Sample records for quorum sensing inhibitors

  1. Caffeine as a potential quorum sensing inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Norizan, Siti Nur Maisarah; Yin, Wai-Fong; Chan, Kok-Gan

    2013-01-01

    Quorum sensing enables bacteria to control the gene expression in response to the cell density. It regulates a variety of bacterial physiological functions such as biofilm formation, bioluminescence, virulence factors and swarming which has been shown contribute to bacterial pathogenesis. The use of quorum sensing inhibitor would be of particular interest in treating bacterial pathogenicity and infections. In this work, we have tested caffeine as quorum sensing inhibitor by using Chromobacterium violaceum CV026 as a biosensor. We verified that caffeine did not degrade the N-acyl homoserine lactones tested. In this work, it is shown that caffeine could inhibit N-acyl homoserine lactone production and swarming of a human opportunistic pathogen, namely Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA01. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first documentation providing evidence on the presence of anti-quorum sensing activity in caffeine. Our work will allow caffeine to be explored as anti-infective drugs. PMID:23598500

  2. Targeting Staphylococcus aureus Quorum Sensing with Nonpeptidic Small Molecule Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    A series of 3-oxo-C12-HSL, tetramic acid, and tetronic acid analogues were synthesized to gain insights into the structural requirements for quorum sensing inhibition in Staphylococcus aureus. Compounds active against agr were noncompetitive inhibitors of the autoinducing peptide (AIP) activated AgrC receptor, by altering the activation efficacy of the cognate AIP-1. They appeared to act as negative allosteric modulators and are exemplified by 3-tetradecanoyltetronic acid 17, which reduced nasal cell colonization and arthritis in a murine infection model. PMID:24592914

  3. Attenuation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa virulence by quorum sensing inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Hentzer, Morten; Wu, Hong; Andersen, Jens Bo; Riedel, Kathrin; Rasmussen, Thomas B.; Bagge, Niels; Kumar, Naresh; Schembri, Mark A.; Song, Zhijun; Kristoffersen, Peter; Manefield, Mike; Costerton, John W.; Molin, Søren; Eberl, Leo; Steinberg, Peter; Kjelleberg, Staffan; Høiby, Niels; Givskov, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Traditional treatment of infectious diseases is based on compounds that kill or inhibit growth of bacteria. A major concern with this approach is the frequent development of resistance to antibiotics. The discovery of communication systems (quorum sensing systems) regulating bacterial virulence has afforded a novel opportunity to control infectious bacteria without interfering with growth. Compounds that can override communication signals have been found in the marine environment. Using Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 as an example of an opportunistic human pathogen, we show that a synthetic derivate of natural furanone compounds can act as a potent antagonist of bacterial quorum sensing. We employed GeneChip® microarray technology to identify furanone target genes and to map the quorum sensing regulon. The transcriptome analysis showed that the furanone drug specifically targeted quorum sensing systems and inhibited virulence factor expression. Application of the drug to P.aeruginosa biofilms increased bacterial susceptibility to tobramycin and SDS. In a mouse pulmonary infection model, the drug inhibited quorum sensing of the infecting bacteria and promoted their clearance by the mouse immune response. PMID:12881415

  4. Computer-Aided Identification of Recognized Drugs as Pseudomonas aeruginosa Quorum-Sensing Inhibitors? †

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Liang; Rybtke, Morten Theil; Jakobsen, Tim Holm; Hentzer, Morten; Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Givskov, Michael; Tolker-Nielsen, Tim

    2009-01-01

    Attenuation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa virulence by the use of small-molecule quorum-sensing inhibitors (referred to as the antipathogenic drug principle) is likely to play a role in future treatment strategies for chronic infections. In this study, structure-based virtual screening was used in a search for putative quorum-sensing inhibitors from a database comprising approved drugs and natural compounds. The database was built from compounds which showed structural similarities to previously reported quorum-sensing inhibitors, the ligand of the P. aeruginosa quorum-sensing receptor LasR, and a quorum-sensing receptor agonist. Six top-ranking compounds, all recognized drugs, were identified and tested for quorum-sensing-inhibitory activity. Three compounds, salicylic acid, nifuroxazide, and chlorzoxazone, showed significant inhibition of quorum-sensing-regulated gene expression and related phenotypes in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggest that the identified compounds have the potential to be used as antipathogenic drugs. Furthermore, the results indicate that structure-based virtual screening is an efficient tool in the search for novel compounds to combat bacterial infections. PMID:19364871

  5. Glycosylflavonoids from Cecropia pachystachya Trécul are quorum sensing inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Brango-Vanegas, J; Costa, G M; Ortmann, C F; Schenkel, E P; Reginatto, F H; Ramos, F A; Arévalo-Ferro, C; Castellanos, L

    2014-04-15

    The Cecropia genus is widely distributed in Latin America including at least 60 species, and some of them are commonly used in traditional medicine for the treatment of several diseases. We used Cecropia pachystachya Trécul to search for quorum sensing (QS) inhibitors compounds and found that the aqueous extract of C. pachystachya leaves is a promising source of substances with this activity. Using as biosensor Chromobacterium violaceum ATCC 31532 and Escherichia coli pSB403, the compounds chlorogenic acid (2), isoorientin (3), orientin (4), isovitexin (6), vitexin (7), and rutin (9) were identified as QS inhibitors. None of these compounds inhibited the growth of neither the used biosensors nor the microorganisms Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 23591, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, used here as growth inhibition controls. Along with the rutin, here we presented for the first time the QS-inhibition potential of the C-glycosyl flavonoids. The prospective of this evidence lead to the use of these compounds as antipathogenic drugs or antifoulants. PMID:24548722

  6. Food as a Source for Quorum Sensing Inhibitors: Iberin from Horseradish Revealed as a Quorum Sensing Inhibitor of Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Jakobsen, Tim Holm; Bragason, Steinn Kristinn; Phipps, Richard Kerry; Christensen, Louise Dahl; van Gennip, Maria; Alhede, Morten; Skindersoe, Mette; Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld; Høiby, Niels; Bjarnsholt, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Foods with health-promoting effects beyond nutritional values have been gaining increasing research focus in recent years, although not much has been published on this subject in relation to bacterial infections. With respect to treatment, a novel antimicrobial strategy, which is expected to transcend problems with selective pressures for antibiotic resistance, is to interrupt bacterial communication, also known as quorum sensing (QS), by means of signal antagonists, the so-called QS inhibitors (QSIs). Furthermore, QSI agents offer a potential solution to the deficiencies associated with use of traditional antibiotics to treat infections caused by bacterial biofilms and multidrug-resistant bacteria. Several QSIs of natural origin have been identified, and in this study, several common food products and plants were extracted and screened for QSI activity in an attempt to isolate and characterize previously unknown QSI compounds active against the common opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Several extracts displayed activity, but horseradish exhibited the highest activity. Chromatographic separation led to the isolation of a potent QSI compound that was identified by liquid chromatography-diode array detector-mass spectrometry (LC-DAD-MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy as iberin—an isothiocyanate produced by many members of the Brassicaceae family. Real-time PCR (RT-PCR) and DNA microarray studies showed that iberin specifically blocks expression of QS-regulated genes in P. aeruginosa. PMID:22286987

  7. Targeting quorum sensing in Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms: current and emerging inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Jakobsen, Tim Holm; Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Jensen, Peter Østrup; Givskov, Michael; Høiby, Niels

    2013-07-01

    Bacterial resistance to conventional antibiotics combined with an increasing acknowledgement of the role of biofilms in chronic infections has led to a growing interest in new antimicrobial strategies that target the biofilm mode of growth. In the aggregated biofilm mode, cell-to-cell communication systems involved in the process known as quorum sensing regulate coordinated expression of virulence with immune shielding mechanisms and antibiotic resistance. For two decades, the potential of interference with quorum sensing by small chemical compounds has been investigated with the aim of developing alternative antibacterial strategies. Here, we review state of the art research of quorum sensing inhibitors against the opportunistic human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which is found in a number of biofilm-associated infections and identified as the predominant organism infecting the lungs of cystic fibrosis patients. PMID:23841636

  8. Discovery of potent inhibitors of pseudomonal quorum sensing via pharmacophore modeling and in silico screening.

    PubMed

    Taha, Mutasem O; Al-Bakri, Amal G; Zalloum, Waleed A

    2006-11-15

    HipHop-Refine was employed to derive a binding hypothesis for pseudomonal quorum sensing (QS) antagonists. The model was employed as 3D search query to screen the National Cancer Institute (NCI) database. One of the hits illustrated nanomolar QS inhibitory activity. The fact that this compound contained tetravalent lead (Pb) prompted us to evaluate the activities of phenyl mercuric nitrate and thimerosal, both fit the binding pharmacophore. The two mercurials illustrated nanomolar to low micromolar IC50 inhibitory values against pseudomonal QS. The three compounds represent a new class of QS inhibitors. PMID:16945524

  9. Identification of Quorum-Sensing Inhibitors Disrupting Signaling between Rgg and Short Hydrophobic Peptides in Streptococci

    PubMed Central

    Aggarwal, Chaitanya; Jimenez, Juan Cristobal; Lee, Hyun; Chlipala, George E.; Ratia, Kiira

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Bacteria coordinate a variety of social behaviors, important for both environmental and pathogenic bacteria, through a process of intercellular chemical signaling known as quorum sensing (QS). As microbial resistance to antibiotics grows more common, a critical need has emerged to develop novel anti-infective therapies, such as an ability to attenuate bacterial pathogens by means of QS interference. Rgg quorum-sensing pathways, widespread in the phylum Firmicutes, employ cytoplasmic pheromone receptors (Rgg transcription factors) that directly bind and elicit gene expression responses to imported peptide signals. In the human-restricted pathogen Streptococcus pyogenes, the Rgg2/Rgg3 regulatory circuit controls biofilm development in response to the short hydrophobic peptides SHP2 and SHP3. Using Rgg-SHP as a model receptor-ligand target, we sought to identify chemical compounds that could specifically inhibit Rgg quorum-sensing circuits. Individual compounds from a diverse library of known drugs and drug-like molecules were screened for their ability to disrupt complexes of Rgg and FITC (fluorescein isothiocyanate)-conjugated SHP using a fluorescence polarization (FP) assay. The best hits were found to bind Rgg3 in vitro with submicromolar affinities, to specifically abolish transcription of Rgg2/3-controlled genes, and to prevent biofilm development in S. pyogenes without affecting bacterial growth. Furthermore, the top hit, cyclosporine A, as well as its nonimmunosuppressive analog, valspodar, inhibited Rgg-SHP pathways in multiple species of Streptococcus. The Rgg-FITC-peptide-based screen provides a platform to identify inhibitors specific for each Rgg type. Discovery of Rgg inhibitors constitutes a step toward the goal of manipulating bacterial behavior for purposes of improving health. PMID:25968646

  10. QUORUM SENSING IN BACTERIA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Melissa B. Miller; Bonnie L. Bassler

    2001-01-01

    ? Abstract Quorum sensing is the regulation of gene expression in response to fluctuations in cell-population density. Quorum sensing bacteria produce and release chemical signal molecules called autoinducers that increase in concentration as a function of cell density. The detection of a minimal threshold stimulatory con- centration of an autoinducer leads to an alteration in gene expression. Gram-positive and Gram-negative

  11. A quorum-sensing inhibitor blocks Pseudomonas aeruginosa virulence and biofilm formation

    PubMed Central

    O’Loughlin, Colleen T.; Miller, Laura C.; Siryaporn, Albert; Drescher, Knut; Semmelhack, Martin F.; Bassler, Bonnie L.

    2013-01-01

    Quorum sensing is a chemical communication process that bacteria use to regulate collective behaviors. Disabling quorum-sensing circuits with small molecules has been proposed as a potential strategy to prevent bacterial pathogenicity. The human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa uses quorum sensing to control virulence and biofilm formation. Here, we analyze synthetic molecules for inhibition of the two P. aeruginosa quorum-sensing receptors, LasR and RhlR. Our most effective compound, meta-bromo-thiolactone (mBTL), inhibits both the production of the virulence factor pyocyanin and biofilm formation. mBTL also protects Caenorhabditis elegans and human lung epithelial cells from killing by P. aeruginosa. Both LasR and RhlR are partially inhibited by mBTL in vivo and in vitro; however, RhlR, not LasR, is the relevant in vivo target. More potent antagonists do not exhibit superior function in impeding virulence. Because LasR and RhlR reciprocally control crucial virulence factors, appropriately tuning rather than completely inhibiting their activities appears to hold the key to blocking pathogenesis in vivo. PMID:24143808

  12. Discovery of potent inhibitors of pseudomonal quorum sensing via pharmacophore modeling and in silico screening

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mutasem O. Taha; Amal G. Al-Bakri; Waleed A. Zalloum

    2006-01-01

    HipHop-Refine was employed to derive a binding hypothesis for pseudomonal quorum sensing (QS) antagonists. The model was employed as 3D search query to screen the National Cancer Institute (NCI) database. One of the hits illustrated nanomolar QS inhibitory activity. The fact that this compound contained tetravalent lead (Pb) prompted us to evaluate the activities of phenyl mercuric nitrate and thimerosal,

  13. At a Supra-Physiological Concentration, Human Sexual Hormones Act as Quorum-Sensing Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Beury-Cirou, Amélie; Tannières, Mélanie; Minard, Corinne; Soulère, Laurent; Rasamiravaka, Tsiry; Dodd, Robert H.; Queneau, Yves; Dessaux, Yves; Guillou, Catherine; Vandeputte, Olivier M.; Faure, Denis

    2013-01-01

    N-Acylhomoserine lactone (AHL)-mediated quorum-sensing (QS) regulates virulence functions in plant and animal pathogens such as Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. A chemolibrary of more than 3500 compounds was screened using two bacterial AHL-biosensors to identify QS-inhibitors (QSIs). The purity and structure of 15 QSIs selected through this screening were verified using HPLC MS/MS tools and their activity tested on the A. tumefaciens and P. aeruginosa bacterial models. The IC50 value of the identified QSIs ranged from 2.5 to 90 µg/ml, values that are in the same range as those reported for the previously identified QSI 4-nitropyridine-N-oxide (IC50 24 µg/ml). Under the tested culture conditions, most of the identified QSIs did not exhibit bacteriostatic or bactericidal activities. One third of the tested QSIs, including the plant compound hordenine and the human sexual hormone estrone, decreased the frequency of the QS-regulated horizontal transfer of the tumor-inducing (Ti) plasmid in A. tumefaciens. Hordenine, estrone as well as its structural relatives estriol and estradiol, also decreased AHL accumulation and the expression of six QS-regulated genes (lasI, lasR, lasB, rhlI, rhlR, and rhlA) in cultures of the opportunist pathogen P. aeruginosa. Moreover, the ectopic expression of the AHL-receptors RhlR and LasR of P. aeruginosa in E. coli showed that their gene-regulatory activity was affected by the QSIs. Finally, modeling of the structural interactions between the human hormones and AHL-receptors LasR of P. aeruginosa and TraR of A. tumefaciens confirmed the competitive binding capability of the human sexual hormones. This work indicates potential interferences between bacterial and eukaryotic hormonal communications. PMID:24376718

  14. Deciphering the role of coumarin as a novel quorum sensing inhibitor suppressing virulence phenotypes in bacterial pathogens.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Barranquero, José A; Reen, F Jerry; McCarthy, Ronan R; O'Gara, Fergal

    2015-04-01

    The rapid unchecked rise in antibiotic resistance over the last few decades has led to an increased focus on the need for alternative therapeutic strategies for the treatment and clinical management of microbial infections. In particular, small molecules that can suppress microbial virulence systems independent of any impact on growth are receiving increased attention. Quorum sensing (QS) is a cell-to-cell signalling communication system that controls the virulence behaviour of a broad spectrum of bacterial pathogens. QS systems have been proposed as an effective target, particularly as they control biofilm formation in pathogens, a key driver of antibiotic ineffectiveness. In this study, we identified coumarin, a natural plant phenolic compound, as a novel QS inhibitor, with potent anti-virulence activity in a broad spectrum of pathogens. Using a range of biosensor systems, coumarin was active against short, medium and long chain N-acyl-homoserine lactones, independent of any effect on growth. To determine if this suppression was linked to anti-virulence activity, key virulence systems were studied in the nosocomial pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Consistent with suppression of QS, coumarin inhibited biofilm, the production of phenazines and swarming motility in this organism potentially linked to reduced expression of the rhlI and pqsA quorum sensing genes. Furthermore, coumarin significantly inhibited biofilm formation and protease activity in other bacterial pathogens and inhibited bioluminescence in Aliivibrio fischeri. In light of these findings, coumarin would appear to have potential as a novel quorum sensing inhibitor with a broad spectrum of action. PMID:25672848

  15. Polyhydroxyanthraquinones as Quorum Sensing Inhibitors from the Guttates of Penicillium restrictum and Their Analysis by Desorption Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The endophytic fungus Penicillium restrictum was isolated from the stems of a milk thistle (Silybum marianum) plant. In culture, the fungus produced distinct red guttates, which have been virtually uninvestigated, particularly from the standpoint of chemistry. Hence, this study examined the chemical mycology of P. restrictum and, in doing so, uncovered a series of both known and new polyhydroxyanthraquinones (1–9). These compounds were quorum sensing inhibitors in a clinical isolate of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), with IC50 values ranging from 8 to 120 ?M, suggesting antivirulence potential for the compounds. Moreover, the spatial and temporal distribution of the polyhydroxyanthraquinones was examined in situ via desorption electrospray ionization–mass spectrometry (DESI-MS) imaging, demonstrating the first application of this technique to a guttate-forming fungus and revealing both the concentration of secondary metabolites at the ventral surface of the fungus and their variance in colonies of differing ages. PMID:24911880

  16. Identity and effects of quorum-sensing inhibitors produced by Penicillium species.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Thomas Bovbjerg; Skindersoe, Mette E; Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Phipps, Richard K; Christensen, Kathrine Bisgaard; Jensen, Peter Ostrup; Andersen, Jens Bo; Koch, Birgit; Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld; Hentzer, Morten; Eberl, Leo; Hoiby, Niels; Givskov, Michael

    2005-05-01

    Quorum sensing (QS) communication systems are thought to afford bacteria with a mechanism to strategically cause disease. One example is Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which infects immunocompromised individuals such as cystic fibrosis patients. The authors have previously documented that blockage of the QS systems not only attenuates Ps. aeruginosa but also renders biofilms highly susceptible to treatment with conventional antibiotics. Filamentous fungi produce a battery of secondary metabolites, some of which are already in clinical use as antimicrobial drugs. Fungi coexist with bacteria but lack active immune systems, so instead rely on chemical defence mechanisms. It was speculated that some of these secondary metabolites could interfere with bacterial QS communication. During a screening of 100 extracts from 50 Penicillium species, 33 were found to produce QS inhibitory (QSI) compounds. In two cases, patulin and penicillic acid were identified as being biologically active QSI compounds. Their effect on QS-controlled gene expression in Ps. aeruginosa was verified by DNA microarray transcriptomics. Similar to previously investigated QSI compounds, patulin was found to enhance biofilm susceptibility to tobramycin treatment. Ps. aeruginosa has developed QS-dependent mechanisms that block development of the oxidative burst in PMN neutrophils. Accordingly, when the bacteria were treated with either patulin or penicillic acid, the neutrophils became activated. In a mouse pulmonary infection model, Ps. aeruginosa was more rapidly cleared from the mice that were treated with patulin compared with the placebo group. PMID:15870443

  17. Quorum sensing inhibition, relevance to periodontics.

    PubMed

    Yada, Sudheer; Kamalesh, B; Sonwane, Siddharth; Guptha, Indra; Swetha, R K

    2015-01-01

    Quorum sensing helps bacteria to communicate with each other and in coordinating their behavior. Many diseases of human beings, plants, and animals are mediated by quorum sensing. Various approaches are being tried to inhibit this communication to control the diseases caused by bacteria. Periodontal pathogens also communicate through quorum sensing and new approaches to treat periodontal disease using quorum sensing inhibition need to explored. PMID:25709373

  18. Optimal Census by Quorum Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Taillefumier, Thibaud; Wingreen, Ned S.

    2015-01-01

    Quorum sensing is the regulation of gene expression in response to changes in cell density. To measure their cell density, bacterial populations produce and detect diffusible molecules called autoinducers. Individual bacteria internally represent the external concentration of autoinducers via the level of monitor proteins. In turn, these monitor proteins typically regulate both their own production and the production of autoinducers, thereby establishing internal and external feedbacks. Here, we ask whether feedbacks can increase the information available to cells about their local density. We quantify available information as the mutual information between the abundance of a monitor protein and the local cell density for biologically relevant models of quorum sensing. Using variational methods, we demonstrate that feedbacks can increase information transmission, allowing bacteria to resolve up to two additional ranges of cell density when compared with bistable quorum-sensing systems. Our analysis is relevant to multi-agent systems that track an external driver implicitly via an endogenously generated signal. PMID:25965377

  19. Optimal census by quorum sensing.

    PubMed

    Taillefumier, Thibaud; Wingreen, Ned S

    2015-05-01

    Quorum sensing is the regulation of gene expression in response to changes in cell density. To measure their cell density, bacterial populations produce and detect diffusible molecules called autoinducers. Individual bacteria internally represent the external concentration of autoinducers via the level of monitor proteins. In turn, these monitor proteins typically regulate both their own production and the production of autoinducers, thereby establishing internal and external feedbacks. Here, we ask whether feedbacks can increase the information available to cells about their local density. We quantify available information as the mutual information between the abundance of a monitor protein and the local cell density for biologically relevant models of quorum sensing. Using variational methods, we demonstrate that feedbacks can increase information transmission, allowing bacteria to resolve up to two additional ranges of cell density when compared with bistable quorum-sensing systems. Our analysis is relevant to multi-agent systems that track an external driver implicitly via an endogenously generated signal. PMID:25965377

  20. Screening for Quorum-Sensing Inhibitors (QSI) by Use of a Novel Genetic System, the QSI Selector

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas Bovbjerg Rasmussen; Thomas Bjarnsholt; Mette Elena Skindersoe; Morten Hentzer; Peter Kristoffersen; Manuela Kote; John Nielsen; Leo Eberl; Michael Givskov

    2005-01-01

    With the widespread appearance of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, there is an increasing demand for novel strategies to control infectious diseases. Furthermore, it has become apparent that the bacterial life style also contributes significantly to this problem. Bacteria living in the biofilm mode of growth tolerate conventional antimicrobial treatments. The discovery that many bacteria use quorum-sensing (QS) systems to coordinate virulence and

  1. Screening for Quorum-Sensing Inhibitors (QSI) by Use of a Novel Genetic System, the QSI Selector

    PubMed Central

    Rasmussen, Thomas Bovbjerg; Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Skindersoe, Mette Elena; Hentzer, Morten; Kristoffersen, Peter; Köte, Manuela; Nielsen, John; Eberl, Leo; Givskov, Michael

    2005-01-01

    With the widespread appearance of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, there is an increasing demand for novel strategies to control infectious diseases. Furthermore, it has become apparent that the bacterial life style also contributes significantly to this problem. Bacteria living in the biofilm mode of growth tolerate conventional antimicrobial treatments. The discovery that many bacteria use quorum-sensing (QS) systems to coordinate virulence and biofilm development has pointed out a new, promising target for antimicrobial drugs. We constructed a collection of screening systems, QS inhibitor (QSI) selectors, which enabled us to identify a number of novel QSIs among natural and synthetic compound libraries. The two most active were garlic extract and 4-nitro-pyridine-N-oxide (4-NPO). GeneChip-based transcriptome analysis revealed that garlic extract and 4-NPO had specificity for QS-controlled virulence genes in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. These two QSIs also significantly reduced P. aeruginosa biofilm tolerance to tobramycin treatment as well as virulence in a Caenorhabditis elegans pathogenesis model. PMID:15716452

  2. Isoprenyl caffeate, a major compound in manuka propolis, is a quorum-sensing inhibitor in Chromobacterium violaceum.

    PubMed

    Gemiarto, Adrian Tandhyka; Ninyio, Nathaniel Nyakaat; Lee, Siew Wei; Logis, Joko; Fatima, Ayesha; Chan, Eric Wei Chiang; Lim, Crystale Siew Ying

    2015-08-01

    The emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacterial pathogens, especially Gram-negative bacteria, has driven investigations into suppressing bacterial virulence via quorum sensing (QS) inhibition strategies instead of bactericidal and bacteriostatic approaches. Here, we investigated several bee products for potential compound(s) that exhibit significant QS inhibitory (QSI) properties at the phenotypic and molecular levels in Chromobacterium violaceum ATCC 12472 as a model organism. Manuka propolis produced the strongest violacein inhibition on C. violaceum lawn agar, while bee pollen had no detectable QSI activity and honey had bactericidal activity. Fractionated manuka propolis (pooled fraction 5 or PF5) exhibited the largest violacein inhibition zone (24.5 ± 2.5 mm) at 1 mg dry weight per disc. In C. violaceum liquid cultures, at least 450 µg/ml of manuka propolis PF5 completely inhibited violacein production. Gene expression studies of the vioABCDE operon, involved in violacein biosynthesis, showed significant (?two-fold) down-regulation of vioA, vioD and vioE in response to manuka propolis PF5. A potential QSI compound identified in manuka propolis PF5 is a hydroxycinnamic acid-derivative, isoprenyl caffeate, with a [M-H] of 247. Complete violacein inhibition in C. violaceum liquid cultures was achieved with at least 50 µg/ml of commercial isoprenyl caffeate. In silico docking experiments suggest that isoprenyl caffeate may act as an inhibitor of the violacein biosynthetic pathway by acting as a competitor for the FAD-binding pockets of VioD and VioA. Further studies on these compounds are warranted toward the development of anti-pathogenic drugs as adjuvants to conventional antibiotic treatments, especially in antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections. PMID:26059863

  3. GENE EXPRESSION IN SALMONELLA ENTERICA SEROTYPE TYPHIMURIUM LUXS MUTANT IN RESPONSE TO QUORUM SENSING SIGNALS AND A POULTRY MEAT-DERIVED QUORUM SENSING INHIBITOR USING MICROARRAY-BASED STUDIES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Quorum sensing describes the processes in which bacteria cells produce, secrete, and communicate using chemical signal molecules. There is evidence that these sensing signals, especially AI-2, can influence bacterial gene expression. We have previously shown that food matrices, such as poultry wash ...

  4. Exploring the chemical space of ureidothiophene-2-carboxylic acids as inhibitors of the quorum sensing enzyme PqsD from Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Sahner, J Henning; Empting, Martin; Kamal, Ahmed; Weidel, Elisabeth; Groh, Matthias; Börger, Carsten; Hartmann, Rolf W

    2015-05-26

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa employs a quorum sensing (QS) communication system that makes use of small diffusible molecules. Among other effects, the QS system coordinates the formation of biofilm which decisively contributes to difficulties in the therapy of Pseudomonas infections. The present work deals with the structure-activity exploration of ureidothiophene-2-carboxylic acids as inhibitors of PqsD, a key enzyme in the biosynthetic pathway of signal molecules in the Pseudomonas QS system. We describe an improvement of the inhibitory activity by successfully combining features from two different PqsD inhibitor classes. Furthermore the functional groups, which are responsible for the inhibitory potency, were identified. Moreover, the inability of the new inhibitors, to prevent signal molecule formation in whole cell assays, is discussed. PMID:25874327

  5. Construction of an effective screening system for detection of Pseudomonas aeruginosa quorum sensing inhibitors and its application in bioautographic thin-layer chromatography.

    PubMed

    Wang, Linna; Zou, Shanshan; Yin, Shouliang; Liu, Hongbing; Yu, Wengong; Gong, Qianhong

    2011-07-01

    In Pseudomonas aeruginosa, quorum sensing (QS) regulates dozens of genes and proteins, many of which contribute to the virulence of this pathogen. QS inhibitory (QSI) compounds have been proposed as potential agents for treatment of bacterial infections. To search for Ps. aeruginosa QS inhibitors, we constructed an effective screening system, QSIS-lasI selector, based on the PlasI-sacB reporter, in which QS could be induced with 20 nM 3-oxo-N-[(3S)-tetrahydro-2-oxo-3-furanyl]-dodecanamide (3-oxo-C(12)-HSL). During screening of the crude extracts from 65 marine fungi, an isolate of Penicillium atramentosum was found to have QSI activity. Thin-layer chromatography assay of the fungal extracts for bioautographic identification of QSIS-lasI indicated that this fungus produced several QSI compounds, including QS inhibitors other than penicillic acid or patulin. PMID:21344206

  6. Inhibition of Lux quorum-sensing system by synthetic N-acyl-L-homoserine lactone analogous.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenzhao; Morohoshi, Tomohiro; Ikeda, Tsukasa; Chen, Liang

    2008-12-01

    In the present study, we investigated the inhibition of the Lux quorum-sensing system by N-acyl cyclopentylamine (Cn-CPA). The Lux quorum-sensing system regulates luminescence gene expression in Vibrio fischeri. We have already reported on the synthesis of Cn-CPA and their abilities as inhibitors of the quorum-sensing systems in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Serratia marcescens. In the case of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Las and Rhl quorum-sensing system) and Serratia marcescens (Spn quorum-sensing system), specific Cn-CPA with a particular acyl chain length showed the strongest inhibitory effect. In the case of the Lux quorum-sensing system, it was found that several kinds of Cn-CPA with a range from C5 to C10 showed similar strong inhibitory effects. Moreover, the inhibitory effect of Cn-CPA on the Lux quorum-sensing system was stronger than that of halogenated furanone, a natural quorum-sensing inhibitor. PMID:19089300

  7. Quorum sensing and the confusion about diffusion

    E-print Network

    West, Stuart

    Quorum sensing and the confusion about diffusion Stuart A. West1 , Klaus Winzer2 , Andy Gardner1 with both social interactions and a role of diffusion; (v) alternate hypotheses, such as efficiency sensing to cell density. Bacteria produce and release small diffusible molecules, usually termed signals (see

  8. Disruption of bacterial quorum sensing by other organisms.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Wolfgang D; Robinson, Jayne B

    2002-06-01

    Higher plants and algae produce compounds that mimic quorum sensing: signals used by bacteria to regulate the expression of many genes and behaviors. Similarly, various bacteria can stimulate, inhibit or inactivate quorum sensing in other bacteria. These discoveries offer new opportunities to manipulate bacterial quorum sensing in applications relevant to medicine, agriculture and the environment. PMID:12180098

  9. Streptomycin Inhibits Quorum Sensing in Acinetobacter baumannii

    PubMed Central

    Saroj, Sunil D.

    2013-01-01

    Streptomycin at subinhibitory concentrations was found to inhibit quorum sensing in Acinetobacter baumannii. Conditioned medium prepared by growth of A. baumannii in the presence of subinhibitory concentrations of streptomycin exhibited reduced activation of two quorum-sensing-regulated genes, abaI, encoding an autoinducer synthase, and A1S_0112. The reduced expression of AbaI resulted in greatly decreased levels of 3-OH-C12-HSL as confirmed by direct analysis using thin-layer chromatography. The effect on acyl-homoserine lactone (AHL) signal production was specific to streptomycin, as gentamicin and myomycin had no significant effect at subinhibitory levels. PMID:23318804

  10. Streptomycin inhibits quorum sensing in Acinetobacter baumannii.

    PubMed

    Saroj, Sunil D; Rather, Philip N

    2013-04-01

    Streptomycin at subinhibitory concentrations was found to inhibit quorum sensing in Acinetobacter baumannii. Conditioned medium prepared by growth of A. baumannii in the presence of subinhibitory concentrations of streptomycin exhibited reduced activation of two quorum-sensing-regulated genes, abaI, encoding an autoinducer synthase, and A1S_0112. The reduced expression of AbaI resulted in greatly decreased levels of 3-OH-C(12)-HSL as confirmed by direct analysis using thin-layer chromatography. The effect on acyl-homoserine lactone (AHL) signal production was specific to streptomycin, as gentamicin and myomycin had no significant effect at subinhibitory levels. PMID:23318804

  11. Preliminary results of a novel quorum sensing inhibitor against pneumococcal infection and biofilm formation with special interest to otitis media and cochlear implantation.

    PubMed

    Cevizci, Ra?it; Düzlü, Mehmet; Dündar, Yasemin; Noyanalpan, Ningur; Sultan, Nedim; Tutar, Hakan; Bayaz?t, Y?ld?r?m A

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of the study is to assess the effect of a novel quorum sensing inhibitor (QSI), coded as 'yd 47', against otitis media and biofilm formation on Cochlear implants (CIs). Small pieces cut from cochlear implant were implanted under the skin in the retroauricular area on both sides of four guinea pigs. The implant pieces in the study and control sides were implanted in Streptococcus pneumoniae strain solution and saline, respectively. The right and left middle ears were also instilled with a solution containing pneumococci and saline, respectively. The animals were only given an intraperitoneal 'yd 47' twice daily for three months to be assessed later with electron microscopy. Clinical examination with palpation, inspection and otoscopy did not reveal any sign of implant infection or otitis media. In the study and control implant materials, soft tissues around the implant and tympanic membranes, there was no biofilm formation by pneumococci. Contamination by various cells and some rod-shaped bacteria (not diplococcic) were seen in some of the materials. In conclusion, the novel QSI seems promising in the prevention of otitis media and biofilm formation on CIs by pneumococci. PMID:24570174

  12. A Strategy for Antagonizing Quorum Sensing

    SciTech Connect

    G Chen; L Swem; D Swem; D Stauff; C OLoughlin; P Jeffrey; B Bassler; F Hughson

    2011-12-31

    Quorum-sensing bacteria communicate via small molecules called autoinducers to coordinate collective behaviors. Because quorum sensing controls virulence factor expression in many clinically relevant pathogens, membrane-permeable quorum sensing antagonists that prevent population-wide expression of virulence genes offer a potential route to novel antibacterial therapeutics. Here, we report a strategy for inhibiting quorum-sensing receptors of the widespread LuxR family. Structure-function studies with natural and synthetic ligands demonstrate that the dimeric LuxR-type transcription factor CviR from Chromobacterium violaceum is potently antagonized by molecules that bind in place of the native acylated homoserine lactone autoinducer, provided that they stabilize a closed conformation. In such conformations, each of the two DNA-binding domains interacts with the ligand-binding domain of the opposing monomer. Consequently, the DNA-binding helices are held apart by {approx}60 {angstrom}, twice the {approx}30 {angstrom} separation required for operator binding. This approach may represent a general strategy for the inhibition of multidomain proteins.

  13. Drimendiol, a drimane sesquiterpene with quorum sensing inhibition activity.

    PubMed

    Paza, Cristian; Cárcamo, Gerardo; Silva, Mario; Becerra, José; Urrutia, Homero; Sossa, Katherine

    2013-02-01

    Quorum sensing (QS) is a regulatory mechanism that enables bacteria to make collective decisions such as an increase in virulence factors and biofilm production. Inhibitors of QS are important research tools in the discovery of new potential anti-bacterial agents. Polygodial, drimenol and drimendiol are drimane sesquiterpenoids isolated from Drimys winteri, a Chilean native tree. Their QS activity, when tested on Chromobacterium violaceum ATCC 12472, showed that drimendiol is an inhibitor of QS, decreasing violaceine production in C violaceum and decreasing biofilm formation of Pseudomonas syringae strains. Consequently it increased the biocide effects of CuSO4 on biofilms of P. syringae. PMID:23513712

  14. Applications of quorum sensing in biotechnology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Swati Choudhary; Claudia Schmidt-Dannert

    2010-01-01

    Many unicellular microorganisms use small signaling molecules to determine their local concentration. The processes involved\\u000a in the production and recognition of these signals are collectively known as quorum sensing (QS). This form of cell–cell communication\\u000a is used by unicellular microorganisms to co-ordinate their activities, which allows them to function as multi-cellular systems.\\u000a Recently, several groups have demonstrated artificial intra-species and

  15. Exploiting Quorum Sensing To Confuse Bacterial Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    LaSarre, Breah

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Cell-cell communication, or quorum sensing, is a widespread phenomenon in bacteria that is used to coordinate gene expression among local populations. Its use by bacterial pathogens to regulate genes that promote invasion, defense, and spread has been particularly well documented. With the ongoing emergence of antibiotic-resistant pathogens, there is a current need for development of alternative therapeutic strategies. An antivirulence approach by which quorum sensing is impeded has caught on as a viable means to manipulate bacterial processes, especially pathogenic traits that are harmful to human and animal health and agricultural productivity. The identification and development of chemical compounds and enzymes that facilitate quorum-sensing inhibition (QSI) by targeting signaling molecules, signal biogenesis, or signal detection are reviewed here. Overall, the evidence suggests that QSI therapy may be efficacious against some, but not necessarily all, bacterial pathogens, and several failures and ongoing concerns that may steer future studies in productive directions are discussed. Nevertheless, various QSI successes have rightfully perpetuated excitement surrounding new potential therapies, and this review highlights promising QSI leads in disrupting pathogenesis in both plants and animals. PMID:23471618

  16. The impact of quorum sensing on the virulence of Aeromonas hydrophila and Aeromonas salmonicida towards burbot (Lota lota L.) larvae.

    PubMed

    Natrah, F M I; Alam, Md Iftakharul; Pawar, Sushant; Harzevili, A Shiri; Nevejan, Nancy; Boon, Nico; Sorgeloos, Patrick; Bossier, Peter; Defoirdt, Tom

    2012-09-14

    In this study, the link between quorum sensing in Aeromonas spp. and its virulence towards burbot (Lota lota) was investigated. High mortality occurred in burbot juveniles challenged with Aeromonas salmonicida HN-00, but not in juveniles challenged with Aeromonas hydrophila AH-1N. Meanwhile, both A. hydrophila AH-1N and A. salmonicida HN-00 were virulent towards larvae. The effect of quorum sensing on the virulence of A. hydrophila AH-1N towards burbot larvae was further investigated using quorum sensing mutants (N-(butyryl)-L-homoserine lactone production and receptor mutants). Challenge with these mutants resulted in higher survival of burbot larvae when compared to challenge with the wild type, and the addition of the signal molecule N-butyryl-L-homoserine lactone restored the virulence of the quorum sensing production mutant. Moreover, quorum sensing inhibitors protected the burbot larvae from both Aeromonas strains. Finally, the freshwater micro-algae Chlorella saccharophila and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, which are able to interfere with quorum sensing, also protected burbot from the pathogens. However, QS interference was unlikely to be the only mechanism. This study revealed that the virulence of Aeromonas spp. towards burbot is regulated by quorum sensing and that quorum sensing inhibitors and micro-algae are promising biocontrol agents. PMID:22465799

  17. Design, synthesis and biological evaluation of 4-(alkyloxy)-6-methyl-2H-pyran-2-one derivatives as quorum sensing inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Park, Suzie; Kim, Han-Shin; Ok, Kiwon; Kim, YunHye; Park, Hee-Deung; Byun, Youngjoo

    2015-08-01

    Novel pyrone-derived quorum sensing (QS) ligands to inhibit the binding of OdDHL to the LasR of Pseudomonas aeruginosa were designed, synthesized and evaluated. Among the analogs, the most potent compound 8 exhibited strong in vitro inhibitory activities against biofilm formation and down-regulated OdDHL/LasR-associated genes by 35-67%. The binding mode of 8 in silico was highly similar to that of the crystal ligand OdDHL in the active site of LasR. PMID:26048802

  18. Identification of Synthetic Inducers and Inhibitors of the Quorum-Sensing Regulator LasR in Pseudomonas aeruginosa by High-Throughput Screening ? †

    PubMed Central

    Borlee, Bradley R.; Geske, Grant D.; Blackwell, Helen E.; Handelsman, Jo

    2010-01-01

    We report the screening of 16,000 synthetic compounds for induction and inhibition of quorum sensing in a Pseudomonas putida N-acylated l-homoserine lactone (AHL) sensor strain engineered with the LasR transcriptional activator. LasR controls virulence gene expression in the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa and is of significant interest as a therapeutic target. Nine compounds that inhibit and 14 compounds that induce LasR activity were identified in our high-throughput screen. PMID:20935125

  19. Confinement-Induced Quorum Sensing of Individual Staphylococcus aureus Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Carnes, Eric C; Lopez, DeAnna M; Donegan, Niles P; Cheung, Ambrose; Gresham, Hattie; Timmins, Graham S; Brinker, CJ

    2014-01-01

    It is postulated that, in addition to cell density, other factors, such as the dimensions and diffusional characteristics of the environment, could influence quorum sensing (QS) and induction of genetic reprogramming. Modeling studies predict that QS may operate at the level of a single cell, but, due to experimental challenges, the potential benefits of QS by individual cells remain virtually unexplored. Here we report a physical system that mimics isolation of a bacterium, such as within an endosome or phagosome during infection, and maintains cell viability under conditions of complete chemical and physical isolation. For Staphylococcus aureus, we show quorum sensing and genetic re-programming to occur in a single isolated organism. Quorum sensing allows S. aureus to sense confinement and to activate virulence and metabolic pathways needed for survival. To demonstrate the benefit of confinement-induced quorum sensing to individuals, we showed quorum sensing bacteria to have significantly greater viability over non-QS bacteria. PMID:19935660

  20. Cooperation, Quorum Sensing, and Evolution of Virulence in Staphylococcus aureus

    E-print Network

    West, Stuart

    Cooperation, Quorum Sensing, and Evolution of Virulence in Staphylococcus aureus Eric J. G. Pollitt Staphylococcus aureus are associated with a cell-to-cell signaling mechanism known as quorum sensing (QS). QS widespread, evolution for signaling to coordinate cooperation in bacteria. Staphylococcus aureus is a major

  1. Migration of Dictyostelium Amoeba: Role of Adhesion and Quorum Sensing

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Migration of Dictyostelium Amoeba: Role of Adhesion and Quorum Sensing Laurent Gol´e LPMCN and cell and factors of Quorum sensing on the migration of Dictyostelium amoeba. Tools to automate of cells and to quantify cell migration. A microfluidic device for cell detachment in hydrodynamic flow

  2. An Environment Aware P-System Model of Quorum Sensing

    E-print Network

    Gheorghe, Marian

    An Environment Aware P-System Model of Quorum Sensing German Terrazas1 , Natalio Krasnogor1 the elementary microbiology background and present a P-systems based model for Quorum Sensing which includes biotechnology, computational biology, bioinfor- matics and computational modeling promise ever deeper

  3. An Environment Aware P-System Model of Quorum Sensing

    E-print Network

    Krasnogor, Natalio

    An Environment Aware P-System Model of Quorum Sensing G. Terrazas1 , N. Krasnogor2 , M. Gheorghe3 microbiology background and present a P-systems based model for Quorum Sensing which includes environmen- tal, computational biology, bioinfor- matics and computational modeling promise ever deeper understanding

  4. Transition state analogs of 5'-methylthioadenosine nucleosidase disrupt quorum sensing.

    SciTech Connect

    Gutierrez, J.; Crowder, T; Rinaldo-Matthis, A; Ho, M; Almo, S; Schramm, V

    2009-01-01

    5'-Methylthioadenosine/S-adenosylhomocysteine nucleosidase (MTAN) is a bacterial enzyme involved in S-adenosylmethionine-related quorum sensing pathways that induce bacterial pathogenesis factors. Transition state analogs MT-DADMe-Immucillin-A, EtT-DADMe-Immucillin-A and BuT-DADMe-Immucillin-A are slow-onset, tight-binding inhibitors of Vibrio cholerae MTAN (VcMTAN), with equilibrium dissociation constants of 73, 70 and 208 pM, respectively. Structural analysis of VcMTAN with BuT-DADMe-Immucillin-A revealed interactions contributing to the high affinity. We found that in V. cholerae cells, these compounds are potent MTAN inhibitors with IC50 values of 27, 31 and 6 nM for MT-, EtT- and BuT-DADMe-Immucillin-A, respectively; the compounds disrupt autoinducer production in a dose-dependent manner without affecting growth. MT- and BuT-DADMe-Immucillin-A also inhibited autoinducer-2 production in enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 with IC{sub 50} values of 600 and 125 nM, respectively. BuT-DADMe-Immucillin-A inhibition of autoinducer-2 production in both strains persisted for several generations and caused reduction in biofilm formation. These results support MTAN's role in quorum sensing and its potential as a target for bacterial anti-infective drug design.

  5. Quorum sensing and Bacterial Pathogenicity: From Molecules to Disease

    PubMed Central

    Deep, Antariksh; Chaudhary, Uma; Gupta, Varsha

    2011-01-01

    Quorum sensing in prokaryotic biology refers to the ability of a bacterium to sense information from other cells in the population when they reach a critical concentration (i.e. a Quorum) and communicate with them. The “language” used for this intercellular communication is based on small, self-generated signal molecules called as autoinducers. Quorum sensing is thought to afford pathogenic bacteriaa mechanism to minimize host immune responses by delaying theproduction of tissue-damaging virulence factors until sufficientbacteria have amassed and are prepared to overwhelm host defensemechanisms and establish infection. Quorum sensing systems are studied in a large number of gram-negative bacterial species belonging to ?, ?, and ? subclasses of proteobacteria. Among the pathogenic bacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa is perhaps the best understood in terms of the virulence factors regulated and the role the Quorum sensing plays in pathogenicity. Presently, Quorum sensing is considered as a potential novel target for antimicrobial therapy to control multi/all drug-resistant infections. This paper reviews Quorum sensing in gram positive and gram negative bacteria and its role in biofilm formation. PMID:21701655

  6. Interspecific quorum sensing mediates the resuscitation of viable but nonculturable vibrios.

    PubMed

    Ayrapetyan, Mesrop; Williams, Tiffany C; Oliver, James D

    2014-04-01

    Entry and exit from dormancy are essential survival mechanisms utilized by microorganisms to cope with harsh environments. Many bacteria, including the opportunistic human pathogen Vibrio vulnificus, enter a form of dormancy known as the viable but nonculturable (VBNC) state. VBNC cells can resuscitate when suitable conditions arise, yet the molecular mechanisms facilitating resuscitation in most bacteria are not well understood. We discovered that bacterial cell-free supernatants (CFS) can awaken preexisting dormant vibrio populations within oysters and seawater, while CFS from a quorum sensing mutant was unable to produce the same resuscitative effect. Furthermore, the quorum sensing autoinducer AI-2 could induce resuscitation of VBNC V. vulnificus in vitro, and VBNC cells of a mutant unable to produce AI-2 were unable to resuscitate unless the cultures were supplemented with exogenous AI-2. The quorum sensing inhibitor cinnamaldehyde delayed the resuscitation of wild-type VBNC cells, confirming the importance of quorum sensing in resuscitation. By monitoring AI-2 production by VBNC cultures over time, we found quorum sensing signaling to be critical for the natural resuscitation process. This study provides new insights into the molecular mechanisms stimulating VBNC cell exit from dormancy, which has significant implications for microbial ecology and public health. PMID:24509922

  7. Interspecific Quorum Sensing Mediates the Resuscitation of Viable but Nonculturable Vibrios

    PubMed Central

    Ayrapetyan, Mesrop; Williams, Tiffany C.

    2014-01-01

    Entry and exit from dormancy are essential survival mechanisms utilized by microorganisms to cope with harsh environments. Many bacteria, including the opportunistic human pathogen Vibrio vulnificus, enter a form of dormancy known as the viable but nonculturable (VBNC) state. VBNC cells can resuscitate when suitable conditions arise, yet the molecular mechanisms facilitating resuscitation in most bacteria are not well understood. We discovered that bacterial cell-free supernatants (CFS) can awaken preexisting dormant vibrio populations within oysters and seawater, while CFS from a quorum sensing mutant was unable to produce the same resuscitative effect. Furthermore, the quorum sensing autoinducer AI-2 could induce resuscitation of VBNC V. vulnificus in vitro, and VBNC cells of a mutant unable to produce AI-2 were unable to resuscitate unless the cultures were supplemented with exogenous AI-2. The quorum sensing inhibitor cinnamaldehyde delayed the resuscitation of wild-type VBNC cells, confirming the importance of quorum sensing in resuscitation. By monitoring AI-2 production by VBNC cultures over time, we found quorum sensing signaling to be critical for the natural resuscitation process. This study provides new insights into the molecular mechanisms stimulating VBNC cell exit from dormancy, which has significant implications for microbial ecology and public health. PMID:24509922

  8. Quorum sensing dependent phenotypes and their molecular mechanisms in Campylobacterales.

    PubMed

    Gölz, G; Sharbati, S; Backert, S; Alter, T

    2012-03-01

    Quorum sensing comprises the mechanism of communication between numerous bacteria via small signalling molecules, termed autoinducers (AI). Using quorum sensing, bacteria can regulate the expression of multiple genes involved in virulence, toxin production, motility, chemotaxis and biofilm formation, thus contributing to adaptation as well as colonisation. The current understanding of the role of quorum sensing in the lifecycle of Campylobacterales is still incomplete. Campylobacterales belong to the class of Epsilonproteobacteria representing a physiologically and ecologically diverse group of bacteria that are rather distinct from the more commonly studied Proteobacteria, such as Escherichia and Salmonella. This review summarises the recent knowledge on distribution and production of AI molecules, as well as possible quorum sensing dependent regulation in the mostly investigated species within the Campylobacterales group: Campylobacter jejuni and Helicobacter pylori. PMID:24611121

  9. A quorum sensing inspired algorithm for dynamic clustering

    E-print Network

    Feng Tan

    Quorum sensing is a decentralized biological process, through which a community of cells with no global awareness coordinate their functional behaviors based only on cell-medium interactions and local decisions. This paper ...

  10. Information processing and signal integration in bacterial quorum sensing

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Pankaj; Goyal, Sidhartha; Long, Tao; Bassler, Bonnie L; Wingreen, Ned S

    2009-01-01

    Bacteria communicate using secreted chemical signaling molecules called autoinducers in a process known as quorum sensing. The quorum-sensing network of the marine bacterium Vibrio harveyi uses three autoinducers, each known to encode distinct ecological information. Yet how cells integrate and interpret the information contained within these three autoinducer signals remains a mystery. Here, we develop a new framework for analyzing signal integration on the basis of information theory and use it to analyze quorum sensing in V. harveyi. We quantify how much the cells can learn about individual autoinducers and explain the experimentally observed input–output relation of the V. harveyi quorum-sensing circuit. Our results suggest that the need to limit interference between input signals places strong constraints on the architecture of bacterial signal-integration networks, and that bacteria probably have evolved active strategies for minimizing this interference. Here, we analyze two such strategies: manipulation of autoinducer production and feedback on receptor number ratios. PMID:19920810

  11. Electronic implementation of a repressilator with quorum sensing feedback.

    PubMed

    Hellen, Edward H; Dana, Syamal K; Zhurov, Boris; Volkov, Evgeny

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the dynamics of a synthetic genetic repressilator with quorum sensing feedback. In a basic genetic ring oscillator network in which three genes inhibit each other in unidirectional manner, an additional quorum sensing feedback loop stimulates the activity of a chosen gene providing competition between inhibitory and stimulatory activities localized in that gene. Numerical simulations show several interesting dynamics, multi-stability of limit cycle with stable steady-state, multi-stability of different stable steady-states, limit cycle with period-doubling and reverse period-doubling, and infinite period bifurcation transitions for both increasing and decreasing strength of quorum sensing feedback. We design an electronic analog of the repressilator with quorum sensing feedback and reproduce, in experiment, the numerically predicted dynamical features of the system. Noise amplification near infinite period bifurcation is also observed. An important feature of the electronic design is the accessibility and control of the important system parameters. PMID:23658793

  12. Evidence for quorum sensing in Clostridium botulinum 56A

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Zhao; T. J. Montville; D. W. Schaffner

    2006-01-01

    Aims: Experiments were designed to detect quorum-sensing signals produced by Clostridium botulinum. Methods and Results: Clostridium botulinum 56A cell-free supernatants obtained at the end of lag phase, the mid-exponential phase and early station- ary phase of growth were assayed for bioluminescence in the Vibrio harveyi quorum-sensing assay system. Twelve and 16-h culture supernatants induced bioluminescence in the auto-inducer 2 (AI-2)

  13. A Mathematical Model of Quorum Sensing Induced Biofilm Detachment

    PubMed Central

    Emerenini, Blessing O.; Hense, Burkhard A.; Kuttler, Christina; Eberl, Hermann J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Cell dispersal (or detachment) is part of the developmental cycle of microbial biofilms. It can be externally or internally induced, and manifests itself in discrete sloughing events, whereby many cells disperse in an instance, or in continuous slower dispersal of single cells. One suggested trigger of cell dispersal is quorum sensing, a cell-cell communication mechanism used to coordinate gene expression and behavior in groups based on population densities. Method To better understand the interplay of colony growth and cell dispersal, we develop a dynamic, spatially extended mathematical model that includes biofilm growth, production of quorum sensing molecules, cell dispersal triggered by quorum sensing molecules, and re-attachment of cells. This is a highly nonlinear system of diffusion-reaction equations that we study in computer simulations. Results Our results show that quorum sensing induced cell dispersal can be an efficient mechanism for bacteria to control the size of a biofilm colony, and at the same time enhance its downstream colonization potential. In fact we find that over the lifetime of a biofilm colony the majority of cells produced are lost into the aqueous phase, supporting the notion of biofilms as cell nurseries. We find that a single quorum sensing based mechanism can explain both, discrete dispersal events and continuous shedding of cells from a colony. Moreover, quorum sensing induced cell dispersal affects the structure and architecture of the biofilm, for example it might lead to the formation of hollow inner regions in a biofilm colony. PMID:26197231

  14. Zingerone silences quorum sensing and attenuates virulence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Lokender; Chhibber, Sanjay; Kumar, Rajnish; Kumar, Manoj; Harjai, Kusum

    2015-04-01

    Quorum sensing in Pseudomonas aeruginosa plays an imperative role in virulence factor, biofilm formation and antimicrobial resistance. Blocking quorum sensing pathways are viewed as viable anti-virulent therapy in association with traditional antimicrobial therapy. Anti-quorum sensing dietary phytochemicals with may prove to be a safe and viable choice as anti-virulent drug candidates. Previously, our lab proved zingerone as potent anti-biofilm agent hence; further its anti-virulent and anti-quorum activities were evaluated. Zingerone, besides decreasing swimming, swarming and twitching phenotypes of P. aeruginosa PAO1, reduced biofilm forming capacity and production of virulence factors including rhamnolipid, elastase, protease, pyocyanin, cell free and cell bound hemolysin (p<0.001) indicating anti-virulent property attributing towards attenuation of virulence of P. aeruginosa. Further zingerone not only had marked effect on the production of quorum sensing signal molecules by clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa but also showed significant interference with the activation of QS reporter strains. To study the mechanism of blocking quorum sensing cascade, in silico analysis was carried out. Anti-QS activity was attributed to interference with the ligand receptor interaction of zingerone with QS receptors (TraR, LasR, RhlR and PqsR). Zingerone showed a good comparative docking score to respective autoinducer molecules which was even higher than that of vanillin, a proven anti-quorum sensing phytochemical. The results of the present study revealed the anti-quorum sensing activity of zingerone targeting ligand-receptor interaction, hence proposing zingerone as a suitable anti-virulent drug candidate against P. aeruginosa infections. PMID:25704369

  15. Quorum sensing in group A Streptococcus

    PubMed Central

    Jimenez, Juan Cristobal; Federle, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Quorum sensing (QS) is a widespread phenomenon in the microbial world that has important implications in the coordination of population-wide responses in several bacterial pathogens. In Group A Streptococcus (GAS), many questions surrounding QS systems remain to be solved pertaining to their function and their contribution to the GAS lifestyle in the host. The QS systems of GAS described to date can be categorized into four groups: regulator gene of glucosyltransferase (Rgg), Sil, lantibiotic systems, and LuxS/AI-2. The Rgg family of proteins, a conserved group of transcription factors that modify their activity in response to signaling peptides, has been shown to regulate genes involved in virulence, biofilm formation and competence. The sil locus, whose expression is regulated by the activity of signaling peptides and a putative two-component system (TCS), has been implicated on regulating genes involved with invasive disease in GAS isolates. Lantibiotic regulatory systems are involved in the production of bacteriocins and their autoregulation, and some of these genes have been shown to target both bacterial organisms as well as processes of survival inside the infected host. Finally AI-2 (dihydroxy pentanedione, DPD), synthesized by the LuxS enzyme in several bacteria including GAS, has been proposed to be a universal bacterial communication molecule. In this review we discuss the mechanisms of these four systems, the putative functions of their targets, and pose critical questions for future studies. PMID:25309879

  16. Quorum sensing negatively regulates chitinase in Vibrio harveyi.

    PubMed

    Defoirdt, Tom; Darshanee Ruwandeepika, H A; Karunasagar, Indrani; Boon, Nico; Bossier, Peter

    2010-02-01

    Quorum sensing, bacterial cell-to-cell communication, regulates the virulence of Vibrio harveyi towards different hosts. Chitinase can be considered as a virulence factor because it helps pathogenic bacteria to attach to the host and to penetrate its tissues (e.g. in case of shrimp). Here, we show that quorum sensing negatively regulates chitinase in V. harveyi. Chitinolytic activity towards natural chitin from crab shells, the synthetic chitin derivative chitin azure, and fluorogenic chitin oligomers was significantly higher in a mutant in which the quorum-sensing system is completely inactivated when compared with a mutant in which the system is maximally active. Furthermore, the addition of signal molecule containing cell-free culture fluids decreased chitinase activity in a Harveyi Autoinducer 1 and Autoinducer 2-deficient double mutant. Finally, chitinase A mRNA levels were fivefold lower in the mutant in which the quorum-sensing system is maximally active when compared with the mutant in which the system is completely inactivated. [Correction added on 25 September 2009, after first online publication: the preceding sentence was corrected from 'Finally, chitinase A mRNA levels were fivefold lower in the mutant in which the quorum-sensing system is completely inactivated when compared with the mutant in which the system is maximally active.'] We argue that this regulation might help the vibrios to switch between host-associated and free-living life styles. PMID:23765997

  17. Biomimicry of quorum sensing using bacterial lifecycle model

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Recent microbiologic studies have shown that quorum sensing mechanisms, which serve as one of the fundamental requirements for bacterial survival, exist widely in bacterial intra- and inter-species cell-cell communication. Many simulation models, inspired by the social behavior of natural organisms, are presented to provide new approaches for solving realistic optimization problems. Most of these simulation models follow population-based modelling approaches, where all the individuals are updated according to the same rules. Therefore, it is difficult to maintain the diversity of the population. Results In this paper, we present a computational model termed LCM-QS, which simulates the bacterial quorum-sensing (QS) mechanism using an individual-based modelling approach under the framework of Agent-Environment-Rule (AER) scheme, i.e. bacterial lifecycle model (LCM). LCM-QS model can be classified into three main sub-models: chemotaxis with QS sub-model, reproduction and elimination sub-model and migration sub-model. The proposed model is used to not only imitate the bacterial evolution process at the single-cell level, but also concentrate on the study of bacterial macroscopic behaviour. Comparative experiments under four different scenarios have been conducted in an artificial 3-D environment with nutrients and noxious distribution. Detailed study on bacterial chemotatic processes with quorum sensing and without quorum sensing are compared. By using quorum sensing mechanisms, artificial bacteria working together can find the nutrient concentration (or global optimum) quickly in the artificial environment. Conclusions Biomimicry of quorum sensing mechanisms using the lifecycle model allows the artificial bacteria endowed with the communication abilities, which are essential to obtain more valuable information to guide their search cooperatively towards the preferred nutrient concentrations. It can also provide an inspiration for designing new swarm intelligence optimization algorithms, which can be used for solving the real-world problems. PMID:23815296

  18. Inhibiting Effect of Bioactive Metabolites Produced by Mushroom Cultivation on Bacterial Quorum Sensing-Regulated Behaviors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hu Zhu; Shou-xian Wang; Shuai-shuai Zhang; Chun-xu Cao

    2011-01-01

    Aims: This study aimed to search for novel quorum sensing (QS) inhibitors from mushroom and to analyze their inhibitory activity, with a view to their possible use in controlling detrimental infections. Methods: The bioactive metabolites produced by mushroom cultivation were tested for their abilities to inhibit QS-regulated behavior. All mushroom strains were cultivated in potato-dextrose medium by large-scale submerged fermentation.

  19. Quorum Sensing and Self-Quorum Quenching in the Intracellular Pathogen Brucellamelitensis

    PubMed Central

    Terwagne, Matthieu; Mirabella, Aurélie; Lemaire, Julien; Deschamps, Chantal; De Bolle, Xavier; Letesson, Jean-Jacques

    2013-01-01

    Brucella quorum sensing has been described as an important regulatory system controlling crucial virulence determinants such as the VirB type IV secretion system and the flagellar genes. However, the basis of quorum sensing, namely the production of autoinducers in Brucella has been questioned. Here, we report data obtained from the use of a genetic tool allowing the in situ detection of long-chain N-acyl-homoserine lactones (AHL) activity at single bacterium level in Brucella melitensis. These data are consistent with an intrinsic production of AHL by B. melitensis in low concentration both during in vitro growth and macrophage infection. Moreover, we identified a protein, named AibP, which is homologous to the AHL-acylases of various bacterial species. In vitro and during infection, expression of aibP coincided with a decrease in endogenous AHL activity within B. melitensis, suggesting that AibP could efficiently impair AHL accumulation. Furthermore, we showed that deletion of aibP in B. melitensis resulted in enhanced virB genes expression and VirB8 production as well as in a reduced flagellar genes expression and production of FlgE (hook protein) and FliC (flagellin) in vitro. Altogether, these results suggest that AHL-dependent quorum sensing and AHL-quorum quenching coexist in Brucella, at least to regulate its virulence. PMID:24349302

  20. Pandoraea sp. RB-44, A Novel Quorum Sensing Soil Bacterium

    PubMed Central

    Han-Jen, Robson Ee; Wai-Fong, Yin; Kok-Gan, Chan

    2013-01-01

    Proteobacteria are known to communicate via signaling molecules and this process is known as quorum sensing. The most commonly studied quorum sensing molecules are N-acylhomoserine lactones (AHLs) that consists of a homoserine lactone moiety and an N-acyl side chain with various chain lengths and degrees of saturation at the C-3 position. We have isolated a bacterium, RB-44, from a site which was formally a landfill dumping ground. Using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry analysis, this isolate was identified as a Pandoraea sp.which was then screened for AHL production using biosensors which indicated its quorum sensing properties. To identify the AHL profile of Pandoraea sp. RB-44, we used high resolution tandem mass spectrometry confirming that this isolate produced N-octanoylhomoserine lactone (C8-HSL). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report that showed quorum sensing activity exhibited by Pandoraea sp. Our data add Pandoraea sp. to the growing number of bacteria that possess QS systems. PMID:24145919

  1. Simple models for quorum sensing: Nonlinear dynamical analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wei-Yin Chiang; Yue-Xian Li; Pik-Yin Lai

    2011-01-01

    Quorum sensing refers to the change in the cooperative behavior of a collection of elements in response to the change in their population size or density. This behavior can be observed in chemical and biological systems. These elements or cells are coupled via chemicals in the surrounding environment. Here we focus on the change of dynamical behavior, in particular from

  2. Effects of Antibiotics on Quorum Sensing in Pseudomonas aeruginosa?

    PubMed Central

    Skindersoe, Mette E.; Alhede, Morten; Phipps, Richard; Yang, Liang; Jensen, Peter O.; Rasmussen, Thomas B.; Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Tolker-Nielsen, Tim; Høiby, Niels; Givskov, Michael

    2008-01-01

    During infection, Pseudomonas aeruginosa employs bacterial communication (quorum sensing [QS]) to coordinate the expression of tissue-damaging factors. QS-controlled gene expression plays a pivotal role in the virulence of P. aeruginosa, and QS-deficient mutants cause less severe infections in animal infection models. Treatment of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients chronically infected with P. aeruginosa with the macrolide antibiotic azithromycin (AZM) has been demonstrated to improve the clinical outcome. Several studies indicate that AZM may accomplish its beneficial action in CF patients by impeding QS, thereby reducing the pathogenicity of P. aeruginosa. This led us to investigate whether QS inhibition is a common feature of antibiotics. We present the results of a screening of 12 antibiotics for their QS-inhibitory activities using a previously described QS inhibitor selector 1 strain. Three of the antibiotics tested, AZM, ceftazidime (CFT), and ciprofloxacin (CPR), were very active in the assay and were further examined for their effects on QS-regulated virulence factor production in P. aeruginosa. The effects of the three antibiotics administered at subinhibitory concentrations were investigated by use of DNA microarrays. Consistent results from the virulence factor assays, reverse transcription-PCR, and the DNA microarrays support the finding that AZM, CFT, and CPR decrease the expression of a range of QS-regulated virulence factors. The data suggest that the underlying mechanism may be mediated by changes in membrane permeability, thereby influencing the flux of N-3-oxo-dodecanoyl-l-homoserine lactone. PMID:18644954

  3. Substituted Lactam and Cyclic Azahemiacetals Modulate Pseudomonas aeruginosa Quorum Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Malladi, Venkata L. A.; Sobczak, Adam J.; Maricic, Natalie; Murugapiran, Senthil Kumar; Schneper, Lisa; Makemson, John; Mathee, Kalai; Wnuk, Stanislaw F.

    2011-01-01

    Quorum sensing (QS) is a population-dependent signaling process bacteria use to control multiple processes including virulence that is critical for establishing infection. The most common QS signaling molecule used by Gram-negative bacteria are acylhomoserine lactones. The development of non-native acylhomoserine lactone (AHL) ligands has emerged as a promising new strategy to inhibit QS in Gram-negative bacteria. In this work, we have synthesized a set of optically pure ?-lactams and their reduced cyclic azahemiacetal analogues, bearing the additional alkylthiomethyl substituent, and evaluated their effect on the AHL-dependent Pseudomonas aeruginosa las and rhl QS pathways. The concentration of these ligands and the simple structural modification such as the length of the alkylthio substituent has notable effect on activity. The ?-lactam derivatives with nonylthio or dodecylthio chains acted as inhibitors of las signaling with moderate potency. The cyclic azahemiacetal with shorter propylthio or hexylthio substituent was found to strongly inhibit both las and rhl signaling at higher concentrations while the propylthio analogue strongly stimulated the las QS system at lower concentrations. PMID:21855349

  4. Quorum sensing enhancement of the stress response promotes resistance to quorum quenching and prevents social cheating.

    PubMed

    García-Contreras, Rodolfo; Nuñez-López, Leslie; Jasso-Chávez, Ricardo; Kwan, Brian W; Belmont, Javier A; Rangel-Vega, Adrián; Maeda, Toshinari; Wood, Thomas K

    2015-01-01

    Quorum sensing (QS) coordinates the expression of virulence factors and allows bacteria to counteract the immune response, partly by increasing their tolerance to the oxidative stress generated by immune cells. Despite the recognized role of QS in enhancing the oxidative stress response, the consequences of this relationship for the bacterial ecology remain unexplored. Here we demonstrate that QS increases resistance also to osmotic, thermal and heavy metal stress. Furthermore a QS-deficient lasR rhlR mutant is unable to exert a robust response against H2O2 as it has less induction of catalase and NADPH-producing dehydrogenases. Phenotypic microarrays revealed that the mutant is very sensitive to several toxic compounds. As the anti-oxidative enzymes are private goods not shared by the population, only the individuals that produce them benefit from their action. Based on this premise, we show that in mixed populations of wild-type and the mexR mutant (resistant to the QS inhibitor furanone C-30), treatment with C-30 and H2O2 increases the proportion of mexR mutants; hence, oxidative stress selects resistance to QS compounds. In addition, oxidative stress alone strongly selects for strains with active QS systems that are able to exert a robust anti oxidative response and thereby decreases the proportion of QS cheaters in cultures that are otherwise prone to invasion by cheats. As in natural environments stress is omnipresent, it is likely that this QS enhancement of stress tolerance allows cells to counteract QS inhibition and invasions by social cheaters, therefore having a broad impact in bacterial ecology. PMID:24936763

  5. Quorum quenching is responsible for the underestimated quorum sensing effects in biological wastewater treatment reactors.

    PubMed

    Song, Xiang-Ning; Cheng, Yuan-Yuan; Li, Wen-Wei; Li, Bing-Bing; Sheng, Guo-Ping; Fang, Cai-Yun; Wang, Yun-Kun; Li, Xiao-Yan; Yu, Han-Qing

    2014-11-01

    Quorum sensing (QS) and quorum quenching (QQ) are two antagonistic processes coexisting in various bacterial communities in bioreactors, e.g., activated sludge for biological wastewater treatment. Although QS signal molecules are detected in activated sludge reactors and known to affect sludge properties and reactor performance, there has been no direct evidence to prove the endogenous existence of QQ effects in activated sludge. In this study, for the first time, acyl homoserine lactones-degrading enzymatic activity, a typical QQ effect, was discovered in activated sludge and found to considerably affect the QS detection results. The coexistence of QS and QQ bacteria in activated sludge was further confirmed by bacterial screening and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis. The method developed in this study could also be used to evaluate QQ activities in bioreactors, and a possible way is provided to tune bioreactor performance through balancing the QS and QQ processes. PMID:25182424

  6. Global Analysis of the Burkholderia thailandensis Quorum Sensing-Controlled Regulon

    PubMed Central

    Majerczyk, Charlotte; Brittnacher, Mitchell; Jacobs, Michael; Armour, Christopher D.; Radey, Mathew; Schneider, Emily; Phattarasokul, Somsak; Bunt, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Burkholderia thailandensis contains three acyl-homoserine lactone quorum sensing circuits and has two additional LuxR homologs. To identify B. thailandensis quorum sensing-controlled genes, we carried out transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq) analyses of quorum sensing mutants and their parent. The analyses were grounded in the fact that we identified genes coding for factors shown previously to be regulated by quorum sensing among a larger set of quorum-controlled genes. We also found that genes coding for contact-dependent inhibition were induced by quorum sensing and confirmed that specific quorum sensing mutants had a contact-dependent inhibition defect. Additional quorum-controlled genes included those for the production of numerous secondary metabolites, an uncharacterized exopolysaccharide, and a predicted chitin-binding protein. This study provides insights into the roles of the three quorum sensing circuits in the saprophytic lifestyle of B. thailandensis, and it provides a foundation on which to build an understanding of the roles of quorum sensing in the biology of B. thailandensis and the closely related pathogenic Burkholderia pseudomallei and Burkholderia mallei. PMID:24464461

  7. Regulation of las and rhl Quorum Sensing in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    EVERETT C. PESCI; JAMES P. PEARSON; PATRICK C. SEED; BARBARA H. IGLEWSKI

    1997-01-01

    The production of several virulence factors by Pseudomonas aeruginosa is controlled according to cell density through two quorum-sensing systems, las and rhl. The las system is comprised of the transcriptional activator protein LasR and of LasI, which directs the synthesis of the autoinducer PAI-1. Similarly, the rhl system consists of the transcriptional activator protein RhlR and of RhlI, which directs

  8. Characterization of Quorum Sensing Signals in Coral-Associated Bacteria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karina Golberg; Evgeni Eltzov; Maya Shnit-Orland; Robert S. Marks; Ariel Kushmaro

    2011-01-01

    Marine environment habitats, such as the coral mucus layer, are abundant in nutrients and rich with diverse populations of\\u000a microorganisms. Since interactions among microorganisms found in coral mucus can be either mutualistic or competitive, understanding\\u000a quorum sensing-based acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) language may shed light on the interaction between coral-associated microbial\\u000a communities in the native host. More than 100 bacterial

  9. (2) DNA O(n^5) Quorum-Sensing Lux

    E-print Network

    Hagiya, Masami

    - 1 - ( ) ( ) DNA RNA DNA RNA DNA DNA 2 DNA #12;- 2 - 17 6 (1) (2) DNA O(n^5) (3) Quorum-Sensing Lux (4) (5) LMNtal ambient LMNtal (1) (2) DNA (3) DNA (4) DNA (5) DNA (1) DNA ANP-96 (Precision System Science ) (2) RTRACS DNA RTRACS (3) in vivo in vivo (4) DNA trans cis 1/10 (5) DNA-PNA DNA DNA DNA DNA DNA

  10. Dynorphin Activates Quorum Sensing Quinolone Signaling in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Zaborina, Olga; Lepine, Francois; Xiao, Gaoping; Valuckaite, Vesta; Chen, Yimei; Li, Terry; Ciancio, Mae; Zaborin, Alex; Petroff, Elaine; Turner, Jerrold R; Rahme, Laurence G; Chang, Eugene; Alverdy, John C

    2007-01-01

    There is now substantial evidence that compounds released during host stress directly activate the virulence of certain opportunistic pathogens. Here, we considered that endogenous opioids might function as such compounds, given that they are among the first signals to be released at multiple tissue sites during host stress. We tested the ability of various opioid compounds to enhance the virulence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa using pyocyanin production as a biological readout, and demonstrated enhanced virulence when P. aeruginosa was exposed to synthetic (U-50,488) and endogenous (dynorphin) ?-agonists. Using various mutants and reporter strains of P. aeruginosa, we identified involvement of key elements of the quorum sensing circuitry such as the global transcriptional regulator MvfR and the quorum sensing-related quinolone signaling molecules PQS, HHQ, and HQNO that respond to ?-opioids. The in vivo significance of ?-opioid signaling of P. aeruginosa was demonstrated in mice by showing that dynorphin is released from the intestinal mucosa following ischemia/reperfusion injury, activates quinolone signaling in P. aeruginosa, and enhances the virulence of P. aeruginosa against Lactobacillus spp. and Caenorhabditis elegans. Taken together, these data demonstrate that P. aeruginosa can intercept opioid compounds released during host stress and integrate them into core elements of quorum sensing circuitry leading to enhanced virulence. PMID:17367209

  11. Quorum Sensing in the Context of Food Microbiology

    PubMed Central

    Skandamis, Panagiotis N.

    2012-01-01

    Food spoilage may be defined as a process that renders a product undesirable or unacceptable for consumption and is the outcome of the biochemical activity of a microbial community that eventually dominates according to the prevailing ecological determinants. Although limited information are reported, this activity has been attributed to quorum sensing (QS). Consequently, the potential role of cell-to-cell communication in food spoilage and food safety should be more extensively elucidated. Such information would be helpful in designing approaches for manipulating these communication systems, thereby reducing or preventing, for instance, spoilage reactions or even controlling the expression of virulence factors. Due to the many reports in the literature on the fundamental features of QS, e.g., chemistry and definitions of QS compounds, in this minireview, we only allude to the types and chemistry of QS signaling molecules per se and to the (bioassay-based) methods of their detection and quantification, avoiding extensive documentation. Conversely, we attempt to provide insights into (i) the role of QS in food spoilage, (ii) the factors that may quench the activity of QS in foods and review the potential QS inhibitors that might “mislead” the bacterial coordination of spoilage activities and thus may be used as biopreservatives, and (iii) the future experimental approaches that need to be undertaken in order to explore the “gray” or “black” areas of QS, increase our understanding of how QS affects microbial behavior in foods, and assist in finding answers as to how we can exploit QS for the benefit of food preservation and food safety. PMID:22706047

  12. Lead Precipitation by Vibrio harveyi: Evidence for Novel Quorum-Sensing Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Mire, Chad E.; Tourjee, Jeanette A.; O'Brien, William F.; Ramanujachary, Kandalam V.; Hecht, Gregory B.

    2004-01-01

    Three pleiotropic, quorum sensing-defective Vibrio harveyi mutants were observed to precipitate soluble Pb2+ as an insoluble compound. The compound was purified and subjected to X-ray diffraction and elemental analyses. These assays identified the precipitated compound as Pb9(PO4)6, an unusual and complex lead phosphate salt that is produced synthetically at temperatures of ca. 200°C. Regulation of the precipitation phenotype was also examined. Introduction of a luxO::kan allele into one of the mutants abolished lead precipitation, indicating that the well-characterized autoinducer 1 (AI1)-AI2 quorum-sensing system can block lead precipitation in dense cell populations. Interestingly, the V. harveyi D1 mutant, a strain defective for secretion of both AI1 and AI2, was shown to be an effective trans inhibitor of lead precipitation. This suggests that a previously undescribed V. harveyi autoinducer, referred to as AI3, can also negatively regulate lead precipitation. Experiments with heterologous bacterial populations demonstrated that many different species are capable of trans regulating the V. harveyi lead precipitation phenotype. Moreover, one of the V. harveyi mutants in this study exhibited little or no response to intercellular signals from other V. harveyi inocula but was quite responsive to some of the heterologous bacteria. Based on these observations, we propose that V. harveyi carries at least one quorum sensor that is specifically dedicated to receiving cross-species communication. PMID:14766565

  13. Can the natural diversity of quorum-sensing advance synthetic biology?

    PubMed

    Davis, René Michele; Muller, Ryan Yue; Haynes, Karmella Ann

    2015-01-01

    Quorum-sensing networks enable bacteria to sense and respond to chemical signals produced by neighboring bacteria. They are widespread: over 100 morphologically and genetically distinct species of eubacteria are known to use quorum sensing to control gene expression. This diversity suggests the potential to use natural protein variants to engineer parallel, input-specific, cell-cell communication pathways. However, only three distinct signaling pathways, Lux, Las, and Rhl, have been adapted for and broadly used in engineered systems. The paucity of unique quorum-sensing systems and their propensity for crosstalk limits the usefulness of our current quorum-sensing toolkit. This review discusses the need for more signaling pathways, roadblocks to using multiple pathways in parallel, and strategies for expanding the quorum-sensing toolbox for synthetic biology. PMID:25806368

  14. Can the Natural Diversity of Quorum-Sensing Advance Synthetic Biology?

    PubMed Central

    Davis, René Michele; Muller, Ryan Yue; Haynes, Karmella Ann

    2015-01-01

    Quorum-sensing networks enable bacteria to sense and respond to chemical signals produced by neighboring bacteria. They are widespread: over 100 morphologically and genetically distinct species of eubacteria are known to use quorum sensing to control gene expression. This diversity suggests the potential to use natural protein variants to engineer parallel, input-specific, cell–cell communication pathways. However, only three distinct signaling pathways, Lux, Las, and Rhl, have been adapted for and broadly used in engineered systems. The paucity of unique quorum-sensing systems and their propensity for crosstalk limits the usefulness of our current quorum-sensing toolkit. This review discusses the need for more signaling pathways, roadblocks to using multiple pathways in parallel, and strategies for expanding the quorum-sensing toolbox for synthetic biology. PMID:25806368

  15. The QseBC Quorum Sensing System is Involved in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium Colonization of the Swine Gastrointestinal Tract

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The response of bacteria to hormone-like, chemical molecules is termed quorum sensing, a mechanism for cell-to-cell communication that includes sensing the host environment. In the gastrointestinal tract, at least two quorum sensing molecules are present that activate the bacterial QseBC quorum sen...

  16. Author's personal copy Quorum sensing regulates electric current generation of Pseudomonas

    E-print Network

    Angenent, Lars T.

    . In previous studies, Pseudomonas sp. in the anodic microbial community of an MFC was related to current genAuthor's personal copy Quorum sensing regulates electric current generation of Pseudomonas 18 January 2010 Keywords: Pseudomonas aeruginosa Quorum sensing Bioelectrochemical systems Phenazine

  17. Inhibition of Candida albicans Biofilm Formation by Farnesol, a Quorum-Sensing Molecule

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gordon Ramage; Stephen P. Saville; Brian L. Wickes; J. L. Lopez-Ribot

    2002-01-01

    Farnesol is a quorum-sensing molecule that inhibits filamentation in Candida albicans. Both filamentation and quorum sensing are deemed to be important factors in C. albicans biofilm development. Here we examined the effect of farnesol on C. albicans biofilm formation. C. albicans adherent cell populations (after 0, 1, 2, and 4 h of adherence) and preformed biofilms (24 h) were treated

  18. Microarray Analysis of Quorum-Sensing Regulated Gene Expression in Campylobacter jejuni

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Quorum-sensing (QS) is defined as cell-to-cell communication in response to population density in bacteria. Autoinducer-2 (AI-2)-dependent quorum-sensing has been shown to control a variety of cellular processes such as expression of virulence factors, toxin production, biofilm formation, and swarm...

  19. Connecting Quorum Sensing, c-di-GMP, Pel Polysaccharide, and Biofilm Formation in Pseudomonas

    E-print Network

    Wood, Thomas K.

    Connecting Quorum Sensing, c-di-GMP, Pel Polysaccharide, and Biofilm Formation in Pseudomonas on homoserine lactones was found to influence biofilm formation. Here we discern a mechanism by which quorum sensing controls biofilm formation by screening 5850 transposon mutants of P. aeruginosa PA14 for altered

  20. A quorum-quenching approach to identify quorum-sensing-regulated functions in Azospirillum lipoferum.

    PubMed

    Boyer, Mickaël; Bally, René; Perrotto, Sandrine; Chaintreuil, Clémence; Wisniewski-Dyé, Florence

    2008-01-01

    A quorum-quenching approach was exploited in order to identify functions regulated by quorum-sensing (QS) in the plant growth-promoting bacterium Azospirillum lipoferum. The AttM lactonase from Agrobacterium tumefaciens was shown to enzymatically inactivate N-acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs) produced by two A. lipoferum strains. The targeted analysis of several phenotypes revealed that in strain B518, a rice endophyte, AHL inactivation abolished pectinase activity, increased siderophore synthesis and reduced indoleacetic acid production (in stationary phase) but no effect was observed on cellulase activity or on swimming and swarming motilities. None of the tested phenotypes appeared to be under QS regulation in strain TVV3 isolated from the rice rhizosphere. Moreover, AHL inactivation had no deleterious effect on the phytostimulatory effect of the two strains in vitro. A global proteomic approach revealed little modification of protein patterns when comparing attM-expressing TVV3 and the wild-type strain, but numerous proteins appeared to be regulated by the AHL-mediated QS system in strain B518. Several proteins identified by MS-MS analysis were revealed to be implicated in transport (such as OmaA) and chemotaxis (ChvE). Altogether, the results indicate that in A. lipoferum, QS regulation is strain-specific and is dedicated to regulating functions linked to rhizosphere competence and adaptation to plant roots. PMID:18790051

  1. Quorum sensing between Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms accelerates cell growth

    PubMed Central

    Flickinger, Shane T.; Copeland, Matthew F.; Downes, Eric M.; Braasch, Andrew T.; Tuson, Hannah H.; Eun, Ye-Jin; Weibel, Douglas B.

    2011-01-01

    This manuscript describes the fabrication of arrays of spatially confined chambers embossed in a layer of poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA) and their application to studying quorum sensing between communities of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. We hypothesized that biofilms may produce stable chemical signaling gradients in close proximity to surfaces, which influence the growth and development of nearby microcolonies into biofilms. To test this hypothesis we embossed a layer of PEGDA with 1.5-mm wide chambers in which P. aeruginosa biofilms grew, secreted homoserine lactones (HSLs, small molecule regulators of quorum sensing), and formed spatial and temporal gradients of these compounds. In static growth conditions (i.e. no flow), nascent biofilms secreted N-(3-oxododecanoyl) HSL that formed a gradient in the hydrogel and was detected by P. aeruginosa cells that were ? 8 mm away. Diffusing HSLs increased the growth rate of cells in communities that were < 3 mm away from the biofilm, where the concentration of HSL was > 1 µM, and had little effect on communities farther away. The HSL gradient had no observable influence on biofilm structure. Surprisingly, 0.1–10 µM of N-(3-oxododecanoyl) HSL had no effect on cell growth in liquid culture. The results suggest that the secretion of HSLs from a biofilm enhances the growth of neighboring cells in contact with surfaces into communities and may influence their composition, organization, and diversity. PMID:21434644

  2. Bacterial quorum sensing and metabolic slowing in a cooperative population

    PubMed Central

    An, Jae Hyung; Goo, Eunhye; Kim, Hongsup; Seo, Young-Su; Hwang, Ingyu

    2014-01-01

    Acyl-homoserine lactone (AHL)-mediated quorum sensing (QS) controls the production of numerous intra- and extracellular products across many species of Proteobacteria. Although these cooperative activities are often costly at an individual level, they provide significant benefits to the group. Other potential roles for QS include the restriction of nutrient acquisition and maintenance of metabolic homeostasis of individual cells in a crowded but cooperative population. Under crowded conditions, QS may function to modulate and coordinate nutrient utilization and the homeostatic primary metabolism of individual cells. Here, we show that QS down-regulates glucose uptake, substrate level and oxidative phosphorylation, and de novo nucleotide biosynthesis via the activity of the QS-dependent transcriptional regulator QsmR (quorum sensing master regulator R) in the rice pathogen Burkholderia glumae. Systematic analysis of glucose uptake and core primary metabolite levels showed that QS deficiency perturbed nutrient acquisition, and energy and nucleotide metabolism, of individuals within the group. The QS mutants grew more rapidly than the wild type at the early exponential stage and outcompeted wild-type cells in coculture. Metabolic slowing of individuals in a QS-dependent manner indicates that QS acts as a metabolic brake on individuals when cells begin to mass, implying a mechanism by which AHL-mediated QS might have evolved to ensure homeostasis of the primary metabolism of individuals under crowded conditions. PMID:25267613

  3. Bacterial quorum sensing and metabolic slowing in a cooperative population.

    PubMed

    An, Jae Hyung; Goo, Eunhye; Kim, Hongsup; Seo, Young-Su; Hwang, Ingyu

    2014-10-14

    Acyl-homoserine lactone (AHL)-mediated quorum sensing (QS) controls the production of numerous intra- and extracellular products across many species of Proteobacteria. Although these cooperative activities are often costly at an individual level, they provide significant benefits to the group. Other potential roles for QS include the restriction of nutrient acquisition and maintenance of metabolic homeostasis of individual cells in a crowded but cooperative population. Under crowded conditions, QS may function to modulate and coordinate nutrient utilization and the homeostatic primary metabolism of individual cells. Here, we show that QS down-regulates glucose uptake, substrate level and oxidative phosphorylation, and de novo nucleotide biosynthesis via the activity of the QS-dependent transcriptional regulator QsmR (quorum sensing master regulator R) in the rice pathogen Burkholderia glumae. Systematic analysis of glucose uptake and core primary metabolite levels showed that QS deficiency perturbed nutrient acquisition, and energy and nucleotide metabolism, of individuals within the group. The QS mutants grew more rapidly than the wild type at the early exponential stage and outcompeted wild-type cells in coculture. Metabolic slowing of individuals in a QS-dependent manner indicates that QS acts as a metabolic brake on individuals when cells begin to mass, implying a mechanism by which AHL-mediated QS might have evolved to ensure homeostasis of the primary metabolism of individuals under crowded conditions. PMID:25267613

  4. A quorum sensing-disrupting brominated thiophenone with a promising therapeutic potential to treat luminescent vibriosis.

    PubMed

    Defoirdt, Tom; Benneche, Tore; Brackman, Gilles; Coenye, Tom; Sorgeloos, Patrick; Scheie, Anne Aamdal

    2012-01-01

    Vibrio harveyi is amongst the most important bacterial pathogens in aquaculture. Novel methods to control this pathogen are needed since many strains have acquired resistance to antibiotics. We previously showed that quorum sensing-disrupting furanones are able to protect brine shrimp larvae against vibriosis. However, a major problem of these compounds is that they are toxic toward higher organisms and therefore, they are not safe to be used in aquaculture. The synthesis of brominated thiophenones, sulphur analogues of the quorum sensing-disrupting furanones, has recently been reported. In the present study, we report that these compounds block quorum sensing in V. harveyi at concentrations in the low micromolar range. Bioluminescence experiments with V. harveyi quorum sensing mutants and a fluorescence anisotropy assay indicated that the compounds disrupt quorum sensing in this bacterium by decreasing the ability of the quorum sensing master regulator LuxR to bind to its target promoter DNA. In vivo challenge tests with gnotobiotic brine shrimp larvae showed that thiophenone compound TF310, (Z)-4-((5-(bromomethylene)-2-oxo-2,5-dihydrothiophen-3-yl)methoxy)-4-oxobutanoic acid, completely protected the larvae from V. harveyi BB120 when dosed to the culture water at 2.5 µM or more, whereas severe toxicity was only observed at 250 µM. This makes TF310 showing the highest therapeutic index of all quorum sensing-disrupting compounds tested thus far in our brine shrimp model system. PMID:22848604

  5. Quorum Sensing Activity of Enterobacter asburiae Isolated from Lettuce Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Yin Yin; Sulaiman, Joanita; Chen, Jian Woon; Yin, Wai-Fong; Chan, Kok-Gan

    2013-01-01

    Bacterial communication or quorum sensing (QS) is achieved via sensing of QS signaling molecules consisting of oligopeptides in Gram-positive bacteria and N-acyl homoserine lactones (AHL) in most Gram-negative bacteria. In this study, Enterobacteriaceae isolates from Batavia lettuce were screened for AHL production. Enterobacter asburiae, identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) was found to produce short chain AHLs. High resolution triple quadrupole liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC/MS) analysis of the E. asburiae spent supernatant confirmed the production of N-butanoyl homoserine lactone (C4-HSL) and N–hexanoyl homoserine lactone (C6-HSL). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of AHL production by E. asburiae. PMID:24152877

  6. Monitoring of Vibrio harveyi quorum sensing activity in real time during infection of brine shrimp larvae.

    PubMed

    Defoirdt, Tom; Sorgeloos, Patrick

    2012-12-01

    Quorum sensing, bacterial cell-to-cell communication, has been linked to the virulence of pathogenic bacteria. Indeed, in vitro experiments have shown that many bacterial pathogens regulate the expression of virulence genes by this cell-to-cell communication process. Moreover, signal molecules have been detected in samples retrieved from infected hosts and quorum sensing disruption has been reported to result in reduced virulence in different host-pathogen systems. However, data on in vivo quorum sensing activity of pathogens during infection of a host are currently lacking. We previously reported that quorum sensing regulates the virulence of Vibrio harveyi in a standardised model system with gnotobiotic brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana) larvae. Here, we monitored quorum sensing activity in Vibrio harveyi during infection of the shrimp, using bioluminescence as a read-out. We found that wild-type Vibrio harveyi shows a strong increase in quorum sensing activity early during infection. In this respect, the bacteria behave remarkably similar in different larvae, despite the fact that only half of them survive the infection. Interestingly, when expressed per bacterial cell, Vibrio harveyi showed around 200-fold higher maximal quorum sensing-regulated bioluminescence when associated with larvae than in the culture water. Finally, the in vivo quorum sensing activity of mutants defective in the production of one of the three signal molecules is consistent with their virulence, with no detectable in vivo quorum sensing activity in AI-2- and CAI-1-deficient mutants. These results indicate that AI-2 and CAI-1 are the dominant signals during infection of brine shrimp. PMID:22673627

  7. Composition, anti-quorum sensing and antimicrobial activity of essential oils from Lippia alba.

    PubMed

    Olivero-Verbel, Jesus; Barreto-Maya, Ana; Bertel-Sevilla, Angela; Stashenko, Elena E

    2014-01-01

    Many Gram-negative pathogens have the ability to produce N-acylhomoserine lactones (AHLs) as signal molecules for quorum sensing (QS). This cell-cell communication system allows them to coordinate gene expression and regulate virulence. Strategies to inhibit QS are promising for the control of infectious diseases or antibiotic resistant bacterial pathogens. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anti-quorum sensing (anti-QS) and antibacterial potential of five essential oils isolated from Lippia alba on the Tn-5 mutant of Chromobacterium violaceum CV026, and on the growth of the gram-positive bacteria S. aureus ATCC 25923. The anti-QS activity was detected through the inhibition of the QS-controlled violacein pigment production by the sensor bacteria. Results showed that two essential oils from L. alba, one containing the greatest geranial:neral and the other the highest limonene:carvone concentrations, were the most effective QS inhibitors. Both oils also had small effects on cell growth. Moreover, the geranial/neral chemotype oil also produced the maximum zone of growth inhibition against S. aureus ATCC 25923. These data suggest essential oils from L. alba have promising properties as QS modulators, and present antibacterial activity on S. aureus. PMID:25477905

  8. Quorum sensing activity of Hafnia alvei isolated from packed food.

    PubMed

    Tan, Jia-Yi; Yin, Wai-Fong; Chan, Kok-Gan

    2014-01-01

    Quorum sensing (QS) is a mechanism adopted by bacteria to regulate expression of genes according to population density. N-acylhomoserine lactones (AHLs) are a type of QS signalling molecules commonly found in Gram-negative bacteria which have been reported to play a role in microbial spoilage of foods and pathogenesis. In this study, we isolated an AHL-producing Hafnia alvei strain (FB1) from spherical fish pastes. Analysis via high resolution triple quadrupole liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) on extracts from the spent supernatant of H. alvei FB1 revealed the existence of two short chain AHLs: N-(3-oxohexanoyl) homoserine lactone (3-oxo-C6-HSL) and N-(3-oxo- octanoyl) homoserine lactone (3-oxo-C8-HSL). To our knowledge, this is the first report of the production of AHLs, especially 3-oxo-C8-HSL, by H. alvei. PMID:24736131

  9. BACTERIAL ATTRACTION AND QUORUM SENSING INHIBITION IN CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS EXUDATES

    PubMed Central

    KAPLAN, FATMA; BADRI, DAYAKAR V.; ZACHARIAH, CHERIAN; AJREDINI, RAMADAN; SANDOVAL, FRANCISCO J; ROJE, SANJA; LEVINE, LANFANG H.; ZHANG, FENGLI; ROBINETTE, STEVEN L.; ALBORN, HANS T.; ZHAO, WEI; STADLER, MICHAEL; NIMALENDRAN, RATHIKA; DOSSEY, AARON T.; BRÜSCHWEILER, RAFAEL; VIVANCO, JORGE M.; EDISON, ARTHUR S.

    2014-01-01

    Caenorhabditis elegans, a bacterivorous nematode, lives in complex rotting fruit, soil, and compost environments, and chemical interactions are required for mating, monitoring population density, recognition of food, avoidance of pathogenic microbes, and other essential ecological functions. Despite being one of the best-studied model organisms in biology, relatively little is known about the signals that C. elegans uses to chemically interact with its environment or as defense. C. elegans exudates were analyzed using several analytical methods and found to contain 36 common metabolites including organic acids, amino acids and sugars, all in relatively high abundance. Furthermore, the concentrations of amino acids in the exudates were dependent on developmental stage. The C. elegans exudates were tested for bacterial chemotaxis using Pseudomonas putida (KT2440), a plant growth promoting rhizobacterium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PAO1), a soil bacterium pathogenic to C. elegans, and E. coli (OP50), a non-motile bacterium tested as a control. The C. elegans exudates attracted the two Psuedomonas species, but had no detectable antibacterial activity against P. aeruginosa. To our surprise, the exudates of young adult and adult life stages of C. elegans exudates inhibited quorum sensing in the reporter system based on the LuxR bacterial quorum sensing (QS) system, which regulates bacterial virulence and other factors in Vibrio fischeri. We were able to fractionate the QS inhibition and bacterial chemotaxis activities, demonstrating that these activities are chemically distinct. Our results demonstrate that C. elegans can attract its bacterial food and has the potential of partially regulating the virulence of bacterial pathogens by inhibiting specific QS systems. PMID:19649780

  10. Structural Basis for Bacterial Quorum Sensing-mediated Oxalogenesis*

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Juntaek; Goo, Eunhye; Hwang, Ingyu; Rhee, Sangkee

    2014-01-01

    The Burkholderia species utilize acetyl-CoA and oxaloacetate, substrates for citrate synthase in the TCA cycle, to produce oxalic acid in response to bacterial cell to cell communication, called quorum sensing. Quorum sensing-mediated oxalogenesis via a sequential reaction by ObcA and ObcB counteracts the population-collapsing alkaline pH of the stationary growth phase. Thus, the oxalic acid produced plays an essential role as an excreted public good for survival of the group. Here, we report structural and functional analyses of ObcA, revealing mechanistic features distinct from those of citrate synthase. ObcA exhibits a unique fold, in which a (?/?)8-barrel fold is located in the C-domain with the N-domain inserted into a loop following ?1 in the barrel fold. Structural analyses of the complexes with oxaloacetate and with a bisubstrate adduct indicate that each of the oxaloacetate and acetyl-CoA substrates is bound to an independent site near the metal coordination shell in the barrel fold. In catalysis, oxaloacetate serves as a nucleophile by forming an enolate intermediate mediated by Tyr322 as a general base, which then attacks the thioester carbonyl carbon of acetyl-CoA to yield a tetrahedral adduct between the two substrates. Therefore, ObcA catalyzes its reaction by combining the enolase and acetyltransferase superfamilies, but the presence of the metal coordination shell and the absence of general acid(s) produces an unusual tetrahedral CoA adduct as a stable product. These results provide the structural basis for understanding the first step in oxalogenesis and constitute an example of the functional diversity of an enzyme for survival and adaptation in the environment. PMID:24616091

  11. The Apparent Quorum-Sensing Inhibitory Activity of Pyrogallol Is a Side Effect of Peroxide Production

    PubMed Central

    Pande, Gde Sasmita Julyantoro; Baruah, Kartik; Bossier, Peter

    2013-01-01

    There currently is more and more interest in the use of natural products, such as tea polyphenols, as therapeutic agents. The polyphenol compound pyrogallol has been reported before to inhibit quorum-sensing-regulated bioluminescence in Vibrio harveyi. Here, we report that the addition of 10 mg · liter?1 pyrogallol protects both brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana) and giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) larvae from pathogenic Vibrio harveyi, whereas the compound showed relatively low toxicity (therapeutic index of 10). We further demonstrate that the apparent quorum-sensing-disrupting activity is a side effect of the peroxide-producing activity of this compound rather than true quorum-sensing inhibition. Our results emphasize that verification of minor toxic effects by using sensitive methods and the use of appropriate controls are essential when characterizing compounds as being able to disrupt quorum sensing. PMID:23545532

  12. Microarray Analysis of Quorum-Sensing-Regulated Genes in Porphyromonas gingivalis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lihui Yuan; Jeffrey D. Hillman; Ann Progulske-Fox

    2005-01-01

    Quorum sensing is a phenomenon defined as gene regulation in response to cell density that regulates various functions in bacteria. The periodontopathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis possesses a luxS gene homo- logue that may encode a quorum-sensing system. In order to identify genes of P. gingivalis that are regulated by luxS, gene expression analysis was done using microarrays and RNA samples from

  13. Inhibition of quorum sensing in Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm bacteria by a halogenated furanone compound

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Morten Hentzer; Kathrin Riedel; Thomas B. Rasmussen; Arne Heydorn; Jens Bo Andersen; Matthew R. Parsek; Scott A. Rice; Leo Eberl; Søren Molin; Niels Høiby; Staffan Kjelleberg; Michael Givskov

    2002-01-01

    Novel molecular tools have been constructed which allow for in situ detection of N-acyl homoserine lactone (AHL)-mediated quorum sensing in Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms. The reporter responds to AHL activation of LasR by expression of an unstable version of the green-fluorescent protein (Gfp). Gfp- based reporter technology has been applied for non-destructive, single-cell- level detection of quorum sensing in laboratory-based P.

  14. Quorum sensing by peptide pheromones and two component signal transduction systems in Gram-positive bacteria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michiel Kleerebezem; Luis E. N. Quadri; Oscar P. Kuipers; Willem M. de Vos

    1997-01-01

    Cell-density-dependent gene expression appears to be widely spread in bacteria. This quorum-sensing phenomenon has been well established in Gram-negative bacteria, where N-acyl homoserine lactones are the diffusible communication molecules that modulate cell-density-dependent phenotypes. Similarly, a variety of processes are known to be regulated in a cell-density- or growth-phase-dependent manner in Gram-positive bacteria. Examples of such quorum-sensing modes in Gram-positive bacteria

  15. Parallel Quorum Sensing Systems Converge to Regulate Virulence in Vibrio cholerae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Melissa B. Miller; Karen Skorupski; Derrick H. Lenz; Ronald K. Taylor; Bonnie L. Bassler

    2002-01-01

    The marine bacterium Vibrio harveyi possesses two quorum sensing systems (System 1 and System 2) that regulate bioluminescence. Although the Vibrio cholerae genome sequence reveals that a V. harveyi-like System 2 exists, it does not predict the existence of a V. harveyi-like System 1 or any obvious quorum sensing-controlled target genes. In this report we identify and characterize the genes

  16. Plant-derived natural products as sources of anti-quorum sensing compounds.

    PubMed

    Koh, Chong-Lek; Sam, Choon-Kook; Yin, Wai-Fong; Tan, Li Ying; Krishnan, Thiba; Chong, Yee Meng; Chan, Kok-Gan

    2013-01-01

    Quorum sensing is a system of stimuli and responses in relation to bacterial cell population density that regulates gene expression, including virulence determinants. Consequently, quorum sensing has been an attractive target for the development of novel anti-infective measures that do not rely on the use of antibiotics. Anti-quorum sensing has been a promising strategy to combat bacterial infections as it is unlikely to develop multidrug resistant pathogens since it does not impose any selection pressure. A number of anti-quorum sensing approaches have been documented and plant-based natural products have been extensively studied in this context. Plant matter is one of the major sources of chemicals in use today in various industries, ranging from the pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and food biotechnology to the textile industries. Just like animals and humans, plants are constantly exposed to bacterial infections, it is therefore logical to expect that plants have developed sophisticated of chemical mechanisms to combat pathogens. In this review, we have surveyed the various types of plant-based natural products that exhibit anti-quorum sensing properties and their anti-quorum sensing mechanisms. PMID:23669710

  17. Inhibition of quorum sensing in the opportunistic pathogenic bacterium Chromobacterium violaceum by an extract from fruiting bodies of Lingzhi or Reishi medicinal mushroom, Ganoderma lucidum (W.Curt.:Fr.) P. Karst. (higher Basidiomycetes).

    PubMed

    Zhu, Hu; Liu, Wei; Tian, Baozhen; Liu, Huijun; Ning, Shoujiao

    2011-01-01

    Extracts of Lingzhi or Reishi medicinal mushroom, Ganoderma lucidum, inhibited quorum sensing in Chromobacterium violaceum CV026. G. lucidum fruiting bodies were milled and extracted with ethyl acetate. The crude extract was dissolved in an appropriate concentration of methanol, sterilized by filtration through a 0.22-?m membrane filter, and added to Ch. Violaceum CV026 cultures, which were used as an indicator to monitor quorum sensing inhibition. Inhibitory activity was measured by quantifying violacein production using a microplate reader. Methanol-soluble compounds extracted from G. lucidum significantly inhibited quorum sensing-controlled behavior in Ch. Violaceum in a concentration-dependent manner. The results suggest that compounds in G. lucidum might be useful to control and handle detrimental infections caused by human, animal, and plant pathogens. Further studies are in progress in our lab to isolate the specific compounds from G. lucidum extract, evaluate them as quorum sensing inhibitors, and analyze their mechanism of action. PMID:22181844

  18. DNA Microarray-Based Identification of Genes Controlled by Autoinducer 2Stimulated Quorum Sensing in Escherichia coli

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MATTHEW P. DELISA; CHI-FANG WU; LIANG WANG; JAMES J. VALDES; WILLIAM E. BENTLEY

    2001-01-01

    Bacterial cell-to-cell communication facilitates coordinated expression of specific genes in a growth rate-II and cell density-dependent manner, a process known as quorum sensing. While the discovery of a diffusible Escherichia coli signaling pheromone, termed autoinducer 2 (AI-2), has been made along with several quorum sensing genes, the overall number and coordination of genes controlled by quorum sensing through the AI-2

  19. Quorum Sensing in Some Representative Species of Halomonadaceae

    PubMed Central

    Tahrioui, Ali; Schwab, Melanie; Quesada, Emilia; Llamas, Inmaculada

    2013-01-01

    Cell-to-cell communication, or quorum-sensing (QS), systems are employed by bacteria for promoting collective behaviour within a population. An analysis to detect QS signal molecules in 43 species of the Halomonadaceae family revealed that they produced N-acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs), which suggests that the QS system is widespread throughout this group of bacteria. Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) analysis of crude AHL extracts, using Agrobacterium tumefaciens NTL4 (pZLR4) as biosensor strain, resulted in different profiles, which were not related to the various habitats of the species in question. To confirm AHL production in the Halomonadaceae species, PCR and DNA sequencing approaches were used to study the distribution of the luxI-type synthase gene. Phylogenetic analysis using sequence data revealed that 29 of the species studied contained a LuxI homolog. Phylogenetic analysis showed that sequences from Halomonadaceae species grouped together and were distinct from other members of the Gammaproteobacteria and also from species belonging to the Alphaproteobacteria and Betaproteobacteria. PMID:25371343

  20. Identification of quorum sensing-controlled genes in Burkholderia ambifaria

    PubMed Central

    Chapalain, Annelise; Vial, Ludovic; Laprade, Natacha; Dekimpe, Valérie; Perreault, Jonathan; Déziel, Eric

    2013-01-01

    The Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) comprises strains with a virulence potential toward immunocompromised patients as well as plant growth–promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR). Owing to the link between quorum sensing (QS) and virulence, most studies among Bcc species have been directed toward QS of pathogenic bacteria. We have investigated the QS of B. ambifaria, a PGPR only infrequently recovered from patients. The cepI gene, responsible for the synthesis of the main signaling molecule N-octanoylhomoserine lactone (C8-HSL), was inactivated. Phenotypes of the B. ambifaria cepI mutant we observed, such as increased production of siderophores and decreased proteolytic and antifungal activities, are in agreement with those of other Bcc cepI mutants. The cepI mutant was then used as background strain for a whole-genome transposon-insertion mutagenesis strategy, allowing the identification of 20 QS-controlled genes, corresponding to 17 loci. The main functions identified are linked to antifungal and antimicrobial properties, as we have identified QS-controlled genes implicated in the production of pyrrolnitrin, burkholdines (occidiofungin-like molecules), and enacyloxins. This study provides insights in the QS-regulated functions of a PGPR, which could lead to beneficial potential biotechnological applications. PMID:23382083

  1. Quorum sensing and social networking in the microbial world.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, Steve; Williams, Paul

    2009-11-01

    For many years, bacterial cells were considered primarily as selfish individuals, but, in recent years, it has become evident that, far from operating in isolation, they coordinate collective behaviour in response to environmental challenges using sophisticated intercellular communication networks. Cell-to-cell communication between bacteria is mediated by small diffusible signal molecules that trigger changes in gene expression in response to fluctuations in population density. This process, generally referred to as quorum sensing (QS), controls diverse phenotypes in numerous Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Recent advances have revealed that bacteria are not limited to communication within their own species but are capable of 'listening in' and 'broadcasting to' unrelated species to intercept messages and coerce cohabitants into behavioural modifications, either for the good of the population or for the benefit of one species over another. It is also evident that QS is not limited to the bacterial kingdom. The study of two-way intercellular signalling networks between bacteria and both uni- and multicellular eukaryotes as well as between eukaryotes is just beginning to unveil a rich diversity of communication pathways. PMID:19674996

  2. Bacterial quorum sensing and nitrogen cycling in rhizosphere soil.

    PubMed

    DeAngelis, Kristen M; Lindow, Steven E; Firestone, Mary K

    2008-11-01

    Plant photosynthate fuels carbon-limited microbial growth and activity, resulting in increased rhizosphere nitrogen (N) mineralization. Most soil organic nitrogen is macromolecular (chitin, protein, nucleotides); enzymatic depolymerization is likely rate limiting for plant nitrogen accumulation. Analyzing Avena (wild oat) planted in microcosms containing sieved field soil, we observed increased rhizosphere chitinase and protease-specific activities, bacterial cell densities, and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) compared with bulk soil. Low-molecular-weight (MW) DON (<3000 Da) was undetectable in bulk soil but comprised 15% of rhizosphere DON. Extracellular enzyme production in many bacteria requires quorum sensing (QS), cell-density-dependent group behavior. Because proteobacteria are considered major rhizosphere colonizers, we assayed the proteobacterial QS signals N-acyl-homoserine lactones (AHLs), which were significantly increased in the rhizosphere. To investigate the linkage between soil signaling and nitrogen cycling, we characterized 533 bacterial isolates from Avena rhizosphere: 24% had chitinase or protease activity and AHL production; disruption of QS in seven of eight isolates disrupted enzyme activity. Many Alphaproteobacteria were newly found with QS-controlled extracellular enzyme activity. Enhanced specific activities of nitrogen-cycling enzymes accompanied by bacterial density-dependent behaviors in rhizosphere soil gives rise to the hypothesis that QS could be a control point in the complex process of rhizosphere nitrogen mineralization. PMID:18721146

  3. Bacterial quorum sensing and nitrogen cycling in rhizosphere soil

    SciTech Connect

    DeAngelis, K.M.; Lindow, S.E.; Firestone, M.K.

    2008-10-01

    Plant photosynthate fuels carbon-limited microbial growth and activity, resulting in increased rhizosphere nitrogen (N)-mineralization. Most soil organic N is macromolecular (chitin, protein, nucleotides); enzymatic depolymerization is likely rate-limiting for plant N accumulation. Analyzing Avena (wild oat) planted in microcosms containing sieved field soil, we observed increased rhizosphere chitinase and protease specific activities, bacterial cell densities, and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) compared to bulk soil. Low-molecular weight DON (<3000 Da) was undetectable in bulk soil but comprised 15% of rhizosphere DON. Extracellular enzyme production in many bacteria requires quorum sensing (QS), cell-density dependent group behavior. Because proteobacteria are considered major rhizosphere colonizers, we assayed the proteobacterial QS signals acyl-homoserine lactones (AHLs), which were significantly increased in the rhizosphere. To investigate the linkage between soil signaling and N cycling, we characterized 533 bacterial isolates from Avena rhizosphere: 24% had chitinase or protease activity and AHL production; disruption of QS in 7 of 8 eight isolates disrupted enzyme activity. Many {alpha}-Proteobacteria were newly found with QS-controlled extracellular enzyme activity. Enhanced specific activities of N-cycling enzymes accompanied by bacterial density-dependent behaviors in rhizosphere soil gives rise to the hypothesis that QS could be a control point in the complex process of rhizosphere N-mineralization.

  4. Type 2 quorum sensing monitoring, inhibition and biofilm formation in marine microrganisms.

    PubMed

    Liaqat, Iram; Bachmann, Robert Thomas; Edyvean, Robert G J

    2014-03-01

    The quorum sensing (QS) dependent behaviour of micro-organisms, in particular expression of virulence genes, biofilm formation and dispersal, have provided impetus for investigating practical approaches to interfere with microbial QS. This study tests Halomonas pacifica and Marinobacter hydrocarbonoclasticus, two halophilic marine micro-organism, for their AI-2 dependent QS signalling and the effect of two well-known quorum-sensing inhibitors (QSIs), patulin and penicillic acid, on biofilm formation. We report, for the first time, the successful amplification of a putative luxS gene in H. pacifica using degenerated primers and AI-2 dependent QS as well as inhibition using QSIs. Penicillic acid had a strong inhibitory effect on AI-2 induction of H. pacifica at non-growth inhibitory concentrations, while patulin has an adverse effect only at the highest concentration (25 ?M). QSIs effect on biofilm forming capability was isolate specific, with maximum inhibition at 25 ?M of patulin in H. pacifica. In M. hydrocarbonoclasticus, no adverse effects were noted at any tested concentration of either QSIs. Detection of bioluminescence and the presence of a putative luxS gene provide biochemical and genetic evidence for the production of a signalling molecule(s) which is the essential first step in characterizing H. pacifica QS. This study highlights the importance of AI-2 dependent QS in a marine setting, not previously reported. It further suggests that QSI compounds must be selected in the specific system in which they are to function, and they cannot easily be transferred from one QS system to another. PMID:24166155

  5. Influence of glucose concentrations on biofilm formation, motility, exoprotease production, and quorum sensing in Aeromonas hydrophila.

    PubMed

    Jahid, Iqbal Kabir; Lee, Na-Young; Kim, Anna; Ha, Sang-Do

    2013-02-01

    Aeromonas hydrophila recently has received increased attention because it is opportunistic and a primary human pathogen. A. hydrophila biofilm formation and its control are a major concern for food safety because biofilms are related to virulence. Therefore, we investigated biofilm formation, motility inhibition, quorum sensing, and exoprotease production of this opportunistic pathogen in response to various glucose concentrations from 0.05 to 2.5% (wt/vol). More than 0.05% glucose significantly impaired (P < 0.05) quorum sensing, biofilm formation, protease production, and swarming and swimming motility, whereas bacteria treated with 0.05% glucose had activity similar to that of the control (0% glucose). A stage shift biofilm assay revealed that the addition of glucose (2.5%) inhibited initial biofilm formation but not later stages. However, addition of quorum sensing molecules N-3-butanoyl-DL-homoserine lactone and N-3-hexanoyl homoserine lactone partially restored protease production, indicating that quorum sensing is controlled by glucose concentrations. Thus, glucose present in food or added as a preservative could regulate acyl-homoserine lactone quorum sensing molecules, which mediate biofilm formation and virulence in A. hydrophila. PMID:23433371

  6. Synthetic furanones inhibit quorum-sensing and enhance bacterial clearance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection in mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Wu; Z. Song; M. Hentzer; J. B. Andersen; S. Molin; M. Givskov; N. Høiby

    2004-01-01

    Introduction: Antibiotics are used to treat bacterial infections by killing the bacteria or inhibiting their growth, but resistance to antibiotics can develop readily. The discovery that bacterial quorum-sensing regu- lates bacterial virulence as well as the formation of biofilms opens up new ways to control certain bacterial infections. Furanone compounds capable of inhibiting bacterial quorum-sensing systems have been isolated from

  7. Quorum Sensing Controls Swarming Motility of Burkholderia glumae through Regulation of Rhamnolipids

    PubMed Central

    Nickzad, Arvin; Lépine, François; Déziel, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Burkholderia glumae is a plant pathogenic bacterium that uses an acyl-homoserine lactone-mediated quorum sensing system to regulate protein secretion, oxalate production and major virulence determinants such as toxoflavin and flagella. B. glumae also releases surface-active rhamnolipids. In Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Burkholderia thailandensis, rhamnolipids, along with flagella, are required for the social behavior called swarming motility. In the present study, we demonstrate that quorum sensing positively regulates the production of rhamnolipids in B. glumae and that rhamnolipids are necessary for swarming motility also in this species. We show that a rhlA- mutant, which is unable to produce rhamnolipids, loses its ability to swarm, and that this can be complemented by providing exogenous rhamnolipids. Impaired rhamnolipid production in a quorum sensing-deficient B. glumae mutant is the main factor responsible for its defective swarming motility behaviour. PMID:26047513

  8. Quorum-sensing Salmonella selectively trigger protein expression within tumors.

    PubMed

    Swofford, Charles A; Van Dessel, Nele; Forbes, Neil S

    2015-03-17

    Salmonella that secrete anticancer proteins have the potential to eliminate tumors, but nonspecific expression causes damage to healthy tissue. We hypothesize that Salmonella, integrated with a density-dependent switch, would only express proteins in tightly packed colonies within tumors. To test this hypothesis, we cloned the lux quorum-sensing (QS) system and a GFP reporter into nonpathogenic Salmonella. Fluorescence and bacterial density were measured in culture and in a tumor-on-a-chip device to determine the critical density necessary to initiate expression. QS Salmonella were injected into 4T1 tumor-bearing mice to quantify GFP expression in vivo using immunofluorescence. At densities below 0.6 × 10(10) cfu/g in tumors, less than 3% of QS Salmonella expressed GFP. Above densities of 4.2 × 10(10) cfu/g, QS Salmonella had similar expression levels to constitutive controls. GFP expression by QS colonies was dependent upon the distance to neighboring bacteria. No colonies expressed GFP when the average distance to neighbors was greater than 155 µm. Calculations of autoinducer concentrations showed that expression was sigmoidally dependent on density and inversely dependent on average radial distance. Based on bacterial counts from excised tissue, the liver density (0.0079 × 10(10) cfu/g) was less than the critical density (0.11 × 10(10) cfu/g) necessary to initiate expression. QS Salmonella are a promising tool for cancer treatment that will target drugs to tumors while preventing damage to healthy tissue. PMID:25737556

  9. Quorum Sensing Controls Flagellar Morphogenesis in Burkholderia glumae

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Moon Sun; Goo, Eunhye; An, Jae Hyung; Kim, Jinwoo; Hwang, Ingyu

    2014-01-01

    Burkholderia glumae is a motile plant pathogenic bacterium that has multiple polar flagella and one LuxR/LuxI-type quorum sensing (QS) system, TofR/TofI. A QS-dependent transcriptional regulator, QsmR, activates flagellar master regulator flhDC genes. FlhDC subsequently activates flagellar gene expression in B. glumae at 37°C. Here, we confirm that the interplay between QS and temperature is critical for normal polar flagellar morphogenesis in B. glumae. In the wild-type bacterium, flagellar gene expression and flagellar number were greater at 28°C compared to 37°C. The QS-dependent flhC gene was significantly expressed at 28°C in two QS-defective (tofI::? and qsmR::?) mutants. Thus, flagella were present in both tofI::? and qsmR::? mutants at 28°C, but were absent at 37°C. Most tofI::? and qsmR::? mutant cells possessed polar or nonpolar flagella at 28°C. Nonpolarly flagellated cells processing flagella around cell surface of both tofI::? and qsmR::? mutants exhibited tumbling and spinning movements. The flhF gene encoding GTPase involved in regulating the correct placement of flagella in other bacteria was expressed in QS mutants in a FlhDC-dependent manner at 28°C. However, FlhF was mislocalized in QS mutants, and was associated with nonpolar flagellar formation in QS mutants at 28°C. These results indicate that QS-independent expression of flagellar genes at 28°C allows flagellar biogenesis, but is not sufficient for normal polar flagellar morphogenesis in B. glumae. Our findings demonstrate that QS functions together with temperature to control flagellar morphogenesis in B. glumae. PMID:24416296

  10. Targeting quorum sensing and competence stimulation for antimicrobial chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Shepherd, Nicholas E; Harrison, Rosemary S; Fairlie, David P

    2012-10-01

    Bacterial resistance to antibiotics is now a serious problem, with traditional classes of antibiotics having gradually become ineffective. New drugs are therefore needed to target and inhibit novel pathways that affect the growth of bacteria. An important feature in the survival of bacteria is that they coordinate their efforts together as a colony via secreted auto-inducing molecules. Competence stimulating peptides (CSPs) are among the quorum sensing pheromones involved in this coordination. These peptides activate a two-component system in gram-negative bacteria, binding to and activating a histidine kinase receptor called ComD, which phosphorylates a response regulator called ComE, leading to gene expression and induction of competence. Competent bacteria are able to take up exogenous DNA and incorporate it into their own genome. By this mechanism bacteria are able to acquire and share genes encoding antibiotic resistance. Despite having been studied for over 30 years, this pathway has only recently begun to be explored as a novel approach to modulating bacterial growth. Antagonists of ComD might block the signaling cascade that leads to competence, while overstimulation of ComD might also reduce bacterial growth. One possible approach to inhibiting ComD is to examine peptide sequences of CSPs that activate ComD and attempt to constrain them to bioactive conformations, likely to have higher affinity due to pre-organization for recognition by the receptor. Thus, small molecules that mimic an alpha helical epitope of CSPs, the putative ComD binding domain, have been shown here to inhibit growth of bacteria such as S. pneumoniae. Such alpha helix mimetics may be valuable clues to antibacterial chemotherapeutic agents that utilize a new mechanism to control bacterial growth. PMID:22664089

  11. Whole-Genome Analysis of Aeromonas hydrophila Strain 187, Exhibiting Quorum-Sensing Activity.

    PubMed

    Chan, Xin-Yue; Chua, Kek Heng; Yin, Wai-Fong; Puthucheary, S D; Chan, Kok-Gan

    2014-01-01

    Aeromonas hydrophila is a quorum-sensing (QS) bacterium that causes diarrhea in humans upon infection. Here, we report the genome of pathogenic Aeromonas hydrophila strain 187, which possesses a QS gene responsible for signaling molecule N-acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) synthesis and has been found to be located at contig 36. PMID:25540357

  12. A Mathematical model to investigate quorum sensing regulation and its heterogenecity in pseudomonas syringae on leaves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The bacterium Pseudomonas syringae is a plant-pathogen, which through quorum sensing (QS), controls virulence. In this paper, by means of mathematical modeling, we investigate QS of this bacterium when living on leaf surfaces. We extend an existing stochastic model for the formation of Pseudomonas s...

  13. Characterization of the Anti-Quorum Sensing Activity Exhibited by Marine Macro algae of South Florida

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Analisa Cumberbatch

    2002-01-01

    Quorum sensing is a communication mechanism employed by many bacteria. The bacteria secrete signal molecules known as acyl homoseriene lactones (AHLs) that cue to population size\\/density. Bacteria can be alerted of this optimum population by the concentration of these signal molecules. When the concentration of AHLs exceed a threshold valve, they enter the bacterial cell and causes the transcription of

  14. Visualizing Bacteria Quorum Sensing Maria Schwarz, Daniela Romano and Marian Gheorghe1

    E-print Network

    Romano, Daniela

    Visualizing Bacteria Quorum Sensing Maria Schwarz, Daniela Romano and Marian Gheorghe1 12 Abstract. Large populations of bacteria communicate by sending into the environment some specific signalling is presented in [1]. Bacteria use QS to coordinate different behaviours. For example the light emission

  15. Quorum sensing and bacterial cross-talk in biotechnology John C March and William E Bentley

    E-print Network

    Jacob, Eshel Ben

    Quorum sensing and bacterial cross-talk in biotechnology John C March and William E Bentleyà Only commercial biotechnology. Addresses Center for Biosystems Research, University of Maryland Biotechnology, College Park, MD, 20742, USA à e-mail: bentley@eng.umd.edu Current Opinion in Biotechnology 2004, 15

  16. Phosphorylation and Processing of the Quorum-Sensing Molecule Autoinducer-2 in Enteric Bacteria

    E-print Network

    Rabinowitz, Joshua D.

    Phosphorylation and Processing of the Quorum- Sensing Molecule Autoinducer-2 in Enteric Bacteria). In enteric bacteria, AI-2 production induces the assembly of a transport apparatus (called the LuxS regulated. This series of chemical events is proposed to enable enteric bacteria to respond to the presence of competitor

  17. Surface Hardness Impairment of Quorum Sensing and Swarming for Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Kamatkar, Nachiket G.; Shrout, Joshua D.

    2011-01-01

    The importance of rhamnolipid to swarming of the bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa is well established. It is frequently, but not exclusively, observed that P. aeruginosa swarms in tendril patterns—formation of these tendrils requires rhamnolipid. We were interested to explain the impact of surface changes on P. aeruginosa swarm tendril development. Here we report that P. aeruginosa quorum sensing and rhamnolipid production is impaired when growing on harder semi-solid surfaces. P. aeruginosa wild-type swarms showed huge variation in tendril formation with small deviations to the “standard” swarm agar concentration of 0.5%. These macroscopic differences correlated with microscopic investigation of cells close to the advancing swarm edge using fluorescent gene reporters. Tendril swarms showed significant rhlA-gfp reporter expression right up to the advancing edge of swarming cells while swarms without tendrils (grown on harder agar) showed no rhlA-gfp reporter expression near the advancing edge. This difference in rhamnolipid gene expression can be explained by the necessity of quorum sensing for rhamnolipid production. We provide evidence that harder surfaces seem to limit induction of quorum sensing genes near the advancing swarm edge and these localized effects were sufficient to explain the lack of tendril formation on hard agar. We were unable to artificially stimulate rhamnolipid tendril formation with added acyl-homoserine lactone signals or increasing the carbon nutrients. This suggests that quorum sensing on surfaces is controlled in a manner that is not solely population dependent. PMID:21687741

  18. The Evolutionary Ecology of the PlcR-PapR Quorum Sensing System in Bacillus thuringiensis

    E-print Network

    Chittka, Lars

    1 The Evolutionary Ecology of the PlcR-PapR Quorum Sensing System in Bacillus thuringiensis LiqinR-PapR QS system in Bacillus thuringiensis, in which the PlcR regulon controls the production of various in the B. cereus group. Strains from the same pherotype exchange information efficiently while strains from

  19. Modeling the regulation of the competence-evoking quorum sensing network in Streptococcus pneumoniae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Diana Karlsson; Stefan Karlsson; Erik Gustafsson; Birgitta Henriques Normark; Patric Nilsson

    2007-01-01

    Competence for genetic transformation seems to play a fundamental role in the biology of Streptococcus pneumoniae and is believed to account for serotype switching, evolution of virulence factors, and rapid emergence of antibiotic resistance. The initiation of competence is regulated by the quorum sensing system referred as the ComABCDE pathway. Experimental studies reveal that competence is down-regulated a short time

  20. Variability of the Quorum Sensing System in Natural Isolates of Bacillus sp

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ines Mandic-Mulec; Barbara Kraigher; Ursa Cepon; Ivan Mahne

    Summary Bacteria communicate with one another by (emitting and\\/or reacting) to chemical sig- nals. These communications, also known as quorum sensing, enable cells to control gene expression in response to cell density at the intra- and inter-species level. While bacteria use common signaling themes, variations in the design of the extracellular signals, the sig- nal detection apparatus, and the biochemical

  1. Natural Genome Diversity of AI-2 Quorum Sensing in Escherichia coli: Conserved Signal Production but Labile

    E-print Network

    Gordo, Isabel

    Natural Genome Diversity of AI-2 Quorum Sensing in Escherichia coli: Conserved Signal Production an important impact in virulence. Autoinducer-2 (AI-2) is a signal that has the peculiarity of mediating both intra- and interspecies bacterial QS. We analyzed the diversity of all components of AI-2 QS across 44

  2. Quorum Sensing Determines the Choice of Antiphage Defense Strategy in Vibrio anguillarum

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Demeng; Svenningsen, Sine Lo

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Selection for phage resistance is a key driver of bacterial diversity and evolution, and phage-host interactions may therefore have strong influence on the genetic and functional dynamics of bacterial communities. In this study, we found that an important, but so far largely overlooked, determinant of the outcome of phage-bacterial encounters in the fish pathogen Vibrio anguillarum is bacterial cell-cell communication, known as quorum sensing. Specifically, V. anguillarum PF430-3 cells locked in the low-cell-density state (?vanT mutant) express high levels of the phage receptor OmpK, resulting in a high susceptibility to phage KVP40, but achieve protection from infection by enhanced biofilm formation. By contrast, cells locked in the high-cell-density state (?van? mutant) are almost completely unsusceptible due to quorum-sensing-mediated downregulation of OmpK expression. The phenotypes of the two quorum-sensing mutant strains are accurately reflected in the behavior of wild-type V. anguillarum, which (i) displays increased OmpK expression in aggregated cells compared to free-living variants in the same culture, (ii) displays a clear inverse correlation between ompK mRNA levels and the concentration of N-acylhomoserine lactone quorum-sensing signals in the culture medium, and (iii) survives mainly by one of these two defense mechanisms, rather than by genetic mutation to phage resistance. Taken together, our results demonstrate that V. anguillarum employs quorum-sensing information to choose between two complementary antiphage defense strategies. Further, the prevalence of nonmutational defense mechanisms in strain PF430-3 suggests highly flexible adaptations to KVP40 phage infection pressure, possibly allowing the long-term coexistence of phage and host. PMID:26081633

  3. Societal interactions in ovarian cancer metastasis: a quorum-sensing hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Hickson, Jonathan; Diane Yamada, S; Berger, Jonathan; Alverdy, John; O'Keefe, James; Bassler, Bonnie; Rinker-Schaeffer, Carrie

    2009-01-01

    The biochemical and biological mechanisms metastatic cancer cells use to function as communities and thwart internal and external growth control mechanisms remain undefined. In this work, we present the hypothesis that cancer cells may use a Quorum-Sensing mechanism to regulate multicellular functions and control steps in metastatic colonization. Quorum sensing is a bacterial cell-cell communication process used to track increasing cell-population density and, in response to changes in cell number, coordinate gene expression and behavior on a community-wide scale. Important parallels between the behavior of societies of bacterial cells and societies of malignant cancer cells exist in the bacterial literature. Of relevance to metastasis is the finding that pathogenic bacteria use quorum sensing to determine when their population numbers are high enough to collectively form biofilms in or on host organisms. Biofilms are complex, heterogeneous communities of bacterial cells encased within an extracellular matrix attached to a solid surface. Biofilms exacerbate disease and are refractory to a battery of therapies. We suggest that the quorum-sensing-controlled bacterial biofilm formation process closely parallels the steps in metastatic colonization. Cells migrate toward/on target surfaces (organ-specific homing), show cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions (tumor cell-stromal cell crosstalk), remain subclinical until they can mount an effective attack (dormancy), form complex structures with channels for nutrient flow (vascularized lesions), and contain resistant cells which can cause disease recurrence (persistors). Using ovarian cancer as an example, we present data supporting the connection between metastatic colonization and quorum sensing and discuss the implications for understanding and controlling metastasis formation. PMID:18516689

  4. Ajoene, a Sulfur-Rich Molecule from Garlic, Inhibits Genes Controlled by Quorum Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Jakobsen, Tim Holm; van Gennip, Maria; Phipps, Richard Kerry; Shanmugham, Meenakshi Sundaram; Christensen, Louise Dahl; Alhede, Morten; Skindersoe, Mette Eline; Rasmussen, Thomas Bovbjerg; Friedrich, Karlheinz; Uthe, Friedrich; Jensen, Peter Østrup; Moser, Claus; Nielsen, Kristian Fog; Eberl, Leo; Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld; Tanner, David; Høiby, Niels; Bjarnsholt, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    In relation to emerging multiresistant bacteria, development of antimicrobials and new treatment strategies of infections should be expected to become a high-priority research area. Quorum sensing (QS), a communication system used by pathogenic bacteria like Pseudomonas aeruginosa to synchronize the expression of specific genes involved in pathogenicity, is a possible drug target. Previous in vitro and in vivo studies revealed a significant inhibition of P. aeruginosa QS by crude garlic extract. By bioassay-guided fractionation of garlic extracts, we determined the primary QS inhibitor present in garlic to be ajoene, a sulfur-containing compound with potential as an antipathogenic drug. By comprehensive in vitro and in vivo studies, the effect of synthetic ajoene toward P. aeruginosa was elucidated. DNA microarray studies of ajoene-treated P. aeruginosa cultures revealed a concentration-dependent attenuation of a few but central QS-controlled virulence factors, including rhamnolipid. Furthermore, ajoene treatment of in vitro biofilms demonstrated a clear synergistic, antimicrobial effect with tobramycin on biofilm killing and a cease in lytic necrosis of polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Furthermore, in a mouse model of pulmonary infection, a significant clearing of infecting P. aeruginosa was detected in ajoene-treated mice compared to a nontreated control group. This study adds to the list of examples demonstrating the potential of QS-interfering compounds in the treatment of bacterial infections. PMID:22314537

  5. Identification of Anti-virulence Compounds That Disrupt Quorum-Sensing Regulated Acute and Persistent Pathogenicity

    PubMed Central

    Bandyopadhaya, Arunava; Lesic, Biljana; He, Jianxin; Kitao, Tomoe; Righi, Valeria; Milot, Sylvain; Tzika, Aria; Rahme, Laurence

    2014-01-01

    Etiological agents of acute, persistent, or relapsing clinical infections are often refractory to antibiotics due to multidrug resistance and/or antibiotic tolerance. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic Gram-negative bacterial pathogen that causes recalcitrant and severe acute chronic and persistent human infections. Here, we target the MvfR-regulated P. aeruginosa quorum sensing (QS) virulence pathway to isolate robust molecules that specifically inhibit infection without affecting bacterial growth or viability to mitigate selective resistance. Using a whole-cell high-throughput screen (HTS) and structure-activity relationship (SAR) analysis, we identify compounds that block the synthesis of both pro-persistence and pro-acute MvfR-dependent signaling molecules. These compounds, which share a benzamide-benzimidazole backbone and are unrelated to previous MvfR-regulon inhibitors, bind the global virulence QS transcriptional regulator, MvfR (PqsR); inhibit the MvfR regulon in multi-drug resistant isolates; are active against P. aeruginosa acute and persistent murine infections; and do not perturb bacterial growth. In addition, they are the first compounds identified to reduce the formation of antibiotic-tolerant persister cells. As such, these molecules provide for the development of next-generation clinical therapeutics to more effectively treat refractory and deleterious bacterial-human infections. PMID:25144274

  6. Identification of anti-virulence compounds that disrupt quorum-sensing regulated acute and persistent pathogenicity.

    PubMed

    Starkey, Melissa; Lepine, Francois; Maura, Damien; Bandyopadhaya, Arunava; Lesic, Biljana; He, Jianxin; Kitao, Tomoe; Righi, Valeria; Milot, Sylvain; Tzika, Aria; Rahme, Laurence

    2014-08-01

    Etiological agents of acute, persistent, or relapsing clinical infections are often refractory to antibiotics due to multidrug resistance and/or antibiotic tolerance. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic Gram-negative bacterial pathogen that causes recalcitrant and severe acute chronic and persistent human infections. Here, we target the MvfR-regulated P. aeruginosa quorum sensing (QS) virulence pathway to isolate robust molecules that specifically inhibit infection without affecting bacterial growth or viability to mitigate selective resistance. Using a whole-cell high-throughput screen (HTS) and structure-activity relationship (SAR) analysis, we identify compounds that block the synthesis of both pro-persistence and pro-acute MvfR-dependent signaling molecules. These compounds, which share a benzamide-benzimidazole backbone and are unrelated to previous MvfR-regulon inhibitors, bind the global virulence QS transcriptional regulator, MvfR (PqsR); inhibit the MvfR regulon in multi-drug resistant isolates; are active against P. aeruginosa acute and persistent murine infections; and do not perturb bacterial growth. In addition, they are the first compounds identified to reduce the formation of antibiotic-tolerant persister cells. As such, these molecules provide for the development of next-generation clinical therapeutics to more effectively treat refractory and deleterious bacterial-human infections. PMID:25144274

  7. How ants use quorum sensing to estimate the average quality of a fluctuating resource

    PubMed Central

    Franks, Nigel R.; Stuttard, Jonathan P.; Doran, Carolina; Esposito, Julian C.; Master, Maximillian C.; Sendova-Franks, Ana B.; Masuda, Naoki; Britton, Nicholas F.

    2015-01-01

    We show that one of the advantages of quorum-based decision-making is an ability to estimate the average value of a resource that fluctuates in quality. By using a quorum threshold, namely the number of ants within a new nest site, to determine their choice, the ants are in effect voting with their feet. Our results show that such quorum sensing is compatible with homogenization theory such that the average value of a new nest site is determined by ants accumulating within it when the nest site is of high quality and leaving when it is poor. Hence, the ants can estimate a surprisingly accurate running average quality of a complex resource through the use of extraordinarily simple procedures. PMID:26153535

  8. How ants use quorum sensing to estimate the average quality of a fluctuating resource.

    PubMed

    Franks, Nigel R; Stuttard, Jonathan P; Doran, Carolina; Esposito, Julian C; Master, Maximillian C; Sendova-Franks, Ana B; Masuda, Naoki; Britton, Nicholas F

    2015-01-01

    We show that one of the advantages of quorum-based decision-making is an ability to estimate the average value of a resource that fluctuates in quality. By using a quorum threshold, namely the number of ants within a new nest site, to determine their choice, the ants are in effect voting with their feet. Our results show that such quorum sensing is compatible with homogenization theory such that the average value of a new nest site is determined by ants accumulating within it when the nest site is of high quality and leaving when it is poor. Hence, the ants can estimate a surprisingly accurate running average quality of a complex resource through the use of extraordinarily simple procedures. PMID:26153535

  9. Quorum-sensing regulators control virulence gene expression in Vibrio cholerae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jun Zhu; Melissa B. Miller; Russell E. Vance; Michelle Dziejman; John J. Mekalanos

    2002-01-01

    The production of virulence factors including cholera toxin and the toxin-coregulated pilus in the human pathogen Vibrio cholerae is strongly influenced by environmental conditions. The well-characterized ToxR signal transduction cascade is responsible for sensing and integrating the environmental information and controlling the virulence regulon. We show here that, in addition to the known components of the ToxR signaling circuit, quorum-sensing

  10. Ligand-Induced Asymmetry in Histidine Sensor Kinase Complex Regulates Quorum Sensing

    SciTech Connect

    Neiditch,M.; Federle, M.; Pompeani, A.; Kelly, R.; Swem, D.; Jeffrey, P.; Bassler, B.; Hughson, F.

    2006-01-01

    Bacteria sense their environment using receptors of the histidine sensor kinase family, but how kinase activity is regulated by ligand binding is not well understood. Autoinducer-2 (AI-2), a secreted signaling molecule originally identified in studies of the marine bacterium Vibrio harveyi, regulates quorum-sensing responses and allows communication between different bacterial species. AI-2 signal transduction in V. harveyi requires the integral membrane receptor LuxPQ, comprised of periplasmic binding protein (LuxP) and histidine sensor kinase (LuxQ) subunits. Combined X-ray crystallographic and functional studies show that AI-2 binding causes a major conformational change within LuxP, which in turn stabilizes a quaternary arrangement in which two LuxPQ monomers are asymmetrically associated. We propose that formation of this asymmetric quaternary structure is responsible for repressing the kinase activity of both LuxQ subunits and triggering the transition of V. harveyi into quorum-sensing mode.

  11. Ligand-Induced Asymmetry in Histidine Sensor Kinase Complex Regulates Quorum Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Neiditch, Matthew B.; Federle, Michael J.; Pompeani, Audra J.; Kelly, Robert C.; Swem, Danielle L.; Jeffrey, Philip D.; Bassler, Bonnie L.; Hughson, Frederick M.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Bacteria sense their environment using receptors of the histidine sensor kinase family, but how kinase activity is regulated by ligand binding is not well understood. Autoinducer-2 (AI-2), a secreted signaling molecule originally identified in studies of the marine bacterium Vibrio harveyi, regulates quorum-sensing responses and allows communication between different bacterial species. AI-2 signal transduction in V. harveyi requires the integral membrane receptor LuxPQ, comprised of periplasmic binding protein (LuxP) and histidine sensor kinase (LuxQ) subunits. Combined X-ray crystallographic and functional studies show that AI-2 binding causes a major conformational change within LuxP, which in turn stabilizes a quaternary arrangement in which two LuxPQ monomers are asymmetrically associated. We propose that formation of this asymmetric quaternary structure is responsible for repressing the kinase activity of both LuxQ subunits and triggering the transition of V. harveyi into quorum-sensing mode. PMID:16990134

  12. Drosophila Host Model Reveals New Enterococcus faecalis Quorum-Sensing Associated Virulence Factors

    PubMed Central

    Teixeira, Neuza; Varahan, Sriram; Gorman, Matthew J.; Palmer, Kelli L.; Zaidman-Remy, Anna; Yokohata, Ryoji; Nakayama, Jiro; Hancock, Lynn E.; Jacinto, António; Gilmore, Michael S.; de Fátima Silva Lopes, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Enterococcus faecalis V583 is a vancomycin-resistant clinical isolate which belongs to the hospital-adapted clade, CC2. This strain harbours several factors that have been associated with virulence, including the fsr quorum-sensing regulatory system that is known to control the expression of GelE and SprE proteases. To discriminate between genes directly regulated by Fsr, and those indirectly regulated as the result of protease expression or activity, we compared gene expression in isogenic mutants of V583 variously defective in either Fsr quorum sensing or protease expression. Quorum sensing was artificially induced by addition of the quorum signal, GBAP, exogenously in a controlled manner. The Fsr regulon was found to be restricted to five genes, gelE, sprE, ef1097, ef1351 and ef1352. Twelve additional genes were found to be dependent on the presence of GBAP-induced proteases. Induction of GelE and SprE by GBAP via Fsr resulted in accumulation of mRNA encoding lrgAB, and this induction was found to be lytRS dependent. Drosophila infection was used to discern varying levels of toxicity stemming from mutations in the fsr quorum regulatory system and the genes that it regulates, highlighting the contribution of LrgAB and bacteriocin EF1097 to infection toxicity. A contribution of SprE to infection toxicity was also detected. This work brought to light new players in E. faecalis success as a pathogen and paves the way for future studies on host tolerance mechanisms to infections caused by this important nosocomial pathogen. PMID:23734216

  13. Characterization of N -acylhomoserine lactone-degrading bacteria associated with the Zingiber officinale (ginger) rhizosphere: Co-existence of quorum quenching and quorum sensing in Acinetobacter and Burkholderia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kok-Gan Chan; Steve Atkinson; Kalai Mathee; Choon-Kook Sam; Siri Ram Chhabra; Miguel Cámara; Chong-Lek Koh; Paul Williams

    2011-01-01

    Background  Cell-to-cell communication (quorum sensing (QS)) co-ordinates bacterial behaviour at a population level. Consequently the\\u000a behaviour of a natural multi-species community is likely to depend at least in part on co-existing QS and quorum quenching\\u000a (QQ) activities. Here we sought to discover novel N -acylhomoserine lactone (AHL)-dependent QS and QQ strains by investigating a bacterial community associated with the rhizosphere\\u000a of

  14. Triazole-containing N-acyl homoserine lactones targeting the quorum sensing system in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Mette R; Jakobsen, Tim H; Bang, Claus G; Cohrt, Anders Emil; Hansen, Casper L; Clausen, Janie W; Le Quement, Sebastian T; Tolker-Nielsen, Tim; Givskov, Michael; Nielsen, Thomas E

    2015-04-01

    In an attempt to devise new antimicrobial treatments for biofilm infections, the bacterial cell-cell communication system termed quorum sensing has emerged as an attractive target. It has proven possible to intercept the communication system by synthetic non-native ligands and thereby lower the pathogenesis and antibiotic tolerance of a bacterial biofilm. To identify the structural elements important for antagonistic or agonistic activity against the Pseudomonas aeruginosa LasR protein, we report the synthesis and screening of new triazole-containing mimics of natural N-acyl homoserine lactones. A series of azide- and alkyne-containing homoserine lactone building blocks was used to prepare an expanded set of 123 homoserine lactone analogues through a combination of solution- and solid-phase synthesis methods. The resulting compounds were subjected to cell-based quorum sensing screening assays, thereby revealing several bioactive compounds, including 13 compounds with antagonistic activity and 9 compounds with agonistic activity. PMID:25716005

  15. Quorum-Sensing Dysbiotic Shifts in the HIV-Infected Oral Metabiome

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Robert E.; Ghannoum, Mahmoud A.; Mukherjee, Pranab K.; Gillevet, Patrick M.; Sikaroodi, Masoumeh

    2015-01-01

    We implemented a Systems Biology approach using Correlation Difference Probability Network (CDPN) analysis to provide insights into the statistically significant functional differences between HIV-infected patients and uninfected individuals. The analysis correlates bacterial microbiome (“bacteriome”), fungal microbiome (“mycobiome”), and metabolome data to model the underlying biological processes comprising the Human Oral Metabiome. CDPN highlights the taxa-metabolite-taxa differences between the cohorts that frequently capture quorum-sensing modifications that reflect communication disruptions in the dysbiotic HIV cohort. The results also highlight the significant role of cyclic mono and dipeptides as quorum-sensing (QS) mediators between oral bacteria and fungal genus. The developed CDPN approach allowed us to model the interactions of taxa and key metabolites, and hypothesize their possible contribution to the etiology of Oral Candidiasis (OC). PMID:25886290

  16. Detection and characterization of quorum sensing signal molecules in Acinetobacter strains.

    PubMed

    González, R H; Nusblat, A; Nudel, B C

    2001-03-01

    Quorum sensing is a widespread regulatory mechanism among Gram-negative bacteria. In this study, Acinetobacter strains were assayed for the presence of quorum sensing signal molecules capable of activating N-acylhomoserine lactone biosensors. By using an Agrobacterium tumefaciens reporter strain it was shown that all the cultures produced two to four detectable signal molecules with different chromatographic patterns. In A. calcoaceticus BD413 supernatants four compounds were detected in a time-dependent manner, and maximal activity was reached at stationary phase. The number of signal molecules was dependent on medium composition; typically, cultures in minimal medium displayed one or two more signals, as compared to complex medium. None of the Acinetobacter supematants showed autoinduction activity with an Chromobacterium violaceum reporter strain, neither in direct or competition assays. PMID:11297357

  17. Diversity of biofilms produced by quorum-sensing-deficient clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Andy Schaber; Adrienne Hammond; Nancy L. Carty; Simon C. Williams; Jane A. Colmer-Hamood; Ben H. Burrowes; Vijian Dhevan; John A. Griswold; Abdul N. Hamood

    2007-01-01

    The quorum-sensing (QS) systems control several virulence attributes of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Five QS-deficient P. aeruginosa clinical isolates (CI) that were obtained from wound (CI-1), tracheal (CI-2, CI-3, CI-4) and urinary tract (CI-5) infections had previously been characterized. In this study, a flow-through continuous-culture system was utilized to examine in detail the biofilms formed by these isolates in comparison with the

  18. Early activation of quorum sensing in Pseudomonas aeruginosa reveals the architecture of a complex regulon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin Schuster; E Peter Greenberg

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Quorum-sensing regulation of gene expression in Pseudomonas aeruginosa is complex. Two interconnected acyl-homoserine lactone (acyl-HSL) signal-receptor pairs, 3-oxo-dodecanoyl-HSL-LasR and butanoyl-HSL-RhlR, regulate more than 300 genes. The induction of most of the genes is delayed during growth of P. aeruginosa in complex medium, cannot be advanced by addition of exogenous signal, and requires additional regulatory components. Many of these late

  19. Quorum Sensing Primes the Oxidative Stress Response in the Insect Endosymbiont, Sodalis glossinidius

    PubMed Central

    Pontes, Mauricio H.; Babst, Markus; Lochhead, Robert; Oakeson, Kelly; Smith, Kari; Dale, Colin

    2008-01-01

    Background Sodalis glossinidius, a maternally transmitted bacterial endosymbiont of tsetse flies (Glossina spp.), uses an acylated homoserine lactone (AHL)-based quorum sensing system to modulate gene expression in accordance with bacterial cell density. The S. glossinidius quorum sensing system relies on the function of two regulatory proteins; SogI (a LuxI homolog) synthesizes a signaling molecule, characterized as N-(3-oxohexanoyl) homoserine lactone (OHHL), and SogR1 (a LuxR homolog) interacts with OHHL to modulate transcription of specific target genes. Methodology/Principal Findings We used a tiling microarray to analyze the S. glossinidius transcriptome in the presence and absence of exogenous OHHL. The major finding is that OHHL increases transcription of a large number of genes that are known to be involved in the oxidative stress response. We also show that the obligate symbiont of the rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae (SOPE), maintains copies of the quorum sensing regulatory genes that are found in S. glossinidius. Molecular evolutionary analyses indicate that these sequences are evolving under stabilizing selection, consistent with the maintenance of their functions in the SOPE symbiosis. Finally, the expression studies in S. glossinidius also reveal that quorum sensing regulates the expression of a cryptic, degenerate gene (carA) that arose from an ancient deletion in the last common ancestor of S. glossinidius and SOPE. Conclusions/Significance This oxidative stress response is likely mandated under conditions of dense intracellular symbiont infection, when intense metabolic activity is expected to generate a heavy oxidative burden. Such conditions are known to arise in the bacteriocytes of grain weevils, which harbor dense intracellular infections of symbiotic bacteria that are closely related to S. glossinidius. The presence of a degenerate carA sequence in S. glossinidius and SOPE indicates the potential for neofunctionalization to occur during the process of genome degeneration. PMID:18958153

  20. Quorum Sensing: a Transcriptional Regulatory System Involved in the Pathogenicity of Burkholderia mallei

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ricky L. Ulrich; David DeShazer; Harry B. Hines; Jeffrey A. Jeddeloh

    2004-01-01

    Numerous gram-negative bacterial pathogens regulate virulence factor expression by using a cell density mechanism termed quorum sensing (QS). An in silico analysis of the Burkholderia mallei ATCC 23344 genome revealed that it encodes at least two luxI and four luxR homologues. Using mass spectrometry, we showed that wild-type B. mallei produces the signaling molecules N-octanoyl-homoserine lactone and N-decanoyl-homo- serine lactone.

  1. Quorum-Sensing Regulation of Adhesion in Serratia marcescens MG1 Is Surface Dependent

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maurizio Labbate; Hua Zhu; Leena Thung; Rani Bandara; Martin R. Larsen; Mark D. P. Willcox; Michael Givskov; Scott A. Rice; Staffan Kjelleberg

    2007-01-01

    Serratia marcescens is an opportunistic pathogen and a major cause of ocular infections. In previous studies of S. marcescens MG1, we showed that biofilm maturation and sloughing were regulated by N-acyl homoserine lactone (AHL)-based quorum sensing (QS). Because of the importance of adhesion in initiating biofilm formation and infection, the primary goal of this study was to determine whether QS

  2. Biofilms on Indwelling Urethral Catheters Produce Quorum Sensing Signal Molecules In Situ and In Vitro

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DAVID J. STICKLER; NICOLA S. MORRIS; ROBERT J. C. MCLEAN; CLAY FUQUA

    Acylated homoserine lactones (AHLs) are chemical signals that mediate population density-dependent (quorum-sensing) gene expression in numerous gram-negative bacteria. In this study, gram-negative bacilli isolated from catheters were screened for AHL production by a cross-feeding assay utilizing an AHL-responsive Agrobacterium tumefaciens reporter strain. Positive reactions were obtained from 14 isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa; negative or weakly positive reactions were recorded for

  3. Farnesol, a Fungal Quorum-Sensing Molecule Triggers Apoptosis in Human Oral Squamous Carcinoma Cells1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark A. Scheper; Mark E. Shirtliff; Timothy F. Meiller; Brian M. Peters; Mary Ann Jabra-Rizk

    Farnesol is a catabolite within the isoprenoid\\/cholesterol pathway that has exhibited significant antitumor activity. Farnesol was recently identified as a quorum-sensing molecule produced by the fungal pathogen Candida albicans. In this study, we hypothesize that synthetic and Candida-produced farnesol can induce apoptosis in vitro in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) lines. Cell proliferation, apoptosis, mitochondrial degradation, and survivin and caspase

  4. Quorum Sensing in Burkholderia cepacia: Identification of the LuxRI Homologs CepRI

    Microsoft Academic Search

    SHAWN LEWENZA; BARBARA CONWAY; E. P. GREENBERG; PAMELA A. SOKOL

    1999-01-01

    Burkholderia cepacia has emerged as an important pathogen in patients with cystic fibrosis. Many gram- negative pathogens regulate the production of extracellular virulence factors by a cell density-dependent mech- anism termed quorum sensing, which involves production of diffusible N-acylated homoserine lactone signal molecules, called autoinducers. Transposon insertion mutants of B. cepacia K56-2 which hyperproduced sidero- phores on chrome azurol S

  5. Specificity and Genetic Polymorphism of the Bacillus Competence Quorum-Sensing System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Tortosa; L. Logsdon; B. Kraigher; Y. Itoh; I. Mandic-Mulec; D. Dubnau

    2001-01-01

    A quorum-sensing mechanism involving the pheromone ComX and the ComP-ComA two-component system controls natural competence in Bacillus subtilis. ComX is expressed as a cytoplasmic inactive precursor that is released into the extracellular medium as a cleaved, modified decapeptide. This process requires the product of comQ. In the presence of ComX, the membrane-localized ComP histidine kinase activates the response regulator ComA.

  6. StructureActivity Analysis of Quorum-Sensing Signaling Peptides from Streptococcus mutans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Raymond T. Syvitski; Xiao-Lin Tian; Kamal Sampara; Alan Salman; Song F. Lee; David L. Jakeman; Yung-Hua Li

    2007-01-01

    Streptococcus mutans secretes and utilizes a 21-amino-acid signaling peptide pheromone to initiate quorum sensing for genetic competence, biofilm formation, stress responses, and bacteriocin production. In this study, we designed and synthesized a series of truncated peptides and peptides with amino acid substitutions to investigate their structure-activity relationships based on the three-dimensional structures of S. mutans wild-type signaling peptide UA159sp and

  7. Siamycin Attenuates fsr Quorum Sensing Mediated by a Gelatinase Biosynthesis-Activating Pheromone in Enterococcus faecalis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jiro Nakayama; Emi Tanaka; Reiko Kariyama; Koji Nagata; Kenzo Nishiguchi; Ritsuko Mitsuhata; Yumi Uemura; Masaru Tanokura; Hiromi Kumon; Kenji Sonomoto

    2007-01-01

    The expression of two Enterococcus faecalis virulence-related proteases, gelatinase (GelE) and serine protease (SprE), is positively regulated by a quorum-sensing system encoded by the fsr gene cluster. In this system, E. faecalis secretes an autoinducing peptide, gelatinase biosynthesis-activating pheromone (GBAP), which trig- gers the FsrC-FsrA two-component regulatory system controlling the expression of two transcripts, fsrBDC and gelE-sprE. In the present

  8. Affecting Pseudomonas aeruginosa phenotypic plasticity by quorum sensing dysregulation hampers pathogenicity in murine chronic lung infection.

    PubMed

    Bondí, Roslen; Messina, Marco; De Fino, Ida; Bragonzi, Alessandra; Rampioni, Giordano; Leoni, Livia

    2014-01-01

    In Pseudomonas aeruginosa quorum sensing (QS) activates the production of virulence factors, playing a critical role in pathogenesis. Multiple negative regulators modulate the timing and the extent of the QS response either in the pre-quorum or post-quorum phases of growth. This regulation likely increases P. aeruginosa phenotypic plasticity and population fitness, facilitating colonization of challenging environments such as higher organisms. Accordingly, in addition to the factors required for QS signals synthesis and response, also QS regulators have been proposed as targets for anti-virulence therapies. However, while it is known that P. aeruginosa mutants impaired in QS are attenuated in their pathogenic potential, the effect of mutations causing a dysregulated timing and/or magnitude of the QS response has been poorly investigated so far in animal models of infection. In order to investigate the impact of QS dysregulation on P. aeruginosa pathogenesis in a murine model of lung infection, the QteE and RsaL proteins have been selected as representatives of negative regulators controlling P. aeruginosa QS in the pre- and post-quorum periods, respectively. Results showed that the qteE mutation does not affect P. aeruginosa lethality and ability to establish chronic infection in mice, despite causing a premature QS response and enhanced virulence factors production in test tube cultures compared to the wild type. Conversely, the post-quorum dysregulation caused by the rsaL mutation hampers the establishment of P. aeruginosa chronic lung infection in mice without affecting the mortality rate. On the whole, this study contributes to a better understanding of the impact of QS regulation on P. aeruginosa phenotypic plasticity during the infection process. Possible fallouts of these findings in the anti-virulence therapy field are also discussed. PMID:25420086

  9. Affecting Pseudomonas aeruginosa Phenotypic Plasticity by Quorum Sensing Dysregulation Hampers Pathogenicity in Murine Chronic Lung Infection

    PubMed Central

    Bondí, Roslen; Messina, Marco; De Fino, Ida; Bragonzi, Alessandra; Rampioni, Giordano; Leoni, Livia

    2014-01-01

    In Pseudomonas aeruginosa quorum sensing (QS) activates the production of virulence factors, playing a critical role in pathogenesis. Multiple negative regulators modulate the timing and the extent of the QS response either in the pre-quorum or post-quorum phases of growth. This regulation likely increases P. aeruginosa phenotypic plasticity and population fitness, facilitating colonization of challenging environments such as higher organisms. Accordingly, in addition to the factors required for QS signals synthesis and response, also QS regulators have been proposed as targets for anti-virulence therapies. However, while it is known that P. aeruginosa mutants impaired in QS are attenuated in their pathogenic potential, the effect of mutations causing a dysregulated timing and/or magnitude of the QS response has been poorly investigated so far in animal models of infection. In order to investigate the impact of QS dysregulation on P. aeruginosa pathogenesis in a murine model of lung infection, the QteE and RsaL proteins have been selected as representatives of negative regulators controlling P. aeruginosa QS in the pre- and post-quorum periods, respectively. Results showed that the qteE mutation does not affect P. aeruginosa lethality and ability to establish chronic infection in mice, despite causing a premature QS response and enhanced virulence factors production in test tube cultures compared to the wild type. Conversely, the post-quorum dysregulation caused by the rsaL mutation hampers the establishment of P. aeruginosa chronic lung infection in mice without affecting the mortality rate. On the whole, this study contributes to a better understanding of the impact of QS regulation on P. aeruginosa phenotypic plasticity during the infection process. Possible fallouts of these findings in the anti-virulence therapy field are also discussed. PMID:25420086

  10. Organ-level quorum sensing directs regeneration in hair stem cell populations.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chih-Chiang; Wang, Lei; Plikus, Maksim V; Jiang, Ting Xin; Murray, Philip J; Ramos, Raul; Guerrero-Juarez, Christian F; Hughes, Michael W; Lee, Oscar K; Shi, Songtao; Widelitz, Randall B; Lander, Arthur D; Chuong, Cheng Ming

    2015-04-01

    Coordinated organ behavior is crucial for an effective response to environmental stimuli. By studying regeneration of hair follicles in response to patterned hair plucking, we demonstrate that organ-level quorum sensing allows coordinated responses to skin injury. Plucking hair at different densities leads to a regeneration of up to five times more neighboring, unplucked resting hairs, indicating activation of a collective decision-making process. Through data modeling, the range of the quorum signal was estimated to be on the order of 1 mm, greater than expected for a diffusible molecular cue. Molecular and genetic analysis uncovered a two-step mechanism, where release of CCL2 from injured hairs leads to recruitment of TNF-?-secreting macrophages, which accumulate and signal to both plucked and unplucked follicles. By coupling immune response with regeneration, this mechanism allows skin to respond predictively to distress, disregarding mild injury, while meeting stronger injury with full-scale cooperative activation of stem cells. PMID:25860610

  11. Inhibition of Biofilm Formation, Quorum Sensing and Infection in Pseudomonas aeruginosa by Natural Products-Inspired Organosulfur Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Cady, Nathaniel C.; McKean, Kurt A.; Behnke, Jason; Kubec, Roman; Mosier, Aaron P.; Kasper, Stephen H.; Burz, David S.; Musah, Rabi A.

    2012-01-01

    Using a microplate-based screening assay, the effects on Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 biofilm formation of several S-substituted cysteine sulfoxides and their corresponding disulfide derivatives were evaluated. From our library of compounds, S-phenyl-L-cysteine sulfoxide and its breakdown product, diphenyl disulfide, significantly reduced the amount of biofilm formation by P. aeruginosa at levels equivalent to the active concentration of 4-nitropyridine-N-oxide (NPO) (1 mM). Unlike NPO, which is an established inhibitor of bacterial biofilms, our active compounds did not reduce planktonic cell growth and only affected biofilm formation. When used in a Drosophila-based infection model, both S-phenyl-L-cysteine sulfoxide and diphenyl disulfide significantly reduced the P. aeruginosa recovered 18 h post infection (relative to the control), and were non-lethal to the fly hosts. The possibility that the observed biofilm inhibitory effects were related to quorum sensing inhibition (QSI) was investigated using Escherichia coli-based reporters expressing P. aeruginosa lasR or rhIR response proteins, as well as an endogenous P. aeruginosa reporter from the lasI/lasR QS system. Inhibition of quorum sensing by S-phenyl-L-cysteine sulfoxide was observed in all of the reporter systems tested, whereas diphenyl disulfide did not exhibit QSI in either of the E. coli reporters, and showed very limited inhibition in the P. aeruginosa reporter. Since both compounds inhibit biofilm formation but do not show similar QSI activity, it is concluded that they may be functioning by different pathways. The hypothesis that biofilm inhibition by the two active compounds discovered in this work occurs through QSI is discussed. PMID:22715388

  12. Draft Genome Sequence of Aeromonas caviae Strain L12, a Quorum-Sensing Strain Isolated from a Freshwater Lake in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Chin, Pui-San; Tee, Kok Keng; Chang, Chien-Yi; Yin, Wai-Fong; Sheng, Kit-Yeng

    2015-01-01

    Here, we present the draft genome sequence of Aeromonas caviae strain L12, which shows quorum-sensing activity. The availability of this genome sequence is important to the research of the quorum-sensing regulatory system in this isolate. PMID:25745006

  13. Toward implementation of quorum sensing autoinducers as biomarkers for infectious disease states.

    PubMed

    Struss, Anjali K; Nunes, Ashlee; Waalen, Jill; Lowery, Colin A; Pullanikat, Prasanna; Denery, Judith R; Conrad, Douglas J; Kaufmann, Gunnar F; Janda, Kim D

    2013-03-19

    The opportunistic bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa causes chronic lung infections in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. Importantly, virulence factor expression and biofilm formation in P. aeruginosa is coordinated by quorum sensing (QS) and one of the key QS signaling molecules is 3-oxo-C12-HSL. Remarkably, a tetramic acid, (C12-TA), with antibacterial properties is formed spontaneously from 3-oxo-C12-HSL under physiological conditions. Seeking to better understand this relationship, we sought to investigate whether 3-oxo-C12-HSL and C12-TA may be contributing factors to the overall pathogenicity of P. aeruginosa in CF individuals and if their detection and quantitation in sputum samples might be used as an indicator to assess disease states and monitor therapy success in CF patients. To this end, 3-oxo-C12-HSL and C12-TA concentrations were initially analyzed in P. aeruginosa flow cell biofilms using liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC-MS). A liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)-based method was then developed and validated for their detection and quantification in the sputa of CF patients. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report to show the presence of both the quorum sensing molecule (3-oxo-C12-HSL) and its rearranged product (C12-TA) in human clinical samples such as sputum. A total of 47 sputum samples from 20 CF and 2 non-CF individuals were analyzed. 3-Oxo-C12-HSL was detected and quantified in 45 samples with concentrations ranging from 20 to >1000 nM; C12-TA was found in 14 samples (13-900 nM). On the basis of our findings, quorum sensing autoinducers merit further investigation as biomarkers for infectious disease states. PMID:23391272

  14. Bis-(3?-5?)-cyclic dimeric GMP-linked quorum sensing controls swarming in Vibrio parahaemolyticus

    PubMed Central

    Trimble, Michael J.; McCarter, Linda L.

    2011-01-01

    Movement over and colonization of surfaces are important survival strategies for bacteria, and many find it advantageous to perform these activities as a group, using quorum sensing to sample population size and synchronize behavior. It is puzzling however, that swarming-proficient and virulent strains of Vibrio parahaemolyticus are silenced for the vibrio archetypal pathway of quorum sensing. Here we describe the S-signal, a pheromone that can be communicated between cells in coculture to regulate surface colonization. This signal was harvested in cell-free supernatants and demonstrated to stimulate swarming gene expression at low cell density. The S-signal was generated by the pyridoxal phosphate-dependent aminotransferase ScrA; signal reception required the periplasmic binding protein ScrB and the membrane-bound GGDEF-EAL domain-containing protein ScrC. ScrC is a bifunctional enzyme that has the ability to form and degrade the second messenger bis-(3?-5?) cyclic dimeric GMP (c-di-GMP). ScrA in neighboring cells was able to alter the activity of ScrC in a ScrB-dependent manner, transforming ScrC’s repressing ability to inducing activity with respect to swarming. Conversely, cell–cell signaling repressed capsule gene expression. In summary, we report that quorum sensing can stimulate swarming in V. parahaemolyticus; it does so via an alternative pathway capable of generating an autoinducing signal that influences c-di-GMP, thereby expanding the lexicon and language of cell–cell communication. PMID:22006340

  15. Aryl-homoserine lactone quorum sensing in stem-nodulating photosynthetic bradyrhizobia

    PubMed Central

    Ahlgren, Nathan A.; Harwood, Caroline S.; Schaefer, Amy L.; Giraud, Eric; Greenberg, E. Peter

    2011-01-01

    Many Proteobacteria possess LuxI-LuxR–type quorum-sensing systems that produce and detect fatty acyl-homoserine lactone (HSL) signals. The photoheterotroph Rhodopseudomonas palustris is unusual in that it produces and detects an aryl-HSL, p-coumaroyl-HSL, and signal production requires an exogenous source of p-coumarate. A photosynthetic stem-nodulating member of the genus Bradyrhizobium produces a small molecule signal that elicits an R. palustris quorum-sensing response. Here, we show that this signal is cinnamoyl-HSL and that cinnamoyl-HSL is produced by the LuxI homolog BraI and detected by BraR. Cinnamoyl-HSL reaches concentrations on the order of 50 nM in cultures of stem-nodulating bradyrhizobia grown in the presence or absence of cinnamate. Acyl-HSLs often reach concentrations of 0.1–30 ?M in bacterial cultures, and generally, LuxR-type receptors respond to signals in a concentration range from 5 to a few hundred nanomolar. Our stem-nodulating Bradyrhizobium strain responds to picomolar concentrations of cinnamoyl-HSL and thus, produces cinnamoyl-HSL in excess of the levels required for a signal response without an exogenous source of cinnamate. The ability of Bradyrhizobium to produce and respond to cinnamoyl-HSL shows that aryl-HSL production is not unique to R. palustris, that the aromatic acid substrate for aryl-HSL synthesis does not have to be supplied exogenously, and that some acyl-HSL quorum-sensing systems may function at very low signal production and response levels. PMID:21471459

  16. Realization of Morphing Logic Gates in a Repressilator with Quorum Sensing Feedback

    E-print Network

    Agrawal, Vidit; Sinha, Sudeshna

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate how a genetic ring oscillator network with quorum sensing feedback can operate as a robust logic gate. Specifically we show how a range of logic functions, namely AND/NAND, OR/NOR and XOR/XNOR, can be realized by the system, thus yielding a versatile unit that can morph between different logic operations. We further demonstrate the capacity of this system to yield complementary logic operations in parallel. Our results then indicate the computing potential of this biological system, and may lead to bio-inspired computing devices.

  17. N-Acylhomoserine Lactones Antagonize Virulence Gene Expression and Quorum Sensing in Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Qazi, Saara; Middleton, Barry; Muharram, Siti Hanna; Cockayne, Alan; Hill, Philip; O'Shea, Paul; Chhabra, Siri Ram; Cámara, Miguel; Williams, Paul

    2006-01-01

    Many gram-negative bacteria employ N-acylhomoserine lactone (AHL)-mediated quorum sensing to control virulence. To determine whether gram-positive bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus respond to AHLs, we used a growth-dependent lux reporter fusion. Exposure of S. aureus to different AHLs revealed that 3-oxo-substituted AHLs with C10 to C14 acyl chains inhibited light output and growth in a concentration-dependent manner, while short-chain AHLs had no effect. N-(3-Oxododecanoyl)-l-homoserine lactone (3-oxo-C12-HSL) inhibited the production of exotoxins and cell wall fibronectin-binding proteins but enhanced protein A expression. Since these processes are reciprocally regulated via the S. aureus agr quorum-sensing system, which in turn, is regulated via sar, we examined the effect of AHLs on sarA and agr. At sub-growth-inhibitory concentrations of 3-oxo-C12-HSL, both sarA expression and agr expression were inhibited, indicating that the action of 3-oxo-C12-HSL is mediated at least in part through antagonism of quorum sensing in S. aureus. Spent culture supernatants from Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which produces both 3-oxo-C12-HSL and N-butanoyl-homoserine lactone (C4-HSL), also inhibited agr expression, although C4-HSL itself was inactive in this assay. Since quorum sensing in S. aureus depends on the activities of membrane-associated proteins, such as AgrB, AgrC, and AgrD, we investigated whether AHLs perturbed S. aureus membrane functionality by determining their influence on the membrane dipole potential. From the binding curves obtained, a dissociation constant of 7 ?M was obtained for 3-oxo-C12-HSL, indicating the presence of a specific saturable receptor, whereas no binding was observed for C4-HSL. These data demonstrate that long-chain 3-oxo-substituted AHLs, such as 3-oxo-C12-HSL, are capable of interacting with the S. aureus cytoplasmic membrane in a saturable, specific manner and at sub-growth-inhibitory concentrations, down-regulating exotoxin production and both sarA and agr expression. PMID:16428734

  18. Realization of morphing logic gates in a repressilator with quorum sensing feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agrawal, Vidit; Kang, Shivpal Singh; Sinha, Sudeshna

    2014-03-01

    We demonstrate how a genetic ring oscillator network with quorum sensing feedback can operate as a robust logic gate. Specifically we show how a range of logic functions, namely AND/NAND, OR/NOR and XOR/XNOR, can be realized by the system, thus yielding a versatile unit that can morph between different logic operations. We further demonstrate the capacity of this system to yield complementary logic operations in parallel. Our results then indicate the computing potential of this biological system, and may lead to bio-inspired computing devices.

  19. Identification of a New Regulator in Streptococcus pneumoniae Linking Quorum Sensing to Competence for Genetic Transformation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MYEONG S. LEE; DONALD A. MORRISON

    1999-01-01

    Competence for genetic transformation in Streptococcus pneumoniae is regulated by a quorum-sensing system encoded by two genetic loci, comCDE and comAB. Additional competence-specific operons, cilA, cilB, cilC, cilD, cilE, cinA-recA, coiA, and cfl, involved in the DNA uptake process and recombination, share an unusual consensus sequence at 210 and 225 in the promoter, which is absent from the promoters of

  20. The impact of quorum sensing on the virulence of Aeromonas hydrophila and Aeromonas salmonicida towards burbot (Lota lota L.) larvae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. M. I. Natrah; Sushant Pawar; A. Shiri Harzevili; Nancy Nevejan; Nico Boon; Patrick Sorgeloos; Peter Bossier; Tom Defoirdt

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the link between quorum sensing in Aeromonas spp. and its\\u000a virulence towards burbot (Lota lota) was investigated. High mortality\\u000a occurred in burbot juveniles challenged with Aeromonas salmonicida\\u000a HN-00, but not in juveniles challenged with Aeromonas hydrophila AH-1N.\\u000a Meanwhile, both A. hydrophila AH-1N and A salmonicida HN-00 were\\u000a virulent towards larvae. The effect of quorum sensing on the

  1. Oregano essential oil-pectin edible films as anti-quorum sensing and food antimicrobial agents.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Maria V; Ortega-Ramirez, Luis A; Gutierrez-Pacheco, M Melissa; Bernal-Mercado, A Thalia; Rodriguez-Garcia, Isela; Gonzalez-Aguilar, Gustavo A; Ponce, Alejandra; Moreira, Maria Del R; Roura, Sara I; Ayala-Zavala, J Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Edible films can be used as carriers for antimicrobial compounds to assure food safety and quality; in addition, pathogenesis of food bacteria is related to a cell to cell communication mechanism called quorum sensing (QS). Oregano essential oil (OEO) has proved to be useful as food antimicrobial; however, its food applications can be compromised by the volatile character of its active constituents. Therefore, formulation of edible films containing OEO can be an alternative to improve its food usages. QS inhibitory activity of OEO and pectin-OEO films was evaluated using Chromobacterium violaceum as bacterial model. Additionally, antibacterial activity was tested against Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Choleraesuis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Listeria monocytogenes. OEO was effective to inhibit bacterial growth at MIC of 0.24 mg/mL for all tested bacteria and MBC of 0.24, 0.24, 0.48, and 0.24 mg/mL against E. coli O157:H7, S. Choleraesuis, S. aureus, and L. monocytogenes, respectively. Pectin-films incorporated with 36.1 and 25.9 mg/mL of OEO showed inhibition diameters of 16.3 and 15.2 mm for E. coli O157:H7; 18.1 and 24.2 mm for S. Choleraesuis; 20.8 and 20.3 mm for S. aureus; 21.3 and 19.3 mm for L. monocytogenes, respectively. Pectin-OEO film (15.7 mg/mL) was effective against E. coli O157:H7 (9.3 mm), S. aureus (9.7 mm), and L. monocytogenes (9.2 mm), but not for S. Choleraesuis. All concentrations of OEO (0.0156, 0.0312, 0.0625 and 0.125 mg/mL) and pectin-OEO films (15.7, 25.9 and 36.1 mg/mL) showed a significant anti-QS activity expressed as inhibition of violacein production by C. violaceum. Additionally, the application of pectin-OEO films was effective reducing total coliforms, yeast, and molds of shrimp and cucumber slices stored at 4°C during 15 d. These results demonstrated the potential of pectin films enriched with OEO as food related microorganisms and QS inhibitors. PMID:25566215

  2. Quorum sensing and biofilm formation investigated using laser-trapped bacterial arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, Vernita; Butler, John; Smalyukh, Ivan; Parsek, Matthew; Wong, Gerard

    2008-03-01

    Studies of individual, free-swimming (planktonic) bacteria have yielded much information about their genetic and phenotypic characteristics and about ``quorum sensing,'' the autoinducing process by which bacteria detect high concentrations of other bacteria. However, in most environments the majority of bacteria are not in the planktonic form but are rather in biofilms, which are highly-structured, dynamic communities of multiple bacteria that adhere to a surface and to each other using an extracellular polysaccharide matrix. Bacteria in biofilms are phenotypically very different from their genetically-identical planktonic counterparts. Among other characteristics, they are much more antibiotic-resistant and virulent. Such biofilms form persistent infections on medical implants and in the lungs of cystic fibrosis patients, where Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms are the leading cause of lung damage and, ultimately, death. To understand the importance of different extracellular materials, motility mechanisms, and quorum sensing for biofilm formation and stability, we use single-gene knockout mutants and an infrared laser trap to create a bacterial aggregate that serves as a model biofilm and allows us to measure the importance of these factors as a function of trapping time, surface, and nutritional environment.

  3. Biofilms on Indwelling Urethral Catheters Produce Quorum-Sensing Signal Molecules In Situ and In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Stickler, David J.; Morris, Nicola S.; McLean, Robert J. C.; Fuqua, Clay

    1998-01-01

    Acylated homoserine lactones (AHLs) are chemical signals that mediate population density-dependent (quorum-sensing) gene expression in numerous gram-negative bacteria. In this study, gram-negative bacilli isolated from catheters were screened for AHL production by a cross-feeding assay utilizing an AHL-responsive Agrobacterium tumefaciens reporter strain. Positive reactions were obtained from 14 isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa; negative or weakly positive reactions were recorded for isolates of five other species. P. aeruginosa biofilms were then produced on catheters in a physical model of the bladder. Sections of colonized all-silicone catheters gave positive reactions for the quorum-sensing signal molecules as did sections that had been cleaned of biofilm and autoclaved. Control sections of unused catheters were negative in the tests. Sections from four of nine catheters that had been freshly removed from patients gave positive reactions for AHLs. Cleaned autoclaved sections of three of these catheters also gave strongly positive reactions for AHLs. These results demonstrate that AHLs are produced by biofilms as they develop on the catheters both in vitro in the model and in vivo in the patient’s bladder. They represent the first demonstration of AHL production by biofilms in a clinical setting. PMID:9726901

  4. Regulation of Yersina pestis Virulence by AI-2 Mediated Quorum Sensing

    SciTech Connect

    Segelke, B; Hok, S; Lao, V; Corzett, M; Garcia, E

    2010-03-29

    The proposed research was motivated by an interest in understanding Y. pestis virulence mechanisms and bacteria cell-cell communication. It is expected that a greater understanding of virulence mechanisms will ultimately lead to biothreat countermeasures and novel therapeutics. Y. pestis is the etiological agent of plague, the most devastating disease in human history. Y. pestis infection has a high mortality rate and a short incubation before mortality. There is no widely available and effective vaccine for Y. pestis and multi-drug resistant strains are emerging. Y. pestis is a recognized biothreat agent based on the wide distribution of the bacteria in research laboratories around the world and on the knowledge that methods exist to produce and aerosolize large amounts of bacteria. We hypothesized that cell-cell communication via signaling molecules, or quorum sensing, by Y. pestis is important for the regulation of virulence factor gene expression during host invasion, though a causative link had never been established. Quorum sensing is a mode of intercellular communication which enables orchestration of gene expression for many bacteria as a function of population density and available evidence suggests there may be a link between quorum sensing and regulation of Y. pesits virulence. Several pathogenic bacteria have been shown to regulate expression of virulence factor genes, including genes encoding type III secretion, via quorum sensing. The Y. pestis genome encodes several cell-cell signaling pathways and the interaction of at least three of these are thought to be involved in one or more modes of host invasion. Furthermore, Y. pestis gene expression array studies carried out at LLNL have established a correlation between expression of known virulence factors and genes involved in processing of the AI-2 quorum sensing signal. This was a basic research project that was intended to provide new insights into bacterial intercellular communication and how it is used to regulate virulence in Y. pestis. It is known that many bacteria use intercellular signaling molecules to orchestrate gene expression and cellular function. A fair amount is known about production and uptake of signaling molecules, but very little is known about how intercellular signaling regulates other pathways. Although several studies demonstrate that intercellular signaling plays a role in regulating virulence in other pathogens, the link between signaling and regulation of virulence has not been established. Very little work had been done directly with Y. pestis intercellular signaling apart from the work carried out at LLNL. The research we proposed was intended to both establish a causative link between AI-2 intercellular signaling and regulation of virulence in Y. pestis and elucidate the fate of the AI-2 signaling molecule after it is taken up and processed by Y. pestis. Elucidating the fate of AI-2 was expected to lead directly to the understanding of how AI-2 signal processing regulates other pathways as well as provide new insights in this direction.

  5. Programming the quorum sensing-based AND gate in Shewanella oneidensis for logic gated-microbial fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yidan; Yang, Yun; Katz, Evgeny; Song, Hao

    2015-03-11

    An AND logic gate based on a synthetic quorum-sensing (QS) module was constructed in a Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 mtrA knockout mutant. The presence of two input signals activated the expression of a periplasmic decaheme cytochrome MtrA to regenerate the extracellular electron transfer conduit, enabling the construction of AND-gated microbial fuel cells. PMID:25673159

  6. Pandoraea sp. Strain E26: Discovery of Its Quorum-Sensing Properties via Whole-Genome Sequence Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Wai-Fong; Tee, Kok Keng; Chang, Chien-Yi; Priya, Kumutha

    2015-01-01

    We report the draft genome sequence of Pandoraea sp. strain E26 isolated from a former landfill site, sequenced by the Illumina MiSeq platform. This genome sequence will be useful to further understand the quorum-sensing system of this isolate. PMID:26021935

  7. Thermoregulation of N-Acyl Homoserine Lactone-Based Quorum Sensing in the Soft Rot Bacterium Pectobacterium atrosepticum?

    PubMed Central

    Latour, Xavier; Diallo, Stéphanie; Chevalier, Sylvie; Morin, Danièle; Smadja, Bruno; Burini, Jean-François; Haras, Dominique; Orange, Nicole

    2007-01-01

    The psychrotolerant bacterium Pectobacterium atrosepticum produces four N-acyl homoserine lactones under a wide range of temperatures. Their thermoregulation differs from that of the exoenzyme production, described as being under quorum-sensing control. A mechanism involved in this thermoregulation consists of controlling N-acyl homoserine lactones synthase production at a transcriptional level. PMID:17468275

  8. Integration of Metabolic and Quorum Sensing Signals Governing the Decision to Cooperate in a Bacterial Social Trait

    PubMed Central

    Boyle, Kerry E.; Monaco, Hilary; van Ditmarsch, Dave; Deforet, Maxime; Xavier, Joao B.

    2015-01-01

    Many unicellular organisms live in multicellular communities that rely on cooperation between cells. However, cooperative traits are vulnerable to exploitation by non-cooperators (cheaters). We expand our understanding of the molecular mechanisms that allow multicellular systems to remain robust in the face of cheating by dissecting the dynamic regulation of cooperative rhamnolipids required for swarming in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. We combine mathematical modeling and experiments to quantitatively characterize the integration of metabolic and population density signals (quorum sensing) governing expression of the rhamnolipid synthesis operon rhlAB. The combined computational/experimental analysis reveals that when nutrients are abundant, rhlAB promoter activity increases gradually in a density dependent way. When growth slows down due to nutrient limitation, rhlAB promoter activity can stop abruptly, decrease gradually or even increase depending on whether the growth-limiting nutrient is the carbon source, nitrogen source or iron. Starvation by specific nutrients drives growth on intracellular nutrient pools as well as the qualitative rhlAB promoter response, which itself is modulated by quorum sensing. Our quantitative analysis suggests a supply-driven activation that integrates metabolic prudence with quorum sensing in a non-digital manner and allows P. aeruginosa cells to invest in cooperation only when the population size is large enough (quorum sensing) and individual cells have enough metabolic resources to do so (metabolic prudence). Thus, the quantitative description of rhlAB regulatory dynamics brings a greater understating to the regulation required to make swarming cooperation stable. PMID:26102206

  9. Pandoraea sp. Strain E26: Discovery of Its Quorum-Sensing Properties via Whole-Genome Sequence Analysis.

    PubMed

    Chan, Kok-Gan; Yin, Wai-Fong; Tee, Kok Keng; Chang, Chien-Yi; Priya, Kumutha

    2015-01-01

    We report the draft genome sequence of Pandoraea sp. strain E26 isolated from a former landfill site, sequenced by the Illumina MiSeq platform. This genome sequence will be useful to further understand the quorum-sensing system of this isolate. PMID:26021935

  10. Thermoregulation of N-acyl homoserine lactone-based quorum sensing in the soft rot bacterium Pectobacterium atrosepticum.

    PubMed

    Latour, Xavier; Diallo, Stéphanie; Chevalier, Sylvie; Morin, Danièle; Smadja, Bruno; Burini, Jean-François; Haras, Dominique; Orange, Nicole

    2007-06-01

    The psychrotolerant bacterium Pectobacterium atrosepticum produces four N-acyl homoserine lactones under a wide range of temperatures. Their thermoregulation differs from that of the exoenzyme production, described as being under quorum-sensing control. A mechanism involved in this thermoregulation consists of controlling N-acyl homoserine lactones synthase production at a transcriptional level. PMID:17468275

  11. Quorum-sensing system influences root colonization and biological control ability in Pseudomonas fluorescens 2P24.

    PubMed

    Wei, Hai-Lei; Zhang, Li-Qun

    2006-02-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens 2P24 is a biocontrol agent isolated from a wheat take-all decline soil in China. This strain produces several antifungal compounds, such as 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (2,4-DAPG), hydrogen cyanide and siderophore(s). Our recent work revealed that strain 2P24 employs a quorum-sensing system to regulate its biocontrol activity. In this study, we identified a quorum-sensing system consisting of PcoR and PcoI of the LuxR-LuxI family from strain 2P24. Deletion of pcoI from 2P24 abolishes the production of the quorum-sensing signals, but does not detectably affect the production of antifungal metabolites. However, the mutant is significantly defective in biofilm formation, colonization on wheat rhizosphere and biocontrol ability against wheat take-all, whilst complementation of pcoI restores the biocontrol activity to the wild-type level. Our data indicate that quorum sensing is involved in regulation of biocontrol activity in P. fluorescens 2P24. PMID:16710638

  12. Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus PAL5 possesses an active quorum sensing regulatory system.

    PubMed

    Bertini, Elisa V; Nieto Peñalver, Carlos G; Leguina, Ana C; Irazusta, Verónica P; de Figueroa, Lucía I C

    2014-09-01

    The endophytic bacterium Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus colonizes a broad range of host plants. Its plant growth-promoting capability is related to the capacity to perform biological nitrogen fixation, the biosynthesis of siderophores, antimicrobial substances and the solubilization of mineral nutrients. Colonization of and survival in these endophytic niche requires a complex regulatory network. Among these, quorum sensing systems (QS) are signaling mechanisms involved in the control of several genes related to microbial interactions, host colonization and stress survival. G. diazotrophicus PAL5 possesses a QS composed of a luxR and a luxI homolog, and produces eight molecules from the AHL family as QS signals. In this report data are provided showing that glucose concentration modifies the relative levels of these signal molecules. The activity of G. diazotrophicus PAL5 QS is also altered in presence of other carbon sources and under saline stress conditions. Inactivation of the QS system of G. diazotrophicus PAL5 by means of a quorum quenching strategy allowed the identification of extracellular and intracellular proteins under the control of this regulatory mechanism. PMID:24974195

  13. Identification of Four New agr Quorum Sensing-Interfering Cyclodepsipeptides from a Marine Photobacterium

    PubMed Central

    Kjaerulff, Louise; Nielsen, Anita; Mansson, Maria; Gram, Lone; Larsen, Thomas O.; Ingmer, Hanne; Gotfredsen, Charlotte H.

    2013-01-01

    During our search for new natural products from the marine environment, we discovered a wide range of cyclic peptides from a marine Photobacterium, closely related to P. halotolerans. The chemical fingerprint of the bacterium showed primarily non-ribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS)-like compounds, including the known pyrrothine antibiotic holomycin and a wide range of peptides, from diketopiperazines to cyclodepsipeptides of 500–900 Da. Purification of components from the pellet fraction led to the isolation and structure elucidation of four new cyclodepsipeptides, ngercheumicin F, G, H, and I. The ngercheumicins interfered with expression of virulence genes known to be controlled by the agr quorum sensing system of Staphylococcus aureus, although to a lesser extent than the previously described solonamides from the same strain of Photobacterium. PMID:24351904

  14. Tailor-made LasR agonists modulate quorum sensing in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Rabin, Nira; Delago, Antonia; Inbal, Boaz; Krief, Pnina; Meijler, Michael M

    2013-11-01

    The primary quorum sensing system in the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa is regulated through the synthesis and secretion of N-3-oxo-dodecanoyl-L-homoserine lactone (C12) which binds the transcriptional activator LasR. In this study we report the design, synthesis and biological evaluation of new analogs of C12. Analysis of the autoinducer binding site cavity of LasR revealed a positively charged cavity near the center of bound C12. Accordingly, we synthesized two piperidine-C12 diastereoisomers and tested their biological activity. Both analogs proved to be strong LasR agonists that showed a synergistic effect when presented together with the natural ligand. Moreover, binding of the analogs resulted in phenotypic changes characteristic of QS controlled receptor activation. PMID:24057196

  15. Tandem Mass Spectrometry Detection of Quorum Sensing Activity in Multidrug Resistant Clinical Isolate Acinetobacter baumannii

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Kok-Gan; Cheng, Huey Jia; Chen, Jian Woon; Yin, Wai-Fong; Ngeow, Yun Fong

    2014-01-01

    Many Proteobacteria communicate via production followed by response of quorum sensing molecules, namely, N-acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs). These molecules consist of a lactone moiety with N-acyl side chain with various chain lengths and degrees of saturation at C-3 position. AHL-dependent QS is often associated with regulation of diverse bacterial phenotypes including the expression of virulence factors. With the use of biosensor and high resolution liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, the AHL production of clinical isolate A. baumannii 4KT was studied. Production of short chain AHL, namely, N-hexanoyl-homoserine lactone (C6-HSL) and N-octanoyl-homoserine lactone (C8-HSL), was detected. PMID:25101326

  16. Bacterial behaviors associated with the quorum-sensing peptide pheromone ('alarmone') in streptococci.

    PubMed

    Dufour, Delphine; Lévesque, Céline M

    2013-05-01

    Streptococci are among the predominant bacterial species living in the human body. They are normally harmless bacteria, but have the ability to cause diverse infections, ranging from mild (e.g., tooth decay and sore throat) to life-threatening (e.g., endocarditis and meningitis). Streptococci have evolved various means of coping with the deleterious effects of environmental stressors and avoiding the host immune system. Recently, several studies have shown that streptococci colonizing the mouth and upper respiratory tract are able to mount complex stress responses in order to persist and successfully survive competition in their ecological niche. Using a small quorum-sensing peptide pheromone acting as a stress-inducible 'alarmone', oral streptococci synchronize the gene expression of a specific group of cells to coordinate important biological activities. PMID:23642115

  17. Vibrio campbellii hmgA-mediated pyomelanization impairs quorum sensing, virulence, and cellular fitness

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zheng; Lin, Baochuan; Mostaghim, Anahita; Rubin, Robert A.; Glaser, Evan R.; Mittraparp-arthorn, Pimonsri; Thompson, Janelle R.; Vuddhakul, Varaporn; Vora, Gary J.

    2013-01-01

    Melanization due to the inactivation of the homogentisate-1,2-dioxygenase gene (hmgA) has been demonstrated to increase stress resistance, persistence, and virulence in some bacterial species but such pigmented mutants have not been observed in pathogenic members of the Vibrio Harveyi clade. In this study, we used Vibrio campbellii ATCC BAA-1116 as model organism to understand how melanization affected cellular phenotype, metabolism, and virulence. An in-frame deletion of the hmgA gene resulted in the overproduction of a pigment in cell culture supernatants and cellular membranes that was identified as pyomelanin. Unlike previous demonstrations in Vibrio cholerae, Burkholderia cepacia, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, the pigmented V. campbellii mutant did not show increased UV resistance and was found to be ~2.7 times less virulent than the wild type strain in Penaeus monodon shrimp virulence assays. However, the extracted pyomelanin pigment did confer a higher resistance to oxidative stress when incubated with wild type cells. Microarray-based transcriptomic analyses revealed that the hmgA gene deletion and subsequent pyomelanin production negatively effected the expression of 129 genes primarily involved in energy production, amino acid, and lipid metabolism, and protein translation and turnover. This transcriptional response was mediated in part by an impairment of the quorum sensing regulon as transcripts of the quorum sensing high cell density master regulator LuxR and other operonic members of this regulon were significantly less abundant in the hmgA mutant. Taken together, the results suggest that the pyomelanization of V. campbellii sufficiently impairs the metabolic activities of this organism and renders it less fit and virulent than its isogenic wild type strain. PMID:24376440

  18. The quorum quenching antibody RS2-1G9 protects macrophages from the cytotoxic effects of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa quorum sensing signalling molecule N-3-oxo-dodecanoyl-homoserine lactone.

    PubMed

    Kaufmann, Gunnar F; Park, Junguk; Mee, Jenny M; Ulevitch, Richard J; Janda, Kim D

    2008-05-01

    The Gram-negative bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa, an opportunistic human pathogen, uses acyl-homoserine lactone-based quorum sensing systems to control its pathogenicity. One of its quorum sensing factors, N-3-oxo-dodecanoyl-homoserine lactone, has been shown not only to mediate bacterial quorum sensing but also to exert cytotoxic effects on mammalian cells. The monoclonal antibody RS2-1G9 generated against a 3-oxo-dodecanoyl-homoserine lactone analogue hapten was able to protect murine bone marrow-derived macrophages from the cytotoxic effects and also prevented the activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase p38. These data demonstrate that an immunopharmacotherapeutic approach to combat P. aeruginosa infections might be a viable therapeutic option as the monoclonal antibody RS2-1G9 can readily sequester bacterial N-3-oxo-dodecanoyl-homoserine lactone molecules, thus interfering with their biological effects in prokaryotic and eukaryotic systems. PMID:18304641

  19. A case study on chemical defense based on quorum sensing: antibacterial activity of sponge-associated bacterium Pseudoalteromonas sp. NJ6-3-1 induced by quorum sensing mechanisms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiuchun Guo; Li Zheng; Wenhui Zhou; Zhisong Cui; Ping Han; Li Tian; Xiaoru Wang

    2011-01-01

    A case study to investigate the relationship between antibacterial activity and quorum sensing mechanisms was carried out\\u000a on a sponge-associated bacterium with remarkable biological activities: Pseudoalteromonas sp. NJ6-3-1. The dependence of active substance production on cell density was studied under various growth conditions. Bacteria\\u000a NJ6-3-1 was found to start producing antibacterial compounds only when cell density reached the threshold value

  20. A Synthetic Quorum Sensing System Reveals a Potential Private Benefit for Public Good Production in a Biofilm

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Fang; Kwan, Anna; Xu, Amy; Süel, Gürol M.

    2015-01-01

    Bacteria predominantly reside in microbial communities known as biofilms, where cells are encapsulated and protected by the extracellular matrix (ECM). While all biofilm cells benefit from the ECM, only a subgroup of cells carries the burden of producing this public good. This dilemma provokes the question of how these cells balance the cost of ECM production. Here we show that ECM producing cells have a higher gene expression response to quorum sensing (QS) signals, which can lead to a private benefit. Specifically, we constructed a synthetic quorum-sensing system with designated “Sender” and “Receiver” cells in Bacillus subtilis. This synthetic QS system allowed us to uncouple and independently investigate ECM production and QS in both biofilms and single cells. Results revealed that ECM production directly enhances the response to QS signals, which may offset the cost of ECM production. PMID:26196509

  1. The Stringent Response Modulates 4-Hydroxy-2-Alkylquinoline Biosynthesis and Quorum-Sensing Hierarchy in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Schafhauser, James; Lepine, Francois; McKay, Geoffrey; Ahlgren, Heather G.; Khakimova, Malika

    2014-01-01

    As a ubiquitous environmental organism and an important human pathogen, Pseudomonas aeruginosa readily adapts and responds to a wide range of conditions and habitats. The intricate regulatory networks that link quorum sensing and other global regulators allow P. aeruginosa to coordinate its gene expression and cell signaling in response to different growth conditions and stressors. Upon nutrient transitions and starvation, as well as other environmental stresses, the stringent response is activated, mediated by the signal (p)ppGpp. P. aeruginosa produces a family of molecules called HAQ (4-hydroxy-2-alkylquinolines), some of which exhibit antibacterial and quorum-sensing signaling functions and regulate virulence genes. In this study, we report that (p)ppGpp negatively regulates HAQ biosynthesis: in a (p)ppGpp-null (?SR) mutant, HHQ (4-hydroxyl-2-heptylquinoline) and PQS (3,4-dihydroxy-2-heptylquinoline) levels are increased due to upregulated pqsA and pqsR expression and reduced repression by the rhl system. We also found that (p)ppGpp is required for full expression of both rhl and las AHL (acyl-homoserine lactone) quorum-sensing systems, since the ?SR mutant has reduced rhlI, rhlR, lasI, and lasR expression, butanoyl-homoserine lactone (C4-HSL) and 3-oxo-dodecanoyl-homoserine lactone (3-oxo-C12-HSL) levels, and rhamnolipid and elastase production. Furthermore, (p)ppGpp significantly modulates the AHL and PQS quorum-sensing hierarchy, as the las system no longer has a dominant effect on HAQ biosynthesis when the stringent response is inactivated. PMID:24509318

  2. Quorum Sensing Influences Vibrio harveyi Growth Rates in a Manner Not Fully Accounted For by the Marker Effect of Bioluminescence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zeena E. Nackerdien; Alexander Keynan; Bonnie L. Bassler; Joshua Lederberg; David S. Thaler; Julian Rutherford

    2008-01-01

    BackgroundThe light-emitting Vibrios provide excellent material for studying the interaction of cellular communication with growth rate because bioluminescence is a convenient marker for quorum sensing. However, the use of bioluminescence as a marker is complicated because bioluminescence itself may affect growth rate, e.g. by diverting energy.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsThe marker effect was explored via growth rate studies in isogenic Vibrio harveyi (Vh)

  3. Biofilm Development on Caenorhabditis elegans by Yersinia Is Facilitated by Quorum Sensing-Dependent Repression of Type III Secretion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steve Atkinson; Robert J. Goldstone; George W. P. Joshua; Chien-Yi Chang; Hannah L. Patrick; Miguel Cámara; Brendan W. Wren; Paul Williams

    2011-01-01

    Yersinia pseudotuberculosis forms biofilms on Caenorhabditis elegans which block nematode feeding. This genetically amenable host-pathogen model has important implications for biofilm development on living, motile surfaces. Here we show that Y. pseudotuberculosis biofilm development on C. elegans is governed by N-acylhomoserine lactone (AHL)-mediated quorum sensing (QS) since (i) AHLs are produced in nematode associated biofilms and (ii) Y. pseudotuberculosis strains

  4. LuxS-dependent quorum sensing in Porphyromonas gingivalis modulates protease and haemagglutinin activities but is not essential for virulence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicola A. Burgess; David F. Kirke; Paul Williams; Klaus Winzer; Kim R. Hardie; Nicholas L. Meyers; Joseph Aduse-Opoku; Michael A. Curtis; SmithKline Beecham

    Porphyromonas gingivalis is a Gram-negative black-pigmented obligate anaerobe implicated in the aetiology of human periodontal disease. The virulence of P. gingivalis is associated with the elaboration of the cysteine proteases Arg-gingipain (Rgp) and Lys-gingipain (Kgp), which are produced at high bacterial cell densities. To determine whether quorum sensing plays a role in the regulation of Rgp and Kgp, biosensors capable

  5. Quorum Sensing in Escherichia coli Is Signaled by AI2\\/LsrR: Effects on Small RNA and Biofilm Architecture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jun Li; Liang Wang; Thomas K. Wood; James J. Valdes; William E. Bentley

    2007-01-01

    The regulatory network for the uptake of Escherichia coli autoinducer 2 (AI-2) is comprised of a transporter complex, LsrABCD; its repressor, LsrR; and a cognate signal kinase, LsrK. This network is an integral part of the AI-2 quorum-sensing (QS) system. Because LsrR and LsrK directly regulate AI-2 uptake, we hypothe- sized that they might play a wider role in regulating

  6. Quorum Sensing Contributes to Activated IgM-Secreting B Cell Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Montaudouin, Caroline; Anson, Marie; Hao, Yi; Duncker, Susanne V.; Fernandez, Tahia; Gaudin, Emmanuelle; Ehrenstein, Michael; Kerr, William G.; Colle, Jean-Hervé; Bruhns, Pierre; Daëron, Marc; Freitas, António A.

    2013-01-01

    Maintenance of plasma IgM levels is critical for immune system function and homeostasis in humans and mice. However, the mechanisms that control homeostasis of the activated IgM-secreting B cells are unknown. After adoptive transfer into immune-deficient hosts, B lymphocytes expand poorly, but fully reconstitute the pool of natural IgM-secreting cells and circulating IgM levels. By using sequential cell transfers and B cell populations from several mutant mice, we were able to identify novel mechanisms regulating the size of the IgM-secreting B cell pool. Contrary to previous mechanisms described regulating homeostasis, which involve competition for the same niche by cells having overlapping survival requirements, homeostasis of the innate IgM-secreting B cell pool is also achieved when B cell populations are able to monitor the number of activated B cells by detecting their secreted products. Notably, B cell populations are able to assess the density of activated B cells by sensing their secreted IgG. This process involves the Fc?RIIB, a low-affinity IgG receptor that is expressed on B cells and acts as a negative regulator of B cell activation, and its intracellular effector the inositol phosphatase SHIP. As a result of the engagement of this inhibitory pathway, the number of activated IgM-secreting B cells is kept under control. We hypothesize that malfunction of this quorum-sensing mechanism may lead to uncontrolled B cell activation and autoimmunity. PMID:23209322

  7. The dependence of quorum sensing in Serratia marcescens JG on the transcription of luxS gene.

    PubMed

    Sun, Shu-Jing; Liu, Yu-Chen; Sun, Jiao; Zhu, Hu

    2015-06-01

    Bacteria communicate with one another using chemical signal molecules. This phenomenon termed quorum sensing enables the bacteria to monitor the environment for other bacteria and to alter behavior on a population-wide scale in response to cell density. Serratia marcescens JG, a quorum sensing bacterium, can secrete a furanosyl borate diester autoinducer (AI-2) in the exponential phase of growth. In this study, to further investigate the regulation of AI-2 production in S. marcescens JG, the pfs and luxS promoter fusions to an operon luxCDABE reporter were constructed in a low-copy-number vector pBR322K, which allows an examination of transcription of the genes in the pathway for signal synthesis. The results show that the luxS expression is constitutive, and the transcription of luxS is tightly correlated with AI-2 production in S. marcescens JG because the peaks of AI-2 production and transcriptional level of luxS appear at the same time point. The close relation of the profiles of luxS transcription and AI-2 production was also confirmed with real-time PCR technology. These results support the hypothesis that the quorum sensing in S. marcescens JG is luxS dependent. PMID:25731898

  8. Degradation of Bacterial Quorum Sensing Signaling Molecules by the Microscopic Yeast Trichosporon loubieri Isolated from Tropical Wetland Waters

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Cheng-Siang; Koh, Chong-Lek; Sam, Choon-Kook; Chen, Jian Woon; Chong, Yee Meng; Yin, Wai-Fong; Chan, Kok-Gan

    2013-01-01

    Proteobacteria produce N-acylhomoserine lactones as signaling molecules, which will bind to their cognate receptor and activate quorum sensing-mediated phenotypes in a population-dependent manner. Although quorum sensing signaling molecules can be degraded by bacteria or fungi, there is no reported work on the degradation of such molecules by basidiomycetous yeast. By using a minimal growth medium containing N-3-oxohexanoylhomoserine lactone as the sole source of carbon, a wetland water sample from Malaysia was enriched for microbial strains that can degrade N-acylhomoserine lactones, and consequently, a basidiomycetous yeast strain WW1C was isolated. Morphological phenotype and molecular analyses confirmed that WW1C was a strain of Trichosporon loubieri. We showed that WW1C degraded AHLs with N-acyl side chains ranging from 4 to 10 carbons in length, with or without oxo group substitutions at the C3 position. Re-lactonisation bioassays revealed that WW1C degraded AHLs via a lactonase activity. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of degradation of N-acyl-homoserine lactones and utilization of N-3-oxohexanoylhomoserine as carbon and nitrogen source for growth by basidiomycetous yeast from tropical wetland water; and the degradation of bacterial quorum sensing molecules by an eukaryotic yeast. PMID:24072030

  9. Influence of the AgrC-AgrA Complex on the Response Time of Staphylococcus aureus Quorum Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Sandeep K.; Rajasree, Kalagiri; Fasim, Aneesa; Arakere, Gayathri

    2014-01-01

    The Staphylococcus aureus agr quorum-sensing system plays a major role in the transition from the persistent to the virulent phenotype. S. aureus agr type I to IV strains are characterized by mutations in the sensor domain of the histidine kinase AgrC and differences in the sequences of the secreted autoinducing peptides (AIP). Here we demonstrate that interactions between the cytosolic domain of AgrC (AgrCCyto) and the response regulator domain of AgrA (AgrARR) dictate the spontaneity of the cellular response to AIP stimuli. The crystal structure of AgrCCyto provided a basis for a mechanistic model of AgrC-AgrA interactions. This model enabled an analysis of the biochemical and biophysical parameters of AgrC-AgrA interactions in the context of the conformational features of the AgrC-AgrA complex. This analysis revealed distinct sequence and conformational features that determine the affinity, specificity, and kinetics of the phosphotransfer reaction. This step, which governs the response time for transcriptional reengineering triggered by an AIP stimulus, is independent of the agr type and similar for agonist and antagonist stimuli. These experimental data could serve as a basis on which to validate simulations of the quorum-sensing response and for strategies that employ the agr quorum-sensing system to combat biofilm formation in S. aureus infections. PMID:24858185

  10. Quorum sensing signalling and biofilm formation of brewery-derived bacteria, and inhibition of signalling by natural compounds.

    PubMed

    Priha, O; Virkajärvi, V; Juvonen, R; Puupponen-Pimiä, R; Nohynek, L; Alakurtti, S; Pirttimaa, M; Storgårds, E

    2014-11-01

    Bacteria use quorum sensing signalling in various functions, e.g. while forming biofilms, and inhibition of this signalling could be one way to control biofilm formation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the production of signalling molecules and its correlation with the biofilm formation capability of bacteria isolated from brewery filling process. A further aim was to study berry extracts and wood-derived terpenes for their possible quorum sensing inhibitory effects. Out of the twenty bacteria studied, five produced short-chain and five long-chain AHL (acyl homoserine lactone) signalling molecules when tested with the Chromobacterium violaceum CV026 reporter bacterium. Production of AI-2 (autoinducer-2) signalling molecules was detected from nine strains with the Vibrio harveyi BB170 bioassay. Over half of the strains produced biofilm in the microtitre plate assay, but the production of AHL and AI-2 signalling molecules and biofilm formation capability did not directly correlate with each other. Out of the 13 berry extracts and wood-derived terpenes screened, four compounds decreased AHL signalling without effect on growth. These were betulin, raspberry extract and two cloudberry extracts. The effect of these compounds on biofilm formation of the selected six bacterial strains varied. The phenolic extract of freeze-dried cloudberry fruit caused a statistically significant reduction of biofilm formation of Obesumbacterium proteus strain. Further experiments should aim at identifying the active compounds and revealing whether quorum sensing inhibition causes structural changes in the biofilms formed. PMID:24944110

  11. Functional Analysis of the Quorum-Sensing Streptococcal Invasion Locus (sil)

    PubMed Central

    Belotserkovsky, Ilia; Baruch, Moshe; Peer, Asaf; Dov, Eran; Ravins, Miriam; Mishalian, Inbal; Persky, Merav; Smith, Yoav; Hanski, Emanuel

    2009-01-01

    Group A streptococcus (GAS) causes a wide variety of human diseases, and at the same time, GAS can also circulate without producing symptoms, similar to its close commensal relative, group G streptococcus (GGS). We previously identified, by transposon-tagged mutagenesis, the streptococcal invasion locus (sil). sil is a quorum-sensing regulated locus which is activated by the autoinducer peptide SilCR through the two-component system SilA-SilB. Here we characterize the DNA promoter region necessary for SilA-mediated activation. This site is composed of two direct repeats of 10 bp, separated by a spacer of 11 bp. Fusion of this site to gfp allowed us to systematically introduce single-base substitutions in the repeats region and to assess the relative contribution of various positions to promoter strength. We then developed an algorithm giving different weights to these positions, and performed a chromosome-wide bioinformatics search which was validated by transcriptome analysis. We identified 13 genes, mostly bacteriocin related, that are directly under the control of SilA. Having developed the ability to quantify SilCR signaling via GFP accumulation prompted us to search for GAS and GGS strains that sense and produce SilCR. While the majority of GAS strains lost sil, all GGS strains examined still possess the locus and ?63% are able to respond to exogenously added SilCR. By triggering the autoinduction circle using a minute concentration of synthetic SilCR, we identified GAS and GGS strains that are capable of sensing and naturally producing SilCR, and showed that SilCR can be sensed across these streptococci species. These findings suggest that sil may be involved in colonization and establishment of commensal host-bacterial relationships. PMID:19893632

  12. The Interaction of N-Acylhomoserine Lactone Quorum Sensing Signaling Molecules with Biological Membranes: Implications for Inter-Kingdom Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Benjamin Michael; Jensen, Rasmus; Williams, Paul; O'Shea, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Background The long chain N-acylhomoserine lactone (AHL) quorum sensing signal molecules released by Pseudomonas aeruginosa have long been known to elicit immunomodulatory effects through a process termed inter-kingdom signaling. However, to date very little is known regarding the exact mechanism of action of these compounds on their eukaryotic targets. Methodology/Principal Findings The use of the membrane dipole fluorescent sensor di-8-ANEPPS to characterise the interactions of AHL quorum sensing signal molecules, N-(3-oxotetradecanoyl)-L-homoserine lactone (3-oxo-C14-HSL), N-(3-oxododecanoyl)homoserine-L-lactone (3-oxo-C12-HSL) and N-(3-oxodecanoyl) homoserine-L-lactone (3-oxo-C10 HSL) produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa with model and cellular membranes is reported. The interactions of these AHLs with artificial membranes reveal that each of the compounds is capable of membrane interaction in the micromolar concentration range causing significant modulation of the membrane dipole potential. These interactions fit simple hyperbolic binding models with membrane affinity increasing with acyl chain length. Similar results were obtained with T-lymphocytes providing the evidence that AHLs are capable of direct interaction with the plasma membrane. 3-oxo-C12-HSL interacts with lymphocytes via a cooperative binding model therefore implying the existence of an AHL membrane receptor. The role of cholesterol in the interactions of AHLs with membranes, the significance of modulating cellular dipole potential for receptor conformation and the implications for immune modulation are discussed. Conclusions/ Significance Our observations support previous findings that increasing AHL lipophilicity increases the immunomodulatory activity of these quorum compounds, while providing evidence to suggest membrane interaction plays an important role in quorum sensing and implies a role for membrane microdomains in this process. Finally, our results suggest the existence of a eukaryotic membrane-located system that acts as an AHL receptor. PMID:20975958

  13. Inhibition of Quorum Sensing-Controlled Virulence Factor Production in Pseudomonas aeruginosa by South Florida Plant Extracts?

    PubMed Central

    Adonizio, Allison; Kong, Kok-Fai; Mathee, Kalai

    2008-01-01

    Quorum sensing (QS) is a key regulator of virulence and biofilm formation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and other medically relevant bacteria. Aqueous extracts of six plants, Conocarpus erectus, Chamaesyce hypericifolia, Callistemon viminalis, Bucida buceras, Tetrazygia bicolor, and Quercus virginiana, were examined in this study for their effects on P. aeruginosa virulence factors and the QS system. C. erectus, B. buceras, and C. viminalis caused a significant inhibition of LasA protease, LasB elastase, pyoverdin production, and biofilm formation. Additionally, each plant presented a distinct effect profile on the las and rhl QS genes and their respective signaling molecules, suggesting that different mechanisms are responsible for efficacy. Extracts of all plants caused the inhibition of QS genes and QS-controlled factors, with marginal effects on bacterial growth, suggesting that the quorum-quenching mechanisms are unrelated to static or cidal effects. PMID:17938186

  14. Synthesis and stability of small molecule probes for Pseudomonas aeruginosa quorum sensing modulation.

    PubMed

    Glansdorp, Freija G; Thomas, Gemma L; Lee, Jungjoon K; Dutton, Jenny M; Salmond, George P C; Welch, Martin; Spring, David R

    2004-11-21

    The human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa uses N-butyryl-L-homoserine lactone (BHL) and N-(3-oxododecanyl)-L-homoserine lactone (OdDHL) as small molecule intercellular signals in a phenomenon known as quorum sensing (QS). QS modulators are effective at attenuating P. aeruginosa virulence; therefore, they are a potential new class of antibacterial agent. The lactone in BHL and OdDHL is hydrolysed under physiological conditions. The hydrolysis proceeds at a rate faster than racemisation of the alpha-chiral centre. Non-hydrolysable, non-racemic analogues (small molecule probes) were designed and synthesised, replacing the lactone with a ketone. OdDHL analogues were found to be relatively unstable to decomposition unless they were difluorinated between the beta-keto amide. Stability studies on a non-hydrolysable, cyclohexanone analogue indicated that racemisation of the alpha-chiral centre was relatively slow. This analogue was assayed to show that the L-isomer is likely to be responsible for the QS autoinducing activity in P. aeruginosa and Serratia strain ATCC39006. PMID:15534711

  15. Quorum Sensing-Mediated, Cell Density-Dependent Regulation of Growth and Virulence in Cryptococcus neoformans

    PubMed Central

    Albuquerque, Patrícia; Nicola, André M.; Nieves, Edward; Paes, Hugo Costa; Williamson, Peter R.; Silva-Pereira, Ildinete; Casadevall, Arturo

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Quorum sensing (QS) is a cell density-dependent mechanism of communication between microorganisms, characterized by the release of signaling molecules that affect microbial metabolism and gene expression in a synchronized way. In this study, we investigated cell density-dependent behaviors mediated by conditioned medium (CM) in the pathogenic encapsulated fungus Cryptococcus neoformans. CM produced dose-dependent increases in the growth of planktonic and biofilm cells, glucuronoxylomannan release, and melanin synthesis, important virulence attributes of this organism. Mass spectrometry revealed the presence of pantothenic acid (PA) in our samples, and commercial PA was able to increase growth and melanization, although not to the same extent as CM. Additionally, we found four mutants that were either unable to produce active CM or failed to respond with increased growth in the presence of wild-type CM, providing genetic evidence for the existence of intercellular communication in C. neoformans. C. neoformans CM also increased the growth of Cryptococcus albidus, Candida albicans, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Conversely, CM from Cryptococcus albidus, C. albicans, S. cerevisiae, and Sporothrix schenckii increased C. neoformans growth. In summary, we report the existence of a new QS system regulating the growth and virulence factor expression of C. neoformans in vitro and, possibly, also able to regulate growth in other fungi. PMID:24381301

  16. Evidence for Autoinduction and Quorum Sensing in White Band Disease-Causing Microbes on Acropora cervicornis.

    PubMed

    Certner, Rebecca H; Vollmer, Steven V

    2015-01-01

    Coral reefs have entered a state of global decline party due to an increasing incidence of coral disease. However, the diversity and complexity of coral-associated bacterial communities has made identifying the mechanisms underlying disease transmission and progression extremely difficult. This study explores the effects of coral cell-free culture fluid (CFCF) and autoinducer (a quorum sensing signaling molecule) on coral-associated bacterial growth and on coral tissue loss respectively. All experiments were conducted using the endangered Caribbean coral Acropora cervicornis. Coral-associated microbes were grown on selective media infused with CFCF derived from healthy and white band disease-infected A. cervicornis. Exposure to diseased CFCF increased proliferation of Cytophaga-Flavobacterium spp. while exposure to healthy CFCF inhibited growth of this group. Exposure to either CFCF did not significantly affect Vibrio spp. growth. In order to test whether disease symptoms can be induced in healthy corals, A. cervicornis was exposed to bacterial assemblages supplemented with exogenous, purified autoinducer. Incubation with autoinducer resulted in complete tissue loss in all corals tested in less than one week. These findings indicate that white band disease in A. cervicornis may be caused by opportunistic pathogenesis of resident microbes. PMID:26047488

  17. Evidence for Autoinduction and Quorum Sensing in White Band Disease-Causing Microbes on Acropora cervicornis

    PubMed Central

    Certner, Rebecca H.; Vollmer, Steven V.

    2015-01-01

    Coral reefs have entered a state of global decline party due to an increasing incidence of coral disease. However, the diversity and complexity of coral-associated bacterial communities has made identifying the mechanisms underlying disease transmission and progression extremely difficult. This study explores the effects of coral cell-free culture fluid (CFCF) and autoinducer (a quorum sensing signaling molecule) on coral-associated bacterial growth and on coral tissue loss respectively. All experiments were conducted using the endangered Caribbean coral Acropora cervicornis. Coral-associated microbes were grown on selective media infused with CFCF derived from healthy and white band disease-infected A. cervicornis. Exposure to diseased CFCF increased proliferation of Cytophaga-Flavobacterium spp. while exposure to healthy CFCF inhibited growth of this group. Exposure to either CFCF did not significantly affect Vibrio spp. growth. In order to test whether disease symptoms can be induced in healthy corals, A. cervicornis was exposed to bacterial assemblages supplemented with exogenous, purified autoinducer. Incubation with autoinducer resulted in complete tissue loss in all corals tested in less than one week. These findings indicate that white band disease in A. cervicornis may be caused by opportunistic pathogenesis of resident microbes. PMID:26047488

  18. Quorum-sensing autoinducers resuscitate dormant Vibrio cholerae in environmental water samples

    PubMed Central

    Bari, S. M. Nayeemul; Roky, M. Kamruzzaman; Mohiuddin, M.; Kamruzzaman, M.; Mekalanos, John J.; Faruque, Shah M.

    2013-01-01

    Cholera epidemics have long been known to spread through water contaminated with human fecal material containing the toxigenic bacterium Vibrio cholerae. However, detection of V. cholerae in water is complicated by the existence of a dormant state in which the organism remains viable, but resists cultivation on routine bacteriological media. Growth in the mammalian intestine has been reported to trigger “resuscitation” of such dormant cells, and these studies have prompted the search for resuscitation factors. Although some positive reports have emerged from these investigations, the precise molecular signals that activate dormant V. cholerae have remained elusive. Quorum-sensing autoinducers are small molecules that ordinarily regulate bacterial gene expression in response to cell density or interspecies bacterial interactions. We have found that isolation of pathogenic clones of V. cholerae from surface waters in Bangladesh is dramatically improved by using enrichment media containing autoinducers either expressed from cloned synthase genes or prepared by chemical synthesis. These results may contribute to averting future disasters by providing a strategy for early detection of V. cholerae in surface waters that have been contaminated with the stools of cholera patients or asymptomatic infected human carriers. PMID:23716683

  19. Genes as early responders regulate quorum-sensing and control bacterial cooperation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Kelei; Li, Yi; Yue, Bisong; Wu, Min

    2014-01-01

    Quorum-sensing (QS) allows bacterial communication to coordinate the production of extracellular products essential for population fitness at higher cell densities. It has been generally accepted that a significant time duration is required to reach appropriate cell density to activate the relevant quiescent genes encoding these costly but beneficial public goods. Which regulatory genes are involved and how these genes control bacterial communication at the early phases are largely un-explored. By determining time-dependent expression of QS-related genes of the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aerugionsa, we show that the induction of social cooperation could be critically influenced by environmental factors to optimize the density of population. In particular, small regulatory RNAs (RsmY and RsmZ) serving as early responders, can promote the expression of dependent genes (e.g. lasR) to boost the synthesis of intracellular enzymes and coordinate instant cooperative behavior in bacterial cells. These early responders, acting as a rheostat to finely modulate bacterial cooperation, which may be quickly activated under environment threats, but peter off when critical QS dependent genes are fully functional for cooperation. Our findings suggest that RsmY and RsmZ critically control the timing and levels of public goods production, which may have implications in sociomicrobiology and infection control. PMID:25006971

  20. Combinatorial quorum sensing allows bacteria to resolve their social and physical environment.

    PubMed

    Cornforth, Daniel M; Popat, Roman; McNally, Luke; Gurney, James; Scott-Phillips, Thomas C; Ivens, Alasdair; Diggle, Stephen P; Brown, Sam P

    2014-03-18

    Quorum sensing (QS) is a cell-cell communication system that controls gene expression in many bacterial species, mediated by diffusible signal molecules. Although the intracellular regulatory mechanisms of QS are often well-understood, the functional roles of QS remain controversial. In particular, the use of multiple signals by many bacterial species poses a serious challenge to current functional theories. Here, we address this challenge by showing that bacteria can use multiple QS signals to infer both their social (density) and physical (mass-transfer) environment. Analytical and evolutionary simulation models show that the detection of, and response to, complex social/physical contrasts requires multiple signals with distinct half-lives and combinatorial (nonadditive) responses to signal concentrations. We test these predictions using the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa and demonstrate significant differences in signal decay between its two primary signal molecules, as well as diverse combinatorial responses to dual-signal inputs. QS is associated with the control of secreted factors, and we show that secretome genes are preferentially controlled by synergistic "AND-gate" responses to multiple signal inputs, ensuring the effective expression of secreted factors in high-density and low mass-transfer environments. Our results support a new functional hypothesis for the use of multiple signals and, more generally, show that bacteria are capable of combinatorial communication. PMID:24594597

  1. Kinetic Model for Signal Binding to the Quorum Sensing Regulator LasR.

    PubMed

    Claussen, Anetta; Jakobsen, Tim Holm; Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Givskov, Michael; Welch, Martin; Ferkinghoff-Borg, Jesper; Sams, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    We propose a kinetic model for the activation of the las regulon in the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The model is based on in vitro data and accounts for the LasR dimerization and consecutive activation by binding of two OdDHL signal molecules. Experimentally, the production of the active LasR quorum-sensing regulator was studied in an Escherichia coli background as a function of signal molecule concentration. The functional activity of the regulator was monitored via a GFP reporter fusion to lasB expressed from the native lasB promoter. The new data shows that the active form of the LasR dimer binds two signal molecules cooperatively and that the timescale for reaching saturation is independent of the signal molecule concentration. This favors a picture where the dimerized regulator is protected against proteases and remains protected as it is activated through binding of two successive signal molecules. In absence of signal molecules, the dimerized regulator can dissociate and degrade through proteolytic turnover of the monomer. This resolves the apparent contradiction between our data and recent reports that the fully protected dimer is able to "degrade" when the induction of LasR ceases. PMID:23807499

  2. Vfm a new quorum sensing system controls the virulence of Dickeya dadantii.

    PubMed

    Nasser, William; Dorel, Corinne; Wawrzyniak, Julien; Van Gijsegem, Frédérique; Groleau, Marie-Christine; Déziel, Eric; Reverchon, Sylvie

    2013-03-01

    Dickeya dadantii is a plant pathogen that secretes cell wall-degrading enzymes (CWDE) that are responsible for soft-rot symptoms. Virulence genes are expressed in a concerted manner and culminate when bacterial multiplication slows. We identify a 25 kb vfm cluster required for D.?dadantii CWDE production and pathogenesis. The vfm cluster encodes proteins displaying similarities both with enzymes involved in amino acid activation and with enzymes involved in fatty acid biosynthesis. These similarities suggest that the vfm genes direct the production of a metabolite. Cell-free supernatant from the D.?dadantii wild-type strain restores CWDE production in vfm mutants. Collectively, our results indicate that vfm genes direct the synthesis of an extracellular signal and constitute a new quorum sensing system. Perception of the signal is achieved by the two-component system VfmH-VfmI, which activates the expression of the vfmE gene encoding an AraC regulator. VfmE then activates both the transcription of the CWDE genes and the expression of the vfm operons. The vfm gene cluster does not seem to be widespread among bacterial species but is conserved in other Dickeya species and could have been laterally transferred to Rahnella. This work highlights that entirely new families of bacterial languages remain to be discovered. PMID:23227918

  3. Protease IV, a quorum sensing-dependent protease of Pseudomonas aeruginosa modulates insect innate immunity.

    PubMed

    Park, Su-Jin; Kim, Soo-Kyoung; So, Yong-In; Park, Ha-Young; Li, Xi-Hui; Yeom, Doo Hwan; Lee, Mi-Nan; Lee, Bok-Luel; Lee, Joon-Hee

    2014-12-01

    In Pseudomonas aeruginosa, quorum sensing (QS) plays an essential role in pathogenesis and the QS response controls many virulence factors. Using a mealworm, Tenebrio molitor as a host model, we found that Protease IV, a QS-regulated exoprotease of P. aeruginosa functions as a key virulence effector causing the melanization and death of T. molitor larvae. Protease IV was able to degrade zymogens of spätzle processing enzyme (SPE) and SPE-activating enzyme (SAE) without the activation of the antimicrobial peptide (AMP) production. Since SPE and SAE function to activate spätzle, a ligand of Toll receptor in the innate immune system of T. molitor, we suggest that Protease IV may interfere with the activation of the Toll signaling. Independently of the Toll pathway, the melanization response, another innate immunity was still generated, since Protease IV directly converted Tenebrio prophenoloxidase into active phenoloxidase. Protease IV also worked as an important factor in the virulence to brine shrimp and nematode. These results suggest that Protease IV provides P. aeruginosa with a sophisticated way to escape the immune attack of host by interfering with the production of AMPs. PMID:25315216

  4. AHL-type quorum sensing and its regulation on symplasmata formation in Pantoea agglomerans YS19.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jing; Wu, Suisui; Wang, Jieru; Feng, Yongjun

    2015-05-01

    Pantoea agglomerans YS19, an endophytic diazotrophic bacterium isolated from rice, is characterized by the formation of multicellular aggregate structure called symplasmata, which not only bestow the strong stress-resistance of the bacterium, but also contribute to the specific adaptation in the endophyte-host association. Acyl-homoserine lactones (AHLs), as the important signal molecule in the quorum sensing (QS) system of gram-negative bacteria, were demonstrated to regulate motility, cell-aggregation, and other bacterial behaviors. Here, the production of AHL by P. agglomerans YS19 and its regulation on the symplasmata formation were studied. It was revealed that the production of AHL by YS19 was initiated at the exponential growth stage and from then on, reached the peak values at the stationary growth stage in LB medium. The AHL was identified as N-3-oxooctanoyl-L-homoserine lactone (OOHL) by MALDI-TOF-MS analysis. The AHL synthesis gene pagI and receptor gene pagR in YS19 were cloned and phylogenetic analysis showed that they were high conservative among strains in species of P. agglomerans. It was revealed that AHL promoted the bacterial growth and symplasmata formation of YS19. Meanwhile, the colonization ability and growth-promoting effect of YS19 on the host plant were also enhanced by AHL. These results strongly suggest the pleiotropic effects of the AHL-type QS system in endophytic life of the strain. PMID:25283544

  5. Bioinformatic prediction of gene functions regulated by quorum sensing in the bioleaching bacterium Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans.

    PubMed

    Banderas, Alvaro; Guiliani, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    The biomining bacterium Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans oxidizes sulfide ores and promotes metal solubilization. The efficiency of this process depends on the attachment of cells to surfaces, a process regulated by quorum sensing (QS) cell-to-cell signalling in many Gram-negative bacteria. At. ferrooxidans has a functional QS system and the presence of AHLs enhances its attachment to pyrite. However, direct targets of the QS transcription factor AfeR remain unknown. In this study, a bioinformatic approach was used to infer possible AfeR direct targets based on the particular palindromic features of the AfeR binding site. A set of Hidden Markov Models designed to maintain palindromic regions and vary non-palindromic regions was used to screen for putative binding sites. By annotating the context of each predicted binding site (PBS), we classified them according to their positional coherence relative to other putative genomic structures such as start codons, RNA polymerase promoter elements and intergenic regions. We further used the Multiple EM for Motif Elicitation algorithm (MEME) to further filter out low homology PBSs. In summary, 75 target-genes were identified, 34 of which have a higher confidence level. Among the identified genes, we found afeR itself, zwf, genes encoding glycosyltransferase activities, metallo-beta lactamases, and active transport-related proteins. Glycosyltransferases and Zwf (Glucose 6-phosphate-1-dehydrogenase) might be directly involved in polysaccharide biosynthesis and attachment to minerals by At. ferrooxidans cells during the bioleaching process. PMID:23959118

  6. Global and Phylogenetic Distribution of Quorum Sensing Signals, Acyl Homoserine Lactones, in the Family of Vibrionaceae

    PubMed Central

    Barker Rasmussen, Bastian; Fog Nielsen, Kristian; Machado, Henrique; Melchiorsen, Jette; Gram, Lone; Sonnenschein, Eva C.

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial quorum sensing (QS) and the corresponding signals, acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs), were first described for a luminescent Vibrio species. Since then, detailed knowledge has been gained on the functional level of QS; however, the abundance of AHLs in the family of Vibrionaceae in the environment has remained unclear. Three hundred and one Vibrionaceae strains were collected on a global research cruise and the prevalence and profile of AHL signals in this global collection were determined. AHLs were detected in 32 of the 301 strains using Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Chromobacterium violaceum reporter strains. Ethyl acetate extracts of the cultures were analysed by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (MS) with automated tandem MS confirmation for AHLs. N-(3-hydroxy-hexanoyl) (OH-C6) and N-(3-hydroxy-decanoyl) (OH-C10) homoserine lactones were the most common AHLs found in 17 and 12 strains, respectively. Several strains produced a diversity of different AHLs, including N-heptanoyl (C7) HL. AHL-producing Vibrionaceae were found in polar, temperate and tropical waters. The AHL profiles correlated with strain phylogeny based on gene sequence homology, however not with geographical location. In conclusion, a wide range of AHL signals are produced by a number of clades in the Vibrionaceae family and these results will allow future investigations of inter- and intra-species interactions within this cosmopolitan family of marine bacteria. PMID:25419995

  7. A mathematical perspective on CD4(+) T cell quorum-sensing.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Joseph; Amado, Inês F; Freitas, Antonio A; Lythe, Grant; Molina-París, Carmen

    2014-04-21

    We analyse a mathematical model of the peripheral CD4(+) T cell population, based on a quorum-sensing mechanism, by which an optimum number of regulatory T cells can be established and maintained. We divide the population of a single T cell receptor specificity into four pools: naive, IL-2 producing, IL-2 non-producing, and regulatory CD4(+) T cells. Proliferation, death and differentiation of cells are introduced as transition probabilities of a stochastic Markov model, with the assumption that the amount of IL-2 available to CD4(+) T cells is proportional to the size of the population of IL-2 producing CD4(+) T cells. We explore the population dynamics both in the absence and in the presence of specific antigen. We study the establishment of the peripheral CD4(+) T cell pool from thymic output in the absence of antigen, and its return to homeostasis after an immune challenge, by steady state analysis of the deterministic approximation. The number of regulatory T cells at steady state is greater in the presence of antigen than in its absence. We also consider the stochastic dynamics of the model after an immune challenge, in particular the behaviour leading to ultimate extinction of the IL-2 producing and regulatory T cell populations. PMID:24389364

  8. Proteomic analysis of quorum sensing-dependent proteins in Burkholderia glumae.

    PubMed

    Goo, Eunhye; Kang, Yongsung; Kim, Hongsup; Hwang, Ingyu

    2010-06-01

    Burkholderia glumae, the causal agent of bacterial rice grain rot, utilizes quorum sensing (QS) systems that rely on N-octanoyl homoserine lactone (synthesized by TofI) and its cognate receptor TofR to activate toxoflavin biosynthesis genes and an IclR-type transcriptional regulator gene, qsmR. Since QS is essential for B. glumae pathogenicity, we analyzed the QS-dependent proteome by 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis. A total of 79 proteins, including previously known QS-dependent proteins, were differentially expressed between the wild-type BGR1 and the tofI mutant BGS2 strains. Among this set, 59 proteins were found in the extracellular fraction, and 20 were cytoplasmic. Thirty-four proteins, including lipase and proteases, were secreted through the type II secretion system (T2SS). Real-time RT-PCR analysis showed that the corresponding genes of the 49 extracellular and 13 intracellular proteins are regulated by QS at the transcriptional level. The T2SS, encoded by 12 general secretion pathway (gsp) genes with 3 independent transcriptional units, was controlled by QS. beta-Glucuronidase activity analysis of gsp::Tn3-gusA gene fusions and electrophoretic mobility shift assays revealed that the expression of gsp genes is directly regulated by QsmR. T2SS-defective mutants exhibited reduced virulence, indicating that the T2SS-dependent extracellular proteins play important roles in B. glumae virulence. PMID:20408571

  9. Aspergillus Oxylipin Signaling and Quorum Sensing Pathways Depend on G Protein-Coupled Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Affeldt, Katharyn J.; Brodhagen, Marion; Keller, Nancy P.

    2012-01-01

    Oxylipins regulate Aspergillus development and mycotoxin production and are also involved in Aspergillus quorum sensing mechanisms. Despite extensive knowledge of how these oxylipins are synthesized and what processes they regulate, nothing is known about how these signals are detected and transmitted by the fungus. G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) have been speculated to be involved as they are known oxylipin receptors in mammals, and many putative GPCRs have been identified in the Aspergilli. Here, we present evidence that oxylipins stimulate a burst in cAMP in A. nidulans, and that loss of an A. nidulans GPCR, gprD, prevents this cAMP accumulation. A. flavus undergoes an oxylipin-mediated developmental shift when grown at different densities, and this regulates spore, sclerotial and aflatoxin production. A. flavus encodes two putative GprD homologs, GprC and GprD, and we demonstrate here that they are required to transition to a high-density development state, as well as to respond to spent medium of a high-density culture. The finding of GPCRs that regulate production of survival structures (sclerotia), inoculum (spores) and aflatoxin holds promise for future development of anti-fungal therapeutics. PMID:23105976

  10. A new transcriptional repressor of the pseudomonas aeruginosa quorum sensing receptor gene lasR.

    PubMed

    Longo, Francesca; Rampioni, Giordano; Bondì, Roslen; Imperi, Francesco; Fimia, Gian Maria; Visca, Paolo; Zennaro, Elisabetta; Leoni, Livia

    2013-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa pathogenic potential is controlled via multiple regulatory pathways, including three quorum sensing (QS) systems. LasR is a key QS signal receptor since it acts as a global transcriptional regulator required for optimal expression of main virulence factors. P. aeruginosa modulates the QS response by integrating this cell density-dependent circuit to environmental and metabolic cues. Hence, QS also controls the adaptation to challenging environmental niches, such as infection sites. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms connecting QS and other signalling pathways. In this work, DNA-affinity chromatography was used to identify new lasR transcriptional regulators. This approach led to the identification and functional characterization of the TetR-like transcriptional repressor PA3699. This protein was purified and shown to directly bind to the lasR promoter region in vitro. The induction of PA3699 expression in P. aeruginosa PAO1 cultures repressed lasR promoter activity and the production of LasR-dependent virulence factors, such as elastase, pyocyanin, and proteases. These findings suggest a role for PA3699 in P. aeruginosa pathogenicity. P. aeruginosa genome encodes at least 38 TetR-family proteins, and PA3699 is the eighth member of this group functionally characterized so far and the first one shown to bind the lasR promoter in vitro. PMID:23861975

  11. Dynamics of AHL mediated quorum sensing under flow and non-flow conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, Andrea; Megerle, Judith A.; Kuttler, Christina; Müller, Johannes; Aguilar, Claudio; Eberl, Leo; Hense, Burkhard A.; Rädler, Joachim O.

    2012-04-01

    Quorum sensing (QS) describes the capability of microbes to communicate with each other by the aid of small molecules. Here we investigate the dynamics of QS-regulated gene expression induced by acylhomoserine lactones (AHLs) in Pseudomonas putida IsoF containing a green fluorescent protein-based AHL reporter. The fluorescence time course of individual colonies is monitored following the external addition of a defined AHL concentration to cells which had previously reached the QS-inactive state in AHL-free medium. Using a microfluidic setup the experiment is performed both under flow and non-flow conditions. We find that without supplying external AHL gene expression is induced without flow while flow suppresses the induction. Both without and with flow, at a low AHL concentration the fluorescence onset is significantly delayed while fluorescence starts to increase directly upon the addition of AHL at a high concentration. The differences between no flow and flow can be accounted for using a two-compartment model. This indicates AHL accumulation in a volume which is not affected by the flow. The experiments furthermore show significant cell-to-cell and colony-to-colony variability which is discussed in the context of a compartmentalized QS mechanism.

  12. Evaluation of the effects of selected phytochemicals on quorum sensing inhibition and in vitro cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Borges, Anabela; Serra, Sofia; Cristina Abreu, Ana; Saavedra, Maria J; Salgado, António; Simões, Manuel

    2014-02-01

    Quorum sensing (QS) is an important regulatory mechanism in biofilm formation and differentiation. Interference with QS can affect biofilm development and antimicrobial susceptibility. This study evaluates the potential of selected phytochemical products to inhibit QS. Three isothiocyanates (allylisothiocyanate - AITC, benzylisothiocyanate - BITC and 2-phenylethylisothiocyanate - PEITC) and six phenolic products (gallic acid - GA, ferulic acid - FA, caffeic acid - CA, phloridzin - PHL, (-) epicatechin - EPI and oleuropein glucoside - OG) were tested. A disc diffusion assay based on pigment inhibition in Chromobacterium violaceum CV12472 was performed. In addition, the mechanisms of QS inhibition (QSI) based on the modulation of N-acyl homoserine lactone (AHLs) activity and synthesis by the phytochemicals were investigated. The cytotoxicity of each product was tested on a cell line of mouse lung fibroblasts. AITC, BITC and PEITC demonstrated a capacity for QSI by modulation of AHL activity and synthesis, interfering the with QS systems of C. violaceum CviI/CviR homologs of LuxI/LuxR systems. The cytotoxic assays demonstrated low effects on the metabolic viability of the fibroblast cell line only for FA, PHL and EPI. PMID:24344870

  13. Crystal Structure of the Vibrio Cholerae Quorum-Sensing Regulatory Protein HapR

    SciTech Connect

    DeSilva,R.; Kovacikova, G.; Lin, W.; Taylor, R.; Skorupski, K.; Kull, F.

    2007-01-01

    Quorum sensing in Vibrio cholerae involves signaling between two-component sensor protein kinases and the response regulator LuxO to control the expression of the master regulator HapR. HapR, in turn, plays a central role in regulating a number of important processes, such as virulence gene expression and biofilm formation. We have determined the crystal structure of HapR to 2.2- Angstroms resolution. Its structure reveals a dimeric, two-domain molecule with an all-helical structure that is strongly conserved with members of the TetR family of transcriptional regulators. The N-terminal DNA-binding domain contains a helix-turn-helix DNA-binding motif and alteration of certain residues in this domain completely abolishes the ability of HapR to bind to DNA, alleviating repression of both virulence gene expression and biofilm formation. The C-terminal dimerization domain contains a unique solvent accessible tunnel connected to an amphipathic cavity, which by analogy with other TetR regulators, may serve as a binding pocket for an as-yet-unidentified ligand.

  14. Identification of a Quorum-Sensing Signal Molecule in the Facultative Intracellular Pathogen Brucella melitensis

    PubMed Central

    Taminiau, Bernard; Daykin, Mavis; Swift, Simon; Boschiroli, Maria-Laura; Tibor, Anne; Lestrate, Pascal; De Bolle, Xavier; O'Callaghan, David; Williams, Paul; Letesson, Jean-Jacques

    2002-01-01

    Brucella melitensis is a gram-negative alpha2-proteobacterium responsible for abortion in goats and for Malta fever in humans. This facultative intracellular pathogen invades and survives within both professional and nonprofessional phagocytes. A dichloromethane extract of spent culture supernatant from B. melitensis induces bioluminescence in an Escherichia coli acyl-homoserine lactone (acyl-HSL) biosensor strain based upon the activity of the LasR protein of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. HPLC fractionation of the extract, followed by mass spectrometry, identified the major active molecule as N-dodecanoylhomoserine lactone (C12-HSL). This is the first report of the production of an acyl-HSL by an intracellular pathogen. The addition of synthetic C12-HSL to an early log phase culture of either B. melitensis or Brucella suis 1330 reduces the transcription of the virB operon, which contains virulence genes known to be required for intracellular survival. This mimics events seen during the stationary phase of growth and suggests that quorum sensing may play a role in the control of virulence in Brucella. PMID:12010991

  15. Identification of a quorum-sensing signal molecule in the facultative intracellular pathogen Brucella melitensis.

    PubMed

    Taminiau, Bernard; Daykin, Mavis; Swift, Simon; Boschiroli, Maria-Laura; Tibor, Anne; Lestrate, Pascal; De Bolle, Xavier; O'Callaghan, David; Williams, Paul; Letesson, Jean-Jacques

    2002-06-01

    Brucella melitensis is a gram-negative alpha2-proteobacterium responsible for abortion in goats and for Malta fever in humans. This facultative intracellular pathogen invades and survives within both professional and nonprofessional phagocytes. A dichloromethane extract of spent culture supernatant from B. melitensis induces bioluminescence in an Escherichia coli acyl-homoserine lactone (acyl-HSL) biosensor strain based upon the activity of the LasR protein of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. HPLC fractionation of the extract, followed by mass spectrometry, identified the major active molecule as N-dodecanoylhomoserine lactone (C12-HSL). This is the first report of the production of an acyl-HSL by an intracellular pathogen. The addition of synthetic C12-HSL to an early log phase culture of either B. melitensis or Brucella suis 1330 reduces the transcription of the virB operon, which contains virulence genes known to be required for intracellular survival. This mimics events seen during the stationary phase of growth and suggests that quorum sensing may play a role in the control of virulence in Brucella. PMID:12010991

  16. The effect of quorum sensing system for growth competitiveness on Shigella flexneri.

    PubMed

    Ping, Xu; Jing, Yang; Lilan, Lu; Erling, Feng; Hengliang, Wang; Ying, Lu; Li, Zhu

    2015-05-01

    Quorum sensing (QS) regulates the onset of bacterial social responses related to cell density. Comparison between the gene sequences of all components of QS system of Escherichia coli and Shigella strains, shows that the QS system is generally lost or mutated in Shigella. Since AI-2 is produced and processed by the lsr operon, we analyzed the potential function of the lsr operon. We first detected AI-2 in Shigella flexneri 2a strain 301 through the reporter bacteria Vibrio harveyi BB170, indicating that S. flexneri can produce AI-2. Then, the lsr operon of E. coli MG1655 was cloned into S. flexneri using the Golden Gate method. Colony counting experiments showed that the QS system recovery strain had growth advantage over the wild-type strain when they were mixed and cultured. The preliminary comparative proteomics analysis showed that the lsr operon could be expressed and the abundance of stress response proteins also changed when the QS system was introduced into S. flexneri. PMID:25998438

  17. Quorum-sensing regulators in Gram-positive bacteria: 'cherchez le peptide '.

    PubMed

    Monnet, V; Gardan, R

    2015-07-01

    Gram-positive bacteria can regulate gene expression at the population level via a mechanism known as quorum sensing. Oligopeptides serve as the signaling molecules; they are secreted and then are either detected at the bacterial surface by two-component systems or reinternalized via an oligopeptide transport system. In the latter case, imported peptides interact with cognate regulators (phosphatases or transcriptional regulators) that modulate the expression of target genes. These regulators help control crucial functions such as virulence, persistence, conjugation and competence and have been reported in bacilli, enterococci and streptococci. They form the rapidly growing RRNPP group. In this issue of Molecular?Microbiology, Hoover et?al. (2015) highlight the group's importance: they have identified a new family of regulators, Tprs (Transcription factor regulated by a Phr peptide), which work with internalized Phr-like peptides. The mechanisms underlying the expression of the genes that encode these internalized peptides are poorly documented. However, Hoover et?al. (2015) have provided a new insight: an environmental molecule, glucose, can inhibit expression of the Phr-like peptide gene via catabolic repression. This previously undescribed regulatory pathway, controlling the production of a bacteriocin, might influence Streptococcus pneumonia's fitness in the nasopharynx, where galactose is present. PMID:25988215

  18. The Organization of the Quorum Sensing luxI/R Family Genes in Burkholderia

    PubMed Central

    Choudhary, Kumari Sonal; Hudaiberdiev, Sanjarbek; Gelencsér, Zsolt; Coutinho, Bruna Gonçalves; Venturi, Vittorio; Pongor, Sándor

    2013-01-01

    Members of the Burkholderia genus of Proteobacteria are capable of living freely in the environment and can also colonize human, animal and plant hosts. Certain members are considered to be clinically important from both medical and veterinary perspectives and furthermore may be important modulators of the rhizosphere. Quorum sensing via N-acyl homoserine lactone signals (AHL QS) is present in almost all Burkholderia species and is thought to play important roles in lifestyle changes such as colonization and niche invasion. Here we present a census of AHL QS genes retrieved from public databases and indicate that the local arrangement (topology) of QS genes, their location within chromosomes and their gene neighborhoods show characteristic patterns that differ between the known Burkholderia clades. In sequence phylogenies, AHL QS genes seem to cluster according to the local gene topology rather than according to the species, which suggests that the basic topology types were present prior to the appearance of current Burkholderia species. The data are available at http://net.icgeb.org/burkholderia/. PMID:23820583

  19. Quorum-Sensing Mechanisms Mediated by Farnesol in Ophiostoma piceae: Effect on Secretion of Sterol Esterase.

    PubMed

    de Salas, Felipe; Martínez, María Jesús; Barriuso, Jorge

    2015-07-01

    Ophiostoma piceae CECT 20416 is a dimorphic wood-staining fungus able to produce an extracellular sterol-esterase/lipase (OPE) that is of great biotechnological interest. In this work, we have studied the morphological change of this fungus from yeast to hyphae, which is associated with the cell density-related mechanism known as quorum sensing (QS), and how this affects the secretion of OPE. The data presented here confirm that the molecule E,E-farnesol accumulates as the cell number is growing within the population. The exogenous addition of this molecule or spent medium to the cultures increased the extracellular activity of OPE 2.5 times. This fact was related not to an increase in microbial biomass or in the expression of the gene coding for OPE but to a marked morphological transition in the cultures. Moreover, the morphological transition also occurred when a high cell density was inoculated into the medium. The results suggest that E,E-farnesol regulates through QS mechanisms the morphological transition in the dimorphic fungus O. piceae and that it is associated with a higher extracellular esterase activity. Furthermore, identification and transcriptional analysis of genes tup1 and cyr1, which are involved in the response, was carried out. Here we report enhanced production of a sterol-esterase/lipase of biotechnological interest by means of QS mechanisms. These results may be useful in increasing the production of secreted enzymes of other dimorphic fungi of biotechnological interest. PMID:25888179

  20. A quorum sensing small volatile molecule promotes antibiotic tolerance in bacteria.

    PubMed

    Que, Yok-Ai; Hazan, Ronen; Strobel, Benjamin; Maura, Damien; He, Jianxin; Kesarwani, Meenu; Panopoulos, Panagiotis; Tsurumi, Amy; Giddey, Marlyse; Wilhelmy, Julie; Mindrinos, Michael N; Rahme, Laurence G

    2013-01-01

    Bacteria can be refractory to antibiotics due to a sub-population of dormant cells, called persisters that are highly tolerant to antibiotic exposure. The low frequency and transience of the antibiotic tolerant "persister" trait has complicated elucidation of the mechanism that controls antibiotic tolerance. In this study, we show that 2' Amino-acetophenone (2-AA), a poorly studied but diagnostically important small, volatile molecule produced by the recalcitrant gram-negative human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa, promotes antibiotic tolerance in response to quorum-sensing (QS) signaling. Our results show that 2-AA mediated persister cell accumulation occurs via alteration of the expression of genes involved in the translational capacity of the cell, including almost all ribosomal protein genes and other translation-related factors. That 2-AA promotes persisters formation also in other emerging multi-drug resistant pathogens, including the non 2-AA producer Acinetobacter baumannii implies that 2-AA may play an important role in the ability of gram-negative bacteria to tolerate antibiotic treatments in polymicrobial infections. Given that the synthesis, excretion and uptake of QS small molecules is a common hallmark of prokaryotes, together with the fact that the translational machinery is highly conserved, we posit that modulation of the translational capacity of the cell via QS molecules, may be a general, widely distributed mechanism that promotes antibiotic tolerance among prokaryotes. PMID:24367477

  1. Quorum sensing in the dimorphic fungus Candida albicans is mediated by farnesol.

    PubMed

    Hornby, J M; Jensen, E C; Lisec, A D; Tasto, J J; Jahnke, B; Shoemaker, R; Dussault, P; Nickerson, K W

    2001-07-01

    The inoculum size effect in the dimorphic fungus Candida albicans results from production of an extracellular quorum-sensing molecule (QSM). This molecule prevents mycelial development in both a growth morphology assay and a differentiation assay using three chemically distinct triggers for germ tube formation (GTF): L-proline, N-acetylglucosamine, and serum (either pig or fetal bovine). In all cases, the presence of QSM prevents the yeast-to-mycelium conversion, resulting in actively budding yeasts without influencing cellular growth rates. QSM exhibits general cross-reactivity within C. albicans in that supernatants from strain A72 are active on five other strains of C. albicans and vice versa. The QSM excreted by C. albicans is farnesol (C(15)H(26)O; molecular weight, 222.37). QSM is extracellular, and is produced continuously during growth and over a temperature range from 23 to 43 degrees C, in amounts roughly proportional to the CFU/milliliter. Production is not dependent on the type of carbon source nor nitrogen source or on the chemical nature of the growth medium. Both commercial mixed isomer and (E,E)-farnesol exhibited QSM activity (the ability to prevent GTF) at a level sufficient to account for all the QSM activity present in C. albicans supernatants, i.e., 50% GTF at ca. 30 to 35 microM. Nerolidol was ca. two times less active than farnesol. Neither geraniol (C(10)), geranylgeraniol (C(20)), nor farnesyl pyrophosphate had any QSM activity. PMID:11425711

  2. Quorum Sensing in the Dimorphic Fungus Candida albicans Is Mediated by Farnesol

    PubMed Central

    Hornby, Jacob M.; Jensen, Ellen C.; Lisec, Amber D.; Tasto, Joseph J.; Jahnke, Brandon; Shoemaker, Richard; Dussault, Patrick; Nickerson, Kenneth W.

    2001-01-01

    The inoculum size effect in the dimorphic fungus Candida albicans results from production of an extracellular quorum-sensing molecule (QSM). This molecule prevents mycelial development in both a growth morphology assay and a differentiation assay using three chemically distinct triggers for germ tube formation (GTF): l-proline, N-acetylglucosamine, and serum (either pig or fetal bovine). In all cases, the presence of QSM prevents the yeast-to-mycelium conversion, resulting in actively budding yeasts without influencing cellular growth rates. QSM exhibits general cross-reactivity within C. albicans in that supernatants from strain A72 are active on five other strains of C. albicans and vice versa. The QSM excreted by C. albicans is farnesol (C15H26O; molecular weight, 222.37). QSM is extracellular, and is produced continuously during growth and over a temperature range from 23 to 43°C, in amounts roughly proportional to the CFU/milliliter. Production is not dependent on the type of carbon source nor nitrogen source or on the chemical nature of the growth medium. Both commercial mixed isomer and (E,E)-farnesol exhibited QSM activity (the ability to prevent GTF) at a level sufficient to account for all the QSM activity present in C. albicans supernatants, i.e., 50% GTF at ca. 30 to 35 ?M. Nerolidol was ca. two times less active than farnesol. Neither geraniol (C10), geranylgeraniol (C20), nor farnesyl pyrophosphate had any QSM activity. PMID:11425711

  3. Inhibition of bacterial quorum sensing by extracts from aquatic fungi: first report from marine endophytes.

    PubMed

    Martín-Rodríguez, Alberto J; Reyes, Fernando; Martín, Jesús; Pérez-Yépez, Juan; León-Barrios, Milagros; Couttolenc, Alan; Espinoza, César; Trigos, Angel; Martín, Víctor S; Norte, Manuel; Fernández, José J

    2014-11-01

    In our search for quorum-sensing (QS) disrupting molecules, 75 fungal isolates were recovered from reef organisms (endophytes), saline lakes and mangrove rhizosphere. Their QS inhibitory activity was evaluated in Chromobacterium violaceum CVO26. Four strains of endophytic fungi stood out for their potent activity at concentrations from 500 to 50 ?g mL-1. The molecular characterization, based on the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region sequences (ITS1, 5.8S and ITS2) between the rRNA of 18S and 28S, identified these strains as belonging to four genera: Sarocladium (LAEE06), Fusarium (LAEE13), Epicoccum (LAEE14), and Khuskia (LAEE21). Interestingly, three came from coral species and two of them came from the same organism, the coral Diploria strigosa. Metabolic profiles obtained by Liquid Chromatography-High Resolution Mass Spectrometry (LC-HRMS) suggest that a combination of fungal secondary metabolites and fatty acids could be the responsible for the observed activities. The LC-HRMS analysis also revealed the presence of potentially new secondary metabolites. This is, to the best of our knowledge, the first report of QS inhibition by marine endophytic fungi. PMID:25415350

  4. Chemical composition and disruption of quorum sensing signaling in geographically diverse United States propolis.

    PubMed

    Savka, Michael A; Dailey, Lucas; Popova, Milena; Mihaylova, Ralitsa; Merritt, Benjamin; Masek, Marissa; Le, Phuong; Nor, Sharifah Radziah Mat; Ahmad, Muhammad; Hudson, André O; Bankova, Vassya

    2015-01-01

    Propolis or bee glue has been used for centuries for various purposes and is especially important in human health due to many of its biological and pharmacological properties. In this work we showed quorum sensing inhibitory (QSI) activity of ten geographically distinct propolis samples from the United States using the acyl-homoserine lactone- (AHL-) dependent Chromobacterium violaceum strain CV026. Based on GC-MS chemical profiling the propolis samples can be classified into several groups that are as follows: (1) rich in cinnamic acid derivatives, (2) rich in flavonoids, and (3) rich in triterpenes. An in-depth analysis of the propolis from North Carolina led to the isolation and identification of a triterpenic acid that was recently isolated from Hondurian propolis (Central America) and ethyl ether of p-coumaric alcohol not previously identified in bee propolis. QSI activity was also observed in the second group US propolis samples which contained the flavonoid pinocembrin in addition to other flavonoid compounds. The discovery of compounds that are involved in QSI activity has the potential to facilitate studies that may lead to the development of antivirulence therapies that can be complementary and/or alternative treatments against antibiotic resistant bacterial pathogens and/or emerging pathogens that have yet to be identified. PMID:25960752

  5. Effects of 14-Alpha-Lipoyl Andrographolide on Quorum Sensing in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Li; Liu, Xiangyang; Liang, Haihua; Che, Yizhou; Chen, Caixia; Dai, Huanqin; Yu, Ke; Liu, Mei; Ma, Luyan; Yang, Ching-Hong; Song, Fuhang

    2012-01-01

    In Pseudomonas aeruginosa, the quorum-sensing (QS) system is closely related to biofilm formation. We previously demonstrated that 14-alpha-lipoyl andrographolide (AL-1) has synergistic effects on antibiofilm and antivirulence factors (pyocyanin and exopolysaccharide) of P. aeruginosa when combined with conventional antibiotics, while it has little inhibitory effect on its growth. However, its molecular mechanism remains elusive. Here we investigated the effect of AL-1 on QS systems, especially the Las and Rhl systems. This investigation showed that AL-1 can inhibit LasR–3-oxo-C12-homoserine lactone (HSL) interactions and repress the transcriptional level of QS-regulated genes. Reverse transcription (RT)-PCR data showed that AL-1 significantly reduced the expression levels of lasR, lasI, rhlR, and rhlI in a dose-dependent manner. AL-1 not only decreased the expression level of Psl, which is positively regulated by the Las system, but also increased the level of secretion of ExoS, which is negatively regulated by the Rhl system, indicating that AL-1 has multiple effects on both the Las and Rhl systems. It is no wonder that AL-1 showed synergistic effects with other antimicrobial agents in the treatment of P. aeruginosa infections. PMID:22802260

  6. The Transcriptional Regulator CzcR Modulates Antibiotic Resistance and Quorum Sensing in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Dieppois, Guennaëlle; Ducret, Véréna; Caille, Olivier; Perron, Karl

    2012-01-01

    The opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa responds to zinc, cadmium and cobalt by way of the CzcRS two-component system. In presence of these metals the regulatory protein CzcR induces the expression of the CzcCBA efflux pump, expelling and thereby inducing resistance to Zn, Cd and Co. Importantly, CzcR co-regulates carbapenem antibiotic resistance by repressing the expression of the OprD porin, the route of entry for these antibiotics. This unexpected co-regulation led us to address the role of CzcR in other cellular processes unrelated to the metal response. We found that CzcR affected the expression of numerous genes directly involved in the virulence of P. aeruginosa even in the absence of the inducible metals. Notably the full expression of quorum sensing 3-oxo-C12-HSL and C4-HSL autoinducer molecules is impaired in the absence of CzcR. In agreement with this, the virulence of the czcRS deletion mutant is affected in a C. elegans animal killing assay. Additionally, chromosome immunoprecipitation experiments allowed us to localize CzcR on the promoter of several regulated genes, suggesting a direct control of target genes such as oprD, phzA1 and lasI. All together our data identify CzcR as a novel regulator involved in the control of several key genes for P. aeruginosa virulence processes. PMID:22666466

  7. Noise regulation by quorum sensing in low mRNA copy number systems

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Cells must face the ubiquitous presence of noise at the level of signaling molecules. The latter constitutes a major challenge for the regulation of cellular functions including communication processes. In the context of prokaryotic communication, the so-called quorum sensing (QS) mechanism relies on small diffusive molecules that are produced and detected by cells. This poses the intriguing question of how bacteria cope with the fluctuations for setting up a reliable information exchange. Results We present a stochastic model of gene expression that accounts for the main biochemical processes that describe the QS mechanism close to its activation threshold. Within that framework we study, both numerically and analytically, the role that diffusion plays in the regulation of the dynamics and the fluctuations of signaling molecules. In addition, we unveil the contribution of different sources of noise, intrinsic and transcriptional, in the QS mechanism. Conclusions The interplay between noisy sources and the communication process produces a repertoire of dynamics that depends on the diffusion rate. Importantly, the total noise shows a non-monotonic behavior as a function of the diffusion rate. QS systems seems to avoid values of the diffusion that maximize the total noise. These results point towards the direction that bacteria have adapted their communication mechanisms in order to improve the signal-to-noise ratio. PMID:21251314

  8. Deciphering bacterial universal language by detecting the quorum sensing signal, autoinducer-2, with a whole-cell sensing system.

    PubMed

    Raut, Nilesh; Pasini, Patrizia; Daunert, Sylvia

    2013-10-15

    Bacteria communicate with neighboring bacteria of the same species or of other species by means of chemical signaling molecules. The concentration of such signaling molecules is proportional to the bacterial population size; upon reaching a threshold concentration, corresponding to a threshold cell density, certain specialized genes are expressed. This system of communication among bacteria is known as quorum sensing (QS). QS regulates diverse behaviors, such as formation of biofilms and production of pathogenic factors. Autoinducer-2 (AI-2) is a QS signaling molecule that is used for interspecies communication by both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Bacteria are known to play an important role in many diseases, from infections to chronic inflammation. Therefore, QS is involved in a variety of disorders of bacterial origin or where bacteria play a crucial pathogenic role. One such condition is inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), a chronic inflammation of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract that includes debilitating diseases, such as ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD). To date, noninvasive methods are unavailable for the diagnosis and monitoring of IBD. We hypothesized that detection of QS molecules in physiological samples, specifically saliva and stool specimens, would provide with a method for the noninvasive, early diagnosis and monitoring of IBD conditions. To that end, we developed and optimized a whole-cell sensing system for AI-2, which is based on Vibrio harveyi strain BB170. Furthermore, we standardized and applied the biosensing system for the quantitative detection of AI-2 in saliva, stool, and intestinal samples from IBD patients. PMID:24047052

  9. Targeting agr- and agr-Like quorum sensing systems for development of common therapeutics to treat multiple gram-positive bacterial infections.

    PubMed

    Gray, Brian; Hall, Pamela; Gresham, Hattie

    2013-01-01

    Invasive infection by the Gram-positive pathogen Staphylococcus aureus is controlled by a four gene operon, agr that encodes a quorum sensing system for the regulation of virulence. While agr has been well studied in S. aureus, the contribution of agr homologues and analogues in other Gram-positive pathogens is just beginning to be understood. Intriguingly, other significant human pathogens, including Clostridium perfringens, Listeria monocytogenes, and Enterococcus faecalis contain agr or analogues linked to virulence. Moreover, other significant human Gram-positive pathogens use peptide based quorum sensing systems to establish or maintain infection. The potential for commonality in aspects of these signaling systems across different species raises the prospect of identifying therapeutics that could target multiple pathogens. Here, we review the status of research into these agr homologues, analogues, and other peptide based quorum sensing systems in Gram-positive pathogens as well as the potential for identifying common pathways and signaling mechanisms for therapeutic discovery. PMID:23598501

  10. Targeting agr- and agr-Like Quorum Sensing Systems for Development of Common Therapeutics to Treat Multiple Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Brian; Hall, Pamela; Gresham, Hattie

    2013-01-01

    Invasive infection by the Gram-positive pathogen Staphylococcus aureus is controlled by a four gene operon, agr that encodes a quorum sensing system for the regulation of virulence. While agr has been well studied in S. aureus, the contribution of agr homologues and analogues in other Gram-positive pathogens is just beginning to be understood. Intriguingly, other significant human pathogens, including Clostridium perfringens, Listeria monocytogenes, and Enterococcus faecalis contain agr or analogues linked to virulence. Moreover, other significant human Gram-positive pathogens use peptide based quorum sensing systems to establish or maintain infection. The potential for commonality in aspects of these signaling systems across different species raises the prospect of identifying therapeutics that could target multiple pathogens. Here, we review the status of research into these agr homologues, analogues, and other peptide based quorum sensing systems in Gram-positive pathogens as well as the potential for identifying common pathways and signaling mechanisms for therapeutic discovery. PMID:23598501

  11. Pyocyanin Stimulates Quorum Sensing-Mediated Tolerance to Oxidative Stress and Increases Persister Cell Populations in Acinetobacter baumannii

    PubMed Central

    Bhargava, Nidhi; Sharma, Prince

    2014-01-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa are nosocomial pathogens with overlapping sites of infection. This work reports that the two can coexist stably in mixed-culture biofilms. In a study intended to improve our understanding of the mechanism of their coexistence, it was found that pyocyanin, produced by P. aeruginosa that generally eliminates competition from other pathogens, led to the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in A. baumannii cells, which in response showed a significant (P ? 0.05) increase in production of enzymes, specifically, catalase and superoxide dismutase (SOD). This work shows for the first time that the expression of catalase and SOD is under the control of a quorum-sensing system in A. baumannii. In support of this observation, a quorum-sensing mutant of A. baumannii (abaI::Km) was found to be sensitive to pyocyanin compared to its wild type and showed significantly (P ? 0.001) lower levels of the antioxidant enzymes, which increased on addition of 5 ?M N-(3-hydroxydodecanoyl)-l-homoserine lactone. Likewise, in wild-type A. baumannii, there was a significant (P < 0.01) decrease in the level of anti-oxidant enzymes in the presence of salicylic acid, a known quencher of quorum sensing. In the presence of amikacin and carbenicillin, A. baumannii formed 0.07 and 0.02% persister cells, which increased 4- and 3-fold, respectively, in the presence of pyocyanin. These findings show that pyocyanin induces a protective mechanism in A. baumannii against oxidative stress and also increases its persistence against antibiotics which could be of clinical significance in the case of coinfections with A. baumannii and P. aeruginosa. PMID:24891106

  12. Ribosomal frameshifting and dual-target antiactivation restrict quorum-sensing-activated transfer of a mobile genetic element.

    PubMed

    Ramsay, Joshua P; Tester, Laura G L; Major, Anthony S; Sullivan, John T; Edgar, Christina D; Kleffmann, Torsten; Patterson-House, Jackson R; Hall, Drew A; Tate, Warren P; Hynes, Michael F; Ronson, Clive W

    2015-03-31

    Symbiosis islands are integrative and conjugative mobile genetic elements that convert nonsymbiotic rhizobia into nitrogen-fixing symbionts of leguminous plants. Excision of the Mesorhizobium loti symbiosis island ICEMlSym(R7A) is indirectly activated by quorum sensing through TraR-dependent activation of the excisionase gene rdfS. Here we show that a +1 programmed ribosomal frameshift (PRF) fuses the coding sequences of two TraR-activated genes, msi172 and msi171, producing an activator of rdfS expression named Frameshifted excision activator (FseA). Mass-spectrometry and mutational analyses indicated that the PRF occurred through +1 slippage of the tRNA(phe) from UUU to UUC within a conserved msi172-encoded motif. FseA activated rdfS expression in the absence of ICEMlSym(R7A), suggesting that it directly activated rdfS transcription, despite being unrelated to any characterized DNA-binding proteins. Bacterial two-hybrid and gene-reporter assays demonstrated that FseA was also bound and inhibited by the ICEMlSym(R7A)-encoded quorum-sensing antiactivator QseM. Thus, activation of ICEMlSym(R7A) excision is counteracted by TraR antiactivation, ribosomal frameshifting, and FseA antiactivation. This robust suppression likely dampens the inherent biological noise present in the quorum-sensing autoinduction circuit and ensures that ICEMlSym(R7A) transfer only occurs in a subpopulation of cells in which both qseM expression is repressed and FseA is translated. The architecture of the ICEMlSym(R7A) transfer regulatory system provides an example of how a set of modular components have assembled through evolution to form a robust genetic toggle that regulates gene transcription and translation at both single-cell and cell-population levels. PMID:25787256

  13. Pyocyanin stimulates quorum sensing-mediated tolerance to oxidative stress and increases persister cell populations in Acinetobacter baumannii.

    PubMed

    Bhargava, Nidhi; Sharma, Prince; Capalash, Neena

    2014-08-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa are nosocomial pathogens with overlapping sites of infection. This work reports that the two can coexist stably in mixed-culture biofilms. In a study intended to improve our understanding of the mechanism of their coexistence, it was found that pyocyanin, produced by P. aeruginosa that generally eliminates competition from other pathogens, led to the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in A. baumannii cells, which in response showed a significant (P ? 0.05) increase in production of enzymes, specifically, catalase and superoxide dismutase (SOD). This work shows for the first time that the expression of catalase and SOD is under the control of a quorum-sensing system in A. baumannii. In support of this observation, a quorum-sensing mutant of A. baumannii (abaI::Km) was found to be sensitive to pyocyanin compared to its wild type and showed significantly (P ? 0.001) lower levels of the antioxidant enzymes, which increased on addition of 5 ?M N-(3-hydroxydodecanoyl)-l-homoserine lactone. Likewise, in wild-type A. baumannii, there was a significant (P < 0.01) decrease in the level of anti-oxidant enzymes in the presence of salicylic acid, a known quencher of quorum sensing. In the presence of amikacin and carbenicillin, A. baumannii formed 0.07 and 0.02% persister cells, which increased 4- and 3-fold, respectively, in the presence of pyocyanin. These findings show that pyocyanin induces a protective mechanism in A. baumannii against oxidative stress and also increases its persistence against antibiotics which could be of clinical significance in the case of coinfections with A. baumannii and P. aeruginosa. PMID:24891106

  14. Punicalagin inhibits Salmonella virulence factors and has anti-quorum-sensing potential.

    PubMed

    Li, Guanghui; Yan, Chunhong; Xu, Yunfeng; Feng, Yuqing; Wu, Qian; Lv, Xiaoying; Yang, Baowei; Wang, Xin; Xia, Xiaodong

    2014-10-01

    Punicalagin, an essential component of pomegranate rind, has been demonstrated to possess antimicrobial activity against several food-borne pathogens, but its activity on the virulence of pathogens and its anti-quorum-sensing (anti-QS) potential have been rarely reported. This study investigated the efficacy of subinhibitory concentrations of punicalagin on Salmonella virulence factors and QS systems. A broth microdilution method was used to determine the MICs of punicalagin for 10 Salmonella strains. Motility assay and quantitative reverse transcription (RT)-PCR were performed to evaluate the effects of punicalagin on the virulence attributes and QS-related genes of Salmonella. The MICs of punicalagin for several Salmonella strains ranged from 250 to 1,000 ?g/ml. Motility assays showed that punicalagin, at 1/16× MIC and 1/32× MIC, significantly decreased bacterial swimming and swarming motility, which corresponded to downregulation of the motility-related genes (fliA, fliY, fljB, flhC, and fimD) in RT-PCR assays. RT-PCR also revealed that punicalagin downregulated the expression of most of the selected genes involved in Salmonella virulence. Moreover, a QS inhibition assay indicated that punicalagin dose dependently inhibited the production of violacein by Chromobacterium violaceum and repressed the expression of QS-related genes (sdiA and srgE) in Salmonella. In addition, punicalagin significantly reduced Salmonella invasion of colonic cells (P<0.01) with no impact on adhesion. These findings suggest that punicalagin has the potential to be developed as an alternative or supplemental agent for prevention of Salmonella infection. PMID:25085489

  15. Quorum Sensing and Virulence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa during Lung Infection of Cystic Fibrosis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Jensen, Peter Østrup; Jakobsen, Tim Holm; Phipps, Richard; Nielsen, Anne Kirstine; Rybtke, Morten Theil; Tolker-Nielsen, Tim; Givskov, Michael; Høiby, Niels; Ciofu, Oana

    2010-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the predominant microorganism in chronic lung infection of cystic fibrosis patients. The chronic lung infection is preceded by intermittent colonization. When the chronic infection becomes established, it is well accepted that the isolated strains differ phenotypically from the intermittent strains. Dominating changes are the switch to mucoidity (alginate overproduction) and loss of epigenetic regulation of virulence such as the Quorum Sensing (QS). To elucidate the dynamics of P. aeruginosa QS systems during long term infection of the CF lung, we have investigated 238 isolates obtained from 152 CF patients at different stages of infection ranging from intermittent to late chronic. Isolates were characterized with regard to QS signal molecules, alginate, rhamnolipid and elastase production and mutant frequency. The genetic basis for change in QS regulation were investigated and identified by sequence analysis of lasR, rhlR, lasI and rhlI. The first QS system to be lost was the one encoded by las system 12 years (median value) after the onset of the lung infection with subsequent loss of the rhl encoded system after 17 years (median value) shown as deficiencies in production of the 3-oxo-C12-HSL and C4-HSL QS signal molecules respectively. The concomitant development of QS malfunction significantly correlated with the reduced production of rhamnolipids and elastase and with the occurrence of mutations in the regulatory genes lasR and rhlR. Accumulation of mutations in both lasR and rhlR correlated with development of hypermutability. Interestingly, a higher number of mucoid isolates were found to produce C4-HSL signal molecules and rhamnolipids compared to the non-mucoid isolates. As seen from the present data, we can conclude that P. aeruginosa and particularly the mucoid strains do not lose the QS regulation or the ability to produce rhamnolipids until the late stage of the chronic infection. PMID:20404933

  16. Interference of quorum sensing in urinary pathogen Serratia marcescens by Anethum graveolens.

    PubMed

    Salini, Ramesh; Pandian, Shunmugiah Karutha

    2015-08-01

    Serratia marcescens is an opportunistic turned obligate pathogen frequently associated with urinary tract infections (UTI) and are multidrug resistant at most instances. Quorum sensing (QS) system, a population-dependent global regulatory system, controls the pathogenesis machinery of S. marcescens as it does in other pathogens. In the present study, methanol extract of a common herb and spice, Anethum graveolens (AGME) was assessed for its anti-QS potential against the clinical isolate of S. marcescens. AGME notably reduced the biofilm formation and QS-dependent virulence factors production in a concentration-dependent manner (64-1024 ?g mL(-1)). The light and confocal microscopic images clearly evidenced the antibiofilm activity of AGME (256 ?g mL(-1)) at its minimal biofilm inhibitory concentration. Besides, in support of biochemical assays, the expression analysis of QS-regulated genes fimC, bsmA and flhD which are crucial for initial adhesion and motility confirmed their downregulation upon exposure to AGME. LC-MS analysis of AGME revealed 3-O- methyl ellagic acid (3-O-ME) as one of its active principles having nearly similar antibiofilm activity and a reduced inhibition of prodigiosin (27%) and protease (15%) compared to AGME [prodigiosin (47%) and protease (50%)]. UFLC analysis revealed that 0.355 mg g(-1) of 3-O-ME was present in the AGME. AGME and the 3-O-ME significantly interfered the QS system of a QS model strain S. marcescens MG1 and its mutant S. marcescens MG44 which in turn corroborates the anti-QS mechanism of AGME. PMID:26013821

  17. Physiological framework for the regulation of quorum sensing-dependent public goods in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Mellbye, Brett; Schuster, Martin

    2014-03-01

    Many bacteria possess cell density-dependent quorum-sensing (QS) systems that often regulate cooperative secretions involved in host-microbe or microbe-microbe interactions. These secretions, or "public goods," are frequently coregulated by stress and starvation responses. Here we provide a physiological rationale for such regulatory complexity in the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Using minimal-medium batch and chemostat cultures, we comprehensively characterized specific growth rate-limiting macronutrients as key triggers for the expression of extracellular enzymes and metabolites directly controlled by the las and rhl QS systems. Expression was unrelated to cell density, depended on the secreted product's elemental composition, and was induced only when the limiting nutrient was not also a building block of the product; rhl-dependent products showed the strongest response, caused by the largely las-independent induction of the regulator RhlR and its cognate signal. In agreement with the prominent role of the rhl system, slow growth inverted the las-to-rhl signal ratio, previously considered a characteristic distinguishing between planktonic and biofilm lifestyles. Our results highlight a supply-driven, metabolically prudent regulation of public goods that minimizes production costs and thereby helps stabilize cooperative behavior. Such regulation would be beneficial for QS-dependent public goods that act broadly and nonspecifically, and whose need cannot always be accurately assessed by the producing cell. Clear differences in the capacities of the las and rhl systems to integrate starvation signals help explain the existence of multiple QS systems in one cell. PMID:24375105

  18. The DSF quorum sensing system controls the positive influence of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia on plants.

    PubMed

    Alavi, Peyman; Müller, Henry; Cardinale, Massimiliano; Zachow, Christin; Sánchez, María B; Martínez, José Luis; Berg, Gabriele

    2013-01-01

    The interaction of the Gram-negative bacterium Stenotrophomonas maltophilia with eukaryotes can improve overall plant growth and health, but can also cause opportunistic infections in humans. While the quorum sensing molecule DSF (diffusible signal factor) is responsible for the regulation of phenotypes in pathogenic Stenotrophomonas, up until now, no beneficial effects were reported to be controlled by it. Our objective was to study the function of DSF in the plant growth promoting model strain S. maltophilia R551-3 using functional and transcriptomic analyses. For this purpose, we compared the wild-type strain with a mutant deficient in the rpfF (regulation of pathogenicity factors) gene that is essential for the synthesis of DSF. Oilseed rape seeds treated with the wild-type strain showed a statistically significant increase in germination rate compared with those treated with the rpfF mutant. Similarly, the wild-type strain exhibited better plant growth promotion and a greater efficiency in colonizing oilseed rape compared to the mutant strain. Moreover, only the wild-type was capable of forming structured cell aggregates both in vitro and in the rhizosphere, a characteristic mediated by DSF. Gene transcription analyses showed that numerous genes known to play a role in plant colonization (e.g. chemotaxis, cell motility, biofilm formation, multidrug efflux pumps) are controlled by the rpf/DSF system in S. maltophilia. In addition, we detected new potential functions of spermidine, primarily for both growth promotion and stress protection. Overall, our results showed a correspondence between the regulation of DSF and the positive interaction effect with the plant host. PMID:23874407

  19. Development of a peptide antagonist against fsr quorum sensing of Enterococcus faecalis.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Jiro; Yokohata, Ryoji; Sato, Mami; Suzuki, Takashi; Matsufuji, Takahisa; Nishiguchi, Kenzo; Kawai, Takeshi; Yamanaka, Yosuke; Nagata, Koji; Tanokura, Masaru; Sonomoto, Kenji

    2013-04-19

    Enterococcus faecalis fsr quorum sensing (QS) involves an 11-residue cyclic peptide named gelatinase biosynthesis-activating pheromone (GBAP) that autoinduces two pathogenicity-related extracellular proteases in a cell density-dependent fashion. To identify anti-pathogenic agents that target fsr QS signaling, peptide antagonists of GBAP were created by our unique drug design approach based on reverse alanine scanning. First of all, a receptor-binding scaffold (RBS), [Ala(4,5,6,8,9,11)]Z-GBAP, was created, in which all amino acids within the ring region of GBAP, except for two essential aromatic residues, were substituted to alanine. Next, the substituted alanine residues were changed back to the original amino acid one by one, permitting selection of those peptide combinations exhibiting increased antagonist activity. After three cycles of this reverse alanine scan, [Ala(5,9,11)]Z-GBAP was obtained as a maximally reverted peptide (MRP) holding the strongest antagonist activity. Then, the fifth residue in MRP, which is one of the critical residues to determine agonist/antagonist activity, was further modified by substituting with different types of amino acids including unnatural amino acids. As a result, [Tyr(Bzl)(5), Ala(9,11)]Z-GBAP, named ZBzl-YAA5911, showed the strongest antagonist activity [IC(50) = 26.2 nM and Kd against GBAP receptor (FsrC) = 39.4 nM]. In vivo efficacy of this peptide was assessed with an aphakic rabbit endophthalmitis model. ZBzl-YAA5911 suppressed the translocation of E. faecalis from the aqueous humor into the vitreous cavity by more than 1 order of magnitude and significantly reduced retinal damage. We propose that ZBzl-YAA5911 or its derivatives would be useful as anti-infective agents to attenuate virulence expression in this opportunistic pathogen. PMID:23362999

  20. Staphylococcus epidermidis agr quorum-sensing system: signal identification, cross talk, and importance in colonization.

    PubMed

    Olson, Michael E; Todd, Daniel A; Schaeffer, Carolyn R; Paharik, Alexandra E; Van Dyke, Michael J; Büttner, Henning; Dunman, Paul M; Rohde, Holger; Cech, Nadja B; Fey, Paul D; Horswill, Alexander R

    2014-10-01

    Staphylococcus epidermidis is an opportunistic pathogen that is one of the leading causes of medical device infections. Global regulators like the agr quorum-sensing system in this pathogen have received a limited amount of attention, leaving important questions unanswered. There are three agr types in S. epidermidis strains, but only one of the autoinducing peptide (AIP) signals has been identified (AIP-I), and cross talk between agr systems has not been tested. We structurally characterized all three AIP types using mass spectrometry and discovered that the AIP-II and AIP-III signals are 12 residues in length, making them the largest staphylococcal AIPs identified to date. S. epidermidis agr reporter strains were developed for each system, and we determined that cross-inhibitory interactions occur between the agr type I and II systems and between the agr type I and III systems. In contrast, no cross talk was observed between the type II and III systems. To further understand the outputs of the S. epidermidis agr system, an RNAIII mutant was constructed, and microarray studies revealed that exoenzymes (Ecp protease and Geh lipase) and low-molecular-weight toxins were downregulated in the mutant. Follow-up analysis of Ecp confirmed the RNAIII is required to induce protease activity and that agr cross talk modulates Ecp activity in a manner that mirrors the agr reporter results. Finally, we demonstrated that the agr system enhances skin colonization by S. epidermidis using a porcine model. This work expands our knowledge of S. epidermidis agr system function and will aid future studies on cell-cell communication in this important opportunistic pathogen. PMID:25070736

  1. Quercetin sensitizes fluconazole-resistant candida albicans to induce apoptotic cell death by modulating quorum sensing.

    PubMed

    Singh, B N; Upreti, D K; Singh, B R; Pandey, G; Verma, S; Roy, S; Naqvi, A H; Rawat, A K S

    2015-04-01

    Quorum sensing (QS) regulates group behaviors of Candida albicans such as biofilm, hyphal growth, and virulence factors. The sesquiterpene alcohol farnesol, a QS molecule produced by C. albicans, is known to regulate the expression of virulence weapons of this fungus. Fluconazole (FCZ) is a broad-spectrum antifungal drug that is used for the treatment of C. albicans infections. While FCZ can be cytotoxic at high concentrations, our results show that at much lower concentrations, quercetin (QC), a dietary flavonoid isolated from an edible lichen (Usnea longissima), can be implemented as a sensitizing agent for FCZ-resistant C. albicans NBC099, enhancing the efficacy of FCZ. QC enhanced FCZ-mediated cell killing of NBC099 and also induced cell death. These experiments indicated that the combined application of both drugs was FCZ dose dependent rather than QC dose dependent. In addition, we found that QC strongly suppressed the production of virulence weapons-biofilm formation, hyphal development, phospholipase, proteinase, esterase, and hemolytic activity. Treatment with QC also increased FCZ-mediated cell death in NBC099 biofilms. Interestingly, we also found that QC enhances the anticandidal activity of FCZ by inducing apoptotic cell death. We have also established that this sensitization is reliant on the farnesol response generated by QC. Molecular docking studies also support this conclusion and suggest that QC can form hydrogen bonds with Gln969, Thr1105, Ser1108, Arg1109, Asn1110, and Gly1061 in the ATP binding pocket of adenylate cyclase. Thus, this QS-mediated combined sensitizer (QC)-anticandidal agent (FCZ) strategy may be a novel way to enhance the efficacy of FCZ-based therapy of C. albicans infections. PMID:25645848

  2. Global Analysis of Quorum Sensing Targets in the Intracellular Pathogen Brucella melitensis 16 M

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Many pathogenic bacteria use a regulatory process termed quorum sensing (QS) to produce and detect small diffusible molecules to synchronize gene expression within a population. In Gram-negative bacteria, the detection of, and response to, these molecules depends on transcriptional regulators belonging to the LuxR family. Such a system has been discovered in the intracellular pathogen Brucella melitensis, a Gram-negative bacterium responsible for brucellosis, a worldwide zoonosis that remains a serious public health concern in countries were the disease is endemic. Genes encoding two LuxR-type regulators, VjbR and BabR, have been identified in the genome of B. melitensis 16 M. A ?vjbR mutant is highly attenuated in all experimental models of infection tested, suggesting a crucial role for QS in the virulence of Brucella. At present, no function has been attributed to BabR. The experiments described in this report indicate that 5% of the genes in the B. melitensis 16 M genome are regulated by VjbR and/or BabR, suggesting that QS is a global regulatory system in this bacterium. The overlap between BabR and VjbR targets suggest a cross-talk between these two regulators. Our results also demonstrate that VjbR and BabR regulate many genes and/or proteins involved in stress response, metabolism, and virulence, including those potentially involved in the adaptation of Brucella to the oxidative, pH, and nutritional stresses encountered within the host. These findings highlight the involvement of QS as a major regulatory system in Brucella and lead us to suggest that this regulatory system could participate in the spatial and sequential adaptation of Brucella strains to the host environment. PMID:20387905

  3. Quorum sensing controls hyphal initiation in Candida albicans through Ubr1-mediated protein degradation.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yang; Su, Chang; Unoje, Ohimai; Liu, Haoping

    2014-02-01

    Candida albicans is the most common cause of invasive fungal infections in humans. Its ability to undergo the morphological transition from yeast to hyphal growth forms is critical for its pathogenesis. Hyphal initiation requires the activation of the cAMP-PKA pathway, which down-regulates the expression of NRG1, the major repressor of hyphal development. Hyphal initiation also requires inoculation of a small amount of C. albicans cells from overnight culture to fresh medium. This inoculation releases the inhibition from farnesol, a quorum-sensing molecule of C. albicans, that accumulated in the spent medium. Here, we show that farnesol inhibits hyphal initiation mainly through blocking the protein degradation of Nrg1. Through screening a kinase mutant library, we identified Sok1 as the kinase required for Nrg1 degradation during inoculation. SOK1 expression is transiently activated on inoculation during hyphal initiation, and overexpression of SOK1 overcomes the farnesol-mediated inhibition of hyphal initiation. Screening a collection of transcription factor mutants, the homeodomain-containing transcription repressor Cup9 is found to be responsible for the repression of SOK1 expression in response to farnesol inhibition. Interestingly, farnesol inhibits Cup9 degradation mediated by the N-end rule E3 ubiquitin ligase, Ubr1. Therefore, hyphal initiation requires both the cAMP-PKA pathway-dependent transcriptional down-regulation of NRG1 and Sok1-mediated degradation of Nrg1 protein. The latter is triggered by the release from farnesol inhibition of Cup9 degradation and consequently, derepression of SOK1 transcription. Neither pathway alone is sufficient for hyphal initiation. PMID:24449897

  4. A Novel Signal Transduction Pathway that Modulates rhl Quorum Sensing and Bacterial Virulence in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Feifei; Xia, Yongjie; Lou, Jingyu; Zhang, Xue; Yang, Nana; Sun, Xiaoxu; Zhang, Qin; Zhuo, Chao; Huang, Xi; Deng, Xin; Yang, Cai-Guang; Ye, Yan; Zhao, Jing; Wu, Min; Lan, Lefu

    2014-01-01

    The rhl quorum-sensing (QS) system plays critical roles in the pathogenesis of P. aeruginosa. However, the regulatory effects that occur directly upstream of the rhl QS system are poorly understood. Here, we show that deletion of gene encoding for the two-component sensor BfmS leads to the activation of its cognate response regulator BfmR, which in turn directly binds to the promoter and decreases the expression of the rhlR gene that encodes the QS regulator RhlR, causing the inhibition of the rhl QS system. In the absence of bfmS, the Acka-Pta pathway can modulate the regulatory activity of BfmR. In addition, BfmS tunes the expression of 202 genes that comprise 3.6% of the P. aeruginosa genome. We further demonstrate that deletion of bfmS causes substantially reduced virulence in lettuce leaf, reduced cytotoxicity, enhanced invasion, and reduced bacterial survival during acute mouse lung infection. Intriguingly, specific missense mutations, which occur naturally in the bfmS gene in P. aeruginosa cystic fibrosis (CF) isolates such as DK2 strains and RP73 strain, can produce BfmS variants (BfmSL181P, BfmSL181P/E376Q, and BfmSR393H) that no longer repress, but instead activate BfmR. As a result, BfmS variants, but not the wild-type BfmS, inhibit the rhl QS system. This study thus uncovers a previously unexplored signal transduction pathway, BfmS/BfmR/RhlR, for the regulation of rhl QS in P. aeruginosa. We propose that BfmRS TCS may have an important role in the regulation and evolution of P. aeruginosa virulence during chronic infection in CF lungs. PMID:25166864

  5. Directed Evolution of the Quorum-Sensing Regulator EsaR for Increased Signal Sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Shong, Jasmine; Huang, Yao-Ming; Bystroff, Christopher; Collins, Cynthia H.

    2015-01-01

    The use of cell–cell communication or “quorum sensing (QS)” elements from Gram-negative Proteobacteria has enabled synthetic biologists to begin engineering systems composed of multiple interacting organisms. However, additional tools are necessary if we are to progress toward synthetic microbial consortia that exhibit more complex, dynamic behaviors. EsaR from Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii is a QS regulator that binds to DNA as an apoprotein and releases the DNA when it binds to its cognate signal molecule, 3-oxohexanoyl-homoserine lactone (3OC6HSL). In the absence of 3OC6HSL, EsaR binds to DNA and can act as either an activator or a repressor of transcription. Gene expression from PesaR, which is repressed by wild-type EsaR, requires 100- to 1000-fold higher concentrations of signal than commonly used QS activators, such as LuxR and LasR. Here we have identified EsaR variants with increased sensitivity to 3OC6HSL using directed evolution and a dual ON/OFF screening strategy. Although we targeted EsaR-dependent derepression of PesaR, our EsaR variants also showed increased 3OC6HSL sensitivity at a second promoter, PesaS, which is activated by EsaR in the absence of 3OC6HSL. Here, the increase in AHL sensitivity led to gene expression being turned off at lower concentrations of 3OC6HSL. Overall, we have increased the signal sensitivity of EsaR more than 70-fold and generated a set of EsaR variants that recognize 3OC6HSL concentrations ranging over 4 orders of magnitude. QS-dependent transcriptional regulators that bind to DNA and are active in the absence of a QS signal represent a new set of tools for engineering cell–cell communication-dependent gene expression. PMID:23363022

  6. Development of a Mimotope Vaccine Targeting the Staphylococcus aureus Quorum Sensing Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Triplett, Kathleen D.; Peabody, David; Chackerian, Bryce

    2014-01-01

    A major hurdle in vaccine development is the difficulty in identifying relevant target epitopes and then presenting them to the immune system in a context that mimics their native conformation. We have engineered novel virus-like-particle (VLP) technology that is able to display complex libraries of random peptide sequences on a surface-exposed loop in the coat protein without disruption of protein folding or VLP assembly. This technology allows us to use the same VLP particle for both affinity selection and immunization, integrating the power of epitope discovery and epitope mimicry of traditional phage display with the high immunogenicity of VLPs. Previously, we showed that using affinity selection with our VLP platform identifies linear epitopes of monoclonal antibodies and subsequent immunization generates the proper antibody response. To test if our technology could identify immunologic mimotopes, we used affinity selection on a monoclonal antibody (AP4-24H11) that recognizes the Staphylococcus aureus autoinducing peptide 4 (AIP4). AIP4 is a secreted eight amino acid, cyclized peptide produced from the S. aureus accessory gene regulator (agrIV) quorum-sensing operon. The agr system coordinates density dependent changes in gene expression, leading to the upregulation of a host of virulence factors, and passive transfer of AP4-24H11 protects against S. aureus agrIV-dependent pathogenicity. In this report, we identified a set of peptides displayed on VLPs that bound with high specificity to AP4-24H11. Importantly, similar to passive transfer with AP4-24H11, immunization with a subset of these VLPs protected against pathogenicity in a mouse model of S. aureus dermonecrosis. These data are proof of principle that by performing affinity selection on neutralizing antibodies, our VLP technology can identify peptide mimics of non-linear epitopes and that these mimotope based VLP vaccines provide protection against pathogens in relevant animal models. PMID:25379726

  7. The Fungal Quorum-Sensing Molecule Farnesol Activates Innate Immune Cells but Suppresses Cellular Adaptive Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Leonhardt, Ines; Spielberg, Steffi; Weber, Michael; Albrecht-Eckardt, Daniela; Bläss, Markus; Claus, Ralf; Barz, Dagmar; Scherlach, Kirstin; Hertweck, Christian; Löffler, Jürgen; Hünniger, Kerstin

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Farnesol, produced by the polymorphic fungus Candida albicans, is the first quorum-sensing molecule discovered in eukaryotes. Its main function is control of C. albicans filamentation, a process closely linked to pathogenesis. In this study, we analyzed the effects of farnesol on innate immune cells known to be important for fungal clearance and protective immunity. Farnesol enhanced the expression of activation markers on monocytes (CD86 and HLA-DR) and neutrophils (CD66b and CD11b) and promoted oxidative burst and the release of proinflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor alpha [TNF-?] and macrophage inflammatory protein 1 alpha [MIP-1?]). However, this activation did not result in enhanced fungal uptake or killing. Furthermore, the differentiation of monocytes to immature dendritic cells (iDC) was significantly affected by farnesol. Several markers important for maturation and antigen presentation like CD1a, CD83, CD86, and CD80 were significantly reduced in the presence of farnesol. Furthermore, farnesol modulated migrational behavior and cytokine release and impaired the ability of DC to induce T cell proliferation. Of major importance was the absence of interleukin 12 (IL-12) induction in iDC generated in the presence of farnesol. Transcriptome analyses revealed a farnesol-induced shift in effector molecule expression and a down-regulation of the granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) receptor during monocytes to iDC differentiation. Taken together, our data unveil the ability of farnesol to act as a virulence factor of C. albicans by influencing innate immune cells to promote inflammation and mitigating the Th1 response, which is essential for fungal clearance. PMID:25784697

  8. Non-social adaptation defers a tragedy of the commons in Pseudomonas aeruginosa quorum sensing.

    PubMed

    Asfahl, Kyle L; Walsh, Jessica; Gilbert, Kerrigan; Schuster, Martin

    2015-08-01

    In a process termed quorum sensing (QS), the opportunistic bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa uses diffusible signaling molecules to regulate the expression of numerous secreted factors or public goods that are shared within the population. But not all cells respond to QS signals. These social cheaters typically harbor a mutation in the QS receptor gene lasR and exploit the public goods produced by cooperators. Here we show that non-social adaptation under growth conditions that require QS-dependent public goods increases tolerance to cheating and defers a tragedy of the commons. The underlying mutation is in the transcriptional repressor gene psdR. This mutation has no effect on public goods expression but instead increases individual fitness by derepressing growth-limiting intracellular metabolism. Even though psdR mutant populations remain susceptible to invasion by isogenic psdR lasR cheaters, they bear a lower cheater load than do wild-type populations, and they are completely resistant to invasion by lasR cheaters with functional psdR. Mutations in psdR also sustain growth near wild-type levels when paired with certain partial loss-of-function lasR mutations. Targeted sequencing of multiple evolved isolates revealed that mutations in psdR arise before mutations in lasR, and rapidly sweep through the population. Our results indicate that a QS-favoring environment can lead to adaptations in non-social, intracellular traits that increase the fitness of cooperating individuals and thereby contribute to population-wide maintenance of QS and associated cooperative behaviors. PMID:25615439

  9. CqsA-CqsS quorum-sensing signal-receptor specificity in Photobacterium angustum.

    PubMed

    Ke, Xiaobo; Miller, Laura C; Ng, Wai-Leung; Bassler, Bonnie L

    2014-02-01

    Quorum sensing (QS) is a process of bacterial cell-cell communication that relies on the production, detection and population-wide response to extracellular signal molecules called autoinducers. The QS system commonly found in vibrios and photobacteria consists of the CqsA synthase/CqsS receptor pair. Vibrio cholerae?CqsA/S synthesizes and detects (S)-3-hydroxytridecan-4-one (C10-CAI-1), whereas Vibrio harveyi produces and detects a distinct but similar molecule, (Z)-3-aminoundec-2-en-4-one (Ea-C8-CAI-1). To understand the signalling properties of the larger family of CqsA-CqsS pairs, here, we characterize the Photobacterium angustum?CqsA/S system. Many photobacterial cqsA genes harbour a conserved frameshift mutation that abolishes CAI-1 production. By contrast, their cqsS genes are intact. Correcting the P. angustum?cqsA reading frame restores production of a mixture of CAI-1 moieties, including C8-CAI-1, C10-CAI-1, Ea-C8-CAI-1 and Ea-C10-CAI-1. This signal production profile matches the P. angustum?CqsS receptor ligand-detection capability. The receptor exhibits a preference for molecules with 10-carbon tails, and the CqsS Ser(168) residue governs this preference. P. angustum can overcome the cqsA frameshift to produce CAI-1 under particular limiting growth conditions presumably through a ribosome slippage mechanism. Thus, we propose that P. angustum uses CAI-1 signalling for adaptation to stressful environments. PMID:24372841

  10. Quorum sensing in Burkholderia cepacia: identification of the LuxRI homologs CepRI.

    PubMed

    Lewenza, S; Conway, B; Greenberg, E P; Sokol, P A

    1999-02-01

    Burkholderia cepacia has emerged as an important pathogen in patients with cystic fibrosis. Many gram-negative pathogens regulate the production of extracellular virulence factors by a cell density-dependent mechanism termed quorum sensing, which involves production of diffusible N-acylated homoserine lactone signal molecules, called autoinducers. Transposon insertion mutants of B. cepacia K56-2 which hyperproduced siderophores on chrome azurol S agar were identified. One mutant, K56-R2, contained an insertion in a luxR homolog that was designated cepR. The flanking DNA region was used to clone the wild-type copy of cepR. Sequence analysis revealed the presence of cepI, a luxI homolog, located 727 bp upstream and divergently transcribed from cepR. A lux box-like sequence was identified upstream of cepI. CepR was 36% identical to Pseudomonas aeruginosa RhlR and 67% identical to SolR of Ralstonia solanacearum. CepI was 38% identical to RhlI and 64% identical to SolI. K56-R2 demonstrated a 67% increase in the production of the siderophore ornibactin, was protease negative on dialyzed brain heart infusion milk agar, and produced 45% less lipase activity in comparison to the parental strain. Complementation of a cepR mutation restored parental levels of ornibactin and protease but not lipase. An N-acylhomoserine lactone was purified from culture fluids and identified as N-octanoylhomoserine lactone. K56-I2, a cepI mutant, was created and shown not to produce N-octanoylhomoserine lactone. K56-I2 hyperproduced ornibactin and did not produce protease. These data suggest both a positive and negative role for cepIR in the regulation of extracellular virulence factor production by B. cepacia. PMID:9922236

  11. Acyl-Homoserine Lactone Recognition and Response Hindering the Quorum-Sensing Regulator EsaR

    PubMed Central

    Schu, Daniel J.; Scruggs, Jessica M.; Geissinger, Jared S.; Michel, Katherine G.; Stevens, Ann M.

    2014-01-01

    During quorum sensing in the plant pathogen Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii, EsaI, an acyl-homoserine lactone (AHL) synthase, and the transcription factor EsaR coordinately control capsular polysaccharide production. The capsule is expressed only at high cell density when AHL levels are high, leading to inactivation of EsaR. In lieu of detailed structural information, the precise mechanism whereby EsaR recognizes AHL and is hindered by it, in a response opposite to that of most other LuxR homologues, remains unresolved. Hence, a random mutagenesis genetic approach was designed to isolate EsaR* variants that are immune to the effects of AHL. Error-prone PCR was used to generate the desired mutants, which were subsequently screened for their ability to repress transcription in the presence of AHL. Following sequencing, site-directed mutagenesis was used to generate all possible mutations of interest as single, rather than multiple amino acid substitutions. Eight individual amino acids playing a critical role in the AHL-insensitive phenotype have been identified. The ability of EsaR* variants to bind AHL and the effect of individual substitutions on the overall conformation of the protein were examined through in vitro assays. Six EsaR* variants had a decreased ability to bind AHL. Fluorescence anisotropy was used to examine the relative DNA binding affinity of the final two EsaR* variants, which retained some AHL binding capability but remained unresponsive to it, perhaps due to an inability of the N-terminal domain to transduce information to the C-terminal domain. PMID:25238602

  12. Bacterial response to siderophore and quorum-sensing chemical signals in the seawater microbial community

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Le Luo; Kamino, Kei

    2001-01-01

    Background Oceans are iron-deficient and nutrient-poor environments. These conditions impart limitations on our understanding of and our ability to identify microorganisms from the marine environment. However, less of knowledge on the influence of siderophores and N-acyl homoserinelactone as interspecies communication signals on the bacterial diversity of seawater has been understood. Results In the presence of 0.1 nM of the commercial siderophore desferroixamine and the known quorum-sensing chemical signals, synthetic N-(3-oxo)-hexanoylhomoserine lactone (0.1 nM) or N-octanoylhomoserine lactone (0.1 nM), the total numbers of bacteria in S9905 seawater increased nearly three-fold, and nearly eight-fold in S0011 seawater as determined by DAPI staining and counting, and increased three-fold by counting colony forming units in S9905 seawater after 7 days of incubation. Similar bacterial changes in bacterial abundance were observed when high concentration of desferroixamine (1 ?M) and each of homoserine lactone compounds (1 ?M) were presented in seawater samples. The number of cultivable bacterial species observed was also found to increase from 3 (without addition) to 8 (with additions) including three unknown species which were identified by phylogenetic analysis of 16S rDNA sequences. The growth of unknown species was found to be related to their siderophore production with response to the addition of desferroixamine and N-acyl homoserine lactones under iron-limited conditions. Conclusion Artificial addition of siderophores and HSLs may be a possible method to aid in the identification and isolation of marine bacterial species which are thought to be unknown. PMID:11716787

  13. Growth Phase-Differential Quorum Sensing Regulation of Anthranilate Metabolism in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yusang; Park, Ha-Young; Park, Seong Joon; Park, Su-Jin; Kim, Soo-Kyoung; Ha, Changwan; Im, Su-Jin; Lee, Joon-Hee

    2011-01-01

    Pseudomonas quinolone signal (PQS) plays a role in the regulation of virulence genes and it is intertwined in the las/rhl quorum sensing (QS) circuits of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. PQS is synthesized from anthranilate by pqsA-D and pqsH whose expression is influenced by the las/rhl systems. Since anthranilate can be degraded by functions of antABC and catBCA, PQS synthesis might be regulated by the balance between the expression of the pqsA-D/phnAB, pqsH, antABC, and catBCA gene loci. antA and catA are repressed by LasR during log phase and activated by RhlR in late stationary phase, whereas pqsA-E/phnAB is activated by LasR in log phase and repressed by RhlR. QscR represses both but each repression occurs in a different growth phase. This growth phasedifferential regulation appears to be accomplished by the antagonistic interplay of LasR, RhlR, and QscR, mediated by two intermediate regulators, AntR and PqsR, and their cofactors, anthranilate and PQS, where the expressions of antR and pqsR and the production of anthranilate and PQS are growth phase-differentially regulated by QS systems. Especially, the anthranilate level increases in an RhlRdependent manner at late stationary phase. From these results, we suggest that RhlR and LasR regulate the anthranilate metabolism in a mutually antagonistic and growth phase-differential manner by affecting both the expressions and activities of AntR and PqsR, and that QscR also phase-differentially represses both LasR and RhlR functions in this regulation. PMID:21614486

  14. Expanding dialogues: from natural autoinducers to non-natural analogues that modulate quorum sensing in Gram-negative bacteria†

    PubMed Central

    Geske, Grant D.; O’Neill, Jennifer C.; Blackwell, Helen E.

    2008-01-01

    Bacteria are capable of “communicating” their local population densities via a process termed quorum sensing (QS). Gram-negative bacteria use N-acylated l-homoserine lactones (AHLs), in conjunction with their cognate LuxR-type receptors, as their primary signalling circuit for QS. In this critical review, we examine AHL signalling in Gram-negative bacteria with a primary focus on the design of non-natural AHLs, their structure-activity relationships, and their application in chemical biological approaches to study QS. PMID:18568169

  15. Expression of the bviIR and cepIR Quorum-Sensing Systems of Burkholderia vietnamiensis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rebecca J. Malott; Pamela A. Sokol

    2007-01-01

    Burkholderia vietnamiensis has both the cepIR quorum-sensing system that is widely distributed among the Burkholderia cepacia complex (BCC) and the bviIR system. Comparison of the expression of cepI, cepR, bviI, and bviR-luxCDABE fusions in B. vietnamiensis G4 and the G4 cepR and bviR mutants determined that the expression of bviI requires both a functional cognate regulator, BviR, and functional CepR.

  16. Synthetic analogs of bacterial quorum sensors

    DOEpatents

    Iyer, Rashi S.; Ganguly, Kumkum; Silks, Louis A.

    2013-01-08

    Bacterial quorum-sensing molecule analogs having the following structures: ##STR00001## and methods of reducing bacterial pathogenicity, comprising providing a biological system comprising pathogenic bacteria which produce natural quorum-sensing molecule; providing a synthetic bacterial quorum-sensing molecule having the above structures and introducing the synthetic quorum-sensing molecule into the biological system comprising pathogenic bacteria. Further is provided a method of targeted delivery of an antibiotic, comprising providing a synthetic quorum-sensing molecule; chemically linking the synthetic quorum-sensing molecule to an antibiotic to produce a quorum-sensing molecule-antibiotic conjugate; and introducing the conjugate into a biological system comprising pathogenic bacteria susceptible to the antibiotic.

  17. Synthetic analogs of bacterial quorum sensors

    DOEpatents

    Iyer, Rashi (Los Alamos, NM); Ganguly, Kumkum (Los Alamos, NM); Silks, Louis A. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2011-12-06

    Bacterial quorum-sensing molecule analogs having the following structures: ##STR00001## and methods of reducing bacterial pathogenicity, comprising providing a biological system comprising pathogenic bacteria which produce natural quorum-sensing molecule; providing a synthetic bacterial quorum-sensing molecule having the above structures and introducing the synthetic quorum-sensing molecule into the biological system comprising pathogenic bacteria. Further is provided a method of targeted delivery of an antibiotic, comprising providing a synthetic quorum-sensing molecule; chemically linking the synthetic quorum-sensing molecule to an antibiotic to produce a quorum-sensing molecule-antibiotic conjugate; and introducing the conjugate into a biological system comprising pathogenic bacteria susceptible to the antibiotic.

  18. Cell-Free Escherichia coli-Based System To Screen for Quorum-Sensing Molecules Interacting with Quorum Receptor Proteins of Streptomyces coelicolor?

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yung-Hun; Kim, Tae-Wan; Park, Sung-Hee; Lee, Kwangwon; Park, Hyung-Yeon; Song, Eunjung; Joo, Hwang-Soo; Kim, Yun-Gon; Hahn, Ji-Sook; Kim, Byung-Gee

    2009-01-01

    Quorum sensing (QS) is mediated by small molecules and involved in diverse cellular functions, such as virulence, biofilm formation, secondary metabolism, and cell differentiation. In this study, we developed a rapid and effective screening tool based on a cell-free Escherichia coli-based expression system to identify QS molecules of Streptomyces. The binding of QS molecules to ?-butyrolactone receptor ScbR was monitored by changes in the expression levels of the green fluorescent protein reporter in E. coli cell extract. Using this assay system, we could successfully confirm SCB1, a ?-butyrolactone molecule in Streptomyces coelicolor, binding to its known receptor, ScbR. In addition, we have shown that N-hexanoyl-dl-homoserine lactone, one of the QS molecules in many gram-negative bacteria, can regulate ScbR and trigger precocious antibiotic production in S. coelicolor. Our new method can be applied to other strains for which a screening tool for QS molecules has not yet been developed. PMID:19684180

  19. Cross-species comparison of the Burkholderia pseudomallei, Burkholderia thailandensis, and Burkholderia mallei quorum-sensing regulons.

    PubMed

    Majerczyk, Charlotte D; Brittnacher, Mitchell J; Jacobs, Michael A; Armour, Christopher D; Radey, Matthew C; Bunt, Richard; Hayden, Hillary S; Bydalek, Ryland; Greenberg, E Peter

    2014-11-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei, Burkholderia thailandensis, and Burkholderia mallei (the Bptm group) are close relatives with very different lifestyles: B. pseudomallei is an opportunistic pathogen, B. thailandensis is a nonpathogenic saprophyte, and B. mallei is a host-restricted pathogen. The acyl-homoserine lactone quorum-sensing (QS) systems of these three species show a high level of conservation. We used transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq) to define the quorum-sensing regulon in each species, and we performed a cross-species analysis of the QS-controlled orthologs. Our analysis revealed a core set of QS-regulated genes in all three species, as well as QS-controlled factors shared by only two species or unique to a given species. This global survey of the QS regulons of B. pseudomallei, B. thailandensis, and B. mallei serves as a platform for predicting which QS-controlled processes might be important in different bacterial niches and contribute to the pathogenesis of B. pseudomallei and B. mallei. PMID:25182491

  20. The Vibrio cholerae quorum-sensing autoinducer CAI-1: analysis of the biosynthetic enzyme CqsA

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Robert C.; Bolitho, Megan E.; Higgins, Douglas A.; Lu, Wenyun; Ng, Wai-Leung; Jeffrey, Philip D.; Rabinowitz, Joshua D.; Semmelhack, Martin F.; Hughson, Frederick M.; Bassler, Bonnie L.

    2010-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae, the bacterium that causes the disease cholera, controls virulence factor production and biofilm development in response to two extracellular quorum-sensing molecules, called autoinducers. The strongest autoinducer, called CAI-1 (for cholera autoinducer-1), was previously identified as (S)-3-hydroxytridecan-4-one. Biosynthesis of CAI-1 requires the enzyme CqsA. Here, we determine the CqsA reaction mechanism, identify the CqsA substrates as (S)-2-aminobutyrate and decanoyl coenzyme A, and demonstrate that the product of the reaction is 3-aminotridecan-4-one, dubbed amino-CAI-1. CqsA produces amino-CAI-1 by a pyridoxal phosphate (PLP)-dependent acyl-CoA transferase reaction. Amino-CAI-1 is converted to CAI-1 in a subsequent step via a CqsA-independent mechanism. Consistent with this, we find cells release ?100 times more CAI-1 than amino-CAI-1. Nonetheless, V. cholerae responds to amino-CAI-1 as well as CAI-1, whereas other CAI-1 variants do not elicit a quorum-sensing response. Thus, both CAI-1 and amino-CAI-1 have potential as lead molecules in the development of an anti-cholera treatment. PMID:19838203

  1. Effector-Stimulated Single Molecule Protein-DNA Interactions of a Quorum-Sensing System in Sinorhizobium meliloti

    PubMed Central

    Bartels, Frank Wilco; McIntosh, Matthew; Fuhrmann, Alexander; Metzendorf, Christoph; Plattner, Patrik; Sewald, Norbert; Anselmetti, Dario; Ros, Robert; Becker, Anke

    2007-01-01

    Intercellular communication by means of small signal molecules coordinates gene expression among bacteria. This population density-dependent regulation is known as quorum sensing. The symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacterium Sinorhizobium meliloti Rm1021 possesses the Sin quorum sensing system based on N-acyl homoserine lactones (AHL) as signal molecules. Here, we demonstrate that the LuxR-type regulator ExpR binds specifically to a target sequence in the sinRI locus in the presence of different AHLs with acyl side chains from 8 to 20 carbons. Dynamic force spectroscopy based on the atomic force microscope provided detailed information about the molecular mechanism of binding upon activation by six different AHLs. These single molecule experiments revealed that the mean lifetime of the bound protein-DNA complex varies depending on the specific effector molecule. The small differences between individual AHLs also had a pronounced influence on the structure of protein-DNA interaction: The reaction length of dissociation varied from 2.6 to 5.8 Å. In addition, dynamic force spectroscopy experiments indicate that N-heptanoyl-DL-homoserine lactone binds to ExpR but is not able to stimulate protein-DNA interaction. PMID:17384071

  2. The Vibrio cholerae quorum-sensing autoinducer CAI-1: analysis of the biosynthetic enzyme CqsA

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, R.; Bolitho, M; Higgins, D; Lu, W; Ng, W; Jeffrey, P; Rabinowitz, J; Semmelhack, M; Hughson, F; Bassler, B

    2009-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae, the bacterium that causes the disease cholera, controls virulence factor production and biofilm development in response to two extracellular quorum-sensing molecules, called autoinducers. The strongest autoinducer, called CAI-1 (for cholera autoinducer-1), was previously identified as (S)-3-hydroxytridecan-4-one. Biosynthesis of CAI-1 requires the enzyme CqsA. Here, we determine the CqsA reaction mechanism, identify the CqsA substrates as (S)-2-aminobutyrate and decanoyl coenzyme A, and demonstrate that the product of the reaction is 3-aminotridecan-4-one, dubbed amino-CAI-1. CqsA produces amino-CAI-1 by a pyridoxal phosphate-dependent acyl-CoA transferase reaction. Amino-CAI-1 is converted to CAI-1 in a subsequent step via a CqsA-independent mechanism. Consistent with this, we find cells release {ge}100 times more CAI-1 than amino-CAI-1. Nonetheless, V. cholerae responds to amino-CAI-1 as well as CAI-1, whereas other CAI-1 variants do not elicit a quorum-sensing response. Thus, both CAI-1 and amino-CAI-1 have potential as lead molecules in the development of an anticholera treatment.

  3. Mutational analysis and biochemical characterization of the Burkholderia thailandensis DW503 quorum-sensing network.

    PubMed

    Ulrich, Ricky L; Hines, Harry B; Parthasarathy, N; Jeddeloh, Jeffrey A

    2004-07-01

    Numerous gram-negative bacteria communicate and regulate gene expression through a cell density-responsive mechanism termed quorum sensing (QS), which involves the synthesis and perception of diffusible N-acyl-homoserine lactones (AHL). In this study we genetically and physiologically characterized the Burkholderia thailandensis DW503 QS network. In silico analysis of the B. thailandensis genome revealed the presence of at least three AHL synthases (AHS) and five transcriptional regulators belonging to the LuxIR family of proteins. Mass spectrometry demonstrated that wild-type B. thailandensis synthesizes N-hexanoyl-homoserine lactone (C6-HSL), N-octanoyl-homoserine lactone (C8-HSL), and N-decanoyl-homoserine lactone (C10-HSL). Mutation of the btaI1 (luxI) AHS gene prevented accumulation of C8-HSL in culture supernatants, enhanced beta-hemolysis of sheep erythrocytes, increased lipase production, and altered colony morphology on swarming and twitching motility plates. Disruption of the btaI3 (luxI) AHS prevented biosynthesis of C6-HSL and increased lipase production and beta-hemolysis, whereas mutagenesis of the btaI2 (luxI) allele eliminated C10-HSL accumulation and reduced lipase production. Complementation of the btaI1 and btaI3 mutants fully restored the synthesis of C8-HSL and C6-HSL to parental levels. In contrast, mutagenesis of the btaR1, btaR3, btaR4, and btaR5 (luxR) transcriptional regulators had no effect on AHL accumulation, enhanced lipase production, and resulted in extensive beta-hemolysis on sheep blood agar plates. Furthermore, interruption of the btaI1, btaR1, and btaR3 genes altered colony morphology on twitching and swarming motility plates and induced pigmentation. Additionally, phenotypic microarray analysis indicated that QS in B. thailandensis both positively and negatively affects the metabolism of numerous substrates, including citric acid, formic acid, glucose 6-phosphate, capric acid, gamma-hydroxybutyric acid, and d-arabinose. These results demonstrate that mutagenesis of the B. thailandensis QS system affects various cellular processes, including lipase production, swarming and twitching motility, beta-hemolysis of sheep erythrocytes, and carbon metabolism and/or transport. PMID:15205437

  4. Quorum sensing modulates colony morphology through alkyl quinolones in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Acyl-homoserine lactone (acyl-HSL) and alkyl quinolone (AQ) based quorum-sensing (QS) systems are important for Pseudomonas aeruginosa virulence and biofilm formation. The effect of QS on biofilm formation is influenced by various genetic and environmental factors. Here, we used a colony biofilm assay to study the effect of the central acyl-HSL QS regulator, LasR, on biofilm formation and structure in the representative clinical P. aeruginosa isolate ZK2870. Results A lasR mutant exhibited wrinkled colony morphology at 37°C in contrast to the smooth colony morphology of the wild-type. Mutational analysis indicated that wrinkling of the lasR mutant is dependent on pel, encoding a biofilm matrix exopolysaccharide. Suppressor mutagenesis and complementation analysis implicated the AQ signaling pathway as the link between las QS and colony morphology. In this pathway, genes pqsA-D are involved in the synthesis of 4-hydroxyalkyl quinolines ("Series A congeners"), which are converted to 3,4-dihydroxyalkyl quinolines ("Series B congeners", including the well-characterized Pseudomonas Quinolone Signal, PQS) by the product of the LasR-dependent pqsH gene. Measurement of AQ in the wild-type, the lasR pqsA::Tn suppressor mutant as well as the defined lasR, pqsH, and lasR pqsH mutants showed a correlation between 4-hydroxyalkyl quinoline levels and the degree of colony wrinkling. Most importantly, the lasR pqsH double mutant displayed wrinkly morphology without producing any 3,4-dihydroxyalkyl quinolines. Constitutive expression of pqsA-D genes in a lasR pqsR::Tnmutant showed that colony wrinkling does not require the AQ receptor PqsR. Conclusions Taken together, these results indicate that the las QS system represses Pel and modulates colony morphology through a 4-hydroxyalkyl quinoline in a PqsR-independent manner, ascribing a novel function to an AQ other than PQS in P. aeruginosa. PMID:22404951

  5. Antimicrobial effect of farnesol, a Candida albicans quorum sensing molecule, on Paracoccidioides brasiliensis growth and morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Derengowski, Lorena S; De-Souza-Silva, Calliandra; Braz, Shélida V; Mello-De-Sousa, Thiago M; Báo, Sônia N; Kyaw, Cynthia M; Silva-Pereira, Ildinete

    2009-01-01

    Background Farnesol is a sesquiterpene alcohol produced by many organisms, and also found in several essential oils. Its role as a quorum sensing molecule and as a virulence factor of Candida albicans has been well described. Studies revealed that farnesol affect the growth of a number of bacteria and fungi, pointing to a potential role as an antimicrobial agent. Methods Growth assays of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis cells incubated in the presence of different concentrations of farnesol were performed by measuring the optical density of the cultures. The viability of fungal cells was determined by MTT assay and by counting the colony forming units, after each farnesol treatment. The effects of farnesol on P. brasiliensis dimorphism were also evaluated by optical microscopy. The ultrastructural morphology of farnesol-treated P. brasiliensis yeast cells was evaluated by transmission and scanning electron microscopy. Results In this study, the effects of farnesol on Paracoccidioides brasiliensis growth and dimorphism were described. Concentrations of this isoprenoid ranging from 25 to 300 ?M strongly inhibited P. brasiliensis growth. We have estimated that the MIC of farnesol for P. brasiliensis is 25 ?M, while the MLC is around 30 ?M. When employing levels which don't compromise cell viability (5 to 15 ?M), it was shown that farnesol also affected the morphogenesis of this fungus. We observed about 60% of inhibition in hyphal development following P. brasiliensis yeast cells treatment with 15 ?M of farnesol for 48 h. At these farnesol concentrations we also observed a significant hyphal shortening. Electron microscopy experiments showed that, despite of a remaining intact cell wall, P. brasiliensis cells treated with farnesol concentrations above 25 ?M exhibited a fully cytoplasmic degeneration. Conclusion Our data indicate that farnesol acts as a potent antimicrobial agent against P. brasiliensis. The fungicide activity of farnesol against this pathogen is probably associated to cytoplasmic degeneration. In concentrations that do not affect fungal viability, farnesol retards the germ-tube formation of P. brasiliensis, suggesting that the morphogenesis of this fungal is controlled by environmental conditions. PMID:19402910

  6. sinI- and expR-Dependent Quorum Sensing in Sinorhizobium meliloti†

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Mengsheng; Chen, Hancai; Eberhard, Anatol; Gronquist, Matthew R.; Robinson, Jayne B.; Rolfe, Barry G.; Bauer, Wolfgang D.

    2005-01-01

    Quorum sensing (QS) in Sinorhizobium meliloti, the N-fixing bacterial symbiont of Medicago host plants, involves at least half a dozen different N-acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) signals and perhaps an equal number of AHL receptors. The accumulation of 55 proteins was found to be dependent on SinI, the AHL synthase, and/or on ExpR, one of the AHL receptors. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry identified 3-oxo-C14-homoserine lactone (3-oxo-C14-HSL), C16-HSL, 3-oxo-C16-HSL, C16:1-HSL, and 3-oxo-C16:1-HSL as the sinI-dependent AHL QS signals accumulated by the 8530 expR+ strain under the conditions used for proteome analysis. The 8530 expR+ strain secretes additional, unidentified QS-active compounds. Addition of 200 nM C14-HSL or C16:1-HSL, two of the known SinI AHLs, affected the levels of 75% of the proteins, confirming that their accumulation is QS regulated. A number of the QS-regulated proteins have functions plausibly related to symbiotic interactions with the host, including ExpE6, IdhA, MocB, Gor, PckA, LeuC, and AglE. Seven of 10 single-crossover ?-glucuronidase (GUS) transcriptional reporters in genes corresponding to QS-regulated proteins showed significantly different activities in the sinI and expR mutant backgrounds and in response to added SinI AHLs. The sinI mutant and several of the single-crossover strains were significantly delayed in the ability to initiate nodules on the primary root of the host plant, Medicago truncatula, indicating that sinI-dependent QS regulation and QS-regulated proteins contribute importantly to the rate or efficiency of nodule initiation. The sinI and expR mutants were also defective in surface swarming motility. The sinI mutant was restored to normal swarming by 5 nM C16:1-HSL. PMID:16291666

  7. Dynamics of the quorum sensing switch: stochastic and non-stationary effects

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A wide range of bacteria species are known to communicate through the so called quorum sensing (QS) mechanism by means of which they produce a small molecule that can freely diffuse in the environment and in the cells. Upon reaching a threshold concentration, the signalling molecule activates the QS-controlled genes that promote phenotypic changes. This mechanism, for its simplicity, has become the model system for studying the emergence of a global response in prokaryotic cells. Yet, how cells precisely measure the signal concentration and act coordinately, despite the presence of fluctuations that unavoidably affects cell regulation and signalling, remains unclear. Results We propose a model for the QS signalling mechanism in Vibrio fischeri based on the synthetic strains lux01 and lux02. Our approach takes into account the key regulatory interactions between LuxR and LuxI, the autoinducer transport, the cellular growth and the division dynamics. By using both deterministic and stochastic models, we analyze the response and dynamics at the single-cell level and compare them to the global response at the population level. Our results show how fluctuations interfere with the synchronization of the cell activation and lead to a bimodal phenotypic distribution. In this context, we introduce the concept of precision in order to characterize the reliability of the QS communication process in the colony. We show that increasing the noise in the expression of LuxR helps cells to get activated at lower autoinducer concentrations but, at the same time, slows down the global response. The precision of the QS switch under non-stationary conditions decreases with noise, while at steady-state it is independent of the noise value. Conclusions Our in silico experiments show that the response of the LuxR/LuxI system depends on the interplay between non-stationary and stochastic effects and that the burst size of the transcription/translation noise at the level of LuxR controls the phenotypic variability of the population. These results, together with recent experimental evidences on LuxR regulation in wild-type species, suggest that bacteria have evolved mechanisms to regulate the intensity of those fluctuations. PMID:23324134

  8. Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 requires quorum sensing transcriptional regulators QseA and SdiA for colonization and persistence in the bovine intestinal tract

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    QseA and SdiA are two of several transcriptional regulators that regulate virulence gene expression of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7 via quorum sensing (QS). QseA regulates the expression of the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE). LEE encodes for a type III secretion (T3S) sys...

  9. The LuxR Homolog ExpR, in Combination with the Sin Quorum Sensing System, Plays a Central Role in Sinorhizobium meliloti Gene Expression†

    PubMed Central

    Hoang, Hanh H.; Becker, Anke; González, Juan E.

    2004-01-01

    Quorum sensing, a population density-dependent mechanism for bacterial communication and gene regulation, plays a crucial role in the symbiosis between alfalfa and its symbiont Sinorhizobium meliloti. The Sin system, one of three quorum sensing systems present in S. meliloti, controls the production of the symbiotically active exopolysaccharide EPS II. Based on DNA microarray data, the Sin system also seems to regulate a multitude of S. meliloti genes, including genes that participate in low-molecular-weight succinoglycan production, motility, and chemotaxis, as well as other cellular processes. Most of the regulation by the Sin system is dependent on the presence of the ExpR regulator, a LuxR homolog. Gene expression profiling data indicate that ExpR participates in additional cellular processes that include nitrogen fixation, metabolism, and metal transport. Based on our microarray analysis we propose a model for the regulation of gene expression by the Sin/ExpR quorum sensing system and another possible quorum sensing system(s) in S. meliloti. PMID:15292148

  10. Control of antimicrobial peptide synthesis by the agr quorum sensing system in Staphylococcus epidermidis: activity of the lantibiotic epidermin is regulated at the level of precursor peptide processing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stefanie Kies; Cuong Vuong; Matthias Hille; Andreas Peschel; Cornelia Meyer; Friedrich Götz; Michael Otto

    2003-01-01

    The accessory gene regulator (agr) quorum sensing system in staphylococci is responsible for the regulation of surface proteins and exoproteins, including many virulence factors in the pathogenic species Staphylococcus aureus and S. epidermidis. Strain S. epidermidis Tü3298 produces the lantibiotic epidermin. An isogenic agr deletion mutant of this strain showed a strong reduction of epidermin production. Detailed analysis of the

  11. Quorum sensing in Bacillus thuringiensis is required for completion of a full infectious cycle in the insect.

    PubMed

    Slamti, Leyla; Perchat, Stéphane; Huillet, Eugénie; Lereclus, Didier

    2014-08-01

    Bacterial cell-cell communication or quorum sensing (QS) is a biological process commonly described as allowing bacteria belonging to a same pherotype to coordinate gene expression to cell density. In Gram-positive bacteria, cell-cell communication mainly relies on cytoplasmic sensors regulated by secreted and re-imported signaling peptides. The Bacillus quorum sensors Rap, NprR, and PlcR were previously identified as the first members of a new protein family called RNPP. Except for the Rap proteins, these RNPP regulators are transcription factors that directly regulate gene expression. QS regulates important biological functions in bacteria of the Bacillus cereus group. PlcR was first characterized as the main regulator of virulence in B. thuringiensis and B. cereus. More recently, the PlcR-like regulator PlcRa was characterized for its role in cysteine metabolism and in resistance to oxidative stress. The NprR regulator controls the necrotrophic properties allowing the bacteria to survive in the infected host. The Rap proteins negatively affect sporulation via their interaction with a phosphorelay protein involved in the activation of Spo0A, the master regulator of this differentiation pathway. In this review we aim at providing a complete picture of the QS systems that are sequentially activated during the lifecycle of B. cereus and B. thuringiensis in an insect model of infection. PMID:25089349

  12. Sub-MICs of Mentha piperita essential oil and menthol inhibits AHL mediated quorum sensing and biofilm of Gram-negative bacteria.

    PubMed

    Husain, Fohad M; Ahmad, Iqbal; Khan, Mohammad S; Ahmad, Ejaz; Tahseen, Qudisa; Khan, Mohd Shahnawaz; Alshabib, Nasser A

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial quorum sensing (QS) is a density dependent communication system that regulates the expression of certain genes including production of virulence factors in many pathogens. Bioactive plant extract/compounds inhibiting QS regulated gene expression may be a potential candidate as antipathogenic drug. In this study anti-QS activity of peppermint (Mentha piperita) oil was first tested using the Chromobacterium violaceum CVO26 biosensor. Further, the findings of the present investigation revealed that peppermint oil (PMO) at sub-Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (sub-MICs) strongly interfered with acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) regulated virulence factors and biofilm formation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Aeromonas hydrophila. The result of molecular docking analysis attributed the QS inhibitory activity exhibited by PMO to menthol. Assessment of ability of menthol to interfere with QS systems of various Gram-negative pathogens comprising diverse AHL molecules revealed that it reduced the AHL dependent production of violacein, virulence factors, and biofilm formation indicating broad-spectrum anti-QS activity. Using two Escherichia coli biosensors, MG4/pKDT17 and pEAL08-2, we also confirmed that menthol inhibited both the las and pqs QS systems. Further, findings of the in vivo studies with menthol on nematode model Caenorhabditis elegans showed significantly enhanced survival of the nematode. Our data identified menthol as a novel broad spectrum QS inhibitor. PMID:26029178

  13. The quorum sensing transcriptional regulator TraR has separate binding sites for DNA and the anti-activator

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Zhida; Fuqua, Clay [Department of Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, 212 S. Hawthorne Dr. Simon Hall 400A, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405 (United States)] [Department of Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, 212 S. Hawthorne Dr. Simon Hall 400A, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405 (United States); Chen, Lingling, E-mail: linchen@indiana.edu [Department of Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, 212 S. Hawthorne Dr. Simon Hall 400A, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405 (United States)] [Department of Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, 212 S. Hawthorne Dr. Simon Hall 400A, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405 (United States)

    2012-02-10

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Quorum sensing transcription factor TraR is inhibited by forming TraR-TraM complex. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer K213 is a key DNA binding residue, but not involved in interaction with TraM. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mutations of TraM-interacting TraR residues did not affect DNA-binding of TraR. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mutations of TraR residues reduced the TraR-TraM interaction more than those of TraM. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TraM inhibition on DNA-binding of TraR is driven by thermodynamics. -- Abstract: Quorum sensing represents a mechanism by which bacteria control their genetic behaviors via diffusible signals that reflect their population density. TraR, a quorum sensing transcriptional activator in the Rhizobiaceae family, is regulated negatively by the anti-activator TraM via formation of a TraR-TraM heterocomplex. Prior structural analysis suggests that TraM and DNA bind to TraR in distinct sites. Here we combined isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) and electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA) to investigate roles of TraR residues from Rhizobium sp. NGR234 in binding of both TraM and DNA. We found that K213A mutation of TraR{sub NGR} abolished DNA binding, however, did not alter TraM binding. Mutations of TraM-interfacing TraR{sub NGR} residues decreased the TraR-TraM interaction, but did not affect the DNA-binding activity of TraR{sub NGR}. Thus, our biochemical studies support the independent binding sites on TraR for TraM and DNA. We also found that point mutations in TraR{sub NGR} appeared to decrease the TraR-TraM interaction more effectively than those in TraM{sub NGR}, consistent with structural observations that individual TraR{sub NGR} residues contact with more TraM{sub NGR} residues than each TraM{sub NGR} residues with TraR{sub NGR} residues. Finally, we showed that TraM inhibition on DNA-binding of TraR was driven thermodynamically. We discussed subtle mechanistic differences in TraM anti-activation on TraR activity between homologous systems.

  14. Systems analysis of a quorum sensing network: design constraints imposed by the functional requirements, network topology and kinetic constants.

    PubMed

    Goryachev, A B; Toh, D J; Lee, T

    2006-01-01

    Understanding the relationship between the structural organization of intracellular decision networks and the observable phenotypes they control is one of the exigent problems of modern systems biology. Here we perform a systems analysis of a prototypic quorum sensing network whose operation allows bacterial populations to activate certain patterns of gene expression cooperatively. We apply structural perturbations to the model and analyze the resulting changes in the network behavior with the aim to identify the contribution of individual network elements to the functional fitness of the whole network. Specifically, we demonstrate the importance of the dimerization of the transcription factor and the presence of the auxiliary positive feedback loop on the switch-like behavior of the network and the stability of its "on" and "off" states under the influence of molecular noise. PMID:16174549

  15. Pseudomonas aeruginosa AlgR Represses the Rhl Quorum-Sensing System in a Biofilm-Specific Manner? †

    PubMed Central

    Morici, Lisa A.; Carterson, Alexander J.; Wagner, Victoria E.; Frisk, Anders; Schurr, Jill R.; zu Bentrup, Kerstin Höner; Hassett, Daniel J.; Iglewski, Barbara H.; Sauer, Karin; Schurr, Michael J.

    2007-01-01

    AlgR controls numerous virulence factors in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, including alginate, hydrogen cyanide production, and type IV pilus-mediated twitching motility. In this study, the role of AlgR in biofilms was examined in continuous-flow and static biofilm assays. Strain PSL317 (?algR) produced one-third the biofilm biomass of wild-type strain PAO1. Complementation with algR, but not fimTU-pilVWXY1Y2E, restored PSL317 to the wild-type biofilm phenotype. Comparisons of the transcriptional profiles of biofilm-grown PAO1 and PSL317 revealed that a number of quorum-sensing genes were upregulated in the algR deletion strain. Measurement of rhlA::lacZ and rhlI::lacZ promoter fusions confirmed the transcriptional profiling data when PSL317 was grown as a biofilm, but not planktonically. Increased amounts of rhamnolipids and N-butyryl homoserine lactone were detected in the biofilm effluent but not the planktonic supernatants of the algR mutant. Additionally, AlgR specifically bound to the rhlA and rhlI promoters in mobility shift assays. Moreover, PAO1 containing a chromosomal mutated AlgR binding site in its rhlI promoter formed biofilms and produced increased amounts of rhamnolipids similarly to the algR deletion strain. These observations indicate that AlgR specifically represses the Rhl quorum-sensing system during biofilm growth and that such repression is necessary for normal biofilm development. These data also suggest that AlgR may control transcription in a contact-dependent or biofilm-specific manner. PMID:17766417

  16. Flagellin and F4 fimbriae have opposite effects on biofilm formation and quorum sensing in F4ac+ enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Mingxu; Guo, Zhiyan; Yang, Yang; Duan, Qiangde; Zhang, Qi; Yao, Fenghua; Zhu, Jun; Zhang, Xinjun; Hardwidge, Philip R; Zhu, Guoqiang

    2014-01-10

    Bacteria that form biofilms are often highly resistant to antibiotics and are capable of evading the host immune system. To evaluate the role of flagellin and F4 fimbriae on biofilm formation by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC), we deleted the fliC (encoding the major flagellin protein) and/or the faeG (encoding the major subunit of F4 fimbriae) genes from ETEC C83902. Biofilm formation was reduced in the fliC mutant but increased in the faeG mutant, as compared with the wild-type strain. The expression of AI-2 quorum sensing associated genes was regulated in the fliC and faeG mutants, consistent with the biofilm formation of these strains. But, deleting fliC and/or faeG also inhibited AI-2 quorum sensing activity. PMID:24238669

  17. A quorum-sensing signaling system essential for genetic competence in Streptococcus mutans is involved in biofilm formation.

    PubMed

    Li, Yung-Hua; Tang, Nan; Aspiras, Marcelo B; Lau, Peter C Y; Lee, Janet H; Ellen, Richard P; Cvitkovitch, Dennis G

    2002-05-01

    In a previous study, a quorum-sensing signaling system essential for genetic competence in Streptococcus mutans was identified, characterized, and found to function optimally in biofilms (Li et al., J. Bacteriol. 183:897-908, 2001). Here, we demonstrate that this system also plays a role in the ability of S. mutans to initiate biofilm formation. To test this hypothesis, S. mutans wild-type strain NG8 and its knockout mutants defective in comC, comD, comE, and comX, as well as a comCDE deletion mutant, were assayed for their ability to initiate biofilm formation. The spatial distribution and architecture of the biofilms were examined by scanning electron microscopy and confocal scanning laser microscopy. The results showed that inactivation of any of the individual genes under study resulted in the formation of an abnormal biofilm. The comC mutant, unable to produce or secrete a competence-stimulating peptide (CSP), formed biofilms with altered architecture, whereas the comD and comE mutants, which were defective in sensing and responding to the CSP, formed biofilms with reduced biomass. Exogenous addition of the CSP and complementation with a plasmid containing the wild-type comC gene into the cultures restored the wild-type biofilm architecture of comC mutants but showed no effect on the comD, comE, or comX mutant biofilms. The fact that biofilms formed by comC mutants differed from the comD, comE, and comX mutant biofilms suggested that multiple signal transduction pathways were affected by CSP. Addition of synthetic CSP into the culture medium or introduction of the wild-type comC gene on a shuttle vector into the comCDE deletion mutant partially restored the wild-type biofilm architecture and further supported this idea. We conclude that the quorum-sensing signaling system essential for genetic competence in S. mutans is important for the formation of biofilms by this gram-positive organism. PMID:11976299

  18. The acyl-homoserine lactone (AHL)-type quorum sensing system affects growth rate, swimming motility and virulence in Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jiaqin Fan; Guoliang Qian; Tao Chen; Yuqiang Zhao; Fengquan Liu; Ron R. Walcott; Baishi Hu

    2011-01-01

    Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli is a Gram-negative bacterium and is the causal agent of bacterial fruit blotch (BFB) in cucurbits. In this study, the role\\u000a played by the acyl-homoserine lactone (AHL)-type quorum sensing (QS) system in growth, swimming motility and virulence was\\u000a characterized in A.\\u000a avenae subsp. citrulli strain XJL12. The AHL synthase gene of the QS system from strain

  19. Quorum Sensing Controls Biofilm Formation in Vibrio cholerae through Modulation of Cyclic Di-GMP Levels and Repression of vpsT

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher M. Waters; Wenyun Lu; Joshua D. Rabinowitz; Bonnie L. Bassler

    2008-01-01

    Two chemical signaling systems, quorum sensing (QS) and 3,5-cyclic diguanylic acid (c-di-GMP), recip- rocally control biofilm formation in Vibrio cholerae. QS is the process by which bacteria communicate via the secretion and detection of autoinducers, and in V. cholerae, QS represses biofilm formation. c-di-GMP is an intracellular second messenger that contains information regarding local environmental conditions, and in V. cholerae,

  20. Characterisation of two quorum sensing systems in the endophytic Serratia plymuthica strain G3: differential control of motility and biofilm formation according to life-style

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiaoguang Liu; Jinli Jia; Roman Popat; Catherine A Ortori; Jun Li; Stephen P Diggle; Kexiang Gao; Miguel Cámara

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: N-acylhomoserine lactone (AHL)-based quorum sensing (QS) systems have been described in many plant-associated Gram-negative bacteria to control certain beneficial phenotypic traits, such as production of biocontrol factors and plant growth promotion. However, the role of AHL-mediated signalling in the endophytic strains of plant-associated Serratia is still poorly understood. An endophytic Serratia sp. G3 with biocontrol potential and high levels

  1. The formation of Streptococcus mutans persisters induced by the quorum-sensing peptide pheromone is affected by the LexA regulator.

    PubMed

    Leung, Vincent; Ajdic, Dragana; Koyanagi, Stephanie; Lévesque, Céline M

    2015-03-01

    The presence of multidrug-tolerant persister cells within microbial populations has been implicated in the resiliency of bacterial survival against antibiotic treatments and is a major contributing factor in chronic infections. The mechanisms by which these phenotypic variants are formed have been linked to stress response pathways in various bacterial species, but many of these mechanisms remain unclear. We have previously shown that in the cariogenic organism Streptococcus mutans, the quorum-sensing peptide CSP (competence-stimulating peptide) pheromone was a stress-inducible alarmone that triggered an increased formation of multidrug-tolerant persisters. In this study, we characterized SMU.2027, a CSP-inducible gene encoding a LexA ortholog. We showed that in addition to exogenous CSP exposure, stressors, including heat shock, oxidative stress, and ofloxacin antibiotic, were capable of triggering expression of lexA in an autoregulatory manner akin to that of LexA-like transcriptional regulators. We demonstrated the role of LexA and its importance in regulating tolerance toward DNA damage in a noncanonical SOS mechanism. We showed its involvement and regulatory role in the formation of persisters induced by the CSP-ComDE quorum-sensing regulatory system. We further identified key genes involved in sugar and amino acid metabolism, the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) system, and autolysin from transcriptomic analyses that contribute to the formation of quorum-sensing-induced persister cells. PMID:25583974

  2. A new quorum-sensing system (TprA/PhrA) for Streptococcus pneumoniae?D39 that regulates a lantibiotic biosynthesis gene cluster.

    PubMed

    Hoover, Sharon E; Perez, Amilcar J; Tsui, Ho-Ching T; Sinha, Dhriti; Smiley, David L; DiMarchi, Richard D; Winkler, Malcolm E; Lazazzera, Beth A

    2015-07-01

    The Phr peptides of the Bacillus species mediate quorum sensing, but their identification and function in other species of bacteria have not been determined. We have identified a Phr peptide quorum-sensing system (TprA/PhrA) that controls the expression of a lantibiotic gene cluster in the Gram-positive human pathogen, Streptococcus pneumoniae. Lantibiotics are highly modified peptides that are part of the bacteriocin family of antimicrobial peptides. We have characterized the basic mechanism for a Phr-peptide signaling system in S.?pneumoniae and found that it induces the expression of the lantibiotic genes when pneumococcal cells are at high density in the presence of galactose, a main sugar of the human nasopharynx, a highly competitive microbial environment. Activity of the Phr peptide system is not seen when pneumococcal cells are grown with glucose, the preferred carbon source and the most prevalent sugar encountered by S.?pneumoniae during invasive disease. Thus, the lantibiotic genes are expressed under the control of both cell density signals via the Phr peptide system and nutritional signals from the carbon source present, suggesting that quorum sensing and the lantibiotic machinery may help pneumococcal cells compete for space and resources during colonization of the nasopharynx. PMID:25869931

  3. A second quorum-sensing system regulates cell surface properties but not phenazine antibiotic production in Pseudomonas aureofaciens.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Z; Pierson, L S

    2001-09-01

    The root-associated biological control bacterium Pseudomonas aureofaciens 30-84 produces a range of exoproducts, including protease and phenazines. Phenazine antibiotic biosynthesis by phzXYFABCD is regulated in part by the PhzR-PhzI quorum-sensing system. Mutants defective in phzR or phzI produce very low levels of phenazines but wild-type levels of exoprotease. In the present study, a second genomic region of strain 30-84 was identified that, when present in trans, increased beta-galactosidase activity in a genomic phzB::lacZ reporter and partially restored phenazine production to a phzR mutant. Sequence analysis identified two adjacent genes, csaR and csaI, that encode members of the LuxR-LuxI family of regulatory proteins. No putative promoter region is present upstream of the csaI start codon and no lux box-like element was found in either the csaR promoter or the 30-bp intergenic region between csaR and csaI. Both the PhzR-PhzI and CsaR-CsaI systems are regulated by the GacS-GacA two-component regulatory system. In contrast to the multicopy effects of csaR and csaI in trans, a genomic csaR mutant (30-84R2) and a csaI mutant (30-84I2) did not exhibit altered phenazine production in vitro or in situ, indicating that the CsaR-CsaI system is not involved in phenazine regulation in strain 30-84. Both mutants also produced wild-type levels of protease. However, disruption of both csaI and phzI or both csaR and phzR eliminated both phenazine and protease production completely. Thus, the two quorum-sensing systems do not interact for phenazine regulation but do interact for protease regulation. Additionally, the CsaI N-acylhomoserine lactone (AHL) signal was not recognized by the phenazine AHL reporter 30-84I/Z but was recognized by the AHL reporters Chromobacterium violaceum CV026 and Agrobacterium tumefaciens A136(pCF240). Inactivation of csaR resulted in a smooth mucoid colony phenotype and formation of cell aggregates in broth, suggesting that CsaR is involved in regulating biosynthesis of cell surface components. Strain 30-84I/I2 exhibited mucoid colony and clumping phenotypes similar to those of 30-84R2. Both phenotypes were reversed by complementation with csaR-csaI or by the addition of the CsaI AHL signal. Both quorum-sensing systems play a role in colonization by strain 30-84. Whereas loss of PhzR resulted in a 6.6-fold decrease in colonization by strain 30-84 on wheat roots in natural soil, a phzR csaR double mutant resulted in a 47-fold decrease. These data suggest that gene(s) regulated by the CsaR-CsaI system also plays a role in the rhizosphere competence of P. aureofaciens 30-84. PMID:11526037

  4. Structural and Mechanistic Roles of Novel Chemical Ligands on the SdiA Quorum-Sensing Transcription Regulator

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Y; Nguyen, Nam X.; Rogers, Jamie L.; Liao, Jun; MacMillan, John B.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Bacteria engage in chemical signaling, termed quorum sensing (QS), to mediate intercellular communication, mimicking multicellular organisms. The LuxR family of QS transcription factors regulates gene expression, coordinating population behavior by sensing endogenous acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs). However, some bacteria (such as Escherichia coli) do not produce AHLs. These LuxR orphans sense exogenous AHLs but also regulate transcription in the absence of AHLs. Importantly, this AHL-independent regulatory mechanism is still largely unknown. Here we present several structures of one such orphan LuxR-type protein, SdiA, from enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC), in the presence and absence of AHL. SdiA is actually not in an apo state without AHL but is regulated by a previously unknown endogenous ligand, 1-octanoyl-rac-glycerol (OCL), which is ubiquitously found throughout the tree of life and serves as an energy source, signaling molecule, and substrate for membrane biogenesis. While exogenous AHL renders to SdiA higher stability and DNA binding affinity, OCL may function as a chemical chaperone placeholder that stabilizes SdiA, allowing for basal activity. Structural comparison between SdiA-AHL and SdiA-OCL complexes provides crucial mechanistic insights into the ligand regulation of AHL-dependent and -independent function of LuxR-type proteins. Importantly, in addition to its contribution to basic science, this work has implications for public health, inasmuch as the SdiA signaling system aids the deadly human pathogen EHEC to adapt to a commensal lifestyle in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract of cattle, its main reservoir. These studies open exciting and novel avenues to control shedding of this human pathogen in the environment. PMID:25827420

  5. Effect of quorum sensing signals produced by seaweed-associated bacteria on carpospore liberation from Gracilaria dura

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Ravindra Pal; Baghel, Ravi S.; Reddy, C. R. K.; Jha, Bhavanath

    2015-01-01

    Epiphytic and endophytic bacteria associated with green macroalgae Ulva (U. fasciata and U. lactuca) and red macroalgae Gracilaria (G. corticata and G. dura) have been identified from three different seasons to evaluate the effect of quorum sensing (QS) molecules on carpospores liberation from Gracilaria dura. The bacterial isolates belonging to the orders Bacillales, Pseudomonadales, Alteromonadales, and Vibrionales were present in all seasons, whereas Actinomycetales and Enterobacteriales were confined to pre-monsoon and post-monsoon seasons, respectively. Among all the Gram-negative bacteria, seven isolates were found to produce different types of N-acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs). Interestingly, Shewanella algae produced five types of AHL: C4-HSL, HC4-HSL, C6-HSL, 3-oxo-C6-HSL, and 3-oxo-C12-HSL. Subsequently, the AHLs producing bacterial isolates were screened for carpospore liberation from G. dura and these isolates were found to positively induce carpospore liberation over the control. Also, observed that carpospore liberation increased significantly in C4- and C6-HSL treated cystocarps. Sodium dodecyl sulfate and native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the total protein of the C4- and C6-HSL treated cystocarps showed two specific peptide bands of different molecular weights (50 kDa and 60 kDa) as compared to the control, confirming their indirect effect on carpospore liberation. PMID:25788899

  6. A new repertoire of informations about the quorum sensing system in Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis PT4.

    PubMed

    Campos-Galvão, M E M; Leite, T D S; Ribon, A O B; Araújo, E F; Vanetti, M C D

    2015-01-01

    Salmonella spp are among the main causative agents of foodborne diseases. Some phenotypes associated with increased drug resistance and virulence are regulated by quorum sensing (QS). In the present study, the autoinducer (AI)-1- and -2-mediated QS mechanisms were characterized in Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis PT4 for the first time. Salmonella Enteritidis did not produce AI-1. Phylogenetic analysis of nucleotides encoding the SdiA protein, the response regulator of AI-1-mediated QS, and comparative alignment of its amino acids showed that the gene and protein are conserved within the same bacterial genus. Thus, bacteria of the same genus respond to the same AIs. However, this finding did not preclude the possibility that Salmonella Enteritidis might respond to AIs released from bacteria of a different genus, which might confer a competitive advantage to this pathogen. We found that the regulation of AI-2-mediated QS in Salmonella Enteritidis is similar to that in serovar Typhimurium. The elucidation of the AI-1- and AI-2-mediated QS mechanisms in Salmonella Enteritidis will contribute to the development of new control strategies for this pathogen by indicating new targets for antimicrobial drugs. PMID:25966179

  7. From Broad-Spectrum Biocides to Quorum Sensing Disruptors and Mussel Repellents: Antifouling Profile of Alkyl Triphenylphosphonium Salts

    PubMed Central

    Martín-Rodríguez, Alberto J.; Babarro, Jose M. F.; Lahoz, Fernando; Sansón, Marta; Martín, Víctor S.; Norte, Manuel; Fernández, José J.

    2015-01-01

    ‘Onium’ compounds, including ammonium and phosphonium salts, have been employed as antiseptics and disinfectants. These cationic biocides have been incorporated into multiple materials, principally to avoid bacterial attachment. In this work, we selected 20 alkyl-triphenylphosphonium salts, differing mainly in the length and functionalization of their alkyl chains, in fulfilment of two main objectives: 1) to provide a comprehensive evaluation of the antifouling profile of these molecules with relevant marine fouling organisms; and 2) to shed new light on their potential applications, beyond their classic use as broad-spectrum biocides. In this regard, we demonstrate for the first time that these compounds are also able to act as non-toxic quorum sensing disruptors in two different bacterial models (Chromobacterium violaceum and Vibrio harveyi) as well as repellents in the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis. In addition, their inhibitory activity on a fouling-relevant enzymatic model (tyrosinase) is characterized. An analysis of the structure-activity relationships of these compounds for antifouling purposes is provided, which may result useful in the design of targeted antifouling solutions with these molecules. Altogether, the findings reported herein provide a different perspective on the biological activities of phosphonium compounds that is particularly focused on, but, as the reader will realize, is not limited to their use as antifouling agents. PMID:25897858

  8. Small molecule disruption of quorum sensing cross-regulation in pseudomonas aeruginosa causes major and unexpected alterations to virulence phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Welsh, Michael A; Eibergen, Nora R; Moore, Joseph D; Blackwell, Helen E

    2015-02-01

    The opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa uses three interwoven quorum-sensing (QS) circuits-Las, Rhl, and Pqs-to regulate the global expression of myriad virulence-associated genes. Interception of these signaling networks with small molecules represents an emerging strategy for the development of anti-infective agents against this bacterium. In the current study, we applied a chemical approach to investigate how the Las-Rhl-Pqs QS hierarchy coordinates key virulence phenotypes in wild-type P. aeruginosa. We screened a focused library of synthetic, non-native N-acyl l-homoserine lactones and identified compounds that can drastically alter production of two important virulence factors: pyocyanin and rhamnolipid. We demonstrate that these molecules act by targeting RhlR in P. aeruginosa, a QS receptor that has seen far less scrutiny to date relative to other circuitry. Unexpectedly, modulation of RhlR activity by a single compound induces inverse regulation of pyocyanin and rhamnolipid, a result that was not predicted using genetic approaches to interrogate QS in P. aeruginosa. Further, we show that certain RhlR agonists strongly repress Pqs signaling, revealing disruption of Rhl-Pqs cross-regulation as a novel mechanism for QS inhibition. These compounds significantly expand the known repertoire of chemical probes available to study RhlR in P. aeruginosa. Moreover, our results suggest that designing chemical agents to disrupt Rhl-Pqs crosstalk could be an effective antivirulence strategy to fight this common pathogen. PMID:25574853

  9. The Burkholderia cenocepacia sensor kinase hybrid AtsR is a global regulator modulating quorum-sensing signalling.

    PubMed

    Aubert, Daniel F; O'Grady, Eoin P; Hamad, Mohamad A; Sokol, Pamela A; Valvano, Miguel A

    2013-02-01

    Burkholderia cenocepacia is commonly found in the environment and also as an important opportunistic pathogen infecting patients with cystic fibrosis. Successful infection by this bacterium requires coordinated expression of virulence factors, which is achieved through different quorum sensing (QS) regulatory systems. Biofilm formation and Type 6 secretion system (T6SS) expression in B. cenocepacia K56-2 are positively regulated by QS and negatively regulated by the sensor kinase hybrid AtsR. This study reveals that in addition to affecting biofilm and T6SS activity, the deletion of atsR in B. cenocepacia leads to overproduction of other QS-regulated virulence determinants including proteases and swarming motility. Expression of the QS genes, cepIR and cciIR, was upregulated in the ?atsR mutant and resulted in early and increased N-acylhomoserine lactone (AHL) production, suggesting that AtsR plays a role in controlling the timing and fine-tuning of virulence gene expression by modulating QS signalling. Furthermore, a ?atsR?cepI?cciI mutant could partially upregulate the same virulence determinants indicating that AtsR also modulates the expression of virulence genes by a second mechanism, independently of any AHL production. Together, our results strongly suggest that AtsR is a global virulence regulator in B. cenocepacia. PMID:22830644

  10. Quorum-sensing regulation of a capsular polysaccharide receptor for the Rhodobacter capsulatus gene transfer agent (RcGTA)

    PubMed Central

    Brimacombe, Cedric A.; Stevens, Aaron; Jun, Daniel; Mercer, Ryan; Lang, Andrew S.; Beatty, J. Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Summary The gene transfer agent produced by Rhodobacter capsulatus (RcGTA) resembles a small tailed bacteriophage that packages almost random genomic DNA segments that may be transferred to other R. capsulatus cells. Gene transfer agents are produced by a number of prokaryotes; however, no receptors have been identified. We investigated the RcGTA recipient capability of wild-type R. capsulatus cells at different culture growth phases, and found that the frequency of RcGTA-dependent acquisition of an allele increases as cultures enter the stationary phase. We also found that RcGTA adsorption to cells follows a similar trend. RcGTA recipient capability and adsorption were found to be dependent on the GtaR/I quorum-sensing (QS) system. Production of an extracellular polysaccharide was found to be regulated by GtaR/I QS, as was production of the cell capsule. A number of QS-regulated putative polysaccharide biosynthesis genes were identified, and mutagenesis of two of these genes, rcc01081 and rcc01932, yielded strains that lack a capsule. Furthermore, these mutants were impaired in RcGTA recipient capability and adsorption, as was a non-encapsulated wild-type isolate of R. capsulatus. Overall, our results indicate that capsular polysaccharide is a receptor for the gene transfer agent of R. capsulatus, RcGTA. PMID:23279213

  11. Real-time monitoring of quorum sensing in 3D-printed bacterial aggregates using scanning electrochemical microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Connell, Jodi L.; Kim, Jiyeon; Shear, Jason B.; Bard, Allen J.; Whiteley, Marvin

    2014-01-01

    Microbes frequently live in nature as small, densely packed aggregates containing ?101–105 cells. These aggregates not only display distinct phenotypes, including resistance to antibiotics, but also, serve as building blocks for larger biofilm communities. Aggregates within these larger communities display nonrandom spatial organization, and recent evidence indicates that this spatial organization is critical for fitness. Studying single aggregates as well as spatially organized aggregates remains challenging because of the technical difficulties associated with manipulating small populations. Micro-3D printing is a lithographic technique capable of creating aggregates in situ by printing protein-based walls around individual cells or small populations. This 3D-printing strategy can organize bacteria in complex arrangements to investigate how spatial and environmental parameters influence social behaviors. Here, we combined micro-3D printing and scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) to probe quorum sensing (QS)-mediated communication in the bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Our results reveal that QS-dependent behaviors are observed within aggregates as small as 500 cells; however, aggregates larger than 2,000 bacteria are required to stimulate QS in neighboring aggregates positioned 8 ?m away. These studies provide a powerful system to analyze the impact of spatial organization and aggregate size on microbial behaviors. PMID:25489085

  12. Molecular mechanisms of master regulator VqsM mediating quorum-sensing and antibiotic resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Liang, Haihua; Deng, Xin; Li, Xuefeng; Ye, Yan; Wu, Min

    2014-01-01

    The Pseudomonas aeruginosa quorum-sensing (QS) systems contribute to bacterial homeostasis and pathogenicity. Although the AraC-family transcription factor VqsM has been characterized to control the production of virulence factors and QS signaling molecules, its detailed regulatory mechanisms still remain elusive. Here, we report that VqsM directly binds to the lasI promoter region, and thus regulates its expression. To identify additional targets of VqsM in P. aeruginosa PAO1, we performed chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) followed by high-throughput DNA sequencing (ChIP-seq) and detected 48 enriched loci harboring VqsM-binding peaks in the P. aeruginosa genome. The direct regulation of these genes by VqsM has been confirmed by electrophoretic mobility shift assays and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reactions. A VqsM-binding motif was identified by using the MEME suite and verified by footprint assays in vitro. In addition, VqsM directly bound to the promoter regions of the antibiotic resistance regulator NfxB and the master type III secretion system (T3SS) regulator ExsA. Notably, the vqsM mutant displayed more resistance to two types of antibiotics and promoted bacterial survival in a mouse model, compared to wild-type PAO1. Collectively, this work provides new cues to better understand the detailed regulatory networks of QS systems, T3SS, and antibiotic resistance. PMID:25034696

  13. Isolation and Molecular Characterization of Biofouling Bacteria and Profiling of Quorum Sensing Signal Molecules from Membrane Bioreactor Activated Sludge

    PubMed Central

    Lade, Harshad; Paul, Diby; Kweon, Ji Hyang

    2014-01-01

    The formation of biofilm in a membrane bioreactor depends on the production of various signaling molecules like N-acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs). In the present study, a total of 200 bacterial strains were isolated from membrane bioreactor activated sludge and screened for AHLs production using two biosensor systems, Chromobacterium violaceum CV026 and Agrobacterium tumefaciens A136. A correlation between AHLs production and biofilm formation has been made among screened AHLs producing strains. The 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed the dominance of Aeromonas and Enterobacter sp. in AHLs production; however few a species of Serratia, Leclercia, Pseudomonas, Klebsiella, Raoultella and Citrobacter were also identified. The chromatographic characterization of sludge extract showed the presence of a broad range of quorum sensing signal molecules. Further identification of sludge AHLs by thin layer chromatography bioassay and high performance liquid chromatography confirms the presence of C4-HSL, C6-HSL, C8-HSL, 3-oxo-C8-HSL, C10-HSL, C12-HSL, 3-oxo-C12-HSL and C14-HSL. The occurrence of AHLs in sludge extract and dominance of Aeromonas and Enterobacter sp. in activated sludge suggests the key role of these bacterial strains in AHLs production and thereby membrane fouling. PMID:24499972

  14. The impact of the competence quorum sensing system on Streptococcus pneumoniae biofilms varies depending on the experimental model

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Different models for biofilm in Streptococcus pneumoniae have been described in literature. To permit comparison of experimental data, we characterised the impact of the pneumococcal quorum-sensing competence system on biofilm formation in three models. For this scope, we used two microtiter and one continuous culture biofilm system. Results In both microtiter models the competence system influences stability and structure of biofilm in the late attachment phase and synthetic competence stimulating peptide (CSP) restored wild type phenotypes in the comC mutants unable to produce the peptide. Early attachment of single cells to well bottoms was found for both systems to be competence independent, while later phases, including microcolony formation correlated to an intact competence system. The continuous culture biofilm model was not affected by mutations in the competence locus, but deletion of capsule had a significant impact in this model. Conclusions Since biofilm remains a largely uncharacterised multi-parameter phenotype it appears to be advisable to exploit more than one model in order to draw conclusion of possible relevance of specific genotypes on pneumococcal physiology. PMID:21492426

  15. The quorum sensing-dependent gene katG of Burkholderia glumae is important for protection from visible light.

    PubMed

    Chun, Heejin; Choi, Okhee; Goo, Eunhye; Kim, Nayeon; Kim, Hongsup; Kang, Yongsung; Kim, Jinwoo; Moon, Jae Sun; Hwang, Ingyu

    2009-07-01

    Quorum sensing (QS) plays important roles in the pathogenicity of Burkholderia glumae, the causative agent of bacterial rice grain rot. We determined how QS is involved in catalase expression in B. glumae. The QS-defective mutant of B. glumae exhibited less catalase activity than wild-type B. glumae. A beta-glucuronidase assay of a katG::Tn3-gusA78 reporter fusion protein revealed that katG expression is under the control of QS. Furthermore, katG expression was upregulated by QsmR, a transcriptional activator for flagellar-gene expression that is regulated by QS. A gel mobility shift assay confirmed that QsmR directly activates katG expression. The katG mutant produced toxoflavin but exhibited less severe disease than BGR1 on rice panicles. Under visible light conditions and a photon flux density of 61.6 micromol(-1) m(-2), the survival rate of the katG mutant was 10(5)-fold lower than that of BGR1. This suggests that KatG is a major catalase that protects bacterial cells from visible light, which probably results in less severe disease caused by the katG mutant. PMID:19395481

  16. Quorum sensing influences growth and photosynthetic membrane production in high-cell-density cultivations of Rhodospirillum rubrum

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The facultative anoxygenic photosynthetic bacterium Rhodospirillum rubrum exhibits versatile metabolic activity allowing the adaptation to rapidly changing growth conditions in its natural habitat, the microaerobic and anoxic zones of stagnant waters. The microaerobic growth mode is of special interest as it allows the high-level expression of photosynthetic membranes when grown on succinate and fructose in the dark, which could significantly simplify the industrial production of compounds associated with PM formation. However, recently we showed that PM synthesis is no longer inducible when R. rubrum cultures are grown to high cell densities under aerobic conditions. In addition a reduction of the growth rate and the continued accumulation of precursor molecules for bacteriochlorophyll synthesis were observed under high cell densities conditions. Results In the present work, we demonstrate that the cell density-dependent effects are reversible if the culture supernatant is replaced by fresh medium. We identified six N-acylhomoserine lactones and show that four of them are produced in varying amounts according to the growth phase and the applied growth conditions. Further, we demonstrate that N-acylhomoserine lactones and tetrapyrrole compounds released into the growth medium affect the growth rate and PM expression in high cell density cultures. Conclusions In summary, we provide evidence that R. rubrum possesses a Lux-type quorum sensing system which influences the biosynthesis of PM and the growth rate and is thus likely to be involved in the phenotypes of high cell density cultures and the rapid adaptation to changing environmental conditions. PMID:23927486

  17. The investigation of inhibiting quorum sensing and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus biofilm formation from Liriodendron hybrid.

    PubMed

    Tan, Xiaojuan; Yang, Dongting; Yang, Guoxu; Chen, Jinhui; Dong, Wei; Shi, Jisen; Jia, Aiqun

    2015-05-01

    The quorum sensing (QS) of pathogens has been found to affect their biofilm forming ability, making it a potential target for anti-microbial therapy. The present research aimed to evaluate the anti-QS activities of different extracts and isolated phytochemicals from Liriodendron hybrid barks and their roles in the inhibition of the growth and biofilm formation of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The assays on the inhibition of QS by the five extracts (n-hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, acetone, and methanol) and eight isolated compounds were carried out by using both the indicator strains Chromobacrerium violaceum CV026 and C. violaceum ATCC12472. The in vitro effects of the five extracts and eight isolated compounds on MRSA biofilm were also preliminarily evaluated using crystal violet micro titer plate assays. The results suggested that the dichloromethane extract showed anti-QS and MRSA biofilm inhibitory activities and the n-hexane extract possessed only MRSA biofilm inhibitory effect. The dichloromethane extract could serve as a source for developing bacterial intervention strategies targeting microbial QS system. All eight isolated compounds showed no anti-QS and biofilm formation inhibiting activities. So further researches are still being required to purify and identify the compounds possessing anti-QS and biofilm inhibitory effects from the dichloromethane and n-hexane extracts. PMID:26004723

  18. The effect of pstS and phoB on quorum sensing and swarming motility in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Blus-Kadosh, Inna; Zilka, Anat; Yerushalmi, Gal; Banin, Ehud

    2013-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen that can cause a wide range of infections and inflammations in a variety of hosts, such as chronic biofilm associated lung infections in Cystic Fibrosis patients. Phosphate, an essential nutrient, has been recognized as an important signal that affects virulence in P. aeruginosa. In the current study we examined the connection between phosphate regulation and surface motility in P. aeruginosa. We focused on two important genes, pstS, which is involved in phosphate uptake, and phoB, a central regulator that responds to phosphate starvation. We found that a mutant lacking pstS is constantly starved for phosphate and has a hyper swarming phenotype. Phosphate starvation also induced swarming in the wild type. The phoB mutant, on the other hand, did not express phosphate starvation even when phosphate was limited and showed no swarming. A double mutant lacking both genes (pstS and phoB) showed a similar phenotype to the phoB mutant (i.e. no swarming). This highlights the role of phoB in controlling swarming motility under phosphate-depleted conditions. Finally, we were able to demonstrate that PhoB controls swarming by up-regulating the Rhl quorum sensing system in P. aeruginosa, which resulted in hyper production of rhamonlipids: biosurfactants that are known to induce swarming motility. PMID:24023943

  19. Surface swarming motility by Pectobacterium atrosepticum is a latent phenotype that requires O antigen and is regulated by quorum sensing.

    PubMed

    Bowden, Steven D; Hale, Nicola; Chung, Jade C S; Hodgkinson, James T; Spring, David R; Welch, Martin

    2013-11-01

    We describe a previously cryptic phenotype associated with the opportunistic phytopathogen Pectobacterium atrosepticum (Pca): surface swarming. We found that when Pca was spotted onto plates containing <0.5% (w/v) agar, the culture produced copious amounts of extracellular matrix material containing highly motile cells. Once produced, this 'slime layer' spread rapidly across the plate either as an advancing front or as tendrils. Transposon mutagenesis was used to identify mutants that were affected in swarming. Hypo-swarmer mutants mostly carried insertions in a horizontally acquired island (HAI5), which encodes a cluster of genes involved in O antigen biosynthesis. Hyper-swarmer mutants mostly carried insertions in hexY, a known antagonist of the class I flagellar master regulator, FlhD4C2. In addition, we found that the nucleoid protein, histone-like nuclear structuring protein 2 (H-NS2), also regulated swarming behaviour. A mutant in which hns2 was overexpressed displayed a hyper-swarming phenotype, whereas a mutant in which the hns2 ORF was inactivated had a hypo-swarming phenotype. Swarming was also regulated by quorum sensing (QS) and by the carbon source being utilized. We show, using a range of epistasis experiments, that optimal swarming requires both motility and O antigen biosynthesis, and that H-NS2 and QS both promote swarming through their effects on motility. PMID:24025601

  20. The Effect of pstS and phoB on Quorum Sensing and Swarming Motility in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Blus-Kadosh, Inna; Zilka, Anat; Yerushalmi, Gal; Banin, Ehud

    2013-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen that can cause a wide range of infections and inflammations in a variety of hosts, such as chronic biofilm associated lung infections in Cystic Fibrosis patients. Phosphate, an essential nutrient, has been recognized as an important signal that affects virulence in P. aeruginosa. In the current study we examined the connection between phosphate regulation and surface motility in P. aeruginosa. We focused on two important genes, pstS, which is involved in phosphate uptake, and phoB, a central regulator that responds to phosphate starvation. We found that a mutant lacking pstS is constantly starved for phosphate and has a hyper swarming phenotype. Phosphate starvation also induced swarming in the wild type. The phoB mutant, on the other hand, did not express phosphate starvation even when phosphate was limited and showed no swarming. A double mutant lacking both genes (pstS and phoB) showed a similar phenotype to the phoB mutant (i.e. no swarming). This highlights the role of phoB in controlling swarming motility under phosphate-depleted conditions. Finally, we were able to demonstrate that PhoB controls swarming by up-regulating the Rhl quorum sensing system in P. aeruginosa, which resulted in hyper production of rhamonlipids: biosurfactants that are known to induce swarming motility. PMID:24023943

  1. Co-Swarming and Local Collapse: Quorum Sensing Conveys Resilience to Bacterial Communities by Localizing Cheater Mutants in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Bertani, Iris; Kerényi, Ádám; Netotea, Sergiu

    2010-01-01

    Background Members of swarming bacterial consortia compete for nutrients but also use a co-operation mechanism called quorum sensing (QS) that relies on chemical signals as well as other secreted products (“public goods”) necessary for swarming. Deleting various genes of this machinery leads to cheater mutants impaired in various aspects of swarming cooperation. Methodology/Principal Findings Pairwise consortia made of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, its QS mutants as well as B. cepacia cells show that a interspecies consortium can “combine the skills” of its participants so that the strains can cross together barriers that they could not cross alone. In contrast, deleterious mutants are excluded from consortia either by competition or by local population collapse. According to modeling, both scenarios are the consequence of the QS signalling mechanism itself. Conclusion/Significance The results indirectly explain why it is an advantage for bacteria to maintain QS systems that can cross-talk among different species, and conversely, why certain QS mutants which can be abundant in isolated niches, cannot spread and hence remain localized. PMID:20376321

  2. Effect of quorum sensing signals produced by seaweed-associated bacteria on carpospore liberation from Gracilaria dura.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ravindra Pal; Baghel, Ravi S; Reddy, C R K; Jha, Bhavanath

    2015-01-01

    Epiphytic and endophytic bacteria associated with green macroalgae Ulva (U. fasciata and U. lactuca) and red macroalgae Gracilaria (G. corticata and G. dura) have been identified from three different seasons to evaluate the effect of quorum sensing (QS) molecules on carpospores liberation from Gracilaria dura. The bacterial isolates belonging to the orders Bacillales, Pseudomonadales, Alteromonadales, and Vibrionales were present in all seasons, whereas Actinomycetales and Enterobacteriales were confined to pre-monsoon and post-monsoon seasons, respectively. Among all the Gram-negative bacteria, seven isolates were found to produce different types of N-acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs). Interestingly, Shewanella algae produced five types of AHL: C4-HSL, HC4-HSL, C6-HSL, 3-oxo-C6-HSL, and 3-oxo-C12-HSL. Subsequently, the AHLs producing bacterial isolates were screened for carpospore liberation from G. dura and these isolates were found to positively induce carpospore liberation over the control. Also, observed that carpospore liberation increased significantly in C4- and C6-HSL treated cystocarps. Sodium dodecyl sulfate and native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the total protein of the C4- and C6-HSL treated cystocarps showed two specific peptide bands of different molecular weights (50 kDa and 60 kDa) as compared to the control, confirming their indirect effect on carpospore liberation. PMID:25788899

  3. Real-time monitoring of quorum sensing in 3D-printed bacterial aggregates using scanning electrochemical microscopy.

    PubMed

    Connell, Jodi L; Kim, Jiyeon; Shear, Jason B; Bard, Allen J; Whiteley, Marvin

    2014-12-23

    Microbes frequently live in nature as small, densely packed aggregates containing ?10(1)-10(5) cells. These aggregates not only display distinct phenotypes, including resistance to antibiotics, but also, serve as building blocks for larger biofilm communities. Aggregates within these larger communities display nonrandom spatial organization, and recent evidence indicates that this spatial organization is critical for fitness. Studying single aggregates as well as spatially organized aggregates remains challenging because of the technical difficulties associated with manipulating small populations. Micro-3D printing is a lithographic technique capable of creating aggregates in situ by printing protein-based walls around individual cells or small populations. This 3D-printing strategy can organize bacteria in complex arrangements to investigate how spatial and environmental parameters influence social behaviors. Here, we combined micro-3D printing and scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) to probe quorum sensing (QS)-mediated communication in the bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Our results reveal that QS-dependent behaviors are observed within aggregates as small as 500 cells; however, aggregates larger than 2,000 bacteria are required to stimulate QS in neighboring aggregates positioned 8 ?m away. These studies provide a powerful system to analyze the impact of spatial organization and aggregate size on microbial behaviors. PMID:25489085

  4. Growth inhibition of bacterial fish pathogens and quorum-sensing blocking by bacteria recovered from chilean salmonid farms.

    PubMed

    Fuente, Mery de la; Miranda, Claudio D; Jopia, Paz; González-Rocha, Gerardo; Guiliani, Nicolás; Sossa, Katherine; Urrutia, Homero

    2015-06-01

    The main goal of this study was to find bacterial isolates with the ability to inhibit the growth of the fish pathogens Aeromonas hydrophila, Vibrio anguillarum, and Flavobacterium psychrophilum and to inhibit the blockage of the quorum-sensing (QS) system. A total of 80 gram-negative strains isolated from various freshwater Chilean salmonid farms were studied. We determined that 10 strains belonging to the genus Pseudomonas inhibited at least one of the assayed fish pathogens. Of these, nine strains were able to produce siderophores and two strains were able to inhibit the growth of all assayed pathogenic species. When the 80 strains were examined for QS-blocking activity, only the strains Pseudomonas sp. FF16 and Raoultella planticola R5B1 were identified as QS blockers. When the QS-blocker strains were analyzed for their ability to produce homoserine lactone (HSL) molecules, thin-layer chromatography analysis showed that both strains were able to produce C6-HSL- and C8-HSL-type molecules. Strain R5B1 did not show growth inhibition properties, but strain FF16 also led to inhibition of growth in A. hydrophila and F. psychrophilum as well as to siderophore production. Pseudomonas sp. FF16 exhibited potentially useful antagonistic properties and could be a probiotic candidate for the salmon farming industry. Received July 31, 2014; accepted December 17, 2014. PMID:26000731

  5. The role of the QseC quorum-sensing sensor kinase in epinephrine-enhanced motility and biofilm formation by Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Yang, Kun; Meng, Jun; Huang, Yun-chao; Ye, Lian-hua; Li, Guang-jian; Huang, Jie; Chen, Hua-mei

    2014-09-01

    Biofilms play a pivotal role in infections related to devices. Biofilm formation in Escherichia coli is mediated by the quorum-sensing E. coli regulator C (QseC), the histidine sensor kinase that can sense epinephrine (EPI)/norepinephrine (NE). In this study, we evaluate the role of the QseC quorum-sensing sensor kinase in epinephrine-enhanced motility and biofilm formation by E. coli. An E. coli MC1000 qseC mutant was constructed. We investigated the role of the QseC in the formation of biofilms on the surface of medical-grade polyvinyl chloride using the E. coli K-12 MC1000 strain as well as a corresponding qseC mutant. Addition of EPI/NE increased biofilm formation by wild-type K-12 MC1000 but not by the isogenic qseC mutant. Scanning confocal laser microscopy corroborated these results by showing that EPI/NE addition significantly increased biofilm's thickness. As expected, the addition of EPI/NE to the qseC mutant, which lacks the ability to sense the hormones, failed to stimulate biofilm formation. Since EPI/NE addition increased bacterial motility, we proposed that their stimulatory effects on biofilm formation occur by enhancing bacterial motility and altering biofilm architecture. We also found that EPI/NE regulate motility and the biofilm phenotype via QseC, as motility was diminished and biofilm formation was significantly decreased in a qseC deletion mutant. These results indicate that EPI/NE induce E. coli biofilm formation on the surface of polyvinyl chloride through QseC. Cross-talk between E. coli (quorum sensing) and host hormones may explain the pathogen-caused opportunistic infections that occur in patients with prosthetic devices used during hormone level fluctuations in the host. PMID:24676679

  6. Emergence of Collective Behavior in Groups of Excitable Catalyst-Loaded Particles: Spatiotemporal Dynamical Quorum Sensing

    E-print Network

    Showalter, Kenneth

    activator and inhibitor species with the surrounding solution. All particles are nonoscillatory when in the extracellular solution triggers a positive feed- back for cellular autoinducer production and synchronous gene of collective behavior. In the slime mold Dictyostelium dis- coidium, a fraction of the population becomes

  7. An OmpA Family Protein, a Target of the GinI/GinR Quorum-Sensing System in Gluconacetobacter intermedius, Controls Acetic Acid Fermentation? †

    PubMed Central

    Iida, Aya; Ohnishi, Yasuo; Horinouchi, Sueharu

    2008-01-01

    Via N-acylhomoserine lactones, the GinI/GinR quorum-sensing system in Gluconacetobacter intermedius NCI1051, a gram-negative acetic acid bacterium, represses acetic acid and gluconic acid fermentation. Two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoretic analysis of protein profiles of strain NCI1051 and ginI and ginR mutants identified a protein that was produced in response to the GinI/GinR regulatory system. Cloning and nucleotide sequencing of the gene encoding this protein revealed that it encoded an OmpA family protein, named GmpA. gmpA was a member of the gene cluster containing three adjacent homologous genes, gmpA to gmpC, the organization of which appeared to be unique to vinegar producers, including “Gluconacetobacter polyoxogenes.” In addition, GmpA was unique among the OmpA family proteins in that its N-terminal membrane domain forming eight antiparallel transmembrane ?-strands contained an extra sequence in one of the surface-exposed loops. Transcriptional analysis showed that only gmpA of the three adjacent gmp genes was activated by the GinI/GinR quorum-sensing system. However, gmpA was not controlled directly by GinR but was controlled by an 89-amino-acid protein, GinA, a target of this quorum-sensing system. A gmpA mutant grew more rapidly in the presence of 2% (vol/vol) ethanol and accumulated acetic acid and gluconic acid in greater final yields than strain NCI1051. Thus, GmpA plays a role in repressing oxidative fermentation, including acetic acid fermentation, which is unique to acetic acid bacteria and allows ATP synthesis via ethanol oxidation. Consistent with the involvement of gmpA in oxidative fermentation, its transcription was also enhanced by ethanol and acetic acid. PMID:18487322

  8. Transcriptome profiling reveals links between ParS/ParR, MexEF-OprN, and quorum sensing in the regulation of adaptation and virulence in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The ParS/ParR two component regulatory system plays critical roles for multidrug resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. It was demonstrated that in the presence of antimicrobials, ParR enhances bacterial survival by distinct mechanisms including activation of the mexXY efflux genes, enhancement of lipopolysaccharide modification through the arn operon, and reduction of the expression of oprD porin. Results In this study, we report on transcriptomic analyses of P. aeruginosa PAO1 wild type and parS and parR mutants growing in a defined minimal medium. Our transcriptomic analysis provides the first estimates of transcript abundance for the 5570 coding genes in P. aeruginosa PAO1. Comparative transcriptomics of P. aeruginosa PAO1 and par mutants identified a total of 464 genes regulated by ParS and ParR. Results also showed that mutations in the parS/parR system abolished expression of the mexEF-oprN operon by down-regulating the regulatory gene mexS. In addition to the known effects on drug resistance genes, transcript abundances of the quorum sensing genes (rhlIR and pqsABCDE-phnAB) were higher in both parS and parR mutants. In accordance with these results, a significant portion of the ParS/ParR regulated genes belonged to the MexEF-OprN and quorum sensing regulons. Deletion of the par genes also led to increased phenazine production and swarming motility, consistent with the up-regulation of the phenazine and rhamnolipid biosynthetic genes, respectively. Conclusion Our results link the ParS/ParR two component signal transduction system to MexEF-OprN and quorum sensing systems in P. aeruginosa. These results expand our understanding of the roles of the ParS/ParR system in the regulation of gene expression in P. aeruginosa, especially in the absence of antimicrobials. PMID:24034668

  9. Clustering in Sensor Networks using Quorum Sensing Ibiso Wokoma, Dr. Lionel Sacks, Dr. Ian Marshall

    E-print Network

    Haddadi, Hamed

    from the environmental monitoring of agricultural areas for crop quality to providing support Sensing (QS) is a type of intercellular signalling used by bacteria to monitor cell density for a variety]. This is a useful concept for sensor networks because the bacterial cells need to be aware of the global cell

  10. Transcriptome-Based Analysis of the Pantoea stewartii Quorum-Sensing Regulon and Identification of EsaR Direct Targets

    PubMed Central

    Ramachandran, Revathy; Burke, Alison Kernell; Cormier, Guy; Jensen, Roderick V.

    2014-01-01

    Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii is a proteobacterium that causes Stewart's wilt disease in corn plants. The bacteria form a biofilm in the xylem of infected plants and produce capsule that blocks water transport, eventually causing wilt. At low cell densities, the quorum-sensing (QS) regulatory protein EsaR is known to directly repress expression of esaR itself as well as the genes for the capsular synthesis operon transcription regulator, rcsA, and a 2,5-diketogluconate reductase, dkgA. It simultaneously directly activates expression of genes for a putative small RNA, esaS, the glycerol utilization operon, glpFKX, and another transcriptional regulator, lrhA. At high bacterial cell densities, all of this regulation is relieved when EsaR binds an acylated homoserine lactone signal, which is synthesized constitutively over growth. QS-dependent gene expression is critical for the establishment of disease in the plant. However, the identity of the full set of genes controlled by EsaR/QS is unknown. A proteomic approach previously identified around 30 proteins in the QS regulon. In this study, a whole-transcriptome, next-generation sequencing analysis of rRNA-depleted RNA from QS-proficient and -deficient P. stewartii strains was performed to identify additional targets of EsaR. EsaR-dependent transcriptional regulation of a subset of differentially expressed genes was confirmed by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR). Electrophoretic mobility shift assays demonstrated that EsaR directly bound 10 newly identified target promoters. Overall, the QS regulon of P. stewartii orchestrates three major physiological responses: capsule and cell envelope biosynthesis, surface motility and adhesion, and stress response. PMID:25015891

  11. Anti-quorum sensing activity of Psidium guajava L. flavonoids against Chromobacterium violaceum and Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1.

    PubMed

    Vasavi, Halkare Suryanarayana; Arun, Ananthapadmanabha Bhagwath; Rekha, Punchapady-Devasya

    2014-05-01

    Psidium guajava L., which has been used traditionally as a medicinal plant, was explored for anti-quorum sensing (QS) activity. The anti-QS activity of the flavonoid (FL) fraction of P. guajava leaves was determined using a biosensor bioassay with Chromobacterium violaceum CV026. Detailed investigation of the effects of the FL-fraction on QS-regulated violacein production in C. violaceum ATCC12472 and pyocyanin production, proteolytic, elastolytic activities, swarming motility and biofilm formation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 was performed using standard methods. Possible mechanisms of QS-inhibition were studied by assessing violacein production in response to N-acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) synthesis in the presence of the FL-fraction in C. violaceum ATCC31532 and by evaluating the induction of violacein in the mutant C. violaceum CV026 by AHL extracted from the culture supernatants of C. violaceum 31532. Active compounds in the FL-fraction were identified by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Inhibition of violacein production by the FL-fraction in a C. violaceum CV026 biosensor bioassay indicated possible anti-QS activity. The FL-fraction showed concentration-dependent decreases in violacein production in C. violaceum 12472 and inhibited pyocyanin production, proteolytic and elastolytic activities, swarming motility and biofilm formation in P. aeruginosa PAO1. Interestingly, the FL-fraction did not inhibit AHL synthesis; AHL extracted from cultures of C. violaceum 31532 grown in the presence of the FL-fraction induced violacein in the mutant C. violaceum CV026. LC-MS analysis revealed the presence of quercetin and quercetin-3-O-arabinoside in the FL-fraction. Both quercetin and quercetin-3-O-arabinoside inhibited violacein production in C. violaceum 12472, at 50 and 100??g/mL, respectively. Results of this study provide scope for further research to exploit these active molecules as anti-QS agents. PMID:24698116

  12. Quorum sensing-dependent metalloprotease VvpE is important in the virulence of Vibrio vulnificus to invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Ha, Changwan; Kim, Soo-Kyoung; Lee, Mi-Nan; Lee, Joon-Hee

    2014-01-01

    Vibrio vulnificus, a Gram-negative bacterium, is an opportunistic human pathogen responsible for fatal septicemia caused by contaminated sea foods in eastern Asia. Quorum sensing (QS) is a cell-density dependent gene regulation mechanism that controls the expression of many virulence genes in various bacteria and V. vulnificus has been also suggested to express their virulence genes through the QS system. In this study, we investigated the role of QS system and QS-regulated exoproteases in the virulence of V. vulnificus using several invertebrate host models, Tenebrio molitor, an insect, Caenorhabditis elegans, a nematode, and brine shrimp (Artemia), an aquatic crustacean. When the culture supernatant of smcR (major QS regulator of V. vulnificus) mutant was injected to T. molitor larvae, it failed to induce the melanization of T. molitor larvae, while the culture supernatant of luxO (upstream negative regulator of smcR) mutant more strongly induced the melanization than wild type. These results demonstrated that QS system of V. vulnificus is crucial for virulence to T. molitor larvae. Among several QS-dependently expressed exoproteases of V. vulnificus, vvpE encoding a metalloprotease was mainly responsible for the melanization of T. molitor larvae, in that the culture supernatant of vvpE mutant failed to induce the melanization. This result was confirmed using the C. elegans and Artemia salina model systems, in which the vvpE mutant strains were attenuated in killing C. elegans and A. salina, compared with wild type, indicating that VvpE is important in the infection of V. vulnificus. In conclusion, we suggest that QS system and a QS-dependent exoprotease, VvpE are crucial for the V. vulnificus virulence to invertebrates. PMID:24769338

  13. Degradation of pathogen quorum-sensing molecules by soil bacteria: a preventive and curative biological control mechanism.

    PubMed

    Molina, Lázaro; Constantinescu, Florica; Michel, Laurent; Reimmann, Cornelia; Duffy, Brion; Défago, Geneviève

    2003-07-01

    Abstract The plasmid pME6863, carrying the aiiA gene from the soil bacterium Bacillus sp. A24 that encodes a lactonase enzyme able to degrade N-acyl-homoserine lactones (AHLs), was introduced into the rhizosphere isolate Pseudomonas fluorescens P3. This strain is not an effective biological control agent against plant pathogens. The transformant P. fluorescens P3/pME6863 acquired the ability to degrade AHLs. In planta, P. fluorescens P3/pME6863 significantly reduced potato soft rot caused by Erwinia carotovora and crown gall of tomato caused by Agrobacterium tumefaciens to a similar level as Bacillus sp. A24. Little or no disease reduction was observed for the wild-type strain P3 carrying the vector plasmid without aiiA. Suppression of potato soft rot was observed even when the AHL-degrading P. fluorescens P3/pME6863 was applied to tubers 2 days after the pathogen, indicating that biocontrol was not only preventive but also curative. When antagonists were applied individually with the bacterial plant pathogens, biocontrol activity of the AHL degraders was greater than that observed with several Pseudomonas 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol-producing strains and with Pseudomonas chlororaphis PCL1391, which relies on production of phenazine antibiotic for disease suppression. Phenazine production by this well characterized biological control strain P. chlororaphis PCL1391 is regulated by AHL-mediated quorum sensing. When P. chlororaphis PCL1391 was co-inoculated with P. fluorescens P3/pME6863 in a strain mixture, the AHL degrader interfered with the normally excellent ability of the antibiotic producer to suppress tomato vascular wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici. Our results demonstrate AHL degradation as a novel biocontrol mechanism, but also demonstrate the potential for non-target interactions that can interfere with the biocontrol efficacy of other strains. PMID:19719608

  14. Attenuation of quorum sensing in the pathogen Acinetobacter baumannii using non-native N-acyl homoserine lactones

    PubMed Central

    Stacy, Danielle M.; Welsh, Michael A.; Rather, Philip N.; Blackwell, Helen E.

    2012-01-01

    Many bacterial pathogens use quorum sensing (QS) to control virulence. As a result, the development of methods to intercept QS has attracted significant interest as a potential anti-infective therapy. Acinetobacter baumannii has emerged as a pan-drug resistant pathogen and displays a remarkable ability to persist in hospital settings despite desiccation and antimicrobial treatment. Recent studies have shown that A. baumannii QS mutants have limited motility and fail to form mature biofilms – these phenotypes are linked to its ability to persist on biotic and abiotic surfaces and increase its pathogenicity. A. baumannii uses N-(3-hydroxydodecanoyl)-l-homoserine lactone (OH-dDHL) and its putative cognate receptor, AbaR, for QS. We sought to identify non-native ligands capable of blocking or promoting AbaR activity in A. baumannii for use as chemical probes to modulate QS phenotypes in this pathogen. We screened a focused library of synthetic, non-native N-acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs) to identify such compounds, and several highly potent antagonists and agonists were uncovered, with IC50 and EC50 values in the low micromolar range, respectively. The strongest AbaR antagonists largely contained aromatic acyl groups, whereas the AbaR agonists closely resembled OH-dDHL. Notably, the 10 most potent AbaR antagonists also strongly inhibited A. baumannii motility, and five antagonists reduced biofilm formation in A. baumannii by up to 40%. The discovery of these compounds is significant, as they represent, to our knowledge, the first non-native modulators of QS in A. baumannii to be reported and could find utility as new tools to study the role and timing of QS phenotypes in A. baumannii infections. PMID:22853441

  15. Phenotypic Heterogeneity, a Phenomenon That May Explain Why Quorum Sensing Does Not Always Result in Truly Homogenous Cell Behavior.

    PubMed

    Grote, Jessica; Krysciak, Dagmar; Streit, Wolfgang R

    2015-08-15

    Phenotypic heterogeneity describes the occurrence of "nonconformist" cells within an isogenic population. The nonconformists show an expression profile partially different from that of the remainder of the population. Phenotypic heterogeneity affects many aspects of the different bacterial lifestyles, and it is assumed that it increases bacterial fitness and the chances for survival of the whole population or smaller subpopulations in unfavorable environments. Well-known examples for phenotypic heterogeneity have been associated with antibiotic resistance and frequently occurring persister cells. Other examples include heterogeneous behavior within biofilms, DNA uptake and bacterial competence, motility (i.e., the synthesis of additional flagella), onset of spore formation, lysis of phages within a small subpopulation, and others. Interestingly, phenotypic heterogeneity was recently also observed with respect to quorum-sensing (QS)-dependent processes, and the expression of autoinducer (AI) synthase genes and other QS-dependent genes was found to be highly heterogeneous at a single-cell level. This phenomenon was observed in several Gram-negative bacteria affiliated with the genera Vibrio, Dinoroseobacter, Pseudomonas, Sinorhizobium, and Mesorhizobium. A similar observation was made for the Gram-positive bacterium Listeria monocytogenes. Since AI molecules have historically been thought to be the keys to homogeneous behavior within isogenic populations, the observation of heterogeneous expression is quite intriguing and adds a new level of complexity to the QS-dependent regulatory networks. All together, the many examples of phenotypic heterogeneity imply that we may have to partially revise the concept of homogeneous and coordinated gene expression in isogenic bacterial populations. PMID:26025903

  16. Evolution and some functions of the NprR-NprRB quorum-sensing system in the Bacillus cereus group.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Jorge; Flores, Victor; Cabrera, Rosina; Soto-Guzmán, Adriana; Granados, Giovana; Juaristi, Eusebio; Guarneros, Gabriel; de la Torre, Mayra

    2012-05-01

    Quorum-sensing (QS) is a bacterial mechanism for regulation of gene expression in response to cell density. In Gram-positive bacteria, oligopeptides are the signaling molecules to elicit QS. The RNPP protein family (Rap, NprR, PlcR, and PrgX) are intracellular QS receptors that bind directly to their specific signaling peptide for regulating the transcription of several genes. NprR is the activator of a neutral protease in Bacillus subtilis, and it has been recently related to sporulation, cry genes transcription and extracellular protease activity in strains from the B. cereus group. In the B. thuringiensis genome, downstream nprR, a gene encoding a putative QS signaling propeptide (nprRB) was found. We hypothesized that the nprR and nprRB co-evolved because of their coordinated function in the B. cereus group. A phylogenetic tree of nucleotide sequences of nprR revealed six pherotypes, each corresponding to one putative mature NprRB sequence. The nprR tree does not match the current taxonomic grouping of the B. cereus group or the phylogenetic arrangement obtained when using MLST markers from the same strains. SKPDI and other synthetic peptides encoded in the nprRB gene from B. thuringiensis serovar thuringiensis strain 8741 had effect on temporal regulation of sporulation and expression of a cry1Aa'Z transcriptional fusion, but those peptides that stimulated earlier detection of spores decreased cry1Aa expression suggesting that NprR may either activate or repress the transcription of different genes. PMID:22159892

  17. Quorum Sensing Signal Production and Microbial Interactions in a Polymicrobial Disease of Corals and the Coral Surface Mucopolysaccharide Layer

    PubMed Central

    Zimmer, Beth L.; May, Amanda L.; Bhedi, Chinmayee D.; Dearth, Stephen P.; Prevatte, Carson W.; Pratte, Zoe; Campagna, Shawn R.; Richardson, Laurie L.

    2014-01-01

    Black band disease (BBD) of corals is a complex polymicrobial disease considered to be a threat to coral reef health, as it can lead to mortality of massive reef-building corals. The BBD community is dominated by gliding, filamentous cyanobacteria with a highly diverse population of heterotrophic bacteria. Microbial interactions such as quorum sensing (QS) and antimicrobial production may be involved in BBD disease pathogenesis. In this study, BBD (whole community) samples, as well as 199 bacterial isolates from BBD, the surface mucopolysaccharide layer (SML) of apparently healthy corals, and SML of apparently healthy areas of BBD-infected corals were screened for the production of acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs) and for autoinducer-2 (AI-2) activity using three bacterial reporter strains. AHLs were detected in all BBD (intact community) samples tested and in cultures of 5.5% of BBD bacterial isolates. Over half of a subset (153) of the isolates were positive for AI-2 activity. AHL-producing isolates were further analyzed using LC-MS/MS to determine AHL chemical structure and the concentration of (S)-4,5-dihydroxy-2,3-pentanedione (DPD), the biosynthetic precursor of AI-2. C6-HSL was the most common AHL variant detected, followed by 3OC4-HSL. In addition to QS assays, 342 growth challenges were conducted among a subset of the isolates, with 27% of isolates eliciting growth inhibition and 2% growth stimulation. 24% of BBD isolates elicited growth inhibition as compared to 26% and 32% of the bacteria from the two SML sources. With one exception, only isolates that exhibited AI-2 activity or produced DPD inhibited growth of test strains. These findings demonstrate for the first time that AHLs are present in an active coral disease. It is possible that AI-2 production among BBD and coral SML bacteria may structure the microbial communities of both a polymicrobial infection and the healthy coral microbiome. PMID:25268348

  18. Transcriptome of the quorum-sensing signal-degrading Rhodococcus erythropolis responds differentially to virulent and avirulent Pectobacterium atrosepticum.

    PubMed

    Kwasiborski, A; Mondy, S; Chong, T-M; Barbey, C; Chan, K-G; Beury-Cirou, A; Latour, X; Faure, D

    2015-05-01

    Social bacteria use chemical communication to coordinate and synchronize gene expression via the quorum-sensing (QS) regulatory pathway. In Pectobacterium, a causative agent of the blackleg and soft-rot diseases on potato plants and tubers, expression of the virulence factors is collectively controlled by the QS-signals N-acylhomoserine lactones (NAHLs). Several soil bacteria, such as the actinobacterium Rhodococcus erythropolis, are able to degrade NAHLs, hence quench the chemical communication and virulence of Pectobacterium. Here, next-generation sequencing was used to investigate structural and functional genomics of the NAHL-degrading R. erythropolis strain R138. The R. erythropolis R138 genome (6.7?Mbp) contained a single circular chromosome, one linear (250?kbp) and one circular (84?kbp) plasmid. Growth of R. erythropolis and P. atrosepticum was not altered in mixed-cultures as compared with monocultures on potato tuber slices. HiSeq-transcriptomics revealed that no R. erythropolis genes were differentially expressed when R. erythropolis was cultivated in the presence vs absence of the avirulent P. atrosepticum mutant expI, which is defective for QS-signal synthesis. By contrast 50 genes (<1% of the R. erythropolis genome) were differentially expressed when R. erythropolis was cultivated in the presence vs absence of the NAHL-producing virulent P. atrosepticum. Among them, quantitative real-time reverse-transcriptase-PCR confirmed that the expression of some alkyl-sulfatase genes decreased in the presence of a virulent P. atrosepticum, as well as deprivation of organic sulfur such as methionine, which is a key precursor in the synthesis of NAHL by P. atrosepticum. PMID:25585922

  19. ExpR coordinates the expression of symbiotically important, bundle-forming Flp pili with quorum sensing in Sinorhizobium meliloti.

    PubMed

    Zatakia, Hardik M; Nelson, Cassandra E; Syed, Umair J; Scharf, Birgit E

    2014-04-01

    Type IVb pili in enteropathogenic bacteria function as a host colonization factor by mediating tight adherence to host cells, but their role in bacterium-plant symbiosis is currently unknown. The genome of the symbiotic soil bacterium Sinorhizobium meliloti contains two clusters encoding proteins for type IVb pili of the Flp (fimbrial low-molecular-weight protein) subfamily. To establish the role of Flp pili in the symbiotic interaction of S. meliloti and its host, Medicago sativa, we deleted pilA1, which encodes the putative pilin subunit in the chromosomal flp-1 cluster and conducted competitive nodulation assays. The pilA1 deletion strain formed 27% fewer nodules than the wild type. Transmission electron microscopy revealed the presence of bundle-forming pili protruding from the polar and lateral region of S. meliloti wild-type cells. The putative pilus assembly ATPase CpaE1 fused to mCherry showed a predominantly unilateral localization. Transcriptional reporter gene assays demonstrated that expression of pilA1 peaks in early stationary phase and is repressed by the quorum-sensing regulator ExpR, which also controls production of exopolysaccharides and motility. Binding of acyl homoserine lactone-activated ExpR to the pilA1 promoter was confirmed with electrophoretic mobility shift assays. A 17-bp consensus sequence for ExpR binding was identified within the 28-bp protected region by DNase I footprinting analyses. Our results show that Flp pili are important for efficient symbiosis of S. meliloti with its plant host. The temporal inverse regulation of exopolysaccharides and pili by ExpR enables S. meliloti to achieve a coordinated expression of cellular processes during early stages of host interaction. PMID:24509921

  20. Modulation of Sinorhizobium meliloti quorum sensing by Hfq-mediated post-transcriptional regulation of ExpR.

    PubMed

    Gao, Mengsheng; Tang, Ming; Guerich, Lois; Salas-Gonzalez, Isai; Teplitski, Max

    2015-02-01

    In Sinorhizobium meliloti, the timing of quorum sensing (QS)-dependent gene expression is controlled at multiple levels. RNA binding protein Hfq contributes to the regulation of QS signal production, and this regulation is exerted both in the manner that involves the acyl homoserine lactone receptor ExpR, and via expR-independent mechanisms. In the expR+ strain of S.?meliloti, deletion of hfq resulted in the hyper-accumulation of QS signals at low population densities, increased diversity of the QS signals in mid-to-late exponential phase and then led to a sharp decrease in QS signal accumulation in stationary phase. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction revealed that the accumulation of expR and sinI (but not sinR) mRNA was increased in the late exponential phase in an hfq-dependent manner. A translational, but not transcriptional, expR-uidA reporter was controlled by hfq, while both transcriptional and translational sinI-uidA reporters were regulated in the hfq-dependent manner. In co-immunoprecipation experiments, expR mRNA was bound to and then released from Hfq, similar to the positive controls (small regulatory RNA SmrC9, SmrC15, SmrC16 and SmrC45). Neither sinI nor sinR transcripts were detected in the pool of RNA heat-released from Hfq-RNA complexes. Therefore, post-transcriptional regulator Hfq controls the production and perception of QS signals, and at higher population densities this control is mediated directly via interactions with expR. PMID:25382642

  1. Burdock root extracts limit quorum-sensing-controlled phenotypes and biofilm architecture in major urinary tract pathogens.

    PubMed

    Rajasekharan, Satish Kumar; Ramesh, Samiraj; Bakkiyaraj, Dhamodharan; Elangomathavan, Ramaraj; Kamalanathan, Chakkaravarthi

    2015-02-01

    Bacterial biofilms are serious concern in patients infected with urinary tract infections, complicated urinary tract infections and other device-associated infections. Microbes within the biofilms are effectively shielded from antibiotics and host immune cells, hence can be treated only with agents which has the potential to disassemble the biofilms. The study is focused on the root extracts of Arctium lappa Linn. as a source for complementary medicine against three major biofilm forming clinical isolates of Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, and Serratia marcescens. Methanol extracts of burdock roots (BR) showed no bactericidal activity (p > 0.05) against the uropathogens, whereas restrained the biofilms (p < 0.05) on polystyrene and glass surfaces at a biofilm inhibitory concentration of 100 µg/mL. The 3D confocal laser scanning microscopy was used to analyze the biofilm architecture which showed significant reduction in the surface area. Z-stack analysis has also revealed substantial reduction in the biofilm thickness (E. coli-50.79%, P. mirabilis-69.49%, and S. marcescens-75.84%). Further, BR extracts also inhibited quorum-sensing (QS)-controlled cellular phenotypes such as violacein, prodigiosin, swarming motility, and cell surface hydrophobicity. LC-MS/MS analysis of BR extracts identified the presence of two major quercetin derivatives (miquelianin and peltatoside) along with few other constituent components. Exploring such phytocompounds will provide potential agents to treat infections caused by biofilm forming uropathogens. The antibiofilm and anti-QS agents will ultimately serve as armor, facilitating the host immune system to fight infections. PMID:25226848

  2. Polyphosphate Degradation in Stationary Phase Triggers Biofilm Formation via LuxS Quorum Sensing System in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Grillo-Puertas, Mariana; Villegas, Josefina M.; Rintoul, María R.; Rapisarda, Viviana A.

    2012-01-01

    In most natural environments, association with a surface in a structure known as biofilm is the prevailing microbial life-style of bacteria. Polyphosphate (polyP), an ubiquitous linear polymer of hundreds of orthophosphate residues, has a crucial role in stress responses, stationary-phase survival, and it was associated to bacterial biofilm formation and production of virulence factors. In previous work, we have shown that Escherichia coli cells grown in media containing a critical phosphate concentration >37 mM maintained an unusual high polyP level in stationary phase. The aim of the present work was to analyze if fluctuations in polyP levels in stationary phase affect biofilm formation capacity in E. coli. Polymer levels were modulated by the media phosphate concentration or using mutant strains in polyP metabolism. Cells grown in media containing phosphate concentrations higher than 25 mM were defective in biofilm formation. Besides, there was a disassembly of 24 h preformed biofilm by the addition of high phosphate concentration to the medium. These phenotypes were related to the maintenance or re-synthesis of polyP in stationary phase in static conditions. No biofilm formation was observed in ppk?ppx? or ppk?ppx?/ppk+ strains, deficient in polyP synthesis and hydrolysis, respectively. luxS and lsrK mutants, impaired in autoinducer-2 quorum sensing signal metabolism, were unable to form biofilm unless conditioned media from stationary phase wild type cells grown in low phosphate were used. We conclude that polyP degradation is required for biofilm formation in sufficient phosphate media, activating or triggering the production of autoinducer-2. According to our results, phosphate concentration of the culture media should be carefully considered in bacterial adhesion and virulence studies. PMID:23226268

  3. Characterization of N-acylhomoserine lactone-degrading bacteria associated with the Zingiber officinale (ginger) rhizosphere: Co-existence of quorum quenching and quorum sensing in Acinetobacter and Burkholderia

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Cell-to-cell communication (quorum sensing (QS)) co-ordinates bacterial behaviour at a population level. Consequently the behaviour of a natural multi-species community is likely to depend at least in part on co-existing QS and quorum quenching (QQ) activities. Here we sought to discover novel N-acylhomoserine lactone (AHL)-dependent QS and QQ strains by investigating a bacterial community associated with the rhizosphere of ginger (Zingiber officinale) growing in the Malaysian rainforest. Results By using a basal growth medium containing N-(3-oxohexanoyl)homoserine lactone (3-oxo-C6-HSL) as the sole source of carbon and nitrogen, the ginger rhizosphere associated bacteria were enriched for strains with AHL-degrading capabilities. Three isolates belonging to the genera Acinetobacter (GG2), Burkholderia (GG4) and Klebsiella (Se14) were identified and selected for further study. Strains GG2 and Se14 exhibited the broadest spectrum of AHL-degrading activities via lactonolysis while GG4 reduced 3-oxo-AHLs to the corresponding 3-hydroxy compounds. In GG2 and GG4, QQ was found to co-exist with AHL-dependent QS and GG2 was shown to inactivate both self-generated and exogenously supplied AHLs. GG2, GG4 and Se14 were each able to attenuate virulence factor production in both human and plant pathogens. Conclusions Collectively our data show that ginger rhizosphere bacteria which make and degrade a wide range of AHLs are likely to play a collective role in determining the QS-dependent phenotype of a polymicrobial community. PMID:21385437

  4. Structural Insights into a Novel Interkingdom Signaling Circuit by Cartography of the Ligand-Binding Sites of the Homologous Quorum Sensing LuxR-Family

    PubMed Central

    Covaceuszach, Sonia; Degrassi, Giuliano; Venturi, Vittorio; Lamba, Doriano

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have identified a novel interkingdom signaling circuit, via plant signaling molecules, and a bacterial sub-family of LuxR proteins, bridging eukaryotes and prokaryotes. Indeed pivotal plant-bacteria interactions are regulated by the so called Plant Associated Bacteria (PAB) LuxR solo regulators that, although closely related to the quorum sensing (QS) LuxR family, do not bind or respond to canonical quorum sensing N-acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs), but only to specific host plant signal molecules. The large body of structural data available for several members of the QS LuxR family complexed with different classes of ligands (AHLs and other compounds), has been exploited to dissect the cartography of their regulatory domains through structure-based multiple sequence alignments, structural superimposition and a comparative analysis of the contact residues involved in ligand binding. In the absence of experimentally determined structures of members of the PAB LuxR solos subfamily, an homology model of its prototype OryR is presented, aiming to elucidate the architecture of its ligand-binding site. The obtained model, in combination with the cartography of the regulatory domains of the homologous QS LuxRs, provides novel insights into the 3D structure of its ligand-binding site and unveils the probable molecular determinants responsible for differences in selectivity towards specific host plant signal molecules, rather than to canonical QS compounds. PMID:24132148

  5. Opposite effects of cefoperazone and ceftazidime on S?ribosylhomocysteine lyase/autoinducer-2 quorum sensing and biofilm formation by an Escherichia coli clinical isolate.

    PubMed

    Shi, Hui-Qing; Sun, Feng-Jun; Chen, Jian-Hong; Yong, Xiao-Lan; Ou, Qian-Yi; Feng, Wei; Xia, Pei-Yuan

    2014-11-01

    To investigate the effects of subminimum inhibitory concentrations of cephalosporins on bacterial biofilm formation, the biofilm production of 52 Escherichia (E.) coli strains was examined following treatment with cephalosporin compounds at 1/4 minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs). Ceftazidime (CAZ) inhibited biofilm formation in seven isolates, while cefoperazone (CFP) enhanced biofilm formation in 18 isolates. Biofilm formation of E. coli E42 was inhibited by CAZ and induced by CFP. Therefore, using reverse transcription?polymerase chain reaction, the expression of the biofilm?modulating genes of this isolate was investigated. To monitor the production of the autoinducer of quorum sensing in E. coli, autoinducer?2 (AI?2) production was detected by measuring the bioluminescence response of Vibrio harveyi BB170. Antisense oligonucleotides (AS?ODNs) targeting S?ribosylhomocysteine lyase (luxS) inhibited the expression of the luxS gene in E. coli. CAZ at 1/4 MIC reduced luxS mRNA levels and the production of AI?2, whereas CFP at 1/4 MIC had the opposite effect. AS?ODNs targeting luxS significantly decreased the aforementioned inhibitory effects of CAZ and the induction effects of CFP on E. coli biofilm formation. Therefore, biofilm formation by the E. coli clinical isolate E42 was evoked by CFP but attenuated by CAZ at sub?MICs, via a luxS/AI?2?based quorum sensing system. PMID:25189202

  6. Opposite effects of cefoperazone and ceftazidime on S-ribosylhomocysteine lyase/autoinducer-2 quorum sensing and biofilm formation by an Escherichia coli clinical isolate

    PubMed Central

    SHI, HUI-QING; SUN, FENG-JUN; CHEN, JIAN-HONG; YONG, XIAO-LAN; OU, QIAN-YI; FENG, WEI; XIA, PEI-YUAN

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the effects of subminimum inhibitory concentrations of cephalosporins on bacterial biofilm formation, the biofilm production of 52 Escherichia (E.) coli strains was examined following treatment with cephalosporin compounds at 1/4 minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs). Ceftazidime (CAZ) inhibited biofilm formation in seven isolates, while cefoperazone (CFP) enhanced biofilm formation in 18 isolates. Biofilm formation of E. coli E42 was inhibited by CAZ and induced by CFP. Therefore, using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, the expression of the biofilm-modulating genes of this isolate was investigated. To monitor the production of the autoinducer of quorum sensing in E. coli, autoinducer-2 (AI-2) production was detected by measuring the bioluminescence response of Vibrio harveyi BB170. Antisense oligonucleotides (AS-ODNs) targeting S-ribosylhomocysteine lyase (luxS) inhibited the expression of the luxS gene in E. coli. CAZ at 1/4 MIC reduced luxS mRNA levels and the production of AI-2, whereas CFP at 1/4 MIC had the opposite effect. AS-ODNs targeting luxS significantly decreased the aforementioned inhibitory effects of CAZ and the induction effects of CFP on E. coli biofilm formation. Therefore, biofilm formation by the E. coli clinical isolate E42 was evoked by CFP but attenuated by CAZ at sub-MICs, via a luxS/AI-2-based quorum sensing system. PMID:25189202

  7. Identification and Characterization of a GDSL Esterase Gene Located Proximal to the swr Quorum-Sensing System of Serratia liquefaciens MG1

    PubMed Central

    Riedel, Kathrin; Talker-Huiber, Daniela; Givskov, Michael; Schwab, Helmut; Eberl, Leo

    2003-01-01

    Serratia liquefaciens MG1 employs the swr quorum-sensing system to control various functions, including production of extracellular enzymes and swarming motility. Here we report the sequencing of the swr flanking DNA regions. We identified a gene upstream of swrR and transcribed in the same direction, designated estA, which encodes an esterase that belongs to family II of lipolytic enzymes. EstA was heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli, and the substrate specificity of the enzyme was determined in crude extracts. With the aid of zymograms visualizing EstA on polyacrylamide gels and by the analysis of a transcriptional fusion of the estA promoter to the promoterless luxAB genes, we showed that expression of the esterase is not regulated by the swr quorum-sensing system. An estA mutant was generated and was found to exhibit growth defects on minimal medium containing Tween 20 or Tween 80 as the sole carbon source. Moreover, we show that the mutant produces greatly reduced amounts of N-acyl-homoserine lactone (AHL) signal molecules on Tween-containing medium compared with the wild type, suggesting that under certain growth conditions EstA may be important for providing the cell with precursors required for AHL biosynthesis. PMID:12839759

  8. Quorum sensing in Vibrio fischeri: probing autoinducer-LuxR interactions with autoinducer analogs.

    PubMed Central

    Schaefer, A L; Hanzelka, B L; Eberhard, A; Greenberg, E P

    1996-01-01

    The Vibrio fischeri luminescence genes are activated by the transcription factor LuxR in combination with a diffusible signal compound, N-(3-oxohexanoyl) homoserine lactone, termed the autoinducer. We have synthesized a set of autoinducer analogs. Many analogs with alterations in the acyl side chain showed evidence of binding to LuxR. Some appeared to bind with an affinity similar to that of the autoinducer, but none showed a higher affinity, and many did not bind as tightly as the autoinducer. For the most part, compounds with substitutions in the homoserine lactone ring did not show evidence of binding to LuxR. The exceptions were compounds with a homocysteine thiolactone ring in place of the homoserine lactone ring. Many but not all of the analogs showing evidence of LuxR binding had some ability to activate the luminescence genes. None were as active as the autoinducer. While most showed little ability to induce luminescence, a few analogs with rather conservative substitutions had appreciable activity. Under the conditions we employed, some of the analogs showing little or no ability to induce luminescence were inhibitors of the autoinducer. PMID:8631679

  9. Role of Specific Quorum-Sensing Signals in the Regulation of Exopolysaccharide II Production within Sinorhizobium meliloti Spreading Colonies

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Mengsheng; Coggin, Andrew; Yagnik, Kruti; Teplitski, Max

    2012-01-01

    Background Quorum sensing (QS) in Sinorhizobium meliloti involves at least half a dozen different N-acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) signals. These signals are produced by SinI, the sole AHL synthase in S. meliloti Rm8530. The sinI gene is regulated by two LuxR-type transcriptional regulators, SinR and ExpR. Mutations in sinI, sinR and expR abolish the production of exopolysaccharide II (EPS II). Methodology/Principal Findings This study investigated a new type of coordinated surface spreading of Rm8530 that can be categorized as swarming. Motility assays on semi-solid surfaces revealed that both flagella and EPS II are required for this type of motility. The production of EPS II depends on AHLs produced by SinI. Of these AHLs, only C16:1- and 3-oxo-C16:1-homoserine lactones (HSLs) stimulated swarming in an ExpR-dependent manner. These two AHLs induced the strongest response in the wggR reporter fusions. WggR is a positive regulator of the EPS II biosynthesis gene expression. The levels of the wggR activation correlated with the extent of swarming. Furthermore, swarming of S. meliloti required the presence of the high molecular weight (HMW) fraction of EPS II. Within swarming colonies, a recombinase-based RIVET reporter in the wggR gene was resolved in 30% of the cells, indicating an enhanced regulation of EPS II production in the subpopulation of cells, which was sufficient to support swarming of the entire colony. Conclusions/Significance Swarming behavior of S. meliloti Rm8530 on semi-solid surfaces is found to be dependent on the functional QS regulatory cascades. Even though multiple AHL signals are produced by the bacterium, only two AHLs species, C16:1- and 3-oxo-C16:1-HSLs, affected swarming by up-regulating the expression of wggR. While EPS II is produced by Rm8530 as high and low molecular weight fractions, only the HMW EPS II facilitated initial stages of swarming, thus, suggesting a function for this polymer. PMID:22912712

  10. Quorum Sensing Signaling Molecules Produced by Reference and Emerging Soft-Rot Bacteria (Dickeya and Pectobacterium spp.)

    PubMed Central

    Crépin, Alexandre; Barbey, Corinne; Beury-Cirou, Amélie; Hélias, Valérie; Taupin, Laure; Reverchon, Sylvie; Nasser, William; Faure, Denis; Dufour, Alain; Orange, Nicole; Feuilloley, Marc; Heurlier, Karin; Burini, Jean-François; Latour, Xavier

    2012-01-01

    Background Several small diffusible molecules are involved in bacterial quorum sensing and virulence. The production of autoinducers-1 and -2, quinolone, indole and ?-amino butyrate signaling molecules was investigated in a set of soft-rot bacteria belonging to six Dickeya or Pectobacterium species including recent or emerging potato isolates. Methodology/Principal Findings Using bacterial biosensors, immunoassay, and chromatographic analysis, we showed that soft-rot bacteria have the common ability to produce transiently during their exponential phase of growth the N-3-oxo-hexanoyl- or the N-3-oxo-octanoyl-l-homoserine lactones and a molecule of the autoinducer-2 family. Dickeya spp. produced in addition the indole-3-acetic acid in tryptophan-rich conditions. All these signaling molecules have been identified for the first time in the novel Dickeya solani species. In contrast, quinolone and ?-amino butyrate signals were not identified and the corresponding synthases are not present in the available genomes of soft-rot bacteria. To determine if the variations of signal production according to growth phase could result from expression modifications of the corresponding synthase gene, the respective mRNA levels were estimated by reverse transcriptase-PCR. While the N-acyl-homoserine lactone production is systematically correlated to the synthase expression, that of the autoinducer-2 follows the expression of an enzyme upstream in the activated methyl cycle and providing its precursor, rather than the expression of its own synthase. Conclusions/Significance Despite sharing the S-adenosylmethionine precursor, no strong link was detected between the production kinetics or metabolic pathways of autoinducers-1 and -2. In contrast, the signaling pathway of autoinducer-2 seems to be switched off by the indole-3-acetic acid pathway under tryptophan control. It therefore appears that the two genera of soft-rot bacteria have similarities but also differences in the mechanisms of communication via the diffusible molecules. Our results designate autoinducer-1 lactones as the main targets for a global biocontrol of soft-rot bacteria communications, including those of emerging isolates. PMID:22539957

  11. Evaluation of the impact of quorum sensing transcriptional regulator SdiA on long-term persistence and fecal shedding of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in weaned calves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Quorum sensing transcriptional regulator SdiA has been shown to enhance the survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 (O157) in the acidic compartment of bovine rumen in response to N-acyl-L-homoserine lactones (AHLs) produced by the rumen bacteria. Bacteria that survive the rumen environment subsequentl...

  12. Avellanin C, an inhibitor of quorum sensing signaling in Staphylococcus aureus, from Hamigera ingelheimensis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genus Hamigera is less studied than other members of Eurotiales such as Penicillium, Aspergillus, Paecilomyces, Monascus, and Talaromyces. While thousands of metabolites are known from Aspergillus and Penicillium, only 20 to 30 compounds have been reported from Hamigera. In our previous assessme...

  13. Quorum sensing in marine snow and its possible influence on production of extracellular hydrolytic enzymes in marine snow bacterium Pantoea ananatis B9.

    PubMed

    Jatt, Abdul Nabi; Tang, Kaihao; Liu, Jiwen; Zhang, Zenghu; Zhang, Xiao-Hua

    2015-02-01

    Marine snow is a continuous shower of organic and inorganic detritus, and plays a crucial role in transporting materials from the sea surface to the deep ocean. The aims of the current study were to identify N-acyl homoserine lactone (AHL)-based quorum sensing (QS) signaling molecules directly from marine snow particles and to investigate the possible regulatory link between QS signals and extracellular hydrolytic enzymes produced by marine snow bacteria. The marine snow samples were collected from the surface water of China marginal seas. Two AHLs, i.e. 3OC6-HSL and C8-HSL, were identified directly from marine snow particles, while six different AHL signals, i.e. C4-HSL, 3OC6-HSL, C6-HSL, C10-HSL, C12-HSL and C14-HSL were produced by Pantoea ananatis B9 inhabiting natural marine snow particles. Of the extracellular hydrolytic enzymes produced by P. ananatis B9, alkaline phosphatase activity was highly enhanced in growth medium supplemented with exogenous AHL (C10-HSL), while quorum quenching enzyme (AiiA) drastically reduced the enzyme activity. To our knowledge, this is the first report revealing six different AHL signals produced by P. ananatis B9 and AHL-based QS system enhanced the extracellular hydrolytic enzyme in P. ananatis B9. Furthermore, this study first time revealing 3OC6-HSL production by Paracoccus carotinifaciens affiliated with Alphaproteobacteria. PMID:25764555

  14. 2(5H)-Furanone: A Prospective strategy for biofouling-control in membrane biofilm bacteria by quorum sensing inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Ponnusamy, Kannan; Paul, Diby; Sam Kim, Young; Kweon, Ji Hyang

    2010-01-01

    Biofouling of membranes demands costly periodic cleaning and membrane replacement. A sustainable and environmentally friendly solution for maintenance is not available and would be of great interest for many purposes including economical. As complex biofilm formation by environmental strains is the major cause of biofouling and biofilm formation in most cases are controlled by N-Acylhomoserine lactone (AHL)-mediated Quorum Sensing (QS). An effort was made to understand the appropriateness of 2(5H)-furanone, to use against biofouling of membranes. QS inhibition activity by 2(5H)-furanone was studied using bioindicator strains and known AHL of different acyl chain lengths. The biofilm inhibition was studied by growth analysis on polystyrene plate of Aeromonas hyrdrophila, an environmental biofilm strain isolated from a bio-fouled reverse osmosis (RO) membrane. Results showed a QS inhibition activity against a wide range of AHLs and also biofilm formation by 2(5H)-furanone, which is believed to act as a potential quorum inhibition agent in a bacterial biofilm community. PMID:24031485

  15. Quorum-Sensing Systems LuxS/Autoinducer 2 and Com Regulate Streptococcus pneumoniae Biofilms in a Bioreactor with Living Cultures of Human Respiratory Cells

    PubMed Central

    Howery, Kristen E.; Ludewick, Herbert P.; Nava, Porfirio; Klugman, Keith P.

    2013-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae forms organized biofilms in the human upper respiratory tract that may play an essential role in both persistence and acute respiratory infection. However, the production and regulation of biofilms on human cells is not yet fully understood. In this work, we developed a bioreactor with living cultures of human respiratory epithelial cells (HREC) and a continuous flow of nutrients, mimicking the microenvironment of the human respiratory epithelium, to study the production and regulation of S. pneumoniae biofilms (SPB). SPB were also produced under static conditions on immobilized HREC. Our experiments demonstrated that the biomass of SPB increased significantly when grown on HREC compared to the amount on abiotic surfaces. Additionally, pneumococcal strains produced more early biofilms on lung cells than on pharyngeal cells. Utilizing the bioreactor or immobilized human cells, the production of early SPB was found to be regulated by two quorum-sensing systems, Com and LuxS/AI-2, since a mutation in either comC or luxS rendered the pneumococcus unable to produce early biofilms on HREC. Interestingly, while LuxS/autoinducer 2 (AI-2) regulated biofilms on both HREC and abiotic surfaces, Com control was specific for those structures produced on HREC. The biofilm phenotypes of strain D39-derivative ?comC and ?luxS QS mutants were reversed by genetic complementation. Of note, SPB formed on immobilized HREC and incubated under static conditions were completely lysed 24 h postinoculation. Biofilm lysis was also regulated by the Com and LuxS/AI-2 quorum-sensing systems. PMID:23403556

  16. A Complex LuxR-LuxI Type Quorum Sensing Network in a Roseobacterial Marine Sponge Symbiont Activates Flagellar Motility and Inhibits Biofilm Formation

    PubMed Central

    Zan, Jindong; Cicirelli, Elisha M.; Mohamed, Naglaa M.; Sibhatu, Hiruy; Kroll, Stephanie; Choi, Ohkee; Uhlson, Charis L.; Wysoczinski, Christina L.; Murphy, Robert C.; Churchill, Mair E.A.; Hill, Russell T.; Fuqua, Clay

    2012-01-01

    Summary Bacteria isolated from marine sponges, including the Silicibacter-Ruegeria (SR) subgroup of the Roseobacter clade, produce N-acylhomoserine lactone (AHL) quorum sensing signal molecules. This study is the first detailed analysis of AHL quorum sensing in sponge-associated bacteria, specifically Ruegeria sp. KLH11, from the sponge Mycale laxissima. Two pairs of luxR and luxI homologues and one solo luxI homologue were identified and designated ssaRI, ssbRI, and sscI (sponge-associated symbiont locus A, B, and C, luxRI or luxI homologue). SsaI produced predominantly long-chain 3-oxo-AHLs and both SsbI and SscI specified 3-OH-AHLs. Addition of exogenous AHLs to KLH11 increased the expression of ssaI but not ssaR, ssbI or ssbR, and genetic analyses revealed a complex interconnected arrangement between SsaRI and SsbRI systems. Interestingly, flagellar motility was abolished in the ssaI and ssaR mutants, with the flagellar biosynthesis genes under strict SsaRI control, and active motility only at high culture density. Conversely, ssaI and ssaR mutants formed more robust biofilms than wild type KLH11. AHLs and transcript of the ssaI gene were detected in M. laxissima extracts suggesting that AHL signaling contributes to the decision between motility and sessility and that it also may facilitate acclimation to different environments including the sponge host. PMID:22742196

  17. Panax ginseng has anti-infective activity against opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa by inhibiting quorum sensing, a bacterial communication process critical for establishing infection

    PubMed Central

    Song, Z.; Kong, K.F; Wu, H.; Maricic, N.; Ramalingam, B.; Priestap, H.; Quirke, J.M.E.; Høiby, N.; Mathee, K.

    2010-01-01

    Virulent factors produced by pathogens play an important role in the infectious process, which is regulated by a cell-to-cell communication mechanism called quorum sensing (QS). Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an important opportunistic human pathogen, which causes infections in patients with compromised immune systems and cystic fibrosis. The QS systems of P. aeruginosa use N-acylated homoserine lactone (AHL) as signal molecules. Previously we have demonstrated that Panax ginseng treatment allowed the animals with P. aeruginosa pneumonia to effectively clear the bacterial infection. We postulated that the ability to impact the outcome of infections is partly due to ginseng having direct effect on the production of P. aeruginosa virulence factors. The study explores the effect of ginseng on alginate, protease and AHL production. The effect of ginseng extracts on growth and expression of quorum-sensing (QS)-controlled virulence factors on the prototypic P. aeruginosa PAO1 and its isogenic mucoid variant (PAOmucA22 or PDO300) was determined. Ginseng did not inhibit the growth of the bacteria, enhanced the extracellular protein production and stimulated the production of alginate. However, ginseng suppressed the production of LasA and LasB and down-regulated the synthesis of the AHL molecules. Ginseng has a negative effect on the QS system of P. aeruginosa, which might be part of the mechanisms that ginseng helped the bacterial clearance from the animal lungs in vivo in our previous animal study. It is possible that enhancing and repressing activities of ginseng are mutually exclusive as it is a complex mixture, as shown with the HPLC anaylsis of the hot water extract of ginseng that was performed in this study. Though ginseng is a promising natural synergetic remedy, it is important to isolate and evaluate the ginseng compounds associated with the anti-QS activity. PMID:20554187

  18. The new group of non-pathogenic plant-associated nitrogen-fixing Burkholderia spp. shares a conserved quorum-sensing system, which is tightly regulated by the RsaL repressor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Z. R. Suarez-Moreno; J. Caballero-Mellado; V. Venturi

    2008-01-01

    A novel group of nitrogen-fixing plant-associated Burkholderia species has emerged in the last few years. The purpose of this investigation was to determine if these species possess an N- acylhomoserine lactone (AHL) quorum-sensing (QS) cell-cell signalling system, and whether it is important for nitrogen fixation and other phenotypic features in Burkholderia kururiensis. It was determined that B. kururiensis, and other

  19. Quorum Sensing in Aeromonas hydrophila and Aeromonas salmonicida: Identification of the LuxRI Homologs AhyRI and AsaRI and Their Cognate N-Acylhomoserine Lactone Signal Molecules

    Microsoft Academic Search

    SIMON SWIFT; ANDREY V. KARLYSHEV; LEIGH FISH; EMMA L. DURANT; MICHAEL K. WINSON; SIRI RAM CHHABRA; PAUL WILLIAMS; SHEILA MACINTYRE; GORDON S. A. B. STEWART

    1997-01-01

    Spent culture supernatants from both Aeromonas hydrophila and Aeromonas salmonicida activate a range of biosensors responsive to N-acylhomoserine lactones (AHLs). The genes for a quorum sensing signal generator and a response regulator were cloned from each Aeromonas species and termed ahyRI and asaRI, respectively. Protein sequence homology analysis places the gene products within the growing family of LuxRI homologs. ahyR

  20. Lack of genomic evidence of AI-2 receptors suggests a non-quorum sensing role for luxS in most bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Rezzonico, Fabio; Duffy, Brion

    2008-01-01

    Background Great excitement accompanied discoveries over the last decade in several Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria of the LuxS protein, which catalyzes production of the AI-2 autoinducer molecule for a second quorum sensing system (QS-2). Since the luxS gene was found to be widespread among the most diverse bacterial taxa, it was hypothesized that AI-2 may constitute the basis of a universal microbial language, a kind of bacterial Esperanto. Many of the studies published in this field have drawn a direct correlation between the occurrence of the luxS gene in a given organism and the presence and functionality of a QS-2 therein. However, rarely hathe existence of potential AI-2 receptors been examined. This is important, since it is now well recognized that LuxS also holds a central role as a metabolic enzyme in the activated methyl cycle which is responsible for the generation of S-adenosyl-L-methionine, the major methyl donor in the cell. Results In order to assess whether the role of LuxS in these bacteria is indeed related to AI-2 mediated quorum sensing we analyzed genomic databases searching for established AI-2 receptors (i.e., LuxPQ-receptor of Vibrio harveyi and Lsr ABC-transporter of Salmonella typhimurium) and other presumed QS-related proteins and compared the outcome with published results about the role of QS-2 in these organisms. An unequivocal AI-2 related behavior was restricted primarily to organisms bearing known AI-2 receptor genes, while phenotypes of luxS mutant bacteria lacking these genes could often be explained simply by assuming deficiencies in sulfur metabolism. Conclusion Genomic analysis shows that while LuxPQ is restricted to Vibrionales, the Lsr-receptor complex is mainly present in pathogenic bacteria associated with endotherms. This suggests that QS-2 may play an important role in interactions with animal hosts. In most other species, however, the role of LuxS appears to be limited to metabolism, although in a few cases the presence of yet unknown receptors or the adaptation of pre-existent effectors to QS-2 must be postulated. PMID:18803868

  1. Nox2 Modification of LDL Is Essential for Optimal Apolipoprotein B-mediated Control of agr Type III Staphylococcus aureus Quorum-sensing

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Pamela R.; Elmore, Bradley O.; Spang, Cynthia H.; Alexander, Susan M.; Manifold-Wheeler, Brett C.; Castleman, Moriah J.; Daly, Seth M.; Peterson, M. Michal; Sully, Erin K.; Femling, Jon K.; Otto, Michael; Horswill, Alexander R.; Timmins, Graham S.; Gresham, Hattie D.

    2013-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus contains an autoinducing quorum-sensing system encoded within the agr operon that coordinates expression of virulence genes required for invasive infection. Allelic variation within agr has generated four agr specific groups, agr I–IV, each of which secretes a distinct autoinducing peptide pheromone (AIP1-4) that drives agr signaling. Because agr signaling mediates a phenotypic change in this pathogen from an adherent colonizing phenotype to one associated with considerable tissue injury and invasiveness, we postulated that a significant contribution to host defense against tissue damaging and invasive infections could be provided by innate immune mechanisms that antagonize agr signaling. We determined whether two host defense factors that inhibit AIP1-induced agrI signaling, Nox2 and apolipoprotein B (apoB), also contribute to innate control of AIP3-induced agrIII signaling. We hypothesized that apoB and Nox2 would function differently against AIP3, which differs from AIP1 in amino acid sequence and length. Here we show that unlike AIP1, AIP3 is resistant to direct oxidant inactivation by Nox2 characteristic ROS. Rather, the contribution of Nox2 to defense against agrIII signaling is through oxidation of LDL. ApoB in the context of oxLDL, and not LDL, provides optimal host defense against S. aureus agrIII infection by binding the secreted signaling peptide, AIP3, and preventing expression of the agr-driven virulence factors which mediate invasive infection. ApoB within the context of oxLDL also binds AIP 1-4 and oxLDL antagonizes agr signaling by all four agr alleles. Our results suggest that Nox2-mediated oxidation of LDL facilitates a conformational change in apoB to one sufficient for binding and sequestration of all four AIPs, demonstrating the interdependence of apoB and Nox2 in host defense against agr signaling. These data reveal a novel role for oxLDL in host defense against S. aureus quorum-sensing signaling. PMID:23459693

  2. Characterisation of two quorum sensing systems in the endophytic Serratia plymuthica strain G3: differential control of motility and biofilm formation according to life-style

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background N-acylhomoserine lactone (AHL)-based quorum sensing (QS) systems have been described in many plant-associated Gram-negative bacteria to control certain beneficial phenotypic traits, such as production of biocontrol factors and plant growth promotion. However, the role of AHL-mediated signalling in the endophytic strains of plant-associated Serratia is still poorly understood. An endophytic Serratia sp. G3 with biocontrol potential and high levels of AHL signal production was isolated from the stems of wheat and the role of QS in this isolate was determined. Results Strain G3 classified as Serratia plymuthica based on 16S rRNA was subjected to phylogenetic analysis. Using primers to conserved sequences of luxIR homologues from the Serratia genus, splIR and spsIR from the chromosome of strain G3 were cloned and sequenced. AHL profiles from strain G3 and Escherichia coli DH5? expressing splI or spsI from recombinant plasmids were identified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. This revealed that the most abundant AHL signals produced by SplI in E. coli were N-3-oxo-hexanoylhomoserine lactone (3-oxo-C6-HSL), N-3-oxo-heptanoylhomoserine lactone (3-oxo-C7-HSL), N-3-hydroxy-hexanoylhomoserine lactone (3-hydroxy-C6-HSL), N-hexanoylhomoserine lactone (C6-HSL), and N-heptanoyl homoserine lactone (C7-HSL); whereas SpsI was primarily responsible for the synthesis of N-butyrylhomoserine lactone (C4-HSL) and N-pentanoylhomoserine lactone (C5-HSL). Furthermore, a quorum quenching analysis by heterologous expression of the Bacillus A24 AiiA lactonase in strain G3 enabled the identification of the AHL-regulated biocontrol-related traits. Depletion of AHLs with this lactonase resulted in altered adhesion and biofilm formation using a microtiter plate assay and flow cells coupled with confocal laser scanning microscopy respectively. This was different from the closely related S. plymuthica strains HRO-C48 and RVH1, where biofilm formation for both strains is AHL-independent. In addition, QS in G3 positively regulated antifungal activity, production of exoenzymes, but negatively regulated production of indol-3-acetic acid (IAA), which is in agreement with previous reports in strain HRO-C48. However, in contrast to HRO-C48, swimming motility was not controlled by AHL-mediated QS. Conclusions This is the first report of the characterisation of two AHL-based quorum sensing systems in the same isolate of the genus Serratia. Our results show that the QS network is involved in the global regulation of biocontrol-related traits in the endophytic strain G3. However, although free-living and endophytic S. plymuthica share some conservation on QS phenotypic regulation, the control of motility and biofilm formation seems to be strain-specific and possible linked to the life-style of this organism. PMID:21284858

  3. Quorum sensing and indole-3-acetic acid degradation play a role in colonization and plant growth promotion of Arabidopsis thaliana by Burkholderia phytofirmans PsJN.

    PubMed

    Zúñiga, Ana; Poupin, María Josefina; Donoso, Raúl; Ledger, Thomas; Guiliani, Nicolás; Gutiérrez, Rodrigo A; González, Bernardo

    2013-05-01

    Although not fully understood, molecular communication in the rhizosphere plays an important role regulating traits involved in plant-bacteria association. Burkholderia phytofirmans PsJN is a well-known plant-growth-promoting bacterium, which establishes rhizospheric and endophytic colonization in different plants. A competent colonization is essential for plant-growth-promoting effects produced by bacteria. Using appropriate mutant strains of B. phytofirmans, we obtained evidence for the importance of N-acyl homoserine lactone-mediated (quorum sensing) cell-to-cell communication in efficient colonization of Arabidopsis thaliana plants and the establishment of a beneficial interaction. We also observed that bacterial degradation of the auxin indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) plays a key role in plant-growth-promoting traits and is necessary for efficient rhizosphere colonization. Wildtype B. phytofirmans but not the iacC mutant in IAA mineralization is able to restore promotion effects in roots of A. thaliana in the presence of exogenously added IAA, indicating the importance of this trait for promoting primary root length. Using a transgenic A. thaliana line with suppressed auxin signaling (miR393) and analyzing the expression of auxin receptors in wild-type inoculated plants, we provide evidence that auxin signaling in plants is necessary for the growth promotion effects produced by B. phytofirmans. The interplay between ethylene and auxin signaling was also confirmed by the response of the plant to a 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase bacterial mutant strain. PMID:23301615

  4. Direct regulation of the pefI-srgC operon encoding the Rck invasin by the quorum-sensing regulator SdiA in Salmonella?Typhimurium.

    PubMed

    Abed, Nadia; Grépinet, Olivier; Canepa, Sylvie; Hurtado-Escobar, Genaro A; Guichard, Nolwenn; Wiedemann, Agnès; Velge, Philippe; Virlogeux-Payant, Isabelle

    2014-10-01

    One important step for the pathogenesis of Salmonella is its ability to penetrate host cells. Recently, a new entry system involving the outer membrane protein Rck has been characterized. Previous studies have shown that the pefI-srgC locus, which contains rck, was regulated by the temperature and SdiA, the transcriptional regulator of quorum sensing in Salmonella. To decipher the regulation of rck by SdiA, we first confirmed the operon organization of the pefI-srgC locus. Using plasmid-based transcriptional fusions, we showed that only the predicted distal promoter upstream of pefI, PefIP2, displays an SdiA- and acyl-homoserine lactones-dependent activity while the predicted proximal PefIP1 promoter exhibits a very low activity independent on SdiA in our culture conditions. A direct and specific interaction of SdiA with this PefIP2 region was identified using electrophoretic mobility shift assays and surface plasmon resonance studies. We also observed that Rck expression is negatively regulated by the nucleoid-associated H-NS protein at both 25°C and 37°C. This work is the first demonstration of a direct regulation of genes by SdiA in Salmonella and will help further studies designed to identify environmental conditions required for Rck expression and consequently contribute to better characterize the role of this invasin in vivo. PMID:25080967

  5. Green fluorescent protein (GFP)-based overexpression screening and characterization of AgrC, a Receptor protein of quorum sensing in Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lina; Quan, Chunshan; Liu, Baoquan; Xu, Yongbin; Zhao, Pengchao; Xiong, Wen; Fan, Shengdi

    2013-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus AgrC is an important component of the agr quorum-sensing system. AgrC is a membrane-embedded histidine kinase that is thought to act as a sensor for the recognition of environmental signals and the transduction of signals into the cytoplasm. However, the difficulty of expressing and purifying functional membrane proteins has drastically hindered in-depth understanding of the molecular structures and physiological functions of these proteins. Here, we describe the high-yield expression and purification of AgrC, and analyze its kinase activity. A C-terminal green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion to AgrC served as a reporter for monitoring protein expression levels in real time. Protein expression levels were analyzed by the microscopic assessment of the whole-cell fluorescence. The expressed AgrC-GFP protein with a C-terminal His-tagged was purified using immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC) and size exclusion chromatography (SEC) at yields of ? 10 mg/L, following optimization. We also assessed the effects of different detergents on membrane solubilization and AgrC kinase activity, and polyoxyethylene-(23)-lauryl-ether (Brij-35) was identified as the most suitable detergent. Furthermore, the secondary structural stability of purified AgrC was analyzed using circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy. This study may serve as a general guide for improving the yields of other membrane protein preparations and selecting the appropriate detergent to stabilize membrane proteins for biophysical and biochemical analyses. PMID:24018890

  6. Role for the molecular chaperones Zuo1 and Ssz1 in quorum sensing via activation of the transcription factor Pdr1

    PubMed Central

    Prunuske, Amy J.; Waltner, Jeanette K.; Kuhn, Peter; Gu, Bohao; Craig, Elizabeth Anne

    2012-01-01

    Zuo1 functions as a J-protein cochaperone of its partner Hsp70. In addition, the C terminus of Zuo1 and the N terminus of Ssz1, with which Zuo1 forms a heterodimer, can independently activate the Saccharomyces cerevisiae transcription factor pleiotropic drug resistance 1 (Pdr1). Here we report that activation of Pdr1 by Zuo1 or Ssz1 causes premature growth arrest of cells during the diauxic shift, as they adapt to the changing environmental conditions. Conversely, cells lacking Zuo1 or Ssz1 overgrow, arresting at a higher cell density, an effect overcome by activation of Pdr1. Cells lacking the genes encoding plasma membrane transporters Pdr5 and Snq2, two targets of Pdr1, also overgrow at the diauxic shift. Adding conditioned medium harvested from cultures of wild-type cells attenuated the overgrowth of both zuo1?ssz1? and pdr5?snq2? cells, suggesting the extracellular presence of molecules that signal growth arrest. In addition, our yeast two-hybrid analysis revealed an interaction between Pdr1 and both Zuo1 and Ssz1. Together, our results support a model in which (i) membrane transporters, encoded by Pdr1 target genes act to promote cell–cell communication by exporting quorum sensing molecules, in addition to playing a role in pleiotropic drug resistance; and (ii) molecular chaperones function at promoters to regulate this intercellular communication through their activation of the transcription factor Pdr1. PMID:22203981

  7. Ellagic Acid Derivatives from Terminalia chebula Retz. Downregulate the Expression of Quorum Sensing Genes to Attenuate Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 Virulence

    PubMed Central

    Sarabhai, Sajal; Sharma, Prince; Capalash, Neena

    2013-01-01

    Background Burgeoning antibiotic resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa has necessitated the development of anti pathogenic agents that can quench acylhomoserine lactone (AHL) mediated QS with least risk of resistance. This study explores the anti quorum sensing potential of T. chebula Retz. and identification of probable compounds(s) showing anti QS activity and the mechanism of attenuation of P. aeruginosa PAO1 virulence factors. Methods and Results Methanol extract of T. chebula Retz. fruit showed anti QS activity using Agrobacterium tumefaciens A136. Bioactive fraction (F7), obtained by fractionation of methanol extract using Sephadex LH20, showed significant reduction (p<0.001) in QS regulated production of extracellular virulence factors in P. aeruginosa PAO1. Biofilm formation and alginate were significantly (p<0.05) reduced with enhanced (20%) susceptibility to tobramycin. Real Time PCR of F7 treated P. aeruginosa showed down regulation of autoinducer synthase (lasI and rhlI) and their cognate receptor (lasR and rhlR) genes by 89, 90, 90 and 93%, respectively. Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry also showed 90 and 64% reduction in the production of 3-oxo-C12HSL and C4HSL after treatment. Decrease in AHLs as one of the mechanisms of quorum quenching by F7 was supported by the reversal of inhibited swarming motility in F7-treated P. aeruginosa PAO1 on addition of C4HSL. F7 also showed antagonistic activity against 3-oxo-C12HSL-dependent QS in E. coli bioreporter. C. elegans fed on F7-treated P. aeruginosa showed enhanced survival with LT50 increasing from 24 to 72 h. LC-ESI-MS of F7 revealed the presence of ellagic acid derivatives responsible for anti QS activity in T. chebula extract. Conclusions This is the first report on anti QS activity of T. chebula fruit linked to EADs which down regulate the expression of lasIR and rhlIR genes with concomitant decrease in AHLs in P. aeruginosa PAO1 causing attenuation of its virulence factors and enhanced sensitivity of its biofilm towards tobramycin. PMID:23320085

  8. Virulence and in?planta movement of Xanthomonas hortorum pv. pelargonii are affected by the diffusible signal factor (DSF)-dependent quorum sensing system.

    PubMed

    Barel, Victoria; Chalupowicz, Laura; Barash, Isaac; Sharabani, Galit; Reuven, Michal; Dror, Orit; Burdman, Saul; Manulis-Sasson, Shulamit

    2015-09-01

    Xanthomonas hortorum pv. pelargonii (Xhp), the causal agent of bacterial blight in pelargonium, is the most threatening bacterial disease of this ornamental worldwide. To gain an insight into the regulation of virulence in Xhp, we have disrupted the quorum sensing (QS) genes, which mediate the biosynthesis and sensing of the diffusible signal factor (DSF). Mutations in rpfF (encoding the DSF synthase) and rpfC (encoding the histidine sensor kinase of the two-component system RfpC/RpfG) and overexpression of rpfF showed a significant reduction in incidence and severity of the disease on pelargonium. Confocal laser scanning microscopy images of inoculated plants with a green fluorescent protein (GFP)-labelled wild-type strain showed that the pathogen is homogeneously dispersed in the lumen of xylem vessels, reaching the apex and invading the intercellular spaces of the leaf mesophyll tissue within 21?days. In contrast, the rpfF and rpfC knockout mutants, as well as the rpfF-overexpressing strain, remained confined to the vicinity of the inoculation site. The rpfF and rpfC mutants formed large incoherent aggregates in the xylem vessels that might interfere with upward movement of the bacterium within the plant. Both mutants also formed extended aggregates under in?vitro conditions, whereas the wild-type strain formed microcolonies. Expression levels of putative virulence genes in?planta were substantially reduced within 48?h after inoculation with the QS mutants when compared with the wild-type. The results presented indicate that an optimal DSF concentration is crucial for successful colonization and virulence of Xhp in pelargonium. PMID:25530086

  9. A simple model for the early events of quorum sensing in Pseudomonas aeruginosa: modeling bacterial swarming as the movement of an "activation zone"

    PubMed Central

    Netotea, Sergiu; Bertani, Iris; Steindler, Laura; Kerényi, Ádám; Venturi, Vittorio; Pongor, Sándor

    2009-01-01

    Background Quorum sensing (QS) is a form of gene regulation based on cell-density that depends on inter-cellular communication. While there are a variety of models for bacterial colony morphology, there is little work linking QS genes to movement in an open system. Results The onset of swarming in environmental P. aeruginosa PUPa3 was described with a simplified computational model in which cells in random motion communicate via a diffusible signal (representing N-acyl homoserine lactones, AHL) as well as diffusible, secreted factors (enzymes, biosurfactans, i.e. "public goods") that regulate the intensity of movement and metabolism in a threshold-dependent manner. As a result, an "activation zone" emerges in which nutrients and other public goods are present in sufficient quantities, and swarming is the spontaneous displacement of this high cell-density zone towards nutrients and/or exogenous signals. The model correctly predicts the behaviour of genomic knockout mutants in which the QS genes responsible either for the synthesis (lasI, rhlI) or the sensing (lasR, rhlR) of AHL signals were inactivated. For wild type cells the model predicts sustained colony growth that can however be collapsed by the overconsumption of nutrients. Conclusion While in more complex models include self-orienting abilities that allow cells to follow concentration gradients of nutrients and chemotactic agents, in this model, displacement towards nutrients or environmental signals is an emergent property of the community that results from the action of a few, well-defined QS genes and their products. Still the model qualitatively describes the salient properties of QS bacteria, i.e. the density-dependent onset of swarming as well as the response to exogenous signals or cues. Reviewers This paper was reviewed by Gáspár Jékely, L. Aravind, Eugene V. Koonin and Artem Novozhilov (nominated by Eugene V. Koonin). PMID:19216743

  10. The Symbiotic Biofilm of Sinorhizobium fredii SMH12, Necessary for Successful Colonization and Symbiosis of Glycine max cv Osumi, Is Regulated by Quorum Sensing Systems and Inducing Flavonoids via NodD1

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Montaño, Francisco; Jiménez-Guerrero, Irene; Del Cerro, Pablo; Baena-Ropero, Irene; López-Baena, Francisco Javier; Ollero, Francisco Javier; Bellogín, Ramón; Lloret, Javier; Espuny, Rosario

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial surface components, especially exopolysaccharides, in combination with bacterial Quorum Sensing signals are crucial for the formation of biofilms in most species studied so far. Biofilm formation allows soil bacteria to colonize their surrounding habitat and survive common environmental stresses such as desiccation and nutrient limitation. This mode of life is often essential for survival in bacteria of the genera Mesorhizobium, Sinorhizobium, Bradyrhizobium, and Rhizobium. The role of biofilm formation in symbiosis has been investigated in detail for Sinorhizobium meliloti and Bradyrhizobium japonicum. However, for S. fredii this process has not been studied. In this work we have demonstrated that biofilm formation is crucial for an optimal root colonization and symbiosis between S. fredii SMH12 and Glycine max cv Osumi. In this bacterium, nod-gene inducing flavonoids and the NodD1 protein are required for the transition of the biofilm structure from monolayer to microcolony. Quorum Sensing systems are also required for the full development of both types of biofilms. In fact, both the nodD1 mutant and the lactonase strain (the lactonase enzyme prevents AHL accumulation) are defective in soybean root colonization. The impairment of the lactonase strain in its colonization ability leads to a decrease in the symbiotic parameters. Interestingly, NodD1 together with flavonoids activates certain quorum sensing systems implicit in the development of the symbiotic biofilm. Thus, S. fredii SMH12 by means of a unique key molecule, the flavonoid, efficiently forms biofilm, colonizes the legume roots and activates the synthesis of Nod factors, required for successfully symbiosis. PMID:25166872

  11. The ppuI-rsaL-ppuR quorum-sensing system regulates biofilm formation of Pseudomonas putida PCL1445 by controlling biosynthesis of the cyclic lipopeptides putisolvins I and II.

    PubMed

    Dubern, Jean-Frédéric; Lugtenberg, Ben J J; Bloemberg, Guido V

    2006-04-01

    Pseudomonas putida strain PCL1445 produces two cyclic lipopeptides, putisolvin I and putisolvin II, which possess surface tension-reducing abilities and are able to inhibit biofilm formation and to break down existing biofilms of several Pseudomonas spp., including P. aeruginosa. Putisolvins are secreted in the culture medium during growth at late exponential phase, indicating that production is possibly regulated by quorum sensing. In the present study, we identified a quorum-sensing system in PCL1445 that is composed of ppuI, rsaL, and ppuR and shows very high similarity with gene clusters of P. putida strains IsoF and WCS358. Strains with mutations in ppuI and ppuR showed a severe reduction of putisolvin production. Expression analysis of the putisolvin biosynthetic gene in a ppuI background showed decreased expression, which could be complemented by the addition of synthetic 3-oxo-C(10)-N-acyl homoserine lactone (3-oxo-C(10)-AHL) or 3-oxo-C(12)-AHL to the medium. An rsaL mutant overproduces AHLs, and production of putisolvins is induced early during growth. Analysis of biofilm formation on polyvinylchloride showed that ppuI and ppuR mutants produce a denser biofilm than PCL1445, which correlates with decreased production of putisolvins, whereas an rsaL mutant shows a delay in biofilm production, which correlates with early production of putisolvins. The results demonstrate that quorum-sensing signals induce the production of cyclic lipopeptides putisolvin I and II and consequently control biofilm formation by Pseudomonas putida. PMID:16585751

  12. The symbiotic biofilm of Sinorhizobium fredii SMH12, necessary for successful colonization and symbiosis of Glycine max cv Osumi, is regulated by Quorum Sensing systems and inducing flavonoids via NodD1.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Montaño, Francisco; Jiménez-Guerrero, Irene; Del Cerro, Pablo; Baena-Ropero, Irene; López-Baena, Francisco Javier; Ollero, Francisco Javier; Bellogín, Ramón; Lloret, Javier; Espuny, Rosario

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial surface components, especially exopolysaccharides, in combination with bacterial Quorum Sensing signals are crucial for the formation of biofilms in most species studied so far. Biofilm formation allows soil bacteria to colonize their surrounding habitat and survive common environmental stresses such as desiccation and nutrient limitation. This mode of life is often essential for survival in bacteria of the genera Mesorhizobium, Sinorhizobium, Bradyrhizobium, and Rhizobium. The role of biofilm formation in symbiosis has been investigated in detail for Sinorhizobium meliloti and Bradyrhizobium japonicum. However, for S. fredii this process has not been studied. In this work we have demonstrated that biofilm formation is crucial for an optimal root colonization and symbiosis between S. fredii SMH12 and Glycine max cv Osumi. In this bacterium, nod-gene inducing flavonoids and the NodD1 protein are required for the transition of the biofilm structure from monolayer to microcolony. Quorum Sensing systems are also required for the full development of both types of biofilms. In fact, both the nodD1 mutant and the lactonase strain (the lactonase enzyme prevents AHL accumulation) are defective in soybean root colonization. The impairment of the lactonase strain in its colonization ability leads to a decrease in the symbiotic parameters. Interestingly, NodD1 together with flavonoids activates certain quorum sensing systems implicit in the development of the symbiotic biofilm. Thus, S. fredii SMH12 by means of a unique key molecule, the flavonoid, efficiently forms biofilm, colonizes the legume roots and activates the synthesis of Nod factors, required for successfully symbiosis. PMID:25166872

  13. Abundance of the Quorum-Sensing Factor Ax21 in Four Strains of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia Correlates with Mortality Rate in a New Zebrafish Model of Infection

    PubMed Central

    Yero, Daniel; Mongiardini, Elías; Torrent, Gerard; Huedo, Pol; Martínez, Paula; Roher, Nerea; Mackenzie, Simon; Gibert, Isidre; Daura, Xavier

    2013-01-01

    Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is a Gram-negative pathogen with emerging nosocomial incidence. Little is known about its pathogenesis and the genomic diversity exhibited by clinical isolates complicates the study of pathogenicity and virulence factors. Here, we present a strategy to identify such factors in new clinical isolates of S. maltophilia, incorporating an adult-zebrafish model of S. maltophilia infection to evaluate relative virulence coupled to 2D difference gel electrophoresis to explore underlying differences in protein expression. In this study we report upon three recent clinical isolates and use the collection strain ATCC13637 as a reference. The adult-zebrafish model shows discrimination capacity, i.e. from very low to very high mortality rates, with clinical symptoms very similar to those observed in natural S. maltophilia infections in fish. Strain virulence correlates with resistance to human serum, in agreement with previous studies in mouse and rat and therefore supporting zebrafish as a replacement model. Despite its clinical origin, the collection strain ATCC13637 showed obvious signs of attenuation in zebrafish, with null mortality. Multilocus-sequence-typing analysis revealed that the most virulent strains, UV74 and M30, exhibit the strongest genetic similitude. Differential proteomic analysis led to the identification of 38 proteins with significantly different abundance in the three clinical strains relative to the reference strain. Orthologs of several of these proteins have been already reported to have a role in pathogenesis, virulence or resistance mechanisms thus supporting our strategy. Proof of concept is further provided by protein Ax21, whose abundance is shown here to be directly proportional to mortality in the zebrafish infection model. Indeed, recent studies have demonstrated that this protein is a quorum-sensing-related virulence factor. PMID:23840626

  14. Commonalities and Differences in Regulation of N-Acyl Homoserine Lactone Quorum Sensing in the Beneficial Plant-Associated Burkholderia Species Cluster? †

    PubMed Central

    Suárez-Moreno, Zulma Rocío; Devescovi, Giulia; Myers, Mike; Hallack, Letícia; Mendonça-Previato, Lucia; Caballero-Mellado, Jesús; Venturi, Vittorio

    2010-01-01

    The genus Burkholderia includes over 60 species isolated from a wide range of environmental niches and can be tentatively divided into two major species clusters. The first cluster includes pathogens such as Burkholderia glumae, B. pseudomallei, and B. mallei and 17 well-studied species of the Burkholderia cepacia complex. The other recently established cluster comprises at least 29 nonpathogenic species, which in most cases have been found to be associated with plants. It was previously established that Burkholderia kururiensis, a member of the latter cluster, possesses an N-acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) quorum-sensing (QS) system designated “BraI/R,” which is found in all species of the plant-associated cluster. In the present study, two other BraI/R-like systems were characterized in B. xenovorans and B. unamae and were designated the BraI/RXEN and BraI/RUNA systems, respectively. Several phenotypes were analyzed, and it was determined that exopolysaccharide was positively regulated by the BraIR-like system in the species B. kururiensis, B. unamae, and B. xenovorans, highlighting commonality in targets. However, the three BraIR-like systems also revealed differences in targets since biofilm formation and plant colonization were differentially regulated. In addition, a second AHL QS system designated XenI2/R2 and an unpaired LuxR solo protein designated BxeR solo were also identified and characterized in B. xenovorans LB400T. The two AHL QS systems of B. xenovorans are not transcriptionally regulating each other, whereas BxeR solo negatively regulated xenI2. The XenI2/R2 and BxeR solo proteins are not widespread in the Burkholderia species cluster. In conclusion, the present study represents an extensive analysis of AHL QS in the Burkholderia plant-associated cluster demonstrating both commonalities and differences, probably reflecting environmental adaptations of the various species. PMID:20435760

  15. Unraveling the contributions of hydrogen-bonding interactions to the activity of native and non-native ligands in the quorum-sensing receptor LasR.

    PubMed

    Gerdt, Joseph P; McInnis, Christine E; Schell, Trevor L; Blackwell, Helen E

    2015-02-01

    Quorum sensing (QS) via the synthesis and detection of N-acyl L-homoserine lactone (AHL) signals regulates important pathogenic and mutualistic phenotypes in many bacteria. Over the past two decades, the development of non-native molecules that modulate this cell-cell signaling process has become an active area of research. The majority of these compounds were designed to block binding of the native AHL signal to its cognate LuxR-type receptor, and much effort has focused on LasR in the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Despite a small set of reported LasR structural data, it remains unclear which polar interactions are most important for either (i) activation of the LasR receptor by its native AHL signal, N-(3-oxo)-dodecanoyl L-homoserine lactone (OdDHL), or (ii) activation or inhibition of LasR by related AHL analogs. Herein, we report our investigations into the activity of OdDHL and five synthetic analogs in wild-type LasR and in nine LasR mutants with modifications to key polar residues in their ligand binding sites. Our results allowed us to rank, for the first time, the relative importance of each LasR:OdDHL hydrogen bond for LasR activation and provide strong evidence for the five synthetic ligands binding LasR in a very similar orientation as OdDHL. By delineating the specific molecular interactions that are important for LasR modulation by AHLs, these findings should aid in the design of new synthetic modulators of LasR (and homologous LuxR-type receptors) with improved potencies and selectivities. PMID:25474181

  16. NdgR, an IclR-like regulator involved in amino-acid-dependent growth, quorum sensing, and antibiotic production in Streptomyces coelicolor.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yung-Hun; Song, Eunjung; Kim, Eun-Jung; Lee, Kwangwon; Kim, Woo-Seong; Park, Sung-Soo; Hahn, Ji-Sook; Kim, Byung-Gee

    2009-03-01

    NdgR (regulator for nitrogen source-dependent growth and antibiotic production), an IclR-like regulator, has been initially identified as a binding protein to the promoters of doxorubicin biosynthetic genes in Streptomyces peucetius by DNA affinity capture assay method. NdgR is well conserved throughout the Streptomyces species and many other bacteria such as Mycobacteria and Corynebacteria. In Streptomyces coelicolor, ndgR deletion mutant showed slow cell growth and defects in differentiation and enhances the production of actinorhodin (ACT) in minimal media containing certain amino acids where wild-type strain could not produce ACT. Although deletion mutant of ndgR showed different antibiotic production in minimal media containing Leu or Gln, it only showed reduced mRNA expression levels of the genes involved in leucine metabolism. Neither NdgR-dependent expression of glnA nor direct binding of NdgR protein to glnA, glnII, and glnR promoters was observed. However, ScbR, which is governed by NdgR shown by gel mobility shift assay, binds to promoter of glnR, suggesting indirect regulation of glutamine metabolism by NdgR. NdgR protein binds to intergenic region of ndgR-leuC, and scbR-scbA involved in gamma-butyrolactone. Two-dimensional gel analysis has shown a global effect of ndgR deletion in protein expression, including up-regulated proteins involved in ACT synthesis and down-regulation of chaperones such as GroEL, GroES, and DnaK. These results suggest a global regulatory role for NdgR in amino acid metabolisms, quorum sensing, morphological changes, antibiotic production, and expression of chaperonines in S. coelicolor. PMID:19083232

  17. Candida albicans Czf1 and Efg1 Coordinate the Response to Farnesol during Quorum Sensing, White-Opaque Thermal Dimorphism, and Cell Death

    PubMed Central

    Langford, Melanie L.; Hargarten, Jessica C.; Patefield, Krista D.; Marta, Elizabeth; Blankenship, Jill R.; Fanning, Saranna; Nickerson, Kenneth W.

    2013-01-01

    Quorum sensing by farnesol in Candida albicans inhibits filamentation and may be directly related to its ability to cause both mucosal and systemic diseases. The Ras1-cyclic AMP signaling pathway is a target for farnesol inhibition. However, a clear understanding of the downstream effectors of the morphological farnesol response has yet to be unraveled. To address this issue, we screened a library for mutants that fail to respond to farnesol. Six mutants were identified, and the czf1?/czf1? mutant was selected for further characterization. Czf1 is a transcription factor that regulates filamentation in embedded agar and also white-to-opaque switching. We found that Czf1 is required for filament inhibition by farnesol under at least three distinct environmental conditions: on agar surfaces, in liquid medium, and when embedded in a semisolid agar matrix. Since Efg1 is a transcription factor of the Ras1-cyclic AMP signaling pathway that interacts with and regulates Czf1, an efg1?/efg1? czf1?/czf1? mutant was tested for filament inhibition by farnesol. It exhibited an opaque-cell-like temperature-dependent morphology, and it was killed by low farnesol levels that are sublethal to wild-type cells and both efg1?/efg1? and czf1?/czf1? single mutants. These results highlight a new role for Czf1 as a downstream effector of the morphological response to farnesol, and along with Efg1, Czf1 is involved in the control of farnesol-mediated cell death in C. albicans. PMID:23873867

  18. The Alternative Sigma Factor SigX Controls Bacteriocin Synthesis and Competence, the Two Quorum Sensing Regulated Traits in Streptococcus mutans

    PubMed Central

    Reck, Michael; Tomasch, Jürgen; Wagner-Döbler, Irene

    2015-01-01

    Two small quorum sensing (QS) peptides regulate competence in S. mutans in a cell density dependent manner: XIP (sigX inducing peptide) and CSP (competence stimulating peptide). Depending on the environmental conditions isogenic S. mutans cells can split into a competent and non-competent subpopulation. The origin of this population heterogeneity has not been experimentally determined and it is unknown how the two QS systems are connected. We developed a toolbox of single and dual fluorescent reporter strains and systematically knocked out key genes of the competence signaling cascade in the reporter strain backgrounds. By following signal propagation on the single cell level we discovered that the master regulator of competence, the alternative sigma factor SigX, directly controls expression of the response regulator for bacteriocin synthesis ComE. Consequently, a SigX binding motif (cin-box) was identified in the promoter region of comE. Overexpressing the genetic components involved in competence development demonstrated that ComRS represents the origin of bimodality and determines the modality of the downstream regulators SigX and ComE. Moreover these analysis showed that there is no direct regulatory link between the two QS signaling cascades. Competence is induced through a hierarchical XIP signaling cascade, which has no regulatory input from the CSP cascade. CSP exclusively regulates bacteriocin synthesis. We suggest renaming it mutacin inducing peptide (MIP). Finally, using phosphomimetic comE mutants we show that unimodal bacteriocin production is controlled posttranslationally, thus solving the puzzling observation that in complex media competence is observed in a subpopulation only, while at the same time all cells produce bacteriocins. The control of both bacteriocin synthesis and competence through the alternative sigma-factor SigX suggests that S. mutans increases its genetic repertoire via QS controlled predation on neighboring species in its natural habitat. PMID:26158727

  19. LuxR- and LuxI-Type Quorum-Sensing Circuits Are Prevalent in Members of the Populus deltoides Microbiome

    PubMed Central

    Schaefer, Amy L.; Lappala, Colin R.; Morlen, Ryan P.; Pelletier, Dale A.; Lu, Tse-Yuan S.; Lankford, Patricia K.; Harwood, Caroline S.

    2013-01-01

    We are interested in the root microbiome of the fast-growing Eastern cottonwood tree, Populus deltoides. There is a large bank of bacterial isolates from P. deltoides, and there are 44 draft genomes of bacterial endophyte and rhizosphere isolates. As a first step in efforts to understand the roles of bacterial communication and plant-bacterial signaling in P. deltoides, we focused on the prevalence of acyl-homoserine lactone (AHL) quorum-sensing-signal production and reception in members of the P. deltoides microbiome. We screened 129 bacterial isolates for AHL production using a broad-spectrum bioassay that responds to many but not all AHLs, and we queried the available genome sequences of microbiome isolates for homologs of AHL synthase and receptor genes. AHL signal production was detected in 40% of 129 strains tested. Positive isolates included members of the Alpha-, Beta-, and Gammaproteobacteria. Members of the luxI family of AHL synthases were identified in 18 of 39 proteobacterial genomes, including genomes of some isolates that tested negative in the bioassay. Members of the luxR family of transcription factors, which includes AHL-responsive factors, were more abundant than luxI homologs. There were 72 in the 39 proteobacterial genomes. Some of the luxR homologs appear to be members of a subfamily of LuxRs that respond to as-yet-unknown plant signals rather than bacterial AHLs. Apparently, there is a substantial capacity for AHL cell-to-cell communication in proteobacteria of the P. deltoides microbiota, and there are also Proteobacteria with LuxR homologs of the type hypothesized to respond to plant signals or cues. PMID:23851092

  20. The Alternative Sigma Factor SigX Controls Bacteriocin Synthesis and Competence, the Two Quorum Sensing Regulated Traits in Streptococcus mutans.

    PubMed

    Reck, Michael; Tomasch, Jürgen; Wagner-Döbler, Irene

    2015-07-01

    Two small quorum sensing (QS) peptides regulate competence in S. mutans in a cell density dependent manner: XIP (sigX inducing peptide) and CSP (competence stimulating peptide). Depending on the environmental conditions isogenic S. mutans cells can split into a competent and non-competent subpopulation. The origin of this population heterogeneity has not been experimentally determined and it is unknown how the two QS systems are connected. We developed a toolbox of single and dual fluorescent reporter strains and systematically knocked out key genes of the competence signaling cascade in the reporter strain backgrounds. By following signal propagation on the single cell level we discovered that the master regulator of competence, the alternative sigma factor SigX, directly controls expression of the response regulator for bacteriocin synthesis ComE. Consequently, a SigX binding motif (cin-box) was identified in the promoter region of comE. Overexpressing the genetic components involved in competence development demonstrated that ComRS represents the origin of bimodality and determines the modality of the downstream regulators SigX and ComE. Moreover these analysis showed that there is no direct regulatory link between the two QS signaling cascades. Competence is induced through a hierarchical XIP signaling cascade, which has no regulatory input from the CSP cascade. CSP exclusively regulates bacteriocin synthesis. We suggest renaming it mutacin inducing peptide (MIP). Finally, using phosphomimetic comE mutants we show that unimodal bacteriocin production is controlled posttranslationally, thus solving the puzzling observation that in complex media competence is observed in a subpopulation only, while at the same time all cells produce bacteriocins. The control of both bacteriocin synthesis and competence through the alternative sigma-factor SigX suggests that S. mutans increases its genetic repertoire via QS controlled predation on neighboring species in its natural habitat. PMID:26158727

  1. The Pseudomonas aeruginosa quorum sensing signal molecule N-(3-oxododecanoyl) homoserine lactone enhances keratinocyte migration and induces Mmp13 gene expression in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Paes, Camila, E-mail: camilaquinetti@gmail.com [University of Tokyo, Department of Gerontological Nursing/Wound Care Management, Graduate School of Medicine, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)] [University of Tokyo, Department of Gerontological Nursing/Wound Care Management, Graduate School of Medicine, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Nakagami, Gojiro, E-mail: gojiron-tky@umin.ac.jp [University of Tokyo, Department of Gerontological Nursing/Wound Care Management, Graduate School of Medicine, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)] [University of Tokyo, Department of Gerontological Nursing/Wound Care Management, Graduate School of Medicine, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Minematsu, Takeo, E-mail: tminematsu-tky@umin.ac.jp [University of Tokyo, Department of Gerontological Nursing/Wound Care Management, Graduate School of Medicine, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)] [University of Tokyo, Department of Gerontological Nursing/Wound Care Management, Graduate School of Medicine, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Nagase, Takashi, E-mail: tnagase@fb3.so-net.ne.jp [University of Tokyo, Department of Gerontological Nursing/Wound Care Management, Graduate School of Medicine, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)] [University of Tokyo, Department of Gerontological Nursing/Wound Care Management, Graduate School of Medicine, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Huang, Lijuan, E-mail: koureikenhlj@gmail.com [University of Tokyo, Department of Gerontological Nursing/Wound Care Management, Graduate School of Medicine, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)] [University of Tokyo, Department of Gerontological Nursing/Wound Care Management, Graduate School of Medicine, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Sari, Yunita, E-mail: yunita-tky@umin.ac.jp [University of Tokyo, Department of Gerontological Nursing/Wound Care Management, Graduate School of Medicine, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)] [University of Tokyo, Department of Gerontological Nursing/Wound Care Management, Graduate School of Medicine, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Sanada, Hiromi, E-mail: hsanada-tky@umin.ac.jp [University of Tokyo, Department of Gerontological Nursing/Wound Care Management, Graduate School of Medicine, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)] [University of Tokyo, Department of Gerontological Nursing/Wound Care Management, Graduate School of Medicine, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)

    2012-10-19

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An evidence of the positive effect of AHL on epithelialization process is provided. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer AHL enhances keratinocyte's ability to migrate in an in vitro scratch wound model. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer AHL induces the expression of Mmp13. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Topical application of AHL represents a possible strategy to treat chronic wounds. -- Abstract: Re-epithelialization is an essential step of wound healing involving three overlapping keratinocyte functions: migration, proliferation and differentiation. While quorum sensing (QS) is a cell density-dependent signaling system that enables bacteria to regulate the expression of certain genes, the QS molecule N-(3-oxododecanoyl) homoserine lactone (AHL) exerts effects also on mammalian cells in a process called inter-kingdom signaling. Recent studies have shown that AHL improves epithelialization in in vivo wound healing models but detailed understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms are needed. The present study focused on the AHL as a candidate reagent to improve wound healing through direct modulation of keratinocyte's activity in the re-epithelialization process. Results indicated that AHL enhances the keratinocyte's ability to migrate in an in vitro scratch wound healing model probably due to the high Mmp13 gene expression analysis after AHL treatment that was revealed by real-time RT-PCR. Inhibition of activator protein 1 (AP-1) signaling pathway completely prevented the migration of keratinocytes, and also resulted in a diminished Mmp13 gene expression, suggesting that AP-1 might be essential in the AHL-induced migration. Taken together, these results imply that AHL is a promising candidate molecule to improve re-epithelialization through the induction of migration of keratinocytes. Further investigation is needed to clarify the mechanism of action and molecular pathway of AHL on the keratinocyte migration process.

  2. Quorum Sensing and c-di-GMP-Dependent Alterations in Gene Transcripts and Virulence-Associated Phenotypes in a Clinical Isolate of Aeromonas hydrophila

    PubMed Central

    Kozlova, Elena V.; Khajanchi, Bijay K.; Sha, Jian; Chopra, Ashok K.

    2011-01-01

    Recently, we demonstrated that the LuxS-based quorum sensing (QS) system (AI-2) negatively regulated the virulence of a diarrheal isolate SSU of Aeromonas hydrophila, while the ahyRI-based (AI-1) N-acyl-homoserine lactone system was a positive regulator of bacterial virulence. Thus, these QS systems had opposing effects on modulating biofilm formation and bacterial motility in vitro models and in vivo virulence in a speticemic mouse model of infection. In this study, we linked these two QS systems with the bacterial second messenger cyclic diguanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP) in the regulation of virulence in A. hydrophila SSU. To accomplish this, we examined the effect of overproducing a protein with GGDEF domain, which increases c-di-GMP levels in bacteria, on the phenotype and transcriptional profiling of genes involved in biofilm formation and bacterial motility in wild-type (WT) versus its QS null mutants. We provided evidence that c-di-GMP overproduction dramatically enhanced biofilm formation and reduced motility of the WT A. hydrophila SSU, which was equitable with that of the ?luxS mutant. On the contrary, the ?ahyRI mutant exhibited only a marginal increase in the biofilm formation with no effect on motility when c-di-GMP was overproduced. Overall, our data indicated that c-di-GMP overproduction modulated transcriptional levels of genes involved in biofilm formation and motility phenotype in A. hydrophila SSU in a QS-dependent manner, involving both AI-1 and AI-2 systems. PMID:21256953

  3. Resistance to Quorum-Quenching Compounds

    PubMed Central

    García-Contreras, Rodolfo; Maeda, Toshinari

    2013-01-01

    Bacteria have the remarkable ability to communicate as a group in what has become known as quorum sensing (QS), and this trait has been associated with important bacterial phenotypes, such as virulence and biofilm formation. Bacteria also have an incredible ability to evolve resistance to all known antimicrobials. Hence, although inhibition of QS has been hailed as a means to reduce virulence in a manner that is impervious to bacterial resistance mechanisms, this approach is unlikely to be a panacea. Here we review the evidence that bacteria can evolve resistance to quorum-quenching compounds. PMID:24014536

  4. The ppuI-rsaL-ppuR quorum-sensing system regulates cellular motility, pectate lyase activity, and virulence in potato opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas sp. StFLB209.

    PubMed

    Kato, Taro; Morohoshi, Tomohiro; Someya, Nobutaka; Ikeda, Tsukasa

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonas sp. StFLB209 was isolated from potato leaf as an N-acylhomoserine lactone (AHL)-producing bacterium and showed a close phylogenetic relationship with P. cichorii, a known plant pathogen. Although there are no reports of potato disease caused by pseudomonads in Japan, StFLB209 was pathogenic to potato leaf. In this study, we reveal the complete genome sequence of StFLB209, and show that the strain possesses a ppuI-rsaL-ppuR quorum-sensing system, the sequence of which shares a high similarity with that of Pseudomonas putida. Disruption of ppuI results in a loss of AHL production as well as remarkable reduction in motility. StFLB209 possesses strong pectate lyase activity and causes maceration on potato tuber and leaf, which was slightly reduced in the ppuI mutant. These results suggest that the quorum-sensing system is well conserved between StFLB209 and P. putida and that the system is essential for motility, full pectate lyase activity, and virulence in StFLB209. PMID:25485871

  5. Crystallization and preliminary crystal structure analysis of the ligand-binding domain of PqsR (MvfR), the Pseudomonas quinolone signal (PQS) responsive quorum-sensing transcription factor of Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Ningna; Yu, Shen; Moniot, Sébastien; Weyand, Michael; Blankenfeldt, Wulf

    2012-01-01

    The opportunistic bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa employs three transcriptional regulators, LasR, RhlR and PqsR, to control the transcription of a large subset of its genes in a cell-density-dependent process known as quorum sensing. Here, the recombinant production, crystallization and structure solution of the ligand-binding domain of PqsR (MvfR), the LysR-type transcription factor that responds to the Pseudomonas quinolone signal (PQS), a quinolone-based quorum-sensing signal that is unique to P. aeruginosa and possibly a small number of other bacteria, is reported. PqsR regulates the expression of many virulence genes and may therefore be an interesting drug target. The ligand-binding domain (residues 91–319) was produced as a fusion with SUMO, and hexagonal-shaped crystals of purified PqsR_91–319 were obtained using the vapour-diffusion method. Crystallization in the presence of a PQS precursor allowed data collection to 3.25?Å resolution on a synchrotron beamline, and initial phases have been obtained using single-wavelength anomalous diffraction data from seleno-l-methionine-labelled crystals, revealing the space group to be P6522, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 116–120, c = 115–117?Å. PMID:22949189

  6. Testing the level of ant activity associated with quorum sensing: An empirical approach leading to the establishment and test of a null-model

    E-print Network

    Waxman, David

    in the sea, do not indulge in metabolically expensive luminescence, except when living symbiotically, at high density, in the light organs of some marine fish and squid. This mechanism was first called `quorum humile, tends to make convoluted exploratory pathways at high ant density, but these become straighter

  7. Impact of QseBC system in c-di-GMP-dependent quorum sensing regulatory network in a clinical isolate SSU of Aeromonas hydrophila

    PubMed Central

    Kozlova, Elena V.; Khajanchi, Bijay K.; Popov, Vsevolod. L.; Wen, Julie; Chopra, Ashok K.

    2012-01-01

    Our earlier studies showed that ahyRI (AI-1) and LuxS-based (AI-2) quorum sensing (QS) systems were positive and negative regulators of virulence, respectively, in a diarrheal isolate SSU of A. hydrophila. Recently, we demonstrated that deletion of the QseBC two-component signal transduction system (AI-3 QS in enterohemorrhagic E. coli) also led to an attenuation of A. hydrophila in a septicemic mouse model of infection, and that interplay exists between AI-1, AI-2, and the second messenger cyclic-di-guanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP) in modulating bacterial virulence. To further explore a network connection between all of the three QS systems in A. hydrophila SSU and their cross-talk with c-di-GMP, we overproduced a protein with a GGDEF domain, which increases c-di-GMP levels in bacteria, and studied phenotypes and transcriptional profiling of genes involved in biofilm formation and motility of the wild-type (WT) A. hydrophila and its ?qseB mutant. Over-expression of the GGDEF domain-encoding gene (aha0701h) resulted in a significantly reduced motility of the WT A. hydrophila similar to that of the ?qseB mutant. While enhanced protease production was noted in WT A. hydrophila that had increased c-di-GMP, no enzymatic activity was detected in the ?qseB mutant overexpressing the aha0701h gene. Likewise, denser biofilm formation was noted for WT bacteria when c-di-GMP was overproduced compared to its respective control; however, overproduction of c-di-GMP in the ?qseB mutant led to reduced biofilm formation, a finding similar to that noted for the parental A. hydrophila strain. These effects on bacterial motility and biofilm formation in the ?qseB mutant or the mutant with increased c-di-GMP were correlated with altered levels of fleN and vpsT genes. While we noted transcript levels of qseB and qseC genes to be increased in the ahyRI mutant, down-regulation of the ahyR and ahyI genes was observed in the ?qseB mutant, which correlated with decreased protease activity. Finally, an enhanced virulence of WT A. hydrophila with increased c-di-GMP was noted in a mouse model when compared to findings in the parental strain with vector alone. Overall, we conclude that cross talk between AI-1- and QseBC-systems exist in A. hydrophila SSU, and c-di-GMP modulation on QseBC-system is dependent on the expression of the AI-1 system. PMID:22664750

  8. Dissection of Quorum-Sensing Genes in Burkholderia glumae Reveals Non-Canonical Regulation and the New Regulatory Gene tofM for Toxoflavin Production

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ruoxi; Barphagha, Inderjit K.; Karki, Hari S.; Ham, Jong Hyun

    2012-01-01

    Burkholderia glumae causes bacterial panicle blight of rice and produces major virulence factors, including toxoflavin, under the control of the quorum-sensing (QS) system mediated by the luxI homolog, tofI, and the luxR homolog, tofR. In this study, a series of markerless deletion mutants of B. glumae for tofI and tofR were generated using the suicide vector system, pKKSacB, for comprehensive characterization of the QS system of this pathogen. Consistent with the previous studies by other research groups, ?tofI and ?tofR strains of B. glumae did not produce toxoflavin in Luria-Bertani (LB) broth. However, these mutants produced high levels of toxoflavin when grown in a highly dense bacterial inoculum (? 1011 CFU/ml) on solid media, including LB agar and King’s B (KB) agar media. The ?tofI/?tofR strain of B. glumae, LSUPB201, also produced toxoflavin on LB agar medium. These results indicate the presence of previously unknown regulatory pathways for the production of toxoflavin that are independent of tofI and/or tofR. Notably, the conserved open reading frame (locus tag: bglu_2g14480) located in the intergenic region between tofI and tofR was found to be essential for the production of toxoflavin by tofI and tofR mutants on solid media. This novel regulatory factor of B. glumae was named tofM after its homolog, rsaM, which was recently identified as a novel negative regulatory gene for the QS system of another rice pathogenic bacterium, Pseudomonas fuscovaginae. The ?tofM strain of B. glumae, LSUPB286, produced a less amount of toxoflavin and showed attenuated virulence when compared with its wild type parental strain, 336gr-1, suggesting that tofM plays a positive role in toxoflavin production and virulence. In addition, the observed growth defect of the ?tofI strain, LSUPB145, was restored by 1 µM N-octanoyl homoserine lactone (C8-HSL). PMID:23284909

  9. Autoinducer 2 Controls Biofilm Formation in Escherichia coli through a Novel Motility Quorum-Sensing Regulator (MqsR, B3022)

    PubMed Central

    González Barrios, Andrés F.; Zuo, Rongjun; Hashimoto, Yoshifumi; Yang, Li; Bentley, William E.; Wood, Thomas K.

    2006-01-01

    The cross-species bacterial communication signal autoinducer 2 (AI-2), produced by the purified enzymes Pfs (nucleosidase) and LuxS (terminal synthase) from S-adenosylhomocysteine, directly increased Escherichia coli biofilm mass 30-fold. Continuous-flow cells coupled with confocal microscopy corroborated these results by showing the addition of AI-2 significantly increased both biofilm mass and thickness and reduced the interstitial space between microcolonies. As expected, the addition of AI-2 to cells which lack the ability to transport AI-2 (lsr null mutant) failed to stimulate biofilm formation. Since the addition of AI-2 increased cell motility through enhanced transcription of five motility genes, we propose that AI-2 stimulates biofilm formation and alters its architecture by stimulating flagellar motion and motility. It was also found that the uncharacterized protein B3022 regulates this AI-2-mediated motility and biofilm phenotype through the two-component motility regulatory system QseBC. Deletion of b3022 abolished motility, which was restored by expressing b3022 in trans. Deletion of b3022 also decreased biofilm formation significantly, relative to the wild-type strain in three media (46 to 74%) in 96-well plates, as well as decreased biomass (8-fold) and substratum coverage (19-fold) in continuous-flow cells with minimal medium (growth rate not altered and biofilm restored by expressing b3022 in trans). Deleting b3022 changed the wild-type biofilm architecture from a thick (54-?m) complex structure to one that contained only a few microcolonies. B3022 positively regulates expression of qseBC, flhD, fliA, and motA, since deleting b3022 decreased their transcription by 61-, 25-, 2.4-, and 18-fold, respectively. Transcriptome analysis also revealed that B3022 induces crl (26-fold) and flhCD (8- to 27-fold). Adding AI-2 (6.4 ?M) increased biofilm formation of wild-type K-12 MG1655 but not that of the isogenic b3022, qseBC, fliA, and motA mutants. Adding AI-2 also increased motA transcription for the wild-type strain but did not stimulate motA transcription for the b3022 and qseB mutants. Together, these results indicate AI-2 induces biofilm formation in E. coli through B3022, which then regulates QseBC and motility; hence, b3022 has been renamed the motility quorum-sensing regulator gene (the mqsR gene). PMID:16352847

  10. Transcriptional Regulation of opaR, qrr2–4 and aphA by the Master Quorum-Sensing Regulator OpaR in Vibrio parahaemolyticus

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Yafang; Guo, Zhaobiao; Yang, Ruifu; Zhou, Dongsheng

    2012-01-01

    Background Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a leading cause of infectious diarrhea and enterogastritis via the fecal-oral route. V. harveyi is a pathogen of fishes and invertebrates, and has been used as a model for quorum sensing (QS) studies. LuxR is the master QS regulator (MQSR) of V. harveyi, and LuxR-dependent expression of its own gene, qrr2–4 and aphA have been established in V. harveyi. Molecular regulation of target genes by the V. parahaemolyticus MQSR OpaR is still poorly understood. Methodology/Principal Findings The bioinformatics analysis indicated that V. parahaemolyticus OpaR, V. harveyi LuxR, V. vulnificu SmcR, and V. alginolyticus ValR were extremely conserved, and that these four MQSRs appeared to recognize the same conserved cis-acting signals, which was represented by the consensus constructs manifesting as a position frequency matrix and as a 20 bp box, within their target promoters. The MQSR box-like sequences were found within the upstream DNA regions of opaR, qrr2–4 and aphA in V. parahaemolyticus, and the direct transcriptional regulation of these target genes by OpaR were further confirmed by multiple biochemical experiments including primer extension assay, gel mobility shift assay, and DNase I footprinting analysis. Translation and transcription starts, core promoter elements for sigma factor recognition, Shine-Dalgarno sequences for ribosome recognition, and OpaR-binding sites were determined for the five target genes of OpaR, which gave a structural map of the OpaR-dependent promoters. Further computational promoter analysis indicated the above regulatory circuits were shared by several other closely related Vibrios but with slight exceptions. Conclusions/Significance This study gave a comprehensive computational and characterization of the direct transcriptional regulation of five target genes, opaR, qrr2–4 and ahpA, by OpaR in V. parahaemolyticus. These characterized regulatory circuits were conserved in V. harveyi and V. parahaemolyticus. PMID:22506036

  11. Burkholderia pseudomallei, B. thailandensis, and B. ambifaria Produce 4-Hydroxy-2-Alkylquinoline Analogues with a Methyl Group at the 3 Position That Is Required for Quorum-Sensing Regulation ?

    PubMed Central

    Vial, Ludovic; Lépine, François; Milot, Sylvain; Groleau, Marie-Christine; Dekimpe, Valérie; Woods, Donald E.; Déziel, Eric

    2008-01-01

    4-Hydroxy-2-alkylquinolines (HAQs), especially 3,4-dihydroxy-2-heptylquinoline (Pseudomonas quinolone signal) and its precursor, 4-hydroxy-2-heptylquinoline, are attracting much attention, mainly because of their role as signaling molecules in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The pqsABCDE operon is centrally involved in their biosynthesis. The presence of a homologous operon in Burkholderia pseudomallei and B. thailandensis was recently reported. Thus, we have investigated the abilities of 11 Burkholderia species to produce HAQ-like molecules by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. We have identified 29 different HAQ derivatives produced by the only three Burkholderia species where a pqsABCDE homologue was found among available sequenced Burkholderia species genomes, including B. ambifaria, a member of the Burkholderia cepacia complex. In contrast with those of P. aeruginosa, Burkholderia HAQs typically bear a methyl group, hence their designation as 4-hydroxy-3-methyl-2-alkylquinolines (HMAQs). We identified three families of HMAQs with a saturated or unsaturated alkyl chain at the 2? position, in contrast with the 1? position of P. aeruginosa, including one with an N-oxide group. Furthermore, the operon in these species contains two more genes downstream of the pqsE homologue, resulting in the hmqABCDEFG operon. While the inactivation of hmqA inhibits the production of HMAQs, the methylation of the quinoline ring requires a putative methyltransferase encoded by hmqG. Interestingly, hmqA or hmqG mutations increase the production of acyl homoserine lactones and, consequently, phenotypes under the control of quorum sensing in B. ambifaria: antifungal activity, siderophore production, and proteolytic activity. These results indicate that only HAQs bearing a methyl group (HMAQs) are involved in quorum-sensing regulation. PMID:18539738

  12. Thin-film modelling of biofilm growth and quorum Mathematical Biology Group, Department of Mathematical Sciences, Loughborough University,

    E-print Network

    Thin-film modelling of biofilm growth and quorum sensing J.P. Ward , Mathematical Biology Group. Abstract Biofilms are slimy films of bacteria that typically grow on solid surfaces with a fluid interface. Two mathematical models for nutrient dependent, early-stage biofilm growth and quorum sensing

  13. Application of molecular docking and ONIOM methods for the description of interactions between anti-quorum sensing active (AHL) analogues and the Pseudomonas aeruginosa LasR binding site.

    PubMed

    Ahumedo, Maicol; Drosos, Juan Carlos; Vivas-Reyes, Ricardo

    2014-05-01

    Molecular docking methods were applied to simulate the coupling of a set of nineteen acyl homoserine lactone analogs into the binding site of the transcriptional receptor LasR. The best pose of each ligand was explored and a qualitative analysis of the possible interactions present in the complex was performed. From the results of the protein-ligand complex analysis, it was found that residues Tyr-64 and Tyr-47 are involved in important interactions, which mainly determine the antagonistic activity of the AHL analogues considered for this study. The effect of different substituents on the aromatic ring, the common structure to all ligands, was also evaluated focusing on how the interaction with the two previously mentioned tyrosine residues was affected. Electrostatic potential map calculations based on the electron density and the van der Waals radii were performed on all ligands to graphically aid in the explanation of the variation of charge density on their structures when the substituent on the aromatic ring is changed through the elements of the halogen group series. A quantitative approach was also considered and for that purpose the ONIOM method was performed to estimate the energy change in the different ligand-receptor complex regions. Those energy values were tested for their relationship with the corresponding IC50 in order to establish if there is any correlation between energy changes in the selected regions and the biological activity. The results obtained using the two approaches may contribute to the field of quorum sensing active molecules; the docking analysis revealed the role of some binding site residues involved in the formation of a halogen bridge with ligands. These interactions have been demonstrated to be responsible for the interruption of the signal propagation needed for the quorum sensing circuit. Using the other approach, the structure-activity relationship (SAR) analysis, it was possible to establish which structural characteristics and chemical requirements are necessary to classify a compound as a possible agonist or antagonist against the LasR binding site. PMID:24626770

  14. Modulation of Quorum Sensing in Acylhomoserine Lactone-Producing or -Degrading Tobacco Plants Leads to Alteration of Induced Systemic Resistance Elicited by the Rhizobacterium Serratia marcescens 90-166

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Choong-Min; Choi, Hye Kyung; Lee, Chi-Ho; Murphy, John F.; Lee, Jung-Kee; Kloepper, Joseph W.

    2013-01-01

    Numerous root-associated bacteria (rhizobacteria) are known to elicit induced systemic resistance (ISR) in plants. Bacterial cell-density-dependent quorum sensing (QS) is thought to be important for ISR. Here, we investigated the role of QS in the ISR elicited by the rhizobacterium, Serratia marcescens strain 90–166, in tobacco. Since S. marcescens 90–166 produces at least three QS signals, QS-mediated ISR in strain 90–166 has been difficult to understand. Therefore, we investigated the ISR capacity of two transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants that contained either bacterial acylhomoserine lactone-producing (AHL) or -degrading (AiiA) genes in conjunction with S. marcescens 90–166 to induce resistance against bacterial and viral pathogens. Root application of S. marcescens 90–166 increased ISR to the bacterial pathogens, Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci, in AHL plants and decreased ISR in AiiA plants. In contrast, ISR to Cucumber mosaic virus was reduced in AHL plants treated with S. marcescens 90–166 but enhanced in AiiA plants. Taken together, these data indicate that QS-dependent ISR is elicited by S. marcescens 90–166 in a pathogen-dependent manner. This study provides insight into QS-dependent ISR in tobacco elicited by S. marcescens 90–166. PMID:25288945

  15. Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilm Formation and Persistence, along with the Production of Quorum Sensing-Dependent Virulence Factors, Are Disrupted by a Triterpenoid Coumarate Ester Isolated from Dalbergia trichocarpa, a Tropical Legume

    PubMed Central

    Pottier, Laurent; Huet, Joelle; Rabemanantsoa, Christian; Kiendrebeogo, Martin; Andriantsimahavandy, Abel; Rasamindrakotroka, Andry; Stévigny, Caroline; Duez, Pierre; El Jaziri, Mondher

    2015-01-01

    Recently, extracts of Dalbergia trichocarpa bark have been shown to disrupt P. aeruginosa PAO1 quorum sensing (QS) mechanisms, which are key regulators of virulence factor expression and implicated in biofilm formation. One of the active compounds has been isolated and identified as oleanolic aldehyde coumarate (OALC), a novel bioactive compound that inhibits the formation of P. aeruginosa PAO1 biofilm and its maintenance as well as the expression of the las and rhl QS systems. Consequently, the production of QS-controlled virulence factors including, rhamnolipids, pyocyanin, elastase and extracellular polysaccharides as well as twitching and swarming motilities is reduced. Native acylhomoserine lactones (AHLs) production is inhibited by OALC but exogenous supply of AHLs does not restore the production of virulence factors by OALC-treated cultures, indicating that OALC exerts its effect beyond AHLs synthesis in the QS pathways. Further experiments provided a significant inhibition of the global virulence factor activator gacA by OALC. OALC disorganizes established biofilm structure and improves the bactericidal activity of tobramycin against biofilm-encapsulated PAO1 cells. Finally, a significant reduction of Caenorhabditis elegans paralysis was recorded when the worms were infected with OALC-pre-treated P. aeruginosa. Taken together, these results show that triterpenoid coumarate esters are suitable chemical backbones to target P. aeruginosa virulence mechanisms. PMID:26186595

  16. Sensing bacteria, without bitterness?

    PubMed Central

    Viswanathan, V.K.

    2013-01-01

    In addition to their recognized roles in intra- and inter-species signaling, bacterial quorum-sensing molecules have been implicated in inter-kingdom signaling. A new study in Pseudomonas aeruginosa suggests that mammalian bitter taste receptors may recognize bacterial quorum sensing molecules, and widens the scope of such inter-kingdom communication. Intestinal cells also harbor these receptors, but whether they eavesdrop on bacterial conversations remains an open question. PMID:23380647

  17. The BpeAB-OprB Efflux Pump of Burkholderia pseudomallei 1026b Does Not Play a Role in Quorum Sensing, Virulence Factor Production, or Extrusion of Aminoglycosides but Is a Broad-Spectrum Drug Efflux System ?

    PubMed Central

    Mima, Takehiko; Schweizer, Herbert P.

    2010-01-01

    Most Burkholderia pseudomallei strains are intrinsically aminoglycoside resistant, mainly due to AmrAB-OprA-mediated efflux. Rare naturally occurring or genetically engineered mutants lacking this pump are aminoglycoside susceptible despite the fact that they also encode and express BpeAB-OprB, which was reported to mediate efflux of aminoglycosides in the Singapore strain KHW. To reassess the role of BpeAB-OprB in B. pseudomallei aminoglycoside resistance, we used mutants overexpressing or lacking this pump in either AmrAB-OprA-proficient or -deficient strain 1026b backgrounds. Our data show that BpeAB-OprB does not mediate efflux of aminoglycosides but is a multidrug efflux system which extrudes macrolides, fluoroquinolones, tetracyclines, acriflavine, and, to a lesser extent, chloramphenicol. Phylogenetically, BpeAB-OprB is closely related to Pseudomonas aeruginosa MexAB-OprM, which has a similar substrate spectrum. AmrAB-OprA is most closely related to MexXY, the only P. aeruginosa efflux pump known to extrude aminoglycosides. Since BpeAB-OprB in strain KHW was also implicated in playing a major role in export of acylated homoserine lactone (AHL) quorum-sensing molecules and in expression of diverse virulence factors, we explored whether this was also true in the strain 1026b background. The results showed that BpeAB-OprB was not required for AHL export, and mutants lacking this efflux system exhibited normal swimming motility and siderophore production, which were severely impaired in KHW bpeAB-oprB mutants. Biofilm formation was impaired in 1026b ?(amrRAB-oprA) and ?(amrRAB-oprA) ?(bpeAB-oprB) mutants. At present, we do not know why our BpeAB-OprB susceptibility and virulence factor expression results with 1026b and its derivatives are different from those previously published for Singapore strain KHW. PMID:20498323

  18. The effect of specific rhlA-las-box mutations on DNA binding and gene activation by Pseudomonas aeruginosa quorum-sensing transcriptional regulators RhlR and LasR.

    PubMed

    González-Valdez, Abigail; Servín-González, Luis; Juárez, Katy; Hernandez-Aligio, Alberto; Soberón-Chávez, Gloria

    2014-07-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a free-living bacterium and an important opportunistic pathogen. The genes coding for virulence-associated traits are regulated at the level of transcription by the quorum-sensing response. In this response, the regulator LasR coupled with the autoinducer 3-oxo-dodecanoyl homoserine lactone (3O-C12-HSL) activates transcription of genes for several virulence factors. LasR/3O-C12-HSL also activates transcription of rhlR, the gene coding for the transcriptional regulator RhlR, and of rhlI that encodes the synthase that produces the autoinducer butanoyl-homoserine lactone (C4-HSL) that interacts with RhlR. Genes activated by RhlR/C4-HSL include those involved in rhamnolipids production (like the rhlAB operon) and lecA, coding for PA-I lectin. The molecular basis of LasR/3O-C12-HSL- and RhlR/C4-HSLDNA-binding specificity (at the so-called las-boxes) has not been clearly determined, and the aim of this work was to contribute to its understanding. Therefore, we analyzed the interaction of LasR and RhlR to variants of the rhlA-las-box that were constructed based on the comparison of this las-box to the las-box of lecA. We conclude that LasR and RhlR DNA-binding specificity is a complex multifactorial phenomenon in which both positive and negative effects are involved and that binding of these proteins does not necessarily result in gene activation. PMID:24935161

  19. Evolution of Resistance to Quorum Quenching in Digital Organisms

    PubMed Central

    Beckmann, Benjamin E.; Knoester, David B.; Connelly, Brian D.; Waters, Christopher M.

    2014-01-01

    Quorum sensing (QS) is a collective behavior whereby actions of individuals depend on the density of the surrounding population. Bacteria use QS to trigger secretion of digestive enzymes, formation and destruction of biofilms, and, in the case of pathogenic organisms, expression of virulence factors that cause disease. Investigations of mechanisms that prevent or disrupt QS, referred to as quorum quenching, are of interest because they provide a new alternative to antibiotics for treating bacterial infections. Traditional antibiotics either kill bacteria or inhibit their growth, producing selective pressures that promote resistant strains. In contrast, quorum quenching and other so-called anti-infective strategies focus on altering behavior. In this article we evolve QS in populations of digital organisms, a type of self-replicating computer program, and investigate the effects of quorum quenching on these populations. Specifically, we injected the populations with mutant organisms that were impaired in selected ways to disrupt the QS process. The experimental results indicate that the rate at which these mutants are introduced into a population influences both the evolvability of QS and the persistence of an existing QS behavior. Surprisingly, we also observed resistance to quorum quenching. Effectively, populations evolved resistance by reaching quorum at lower cell densities than did the parent strain. Moreover, the level of resistance was highest when the rate of mutant introduction increased over time. These results show that digital organisms can serve as a model to study the evolution and disruption of QS, potentially informing wet-lab studies aimed at identifying targets for anti-infective development. PMID:22662911

  20. Mutational Analysis and Membrane Topology of ComP, a Quorum-Sensing Histidine Kinase of Bacillus subtilis Controlling Competence Development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    FLAVIA PIAZZA; PABLO TORTOSA; DAVID DUBNAU

    1999-01-01

    ComP is a sensor histidine kinase of Bacillus subtilis required for the signal transduction pathway that initiates the development of competence for genetic transformation. It is believed that ComP senses the presence of ComX, a modified extracellular peptide pheromone, and donates a phosphate to ComA, thereby activating this transcription factor for binding to the srfA promoter. In the present study,

  1. 32 CFR 242b.4 - Quorum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS GENERAL PROCEDURES AND DELEGATIONS OF THE BOARD OF REGENTS OF THE UNIFORMED SERVICES UNIVERSITY OF THE HEALTH SCIENCES § 242b.4 Quorum. A majority of all Regents in being shall constitute a quorum of the...

  2. 32 CFR 242b.4 - Quorum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS GENERAL PROCEDURES AND DELEGATIONS OF THE BOARD OF REGENTS OF THE UNIFORMED SERVICES UNIVERSITY OF THE HEALTH SCIENCES § 242b.4 Quorum. A majority of all Regents in being shall constitute a quorum of the...

  3. 32 CFR 242b.4 - Quorum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS GENERAL PROCEDURES AND DELEGATIONS OF THE BOARD OF REGENTS OF THE UNIFORMED SERVICES UNIVERSITY OF THE HEALTH SCIENCES § 242b.4 Quorum. A majority of all Regents in being shall constitute a quorum of the...

  4. 32 CFR 242b.4 - Quorum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS GENERAL PROCEDURES AND DELEGATIONS OF THE BOARD OF REGENTS OF THE UNIFORMED SERVICES UNIVERSITY OF THE HEALTH SCIENCES § 242b.4 Quorum. A majority of all Regents in being shall constitute a quorum of the...

  5. 32 CFR 242b.4 - Quorum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS GENERAL PROCEDURES AND DELEGATIONS OF THE BOARD OF REGENTS OF THE UNIFORMED SERVICES UNIVERSITY OF THE HEALTH SCIENCES § 242b.4 Quorum. A majority of all Regents in being shall constitute a quorum of the...

  6. HHQ and PQS, two Pseudomonas aeruginosa quorum-sensing molecules, down-regulate the innate immune responses through the nuclear factor-?B pathway

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kiwan; Kim, Young Uk; Koh, Byung Hee; Hwang, Soo Seok; Kim, Seol-Hee; Lépine, Francois; Cho, You-Hee; Lee, Gap Ryol

    2010-01-01

    To explore whether bacterial secreted 4-hydroxy-2-alkylquinolines (HAQs) can regulate host innate immune responses, we used the extracts of bacterial culture supernatants from a wild-type (PA14) and two mutants of Pseudomonas aeruginosa that have defects in making HAQs. Surprisingly, the extract of supernatants from the P. aeruginosa pqsA mutant that does not make HAQs showed strong stimulating activity for the production of innate cytokines such as tumour necrosis factor-? and interleukin-6 in the J774A.1 mouse monocyte/macrophage cell line, whereas the extract from the wild-type did not. The addition of 4-hydroxy-2-heptylquinoline (HHQ) or 2-heptyl-3,4-dihydroxyquinoline (PQS, Pseudomonas quinolone signal) to mammalian cell culture media abolished this stimulating activity of the extracts of supernatants from the pqsA mutant on the expression of innate cytokines in J774A.1 cells and in the primary bronchoalveolar lavage cells from C57BL/6 mice, suggesting that HHQ and PQS can suppress the host innate immune responses. The pqsA mutant showed reduced dissemination in the lung tissue compared with the wild-type strain in a mouse in vivo intranasal infection model, suggesting that HHQ and PQS may play a role in the pathogenicity of P. aeruginosa. HHQ and PQS reduced the nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) binding to its binding sites and the expression of NF-?B target genes, and PQS delayed inhibitor of ?B degradation, indicating that the effect of HHQ and PQS was mediated through the NF-?B pathway. Our results suggest that HHQ and PQS produced by P. aeruginosa actively suppress host innate immune responses. PMID:20102415

  7. Trigonella foenum-graceum (Seed) Extract Interferes with Quorum Sensing Regulated Traits and Biofilm Formation in the Strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Aeromonas hydrophila.

    PubMed

    Husain, Fohad Mabood; Ahmad, Iqbal; Khan, Mohd Shahnawaz; Al-Shabib, Nasser Abdulatif

    2015-01-01

    Trigonella foenum-graecum L. (Fenugreek) is an important plant of the Leguminosae family known to have medicinal properties. However, fraction based antiquorum sensing and antibiofilm activities have not been reported from this plant. In the present study T. foenum-graecum seed extract was sequentially fractionated and sub-MICs were tested for above activities. The methanol fraction of the extract demonstrated significant inhibition of AHL regulated virulence factors: protease, LasB elastase, pyocyanin production, chitinase, EPS, and swarming motility in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 and PAF79. Further, QS dependent virulence factor in the aquatic pathogen Aeromonas hydrophila WAF38 was also reduced. Application of T. foenum-graecum seed extract to PAO1, PAF79, and WAF38 decreased the biofilm forming abilities of the pathogens by significant levels. The extract also exhibited reduced AHL levels and subsequent downregulation of lasB gene. In vivo study showed an enhanced survival of PAO1-preinfected C. elegans after treatment with extract at 1?mg/mL. Further, the major compound detected by GC-MS, caffeine, reduced the production of QS regulated virulence factors and biofilm at 200?µg/mL concentration indicating its role in the activity of the methanol extract. The results of the present study reveal the potential anti-QS and antibiofilm property of T. foenum-graceum extract and caffeine. PMID:26000026

  8. Trigonella foenum-graceum (Seed) Extract Interferes with Quorum Sensing Regulated Traits and Biofilm Formation in the Strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Aeromonas hydrophila

    PubMed Central

    Husain, Fohad Mabood; Ahmad, Iqbal; Khan, Mohd Shahnawaz; Al-Shabib, Nasser Abdulatif

    2015-01-01

    Trigonella foenum-graecum L. (Fenugreek) is an important plant of the Leguminosae family known to have medicinal properties. However, fraction based antiquorum sensing and antibiofilm activities have not been reported from this plant. In the present study T. foenum-graecum seed extract was sequentially fractionated and sub-MICs were tested for above activities. The methanol fraction of the extract demonstrated significant inhibition of AHL regulated virulence factors: protease, LasB elastase, pyocyanin production, chitinase, EPS, and swarming motility in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 and PAF79. Further, QS dependent virulence factor in the aquatic pathogen Aeromonas hydrophila WAF38 was also reduced. Application of T. foenum-graecum seed extract to PAO1, PAF79, and WAF38 decreased the biofilm forming abilities of the pathogens by significant levels. The extract also exhibited reduced AHL levels and subsequent downregulation of lasB gene. In vivo study showed an enhanced survival of PAO1-preinfected C. elegans after treatment with extract at 1?mg/mL. Further, the major compound detected by GC-MS, caffeine, reduced the production of QS regulated virulence factors and biofilm at 200?µg/mL concentration indicating its role in the activity of the methanol extract. The results of the present study reveal the potential anti-QS and antibiofilm property of T. foenum-graceum extract and caffeine. PMID:26000026

  9. Quorum-Sensing and BvrR/BvrS Regulation, the Type IV Secretion System, Cyclic Glucans, and BacA in the Virulence of Brucella ovis: Similarities to and Differences from Smooth Brucellae

    PubMed Central

    Martín-Martín, Ana I.; Sancho, Pilar; de Miguel, María Jesús; Fernández-Lago, Luis

    2012-01-01

    Brucella ovis is a rough bacterium—lacking O-polysaccharide chains in the lipopolysaccharide—that is virulent in its natural host and whose virulence mechanisms remain almost unexplored. In a search for additional traits that distinguish B. ovis from smooth Brucella, which require O-polysaccharide chains for virulence, we have analyzed the significance in B. ovis of the main virulence factors described for smooth Brucella. Attempts to obtain strains of virulent B. ovis strain PA that are mutated in the BvrR/BvrS two-component regulatory system were unsuccessful, suggesting the requirement of that system for in vitro survival, while the inactivation of bacA—in contrast to the results seen with smooth Brucella—did not affect splenic colonization in mice or behavior in J774.A1 murine macrophages. Defects in the synthesis of cyclic ß-1,2 glucans reduced the uptake of B. ovis PA in macrophages and, although the intracellular multiplication rate was unaffected, led to attenuation in mice. Growth of strains with mutations in the type IV secretion system (encoded by the virB operon) and the quorum-sensing-related regulator VjbR was severely attenuated in the mouse model, and although the mutant strains internalized like the parental strain in J774.A1 murine macrophages, they were impaired for intracellular replication. As described for B. melitensis, VjbR regulates the transcription of the virB operon positively, and the N-dodecanoyl-dl-homoserine lactone (C12-HSL) autoinducer abrogates this effect. In contrast, no apparent VjbR-mediated regulation of the fliF flagellar gene was observed in B. ovis, probably due to the two deletions detected upstream of fliF. These results, together with others reported in the text, point to similarities between rough virulent B. ovis and smooth Brucella species as regards virulence but also reveal distinctive traits that could be related to the particular pathogenicity and host tropism characteristics of B. ovis. PMID:22392933

  10. Quorum quenching quandary: resistance to antivirulence compounds

    PubMed Central

    Maeda, Toshinari; García-Contreras, Rodolfo; Pu, Mingming; Sheng, Lili; Garcia, Luis Rene; Tomás, Maria; Wood, Thomas K

    2012-01-01

    Quorum sensing (QS) is the regulation of gene expression in response to the concentration of small signal molecules, and its inactivation has been suggested to have great potential to attenuate microbial virulence. It is assumed that unlike antimicrobials, inhibition of QS should cause less Darwinian selection pressure for bacterial resistance. Using the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa, we demonstrate here that bacterial resistance arises rapidly to the best-characterized compound that inhibits QS (brominated furanone C-30) due to mutations that increase the efflux of C-30. Critically, the C-30-resistant mutant mexR was more pathogenic to Caenorhabditis elegans in the presence of C-30, and the same mutation arises in bacteria responsible for chronic cystic fibrosis infections. Therefore, bacteria may evolve resistance to many new pharmaceuticals thought impervious to resistance. PMID:21918575

  11. The Efficacy of the Quorum Sensing Inhibitor FS8 and Tigecycline in Preventing Prosthesis Biofilm in an Animal Model of Staphylococcal Infection

    PubMed Central

    Simonetti, Oriana; Cirioni, Oscar; Mocchegiani, Federico; Cacciatore, Ivana; Silvestri, Carmela; Baldassarre, Leonardo; Orlando, Fiorenza; Castelli, Pamela; Provinciali, Mauro; Vivarelli, Marco; Fornasari, Erika; Giacometti, Andrea; Offidani, Annamaria

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the efficacy of tigecycline and FS8, alone or combined, in preventing prosthesis biofilm in a rat model of staphylococcal vascular graft infection. Graft infections were established in the back subcutaneous tissue of adult male Wistar rats by implantation of Dacron prostheses followed by topical inoculation with 2 × 107 colony-forming units of Staphylococcus aureus, strain Smith diffuse. The study included a control group, a contaminated group that did not receive any antibiotic prophylaxis, and three contaminated groups that received: (i) intraperitoneal tigecycline, (ii) FS8-soaked graft, and (iii) tigecycline plus FS8-soaked graft, respectively. Each group included 15 animals. The infection burden was evaluated by using sonication and quantitative agar culture. Moreover, an in vitro binding-study was performed to quantify the how much FS8 was coated to the surface of the prosthesis. Tigecycline, combined with FS8, against the adherent bacteria showed MICs (2.00 mg/L) and MBCs (4.00 mg/L) four-fold lower with respect to tigecycline alone in in vitro studies. The rat groups treated with tigecycline showed the lowest bacterial numbers (4.4 × 104 ± 1.2 × 104 CFU/mL). The FS8-treated group showed a good activity and significant differences compared to control group with bacterial numbers of 6.8 × 104 ± 2.0 × 104 CFU/mL. A stronger inhibition of bacterial growth was observed in rats treated with a combined FS8 and tigecycline therapy than in those that were singly treated with bacterial numbers of 101 CFU/mL graft. In conclusion, the ability to affect biofilm formation as well, its property to be an antibiotic enhancer suggests FS8 as alternative or additional agent to use in conjunction with conventional antimicrobial for prevention of staphylococcal biofilm related infection. PMID:23965956

  12. In Vivo Programmed Gene Expression Based on Artificial Quorum Networks.

    PubMed

    Chu, Teng; Huang, Yajun; Hou, Mingyu; Wang, Qiyao; Xiao, Jingfan; Liu, Qin; Zhang, Yuanxing

    2015-08-01

    The quorum sensing (QS) system, as a well-functioning population-dependent gene switch, has been widely applied in many gene circuits in synthetic biology. In our work, an efficient cell density-controlled expression system (QS) was established via engineering of the Vibrio fischeri luxI-luxR quorum sensing system. In order to achieve in vivo programmed gene expression, a synthetic binary regulation circuit (araQS) was constructed by assembling multiple genetic components, including the quorum quenching protein AiiA and the arabinose promoter ParaBAD, into the QS system. In vitro expression assays verified that the araQS system was initiated only in the absence of arabinose in the medium at a high cell density. In vivo expression assays confirmed that the araQS system presented an in vivo-triggered and cell density-dependent expression pattern. Furthermore, the araQS system was demonstrated to function well in different bacteria, indicating a wide range of bacterial hosts for use. To explore its potential applications in vivo, the araQS system was used to control the production of a heterologous protective antigen in an attenuated Edwardsiella tarda strain, which successfully evoked efficient immune protection in a fish model. This work suggested that the araQS system could program bacterial expression in vivo and might have potential uses, including, but not limited to, bacterial vector vaccines. PMID:25979894

  13. Structure And Specificity of a Quorum-Quenching Lactonase (AiiB) From Agrobacterium Tumefaciens

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, D.; Thomas, P.W.; Momb, J.; Hoang, Q.Q.; Petsko, G.A.; Ringe, D.; Fast, W.

    2009-06-03

    N-Acyl-l-homoserine lactone (AHL) mediated quorum-sensing regulates virulence factor production in a variety of Gram-negative bacteria. Proteins capable of degrading these autoinducers have been called 'quorum-quenching' enzymes, can block many quorum-sensing dependent phenotypes, and represent potentially useful reagents for clinical, agricultural, and industrial applications. The most characterized quorum-quenching enzymes to date are the AHL lactonases, which are metalloproteins that belong to the metallo-beta-lactamase superfamily. Here, we report the cloning, heterologous expression, purification, metal content, substrate specificity, and three-dimensional structure of AiiB, an AHL lactonase from Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Much like a homologous AHL lactonase from Bacillus thuringiensis, AiiB appears to be a metal-dependent AHL lactonase with broad specificity. A phosphate dianion is bound to the dinuclear zinc site and the active-site structure suggests specific mechanistic roles for an active site tyrosine and aspartate. To our knowledge, this is the second representative structure of an AHL lactonase and the first of an AHL lactonase from a microorganism that also produces AHL autoinducers. This work should help elucidate the hydrolytic ring-opening mechanism of this family of enzymes and also facilitate the design of more effective quorum-quenching catalysts.

  14. Chlamydomonas reinhardtii Secretes Compounds That Mimic Bacterial Signals and Interfere with Quorum

    E-print Network

    Meier, Iris

    , University of Dayton, Dayton Ohio 45469 (J.B.R.) The unicellular soil-freshwater alga Chlamydomonas. stimulated quorum sensing-dependent luminescence in Vibrio harveyi, indicating that these algae may produce on the accumulation of seven of these proteins, providing evidence that the secretion of AHL mimics by the alga could

  15. Genome Sequence of the Quorum-Quenching Rhodococcus erythropolis Strain R138

    PubMed Central

    Kwasiborski, Anthony; Mondy, Samuel; Beury-Cirou, Amélie

    2014-01-01

    Rhodococcus erythropolis strain R138 was isolated from the rhizosphere of Solanum tuberosum and selected for its capacity to degrade N-acyl-homoserine lactones, quorum-sensing signals used as communication molecules by the potato pathogens Pectobacterium and Dickeya. Here, we report the genome sequence of Rhodococcus erythropolis strain R138. PMID:24675862

  16. Genome Sequence of the Quorum-Quenching Rhodococcus erythropolis Strain R138.

    PubMed

    Kwasiborski, Anthony; Mondy, Samuel; Beury-Cirou, Amélie; Faure, Denis

    2014-01-01

    Rhodococcus erythropolis strain R138 was isolated from the rhizosphere of Solanum tuberosum and selected for its capacity to degrade N-acyl-homoserine lactones, quorum-sensing signals used as communication molecules by the potato pathogens Pectobacterium and Dickeya. Here, we report the genome sequence of Rhodococcus erythropolis strain R138. PMID:24675862

  17. The pharmacology and therapeutic potential of small molecule inhibitors of acid-sensing ion channels in stroke intervention

    PubMed Central

    Leng, Tian-dong; Xiong, Zhi-gang

    2013-01-01

    In the nervous system, a decrease in extracellular pH is a common feature of various physiological and pathological processes, including synaptic transmission, cerebral ischemia, epilepsy, brain trauma, and tissue inflammation. Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) are proton-gated cation channels that are distributed throughout the central and peripheral nervous systems. Following the recent identification of ASICs as critical acid-sensing extracellular proton receptors, growing evidence has suggested that the activation of ASICs plays important roles in physiological processes such as nociception, mechanosensation, synaptic plasticity, learning and memory. However, the over-activation of ASICs is also linked to adverse outcomes for certain pathological processes, such as brain ischemia and multiple sclerosis. Based on the well-demonstrated role of ASIC1a activation in acidosis-mediated brain injury, small molecule inhibitors of ASIC1a may represent novel therapeutic agents for the treatment of neurological disorders, such as stroke. PMID:22820909

  18. Quorum Quenching Mediated Approaches for Control of Membrane Biofouling

    PubMed Central

    Lade, Harshad; Paul, Diby; Kweon, Ji Hyang

    2014-01-01

    Membrane biofouling is widely acknowledged as the most frequent adverse event in wastewater treatment systems resulting in significant loss of treatment efficiency and economy. Different strategies including physical cleaning and use of antimicrobial chemicals or antibiotics have been tried for reducing membrane biofouling. Such traditional practices are aimed to eradicate biofilms or kill the bacteria involved, but the greater efficacy in membrane performance would be achieved by inhibiting biofouling without interfering with bacterial growth. As a result, the search for environmental friendly non-antibiotic antifouling strategies has received much greater attention among scientific community. The use of quorum quenching natural compounds and enzymes will be a potential approach for control of membrane biofouling. This approach has previously proven useful in diseases and membrane biofouling control by triggering the expression of desired phenotypes. In view of this, the present review is provided to give the updated information on quorum quenching compounds and elucidate the significance of quorum sensing inhibition in control of membrane biofouling. PMID:24910534

  19. A cationic surfactant-decorated liquid crystal sensing platform for simple and sensitive detection of acetylcholinesterase and its inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi; Hu, Qiongzheng; Guo, Yongxian; Yu, Li

    2015-10-15

    In this paper, construction of the liquid crystal (LC)-based sensing platform for simple and sensitive detection of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and its inhibitor using a cationic surfactant-decorated LC interface was demonstrated. A change of the optical images of LCs from bright to dark appearance was observed when the cationic surfactant, myristoylcholine chloride (Myr), was transferred onto the aqueous/LC interface, due to the formation of a stable surfactant monolayer at the interface. A dark-to-bright change of the optical appearance was then observed when AChE was transferred onto the Myr-decorated LC interface. The sensitivity of this new type of LC-based sensor is 3 orders of magnitude higher in the serum albumin solution than that only in the buffer solution. Noteworthy is that the AChE LC sensor shows a very high sensitivity for the detection of the enzyme inhibitor, which is around 1fM. The constructed low-cost LC-based sensor is quite simple and convenient, showing high promise for label-free detection of AChE and its inhibitors. PMID:25957073

  20. Implications of endophyte-plant crosstalk in light of quorum responses for plant biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Kusari, Parijat; Kusari, Souvik; Spiteller, Michael; Kayser, Oliver

    2015-07-01

    Quorum sensing, the cell-to-cell communication system mediated by autoinducers, is responsible for regulation of virulence factors, infections, invasion, colonization, biofilm formation, and antibiotic resistance within bacterial populations. Concomitantly, quorum quenching is a process that involves attenuation of virulence factors by inhibiting or degrading quorum signaling autoinducers. Survival of endophytic microorganisms, commonly known as endophytes, in planta is a continuous mêlée with invading pathogens and pests. In order to survive in their microhabitats inside plants, endophytes have co-evolved to not only utilize an arsenal of biologically active defense compounds but also impede communication between invading pathogens. Such antivirulence strategies prevent pathogens from communicating with or recognizing each other and thus, colonizing plants. The quenching phenomena often involves microbial crosstalk within single or mixed population(s) vis-à-vis gene expression, and production/modulation of quenching enzymes coupled to various antagonistic and synergistic interactions. This concept is particularly interesting because it can be biotechnologically translated in the future to quorum inhibiting antivirulence therapies without triggering resistance in bacteria, which is currently a major problem worldwide that cannot be tackled only with antimicrobial therapies. In this mini-review, we highlight the quorum quenching capacity of endophytes with respect to attenuation of virulence factors and aiding in plant defense response. Further, benefits and potential challenges of using such systems in biotechnology are discussed. PMID:25971199

  1. Development of Quorum-Based Anti-Virulence Therapeutics Targeting Gram-Negative Bacterial Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Tay, Song Buck; Yew, Wen Shan

    2013-01-01

    Quorum sensing is a cell density-dependent signaling phenomenon used by bacteria for coordination of population-wide phenotypes, such as expression of virulence genes, antibiotic resistance and biofilm formation. Lately, disruption of bacterial communication has emerged as an anti-virulence strategy with enormous therapeutic potential given the increasing incidences of drug resistance in pathogenic bacteria. The quorum quenching therapeutic approach promises a lower risk of resistance development, since interference with virulence generally does not affect the growth and fitness of the bacteria and, hence, does not exert an associated selection pressure for drug-resistant strains. With better understanding of bacterial communication networks and mechanisms, many quorum quenching methods have been developed against various clinically significant bacterial pathogens. In particular, Gram-negative bacteria are an important group of pathogens, because, collectively, they are responsible for the majority of hospital-acquired infections. Here, we discuss the current understanding of existing quorum sensing mechanisms and present important inhibitory strategies that have been developed against this group of pathogenic bacteria. PMID:23939429

  2. A New Class of Quorum Quenching Molecules from Staphylococcus Species Affects Communication and Growth of Gram-Negative Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Ya-Yun; Nega, Mulugeta; Wölfle, Martina; Plener, Laure; Grond, Stephanie; Jung, Kirsten; Götz, Friedrich

    2013-01-01

    The knowledge that many pathogens rely on cell-to-cell communication mechanisms known as quorum sensing, opens a new disease control strategy: quorum quenching. Here we report on one of the rare examples where Gram-positive bacteria, the ‘Staphylococcus intermedius group’ of zoonotic pathogens, excrete two compounds in millimolar concentrations that suppress the quorum sensing signaling and inhibit the growth of a broad spectrum of Gram-negative beta- and gamma-proteobacteria. These compounds were isolated from Staphylococcus delphini. They represent a new class of quorum quenchers with the chemical formula N-[2-(1H-indol-3-yl)ethyl]-urea and N-(2-phenethyl)-urea, which we named yayurea A and B, respectively. In vitro studies with the N-acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) responding receptor LuxN of V. harveyi indicated that both compounds caused opposite effects on phosphorylation to those caused by AHL. This explains the quorum quenching activity. Staphylococcal strains producing yayurea A and B clearly benefit from an increased competitiveness in a mixed community. PMID:24098134

  3. An aggregation sensing reporter identifies leflunomide and teriflunomide as polyglutamine aggregate inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Fuentealba, Rodrigo A.; Marasa, Jayne; Diamond, Marc I.; Piwnica-Worms, David; Weihl, Conrad C.

    2012-01-01

    Intracellular protein aggregation is a common pathologic feature in neurodegenerative diseases such as Huntington' disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and Parkinson' disease. Although progress towards understanding protein aggregation in vitro has been made, little of this knowledge has translated to patient therapy. Moreover, mechanisms controlling aggregate formation and catabolism in cellulo remain poorly understood. One limitation is the lack of tools to quantitatively monitor protein aggregation and disaggregation. Here, we developed a protein-aggregation reporter that uses huntingtin exon 1 containing 72 glutamines fused to the N-terminal end of firefly luciferase (httQ72-Luc). httQ72-Luc fails to aggregate unless seeded by a non-luciferase-containing polyglutamine (polyQ) protein such as Q80-cfp. Upon co-aggregation, httQ72-luc becomes insoluble and loses its enzymatic activity. Using httQ72-Luc with Q80(CFP/YFP) as seeds, we screened the Johns Hopkins Clinical Compound Library and identified leflunomide, a dihydroorotate dehydrogenase inhibitor with immunosuppressive and anti-psoriatic activities, as a novel drug that prevents polyQ aggregation. Leflunomide and its active metabolite teriflunomide inhibited protein aggregation independently of their known role in pyrimidine biosynthesis, since neither uridine treatment nor other pyrimidine biosynthesis inhibitors affected polyQ aggregation. Inducible cell line and cycloheximide-chase experiments indicate that these drugs prevent incorporation of expanded polyQ into an aggregate. This study demonstrates the usefulness of luciferase-based protein aggregate reporters for high-throughput screening applications. As current trials are under-way for teriflunomide in the treatment of multiple sclerosis, we propose that this drug be considered a possible therapeutic agent for polyQ diseases. PMID:22052286

  4. Design and Synthesis of Potent “Sulfur-free” Transition State Analogue Inhibitors of 5?-Methylthioadenosine Nucleosidase and 5?-Methylthioadenosine Phosphorylase

    PubMed Central

    Longshaw, Alistair I.; Adanitsch, Florian; Gutierrez, Jemy A.; Evans, Gary B.; Tyler, Peter C.; Schramm, Vern L.

    2013-01-01

    5?-Methylthioadenosine/S-adenosylhomocysteine nucleosidase (MTAN) is a dual substrate bacterial enzyme involved in S-adenosylmethionine (SAM)-related quorum sensing pathways that regulates virulence in many bacterial species. MTANs from many bacteria are directly involved in the quorum sensing mechanism by regulating the synthesis of autoinducer molecules that are used by bacterial communities to communicate. In humans, 5?-methylthioadenosine phosphorylase (MTAP) is involved in polyamine biosynthesis as well as in purine and SAM salvage pathways and thus has been identified as an anticancer target. Previously we have described the synthesis and biological activity of several aza-C-nucleoside mimics with a sulfur atom at the 5? position that are potent E. coli MTAN and human MTAP inhibitors. Because of the possibility that the sulfur may affect bioavailability we were interested in synthesizing “sulfur-free” analogues. Herein we describe the preparation of a series of “sulfur-free” transition state analogues inhibitors, of E. coli MTAN and human MTAP that have low nano- to pico-molar dissociation constants and are potentially novel bacterial anti-infective and anti-cancer drug candidates. PMID:20718423

  5. Advancing the Quorum in Pseudomonas aeruginosa: MvaT and the Regulation of N-Acylhomoserine Lactone Production and Virulence Gene Expression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen P. Diggle; Klaus Winzer; Andrée Lazdunski; Paul Williams; M. Camara

    2002-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa regulates the production of many exoproteins and secondary metabolites via a hierarchical quorum-sensing cascade through LasR and RhlR and their cognate signal molecules N-(3- oxododecanoyl)-L-homoserine lactone (3O-C12-HSL) and N-(butanoyl)-L-homoserine lactone (C4-HSL). In this study, we found that transcription of the quorum sensing-regulated genes lecA (coding for PA-IL lectin), lasB (coding for elastase), and rpoS appeared to be growth

  6. Evaluation of a new high-throughput method for identifying quorum quenching bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Kaihao; Zhang, Yunhui; Yu, Min; Shi, Xiaochong; Coenye, Tom; Bossier, Peter; Zhang, Xiao-Hua

    2013-01-01

    Quorum sensing (QS) is a population-dependent mechanism for bacteria to synchronize social behaviors such as secretion of virulence factors. The enzymatic interruption of QS, termed quorum quenching (QQ), has been suggested as a promising alternative anti-virulence approach. In order to efficiently identify QQ bacteria, we developed a simple, sensitive and high-throughput method based on the biosensor Agrobacterium tumefaciens A136. This method effectively eliminates false positives caused by inhibition of growth of biosensor A136 and alkaline hydrolysis of N-acylhomoserine lactones (AHLs), through normalization of ?-galactosidase activities and addition of PIPES buffer, respectively. Our novel approach was successfully applied in identifying QQ bacteria among 366 strains and 25 QQ strains belonging to 14 species were obtained. Further experiments revealed that the QQ strains differed widely in terms of the type of QQ enzyme, substrate specificity and heat resistance. The QQ bacteria identified could possibly be used to control disease in aquaculture. PMID:24121744

  7. Quorum Systems for Distributed Control Protocols

    E-print Network

    Wool, Avishai

    hospitality when she hosted me at NASA/CESDIS. The excellent work environment she provided made my visit to NASA both productive and enjoyable. I acknowledge the contributions made by several other people and Amir Herzberg made insightful comments on the quorum secret sharing schemes, which led to improvements

  8. Inhibition of Biofilm Formation by T7 Bacteriophages Producing Quorum-Quenching Enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Lamas-Samanamud, Gisella R.

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial growth in biofilms is the major cause of recalcitrant biofouling in industrial processes and of persistent infections in clinical settings. The use of bacteriophage treatment to lyse bacteria in biofilms has attracted growing interest. In particular, many natural or engineered phages produce depolymerases to degrade polysaccharides in the biofilm matrix and allow access to host bacteria. However, the phage-produced depolymerases are highly specific for only the host-derived polysaccharides and may have limited effects on natural multispecies biofilms. In this study, an engineered T7 bacteriophage was constructed to encode a lactonase enzyme with broad-range activity for quenching of quorum sensing, a form of bacterial cell-cell communication via small chemical molecules (acyl homoserine lactones [AHLs]) that is necessary for biofilm formation. Our results demonstrated that the engineered T7 phage expressed the AiiA lactonase to effectively degrade AHLs from many bacteria. Addition of the engineered T7 phage to mixed-species biofilms containing Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli resulted in inhibition of biofilm formation. Such quorum-quenching phages that can lyse host bacteria and express quorum-quenching enzymes to affect diverse bacteria in biofilm communities may become novel antifouling and antibiofilm agents in industrial and clinical settings. PMID:24951790

  9. Location tracking using quorums in mobile ad hoc networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hyunyoung Lee; Jennifer L. Welch; Nitin H. Vaidya

    2003-01-01

    We explore applications of quorum systems to the problem of tracking locations of mobile users in mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs). The location tracking system uses biquorum systems, a generaliza- tion of traditional quorum systems. We performed extensive simulations of the location tracking system. The simulation results show that our strict biquorum implementation has better performance than the tra- ditional

  10. Structural Basis for Ligand Recognition and Discrimination of a Quorum-quenching Antibody

    SciTech Connect

    Kirchdoerfer, Robert N.; Garner, Amanda L.; Flack, Caralyn E.; Mee, Jenny M.; Horswill, Alexander R.; Janda, Kim D.; Kaufmann, Gunnar F.; Wilson, Ian A. (Scripps); (Iowa)

    2011-09-16

    In the postantibiotic era, available treatment options for severe bacterial infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus have become limited. Therefore, new and innovative approaches are needed to combat such life-threatening infections. Virulence factor expression in S. aureus is regulated in a cell density-dependent manner using 'quorum sensing,' which involves generation and secretion of autoinducing peptides (AIPs) into the surrounding environment to activate a bacterial sensor kinase at a particular threshold concentration. Mouse monoclonal antibody AP4-24H11 was shown previously to blunt quorum sensing-mediated changes in gene expression in vitro and protect mice from a lethal dose of S. aureus by sequestering the AIP signal. We have elucidated the crystal structure of the AP4-24H11 Fab in complex with AIP-4 at 2.5 {angstrom} resolution to determine its mechanism of ligand recognition. A key GluH95 provides much of the binding specificity through formation of hydrogen bonds with each of the four amide nitrogens in the AIP-4 macrocyclic ring. Importantly, these structural data give clues as to the interactions between the cognate staphylococcal AIP receptors AgrC and the AIPs, as AP4-24H11 {center_dot} AIP-4 binding recapitulates features that have been proposed for AgrC-AIP recognition. Additionally, these structural insights may enable the engineering of AIP cross-reactive antibodies or quorum quenching vaccines for use in active or passive immunotherapy for prevention or treatment of S. aureus infections.

  11. The Elephant and the Blind Men: Making Sense of PARP Inhibitors in Homologous Recombination Deficient Tumor Cells

    PubMed Central

    De Lorenzo, Silvana B.; Patel, Anand G.; Hurley, Rachel M.; Kaufmann, Scott H.

    2013-01-01

    Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1) is an important component of the base excision repair (BER) pathway as well as a regulator of homologous recombination (HR) and non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ). Previous studies have demonstrated that treatment of HR-deficient cells with PARP inhibitors results in stalled and collapsed replication forks. Consequently, HR-deficient cells are extremely sensitive to PARP inhibitors. Several explanations have been advanced to explain this so-called synthetic lethality between HR deficiency and PARP inhibition: (i) reduction of BER activity leading to enhanced DNA double-strand breaks, which accumulate in the absence of HR; (ii) trapping of inhibited PARP1 at sites of DNA damage, which prevents access of other repair proteins; (iii) failure to initiate HR by poly(ADP-ribose) polymer-dependent BRCA1 recruitment; and (iv) activation of the NHEJ pathway, which selectively induces error-prone repair in HR-deficient cells. Here we review evidence regarding these various explanations for the ability of PARP inhibitors to selectively kill HR-deficient cancer cells and discuss their potential implications. PMID:24062981

  12. Quorum sensing in Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MICHAEL G. SURETTE; BONNIE L. BASSLER

    1998-01-01

    Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium strains grown in Luria-Bertani medium containing glucose secrete a small soluble heat labile organic molecule that is involved in intercellular communication. The factor is not produced when the strains are grown in Luria-Bertani me- dium in the absence of glucose. Maximal secretion of the substance occurs in midexponential phase, and the extracel- lular activity is

  13. Quorum-sensing in Gram-negative bacteria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Neil A. Whitehead; Anne M. L. Barnard; Holly Slater; Natalie J. L. Simpson; George P. C. Salmond

    2001-01-01

    It has become increasingly and widely recognised that bacteria do not exist as solitary cells, but are colonial organisms that exploit elaborate systems of intercellular communication to facilitate their adaptation to changing environmental conditions. The languages by which bacteria communicate take the form of chemical signals, excreted from the cells, which can elicit profound physiological changes. Many types of signalling

  14. The role of AiiA, a quorum-quenching enzyme from Bacillus thuringiensis, on the rhizosphere competence.

    PubMed

    Park, Su-Jin; Park, Sun-Yang; Ryu, Choong-Min; Park, Seung-Hwan; Lee, Jung-Kee

    2008-09-01

    Bacteria sense their population density and coordinate the expression of target genes, including virulence factors in Gram-negative bacteria, by the N-acylhomoserine lactones (AHLs)-dependent quorum-sensing (QS) mechanism. In contrast, several soil bacteria are able to interfere with QS by enzymatic degradation of AHLs, referred to as quorum quenching. A potent AHL-degrading enzyme, AiiA, of Bacillus thuringiensis has been reported to effectively attenuate the virulence of bacteria by quorum quenching. However, little is known about the role of AiiA in B. thuringiensis itself. In the present study, an aiiA-defective mutant was generated to investigate the role of AiiA in rhizosphere competence in the root system of pepper. The aiiA mutant showed no detectable AHL-degrading activity and was less effective for suppression of soft-rot symptom caused by Erwinia carotovora on the potato slice. On the pepper root, the survival rate of the aiiA mutant significantly decreased over time compared with that of wild type. Interestingly, viable cell count analysis revealed that the bacterial number and composition of E. carotovora were not different between treatments of wild type and the aiiA mutant, although root application of the aiiA mutant in pepper failed to protect the plant from root rot. These results provide evidence that AiiA can play an important role in rhizosphere competentce of B. thuringiensis and bacterial quorum quenching to Gram-negative bacteria without changing bacterial number or composition. PMID:18852506

  15. Neuroprotective effect of acid-sensing ion channel inhibitor psalmotoxin-1 after hypoxia–ischemia in newborn piglet striatum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zeng-Jin Yang; Xinli Ni; Erin L. Carter; Kathleen Kibler; Lee J. Martin; Raymond C. Koehler

    2011-01-01

    Na+,Ca2+-permeable acid-sensing ion channel 1a (ASIC1a) is involved in the pathophysiologic process of adult focal brain ischemia. However, little is known about its role in the pathogenesis of global cerebral ischemia or newborn hypoxia–ischemia (H–I). Here, using a newborn piglet model of asphyxia-induced cardiac arrest, we investigated the effect of ASIC1a-specific blocker psalmotoxin-1 on neuronal injury. During asphyxia and the

  16. Sequence-dependent off-target inhibition of TLR7/8 sensing by synthetic microRNA inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Sarvestani, Soroush T.; Stunden, H. James; Behlke, Mark A.; Forster, Samuel C.; McCoy, Claire E.; Tate, Michelle D.; Ferrand, Jonathan; Lennox, Kim A.; Latz, Eicke; Williams, Bryan R.G.; Gantier, Michael P.

    2015-01-01

    Anti-microRNA (miRNA) oligonucleotides (AMOs) with 2?-O-Methyl (2?OMe) residues are commonly used to study miRNA function and can achieve high potency, with low cytotoxicity. Not withstanding this, we demonstrate the sequence-dependent capacity of 2?OMe AMOs to inhibit Toll-like receptor (TLR) 7 and 8 sensing of immunostimulatory RNA, independent of their miRNA-targeting function. Through a screen of 29 AMOs targeting common miRNAs, we found a subset of sequences highly inhibitory to TLR7 sensing in mouse macrophages. Interspecies conservation of this inhibitory activity was confirmed on TLR7/8 activity in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Significantly, we identified a core motif governing the inhibitory activity of these AMOs, which is present in more than 50 AMOs targeted to human miRNAs in miRBaseV20. DNA/locked nucleic acids (LNA) AMOs synthesized with a phosphorothioate backbone also inhibited TLR7 sensing in a sequence-dependent manner, demonstrating that the off-target effects of AMOs are not restricted to 2?OMe modification. Taken together, our work establishes the potential for off-target effects of AMOs on TLR7/8 function, which should be taken into account in their therapeutic development and in vivo application. PMID:25539920

  17. Neuroprotective effect of acid-sensing ion channel inhibitor psalmotoxin-1 after hypoxia-ischemia in newborn piglet striatum

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zeng-Jin; Ni, Xinli; Carter, Erin L; Kibler, Kathleen; Martin, Lee J; Koehler, Raymond C

    2011-01-01

    Na+, Ca2+- permeable acid-sensing ion channel 1a (ASIC1a) is involved in the pathophysiologic process of adult focal brain ischemia. However, little is known about its role in the pathogenesis of global cerebral ischemia or newborn hypoxia-ischemia (H-I). Here, using a newborn piglet model of asphyxia-induced cardiac arrest, we investigated the effect of ASIC1a-specific blocker psalmotoxin-1 on neuronal injury. During asphyxia and the first 30 mins of recovery, brain tissue pH fell below 7.0, the approximate activation pH of ASIC1a. Psalmotoxin-1 injection at 20 mins before hypoxia, but not at 20 mins of recovery, partially protected the striatonigral and striatopallidal neurons in putamen. Psalmotoxin-1 pretreatment largely attenuated the increased protein kinase A-dependent phosphorylation of DARPP-32 and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor NR1 subunit and decreased nitrative and oxidative damage to proteins at 3 h of recovery. Pretreatment with NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801 also provided partial neuroprotection in putamen, and combined pretreatment with psalmotoxin-1 and MK-801 yielded additive neuroprotection. These results indicate that ASIC1a activation contributes to neuronal death in newborn putamen after H-I through mechanisms that may involve protein kinase A-dependent phosphorylation of NMDA receptor and nitrative and oxidative stress. PMID:21558004

  18. Neuroprotective effect of acid-sensing ion channel inhibitor psalmotoxin-1 after hypoxia-ischemia in newborn piglet striatum.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zeng-Jin; Ni, Xinli; Carter, Erin L; Kibler, Kathleen; Martin, Lee J; Koehler, Raymond C

    2011-08-01

    Na+,Ca2+-permeable acid-sensing ion channel 1a (ASIC1a) is involved in the pathophysiologic process of adult focal brain ischemia. However, little is known about its role in the pathogenesis of global cerebral ischemia or newborn hypoxia-ischemia (H-I). Here, using a newborn piglet model of asphyxia-induced cardiac arrest, we investigated the effect of ASIC1a-specific blocker psalmotoxin-1 on neuronal injury. During asphyxia and the first 30min of recovery, brain tissue pH fell below 7.0, the approximate activation pH of ASIC1a. Psalmotoxin-1 injection at 20min before hypoxia, but not at 20min of recovery, partially protected the striatonigral and striatopallidal neurons in putamen. Psalmotoxin-1 pretreatment largely attenuated the increased protein kinase A-dependent phosphorylation of DARPP-32 and N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor NR1 subunit and decreased nitrative and oxidative damage to proteins at 3h of recovery. Pretreatment with NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801 also provided partial neuroprotection in putamen, and combined pretreatment with psalmotoxin-1 and MK-801 yielded additive neuroprotection. These results indicate that ASIC1a activation contributes to neuronal death in newborn putamen after H-I through mechanisms that may involve protein kinase A-dependent phosphorylation of NMDA receptor and nitrative and oxidative stress. PMID:21558004

  19. SMALL MOLECULE SCREEN YIELDS INHIBITORS OF PSEUDOMONAS HOMOSERINE LACTONE-INDUCED HOST RESPONSES

    PubMed Central

    Valentine, Cathleen D.; Zhang, Hua; Phuan, Puay-Wah; Nguyen, Juliane; Verkman, A.S.; Haggie, Peter M.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY P. aeruginosa infections are commonly associated with cystic fibrosis, pneumonias, neutropenia and burns. The P. aeruginosa quorum sensing molecule N-(3-oxo-dodecanoyl) homoserine lactone (C12) cause multiple deleterious host responses, including repression of NF-?B transcriptional activity and apoptosis. Inhibition of C12-mediated host responses is predicted to reduce P. aeruginosa virulence. We report here a novel, host-targeted approach for potential adjunctive anti-Pseudomonal therapy based on inhibition of C12-mediated host responses. A high-throughput screen was developed to identify C12 inhibitors that restore NF-?B activity in C12-treated, lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated cells. Triazolo[4,3-a]quinolines with nanomolar potency were identified as C12-inhibitors that restored NF-?B-dependent luciferase expression in LPS- and TNF-stimulated cell lines. In primary macrophages and fibroblasts, triazolo[4,3-a]quinolines inhibited C12 action to restore cytokine secretion in LPS-stimulated cells. Serendipitously, in the absence of an inflammatory stimulus, triazolo[4,3-a]quinolines prevented C12-mediated responses, including cytotoxicity, elevation of cytoplasmic calcium, and p38 MAPK phosphorylation. In vivo efficacy was demonstrated in a murine model of dermal inflammation involving intradermal C12 administration. The discovery of triazolo[4,3-a]quinolines provides a pharmacological tool to investigate C12-mediated host responses, and a potential host-targeted anti-Pseudomonal therapy. PMID:23910799

  20. Quorum quenching activity of Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels and its anthocyanin malvidin against Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Gopu, Venkadesaperumal; Kothandapani, Sundar; Shetty, Prathapkumar Halady

    2015-02-01

    Many bacterial species use their intercellular signaling mechanism called quorum sensing (QS), which is found to be implicated in various factors including bacterial pathogenicity and food spoilage. Interrupting the bacterial communication is an attractive strategy to develop novel QS-based antibacterial drugs. Present study is aimed to investigate the quorum sensing inhibitory activity of Syzygium cumini and its anti-biofilm property against opportunistic pathogen using a biosensor strain Chromobacterium violaceum CV026. Ethanol extract of S. cumini was investigated for its anti-QS activity, and the possible active component was identified by docking with LasR receptor protein. Based on docking analysis, methanol extract was enriched for its total anthocyanin (STA) and its effect on QS regulated phenotypes was assessed. STA specifically inhibited the violacein production in C. violaceum; biofilm formation and EPS production in Klebsiella pneumoniae up to 82, 79.94 and 64.29% respectively. Synergistic activity of conventional antibiotics with STA enhanced the susceptibility of K. pneumoniae up to 58.45%. Molecular docking analysis of active components attributes the QSI activity of S. cumini to malvidin. Malvidin exhibited highest ligand binding with LasR receptor protein with docking score more than -7. Effect of malvidin to interrupt the QS regulated phenotypes was also assessed, and it was found to reduce the violacein production, biofilm formation and EPS production of K. pneumoniae in a concentration-dependent manner. These findings suggest that S. cumini can be used as novel QS-based antibacterial/anti-biofilm agent to manage food-borne pathogens and to increase food safety. PMID:25637095

  1. QuorUM: An Error Corrector for Illumina Reads

    PubMed Central

    Marçais, Guillaume; Yorke, James A.; Zimin, Aleksey

    2015-01-01

    Motivation Illumina Sequencing data can provide high coverage of a genome by relatively short (most often 100 bp to 150 bp) reads at a low cost. Even with low (advertised 1%) error rate, 100 × coverage Illumina data on average has an error in some read at every base in the genome. These errors make handling the data more complicated because they result in a large number of low-count erroneous k-mers in the reads. However, there is enough information in the reads to correct most of the sequencing errors, thus making subsequent use of the data (e.g. for mapping or assembly) easier. Here we use the term “error correction” to denote the reduction in errors due to both changes in individual bases and trimming of unusable sequence. We developed an error correction software called QuorUM. QuorUM is mainly aimed at error correcting Illumina reads for subsequent assembly. It is designed around the novel idea of minimizing the number of distinct erroneous k-mers in the output reads and preserving the most true k-mers, and we introduce a composite statistic ? that measures how successful we are at achieving this dual goal. We evaluate the performance of QuorUM by correcting actual Illumina reads from genomes for which a reference assembly is available. Results We produce trimmed and error-corrected reads that result in assemblies with longer contigs and fewer errors. We compared QuorUM against several published error correctors and found that it is the best performer in most metrics we use. QuorUM is efficiently implemented making use of current multi-core computing architectures and it is suitable for large data sets (1 billion bases checked and corrected per day per core). We also demonstrate that a third-party assembler (SOAPdenovo) benefits significantly from using QuorUM error-corrected reads. QuorUM error corrected reads result in a factor of 1.1 to 4 improvement in N50 contig size compared to using the original reads with SOAPdenovo for the data sets investigated. Availability QuorUM is distributed as an independent software package and as a module of the MaSuRCA assembly software. Both are available under the GPL open source license at http://www.genome.umd.edu. Contact gmarcais@umd.edu. PMID:26083032

  2. Quorum quenching bacteria isolated from the sludge of a wastewater treatment plant and their application for controlling biofilm formation.

    PubMed

    Kim, A-Leum; Park, Son-Young; Lee, Chi-Ho; Lee, Chung-Hak; Lee, Jung-Kee

    2014-11-28

    Bacteria recognize changes in their population density by sensing the concentration of signal molecules, N-acyl-homoserine lactones (AHLs). AHL-mediated quorum sensing (QS) plays a key role in biofilm formation, so the interference of QS, referred to as quorum quenching (QQ), has received a great deal of attention. A QQ strategy can be applied to membrane bioreactors (MBRs) for advanced wastewater treatment to control biofouling. To isolate QQ bacteria that can inhibit biofilm formation, we isolated diverse AHL-degrading bacteria from a laboratory-scale MBR and sludge from real wastewater treatment plants. A total of 225 AHLdegrading bacteria were isolated from the sludge sample by enrichment culture. To identify the enzyme responsible for AHL degradation in QQ bacteria, AHL-degrading activities were analyzed using cell-free lysate, culture supernatant, and whole cells. Afipia sp. and Acinetobacter sp. strains produced the intracellular QQ enzyme, whereas Pseudomonas sp. and Micrococcus sp. produced the extracellular QQ enzyme that was most likely to produce AHLacylase. AHL-degrading activity was observed in whole-cell assay with the Microbacterium sp. and Rhodococcus sp. strains. There has been no report for AHL-degrading capability in the case of Streptococcus sp. and Afipia sp. strains. Finally, inhibition of biofilm formation by isolated QQ bacteria or enzymes was observed on glass slides and 96-well microtiter plates using crystal violet staining. QQ strains or enzymes not only inhibited initial biofilm development but also reduced established biofilms. PMID:25112313

  3. Quantum State Determination: Quorum for a Particle in One Dimension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Band, William; Park, James L.

    1979-01-01

    Explains that the quantal state describes a statistical ensemble of similar systems identically prepared, and is not to be identified with any single system. Shows how to determine empirically the general quantum state by calculations involving only the measured mean values of a set of observables called a "Quorum." (Author/GA)

  4. Quorum Based IP Address Autoconfiguration in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    E-print Network

    Wu, Jie

    Quorum Based IP Address Autoconfiguration in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks Tinghui Xu and Jie Wu@fau.edu, jie@cse.fau.edu Abstract-- IP address autoconfiguration poses a challenge for mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) since it has to be done to ensure correct routing. Protocols for IP address autoconfiguration can

  5. A probable aculeacin A acylase from the Ralstonia solanacearum GMI1000 is N-acyl-homoserine lactone acylase with quorum-quenching activity

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background The infection and virulence functions of diverse plant and animal pathogens that possess quorum sensing systems are regulated by N-acylhomoserine lactones (AHLs) acting as signal molecules. AHL-acylase is a quorum quenching enzyme and degrades AHLs by removing the fatty acid side chain from the homoserine lactone ring of AHLs. This blocks AHL accumulation and pathogenic phenotypes in quorum sensing bacteria. Results An aac gene of undemonstrated function from Ralstonia solanacearum GMI1000 was cloned, expressed in Escherichia coli; it inactivated four AHLs that were tested. The sequence of the 795 amino acid polypeptide was considerably similar to the AHL-acylase from Ralstonia sp. XJ12B with 83% identity match and shared 39% identity with an aculeacin A acylase precursor from the gram-positive actinomycete Actinoplanes utahensis. Aculeacin A is a neutral lipopeptide antibiotic and an antifungal drug. An electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) analysis verified that Aac hydrolysed the amide bond of AHL, releasing homoserine lactone and the corresponding fatty acids. However, ESI-MS analysis demonstrated that the Aac could not catalyze the hydrolysis of the palmitoyl moiety of the aculeacin A. Moreover, the results of MIC test of aculeacin A suggest that Aac could not deacylate aculeacin A. The specificity of Aac for AHLs showed a greater preference for long acyl chains than for short acyl chains. Heterologous expression of the aac gene in Chromobacterium violaceum CV026 effectively inhibited violacein and chitinase activity, both of which were regulated by the quorum-sensing mechanism. These results indicated that Aac could control AHL-dependent pathogenicity. Conclusion This is the first study to find an AHL-acylase in a phytopathogen. Our data provide direct evidence that the functioning of the aac gene (NP520668) of R. solanacearum GMI1000 is via AHL-acylase and not via aculeacin A acylase. Since Aac is a therapeutic potential quorum-quenching agent, its further biotechnological applications in agriculture, clinical and bio-industrial fields should be evaluated in the near future. PMID:19426552

  6. Searching the ASRS Database Using QUORUM Keyword Search, Phrase Search, Phrase Generation, and Phrase Discovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGreevy, Michael W.; Connors, Mary M. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    To support Search Requests and Quick Responses at the Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS), four new QUORUM methods have been developed: keyword search, phrase search, phrase generation, and phrase discovery. These methods build upon the core QUORUM methods of text analysis, modeling, and relevance-ranking. QUORUM keyword search retrieves ASRS incident narratives that contain one or more user-specified keywords in typical or selected contexts, and ranks the narratives on their relevance to the keywords in context. QUORUM phrase search retrieves narratives that contain one or more user-specified phrases, and ranks the narratives on their relevance to the phrases. QUORUM phrase generation produces a list of phrases from the ASRS database that contain a user-specified word or phrase. QUORUM phrase discovery finds phrases that are related to topics of interest. Phrase generation and phrase discovery are particularly useful for finding query phrases for input to QUORUM phrase search. The presentation of the new QUORUM methods includes: a brief review of the underlying core QUORUM methods; an overview of the new methods; numerous, concrete examples of ASRS database searches using the new methods; discussion of related methods; and, in the appendices, detailed descriptions of the new methods.

  7. High variability in quorum quenching and growth inhibition by furanone C-30 in Pseudomonas aeruginosa clinical isolates from cystic fibrosis patients.

    PubMed

    García-Contreras, Rodolfo; Peréz-Eretza, Berenice; Jasso-Chávez, Ricardo; Lira-Silva, Elizabeth; Roldán-Sánchez, Jesús Alberto; González-Valdez, Abigail; Soberón-Chávez, Gloria; Coria-Jiménez, Rafael; Martínez-Vázquez, Mariano; Alcaraz, Luis David; Maeda, Toshinari; Wood, Thomas K

    2015-08-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa colonizes the lungs of cystic fibrosis patients causing severe damage. This bacterium is intrinsically resistant to antibiotics and shows resistance against new antimicrobials and its virulence is controlled by the quorum-sensing response. Thus, attenuating its virulence by quorum quenching instead of inhibiting its growth has been proposed to minimize resistance; however, resistance against the canonical quorum quencher furanone C-30 can be achieved by mutations leading to increased efflux. In the present work, the effect of C-30 in the attenuation of the QS-controlled virulence factors elastase and pyocyanin was investigated in 50 isolates from cystic fibrosis patients. The results demonstrate that there is a high variability in the expression of both elastase and pyocyanin and that there are many naturally resistant C-30 strains. We report that the main mechanism of C-30 resistance in these strains was not due to enhanced efflux but a lack of permeability. Moreover, C-30 strongly inhibited the growth of several of the isolates studied, thus imposing high selective pressure for the generation of resistance. PMID:26048733

  8. A Metagenomic Study Highlights Phylogenetic Proximity of Quorum-Quenching and Xenobiotic-Degrading Amidases of the AS-Family

    PubMed Central

    Tannières, Mélanie; Beury-Cirou, Amélie; Vigouroux, Armelle; Mondy, Samuel; Pellissier, Franck; Dessaux, Yves; Faure, Denis

    2013-01-01

    Quorum-sensing (QS) signals of the N-acylhomoserine lactone (NAHL) class are cleaved by quorum-quenching enzymes, collectively named NAHLases. Here, functional metagenomics allowed the discovery of a novel bacterial NAHLase in a rhizosphere that was treated with ?-caprolactone. As revealed by rrs-DGGE and rrs-pyrosequencing, this treatment increased the percentage of the NAHL-degrading bacteria and strongly biased the structure of the bacterial community, among which Azospirillum dominated. Among the 29 760 fosmids of the metagenomic library, a single one was detected that expressed the qsdB gene conferring NAHL-degradation upon E. coli and decreased QS-regulated virulence in Pectobacterium. Phylogenetic analysis of the 34 orfs of the fosmid suggested that it would belong to an unknown Proteobacterium - probably a ?-proteobacterium. qPCR quantification of the NAHLase-encoding genes attM, qsdA, and qsdB revealed their higher abundance in the ?-caprolactone-treated rhizosphere as compared to an untreated control. The purified QsdB enzyme exhibited amidase activity. QsdB is the first amidase signature (AS) family member exhibiting NAHLase-activity. Point mutations in the AS-family catalytic triad K-S-S abolished the NAHLase activity of QsdB. This study extends the diversity of NAHLases and highlights a common phylogenic origin of AS-family enzymes involved in the degradation of natural compounds, such as NAHLs, and xenobiotics, such as nylon and linuron. PMID:23762380

  9. Core genome and plasmidome of the quorum-quenching bacterium Rhodococcus erythropolis.

    PubMed

    Kwasiborski, Anthony; Mondy, Samuel; Chong, Teik-Min; Chan, Kok-Gan; Beury-Cirou, Amélie; Faure, Denis

    2015-04-01

    Rhodococcus erythropolis is a worldwide-distributed actinobacterium that exhibits a remarkable metabolic versatility illustrated by its ability to degrade complex compounds, such as quorum-sensing signals N-acylhomoserine lactones (NAHLs), phenols, sterols and fuel derivatives. Because of its catabolic properties, R. erythropolis strains are proposed as anti-biofouling agents against NAHL-dependent biofilms, biocontrol agents against NAHL-emitting plant pathogens, and bioremediation agents in contaminated waters and soils. Here, we used the PacBio technology to resolve the complete genome sequence of the biocontrol strain R. erythropolis R138. Its genome consisted in a circular chromosome (6,236,862 bp), a linear plasmid pLRE138 (477,915 bp) and a circular plasmid pCRE138 (91,729 bp). In addition, draft genomes of five R. erythropolis strains were determined by Illumina technology and compared with the other five R. erythropolis genomes that are available in public databases: 5,825 common CDSs were present in all of the eleven analyzed genomes and represented up to 87 % of those identified in R. erythropolis R138. This study highlighted the high proportion of core-genome genes in R. erythropolis, but a high variability of the plasmid content. Key-metabolic pathways which are involved in the degradation of complex molecules, such as NAHLs and phenol, catechol and sterol derivatives are coded by the R. erythropolis core-genome. PMID:25676013

  10. Toxin Synthesis by Clostridium difficile Is Regulated through Quorum Signaling

    PubMed Central

    DuPont, Herbert L.; Norris, Steven J.; Kaplan, Heidi B.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is dramatically increasing as a cause of antibiotic- and hospital-associated diarrhea worldwide. C. difficile, a multidrug-resistant pathogen, flourishes in the colon after the gut microbiota has been altered by antibiotic therapy. Consequently, it produces toxins A and B that directly cause disease. Despite the enormous public health problem posed by this pathogen, the molecular mechanisms that regulate production of the toxins, which are directly responsible for disease, remained largely unknown until now. Here, we show that C. difficile toxin synthesis is regulated by an accessory gene regulator quorum-signaling system, which is mediated through a small (<1,000-Da) thiolactone that can be detected directly in stools of CDI patients. These findings provide direct evidence of the mechanism of regulation of C. difficile toxin synthesis and offer exciting new avenues both for rapid detection of C. difficile infection and development of quorum-signaling-based non-antibiotic therapies to combat this life-threatening emerging pathogen. PMID:25714717

  11. Effects on membrane lateral pressure suggest permeation mechanisms for bacterial quorum signaling molecules

    PubMed Central

    Kamaraju, Kishore; Smith, Jacqueline; Wang, Jingxin; Roy, Varnika; Sintim, Herman O.; Bentley, William E.; Sukharev, Sergei

    2011-01-01

    Quorum sensing is an intricate example of ‘social’ behavior in microbial communities mediated by small secreted molecules (autoinducers). The mechanisms of membrane permeation remain elusive for many of them. Here we present the assessment of membrane permeability for three natural autoinducers and five synthetic analogs based on their polarity, surface activity, affinity for lipid monolayers and ability to induce lateral pressure changes in the inner E. coli membrane sensed by the bacterial tension-activated channel MscS. AI-1 (N-(3-Oxodecanoyl)-L-homoserine lactone) is surface-active, it robustly inserts into lipid monolayers, indicating strong propensity toward membranes. When presented to membrane patches from the cytoplasmic side, AI-1 transiently shifts MscS’s activation curve toward higher tensions due to intercalation into the cytoplasmic leaflet followed by redistribution to the opposite side. Indole showed no detectable surface activity at the air-water interface, but produced a moderate increase of lateral pressure in monolayers and was potent at shifting activation curves of MscS, demonstrating transients on sequential additions. AI-2 (4,5-dihydroxy-2,3-pentanedione, DPD) showed little activity at the interfaces, correspondingly with no effect on MscS activation. After chemical modification with isobutyl, hexyl or heptyl chains, AI-2 displayed strong surface activity. Hexyl and especially heptyl AI-2 induced robust transient shifts of MscS activation curves. The data strongly suggest that both AI-1 and indole are directly permeable through the membrane. AI-2, more hydrophilic, shows low affinity toward lipids and thus requires a transport system, whereas alkyl analogs of AI-2 should permeate the membrane directly. PMID:21736305

  12. Proteasome inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Teicher, Beverly A; Tomaszewski, Joseph E

    2015-07-01

    Proteasome inhibitors have a 20 year history in cancer therapy. The first proteasome inhibitor, bortezomib (Velcade, PS-341), a break-through multiple myeloma treatment, moved rapidly through development from bench in 1994 to first approval in 2003. Bortezomib is a reversible boronic acid inhibitor of the chymotrypsin-like activity of the proteasome. Next generation proteasome inhibitors include carfilzomib and oprozomib which are irreversible epoxyketone proteasome inhibitors; and ixazomib and delanzomib which are reversible boronic acid proteasome inhibitors. Two proteasome inhibitors, bortezomib and carfilzomib are FDA approved drugs and ixazomib and oprozomib are in late stage clinical trials. All of the agents are potent cytotoxics. The disease focus for all the proteasome inhibitors is multiple myeloma. This focus arose from clinical observations made in bortezomib early clinical trials. Later preclinical studies confirmed that multiple myeloma cells were indeed more sensitive to proteasome inhibitors than other tumor cell types. The discovery and development of the proteasome inhibitor class of anticancer agents has progressed through a classic route of serendipity and scientific investigation. These agents are continuing to have a major impact in their treatment of hematologic malignancies and are beginning to be explored as potential treatment agent for non-cancer indications. PMID:25935605

  13. Corrosion inhibitor

    SciTech Connect

    Wisotsky, M.J.; Metro, S.J.

    1989-10-31

    A corrosion inhibitor for use in synthetic ester lubricating oils is disclosed. It comprises an effective amount of: at least one aromatic amide; and at least one hydroxy substituted aromatic compound. The corrosion inhibitor thus formed is particularly useful in synthetic ester turbo lubricating oils.

  14. Making Sense About Sense

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nancy Ide; Yorick Wilks

    We suggest that the standard fine-grained division of senses and (larger) homographs by a lexicographer for use by a human\\u000a reader may not be an appropriate goal for the computational WSD task. We argue that the level of sense-discrimination that\\u000a natural language processing (NLP) needs corresponds roughly to homographs, though we discuss psycholinguistic evidence that\\u000a there are broad sense divisions

  15. Divergence and Convergence in Enzyme Evolution: Parallel Evolution of Paraoxonases from Quorum-quenching Lactonases*

    PubMed Central

    Elias, Mikael; Tawfik, Dan S.

    2012-01-01

    We discuss the basic features of divergent versus convergent evolution and of the common scenario of parallel evolution. The example of quorum-quenching lactonases is subsequently described. Three different quorum-quenching lactonase families are known, and they belong to three different superfamilies. Their key active-site architectures have converged and are strikingly similar. Curiously, a promiscuous organophosphate hydrolase activity is observed in all three families. We describe the structural and mechanistic features that underline this converged promiscuity and how this promiscuity drove the parallel divergence of organophosphate hydrolases within these lactonase families by either natural or laboratory evolution. PMID:22069329

  16. Disruption of bacterial quorum sensing: an unexplored strategy to fight infections in aquaculture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tom Defoirdt; Nico Boon; Peter Bossier; Willy Verstraete

    2004-01-01

    Disease outbreaks-some of them caused by pathogenic bacteria-are\\u000a considered to be one of the largest constraints to development of the\\u000a aquaculture sector. So far, antibiotics and disinfectants have only had\\u000a limited success in the prevention or cure of aquatic disease. Moreover,\\u000a the frequent use of biocides, especially in subtherapeutic doses, is\\u000a leading to the rapid development of resistance. Therefore, there

  17. Structure of a bacterial quorum-sensing transcription factor complexed with pheromone and DNA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rong-guang Zhang; Terina Pappas; Jennifer L. Brace; Paula C. Miller; Tim Oulmassov; John M. Molyneaux; John C. Anderson; James K. Bashkin; Stephen C. Winans; Andrzej Joachimiak; Monsanto Co

    2002-01-01

    Many proteobacteria are able to monitor their population densities through the release of pheromones known as N-acylhomoserine lactones. At high population densities, these pheromones elicit diverse responses that include bioluminescence, biofilm formation, production of antimicrobials, DNA exchange, pathogenesis and symbiosis. Many of these regulatory systems require a pheromone-dependent transcription factor similar to the LuxR protein of Vibrio fischeri. Here we

  18. Assembling the components of the quorum sensing pathway in African trypanosomes.

    PubMed

    Mony, Binny M; Matthews, Keith R

    2015-04-01

    African trypanosomes, parasites that cause human sleeping sickness, undergo a density-dependent differentiation in the bloodstream of their mammalian hosts. This process is driven by a released parasite-derived factor that causes parasites to accumulate in G1 and become quiescent. This is accompanied by morphological transformation to 'stumpy' forms that are adapted to survival and further development when taken up in the blood meal of tsetse flies, the vector for trypanosomiasis. Although the soluble signal driving differentiation to stumpy forms is unidentified, a recent genome-wide RNAi screen identified many of the intracellular signalling and effector molecules required for the response to this signal. These resemble components of nutritional starvation and quiescence pathways in other eukaryotes, suggesting that parasite development shares similarities with the adaptive quiescence of organisms such as yeasts and Dictyostelium in response to nutritional starvation and stress. Here, the trypanosome signalling pathway is discussed in the context of these conserved pathways and the possible contributions of opposing 'slender retainer' and 'stumpy inducer' arms described. As evolutionarily highly divergent eukaryotes, the organisation and conservation of this developmental pathway can provide insight into the developmental cycle of other protozoan parasites, as well as the adaptive and programmed developmental responses of all eukaryotic cells. PMID:25630552

  19. Pseudomonas aeruginosa tolerance to tobramycin, hydrogen peroxide and polymorphonuclear leukocytes is quorum-sensing dependent

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas Bjarnsholt; Peter Østrup Jensen; Mette Burmølle; Morten Hentzer; Janus A. J. Haagensen; Hans Petter Hougen; Henrik Calum; Kit G. Madsen; Claus Moser; Søren Molin; Niels Høiby; Michael Givskov

    2005-01-01

    The opportunistic human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the predominant micro-organism of chronic lung infections in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. P. aeruginosa colonizes the CF lungs by forming biofilm structures in the alveoli. In the biofilm mode of growth the bacteria are highly tolerant to otherwise lethal doses of antibiotics and are protected from bactericidal activity of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs). P.

  20. Autoinducer 2-based quorum sensing response of Escherichia coli to sub-therapeutic tetracycline exposure 

    E-print Network

    Lu, Lingeng

    2006-10-30

    .1 Selected oligopeptides used as signals by Gram-positive bacteria (A) Staphylococcus aureus and (B) Enterococcus faecalis?????????????????.. 11 2.2 Structure of selected AI-1 molecules in Gram-negative bacteria.......... 13 2... Ser Thr Asp Phe Me S NH ONHH S Me Met Trp N2 Gln Asn Ser Pro Asn Me Phe Gly Gln O O Fig. 2.1. Selected oligopeptides used as signals by Gram-positive bacteria (A) Staphylococcus aureus and (B) Enterococcus faecalis (the gelatinase biosynthesis...

  1. Interkingdom responses of flies to bacteria mediated by fly physiology and bacterial quorum sensing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Insect location and utilization of a resource is influenced by a host of variables, including nutrients acquired prior to encountering a stimulus and age of the individual. For the carrion system, we hypothesized the volatiles to which primary colonizers such as blow flies respond are the same sign...

  2. Two quorum sensing systems control biofilm formation and virulence in members of the Burkholderia cepacia complex.

    PubMed

    Suppiger, Angela; Schmid, Nadine; Aguilar, Claudio; Pessi, Gabriella; Eberl, Leo

    2013-07-01

    The Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) consists of 17 closely related species that are problematic opportunistic bacterial pathogens for cystic fibrosis patients and immunocompromised individuals. These bacteria are capable of utilizing two different chemical languages: N-acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs) and cis-2-unsaturated fatty acids. Here we summarize the current knowledge of the underlying molecular architectures of these communication systems, showing how they are interlinked and discussing how they regulate overlapping as well as specific sets of genes. A particular focus is laid on the role of these signaling systems in the formation of biofilms, which are believed to be highly important for chronic infections. We review genes that have been implicated in the sessile lifestyle of this group of bacteria. The new emerging role of the intracellular second messenger cyclic dimeric guanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP) as a downstream regulator of the fatty acid signaling cascade and as a key factor in biofilm formation is also discussed. PMID:23799665

  3. Autoinducer 2-based quorum sensing response of Escherichia coli to sub-therapeutic tetracycline exposure

    E-print Network

    Lu, Lingeng

    2006-10-30

    -therapeutic tetracycline, the expression of genes associated with the conjugal transfer of antibiotic resistance plasmids, and the conjugal transfer of these plasmids in Escherichia coli. The studies showed that AI-2 activity increased in Tets E. coli in the presence...

  4. Processing the Interspecies Quorum-sensing Signal Autoinducer-2 (AI-2)

    SciTech Connect

    J Marques; P Lamosa; C Russell; R Ventura; C Maycock; M Semmelhack; S Miller; K Xavier

    2011-12-31

    The molecule (S)-4,5-dihydroxy-2,3-pentanedione (DPD) is produced by many different species of bacteria and is the precursor of the signal molecule autoinducer-2 (AI-2). AI-2 mediates interspecies communication and facilitates regulation of bacterial behaviors such as biofilm formation and virulence. A variety of bacterial species have the ability to sequester and process the AI-2 present in their environment, thereby interfering with the cell-cell communication of other bacteria. This process involves the AI-2-regulated lsr operon, comprised of the Lsr transport system that facilitates uptake of the signal, a kinase that phosphorylates the signal to phospho-DPD (P-DPD), and enzymes (like LsrG) that are responsible for processing the phosphorylated signal. Because P-DPD is the intracellular inducer of the lsr operon, enzymes involved in P-DPD processing impact the levels of Lsr expression. Here we show that LsrG catalyzes isomerization of P-DPD into 3,4,4-trihydroxy-2-pentanone-5-phosphate. We present the crystal structure of LsrG, identify potential catalytic residues, and determine which of these residues affects P-DPD processing in vivo and in vitro. We also show that an lsrG deletion mutant accumulates at least 10 times more P-DPD than wild type cells. Consistent with this result, we find that the lsrG mutant has increased expression of the lsr operon and an altered profile of AI-2 accumulation and removal. Understanding of the biochemical mechanisms employed by bacteria to quench signaling of other species can be of great utility in the development of therapies to control bacterial behavior.

  5. Involvement of Bacterial Quorum-Sensing Signals in Spoilage of Bean Sprouts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria Rasch; Jens Bo Andersen; Kristian Fog Nielsen; Lars Ravn Flodgaard; Henrik Christensen; Michael Givskov; Lone Gram

    2005-01-01

    Bacterial communication signals, acylated homoserine lactones (AHLs), were extracted from samples of commercial bean sprouts undergoing soft-rot spoilage. Bean sprouts produced in the laboratory did not undergo soft-rot spoilage and did not contain AHLs or AHL-producing bacteria, although the bacterial population reached levels similar to those in the commercial sprouts, 10 8 to 10 9 CFU\\/g. AHL-producing bacteria (Enterobacteriaceae and

  6. Identification of a Quorum-Sensing Signal Molecule in the Facultative Intracellular Pathogen Brucella melitensis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bernard Taminiau; Mavis Daykin; Simon Swift; Maria-Laura Boschiroli; Anne Tibor; Pascal Lestrate; Xavier De Bolle; David O'Callaghan; Paul Williams; Jean-Jacques Letesson

    2002-01-01

    Brucella melitensis is a gram-negative alpha2-proteobacterium responsible for abortion in goats and for Malta fever in humans. This facultative intracellular pathogen invades and survives within both professional and nonprofessional phagocytes. A dichloromethane extract of spent culture supernatant from B. melitensis induces bioluminescence in an Escherichia coli acyl-homoserine lactone (acyl-HSL) biosensor strain based upon the activity of the LasR protein of

  7. Active regulation of receptor ratios controls integration of quorum-sensing signals

    E-print Network

    Mehta, Pankaj

    , Princeton, NJ, USA, 2 Department of Molecular Biology, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ, USA, 3 Department of Chemistry, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ, USA, 4 Lewis-Sigler Institute for Integrative Genomics, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ, USA and 5 Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Chevy Chase, MD

  8. Vibrio campbellii hmgA-mediated pyomelanization impairs quorum sensing, virulence, and cellular fitness

    E-print Network

    Wang, Zheng

    Melanization due to the inactivation of the homogentisate-1,2-dioxygenase gene (hmgA) has been demonstrated to increase stress resistance, persistence, and virulence in some bacterial species but such pigmented mutants ...

  9. C-type natriuretic peptide modulates quorum sensing molecule and toxin production in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Blier, Anne-Sophie; Veron, Wilfried; Bazire, Alexis; Gerault, Eloïse; Taupin, Laure; Vieillard, Julien; Rehel, Karine; Dufour, Alain; Le Derf, Franck; Orange, Nicole; Hulen, Christian; Feuilloley, Marc G J; Lesouhaitier, Olivier

    2011-07-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa coordinates its virulence expression and establishment in the host in response to modification of its environment. During the infectious process, bacteria are exposed to and can detect eukaryotic products including hormones. It has been shown that P. aeruginosa is sensitive to natriuretic peptides, a family of eukaryotic hormones, through a cyclic nucleotide-dependent sensor system that modulates its cytotoxicity. We observed that pre-treatment of P. aeruginosa PAO1 with C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) increases the capacity of the bacteria to kill Caenorhabditis elegans through diffusive toxin production. In contrast, brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) did not affect the capacity of the bacteria to kill C. elegans. The bacterial production of hydrogen cyanide (HCN) was enhanced by both BNP and CNP whereas the production of phenazine pyocyanin was strongly inhibited by CNP. The amount of 2-heptyl-4-quinolone (HHQ), a precursor to 2-heptyl-3-hydroxyl-4-quinolone (Pseudomonas quinolone signal; PQS), decreased after CNP treatment. The quantity of 2-nonyl-4-quinolone (HNQ), another quinolone which is synthesized from HHQ, was also reduced after CNP treatment. Conversely, both BNP and CNP significantly enhanced bacterial production of acylhomoserine lactone (AHL) [e.g. 3-oxo-dodecanoyl-homoserine lactone (3OC12-HSL) and butanoylhomoserine lactone (C4-HSL)]. These results correlate with an induction of lasI transcription 1 h after bacterial exposure to BNP or CNP. Concurrently, pre-treatment of P. aeruginosa PAO1 with either BNP or CNP enhanced PAO1 exotoxin A production, via a higher toxA mRNA level. At the same time, CNP led to elevated amounts of algC mRNA, indicating that algC is involved in C. elegans killing. Finally, we observed that in PAO1, Vfr protein is essential to the pro-virulent effect of CNP whereas the regulator PtxR supports only a part of the CNP pro-virulent activity. Taken together, these data reinforce the hypothesis that during infection natriuretic peptides, particularly CNP, could enhance the virulence of PAO1. This activity is relayed by Vfr and PtxR activation, and a general diagram of the virulence activation cascade involving AHL, HCN and exotoxin A is proposed. PMID:21511763

  10. Structure–activity relationship studies on quorum sensing ComX ROE2 pheromone

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masahiro Okada; Hisao Yamaguchi; Isao Sato; Soo Jeong Cho; David Dubnau; Youji Sakagami

    2007-01-01

    The ComX pheromone is a posttranslationally modified oligopeptide that stimulates natural genetic competence in Bacillus subtilis. Various ComXRO-E-2 analogs were synthesized and their biological activities were studied to investigate structure–activity relationships. These results showed that the minimal active unit was the tripeptide, [3–5]ComXRO-E-2, and all residues except the modified tryptophan residue were replaceable by alanine without total loss of activity.

  11. Quorum-Sensing Antagonistic Activities of Azithromycin in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1: a Global Approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yusuf Nalca; Lothar Jansch; Florian Bredenbruch; Robert Geffers; Jan Buer; Susanne Haussler

    2006-01-01

    The administration of macrolides such as azithromycin for chronic pulmonary infection of cystic fibrosis patients has been reported to be of benefit. Although the mechanisms of action remain obscure, anti-inflam- matory effects as well as interference of the macrolide with Pseudomonas aeruginosa virulence factor production have been suggested to contribute to an improved clinical outcome. In this study we used

  12. Bacterial response to siderophore and quorum-sensing chemical signals in the seawater microbial community

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Le Luo Guan; Kei Kamino

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Oceans are iron-deficient and nutrient-poor environments. These conditions impart limitations on our understanding of and our ability to identify microorganisms from the marine environment. However, less of knowledge on the influence of siderophores and N-acyl homoserinelactone as interspecies communication signals on the bacterial diversity of seawater has been understood. RESULTS: In the presence of 0.1 nM of the commercial

  13. The dynamics of surface detachment and quorum sensing in spatially controlled biofilm colonies of Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    E-print Network

    Jang, Hongchul

    2014-01-01

    Biofilms represent a highly successful life strategy of bacteria in a very broad range of environments and often have negative implications for industrial and clinical applications, as their removal from surfaces and the ...

  14. Dynamic Quorum Policy for Maximizing Throughput in Limited Information Multiparty MAC

    E-print Network

    Sarkar, Saswati

    1 Dynamic Quorum Policy for Maximizing Throughput in Limited Information Multiparty MAC Prasanna of Pennsylvania {prasanna, swati, rshetty}@seas.upenn.edu Abstract In multiparty MAC, a sender needs to transmit multiparty MAC can be improved substantially by exploiting the fact that several receivers can be reached

  15. Spatial localization of bacteria controls coagulation of human blood by `quorum acting'

    E-print Network

    Ismagilov, Rustem F.

    Spatial localization of bacteria controls coagulation of human blood by `quorum acting' Christian J1 Blood coagulation often accompanies bacterial infections and sepsis and is generally accepted as a consequence of immune responses. Though many bacterial species can directly activate individual coagulation

  16. Location Tracking Using Quorums in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks Hyunyoung Lee

    E-print Network

    Lee, Hyunyoung

    type of components are cell phones, which are mobile and communicate with the base stations to make correspond to the cell phones in the cellular telephone network, and which communicate with the specialLocation Tracking Using Quorums in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks Hyunyoung Lee Jennifer L. Welch ¡ Nitin

  17. A Language-Based Approach to Secure Quorum Replication Lantian Zheng

    E-print Network

    Cortes, Corinna

    constructs for supporting secure quorum replication. The de- pendency analysis performed by the type system and data replicas while controlling previously ignored side channels introduced by such synchronization. 1. Introduction Distributed systems are ubiquitous and typically contain host machines that may fail benignly

  18. Germination inhibitors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Evenari

    1949-01-01

    Summary  The presence of germination-inhibiting substances in plants seems to be a wide-spread phenomenon. They occur in all parts\\u000a of plants —in fruit pulp, fruit coats, endosperm, seed coat, embryo, leaves, bulbs and roots. They are non-specific in their\\u000a effects.\\u000a \\u000a Besides inhibitors, high osmotic pressure and acid pH are often partly responsible for the germination inhibition caused by\\u000a sap, juices and

  19. A sensing array of radically coupled genetic 'biopixels'.

    PubMed

    Prindle, Arthur; Samayoa, Phillip; Razinkov, Ivan; Danino, Tal; Tsimring, Lev S; Hasty, Jeff

    2012-01-01

    Although there has been considerable progress in the development of engineering principles for synthetic biology, a substantial challenge is the construction of robust circuits in a noisy cellular environment. Such an environment leads to considerable intercellular variability in circuit behaviour, which can hinder functionality at the colony level. Here we engineer the synchronization of thousands of oscillating colony 'biopixels' over centimetre-length scales through the use of synergistic intercellular coupling involving quorum sensing within a colony and gas-phase redox signalling between colonies. We use this platform to construct a liquid crystal display (LCD)-like macroscopic clock that can be used to sense arsenic via modulation of the oscillatory period. Given the repertoire of sensing capabilities of bacteria such as Escherichia coli, the ability to coordinate their behaviour over large length scales sets the stage for the construction of low cost genetic biosensors that are capable of detecting heavy metals and pathogens in the field. PMID:22178928

  20. Making Sense of the Senses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brian L. Keeley

    Abstract How ought we differentiatethe senses? For example, what distinguishes vision from audition from olfaction, and how many senses are there, exactly? I argue that these questions come in two versions. First, there is the traditional problem of individuatingthe senses in humans, which goes back to Aristotle's solution that we have five senses. Second, there is also an important question

  1. Variable grid-quorum pattern MAC protocol for wireless sensor network

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yang Xi; Liu Jun; Yan Fang

    2010-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks are appealing to researchers due to their wide range of application. This paper proposes Variable Grid-quorum Pattern MAC protocol (VGP-MAC), an adaptive, asynchronous and low-latency MAC protocol designed for wireless sensor networks. VGP-MAC improves the pattern and timeslot schedule, which make nodes save energy by the proper sleep mechanism according to the nodes' own traffic. And the

  2. Co-evolutionary dynamics of collective action with signaling for a quorum.

    PubMed

    Pacheco, Jorge M; Vasconcelos, Vítor V; Santos, Francisco C; Skyrms, Brian

    2015-02-01

    Collective signaling for a quorum is found in a wide range of organisms that face collective action problems whose successful solution requires the participation of some quorum of the individuals present. These range from humans, to social insects, to bacteria. The mechanisms involved, the quorum required, and the size of the group may vary. Here we address the general question of the evolution of collective signaling at a high level of abstraction. We investigate the evolutionary dynamics of a population engaging in a signaling N-person game theoretic model. Parameter settings allow for loners and cheaters, and for costly or costless signals. We find a rich dynamics, showing how natural selection, operating on a population of individuals endowed with the simplest strategies, is able to evolve a costly signaling system that allows individuals to respond appropriately to different states of Nature. Signaling robustly promotes cooperative collective action, in particular when coordinated action is most needed and difficult to achieve. Two different signaling systems may emerge depending on Nature's most prevalent states. PMID:25706984

  3. Co-evolutionary Dynamics of Collective Action with Signaling for a Quorum

    PubMed Central

    Pacheco, Jorge M.; Vasconcelos, Vítor V.; Santos, Francisco C.; Skyrms, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Collective signaling for a quorum is found in a wide range of organisms that face collective action problems whose successful solution requires the participation of some quorum of the individuals present. These range from humans, to social insects, to bacteria. The mechanisms involved, the quorum required, and the size of the group may vary. Here we address the general question of the evolution of collective signaling at a high level of abstraction. We investigate the evolutionary dynamics of a population engaging in a signaling N-person game theoretic model. Parameter settings allow for loners and cheaters, and for costly or costless signals. We find a rich dynamics, showing how natural selection, operating on a population of individuals endowed with the simplest strategies, is able to evolve a costly signaling system that allows individuals to respond appropriately to different states of Nature. Signaling robustly promotes cooperative collective action, in particular when coordinated action is most needed and difficult to achieve. Two different signaling systems may emerge depending on Nature’s most prevalent states. PMID:25706984

  4. Construc~ao Observavel de um Quorum de Nos N~ao-Sybil na Vizinhanca Radio de uma Rede Ad Hoc Sem Fios

    E-print Network

    Rodrigues, Luís E.T.

    Construc¸~ao Observ´avel de um Quorum de N´os N~ao-Sybil na Vizinhanc¸a R´adio de uma Rede Ad Hoc Quorum N~ao-Sybil (QNS), numa vizinhanc¸a r´adio de uma rede ad hoc sem fios (i.e. uma rede com um ´unico

  5. Rating the Relevance of QUORUM-Selected ASRS Incident Narratives to a "Controlled Flight into Terrain" Accident

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGreevy, Michael W.; Statler, Irving C.

    1998-01-01

    An exploratory study was conducted to identify commercial aviation incidents that are relevant to a "controlled flight into terrain" (CFIT) accident using a NASA-developed text processing method. The QUORUM method was used to rate 67820 incident narratives, virtually all of the narratives in the Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) database, according to their relevance to two official reports on the crash of American Airlines Flight 965 near Cali, Colombia in December 1995. For comparison with QUORUM's ratings, three experienced ASRS analysts read the reports of the crash and independently rated the relevance of the 100 narratives that were most highly rated by QUORUM, as well as 100 narratives randomly selected from the database. Eighty-four of 100 QUORUM-selected narratives were rated as relevant to the Cali accident by one or more of the analysts. The relevant incidents involved a variety of factors, including, over-reliance on automation, confusion and changes during descent/approach, terrain avoidance, and operations in foreign airspace. In addition, the QUORUM collection of incidents was found to be significantly more relevant than the random collection.

  6. Macrocyclic proteasome inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Krahn, D; Ottmann, C; Kaiser, M

    2011-01-01

    Proteasome inhibitors have proven to be effective anticancer agents. Despite the success of the first on the market proteasome inhibitor bortezomib in chemotherapy, alternative clinically useful proteasome inhibitors are still urgently needed as bortezomib therapy causes severe side effects and is limited by arising drug resistance. Experience from previous proteasome inhibitor studies has thereby demonstrated that the identification of proteasome inhibitor structures with suitable pharmacological properties is a key factor for a successful development of clinically useful proteasome inhibitors. Macrocycles often show distinct and in comparison to linear small molecules superior pharmacological properties. Consequently, macrocyclic proteasome inhibitors might represent promising small molecules for drug development. Here, we want to highlight the current state of the art of macrocyclic proteasome inhibitor research. To this end, we give an overview and critically discuss currently known classes of macrocyclic proteasome inhibitors. PMID:22050753

  7. Possible Correlation Between Bile Salt Hydrolysis and AHL Deamidation: Staphylococcus epidermidis RM1, a Potent Quorum Quencher and Bile Salt Hydrolase Producer.

    PubMed

    Mukherji, Ruchira; Prabhune, Asmita

    2015-05-01

    The aim of the present work was to isolate a bile salt hydrolase (BSH) producer from fermented soy curd and explore the ability of the BSH produced to cleave bacterial quorum sensing signals. Bacterial isolates with possible ability to deconjugate bile salts were enriched and isolated on De Man, Rogosa and Sharpe (MRS) medium containing 0.2 % bile salts. BSH-producing positive isolate with orange-pink-pigmented colonies was isolated and was identified as a strain of Staphylococcus epidermidis using biochemical and phylogenetic tools. S. epidermidis RM1 was shown to possess both potent BSH and N-acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) cleavage activity. Genetic basis of this dual-enzyme activity was explored by means of specific primers designed using S. epidermidis ATCC 12228 genome as template. It was observed that a single enzyme was not responsible for both the activity. Two different genetic elements corresponding to each of the enzymatic activity were successfully amplified from the genomic DNA of the isolate. PMID:25800527

  8. Remote Sensing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Richard S., Jr.; Southworth, C. Scott

    1983-01-01

    The Landsat Program became the major event of 1982 in geological remote sensing with the successful launch of Landsat 4. Other 1982 remote sensing accomplishments, research, publications, (including a set of Landsat worldwide reference system index maps), and conferences are highlighted. (JN)

  9. Pharmacophore selection and redesign of non-nucleotide inhibitors of anthrax edema factor.

    PubMed

    Schein, Catherine H; Chen, Deliang; Ma, Lili; Kanalas, John J; Gao, Jian; Jimenez, Maria Estrella; Sower, Laurie E; Walter, Mary A; Gilbertson, Scott R; Peterson, Johnny W

    2012-11-01

    Antibiotic treatment may fail to protect individuals, if not started early enough, after infection with Bacillus anthracis, due to the continuing activity of toxins that the bacterium produces. Stable and easily stored inhibitors of the edema factor toxin (EF), an adenylyl cyclase, could save lives in the event of an outbreak, due to natural causes or a bioweapon attack. The toxin's basic activity is to convert ATP to cAMP, and it is thus in principle a simple phosphatase, which means that many mammalian enzymes, including intracellular adenylcyclases, may have a similar activity. While nucleotide based inhibitors, similar to its natural substrate, ATP, were identified early, these compounds had low activity and specificity for EF. We used a combined structural and computational approach to choose small organic molecules in large, web-based compound libraries that would, based on docking scores, bind to residues within the substrate binding pocket of EF. A family of fluorenone-based inhibitors was identified that inhibited the release of cAMP from cells treated with EF. The lead inhibitor was also shown to inhibit the diarrhea caused by enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) in a murine model, perhaps by serving as a quorum sensor. These inhibitors are now being tested for their ability to inhibit Anthrax infection in animal models and may have use against other pathogens that produce toxins similar to EF, such as Bordetella pertussis or Vibrio cholera. PMID:23202316

  10. Structural and Biochemical Characterization of AidC, a Quorum-Quenching Lactonase with Atypical Selectivity.

    PubMed

    Mascarenhas, Romila; Thomas, Pei W; Wu, Chun-Xiang; Nocek, Boguslaw P; Hoang, Quyen Q; Liu, Dali; Fast, Walter

    2015-07-21

    Quorum-quenching catalysts are of interest for potential application as biochemical tools for interrogating interbacterial communication pathways, as antibiofouling agents, and as anti-infective agents in plants and animals. Herein, the structure and function of AidC, an N-acyl-l-homoserine lactone (AHL) lactonase from Chryseobacterium, is characterized. Steady-state kinetics show that zinc-supplemented AidC is the most efficient wild-type quorum-quenching enzymes characterized to date, with a kcat/KM value of approximately 2 × 10(6) M(-1) s(-1) for N-heptanoyl-l-homoserine lactone. The enzyme has stricter substrate selectivity and significantly lower KM values (ca. 50 ?M for preferred substrates) compared to those of typical AHL lactonases (ca. >1 mM). X-ray crystal structures of AidC alone and with the product N-hexanoyl-l-homoserine were determined at resolutions of 1.09 and 1.67 Å, respectively. Each structure displays as a dimer, and dimeric oligiomerization was also observed in solution by size-exclusion chromatography coupled with multiangle light scattering. The structures reveal two atypical features as compared to previously characterized AHL lactonases: a "kinked" ?-helix that forms part of a closed binding pocket that provides affinity and enforces selectivity for AHL substrates and an active-site His substitution that is usually found in a homologous family of phosphodiesterases. Implications for the catalytic mechanism of AHL lactonases are discussed. PMID:26115006

  11. I. Development of Metal-Mediated SPOT-Synthesis Methods for the Efficient Construction of Small-Molecule Macroarrays. II. Design and Synthesis of Novel Bacterial Biofilm Inhibitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frei, Reto

    I. The use of small molecule probes to explore biological phenomena has become a valuable tool in chemical biology. As a result, methods that permit the rapid synthesis and biological evaluation of such compounds are highly sought-after. The small molecule macroarray represents one such approach for the synthesis and identification of novel bioactive agents. Macroarrays are readily constructed via the SPOT-synthesis technique on planar cellulose membranes, yielding spatially addressed libraries of ˜10-1000 unique compounds. We sought to expand the arsenal of chemical reactions compatible with this solid-phase platform, and developed highly efficient SPOT-synthesis protocols for the Mizoroki-Heck, Suzuki-Miyaura, and copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition reaction. We demonstrated that these metal-mediated reactions can be implemented, either individually or sequentially, for the efficient construction of small molecules in high purity on rapid time scales. Utilizing these powerful C-C and C-N bond forming coupling reactions, we constructed a series of macroarrays based on novel stilbene, phenyl-naphthalene, and triazole scaliblds. Subsequent biological testing of the stilbene and phenyl-naphthalene libraries revealed several potent antagonists and agonists, respectively, of the quorum sensing (QS) receptor LuxR in Vibrio fischeri. II. Bacteria living within biofilms are notorious for their resistance to known antibiotic agents, and constitute a major human health threat. Methods to attenuate biofilm growth would have a significant impact on the management of bacterial infections. Despite intense research efforts, small molecules capable of either inhibiting or dispersing biolilms remain scarce. We utilized natural products with purported anti-biofilm or QS inhibitory activity as sources of structural insight to guide the synthesis of novel biofilm modulators with improved activities. These studies revealed 2-aminobenzimidazole derivatives as highly potent biofilm inhibitors and dispersers in the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Studies of second-generation 2-aminobenzimidazoles revealed important structure-activity relationships that guided the design of yet more potent analogs. These compounds are amongst the most potent inhibitors of biofilm formation in wild-type P. aeruginosa to be reported. Mechanistic studies of the most active compounds suggest that QS inhibition is one pathway by which 2-aminobenzimidazoles modulate biofilm growth.

  12. Phage-mediated Dispersal of Biofilm and Distribution of Bacterial Virulence Genes Is Induced by Quorum Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Rossmann, Friederike S.; Racek, Tomas; Wobser, Dominique; Puchalka, Jacek; Rabener, Elaine M.; Reiger, Matthias; Hendrickx, Antoni P. A.; Diederich, Ann-Kristin; Jung, Kirsten; Klein, Christoph; Huebner, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    The microbiome and the phage meta-genome within the human gut are influenced by antibiotic treatments. Identifying a novel mechanism, here we demonstrate that bacteria use the universal communication molecule AI-2 to induce virulence genes and transfer them via phage release. High concentrations (i.e. 100 ?M) of AI-2 promote dispersal of bacteria from already established biofilms, and is associated with release of phages capable of infecting other bacteria. Enterococcus faecalis V583?ABC harbours 7 prophages in its genome, and a mutant deficient in one of these prophages (i.e. prophage 5) showed a greatly reduced dispersal of biofilm. Infection of a probiotic E. faecalis strain without lytic prophages with prophage 5 resulted in increased biofilm formation and also in biofilm dispersal upon induction with AI-2. Infection of the probiotic E. faecalis strain with phage-containing supernatants released through AI-2 from E. faecalis V583?ABC resulted in a strong increase in pathogenicity of this strain. The polylysogenic probiotic strain was also more virulent in a mouse sepsis model and a rat endocarditis model. Both AI-2 and ciprofloxacin lead to phage release, indicating that conditions in the gastrointestinal tract of hospitalized patients treated with antibiotics might lead to distribution of virulence genes to apathogenic enterococci and possibly also to other commensals or even to beneficial probiotic strains. PMID:25706310

  13. Crystal structure of a putative quorum sensing-regulated protein (PA3611) from the Pseudomonas-specific DUF4146 family.

    PubMed

    Das, Debanu; Chiu, Hsiu-Ju; Farr, Carol L; Grant, Joanna C; Jaroszewski, Lukasz; Knuth, Mark W; Miller, Mitchell D; Tien, Henry J; Elsliger, Marc-André; Deacon, Ashley M; Godzik, Adam; Lesley, Scott A; Wilson, Ian A

    2014-06-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen commonly found in humans and other organisms and is an important cause of infection especially in patients with compromised immune defense mechanisms. The PA3611 gene of P. aeruginosa PAO1 encodes a secreted protein of unknown function, which has been recently classified into a small Pseudomonas-specific protein family called DUF4146. As part of our effort to extend structural coverage of novel protein space and provide a structure-based functional insight into new protein families, we report the crystal structure of PA3611, the first structural representative of the DUF4146 protein family. PMID:24174223

  14. Phage-mediated dispersal of biofilm and distribution of bacterial virulence genes is induced by quorum sensing.

    PubMed

    Rossmann, Friederike S; Racek, Tomas; Wobser, Dominique; Puchalka, Jacek; Rabener, Elaine M; Reiger, Matthias; Hendrickx, Antoni P A; Diederich, Ann-Kristin; Jung, Kirsten; Klein, Christoph; Huebner, Johannes

    2015-02-01

    The microbiome and the phage meta-genome within the human gut are influenced by antibiotic treatments. Identifying a novel mechanism, here we demonstrate that bacteria use the universal communication molecule AI-2 to induce virulence genes and transfer them via phage release. High concentrations (i.e. 100 ?M) of AI-2 promote dispersal of bacteria from already established biofilms, and is associated with release of phages capable of infecting other bacteria. Enterococcus faecalis V583?ABC harbours 7 prophages in its genome, and a mutant deficient in one of these prophages (i.e. prophage 5) showed a greatly reduced dispersal of biofilm. Infection of a probiotic E. faecalis strain without lytic prophages with prophage 5 resulted in increased biofilm formation and also in biofilm dispersal upon induction with AI-2. Infection of the probiotic E. faecalis strain with phage-containing supernatants released through AI-2 from E. faecalis V583?ABC resulted in a strong increase in pathogenicity of this strain. The polylysogenic probiotic strain was also more virulent in a mouse sepsis model and a rat endocarditis model. Both AI-2 and ciprofloxacin lead to phage release, indicating that conditions in the gastrointestinal tract of hospitalized patients treated with antibiotics might lead to distribution of virulence genes to apathogenic enterococci and possibly also to other commensals or even to beneficial probiotic strains. PMID:25706310

  15. Degradation of pathogen quorum-sensing molecules by soil bacteria: a preventive and curative biological control mechanism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Florica Constantinescu; Laurent Michel; Cornelia Reimmann; Brion Duffy; Geneviève Défago

    2003-01-01

    The plasmid pME6863, carrying the aiiA gene from the soil bacterium Bacillus sp. A24 that encodes a lactonase enzyme able to degrade N-acyl-homoserine lactones (AHLs), was introduced into the rhizosphere isolate Pseudomonas fluorescens P3. This strain is not an effective biological control agent against plant pathogens. The transformant P. fluorescens P3\\/pME6863 acquired the ability to degrade AHLs. In planta, P.

  16. Quorum Sensing Controls Expression of the Type III Secretion Gene Transcription and Protein Secretion in Enterohemorrhagic and Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vanessa Sperandio; Jay L. Mellies; William Nguyen; Sooan Shin; James B. Kaper

    1999-01-01

    Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 and enteropathogenic E. coli cause a characteristic histopathology in intestinal cells known as attaching and effacing. The attaching and effacing lesion is encoded by the Locus of Enterocyte Effacement (LEE) pathogenicity island, which encodes a type III secretion system, the intimin intestinal colonization factor, and the translocated intimin receptor protein that is translocated from the bacterium

  17. Interference with the germination and growth of Ulva zoospores by quorum-sensing molecules from Ulva-associated epiphytic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Twigg, Matthew S; Tait, Karen; Williams, Paul; Atkinson, Steve; Cámara, Miguel

    2014-02-01

    Ulva zoospores preferentially settle on N-acylhomoserine lactone (AHL) producing marine bacterial biofilms. To investigate whether AHL signal molecules also affect the success and rate of zoospore germination in addition to zoospore attraction, the epiphytic bacteria associated with mature Ulva linza were characterized and bacterial isolates representative of this community tested for the ability to produce AHLs. Two of these AHL-producing isolates, Sulfitobacter spp. 376 and Shewanella spp. 79, were transformed with plasmids expressing the Bacillus spp. AHL lactonase gene aiiA to generate AHL-deficient variants. The germination and growth of U.?linza zoospores was studied in the presence of these AHL-deficient strains and their AHL-producing counterparts. This revealed that the AHLs produced by Sulfitobacter spp. and Shewanella spp. or the bacterial products they regulate have a negative impact on both zoospore germination and the early growth of the Ulva germling. Further experiments with Escherichia coli biofilms expressing recombinant AHL synthases and synthetic AHLs provide data to demonstrate that zoospores germinated and grown in the absence of AHLs were significantly longer than those germinated in the presence of AHLs. These results reveal an additional role for AHLs?per se in the interactive relationships between marine bacteria and Ulva zoospores. PMID:23879807

  18. Solutions Network Formulation Report. NASA's Potential Contributions in Remote Quorum Sensing and the Management of Harmful Algal Blooms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fletcher, Rose; Knowlton, Kelly; Ryan, Robert E.

    2007-01-01

    This candidate solution proposes to use the night-imaging capabilities of the HSTC from SAC-C and of the HSC from SAC-D/Aquarius to detect bioluminescent events associated with HABs (harmful algal blooms). Once detected, this information could be fed to the NOAA CSCOR (Center for Sponsored Coastal Ocean Research) Harmful Algal Bloom Event Response Program, which acts quickly to fund the mobilization of research teams and to engage local agencies in a response. The HSC/HSTC data can serve as input to the HABSOS decision support system to provide information on location, extent, and duration of HAB events. Society will benefit from improved protection of the health of humans beings, aquatic ecosystems, and coastal economies. This work supports coastal management, public health, and homeland security applications.

  19. Whole-Genome Sequence of Serratia liquefaciens HUMV-21, a Cytotoxic, Quorum-Sensing, and Biofilm-Producing Clinical Isolate

    PubMed Central

    Lázaro-Díez, María; Acosta, Felix; Remuzgo-Martínez, Sara; Ocampo-Sosa, Alain; Ocejo-Vinyals, Javier Gonzalo; Bravo, Jimena; El Aamri, Fátima; Escuela, Oliver; Martínez-Martínez, Luis

    2015-01-01

    A clinical isolate of Serratia liquefaciens (strain HUMV-21) was obtained from a skin ulcer of an adult patient. We report here its complete genome assembly using PacBio single-molecule real-time (SMRT) sequencing, which resulted in a single circular chromosome with 5.3 Mb. About 5,844 protein-coding genes are predicted from this assembly. PMID:26021922

  20. Gibberellin: inhibitor of an inhibitor of...?

    PubMed

    Harberd, N P; King, K E; Carol, P; Cowling, R J; Peng, J; Richards, D E

    1998-12-01

    Gibberellin is an endogenous plant growth regulator. Here, we describe our present understanding of how gibberellin regulates plant growth, using recent results gained from studies of gibberellin-signalling mutants of Arabidopsis. These results show that a signalling pathway represses plant growth and that gibberellin releases this repression. In consequence, the well-known growth-promoting properties of gibberellin are due to its activity as an "inhibitor of an inhibitor" [Brian Pw. Sym Soc. Exp Bio 1957; 11:166-182 (Ref. 1)] of plant growth. PMID:10048300

  1. Low toxicity corrosion inhibitors

    SciTech Connect

    Prince, P.; Naraghi, A.R.; Saffer, C.E. [Champion Technologies, Inc., Fresno, TX (United States)

    1996-12-01

    This paper discusses the design and testing of low toxicity corrosion inhibitors. New chemistries have been investigated with respect to corrosion protection and impact on the marine environment. The resulting chemicals, while they are effective corrosion inhibitors, present significant improvements in terms of environmental properties over current products. The discussion includes results of the corrosion inhibition, toxicity, biodegradability and partitioning studies.

  2. Rustling up corrosion inhibitors

    SciTech Connect

    Hairston, D.W.

    1996-03-01

    New corrosion inhibitors have replaced heavy metals in water treatment chemicals and protective coatings due to regulatory actions of the US Environmental Protection Agency. The paper discusses inhibitors for cooling towers, suppressing zinc corrosion, new protective coatings, and novel products for scale, corrosion, and algae inhibition.

  3. Making Sense

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golding, Clinton

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author provides a self-portrait of his intellectual life. He states that overall his approach to teaching and researching is about "making sense" where inadequate or incongruous conceptions fall into place or are transformed so they are congruous and adequate. In his teaching the author applies the methods of philosophy to…

  4. Remote Sensing

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Collection of seven classroom activities that focus on mapping and navigation. Topics include: sensory remote sensing; maps and globes; coded signals; satellite imagery resolution; color imagery; visible and infrared imagery; sea turtle tracking; and locating the Titanic. Each activity provides list of materials needed, background information, and procedure.

  5. Efficient biostimulation of native and introduced quorum-quenching Rhodococcus erythropolis populations is revealed by a combination of analytical chemistry, microbiology, and pyrosequencing.

    PubMed

    Cirou, Amélie; Mondy, Samuel; An, Shu; Charrier, Amélie; Sarrazin, Amélie; Thoison, Odile; DuBow, Michael; Faure, Denis

    2012-01-01

    Degradation of the quorum-sensing (QS) signals known as N-acylhomoserine lactones (AHL) by soil bacteria may be useful as a beneficial trait for protecting crops, such as potato plants, against the worldwide pathogen Pectobacterium. In this work, analytical chemistry and microbial and molecular approaches were combined to explore and compare biostimulation of native and introduced AHL-degrading Rhodococcus erythropolis populations in the rhizosphere of potato plants cultivated in farm greenhouses under hydroponic conditions. We first identified gamma-heptalactone (GHL) as a novel biostimulating agent that efficiently promotes plant root colonization by AHL-degrading R. erythropolis population. We also characterized an AHL-degrading biocontrol R. erythropolis isolate, R138, which was introduced in the potato rhizosphere. Moreover, root colonization by AHL-degrading bacteria receiving different combinations of GHL and R138 treatments was compared by using a cultivation-based approach (percentage of AHL-degrading bacteria), pyrosequencing of PCR-amplified rrs loci (total bacterial community), and quantitative PCR (qPCR) of the qsdA gene, which encodes an AHL lactonase in R. erythropolis. Higher densities of the AHL-degrading R. erythropolis population in the rhizosphere were observed when GHL treatment was associated with biocontrol strain R138. Under this condition, the introduced R. erythropolis population displaced the native R. erythropolis population. Finally, chemical analyses revealed that GHL, gamma-caprolactone (GCL), and their by-products, gamma-hydroxyheptanoic acid and gamma-hydroxycaproic acid, rapidly disappeared from the rhizosphere and did not accumulate in plant tissues. This integrative study highlights biostimulation as a potential innovative approach for improving root colonization by beneficial bacteria. PMID:22081576

  6. Why renin inhibitors?

    PubMed

    Haber, E

    1989-04-01

    Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors are widely used in the treatment of hypertension and congestive heart failure. They are potent drugs and have few side effects. The search for potent and orally absorbable agents that either block the angiotensin II receptor or inhibit the catalytic action of renin has not been so successful. This paper reviews present efforts to develop renin inhibitors. Most of the work has been based on the design of peptide analogues of angiotensinogen, many of which contain the unusual amino acid statine (or one of its variants) in place of the scissile bond (the peptide bond that renin cleaves in angiotensinogen). Substitutions at other sites in the molecule determine potency and species selectivity; for example, substitutions at the carboxyl terminus permit the construction of potent renin inhibitors that contain fewer amino acid residues. Peptide analogues of the prorenin segment of the enzyme, however, are but weak inhibitors and show little promise. Progress has also been slow in efforts to understand the principles required in the synthesis of potent renin inhibitors with significant bioavailability after oral administration. Finally, the question of whether renin inhibitors will offer a clinical advantage over converting enzyme inhibitors has not been answered. PMID:2666619

  7. HORIZON SENSING

    SciTech Connect

    Larry G. Stolarczyk, Sc.D.

    2002-07-31

    Real-time horizon sensing (HS) on continuous mining (CM) machines is becoming an industry tool. Installation and testing of production-grade HS systems has been ongoing this quarter at Oxbow Mining Company, Monterey Coal Company (EXXON), FMC Trona, Twentymile Coal Company (RAG America), and SASOL Coal. Detailed monitoring of system function, user experience, and mining benefits is ongoing. All horizon sensor components have finished MSHA (United States) and IEC (International) certification.

  8. An Extracellular Bacterial Pathogen Modulates Host Metabolism to Regulate its Own Sensing and Proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Baruch, Moshe; Belotserkovsky, Ilia; Hertzog, Baruch B.; Ravins, Miriam; Dov, Eran; McIver, Kevin S.; Le Breton, Yoann S.; Zhou, Yiting; Youting, Catherine Cheng; Hanski, Emanuel

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Successful infection depends on the ability of the pathogen to gain nutrients from the host. The extracellular pathogenic bacterium group A Streptococcus (GAS) causes a vast array of human diseases. By using the quorum sensing sil system as a reporter, we found that during adherence to host cells GAS delivers streptolysin toxins creating endoplasmic reticulum stress. This in turn, increases asparagine (ASN) synthetase expression and the production of ASN. The released ASN is sensed by the bacteria altering the expression of ~17% of GAS genes of which about 1/3 are dependent on the two-component system TrxSR. The expression of the streptolysin toxins is strongly upregulated whereas genes linked to proliferation are downregulated in ASN absence. Asparaginase a widely used chemotherapeutic agent, arrests GAS growth in human blood and blocks GAS proliferation in a mouse model of human bacteremia. These results delineate a pathogenic pathway and propose a new therapeutic strategy against GAS infections. PMID:24439371

  9. Chemistry of corrosion inhibitors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James M. Gaidis

    2004-01-01

    In the last quarter century, it has become feasible to extend the life of reinforced concrete structures by inhibiting chloride-induced corrosion of steel. Chemical interactions can occur between the concrete system and the inhibitor-steel-chloride system. The chemical reactions of the corrosion process in concrete and of the most commonly used inhibitors are discussed, with special attention to test procedures and

  10. Multifunctional organic corrosion inhibitor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles K. Nmai

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, the multi-functional benefits of the water-based organic corrosion inhibitor are presented and discussed, with regard to the corrosion protection of embedded steel and resistance to chemical attack; specifically, the resistance of concrete to sulfate attack and deterioration due to sulfuric acid exposure. The organic corrosion inhibitor consists of amines and fatty-acid esters and the mechanisms by which

  11. HORIZON SENSING

    SciTech Connect

    Larry G. Stolarczyk

    2003-03-18

    With the aid of a DOE grant (No. DE-FC26-01NT41050), Stolar Research Corporation (Stolar) developed the Horizon Sensor (HS) to distinguish between the different layers of a coal seam. Mounted on mining machine cutter drums, HS units can detect or sense the horizon between the coal seam and the roof and floor rock, providing the opportunity to accurately mine the section of the seam most desired. HS also enables accurate cutting of minimum height if that is the operator's objective. Often when cutting is done out-of-seam, the head-positioning function facilitates a fixed mining height to minimize dilution. With this technology, miners can still be at a remote location, yet cut only the clean coal, resulting in a much more efficient overall process. The objectives of this project were to demonstrate the feasibility of horizon sensing on mining machines and demonstrate that Horizon Sensing can allow coal to be cut cleaner and more efficiently. Stolar's primary goal was to develop the Horizon Sensor (HS) into an enabling technology for full or partial automation or ''agile mining''. This technical innovation (R&D 100 Award Winner) is quickly demonstrating improvements in productivity and miner safety at several prominent coal mines in the United States. In addition, the HS system can enable the cutting of cleaner coal. Stolar has driven the HS program on the philosophy that cutting cleaner coal means burning cleaner coal. The sensor, located inches from the cutting bits, is based upon the physics principles of a Resonant Microstrip Patch Antenna (RMPA). When it is in proximity of the rock-coal interface, the RMPA impedance varies depending on the thickness of uncut coal. The impedance is measured by the computer-controlled electronics and then sent by radio waves to the mining machine. The worker at the machine can read the data via a Graphical User Interface, displaying a color-coded image of the coal being cut, and direct the machine appropriately. The Horizon Sensor program began development in 1998 and experienced three major design phases. The final version, termed HS-3, was commissioned in 2000 with the assistance of the DOE-Mining Industry of the Future program, commercialized in 2002, and has been used 14 times in 12 different mines within the United States. The Horizon Sensor has applications in both underground and surface mining operations. This technology is primarily used in the coal industry, but is also used to mine trona and potash. All horizon sensor components have Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) (United States) and IEC (International) certification. Horizon Sensing saves energy by maximizing cutting efficiency, cutting only desired material. This desired material is cleaner fuel, therefore reducing pollutants to the atmosphere when burned and burning more efficiently. Extracting only desired material increases productivity by reducing or eliminating the cleaning step after extraction. Additionally, this technology allows for deeper mining, resulting in more material gained from one location. The remote sensing tool allows workers to operate the machinery away from the hazards of cutting coal, including noise, breathing dust and gases, and coal and rock splintering and outbursts. The HS program has primarily revolved around the development of the technology. However, the end goal of the program has always been the commercialization of the technology and only within the last 2 years of the program has this goal been realized. Real-time horizon sensing on mining machines is becoming an industry tool. Detailed monitoring of system function, user experience, and mining benefits is ongoing.

  12. Chemorepulsion from the Quorum Signal Autoinducer-2 Promotes Helicobacter pylori Biofilm Dispersal

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Jeneva K.; Huang, Julie Y.; Wreden, Christopher; Sweeney, Emily Goers; Goers, John; Remington, S. James

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori forms biofilms on abiotic and biotic surfaces. We have shown previously that H. pylori perceives the quorum signal autoinducer-2 (AI-2) as a chemorepellent. We report here that H. pylori chemorepulsion from endogenous AI-2 influences the proportions and spatial organization of cells within biofilms. Strains that fail to produce AI-2 (?luxS strains) or are defective for chemotaxis (?cheA strains) formed more spatially homogenous biofilms with a greater proportion of adherent versus planktonic cells than wild-type biofilms. Reciprocally, a strain that overproduced AI-2 (luxSOP) formed biofilms with proportionally fewer adherent cells. Along with the known AI-2 chemoreceptor, TlpB, we identified AibA and AibB, two novel periplasmic binding proteins that are required for the AI-2 chemorepulsion response. Disruptions in any of the proteins required for AI-2 chemotaxis recapitulated the biofilm adherence and spatial organization phenotype of the ?luxS mutant. Furthermore, exogenous administration of AI-2 was sufficient to decrease the proportion of adherent cells in biofilms and promote dispersal of cells from biofilms in a chemotaxis-dependent manner. Finally, we found that disruption of AI-2 production or AI-2 chemotaxis resulted in increased clustering of cells in microcolonies on cultured epithelial cells. We conclude that chemotaxis from AI-2 is a determinant of H. pylori biofilm spatial organization and dispersal.

  13. Cholinesterase inhibitors from botanicals

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Faiyaz; Ghalib, Raza Murad; Sasikala, P.; Ahmed, K. K. Mueen

    2013-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease, wherein a progressive loss of cholinergic synapses occurs in hippocampus and neocortex. Decreased concentration of the neurotransmitter, acetylcholine (ACh), appears to be critical element in the development of dementia, and the most appropriate therapeutic approach to treat AD and other form of dementia is to restore acetylcholine levels by inhibiting both major form of cholinesterase: Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE). Consequently, researches have focused their attention towards finding cholinesterase inhibitors from natural products. A large number of such inhibitors have been isolated from medicinal plants. This review presents a comprehensive account of the advances in field of cholinesterase inhibitor phytoconstituents. The structures of some important phytoconstituents (collected through www.Chemspider.com) are also presented and the scope for future research is discussed. PMID:24347920

  14. Using ACE inhibitors appropriately.

    PubMed

    Bicket, Daphne P

    2002-08-01

    When first introduced in 1981, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors were indicated only for treatment of refractory hypertension. Since then, they have been shown to reduce morbidity or mortality in congestive heart failure, myocardial infarction, diabetes mellitus, chronic renal insufficiency, and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Pathologies underlying these conditions are, in part, attributable to the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. Angiotensin II contributes to endothelial dysfunction. altered renal hemodynamics, and vascular and cardiac hypertrophy. ACE inhibitors attenuate these effects. Clinical outcomes of ACE inhibition include decreases in myocardial infarction (fatal and nonfatal), reinfarction, angina, stroke, end-stage renal disease, and morbidity and mortality associated with heart failure. ACE inhibitors are generally well tolerated and have few contraindications. (Am Fam Physician 2002;66:473.) PMID:12182524

  15. Chiral Kinase Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Jian-kang; Shen, Min; Thomas, Craig J.; Boxer, Mathew B.

    2011-01-01

    Small molecule kinase inhibitors are important tools for studying cellular signaling pathways, phenotypes and are, occasionally, useful clinical agents. With stereochemistry pervasive throughout the molecules of life it is no surprise that a single stereocenter can bestow a ligand with distinct binding affinities to various protein targets. While the majority of small molecule kinase inhibitors reported to date are achiral, a number of asymmetric compounds show great utility as tools for probing kinase-associated biomolecular events as well as promising therapeutic leads. The mechanism by which chirality is introduced varies but includes screening of chiral libraries, incorporation of chiral centers during optimization efforts and the rational installation of a chiral moiety as guided by structural and modeling efforts. Here we discuss several advanced chiral small molecule kinase inhibitors where stereochemistry plays an important role in terms of potency and selectivity. PMID:21291394

  16. Indirect Pathogenicity of Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis in Polymicrobial Otitis Media Occurs via Interspecies Quorum Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Armbruster, Chelsie E.; Hong, Wenzhou; Pang, Bing; Weimer, Kristin E. D.; Juneau, Richard A.; Turner, James; Swords, W. Edward

    2010-01-01

    Otitis media (OM) is among the leading diseases of childhood and is caused by opportunists that reside within the nasopharynx, such as Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis. As with most airway infections, it is now clear that OM infections involve multiple organisms. This study addresses the hypothesis that polymicrobial infection alters the course, severity, and/or treatability of OM disease. The results clearly show that coinfection with H. influenzae and M. catarrhalis promotes the increased resistance of biofilms to antibiotics and host clearance. Using H. influenzae mutants with known biofilm defects, these phenotypes were shown to relate to biofilm maturation and autoinducer-2 (AI-2) quorum signaling. In support of the latter mechanism, chemically synthesized AI-2 (dihydroxypentanedione [DPD]) promoted increased M. catarrhalis biofilm formation and resistance to antibiotics. In the chinchilla infection model of OM, polymicrobial infection promoted M. catarrhalis persistence beyond the levels seen in animals infected with M. catarrhalis alone. Notably, no such enhancement of M. catarrhalis persistence was observed in animals infected with M. catarrhalis and a quorum signaling-deficient H. influenzae luxS mutant strain. We thus conclude that H. influenzae promotes M. catarrhalis persistence within polymicrobial biofilms via interspecies quorum signaling. AI-2 may therefore represent an ideal target for disruption of chronic polymicrobial infections. Moreover, these results strongly imply that successful vaccination against the unencapsulated H. influenzae strains that cause airway infections may also significantly impact chronic M. catarrhalis disease by removing a reservoir of the AI-2 signal that promotes M. catarrhalis persistence within biofilm. PMID:20802829

  17. Teaching Number Sense

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Sharon

    2004-01-01

    Educators define number sense as a set of conceptual relationships between quantities and numerical symbols. The instructional principals of teaching number sense and number worlds program are mentioned.

  18. Number Sense Series: Developing Early Number Sense

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Jenni Way

    The author of this one-page article discusses early number sense and how it develops. She provides research background and suggests teaching strategies that promote early number sense, including instructions for simple games using dot cards. The article includes a list of references and a link to a follow-up article, "A Sense of 'ten' and Place Value" (cataloged separately).

  19. Oxygen Sensing Strategies in Mammals and Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Taabazuing, Cornelius Y.; Hangasky, John A.; Knapp, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    The ability to sense and adapt to changes in pO2 is crucial for basic metabolism in most organisms, leading to elaborate pathways for sensing hypoxia (low pO2). This review focuses on the mechanisms utilized by mammals and bacteria to sense hypoxia. While responses to acute hypoxia in mammalian tissues lead to altered vascular tension, the molecular mechanism of signal transduction is not well understood. In contrast, chronic hypoxia evokes cellular responses that lead to transcriptional changes mediated by the hypoxia inducible factor (HIF), which is directly controlled by post-translational hydroxylation of HIF by the non-heme Fe(II)/?KG-dependent enzymes FIH and PHD2. Research on PHD2 and FIH is focused on developing inhibitors and understanding the links between HIF binding and the O2 reaction in these enzymes. Sulfur speciation is a putative mechanism for acute O2-sensing, with special focus on the role of H2S. This sulfur-centered model is discussed, as are some of the directions for further refinement of this model. In contrast to mammals, bacterial O2-sensing relies on protein cofactors that either bind O2 or oxidatively decompose. The sensing modality for bacterial O2-sensors is either via altered DNA binding affinity of the sensory protein, or else due to the actions of a two-component signaling cascade. Emerging data suggests that proteins containing a hemerythrin-domain, such as FBXL5, may serve to connect iron sensing to O2-sensing in both bacteria and humans. As specific molecular machinery becomes identified, these hypoxia sensing pathways present therapeutic targets for diseases including ischemia, cancer, or bacterial infection. PMID:24468676

  20. Oxygen sensing strategies in mammals and bacteria.

    PubMed

    Taabazuing, Cornelius Y; Hangasky, John A; Knapp, Michael J

    2014-04-01

    The ability to sense and adapt to changes in pO2 is crucial for basic metabolism in most organisms, leading to elaborate pathways for sensing hypoxia (low pO2). This review focuses on the mechanisms utilized by mammals and bacteria to sense hypoxia. While responses to acute hypoxia in mammalian tissues lead to altered vascular tension, the molecular mechanism of signal transduction is not well understood. In contrast, chronic hypoxia evokes cellular responses that lead to transcriptional changes mediated by the hypoxia inducible factor (HIF), which is directly controlled by post-translational hydroxylation of HIF by the non-heme Fe(II)/?KG-dependent enzymes FIH and PHD2. Research on PHD2 and FIH is focused on developing inhibitors and understanding the links between HIF binding and the O2 reaction in these enzymes. Sulfur speciation is a putative mechanism for acute O2-sensing, with special focus on the role of H2S. This sulfur-centered model is discussed, as are some of the directions for further refinement of this model. In contrast to mammals, bacterial O2-sensing relies on protein cofactors that either bind O2 or oxidatively decompose. The sensing modality for bacterial O2-sensors is either via altered DNA binding affinity of the sensory protein, or else due to the actions of a two-component signaling cascade. Emerging data suggests that proteins containing a hemerythrin-domain, such as FBXL5, may serve to connect iron sensing to O2-sensing in both bacteria and humans. As specific molecular machinery becomes identified, these hypoxia sensing pathways present therapeutic targets for diseases including ischemia, cancer, or bacterial infection. PMID:24468676