at high cell densities. Over the past two decades, chemical antagonists of QS in pathogenic bacteria have attracted substantial interest for use both as tools to further elucidate QS mechanisms and, with further development, potential anti-infective agents. Considerable recent research has been devoted to the design of small molecules capable of modulating the LasR QS receptor in the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. These molecules hold significant promise in a range of contexts; however, as most compounds have been developed independently, comparative activity data for these compounds are scarce. Moreover, the mechanisms by which the bulk of these compounds act are largely unknown. This paucity of data has stalled the choice of an optimal chemical scaffold for further advancement. Herein, we submit the best-characterized LasR modulators to standardized cell-based reporter and QS phenotypic assays in P. aeruginosa, and we report the first comprehensive set of comparative LasR activity data for these compounds. Our experiments uncovered multiple interesting mechanistic phenomena (including a potential alternative QS-modulatory ligand binding site/partner) that provide new, and unexpected, insights into the modes by which many of these LasR ligands act. The lead compounds, data trends, and mechanistic insights reported here will significantly aid the design of new small molecule QS inhibitors and activators in P. aeruginosa, and in other bacteria, with enhanced potencies and defined modes of action. PMID:26491787

  2. A Comparative Analysis of Synthetic Quorum Sensing Modulators in Pseudomonas aeruginosa: New Insights into Mechanism, Active Efflux Susceptibility, Phenotypic Response, and Next-Generation Ligand Design

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Quorum sensing (QS) is a chemical signaling mechanism that allows bacterial populations to coordinate gene expression in response to social and environmental cues. Many bacterial pathogens use QS to initiate infection at high cell densities. Over the past two decades, chemical antagonists of QS in pathogenic bacteria have attracted substantial interest for use both as tools to further elucidate QS mechanisms and, with further development, potential anti-infective agents. Considerable recent research has been devoted to the design of small molecules capable of modulating the LasR QS receptor in the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. These molecules hold significant promise in a range of contexts; however, as most compounds have been developed independently, comparative activity data for these compounds are scarce. Moreover, the mechanisms by which the bulk of these compounds act are largely unknown. This paucity of data has stalled the choice of an optimal chemical scaffold for further advancement. Herein, we submit the best-characterized LasR modulators to standardized cell-based reporter and QS phenotypic assays in P. aeruginosa, and we report the first comprehensive set of comparative LasR activity data for these compounds. Our experiments uncovered multiple interesting mechanistic phenomena (including a potential alternative QS-modulatory ligand binding site/partner) that provide new, and unexpected, insights into the modes by which many of these LasR ligands act. The lead compounds, data trends, and mechanistic insights reported here will significantly aid the design of new small molecule QS inhibitors and activators in P. aeruginosa, and in other bacteria, with enhanced potencies and defined modes of action. PMID:26491787

  3. Involvement of quorum sensing genes in biofilm development and degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by a marine bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa N6P6.

    PubMed

    Mangwani, Neelam; Kumari, Supriya; Das, Surajit

    2015-12-01

    Biofilm-forming and acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) synthase-positive Pseudomonas aeruginosa N6P6 was isolated from seawater after selective enrichment with two polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), viz. phenanthrene and pyrene. AHL synthesis was detected qualitatively using bioreporter strains. This marine bacterium putatively synthesized N-(3-oxododecanoyl)-L-homoserine lactone and N-butyryl-L-homoserine lactone, which were identified by TLC, GC-MS, and HPLC. Two quorum sensing (QS) genes coding for AHL synthase, i.e., lasI and rhlI, were identified in the bacterium. lasI and rhlI gene expression was studied during biofilm mode of growth at different phases using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). The expression of lasI increased with increase in biofilm growth. In contrast, the expression of rhlI decreased during log phase of biofilm growth. The changes in lasI/rhlI expression level had significant effects (P < 0.05) on biofilm architecture and subsequent PAH degradation rate. Degradation of phenanthrene and pyrene by P. aeruginosa N6P6 was affected by biofilm growth and lasI expression. The respective phenanthrene degradation for 15, 24, 48, and 72 h old biofilm after 7 days was 21.5, 54.2, 85.6, and 85.7 %. However, the corresponding pyrene degradation was 15, 18.28, 47.56, and 46.48 %, respectively, after 7 days. A significant positive correlation (P < 0.05) was observed between lasI expression and PAHs degradation. However, in the presence of tannic acid, a QS inhibitor (QSI), PAHs degradation, biofilm formation, and pyocyanin production reduced significantly which confirmed the pivotal role of QS in biodegradation of PAHs. The findings suggest that AHLs play a pivotal role during biofilm development and subsequent bioremediation of PAHs. PMID:26245683

  4. Exploring ComQXPA quorum-sensing diversity and biocontrol potential of Bacillus spp. isolates from tomato rhizoplane

    PubMed Central

    Oslizlo, A; Stefanic, P; Vatovec, S; Beigot Glaser, S; Rupnik, M; Mandic-Mulec, I

    2015-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis is a widespread and diverse bacterium t exhibits a remarkable intraspecific diversity of the ComQXPA quorum-sensing (QS) system. This manifests in the existence of distinct communication groups (pherotypes) that can efficiently communicate within a group, but not between groups. Similar QS diversity was also found in other bacterial species, and its ecological and evolutionary meaning is still being explored. Here we further address the ComQXPA QS diversity among isolates from the tomato rhizoplane, a natural habitat of B.?subtilis, where these bacteria likely exist in their vegetative form. Because this QS system regulates production of anti-pathogenic and biofilm-inducing substances such as surfactins, knowledge on cell–cell communication of this bacterium within rhizoplane is also important from the biocontrol perspective. We confirm the presence of pherotype diversity within B.?subtilis strains isolated from a rhizoplane of a single plant. We also show that B.?subtilis rhizoplane isolates show a remarkable diversity of surfactin production and potential plant growth promoting traits. Finally, we discover that effects of surfactin deletion on biofilm formation can be strain specific and unexpected in the light of current knowledge on its role it this process. PMID:25757097

  5. From Broad-Spectrum Biocides to Quorum Sensing Disruptors and Mussel Repellents: Antifouling Profile of Alkyl Triphenylphosphonium Salts

    PubMed Central

    Martín-Rodríguez, Alberto J.; Babarro, Jose M. F.; Lahoz, Fernando; Sansón, Marta; Martín, Víctor S.; Norte, Manuel; Fernández, José J.

    2015-01-01

    ‘Onium’ compounds, including ammonium and phosphonium salts, have been employed as antiseptics and disinfectants. These cationic biocides have been incorporated into multiple materials, principally to avoid bacterial attachment. In this work, we selected 20 alkyl-triphenylphosphonium salts, differing mainly in the length and functionalization of their alkyl chains, in fulfilment of two main objectives: 1) to provide a comprehensive evaluation of the antifouling profile of these molecules with relevant marine fouling organisms; and 2) to shed new light on their potential applications, beyond their classic use as broad-spectrum biocides. In this regard, we demonstrate for the first time that these compounds are also able to act as non-toxic quorum sensing disruptors in two different bacterial models (Chromobacterium violaceum and Vibrio harveyi) as well as repellents in the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis. In addition, their inhibitory activity on a fouling-relevant enzymatic model (tyrosinase) is characterized. An analysis of the structure-activity relationships of these compounds for antifouling purposes is provided, which may result useful in the design of targeted antifouling solutions with these molecules. Altogether, the findings reported herein provide a different perspective on the biological activities of phosphonium compounds that is particularly focused on, but, as the reader will realize, is not limited to their use as antifouling agents. PMID:25897858

  6. Isolation and Molecular Characterization of Biofouling Bacteria and Profiling of Quorum Sensing Signal Molecules from Membrane Bioreactor Activated Sludge

    PubMed Central

    Lade, Harshad; Paul, Diby; Kweon, Ji Hyang

    2014-01-01

    The formation of biofilm in a membrane bioreactor depends on the production of various signaling molecules like N-acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs). In the present study, a total of 200 bacterial strains were isolated from membrane bioreactor activated sludge and screened for AHLs production using two biosensor systems, Chromobacterium violaceum CV026 and Agrobacterium tumefaciens A136. A correlation between AHLs production and biofilm formation has been made among screened AHLs producing strains. The 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed the dominance of Aeromonas and Enterobacter sp. in AHLs production; however few a species of Serratia, Leclercia, Pseudomonas, Klebsiella, Raoultella and Citrobacter were also identified. The chromatographic characterization of sludge extract showed the presence of a broad range of quorum sensing signal molecules. Further identification of sludge AHLs by thin layer chromatography bioassay and high performance liquid chromatography confirms the presence of C4-HSL, C6-HSL, C8-HSL, 3-oxo-C8-HSL, C10-HSL, C12-HSL, 3-oxo-C12-HSL and C14-HSL. The occurrence of AHLs in sludge extract and dominance of Aeromonas and Enterobacter sp. in activated sludge suggests the key role of these bacterial strains in AHLs production and thereby membrane fouling. PMID:24499972

  7. Real-time monitoring of quorum sensing in 3D-printed bacterial aggregates using scanning electrochemical microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Connell, Jodi L.; Kim, Jiyeon; Shear, Jason B.; Bard, Allen J.; Whiteley, Marvin

    2014-01-01

    Microbes frequently live in nature as small, densely packed aggregates containing ?101–105 cells. These aggregates not only display distinct phenotypes, including resistance to antibiotics, but also, serve as building blocks for larger biofilm communities. Aggregates within these larger communities display nonrandom spatial organization, and recent evidence indicates that this spatial organization is critical for fitness. Studying single aggregates as well as spatially organized aggregates remains challenging because of the technical difficulties associated with manipulating small populations. Micro-3D printing is a lithographic technique capable of creating aggregates in situ by printing protein-based walls around individual cells or small populations. This 3D-printing strategy can organize bacteria in complex arrangements to investigate how spatial and environmental parameters influence social behaviors. Here, we combined micro-3D printing and scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) to probe quorum sensing (QS)-mediated communication in the bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Our results reveal that QS-dependent behaviors are observed within aggregates as small as 500 cells; however, aggregates larger than 2,000 bacteria are required to stimulate QS in neighboring aggregates positioned 8 ?m away. These studies provide a powerful system to analyze the impact of spatial organization and aggregate size on microbial behaviors. PMID:25489085

  8. Small Molecule Disruption of Quorum Sensing Cross-Regulation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa Causes Major and Unexpected Alterations to Virulence Phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Welsh, Michael A.; Eibergen, Nora R.; Moore, Joseph D.; Blackwell, Helen E.

    2015-01-01

    The opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa uses three interwoven quorum-sensing (QS) circuits—Las, Rhl, and Pqs—to regulate the global expression of myriad virulence-associated genes. Interception of these signaling networks with small molecules represents an emerging strategy for the development of anti-infective agents against this bacterium. In the current study, we applied a chemical approach to investigate how the Las-Rhl-Pqs QS hierarchy coordinates key virulence phenotypes in wild-type P. aeruginosa. We screened a focused library of synthetic, non-native N-acyl l-homoserine lactones and identified compounds that can drastically alter production of two important virulence factors: pyocyanin and rhamnolipid. We demonstrate that these molecules act by targeting RhlR in P. aeruginosa, a QS receptor that has seen far less scrutiny to date relative to other circuitry. Unexpectedly, modulation of RhlR activity by a single compound induces inverse regulation of pyocyanin and rhamnolipid, a result that was not predicted using genetic approaches to interrogate QS in P. aeruginosa. Further, we show that certain RhlR agonists strongly repress Pqs signaling, revealing disruption of Rhl-Pqs cross-regulation as a novel mechanism for QS inhibition. These compounds significantly expand the known repertoire of chemical probes available to study RhlR in P. aeruginosa. Moreover, our results suggest that designing chemical agents to disrupt Rhl-Pqs crosstalk could be an effective antivirulence strategy to fight this common pathogen. PMID:25574853

  9. Small molecule disruption of quorum sensing cross-regulation in pseudomonas aeruginosa causes major and unexpected alterations to virulence phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Welsh, Michael A; Eibergen, Nora R; Moore, Joseph D; Blackwell, Helen E

    2015-02-01

    The opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa uses three interwoven quorum-sensing (QS) circuits-Las, Rhl, and Pqs-to regulate the global expression of myriad virulence-associated genes. Interception of these signaling networks with small molecules represents an emerging strategy for the development of anti-infective agents against this bacterium. In the current study, we applied a chemical approach to investigate how the Las-Rhl-Pqs QS hierarchy coordinates key virulence phenotypes in wild-type P. aeruginosa. We screened a focused library of synthetic, non-native N-acyl l-homoserine lactones and identified compounds that can drastically alter production of two important virulence factors: pyocyanin and rhamnolipid. We demonstrate that these molecules act by targeting RhlR in P. aeruginosa, a QS receptor that has seen far less scrutiny to date relative to other circuitry. Unexpectedly, modulation of RhlR activity by a single compound induces inverse regulation of pyocyanin and rhamnolipid, a result that was not predicted using genetic approaches to interrogate QS in P. aeruginosa. Further, we show that certain RhlR agonists strongly repress Pqs signaling, revealing disruption of Rhl-Pqs cross-regulation as a novel mechanism for QS inhibition. These compounds significantly expand the known repertoire of chemical probes available to study RhlR in P. aeruginosa. Moreover, our results suggest that designing chemical agents to disrupt Rhl-Pqs crosstalk could be an effective antivirulence strategy to fight this common pathogen. PMID:25574853

  10. Effect of Cinnamon Oil on Quorum Sensing-Controlled Virulence Factors and Biofilm Formation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Kalia, Manmohit; Yadav, Vivek Kumar; Singh, Pradeep Kumar; Sharma, Deepmala; Pandey, Himanshu; Narvi, Shahid Suhail; Agarwal, Vishnu

    2015-01-01

    Quorum sensing (QS) is a system of stimuli and responses in bacterial cells governed by their population density, through which they regulate genes that control virulence factors and biofilm formation. Despite considerable research on QS and the discovery of new antibiotics, QS-controlled biofilm formation by microorganisms in clinical settings has remained a problem because of nascent drug resistance, which requires screening of diverse compounds for anti-QS activities. Cinnamon is a dietary phytochemical that is traditionally used to remedy digestive problems and assorted contagions, which suggests that cinnamon might contain chemicals that can hinder the QS process. To test this hypothesis, the anti-QS activity of cinnamon oil against P. aeruginosa was tested, measured by the inhibition of biofilm formation and other QS-associated phenomena, including virulence factors such as pyocyanin, rhamnolipid, protease, alginate production, and swarming activity. To this end, multiple microscopy analyses, including light, scanning electron and confocal microscopy, revealed the ability of cinnamon oil to inhibit P. aeruginosa PAO1 biofilms and their accompanying extracellular polymeric substances. This work is the first to demonstrate that cinnamon oil can influence various QS-based phenomena in P. aeruginosa PAO1, including biofilm formation. PMID:26263486

  11. Growth inhibition of bacterial fish pathogens and quorum-sensing blocking by bacteria recovered from chilean salmonid farms.

    PubMed

    Fuente, Mery de la; Miranda, Claudio D; Jopia, Paz; González-Rocha, Gerardo; Guiliani, Nicolás; Sossa, Katherine; Urrutia, Homero

    2015-06-01

    The main goal of this study was to find bacterial isolates with the ability to inhibit the growth of the fish pathogens Aeromonas hydrophila, Vibrio anguillarum, and Flavobacterium psychrophilum and to inhibit the blockage of the quorum-sensing (QS) system. A total of 80 gram-negative strains isolated from various freshwater Chilean salmonid farms were studied. We determined that 10 strains belonging to the genus Pseudomonas inhibited at least one of the assayed fish pathogens. Of these, nine strains were able to produce siderophores and two strains were able to inhibit the growth of all assayed pathogenic species. When the 80 strains were examined for QS-blocking activity, only the strains Pseudomonas sp. FF16 and Raoultella planticola R5B1 were identified as QS blockers. When the QS-blocker strains were analyzed for their ability to produce homoserine lactone (HSL) molecules, thin-layer chromatography analysis showed that both strains were able to produce C6-HSL- and C8-HSL-type molecules. Strain R5B1 did not show growth inhibition properties, but strain FF16 also led to inhibition of growth in A. hydrophila and F. psychrophilum as well as to siderophore production. Pseudomonas sp. FF16 exhibited potentially useful antagonistic properties and could be a probiotic candidate for the salmon farming industry. PMID:26000731

  12. Alcohol-based quorum sensing plays a role in adhesion and sliding motility of the yeast Debaryomyces hansenii.

    PubMed

    Gori, Klaus; Knudsen, Peter B; Nielsen, Kristian F; Arneborg, Nils; Jespersen, Lene

    2011-12-01

    The yeast Debaryomyces hansenii was investigated for its production of alcohol-based quorum sensing (QS) molecules including the aromatic alcohols phenylethanol, tyrosol, tryptophol and the aliphatic alcohol farnesol. Debaryomyces hansenii produced phenylethanol and tyrosol, which were primarily detected from the end of exponential phase indicating that they are potential QS molecules in D. hansenii as previously shown for other yeast species. Yields of phenylethanol and tyrosol produced by D. hansenii were, however, lower than those produced by Candida albicans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae and varied with growth conditions such as the availability of aromatic amino acids, ammonium sulphate, NaCl, pH and temperature. Tryptophol was only produced in the presence of tryptophane, whereas farnesol in general was not detectable. Especially, the type strain of D. hansenii (CBS767) had good adhesion and sliding motility abilities, which seemed to be related to a higher hydrophobicity of the cell surface of D. hansenii (CBS767) rather than the ability to form pseudomycelium. Addition of phenylethanol, tyrosol, tryptophol and farnesol was found to influence both adhesion and sliding motility of D. hansenii. PMID:22093748

  13. Quorum-sensing regulation of a capsular polysaccharide receptor for the Rhodobacter capsulatus gene transfer agent (RcGTA)

    PubMed Central

    Brimacombe, Cedric A.; Stevens, Aaron; Jun, Daniel; Mercer, Ryan; Lang, Andrew S.; Beatty, J. Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Summary The gene transfer agent produced by Rhodobacter capsulatus (RcGTA) resembles a small tailed bacteriophage that packages almost random genomic DNA segments that may be transferred to other R. capsulatus cells. Gene transfer agents are produced by a number of prokaryotes; however, no receptors have been identified. We investigated the RcGTA recipient capability of wild-type R. capsulatus cells at different culture growth phases, and found that the frequency of RcGTA-dependent acquisition of an allele increases as cultures enter the stationary phase. We also found that RcGTA adsorption to cells follows a similar trend. RcGTA recipient capability and adsorption were found to be dependent on the GtaR/I quorum-sensing (QS) system. Production of an extracellular polysaccharide was found to be regulated by GtaR/I QS, as was production of the cell capsule. A number of QS-regulated putative polysaccharide biosynthesis genes were identified, and mutagenesis of two of these genes, rcc01081 and rcc01932, yielded strains that lack a capsule. Furthermore, these mutants were impaired in RcGTA recipient capability and adsorption, as was a non-encapsulated wild-type isolate of R. capsulatus. Overall, our results indicate that capsular polysaccharide is a receptor for the gene transfer agent of R. capsulatus, RcGTA. PMID:23279213

  14. Quorum sensing influences growth and photosynthetic membrane production in high-cell-density cultivations of Rhodospirillum rubrum

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The facultative anoxygenic photosynthetic bacterium Rhodospirillum rubrum exhibits versatile metabolic activity allowing the adaptation to rapidly changing growth conditions in its natural habitat, the microaerobic and anoxic zones of stagnant waters. The microaerobic growth mode is of special interest as it allows the high-level expression of photosynthetic membranes when grown on succinate and fructose in the dark, which could significantly simplify the industrial production of compounds associated with PM formation. However, recently we showed that PM synthesis is no longer inducible when R. rubrum cultures are grown to high cell densities under aerobic conditions. In addition a reduction of the growth rate and the continued accumulation of precursor molecules for bacteriochlorophyll synthesis were observed under high cell densities conditions. Results In the present work, we demonstrate that the cell density-dependent effects are reversible if the culture supernatant is replaced by fresh medium. We identified six N-acylhomoserine lactones and show that four of them are produced in varying amounts according to the growth phase and the applied growth conditions. Further, we demonstrate that N-acylhomoserine lactones and tetrapyrrole compounds released into the growth medium affect the growth rate and PM expression in high cell density cultures. Conclusions In summary, we provide evidence that R. rubrum possesses a Lux-type quorum sensing system which influences the biosynthesis of PM and the growth rate and is thus likely to be involved in the phenotypes of high cell density cultures and the rapid adaptation to changing environmental conditions. PMID:23927486

  15. Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Triazole-Containing N-Acyl Homoserine Lactones as Quorum Sensing Modulators

    PubMed Central

    Stacy, Danielle M.; Le Quement, Sebastian T.; Hansen, Casper L.; Clausen, Janie W.; Tolker-Nielsen, Tim; Brummond, Jacob W.; Givskov, Michael; Nielsen, Thomas E.; Blackwell, Helen E.

    2013-01-01

    Many bacterial species are capable of assessing their local population densities through a cell-cell signaling mechanism termed quorum sensing (QS). This intercellular communication process is mediated by small molecule or peptide ligands and their cognate protein receptors. Numerous pathogens use QS to initiate virulence once they achieve a threshold cell number on a host. Consequently, approaches to intercept QS have attracted considerable attention as potential anti-infective therapies. Our interest in the development of small molecule tools to modulate QS pathways motivated us to evaluate triazole-containing analogs of natural N-acyl L-homoserine lactone (AHL) signals as non-native QS agonists and antagonists in Gram-negative bacteria. We synthesized 72 triazole derivatives of five broad structure types in high yields and purities using efficient Cu(I)-catalyzed azide-alkyne couplings. These compounds were evaluated for their ability to activate or inhibit two QS receptors from two prevalent pathogens – LasR from Pseudomonas aeruginosa and AbaR from Acinetobacter baumannii – using bacterial reporter strains. Several triazole derivatives were identified that were capable of strongly modulating the activity of LasR and AbaR. These compounds represent a new and synthetically accessible class of AHL analogs, and could find utility as chemical tools to study QS and its role in bacterial virulence. PMID:23258305

  16. Effect of quorum sensing signals produced by seaweed-associated bacteria on carpospore liberation from Gracilaria dura.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ravindra Pal; Baghel, Ravi S; Reddy, C R K; Jha, Bhavanath

    2015-01-01

    Epiphytic and endophytic bacteria associated with green macroalgae Ulva (U. fasciata and U. lactuca) and red macroalgae Gracilaria (G. corticata and G. dura) have been identified from three different seasons to evaluate the effect of quorum sensing (QS) molecules on carpospores liberation from Gracilaria dura. The bacterial isolates belonging to the orders Bacillales, Pseudomonadales, Alteromonadales, and Vibrionales were present in all seasons, whereas Actinomycetales and Enterobacteriales were confined to pre-monsoon and post-monsoon seasons, respectively. Among all the Gram-negative bacteria, seven isolates were found to produce different types of N-acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs). Interestingly, Shewanella algae produced five types of AHL: C4-HSL, HC4-HSL, C6-HSL, 3-oxo-C6-HSL, and 3-oxo-C12-HSL. Subsequently, the AHLs producing bacterial isolates were screened for carpospore liberation from G. dura and these isolates were found to positively induce carpospore liberation over the control. Also, observed that carpospore liberation increased significantly in C4- and C6-HSL treated cystocarps. Sodium dodecyl sulfate and native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the total protein of the C4- and C6-HSL treated cystocarps showed two specific peptide bands of different molecular weights (50 kDa and 60 kDa) as compared to the control, confirming their indirect effect on carpospore liberation. PMID:25788899

  17. The role of quorum sensing signalling in EPS production and the assembly of a sludge community into aerobic granules

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Chuan Hao; Koh, Kai Shyang; Xie, Chao; Tay, Martin; Zhou, Yan; Williams, Rohan; Ng, Wun Jern; Rice, Scott A; Kjelleberg, Staffan

    2014-01-01

    Quorum sensing (QS) signalling has been extensively studied in single species populations. However, the ecological role of QS in complex, multi-species communities, particularly in the context of community assembly, has neither been experimentally explored nor theoretically addressed. Here, we performed a long-term bioreactor ecology study to address the links between QS, organization and composition of complex microbial communities. The conversion of floccular biomass to highly structured granules was found to be non-random, but strongly and positively correlated with N-acyl-homoserine-lactone (AHL)-mediated QS. Specific AHLs were elevated up to 100-fold and were strongly associated with the initiation of granulation. Similarly, the levels of particular AHLs decreased markedly during the granular disintegration phase. Metadata analysis indicated that granulation was accompanied by changes in extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) production and AHL add-back studies also resulted in increased EPS synthesis. In contrast to the commonly reported nanomolar to micromolar signal concentrations in pure culture laboratory systems, QS signalling in the granulation ecosystem occurred at picomolar to nanomolar concentrations of AHLs. Given that low concentrations of AHLs quantified in this study were sufficient to activate AHL bioreporters in situ in complex granular communities, AHL mediated QS may be a common feature in many natural and engineered ecosystems, where it coordinates community behaviour. PMID:24430488

  18. Effect of quorum sensing signals produced by seaweed-associated bacteria on carpospore liberation from Gracilaria dura

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Ravindra Pal; Baghel, Ravi S.; Reddy, C. R. K.; Jha, Bhavanath

    2015-01-01

    Epiphytic and endophytic bacteria associated with green macroalgae Ulva (U. fasciata and U. lactuca) and red macroalgae Gracilaria (G. corticata and G. dura) have been identified from three different seasons to evaluate the effect of quorum sensing (QS) molecules on carpospores liberation from Gracilaria dura. The bacterial isolates belonging to the orders Bacillales, Pseudomonadales, Alteromonadales, and Vibrionales were present in all seasons, whereas Actinomycetales and Enterobacteriales were confined to pre-monsoon and post-monsoon seasons, respectively. Among all the Gram-negative bacteria, seven isolates were found to produce different types of N-acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs). Interestingly, Shewanella algae produced five types of AHL: C4-HSL, HC4-HSL, C6-HSL, 3-oxo-C6-HSL, and 3-oxo-C12-HSL. Subsequently, the AHLs producing bacterial isolates were screened for carpospore liberation from G. dura and these isolates were found to positively induce carpospore liberation over the control. Also, observed that carpospore liberation increased significantly in C4- and C6-HSL treated cystocarps. Sodium dodecyl sulfate and native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the total protein of the C4- and C6-HSL treated cystocarps showed two specific peptide bands of different molecular weights (50 kDa and 60 kDa) as compared to the control, confirming their indirect effect on carpospore liberation. PMID:25788899

  19. Molecular mechanisms of master regulator VqsM mediating quorum-sensing and antibiotic resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Liang, Haihua; Deng, Xin; Li, Xuefeng; Ye, Yan; Wu, Min

    2014-01-01

    The Pseudomonas aeruginosa quorum-sensing (QS) systems contribute to bacterial homeostasis and pathogenicity. Although the AraC-family transcription factor VqsM has been characterized to control the production of virulence factors and QS signaling molecules, its detailed regulatory mechanisms still remain elusive. Here, we report that VqsM directly binds to the lasI promoter region, and thus regulates its expression. To identify additional targets of VqsM in P. aeruginosa PAO1, we performed chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) followed by high-throughput DNA sequencing (ChIP-seq) and detected 48 enriched loci harboring VqsM-binding peaks in the P. aeruginosa genome. The direct regulation of these genes by VqsM has been confirmed by electrophoretic mobility shift assays and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reactions. A VqsM-binding motif was identified by using the MEME suite and verified by footprint assays in vitro. In addition, VqsM directly bound to the promoter regions of the antibiotic resistance regulator NfxB and the master type III secretion system (T3SS) regulator ExsA. Notably, the vqsM mutant displayed more resistance to two types of antibiotics and promoted bacterial survival in a mouse model, compared to wild-type PAO1. Collectively, this work provides new cues to better understand the detailed regulatory networks of QS systems, T3SS, and antibiotic resistance. PMID:25034696

  20. Biosynthesis of the antifungal haterumalide, oocydin A, in Serratia, and its regulation by quorum sensing, RpoS and Hfq

    PubMed Central

    Matilla, Miguel A; Leeper, Finian J; Salmond, George P C

    2015-01-01

    Polyketides represent an important class of bioactive natural products with a broad range of biological activities. We identified recently a large trans-acyltransferase (AT) polyketide synthase gene cluster responsible for the biosynthesis of the antifungal, anti-oomycete and antitumor haterumalide, oocydin A (ooc). Using genome sequencing and comparative genomics, we show that the ooc gene cluster is widespread within biocontrol and phytopathogenic strains of the enterobacteria, Serratia and Dickeya. The analysis of in frame deletion mutants confirmed the role of a hydroxymethylglutaryl-coenzyme A synthase cassette, three flavin-dependent tailoring enzymes, a free-standing acyl carrier protein and two hypothetical proteins in oocydin A biosynthesis. The requirement of the three trans-acting AT domains for the biosynthesis of the macrolide was also demonstrated. Expression of the ooc gene cluster was shown to be positively regulated by an N-acyl-L-homoserine lactone-based quorum sensing system, but operating in a strain-dependent manner. At a post-transcriptional level, the RNA chaperone, Hfq, plays a key role in oocydin A biosynthesis. The Hfq-dependent regulation is partially mediated by the stationary phase sigma factor, RpoS, which was also shown to positively regulate the synthesis of the macrolide. Our results reveal differential regulation of the divergently transcribed ooc transcriptional units, highlighting the complexity of oocydin A production. PMID:25753587

  1. Quorum Quenching Revisited—From Signal Decays to Signalling Confusion

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Kar-Wai; Koh, Chong-Lek; Sam, Choon-Kook; Yin, Wai-Fong; Chan, Kok-Gan

    2012-01-01

    In a polymicrobial community, while some bacteria are communicating with neighboring cells (quorum sensing), others are interrupting the communication (quorum quenching), thus creating a constant arms race between intercellular communication. In the past decade, numerous quorum quenching enzymes have been found and initially thought to inactivate the signalling molecules. Though this is widely accepted, the actual roles of these quorum quenching enzymes are now being uncovered. Recent evidence extends the role of quorum quenching to detoxification or metabolism of signalling molecules as food and energy source; this includes “signalling confusion”, a term coined in this paper to refer to the phenomenon of non-destructive modification of signalling molecules. While quorum quenching has been explored as a novel anti-infective therapy targeting, quorum sensing evidence begins to show the development of resistance against quorum quenching. PMID:22666051

  2. The hydrocarbon-degrading marine bacterium Cobetia sp. strain MM1IDA2H-1 produces a biosurfactant that interferes with quorum sensing of fish pathogens by signal hijacking.

    PubMed

    Ibacache-Quiroga, C; Ojeda, J; Espinoza-Vergara, G; Olivero, P; Cuellar, M; Dinamarca, M A

    2013-07-01

    Biosurfactants are produced by hydrocarbon-degrading marine bacteria in response to the presence of water-insoluble hydrocarbons. This is believed to facilitate the uptake of hydrocarbons by bacteria. However, these diffusible amphiphilic surface-active molecules are involved in several other biological functions such as microbial competition and intra- or inter-species communication. We report the isolation and characterization of a marine bacterial strain identified as Cobetia sp. MM1IDA2H-1, which can grow using the sulfur-containing heterocyclic aromatic hydrocarbon dibenzothiophene (DBT). As with DBT, when the isolated strain is grown in the presence of a microbial competitor, it produces a biosurfactant. Because the obtained biosurfactant was formed by hydroxy fatty acids and extracellular lipidic structures were observed during bacterial growth, we investigated whether the biosurfactant at its critical micelle concentration can interfere with bacterial communication systems such as quorum sensing. We focused on Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida, a fish pathogen whose virulence relies on quorum sensing signals. Using biosensors for quorum sensing based on Chromobacterium violaceum and Vibrio anguillarum, we showed that when the purified biosurfactant was mixed with N-acyl homoserine lactones produced by A. salmonicida, quorum sensing was inhibited, although bacterial growth was not affected. In addition, the transcriptional activities of A. salmonicida virulence genes that are controlled by quorum sensing were repressed by both the purified biosurfactant and the growth in the presence of Cobetia sp. MM1IDA2H-1. We propose that the biosurfactant, or the lipid structures interact with the N-acyl homoserine lactones, inhibiting their function. This could be used as a strategy to interfere with the quorum sensing systems of bacterial fish pathogens, which represents an attractive alternative to classical antimicrobial therapies in fish aquaculture. PMID:23279885

  3. The hydrocarbon-degrading marine bacterium Cobetia sp. strain MM1IDA2H-1 produces a biosurfactant that interferes with quorum sensing of fish pathogens by signal hijacking

    PubMed Central

    Ibacache-Quiroga, C; Ojeda, J; Espinoza-Vergara, G; Olivero, P; Cuellar, M; Dinamarca, M A

    2013-01-01

    Summary Biosurfactants are produced by hydrocarbon-degrading marine bacteria in response to the presence of water-insoluble hydrocarbons. This is believed to facilitate the uptake of hydrocarbons by bacteria. However, these diffusible amphiphilic surface-active molecules are involved in several other biological functions such as microbial competition and intra-or inter-species communication. We report the isolation and characterization of a marine bacterial strain identified as Cobetia sp. MM1IDA2H-1, which can grow using the sulfur-containing heterocyclic aromatic hydrocarbon dibenzothiophene (DBT). As with DBT, when the isolated strain is grown in the presence of a microbial competitor, it produces a biosurfactant. Because the obtained biosurfactant was formed by hydroxy fatty acids and extracellular lipidic structures were observed during bacterial growth, we investigated whether the biosurfactant at its critical micelle concentration can interfere with bacterial communication systems such as quorum sensing. We focused on Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida, a fish pathogen whose virulence relies on quorum sensing signals. Using biosensors for quorum sensing based on Chromobacterium violaceum and Vibrio anguillarum, we showed that when the purified biosurfactant was mixed with N-acyl homoserine lactones produced by A.?salmonicida, quorum sensing was inhibited, although bacterial growth was not affected. In addition, the transcriptional activities of A.?salmonicida virulence genes that are controlled by quorum sensing were repressed by both the purified biosurfactant and the growth in the presence of Cobetia sp. MM1IDA2H-1. We propose that the biosurfactant, or the lipid structures interact with the N-acyl homoserine lactones, inhibiting their function. This could be used as a strategy to interfere with the quorum sensing systems of bacterial fish pathogens, which represents an attractive alternative to classical antimicrobial therapies in fish aquaculture. PMID:23279885

  4. The mucoid switch in Pseudomonas aeruginosa represses quorum sensing systems and leads to complex changes to stationary phase virulence factor regulation.

    PubMed

    Ryall, Ben; Carrara, Marta; Zlosnik, James E A; Behrends, Volker; Lee, Xiaoyun; Wong, Zhen; Lougheed, Kathryn E; Williams, Huw D

    2014-01-01

    The opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa chronically infects the airways of Cystic Fibrosis (CF) patients during which it adapts and undergoes clonal expansion within the lung. It commonly acquires inactivating mutations of the anti-sigma factor MucA leading to a mucoid phenotype, caused by excessive production of the extracellular polysaccharide alginate that is associated with a decline in lung function. Alginate production is believed to be the key benefit of mucA mutations to the bacterium in the CF lung. A phenotypic and gene expression characterisation of the stationary phase physiology of mucA22 mutants demonstrated complex and subtle changes in virulence factor production, including cyanide and pyocyanin, that results in their down-regulation upon entry into stationary phase but, (and in contrast to wildtype strains) continued production in prolonged stationary phase. These findings may have consequences for chronic infection if mucoid P. aeruginosa were to continue to make virulence factors under non-growing conditions during infection. These changes resulted in part from a severe down-regulation of both AHL-and AQ (PQS)-dependent quorum sensing systems. In trans expression of the cAMP-dependent transcription factor Vfr restored both quorum sensing defects and virulence factor production in early stationary phase. Our findings have implications for understanding the evolution of P. aeruginosa during CF lung infection and it demonstrates that mucA22 mutation provides a second mechanism, in addition to the commonly occurring lasR mutations, of down-regulating quorum sensing during chronic infection this may provide a selection pressure for the mucoid switch in the CF lung. PMID:24852379

  5. The Mucoid Switch in Pseudomonas aeruginosa Represses Quorum Sensing Systems and Leads to Complex Changes to Stationary Phase Virulence Factor Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Ryall, Ben; Carrara, Marta; Zlosnik, James E. A.; Behrends, Volker; Lee, Xiaoyun; Wong, Zhen; Lougheed, Kathryn E.; Williams, Huw D.

    2014-01-01

    The opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa chronically infects the airways of Cystic Fibrosis (CF) patients during which it adapts and undergoes clonal expansion within the lung. It commonly acquires inactivating mutations of the anti-sigma factor MucA leading to a mucoid phenotype, caused by excessive production of the extracellular polysaccharide alginate that is associated with a decline in lung function. Alginate production is believed to be the key benefit of mucA mutations to the bacterium in the CF lung. A phenotypic and gene expression characterisation of the stationary phase physiology of mucA22 mutants demonstrated complex and subtle changes in virulence factor production, including cyanide and pyocyanin, that results in their down-regulation upon entry into stationary phase but, (and in contrast to wildtype strains) continued production in prolonged stationary phase. These findings may have consequences for chronic infection if mucoid P. aeruginosa were to continue to make virulence factors under non-growing conditions during infection. These changes resulted in part from a severe down-regulation of both AHL-and AQ (PQS)-dependent quorum sensing systems. In trans expression of the cAMP-dependent transcription factor Vfr restored both quorum sensing defects and virulence factor production in early stationary phase. Our findings have implications for understanding the evolution of P. aeruginosa during CF lung infection and it demonstrates that mucA22 mutation provides a second mechanism, in addition to the commonly occurring lasR mutations, of down-regulating quorum sensing during chronic infection this may provide a selection pressure for the mucoid switch in the CF lung. PMID:24852379

  6. Effect of salinity and incubation time of planktonic cells on biofilm formation, motility, exoprotease production, and quorum sensing of Aeromonas hydrophila.

    PubMed

    Jahid, Iqbal Kabir; Mizan, Md Furkanur Rahaman; Ha, Angela J; Ha, Sang-Do

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of salinity and age of cultures on quorum sensing, exoprotease production, and biofilm formation by Aeromonas hydrophila on stainless steel (SS) and crab shell as substrates. Biofilm formation was assessed at various salinities, from fresh (0%) to saline water (3.0%). For young and old cultures, planktonic cells were grown at 30 °C for 24 h and 96 h, respectively. Biofilm formation was assessed on SS, glass, and crab shell; viable counts were determined in R2A agar for SS and glass, but Aeromonas-selective media was used for crab shell samples to eliminate bacterial contamination. Exoprotease activity was assessed using a Fluoro™ protease assay kit. Quantification of acyl-homoserine lactone (AHL) was performed using the bioreporter strain Chromobacterium violaceum CV026 and the concentration was confirmed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The concentration of autoinducer-2 (AI-2) was determined with Vibrio harveyi BB170. The biofilm structure at various salinities (0-3 %) was assessed using field emission electron microscopy (FESEM). Young cultures of A. hydrophila grown at 0-0.25% salinity showed gradual increasing of biofilm formation on SS, glass and crab shell; swarming and swimming motility; exoproteases production, AHL and AI-2 quorum sensing; while all these phenotypic characters reduced from 0.5 to 3.0% salinity. The FESEM images also showed that from 0 to 0.25% salinity stimulated formation of three-dimensional biofilm structures that also broke through the surface by utilizing the chitin surfaces of crab, while 3% salinity stimulated attachment only for young cultures. However, in marked contrast, salinity (0.1-3%) had no effect on the stimulation of biofilm formation or on phenotypic characters for old cultures. However, all concentrations reduced biofilm formation, motility, protease production and quorum sensing for old culture. Overall, 0-0.25% salinity enhanced biofilm formation and expression of quorum sensing regulatory genes in young cultures, whereas these responses were reduced when salinity was >0.25%. In old cultures, salinity at any concentrations (0.1-3%) induced stress in A. hydrophila. The present study provides insight into the ecology of A. hydrophila growing on fish and crustaceans such as shrimp and crabs in estuarine and seawater. PMID:25846924

  7. Prevalence of LuxR- and LuxI-type quorum sensing circuits in members of the Populus deltoides microbiome

    SciTech Connect

    Schaefer, Amy L; Lappala, Colin; Morlen, Ryan; Pelletier, Dale A; Lu, Tse-Yuan; Lankford, Patricia K; Harwood, Caroline S; Greenberg, E. Peter

    2013-01-01

    We are interested in the root microbiome of the fast-growing Eastern cottonwood tree, Populus 25 deltoides. There is a large bank of bacterial isolates from P. deltoides and there are 44 draft 26 genomes of bacterial endophyte and rhizosphere isolates. As a first step in efforts to understand 27 the roles of bacterial communication and plant-bacterial signaling in P. deltoides we focused on 28 the prevalence of acyl-homoserine lactone (AHL) quorum sensing signal production and 29 reception in members of the P. deltoides microbiome. We screened 129 bacterial isolates for 30 AHL production using a broad-spectrum bioassay that responds to many but not all AHLs, and 31 we queried the available genome sequences of microbiome isolates for homologs of AHL 32 synthase and receptor genes. AHL signal production was detected in 40% of 129 strains tested. 33 Positive isolates included -, - and -Proteobacteria. Members of the luxI family of AHL 34 synthases were identified in 18 of 39 Proteobacteria genomes including genomes of some 35 isolates that tested negative in the bioassay. Members of the luxR family of transcription factors, 36 that include AHL-responsive factors, were more abundant than luxI homologs. There were 72 in 37 the 39 Proteobacteria genomes. Some of the luxR homologs appear to be members of a 38 subfamily of LuxRs that respond to as yet unknown plant signals rather than bacterial AHLs. 39 Apparently, there is a substantial capacity for AHL cell-to-cell communication in Proteobacteria 40 of the P. deltoides microbiota and there are also Proteobacteria with LuxR homologs of the type 41 hypothesized to respond to plant signals or cues.

  8. Transcriptome-Based Analysis of the Pantoea stewartii Quorum-Sensing Regulon and Identification of EsaR Direct Targets

    PubMed Central

    Ramachandran, Revathy; Burke, Alison Kernell; Cormier, Guy; Jensen, Roderick V.

    2014-01-01

    Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii is a proteobacterium that causes Stewart's wilt disease in corn plants. The bacteria form a biofilm in the xylem of infected plants and produce capsule that blocks water transport, eventually causing wilt. At low cell densities, the quorum-sensing (QS) regulatory protein EsaR is known to directly repress expression of esaR itself as well as the genes for the capsular synthesis operon transcription regulator, rcsA, and a 2,5-diketogluconate reductase, dkgA. It simultaneously directly activates expression of genes for a putative small RNA, esaS, the glycerol utilization operon, glpFKX, and another transcriptional regulator, lrhA. At high bacterial cell densities, all of this regulation is relieved when EsaR binds an acylated homoserine lactone signal, which is synthesized constitutively over growth. QS-dependent gene expression is critical for the establishment of disease in the plant. However, the identity of the full set of genes controlled by EsaR/QS is unknown. A proteomic approach previously identified around 30 proteins in the QS regulon. In this study, a whole-transcriptome, next-generation sequencing analysis of rRNA-depleted RNA from QS-proficient and -deficient P. stewartii strains was performed to identify additional targets of EsaR. EsaR-dependent transcriptional regulation of a subset of differentially expressed genes was confirmed by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR). Electrophoretic mobility shift assays demonstrated that EsaR directly bound 10 newly identified target promoters. Overall, the QS regulon of P. stewartii orchestrates three major physiological responses: capsule and cell envelope biosynthesis, surface motility and adhesion, and stress response. PMID:25015891

  9. Quorum-sensing regulation of constitutive plantaricin by Lactobacillus plantarum strains under a model system for vegetables and fruits.

    PubMed

    Rizzello, Carlo G; Filannino, Pasquale; Di Cagno, Raffaella; Calasso, Maria; Gobbetti, Marco

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating the regulatory system of bacteriocin synthesis by Lactobacillus plantarum strains in vegetables and fruits in a model system. Sterile and neutralized cell-free supernatant (CFS) from L. plantarum strains grown in MRS broth showed in vitro antimicrobial activities toward various indicator strains. The highest activity was that of L. plantarum C2. The antimicrobial activity was further assayed on vegetable and fruit agar plates (solid conditions) and in juices (liquid conditions). A regulatory mechanism of bacteriocin synthesis via quorum sensing was hypothesized. The synthesis of antimicrobial compounds seemed to be constitutive under solid conditions of growth on vegetable and fruit agar plates. In contrast, it depended on the size of the inoculum when L. plantarum C2 was grown in carrot juice. Only the inoculum of ca. 9.0 log CFU ml(-1) produced detectable activity. The genes plnA, plnEF, plnG, and plnH were found in all L. plantarum strains. The genes plnJK and plnN were detected in only three or four strains. Reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography purification and mass spectrometry analysis revealed the presence of a mixture of eight peptides in the most active fraction of the CFS from L. plantarum C2. Active peptides were encrypted into bacteriocin precursors, such as plantaricins PlnJ/K and PlnH and PlnG, which are involved in the ABC transport system. A real-time PCR assay showed an increase in the expression of plnJK and plnG during growth of L. plantarum C2 in carrot juice. PMID:24242246

  10. Quorum Sensing Signal Production and Microbial Interactions in a Polymicrobial Disease of Corals and the Coral Surface Mucopolysaccharide Layer

    PubMed Central

    Zimmer, Beth L.; May, Amanda L.; Bhedi, Chinmayee D.; Dearth, Stephen P.; Prevatte, Carson W.; Pratte, Zoe; Campagna, Shawn R.; Richardson, Laurie L.

    2014-01-01

    Black band disease (BBD) of corals is a complex polymicrobial disease considered to be a threat to coral reef health, as it can lead to mortality of massive reef-building corals. The BBD community is dominated by gliding, filamentous cyanobacteria with a highly diverse population of heterotrophic bacteria. Microbial interactions such as quorum sensing (QS) and antimicrobial production may be involved in BBD disease pathogenesis. In this study, BBD (whole community) samples, as well as 199 bacterial isolates from BBD, the surface mucopolysaccharide layer (SML) of apparently healthy corals, and SML of apparently healthy areas of BBD-infected corals were screened for the production of acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs) and for autoinducer-2 (AI-2) activity using three bacterial reporter strains. AHLs were detected in all BBD (intact community) samples tested and in cultures of 5.5% of BBD bacterial isolates. Over half of a subset (153) of the isolates were positive for AI-2 activity. AHL-producing isolates were further analyzed using LC-MS/MS to determine AHL chemical structure and the concentration of (S)-4,5-dihydroxy-2,3-pentanedione (DPD), the biosynthetic precursor of AI-2. C6-HSL was the most common AHL variant detected, followed by 3OC4-HSL. In addition to QS assays, 342 growth challenges were conducted among a subset of the isolates, with 27% of isolates eliciting growth inhibition and 2% growth stimulation. 24% of BBD isolates elicited growth inhibition as compared to 26% and 32% of the bacteria from the two SML sources. With one exception, only isolates that exhibited AI-2 activity or produced DPD inhibited growth of test strains. These findings demonstrate for the first time that AHLs are present in an active coral disease. It is possible that AI-2 production among BBD and coral SML bacteria may structure the microbial communities of both a polymicrobial infection and the healthy coral microbiome. PMID:25268348

  11. The CpAL Quorum Sensing System Regulates Production of Hemolysins CPA and PFO To Build Clostridium perfringens Biofilms

    PubMed Central

    Shak, Joshua R.; Canizalez-Roman, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    Clostridium perfringens strains produce severe diseases, including myonecrosis and enteritis necroticans, in humans and animals. Diseases are mediated by the production of potent toxins that often damage the site of infection, e.g., skin epithelium during myonecrosis. In planktonic cultures, the regulation of important toxins, such as CPA, CPB, and PFO, is controlled by the C. perfringens Agr-like (CpAL) quorum sensing (QS) system. Strains also encode a functional LuxS/AI-2 system. Although C. perfringens strains form biofilm-like structures, the regulation of biofilm formation is poorly understood. Therefore, our studies investigated the role of CpAL and LuxS/AI-2 QS systems and of QS-regulated factors in controlling the formation of biofilms. We first demonstrate that biofilm production by reference strains differs depending on the culture medium. Increased biomass correlated with the presence of extracellular DNA in the supernatant, which was released by lysis of a fraction of the biofilm population and planktonic cells. Whereas ?agrB mutant strains were not able to produce biofilms, a ?luxS mutant produced wild-type levels. The transcript levels of CpAL-regulated cpa and pfoA genes, but not cpb, were upregulated in biofilms compared to planktonic cultures. Accordingly, ?cpa and ?pfoA mutants, in type A (S13) or type C (CN3685) backgrounds, were unable to produce biofilms, whereas CN3685?cpb made wild-type levels. Biofilm formation was restored in complemented ?cpa/cpa and ?pfoA/pfoA strains. Confocal microscopy studies further detected CPA partially colocalizing with eDNA on the biofilm structure. Thus, CpAL regulates biofilm formation in C. perfringens by increasing levels of certain toxins required to build biofilms. PMID:25824838

  12. Transcriptome of the quorum-sensing signal-degrading Rhodococcus erythropolis responds differentially to virulent and avirulent Pectobacterium atrosepticum.

    PubMed

    Kwasiborski, A; Mondy, S; Chong, T-M; Barbey, C; Chan, K-G; Beury-Cirou, A; Latour, X; Faure, D

    2015-05-01

    Social bacteria use chemical communication to coordinate and synchronize gene expression via the quorum-sensing (QS) regulatory pathway. In Pectobacterium, a causative agent of the blackleg and soft-rot diseases on potato plants and tubers, expression of the virulence factors is collectively controlled by the QS-signals N-acylhomoserine lactones (NAHLs). Several soil bacteria, such as the actinobacterium Rhodococcus erythropolis, are able to degrade NAHLs, hence quench the chemical communication and virulence of Pectobacterium. Here, next-generation sequencing was used to investigate structural and functional genomics of the NAHL-degrading R. erythropolis strain R138. The R. erythropolis R138 genome (6.7?Mbp) contained a single circular chromosome, one linear (250?kbp) and one circular (84?kbp) plasmid. Growth of R. erythropolis and P. atrosepticum was not altered in mixed-cultures as compared with monocultures on potato tuber slices. HiSeq-transcriptomics revealed that no R. erythropolis genes were differentially expressed when R. erythropolis was cultivated in the presence vs absence of the avirulent P. atrosepticum mutant expI, which is defective for QS-signal synthesis. By contrast 50 genes (<1% of the R. erythropolis genome) were differentially expressed when R. erythropolis was cultivated in the presence vs absence of the NAHL-producing virulent P. atrosepticum. Among them, quantitative real-time reverse-transcriptase-PCR confirmed that the expression of some alkyl-sulfatase genes decreased in the presence of a virulent P. atrosepticum, as well as deprivation of organic sulfur such as methionine, which is a key precursor in the synthesis of NAHL by P. atrosepticum. PMID:25585922

  13. Quorum sensing and Chromobacterium violaceum: exploitation of violacein production and inhibition for the detection of N-acylhomoserine lactones.

    PubMed

    McClean, K H; Winson, M K; Fish, L; Taylor, A; Chhabra, S R; Camara, M; Daykin, M; Lamb, J H; Swift, S; Bycroft, B W; Stewart, G S; Williams, P

    1997-12-01

    Quorum sensing relies upon the interaction of a diffusible signal molecule with a transcriptional activator protein to couple gene expression with cell population density. In Gram-negative bacteria, such signal molecules are usually N-acylhomoserine lactones (AHLs) which differ in the structure of their N-acyl side chains. Chromobacterium violaceum, a Gram-negative bacterium commonly found in soil and water, produces the characteristic purple pigment violacein. Previously the authors described a violacein-negative, mini-Tn5 mutant of C. violaceum (CV026) in which pigment production can be restored by incubation with supernatants from the wild-type strain. To develop this mutant as a general biosensor for AHLs, the natural C. violaceum AHL molecule was first chemically characterized. By using solvent extraction, HPLC and mass spectrometry, a single AHL, N-hexanoyl-L-homoserine lactone (HHL), was identified in wild-type C. violaceum culture supernatants which was absent from CV026. Since the production of violacein constitutes a simple assay for the detection of AHLs, we explored the ability of CV026 to respond to a series of synthetic AHL and N-acylhomocysteine thiolactone (AHT) analogues. In CV026, violacein is inducible by all the AHL and AHT compounds evaluated with N-acyl side chains from C4 to C8 in length, with varying degrees of sensitivity. Although AHL compounds with N-acyl side chains from C10 to C14 are unable to induce violacein production, if an activating AHL (e.g. HHL) is incorporated into the agar, these long-chain AHLs can be detected by their ability to inhibit violacein production. The versatility of CV026 in facilitating detection of AHL mixtures extracted from culture supernatants and separated by thin-layer chromatography is also demonstrated. These simple bioassays employing CV026 thus greatly extend the ability to detect a wide spectrum of AHL signal molecules. PMID:9421896

  14. Proteomic Analysis of the Quorum-Sensing Regulon in Pantoea stewartii and Identification of Direct Targets of EsaR

    PubMed Central

    Ramachandran, Revathy

    2013-01-01

    The proteobacterium Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii causes Stewart's wilt disease in maize when it colonizes the xylem and secretes large amounts of stewartan, an exopolysaccharide. The success of disease pathogenesis lies in the timing of bacterial virulence factor expression through the different stages of infection. Regulation is achieved through a quorum-sensing (QS) system consisting of the acyl-homoserine lactone (AHL) synthase, EsaI, and the transcription regulator EsaR. At low cell densities, EsaR represses transcription of itself and of rcsA, an activator of the stewartan biosynthesis operon; it also activates esaS, which encodes a small RNA (sRNA). Repression or activation ceases at high cell densities when EsaI synthesizes sufficient levels of the AHL ligand N-3-oxo-hexanoyl-l-homoserine lactone to bind and inactivate EsaR. This study aims to identify other genes activated or repressed by EsaR during the QS response. Proteomic analysis identified a QS regulon of more than 30 proteins. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays of promoters of genes encoding differentially expressed proteins distinguished direct targets of EsaR from indirect targets. Additional quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR) and DNA footprinting analysis established that EsaR directly regulates the promoters of dkgA, glpF, and lrhA. The proteins encoded by dkgA, glpF, and lrhA are a 2,5-diketogluconate reductase, glycerol facilitator, and transcriptional regulator of chemotaxis and motility, respectively, indicating a more global QS response in P. stewartii than previously recognized. PMID:23913428

  15. ExpR Coordinates the Expression of Symbiotically Important, Bundle-Forming Flp Pili with Quorum Sensing in Sinorhizobium meliloti

    PubMed Central

    Zatakia, Hardik M.; Nelson, Cassandra E.; Syed, Umair J.

    2014-01-01

    Type IVb pili in enteropathogenic bacteria function as a host colonization factor by mediating tight adherence to host cells, but their role in bacterium-plant symbiosis is currently unknown. The genome of the symbiotic soil bacterium Sinorhizobium meliloti contains two clusters encoding proteins for type IVb pili of the Flp (fimbrial low-molecular-weight protein) subfamily. To establish the role of Flp pili in the symbiotic interaction of S. meliloti and its host, Medicago sativa, we deleted pilA1, which encodes the putative pilin subunit in the chromosomal flp-1 cluster and conducted competitive nodulation assays. The pilA1 deletion strain formed 27% fewer nodules than the wild type. Transmission electron microscopy revealed the presence of bundle-forming pili protruding from the polar and lateral region of S. meliloti wild-type cells. The putative pilus assembly ATPase CpaE1 fused to mCherry showed a predominantly unilateral localization. Transcriptional reporter gene assays demonstrated that expression of pilA1 peaks in early stationary phase and is repressed by the quorum-sensing regulator ExpR, which also controls production of exopolysaccharides and motility. Binding of acyl homoserine lactone-activated ExpR to the pilA1 promoter was confirmed with electrophoretic mobility shift assays. A 17-bp consensus sequence for ExpR binding was identified within the 28-bp protected region by DNase I footprinting analyses. Our results show that Flp pili are important for efficient symbiosis of S. meliloti with its plant host. The temporal inverse regulation of exopolysaccharides and pili by ExpR enables S. meliloti to achieve a coordinated expression of cellular processes during early stages of host interaction. PMID:24509921

  16. A Novel Pheromone Quorum-Sensing System Controls the Development of Natural Competence in Streptococcus thermophilus and Streptococcus salivarius? †

    PubMed Central

    Fontaine, Laetitia; Boutry, Céline; de Frahan, Marie Henry; Delplace, Brigitte; Fremaux, Christophe; Horvath, Philippe; Boyaval, Patrick; Hols, Pascal

    2010-01-01

    In streptococcal species, the key step of competence development is the transcriptional induction of comX, which encodes the alternative sigma factor ?X, which positively regulates genes necessary for DNA transformation. In Streptococcus species belonging to the mitis and mutans groups, induction of comX relies on the activation of a three-component system consisting of a secreted pheromone, a histidine kinase, and a response regulator. In Streptococcus thermophilus, a species belonging to the salivarius group, the oligopeptide transporter Ami is essential for comX expression under competence-inducing conditions. This suggests a different regulation pathway of competence based on the production and reimportation of a signal peptide. The objective of our work was to identify the main actors involved in the early steps of comX induction in S. thermophilus LMD-9. Using a transcriptomic approach, four highly induced early competence operons were identified. Among them, we found a Rgg-like regulator (Ster_0316) associated with a nonannotated gene encoding a 24-amino-acid hydrophobic peptide (Shp0316). Through genetic deletions, we showed that these two genes are essential for comX induction. Moreover, addition to the medium of synthetic peptides derived from the C-terminal part of Shp0316 restored comX induction and transformation of a Shp0316-deficient strain. These peptides also induced competence in S. thermophilus and Streptococcus salivarius strains that are poorly transformable or not transformable. Altogether, our results show that Ster_0316 and Shp0316, renamed ComRS, are the two members of a novel quorum-sensing system responsible for comX induction in species from the salivarius group, which differs from the classical phosphorelay three-component system identified previously in streptococci. PMID:20023010

  17. Mutations of the Quorum Sensing-Dependent Regulator VjbR Lead to Drastic Surface Modifications in Brucella melitensis?

    PubMed Central

    Uzureau, Sophie; Godefroid, Marie; Deschamps, Chantal; Lemaire, Julien; De Bolle, Xavier; Letesson, Jean-Jacques

    2007-01-01

    Successful establishment of infection by bacterial pathogens requires fine-tuning of virulence-related genes. Quorum sensing (QS) is a global regulation process based on the synthesis of, detection of, and response to small diffusible molecules, called N-acyl-homoserine lactones (AHL), in gram-negative bacteria. In numerous species, QS has been shown to regulate genes involved in the establishment of pathogenic interactions with the host. Brucella melitensis produces N-dodecanoyl homoserine lactones (C12-HSL), which down regulate the expression of flagellar genes and of the virB operon (encoding a type IV secretion system), both of which encode surface virulence factors. A QS-related regulator, called VjbR, was identified as a transcriptional activator of these genes. We hypothesized that VjbR mediates the C12-HSL effects described above. vjbR alleles mutated in the region coding for the AHL binding domain were constructed to test this hypothesis. These alleles expressed in trans in a ?vjbR background behave as constitutive regulators both in vitro and in a cellular model of infection. Interestingly, the resulting B. melitensis strains, unable to respond to AHLs, aggregate spontaneously in liquid culture. Preliminary characterization of these strains showed altered expression of some outer membrane proteins and overproduction of a matrix-forming exopolysaccharide, suggesting for the first time that B. melitensis could form biofilms. Together, these results indicate that QS through VjbR is a major regulatory system of important cell surface structures of Brucella and as such plays a key role in host-pathogen interactions. PMID:17557825

  18. Quorum-Sensing Regulation of Constitutive Plantaricin by Lactobacillus plantarum Strains under a Model System for Vegetables and Fruits

    PubMed Central

    Rizzello, Carlo G.; Filannino, Pasquale; Calasso, Maria; Gobbetti, Marco

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating the regulatory system of bacteriocin synthesis by Lactobacillus plantarum strains in vegetables and fruits in a model system. Sterile and neutralized cell-free supernatant (CFS) from L. plantarum strains grown in MRS broth showed in vitro antimicrobial activities toward various indicator strains. The highest activity was that of L. plantarum C2. The antimicrobial activity was further assayed on vegetable and fruit agar plates (solid conditions) and in juices (liquid conditions). A regulatory mechanism of bacteriocin synthesis via quorum sensing was hypothesized. The synthesis of antimicrobial compounds seemed to be constitutive under solid conditions of growth on vegetable and fruit agar plates. In contrast, it depended on the size of the inoculum when L. plantarum C2 was grown in carrot juice. Only the inoculum of ca. 9.0 log CFU ml?1 produced detectable activity. The genes plnA, plnEF, plnG, and plnH were found in all L. plantarum strains. The genes plnJK and plnN were detected in only three or four strains. Reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography purification and mass spectrometry analysis revealed the presence of a mixture of eight peptides in the most active fraction of the CFS from L. plantarum C2. Active peptides were encrypted into bacteriocin precursors, such as plantaricins PlnJ/K and PlnH and PlnG, which are involved in the ABC transport system. A real-time PCR assay showed an increase in the expression of plnJK and plnG during growth of L. plantarum C2 in carrot juice. PMID:24242246

  19. You are what you talk: quorum sensing induces individual morphologies and cell division modes in Dinoroseobacter shibae.

    PubMed

    Patzelt, Diana; Wang, Hui; Buchholz, Ina; Rohde, Manfred; Gröbe, Lothar; Pradella, Silke; Neumann, Alexander; Schulz, Stefan; Heyber, Steffi; Münch, Karin; Münch, Richard; Jahn, Dieter; Wagner-Döbler, Irene; Tomasch, Jürgen

    2013-12-01

    Dinoroseobacter shibae, a member of the Roseobacter clade abundant in marine environments, is characterized by a pronounced pleomorphism. Cell shapes range from variable-sized ovoid rods to long filaments with a high copy number of chromosomes. Time-lapse microscopy shows cells dividing either by binary fission or by budding from the cell poles. Here we demonstrate that this morphological heterogeneity is induced by quorum sensing (QS). D. shibae utilizes three acylated homoserine lactone (AHL) synthases (luxI1-3) to produce AHLs with unsaturated C18 side chains. A ?luxI1-knockout strain completely lacking AHL biosynthesis was uniform in morphology and divided by binary fission only. Transcriptome analysis revealed that expression of genes responsible for control of cell division was reduced in this strain, providing the link between QS and the observed phenotype. In addition, flagellar biosynthesis and type IV secretion system (T4SS) were downregulated. The wild-type phenotype and gene expression could be restored through addition of synthetic C18-AHLs. Their effectiveness was dependent on the number of double bonds in the acyl side chain and the regulated trait. The wild-type expression level of T4SS genes was fully restored even by an AHL with a saturated C18 side chain that has not been detected in D. shibae. QS induces phenotypic individualization of D. shibae cells rather than coordinating the population. This strategy might be beneficial in unpredictably changing environments, for example, during algal blooms when resource competition and grazing exert fluctuating selective pressures. A specific response towards non-native AHLs might provide D. shibae with the capacity for complex interspecies communication. PMID:23823498

  20. Identification and characterization of naturally occurring DSF-family quorum sensing signal turnover system in the phytopathogen Xanthomonas.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Lian; Wang, Xing-Yu; Sun, Shuang; Yang, Li-Chao; Jiang, Bo-Le; He, Ya-Wen

    2015-11-01

    Molecules of the diffusible signal factor (DSF)-family are a class of quorum sensing (QS) signals used by the phytopathogens Xanthomonas. Studies during the last decade have outlined how Xanthomonas cells enter the QS phase. However, information on the mechanism underlying its exit from the QS phase is limited. RpfB has recently been reported as a fatty acyl-CoA ligase (FCL) that activates a wide range of fatty acids to their CoA esters in vitro. Here, we establish an improved quantification assay for DSF-family signals using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry in X.?campestris pv. campestris (Xcc). We first demonstrated that RpfB represents a naturally occurring DSF-family signal turnover system.?RpfB effectively turns over DSF-family signals DSF and BDSF?in vivo. RpfB FCL enzymatic activity is required for DSF and BDSF turnover. Deletion of rpfB slightly increased Xcc virulence in the Chinese radish and overexpression of rpfB significantly decreased virulence. We further showed that the expression of rpfB is growth phase-dependent, and its expression is significantly enhanced when Xcc cells enter the stationary phase. DSF regulates rpfB expression in a concentration-dependent manner. rpfB expression is also negatively regulated by the DSF signalling components RpfC, RpfG and Clp. The global transcription factor Clp directly binds to the AATGC-tgctgc-GCATC motif in the promoter region of rpfB to repress its expression. Finally, RpfB-dependent signal turnover system was detected in a wide range of bacterial species, suggesting that it is a conserved mechanism. PMID:26234930

  1. Post-transcriptional activation of a diguanylate cyclase by quorum sensing small RNAs promotes biofilm formation in Vibrio cholerae

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xiaonan; Koestler, Benjamin J.; Waters, Christopher M.; Hammer, Brian K.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Biofilms promote attachment of Vibrio cholerae in aquatic ecosystems and aid in transmission. Intracellular c-di-GMP levels that control biofilm development positively correlate with expression of Qrr sRNAs, which are transcribed when quorum sensing (QS) autoinducer levels are low. The Qrr sRNA base-pair with and repress translation of hapR encoding the QS “master regulator”, hence increased c-di-GMP and biofilm development at low density were believed to be solely a consequence of Qrr/hapR pairing. We show that Qrr sRNAs also base-pair with and activate translation of the mRNA of a diguanylate cyclase (DGC), Vca0939; relieving an inhibitory structure in vca0939 that occludes the ribosome binding site. A nucleotide substitution in vca0939 disrupted sRNA/mRNA base-pairing and prevented vca0939 translation, while a compensating Qrr sRNA substitution restored pairing and Vca0939 levels. Qrr-dependent DGC activation led to c-di-GMP accumulation and biofilm development in V. cholerae. This represents the first description of 1) a DGC post-transcriptionally activated by direct pairing with an Hfq-dependent sRNA, and 2) control of a V. cholerae QS phenotype, independent of HapR. Thus, direct interactions of the same sRNAs with two mRNAs promote c-di-GMP-dependent biofilm formation by complementary mechanisms in V. cholerae; by negatively regulating HapR, and positively regulating the DGC Vca0939. PMID:23841714

  2. Transcriptional control of the quorum sensing response in yeastw Arthur Wuster* and M. Madan Babu*

    E-print Network

    Babu, M. Madan

    individual cells to assess population density and to co-ordinate behaviour by secreting and sensing analysis upon deletion and over-expression of transcriptional factors, we predict CAT8 and MIG1 as key, individual cells can gauge local cell density and change their behaviour accordingly. This process

  3. Characterization of N-acylhomoserine lactone-degrading bacteria associated with the Zingiber officinale (ginger) rhizosphere: Co-existence of quorum quenching and quorum sensing in Acinetobacter and Burkholderia

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Cell-to-cell communication (quorum sensing (QS)) co-ordinates bacterial behaviour at a population level. Consequently the behaviour of a natural multi-species community is likely to depend at least in part on co-existing QS and quorum quenching (QQ) activities. Here we sought to discover novel N-acylhomoserine lactone (AHL)-dependent QS and QQ strains by investigating a bacterial community associated with the rhizosphere of ginger (Zingiber officinale) growing in the Malaysian rainforest. Results By using a basal growth medium containing N-(3-oxohexanoyl)homoserine lactone (3-oxo-C6-HSL) as the sole source of carbon and nitrogen, the ginger rhizosphere associated bacteria were enriched for strains with AHL-degrading capabilities. Three isolates belonging to the genera Acinetobacter (GG2), Burkholderia (GG4) and Klebsiella (Se14) were identified and selected for further study. Strains GG2 and Se14 exhibited the broadest spectrum of AHL-degrading activities via lactonolysis while GG4 reduced 3-oxo-AHLs to the corresponding 3-hydroxy compounds. In GG2 and GG4, QQ was found to co-exist with AHL-dependent QS and GG2 was shown to inactivate both self-generated and exogenously supplied AHLs. GG2, GG4 and Se14 were each able to attenuate virulence factor production in both human and plant pathogens. Conclusions Collectively our data show that ginger rhizosphere bacteria which make and degrade a wide range of AHLs are likely to play a collective role in determining the QS-dependent phenotype of a polymicrobial community. PMID:21385437

  4. LsrF, a coenzyme A-dependent thiolase, catalyzes the terminal step in processing the quorum sensing signal autoinducer-2.

    PubMed

    Marques, João C; Oh, Il Kyu; Ly, Daniel C; Lamosa, Pedro; Ventura, M Rita; Miller, Stephen T; Xavier, Karina B

    2014-09-30

    The quorum sensing signal autoinducer-2 (AI-2) regulates important bacterial behaviors, including biofilm formation and the production of virulence factors. Some bacteria, such as Escherichia coli, can quench the AI-2 signal produced by a variety of species present in the environment, and thus can influence AI-2-dependent bacterial behaviors. This process involves uptake of AI-2 via the Lsr transporter, followed by phosphorylation and consequent intracellular sequestration. Here we determine the metabolic fate of intracellular AI-2 by characterizing LsrF, the terminal protein in the Lsr AI-2 processing pathway. We identify the substrates of LsrF as 3-hydroxy-2,4-pentadione-5-phosphate (P-HPD, an isomer of AI-2-phosphate) and coenzyme A, determine the crystal structure of an LsrF catalytic mutant bound to P-HPD, and identify the reaction products. We show that LsrF catalyzes the transfer of an acetyl group from P-HPD to coenzyme A yielding dihydroxyacetone phosphate and acetyl-CoA, two key central metabolites. We further propose that LsrF, despite strong structural homology to aldolases, acts as a thiolase, an activity previously undescribed for this family of enzymes. With this work, we have fully characterized the biological pathway for AI-2 processing in E. coli, a pathway that can be used to quench AI-2 and control quorum-sensing-regulated bacterial behaviors. PMID:25225400

  5. Computational modeling of differences in the quorum sensing induced luminescence phenotypes of \\textit{Vibrio harveyi} and \\textit{Vibrio cholerae}

    E-print Network

    Andrew T Fenley; Suman K Banik; Rahul V Kulkarni

    2011-01-27

    \\textit{Vibrio harveyi} and \\textit{Vibrio cholerae} have quorum sensing pathways with similar design and highly homologous components including multiple small RNAs (sRNAs). However, the associated luminescence phenotypes of strains with sRNA deletions differ dramatically: in \\textit{V. harveyi}, the sRNAs act additively; however, in \\textit{V. cholerae}, the sRNAs act redundantly. Furthermore, there are striking differences in the luminescence phenotypes for different pathway mutants in \\textit{V. harveyi} and \\textit{V. cholerae}. However these differences have not been connected with the observed differences for the sRNA deletion strains in these bacteria. In this work, we present a model for quorum sensing induced luminescence phenotypes focusing on the interactions of multiple sRNAs with target mRNA. Within our model, we find that one key parameter -- the fold-change in protein concentration necessary for luminescence activation -- can control whether the sRNAs appear to act additively or redundantly. For specific parameter choices, we find that differences in this key parameter can also explain hitherto unconnected luminescence phenotypes differences for various pathway mutants in \\textit{V. harveyi} and \\textit{V. cholerae}. The model can thus provide a unifying explanation for observed differences in luminescence phenotypes and can also be used to make testable predictions for future experiments.

  6. The Pseudomonas aeruginosa Flagellum Confers Resistance to Pulmonary Surfactant Protein-A by Impacting the Production of Exoproteases Through Quorum-Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Kuang, Zhizhou; Hao, Yonghua; Hwang, Sunghei; Zhang, Shiping; Kim, Eunice; Akinbi, Henry T; Schurr, Michael J.; Irvin, Randall T.; Hassett, Daniel J; Lau, Gee W.

    2011-01-01

    Surfactant protein-A (SP-A) is an important antimicrobial protein that opsonizes and permeabilizes membranes of microbial pathogens in mammalian lungs. Previously, we have shown that Pseudomonas aeruginosa flagellum-deficient mutants are preferentially cleared in the lungs of wild-type mice by SP-A-mediated membrane permeabilization, and not by opsonization. In this study, we report a flagellum-mediated mechanism of P. aeruginosa resistance to SP-A. We discovered that flagellum-deficient (?fliC) bacteria are unable to produce adequate amounts of exoproteases to degrade SP-A in vitro and in vivo, leading to its preferential clearance in the lungs of SP-A+/+ mice. In addition, ?fliC bacteria failed to degrade another important lung antimicrobial protein lysozyme. Detailed analyses showed that ?fliC bacteria are unable to upregulate the transcription of lasI and rhlI genes, impairing the production of homoserine lactones necessary for quorum-sensing, an important virulence process that regulates the production of multiple exoproteases. Thus, reduced ability of ?fliC bacteria to quorum-sense attenuates production of exoproteases and limits degradation of SP-A, thereby conferring susceptibility to this major pulmonary host defense protein. PMID:21205009

  7. Mobilization of horizontally acquired island 2 is induced in planta in the phytopathogen Pectobacterium atrosepticum?SCRI1043 and involves the putative relaxase ECA0613 and quorum sensing.

    PubMed

    Vanga, Bhanupratap R; Ramakrishnan, Pavithra; Butler, Ruth C; Toth, Ian K; Ronson, Clive W; Jacobs, Jeanne M E; Pitman, Andrew R

    2015-11-01

    Integrative and conjugative elements (ICEs) contribute to the rapid evolution of bacterial pathogens via horizontal gene transfer of virulence determinants. ICEs have common mechanisms for transmission, yet the cues triggering this process under natural environmental or physiological conditions are largely unknown. In this study, mobilization of the putative ICE horizontally acquired island 2 (HAI2), present in the chromosome of the phytopathogen Pectobacterium atrosepticum?SCRI1043, was examined during infection of the host plant potato. Under these conditions, mobilization of HAI2 increased markedly compared with in vitro cultures. In planta-induced mobilization of HAI2 was regulated by quorum sensing and involved the putative ICE-encoded relaxase ECA0613. Disruption of ECA0613 also reduced transcription of genes involved in production of coronafacic acid (Cfa), the major virulence factor harboured on HAI2, whereas their expression was unaffected in the quorum-sensing (expI) mutant. Thus, suppression of cfa gene expression was not regulated by the mobilization of the ICE?per se, but was due directly to inactivation of the relaxase. The identification of genetic factors associated solely with in planta mobilization of an ICE demonstrates that this process is highly adapted to the natural environment of the bacterial host and can influence the expression of virulence determinants. PMID:26271942

  8. Computational modeling of differences in the quorum sensing induced luminescence phenotypes of \\textit{Vibrio harveyi} and \\textit{Vibrio cholerae}

    E-print Network

    Fenley, Andrew T; Kulkarni, Rahul V

    2011-01-01

    \\textit{Vibrio harveyi} and \\textit{Vibrio cholerae} have quorum sensing pathways with similar design and highly homologous components including multiple small RNAs (sRNAs). However, the associated luminescence phenotypes of strains with sRNA deletions differ dramatically: in \\textit{V. harveyi}, the sRNAs act additively; however, in \\textit{V. cholerae}, the sRNAs act redundantly. Furthermore, there are striking differences in the luminescence phenotypes for different pathway mutants in \\textit{V. harveyi} and \\textit{V. cholerae}. However these differences have not been connected with the observed differences for the sRNA deletion strains in these bacteria. In this work, we present a model for quorum sensing induced luminescence phenotypes focusing on the interactions of multiple sRNAs with target mRNA. Within our model, we find that one key parameter -- the fold-change in protein concentration necessary for luminescence activation -- can control whether the sRNAs appear to act additively or redundantly. Fo...

  9. Evaluation of the impact of quorum sensing transcriptional regulator SdiA on long-term persistence and fecal shedding of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in weaned calves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Quorum sensing transcriptional regulator SdiA has been shown to enhance the survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 (O157) in the acidic compartment of bovine rumen in response to N-acyl-L-homoserine lactones (AHLs) produced by the rumen bacteria. Bacteria that survive the rumen environment subsequentl...

  10. Quorum Sensing Signaling Molecules Produced by Reference and Emerging Soft-Rot Bacteria (Dickeya and Pectobacterium spp.)

    PubMed Central

    Crépin, Alexandre; Barbey, Corinne; Beury-Cirou, Amélie; Hélias, Valérie; Taupin, Laure; Reverchon, Sylvie; Nasser, William; Faure, Denis; Dufour, Alain; Orange, Nicole; Feuilloley, Marc; Heurlier, Karin; Burini, Jean-François; Latour, Xavier

    2012-01-01

    Background Several small diffusible molecules are involved in bacterial quorum sensing and virulence. The production of autoinducers-1 and -2, quinolone, indole and ?-amino butyrate signaling molecules was investigated in a set of soft-rot bacteria belonging to six Dickeya or Pectobacterium species including recent or emerging potato isolates. Methodology/Principal Findings Using bacterial biosensors, immunoassay, and chromatographic analysis, we showed that soft-rot bacteria have the common ability to produce transiently during their exponential phase of growth the N-3-oxo-hexanoyl- or the N-3-oxo-octanoyl-l-homoserine lactones and a molecule of the autoinducer-2 family. Dickeya spp. produced in addition the indole-3-acetic acid in tryptophan-rich conditions. All these signaling molecules have been identified for the first time in the novel Dickeya solani species. In contrast, quinolone and ?-amino butyrate signals were not identified and the corresponding synthases are not present in the available genomes of soft-rot bacteria. To determine if the variations of signal production according to growth phase could result from expression modifications of the corresponding synthase gene, the respective mRNA levels were estimated by reverse transcriptase-PCR. While the N-acyl-homoserine lactone production is systematically correlated to the synthase expression, that of the autoinducer-2 follows the expression of an enzyme upstream in the activated methyl cycle and providing its precursor, rather than the expression of its own synthase. Conclusions/Significance Despite sharing the S-adenosylmethionine precursor, no strong link was detected between the production kinetics or metabolic pathways of autoinducers-1 and -2. In contrast, the signaling pathway of autoinducer-2 seems to be switched off by the indole-3-acetic acid pathway under tryptophan control. It therefore appears that the two genera of soft-rot bacteria have similarities but also differences in the mechanisms of communication via the diffusible molecules. Our results designate autoinducer-1 lactones as the main targets for a global biocontrol of soft-rot bacteria communications, including those of emerging isolates. PMID:22539957

  11. Apolipoprotein B48, the Structural Component of Chylomicrons, Is Sufficient to Antagonize Staphylococcus aureus Quorum-Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Elmore, Bradley O.; Triplett, Kathleen D.; Hall, Pamela R.

    2015-01-01

    Serum lipoproteins (LP) are increasingly being recognized as dual purpose molecules that contribute to both cholesterol homeostasis and host innate defense. In fact, very low LP levels are associated with increased risk of bacterial infection in critically ill patients. In this respect, we reported that apolipoprotein B100 (apoB100), the 4536 amino acid structural protein of very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) produced by the liver, limits Staphylococcus aureus pathogenesis. S. aureus uses quorum-sensing (QS) via the accessory gene regulator (agr) operon and an autoinducing peptide (AIP) to coordinate expression of over 200 virulence genes. ApoB100 prevents agr activation by binding and sequestering secreted AIP. Importantly, human serum LP are produced not only by the liver, but are also produced by enterocytes, in the form of chylomicrons, during uptake of dietary lipids. In contrast to apoB100 in VLDL, human enterocytes use apoB48, the N-terminal 2152 amino acids (48%) of apoB100, as the structural component of chylomicrons. Interestingly, enteral feeding of critically ill patients has been associated with decreased risk of infectious complications, suggesting chylomicrons could contribute to host innate defense in critically ill patients when serum LP production by the liver is limited during the acute phase response. Therefore, we hypothesized that apoB48 would be sufficient to antagonize S. aureus QS. As expected, isolated apoB48-LP bound immobilized AIP and antagonized agr-signaling. ApoB48- and apoB100-LP inhibited agr activation with IC50s of 3.5 and 2.3 nM, respectively, demonstrating a conserved AIP binding site. Importantly, apoB48-LP antagonized QS, limited morbidity and promoted bacterial clearance in a mouse model of S. aureus infection. This work demonstrates that both naturally occurring forms of apolipoprotein B can antagonize S. aureus QS, and may suggest a previously unrecognized role for chylomicrons and enterocytes in host innate defense against S. aureus QS-mediated pathogenesis. PMID:25942561

  12. Quorum vs. diffusion sensing: a quantitative analysis of the relevance of absorbing or reflecting boundaries.

    PubMed

    Trovato, Antonio; Seno, Flavio; Zanardo, Marina; Alberghini, Sara; Tondello, Alessandra; Squartini, Andrea

    2014-03-01

    The consequences of the boundary conditions (signal reflecting vs. signal adsorbing) on bacterial intercellular communication were addressed by a combined physics and microbiology approach. A predictive biophysical model was devised that considered system size, diffusion from given points, signal molecule decay and boundary properties. The theoretical predictions were tested with two experimental agarose-gel-based set-ups for reflecting or absorbing boundaries. N-acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) concentration profiles were measured using the Agrobacterium tumefaciens NTL4 bioassay and found to agree with model predictions. The half-life of AHL was estimated to be 7 days. The absorbing vs. reflecting nature of the boundaries drastically changed AHL concentration profiles. The effect of a single nonreflecting boundary side was equivalent to a 100-fold lower cell concentration. Results suggest that the kinetics of signal accumulation vs. signal removal and their threshold-mediated phenotypic consequences are directly linked to the properties of biofilm boundaries, stressing the relevance of the diffusion sensing component in bacterial communication. PMID:24484313

  13. Avellanin C, an inhibitor of quorum sensing signaling in Staphylococcus aureus, from Hamigera ingelheimensis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genus Hamigera is less studied than other members of Eurotiales such as Penicillium, Aspergillus, Paecilomyces, Monascus, and Talaromyces. While thousands of metabolites are known from Aspergillus and Penicillium, only 20 to 30 compounds have been reported from Hamigera. In our previous assessme...

  14. Interference of Quorum Sensing by Delftia sp. VM4 Depends on the Activity of a Novel N-Acylhomoserine Lactone-Acylase

    PubMed Central

    Maisuria, Vimal B.; Nerurkar, Anuradha S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Turf soil bacterial isolate Delftia sp. VM4 can degrade exogenous N-acyl homoserine lactone (AHL), hence it effectively attenuates the virulence of bacterial soft rot pathogen Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum strain BR1 (Pcc BR1) as a consequence of quorum sensing inhibition. Methodology/Principal Findings Isolated Delftia sp. VM4 can grow in minimal medium supplemented with AHL as a sole source of carbon and energy. It also possesses the ability to degrade various AHL molecules in a short time interval. Delftia sp. VM4 suppresses AHL accumulation and the production of virulence determinant enzymes by Pcc BR1 without interference of the growth during co-culture cultivation. The quorum quenching activity was lost after the treatment with trypsin and proteinase K. The protein with quorum quenching activity was purified by three step process. Matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) and Mass spectrometry (MS/MS) analysis revealed that the AHL degrading enzyme (82 kDa) demonstrates homology with the NCBI database hypothetical protein (Daci_4366) of D. acidovorans SPH-1. The purified AHL acylase of Delftia sp. VM4 demonstrated optimum activity at 20–40°C and pH 6.2 as well as AHL acylase type mode of action. It possesses similarity with an ?/?-hydrolase fold protein, which makes it unique among the known AHL acylases with domains of the N-terminal nucleophile (Ntn)-hydrolase superfamily. In addition, the kinetic and thermodynamic parameters for hydrolysis of the different AHL substrates by purified AHL-acylase were estimated. Here we present the studies that investigate the mode of action and kinetics of AHL-degradation by purified AHL acylase from Delftia sp. VM4. Significance We characterized an AHL-inactivating enzyme from Delftia sp. VM4, identified as AHL acylase showing distinctive similarity with ?/?-hydrolase fold protein, described its biochemical and thermodynamic properties for the first time and revealed its potential application as an anti-virulence agent against bacterial soft rot pathogen Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum based on quorum quenching mechanism. PMID:26384328

  15. Quorum Quenching Agents: Resources for Antivirulence Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Kaihao; Zhang, Xiao-Hua

    2014-01-01

    The continuing emergence of antibiotic-resistant pathogens is a concern to human health and highlights the urgent need for the development of alternative therapeutic strategies. Quorum sensing (QS) regulates virulence in many bacterial pathogens, and thus, is a promising target for antivirulence therapy which may inhibit virulence instead of cell growth and division. This means that there is little selective pressure for the evolution of resistance. Many natural quorum quenching (QQ) agents have been identified. Moreover, it has been shown that many microorganisms are capable of producing small molecular QS inhibitors and/or macromolecular QQ enzymes, which could be regarded as a strategy for bacteria to gain benefits in competitive environments. More than 30 species of marine QQ bacteria have been identified thus far, but only a few of them have been intensively studied. Recent studies indicate that an enormous number of QQ microorganisms are undiscovered in the highly diverse marine environments, and these marine microorganism-derived QQ agents may be valuable resources for antivirulence therapy. PMID:24886865

  16. 2-Furaldehyde diethyl acetal from tender coconut water (Cocos nucifera) attenuates biofilm formation and quorum sensing-mediated virulence of Chromobacterium violaceum and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Sethupathy, Sivasamy; Nithya, Chari; Pandian, Shunmugiah Karutha

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-biofilm and quorum sensing inhibitory (QSI) potential of tender coconut water (TCW) against Chromobacterium violaceum and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. TCW significantly inhibited the QS regulated violacein, virulence factors and biofilm production without affecting their growth. qRT-PCR analysis revealed the down-regulation of autoinducer synthase, transcriptional regulator and virulence genes. Mass-spectrometric analysis of a petroleum ether extract of the TCW hydrolyte revealed that 2-furaldehyde diethyl acetal (2FDA) and palmitic acid (PA) are the major compounds. In vitro bioassays confirmed the ability of 2FDA to inhibit the biofilm formation and virulence factors. In addition, the combination of PA with 2FDA resulted in potent inhibition of biofilm formation and virulence factors. The results obtained strongly suggest that TCW can be exploited as a base for designing a novel antipathogenic drug formulation to treat biofilm mediated infections caused by P. aeruginosa. PMID:26571230

  17. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of an Enterococcus faecalis repressor protein, CylR2, involved in regulating cytolysin production through quorum-sensing

    SciTech Connect

    Ni, Shuisong; McAteer, Kathleen; Bussiere, Dirksen E.; Kennedy, Michael A.

    2004-06-01

    CylR2 is one of the two regulatory proteins associated with the quorum-sensing-dependent synthesis of cytolysin for the common pathogen Enterococcus faecalis. The protein was expressed with a C-terminal 6-histidine tag and purified to homogeneity with a cobalt affinity column followed by another size exclusion column. Both native and SeMet proteins were crystallized. A complete X-ray diffraction data set from the native crystal was collected to 2.3 resolution. The crystal was tetragonal, belonging to space group P41/43, with unit-cell dimensions a=b=66.2 , c=40.9 and a=b=g=90. The asymmetric unit contained two molecules of CylR2.

  18. Microbial Metabolism Quorum Sensing

    E-print Network

    Huang, Ching-Tsan

    Bioluminescence OHHL Vibrio harveyi Bioluminescence HBHL Erwinia carotovora Multiple exoenzymes virulence unique to V. harveyi - A bioluminescence Gram (-) marine bacterium ; free living in the ocean #12

  19. Inter-kingdom Signaling by the Legionella Quorum Sensing Molecule LAI-1 Modulates Cell Migration through an IQGAP1-Cdc42-ARHGEF9-Dependent Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Sylvia; Schell, Ursula; Heuer, Natalie; Hager, Dominik; Albers, Michael F.; Matthias, Jan; Fahrnbauer, Felix; Trauner, Dirk; Eichinger, Ludwig; Hedberg, Christian; Hilbi, Hubert

    2015-01-01

    Small molecule signaling promotes the communication between bacteria as well as between bacteria and eukaryotes. The opportunistic pathogenic bacterium Legionella pneumophila employs LAI-1 (3-hydroxypentadecane-4-one) for bacterial cell-cell communication. LAI-1 is produced and detected by the Lqs (Legionella quorum sensing) system, which regulates a variety of processes including natural competence for DNA uptake and pathogen-host cell interactions. In this study, we analyze the role of LAI-1 in inter-kingdom signaling. L. pneumophila lacking the autoinducer synthase LqsA no longer impeded the migration of infected cells, and the defect was complemented by plasmid-borne lqsA. Synthetic LAI-1 dose-dependently inhibited cell migration, without affecting bacterial uptake or cytotoxicity. The forward migration index but not the velocity of LAI-1-treated cells was reduced, and the cell cytoskeleton appeared destabilized. LAI-1-dependent inhibition of cell migration involved the scaffold protein IQGAP1, the small GTPase Cdc42 as well as the Cdc42-specific guanine nucleotide exchange factor ARHGEF9, but not other modulators of Cdc42, or RhoA, Rac1 or Ran GTPase. Upon treatment with LAI-1, Cdc42 was inactivated and IQGAP1 redistributed to the cell cortex regardless of whether Cdc42 was present or not. Furthermore, LAI-1 reversed the inhibition of cell migration by L. pneumophila, suggesting that the compound and the bacteria antagonistically target host signaling pathway(s). Collectively, the results indicate that the L. pneumophila quorum sensing compound LAI-1 modulates migration of eukaryotic cells through a signaling pathway involving IQGAP1, Cdc42 and ARHGEF9. PMID:26633832

  20. A Complex LuxR-LuxI Type Quorum Sensing Network in a Roseobacterial Marine Sponge Symbiont Activates Flagellar Motility and Inhibits Biofilm Formation

    PubMed Central

    Zan, Jindong; Cicirelli, Elisha M.; Mohamed, Naglaa M.; Sibhatu, Hiruy; Kroll, Stephanie; Choi, Ohkee; Uhlson, Charis L.; Wysoczinski, Christina L.; Murphy, Robert C.; Churchill, Mair E.A.; Hill, Russell T.; Fuqua, Clay

    2012-01-01

    Summary Bacteria isolated from marine sponges, including the Silicibacter-Ruegeria (SR) subgroup of the Roseobacter clade, produce N-acylhomoserine lactone (AHL) quorum sensing signal molecules. This study is the first detailed analysis of AHL quorum sensing in sponge-associated bacteria, specifically Ruegeria sp. KLH11, from the sponge Mycale laxissima. Two pairs of luxR and luxI homologues and one solo luxI homologue were identified and designated ssaRI, ssbRI, and sscI (sponge-associated symbiont locus A, B, and C, luxRI or luxI homologue). SsaI produced predominantly long-chain 3-oxo-AHLs and both SsbI and SscI specified 3-OH-AHLs. Addition of exogenous AHLs to KLH11 increased the expression of ssaI but not ssaR, ssbI or ssbR, and genetic analyses revealed a complex interconnected arrangement between SsaRI and SsbRI systems. Interestingly, flagellar motility was abolished in the ssaI and ssaR mutants, with the flagellar biosynthesis genes under strict SsaRI control, and active motility only at high culture density. Conversely, ssaI and ssaR mutants formed more robust biofilms than wild type KLH11. AHLs and transcript of the ssaI gene were detected in M. laxissima extracts suggesting that AHL signaling contributes to the decision between motility and sessility and that it also may facilitate acclimation to different environments including the sponge host. PMID:22742196

  1. Tasting Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilms: Human Neutrophils Express the Bitter Receptor T2R38 as Sensor for the Quorum Sensing Molecule N-(3-Oxododecanoyl)-l-Homoserine Lactone

    PubMed Central

    Maurer, Susanne; Wabnitz, Guido H.; Kahle, Nadine A.; Stegmaier, Sabine; Prior, Birgit; Giese, Thomas; Gaida, Matthias Martin; Samstag, Yvonne; Hänsch, Gertrud Maria

    2015-01-01

    Bacteria communicate with one another via specialized signaling molecules, known as quorum sensing molecules or autoinducers. The Pseudomonas aeruginosa-derived quorum sensing molecule N-(3-oxododecanoyl)-l-homoserine lactone (AHL-12), however, also activates mammalian cells. As shown previously, AHL-12-induced chemotaxis, up-regulated CD11b expression, and enhanced phagocytosis of polymorphonuclear neutrophils. Circumstantial evidence concurred with a receptor for AHL-12, which has been elusive so far. We now investigated the bitter receptor T2R38 as a potential candidate. Although identified as a taste receptor, extragustatory cells express T2R38, for example, epithelial cells in the lung. We now detected T2R38 in peripheral blood neutrophils, monocytes, and lymphocytes. T2R38 is not only found on the cell membrane but also intracellular. In neutrophils, T2R38 was located in vesicles with characteristics of lipid droplets, and super-resolution microscopy showed a co-localization with the lipid droplet membrane. Neutrophils take up AHL-12, and it co-localized with T2R38 as seen by laser scan microscopy. Binding of AHL-12 to T2R28 was confirmed by pull-down assays using biotin-coupled AHL-12 as bait. A commercially available antibody to T2R38 inhibited binding of AHL-12 to neutrophils, and this antibody by itself stimulated neutrophils, similarly to AHL-12. In conclusion, our data provide evidence for expression of functional T2R38 on neutrophils, and are compatible with the notion that T2R38 is the receptor for AHL-12. PMID:26257736

  2. Stenotrophomonas maltophilia interferes via the DSF-mediated quorum sensing system with Candida albicans filamentation and its planktonic and biofilm modes of growth.

    PubMed

    de Rossi, Beatriz Passerini; García, Carlos; Alcaraz, Eliana; Franco, Mirta

    2014-01-01

    Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is a nosocomial pathogen of increasing importance. S. maltophilia K279a genome encodes a diffusible signal factor (DSF) dependent quorum sensing (QS) system that was first identified in Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris. DSF from X. campestris is a homologue of farnesoic acid, a Candida albicans QS signal which inhibits the yeast-to-hyphal shift. Here we describe the antagonistic effects of S. maltophilia on C. albicans on filamentation as well as on its planktonic and biofilm modes of growth. To determine the role of the DSF-mediated quorum sensing system in these effects, C. albicans ATCC 10231 and C. albicans tup1 mutant, locked in the filamentous form, were grown with K279a or with its rpfF deletion mutant (DSF-). A significant reduction in viable counts of C. albicans was observed in planktonic cocultures with K279a as well as in mixed biofilms. Furthermore, no viable cells of C. albicans tup1 were recovered from K279a mixed biofilms. Fungal viability was also assessed by labeling biofilms with SYTO 9 and propidium iodide. Confocal images showed that K279a can kill hyphae and also yeast cells. Light microscopic analysis showed that K279a severely affects hyphae integrity. On the other hand, the presence of K279a rpfF did not affect fungal morphology or viability. In conclusion, we report for the first time that S. maltophilia interferes with two key virulence factors of C. albicans, the yeast-to-hyphal transition and biofilm formation. DSF could be directly responsible for these effects or may induce the gene expression involved in antifungal activity. PMID:25576410

  3. Effect of Quorum Sensing by Staphylococcus epidermidis on the Attraction Response of Female Adult Yellow Fever Mosquitoes, Aedes aegypti aegypti (Linnaeus) (Diptera: Culicidae), to a Blood-Feeding Source

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xinyang; Crippen, Tawni L.; Coates, Craig J.; Wood, Thomas K.; Tomberlin, Jeffery K.

    2015-01-01

    Aedes aegypti, the principal vector of yellow fever and dengue fever, is responsible for more than 30,000 deaths annually. Compounds such as carbon dioxide, amino acids, fatty acids and other volatile organic compounds (VOCs) have been widely studied for their role in attracting Ae. aegypti to hosts. Many VOCs from humans are produced by associated skin microbiota. Staphyloccocus epidermidis, although not the most abundant bacteria according to surveys of relative 16S ribosomal RNA abundance, commonly occurs on human skin. Bacteria demonstrate population level decision-making through quorum sensing. Many quorum sensing molecules, such as indole, volatilize and become part of the host odor plum. To date, no one has directly demonstrated the link between quorum sensing (i.e., decision-making) by bacteria associated with a host as a factor regulating arthropod vector attraction. This study examined this specific question with regards to S. epidermidis and Ae. aegypti. Pairwise tests were conducted to examine the response of female Ae. aegypti to combinations of tryptic soy broth (TSB) and S. epidermidis wildtype and agr- strains. The agr gene expresses an accessory gene regulator for quorum sensing; therefore, removing this gene inhibits quorum sensing of the bacteria. Differential attractiveness of mosquitoes to the wildtype and agr- strains was observed. Both wildtype and the agr- strain of S. epidermidis with TSB were marginally more attractive to Ae. aegypti than the TSB alone. Most interestingly, the blood-feeder treated with wildtype S. epidermidis/TSB attracted 74% of Ae. aegypti compared to the agr- strain of S. epidermidis/TSB (P ? 0.0001). This study is the first to suggest a role for interkingdom communication between host symbiotic bacteria and mosquitoes. This may have implications for mosquito decision-making with regards to host detection, location and acceptance. We speculate that mosquitoes “eavesdrop” on the chemical discussions occurring between host-associated microbes to determine suitability for blood feeding. We believe these data suggest that manipulating quorum sensing by bacteria could serve as a novel approach for reducing mosquito attraction to hosts, or possibly enhancing the trapping of adults at favored oviposition sites. PMID:26674802

  4. The pattern of growth observed for Clostridium botulinum type A1 strain ATCC 19397 is influenced by nutritional status and quorum sensing: a modelling perspective

    PubMed Central

    Ihekwaba, Adaoha E. C.; Mura, Ivan; Peck, Michael W.; Barker, G. C.

    2015-01-01

    Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) produced by the anaerobic bacterium Clostridium botulinum are the most poisonous substances known to mankind. However, toxin regulation and signals triggering synthesis as well as the regulatory network and actors controlling toxin production are unknown. Experiments show that the neurotoxin gene is growth phase dependent for C. botulinum type A1 strain ATCC 19397, and toxin production is influenced both by culture conditions and nutritional status of the medium. Building mathematical models to describe the genetic and molecular machinery that drives the synthesis and release of BoNT requires a simultaneous description of the growth of the bacterium in culture. Here, we show four plausible modelling options which could be considered when constructing models describing the pattern of growth observed in a botulinum growth medium. Commonly used bacterial growth models are unsuitable to fit the pattern of growth observed, since they only include monotonic growth behaviour. We find that a model that includes both the nutritional status and the ability of the cells to sense their surroundings in a quorum-sensing manner is most successful at explaining the pattern of growth obtained for C. botulinum type A1 strain ATCC 19397. PMID:26449712

  5. The pattern of growth observed for Clostridium botulinum type A1 strain ATCC 19397 is influenced by nutritional status and quorum sensing: a modelling perspective.

    PubMed

    Ihekwaba, Adaoha E C; Mura, Ivan; Peck, Michael W; Barker, G C

    2015-12-01

    Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) produced by the anaerobic bacterium Clostridium botulinum are the most poisonous substances known to mankind. However, toxin regulation and signals triggering synthesis as well as the regulatory network and actors controlling toxin production are unknown. Experiments show that the neurotoxin gene is growth phase dependent for C. botulinum type A1 strain ATCC 19397, and toxin production is influenced both by culture conditions and nutritional status of the medium. Building mathematical models to describe the genetic and molecular machinery that drives the synthesis and release of BoNT requires a simultaneous description of the growth of the bacterium in culture. Here, we show four plausible modelling options which could be considered when constructing models describing the pattern of growth observed in a botulinum growth medium. Commonly used bacterial growth models are unsuitable to fit the pattern of growth observed, since they only include monotonic growth behaviour. We find that a model that includes both the nutritional status and the ability of the cells to sense their surroundings in a quorum-sensing manner is most successful at explaining the pattern of growth obtained for C. botulinum type A1 strain ATCC 19397. PMID:26449712

  6. 2(5H)-Furanone, epigallocatechin gallate, and a citric-based disinfectant disturb quorum-sensing activity and reduce motility and biofilm formation of Campylobacter jejuni.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Sandra; Heredia, Norma; García, Santos

    2015-01-01

    Brominated furanone and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) are naturally occurring polyphenolic compounds that can be derived from sources such as Delisea pulchra algae and green tea, respectively. These compounds may have potential health benefits and antimicrobial properties. Biofilm formation and bacterial motility are virulence factors that seem to be involved in the autoinducer 2 (AI-2)-mediated quorum sensing (QS) response of Campylobacter. In this study, the anti-QS activities of 2(5H)-furanone, EGCG, and a citric-based disinfectant were tested against Campylobacter jejuni. The minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) was determined by a microdilution method, and the AI-2 activity was measured by bioluminescence. For motility tests, subinhibitory concentrations of each compound were mixed with semisolid Muller Hinton agar. Biofilm formation was quantified in broth-containing microplates after staining with safranin. The MBC of tested compounds ranged from 0.3 to 310 ?g/mL. Subinhibitory concentrations of all of the antimicrobial compounds significantly decreased (19 to 62 %) the bacterial motility and reduced biofilm formation. After treatment with EGCG, furanone, and the disinfectant, AI-2 activity was decreased by 60 to 99 % compared to control. In conclusion, 2(5H)-furanone, EGCG, and the disinfectant exert bactericidal effects against C. jejuni and disturb QS activity and reduce motility and biofilm formation. These compounds may be naturally occurring alternatives to control C. jejuni. PMID:25231135

  7. Potent and Selective Modulation of the RhlR Quorum Sensing Receptor by Using Non-native Ligands: An Emerging Target for Virulence Control in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Eibergen, Nora R; Moore, Joseph D; Mattmann, Margrith E; Blackwell, Helen E

    2015-11-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa uses N-acylated l-homoserine lactone signals and a triumvirate of LuxR-type receptor proteins-LasR, RhlR, and QscR-for quorum sensing (QS). Each of these receptors can contribute to QS activation or repression and, thereby, the control of myriad virulence phenotypes in this pathogen. LasR has traditionally been considered to be at the top of the QS receptor hierarchy in P.?aeruginosa; however, recent reports suggest that RhlR plays a more prominent role in infection than originally predicted, in some circumstances superseding that of LasR. Herein, we report the characterization of a set of synthetic, small-molecule agonists and antagonists of RhlR. Using E.?coli reporter strains, we demonstrated that many of these compounds can selectively activate or inhibit RhlR instead of LasR and QscR. Moreover, several molecules maintain their activities in P.?aeruginosa at concentrations analogous to native RhlR signal levels. These compounds represent useful chemical probes to study the role of RhlR in the complex QS circuitry of P.?aeruginosa, its direct (and indirect) effects on virulence, and its overall merit as a target for anti-infective therapy. PMID:26460240

  8. Bacterial Quorum Sensing Molecule N-3-Oxo-Dodecanoyl-L-Homoserine Lactone Causes Direct Cytotoxicity and Reduced Cell Motility in Human Pancreatic Carcinoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Ashwath S.; Bryan, Jeffrey N.; Kumar, Senthil R.

    2014-01-01

    In spite of chemotherapeutic and surgical advances, pancreatic cancer continues to have a dismal prognosis. Metastasis due to tumor cell migration remains the most critical challenge in treating pancreatic cancer, and conventional chemotherapy is rarely curative. In the quest for more novel molecules to fight this disease, we tested the hypothesis that the Pseudomonas aeruginosa quorum sensing signal molecule N-3-oxo-dodecanoyl-L-homoserine lactone (O-DDHSL) would be cytotoxic to and reduce mobility of pancreatic carcinoma cells (Panc-1 and Aspc-1). Results showed a decrease in cell viability from apoptosis, diminished colony formation, and inhibition of migration of the evaluated pancreatic carcinoma cell lines. Also, cell viability decreased in the presence of O-DDHSL when cells were grown in matrigel basement membrane matrix. While messenger RNA for IQGAP-1 decreased in Panc-1 and HPDE cells upon exposure to O-DDHSL, no change was observed in Aspc-1 cells. Cofilin mRNA expression was found to be increased in both HPDE and Panc-1 cells with marginal decrease in Aspc-1 cells. RhoC, a Rho-family GTPase involved in cell motility, increased in the presence of O-DDHSL, suggesting a possible compensatory response to alteration in other migration associated genes. Our results indicate that O-DDHSL could be an effective biomolecule in eukaryotic systems with multimodal function for essential molecular targeting in pancreatic cancer. PMID:25188245

  9. Pseudomonas aeruginosa Quorum Sensing Molecule N-(3-Oxododecanoyl)-L-Homoserine-Lactone Induces HLA-G Expression in Human Immune Cells.

    PubMed

    Bortolotti, Daria; LeMaoult, Joel; Trapella, Claudio; Di Luca, Dario; Carosella, Edgardo D; Rizzo, Roberta

    2015-10-01

    HLA-G is a nonclassical class I human leukocyte antigen (HLA) involved in mechanisms of immune tolerance. The objective of this study was to determine whether N-(3-oxododecanoyl)-l-homoserine lactone (3O-C12-HSL), a quorum sensing molecule produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, could modify HLA-G expression to control the host immune response. We evaluated the ability of 3O-C12-HSL to induce HLA-G expression in primary immune cells, monocytes (U937 and THP1), and T-cell lines (Jurkat) in vitro and analyzed the cellular pathway responsible for HLA-G expression. We studied the HLA-G promoter with a luciferase assay and interleukin-10 (IL-10) and p38/CREB signaling with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunofluorescence, respectively. We observed that 3O-C12-HSL is able to induce HLA-G expression in human monocytes and T cells. We showed that the induction of HLA-G by 3O-C12-HSL is p38/CREB and IL-10 dependent. 3O-C12-HSL treatment is able to arrest only the U937 cell cycle, possibly due to the peculiar expression of the ILT2 receptor in the U937 cell line. Our observations suggest HLA-G as a mechanism to create a protected niche for the bacterial reservoir, similar to the role of HLA-G molecules during viral infections. PMID:26195547

  10. RpoS and quorum sensing control expression and polar localization of Vibrio cholerae chemotaxis cluster III proteins in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Ringgaard, Simon; Hubbard, Troy; Mandlik, Anjali; Davis, Brigid M; Waldor, Matthew K

    2015-08-01

    The diarrheal pathogen Vibrio cholerae contains three gene clusters that encode chemotaxis-related proteins, but only cluster II appears to be required for chemotaxis. Here, we present the first characterization of V.?cholerae's 'cluster III' chemotaxis system. We found that cluster III proteins assemble into foci at bacterial poles, like those formed by cluster II proteins, but the two systems assemble independently and do not colocalize. Cluster III proteins are expressed in vitro during stationary phase and in conjunction with growth arrest linked to carbon starvation. This expression, as well as expression in vivo in suckling rabbits, is dependent upon RpoS. V.?cholerae's CAI-1 quorum sensing (QS) system is also required for cluster III expression in stationary phase and modulates its expression in vivo, but is not required for cluster III expression in response to carbon starvation. Surprisingly, even though the CAI-1 and AI-2 QS systems are thought to feed into the same signaling pathway, the AI-2 system inhibited cluster III gene expression, revealing that the outputs of the two QS systems are not always the same. The distinctions between genetic determinants of cluster III expression in vitro and in vivo highlight the distinctive nature of the in vivo environment. PMID:25989366

  11. Raw cow’s milk relatively inhibits quorum sensing activity of Cromobacterium violaceum in comparison to raw she-camel’s milk

    PubMed Central

    Abolghait, S.K.; Garbaj, A.M.; Moawad, A.A.

    2011-01-01

    Milk from different animal species has variable levels of antimicrobial factors against some of spoilage bacteria. For example, they are significantly present in higher concentration in she-camel’s milk than in cattle or buffalo and they are more heat-resistant than their counterparts in cattle and buffalo. Spoilage bacteria are known to communicate with each other by release of signaling molecules, a phenomenon described as quorum sensing (QS). Some food matrices inhibit these signaling compounds. In this study we screened QS inhibitory activities in raw milk of cattle and camel. Ten samples each of fresh raw cow’s milk and she-camel’s milk from apparently healthy animals were screened using the bacterial model Cromobacterium violaceum. The tested cow’s raw milk samples were able to inhibit the production of QS signalling molecules acyl-homoserine lactones (AHLs) produced by C. violaceum. However, she-camel’s milk samples were less effective in inhibiting such AHLs. Thus, one of the factors which influence the inhibitory activity could be derived from variation in milk chemical composition, especially in the percentage of fat which is significantly higher in tested cow’s milk samples (2.22±0.12) than in tested she-camel’s milk samples (1.44±0.35). Natural inhibition of QS signaling by cow’s milk may offer a unique means to control foodborne pathogens and reduce microbial spoilage.

  12. Analyzing the Transcriptomes of Two Quorum-Sensing Controlled Transcription Factors, RcsA and LrhA, Important for Pantoea stewartii Virulence

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Roderick V.; Stevens, Ann M.

    2015-01-01

    The Gram-negative proteobacterium Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii causes wilt disease in corn plants. Wilting is primarily due to bacterial exopolysaccharide (EPS) production that blocks water transport in the xylem during the late stages of infection. EsaR, the master quorum-sensing (QS) regulator in P. stewartii, modulates EPS levels. At low cell densities EsaR represses or activates expression of a number of genes in the absence of its acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) ligand. At high cell densities, binding of AHL inactivates EsaR leading to derepression or deactivation of its direct targets. Two of these direct targets are the key transcription regulators RcsA and LrhA, which in turn control EPS production and surface motility/adhesion, respectively. In this study, RNA-Seq was used to further examine the physiological impact of deleting the genes encoding these two second-tier regulators. Quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) was used to validate the regulation observed in the RNA-Seq data. A GFP transcriptional fusion reporter confirmed the existence of a regulatory feedback loop in the system between LrhA and RcsA. Plant virulence assays carried out with rcsA and lrhA deletion and complementation strains demonstrated that both transcription factors play roles during establishment of wilt disease in corn. These efforts further define the hierarchy of the QS-regulated network controlling plant virulence in P. stewartii. PMID:26699719

  13. Unravelling the genome of long chain N-acylhomoserine lactone-producing Acinetobacter sp. strain GG2 and identification of its quorum sensing synthase gene

    PubMed Central

    How, Kah Yan; Hong, Kar-Wai; Sam, Choon-Kook; Koh, Chong-Lek; Yin, Wai-Fong; Chan, Kok-Gan

    2015-01-01

    Myriad proteobacteria use N-acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) molecules as quorum sensing (QS) signals to regulate different physiological functions, including virulence, antibiotic production, and biofilm formation. Many of these proteobacteria possess LuxI/LuxR system as the QS mechanism. Recently, we reported the 3.89 Mb genome of Acinetobacter sp. strain GG2. In this work, the genome of this long chain AHL-producing bacterium was unravelled which led to the molecular characterization of luxI homologue, designated as aciI. This 552 bp gene was cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3). The purified protein was ?20.5 kDa and is highly similar to several autoinducer proteins of LuxI family among Acinetobacter species. To verify the AHL synthesis activity of this protein, high-resolution liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry analysis revealed the production of 3-oxo-dodecanoyl-homoserine lactone and 3-hydroxy-dodecanoyl-homoserine lactone from induced E. coli harboring the recombinant AciI. Our data show for the first time, the cloning and characterization of the luxI homologue from Acinetobacter sp. strain GG2, and confirmation of its AHLs production. These data are of great significance as the annotated genome of strain GG2 has provided a valuable insight in the study of autoinducer molecules and its roles in QS mechanism of the bacterium. PMID:25926817

  14. Pseudomonas aeruginosa lasI/rhlI quorum sensing genes promote phagocytosis and aquaporin 9 redistribution to the leading and trailing regions in macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Holm, Angelika; Karlsson, Thommie; Vikström, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa controls production of its multiple virulence factors and biofilm development via the quorum sensing (QS) system. QS signals also interact with and affect the behavior of eukaryotic cells. Host water homeostasis and aquaporins (AQP) are essential during pathological conditions since they interfere with the cell cytoskeleton and signaling, and hereby affect cell morphology and functions. We investigated the contribution of P. aeruginosa QS genes lasI/rhlI to phagocytosis, cell morphology, AQP9 expression, and distribution in human macrophages, using immunoblotting, confocal, and nanoscale imaging. Wild type P. aeruginosa with a functional QS system was a more attractive prey for macrophages than the lasI/rhlI mutant lacking the production of QS molecules, 3O-C12-HSL, and C4-HSL, and associated virulence factors. The P. aeruginosa infections resulted in elevated AQP9 expression and relocalization to the leading and trailing regions in macrophages, increased cell area and length; bacteria with a functional QS system lasI/rhlI achieved stronger responses. We present evidence for a new role of water fluxes via AQP9 during bacteria–macrophage interaction and for the QS system as an important stimulus in this process. These novel events in the interplay between P. aeruginosa and macrophages may influence on the outcome of infection, inflammation, and development of disease. PMID:26388857

  15. Why do bacteria regulate public goods by quorum sensing?—How the shapes of cost and benefit functions determine the form of optimal regulation

    PubMed Central

    Heilmann, Silja; Krishna, Sandeep; Kerr, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    Many bacteria secrete compounds which act as public goods. Such compounds are often under quorum sensing (QS) regulation, yet it is not understood exactly when bacteria may gain from having a public good under QS regulation. Here, we show that the optimal public good production rate per cell as a function of population size (the optimal production curve, OPC) depends crucially on the cost and benefit functions of the public good and that the OPC will fall into one of two categories: Either it is continuous or it jumps from zero discontinuously at a critical population size. If, e.g., the public good has accelerating returns and linear cost, then the OPC is discontinuous and the best strategy thus to ramp up production sharply at a precise population size. By using the example of public goods with accelerating and diminishing returns (and linear cost) we are able to determine how the two different categories of OPSs can best be matched by production regulated through a QS signal feeding back on its own production. We find that the optimal QS parameters are different for the two categories and specifically that public goods which provide accelerating returns, call for stronger positive signal feedback. PMID:26284049

  16. Ellagic Acid Derivatives from Terminalia chebula Retz. Downregulate the Expression of Quorum Sensing Genes to Attenuate Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 Virulence

    PubMed Central

    Sarabhai, Sajal; Sharma, Prince; Capalash, Neena

    2013-01-01

    Background Burgeoning antibiotic resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa has necessitated the development of anti pathogenic agents that can quench acylhomoserine lactone (AHL) mediated QS with least risk of resistance. This study explores the anti quorum sensing potential of T. chebula Retz. and identification of probable compounds(s) showing anti QS activity and the mechanism of attenuation of P. aeruginosa PAO1 virulence factors. Methods and Results Methanol extract of T. chebula Retz. fruit showed anti QS activity using Agrobacterium tumefaciens A136. Bioactive fraction (F7), obtained by fractionation of methanol extract using Sephadex LH20, showed significant reduction (p<0.001) in QS regulated production of extracellular virulence factors in P. aeruginosa PAO1. Biofilm formation and alginate were significantly (p<0.05) reduced with enhanced (20%) susceptibility to tobramycin. Real Time PCR of F7 treated P. aeruginosa showed down regulation of autoinducer synthase (lasI and rhlI) and their cognate receptor (lasR and rhlR) genes by 89, 90, 90 and 93%, respectively. Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry also showed 90 and 64% reduction in the production of 3-oxo-C12HSL and C4HSL after treatment. Decrease in AHLs as one of the mechanisms of quorum quenching by F7 was supported by the reversal of inhibited swarming motility in F7-treated P. aeruginosa PAO1 on addition of C4HSL. F7 also showed antagonistic activity against 3-oxo-C12HSL-dependent QS in E. coli bioreporter. C. elegans fed on F7-treated P. aeruginosa showed enhanced survival with LT50 increasing from 24 to 72 h. LC-ESI-MS of F7 revealed the presence of ellagic acid derivatives responsible for anti QS activity in T. chebula extract. Conclusions This is the first report on anti QS activity of T. chebula fruit linked to EADs which down regulate the expression of lasIR and rhlIR genes with concomitant decrease in AHLs in P. aeruginosa PAO1 causing attenuation of its virulence factors and enhanced sensitivity of its biofilm towards tobramycin. PMID:23320085

  17. Virulence and in?planta movement of Xanthomonas hortorum pv. pelargonii are affected by the diffusible signal factor (DSF)-dependent quorum sensing system.

    PubMed

    Barel, Victoria; Chalupowicz, Laura; Barash, Isaac; Sharabani, Galit; Reuven, Michal; Dror, Orit; Burdman, Saul; Manulis-Sasson, Shulamit

    2015-09-01

    Xanthomonas hortorum pv. pelargonii (Xhp), the causal agent of bacterial blight in pelargonium, is the most threatening bacterial disease of this ornamental worldwide. To gain an insight into the regulation of virulence in Xhp, we have disrupted the quorum sensing (QS) genes, which mediate the biosynthesis and sensing of the diffusible signal factor (DSF). Mutations in rpfF (encoding the DSF synthase) and rpfC (encoding the histidine sensor kinase of the two-component system RfpC/RpfG) and overexpression of rpfF showed a significant reduction in incidence and severity of the disease on pelargonium. Confocal laser scanning microscopy images of inoculated plants with a green fluorescent protein (GFP)-labelled wild-type strain showed that the pathogen is homogeneously dispersed in the lumen of xylem vessels, reaching the apex and invading the intercellular spaces of the leaf mesophyll tissue within 21?days. In contrast, the rpfF and rpfC knockout mutants, as well as the rpfF-overexpressing strain, remained confined to the vicinity of the inoculation site. The rpfF and rpfC mutants formed large incoherent aggregates in the xylem vessels that might interfere with upward movement of the bacterium within the plant. Both mutants also formed extended aggregates under in?vitro conditions, whereas the wild-type strain formed microcolonies. Expression levels of putative virulence genes in?planta were substantially reduced within 48?h after inoculation with the QS mutants when compared with the wild-type. The results presented indicate that an optimal DSF concentration is crucial for successful colonization and virulence of Xhp in pelargonium. PMID:25530086

  18. Modulation of violacein production and phenotypes associated with biofilm by exogenous quorum sensing N-acylhomoserine lactones in the marine bacterium Pseudoalteromonas ulvae TC14.

    PubMed

    Mireille Ayé, Armande; Bonnin-Jusserand, Maryse; Brian-Jaisson, Florence; Ortalo-Magné, Annick; Culioli, Gérald; Koffi Nevry, Rose; Rabah, Nadia; Blache, Yves; Molmeret, Maëlle

    2015-10-01

    Various phenotypes ranging from biofilm formation to pigment production have been shown to be regulated by quorum sensing (QS) in many bacteria. However, studies of the regulation of pigments produced by marine bacteria in saline conditions and of biofilm-associated phenotypes are scarcer. This study focuses on the demonstration of the existence of a QS communication system involving N-acylhomoserine lactones (AHLs) in the Mediterranean Sea strain Pseudoalteromonas ulvae TC14. We have investigated whether TC14 produces the violacein pigment, and whether intrinsic or exogenous AHLs could influence its production and modulate biofilm-associated phenotypes. Here, we demonstrate that the purple pigment produced by TC14 is violacein. The study shows that in planktonic conditions, TC14 produces more pigment in the medium in which it grows less. Using different approaches, the results also show that TC14 does not produce intrinsic AHLs in our conditions. When exogenous AHLs are added in planktonic conditions, the production of violacein is upregulated by C6-, C12-, 3-oxo-C8 and 3-oxo-C12-HSLs (homoserine lactones), and downregulated by 3-oxo-C6-HSL. In sessile conditions, 3-oxo-C8-HSL upregulates the production of violacein. The study of the biofilm-associated phenotypes shows that oxo-derived-HSLs decrease adhesion, swimming and biofilm formation. While 3-oxo-C8 and 3-oxo-C12-HSLs decrease both swimming and adhesion, 3-oxo-C6-HSLs decrease not only violacein production in planktonic conditions but also swimming, adhesion and more subtly biofilm formation. Therefore, TC14 may possess a functional LuxR-type QS receptor capable of sensing extrinsic AHLs, which controls violacein production, motility, adhesion and biofilm formation. PMID:26318530

  19. Genome-Wide RNA Sequencing Analysis of Quorum Sensing-Controlled Regulons in the Plant-Associated Burkholderia glumae PG1 Strain.

    PubMed

    Gao, Rong; Krysciak, Dagmar; Petersen, Katrin; Utpatel, Christian; Knapp, Andreas; Schmeisser, Christel; Daniel, Rolf; Voget, Sonja; Jaeger, Karl-Erich; Streit, Wolfgang R

    2015-12-01

    Burkholderia glumae PG1 is a soil-associated motile plant-pathogenic bacterium possessing a cell density-dependent regulation system called quorum sensing (QS). Its genome contains three genes, here designated bgaI1 to bgaI3, encoding distinct autoinducer-1 (AI-1) synthases, which are capable of synthesizing QS signaling molecules. Here, we report on the construction of B. glumae PG1 ?bgaI1, ?bgaI2, and ?bgaI3 mutants, their phenotypic characterization, and genome-wide transcriptome analysis using RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) technology. Knockout of each of these bgaI genes resulted in strongly decreased motility, reduced extracellular lipase activity, a reduced ability to cause plant tissue maceration, and decreased pathogenicity. RNA-seq analysis of all three B. glumae PG1 AI-1 synthase mutants performed in the transition from exponential to stationary growth phase revealed differential expression of a significant number of predicted genes. In comparison with the levels of gene expression by wild-type strain B. glumae PG1, 481 genes were differentially expressed in the ?bgaI1 mutant, 213 were differentially expressed in the ?bgaI2 mutant, and 367 were differentially expressed in the ?bgaI3 mutant. Interestingly, only a minor set of 78 genes was coregulated in all three mutants. The majority of the QS-regulated genes were linked to metabolic activities, and the most pronounced regulation was observed for genes involved in rhamnolipid and Flp pilus biosynthesis and the type VI secretion system and genes linked to a clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)-cas gene cluster. PMID:26362987

  20. The Pseudomonas aeruginosa quorum sensing signal molecule N-(3-oxododecanoyl) homoserine lactone enhances keratinocyte migration and induces Mmp13 gene expression in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Paes, Camila

    2012-10-19

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An evidence of the positive effect of AHL on epithelialization process is provided. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer AHL enhances keratinocyte's ability to migrate in an in vitro scratch wound model. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer AHL induces the expression of Mmp13. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Topical application of AHL represents a possible strategy to treat chronic wounds. -- Abstract: Re-epithelialization is an essential step of wound healing involving three overlapping keratinocyte functions: migration, proliferation and differentiation. While quorum sensing (QS) is a cell density-dependent signaling system that enables bacteria to regulate the expression of certain genes, the QS molecule N-(3-oxododecanoyl) homoserine lactone (AHL) exerts effects also on mammalian cells in a process called inter-kingdom signaling. Recent studies have shown that AHL improves epithelialization in in vivo wound healing models but detailed understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms are needed. The present study focused on the AHL as a candidate reagent to improve wound healing through direct modulation of keratinocyte's activity in the re-epithelialization process. Results indicated that AHL enhances the keratinocyte's ability to migrate in an in vitro scratch wound healing model probably due to the high Mmp13 gene expression analysis after AHL treatment that was revealed by real-time RT-PCR. Inhibition of activator protein 1 (AP-1) signaling pathway completely prevented the migration of keratinocytes, and also resulted in a diminished Mmp13 gene expression, suggesting that AP-1 might be essential in the AHL-induced migration. Taken together, these results imply that AHL is a promising candidate molecule to improve re-epithelialization through the induction of migration of keratinocytes. Further investigation is needed to clarify the mechanism of action and molecular pathway of AHL on the keratinocyte migration process.

  1. The quorum-sensing molecule farnesol is a modulator of drug efflux mediated by ABC multidrug transporters and synergizes with drugs in Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Monika; Prasad, Rajendra

    2011-10-01

    Overexpression of the CaCDR1-encoded multidrug efflux pump protein CaCdr1p (Candida drug resistance protein 1), belonging to the ATP binding cassette (ABC) superfamily of transporters, is one of the most prominent contributors of multidrug resistance (MDR) in Candida albicans. Thus, blocking or modulating the function of the drug efflux pumps represents an attractive approach in combating MDR. In the present study, we provide first evidence that the quorum-sensing molecule farnesol (FAR) is a specific modulator of efflux mediated by ABC multidrug transporters, such as CaCdr1p and CaCdr2p of C. albicans and ScPdr5p of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Interestingly, FAR did not modulate the efflux mediated by the multidrug extrusion pump protein CaMdr1p, belonging to the major facilitator superfamily (MFS). Kinetic data revealed that FAR competitively inhibited rhodamine 6G efflux in CaCdr1p-overexpressing cells, with a simultaneous increase in an apparent K(m) without affecting the V(max) values and the ATPase activity. We also observed that when used in combination, FAR at a nontoxic concentration synergized with the drugs at their respective nonlethal concentrations, as was evident from their <0.5 fractional inhibitory concentration index (FICI) values and from the drop of 14- to 64-fold in the MIC(80) values in the wild-type strain and in azole-resistant clinical isolates of C. albicans. Our biochemical experiments revealed that the synergistic interaction of FAR with the drugs led to reactive oxygen species accumulation, which triggered early apoptosis, and that both could be partly reversed by the addition of an antioxidant. Collectively, FAR modulates drug extrusion mediated exclusively by ABC proteins and is synergistic to fluconazole (FLC), ketoconazole (KTC), miconazole (MCZ), and amphotericin (AMB). PMID:21768514

  2. Abundance of the Quorum-Sensing Factor Ax21 in Four Strains of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia Correlates with Mortality Rate in a New Zebrafish Model of Infection

    PubMed Central

    Yero, Daniel; Mongiardini, Elías; Torrent, Gerard; Huedo, Pol; Martínez, Paula; Roher, Nerea; Mackenzie, Simon; Gibert, Isidre; Daura, Xavier

    2013-01-01

    Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is a Gram-negative pathogen with emerging nosocomial incidence. Little is known about its pathogenesis and the genomic diversity exhibited by clinical isolates complicates the study of pathogenicity and virulence factors. Here, we present a strategy to identify such factors in new clinical isolates of S. maltophilia, incorporating an adult-zebrafish model of S. maltophilia infection to evaluate relative virulence coupled to 2D difference gel electrophoresis to explore underlying differences in protein expression. In this study we report upon three recent clinical isolates and use the collection strain ATCC13637 as a reference. The adult-zebrafish model shows discrimination capacity, i.e. from very low to very high mortality rates, with clinical symptoms very similar to those observed in natural S. maltophilia infections in fish. Strain virulence correlates with resistance to human serum, in agreement with previous studies in mouse and rat and therefore supporting zebrafish as a replacement model. Despite its clinical origin, the collection strain ATCC13637 showed obvious signs of attenuation in zebrafish, with null mortality. Multilocus-sequence-typing analysis revealed that the most virulent strains, UV74 and M30, exhibit the strongest genetic similitude. Differential proteomic analysis led to the identification of 38 proteins with significantly different abundance in the three clinical strains relative to the reference strain. Orthologs of several of these proteins have been already reported to have a role in pathogenesis, virulence or resistance mechanisms thus supporting our strategy. Proof of concept is further provided by protein Ax21, whose abundance is shown here to be directly proportional to mortality in the zebrafish infection model. Indeed, recent studies have demonstrated that this protein is a quorum-sensing-related virulence factor. PMID:23840626

  3. Candida albicans Czf1 and Efg1 Coordinate the Response to Farnesol during Quorum Sensing, White-Opaque Thermal Dimorphism, and Cell Death

    PubMed Central

    Langford, Melanie L.; Hargarten, Jessica C.; Patefield, Krista D.; Marta, Elizabeth; Blankenship, Jill R.; Fanning, Saranna; Nickerson, Kenneth W.

    2013-01-01

    Quorum sensing by farnesol in Candida albicans inhibits filamentation and may be directly related to its ability to cause both mucosal and systemic diseases. The Ras1-cyclic AMP signaling pathway is a target for farnesol inhibition. However, a clear understanding of the downstream effectors of the morphological farnesol response has yet to be unraveled. To address this issue, we screened a library for mutants that fail to respond to farnesol. Six mutants were identified, and the czf1?/czf1? mutant was selected for further characterization. Czf1 is a transcription factor that regulates filamentation in embedded agar and also white-to-opaque switching. We found that Czf1 is required for filament inhibition by farnesol under at least three distinct environmental conditions: on agar surfaces, in liquid medium, and when embedded in a semisolid agar matrix. Since Efg1 is a transcription factor of the Ras1-cyclic AMP signaling pathway that interacts with and regulates Czf1, an efg1?/efg1? czf1?/czf1? mutant was tested for filament inhibition by farnesol. It exhibited an opaque-cell-like temperature-dependent morphology, and it was killed by low farnesol levels that are sublethal to wild-type cells and both efg1?/efg1? and czf1?/czf1? single mutants. These results highlight a new role for Czf1 as a downstream effector of the morphological response to farnesol, and along with Efg1, Czf1 is involved in the control of farnesol-mediated cell death in C. albicans. PMID:23873867

  4. The Alternative Sigma Factor SigX Controls Bacteriocin Synthesis and Competence, the Two Quorum Sensing Regulated Traits in Streptococcus mutans

    PubMed Central

    Reck, Michael; Tomasch, Jürgen; Wagner-Döbler, Irene

    2015-01-01

    Two small quorum sensing (QS) peptides regulate competence in S. mutans in a cell density dependent manner: XIP (sigX inducing peptide) and CSP (competence stimulating peptide). Depending on the environmental conditions isogenic S. mutans cells can split into a competent and non-competent subpopulation. The origin of this population heterogeneity has not been experimentally determined and it is unknown how the two QS systems are connected. We developed a toolbox of single and dual fluorescent reporter strains and systematically knocked out key genes of the competence signaling cascade in the reporter strain backgrounds. By following signal propagation on the single cell level we discovered that the master regulator of competence, the alternative sigma factor SigX, directly controls expression of the response regulator for bacteriocin synthesis ComE. Consequently, a SigX binding motif (cin-box) was identified in the promoter region of comE. Overexpressing the genetic components involved in competence development demonstrated that ComRS represents the origin of bimodality and determines the modality of the downstream regulators SigX and ComE. Moreover these analysis showed that there is no direct regulatory link between the two QS signaling cascades. Competence is induced through a hierarchical XIP signaling cascade, which has no regulatory input from the CSP cascade. CSP exclusively regulates bacteriocin synthesis. We suggest renaming it mutacin inducing peptide (MIP). Finally, using phosphomimetic comE mutants we show that unimodal bacteriocin production is controlled posttranslationally, thus solving the puzzling observation that in complex media competence is observed in a subpopulation only, while at the same time all cells produce bacteriocins. The control of both bacteriocin synthesis and competence through the alternative sigma-factor SigX suggests that S. mutans increases its genetic repertoire via QS controlled predation on neighboring species in its natural habitat. PMID:26158727

  5. Conjugative transfer of p42a from rhizobium etli CFN42, which is required for mobilization of the symbiotic plasmid, is regulated by quorum sensing.

    PubMed

    Tun-Garrido, Cristina; Bustos, Patricia; González, Víctor; Brom, Susana

    2003-03-01

    Rhizobium etli CFN42 contains six plasmids. Only one of them, p42a, is self-conjugative at high frequency. This plasmid is strictly required for mobilization of the symbiotic plasmid (pSym). To study the transfer mechanism of p42a, a self-transmissible cosmid clone containing its transfer region was isolated. Its sequence showed that most of the tra genes are highly similar to genes of Agrobacterium tumefaciens pTiC58 and other related plasmids. Four putative regulatory genes were identified; three of these (traI, traR, and cinR) belong to the LuxR-LuxI family. Mutagenesis of these genes confirmed their requirement for p42a transfer. We found that the conjugative transfer of p42a is dependent on quorum sensing, and consequently pSym transfer also was found to be similarly regulated, establishing a complex link between environmental conditions and pSym transfer. Although R. etli has been shown to produce different N-acyl-homoserine lactones, only one of them, a 3-oxo-C(8)-homoserine lactone encoded by the traI gene described here, was involved in transfer. Mutagenesis of the fourth regulatory gene, traM, had no effect on transfer. Analysis of transcriptional fusions of the regulatory genes to a reporter gene suggests a complex regulation scheme for p42a conjugative transfer. Conjugal transfer gene expression was found to be directly upregulated by TraR and the 3-oxo-C(8)-homoserine lactone synthesized by TraI. The traI gene was autoregulated by these elements and positively regulated by CinR, while cinR expression required traI. Finally, we did not detect expression of traM, indicating that in p42a TraM may be expressed so weakly that it cannot inhibit conjugal transfer, leading to the unrepressed transfer of p42a. PMID:12591886

  6. Conjugative Transfer of p42a from Rhizobium etli CFN42, Which Is Required for Mobilization of the Symbiotic Plasmid, Is Regulated by Quorum Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Tun-Garrido, Cristina; Bustos, Patricia; González, Víctor; Brom, Susana

    2003-01-01

    Rhizobium etli CFN42 contains six plasmids. Only one of them, p42a, is self-conjugative at high frequency. This plasmid is strictly required for mobilization of the symbiotic plasmid (pSym). To study the transfer mechanism of p42a, a self-transmissible cosmid clone containing its transfer region was isolated. Its sequence showed that most of the tra genes are highly similar to genes of Agrobacterium tumefaciens pTiC58 and other related plasmids. Four putative regulatory genes were identified; three of these (traI, traR, and cinR) belong to the LuxR-LuxI family. Mutagenesis of these genes confirmed their requirement for p42a transfer. We found that the conjugative transfer of p42a is dependent on quorum sensing, and consequently pSym transfer also was found to be similarly regulated, establishing a complex link between environmental conditions and pSym transfer. Although R. etli has been shown to produce different N-acyl-homoserine lactones, only one of them, a 3-oxo-C8-homoserine lactone encoded by the traI gene described here, was involved in transfer. Mutagenesis of the fourth regulatory gene, traM, had no effect on transfer. Analysis of transcriptional fusions of the regulatory genes to a reporter gene suggests a complex regulation scheme for p42a conjugative transfer. Conjugal transfer gene expression was found to be directly upregulated by TraR and the 3-oxo-C8-homoserine lactone synthesized by TraI. The traI gene was autoregulated by these elements and positively regulated by CinR, while cinR expression required traI. Finally, we did not detect expression of traM, indicating that in p42a TraM may be expressed so weakly that it cannot inhibit conjugal transfer, leading to the unrepressed transfer of p42a. PMID:12591886

  7. A Sinorhizobium meliloti-specific N-acyl homoserine lactone quorum-sensing signal increases nodule numbers in Medicago truncatula independent of autoregulation

    PubMed Central

    Veliz-Vallejos, Debora F.; van Noorden, Giel E.; Yuan, Mengqi; Mathesius, Ulrike

    2014-01-01

    N-acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs) act as quorum sensing signals that regulate cell-density dependent behaviors in many gram-negative bacteria, in particular those important for plant-microbe interactions. AHLs can also be recognized by plants, and this may influence their interactions with bacteria. Here we tested whether the exposure to AHLs affects the nodule-forming symbiosis between legume hosts and rhizobia. We treated roots of the model legume, Medicago truncatula, with a range of AHLs either from its specific symbiont, Sinorhizobium meliloti, or from the potential pathogens, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Agrobacterium vitis. We found increased numbers of nodules formed on root systems treated with the S. meliloti-specific AHL, 3-oxo-C14-homoserine lactone, at a concentration of 1 ?M, while the other AHLs did not result in significant changes to nodule numbers. We did not find any evidence for altered nodule invasion by the rhizobia. Quantification of flavonoids that could act as nod gene inducers in S. meliloti did not show any correlation with increased nodule numbers. The effects of AHLs were specific for an increase in nodule numbers, but not lateral root numbers or root length. Increased nodule numbers following 3-oxo-C14-homoserine lactone treatment were under control of autoregulation of nodulation and were still observed in the autoregulation mutant, sunn4 (super numeric nodules4). However, increases in nodule numbers by 3-oxo-C14-homoserine lactone were not found in the ethylene-insensitive sickle mutant. A comparison between M. truncatula with M. sativa (alfalfa) and Trifolium repens (white clover) showed that the observed effects of AHLs on nodule numbers were specific to M. truncatula, despite M. sativa nodulating with the same symbiont. We conclude that plant perception of the S. meliloti-specific 3-oxo-C14-homoserine lactone influences nodule numbers in M. truncatula via an ethylene-dependent, but autoregulation-independent mechanism. PMID:25352858

  8. A proteomic analysis of Arabidopsis thaliana seedling responses to 3-oxo-octanoyl-homoserine lactone, a bacterial quorum-sensing signal

    SciTech Connect

    Miao, Chunjuan; Hebei Engineering and Technology Center of Microbiological Control on Main Crop Disease, Shijiazhuang 050051 ; Liu, Fang; Hebei Engineering and Technology Center of Microbiological Control on Main Crop Disease, Shijiazhuang 050051 ; Zhao, Qian; Hebei Engineering and Technology Center of Microbiological Control on Main Crop Disease, Shijiazhuang 050051 ; Jia, Zhenhua; Hebei Engineering and Technology Center of Microbiological Control on Main Crop Disease, Shijiazhuang 050051 ; Song, Shuishan; Hebei Engineering and Technology Center of Microbiological Control on Main Crop Disease, Shijiazhuang 050051

    2012-10-19

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 3OC8-HSL can change the expression of diverse proteins in Arabidopsis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 3OC8-HSL responsive proteins were identified using MALDI-TOF-MS. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Plant could have an extensive range of functional responses to bacterial AHL. -- Abstract: N-acyl-homoserine lactones (AHLs) are a class of bacterial quorum-sensing (QS) signals that are commonly used by Gram-negative bacteria for cell-to-cell communication. Recently, it has become evident that AHLs can regulate plant root growth and trigger plant defense responses; however, little is known about the plant response mechanisms to bacterial QS signals. In this study, we used a proteomic approach to investigate the responses of Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings to N-3-oxo-octanoyl-homoserine lactone (3OC8-HSL), a bacterial QS signal. The results revealed that the abundance of 53 protein spots was significantly altered; two thirds of these proteins were found to be up-regulated after 3OC8-HSL treatment. Thirty-four proteins were identified using MALDI-TOF-MS. These 3OC8-HSL-responsive proteins, in addition to one protein of unknown function, are implicated in a variety of physiological processes, including metabolism of carbohydrate and energy, protein biosynthesis and quality control systems, defense response and signal transduction and cytoskeleton remodeling. Our bioinformatic analysis indicated that the chloroplasts are the intracellular organelles most influenced by the exposure to 3OC8-HSL. Our data indicate that plants have an extensive range of functional responses to bacterial AHLs that may play important roles in the interaction between plants and bacteria.

  9. Eavesdropping by bacteria: the role of SdiA in Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium quorum sensing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many gram-negative bacteria utilize N-acyl-L-homoserine lactones (AHLs) to sense and respond to their own population densities and to regulate gene transcription. The AHLs, produced by AHL synthases, bind to receptors belonging to the LuxR family of transcriptional regulators leading to activation...

  10. Quorum Quenching in Culturable Phyllosphere Bacteria from Tobacco

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Anzhou; Lv, Di; Zhuang, Xuliang; Zhuang, Guoqiang

    2013-01-01

    Many Gram-negative plant pathogenic bacteria employ a N-acylhomoserine lactone (AHL)-based quorum sensing (QS) system to regulate their virulence traits. A sustainable biocontrol strategy has been developed using quorum quenching (QQ) bacteria to interfere with QS and protect plants from pathogens. Here, the prevalence and the diversity of QQ strains inhabiting tobacco leaf surfaces were explored. A total of 1177 leaf-associated isolates were screened for their ability to disrupt AHL-mediated QS, using the biosensor Chromobacterium violaceum CV026. One hundred and sixty-eight strains (14%) are capable of interfering with AHL activity. Among these, 106 strains (63%) of the culturable quenchers can enzymatically degrade AHL molecules, while the remaining strains might use other QS inhibitors to interrupt the chemical communication. Moreover, almost 79% of the QQ strains capable of inactivating AHLs enzymatically have lactonase activity. Further phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rDNA revealed that the leaf-associated QQ bacteria can be classified as Bacillus sp., Acinetobacter sp., Lysinibacillus sp., Serratia sp., Pseudomonas sp., and Myroides sp. The naturally occurring diversity of bacterial quenchers might provide opportunities to use them as effective biocontrol reagents for suppressing plant pathogen in situ. PMID:23857057

  11. Quorum quenching: role in nature and applied developments.

    PubMed

    Grandclément, Catherine; Tannières, Mélanie; Moréra, Solange; Dessaux, Yves; Faure, Denis

    2016-01-01

    Quorum sensing (QS) refers to the capacity of bacteria to monitor their population density and regulate gene expression accordingly: the QS-regulated processes deal with multicellular behaviors (e.g. growth and development of biofilm), horizontal gene transfer and host-microbe (symbiosis and pathogenesis) and microbe-microbe interactions. QS signaling requires the synthesis, exchange and perception of bacterial compounds, called autoinducers or QS signals (e.g. N-acylhomoserine lactones). The disruption of QS signaling, also termed quorum quenching (QQ), encompasses very diverse phenomena and mechanisms which are presented and discussed in this review. First, we surveyed the QS-signal diversity and QS-associated responses for a better understanding of the targets of the QQ phenomena that organisms have naturally evolved and are currently actively investigated in applied perspectives. Next the mechanisms, targets and molecular actors associated with QS interference are presented, with a special emphasis on the description of natural QQ enzymes and chemicals acting as QS inhibitors. Selected QQ paradigms are detailed to exemplify the mechanisms and biological roles of QS inhibition in microbe-microbe and host-microbe interactions. Finally, some QQ strategies are presented as promising tools in different fields such as medicine, aquaculture, crop production and anti-biofouling area. PMID:26432822

  12. Directed assembly of a bacterial quorum.

    PubMed

    Servinsky, Matthew D; Terrell, Jessica L; Tsao, Chen-Yu; Wu, Hsuan-Chen; Quan, David N; Zargar, Amin; Allen, Patrick C; Byrd, Christopher M; Sund, Christian J; Bentley, William E

    2016-01-01

    Many reports have elucidated the mechanisms and consequences of bacterial quorum sensing (QS), a molecular communication system by which bacterial cells enumerate their cell density and organize collective behavior. In few cases, however, the numbers of bacteria exhibiting this collective behavior have been reported, either as a number concentration or a fraction of the whole. Not all cells in the population, for example, take on the collective phenotype. Thus, the specific attribution of the postulated benefit can remain obscure. This is partly due to our inability to independently assemble a defined quorum, for natural and most artificial systems the quorum itself is a consequence of the biological context (niche and signaling mechanisms). Here, we describe the intentional assembly of quantized quorums. These are made possible by independently engineering the autoinducer signal transduction cascade of Escherichia coli (E. coli) and the sensitivity of detector cells so that upon encountering a particular autoinducer level, a discretized sub-population of cells emerges with the desired phenotype. In our case, the emergent cells all express an equivalent amount of marker protein, DsRed, as an indicator of a specific QS-mediated activity. The process is robust, as detector cells are engineered to target both large and small quorums. The process takes about 6?h, irrespective of quorum level. We demonstrate sensitive detection of autoinducer-2 (AI-2) as an application stemming from quantized quorums. We then demonstrate sub-population partitioning in that AI-2-secreting cells can 'call' groups neighboring cells that 'travel' and establish a QS-mediated phenotype upon reaching the new locale. PMID:26046256

  13. Novel mechanisms of controlling the activities of the transcription factors Spo0A and ComA by the plasmid-encoded quorum sensing regulators Rap60-Phr60 in Bacillus subtilis

    PubMed Central

    Boguslawski, Kristina M.; Hill, Patrick A.; Griffith, Kevin L.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Bacillus subtilis and its closest relatives have multiple rap-phr quorum sensing gene pairs that coordinate a variety of physiological processes with population density. Extra-chromosomal rap-phr genes are also present on mobile genetic elements, yet relatively little is known about their function. In this work, we demonstrate that Rap60-Phr60 from plasmid pTA1060 coordinates a variety of biological processes with population density including sporulation, cannibalism, biofilm formation and genetic competence. Similar to other Rap proteins that control sporulation, Rap60 modulates phosphorylation of the transcription factor Spo0A by acting as a phosphatase of Spo0F~P, an intermediate of the sporulation phosphorelay system. Additionally, Rap60 plays a noncanonical role in regulating the autophosphorylation of the sporulation-specific kinase KinA, a novel activity for Rap proteins. In contrast, Rap proteins that modulate genetic competence interfere with DNA binding by the transcription factor ComA. Rap60 regulates the activity of ComA in a unique manner by forming a Rap60–ComA–DNA ternary complex that inhibits transcription of target genes. Taken together, this work provides new insight into two novel mechanisms of regulating Spo0A and ComA by Rap60 and expands our general understanding of how plasmid-encoded quorum sensing pairs regulate important biological processes. PMID:25598361

  14. Thin-film modelling of biofilm growth and quorum Mathematical Biology Group, Department of Mathematical Sciences, Loughborough University,

    E-print Network

    Thin-film modelling of biofilm growth and quorum sensing J.P. Ward , Mathematical Biology Group. Abstract Biofilms are slimy films of bacteria that typically grow on solid surfaces with a fluid interface. Two mathematical models for nutrient dependent, early-stage biofilm growth and quorum sensing

  15. Indole inhibition of N-acylated homoserine lactone-mediated quorum signalling is widespread in Gram-negative bacteria.

    PubMed

    Hidalgo-Romano, Benjamin; Gollihar, Jimmy; Brown, Stacie A; Whiteley, Marvin; Valenzuela, Ernesto; Kaplan, Heidi B; Wood, Thomas K; McLean, Robert J C

    2014-11-01

    The LuxI/R quorum-sensing system and its associated N-acylated homoserine lactone (AHL) signal is widespread among Gram-negative bacteria. Although inhibition by indole of AHL quorum signalling in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter oleivorans has been reported previously, it has not been documented among other species. Here, we show that co-culture with wild-type Escherichia coli, but not with E. coli tnaA mutants that lack tryptophanase and as a result do not produce indole, inhibits AHL-regulated pigmentation in Chromobacterium violaceum (violacein), Pseudomonas chlororaphis (phenazine) and Serratia marcescens (prodigiosin). Loss of pigmentation also occurred during pure culture growth of Chro. violaceum, P. chlororaphis and S. marcescens in the presence of physiologically relevant indole concentrations (0.5-1.0 mM). Inhibition of violacein production by indole was counteracted by the addition of the Chro. violaceum cognate autoinducer, N-decanoyl homoserine lactone (C10-HSL), in a dose-dependent manner. The addition of exogenous indole or co-culture with E. coli also affected Chro. violaceum transcription of vioA (violacein pigment production) and chiA (chitinase production), but had no effect on pykF (pyruvate kinase), which is not quorum regulated. Chro. violaceum AHL-regulated elastase and chitinase activity were inhibited by indole, as was motility. Growth of Chro. violaceum was not affected by indole or C10-HSL supplementation. Using a nematode-feeding virulence assay, we observed that survival of Caenorhabditis elegans exposed to Chro. violaceum, P. chlororaphis and S. marcescens was enhanced during indole supplementation. Overall, these studies suggest that indole represents a general inhibitor of AHL-based quorum signalling in Gram-negative bacteria. PMID:25165125

  16. Application of molecular docking and ONIOM methods for the description of interactions between anti-quorum sensing active (AHL) analogues and the Pseudomonas aeruginosa LasR binding site.

    PubMed

    Ahumedo, Maicol; Drosos, Juan Carlos; Vivas-Reyes, Ricardo

    2014-05-01

    Molecular docking methods were applied to simulate the coupling of a set of nineteen acyl homoserine lactone analogs into the binding site of the transcriptional receptor LasR. The best pose of each ligand was explored and a qualitative analysis of the possible interactions present in the complex was performed. From the results of the protein-ligand complex analysis, it was found that residues Tyr-64 and Tyr-47 are involved in important interactions, which mainly determine the antagonistic activity of the AHL analogues considered for this study. The effect of different substituents on the aromatic ring, the common structure to all ligands, was also evaluated focusing on how the interaction with the two previously mentioned tyrosine residues was affected. Electrostatic potential map calculations based on the electron density and the van der Waals radii were performed on all ligands to graphically aid in the explanation of the variation of charge density on their structures when the substituent on the aromatic ring is changed through the elements of the halogen group series. A quantitative approach was also considered and for that purpose the ONIOM method was performed to estimate the energy change in the different ligand-receptor complex regions. Those energy values were tested for their relationship with the corresponding IC50 in order to establish if there is any correlation between energy changes in the selected regions and the biological activity. The results obtained using the two approaches may contribute to the field of quorum sensing active molecules; the docking analysis revealed the role of some binding site residues involved in the formation of a halogen bridge with ligands. These interactions have been demonstrated to be responsible for the interruption of the signal propagation needed for the quorum sensing circuit. Using the other approach, the structure-activity relationship (SAR) analysis, it was possible to establish which structural characteristics and chemical requirements are necessary to classify a compound as a possible agonist or antagonist against the LasR binding site. PMID:24626770

  17. Evaluation of the impact of quorum sensing transcriptional regulator SdiA on long-term persistence and fecal shedding of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in weaned calves.

    PubMed

    Sharma, V K; Bearson, S M D

    2013-04-01

    Escherichia coli O157:H7 (O157) colonization of bovine intestine is mediated through the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE)-encoded type III secretion system and secreted virulence proteins that promote colonization of the recto-anal junction (RAJ) of the large intestine of cattle. The quorum sensing transcriptional regulator SdiA, a homolog of LuxR, has been shown in vitro to repress LEE strongly when overexpressed from a multi-copy recombinant plasmid or when its activity is enhanced by the binding of N-acyl-L-homoserine lactones (AHLs), the quorum sensing signals that are detected by SdiA. Since LEE has been shown to be essential for colonization and persistence of O157 in bovine intestine, we examined whether a mutation in sdiA, which normally represses LEE in vitro, would also exert negative effect on colonization and long-term persistence of O157 in weaned calves. Ten-week old weaned calves (n = 4/group) were inoculated orally with 10(10) cfu of either the wild-type or sdiA mutant strain. Initial fecal shedding of the sdiA mutant and the wild-type strain were similar in magnitude and declined during the first 2 weeks post-inoculation. The sdiA mutant was detected in feces of only one of the four calves at low levels (?10(2) cfu/g feces) from days 19 - 27 post-inoculation, whereas, the fecal shedding of the wild-type strain persisted at approximately 4-logs in all four calves from days 19 - 27. We also confirmed that SdiA represses ler, which encodes a positive transcriptional regulator of LEE, in response to AHLs, and reduces adherence of O157 to HEp-2 cells. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that although in vitro the sdiA gene represses LEE and LEE-mediated adherence to cultured cells, the presence of sdiA is necessary for colonization of bovine large intestine that in turn promotes persistent fecal shedding of O157 by these animals. PMID:23415735

  18. Inhibitors

    MedlinePLUS

    ... caregivers to learn how to care for the device. CDC Research CDC is interested in learning more about why some people develop inhibitors and how they could be prevented. The Inhibitor Project began in 2005 and was implemented to explore ...

  19. Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilm Formation and Persistence, along with the Production of Quorum Sensing-Dependent Virulence Factors, Are Disrupted by a Triterpenoid Coumarate Ester Isolated from Dalbergia trichocarpa, a Tropical Legume

    PubMed Central

    Pottier, Laurent; Huet, Joelle; Rabemanantsoa, Christian; Kiendrebeogo, Martin; Andriantsimahavandy, Abel; Rasamindrakotroka, Andry; Stévigny, Caroline; Duez, Pierre; El Jaziri, Mondher

    2015-01-01

    Recently, extracts of Dalbergia trichocarpa bark have been shown to disrupt P. aeruginosa PAO1 quorum sensing (QS) mechanisms, which are key regulators of virulence factor expression and implicated in biofilm formation. One of the active compounds has been isolated and identified as oleanolic aldehyde coumarate (OALC), a novel bioactive compound that inhibits the formation of P. aeruginosa PAO1 biofilm and its maintenance as well as the expression of the las and rhl QS systems. Consequently, the production of QS-controlled virulence factors including, rhamnolipids, pyocyanin, elastase and extracellular polysaccharides as well as twitching and swarming motilities is reduced. Native acylhomoserine lactones (AHLs) production is inhibited by OALC but exogenous supply of AHLs does not restore the production of virulence factors by OALC-treated cultures, indicating that OALC exerts its effect beyond AHLs synthesis in the QS pathways. Further experiments provided a significant inhibition of the global virulence factor activator gacA by OALC. OALC disorganizes established biofilm structure and improves the bactericidal activity of tobramycin against biofilm-encapsulated PAO1 cells. Finally, a significant reduction of Caenorhabditis elegans paralysis was recorded when the worms were infected with OALC-pre-treated P. aeruginosa. Taken together, these results show that triterpenoid coumarate esters are suitable chemical backbones to target P. aeruginosa virulence mechanisms. PMID:26186595

  20. Theoretical and structural analysis of the active site of the transcriptional regulators LasR and TraR, using molecular docking methodology for identifying potential analogues of acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs) with anti-quorum sensing activity.

    PubMed

    Ahumedo, Maicol; Díaz, Antonio; Vivas-Reyes, Ricardo

    2010-02-01

    In the present study the homology of transcriptional receptors LuxR type were evaluated using as point of reference the receptors TraR and LasR of the bacterial types Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Pseudomonas aureginosa respectively. A series of alignments were performed in order to demonstrate that the active site of the protein is conserved in wide range of gram negative bacteria. Moreover, some docking calculations were carried out for analogs of the acyl homoserin lactones (AHLs) and regulatory proteins LasR and TraR, to understand the complex microenvironment in which the ligands are exposed. The molecular alignments show clearly that there are preserved motifs in the residues (Y53, Y61, W57, D70, W85 to TraR, Y56, Y64, W60, D73, W88 to LasR) analyzed, which may serve as site-specific targets for the development of potential antagonists. In this study was found that the anti-quorum sensing activity of the AHLs molecular analogs appears to depend on; the structure of the lactone ring and on appropriate combination of absolute and relative stereochemistry of the carbonyl (C=O) and amide (NH(2)) groups of the side chain of these AHLs molecular analogs, in combination with the interactions with the conserved amino acids (D73, W60, Y56, S129 to LasR and D70, W57, Y53 to TraR) of the LuxR type protein family. PMID:19945196

  1. Antisense RNA-based High-Throughput Screen System for Directed Evolution of Quorum Quenching Enzymes.

    PubMed

    Han, Sang-Soo; Park, Won-Ji; Kim, Hak-Sung; Kim, Geun-Joong

    2015-11-20

    Quorum quenching (QQ) enzymes, which disrupt the quorum sensing signaling process, have attracted considerable attention as new antimicrobial agents. However, their low catalytic efficiency for quorum sensing molecules remains a challenge. Herein, we present an antisense RNA-based high-throughput screen system for directed evolution of a quorum quenching enzyme. The screening system was constructed by incorporating an antisense RNA (RyhB) into a synthetic module to quantitatively regulate the expression of a reporter gene fused with a sense RNA (sodB). To control the expression of a reporter gene in response to the catalytic activity of a quorum quenching enzyme, the region of interaction and mode between a pair of antisense (RyhB) and sense (sodB) RNAs was designed and optimized through the prediction of the secondary structure of the RNA pair. The screening system constructed was shown to lead to a significant reduction in the false-positive rate (average 42%) in the screening of N-acyl-homoserine lactonase (AiiA) with increased catalytic activity, resulting in a true-positive frequency of up to 76%. The utility and efficiency of the screening system were demonstrated by selecting an AiiA with 31-fold higher catalytic efficiency than the wild-type in three rounds of directed evolution. The present approach can be widely used for the screening of quorum quenching enzymes with the desired catalytic property, as well as for a synthetic network for a stringent regulation of the gene expression. PMID:26366664

  2. Characterization of structural elements in native autoinducing peptides and non-native analogues that permit the differential modulation of AgrC-type quorum sensing receptors in Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Tal-Gan, Yftah; Ivancic, Monika; Cornilescu, Gabriel; Blackwell, Helen E

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus uses short macrocyclic peptides (i.e., autoinducing peptides, or AIPs) to assess its local population density in a cell-cell signaling mechanism called quorum sensing (QS). At high cell numbers, this pathogen can initiate many virulent behaviors that allow for the establishment of infection. Binding of the AIP signal to its cognate transmembrane AgrC-type receptor is a critical event in the QS signaling cascade; consequently, interference of AIP:receptor interactions may have the potential to prevent and eradicate certain S. aureus infections. To date, four pairs of AIP:AgrC receptors have been identified in S. aureus, each pair being utilized by a specific S. aureus group (I-IV). Other staphylococcal species also use closely related, but distinct, AIP:AgrC pairs to control QS. We seek to develop non-native ligands capable of intercepting AIP:AgrC binding in each S. aureus group and in related species. As these bacteria may use their respective AIP signal to attenuate the QS systems of other groups/species, such ligands would provide valuable chemical tools to probe possible interference mechanisms in a range of contexts. In the current study, we used solution-phase NMR techniques to characterize the 3-D structures of a set of known native and non-native peptides that have differential modulatory activity in certain AgrC receptors. Analysis of these structures revealed several distinct structural motifs that belay differential activity in selected S. aureus AgrC receptors (i.e., AgrC-I, AgrC-II, and AgrC-III). The results of this study can be leveraged for the design of new synthetic ligands with enhanced selectivities and potencies for these AgrC receptors. PMID:26416476

  3. The RapP-PhrP Quorum-Sensing System of Bacillus subtilis Strain NCIB3610 Affects Biofilm Formation through Multiple Targets, Due to an Atypical Signal-Insensitive Allele of RapP

    PubMed Central

    Omer Bendori, Shira; Pollak, Shaul; Hizi, Dorit

    2014-01-01

    The genome of Bacillus subtilis 168 encodes eight rap-phr quorum-sensing pairs. Rap proteins of all characterized Rap-Phr pairs inhibit the function of one or several important response regulators: ComA, Spo0F, or DegU. This inhibition is relieved upon binding of the peptide encoded by the cognate phr gene. Bacillus subtilis strain NCIB3610, the biofilm-proficient ancestor of strain 168, encodes, in addition, the rapP-phrP pair on the plasmid pBS32. RapP was shown to dephosphorylate Spo0F and to regulate biofilm formation, but unlike other Rap-Phr pairs, RapP does not interact with PhrP. In this work we extend the analysis of the RapP pathway by reexamining its transcriptional regulation, its effect on downstream targets, and its interaction with PhrP. At the transcriptional level, we show that rapP and phrP regulation is similar to that of other rap-phr pairs. We further find that RapP has an Spo0F-independent negative effect on biofilm-related genes, which is mediated by the response regulator ComA. Finally, we find that the insensitivity of RapP to PhrP is due to a substitution of a highly conserved residue in the peptide binding domain of the rapP allele of strain NCIB3610. Reversing this substitution to the consensus amino acid restores the PhrP dependence of RapP activity and eliminates the effects of the rapP-phrP locus on ComA activity and biofilm formation. Taken together, our results suggest that RapP strongly represses biofilm formation through multiple targets and that PhrP does not counteract RapP due to a rare mutation in rapP. PMID:25422306

  4. Genome analysis of quorum sensing Cedecea neteri SSMD04 leads to identification of its novel signaling synthase (cneI), cognate receptor (cneR) and an orphan receptor

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Kian-Hin; Tan, Jia-Yi; Yin, Wai-Fong

    2015-01-01

    Cedecea neteri is a very rare human pathogen. We have isolated a strain of C. neteri SSMD04 from pickled mackerel sashimi identified using molecular and phenotypics approaches. Using the biosensor Chromobacterium violaceum CV026, we have demonstrated the presence of short chain N-acyl-homoserine lactone (AHL) type quorum sensing (QS) activity in C. neteri SSMD04. Triple quadrupole LC/MS analysis revealed that C. neteri SSMD04 produced short chain N-butyryl-homoserine lactone (C4-HSL). With the available genome information of C. neteri SSMD04, we went on to analyse and identified a pair of luxI/R homologues in this genome that share the highest similarity with croI/R homologues from Citrobacter rodentium. The AHL synthase, which we named cneI(636 bp), was found in the genome sequences of C. neteri SSMD04. At a distance of 8bp from cneI is a sequence encoding a hypothetical protein, potentially the cognate receptor, a luxR homologue which we named it as cneR. Analysis of this protein amino acid sequence reveals two signature domains, the autoinducer-binding domain and the C-terminal effector which is typical characteristic of luxR. In addition, we found that this genome harboured an orphan luxR that is most closely related to easR in Enterobacter asburiae. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the AHL production activity in C. neteri, and the discovery of its luxI/R homologues, the orphan receptor and its whole genome sequence. PMID:26355540

  5. 32 CFR 242b.4 - Quorum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... MISCELLANEOUS GENERAL PROCEDURES AND DELEGATIONS OF THE BOARD OF REGENTS OF THE UNIFORMED SERVICES UNIVERSITY OF THE HEALTH SCIENCES § 242b.4 Quorum. A majority of all Regents in being shall constitute a quorum of the...

  6. 32 CFR 242b.4 - Quorum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... MISCELLANEOUS GENERAL PROCEDURES AND DELEGATIONS OF THE BOARD OF REGENTS OF THE UNIFORMED SERVICES UNIVERSITY OF THE HEALTH SCIENCES § 242b.4 Quorum. A majority of all Regents in being shall constitute a quorum of the...

  7. Current Biology 19, 341345, February 24, 2009 2009 Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved DOI 10.1016/j.cub.2009.01.050 Quorum Sensing and the Social Evolution

    E-print Network

    West, Stuart

    show that in mixed infections of the bacterium Pseudo- monas aeruginosa, containing quorum and Virulence We examined the virulence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the mouse burn model by using a number of Infection, Immunity & Inflammation Centre for Biomolecular Sciences University Park University of Nottingham

  8. Trigonella foenum-graceum (Seed) Extract Interferes with Quorum Sensing Regulated Traits and Biofilm Formation in the Strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Aeromonas hydrophila

    PubMed Central

    Husain, Fohad Mabood; Ahmad, Iqbal; Khan, Mohd Shahnawaz; Al-Shabib, Nasser Abdulatif

    2015-01-01

    Trigonella foenum-graecum L. (Fenugreek) is an important plant of the Leguminosae family known to have medicinal properties. However, fraction based antiquorum sensing and antibiofilm activities have not been reported from this plant. In the present study T. foenum-graecum seed extract was sequentially fractionated and sub-MICs were tested for above activities. The methanol fraction of the extract demonstrated significant inhibition of AHL regulated virulence factors: protease, LasB elastase, pyocyanin production, chitinase, EPS, and swarming motility in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 and PAF79. Further, QS dependent virulence factor in the aquatic pathogen Aeromonas hydrophila WAF38 was also reduced. Application of T. foenum-graecum seed extract to PAO1, PAF79, and WAF38 decreased the biofilm forming abilities of the pathogens by significant levels. The extract also exhibited reduced AHL levels and subsequent downregulation of lasB gene. In vivo study showed an enhanced survival of PAO1-preinfected C. elegans after treatment with extract at 1?mg/mL. Further, the major compound detected by GC-MS, caffeine, reduced the production of QS regulated virulence factors and biofilm at 200?µg/mL concentration indicating its role in the activity of the methanol extract. The results of the present study reveal the potential anti-QS and antibiofilm property of T. foenum-graceum extract and caffeine. PMID:26000026

  9. Quorum quenching quandary: resistance to antivirulence compounds.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Toshinari; García-Contreras, Rodolfo; Pu, Mingming; Sheng, Lili; Garcia, Luis Rene; Tomás, Maria; Wood, Thomas K

    2012-03-01

    Quorum sensing (QS) is the regulation of gene expression in response to the concentration of small signal molecules, and its inactivation has been suggested to have great potential to attenuate microbial virulence. It is assumed that unlike antimicrobials, inhibition of QS should cause less Darwinian selection pressure for bacterial resistance. Using the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa, we demonstrate here that bacterial resistance arises rapidly to the best-characterized compound that inhibits QS (brominated furanone C-30) due to mutations that increase the efflux of C-30. Critically, the C-30-resistant mutant mexR was more pathogenic to Caenorhabditis elegans in the presence of C-30, and the same mutation arises in bacteria responsible for chronic cystic fibrosis infections. Therefore, bacteria may evolve resistance to many new pharmaceuticals thought impervious to resistance. PMID:21918575

  10. In Vivo Programmed Gene Expression Based on Artificial Quorum Networks.

    PubMed

    Chu, Teng; Huang, Yajun; Hou, Mingyu; Wang, Qiyao; Xiao, Jingfan; Liu, Qin; Zhang, Yuanxing

    2015-08-01

    The quorum sensing (QS) system, as a well-functioning population-dependent gene switch, has been widely applied in many gene circuits in synthetic biology. In our work, an efficient cell density-controlled expression system (QS) was established via engineering of the Vibrio fischeri luxI-luxR quorum sensing system. In order to achieve in vivo programmed gene expression, a synthetic binary regulation circuit (araQS) was constructed by assembling multiple genetic components, including the quorum quenching protein AiiA and the arabinose promoter ParaBAD, into the QS system. In vitro expression assays verified that the araQS system was initiated only in the absence of arabinose in the medium at a high cell density. In vivo expression assays confirmed that the araQS system presented an in vivo-triggered and cell density-dependent expression pattern. Furthermore, the araQS system was demonstrated to function well in different bacteria, indicating a wide range of bacterial hosts for use. To explore its potential applications in vivo, the araQS system was used to control the production of a heterologous protective antigen in an attenuated Edwardsiella tarda strain, which successfully evoked efficient immune protection in a fish model. This work suggested that the araQS system could program bacterial expression in vivo and might have potential uses, including, but not limited to, bacterial vector vaccines. PMID:25979894

  11. Structure And Specificity of a Quorum-Quenching Lactonase (AiiB) From Agrobacterium Tumefaciens

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, D.; Thomas, P.W.; Momb, J.; Hoang, Q.Q.; Petsko, G.A.; Ringe, D.; Fast, W.

    2009-06-03

    N-Acyl-l-homoserine lactone (AHL) mediated quorum-sensing regulates virulence factor production in a variety of Gram-negative bacteria. Proteins capable of degrading these autoinducers have been called 'quorum-quenching' enzymes, can block many quorum-sensing dependent phenotypes, and represent potentially useful reagents for clinical, agricultural, and industrial applications. The most characterized quorum-quenching enzymes to date are the AHL lactonases, which are metalloproteins that belong to the metallo-beta-lactamase superfamily. Here, we report the cloning, heterologous expression, purification, metal content, substrate specificity, and three-dimensional structure of AiiB, an AHL lactonase from Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Much like a homologous AHL lactonase from Bacillus thuringiensis, AiiB appears to be a metal-dependent AHL lactonase with broad specificity. A phosphate dianion is bound to the dinuclear zinc site and the active-site structure suggests specific mechanistic roles for an active site tyrosine and aspartate. To our knowledge, this is the second representative structure of an AHL lactonase and the first of an AHL lactonase from a microorganism that also produces AHL autoinducers. This work should help elucidate the hydrolytic ring-opening mechanism of this family of enzymes and also facilitate the design of more effective quorum-quenching catalysts.

  12. Periodontal Pathogens Produce Quorum Sensing Signal Molecules

    PubMed Central

    Frias, Jorge; Olle, Ester; Alsina, Merce

    2001-01-01

    Different species of bacteria important in the composition of dental plaque were tested for production of extracellular autoinducer-like activities that stimulate the expression of the luminescence genes in Vibrio harveyi. Several strains of Prevotella intermedia, Fusobacterium nucleatum, and Porphyromonas gingivalis were found to produce such activities. Interestingly, these bacteria belong to the same phylogenetic group, and they are periodontal pathogens important in the development of periodontal disease. They specifically produce extracellular signaling molecule related autoinducer-2 from V. haveyi. Nevertheless, they seem to be unable to produce homologues of acyl-homoserine lactones. Furthermore, Escherichia coli DH5? can be complemented by the introduction of a P. gingivalis gene with high homology to the luxS gene, which has been called luxSP.g.. PMID:11292769

  13. Resistance to Quorum Quenching Compounds1 Rodolfo Garca-Contreras1

    E-print Network

    Wood, Thomas K.

    to a threshold36 concentration and trigger gene expression, the signals are known as quorum sensing (QS) signals, signal receptors,39 signal response regulators, and regulated genes (QS regulon) are also key components of any QS system40 (4). For example, LuxI-type enzymes are signal synthases which synthesize

  14. Quorum Activation at a Distance: Spatiotemporal Patterns of Gene Regulation from Diffusion of an Autoinducer Signal

    E-print Network

    De Leenheer, Patrick

    ABSTRACT: Quorum sensing (QS) bacteria regulate gene expression collectively by exchanging diffusible cultures, QS bacteria colonize many physically and chemically heterogeneous environments where signal are surprisingly insensitive to the distance the signal has traveled. We were able to reproduce these patterns

  15. Cell-signalling repression in bacterial quorum Mathematical Biology Group, Department of Mathematical Sciences, Loughborough University,

    E-print Network

    by the pathogenic bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa and the last is relevant to the plant pathogen Agrobacterium front of QS activity. Keywords: bacteria; quorum sensing; repression; mathematical modelling; parameter]. The advantage of QS for the bacteria is that by restricting certain behavioural traits it reduces e

  16. Quorum Quenching Mediated Approaches for Control of Membrane Biofouling

    PubMed Central

    Lade, Harshad; Paul, Diby; Kweon, Ji Hyang

    2014-01-01

    Membrane biofouling is widely acknowledged as the most frequent adverse event in wastewater treatment systems resulting in significant loss of treatment efficiency and economy. Different strategies including physical cleaning and use of antimicrobial chemicals or antibiotics have been tried for reducing membrane biofouling. Such traditional practices are aimed to eradicate biofilms or kill the bacteria involved, but the greater efficacy in membrane performance would be achieved by inhibiting biofouling without interfering with bacterial growth. As a result, the search for environmental friendly non-antibiotic antifouling strategies has received much greater attention among scientific community. The use of quorum quenching natural compounds and enzymes will be a potential approach for control of membrane biofouling. This approach has previously proven useful in diseases and membrane biofouling control by triggering the expression of desired phenotypes. In view of this, the present review is provided to give the updated information on quorum quenching compounds and elucidate the significance of quorum sensing inhibition in control of membrane biofouling. PMID:24910534

  17. 29 CFR 1912a.6 - Quorum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Quorum. 1912a.6 Section 1912a.6 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) NATIONAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE ON OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH § 1912a.6 Quorum. (a) A majority of...

  18. Crystal Structures of a Quorum-Quenching Antibody

    SciTech Connect

    Debler, E.W.; Kaufmann, G.F.; Kirchdoerfer, R.N.; Mee, J.M.; Janda, K.D.; Wilson, I.A.; /Scripps Res. Inst. /Skaggs Inst. /WIRM, La Jolla

    2007-07-09

    A large number of Gram-negative bacteria employ N-acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs) as signaling molecules in quorum sensing, which is a population density-dependent mechanism to coordinate gene expression. Antibody RS2-1G9 was elicited against a lactam mimetic of the N-acyl homoserine lactone and represents the only reported monoclonal antibody that recognizes the naturally-occuring N-acyl homoserine lactone with high affinity. Due to its high cross-reactivity, RS2-1G9 showed remarkable inhibition of quorum sensing signaling in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a common opportunistic pathogen in humans. The crystal structure of Fab RS2-1G9 in complex with a lactam analog revealed complete encapsulation of the polar lactam moiety in the antibody-combining site. This mode of recognition provides an elegant immunological solution for tight binding to an aliphatic, lipid-like ligand with a small head group lacking typical haptenic features, such as aromaticity or charge, which are often incorporated into hapten design to generate high-affinity antibodies. The ability of RS2-1G9 to discriminate between closely related AHLs is conferred by six hydrogen bonds to the ligand. Conversely, cross-reactivity of RS2-1G9 towards the lactone is likely to originate from conservation of these hydrogen bonds as well as an additional hydrogen bond to the oxygen of the lactone ring. A short, narrow tunnel exiting at the protein surface harbors a portion of the acyl chain and would not allow entry of the head group. The crystal structure of the antibody without its cognate lactam or lactone ligands revealed a considerably altered antibody-combining site with a closed binding pocket. Curiously, a completely buried ethylene glycol molecule mimics the lactam ring and, thus, serves as a surrogate ligand. The detailed structural delineation of this quorum-quenching antibody will aid further development of an antibody-based therapy against bacterial pathogens by interference with quorum sensing.

  19. A New Class of Quorum Quenching Molecules from Staphylococcus Species Affects Communication and Growth of Gram-Negative Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Ya-Yun; Nega, Mulugeta; Wölfle, Martina; Plener, Laure; Grond, Stephanie; Jung, Kirsten; Götz, Friedrich

    2013-01-01

    The knowledge that many pathogens rely on cell-to-cell communication mechanisms known as quorum sensing, opens a new disease control strategy: quorum quenching. Here we report on one of the rare examples where Gram-positive bacteria, the ‘Staphylococcus intermedius group’ of zoonotic pathogens, excrete two compounds in millimolar concentrations that suppress the quorum sensing signaling and inhibit the growth of a broad spectrum of Gram-negative beta- and gamma-proteobacteria. These compounds were isolated from Staphylococcus delphini. They represent a new class of quorum quenchers with the chemical formula N-[2-(1H-indol-3-yl)ethyl]-urea and N-(2-phenethyl)-urea, which we named yayurea A and B, respectively. In vitro studies with the N-acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) responding receptor LuxN of V. harveyi indicated that both compounds caused opposite effects on phosphorylation to those caused by AHL. This explains the quorum quenching activity. Staphylococcal strains producing yayurea A and B clearly benefit from an increased competitiveness in a mixed community. PMID:24098134

  20. Design and Synthesis of Potent “Sulfur-free” Transition State Analogue Inhibitors of 5?-Methylthioadenosine Nucleosidase and 5?-Methylthioadenosine Phosphorylase

    PubMed Central

    Longshaw, Alistair I.; Adanitsch, Florian; Gutierrez, Jemy A.; Evans, Gary B.; Tyler, Peter C.; Schramm, Vern L.

    2013-01-01

    5?-Methylthioadenosine/S-adenosylhomocysteine nucleosidase (MTAN) is a dual substrate bacterial enzyme involved in S-adenosylmethionine (SAM)-related quorum sensing pathways that regulates virulence in many bacterial species. MTANs from many bacteria are directly involved in the quorum sensing mechanism by regulating the synthesis of autoinducer molecules that are used by bacterial communities to communicate. In humans, 5?-methylthioadenosine phosphorylase (MTAP) is involved in polyamine biosynthesis as well as in purine and SAM salvage pathways and thus has been identified as an anticancer target. Previously we have described the synthesis and biological activity of several aza-C-nucleoside mimics with a sulfur atom at the 5? position that are potent E. coli MTAN and human MTAP inhibitors. Because of the possibility that the sulfur may affect bioavailability we were interested in synthesizing “sulfur-free” analogues. Herein we describe the preparation of a series of “sulfur-free” transition state analogues inhibitors, of E. coli MTAN and human MTAP that have low nano- to pico-molar dissociation constants and are potentially novel bacterial anti-infective and anti-cancer drug candidates. PMID:20718423

  1. An aggregation sensing reporter identifies leflunomide and teriflunomide as polyglutamine aggregate inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Fuentealba, Rodrigo A.; Marasa, Jayne; Diamond, Marc I.; Piwnica-Worms, David; Weihl, Conrad C.

    2012-01-01

    Intracellular protein aggregation is a common pathologic feature in neurodegenerative diseases such as Huntington' disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and Parkinson' disease. Although progress towards understanding protein aggregation in vitro has been made, little of this knowledge has translated to patient therapy. Moreover, mechanisms controlling aggregate formation and catabolism in cellulo remain poorly understood. One limitation is the lack of tools to quantitatively monitor protein aggregation and disaggregation. Here, we developed a protein-aggregation reporter that uses huntingtin exon 1 containing 72 glutamines fused to the N-terminal end of firefly luciferase (httQ72-Luc). httQ72-Luc fails to aggregate unless seeded by a non-luciferase-containing polyglutamine (polyQ) protein such as Q80-cfp. Upon co-aggregation, httQ72-luc becomes insoluble and loses its enzymatic activity. Using httQ72-Luc with Q80(CFP/YFP) as seeds, we screened the Johns Hopkins Clinical Compound Library and identified leflunomide, a dihydroorotate dehydrogenase inhibitor with immunosuppressive and anti-psoriatic activities, as a novel drug that prevents polyQ aggregation. Leflunomide and its active metabolite teriflunomide inhibited protein aggregation independently of their known role in pyrimidine biosynthesis, since neither uridine treatment nor other pyrimidine biosynthesis inhibitors affected polyQ aggregation. Inducible cell line and cycloheximide-chase experiments indicate that these drugs prevent incorporation of expanded polyQ into an aggregate. This study demonstrates the usefulness of luciferase-based protein aggregate reporters for high-throughput screening applications. As current trials are under-way for teriflunomide in the treatment of multiple sclerosis, we propose that this drug be considered a possible therapeutic agent for polyQ diseases. PMID:22052286

  2. Central nervous system effects of prenatal selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors: sensing the signal through the noise

    PubMed Central

    Gur, Tamar L.; Kim, Deborah R.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale Women are increasingly prescribed selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) during pregnancy, with potential implications for neurodevelopment. Whether prenatal SSRI exposure has an effect on neurodevelopment and behavior in the offspring is an important area of investigation. Objectives The aim of this paper was to review the existing preclinical and clinical literature of prenatal SSRI exposure on serotonin-related behaviors and markers in the offspring. The goal is to determine if there is a signal in the literature that could guide clinical care and/or inform research. Results Preclinical studies (n = 4) showed SSRI exposure during development enhanced depression-like behavior. Half of rodent studies examining anxiety-like behavior (n = 13) noted adverse effects with SSRI exposure. A majority of studies of social behavior (n = 4) noted a decrease in sociability in SSRI exposed offspring. Human studies (n = 4) examining anxiety in the offspring showed no adverse effects of prenatal SSRI exposure. The outcome of one study suggested that children with autism were more likely to have a mother who was prescribed an SSRI during pregnancy. Conclusions Preclinical findings in rodents exposed to SSRIs during development point to an increase in depression- and anxiety-like behavior and alteration in social behaviors in the offspring, though both the methods used and the findings were not uniform. These data are not robust enough to discourage use of SSRIs during human pregnancy, particularly given the known adverse effects of maternal mental illness on pregnancy outcomes and infant neurodevelopment. Future research should focus on consistent animal models and prospective human studies with larger samples. PMID:23681158

  3. RNA Sequencing Analysis of the Broad-Host-Range Strain Sinorhizobium fredii NGR234 Identifies a Large Set of Genes Linked to Quorum Sensing-Dependent Regulation in the Background of a traI and ngrI Deletion Mutant

    PubMed Central

    Krysciak, Dagmar; Grote, Jessica; Rodriguez Orbegoso, Mariita; Utpatel, Christian; Förstner, Konrad U.; Li, Lei; Schmeisser, Christel; Krishnan, Hari B.

    2014-01-01

    The alphaproteobacterium Sinorhizobium fredii NGR234 has an exceptionally wide host range, as it forms nitrogen-fixing nodules with more legumes than any other known microsymbiont. Within its 6.9-Mbp genome, it encodes two N-acyl-homoserine-lactone synthase genes (i.e., traI and ngrI) involved in the biosynthesis of two distinct autoinducer I-type molecules. Here, we report on the construction of an NGR234-?traI and an NGR234-?ngrI mutant and their genome-wide transcriptome analysis. A high-resolution RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) analysis of early-stationary-phase cultures in the NGR234-?traI background suggested that up to 316 genes were differentially expressed in the NGR234-?traI mutant versus the parent strain. Similarly, in the background of NGR234-?ngrI 466 differentially regulated genes were identified. Accordingly, a common set of 186 genes was regulated by the TraI/R and NgrI/R regulon. Coregulated genes included 42 flagellar biosynthesis genes and 22 genes linked to exopolysaccharide (EPS) biosynthesis. Among the genes and open reading frames (ORFs) that were differentially regulated in NGR234-?traI were those linked to replication of the pNGR234a symbiotic plasmid and cytochrome c oxidases. Biotin and pyrroloquinoline quinone biosynthesis genes were differentially expressed in the NGR234-?ngrI mutant as well as the entire cluster of 21 genes linked to assembly of the NGR234 type III secretion system (T3SS-II). Further, we also discovered that genes responsible for rhizopine catabolism in NGR234 were strongly repressed in the presence of high levels of N-acyl-homoserine-lactones. Together with nodulation assays, the RNA-seq-based findings suggested that quorum sensing (QS)-dependent gene regulation appears to be of higher relevance during nonsymbiotic growth rather than for life within root nodules. PMID:25002423

  4. 32 CFR 242b.4 - Quorum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Quorum. 242b.4 Section 242b.4 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS GENERAL PROCEDURES AND DELEGATIONS OF THE BOARD OF REGENTS OF THE UNIFORMED SERVICES UNIVERSITY OF THE...

  5. 32 CFR 242b.4 - Quorum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Quorum. 242b.4 Section 242b.4 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS GENERAL PROCEDURES AND DELEGATIONS OF THE BOARD OF REGENTS OF THE UNIFORMED SERVICES UNIVERSITY OF THE...

  6. Synergistic effect and antiquorum sensing activity of Nymphaea tetragona (water lily) extract.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Md Akil; Park, Ji-Yong; Kim, Jin-Yoon; Suh, Joo-Won; Park, Seung-Chun

    2014-01-01

    Salmonellosis is a common and widely distributed food borne disease where Salmonella typhimurium is one of the most important etiologic agents. The purpose of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial activity of Nymphaea tetragona alone and in combination with antibiotics against S. typhimurium. It also aimed to assess the plant for quorum sensing inhibition (QSI) activity and to identify the bioactive compounds. The antibacterial activities of the extract were assessed using broth microdilution method. Disk agar diffusion method was employed to determine the QSI and bioactive compounds were identified by GC-MS analysis. Ethyl acetate fraction of N. tetragona extract (EFNTE) demonstrated good antimicrobial activity (MIC 781 ?g/mL) against 4 strains out of 5. FIC index ranged from 0.375 to 1.031 between EFNTE/tylosin and 0.515 to 1.250 between EFNTE/streptomycin against S. typhimurium. Among all extracts, EFNTE and butanol fraction more significantly inhibited pigment production of C. violaceum. Polyphenols were identified as major compound of EFNTE and butanol fraction. These results indicate that combination among N. tetragona extract and antibiotics could be useful to combat drug-resistance Salmonella infections and polyphenols are promising new components from N. tetragona that warrant further investigation as a candidate anti-Salmonella agent and quorum sensing inhibitor. PMID:24895589

  7. Synergistic Effect and Antiquorum Sensing Activity of Nymphaea tetragona (Water Lily) Extract

    PubMed Central

    Hossain, Md. Akil; Park, Ji-Yong; Kim, Jin-Yoon; Suh, Joo-Won; Park, Seung-Chun

    2014-01-01

    Salmonellosis is a common and widely distributed food borne disease where Salmonella typhimurium is one of the most important etiologic agents. The purpose of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial activity of Nymphaea tetragona alone and in combination with antibiotics against S. typhimurium. It also aimed to assess the plant for quorum sensing inhibition (QSI) activity and to identify the bioactive compounds. The antibacterial activities of the extract were assessed using broth microdilution method. Disk agar diffusion method was employed to determine the QSI and bioactive compounds were identified by GC-MS analysis. Ethyl acetate fraction of N. tetragona extract (EFNTE) demonstrated good antimicrobial activity (MIC 781??g/mL) against 4 strains out of 5. FIC index ranged from 0.375 to 1.031 between EFNTE/tylosin and 0.515 to 1.250 between EFNTE/streptomycin against S. typhimurium. Among all extracts, EFNTE and butanol fraction more significantly inhibited pigment production of C. violaceum. Polyphenols were identified as major compound of EFNTE and butanol fraction. These results indicate that combination among N. tetragona extract and antibiotics could be useful to combat drug-resistance Salmonella infections and polyphenols are promising new components from N. tetragona that warrant further investigation as a candidate anti-Salmonella agent and quorum sensing inhibitor. PMID:24895589

  8. Saturation mutagenesis of a CepR binding site as a means to identify new quorum-regulated promoters in Burkholderia cenocepacia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Burkholderia cenocepacia, an opportunistic pathogen of humans, encodes the CepI and CepR proteins, which resemble the LuxI and LuxR quorum sensing proteins of Vibrio fischeri. CepI directs the synthesis of octanoylhomoserine lactone (OHL), while CepR is an OHL dependent transcription factor. In pr...

  9. Inhibition of Biofilm Formation by T7 Bacteriophages Producing Quorum-Quenching Enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Lamas-Samanamud, Gisella R.

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial growth in biofilms is the major cause of recalcitrant biofouling in industrial processes and of persistent infections in clinical settings. The use of bacteriophage treatment to lyse bacteria in biofilms has attracted growing interest. In particular, many natural or engineered phages produce depolymerases to degrade polysaccharides in the biofilm matrix and allow access to host bacteria. However, the phage-produced depolymerases are highly specific for only the host-derived polysaccharides and may have limited effects on natural multispecies biofilms. In this study, an engineered T7 bacteriophage was constructed to encode a lactonase enzyme with broad-range activity for quenching of quorum sensing, a form of bacterial cell-cell communication via small chemical molecules (acyl homoserine lactones [AHLs]) that is necessary for biofilm formation. Our results demonstrated that the engineered T7 phage expressed the AiiA lactonase to effectively degrade AHLs from many bacteria. Addition of the engineered T7 phage to mixed-species biofilms containing Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli resulted in inhibition of biofilm formation. Such quorum-quenching phages that can lyse host bacteria and express quorum-quenching enzymes to affect diverse bacteria in biofilm communities may become novel antifouling and antibiofilm agents in industrial and clinical settings. PMID:24951790

  10. Structural Basis for Ligand Recognition and Discrimination of a Quorum-quenching Antibody

    SciTech Connect

    Kirchdoerfer, Robert N.; Garner, Amanda L.; Flack, Caralyn E.; Mee, Jenny M.; Horswill, Alexander R.; Janda, Kim D.; Kaufmann, Gunnar F.; Wilson, Ian A.

    2011-09-16

    In the postantibiotic era, available treatment options for severe bacterial infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus have become limited. Therefore, new and innovative approaches are needed to combat such life-threatening infections. Virulence factor expression in S. aureus is regulated in a cell density-dependent manner using 'quorum sensing,' which involves generation and secretion of autoinducing peptides (AIPs) into the surrounding environment to activate a bacterial sensor kinase at a particular threshold concentration. Mouse monoclonal antibody AP4-24H11 was shown previously to blunt quorum sensing-mediated changes in gene expression in vitro and protect mice from a lethal dose of S. aureus by sequestering the AIP signal. We have elucidated the crystal structure of the AP4-24H11 Fab in complex with AIP-4 at 2.5 {angstrom} resolution to determine its mechanism of ligand recognition. A key GluH95 provides much of the binding specificity through formation of hydrogen bonds with each of the four amide nitrogens in the AIP-4 macrocyclic ring. Importantly, these structural data give clues as to the interactions between the cognate staphylococcal AIP receptors AgrC and the AIPs, as AP4-24H11 {center_dot} AIP-4 binding recapitulates features that have been proposed for AgrC-AIP recognition. Additionally, these structural insights may enable the engineering of AIP cross-reactive antibodies or quorum quenching vaccines for use in active or passive immunotherapy for prevention or treatment of S. aureus infections.

  11. Reducing virulence of the human pathogen Burkholderia by altering the substrate specificity of the quorum-quenching acylase PvdQ

    PubMed Central

    Koch, Gudrun; Nadal-Jimenez, Pol; Reis, Carlos R.; Muntendam, Remco; Bokhove, Marcel; Melillo, Elena; Dijkstra, Bauke W.; Cool, Robbert H.; Quax, Wim J.

    2014-01-01

    The use of enzymes to interfere with quorum sensing represents an attractive strategy to fight bacterial infections. We used PvdQ, an effective quorum-quenching enzyme from Pseudomonas aeruginosa, as a template to generate an acylase able to effectively hydrolyze C8-HSL, the major communication molecule produced by the Burkholderia species. We discovered that the combination of two single mutations leading to variant PvdQL?146W,F?24Y conferred high activity toward C8-HSL. Exogenous addition of PvdQL?146W,F?24Y dramatically decreased the amount of C8-HSL present in Burkholderia cenocepacia cultures and inhibited a quorum sensing-associated phenotype. The efficacy of this PvdQ variant to combat infections in vivo was further confirmed by its ability to rescue Galleria mellonella larvae upon infection, demonstrating its potential as an effective agent toward Burkholderia infections. Kinetic analysis of the enzymatic activities toward 3-oxo-C12-L-HSL and C8-L-HSL corroborated a substrate switch. This work demonstrates the effectiveness of quorum-quenching acylases as potential novel antimicrobial drugs. In addition, we demonstrate that their substrate range can be easily switched, thereby paving the way to selectively target only specific bacterial species inside a complex microbial community. PMID:24474783

  12. Labrenzia sp. BM1: A Quorum Quenching Bacterium That Degrades N-acyl Homoserine Lactones via Lactonase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Ghani, Norshazliza Ab; Norizan, Siti Nur Maisarah; Chan, Xin Yue; Yin, Wai-Fong; Chan, Kok-Gan

    2014-01-01

    We report the degradation of quorum sensing N-acylhomoserine lactone molecules by a bacterium isolated from a Malaysian marine water sample. MALDI-TOF and phylogenetic analysis indicated this isolate BM1 clustered closely to Labrenzia sp. The quorum quenching activity of this isolate was confirmed by using a series of bioassays and rapid resolution liquid chromatography analysis. Labrenzia sp. degraded a wide range of N-acylhomoserine lactones namely N-(3-hexanoyl)-l-homoserine lactone (C6-HSL), N-(3-oxohexanoyl)-l-homoserine lactone (3-oxo-C6-HSL) and N-(3-hydroxyhexanoyl)-l-homoserine lactone (3-hydroxy-C6-HSL). Re-lactonisation bioassays confirmed Labrenzia sp. BM1 degraded these signalling molecules efficiently via lactonase activity. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first documentation of a Labrenzia sp. capable of degrading N-acylhomoserine lactones and confirmation of its lactonase-based mechanism of action. PMID:24995373

  13. Sequence-dependent off-target inhibition of TLR7/8 sensing by synthetic microRNA inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Sarvestani, Soroush T.; Stunden, H. James; Behlke, Mark A.; Forster, Samuel C.; McCoy, Claire E.; Tate, Michelle D.; Ferrand, Jonathan; Lennox, Kim A.; Latz, Eicke; Williams, Bryan R.G.; Gantier, Michael P.

    2015-01-01

    Anti-microRNA (miRNA) oligonucleotides (AMOs) with 2?-O-Methyl (2?OMe) residues are commonly used to study miRNA function and can achieve high potency, with low cytotoxicity. Not withstanding this, we demonstrate the sequence-dependent capacity of 2?OMe AMOs to inhibit Toll-like receptor (TLR) 7 and 8 sensing of immunostimulatory RNA, independent of their miRNA-targeting function. Through a screen of 29 AMOs targeting common miRNAs, we found a subset of sequences highly inhibitory to TLR7 sensing in mouse macrophages. Interspecies conservation of this inhibitory activity was confirmed on TLR7/8 activity in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Significantly, we identified a core motif governing the inhibitory activity of these AMOs, which is present in more than 50 AMOs targeted to human miRNAs in miRBaseV20. DNA/locked nucleic acids (LNA) AMOs synthesized with a phosphorothioate backbone also inhibited TLR7 sensing in a sequence-dependent manner, demonstrating that the off-target effects of AMOs are not restricted to 2?OMe modification. Taken together, our work establishes the potential for off-target effects of AMOs on TLR7/8 function, which should be taken into account in their therapeutic development and in vivo application. PMID:25539920

  14. Quorum responses and consensus decision making

    PubMed Central

    Sumpter, David J.T.; Pratt, Stephen C.

    2008-01-01

    Animal groups are said to make consensus decisions when group members come to agree on the same option. Consensus decisions are taxonomically widespread and potentially offer three key benefits: maintenance of group cohesion, enhancement of decision accuracy compared with lone individuals and improvement in decision speed. In the absence of centralized control, arriving at a consensus depends on local interactions in which each individual's likelihood of choosing an option increases with the number of others already committed to that option. The resulting positive feedback can effectively direct most or all group members to the best available choice. In this paper, we examine the functional form of the individual response to others' behaviour that lies at the heart of this process. We review recent theoretical and empirical work on consensus decisions, and we develop a simple mathematical model to show the central importance to speedy and accurate decisions of quorum responses, in which an animal's probability of exhibiting a behaviour is a sharply nonlinear function of the number of other individuals already performing this behaviour. We argue that systems relying on such quorum rules can achieve cohesive choice of the best option while also permitting adaptive tuning of the trade-off between decision speed and accuracy. PMID:19073480

  15. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Quorum sensing enhancement of the stress

    E-print Network

    Wood, Thomas K.

    response against H2O2 as it has less induction of catalase and NADPH-producing dehydrogenases. Phenotypic that this QS enhancement of stress tolerance allows cells to counteract QS inhibition and invasions by social-(3-oxododecanoyl)- homoserine lactone, inhibits lymphocyte prolifera- tion and the secretion

  16. Bacterial attraction and quorum sensing inhibition in Caenorhabditis elegans exudates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Caenorhabditis elegans, a bacterivorous soil nematode, lives in a complex environment that requires chemical communication for mating, monitoring population density, recognition of food, avoidance of pathogenic microbes, and other essential ecological functions. Despite being one of the best-studied...

  17. Beyond quorum sensing: the complexities of prokaryotic parliamentary procedures

    E-print Network

    Dunn, Anne K.

    Vibrio fischeri . Pseudomonas aeruginosa . Acyl homoserine lactone . AI-2 . Bioluminescence Introduction have accelerated recently with the application of molecular and genomic tools. The focus of this review

  18. Bacterial bioluminescence and Gumbel statistics: From quorum sensing to correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delle Side, Domenico; Velardi, Luciano; Nassisi, Vincenzo; Pennetta, Cecilia; Alifano, Pietro; Talà, Adelfia; Salvatore Tredici, Maurizio

    2013-12-01

    We show that, in particular experimental conditions, the time course of the radiant fluxes, measured from a bioluminescent emission of a Vibrio harveyi related strain, collapse after suitable rescaling onto the Gumbel distribution of extreme value theory. We argue that the activation times of the strain luminous emission follow the universal behavior described by this statistical law, in spite of the fact that no extremal process is known to occur.

  19. 17 CFR 200.41 - Quorum of the Commission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...COMMISSION ORGANIZATION; CONDUCT AND ETHICS; AND INFORMATION AND REQUESTS Disposition of Commission Business § 200.41 Quorum of the Commission...provided further that on any matter of business as to which the number of members...

  20. 17 CFR 200.41 - Quorum of the Commission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...; CONDUCT AND ETHICS; AND INFORMATION AND REQUESTS Disposition of Commission Business § 200.41 Quorum of the... office; and provided further that on any matter of business as to which the number of members in...

  1. A WS2 nanosheet based sensing platform for highly sensitive detection of T4 polynucleotide kinase and its inhibitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Jia; Tang, Li-Juan; Xi, Qiang; Li, Xi-Ping; Yu, Ru-Qin; Jiang, Jian-Hui; Chu, Xia

    2014-05-01

    DNA phosphorylation, catalyzed by polynucleotide kinase (PNK), plays significant regulatory roles in many biological events. Here, a novel fluorescent nanosensor based on phosphorylation-specific exonuclease reaction and efficient fluorescence quenching of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) by a WS2 nanosheet has been developed for monitoring the activity of PNK using T4 polynucleotide kinase (T4 PNK) as a model target. The fluorescent dye-labeled double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) remains highly fluorescent when mixed with WS2 nanosheets because of the weak adsorption of dsDNA on WS2 nanosheets. While dsDNA is phosphorylated by T4 PNK, it can be specifically degraded by ? exonuclease, producing ssDNA strongly adsorbed on WS2 nanosheets with greatly quenched fluorescence. Because of the high quenching efficiency of WS2 nanosheets, the developed platform presents excellent performance with a wide linear range, low detection limit and high signal-to-background ratio. Additionally, inhibition effects from adenosine diphosphate, ammonium sulfate, and sodium chloride have been investigated. The method may provide a universal platform for PNK activity monitoring and inhibitor screening in drug discovery and clinic diagnostics.DNA phosphorylation, catalyzed by polynucleotide kinase (PNK), plays significant regulatory roles in many biological events. Here, a novel fluorescent nanosensor based on phosphorylation-specific exonuclease reaction and efficient fluorescence quenching of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) by a WS2 nanosheet has been developed for monitoring the activity of PNK using T4 polynucleotide kinase (T4 PNK) as a model target. The fluorescent dye-labeled double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) remains highly fluorescent when mixed with WS2 nanosheets because of the weak adsorption of dsDNA on WS2 nanosheets. While dsDNA is phosphorylated by T4 PNK, it can be specifically degraded by ? exonuclease, producing ssDNA strongly adsorbed on WS2 nanosheets with greatly quenched fluorescence. Because of the high quenching efficiency of WS2 nanosheets, the developed platform presents excellent performance with a wide linear range, low detection limit and high signal-to-background ratio. Additionally, inhibition effects from adenosine diphosphate, ammonium sulfate, and sodium chloride have been investigated. The method may provide a universal platform for PNK activity monitoring and inhibitor screening in drug discovery and clinic diagnostics. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr00944d

  2. A WS2 nanosheet based sensing platform for highly sensitive detection of T4 polynucleotide kinase and its inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Ge, Jia; Tang, Li-Juan; Xi, Qiang; Li, Xi-Ping; Yu, Ru-Qin; Jiang, Jian-Hui; Chu, Xia

    2014-06-21

    DNA phosphorylation, catalyzed by polynucleotide kinase (PNK), plays significant regulatory roles in many biological events. Here, a novel fluorescent nanosensor based on phosphorylation-specific exonuclease reaction and efficient fluorescence quenching of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) by a WS2 nanosheet has been developed for monitoring the activity of PNK using T4 polynucleotide kinase (T4 PNK) as a model target. The fluorescent dye-labeled double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) remains highly fluorescent when mixed with WS2 nanosheets because of the weak adsorption of dsDNA on WS2 nanosheets. While dsDNA is phosphorylated by T4 PNK, it can be specifically degraded by ? exonuclease, producing ssDNA strongly adsorbed on WS2 nanosheets with greatly quenched fluorescence. Because of the high quenching efficiency of WS2 nanosheets, the developed platform presents excellent performance with a wide linear range, low detection limit and high signal-to-background ratio. Additionally, inhibition effects from adenosine diphosphate, ammonium sulfate, and sodium chloride have been investigated. The method may provide a universal platform for PNK activity monitoring and inhibitor screening in drug discovery and clinic diagnostics. PMID:24830570

  3. Genomic analysis reveals versatile organisms for quorum quenching enzymes: acyl-homoserine lactone-acylase and -lactonase.

    PubMed

    Kalia, Vipin Chandra; Raju, Sajan C; Purohit, Hemant J

    2011-01-01

    Microbial virulence and their resistance to multiple drugs have obliged researchers to look for novel drug targets. Virulence of pathogenic microbes is regulated by signal molecules such as acylated homoserine lactone (AHL) produced during a cell density dependent phenomenon of quorum sensing (QS). In contrast, certain microbes produce AHL-lactonases and -acylases to degrade QS signals, also termed as quorum quenching. Mining sequenced genome databases has revealed organisms possessing conserved domains for AHL-lactonases and -acylases: i) Streptomyces (Actinobacteria), ii) Deinococcus (Deinococcus-Thermus), iii) Hyphomonas (?-Proteobacteria), iv) Ralstonia (?-Proteobacteria), v) Photorhabdus (?-Proteobacteria), and certain marine gamma proteobacterium. Presence of genes for both the enzymes within an organism was observed in the following: i) Deinococcus radiodurans R1, ii) Hyphomonas neptunium ATCC 15444 and iii) Photorhabdus luminescens subsp. laumondii TTO1. These observations are supported by the presence motifs for lactonase and acylase in these strains. Phylogenetic analysis and multiple sequence alignment of the gene sequences for AHL-lactonases and -acylases have revealed consensus sequences which can be used to design primers for amplifying these genes even among mixed cultures and metagenomes. Quorum quenching can be exploited to prevent food spoilage, bacterial infections and bioremediation. PMID:21660112

  4. Genomic Analysis Reveals Versatile Organisms for Quorum Quenching Enzymes: Acyl-Homoserine Lactone-Acylase and -Lactonase

    PubMed Central

    Kalia, Vipin Chandra; Raju, Sajan C; Purohit, Hemant J

    2011-01-01

    Microbial virulence and their resistance to multiple drugs have obliged researchers to look for novel drug targets. Virulence of pathogenic microbes is regulated by signal molecules such as acylated homoserine lactone (AHL) produced during a cell density dependent phenomenon of quorum sensing (QS). In contrast, certain microbes produce AHL-lactonases and -acylases to degrade QS signals, also termed as quorum quenching. Mining sequenced genome databases has revealed organisms possessing conserved domains for AHL-lactonases and –acylases: i) Streptomyces (Actinobacteria), ii) Deinococcus (Deinococcus-Thermus), iii) Hyphomonas (?-Proteobacteria), iv) Ralstonia (?-Proteobacteria), v) Photorhabdus (?-Proteobacteria), and certain marine gamma proteobacterium. Presence of genes for both the enzymes within an organism was observed in the following: i) Deinococcus radiodurans R1, ii) Hyphomonas neptunium ATCC 15444 and iii) Photorhabdus luminescens subsp. laumondii TTO1. These observations are supported by the presence motifs for lactonase and acylase in these strains. Phylogenetic analysis and multiple sequence alignment of the gene sequences for AHL-lactonases and –acylases have revealed consensus sequences which can be used to design primers for amplifying these genes even among mixed cultures and metagenomes. Quorum quenching can be exploited to prevent food spoilage, bacterial infections and bioremediation. PMID:21660112

  5. Quorum quenching bacteria Bacillus sp. QSI-1 protect zebrafish (Danio rerio) from Aeromonas hydrophila infection

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Weihua; Zhou, Shuxin; Zhu, Wei; Zhuang, Xiyi

    2014-01-01

    Quorum Sensing (QS) is a bacterial regulatory mechanism, which is responsible for controlling the expression of various biological macromolecules such as the virulence factors in a cell density-dependent manner. Disruption of the QS system of pathogens has been proposed as a new anti-infective strategy. Biodegradation of AHLs proves to be an efficient way to interrupt QS, since AHLs are the main family of QS autoinducers used in Gram negative bacteria. In this study, the effect of Bacillus sp. QSI-1 as an efficient quorum quencher on virulence factors production and biofilm formation of fish pathogen Aeromonas hydrophila was investigated. QSI-1 reduced the accumulation of AHLs but did not affect the growth of A. hydrophila YJ-1 when cocultured. In the result, the supernatant of QSI-1 showed significant inhibition of protease production (83.9%), hemolytic activity (77.6%) and biofilm formation (77.3%) in YJ-1. In biocontrol experiment, QSI-1 significantly reduced the pathogenicity of A. hydrophila strain YJ-1 in zebrafish (Danio rerio). The fish fed with QSI-1 was observed to have a relative percentage survival of 80.8%. Our results indicate that AHLs degrading bacteria should be considered as an alternative for antibiotics in aquaculture for the biocontrol of bacterial fish diseases. PMID:24962441

  6. The repABC Plasmids with Quorum-Regulated Transfer Systems in Members of the Rhizobiales Divide into Two Structurally and Separately Evolving Groups

    PubMed Central

    Wetzel, Margaret E.; Olsen, Gary J.; Chakravartty, Vandana; Farrand, Stephen K.

    2015-01-01

    The large repABC plasmids of the order Rhizobiales with Class I quorum-regulated conjugative transfer systems often define the nature of the bacterium that harbors them. These otherwise diverse plasmids contain a core of highly conserved genes for replication and conjugation raising the question of their evolutionary relationships. In an analysis of 18 such plasmids these elements fall into two organizational classes, Group I and Group II, based on the sites at which cargo DNA is located. Cladograms constructed from proteins of the transfer and quorum-sensing components indicated that those of the Group I plasmids, while coevolving, have diverged from those coevolving proteins of the Group II plasmids. Moreover, within these groups the phylogenies of the proteins usually occupy similar, if not identical, tree topologies. Remarkably, such relationships were not seen among proteins of the replication system; although RepA and RepB coevolve, RepC does not. Nor do the replication proteins coevolve with the proteins of the transfer and quorum-sensing systems. Functional analysis was mostly consistent with phylogenies. TraR activated promoters from plasmids within its group, but not between groups and dimerized with TraR proteins from within but not between groups. However, oriT sequences, which are highly conserved, were processed by the transfer system of plasmids regardless of group. We conclude that these plasmids diverged into two classes based on the locations at which cargo DNA is inserted, that the quorum-sensing and transfer functions are coevolving within but not between the two groups, and that this divergent evolution extends to function. PMID:26590210

  7. Quorum quenching activity of Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels and its anthocyanin malvidin against Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Gopu, Venkadesaperumal; Kothandapani, Sundar; Shetty, Prathapkumar Halady

    2015-02-01

    Many bacterial species use their intercellular signaling mechanism called quorum sensing (QS), which is found to be implicated in various factors including bacterial pathogenicity and food spoilage. Interrupting the bacterial communication is an attractive strategy to develop novel QS-based antibacterial drugs. Present study is aimed to investigate the quorum sensing inhibitory activity of Syzygium cumini and its anti-biofilm property against opportunistic pathogen using a biosensor strain Chromobacterium violaceum CV026. Ethanol extract of S. cumini was investigated for its anti-QS activity, and the possible active component was identified by docking with LasR receptor protein. Based on docking analysis, methanol extract was enriched for its total anthocyanin (STA) and its effect on QS regulated phenotypes was assessed. STA specifically inhibited the violacein production in C. violaceum; biofilm formation and EPS production in Klebsiella pneumoniae up to 82, 79.94 and 64.29% respectively. Synergistic activity of conventional antibiotics with STA enhanced the susceptibility of K. pneumoniae up to 58.45%. Molecular docking analysis of active components attributes the QSI activity of S. cumini to malvidin. Malvidin exhibited highest ligand binding with LasR receptor protein with docking score more than -7. Effect of malvidin to interrupt the QS regulated phenotypes was also assessed, and it was found to reduce the violacein production, biofilm formation and EPS production of K. pneumoniae in a concentration-dependent manner. These findings suggest that S. cumini can be used as novel QS-based antibacterial/anti-biofilm agent to manage food-borne pathogens and to increase food safety. PMID:25637095

  8. Quorum Health Group sets out to acquire hospitals.

    PubMed

    Nemes, J

    1990-06-01

    Quorum Health Group, the former HCA Management Co., is setting its sights on acquiring hospitals in small to medium-sized towns. The strategy is to broaden the company's scope beyond full-service management, a business that has been leveling off. PMID:10104912

  9. RESEARCH ARTICLE QuorUM: An Error Corrector for Illumina

    E-print Network

    Yorke, James

    RESEARCH ARTICLE QuorUM: An Error Corrector for Illumina Reads Guillaume Marçais*, James A. Yorke@umd.edu (GM) Abstract Motivation Illumina Sequencing data can provide high coverage of a genome by relatively × coverage Illumina data on average has an error in some read at every base in the genome. These errors make

  10. Quorum Based IP Address Autoconfiguration in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    E-print Network

    Wu, Jie

    replication. Making the compromise between message overhead and data consistency, quorum voting enforces data comparing the configuration latency, message overhead and address reclamation cost between our protocol of a supporting infrastructure. MANETs can be stand-alone networks or connected to an external network

  11. Sesqui- and triterpenoids from the liverwort Lepidozia chordulifera inhibitors of bacterial biofilm and elastase activity of human pathogenic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Gilabert, M; Marcinkevicius, K; Andujar, S; Schiavone, M; Arena, M E; Bardón, A

    2015-01-15

    Five dammarane-type triterpenoids, five pentacyclic triterpenoids (three of them carrying a carboxylic acid group), and two aromadendrane-type sesquiterpenoids were isolated from an Argentinian collection of the liverwort Lepidozia chordulifera. Compounds were characterized by comparison of their spectral data with those previously reported and tested in their ability to control bacterial growth, biofilm formation, bacterial Quorum Sensing process (QS), and elastase activity of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, as well as bacterial growth and biofilm formation of Staphylococcus aureus. The key role played by biofilm and elastase activity in bacterial virulence make them a potential target for the development of antibacterial agents. The aromadendrane-type sesquiterpenoid viridiflorol was the most potent biofilm formation inhibitor, producing 60% inhibition in P. aeruginosa and 40% in S. aureus at 50µg/ml. Ursolic and betulinic acids (two of the pentacyclic triterpenoids isolated) were able to reduce 96 and 92% the elastase activity of P. aeruginosa at 50µg/ml, respectively. Among the analyzed triterpenoids, those that carry a dammarane skeleton were the most potent inhibitors of the P. aeruginosa biofilm formation and were active against both P. aeruginosa and S. aureus. Subsequently, a computer-assisted study of the triterpenoid compounds was carried out for a better understanding of the structure-activity relationships. PMID:25636875

  12. Angiogenesis Inhibitors

    MedlinePLUS

    ... inhibitors currently being used to treat cancer in humans? How are angiogenesis inhibitors different from conventional anticancer ... inhibitors currently being used to treat cancer in humans? Yes. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) ...

  13. A probable aculeacin A acylase from the Ralstonia solanacearum GMI1000 is N-acyl-homoserine lactone acylase with quorum-quenching activity

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background The infection and virulence functions of diverse plant and animal pathogens that possess quorum sensing systems are regulated by N-acylhomoserine lactones (AHLs) acting as signal molecules. AHL-acylase is a quorum quenching enzyme and degrades AHLs by removing the fatty acid side chain from the homoserine lactone ring of AHLs. This blocks AHL accumulation and pathogenic phenotypes in quorum sensing bacteria. Results An aac gene of undemonstrated function from Ralstonia solanacearum GMI1000 was cloned, expressed in Escherichia coli; it inactivated four AHLs that were tested. The sequence of the 795 amino acid polypeptide was considerably similar to the AHL-acylase from Ralstonia sp. XJ12B with 83% identity match and shared 39% identity with an aculeacin A acylase precursor from the gram-positive actinomycete Actinoplanes utahensis. Aculeacin A is a neutral lipopeptide antibiotic and an antifungal drug. An electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) analysis verified that Aac hydrolysed the amide bond of AHL, releasing homoserine lactone and the corresponding fatty acids. However, ESI-MS analysis demonstrated that the Aac could not catalyze the hydrolysis of the palmitoyl moiety of the aculeacin A. Moreover, the results of MIC test of aculeacin A suggest that Aac could not deacylate aculeacin A. The specificity of Aac for AHLs showed a greater preference for long acyl chains than for short acyl chains. Heterologous expression of the aac gene in Chromobacterium violaceum CV026 effectively inhibited violacein and chitinase activity, both of which were regulated by the quorum-sensing mechanism. These results indicated that Aac could control AHL-dependent pathogenicity. Conclusion This is the first study to find an AHL-acylase in a phytopathogen. Our data provide direct evidence that the functioning of the aac gene (NP520668) of R. solanacearum GMI1000 is via AHL-acylase and not via aculeacin A acylase. Since Aac is a therapeutic potential quorum-quenching agent, its further biotechnological applications in agriculture, clinical and bio-industrial fields should be evaluated in the near future. PMID:19426552

  14. Searching the ASRS Database Using QUORUM Keyword Search, Phrase Search, Phrase Generation, and Phrase Discovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGreevy, Michael W.; Connors, Mary M. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    To support Search Requests and Quick Responses at the Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS), four new QUORUM methods have been developed: keyword search, phrase search, phrase generation, and phrase discovery. These methods build upon the core QUORUM methods of text analysis, modeling, and relevance-ranking. QUORUM keyword search retrieves ASRS incident narratives that contain one or more user-specified keywords in typical or selected contexts, and ranks the narratives on their relevance to the keywords in context. QUORUM phrase search retrieves narratives that contain one or more user-specified phrases, and ranks the narratives on their relevance to the phrases. QUORUM phrase generation produces a list of phrases from the ASRS database that contain a user-specified word or phrase. QUORUM phrase discovery finds phrases that are related to topics of interest. Phrase generation and phrase discovery are particularly useful for finding query phrases for input to QUORUM phrase search. The presentation of the new QUORUM methods includes: a brief review of the underlying core QUORUM methods; an overview of the new methods; numerous, concrete examples of ASRS database searches using the new methods; discussion of related methods; and, in the appendices, detailed descriptions of the new methods.

  15. Quorum-Quenching and Matrix-Degrading Enzymes in Multilayer Coatings Synergistically Prevent Bacterial Biofilm Formation on Urinary Catheters.

    PubMed

    Ivanova, Kristina; Fernandes, Margarida M; Francesko, Antonio; Mendoza, Ernest; Guezguez, Jamil; Burnet, Michael; Tzanov, Tzanko

    2015-12-16

    Bacteria often colonize in-dwelling medical devices and grow as complex biofilm communities of cells embedded in a self-produced extracellular polymeric matrix, which increases their resistance to antibiotics and the host immune system. During biofilm growth, bacterial cells cooperate through specific quorum-sensing (QS) signals. Taking advantage of this mechanism of biofilm formation, we hypothesized that interrupting the communication among bacteria and simultaneously degrading the extracellular matrix would inhibit biofilm growth. To this end, coatings composed of the enzymes acylase and ?-amylase, able to degrade bacterial QS molecules and polysaccharides, respectively, were built on silicone urinary catheters using a layer-by-layer deposition technique. Multilayer coatings of either acylase or amylase alone suppressed the biofilm formation of corresponding Gram-negative Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus. Further assembly of both enzymes in hybrid nanocoatings resulted in stronger biofilm inhibition as a function of acylase or amylase position in the layers. Hybrid coatings, with the QS-signal-degrading acylase as outermost layer, demonstrated 30% higher antibiofilm efficiency against medically relevant Gram-negative bacteria compared to that of the other assemblies. These nanocoatings significantly reduced the occurrence of single-species (P. aeruginosa) and mixed-species (P. aeruginosa and Escherichia coli) biofilms on silicone catheters under both static and dynamic conditions. Moreover, in an in vivo animal model, the quorum quenching and matrix degrading enzyme assemblies delayed the biofilm growth up to 7 days. PMID:26593217

  16. A Metagenomic Study Highlights Phylogenetic Proximity of Quorum-Quenching and Xenobiotic-Degrading Amidases of the AS-Family

    PubMed Central

    Tannières, Mélanie; Beury-Cirou, Amélie; Vigouroux, Armelle; Mondy, Samuel; Pellissier, Franck; Dessaux, Yves; Faure, Denis

    2013-01-01

    Quorum-sensing (QS) signals of the N-acylhomoserine lactone (NAHL) class are cleaved by quorum-quenching enzymes, collectively named NAHLases. Here, functional metagenomics allowed the discovery of a novel bacterial NAHLase in a rhizosphere that was treated with ?-caprolactone. As revealed by rrs-DGGE and rrs-pyrosequencing, this treatment increased the percentage of the NAHL-degrading bacteria and strongly biased the structure of the bacterial community, among which Azospirillum dominated. Among the 29 760 fosmids of the metagenomic library, a single one was detected that expressed the qsdB gene conferring NAHL-degradation upon E. coli and decreased QS-regulated virulence in Pectobacterium. Phylogenetic analysis of the 34 orfs of the fosmid suggested that it would belong to an unknown Proteobacterium - probably a ?-proteobacterium. qPCR quantification of the NAHLase-encoding genes attM, qsdA, and qsdB revealed their higher abundance in the ?-caprolactone-treated rhizosphere as compared to an untreated control. The purified QsdB enzyme exhibited amidase activity. QsdB is the first amidase signature (AS) family member exhibiting NAHLase-activity. Point mutations in the AS-family catalytic triad K-S-S abolished the NAHLase activity of QsdB. This study extends the diversity of NAHLases and highlights a common phylogenic origin of AS-family enzymes involved in the degradation of natural compounds, such as NAHLs, and xenobiotics, such as nylon and linuron. PMID:23762380

  17. 20 CFR 801.301 - Quorum and votes of the permanent Board; panels within the Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Quorum and votes of the permanent Board; panels within the Board. 801.301 Section...Quorum and votes of the permanent Board; panels within the Board. (a) For the...of its powers except en banc review to panels of three members. Each panel shall...

  18. 20 CFR 801.301 - Quorum and votes of the permanent Board; panels within the Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...Quorum and votes of the permanent Board; panels within the Board. 801.301 Section...Quorum and votes of the permanent Board; panels within the Board. (a) For the...of its powers except en banc review to panels of three members. Each panel shall...

  19. 20 CFR 801.301 - Quorum and votes of the permanent Board; panels within the Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...Quorum and votes of the permanent Board; panels within the Board. 801.301 Section...Quorum and votes of the permanent Board; panels within the Board. (a) For the...of its powers except en banc review to panels of three members. Each panel shall...

  20. 20 CFR 801.301 - Quorum and votes of the permanent Board; panels within the Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...Quorum and votes of the permanent Board; panels within the Board. 801.301 Section...Quorum and votes of the permanent Board; panels within the Board. (a) For the...of its powers except en banc review to panels of three members. Each panel shall...

  1. 20 CFR 801.301 - Quorum and votes of the permanent Board; panels within the Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...Quorum and votes of the permanent Board; panels within the Board. 801.301 Section...Quorum and votes of the permanent Board; panels within the Board. (a) For the...of its powers except en banc review to panels of three members. Each panel shall...

  2. A mathematical investigation of the effects of inhibitor therapy on three putative phosphorylation cascades governing the two-component system of the agr operon.

    PubMed

    Jabbari, Sara; King, John R; Williams, Paul

    2010-06-01

    Two-component systems (TCSs) are widely employed by bacteria to sense specific external signals and conduct an appropriate response via a phosphorylation cascade within the cell. The TCS of the agr operon in the bacterium Staphylococcus aureus forms part of a regulatory process termed quorum sensing, a cell-to-cell communication mechanism used to assess population density. Since S. aureus manipulates this "knowledge" in order to co-ordinate production of its armoury of exotoxin virulence factors required to promote infection, it is important to understand fully how this process works. We present three models of the agr operon, each incorporating a different phosphorylation cascade for the TCS since the precise nature of the cascade is not fully understood. Using numerical and asymptotic techniques we examine the effects of inhibitor therapy, a novel approach to controlling bacterial infection through the attenuation of virulence, on each of these three cascades. We present results which, if evaluated against appropriate experimental data, provide insights into the potential effectiveness of such therapy. Moreover, the TCS models presented here are of broad relevance given that TCSs are widely conserved throughout the bacterial kingdom. PMID:20214910

  3. Core genome and plasmidome of the quorum-quenching bacterium Rhodococcus erythropolis.

    PubMed

    Kwasiborski, Anthony; Mondy, Samuel; Chong, Teik-Min; Chan, Kok-Gan; Beury-Cirou, Amélie; Faure, Denis

    2015-04-01

    Rhodococcus erythropolis is a worldwide-distributed actinobacterium that exhibits a remarkable metabolic versatility illustrated by its ability to degrade complex compounds, such as quorum-sensing signals N-acylhomoserine lactones (NAHLs), phenols, sterols and fuel derivatives. Because of its catabolic properties, R. erythropolis strains are proposed as anti-biofouling agents against NAHL-dependent biofilms, biocontrol agents against NAHL-emitting plant pathogens, and bioremediation agents in contaminated waters and soils. Here, we used the PacBio technology to resolve the complete genome sequence of the biocontrol strain R. erythropolis R138. Its genome consisted in a circular chromosome (6,236,862 bp), a linear plasmid pLRE138 (477,915 bp) and a circular plasmid pCRE138 (91,729 bp). In addition, draft genomes of five R. erythropolis strains were determined by Illumina technology and compared with the other five R. erythropolis genomes that are available in public databases: 5,825 common CDSs were present in all of the eleven analyzed genomes and represented up to 87 % of those identified in R. erythropolis R138. This study highlighted the high proportion of core-genome genes in R. erythropolis, but a high variability of the plasmid content. Key-metabolic pathways which are involved in the degradation of complex molecules, such as NAHLs and phenol, catechol and sterol derivatives are coded by the R. erythropolis core-genome. PMID:25676013

  4. Haloperoxidase Mediated Quorum Quenching by Nitzschia cf pellucida: Study of the Metabolization of N-Acyl Homoserine Lactones by a Benthic Diatom

    PubMed Central

    Syrpas, Michail; Ruysbergh, Ewout; Blommaert, Lander; Vanelslander, Bart; Sabbe, Koen; Vyverman, Wim; De Kimpe, Norbert; Mangelinckx, Sven

    2014-01-01

    Diatoms are known to produce a variety of halogenated compounds, which were recently shown to have a role in allelopathic interactions between competing species. The production of these compounds is linked to haloperoxidase activity. This research, has shown that this system may also be involved in diatom-bacteria interactions via the H2O2 dependent inactivation of a type of quorum sensing (QS) molecule, i.e., N-?-ketoacylated homoserine lactones (AHLs), by a natural haloperoxidase system from the benthic diatom Nitzschia cf pellucida. The AHL degradation pathway towards corresponding halogenated derivatives was elucidated via HPLC-MS analysis and the synthesis of a broad series of novel halogenated AHL analogues as reference compounds. Furthermore, their biological activity as quorum sensing modulators was directly compared and evaluated against a series of naturally occurring ?-keto-AHLs. It has been demonstrated that the loss of the QS activity results from the final cleavage of the halogenated N-acyl chain of the signal molecules. PMID:24445305

  5. Biofouling control with bead-entrapped quorum quenching bacteria in membrane bioreactors: physical and biological effects.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang-Ryoung; Oh, Hyun-Suk; Jo, Sung-Jun; Yeon, Kyung-Min; Lee, Chung-Hak; Lim, Dong-Joon; Lee, Chi-Ho; Lee, Jung-Kee

    2013-01-15

    Recently, interspecies quorum quenching by bacterial cells encapsulated in a vessel was described and shown to be efficient and economically feasible for biofouling control in membrane bioreactors (MBRs). In this study, free-moving beads entrapped with quorum quenching bacteria were applied to the inhibition of biofouling in a MBR. Cell entrapping beads (CEBs) with a porous microstructure were prepared by entrapping quorum quenching bacteria ( Rhodococcus sp. BH4) into alginate beads. In MBRs provided with CEBs, the time to reach a transmembrane pressure (TMP) of 70 kPa was 10 times longer than without CEBs. The mitigation of biofouling was attributed to both physical (friction) and biological (quorum quenching) effects of CEBs, the latter being much more important. Because of the quorum quenching effect of CEBs, microbial cells in the biofilm generated fewer extracellular polymeric substances and thus formed a loosely bound biofilm, which enabled it to slough off from the membrane surface more easily. Furthermore, collisions between the moving CEBs and membranes gave rise to frictional forces that facilitated detachment of the biofilm from the membrane surface. CEBs bring bacterial quorum quenching closer to being a practical solution to the problem of biofouling in MBRs. PMID:23256502

  6. CFTR Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Verkman, Alan S.; Synder, David; Tradtrantip, Lukmanee; Thiagarajah, Jay R.; Anderson, Marc O.

    2014-01-01

    The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) protein is a cAMP-regulated Cl? channel whose major function is to facilitate epithelial fluid secretion. Loss-of-function mutations in CFTR cause the genetic disease cystic fibrosis. CFTR is required for transepithelial fluid transport in certain secretory diarrheas, such as cholera, and for cyst expansion in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease. High-throughput screening has yielded CFTR inhibitors of the thiazolidinone, glycine hydrazide and quinoxalinedione chemical classes. The glycine hydrazides target the extracellular CFTR pore, whereas the thiazolidinones and quinoxalinediones act at the cytoplasmic surface. These inhibitors have been widely used in cystic fibrosis research to study CFTR function at the cell and organ levels. The most potent CFTR inhibitor has IC50 of approximately 4 nM. Studies in animal models support the development of CFTR inhibitors for antisecretory therapy of enterotoxin-mediated diarrheas and polycystic kidney disease. PMID:23331030

  7. Deoxyribonuclease inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Kolarevic, Ana; Yancheva, Denitsa; Kocic, Gordana; Smelcerovic, Andrija

    2014-12-17

    Deoxyribonucleases (DNases) are a class of enzymes able to catalyze DNA hydrolysis. DNases play important roles in cell function, while DNase inhibitors control or modify their activities. This review focuses on DNase inhibitors. Some DNase inhibitors have been isolated from various natural sources, such as humans, animals (beef, calf, rabbit and rat), plants (Nicotiana tabacum), and microorganisms (some Streptomyces and Adenovirus species, Micromonospora echinospora and Escherichia coli), while others have been obtained by chemical synthesis. They differ in chemical structure (various proteins, nucleotides, anthracycline and aminoglycoside antibiotics, synthetic organic and inorganic compounds) and mechanism of action (forming complexes with DNases or DNA). Some of the inhibitors are specific toward only one type of DNase, while others are active towards two or more. Physico-chemical properties of DNase inhibitors are calculated using the Molinspiration tool and most of them meet all criteria for good solubility and permeability. DNase inhibitors may be used as pharmaceuticals for preventing, monitoring and treating various diseases. PMID:25042005

  8. MOBILE SENSING 1 MOBILE SENSING

    E-print Network

    Prodiæ, Aleksandar

    ;MOBILE SENSING 40 #12;MOBILE SENSING 41 #12;MOBILE SENSING 42 Each patient was rated by our app, junior Drs., and senior Drs. on a 0-7 scale. #12;MOBILE SENSING 43 Error for our app: 1.2/7 ! ErrorMOBILE SENSING 1 MOBILE SENSING ! ! Parham Aarabi #12;MOBILE SENSING 2 20 years of sensing research

  9. Carboxylesterase inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Hatfield, M. Jason; Potter, Philip M.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Carboxylesterases play major roles in the hydrolysis of numerous therapeutically active compounds. This is, in part, due to the prevalence of the ester moiety in these small molecules. However, the impact these enzymes may play on drug stability and pharmacokinetics is rarely considered prior to molecule development. Therefore, the application of selective inhibitors of this class of proteins may have utility in modulating the metabolism, distribution and toxicity of agents that are subjected to enzyme hydrolysis. Areas covered This review details the development of all such compounds dating back to 1986, but principally focuses on the very recent identification of selective human carboxylesterases inhibitors. Expert opinion The implementation of carboxylesterase inhibitors may significantly revolutionize drug discovery. Such molecules may allow for improved efficacy of compounds inactivated by this class of enzymes and/or reduce the toxicity of agents that are activated by these proteins. Furthermore, since lack of carboxylesterase activity appears to have no obvious biological consequence, these compounds could be applied in combination with virtually any esterified drug. Therefore, inhibitors of these proteins may have utility in altering drug hydrolysis and distribution in vivo. The characteristics, chemical and biological properties, and potential uses of such agents, are discussed here. PMID:21609191

  10. Divergence and Convergence in Enzyme Evolution: Parallel Evolution of Paraoxonases from Quorum-quenching Lactonases*

    PubMed Central

    Elias, Mikael; Tawfik, Dan S.

    2012-01-01

    We discuss the basic features of divergent versus convergent evolution and of the common scenario of parallel evolution. The example of quorum-quenching lactonases is subsequently described. Three different quorum-quenching lactonase families are known, and they belong to three different superfamilies. Their key active-site architectures have converged and are strikingly similar. Curiously, a promiscuous organophosphate hydrolase activity is observed in all three families. We describe the structural and mechanistic features that underline this converged promiscuity and how this promiscuity drove the parallel divergence of organophosphate hydrolases within these lactonase families by either natural or laboratory evolution. PMID:22069329

  11. ?-Hydroxyketone Synthesis and Sensing by Legionella and Vibrio

    PubMed Central

    Tiaden, André; Hilbi, Hubert

    2012-01-01

    Bacteria synthesize and sense low molecular weight signaling molecules, termed autoinducers, to measure their population density and community complexity. One class of autoinducers, the ?-hydroxyketones (AHKs), is produced and detected by the water-borne opportunistic pathogens Legionella pneumophila and Vibrio cholerae, which cause Legionnaires’ disease and cholera, respectively. The “Legionella quorum sensing” (lqs) or “cholera quorum sensing” (cqs) genes encode enzymes that produce and sense the AHK molecules “Legionella autoinducer-1” (LAI-1; 3-hydroxypentadecane-4-one) or cholera autoinducer-1 (CAI-1; 3-hydroxytridecane-4-one). AHK signaling regulates the virulence of L. pneumophila and V. cholerae, pathogen-host cell interactions, formation of biofilms or extracellular filaments, expression of a genomic “fitness island” and competence. Here, we outline the processes, wherein AHK signaling plays a role, and review recent insights into the function of proteins encoded by the lqs and cqs gene clusters. To this end, we will focus on the autoinducer synthases catalysing the biosynthesis of AHKs, on the cognate trans-membrane sensor kinases detecting the signals, and on components of the down-stream phosphorelay cascade that promote the transmission and integration of signaling events regulating gene expression. PMID:22736983

  12. The ComP-ComA Quorum System Is Essential For “Trojan horse” Like Pathogenesis in Bacillus nematocida

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Qiuhong; Xu, Xiao’e; Shi, Hui; Zhang, Hanbo; Liang, Lianming; Zhang, Keqin; Huang, Xiaowei

    2013-01-01

    Bacillus nematocida B16 has been shown to use “Trojan horse” mechanism in pathogenesis that has characteristics of “social” behavior. The ComP-ComA system, a conserved quorum sensing system in the genus Bacillus, functions in many physiological processes including competence development, lipopeptide antibiotic surfactin production, degradative enzyme production and even some unknown functions. Here we investigated the requirement of ComP-ComA system in B. nematocida B16 for its pathogenicity against nematodes. The ?comP mutant displayed deficiencies in attracting and killing nematodes, due to the absence of attractive signal molecules and the decreased expressions of virulence factors, respectively. Contrarily, a complemented comP mutant at least partially resumed its pathogenicity. Our data from transcriptional analysis further confirmed that this signaling system directly or indirectly regulated the expressions of two major virulence proteases in the infection of B. nematocida B16. Bioinformatics analyses from comparative genomics also suggested that the potential target genes of transcription factor ComA were involved in the processes such as the synthesis of attractants, production of extracellular degradative enzymes and sortase, secondary metabolites biosynthesis, regulation of transcription factors, mobility, as well as transporters, most of which were different from a saprophytic relative B. subtilis 168. Therefore, our investigation firstly revealed that the participation and necessity of ComP-ComA signaling system in bacterial pathogenesis. PMID:24130811

  13. Gene Network Homology in Prokaryotes Using a Similarity Search Approach: Queries of Quorum Sensing Signal Transduction

    PubMed Central

    Quan, David N.; Bentley, William E.

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial cell-cell communication is mediated by small signaling molecules known as autoinducers. Importantly, autoinducer-2 (AI-2) is synthesized via the enzyme LuxS in over 80 species, some of which mediate their pathogenicity by recognizing and transducing this signal in a cell density dependent manner. AI-2 mediated phenotypes are not well understood however, as the means for signal transduction appears varied among species, while AI-2 synthesis processes appear conserved. Approaches to reveal the recognition pathways of AI-2 will shed light on pathogenicity as we believe recognition of the signal is likely as important, if not more, than the signal synthesis. LMNAST (Local Modular Network Alignment Similarity Tool) uses a local similarity search heuristic to study gene order, generating homology hits for the genomic arrangement of a query gene sequence. We develop and apply this tool for the E. coli lac and LuxS regulated (Lsr) systems. Lsr is of great interest as it mediates AI-2 uptake and processing. Both test searches generated results that were subsequently analyzed through a number of different lenses, each with its own level of granularity, from a binary phylogenetic representation down to trackback plots that preserve genomic organizational information. Through a survey of these results, we demonstrate the identification of orthologs, paralogs, hitchhiking genes, gene loss, gene rearrangement within an operon context, and also horizontal gene transfer (HGT). We found a variety of operon structures that are consistent with our hypothesis that the signal can be perceived and transduced by homologous protein complexes, while their regulation may be key to defining subsequent phenotypic behavior. PMID:22916001

  14. Phosphorylation and Processing of the Quorum-Sensing Molecule Autoinducer-2 in Enteric Bacteria

    E-print Network

    Rabinowitz, Joshua D.

    in two Vibrio species and the enteric bacteria Esch- erichia coli and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi with the signaling capabilities of neighboring species of bacteria. We have previously shown that Salmonella enterica

  15. Quorum sensing allows T cells to discriminate between self and nonself

    E-print Network

    Butler, Thomas Charles

    T cells orchestrate pathogen-specific adaptive immune responses by identifying peptides derived from pathogenic proteins that are displayed on the surface of infected cells. Host cells also display peptide fragments from ...

  16. Traveling waves in response to a diffusing quorum sensing signal in spatially-extended bacterial colonies

    E-print Network

    De Leenheer, Patrick

    -wide changes in gene expression. Although QS has been extensively studied in well-mixed systems, the ability of diffusing QS signals to synchronize gene expression in spatially extended colonies is not well understood properties of the LuxR­LuxI system and its QS regulation of A. scheri bioluminescence. Our simulations

  17. Processing the Interspecies Quorum-sensing Signal Autoinducer-2 (AI-2)

    SciTech Connect

    J Marques; P Lamosa; C Russell; R Ventura; C Maycock; M Semmelhack; S Miller; K Xavier

    2011-12-31

    The molecule (S)-4,5-dihydroxy-2,3-pentanedione (DPD) is produced by many different species of bacteria and is the precursor of the signal molecule autoinducer-2 (AI-2). AI-2 mediates interspecies communication and facilitates regulation of bacterial behaviors such as biofilm formation and virulence. A variety of bacterial species have the ability to sequester and process the AI-2 present in their environment, thereby interfering with the cell-cell communication of other bacteria. This process involves the AI-2-regulated lsr operon, comprised of the Lsr transport system that facilitates uptake of the signal, a kinase that phosphorylates the signal to phospho-DPD (P-DPD), and enzymes (like LsrG) that are responsible for processing the phosphorylated signal. Because P-DPD is the intracellular inducer of the lsr operon, enzymes involved in P-DPD processing impact the levels of Lsr expression. Here we show that LsrG catalyzes isomerization of P-DPD into 3,4,4-trihydroxy-2-pentanone-5-phosphate. We present the crystal structure of LsrG, identify potential catalytic residues, and determine which of these residues affects P-DPD processing in vivo and in vitro. We also show that an lsrG deletion mutant accumulates at least 10 times more P-DPD than wild type cells. Consistent with this result, we find that the lsrG mutant has increased expression of the lsr operon and an altered profile of AI-2 accumulation and removal. Understanding of the biochemical mechanisms employed by bacteria to quench signaling of other species can be of great utility in the development of therapies to control bacterial behavior.

  18. Author's personal copy Quorum sensing regulates electric current generation of Pseudomonas

    E-print Network

    Angenent, Lars T.

    of the anode-respiring bac- terium Pseudomonas aeruginosa because it controls the production of phenazines anaerobic conditions. Anaerobic current generation by the WT was 28-fold higher with extraneously supplied lac- tones (a QS-signaling molecule). Compared to anaerobic conditions, the WT with some oxygen

  19. Quorum Sensing Activity of Mesorhizobium sp. F7 Isolated from Potable Water

    PubMed Central

    Yong, Pei-Ling; Chan, Kok-Gan

    2014-01-01

    We isolated a bacterial isolate (F7) from potable water. The strain was identified as Mesorhizobium sp. by 16S rDNA gene phylogenetic analysis and screened for N-acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) production by an AHL biosensor. The AHL profile of the isolate was further analyzed using high resolution triple quadrupole liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC/MS) which confirmed the production of multiple AHLs, namely, N-3-oxo-octanoyl-L-homoserine lactone (3-oxo-C8-HSL) and N-3-oxo-decanoyl-L-homoserine lactone (3-oxo-C10-HSL). These findings will open the perspective to study the function of these AHLs in plant-microbe interactions. PMID:25177734

  20. C-type natriuretic peptide modulates quorum sensing molecule and toxin production in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Blier, Anne-Sophie; Veron, Wilfried; Bazire, Alexis; Gerault, Eloïse; Taupin, Laure; Vieillard, Julien; Rehel, Karine; Dufour, Alain; Le Derf, Franck; Orange, Nicole; Hulen, Christian; Feuilloley, Marc G. J.

    2011-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa coordinates its virulence expression and establishment in the host in response to modification of its environment. During the infectious process, bacteria are exposed to and can detect eukaryotic products including hormones. It has been shown that P. aeruginosa is sensitive to natriuretic peptides, a family of eukaryotic hormones, through a cyclic nucleotide-dependent sensor system that modulates its cytotoxicity. We observed that pre-treatment of P. aeruginosa PAO1 with C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) increases the capacity of the bacteria to kill Caenorhabditis elegans through diffusive toxin production. In contrast, brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) did not affect the capacity of the bacteria to kill C. elegans. The bacterial production of hydrogen cyanide (HCN) was enhanced by both BNP and CNP whereas the production of phenazine pyocyanin was strongly inhibited by CNP. The amount of 2-heptyl-4-quinolone (HHQ), a precursor to 2-heptyl-3-hydroxyl-4-quinolone (Pseudomonas quinolone signal; PQS), decreased after CNP treatment. The quantity of 2-nonyl-4-quinolone (HNQ), another quinolone which is synthesized from HHQ, was also reduced after CNP treatment. Conversely, both BNP and CNP significantly enhanced bacterial production of acylhomoserine lactone (AHL) [e.g. 3-oxo-dodecanoyl-homoserine lactone (3OC12-HSL) and butanoylhomoserine lactone (C4-HSL)]. These results correlate with an induction of lasI transcription 1 h after bacterial exposure to BNP or CNP. Concurrently, pre-treatment of P. aeruginosa PAO1 with either BNP or CNP enhanced PAO1 exotoxin A production, via a higher toxA mRNA level. At the same time, CNP led to elevated amounts of algC mRNA, indicating that algC is involved in C. elegans killing. Finally, we observed that in PAO1, Vfr protein is essential to the pro-virulent effect of CNP whereas the regulator PtxR supports only a part of the CNP pro-virulent activity. Taken together, these data reinforce the hypothesis that during infection natriuretic peptides, particularly CNP, could enhance the virulence of PAO1. This activity is relayed by Vfr and PtxR activation, and a general diagram of the virulence activation cascade involving AHL, HCN and exotoxin A is proposed. PMID:21511763

  1. LuxR-type Quorum Sensing Regulators That Are Detached from Common Scents

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Ching-Sung; Winans, Stephen C.

    2010-01-01

    The ability of LuxR-type proteins to regulate transcription is controlled by bacterial pheromones, N-acylhomoserine lactones (AHLs). Most LuxR-family proteins require their cognate AHLs for activity, and at least some of them require AHLs for folding and protease-resistance. However, a few members of this family are able to fold, dimerize, bind DNA, and regulate transcription in the absence of AHLs; moreover, these proteins are antagonized by their cognate AHLs. Complexes between some of these proteins and their DNA binding sites are disrupted by AHLs in vitro. All such proteins are fairly closely related within the larger LuxR family, indicating that they share a relatively recent common ancestor. The 3? ends of the genes encoding these receptors invariably overlap with the 3? ends of the cognate AHL synthase genes, suggesting additional antagonism at the level of mRNA synthesis, stability, or translation. PMID:20624221

  2. Gene network homology in prokaryotes using a similarity search approach: queries of quorum sensing signal transduction.

    PubMed

    Quan, David N; Bentley, William E

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial cell-cell communication is mediated by small signaling molecules known as autoinducers. Importantly, autoinducer-2 (AI-2) is synthesized via the enzyme LuxS in over 80 species, some of which mediate their pathogenicity by recognizing and transducing this signal in a cell density dependent manner. AI-2 mediated phenotypes are not well understood however, as the means for signal transduction appears varied among species, while AI-2 synthesis processes appear conserved. Approaches to reveal the recognition pathways of AI-2 will shed light on pathogenicity as we believe recognition of the signal is likely as important, if not more, than the signal synthesis. LMNAST (Local Modular Network Alignment Similarity Tool) uses a local similarity search heuristic to study gene order, generating homology hits for the genomic arrangement of a query gene sequence. We develop and apply this tool for the E. coli lac and LuxS regulated (Lsr) systems. Lsr is of great interest as it mediates AI-2 uptake and processing. Both test searches generated results that were subsequently analyzed through a number of different lenses, each with its own level of granularity, from a binary phylogenetic representation down to trackback plots that preserve genomic organizational information. Through a survey of these results, we demonstrate the identification of orthologs, paralogs, hitchhiking genes, gene loss, gene rearrangement within an operon context, and also horizontal gene transfer (HGT). We found a variety of operon structures that are consistent with our hypothesis that the signal can be perceived and transduced by homologous protein complexes, while their regulation may be key to defining subsequent phenotypic behavior. PMID:22916001

  3. The dynamics of surface detachment and quorum sensing in spatially controlled biofilm colonies of Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    E-print Network

    Jang, Hongchul

    2014-01-01

    Biofilms represent a highly successful life strategy of bacteria in a very broad range of environments and often have negative implications for industrial and clinical applications, as their removal from surfaces and the ...

  4. Structure of a bacterial quorum-sensing transcription factor complexed with pheromone and DNA.

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, R.; Pappas, T.; Brace, J.; Miller, P.; Oulmassov, T.; Molyneaux, J.; Anderson, J.; Bashkin, J.; Winans, S.; Joachimiak, A.; Biosciences Division; Cornell Univ.; Monsanto Co.

    2002-06-27

    Many proteobacteria are able to monitor their population densities through the release of pheromones known as N-acylhomoserine lactones. At high population densities, these pheromones elicit diverse responses that include bioluminescence, biofilm formation, production of antimicrobials, DNA exchange, pathogenesis and symbiosis1. Many of these regulatory systems require a pheromone-dependent transcription factor similar to the LuxR protein of Vibrio fischeri. Here we present the structure of a LuxR-type protein. TraR of Agrobacterium tumefaciens was solved at 1.66 A as a complex with the pheromone N-3-oxooctanoyl-l-homoserine lactone (OOHL) and its TraR DNA-binding site. The amino-terminal domain of TraR is an {alpha}/{beta}/{alpha} sandwich that binds OOHL, whereas the carboxy-terminal domain contains a helix-turn-helix DNA-binding motif. The TraR dimer displays a two-fold symmetry axis in each domain; however, these two axes of symmetry are at an approximately 90 degree angle, resulting in a pronounced overall asymmetry of the complex. The pheromone lies fully embedded within the protein with virtually no solvent contact, and makes numerous hydrophobic contacts with the protein as well as four hydrogen bonds: three direct and one water-mediated.

  5. Arabidopsis growth and defense are modulated by bacterial quorum sensing molecules

    PubMed Central

    Schenk, Sebastian T.; Stein, Elke; Kogel, Karl-Heinz; Schikora, Adam

    2012-01-01

    N-acyl-homoserine lactones (AHLs) play an important role in the communication within the rhizosphere; they serve as a chemical base for interactions within and between different species of Gram-negative bacteria. Not only bacteria, also plants perceive and react to AHLs with diverse responses. Here we describe a negative correlation between the length of AHLs’ lipid chains and the observed growth promotion in Arabidopsis thaliana. Moreover, we speculate on a positive correlation between the reinforcement of defense mechanisms and the length of the lipid moieties. Observation presented here may be of great importance for understanding of the complex interplay between plants and their environment, as well as for agronomic applications. PMID:22307043

  6. Supporting Information: Information processing and signal integration in bacterial quorum sensing

    E-print Network

    Mehta, Pankaj

    Pankaj Mehta, Sidhartha Goyal, Tao Long, Bonnie Bassler, Ned S. Wingreen Dept. of Molecular Biology on experimental evidence, that the receptors have state-independent phosphatase activities, which we denote pX and pY . The phosphorelay can be modeled using simple differential equations of the form d[LuxU-P] dt

  7. The phenazine pyocyanin is a terminal signalling factor in the quorum sensing network of Pseudomonas

    E-print Network

    Dietrich, Lars

    ). Homologues of these genes have been identified in a number of Gram-negative bacteria, demonstrating been the focus of intense research efforts. It is largely unknown, however, how pseudomonads themselves molecules in both P. aeruginosa PA14 and PAO1. Introduction Bacteria communicate with each other through

  8. Cystic fibrosis–adapted Pseudomonas aeruginosa quorum sensing lasR mutants cause hyperinflammatory responses

    E-print Network

    LaFayette, Shantelle L.; Houle, Danielle; Beaudoin, Trevor; Gabriella, Wojewodka; Radzioch, Danuta; Hoffman, Lucas R.; Burns, Jane L.; Dandekar, Ajai A.; Smalley, Nicole E.; Chandler, Josephine R.; Zlosnik, James E.; Speert, David P.; Bernier, Joanie; Matouk, Elias; Brochiero, Emmanuelle; Rousseau, Simon; Nguyen, Dao

    2015-07-31

    Cystic fibrosis lung disease is characterized by chronic airway infections with the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa and severe neutrophilic pulmonary inflammation. P. aeruginosa undergoes extensive genetic adaptation to the cystic...

  9. Metabolism of Acyl-Homoserine Lactone Quorum-Sensing Signals by Variovorax paradoxus

    PubMed Central

    Leadbetter, Jared R.; Greenberg, E. P.

    2000-01-01

    Acyl-homoserine lactones (acyl-HSLs) serve as dedicated cell-to-cell signaling molecules in many species of the class Proteobacteria. We have addressed the question of whether these compounds can be degraded biologically. A motile, rod-shaped bacterium was isolated from soil based upon its ability to utilize N-(3-oxohexanoyl)-l-homoserine lactone as the sole source of energy and nitrogen. The bacterium was classified as a strain of Variovorax paradoxus. The V. paradoxus isolate was capable of growth on all of the acyl-HSLs tested. The molar growth yields correlated with the length of the acyl group. HSL, a product of acyl-HSL metabolism, was used as a nitrogen source, but not as an energy source. Cleavage and partial mineralization of the HSL ring were demonstrated by using radiolabeled substrate. This study indicates that some strains of V. paradoxus degrade and grow on acyl-HSL signals as the sole energy and nitrogen sources. This study provides clues about the metabolic pathway of acyl-HSL degradation by V. paradoxus. PMID:11092851

  10. Interkingdom responses of flies to bacteria mediated by fly physiology and bacterial quorum sensing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Insect location and utilization of a resource is influenced by a host of variables, including nutrients acquired prior to encountering a stimulus and age of the individual. For the carrion system, we hypothesized the volatiles to which primary colonizers such as blow flies respond are the same sign...

  11. Evolutionary theory of bacterial quorum sensing: when is a signal not a signal?

    E-print Network

    Gardner, Andy

    been successfully demonstrated. However, it is only recently that social behaviour in micro-organisms) and between bacteria and higher organisms (inter-kingdom). The fact that QS-based communication appears

  12. Active regulation of receptor ratios controls integration of quorum-sensing signals

    E-print Network

    Mehta, Pankaj

    disrupted-in-schizophrenia-1 (DISC1) integrate signals from two parallel pathways (Mao et al, 2009). Mutations in DISC1 are associated with schizophrenia, a psychiatric disorder of social interaction (Millar

  13. Assembling the components of the quorum sensing pathway in African trypanosomes

    PubMed Central

    Mony, Binny M; Matthews, Keith R

    2015-01-01

    African trypanosomes, parasites that cause human sleeping sickness, undergo a density-dependent differentiation in the bloodstream of their mammalian hosts. This process is driven by a released parasite-derived factor that causes parasites to accumulate in G1 and become quiescent. This is accompanied by morphological transformation to ‘stumpy’ forms that are adapted to survival and further development when taken up in the blood meal of tsetse flies, the vector for trypanosomiasis. Although the soluble signal driving differentiation to stumpy forms is unidentified, a recent genome-wide RNAi screen identified many of the intracellular signalling and effector molecules required for the response to this signal. These resemble components of nutritional starvation and quiescence pathways in other eukaryotes, suggesting that parasite development shares similarities with the adaptive quiescence of organisms such as yeasts and Dictyostelium in response to nutritional starvation and stress. Here, the trypanosome signalling pathway is discussed in the context of these conserved pathways and the possible contributions of opposing ‘slender retainer’ and ‘stumpy inducer’ arms described. As evolutionarily highly divergent eukaryotes, the organisation and conservation of this developmental pathway can provide insight into the developmental cycle of other protozoan parasites, as well as the adaptive and programmed developmental responses of all eukaryotic cells. PMID:25630552

  14. Vibrio campbellii hmgA-mediated pyomelanization impairs quorum sensing, virulence, and cellular fitness

    E-print Network

    Wang, Zheng

    Melanization due to the inactivation of the homogentisate-1,2-dioxygenase gene (hmgA) has been demonstrated to increase stress resistance, persistence, and virulence in some bacterial species but such pigmented mutants ...

  15. Evidence of quorum sensing in the rumen ecosystem: detection of N-acyl homoserine

    E-print Network

    Selinger, Brent

    Press Web site at http://cjm.nrc.ca on 26 April 2002. D.L. Erickson.1 Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada. Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Lethbridge Research Centre, Lethbridge, AB T1J 4B1, Canada. L.B. Selinger

  16. Quorum Sensing in Biofilms: Why Bacteria Behave the Way They Do

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bacteria can attach to surfaces and form biofilms, which have a characteristic structure consisting of microcolonies enclosed in a hydrated matrix of microbially-produced proteins and polysaccharides. In this complex biofilm network, the cells act less as individual entities and more as a collectiv...

  17. Spatial localization of bacteria controls coagulation of human blood by `quorum acting'

    E-print Network

    Ismagilov, Rustem F.

    Spatial localization of bacteria controls coagulation of human blood by `quorum acting' Christian J of bacteria substantially affects coagulation of human and mouse blood and plasma. Bacillus cereus the initiation of human blood coagulation by bacteria. In vivo, coagulation often accompanies bacterial

  18. Handling Neighbor Discovery and Rendezvous Consistency with Weighted Quorum-Based Approach.

    PubMed

    Own, Chung-Ming; Meng, Zhaopeng; Liu, Kehan

    2015-01-01

    Neighbor discovery and the power of sensors play an important role in the formation of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) and mobile networks. Many asynchronous protocols based on wake-up time scheduling have been proposed to enable neighbor discovery among neighboring nodes for the energy saving, especially in the difficulty of clock synchronization. However, existing researches are divided two parts with the neighbor-discovery methods, one is the quorum-based protocols and the other is co-primality based protocols. Their distinction is on the arrangements of time slots, the former uses the quorums in the matrix, the latter adopts the numerical analysis. In our study, we propose the weighted heuristic quorum system (WQS), which is based on the quorum algorithm to eliminate redundant paths of active slots. We demonstrate the specification of our system: fewer active slots are required, the referring rate is balanced, and remaining power is considered particularly when a device maintains rendezvous with discovered neighbors. The evaluation results showed that our proposed method can effectively reschedule the active slots and save the computing time of the network system. PMID:26404297

  19. Handling Neighbor Discovery and Rendezvous Consistency with Weighted Quorum-Based Approach

    PubMed Central

    Own, Chung-Ming; Meng, Zhaopeng; Liu, Kehan

    2015-01-01

    Neighbor discovery and the power of sensors play an important role in the formation of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) and mobile networks. Many asynchronous protocols based on wake-up time scheduling have been proposed to enable neighbor discovery among neighboring nodes for the energy saving, especially in the difficulty of clock synchronization. However, existing researches are divided two parts with the neighbor-discovery methods, one is the quorum-based protocols and the other is co-primality based protocols. Their distinction is on the arrangements of time slots, the former uses the quorums in the matrix, the latter adopts the numerical analysis. In our study, we propose the weighted heuristic quorum system (WQS), which is based on the quorum algorithm to eliminate redundant paths of active slots. We demonstrate the specification of our system: fewer active slots are required, the referring rate is balanced, and remaining power is considered particularly when a device maintains rendezvous with discovered neighbors. The evaluation results showed that our proposed method can effectively reschedule the active slots and save the computing time of the network system. PMID:26404297

  20. A Practical Guide to Interpretation of Large Collections of Incident Narratives Using the QUORUM Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGreevy, Michael W.

    1997-01-01

    Analysis of incident reports plays an important role in aviation safety. Typically, a narrative description, written by a participant, is a central part of an incident report. Because there are so many reports, and the narratives contain so much detail, it can be difficult to efficiently and effectively recognize patterns among them. Recognizing and addressing recurring problems, however, is vital to continuing safety in commercial aviation operations. A practical way to interpret large collections of incident narratives is to apply the QUORUM method of text analysis, modeling, and relevance ranking. In this paper, QUORUM text analysis and modeling are surveyed, and QUORUM relevance ranking is described in detail with many examples. The examples are based on several large collections of reports from the Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) database, and a collection of news stories describing the disaster of TWA Flight 800, the Boeing 747 which exploded in mid- air and crashed near Long Island, New York, on July 17, 1996. Reader familiarity with this disaster should make the relevance-ranking examples more understandable. The ASRS examples illustrate the practical application of QUORUM relevance ranking.

  1. A stochastic model of Escherichia coli AI-2 quorum signal circuit reveals alternative synthesis pathways

    E-print Network

    Wood, Thomas K.

    A stochastic model of Escherichia coli AI-2 quorum signal circuit reveals alternative synthesis discoveries: (1) the mRNA transcript and protein levels of AI-2 synthases, Pfs and LuxS, do not contribute accounts for this difference. We predict that `high-flux' alternative pathways or additional biological

  2. Virulence Effects and Signaling Partners Modulated by Brucella melitensis Light-sensing Histidine Kinase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gourley, Christopher R.

    The facultative intracellular pathogen Brucella melitensis utilizes diverse virulence factors. A Brucella light sensing histidine kinase can influence in vitro virulence of the bacteria during intracellular infection. First, we demonstrated that the B. melitensis light sensing kinase (BM-LOV-HK) affects virulence in an IRF-1-/- mouse model of infection. Infection with a ? BM-LOV-HK strain resulted in less bacterial colonization of IRF-1-/- spleens and extended survivorship compared to mice infected with wild type B. melitensis 16M. Second, using PCR arrays, we observed less expression of innate and adaptive immune system activation markers in ?BM-LOV-HK infected mouse spleens than wild type B. melitensis 16M infected mouse spleens 6 days after infection. Third, we demonstrated by microarray analysis of B. melitensis that deletion of BM-LOV-HK alters bacterial gene expression. Downregulation of genes involved in control of the general stress response system included the alternative sigma factor RpoE1 and its anti-anti sigma factor PhyR. Conversely, genes involved in flagella production, quorum sensing, and the type IV secretion system (VirB operon) were upregulated in the ? BM-LOV-HK strain compared to the wild type B. melitensis 16M. Analysis of genes differentially regulated in ? BM-LOV-HK versus the wild type strain indicated an overlap of 110 genes with data from previous quorum sensing regulator studies of ? vjbR and/?blxR(babR) strains. Also, several predicted RpoE1 binding sites located upstream of genes were differentially regulated in the ?BM-LOV-HK strain. Our results suggest BM-LOV-HK is important for in vivo Brucella virulence, and reveals that BM-LOV-HK directly or indirect regulates members of the Brucella quorum sensing, type IV secretion, and general stress systems.

  3. Design of quorum quenching microbial vessel to enhance cell viability for biofouling control in membrane bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Cheong, Won-Suk; Kim, Sang-Ryoung; Oh, Hyun-Suk; Lee, Sang H; Yeon, Kyung-Min; Lee, Chung-Hak; Lee, Jung-Kee

    2014-01-01

    Quorum quenching (QQ) with a microbial vessel has recently been reported as an economically feasible biofouling control platform in a membrane bioreactor (MBR) for wastewater treatment. In this study, a quorum quenching MBR with a ceramic microbial vessel (CMV) was designed to overcome the extremely low F/M ratio inside a microbial vessel. The CMV was prepared with a monolithic ceramic microporous membrane and AHLdegrading QQ bacteria, Pseudomonas sp. 1A1. The "inner flow feeding mode" was introduced, under which fresh feed was supplied to the MBR only through the center lumen in the CMV. The inner flow feeding mode facilitated nutrient transport to QQ bacteria in the CMV and thus enabled relatively long-term maintenance of cell viability. The quorum quenching effect of the CMV on controlling membrane biofouling in the MBR was more pronounced with the inner flow feeding mode, which was identified by the slower increase in the transmembrane pressure as well as by the visual observation of a biocake that formed on the used membrane surface. In the QQ MBR with the CMV, the concentrations of extracellular polymeric substances were substantially decreased in the biocake on the membrane surface compared with those in the conventional MBR. The CMV also showed its potential with effective biofouling control over long-term operation of the QQ MBR. PMID:24225371

  4. Co-evolutionary Dynamics of Collective Action with Signaling for a Quorum

    PubMed Central

    Pacheco, Jorge M.; Vasconcelos, Vítor V.; Santos, Francisco C.; Skyrms, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Collective signaling for a quorum is found in a wide range of organisms that face collective action problems whose successful solution requires the participation of some quorum of the individuals present. These range from humans, to social insects, to bacteria. The mechanisms involved, the quorum required, and the size of the group may vary. Here we address the general question of the evolution of collective signaling at a high level of abstraction. We investigate the evolutionary dynamics of a population engaging in a signaling N-person game theoretic model. Parameter settings allow for loners and cheaters, and for costly or costless signals. We find a rich dynamics, showing how natural selection, operating on a population of individuals endowed with the simplest strategies, is able to evolve a costly signaling system that allows individuals to respond appropriately to different states of Nature. Signaling robustly promotes cooperative collective action, in particular when coordinated action is most needed and difficult to achieve. Two different signaling systems may emerge depending on Nature’s most prevalent states. PMID:25706984

  5. Moving calls: a vocal mechanism underlying quorum decisions in cohesive groups.

    PubMed

    Bousquet, Christophe A H; Sumpter, David J T; Manser, Marta B

    2011-05-22

    Members of social groups need to coordinate their behaviour when choosing between alternative activities. Consensus decisions enable group members to maintain group cohesion and one way to reach consensus is to rely on quorums. A quorum response is where the probability of an activity change sharply increases with the number of individuals supporting the new activity. Here, we investigated how meerkats (Suricata suricatta) use vocalizations in the context of movement decisions. Moving calls emitted by meerkats increased the speed of the group, with a sharp increase in the probability of changing foraging patch when the number of group members joining the chorus increased from two up to three. These calls had no apparent effect on the group's movement direction. When dominant individuals were involved in the chorus, the group's reaction was not stronger than when only subordinates called. Groups only increased speed in response to playbacks of moving calls from one individual when other group members emitted moving calls as well. The voting mechanism linked to a quorum probably allows meerkat groups to change foraging patches cohesively with increased speed. Such vocal coordination may reflect an aggregation rule linking individual assessment of foraging patch quality to group travel route. PMID:21047853

  6. Co-evolutionary dynamics of collective action with signaling for a quorum.

    PubMed

    Pacheco, Jorge M; Vasconcelos, Vítor V; Santos, Francisco C; Skyrms, Brian

    2015-02-01

    Collective signaling for a quorum is found in a wide range of organisms that face collective action problems whose successful solution requires the participation of some quorum of the individuals present. These range from humans, to social insects, to bacteria. The mechanisms involved, the quorum required, and the size of the group may vary. Here we address the general question of the evolution of collective signaling at a high level of abstraction. We investigate the evolutionary dynamics of a population engaging in a signaling N-person game theoretic model. Parameter settings allow for loners and cheaters, and for costly or costless signals. We find a rich dynamics, showing how natural selection, operating on a population of individuals endowed with the simplest strategies, is able to evolve a costly signaling system that allows individuals to respond appropriately to different states of Nature. Signaling robustly promotes cooperative collective action, in particular when coordinated action is most needed and difficult to achieve. Two different signaling systems may emerge depending on Nature's most prevalent states. PMID:25706984

  7. CHK1 Inhibitors in Combination Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Dent, Paul; Tang, Yong; Yacoub, Adly; Dai, Yun; Fisher, Paul B.; Grant, Steven

    2011-01-01

    Cellular sensing of DNA damage, along with concomitant cell cycle arrest, is mediated by a great many proteins and enzymes. One focus of pharmaceutical development has been the inhibition of DNA damage signaling, and checkpoint kinases (Chks) in particular, as a means to sensitize proliferating tumor cells to chemotherapies that damage DNA. 7-Hydroxystaurosporine, or UCN-01, is a clinically relevant and well-studied kinase activity inhibitor that exerts chemosensitizing effects by inhibition of Chk1, and a multitude of Chk1 inhibitors have entered development. Clinical development of UCN-01 has overcome many initial obstacles, but the drug has nevertheless failed to show a high level of clinical activity when combined with chemotherapeutic agents. One very likely reason for the lack of clinical efficacy of Chk1 inhibitors may be that the inhibition of Chk1 causes the compensatory activation of ATM and ERK1/2 pathways. Indeed, inhibition of many enzyme activities, not necessarily components of cell cycle regulation, may block Chk1 inhibitor–induced ERK1/2 activation and enhance the toxicity of Chk1 inhibitors. This review examines the rationally hypothesized actions of Chk1 inhibitors as cell cycle modulatory drugs as well as the impact of Chk1 inhibition upon other cell survival signaling pathways. An understanding of Chk1 inhibition in multiple signaling contexts will be essential to the therapeutic development of Chk1 inhibitors. PMID:21540473

  8. Rating the Relevance of QUORUM-Selected ASRS Incident Narratives to a "Controlled Flight into Terrain" Accident

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGreevy, Michael W.; Statler, Irving C.

    1998-01-01

    An exploratory study was conducted to identify commercial aviation incidents that are relevant to a "controlled flight into terrain" (CFIT) accident using a NASA-developed text processing method. The QUORUM method was used to rate 67820 incident narratives, virtually all of the narratives in the Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) database, according to their relevance to two official reports on the crash of American Airlines Flight 965 near Cali, Colombia in December 1995. For comparison with QUORUM's ratings, three experienced ASRS analysts read the reports of the crash and independently rated the relevance of the 100 narratives that were most highly rated by QUORUM, as well as 100 narratives randomly selected from the database. Eighty-four of 100 QUORUM-selected narratives were rated as relevant to the Cali accident by one or more of the analysts. The relevant incidents involved a variety of factors, including, over-reliance on automation, confusion and changes during descent/approach, terrain avoidance, and operations in foreign airspace. In addition, the QUORUM collection of incidents was found to be significantly more relevant than the random collection.

  9. Proton pump inhibitors

    MedlinePLUS

    Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are medicines that work by reducing the amount of stomach acid made by ... Proton pump inhibitors are used to: Relieve symptoms of acid reflux, or gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). This ...

  10. I. Development of Metal-Mediated SPOT-Synthesis Methods for the Efficient Construction of Small-Molecule Macroarrays. II. Design and Synthesis of Novel Bacterial Biofilm Inhibitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frei, Reto

    I. The use of small molecule probes to explore biological phenomena has become a valuable tool in chemical biology. As a result, methods that permit the rapid synthesis and biological evaluation of such compounds are highly sought-after. The small molecule macroarray represents one such approach for the synthesis and identification of novel bioactive agents. Macroarrays are readily constructed via the SPOT-synthesis technique on planar cellulose membranes, yielding spatially addressed libraries of ˜10-1000 unique compounds. We sought to expand the arsenal of chemical reactions compatible with this solid-phase platform, and developed highly efficient SPOT-synthesis protocols for the Mizoroki-Heck, Suzuki-Miyaura, and copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition reaction. We demonstrated that these metal-mediated reactions can be implemented, either individually or sequentially, for the efficient construction of small molecules in high purity on rapid time scales. Utilizing these powerful C-C and C-N bond forming coupling reactions, we constructed a series of macroarrays based on novel stilbene, phenyl-naphthalene, and triazole scaliblds. Subsequent biological testing of the stilbene and phenyl-naphthalene libraries revealed several potent antagonists and agonists, respectively, of the quorum sensing (QS) receptor LuxR in Vibrio fischeri. II. Bacteria living within biofilms are notorious for their resistance to known antibiotic agents, and constitute a major human health threat. Methods to attenuate biofilm growth would have a significant impact on the management of bacterial infections. Despite intense research efforts, small molecules capable of either inhibiting or dispersing biolilms remain scarce. We utilized natural products with purported anti-biofilm or QS inhibitory activity as sources of structural insight to guide the synthesis of novel biofilm modulators with improved activities. These studies revealed 2-aminobenzimidazole derivatives as highly potent biofilm inhibitors and dispersers in the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Studies of second-generation 2-aminobenzimidazoles revealed important structure-activity relationships that guided the design of yet more potent analogs. These compounds are amongst the most potent inhibitors of biofilm formation in wild-type P. aeruginosa to be reported. Mechanistic studies of the most active compounds suggest that QS inhibition is one pathway by which 2-aminobenzimidazoles modulate biofilm growth.

  11. Remote Sensing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Richard S., Jr.; Southworth, C. Scott

    1983-01-01

    The Landsat Program became the major event of 1982 in geological remote sensing with the successful launch of Landsat 4. Other 1982 remote sensing accomplishments, research, publications, (including a set of Landsat worldwide reference system index maps), and conferences are highlighted. (JN)

  12. Remote sensing

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, N.H.; Beaumont, E.A.

    1992-01-01

    Remote sensing is defined by the American Geological Institute's Glossary of Geology as The collection of information about an object by a recording device that is not in physical contact with it. The term is usually restricted to mean methods that record reflected or radiated electromagnetic energy, rather than methods that involve significant penetration into the Earth. The technique employs such devices as the camera, infrared detectors, microwave frequency receivers, and radar systems. Aerial photographs were the first remotely sensed data sensing the visible portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. Because photogeology and photogeomorphology have been widely used for many years with great success in petroleum exploration, we included papers on these subjects in this volume. This volume begins with a series of general papers chosen to cover most aspects of remote sensing. These are followed by papers on thermal infrared imagery and on radar. Finally, several papers present case histories illustrating the use of remote sensing in geologic interpretation and petroleum exploration.

  13. Structural and Biochemical Characterization of AidC, a Quorum-Quenching Lactonase with Atypical Selectivity.

    PubMed

    Mascarenhas, Romila; Thomas, Pei W; Wu, Chun-Xiang; Nocek, Boguslaw P; Hoang, Quyen Q; Liu, Dali; Fast, Walter

    2015-07-21

    Quorum-quenching catalysts are of interest for potential application as biochemical tools for interrogating interbacterial communication pathways, as antibiofouling agents, and as anti-infective agents in plants and animals. Herein, the structure and function of AidC, an N-acyl-l-homoserine lactone (AHL) lactonase from Chryseobacterium, is characterized. Steady-state kinetics show that zinc-supplemented AidC is the most efficient wild-type quorum-quenching enzymes characterized to date, with a kcat/KM value of approximately 2 × 10(6) M(-1) s(-1) for N-heptanoyl-l-homoserine lactone. The enzyme has stricter substrate selectivity and significantly lower KM values (ca. 50 ?M for preferred substrates) compared to those of typical AHL lactonases (ca. >1 mM). X-ray crystal structures of AidC alone and with the product N-hexanoyl-l-homoserine were determined at resolutions of 1.09 and 1.67 Å, respectively. Each structure displays as a dimer, and dimeric oligiomerization was also observed in solution by size-exclusion chromatography coupled with multiangle light scattering. The structures