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1

Interactions among Quorum Sensing Inhibitors  

PubMed Central

Many pathogenic bacteria use quorum sensing (QS) systems to regulate the expression of virulence genes in a density-dependent manner. In one widespread QS paradigm the enzyme LuxI generates a small diffusible molecule of the acyl-homoserine lactone (AHL) family; high cell densities lead to high AHL levels; AHL binds the transcription factor LuxR, triggering it to activate gene expression at a virulence promoter. The emergence of antibiotic resistance has generated interest in alternative anti-microbial therapies that target QS. Inhibitors of LuxI and LuxR have been developed and tested in vivo, and can act at various levels: inhibiting the synthesis of AHL by LuxI, competitively or non-competitively inhibiting LuxR, or increasing the turnover of LuxI, LuxR, or AHL. Here use an experimentally validated computational model of LuxI/LuxR QS to study the effects of using inhibitors individually and in combination. The model includes the effect of transcriptional feedback, which generates highly non-linear responses as inhibitor levels are increased. For the ubiquitous LuxI-feedback virulence systems, inhibitors of LuxI are more effective than those of LuxR when used individually. Paradoxically, we find that LuxR competitive inhibitors, either individually or in combination with other inhibitors, can sometimes increase virulence by weakly activating LuxR. For both LuxI-feedback and LuxR-feedback systems, a combination of LuxR non-competitive inhibitors and LuxI inhibitors act multiplicatively over a broad parameter range. In our analysis, this final strategy emerges as the only robust therapeutic option.

Anand, Rajat; Rai, Navneet; Thattai, Mukund

2013-01-01

2

Caffeine as a Potential Quorum Sensing Inhibitor  

PubMed Central

Quorum sensing enables bacteria to control the gene expression in response to the cell density. It regulates a variety of bacterial physiological functions such as biofilm formation, bioluminescence, virulence factors and swarming which has been shown contribute to bacterial pathogenesis. The use of quorum sensing inhibitor would be of particular interest in treating bacterial pathogenicity and infections. In this work, we have tested caffeine as quorum sensing inhibitor by using Chromobacterium violaceum CV026 as a biosensor. We verified that caffeine did not degrade the N-acyl homoserine lactones tested. In this work, it is shown that caffeine could inhibit N-acyl homoserine lactone production and swarming of a human opportunistic pathogen, namely Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA01. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first documentation providing evidence on the presence of anti-quorum sensing activity in caffeine. Our work will allow caffeine to be explored as anti-infective drugs.

Norizan, Siti Nur Maisarah; Yin, Wai-Fong; Chan, Kok-Gan

2013-01-01

3

Quorum sensing inhibitors: how strong is the evidence?  

PubMed

Because of its promising effect as an alternative to antibiotics, quorum sensing disruption is an intensively studied field, and there are many studies that describe the quorum sensing inhibitory activity of natural and synthetic compounds. In this opinion article, we present an overview of recent literature with respect to quorum sensing inhibitors. Most of this research is based on experiments with quorum sensing signal molecule reporter strains. However, these experiments are prone to bias due to other effects compounds may have on reporter strains. We argue that researchers should perform adequate control experiments and should carefully assess toxicity of the compounds in the bacterial species they are working with in order to confirm that what they observe really is quorum sensing inhibition. PMID:24126008

Defoirdt, Tom; Brackman, Gilles; Coenye, Tom

2013-12-01

4

Dietary phytochemicals as quorum sensing inhibitors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quorum sensing (QS) is a cell density dependent expression of species in bacteria mediated by hormone like compounds called autoinducers (AI). Several processes responsible for successful establishment of bacterial infection are mediated by QS. Inhibition of QS is therefore being considered as a new target for antimicrobial chemotherapy. Dietary phytochemicals are secondary metabolites in plants known to have several health

D. A. Vattem; K. Mihalik; S. H. Crixell; R. J. C. McLean

2007-01-01

5

Targeting Staphylococcus aureus Quorum Sensing with Nonpeptidic Small Molecule Inhibitors  

PubMed Central

A series of 3-oxo-C12-HSL, tetramic acid, and tetronic acid analogues were synthesized to gain insights into the structural requirements for quorum sensing inhibition in Staphylococcus aureus. Compounds active against agr were noncompetitive inhibitors of the autoinducing peptide (AIP) activated AgrC receptor, by altering the activation efficacy of the cognate AIP-1. They appeared to act as negative allosteric modulators and are exemplified by 3-tetradecanoyltetronic acid 17, which reduced nasal cell colonization and arthritis in a murine infection model.

2014-01-01

6

Evolution of resistance to quorum-sensing inhibitors.  

PubMed

The major cause of mortality and morbidity in human beings is bacterial infection. Bacteria have developed resistance to most of the antibiotics primarily due to large-scale and "indiscriminate" usage. The need is to develop novel mechanisms to treat bacterial infections. The expression of pathogenicity during bacterial infections is mediated by a cell density-dependent phenomenon known as quorum sensing (QS). A wide array of QS systems (QSS) is operative in expressing the virulent behavior of bacterial pathogens. Each QSS may be mediated largely by a few major signals along with others produced in minuscule quantities. Efforts to target signal molecules and their receptors have proved effective in alleviating the virulent behavior of such pathogenic bacteria. These QS inhibitors (QSIs) have been reported to be effective in influencing the pathogenicity without affecting bacterial growth. However, evidence is accumulating that bacteria may develop resistance to QSIs. The big question is whether QSIs will meet the same fate as antibiotics. PMID:24194099

Kalia, Vipin C; Wood, Thomas K; Kumar, Prasun

2014-07-01

7

Computer-Aided Identification of Recognized Drugs as Pseudomonas aeruginosa Quorum-Sensing Inhibitors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attenuation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa virulence by the use of small-molecule quorum-sensing inhibitors (referred to as the antipathogenic drug principle) is likely to play a role in future treatment strategies for chronic infections. In this study, structure-based virtual screening was used in a search for putative quorum- sensing inhibitors from a database comprising approved drugs and natural compounds. The database was

Liang Yang; Morten Theil Rybtke; Tim Holm Jakobsen; Morten Hentzer; Thomas Bjarnsholt; Michael Givskov; Tim Tolker-Nielsen

2009-01-01

8

Computer-Aided Identification of Recognized Drugs as Pseudomonas aeruginosa Quorum-Sensing Inhibitors? †  

PubMed Central

Attenuation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa virulence by the use of small-molecule quorum-sensing inhibitors (referred to as the antipathogenic drug principle) is likely to play a role in future treatment strategies for chronic infections. In this study, structure-based virtual screening was used in a search for putative quorum-sensing inhibitors from a database comprising approved drugs and natural compounds. The database was built from compounds which showed structural similarities to previously reported quorum-sensing inhibitors, the ligand of the P. aeruginosa quorum-sensing receptor LasR, and a quorum-sensing receptor agonist. Six top-ranking compounds, all recognized drugs, were identified and tested for quorum-sensing-inhibitory activity. Three compounds, salicylic acid, nifuroxazide, and chlorzoxazone, showed significant inhibition of quorum-sensing-regulated gene expression and related phenotypes in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggest that the identified compounds have the potential to be used as antipathogenic drugs. Furthermore, the results indicate that structure-based virtual screening is an efficient tool in the search for novel compounds to combat bacterial infections.

Yang, Liang; Rybtke, Morten Theil; Jakobsen, Tim Holm; Hentzer, Morten; Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Givskov, Michael; Tolker-Nielsen, Tim

2009-01-01

9

Computer-aided identification of recognized drugs as Pseudomonas aeruginosa quorum-sensing inhibitors.  

PubMed

Attenuation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa virulence by the use of small-molecule quorum-sensing inhibitors (referred to as the antipathogenic drug principle) is likely to play a role in future treatment strategies for chronic infections. In this study, structure-based virtual screening was used in a search for putative quorum-sensing inhibitors from a database comprising approved drugs and natural compounds. The database was built from compounds which showed structural similarities to previously reported quorum-sensing inhibitors, the ligand of the P. aeruginosa quorum-sensing receptor LasR, and a quorum-sensing receptor agonist. Six top-ranking compounds, all recognized drugs, were identified and tested for quorum-sensing-inhibitory activity. Three compounds, salicylic acid, nifuroxazide, and chlorzoxazone, showed significant inhibition of quorum-sensing-regulated gene expression and related phenotypes in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggest that the identified compounds have the potential to be used as antipathogenic drugs. Furthermore, the results indicate that structure-based virtual screening is an efficient tool in the search for novel compounds to combat bacterial infections. PMID:19364871

Yang, Liang; Rybtke, Morten Theil; Jakobsen, Tim Holm; Hentzer, Morten; Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Givskov, Michael; Tolker-Nielsen, Tim

2009-06-01

10

Glycosylflavonoids from Cecropia pachystachya Trécul are quorum sensing inhibitors.  

PubMed

The Cecropia genus is widely distributed in Latin America including at least 60 species, and some of them are commonly used in traditional medicine for the treatment of several diseases. We used Cecropia pachystachya Trécul to search for quorum sensing (QS) inhibitors compounds and found that the aqueous extract of C. pachystachya leaves is a promising source of substances with this activity. Using as biosensor Chromobacterium violaceum ATCC 31532 and Escherichia coli pSB403, the compounds chlorogenic acid (2), isoorientin (3), orientin (4), isovitexin (6), vitexin (7), and rutin (9) were identified as QS inhibitors. None of these compounds inhibited the growth of neither the used biosensors nor the microorganisms Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 23591, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, used here as growth inhibition controls. Along with the rutin, here we presented for the first time the QS-inhibition potential of the C-glycosyl flavonoids. The prospective of this evidence lead to the use of these compounds as antipathogenic drugs or antifoulants. PMID:24548722

Brango-Vanegas, J; Costa, G M; Ortmann, C F; Schenkel, E P; Reginatto, F H; Ramos, F A; Arévalo-Ferro, C; Castellanos, L

2014-04-15

11

Quorum sensing signals are produced by Aeromonas salmonicida and quorum sensing inhibitors can reduce production of a potential virulence factor.  

PubMed

Many pathogens control production of virulence factors by self-produced signals in a process called quorum sensing (QS). We demonstrate that acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) signals, which enable bacteria to express certain phenotypes in relation to cell density, are produced by a wide spectrum of Aeromonas salmonicida strains. All 31 typical strains were AHL producers as were 21 of 26 atypical strains, but on a strain population basis, production of virulence factors such as protease, lipase, A-layer or pigment did not correlate with the production and accumulation of AHLs in the growth medium. Pigment production was only observed in broth under highly aerated conditions. Quorum sensing inhibitors (QSIs) are compounds that specifically block QS systems without affecting bacterial growth and 2 such compounds, sulphur-containing AHL-analogues, reduced production of protease in a typical strain of Aeromonas salmonicida. The most efficient compound N-(heptylsulfanylacetyl)-L-homoserine lactone (HepS-AHL), reduced protease production by a factor of 10. Five extracellular proteases were detected on gelatin-containing sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) gels and 3 of these were completely down regulated by HepS-AHL. Hence, QSIs can curb virulence in some strains and could potentially be pursued as bacterial disease control measures in aquaculture. PMID:18286807

Rasch, Maria; Kastbjerg, Vicky Gaedt; Bruhn, Jesper Bartholin; Dalsgaard, Inger; Givskov, Michael; Gram, Lone

2007-12-13

12

Quorum sensing inhibitors of Staphylococcus aureus from Italian medicinal plants.  

PubMed

Morbidity and mortality estimates due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections continue to rise. Therapeutic options are limited by antibiotic resistance. Anti-pathogenic compounds, which inhibit quorum sensing (QS) pathways, may be a useful alternative to antibiotics. Staphylococcal QS is encoded by the AGR locus and is responsible for the production of ?-hemolysin. Quantification of ?-hemolysin found in culture supernatants permits the analysis of AGR activity at the translational rather than transcriptional level. We employed reversed phase high performance chromatographic (RP-HPLC) techniques to investigate the anti-QS activity of 168 extracts from 104 Italian plants through quantification of ?-hemolysin. Extracts from three medicinal plants (Ballota nigra, Castanea sativa, and Sambucus ebulus) exhibited a dose-dependent response in the production of ?-hemolysin, indicating anti-QS activity in a pathogenic MRSA isolate. PMID:20645243

Quave, Cassandra L; Plano, Lisa R W; Bennett, Bradley C

2011-01-01

13

Novel Pseudomonas aeruginosa Quorum-Sensing Inhibitors Identified in an Ultra-High-Throughput Screen? †  

PubMed Central

The opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa has two complete acyl-homoserine lactone (acyl-HSL) signaling systems, LasR-LasI and RhlR-RhlI. LasI catalyzes the synthesis of N-3-oxododecanoyl homoserine lactone (3OC12-HSL), and LasR is a transcription factor that requires 3OC12-HSL as a ligand. RhlI catalyzes the synthesis of N-butanoyl homoserine lactone (C4), and RhlR is a transcription factor that responds to C4. LasR and RhlR control the transcription of hundreds of P. aeruginosa genes, many of which are critical virulence determinants, and LasR is required for RhlR function. We developed an ultra-high-throughput cell-based assay to screen a library of approximately 200,000 compounds for inhibitors of LasR-dependent gene expression. Although the library contained a large variety of chemical structures, the two best inhibitors resembled the acyl-homoserine lactone molecule that normally binds to LasR. One compound, a tetrazole with a 12-carbon alkyl tail designated PD12, had a 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 30 nM. The second compound, V-06-018, had an IC50 of 10 ?M and is a phenyl ring with a 12-carbon alkyl tail. A microarray analysis showed that both compounds were general inhibitors of quorum sensing, i.e., the expression levels of most LasR-dependent genes were affected. Both compounds also inhibited the production of two quorum-sensing-dependent virulence factors, elastase and pyocyanin. These compounds should be useful for studies of LasR-dependent gene regulation and might serve as scaffolds for the identification of new quorum-sensing modulators.

Muh, Ute; Schuster, Martin; Heim, Roger; Singh, Ashvani; Olson, Eric R.; Greenberg, E. Peter

2006-01-01

14

Production of Quorum Sensing Inhibitors in Growing Onion Bulbs Infected with Pseudomonas aeruginosa E (HQ324110).  

PubMed

Eighteen organic compounds were present in growing onion bulbs cultivar Giza 6 infected with P. aeruginosa, but only fourteen of them are present in dry infected onion bulbs; however, four compounds were missing in dry onion. The missing compounds in dry infected onion bulbs are pantolactone, 4,5-dihydro-4,5-dimethylfuran-2(3H)-one, myristic acid, and linoleic acid. All of them were detected in growing onion (living cell) during Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection, and it is hypothesized that it may be produced by plants and act as defence system. Pantolactone and myristic acid were selected to explore their effects on growth and virulence factors of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Exogenous application of pantolactone and myristic acid significantly inhibited pyocyanin production, protease, and lipase and polygalacturonase activity but did not have any significant effects on bacterial growth. The inhibition of virulence factors without reduction in bacterial growth may be providing strong support that these chemical molecules are general quorum sensing inhibitors than an antibacterial effect. Disruption of quorum sensing of pathogen indicates that this new approach has potential in fighting bacterial infections in human and plants. PMID:23724316

Abd-Alla, Mohamed H; Bashandy, Shymaa R

2012-01-01

15

Production of Quorum Sensing Inhibitors in Growing Onion Bulbs Infected with Pseudomonas aeruginosa E (HQ324110)  

PubMed Central

Eighteen organic compounds were present in growing onion bulbs cultivar Giza 6 infected with P. aeruginosa, but only fourteen of them are present in dry infected onion bulbs; however, four compounds were missing in dry onion. The missing compounds in dry infected onion bulbs are pantolactone, 4,5-dihydro-4,5-dimethylfuran-2(3H)-one, myristic acid, and linoleic acid. All of them were detected in growing onion (living cell) during Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection, and it is hypothesized that it may be produced by plants and act as defence system. Pantolactone and myristic acid were selected to explore their effects on growth and virulence factors of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Exogenous application of pantolactone and myristic acid significantly inhibited pyocyanin production, protease, and lipase and polygalacturonase activity but did not have any significant effects on bacterial growth. The inhibition of virulence factors without reduction in bacterial growth may be providing strong support that these chemical molecules are general quorum sensing inhibitors than an antibacterial effect. Disruption of quorum sensing of pathogen indicates that this new approach has potential in fighting bacterial infections in human and plants.

Abd-Alla, Mohamed H.; Bashandy, Shymaa R.

2012-01-01

16

Messing with Bacterial Quorum Sensing  

PubMed Central

Quorum sensing is widely recognized as an efficient mechanism to regulate expression of specific genes responsible for communal behavior in bacteria. Several bacterial phenotypes essential for the successful establishment of symbiotic, pathogenic, or commensal relationships with eukaryotic hosts, including motility, exopolysaccharide production, biofilm formation, and toxin production, are often regulated by quorum sensing. Interestingly, eukaryotes produce quorum-sensing-interfering (QSI) compounds that have a positive or negative influence on the bacterial signaling network. This eukaryotic interference could result in further fine-tuning of bacterial quorum sensing. Furthermore, recent work involving the synthesis of structural homologs to the various quorum-sensing signal molecules has resulted in the development of additional QSI compounds that could be used to control pathogenic bacteria. The creation of transgenic plants that express bacterial quorum-sensing genes is yet another strategy to interfere with bacterial behavior. Further investigation on the manipulation of quorum-sensing systems could provide us with powerful tools against harmful bacteria.

Gonzalez, Juan E.; Keshavan, Neela D.

2006-01-01

17

Identification of Five Structurally Unrelated Quorum-Sensing Inhibitors of Pseudomonas aeruginosa from a Natural-Derivative Database  

PubMed Central

Bacteria communicate by means of small signal molecules in a process termed quorum sensing (QS). QS enables bacteria to organize their activities at the population level, including the coordinated secretion of virulence factors. Certain small-molecule compounds, known as quorum-sensing inhibitors (QSIs), have been shown to effectively block QS and subsequently attenuate the virulence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, as well as increasing its susceptibility to both antibiotics and the immune system. In this study, a structure-based virtual screening (SB-VS) approach was used for the discovery of novel QSI candidates. Three-dimensional structures of 3,040 natural compounds and their derivatives were obtained, after which molecular docking was performed using the QS receptor LasR as a target. Based on docking scores and molecular masses, 22 compounds were purchased to determine their efficacies as quorum-sensing inhibitors. Using a live reporter assay for quorum sensing, 5 compounds were found to be able to inhibit QS-regulated gene expression in P. aeruginosa in a dose-dependent manner. The most promising compound, G1, was evaluated by isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ)-based proteomic analysis, and it was found to significantly affect the abundance of 46 proteins (19 were upregulated; 27 were downregulated) in P. aeruginosa PAO1. It specifically reduced the expression of several quorum-sensing-regulated virulence factors, such as protease IV, chitinase, and pyoverdine synthetases. G1 was also able to reduce extracellular DNA release and inhibited the secretion of the virulence factor, elastase, whose expression is regulated by LasR. These results demonstrate the utility of SB-VS for the discovery of target-specific QSIs.

Tan, Sean Yang-Yi; Chua, Song-Lin; Chen, Yicai; Rice, Scott A.; Kjelleberg, Staffan; Nielsen, Thomas E.; Givskov, Michael

2013-01-01

18

Broad Spectrum Pro-Quorum-Sensing Molecules as Inhibitors of Virulence in Vibrios  

PubMed Central

Quorum sensing (QS) is a bacterial cell-cell communication process that relies on the production and detection of extracellular signal molecules called autoinducers. QS allows bacteria to perform collective activities. Vibrio cholerae, a pathogen that causes an acute disease, uses QS to repress virulence factor production and biofilm formation. Thus, molecules that activate QS in V. cholerae have the potential to control pathogenicity in this globally important bacterium. Using a whole-cell high-throughput screen, we identified eleven molecules that activate V. cholerae QS: eight molecules are receptor agonists and three molecules are antagonists of LuxO, the central NtrC-type response regulator that controls the global V. cholerae QS cascade. The LuxO inhibitors act by an uncompetitive mechanism by binding to the pre-formed LuxO-ATP complex to inhibit ATP hydrolysis. Genetic analyses suggest that the inhibitors bind in close proximity to the Walker B motif. The inhibitors display broad-spectrum capability in activation of QS in Vibrio species that employ LuxO. To the best of our knowledge, these are the first molecules identified that inhibit the ATPase activity of a NtrC-type response regulator. Our discovery supports the idea that exploiting pro-QS molecules is a promising strategy for the development of novel anti-infectives.

Ng, Wai-Leung; Perez, Lark; Cong, Jianping; Semmelhack, Martin F.; Bassler, Bonnie L.

2012-01-01

19

Cyanobacterial mats from hot springs produce antimicrobial compounds and quorum-sensing inhibitors under natural conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polar (water) and non-polar (ethyl acetate) extracts from the cyanobacterial layer (top 1–3 mm) of four hot spring microbial\\u000a mats in the Sultanate of Oman were tested for their antibacterial, antidiatom and quorum-sensing inhibitory activities under\\u000a natural conditions. The chemical composition of the active extracts was analysed using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry\\u000a (GC-MS). Cyanobacteria within these mats were identified by direct microscopy

Sergey Dobretsov; Raeid M. M. Abed; Sultan M. S. Al Maskari; Jamal N. Al Sabahi; Reginald Victor

20

Imidazolines as non-classical bioisosteres of N-acyl homoserine lactones and quorum sensing inhibitors.  

PubMed

A series of selected 2-substituted imidazolines were synthesized in moderate to excellent yields by a modification of protocols reported in the literature. They were evaluated as potential non-classical bioisosteres of AHL with the aim of counteracting bacterial pathogenicity. Imidazolines 18a, 18e and 18f at various concentrations reduced the violacein production by Chromobacterium violaceum, suggesting an anti-quorum sensing profile against Gram-negative bacteria. Imidazoline 18b did not affect the production of violacein, but had a bacteriostatic effect at 100 ?M and a bactericidal effect at 1 mM. Imidazoline 18a bearing a hexyl phenoxy moiety was the most active compound of the series, rendering a 72% inhibitory effect of quorum sensing at 100 ?M. Imidazoline 18f bearing a phenyl nonamide substituent presented an inhibitory effect on quorum sensing at a very low concentration (1 nM), with a reduction percentage of 28%. This compound showed an irregular performance, decreasing inhibition at concentrations higher than 10 ?M, until reaching 100 ?M, at which concentration it increased the inhibitory effect with a 49% reduction percentage. When evaluated on Serratia marcescens, compound 18f inhibited the production of prodigiosin by 40% at 100 ?M. PMID:22408391

Reyes-Arellano, Alicia; Bucio-Cano, Alejandro; Montenegro-Sustaita, Mabel; Curiel-Quesada, Everardo; Salgado-Zamora, Héctor

2012-01-01

21

At a Supra-Physiological Concentration, Human Sexual Hormones Act as Quorum-Sensing Inhibitors  

PubMed Central

N-Acylhomoserine lactone (AHL)-mediated quorum-sensing (QS) regulates virulence functions in plant and animal pathogens such as Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. A chemolibrary of more than 3500 compounds was screened using two bacterial AHL-biosensors to identify QS-inhibitors (QSIs). The purity and structure of 15 QSIs selected through this screening were verified using HPLC MS/MS tools and their activity tested on the A. tumefaciens and P. aeruginosa bacterial models. The IC50 value of the identified QSIs ranged from 2.5 to 90 µg/ml, values that are in the same range as those reported for the previously identified QSI 4-nitropyridine-N-oxide (IC50 24 µg/ml). Under the tested culture conditions, most of the identified QSIs did not exhibit bacteriostatic or bactericidal activities. One third of the tested QSIs, including the plant compound hordenine and the human sexual hormone estrone, decreased the frequency of the QS-regulated horizontal transfer of the tumor-inducing (Ti) plasmid in A. tumefaciens. Hordenine, estrone as well as its structural relatives estriol and estradiol, also decreased AHL accumulation and the expression of six QS-regulated genes (lasI, lasR, lasB, rhlI, rhlR, and rhlA) in cultures of the opportunist pathogen P. aeruginosa. Moreover, the ectopic expression of the AHL-receptors RhlR and LasR of P. aeruginosa in E. coli showed that their gene-regulatory activity was affected by the QSIs. Finally, modeling of the structural interactions between the human hormones and AHL-receptors LasR of P. aeruginosa and TraR of A. tumefaciens confirmed the competitive binding capability of the human sexual hormones. This work indicates potential interferences between bacterial and eukaryotic hormonal communications.

Beury-Cirou, Amelie; Tannieres, Melanie; Minard, Corinne; Soulere, Laurent; Rasamiravaka, Tsiry; Dodd, Robert H.; Queneau, Yves; Dessaux, Yves; Guillou, Catherine; Vandeputte, Olivier M.; Faure, Denis

2013-01-01

22

Quorum sensing and quorum-quenching enzymes.  

PubMed

To gain maximal benefit in a competitive environment, single-celled bacteria have adopted a community genetic regulatory mechanism, known as quorum sensing (QS). Many bacteria use QS signaling systems to synchronize target gene expression and coordinate biological activities among a local population. N-acylhomoserine lactones (AHLs) are one family of the well-characterized QS signals in Gram-negative bacteria, which regulate a range of important biological functions, including virulence and biofilm formation. Several groups of AHL-degradation enzymes have recently been identified in a range of living organisms, including bacteria and eukaryotes. Expression of these enzymes in AHL-dependent pathogens and transgenic plants efficiently quenches the microbial QS signaling and blocks pathogenic infections. Discovery of these novel quorum quenching enzymes has not only provided a promising means to control bacterial infections, but also presents new challenges to investigate their roles in host organisms and their potential impacts on ecosystems. PMID:15765063

Dong, Yi-Hu; Zhang, Lian-Hui

2005-02-01

23

Polyhydroxyanthraquinones as Quorum Sensing Inhibitors from the Guttates of Penicillium restrictum and Their Analysis by Desorption Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry.  

PubMed

The endophytic fungus Penicillium restrictum was isolated from the stems of a milk thistle (Silybum marianum) plant. In culture, the fungus produced distinct red guttates, which have been virtually uninvestigated, particularly from the standpoint of chemistry. Hence, this study examined the chemical mycology of P. restrictum and, in doing so, uncovered a series of both known and new polyhydroxyanthraquinones (1-9). These compounds were quorum sensing inhibitors in a clinical isolate of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), with IC50 values ranging from 8 to 120 ?M, suggesting antivirulence potential for the compounds. Moreover, the spatial and temporal distribution of the polyhydroxyanthraquinones was examined in situ via desorption electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (DESI-MS) imaging, demonstrating the first application of this technique to a guttate-forming fungus and revealing both the concentration of secondary metabolites at the ventral surface of the fungus and their variance in colonies of differing ages. PMID:24911880

Figueroa, Mario; Jarmusch, Alan K; Raja, Huzefa A; El-Elimat, Tamam; Kavanaugh, Jeffrey S; Horswill, Alexander R; Cooks, R Graham; Cech, Nadja B; Oberlies, Nicholas H

2014-06-27

24

Quorum Sensing Let Bacteria Talk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quorum Sensing (QS), a wonderful natural method to regulate gene expressions in response to the fluctuation in the cell density of a given bacterial population and provides the key mechanism through which bacteria communicate. QS bacteria release chemical signal molecules called autoinducers that increase in concentration as a function of cell density. Lots of bacterial physiological activities including symbiosis, virulence,

Indrani Bhattacharyya; Mayukh Choudhury

2008-01-01

25

Synthesis and evaluation of thiazolidinedione and dioxazaborocane analogues as inhibitors of AI-2 quorum sensing in Vibrio harveyi.  

PubMed

Two focused libraries based on two types of compounds, that is, thiazolidinediones and dioxazaborocanes were designed. Structural resemblances can be found between thiazolidinediones and well-known furanone type quorum sensing (QS) inhibitors such as N-acylaminofuranones, and/or acyl-homoserine lactone signaling molecules, while dioxazaborocanes structurally resemble previously reported oxazaborolidine derivatives which antagonized autoinducer 2 (AI-2) binding to its receptor. Because of this, we hypothesized that these compounds could affect AI-2 QS in Vibrio harveyi. Although all compounds blocked QS, the thiazolidinediones were the most active AI-2 QS inhibitors, with EC(50) values in the low micromolar range. Their mechanism of inhibition was elucidated by measuring the effect on bioluminescence in a series of V. harveyi QS mutants and by DNA-binding assays with purified LuxR protein. The active compounds neither affected bioluminescence as such nor the production of AI-2. Instead, our results indicate that the thiazolidinediones blocked AI-2 QS in V. harveyi by decreasing the DNA-binding ability of LuxR. In addition, several dioxazaborocanes were found to block AI-2 QS by targeting LuxPQ. PMID:23286963

Brackman, Gilles; Al Quntar, Abed Al Aziz; Enk, Claes D; Karalic, Izet; Nelis, Hans J; Van Calenbergh, Serge; Srebnik, Morris; Coenye, Tom

2013-02-01

26

Screening for Quorum-Sensing Inhibitors (QSI) by Use of a Novel Genetic System, the QSI Selector  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the widespread appearance of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, there is an increasing demand for novel strategies to control infectious diseases. Furthermore, it has become apparent that the bacterial life style also contributes significantly to this problem. Bacteria living in the biofilm mode of growth tolerate conventional antimicrobial treatments. The discovery that many bacteria use quorum-sensing (QS) systems to coordinate virulence and

Thomas Bovbjerg Rasmussen; Thomas Bjarnsholt; Mette Elena Skindersoe; Morten Hentzer; Peter Kristoffersen; Manuela Kote; John Nielsen; Leo Eberl; Michael Givskov

2005-01-01

27

Quorum-sensing in Rhizobium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quorum-sensing signals are found in many species of legume-nodulating rhizobia. In a well-characterized strain of R. leguminosarum biovar viciae, a variety of autoinducers are synthesised, and all have been identified as N-acyl-homoserine lactones. One of these N-acyl-homoserine lactones, is N-(3-hydroxy-7-cis-tetradecenoyl)-L- homoserine lactone, previously known as small bacteriocin, which inhibits the growth of several R. leguminosarum strains. The cinRI locus is

Florence Wisniewski-Dy; J. Allan Downie

2002-01-01

28

Quorum-sensing in Rhizobium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quorum-sensing signals are found in many species of legume-nodulating rhizobia. In a well-characterized strain of R. leguminosarum biovar viciae, a variety of autoinducers are synthesised, and all have been identified as N-acyl-homoserine lactones. One of these N-acyl-homoserine lactones, is N-(3-hydroxy-7-cis-tetradecenoyl)-L-homoserine lactone, previously known as small bacteriocin, which inhibits the growth of several R. leguminosarum strains. The cinRI locus is responsible

Florence Wisniewski-Dyé; J. Allan Downie

2002-01-01

29

Screening for Quorum-Sensing Inhibitors (QSI) by Use of a Novel Genetic System, the QSI Selector  

PubMed Central

With the widespread appearance of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, there is an increasing demand for novel strategies to control infectious diseases. Furthermore, it has become apparent that the bacterial life style also contributes significantly to this problem. Bacteria living in the biofilm mode of growth tolerate conventional antimicrobial treatments. The discovery that many bacteria use quorum-sensing (QS) systems to coordinate virulence and biofilm development has pointed out a new, promising target for antimicrobial drugs. We constructed a collection of screening systems, QS inhibitor (QSI) selectors, which enabled us to identify a number of novel QSIs among natural and synthetic compound libraries. The two most active were garlic extract and 4-nitro-pyridine-N-oxide (4-NPO). GeneChip-based transcriptome analysis revealed that garlic extract and 4-NPO had specificity for QS-controlled virulence genes in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. These two QSIs also significantly reduced P. aeruginosa biofilm tolerance to tobramycin treatment as well as virulence in a Caenorhabditis elegans pathogenesis model.

Rasmussen, Thomas Bovbjerg; Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Skindersoe, Mette Elena; Hentzer, Morten; Kristoffersen, Peter; Kote, Manuela; Nielsen, John; Eberl, Leo; Givskov, Michael

2005-01-01

30

Honaucins A-C, potent inhibitors of inflammation and bacterial quorum sensing: synthetic derivatives and structure-activity relationships.  

PubMed

Honaucins A-C were isolated from the cyanobacterium Leptolyngbya crossbyana which was found overgrowing corals on the Hawaiian coast. Honaucin A consists of (S)-3-hydroxy-?-butyrolactone and 4-chlorocrotonic acid, which are connected via an ester linkage. Honaucin A and its two natural analogs exhibit potent inhibition of both bioluminescence, a quorum-sensing-dependent phenotype, in Vibrio harveyi BB120 and lipopolysaccharide-stimulated nitric oxide production in the murine macrophage cell line RAW264.7. The decrease in nitric oxide production was accompanied by a decrease in the transcripts of several proinflammatory cytokines, most dramatically interleukin-1?. Synthesis of honaucin A, as well as a number of analogs, and subsequent evaluation in anti-inflammation and quorum-sensing inhibition bioassays revealed the essential structural features for activity in this chemical class and provided analogs with greater potency in both assays. PMID:22633410

Choi, Hyukjae; Mascuch, Samantha J; Villa, Francisco A; Byrum, Tara; Teasdale, Margaret E; Smith, Jennifer E; Preskitt, Linda B; Rowley, David C; Gerwick, Lena; Gerwick, William H

2012-05-25

31

Combining in silico and biophysical methods for the development of Pseudomonas aeruginosa quorum sensing inhibitors: an alternative approach for structure-based drug design.  

PubMed

The present work deals with the optimization of an inhibitor of PqsD, an enzyme essential for Pseudomonas aeruginosa quorum sensing apparatus. Molecular docking studies, supported by biophysical methods (surface plasmon resonance, isothermal titration calorimetry, saturation transfer difference NMR), were used to illuminate the binding mode of the 5-aryl-ureidothiophene-2-carboxylic acids. Enabled to make profound predictions, structure-based optimization led to increased inhibitory potency. Finally a covalent inhibitor was obtained. Binding to the active site was confirmed by LC-ESI-MS and MALDI-TOF-MS experiments. Following this rational approach, potent PqsD inhibitors were efficiently developed within a short period of time. This example shows that a combination and careful application of in silico and biophysical methods represents a powerful complement to cocrystallography. PMID:24083807

Sahner, J Henning; Brengel, Christian; Storz, Michael P; Groh, Matthias; Plaza, Alberto; Müller, Rolf; Hartmann, Rolf W

2013-11-14

32

Quorum sensing in Escherichia coli and Salmonella  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quorum sensing in Escherichia coli and Salmonella has been an elusive topic for a long time. However, in the past 8 years, several research groups have demonstrated that these bacteria use several quorum-sensing systems, such as: the luxS\\/AI-2, AI-3\\/epinephrine\\/norepinephrine, indole, and the LuxR homolog SdiA to achieve intercellular signaling. The majority of these signaling systems are involved in interspecies communication,

Matthew Walters; Vanessa Sperandio

2006-01-01

33

Non-lactone carbocyclic and heterocyclic antagonists and agonists of bacterial quorum sensing  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

Compounds which modulate quorum sensing in quorum sensing bacteria. Compounds of the invention inhibit quorum sensing and/or activate quorum sensing in various bacteria. Compounds that inhibit quorum sensing are particularly useful for inhibition of detrimental bacterial biofilm formation. Compounds that activate quorum sensing are particularly useful for promoting growth and biofilm formation of beneficial bacterial.

2014-01-07

34

N,N?-alkylated Imidazolium-Derivatives Act as Quorum-Sensing Inhibitors Targeting the Pectobacterium atrosepticum-Induced Symptoms on Potato Tubers  

PubMed Central

Bacteria belonging to the Pectobacterium genus are the causative agents of the blackleg and soft-rot diseases that affect potato plants and tubers worldwide. In Pectobacterium, the expression of the virulence genes is controlled by quorum-sensing (QS) and N-acylhomoserine lactones (AHLs). In this work, we screened a chemical library of QS-inhibitors (QSIs) and AHL-analogs to find novel QSIs targeting the virulence of Pectobacterium. Four N,N?-bisalkylated imidazolium salts were identified as QSIs; they were active at the ?M range. In potato tuber assays, two of them were able to decrease the severity of the symptoms provoked by P. atrosepticum. This work extends the range of the QSIs acting on the Pectobacterium-induced soft-rot disease.

des Essarts, Yannick Raoul; Sabbah, Mohamad; Comte, Arnaud; Soulere, Laurent; Queneau, Yves; Dessaux, Yves; Helias, Valerie; Faure, Denis

2013-01-01

35

Quorum Sensing in Nitrogen-Fixing Rhizobia  

PubMed Central

Members of the rhizobia are distinguished for their ability to establish a nitrogen-fixing symbiosis with leguminous plants. While many details of this relationship remain a mystery, much effort has gone into elucidating the mechanisms governing bacterium-host recognition and the events leading to symbiosis. Several signal molecules, including plant-produced flavonoids and bacterially produced nodulation factors and exopolysaccharides, are known to function in the molecular conversation between the host and the symbiont. Work by several laboratories has shown that an additional mode of regulation, quorum sensing, intercedes in the signal exchange process and perhaps plays a major role in preparing and coordinating the nitrogen-fixing rhizobia during the establishment of the symbiosis. Rhizobium leguminosarum, for example, carries a multitiered quorum-sensing system that represents one of the most complex regulatory networks identified for this form of gene regulation. This review focuses on the recent stream of information regarding quorum sensing in the nitrogen-fixing rhizobia. Seminal work on the quorum-sensing systems of R. leguminosarum bv. viciae, R. etli, Rhizobium sp. strain NGR234, Sinorhizobium meliloti, and Bradyrhizobium japonicum is presented and discussed. The latest work shows that quorum sensing can be linked to various symbiotic phenomena including nodulation efficiency, symbiosome development, exopolysaccharide production, and nitrogen fixation, all of which are important for the establishment of a successful symbiosis. Many questions remain to be answered, but the knowledge obtained so far provides a firm foundation for future studies on the role of quorum-sensing mediated gene regulation in host-bacterium interactions.

Gonzalez, Juan E.; Marketon, Melanie M.

2003-01-01

36

Quorum Sensing and Silencing in Vibrio parahaemolyticus?†  

PubMed Central

The quorum regulatory cascade is poorly characterized in Vibrio parahaemolyticus, in part because swarming and virulence factors—the hallmarks of the organism—are repressed by this scheme of gene control, and quorum sensing seems to be silenced in many isolates. In these studies, we examine a swarming-proficient, virulent strain and identify an altered-function allele of the quorum regulator luxO that is demonstrated to produce a constitutively active mimic of LuxO?P. We find that LuxO* affects the expression of three small regulatory RNAs (Qrrs) and the activity of a translational fusion in opaR, the output regulator. Tests for epistasis showed that luxO* is dominant over luxO and that opaR is dominant over luxO. Thus, information flow through the central elements of the V. parahaemolyticus quorum pathway is proven for the first time. Quorum-sensing output was explored using microarray profiling: the OpaR regulon encompasses ?5.2% of the genome. OpaR represses the surface-sensing and type III secretion system 1 (T3SS1) regulons. One novel discovery is that OpaR strongly and oppositely regulates two type VI secretion systems (T6SS). New functional consequences of OpaR control were demonstrated: OpaR increases the cellular cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) level, positively controls chitin-induced DNA competency, and profoundly blocks cytotoxicity toward host cells. In expanding the previously known quorum effects beyond the induction of the capsule and the repression of swarming to elucidate the global scope of genes in the OpaR regulon, this study yields many clues to distinguishing traits of this Vibrio species; it underscores the profoundly divergent survival strategies of the quorum On/Off phase variants.

Gode-Potratz, Cindy J.; McCarter, Linda L.

2011-01-01

37

Use of the quorum sensing inhibitor furanone C-30 to interfere with biofilm formation by Streptococcus mutans and its luxS mutant strain.  

PubMed

Streptococcus mutans is recognised as a major aetiological agent of dental caries. One of its important virulence factors is its ability to form biofilms on tooth surfaces. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the quorum sensing inhibitor furanone C-30 on biofilm formation by S. mutans and its luxS mutant strain. The effects of furanone C-30 on biofilms of both strains formed on 96-well microtitre plates at 37 °C were determined by a colorimetric technique (MTT assay). Different concentrations of furanone C-30 (0.0, 2.0 and 4.0 ?g/mL) and different time points of biofilm formation (4, 14 and 24 h) were investigated. The structures and thickness of the biofilms were observed by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Quorum sensing-related gene expression (ftf, smu630, brpA, gbpB, gtfB, vicR, comDE and relA) was investigated by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The results showed that synthetic furanone C-30 can inhibit biofilm formation by S. mutans and its luxS mutant strain, although it does not affect the bacterial growth rate itself. The quantities of biofilm formed by both strains significantly decreased (P<0.05) and the biofilms became thinner and looser as revealed by CLSM with increasing concentrations of furanone C-30. Expression of the genes tested was downregulated in the biofilms by the addition of furanone C-30. These results revealed that synthetic furanone C-30 can effectively inhibit biofilm formation by S. mutans and its luxS mutant strain. PMID:22578766

He, Zhiyan; Wang, Qian; Hu, Yuejian; Liang, Jingping; Jiang, Yuntao; Ma, Rui; Tang, Zisheng; Huang, Zhengwei

2012-07-01

38

Is quorum sensing a side effect of diffusion sensing?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many bacteria appear to communicate by releasing and sensing autoinducer molecules, which are believed to function primarily as sensors of population density. However, this quorum-sensing hypothesis rests on very weak foundations, as neither the need for group action nor the selective conditions required for its evolution have been demonstrated. Here, I argue for a more direct function of autoinducer secretion

Rosemary J. Redfield

2002-01-01

39

Applications of quorum sensing in biotechnology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many unicellular microorganisms use small signaling molecules to determine their local concentration. The processes involved\\u000a in the production and recognition of these signals are collectively known as quorum sensing (QS). This form of cell–cell communication\\u000a is used by unicellular microorganisms to co-ordinate their activities, which allows them to function as multi-cellular systems.\\u000a Recently, several groups have demonstrated artificial intra-species and

Swati Choudhary; Claudia Schmidt-Dannert

2010-01-01

40

Reduced bacterial deposition and attachment by quorum-sensing inhibitor 4-nitro-pyridine-N-oxide: the role of physicochemical effects.  

PubMed

Surface-attached chemical groups that resist protein adhesion are commonly characterized as being hydrophilic, H-bond acceptors, non-H-bond donors, and electrically neutral. Quorum-sensing (QS) inhibitor 4-nitropyridine-N-oxide (4-NPO) that previously was found to decrease Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm formation possesses all of these characteristics, making this molecule an ideal antiadhesive compound. It was hypothesized that once 4-NPO adsorbs to either the solid surface or bacteria, resultant changes in the physical-chemical surface properties of the solid surface and bacteria will reduce the extent of bacterial adhesion. These physical-chemical effects take place prior to the commencement of already well-established QS biofilm-inhibition mechanisms. Bacterial adhesion experiments to silica conducted in quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D) and parallel plate flow cells demonstrated that 4-NPO reduces bacterial adhesion to silica-coated surfaces by the adsorption of 4-NPO to the silica surface as well to the outer membrane of both gram-negative P. aeruginosa PAO1 and gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus. 4-NPO effectively neutralizes both the bacterial and silica surface charge, and it is proposed that this neutralization of local surface charge heterogeneities by 4-NPO adsorption is the mechanism responsible for decelerating rates of bacterial deposition. PMID:20553026

Vanoyan, Nune; Walker, Sharon L; Gillor, Osnat; Herzberg, Moshe

2010-07-20

41

Cross-Species Induction of Antimicrobial Compounds, Biosurfactants and Quorum-Sensing Inhibitors in Tropical Marine Epibiotic Bacteria by Pathogens and Biofouling Microorganisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enhancement or induction of antimicrobial, biosurfactant, and quorum-sensing inhibition property in marine bacteria due to\\u000a cross-species and cross-genera interactions was investigated. Four marine epibiotic bacteria (Bacillus sp. S3, B. pumilus S8, B. licheniformis D1, and Serratia marcescens V1) displaying antimicrobial activity against pathogenic or biofouling fungi (Candida albicans CA and Yarrowia lipolytica YL), and bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA and Bacillus

Devendra H. Dusane; Pratiek Matkar; Valayam P. Venugopalan; Ameeta Ravi Kumar; Smita S. Zinjarde

2011-01-01

42

The impact of quorum sensing on the virulence of Aeromonas hydrophila and Aeromonas salmonicida towards burbot (Lota lota L.) larvae.  

PubMed

In this study, the link between quorum sensing in Aeromonas spp. and its virulence towards burbot (Lota lota) was investigated. High mortality occurred in burbot juveniles challenged with Aeromonas salmonicida HN-00, but not in juveniles challenged with Aeromonas hydrophila AH-1N. Meanwhile, both A. hydrophila AH-1N and A. salmonicida HN-00 were virulent towards larvae. The effect of quorum sensing on the virulence of A. hydrophila AH-1N towards burbot larvae was further investigated using quorum sensing mutants (N-(butyryl)-L-homoserine lactone production and receptor mutants). Challenge with these mutants resulted in higher survival of burbot larvae when compared to challenge with the wild type, and the addition of the signal molecule N-butyryl-L-homoserine lactone restored the virulence of the quorum sensing production mutant. Moreover, quorum sensing inhibitors protected the burbot larvae from both Aeromonas strains. Finally, the freshwater micro-algae Chlorella saccharophila and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, which are able to interfere with quorum sensing, also protected burbot from the pathogens. However, QS interference was unlikely to be the only mechanism. This study revealed that the virulence of Aeromonas spp. towards burbot is regulated by quorum sensing and that quorum sensing inhibitors and micro-algae are promising biocontrol agents. PMID:22465799

Natrah, F M I; Alam, Md Iftakharul; Pawar, Sushant; Harzevili, A Shiri; Nevejan, Nancy; Boon, Nico; Sorgeloos, Patrick; Bossier, Peter; Defoirdt, Tom

2012-09-14

43

Transition state analogues in quorum sensing and SAM recycling  

PubMed Central

Transition state structures can be derived from kinetic isotope effects and computational chemistry. Molecular electrostatic potential maps of transition states serve as blueprints to guide synthesis of transition state analogue inhibitors of target enzymes. 5’-Methylthioadenosine phosphorylase (MTAP) functions in the polyamine pathway by recycling methylthioadenosine (MTA) and maintaining cellular S-adenosylmethionine (SAM). Its transition state structure was used to guide synthesis of MT-DADMe-ImmA, a picomolar inhibitor that shows anticancer effects against solid tumors. Biochemical and genomic analysis suggests that MTAP inhibition acts by altered DNA methylation and gene expression patterns. A related bacterial enzyme, 5’-methylthioadcnosine nucleosidase (MTAN), functions in pathways of quorum sensing involving AI-1 and AI-2 molecules. Transition states have been solved for several bacterial MTANs and used to guide synthesis of powerful inhibitors with dissociation constants in the femtomolar to picomolar range. BuT-DADMe-ImmA blocks quorum sensing in Vibrio cholerae without changing bacterial growth rates. Transition state analogue inhibitors show promise as anticancer and antibacterial agents.

Schramm, Vern L.; Gutierrez, Jemy A.; Cordovano, Grace; Basu, Indranil; Guha, Chandan; Belbin, Thomas J.; Evans, Gary B.; Tyler, Peter C.; Furneaux, Richard H.

2009-01-01

44

Transition state analogues in quorum sensing and SAM recycling.  

PubMed

Transition state structures can be derived from kinetic isotope effects and computational chemistry. Molecular electrostatic potential maps of transition states serve as blueprints to guide synthesis of transition state analogue inhibitors of target enzymes. 5'- Methylthioadenosine phosphorylase (MTAP) functions in the polyamine pathway by recycling methylthioadenosine (MTA) and maintaining cellular S-adenosylmethionine (SAM). Its transition state structure was used to guide synthesis of MT-DADMe-ImmA, a picomolar inhibitor that shows anticancer effects against solid tumors. Biochemical and genomic analysis suggests that MTAP inhibition acts by altered DNA methylation and gene expression patterns. A related bacterial enzyme, 5'-methylthioadenosine nucleosidase (MTAN), functions in pathways of quorum sensing involving AI-1 and AI-2 molecules. Transition states have been solved for several bacterial MTANs and used to guide synthesis of powerful inhibitors with dissociation constants in the femtomolar to picomolar range. BuT-DADMe-ImmA blocks quorum sensing in Vibrio cholerae without changing bacterial growth rates. Transition state analogue inhibitors show promise as anticancer and antibacterial agents. PMID:18776260

Schramm, Vern L; Gutierrez, Jemy A; Cordovano, Grace; Basu, Indranil; Guha, Chandan; Belbin, Thomas J; Evans, Gary B; Tyler, Peter C; Furneaux, Richard H

2008-01-01

45

Transcriptome Analysis of Acetyl-Homoserine Lactone Based Quorum Sensing Regulation in Yersinia pestis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The etiologic agent of bubonic plague, Yersinia pestis, senses self-produced, secreted chemical signals in a process named quorum sensing. Though the closely related enteric pathogen Y. pseudotuberculosis uses quorum sensing system to regulate motility, the role of quorum sensing in Y. pestis has been unclear. In this study we performed transcriptional profiling experiments to identify Y. pestis quorum sensing regulated

Christopher N. LaRock; Jing Yu; Alexander R. Horswill; Matthew R. Parsek; F. Chris Minion

2013-01-01

46

Ambroxol interferes with Pseudomonas aeruginosa quorum sensing.  

PubMed

The mucolytic agent ambroxol has been reported to interfere with the formation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa-derived biofilms in addition to reducing alginate production by undefined mechanisms. Since quorum sensing is a key regulator of virulence and biofilm formation, we examined the effects of ambroxol on P. aeruginosa PAO1 wild-type bacterial clearance rates, adhesion profiles and biofilm formation compared with the quorum sensing-deficient, double-mutant strains DeltalasR DeltarhlR and DeltalasI DeltarhlI. Data presented in this report demonstrated that ambroxol treatment reduced survival rates of the double-mutant strains compared with the wild-type strain in a dose-dependent manner even though the double-mutants had increased adhesion in the presence of ambroxol compared with the wild-type strain. The PAO1 wild-type strain produced a significantly thicker biofilm (21.64+/-0.57 microm) compared with the biofilms produced by the DeltalasR DeltarhlR (7.36+/-0.2 microm) and DeltalasI DeltarhlI (6.62+/-0.31 microm) isolates. Ambroxol treatment reduced biofilm thickness, increased areal porosity, and decreased the average diffusion distance and textual entropy of wild-type and double-mutant strains. However, compared with the double-mutant strains, the changes observed for the wild-type strain were more clearly defined. Finally, ambroxol exhibited significant antagonistic quorum-sensing properties, suggesting that it could be adapted for use clinically in the treatment of cystic fibrosis and to reduce biofilm formation and in the colonisation of indwelling devices. PMID:20580207

Lu, Qi; Yu, Jialin; Yang, Xiqiang; Wang, Jiarong; Wang, Lijia; Lin, Yayin; Lin, Lihua

2010-09-01

47

Surface coatings that promote rapid release of peptide-based AgrC inhibitors for attenuation of quorum sensing in Staphylococcus aureus.  

PubMed

Staphylococcus aureus is a major human pathogen responsible for a variety of life-threatening infections. The pathogenicity of this organism is attributed to its ability to produce a range of virulence factors and toxins, including the superantigen toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1). While many S. aureus infections can be treated using conventional antibiotics, strains resistant to these bactericidal agents have emerged. Approaches that suppress pathogenicity through mechanisms that are nonbactericidal (i.e., antivirulence approaches) could provide new options for treating infections, including those caused by resistant strains. Here, we report a nonbactericidal approach to suppressing pathogenicity based on the release of macrocyclic peptides (1 and 2) that inhibit the agr quorum sensing (QS) circuit in group-III S. aureus. It is demonstrated that these peptides can be immobilized on planar and complex objects (on glass slides, nonwoven meshes, or within absorbent tampons) using the rapidly dissolving polymer carboxymethylcellulose (CMC). Peptide-loaded CMC films released peptide rapidly (<5 min) and promoted strong (>95%) inhibition of the agr QS circuit without inducing cell death when incubated in the presence of a group-III S. aureus gfp-reporter strain. Peptide 1 is among the most potent inhibitors of QS in S. aureus reported to date, and the group-III QS circuit regulates production of TSST-1, the primary cause of toxic shock syndrome (TSS). These results thus suggest approaches to treat the outer covers of tampons, wound dressings, or other objects to suppress toxin production and reduce the severity of TSS in clinical and personal care contexts. Because peptide 1 also inhibits QS in S. aureus groups-I, -II, and -IV, this approach could also provide a pathway for attenuation of QS and associated virulence phenotypes in a broader range of contexts. PMID:23813683

Broderick, Adam H; Stacy, Danielle M; Tal-Gan, Yftah; Kratochvil, Michael J; Blackwell, Helen E; Lynn, David M

2014-01-01

48

[Quorum sensing in bacteria and yeast].  

PubMed

Bacterial sets are complex dynamic systems, which interact with each other and through the interaction, bacteria coexist, collaborate, compete and share information in a coordinated manner. A way of bacterial communication is quorum sensing. Through this mechanism the bacteria can recognize its concentration in a given environment and they can decide the time at which the expression of a particular set of genes should be started for developing a specific and simultaneous response. The result of these interconnections raises properties that cannot be explained from a single isolated bacterial cell. PMID:23622893

March Rosselló, Gabriel Alberto; Eiros Bouza, José María

2013-10-19

49

Quorum quenching enzymes and their application in degrading signal molecules to block quorum sensing-dependent infection.  

PubMed

With the emergence of antibiotic-resistant strains of bacteria, the available options for treating bacterial infections have become very limited, and the search for a novel general antibacterial therapy has received much greater attention. Quorum quenching can be used to control disease in a quorum sensing system by triggering the pathogenic phenotype. The interference with the quorum sensing system by the quorum quenching enzyme is a potential strategy for replacing traditional antibiotics because the quorum quenching strategy does not aim to kill the pathogen or limit cell growth but to shut down the expression of the pathogenic gene. Quorum quenching enzymes have been identified in quorum sensing and non-quorum sensing microbes, including lactonase, acylase, oxidoreductase and paraoxonase. Lactonase is widely conserved in a range of bacterial species and has variable substrate spectra. The existence of quorum quenching enzymes in the quorum sensing microbes can attenuate their quorum sensing, leading to blocking unnecessary gene expression and pathogenic phenotypes. In this review, we discuss the physiological function of quorum quenching enzymes in bacterial infection and elucidate the enzymatic protection in quorum sensing systems for host diseases and their application in resistance against microbial diseases. PMID:24065091

Chen, Fang; Gao, Yuxin; Chen, Xiaoyi; Yu, Zhimin; Li, Xianzhen

2013-01-01

50

Quorum Quenching Enzymes and Their Application in Degrading Signal Molecules to Block Quorum Sensing-Dependent Infection  

PubMed Central

With the emergence of antibiotic-resistant strains of bacteria, the available options for treating bacterial infections have become very limited, and the search for a novel general antibacterial therapy has received much greater attention. Quorum quenching can be used to control disease in a quorum sensing system by triggering the pathogenic phenotype. The interference with the quorum sensing system by the quorum quenching enzyme is a potential strategy for replacing traditional antibiotics because the quorum quenching strategy does not aim to kill the pathogen or limit cell growth but to shut down the expression of the pathogenic gene. Quorum quenching enzymes have been identified in quorum sensing and non-quorum sensing microbes, including lactonase, acylase, oxidoreductase and paraoxonase. Lactonase is widely conserved in a range of bacterial species and has variable substrate spectra. The existence of quorum quenching enzymes in the quorum sensing microbes can attenuate their quorum sensing, leading to blocking unnecessary gene expression and pathogenic phenotypes. In this review, we discuss the physiological function of quorum quenching enzymes in bacterial infection and elucidate the enzymatic protection in quorum sensing systems for host diseases and their application in resistance against microbial diseases.

Chen, Fang; Gao, Yuxin; Chen, Xiaoyi; Yu, Zhimin; Li, Xianzhen

2013-01-01

51

Applications of quorum sensing in biotechnology.  

PubMed

Many unicellular microorganisms use small signaling molecules to determine their local concentration. The processes involved in the production and recognition of these signals are collectively known as quorum sensing (QS). This form of cell-cell communication is used by unicellular microorganisms to co-ordinate their activities, which allows them to function as multi-cellular systems. Recently, several groups have demonstrated artificial intra-species and inter-species communication through synthetic circuits which incorporate components of bacterial QS systems. Engineered QS-based circuits have a wide range of applications such as production of biochemicals, tissue engineering, and mixed-species fermentations. They are also highly useful in designing microbial biosensors to identify bacterial species present in the environment and within living organisms. In this review, we first provide an overview of bacterial QS systems and the mechanisms developed by bacteria and higher organisms to obstruct QS communications. Next, we describe the different ways in which researchers have designed QS-based circuits and their applications in biotechnology. Finally, disruption of quorum sensing is discussed as a viable strategy for preventing the formation of harmful biofilms in membrane bioreactors and marine transportation. PMID:20306190

Choudhary, Swati; Schmidt-Dannert, Claudia

2010-05-01

52

Quorum sensing and Bacterial Pathogenicity: From Molecules to Disease  

PubMed Central

Quorum sensing in prokaryotic biology refers to the ability of a bacterium to sense information from other cells in the population when they reach a critical concentration (i.e. a Quorum) and communicate with them. The “language” used for this intercellular communication is based on small, self-generated signal molecules called as autoinducers. Quorum sensing is thought to afford pathogenic bacteriaa mechanism to minimize host immune responses by delaying theproduction of tissue-damaging virulence factors until sufficientbacteria have amassed and are prepared to overwhelm host defensemechanisms and establish infection. Quorum sensing systems are studied in a large number of gram-negative bacterial species belonging to ?, ?, and ? subclasses of proteobacteria. Among the pathogenic bacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa is perhaps the best understood in terms of the virulence factors regulated and the role the Quorum sensing plays in pathogenicity. Presently, Quorum sensing is considered as a potential novel target for antimicrobial therapy to control multi/all drug-resistant infections. This paper reviews Quorum sensing in gram positive and gram negative bacteria and its role in biofilm formation.

Deep, Antariksh; Chaudhary, Uma; Gupta, Varsha

2011-01-01

53

Transition state analogues of 5?-methylthioadenosine nucleosidase disrupt quorum sensing  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY 5?-Methylthioadenosine nucleosidase (MTAN) is a bacterial enzyme involved in S-adenosylmethionine-related quorum sensing pathways that induce bacterial pathogenesis factors. Transition state analogues 5?-methylthio- (MT-), 5?-ethylthio- (EtT-) and 5?-butylthio- (BuT-) DADMe-ImmucillinAs are slow-onset, tight-binding inhibitors of Vibrio cholerae MTAN (VcMTAN), with dissociation constants of 73, 70, and 208 pM, respectively. Structural analysis of VcMTAN with BuT-DADMe-ImmucillinA reveals interactions contributing to the high affinity. In V. cholerae cells, these compounds are potent MTAN inhibitors with IC50 values of 27, 31, and 6 nM for MT-, EtT-, and BuT-DADMe-ImmucillinA, disrupting autoinducer production in a dose-dependent manner without affecting growth. MT- and BuT-DADMe-ImmucillinA also inhibit autoinducer-2 production in enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 with IC50 values of 600, and 125 nM, respectively. BuT-DADMe-ImmucillinA inhibition of autoinducer-2 production in both strains persists for several generations, and causes reduction in biofilm formation. These results support MTAN’s role in quorum sensing, and its potential as target for bacterial anti-infective drug design.

Gutierrez, Jemy A.; Crowder, Tamara; Rinaldo-Matthis, Agnes; Ho, Meng-Chiao; Almo, Steven C.; Schramm, Vern L.

2009-01-01

54

Inhibition of quorum sensing and biofilm formation in Vibrio harveyi by 4-fluoro-DPD; a novel potent inhibitor of signalling.  

PubMed

(S)-4,5-Dihydroxypentane-2,3-dione [(S)-DPD, (1)] is a precursor for , a quorum sensing signalling molecule for inter- and intra-species bacterial communication. The synthesis of its fluoro-analogue, 4-fluoro-5-hydroxypentane-2,3-dione () is reported. An intermediate in this route also enables a new, shorter synthesis of the native (S)-DPD. 4-Fluoro-DPD (2) completely inhibited bioluminescence and bacterial growth of Vibrio harveyi BB170 strain at 12.5 ?M and 100 ?M, respectively. PMID:24637781

Kadirvel, Manikandan; Fanimarvasti, Fariba; Forbes, Sarah; McBain, Andrew; Gardiner, John M; Brown, Gavin D; Freeman, Sally

2014-05-21

55

Electronic Implementation of a Repressilator with Quorum Sensing Feedback  

PubMed Central

We investigate the dynamics of a synthetic genetic repressilator with quorum sensing feedback. In a basic genetic ring oscillator network in which three genes inhibit each other in unidirectional manner, an additional quorum sensing feedback loop stimulates the activity of a chosen gene providing competition between inhibitory and stimulatory activities localized in that gene. Numerical simulations show several interesting dynamics, multi-stability of limit cycle with stable steady-state, multi-stability of different stable steady-states, limit cycle with period-doubling and reverse period-doubling, and infinite period bifurcation transitions for both increasing and decreasing strength of quorum sensing feedback. We design an electronic analog of the repressilator with quorum sensing feedback and reproduce, in experiment, the numerically predicted dynamical features of the system. Noise amplification near infinite period bifurcation is also observed. An important feature of the electronic design is the accessibility and control of the important system parameters.

Hellen, Edward H.; Dana, Syamal K.; Zhurov, Boris; Volkov, Evgeny

2013-01-01

56

Quorum sensing dependent phenotypes and their molecular mechanisms in Campylobacterales  

PubMed Central

Quorum sensing comprises the mechanism of communication between numerous bacteria via small signalling molecules, termed autoinducers (AI). Using quorum sensing, bacteria can regulate the expression of multiple genes involved in virulence, toxin production, motility, chemotaxis and biofilm formation, thus contributing to adaptation as well as colonisation. The current understanding of the role of quorum sensing in the lifecycle of Campylobacterales is still incomplete. Campylobacterales belong to the class of Epsilonproteobacteria representing a physiologically and ecologically diverse group of bacteria that are rather distinct from the more commonly studied Proteobacteria, such as Escherichia and Salmonella. This review summarises the recent knowledge on distribution and production of AI molecules, as well as possible quorum sensing dependent regulation in the mostly investigated species within the Campylobacterales group: Campylobacter jejuni and Helicobacter pylori.

Golz, G.; Sharbati, S.; Backert, S.; Alter, T.

2012-01-01

57

Temporal Quorum-Sensing Induction Regulates Vibrio cholerae Biofilm Architecture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vibrio cholerae, the pathogen that causes cholera, also survives in aqueous reservoirs, probably in the form of biofilms. Quorum sensing negatively regulates V. cholerae biofilm formation through HapR, whose expres- sion is induced at a high cell density. In this study, we show that the concentration of the quorum-sensing signal molecule CAI-1 is higher in biofilms than in planktonic cultures.

Zhi Liu; Fiona R. Stirling; Jun Zhu

2007-01-01

58

An acyl-SAM analog as an affinity ligand for identifying quorum sensing signal synthases.  

PubMed

N-Acylhomoserine lactones (AHLs) are quorum sensing signals produced by Gram-negative bacteria. We here report the affinity purification of AHL synthases using beads conjugated with an enzyme inhibitor, which was designed based on the catalytic intermediate acyl-SAM. PMID:24955553

Kai, Kenji; Fujii, Hiroki; Ikenaka, Rui; Akagawa, Mitsugu; Hayashi, Hideo

2014-07-01

59

Interspecific quorum sensing mediates the resuscitation of viable but nonculturable vibrios.  

PubMed

Entry and exit from dormancy are essential survival mechanisms utilized by microorganisms to cope with harsh environments. Many bacteria, including the opportunistic human pathogen Vibrio vulnificus, enter a form of dormancy known as the viable but nonculturable (VBNC) state. VBNC cells can resuscitate when suitable conditions arise, yet the molecular mechanisms facilitating resuscitation in most bacteria are not well understood. We discovered that bacterial cell-free supernatants (CFS) can awaken preexisting dormant vibrio populations within oysters and seawater, while CFS from a quorum sensing mutant was unable to produce the same resuscitative effect. Furthermore, the quorum sensing autoinducer AI-2 could induce resuscitation of VBNC V. vulnificus in vitro, and VBNC cells of a mutant unable to produce AI-2 were unable to resuscitate unless the cultures were supplemented with exogenous AI-2. The quorum sensing inhibitor cinnamaldehyde delayed the resuscitation of wild-type VBNC cells, confirming the importance of quorum sensing in resuscitation. By monitoring AI-2 production by VBNC cultures over time, we found quorum sensing signaling to be critical for the natural resuscitation process. This study provides new insights into the molecular mechanisms stimulating VBNC cell exit from dormancy, which has significant implications for microbial ecology and public health. PMID:24509922

Ayrapetyan, Mesrop; Williams, Tiffany C; Oliver, James D

2014-04-01

60

Quorum sensing: How bacteria can coordinate activity and synchronize their response to external signals?  

PubMed Central

Quorum sensing is used by a large variety of bacteria to regulate gene expression in a cell-density-dependent manner. Bacteria can synchronize population behavior using small molecules called autoinducers that are produced by cognate synthases and recognized by specific receptors. Quorum sensing plays critical roles in regulating diverse cellular functions in bacteria, including bioluminescence, virulence gene expression, biofilm formation, and antibiotic resistance. The best-studied autoinducers are acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) molecules, which are the primary quorum sensing signals used by Gram-negative bacteria. In this review we focus on the AHL-dependent quorum sensing system and highlight recent progress on structural and mechanistic studies of AHL synthases and the corresponding receptors. Crystal structures of LuxI-type AHL synthases provide insights into acyl-substrate specificity, but the current knowledge is still greatly limited. Structural studies of AHL receptors have facilitated a more thorough understanding of signal perception and established the molecular framework for the development of quorum sensing inhibitors.

Li, Zhi; Nair, Satish K

2012-01-01

61

Attenuation of Bacterial Virulence by Quorum Sensing-regulated Lysis  

PubMed Central

Genetically attenuated pathogenic bacteria have been extensively considered as vaccine candidates. However, insufficient attenuation has been a frequent limitation of this approach. Many pathogens use quorum sensing to escape host defense mechanism. Here, we hypothesized that quorum sensing can be manipulated to diminish pathogenesis. To test this hypothesis, we modified the quorum sensing circuitry of a live cholera vaccine strain to add a second layer of attenuation. Attenuation resulted from the expression of phage PhiX174 lysis gene E on a balanced lethal plasmid from the quorum sensing-regulated luxC promoter. For conditional expression of quorum sensing and positive selection in vivo, the host strain was deleted of its cqsA and thyA genes encoding cholera autoinducer 1 (CAI-1) synthase and thymidylate synthase, respectively. A recombinant cqsA gene expressed from the cholera toxin (CT) promoter and an active thyA gene was provided in trans. The resulting strain expressed CAI-1 in AKI cultures (CT permissive condition) but not in LB medium. Additionally, it expressed elevated biofilm in LB medium compared to AKI conditions where CAI-1 is synthesized to repress biofilm formation. Induction of lysis gene E by quorum sensing restricted growth to a lower cell density in AKI medium, the suckling mouse intestine or LB supplemented with exogenous CAI-1. Microscopic examination revealed the presence of V. cholerae ghost cells at high cell density. Lysis was accompanied by the release of intracellular ?-galactosidase to the culture medium. We conclude that it is possible to manipulate quorum sensing to attenuate a live vaccine vector and restrict its shedding to the environment and diminish its subsequent dissemination.

Silva, Anisia J.; Benitez, Jorge A.; Wu, Jian-He

2010-01-01

62

Attenuation of bacterial virulence by quorum sensing-regulated lysis.  

PubMed

Genetically attenuated pathogenic bacteria have been extensively considered as vaccine candidates. However, insufficient attenuation has been a frequent limitation of this approach. Many pathogens use quorum sensing to escape host defense mechanism. Here, we hypothesized that quorum sensing can be manipulated to diminish pathogenesis. To test this hypothesis, we modified the quorum sensing circuitry of a live cholera vaccine strain to add a second layer of attenuation. Attenuation resulted from the expression of phage PhiX174 lysis gene E on a balanced lethal plasmid from the quorum sensing-regulated luxC promoter. For conditional expression of quorum sensing and positive selection in vivo, the host strain was deleted of its cqsA and thyA genes encoding cholera autoinducer 1 (CAI-1) synthase and thymidylate synthase, respectively. A recombinant cqsA gene expressed from the cholera toxin (CT) promoter and an active thyA gene was provided in trans. The resulting strain expressed CAI-1 in AKI cultures (CT permissive condition) but not in LB medium. Additionally, it expressed elevated biofilm in LB medium compared to AKI conditions where CAI-1 is synthesized to repress biofilm formation. Induction of lysis gene E by quorum sensing restricted growth to a lower cell density in AKI medium, the suckling mouse intestine or LB supplemented with exogenous CAI-1. Microscopic examination revealed the presence of Vibrio cholerae ghost cells at high cell density. Lysis was accompanied by the release of intracellular ?-galactosidase to the culture medium. We conclude that it is possible to manipulate quorum sensing to attenuate a live vaccine vector and restrict its shedding to the environment and diminish its subsequent dissemination. PMID:20673838

Silva, Anisia J; Benitez, Jorge A; Wu, Jian-He

2010-10-01

63

Choosing an Appropriate Infection Model to Study Quorum Sensing Inhibition in Pseudomonas Infections  

PubMed Central

Bacteria, although considered for decades to be antisocial organisms whose sole purpose is to find nutrients and multiply are, in fact, highly communicative organisms. Referred to as quorum sensing, cell-to-cell communication mechanisms have been adopted by bacteria in order to co-ordinate their gene expression. By behaving as a community rather than as individuals, bacteria can simultaneously switch on their virulence factor production and establish successful infections in eukaryotes. Understanding pathogen-host interactions requires the use of infection models. As the use of rodents is limited, for ethical considerations and the high costs associated with their use, alternative models based on invertebrates have been developed. Invertebrate models have the benefits of low handling costs, limited space requirements and rapid generation of results. This review presents examples of such models available for studying the pathogenicity of the Gram-negative bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Quorum sensing interference, known as quorum quenching, suggests a promising disease-control strategy since quorum-quenching mechanisms appear to play important roles in microbe-microbe and host-pathogen interactions. Examples of natural and synthetic quorum sensing inhibitors and their potential as antimicrobials in Pseudomonas-related infections are discussed in the second part of this review.

Papaioannou, Evelina; Utari, Putri Dwi; Quax, Wim J.

2013-01-01

64

Quorum sensing in the genus Burkholderia.  

PubMed

The genus Burkholderia contains over 30 species, many of which are important human pathogens. In addition to the primary pathogens Burkholderia pseudomallei and Burkholderia mallei, several species have emerged as opportunistic pathogens in persons suffering from cystic fibrosis (CF) and immunocompromised individuals. All Burkholderia species investigated so far employ quorum-sensing (QS) systems that rely on N-acyl-homoserine lactone (AHL) signal molecules to express certain phenotypic traits in a population density-dependent manner. Whilst many Burkholderia strains only contain the CepI/CepR QS system, which relies on C8-HSL, some strains, in particular isolates of B. pseudomallei and B. mallei, harbour multiple LuxI/LuxR homologues and produce numerous AHL signal molecules. Evidence has accumulated over the past few years that the QS systems operating in Burkholderia are crucial for full virulence in various animal models. However, only few QS-regulated functions required for virulence in the different infection models have so far been identified. Given the essential role of QS in the expression of pathogenic traits in Burkholderia these regulatory systems represent attractive targets for the development of novel therapeutics. PMID:16490397

Eberl, Leo

2006-04-01

65

Quorum sensing in fungi--a review.  

PubMed

Quorum sensing (QS) is a mechanism of microbial communication dependent on cell density that can regulate several behaviors in bacteria such as secretion of virulence factors, biofilm formation, competence and bioluminescence. The existence of fungal QS systems was revealed ten years ago after the discovery that farnesol controls filamentation in the pathogenic polymorphic fungus Candida albicans. In the past decade, farnesol has been shown to play multiple roles in C. albicans physiology as a signaling molecule and inducing detrimental effects on host cells and other microbes. In addition to farnesol, the aromatic alcohol tyrosol was also found to be a C. albicans QS molecule (QSM) controlling growth, morphogenesis and biofilm formation. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, two other aromatic alcohols, phenylethanol and tryptophol were found to be QSMs regulating morphogenesis during nitrogen starvation conditions. Additionally, population density-dependent behaviors that resemble QS have been described in several other fungal species. Although fungal QS research is still in its infancy, its discovery has changed our views about the fungal kingdom and could eventually lead to the development of new antifungal therapeutics. PMID:22268493

Albuquerque, Patrícia; Casadevall, Arturo

2012-05-01

66

Quorum sensing and the population-dependent control of virulence.  

PubMed Central

One crucial feature of almost all bacterial infections is the need for the invading pathogen to reach a critical cell population density sufficient to overcome host defences and establish the infection. Controlling the expression of virulence determinants in concert with cell population density may therefore confer a significant survival advantage on the pathogen such that the host is overwhelmed before a defence response can be fully initiated. Many different bacterial pathogens are now known to regulate diverse physiological processes including virulence in a cell-density-dependent manner through cell-cell communication. This phenomenon, which relies on the interaction of a diffusible signal molecule (e.g. an N-acylhomoserine lactone) with a sensor or transcriptional activator to couple gene expression with cell population density, has become known as 'quorum sensing'. Although the size of the 'quorum' is likely to be highly variable and influenced by the diffusibility of the signal molecule within infected tissues, nevertheless quorum-sensing signal molecules can be detected in vivo in both experimental animal model and human infections. Furthermore, certain quorum-sensing molecules have been shown to possess pharmacological and immunomodulatory activity such that they may function as virulence determinants per se. As a consequence, quorum sensing constitutes a novel therapeutic target for the design of small molecular antagonists capable of attenuating virulence through the blockade of bacterial cell-cell communication.

Williams, P; Camara, M; Hardman, A; Swift, S; Milton, D; Hope, V J; Winzer, K; Middleton, B; Pritchard, D I; Bycroft, B W

2000-01-01

67

Silencing Quorum Sensing through Extracts of Melicope lunu-ankenda  

PubMed Central

Quorum sensing regulates bacterial virulence determinants, therefore making it an interesting target to attenuate pathogens. In this work, we screened edible, endemic plants in Malaysia for anti-quorum sensing properties. Extracts from Melicope lunu-ankenda (Gaertn.) T. G. Hartley, a Malay garden salad, inhibited response of Chromobacterium violaceum CV026 to N-hexanoylhomoserine lactone, thus interfering with violacein production; reduced bioluminescence expression of E. coli [pSB401], disrupted pyocyanin synthesis, swarming motility and expression of lecA::lux of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1. Although the chemical nature of the anti-QS compounds from M. lunu-ankenda is currently unknown, this study proves that endemic Malaysian plants could serve as leads in the search for anti-quorum sensing compounds.

Tan, Li Ying; Yin, Wai-Fong; Chan, Kok-Gan

2012-01-01

68

Biomimicry of quorum sensing using bacterial lifecycle model  

PubMed Central

Background Recent microbiologic studies have shown that quorum sensing mechanisms, which serve as one of the fundamental requirements for bacterial survival, exist widely in bacterial intra- and inter-species cell-cell communication. Many simulation models, inspired by the social behavior of natural organisms, are presented to provide new approaches for solving realistic optimization problems. Most of these simulation models follow population-based modelling approaches, where all the individuals are updated according to the same rules. Therefore, it is difficult to maintain the diversity of the population. Results In this paper, we present a computational model termed LCM-QS, which simulates the bacterial quorum-sensing (QS) mechanism using an individual-based modelling approach under the framework of Agent-Environment-Rule (AER) scheme, i.e. bacterial lifecycle model (LCM). LCM-QS model can be classified into three main sub-models: chemotaxis with QS sub-model, reproduction and elimination sub-model and migration sub-model. The proposed model is used to not only imitate the bacterial evolution process at the single-cell level, but also concentrate on the study of bacterial macroscopic behaviour. Comparative experiments under four different scenarios have been conducted in an artificial 3-D environment with nutrients and noxious distribution. Detailed study on bacterial chemotatic processes with quorum sensing and without quorum sensing are compared. By using quorum sensing mechanisms, artificial bacteria working together can find the nutrient concentration (or global optimum) quickly in the artificial environment. Conclusions Biomimicry of quorum sensing mechanisms using the lifecycle model allows the artificial bacteria endowed with the communication abilities, which are essential to obtain more valuable information to guide their search cooperatively towards the preferred nutrient concentrations. It can also provide an inspiration for designing new swarm intelligence optimization algorithms, which can be used for solving the real-world problems.

2013-01-01

69

[Quorum-sensing regulation in soil pseudomonads].  

PubMed

228 strains of soil and rhizosphere pseudomonads isolated in different geographic zones were screened, with the use of two tester systems, for the capacity to produce N-acetyl-homoserine lactones (AHLs), which are autoinducers involved in quorum-sensing (QS) regulation. AHL production was found in 11.4% of the strains investigated. In five Pseudomonas chlororaphis strains shown to be active AHL producers and chosen for further study, PCR identified two QS systems that involved the phzI, phzR, csaI, and csaR genes; this finding suggests the conservative nature of these regulation systems in P. chlororaphis. Strain P. chlororaphis 449, chosen as a model object and studied in greater detail, produced three AHL species including N-butanoyl-homoserine lactone and N-hexanoyl-homoserine lactone. This strain produced three types of phenazine antibiotics, as well as siderophores and cyanide; it also exhibited antagonistic properties toward a wide spectrum of phytopathogenic fungi. The phzI and csaI genes, coding for synthases of AHLs of two types, were cloned and sequenced; mutants with knocked-out phzI and csal genes were obtained. With the use of transposon mutagenesis and the gene substitution method, mutations were obtained in the global expression regulator genes gacS, coding for the GacA-GacS regulation system kinase, and rpoS, coding for the sigma S subunit of RNA polymerase. The effect of these mutations on the AHL synthesis and on the regulation of various metabolic processes in P. chlororaphis was studied. PMID:17025170

Veselova, M A; Lipasova, V A; Astaurova, O B; Atamova, E E; Protsenko, M A; Buza, L N; Metlitskaia, A Z; Danilova, N N; Chernin, L S; Khmel', I A

2006-01-01

70

Quorum Sensing Activity in Pandoraea pnomenusa RB38.  

PubMed

Strain RB38 was recovered from a former dumping area in Malaysia. MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and genomic analysis identified strain RB-38 as Pandoraea pnomenusa. Various biosensors confirmed its quorum sensing properties. High resolution triple quadrupole liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis was subsequently used to characterize the N-acyl homoserine lactone production profile of P. pnomenusa strain RB38, which validated that this isolate produced N-octanoyl homoserine lactone as a quorum sensing molecule. This is the first report of the production of N-octanoyl homoserine lactone by P. pnomenusa strain RB38. PMID:24919016

Ee, Robson; Lim, Yan-Lue; Kin, Lin-Xin; Yin, Wai-Fong; Chan, Kok-Gan

2014-01-01

71

Quorum Sensing Activity in Pandoraea pnomenusa RB38  

PubMed Central

Strain RB38 was recovered from a former dumping area in Malaysia. MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and genomic analysis identified strain RB-38 as Pandoraea pnomenusa. Various biosensors confirmed its quorum sensing properties. High resolution triple quadrupole liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry analysis was subsequently used to characterize the N-acyl homoserine lactone production profile of P. pnomenusa strain RB38, which validated that this isolate produced N-octanoyl homoserine lactone as a quorum sensing molecule. This is the first report of the production of N-octanoyl homoserine lactone by P. pnomenusa strain RB38.

Ee, Robson; Lim, Yan-Lue; Kin, Lin-Xin; Yin, Wai-Fong; Chan, Kok-Gan

2014-01-01

72

Effects of natural and chemically synthesized furanones on quorum sensing in Chromobacterium violaceum  

PubMed Central

Background Cell to cell signaling systems in Gram-negative bacteria rely on small diffusible molecules such as the N-acylhomoserine lactones (AHL). These compounds are involved in the production of antibiotics, exoenzymes, virulence factors and biofilm formation. They belong to the class of furanone derivatives which are frequently found in nature as pheromones, flavor compounds or secondary metabolites. To obtain more information on the relation between molecular structure and quorum sensing, we tested a variety of natural and chemically synthesized furanones for their ability to interfere with the quorum sensing mechanism using a quantitative bioassay with Chromobacterium violaceum CV026 for antagonistic and agonistic action. We were looking at the following questions: 1. Do these compounds affect growth? 2) Do these compounds activate the quorum sensing system of C. violaceum CV026? 3) Do these compounds inhibit violacein formation induced by the addition of the natural inducer N-hexanoylhomoserine lactone (HHL)? 4) Do these compounds enhance violacein formation in presence of HHL? Results The naturally produced N-acylhomoserine lactones showed a strong non-linear concentration dependent influence on violacein production in C. violaceum with a maximum at 3.7*10-8 M with HHL. Apart from the N-acylhomoserine lactones only one furanone (emoxyfurane) was found to simulate N-acylhomoserine lactone activity and induce violacein formation. The most effective substances acting negatively both on growth and quorum sensing were analogs and intermediates in synthesis of the butenolides from Streptomyces antibioticus. Conclusion As the regulation of many bacterial processes is governed by quorum sensing systems, the finding of natural and synthetic furanones acting as agonists or antagonists suggests an interesting tool to control and handle detrimental AHL induced effects. Some effects are due to general toxicity; others are explained by a competitive interaction for LuxR proteins. For further experiments it is important to be aware of the fact that quorum sensing active compounds have non-linear effects. Inducers can act as inhibitors and inhibitors might be able to activate or enhance the quorum sensing system depending on chemical structure and concentration levels.

Martinelli, Daniel; Grossmann, Gilles; Sequin, Urs; Brandl, Helmut; Bachofen, Reinhard

2004-01-01

73

Quorum Sensing and Self-Quorum Quenching in the Intracellular Pathogen Brucellamelitensis  

PubMed Central

Brucella quorum sensing has been described as an important regulatory system controlling crucial virulence determinants such as the VirB type IV secretion system and the flagellar genes. However, the basis of quorum sensing, namely the production of autoinducers in Brucella has been questioned. Here, we report data obtained from the use of a genetic tool allowing the in situ detection of long-chain N-acyl-homoserine lactones (AHL) activity at single bacterium level in Brucella melitensis. These data are consistent with an intrinsic production of AHL by B. melitensis in low concentration both during in vitro growth and macrophage infection. Moreover, we identified a protein, named AibP, which is homologous to the AHL-acylases of various bacterial species. In vitro and during infection, expression of aibP coincided with a decrease in endogenous AHL activity within B. melitensis, suggesting that AibP could efficiently impair AHL accumulation. Furthermore, we showed that deletion of aibP in B. melitensis resulted in enhanced virB genes expression and VirB8 production as well as in a reduced flagellar genes expression and production of FlgE (hook protein) and FliC (flagellin) in vitro. Altogether, these results suggest that AHL-dependent quorum sensing and AHL-quorum quenching coexist in Brucella, at least to regulate its virulence.

Terwagne, Matthieu; Mirabella, Aurelie; Lemaire, Julien; Deschamps, Chantal; De Bolle, Xavier; Letesson, Jean-Jacques

2013-01-01

74

[Research advance in the function of quorum sensing in the biological aggregates].  

PubMed

Quorum sensing is a microbial phenomenon that microorganisms use signal molecules to perceive environmental conditions and regulate specific gene expressions. As the communication function of quorum sensing is increasingly highlighted in the microbial field, researches on quorum sensing in the formation process of biological aggregates (biofilm and granules) attract wide attentions. The paper reviewed autoinducers (AI) classification and the corresponding regulation methods in quorum sensing, and provided an up-to-date account on research progress of AIs regulating biological aggregates formation and structural stability. New territories and future of quorum sensing were also outlined. PMID:25011319

Dai, Xin; Zhou, Jia-Heng; Zhu, Liang; Xu, Xiang-Yang

2014-04-01

75

Characterization of LasR protein involved in bacterial quorum sensing mechanism of Pseudomonas aeruginosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The quorum sensing (QS) mechanism of Pseudomonas aeruginosa has been studied extensively due to its involvement in cystic fibrosis, a deadly disease that is responsible for the death\\u000a of more than a thousand people annually. In order to develop biochemical assay method for screening QS inhibitor, we have\\u000a studied the production and characterization of recombinant LasR protein, which is a

Hai Bo Liu; Kyong Pyo Koh; Joon Hee Lee; Jung Sun Kim; Sunghoon Park

2009-01-01

76

Quorum Sensing Controls Exopolysaccharide Production in Sinorhizobium meliloti  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sinorhizobium meliloti is a soil bacterium capable of invading and establishing a symbiotic relationship with alfalfa plants. This invasion process requires the synthesis, by S. meliloti, of at least one of the two symbiotically important exopolysaccharides, succinoglycan and EPS II. We have previously shown that the sinRI locus of S. meliloti encodes a quorum-sensing system that plays a role in

Melanie M. Marketon; Sarah A. Glenn; Anatol Eberhard; Juan E. Gonzalez

2003-01-01

77

Pandoraea sp. RB-44, A Novel Quorum Sensing Soil Bacterium  

PubMed Central

Proteobacteria are known to communicate via signaling molecules and this process is known as quorum sensing. The most commonly studied quorum sensing molecules are N-acylhomoserine lactones (AHLs) that consists of a homoserine lactone moiety and an N-acyl side chain with various chain lengths and degrees of saturation at the C-3 position. We have isolated a bacterium, RB-44, from a site which was formally a landfill dumping ground. Using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry analysis, this isolate was identified as a Pandoraea sp.which was then screened for AHL production using biosensors which indicated its quorum sensing properties. To identify the AHL profile of Pandoraea sp. RB-44, we used high resolution tandem mass spectrometry confirming that this isolate produced N-octanoylhomoserine lactone (C8-HSL). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report that showed quorum sensing activity exhibited by Pandoraea sp. Our data add Pandoraea sp. to the growing number of bacteria that possess QS systems.

Han-Jen, Robson Ee; Wai-Fong, Yin; Kok-Gan, Chan

2013-01-01

78

Detection of quorum-sensing-related molecules in Vibrio scophthalmi  

PubMed Central

Background Cell-to-cell communication (also referred to as quorum sensing) based on N-acyl-homoserine lactones (AHLs) is a widespread response to environmental change in Gram-negative bacteria. AHLs seem to be highly variable, both in terms of the acyl chain length and in the chemical structure of the radicals. Another quorum sensing pathway, the autoinducer-2-based system, is present both in Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. In this study the presence of signal molecules belonging to both quorum sensing signalling pathways was analysed in the marine symbiotic species Vibrio scophthalmi. Results Three AHL-like signal molecules were detected in V. scophthalmi supernatants with the Agrobacterium tumefaciens sensor assay. This observation was further supported by the decrease in the presence of these signal molecules after cloning and expression of lactonase AiiA from Bacillus cereus in the V. scophthalmi strains. One of the signal molecules was identified as N-(3-hydroxy dodecanoyl)-L-homoserine lactone. V. scophthalmi was also shown to carry a functional LuxS synthase. The coding sequence for a luxS-like gene was obtained showing a maximum similarity of 78% with Vibrio vulnificus. Analysis of the translated sequence revealed that the sequenced luxS gene carried the conserved domain, which is common to luxS sequences found in other species, and which is essential for LuxS enzymatic activity. Conclusion The data are consistent with the presence of quorum-sensing signal molecules from both AHL- and autoinducer 2-based quorum sensing systems in V. scophthalmi, which are homologous to others previously described in various Vibrio species. How this bacterium interacts with other bacteria and eukaryotic cells to compete ecologically with other intestinal bacteria present in the fish Scophthalmus maximus warrants further investigation.

Garcia-Aljaro, Cristina; Eberl, Leo; Riedel, Kathrin; Blanch, Anicet R

2008-01-01

79

Substituted Lactam and Cyclic Azahemiacetals Modulate Pseudomonas aeruginosa Quorum Sensing  

PubMed Central

Quorum sensing (QS) is a population-dependent signaling process bacteria use to control multiple processes including virulence that is critical for establishing infection. The most common QS signaling molecule used by Gram-negative bacteria are acylhomoserine lactones. The development of non-native acylhomoserine lactone (AHL) ligands has emerged as a promising new strategy to inhibit QS in Gram-negative bacteria. In this work, we have synthesized a set of optically pure ?-lactams and their reduced cyclic azahemiacetal analogues, bearing the additional alkylthiomethyl substituent, and evaluated their effect on the AHL-dependent Pseudomonas aeruginosa las and rhl QS pathways. The concentration of these ligands and the simple structural modification such as the length of the alkylthio substituent has notable effect on activity. The ?-lactam derivatives with nonylthio or dodecylthio chains acted as inhibitors of las signaling with moderate potency. The cyclic azahemiacetal with shorter propylthio or hexylthio substituent was found to strongly inhibit both las and rhl signaling at higher concentrations while the propylthio analogue strongly stimulated the las QS system at lower concentrations.

Malladi, Venkata L. A.; Sobczak, Adam J.; Maricic, Natalie; Murugapiran, Senthil Kumar; Schneper, Lisa; Makemson, John; Mathee, Kalai; Wnuk, Stanislaw F.

2011-01-01

80

Effects of Antibiotics on Quorum Sensing in Pseudomonas aeruginosa?  

PubMed Central

During infection, Pseudomonas aeruginosa employs bacterial communication (quorum sensing [QS]) to coordinate the expression of tissue-damaging factors. QS-controlled gene expression plays a pivotal role in the virulence of P. aeruginosa, and QS-deficient mutants cause less severe infections in animal infection models. Treatment of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients chronically infected with P. aeruginosa with the macrolide antibiotic azithromycin (AZM) has been demonstrated to improve the clinical outcome. Several studies indicate that AZM may accomplish its beneficial action in CF patients by impeding QS, thereby reducing the pathogenicity of P. aeruginosa. This led us to investigate whether QS inhibition is a common feature of antibiotics. We present the results of a screening of 12 antibiotics for their QS-inhibitory activities using a previously described QS inhibitor selector 1 strain. Three of the antibiotics tested, AZM, ceftazidime (CFT), and ciprofloxacin (CPR), were very active in the assay and were further examined for their effects on QS-regulated virulence factor production in P. aeruginosa. The effects of the three antibiotics administered at subinhibitory concentrations were investigated by use of DNA microarrays. Consistent results from the virulence factor assays, reverse transcription-PCR, and the DNA microarrays support the finding that AZM, CFT, and CPR decrease the expression of a range of QS-regulated virulence factors. The data suggest that the underlying mechanism may be mediated by changes in membrane permeability, thereby influencing the flux of N-3-oxo-dodecanoyl-l-homoserine lactone.

Skindersoe, Mette E.; Alhede, Morten; Phipps, Richard; Yang, Liang; Jensen, Peter O.; Rasmussen, Thomas B.; Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Tolker-Nielsen, Tim; H?iby, Niels; Givskov, Michael

2008-01-01

81

Substituted lactam and cyclic azahemiacetals modulate Pseudomonas aeruginosa quorum sensing.  

PubMed

Quorum sensing (QS) is a population-dependent signaling process bacteria use to control multiple processes including virulence that is critical for establishing infection. The most common QS signaling molecule used by Gram-negative bacteria are acylhomoserine lactones. The development of non-native acylhomoserine lactone (AHL) ligands has emerged as a promising new strategy to inhibit QS in Gram-negative bacteria. In this work, we have synthesized a set of optically pure ?-lactams and their reduced cyclic azahemiacetal analogues, bearing the additional alkylthiomethyl substituent, and evaluated their effect on the AHL-dependent Pseudomonas aeruginosa las and rhl QS pathways. The concentration of these ligands and the simple structural modification such as the length of the alkylthio substituent has notable effect on activity. The ?-lactam derivatives with nonylthio or dodecylthio chains acted as inhibitors of las signaling with moderate potency. The cyclic azahemiacetal with shorter propylthio or hexylthio substituent was found to strongly inhibit both las and rhl signaling at higher concentrations while the propylthio analogue strongly stimulated the las QS system at lower concentrations. PMID:21855349

Malladi, Venkata L A; Sobczak, Adam J; Maricic, Natalie; Murugapiran, Senthil Kumar; Schneper, Lisa; Makemson, John; Mathee, Kalai; Wnuk, Stanislaw F

2011-09-15

82

Inhibition of quorum-sensing signals by essential oils.  

PubMed

The role of quorum sensing (QS) is well known in microbial pathogenicity and antibiotic resistance. QS is responsible for motility, swarming, and biofilm production based on the signal molecules, e.g., acylated homoserine lactones (AHLs) produced by micro-organisms above certain population density. The inhibition of QS may reduce pathogenicity, antibiotic resistance and biofilm formation in systemic and local infections. The homoserine lactones and other transmitters contribute to antibiotic resistance and pathogenicity of several bacteria; consequently the inhibition of QS signals reduces the problem of resistance and virulence. Due to the increasing number of persistent non-treatable infections, there is an urgent need to develop new strategies to combat infections that destabilize bacterial communities in the host. The effect of essential oils on bacterial growth and QS were evaluated using the sensor strain Chromobacterium violaceum CV026 and N-acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) producing Escherichia coli ATTC 31298 and the grapevine colonizing Ezf 10-17 strains. Of the tested oils, rose, geranium, lavender and rosemary oils were the most potent QS inhibitors. Eucalyptus and citrus oils moderately reduced pigment production by CV026, whereas the chamomile, orange and juniper oils were ineffective. PMID:19827025

Szabó, Mira Agnes; Varga, Gábor Zoltán; Hohmann, Judit; Schelz, Zsuzsanna; Szegedi, Erno; Amaral, Leonard; Molnár, József

2010-05-01

83

Quorum Sensing and Bacterial Social Interactions in Biofilms  

PubMed Central

Many bacteria are known to regulate their cooperative activities and physiological processes through a mechanism called quorum sensing (QS), in which bacterial cells communicate with each other by releasing, sensing and responding to small diffusible signal molecules. The ability of bacteria to communicate and behave as a group for social interactions like a multi-cellular organism has provided significant benefits to bacteria in host colonization, formation of biofilms, defense against competitors, and adaptation to changing environments. Importantly, many QS-controlled activities have been involved in the virulence and pathogenic potential of bacteria. Therefore, understanding the molecular details of quorum sensing mechanisms and their controlled social activities may open a new avenue for controlling bacterial infections.

Li, Yung-Hua; Tian, Xiaolin

2012-01-01

84

Transcriptome analysis of acetyl-homoserine lactone-based quorum sensing regulation in Yersinia pestis.  

PubMed

The etiologic agent of bubonic plague, Yersinia pestis, senses self-produced, secreted chemical signals in a process named quorum sensing. Though the closely related enteric pathogen Y. pseudotuberculosis uses quorum sensing system to regulate motility, the role of quorum sensing in Y. pestis has been unclear. In this study we performed transcriptional profiling experiments to identify Y. pestis quorum sensing regulated functions. Our analysis revealed that acyl-homoserine lactone-based quorum sensing controls the expression of several metabolic functions. Maltose fermentation and the glyoxylate bypass are induced by acyl-homoserine lactone signaling. This effect was observed at 30°C, indicating a potential role for quorum sensing regulation of metabolism at temperatures below the normal mammalian temperature. It is proposed that utilization of alternative carbon sources may enhance growth and/or survival during prolonged periods in natural habitats with limited nutrient sources, contributing to maintenance of plague in nature. PMID:23620823

LaRock, Christopher N; Yu, Jing; Horswill, Alexander R; Parsek, Matthew R; Minion, F Chris

2013-01-01

85

Transcriptome Analysis of Acetyl-Homoserine Lactone-Based Quorum Sensing Regulation in Yersinia pestis  

PubMed Central

The etiologic agent of bubonic plague, Yersinia pestis, senses self-produced, secreted chemical signals in a process named quorum sensing. Though the closely related enteric pathogen Y. pseudotuberculosis uses quorum sensing system to regulate motility, the role of quorum sensing in Y. pestis has been unclear. In this study we performed transcriptional profiling experiments to identify Y. pestis quorum sensing regulated functions. Our analysis revealed that acyl-homoserine lactone-based quorum sensing controls the expression of several metabolic functions. Maltose fermentation and the glyoxylate bypass are induced by acyl-homoserine lactone signaling. This effect was observed at 30°C, indicating a potential role for quorum sensing regulation of metabolism at temperatures below the normal mammalian temperature. It is proposed that utilization of alternative carbon sources may enhance growth and/or survival during prolonged periods in natural habitats with limited nutrient sources, contributing to maintenance of plague in nature.

Horswill, Alexander R.; Parsek, Matthew R.; Minion, F. Chris

2013-01-01

86

RETRACTED ARTICLE: Quorum-sensing of bacteria and its application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quorum sensing, or auto induction, as a cell density dependent signaling mechanism in many microorganisms, is triggered via auto inducers which passively diffuse across the bacterial envelope and therefore intracellulaly accumulate only at higher bacterial densities to regulate specialized processes such as genetic competence, bioluminescence, virulence and sporulation. N-acyl homoserine lactones are the most common type of signal molecules. Aquaculture is one of the fastest-growing food-producing industries, but disease outbreaks caused by pathogenic bacteria are a significant constraint on the development of the sector worldwide. Many of these pathogens have been found to be controlled by their quorum sensing systems. As there is relevance between the pathogenic bacteria's virulence factor expression and their auto inducers, quorum quenching is a new effective anti-infective strategy to control infections caused by bacterial pathogens in aquaculture. The techniques used to do this mainly include the following: (1) the inhibition of signal molecule biosynthesis, (2) blocking signal transduction, and (3) chemical inactivation and biodegradation of signal molecules. To provide a basis for finding alternative means of controlling aquatic diseases by quorum quenching instead of treatment by antibiotics and disinfectants, we will discuss the examination, purification and identification of auto inducers in this paper.

Jiang, Guoliang; Su, Mingxia

2009-12-01

87

The Vibrio campbellii quorum sensing signals have a different impact on virulence of the bacterium towards different crustacean hosts.  

PubMed

Pathogenic bacteria communicate with small signal molecules in a process called quorum sensing, and they often use different signal molecules to regulate virulence gene expression. Vibrio campbellii, one of the major pathogens of aquatic organisms, regulates virulence gene expression by a three channel quorum sensing system. Here we show that although they use a common signal transduction cascade, the signal molecules have a different impact on the virulence of the bacterium towards different hosts, i.e. the brine shrimp Artemia franciscana and the commercially important giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. These results suggest that the use of multiple types of signal molecules to regulate virulence gene expression is one of the features that allow bacteria to infect different hosts. Our findings emphasize that it is highly important to study the efficacy of quorum sensing inhibitors as novel biocontrol agents under conditions that are as close as possible to the clinical situation. PMID:24055027

Pande, Gde Sasmita Julyantoro; Natrah, Fatin Mohd Ikhsan; Sorgeloos, Patrick; Bossier, Peter; Defoirdt, Tom

2013-12-27

88

Analysis of Autoinducer-2 Quorum Sensing in Yersinia pestis  

PubMed Central

The autoinducer-2 (AI-2) quorum-sensing system has been linked to diverse phenotypes and regulatory changes in pathogenic bacteria. In the present study, we performed a molecular and biochemical characterization of the AI-2 system in Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of plague. In strain CO92, the AI-2 signal is produced in a luxS-dependent manner, reaching maximal levels of 2.5 ?M in the late logarithmic growth phase, and both wild-type and pigmentation (pgm) mutant strains made equivalent levels of AI-2. Strain CO92 possesses a chromosomal lsr locus encoding factors involved in the binding and import of AI-2, and confirming this assignment, an lsr deletion mutant increased extracellular pools of AI-2. To assess the functional role of AI-2 sensing in Y. pestis, microarray studies were conducted by comparing ?pgm strain R88 to a ?pgm ?luxS mutant or a quorum-sensing-null ?pgm ?ypeIR ?yspIR ?luxS mutant at 37°C. Our data suggest that AI-2 quorum sensing is associated with metabolic activities and oxidative stress genes that may help Y. pestis survive at the host temperature. This was confirmed by observing that the luxS mutant was more sensitive to killing by hydrogen peroxide, suggesting a potential requirement for AI-2 in evasion of oxidative damage. We also show that a large number of membrane protein genes are controlled by LuxS, suggesting a role for quorum sensing in membrane modeling. Altogether, this study provides the first global analysis of AI-2 signaling in Y. pestis and identifies potential roles for the system in controlling genes important to disease.

Yu, Jing; Madsen, Melissa L.; Carruthers, Michael D.; Phillips, Gregory J.; Kavanaugh, Jeffrey S.; Boyd, Jeff M.; Horswill, Alexander R.

2013-01-01

89

Characterization of Quorum Sensing and Quorum Quenching Soil Bacteria Isolated from Malaysian Tropical Montane Forest  

PubMed Central

We report the production and degradation of quorum sensing N-acyl-homoserine lactones by bacteria isolated from Malaysian montane forest soil. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that these isolates clustered closely to the genera of Arthrobacter, Bacillus and Pseudomonas. Quorum quenching activity was detected in six isolates of these three genera by using a series of bioassays and rapid resolution liquid chromatography analysis. Biosensor screening and high resolution liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis revealed the production of N-dodecanoyl-L-homoserine lactone (C12-HSL) by Pseudomonas frederiksbergensis (isolate BT9). In addition to degradation of a wide range of N-acyl-homoserine lactones, Arthrobacter and Pseudomonas spp. also degraded p-coumaroyl-homoserine lactone. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first documentation of Arthrobacter and Pseudomonas spp. capable of degrading p-coumaroyl-homoserine lactone and the production of C12-HSL by P. frederiksbergensis.

Chong, Teik-Min; Koh, Chong-Lek; Sam, Choon-Kook; Choo, Yeun-Mun; Yin, Wai-Fong; Chan, Kok-Gan

2012-01-01

90

Quorum-Sensing Mutations Affect Attachment and Stability of Burkholderia cenocepacia Biofilms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biofilm formation in Burkholderia cenocepacia has been shown to rely in part on acylhomoserine lactone- based quorum sensing. For many other bacterial species, it appears that both the initial adherence and the later stages of biofilm maturation are affected when quorum sensing pathways are inhibited. In this study, we examined the effects of mutations in the cepIR and cciIR quorum-sensing

Kerry L. Tomlin; Rebecca J. Malott; Gordon Ramage; Douglas G. Storey; Pamela A. Sokol; H. Ceri

2005-01-01

91

[Quorum sensing mechanism as a factor regulating virulence of Gram-negative bacteria].  

PubMed

The metabolism of a high density population of bacteria is regulated by a quorum sensing mechanism. Cell-to-cell communication of microorganisms regulates the process of production of pathogenicity factors including formation and differentiation of bacterial biofilms. The role of the quorum sensing system in the expression of virulence features is described in this paper. The possibility of application of the quorum sensing mechanism in medicine is also discussed. PMID:21109710

Myszka, Kamila; Czaczyk, Katarzyna

2010-01-01

92

Role of quorum sensing in the pathogenicity of Burkholderia pseudomallei  

Microsoft Academic Search

Burkholderia pseudomallei is the causative agent of human and animal melioidosis. The role of quorum sensing (QS) in the in vivo pathogenicity of B. pseudomallei via inhalational exposure of BALB\\/c mice and intraperitoneal challenge of Syrian hamsters has not been reported. This investigation demonstrates that B. pseudomallei encodes a minimum of three luxI and five luxR homologues that are involved

Ricky L. Ulrich; David DeShazer; Ernst E. Brueggemann; Harry B. Hines; Petra C. Oyston; Jeffrey A. Jeddeloh

2004-01-01

93

Quorum sensing during nest-site selection by honeybee swarms  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study addresses a question about the nest-site selection process of honeybee swarms: how do the scout bees know when to initiate the preparation for their swarm’s move to their new home? We tested the quorum-sensing hypothesis: that the scouts do this by noting when one of the potential nest sites under consideration is being visited by a sufficiently large

Thomas D. Seeley; P. Kirk Visscher

2004-01-01

94

Staphylococcus quorum sensing in biofilm formation and infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cell population density-dependent regulation of gene expression is an important determinant of bacterial pathogenesis. Staphylococci have two quorum-sensing (QS) systems. The accessory gene regulator (agr) is genus specific and uses a post-translationally modified peptide as an autoinducing signal. In the pathogens Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis, agr controls the expression of a series of toxins and virulence factors and the

Kok-Fai Kong; Cuong Vuong; Michael Otto

2006-01-01

95

Does a quorum sensing mechanism direct the behavior of immune cells?  

PubMed

Quorum sensing is a decision-making process used by decentralized groups such as colonies of bacteria to trigger a coordinated behavior. The existence of decentralized coordinated behavior has also been suggested in the immune system. In this paper, we explore the possibility for quorum sensing mechanisms in the immune response. Cytokines are good candidates as inducer of quorum sensing effects on migration, proliferation and differentiation of immune cells. The existence of a quorum sensing mechanism should be explored experimentally. It may provide new perspectives into immune responses and could lead to new therapeutic strategies. PMID:23537765

Perié, Leïla; Aru, Juhan; Kourilsky, Philippe; Slotine, Jean-Jacques

2013-01-01

96

Stereochemical Insignificance Discovered in Acinetobacter baumannii Quorum Sensing  

PubMed Central

Stereochemistry is a key aspect of molecular recognition for biological systems. As such, receptors and enzymes are often highly stereospecific, only recognizing one stereoisomer of a ligand. Recently, the quorum sensing signaling molecules used by the nosocomial opportunistic pathogen, Acinetobacter baumannii, were identified, and the primary signaling molecule isolated from this species was N-(3-hydroxydodecanoyl)-l-homoserine lactone. A plethora of bacterial species have been demonstrated to utilize 3-hydroxy-acylhomoserine lactone autoinducers, and in virtually all cases, the (R)-stereoisomer was identified as the natural ligand and exhibited greater autoinducer activity than the corresponding (S)-stereoisomer. Using chemical synthesis and biochemical assays, we have uncovered a case of stereochemical insignificance in A. baumannii and provide a unique example where stereochemistry appears nonessential for acylhomoserine lactone-mediated quorum sensing signaling. Based on previously reported phylogenetic studies, we suggest that A. baumannii has evolutionarily adopted this unique, yet promiscuous quorum sensing system to ensure its survival, particularly in the presence of other proteobacteria.

Struss, Anjali Kumari; Watkins, Richard; Feske, Brent D.; Kaufmann, Gunnar F.; Janda, Kim D.

2012-01-01

97

Quorum sensing via static coupling demonstrated by Chua's circuits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dynamical quorum sensing, the population based phenomenon, is believed to occur when the elements of a system interact via dynamic coupling. In the present work, we demonstrate an alternate scenario, involving static coupling, that could also lead to quorum sensing behavior. These static and dynamic coupling terms have already been employed by Konishi [Int. J. Bifurcation Chaos Appl. Sci. Eng.IJBEE40218-127410.1142/S0218127407018750 17, 2781 (2007)]. In our context, the coupling is defined as static or dynamic, on the basis of the relative time scales at which the surrounding dynamics and the elements' dynamics evolve. According to this, if the variation in the surrounding dynamics happens on a much larger (fast) time scale than that at which the elements' dynamics are varying (such as seconds and ?s), then the coupling is considered to be static, otherwise it is considered to be dynamic. A series of experiments have been performed starting from a system of three Chua's circuits to a system of 20 Chua's circuits to study two types of quorum transitions: the emergence and the extinction of global oscillations (period-1). The numerics involving up to 100 Chua's circuits validate the experimental observations.

Singh, Harpartap; Parmananda, P.

2013-10-01

98

l-Canavanine Made by Medicago sativa Interferes with Quorum Sensing in Sinorhizobium meliloti  

PubMed Central

Sinorhizobium meliloti is a gram-negative soil bacterium, capable of establishing a nitrogen-fixing symbiosis with its legume host, alfalfa (Medicago sativa). Quorum sensing plays a crucial role in this symbiosis, where it influences the nodulation process and the synthesis of the symbiotically important exopolysaccharide II (EPS II). S. meliloti has three quorum-sensing systems (Sin, Tra, and Mel) that use N-acyl homoserine lactones as their quorum-sensing signal molecule. Increasing evidence indicates that certain eukaryotic hosts involved in symbiotic or pathogenic relationships with gram-negative bacteria produce quorum-sensing-interfering (QSI) compounds that can cross-communicate with the bacterial quorum-sensing system. Our studies of alfalfa seed exudates suggested the presence of multiple signal molecules capable of interfering with quorum-sensing-regulated gene expression in different bacterial strains. In this work, we choose one of these QSI molecules (SWI) for further characterization. SWI inhibited violacein production, a phenotype that is regulated by quorum sensing in Chromobacterium violaceum. In addition, this signal molecule also inhibits the expression of the S. meliloti exp genes, responsible for the production of EPS II, a quorum-sensing-regulated phenotype. We identified this molecule as l-canavanine, an arginine analog, produced in large quantities by alfalfa and other legumes.

Keshavan, Neela D.; Chowdhary, Puneet K.; Haines, Donovan C.; Gonzalez, Juan E.

2005-01-01

99

A mathematical model of quorum sensing regulated EPS production in biofilm communities  

PubMed Central

Background Biofilms are microbial communities encased in a layer of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). The EPS matrix provides several functional purposes for the biofilm, such as protecting bacteria from environmental stresses, and providing mechanical stability. Quorum sensing is a cell-cell communication mechanism used by several bacterial taxa to coordinate gene expression and behaviour in groups, based on population densities. Model We mathematically model quorum sensing and EPS production in a growing biofilm under various environmental conditions, to study how a developing biofilm impacts quorum sensing, and conversely, how a biofilm is affected by quorum sensing-regulated EPS production. We investigate circumstances when using quorum-sensing regulated EPS production is a beneficial strategy for biofilm cells. Results We find that biofilms that use quorum sensing to induce increased EPS production do not obtain the high cell populations of low-EPS producers, but can rapidly increase their volume to parallel high-EPS producers. Quorum sensing-induced EPS production allows a biofilm to switch behaviours, from a colonization mode (with an optimized growth rate), to a protection mode. Conclusions A biofilm will benefit from using quorum sensing-induced EPS production if bacteria cells have the objective of acquiring a thick, protective layer of EPS, or if they wish to clog their environment with biomass as a means of securing nutrient supply and outcompeting other colonies in the channel, of their own or a different species.

2011-01-01

100

Biofilm Formation and Sloughing in Serratia marcescens Are Controlled by Quorum Sensing and Nutrient Cues  

PubMed Central

We describe here a role for quorum sensing in the detachment, or sloughing, of Serratia marcescens filamentous biofilms, and we show that nutrient conditions affect the biofilm morphotype. Under reduced carbon or nitrogen conditions, S. marcescens formed a classical biofilm consisting of microcolonies. The filamentous biofilm could be converted to a microcolony-type biofilm by switching the medium after establishment of the biofilm. Similarly, when initially grown as a microcolony biofilm, S. marcescens could be converted back to a filamentous biofilm by increasing the nutrient composition. Under high-nutrient conditions, an N-acyl homoserine lactone quorum-sensing mutant formed biofilms that were indistinguishable from the wild-type biofilms. Similarly, other quorum-sensing-dependent behaviors, such as swarming motility, could be rendered quorum sensing independent by manipulating the growth medium. Quorum sensing was also found to be involved in the sloughing of the filamentous biofilm. The biofilm formed by the bacterium consistently sloughed from the substratum after approximately 75 to 80 h of development. The quorum-sensing mutant, when supplemented with exogenous signal, formed a wild-type filamentous biofilm and sloughed at the same time as the wild type, and this was independent of surfactant production. When we removed the signal from the quorum-sensing mutant prior to the time of sloughing, the biofilm did not undergo significant detachment. Together, the data suggest that biofilm formation by S. marcescens is a dynamic process that is controlled by both nutrient cues and the quorum-sensing system.

Rice, S. A.; Koh, K. S.; Queck, S. Y.; Labbate, M.; Lam, K. W.; Kjelleberg, S.

2005-01-01

101

Quorum sensing regulates type III secretion in Vibrio harveyi and Vibrio parahaemolyticus.  

PubMed

In a process known as quorum sensing, bacteria communicate with one another by producing, releasing, detecting, and responding to signal molecules called autoinducers. Vibrio harveyi, a marine pathogen, uses two parallel quorum-sensing circuits, each consisting of an autoinducer-sensor pair, to control the expression of genes required for bioluminescence and a number of other target genes. Genetic screens designed to discover autoinducer-regulated targets in V. harveyi have revealed genes encoding components of a putative type III secretion (TTS) system. Using transcriptional reporter fusions and TTS protein localization studies, we show that the TTS system is indeed functional in V. harveyi and that expression of the genes encoding the secretion machinery requires an intact quorum-sensing signal transduction cascade. The newly completed genome of the closely related marine bacterium Vibrio parahaemolyticus, which is a human pathogen, shows that it possesses the genes encoding both of the V. harveyi-like quorum-sensing signaling circuits and that it also has a TTS system similar to that of V. harveyi. We show that quorum sensing regulates TTS in V. parahaemolyticus. Previous reports connecting quorum sensing to TTS in enterohemorrhagic and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli show that quorum sensing activates TTS at high cell density. Surprisingly, we find that at high cell density (in the presence of autoinducers), quorum sensing represses TTS in V. harveyi and V. parahaemolyticus. PMID:15175293

Henke, Jennifer M; Bassler, Bonnie L

2004-06-01

102

Inhibition of Candida albicans Biofilm Formation by Farnesol, a Quorum-Sensing Molecule  

Microsoft Academic Search

Farnesol is a quorum-sensing molecule that inhibits filamentation in Candida albicans. Both filamentation and quorum sensing are deemed to be important factors in C. albicans biofilm development. Here we examined the effect of farnesol on C. albicans biofilm formation. C. albicans adherent cell populations (after 0, 1, 2, and 4 h of adherence) and preformed biofilms (24 h) were treated

Gordon Ramage; Stephen P. Saville; Brian L. Wickes; J. L. Lopez-Ribot

2002-01-01

103

Interaction of a P. aeruginosa Quorum Sensing Signal with Lipid Membranes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bacteria use a signaling and regulatory system called "quorum sensing" to alter their gene expressions in response to the concentration of neighboring bacteria and to environmental conditions that make collective activity favorable for bacteria. P. aeruginosa is an opportunistic human pathogen that uses quorum sensing to govern processes such as virulence and biofilm formation. This organism's two main quorum sensing circuits use two different signaling molecules that are amphiphilic and differ primarily in the length of their hydrocarbon side chain and thus in their hydrophobic physical chemistry. How these physical chemistries govern the propagation and spatial localization of signals and thus of quorum sensing is not known. We present preliminary results showing that signals preferentially sequester to amphiphilic lipid membranes, which can act as reservoirs for signal. This is promising for future characterization of how the quorum sensing signals of many bacteria and yeast partition to spatially-differentiated amphiphilic environments, in a host or biofilm.

Morrison, Rebecca; Hall, Amelia; Hutchison, Ellen; Nguyen, Thuc; Cooley, Benjamin; Gordon, Vernita

2011-03-01

104

Vibrio harveyi quorum sensing: a coincidence detector for two autoinducers controls gene expression  

PubMed Central

In a process called quorum sensing, bacteria communicate with one another by exchanging chemical signals called autoinducers. In the bioluminescent marine bacterium Vibrio harveyi, two different auto inducers (AI-1 and AI-2) regulate light emission. Detection of and response to the V.harveyi autoinducers are accomplished through two two-component sensory relay systems: AI-1 is detected by the sensor LuxN and AI-2 by LuxPQ. Here we further define the V.harveyi quorum-sensing regulon by identifying 10 new quorum-sensing-controlled target genes. Our examination of signal processing and integration in the V.harveyi quorum-sensing circuit suggests that AI-1 and AI-2 act synergistically, and that the V.harveyi quorum-sensing circuit may function exclusively as a ‘coincidence detector’ that discriminates between conditions in which both autoinducers are present and all other conditions.

Mok, Kenny C.; Wingreen, Ned S.; Bassler, Bonnie L.

2003-01-01

105

Monitoring of quorum-sensing molecules during minifermentation studies in wine yeast.  

PubMed

At high cell density or under low nutrient conditions, yeasts collectively adapt their metabolism by secreting aromatic alcohols in what is known as quorum sensing. However, the mechanisms and role of quorum sensing in yeast are poorly understood, and the methodology behind this process is not well established. This paper describes an effective approach to study quorum sensing in yeast fermentations. The separation, detection, and quantification of the putative quorum-sensing molecules 2-phenylethanol, tryptophol, and tyrosol have been optimized on a simple HPLC-based system. With the use of a phenyl HPLC column and a fluorescence detector, the sensitivity of the system was significantly increased. This allowed extraction and concentration procedures to be eliminated and the process to be scaled down to 2 mL minifermentations. Additionally, an innovative method for rapid viable-cell counting is presented. This study forms the basis for detailed studies in kinetics and regulation of quorum sensing in yeast fermentation. PMID:23413824

Zupan, Jure; Avbelj, Martina; Butinar, Bojan; Kosel, Janez; Šergan, Matej; Raspor, Peter

2013-03-13

106

Quorum Sensing and Expression of Virulence in Pectobacteria  

PubMed Central

Quorum sensing (QS) is a population density-dependent regulatory mechanism in which gene expression is coupled to the accumulation of a chemical signaling molecule. QS systems are widespread among the plant soft-rotting bacteria. In Pectobacterium carotovorum, at least two QS systems exist being specified by the nature of chemical signals involved. QS in Pectobacterium carotovorum uses N-acylhomoserine lactone (AHL) based, as well as autoinducer-2 (AI-2) dependent signaling systems. This review will address the importance of the QS in production of virulence factors and interaction of QS with other regulatory systems in Pectobacterium carotovorum.

Pollumaa, Lee; Alamae, Tiina; Mae, Andres

2012-01-01

107

Quorum sensing and expression of virulence in pectobacteria.  

PubMed

Quorum sensing (QS) is a population density-dependent regulatory mechanism in which gene expression is coupled to the accumulation of a chemical signaling molecule. QS systems are widespread among the plant soft-rotting bacteria. In Pectobacterium carotovorum, at least two QS systems exist being specified by the nature of chemical signals involved. QS in Pectobacterium carotovorum uses N-acylhomoserine lactone (AHL) based, as well as autoinducer-2 (AI-2) dependent signaling systems. This review will address the importance of the QS in production of virulence factors and interaction of QS with other regulatory systems in Pectobacterium carotovorum. PMID:22737011

Põllumaa, Lee; Alamäe, Tiina; Mäe, Andres

2012-01-01

108

A quorum-quenching approach to identify quorum-sensing-regulated functions in Azospirillum lipoferum.  

PubMed

A quorum-quenching approach was exploited in order to identify functions regulated by quorum-sensing (QS) in the plant growth-promoting bacterium Azospirillum lipoferum. The AttM lactonase from Agrobacterium tumefaciens was shown to enzymatically inactivate N-acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs) produced by two A. lipoferum strains. The targeted analysis of several phenotypes revealed that in strain B518, a rice endophyte, AHL inactivation abolished pectinase activity, increased siderophore synthesis and reduced indoleacetic acid production (in stationary phase) but no effect was observed on cellulase activity or on swimming and swarming motilities. None of the tested phenotypes appeared to be under QS regulation in strain TVV3 isolated from the rice rhizosphere. Moreover, AHL inactivation had no deleterious effect on the phytostimulatory effect of the two strains in vitro. A global proteomic approach revealed little modification of protein patterns when comparing attM-expressing TVV3 and the wild-type strain, but numerous proteins appeared to be regulated by the AHL-mediated QS system in strain B518. Several proteins identified by MS-MS analysis were revealed to be implicated in transport (such as OmaA) and chemotaxis (ChvE). Altogether, the results indicate that in A. lipoferum, QS regulation is strain-specific and is dedicated to regulating functions linked to rhizosphere competence and adaptation to plant roots. PMID:18790051

Boyer, Mickaël; Bally, René; Perrotto, Sandrine; Chaintreuil, Clémence; Wisniewski-Dyé, Florence

2008-01-01

109

Quorum Sensing Controls Exopolysaccharide Production in Sinorhizobium meliloti  

PubMed Central

Sinorhizobium meliloti is a soil bacterium capable of invading and establishing a symbiotic relationship with alfalfa plants. This invasion process requires the synthesis, by S. meliloti, of at least one of the two symbiotically important exopolysaccharides, succinoglycan and EPS II. We have previously shown that the sinRI locus of S. meliloti encodes a quorum-sensing system that plays a role in the symbiotic process. Here we show that the sinRI locus exerts one level of control through regulation of EPS II synthesis. Disruption of the autoinducer synthase gene, sinI, abolished EPS II production as well as the expression of several genes in the exp operon that are responsible for EPS II synthesis. This phenotype was complemented by the addition of acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) extracts from the wild-type strain but not from a sinI mutant, indicating that the sinRI-specified AHLs are required for exp gene expression. This was further confirmed by the observation that synthetic palmitoleyl homoserine lactone (C16:1-HL), one of the previously identified sinRI-specified AHLs, specifically restored exp gene expression. Most importantly, the absence of symbiotically active EPS II in a sinI mutant was confirmed in plant nodulation assays, emphasizing the role of quorum sensing in symbiosis.

Marketon, Melanie M.; Glenn, Sarah A.; Eberhard, Anatol; Gonzalez, Juan E.

2003-01-01

110

Chemical methods to interrogate bacterial quorum sensing pathways  

PubMed Central

Bacteria frequently manifest distinct phenotypes as a function of cell density in a phenomenon known as quorum sensing (QS). This intercellular signalling process is mediated by “chemical languages comprised of low-molecular weight signals, known as” autoinducers, and their cognate receptor proteins. As many of the phenotypes regulated by QS can have a significant impact on the success of pathogenic or mutualistic prokaryotic–eukaryotic interactions, there is considerable interest in methods to probe and modulate QS pathways with temporal and spatial control. Such methods would be valuable for both basic research in bacterial ecology and in practical medicinal, agricultural, and industrial applications. Toward this goal, considerable recent research has been focused on the development of chemical approaches to study bacterial QS pathways. In this Perspective, we provide an overview of the use of chemical probes and techniques in QS research. Specifically, we focus on: (1) combinatorial approaches for the discovery of small molecule QS modulators, (2) affinity chromatography for the isolation of QS receptors, (3) reactive and fluorescent probes for QS receptors, (4) antibodies as quorum “quenchers,” (5) abiotic polymeric “sinks” and “pools” for QS signals, and (6) the electrochemical sensing of QS signals. The application of such chemical methods can offer unique advantages for both elucidating and manipulating QS pathways in culture and under native conditions.

Praneenararat, Thanit; Palmer, Andrew G.

2012-01-01

111

Prediction by Promoter Logic in Bacterial Quorum Sensing  

PubMed Central

Quorum-sensing systems mediate chemical communication between bacterial cells, coordinating cell-density-dependent processes like biofilm formation and virulence-factor expression. In the proteobacterial LuxI/LuxR quorum sensing paradigm, a signaling molecule generated by an enzyme (LuxI) diffuses between cells and allosterically stimulates a transcriptional regulator (LuxR) to activate its cognate promoter (pR). By expressing either LuxI or LuxR in positive feedback from pR, these versatile systems can generate smooth (monostable) or abrupt (bistable) density-dependent responses to suit the ecological context. Here we combine theory and experiment to demonstrate that the promoter logic of pR – its measured activity as a function of LuxI and LuxR levels – contains all the biochemical information required to quantitatively predict the responses of such feedback loops. The interplay of promoter logic with feedback topology underlies the versatility of the LuxI/LuxR paradigm: LuxR and LuxI positive-feedback systems show dramatically different responses, while a dual positive/negative-feedback system displays synchronized oscillations. These results highlight the dual utility of promoter logic: to probe microscopic parameters and predict macroscopic phenotype.

Rai, Navneet; Anand, Rajat; Ramkumar, Krishna; Sreenivasan, Varun; Dabholkar, Sugat; Venkatesh, K. V.; Thattai, Mukund

2012-01-01

112

A Quorum Sensing-Disrupting Brominated Thiophenone with a Promising Therapeutic Potential to Treat Luminescent Vibriosis  

PubMed Central

Vibrio harveyi is amongst the most important bacterial pathogens in aquaculture. Novel methods to control this pathogen are needed since many strains have acquired resistance to antibiotics. We previously showed that quorum sensing-disrupting furanones are able to protect brine shrimp larvae against vibriosis. However, a major problem of these compounds is that they are toxic toward higher organisms and therefore, they are not safe to be used in aquaculture. The synthesis of brominated thiophenones, sulphur analogues of the quorum sensing-disrupting furanones, has recently been reported. In the present study, we report that these compounds block quorum sensing in V. harveyi at concentrations in the low micromolar range. Bioluminescence experiments with V. harveyi quorum sensing mutants and a fluorescence anisotropy assay indicated that the compounds disrupt quorum sensing in this bacterium by decreasing the ability of the quorum sensing master regulator LuxR to bind to its target promoter DNA. In vivo challenge tests with gnotobiotic brine shrimp larvae showed that thiophenone compound TF310, (Z)-4-((5-(bromomethylene)-2-oxo-2,5-dihydrothiophen-3-yl)methoxy)-4-oxobutanoic acid, completely protected the larvae from V. harveyi BB120 when dosed to the culture water at 2.5 µM or more, whereas severe toxicity was only observed at 250 µM. This makes TF310 showing the highest therapeutic index of all quorum sensing-disrupting compounds tested thus far in our brine shrimp model system.

Defoirdt, Tom; Benneche, Tore; Brackman, Gilles; Coenye, Tom; Sorgeloos, Patrick; Scheie, Anne Aamdal

2012-01-01

113

Quorum Sensing Activity of Enterobacter asburiae Isolated from Lettuce Leaves  

PubMed Central

Bacterial communication or quorum sensing (QS) is achieved via sensing of QS signaling molecules consisting of oligopeptides in Gram-positive bacteria and N-acyl homoserine lactones (AHL) in most Gram-negative bacteria. In this study, Enterobacteriaceae isolates from Batavia lettuce were screened for AHL production. Enterobacter asburiae, identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) was found to produce short chain AHLs. High resolution triple quadrupole liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC/MS) analysis of the E. asburiae spent supernatant confirmed the production of N-butanoyl homoserine lactone (C4-HSL) and N–hexanoyl homoserine lactone (C6-HSL). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of AHL production by E. asburiae.

Lau, Yin Yin; Sulaiman, Joanita; Chen, Jian Woon; Yin, Wai-Fong; Chan, Kok-Gan

2013-01-01

114

Quorum sensing activity of Enterobacter asburiae isolated from lettuce leaves.  

PubMed

Bacterial communication or quorum sensing (QS) is achieved via sensing of QS signaling molecules consisting of oligopeptides in Gram-positive bacteria and N-acyl homoserine lactones (AHL) in most Gram-negative bacteria. In this study, Enterobacteriaceae isolates from Batavia lettuce were screened for AHL production. Enterobacter asburiae, identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) was found to produce short chain AHLs. High resolution triple quadrupole liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC/MS) analysis of the E. asburiae spent supernatant confirmed the production of N-butanoyl homoserine lactone (C4-HSL) and N-hexanoyl homoserine lactone (C6-HSL). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of AHL production by E. asburiae. PMID:24152877

Lau, Yin Yin; Sulaiman, Joanita; Chen, Jian Woon; Yin, Wai-Fong; Chan, Kok-Gan

2013-01-01

115

Quorum sensing control of phosphorus acquisition in Trichodesmium consortia  

PubMed Central

Colonies of the cyanobacterium Trichodesmium are abundant in the oligotrophic ocean, and through their ability to fix both CO2 and N2, have pivotal roles in the cycling of carbon and nitrogen in these highly nutrient-depleted environments. Trichodesmium colonies host complex consortia of epibiotic heterotrophic bacteria, and yet, the regulation of nutrient acquisition by these epibionts is poorly understood. We present evidence that epibiotic bacteria in Trichodesmium consortia use quorum sensing (QS) to regulate the activity of alkaline phosphatases (APases), enzymes used by epibionts in the acquisition of phosphate from dissolved-organic phosphorus molecules. A class of QS molecules, acylated homoserine lactones (AHLs), were produced by cultivated epibionts, and adding these AHLs to wild Trichodesmium colonies collected at sea led to a consistent doubling of APase activity. By contrast, amendments of (S)-4,5-dihydroxy-2,3-pentanedione (DPD)—the precursor to the autoinducer-2 (AI-2) family of universal interspecies signaling molecules—led to the attenuation of APase activity. In addition, colonies collected at sea were found by high performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry to contain both AHLs and AI-2. Both types of molecules turned over rapidly, an observation we ascribe to quorum quenching. Our results reveal a complex chemical interplay among epibionts using AHLs and AI-2 to control access to phosphate in dissolved-organic phosphorus.

Van Mooy, Benjamin A S; Hmelo, Laura R; Sofen, Laura E; Campagna, Shawn R; May, Amanda L; Dyhrman, Sonya T; Heithoff, Abigail; Webb, Eric A; Momper, Lily; Mincer, Tracy J

2012-01-01

116

Small Molecule Inhibitors of AI-2 Signaling in Bacteria: State-of-the-Art and Future Perspectives for Anti-Quorum Sensing Agents  

PubMed Central

Bacteria respond to different small molecules that are produced by other neighboring bacteria. These molecules, called autoinducers, are classified as intraspecies (i.e., molecules produced and perceived by the same bacterial species) or interspecies (molecules that are produced and sensed between different bacterial species). AI-2 has been proposed as an interspecies autoinducer and has been shown to regulate different bacterial physiology as well as affect virulence factor production and biofilm formation in some bacteria, including bacteria of clinical relevance. Several groups have embarked on the development of small molecules that could be used to perturb AI-2 signaling in bacteria, with the ultimate goal that these molecules could be used to inhibit bacterial virulence and biofilm formation. Additionally, these molecules have the potential to be used in synthetic biology applications whereby these small molecules are used as inputs to switch on and off AI-2 receptors. In this review, we highlight the state-of-the-art in the development of small molecules that perturb AI-2 signaling in bacteria and offer our perspective on the future development and applications of these classes of molecules.

Guo, Min; Gamby, Sonja; Zheng, Yue; Sintim, Herman O.

2013-01-01

117

The use of quorum sensing to improve vaccine immune response.  

PubMed

Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) infection is an important cause of diarrhea in both newborn and post-weaning pigs, it is also responsible for economic losses on farms worldwide. Vaccines that use ETEC virulence factors have been well documented, and several vaccines containing inactivated bacteria with protective antigens, or purified (isolated) antigens are available on the market. Vaccination of pregnant sows is widely seen as an effective strategy for the control of the disease. Yet these vaccines very often do not lead to efficient protection. In this study, we produced an ETEC bacterin with the use of quorum sensing (QS), and observed a significant expression of F4 adhesin, and heat-labile toxin (LT) in the cultures when compared to the controls. Mice, and pigs vaccinated with the QS bacterin demonstrated higher antibody titers against these antigens when compared with commercial and control bacterin. Our results suggest that the system might bring promising improvements in ETEC bacterin efficacy. PMID:24188753

Sturbelle, R T; Conceição, R C S; Da Rosa, M C; Roos, T B; Dummer, L; Leite, F P L

2013-12-17

118

Quorum Sensing Activity of Hafnia alvei Isolated from Packed Food  

PubMed Central

Quorum sensing (QS) is a mechanism adopted by bacteria to regulate expression of genes according to population density. N-acylhomoserine lactones (AHLs) are a type of QS signalling molecules commonly found in Gram-negative bacteria which have been reported to play a role in microbial spoilage of foods and pathogenesis. In this study, we isolated an AHL-producing Hafnia alvei strain (FB1) from spherical fish pastes. Analysis via high resolution triple quadrupole liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) on extracts from the spent supernatant of H. alvei FB1 revealed the existence of two short chain AHLs: N-(3-oxohexanoyl) homoserine lactone (3-oxo-C6-HSL) and N-(3-oxo- octanoyl) homoserine lactone (3-oxo-C8-HSL). To our knowledge, this is the first report of the production of AHLs, especially 3-oxo-C8-HSL, by H. alvei.

Tan, Jia-Yi; Yin, Wai-Fong; Chan, Kok-Gan

2014-01-01

119

BACTERIAL ATTRACTION AND QUORUM SENSING INHIBITION IN CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS EXUDATES  

PubMed Central

Caenorhabditis elegans, a bacterivorous nematode, lives in complex rotting fruit, soil, and compost environments, and chemical interactions are required for mating, monitoring population density, recognition of food, avoidance of pathogenic microbes, and other essential ecological functions. Despite being one of the best-studied model organisms in biology, relatively little is known about the signals that C. elegans uses to chemically interact with its environment or as defense. C. elegans exudates were analyzed using several analytical methods and found to contain 36 common metabolites including organic acids, amino acids and sugars, all in relatively high abundance. Furthermore, the concentrations of amino acids in the exudates were dependent on developmental stage. The C. elegans exudates were tested for bacterial chemotaxis using Pseudomonas putida (KT2440), a plant growth promoting rhizobacterium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PAO1), a soil bacterium pathogenic to C. elegans, and E. coli (OP50), a non-motile bacterium tested as a control. The C. elegans exudates attracted the two Psuedomonas species, but had no detectable antibacterial activity against P. aeruginosa. To our surprise, the exudates of young adult and adult life stages of C. elegans exudates inhibited quorum sensing in the reporter system based on the LuxR bacterial quorum sensing (QS) system, which regulates bacterial virulence and other factors in Vibrio fischeri. We were able to fractionate the QS inhibition and bacterial chemotaxis activities, demonstrating that these activities are chemically distinct. Our results demonstrate that C. elegans can attract its bacterial food and has the potential of partially regulating the virulence of bacterial pathogens by inhibiting specific QS systems.

KAPLAN, FATMA; BADRI, DAYAKAR V.; ZACHARIAH, CHERIAN; AJREDINI, RAMADAN; SANDOVAL, FRANCISCO J; ROJE, SANJA; LEVINE, LANFANG H.; ZHANG, FENGLI; ROBINETTE, STEVEN L.; ALBORN, HANS T.; ZHAO, WEI; STADLER, MICHAEL; NIMALENDRAN, RATHIKA; DOSSEY, AARON T.; BRUSCHWEILER, RAFAEL; VIVANCO, JORGE M.; EDISON, ARTHUR S.

2014-01-01

120

Bacteria clustering by polymers induces the expression of quorum sense controlled phenotypes  

PubMed Central

Bacteria deploy a range of chemistries to regulate their behaviour and respond to their environment. Quorum sensing is one mean by which bacteria use chemical reactions to modulate pre-infection behaviour such as surface attachment. Polymers that can interfere with bacterial adhesion or the chemical reactions used for quorum sensing are thus a potential means to control bacterial population responses. Here we report how polymeric “bacteria sequestrants”, designed to bind to bacteria through electrostatic interactions and thus inhibit bacterial adhesion to surfaces, induce the expression of quorum sensing controlled phenotypes as a consequence of cell clustering. A combination of polymer and analytical chemistry, biological assays and computational modelling has been used to characterise the feedback between bacteria clustering and quorum sensing signaling. We have also derived design principles and chemical strategies for controlling bacterial behaviour at the population level.

Lui, Leong T.; Xue, Xuan; Sui, Cheng; Brown, Alan; Pritchard, David I.; Halliday, Nigel; Winzer, Klaus; Howdle, Steven M.; Fernandez-Trillo, Francisco; Krasnogor, Natalio; Alexander, Cameron

2014-01-01

121

Complex quorum-sensing regulatory systems regulate bacterial growth and symbiotic nodulation in Mesorhizobium tianshanense.  

PubMed

LuxR/LuxI-type quorum-sensing systems have been shown to be important for symbiotic interactions between a number of rhizobium species and host legumes. In this study, we found that different isolates of Mesorhizobium tianshanense, a moderately-growing Rhizobium that forms nodules on a number of types of licorice plants, produces several different N-acyl homoserine lactone-like molecules. In M. tianshanense CCBAU060A, we performed a genetic screen and identified a network of regulatory components including a set of LuxI/LuxR-family regulators as well as a MarR-family regulator that is required for quorum-sensing regulation. Furthermore, compared with the wild-type strains, quorum-sensing deficient mutants showed a reduced growth rate and were defective in nodule formation on their host plant Glycyrrhiza uralensis. These data suggest that different M. tianshanense strains may use diverse quorum-sensing systems to regulate symbiotic process. PMID:19115053

Cao, Huijuan; Yang, Menghua; Zheng, Huiming; Zhang, Jiang; Zhong, Zengtao; Zhu, Jun

2009-03-01

122

Antimicrobial and antibiofilm activity of quorum sensing peptides and Peptide analogues against oral biofilm bacteria.  

PubMed

Widespread antibiotic resistance is a major incentive for the investigation of novel ways to treat or prevent infections. Much effort has been put into the discovery of peptides in nature accompanied by manipulation of natural peptides to improve activity and decrease toxicity. The ever increasing knowledge about bacteria and the discovery of quorum sensing have presented itself as another mechanism to disrupt the infection process. We have shown that the natural quorum sensing (QS) peptide, competence-stimulating peptide (CSP), used by the caries causing bacteria Streptococcus mutans when used in higher than normally present concentrations can actually contribute to cell death in S. mutans. Using an analogue of this quorum sensing peptide (KBI-3221), we have shown it to be beneficial at decreasing biofilm of various Streptococcus species. This chapter looks at a number of assay methods to test the inhibitory effects of quorum sensing peptides and their analogues on the growth and biofilm formation of oral bacteria. PMID:20094877

LoVetri, Karen; Madhyastha, Srinivasa

2010-01-01

123

The apparent quorum-sensing inhibitory activity of pyrogallol is a side effect of peroxide production.  

PubMed

There currently is more and more interest in the use of natural products, such as tea polyphenols, as therapeutic agents. The polyphenol compound pyrogallol has been reported before to inhibit quorum-sensing-regulated bioluminescence in Vibrio harveyi. Here, we report that the addition of 10 mg · liter(-1) pyrogallol protects both brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana) and giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) larvae from pathogenic Vibrio harveyi, whereas the compound showed relatively low toxicity (therapeutic index of 10). We further demonstrate that the apparent quorum-sensing-disrupting activity is a side effect of the peroxide-producing activity of this compound rather than true quorum-sensing inhibition. Our results emphasize that verification of minor toxic effects by using sensitive methods and the use of appropriate controls are essential when characterizing compounds as being able to disrupt quorum sensing. PMID:23545532

Defoirdt, Tom; Pande, Gde Sasmita Julyantoro; Baruah, Kartik; Bossier, Peter

2013-06-01

124

Parallel Quorum Sensing Systems Converge to Regulate Virulence in Vibrio cholerae  

Microsoft Academic Search

The marine bacterium Vibrio harveyi possesses two quorum sensing systems (System 1 and System 2) that regulate bioluminescence. Although the Vibrio cholerae genome sequence reveals that a V. harveyi-like System 2 exists, it does not predict the existence of a V. harveyi-like System 1 or any obvious quorum sensing-controlled target genes. In this report we identify and characterize the genes

Melissa B. Miller; Karen Skorupski; Derrick H. Lenz; Ronald K. Taylor; Bonnie L. Bassler

2002-01-01

125

Transition to Quorum Sensing in an Agrobacterium Population: A Stochastic Model  

PubMed Central

Understanding of the intracellular molecular machinery that is responsible for the complex collective behavior of multicellular populations is an exigent problem of modern biology. Quorum sensing, which allows bacteria to activate genetic programs cooperatively, provides an instructive and tractable example illuminating the causal relationships between the molecular organization of gene networks and the complex phenotypes they control. In this work we—to our knowledge for the first time—present a detailed model of the population-wide transition to quorum sensing using the example of Agrobacterium tumefaciens. We construct a model describing the Ti plasmid quorum-sensing gene network and demonstrate that it behaves as an “on–off” gene expression switch that is robust to molecular noise and that activates the plasmid conjugation program in response to the increase in autoinducer concentration. This intracellular model is then incorporated into an agent-based stochastic population model that also describes bacterial motion, cell division, and chemical communication. Simulating the transition to quorum sensing in a liquid medium and biofilm, we explain the experimentally observed gradual manifestation of the quorum-sensing phenotype by showing that the transition of individual model cells into the “on” state is spread stochastically over a broad range of autoinducer concentrations. At the same time, the population-averaged values of critical autoinducer concentration and the threshold population density are shown to be robust to variability between individual cells, predictable and specific to particular growth conditions. Our modeling approach connects intracellular and population scales of the quorum-sensing phenomenon and provides plausible answers to the long-standing questions regarding the ecological and evolutionary significance of the phenomenon. Thus, we demonstrate that the transition to quorum sensing requires a much higher threshold cell density in liquid medium than in biofilm, and on this basis we hypothesize that in Agrobacterium quorum sensing serves as the detector of biofilm formation.

Goryachev, Andrew B; Toh, Da-Jun; Wee, Keng Boon; Lee, Travis; Zhang, Hai-Bao; Zhang, Lian-Hui

2005-01-01

126

Effects of micro-algae commonly used in aquaculture on acyl-homoserine lactone quorum sensing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quorum sensing, bacterial cell-to-cell communication with small signal molecules such as acyl-homoserine lactones, regulates the virulence of many pathogenic bacteria. Therefore, interfering with quorum sensing is currently being explored as a novel biocontrol strategy to fight bacterial infections. In this study, the effects of 19 micro-algal strains on acyl-homoserine lactone-regulated phenotypes of three reporter strains were investigated. Two freshwater micro-algae

F. M. I. Natrah; Mireille Mardel Kenmegne; Wiyoto Wiyoto; Patrick Sorgeloos; Peter Bossier; Tom Defoirdt

2011-01-01

127

Regulation of antimicrobial peptide production by autoinducer-mediated quorum sensing in lactic acid bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several lactic acid bacteria produce peptides with antimicrobial activity. During the last few years, cell–cell communication has emerged as the key regulatory mechanism that controls the production of many of these antimicrobial peptides via a regulatory strategy denominated quorum sensing. Quorum sensing allows population-wide synchronised production of antimicrobial peptides as a function of cell density. The cell–cell communication phenomenon required

Luis E. N. Quadri

2002-01-01

128

Plant-Derived Natural Products as Sources of Anti-Quorum Sensing Compounds  

PubMed Central

Quorum sensing is a system of stimuli and responses in relation to bacterial cell population density that regulates gene expression, including virulence determinants. Consequently, quorum sensing has been an attractive target for the development of novel anti-infective measures that do not rely on the use of antibiotics. Anti-quorum sensing has been a promising strategy to combat bacterial infections as it is unlikely to develop multidrug resistant pathogens since it does not impose any selection pressure. A number of anti-quorum sensing approaches have been documented and plant-based natural products have been extensively studied in this context. Plant matter is one of the major sources of chemicals in use today in various industries, ranging from the pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and food biotechnology to the textile industries. Just like animals and humans, plants are constantly exposed to bacterial infections, it is therefore logical to expect that plants have developed sophisticated of chemical mechanisms to combat pathogens. In this review, we have surveyed the various types of plant-based natural products that exhibit anti-quorum sensing properties and their anti-quorum sensing mechanisms.

Koh, Chong-Lek; Sam, Choon-Kook; Yin, Wai-Fong; Tan, Li Ying; Krishnan, Thiba; Chong, Yee Meng; Chan, Kok-Gan

2013-01-01

129

Generic metric to quantify quorum sensing activation dynamics.  

PubMed

Quorum sensing (QS) enables bacteria to sense and respond to changes in their population density. It plays a critical role in controlling different biological functions, including bioluminescence and bacterial virulence. It has also been widely adapted to program robust dynamics in one or multiple cellular populations. While QS systems across bacteria all appear to function similarly-as density-dependent control systems-there is tremendous diversity among these systems in terms of signaling components and network architectures. This diversity hampers efforts to quantify the general control properties of QS. For a specific QS module, it remains unclear how to most effectively characterize its regulatory properties in a manner that allows quantitative predictions of the activation dynamics of the target gene. Using simple kinetic models, here we show that the dominant temporal dynamics of QS-controlled target activation can be captured by a generic metric, 'sensing potential', defined at a single time point. We validate these predictions using synthetic QS circuits in Escherichia coli. Our work provides a computational framework and experimental methodology to characterize diverse natural QS systems and provides a concise yet quantitative criterion for selecting or optimizing a QS system for synthetic biology applications. PMID:24011134

Pai, Anand; Srimani, Jaydeep K; Tanouchi, Yu; You, Lingchong

2014-04-18

130

The small nucleoid protein Fis is involved in Vibrio cholerae quorum sensing.  

PubMed

Quorum sensing is a process of cell-cell communication that bacteria use to relay information to one another about the cell density and species composition of the bacterial community. Quorum sensing involves the production, secretion and population-wide detection of small signalling molecules called autoinducers. This process allows bacteria to synchronize group behaviours and act as multicellular units. The human pathogen, Vibrio cholerae, uses quorum sensing to co-ordinate such complex behaviours as pathogenicity and biofilm formation. The quorum-sensing circuit of V. cholerae consists of two autoinducer/sensor systems, CAI-1/CqsS and AI-2/LuxPQ, and the VarS/A-CsrA/BCD growth-phase regulatory system. Genetic analysis suggests that an additional regulatory arm involved in quorum sensing exists in V. cholerae. All of these systems channel information into the histidine phosphotransfer protein, LuxU, and/or the response regulator, LuxO. LuxO, when phosphorylated, activates the expression of four genes encoding the Qrr (quorum regulatory RNAs) small RNAs (sRNAs). The Qrr sRNAs destabilize the hapR transcript encoding the master regulator of quorum sensing, HapR. Here we identify the nucleoid protein Fis as playing a major role in the V. cholerae quorum-sensing circuit. Fis fulfils the predictions required to be the putative additional component that inputs information into the cascade: its expression is regulated in a growth phase-dependent manner; it requires LuxO but acts independently of LuxU, and it regulates all four qrr genes and, in turn, HapR by directly binding to the qrr gene promoters and modulating their expression. PMID:17181781

Lenz, Derrick H; Bassler, Bonnie L

2007-02-01

131

Quorum Sensing Regulatory Cascades Control Vibrio fluvialis Pathogenesis  

PubMed Central

Quorum sensing (QS) is a process by which individual bacteria are able to communicate with one another, thereby enabling the population as a whole to coordinate gene regulation and subsequent phenotypic outcomes. Communication is accomplished through production and detection of small molecules in the extracellular milieu. In many bacteria, particularly Vibrio species, multiple QS systems result in multiple signals, as well as cross talk between systems. In this study, we identify two QS systems in the halophilic enteric pathogen Vibrio fluvialis: one acyl-homoserine lactone (AHL) based and one CAI-1/AI-2 based. We show that a LuxI homolog, VfqI, primarily produces 3-oxo-C10-HSL, which is sensed by a LuxR homolog, VfqR. VfqR-AHL is required to activate vfqI expression and autorepress vfqR expression. In addition, we have shown that similar to that in V. cholerae and V. harveyi, V. fluvialis produces CAI-1 and AI-2 signal molecules to activate the expression of a V. cholerae HapR homolog through LuxO. Although VfqR-AHL does not regulate hapR expression, HapR can repress vfqR transcription. Furthermore, we found that QS in V. fluvialis positively regulates production of two potential virulence factors, an extracellular protease and hemolysin. QS also affects cytotoxic activity against epithelial tissue cultures. These data suggest that V. fluvialis integrates QS regulatory pathways to play important physiological roles in pathogenesis.

Wang, Yunduan; Wang, Hui; Liang, Weili; Hay, Amanda J.; Zhong, Zengtao

2013-01-01

132

Early activation of quorum sensing in Pseudomonas aeruginosa reveals the architecture of a complex regulon  

PubMed Central

Background Quorum-sensing regulation of gene expression in Pseudomonas aeruginosa is complex. Two interconnected acyl-homoserine lactone (acyl-HSL) signal-receptor pairs, 3-oxo-dodecanoyl-HSL-LasR and butanoyl-HSL-RhlR, regulate more than 300 genes. The induction of most of the genes is delayed during growth of P. aeruginosa in complex medium, cannot be advanced by addition of exogenous signal, and requires additional regulatory components. Many of these late genes can be induced by addition of signals early by using specific media conditions. While several factors super-regulate the quorum receptors, others may co-regulate target promoters or may affect expression posttranscriptionally. Results To better understand the contributions of super-regulation and co-regulation to quorum-sensing gene expression, and to better understand the general structure of the quorum sensing network, we ectopically expressed the two receptors (in the presence of their cognate signals) and another component that affects quorum sensing, the stationary phase sigma factor RpoS, early in growth. We determined the effect on target gene expression by microarray and real-time PCR analysis. Our results show that many target genes (e.g. lasB and hcnABC) are directly responsive to receptor protein levels. Most genes (e.g. lasA, lecA, and phnAB), however, are not significantly affected, although at least some of these genes are directly regulated by quorum sensing. The majority of promoters advanced by RhlR appeared to be regulated directly, which allowed us to build a RhlR consensus sequence. Conclusion The direct responsiveness of many quorum sensing target genes to receptor protein levels early in growth confirms the role of super-regulation in quorum sensing gene expression. The observation that the induction of most target genes is not affected by signal or receptor protein levels indicates that either target promoters are co-regulated by other transcription factors, or that expression is controlled posttranscriptionally. This architecture permits the integration of multiple signaling pathways resulting in quorum responses that require a "quorum" but are otherwise highly adaptable and receptive to environmental conditions.

Schuster, Martin; Greenberg, E Peter

2007-01-01

133

Bacterial quorum sensing and nitrogen cycling in rhizosphere soil  

SciTech Connect

Plant photosynthate fuels carbon-limited microbial growth and activity, resulting in increased rhizosphere nitrogen (N)-mineralization. Most soil organic N is macromolecular (chitin, protein, nucleotides); enzymatic depolymerization is likely rate-limiting for plant N accumulation. Analyzing Avena (wild oat) planted in microcosms containing sieved field soil, we observed increased rhizosphere chitinase and protease specific activities, bacterial cell densities, and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) compared to bulk soil. Low-molecular weight DON (<3000 Da) was undetectable in bulk soil but comprised 15% of rhizosphere DON. Extracellular enzyme production in many bacteria requires quorum sensing (QS), cell-density dependent group behavior. Because proteobacteria are considered major rhizosphere colonizers, we assayed the proteobacterial QS signals acyl-homoserine lactones (AHLs), which were significantly increased in the rhizosphere. To investigate the linkage between soil signaling and N cycling, we characterized 533 bacterial isolates from Avena rhizosphere: 24% had chitinase or protease activity and AHL production; disruption of QS in 7 of 8 eight isolates disrupted enzyme activity. Many {alpha}-Proteobacteria were newly found with QS-controlled extracellular enzyme activity. Enhanced specific activities of N-cycling enzymes accompanied by bacterial density-dependent behaviors in rhizosphere soil gives rise to the hypothesis that QS could be a control point in the complex process of rhizosphere N-mineralization.

DeAngelis, K.M.; Lindow, S.E.; Firestone, M.K.

2008-10-01

134

Bacterial quorum sensing and nitrogen cycling in rhizosphere soil.  

PubMed

Plant photosynthate fuels carbon-limited microbial growth and activity, resulting in increased rhizosphere nitrogen (N) mineralization. Most soil organic nitrogen is macromolecular (chitin, protein, nucleotides); enzymatic depolymerization is likely rate limiting for plant nitrogen accumulation. Analyzing Avena (wild oat) planted in microcosms containing sieved field soil, we observed increased rhizosphere chitinase and protease-specific activities, bacterial cell densities, and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) compared with bulk soil. Low-molecular-weight (MW) DON (<3000 Da) was undetectable in bulk soil but comprised 15% of rhizosphere DON. Extracellular enzyme production in many bacteria requires quorum sensing (QS), cell-density-dependent group behavior. Because proteobacteria are considered major rhizosphere colonizers, we assayed the proteobacterial QS signals N-acyl-homoserine lactones (AHLs), which were significantly increased in the rhizosphere. To investigate the linkage between soil signaling and nitrogen cycling, we characterized 533 bacterial isolates from Avena rhizosphere: 24% had chitinase or protease activity and AHL production; disruption of QS in seven of eight isolates disrupted enzyme activity. Many Alphaproteobacteria were newly found with QS-controlled extracellular enzyme activity. Enhanced specific activities of nitrogen-cycling enzymes accompanied by bacterial density-dependent behaviors in rhizosphere soil gives rise to the hypothesis that QS could be a control point in the complex process of rhizosphere nitrogen mineralization. PMID:18721146

DeAngelis, Kristen M; Lindow, Steven E; Firestone, Mary K

2008-11-01

135

Virulence of Burkholderia mallei Quorum-Sensing Mutants  

PubMed Central

Many Proteobacteria use acyl-homoserine lactone-mediated quorum-sensing (QS) to activate specific sets of genes as a function of cell density. QS often controls the virulence of pathogenic species, and in fact a previous study indicated that QS was important for Burkholderia mallei mouse lung infections. To gain in-depth information on the role of QS in B. mallei virulence, we constructed and characterized a mutant of B. mallei strain GB8 that was unable to make acyl-homoserine lactones. The QS mutant showed virulence equal to that of its wild-type parent in an aerosol mouse infection model, and growth in macrophages was indistinguishable from that of the parent strain. Furthermore, we assessed the role of QS in B. mallei ATCC 23344 by constructing and characterizing a mutant strain producing AiiA, a lactonase enzyme that degrades acyl-homoserine lactones. Although acyl-homoserine lactone levels in cultures of this strain are very low, it showed full virulence. Contrary to the previous report, we conclude that QS is not required for acute B. mallei infections of mice. QS may be involved in some stage of chronic infections in the natural host of horses, or the QS genes may be remnants of the QS network in B. pseudomallei from which this host-adapted pathogen evolved.

Majerczyk, Charlotte; Kinman, Loren; Han, Tony; Bunt, Richard

2013-01-01

136

Identification of quorum sensing-controlled genes in Burkholderia ambifaria  

PubMed Central

The Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) comprises strains with a virulence potential toward immunocompromised patients as well as plant growth–promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR). Owing to the link between quorum sensing (QS) and virulence, most studies among Bcc species have been directed toward QS of pathogenic bacteria. We have investigated the QS of B. ambifaria, a PGPR only infrequently recovered from patients. The cepI gene, responsible for the synthesis of the main signaling molecule N-octanoylhomoserine lactone (C8-HSL), was inactivated. Phenotypes of the B. ambifaria cepI mutant we observed, such as increased production of siderophores and decreased proteolytic and antifungal activities, are in agreement with those of other Bcc cepI mutants. The cepI mutant was then used as background strain for a whole-genome transposon-insertion mutagenesis strategy, allowing the identification of 20 QS-controlled genes, corresponding to 17 loci. The main functions identified are linked to antifungal and antimicrobial properties, as we have identified QS-controlled genes implicated in the production of pyrrolnitrin, burkholdines (occidiofungin-like molecules), and enacyloxins. This study provides insights in the QS-regulated functions of a PGPR, which could lead to beneficial potential biotechnological applications.

Chapalain, Annelise; Vial, Ludovic; Laprade, Natacha; Dekimpe, Valerie; Perreault, Jonathan; Deziel, Eric

2013-01-01

137

Quorum sensing and social networking in the microbial world  

PubMed Central

For many years, bacterial cells were considered primarily as selfish individuals, but, in recent years, it has become evident that, far from operating in isolation, they coordinate collective behaviour in response to environmental challenges using sophisticated intercellular communication networks. Cell-to-cell communication between bacteria is mediated by small diffusible signal molecules that trigger changes in gene expression in response to fluctuations in population density. This process, generally referred to as quorum sensing (QS), controls diverse phenotypes in numerous Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Recent advances have revealed that bacteria are not limited to communication within their own species but are capable of ‘listening in’ and ‘broadcasting to’ unrelated species to intercept messages and coerce cohabitants into behavioural modifications, either for the good of the population or for the benefit of one species over another. It is also evident that QS is not limited to the bacterial kingdom. The study of two-way intercellular signalling networks between bacteria and both uni- and multicellular eukaryotes as well as between eukaryotes is just beginning to unveil a rich diversity of communication pathways.

Atkinson, Steve; Williams, Paul

2009-01-01

138

Anti-quorum sensing activity of the traditional Chinese herb, Phyllanthus amarus.  

PubMed

The discovery of quorum sensing in Proteobacteria and its function in regulating virulence determinants makes it an attractive alternative towards attenuation of bacterial pathogens. In this study, crude extracts of Phyllanthus amarus Schumach. & Thonn, a traditional Chinese herb, were screened for their anti-quorum sensing properties through a series of bioassays. Only the methanolic extract of P. amarus exhibited anti-quorum sensing activity, whereby it interrupted the ability of Chromobacterium violaceum CVO26 to response towards exogenously supplied N-hexanoylhomoserine lactone and the extract reduced bioluminescence in E. coli [pSB401] and E. coli [pSB1075]. In addition to this, methanolic extract of P. amarus significantly inhibited selected quorum sensing-regulated virulence determinants of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA01. Increasing concentrations of the methanolic extracts of P. amarus reduced swarming motility, pyocyanin production and P. aeruginosa PA01 lecA::lux expression. Our data suggest that P. amarus could be useful for attenuating pathogens and hence, more local traditional herbs should be screened for its anti-quorum sensing properties as their active compounds may serve as promising anti-pathogenic drugs. PMID:24169540

Priya, Kumutha; Yin, Wai-Fong; Chan, Kok-Gan

2013-01-01

139

Inhibition of bacterial quorum sensing and biofilm formation by extracts of neotropical rainforest plants.  

PubMed

Bacterial biofilms are responsible for many persistent infections by many clinically relevant pathogens such as Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Biofilms are much more resistant to conventional antibiotics than their planktonic counterparts. Quorum sensing, an intercellular communication system, controls pathogenesis and biofilm formation in most bacterial species. Quorum sensing provides an important pharmacological target since its inhibition does not provide a selective pressure for resistance. In this study, we investigated the quorum sensing and biofilm inhibitory activities of 126 plant extracts from 71 species collected from neotropical rainforests in Costa Rica. Quorum sensing and biofilm interference were assessed using a modified disc diffusion bioassay with Chromobacterium violaceum ATCC 12,472 and a spectrophotometric bioassay with Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA14, respectively. Species with significant anti-quorum sensing and/or anti-biofilm activities belonged to the Meliaceae, Melastomataceae, Lepidobotryaceae, Sapindaceae, and Simaroubaceae families. IC50 values ranged from 45 to 266 µg/mL. Extracts of these active species could lead to future development of botanical treatments for biofilm-associated infections. PMID:24488718

Ta, Chieu Anh; Freundorfer, Marie; Mah, Thien-Fah; Otárola-Rojas, Marco; Garcia, Mario; Sanchez-Vindas, Pablo; Poveda, Luis; Maschek, J Alan; Baker, Bill J; Adonizio, Allison L; Downum, Kelsey; Durst, Tony; Arnason, John T

2014-03-01

140

Anti-Quorum Sensing Activity of the Traditional Chinese Herb, Phyllanthus amarus  

PubMed Central

The discovery of quorum sensing in Proteobacteria and its function in regulating virulence determinants makes it an attractive alternative towards attenuation of bacterial pathogens. In this study, crude extracts of Phyllanthus amarus Schumach. & Thonn, a traditional Chinese herb, were screened for their anti-quorum sensing properties through a series of bioassays. Only the methanolic extract of P. amarus exhibited anti-quorum sensing activity, whereby it interrupted the ability of Chromobacterium violaceum CVO26 to response towards exogenously supplied N-hexanoylhomoserine lactone and the extract reduced bioluminescence in E. coli [pSB401] and E. coli [pSB1075]. In addition to this, methanolic extract of P. amarus significantly inhibited selected quorum sensing-regulated virulence determinants of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA01. Increasing concentrations of the methanolic extracts of P. amarus reduced swarming motility, pyocyanin production and P. aeruginosa PA01 lecA?lux expression. Our data suggest that P. amarus could be useful for attenuating pathogens and hence, more local traditional herbs should be screened for its anti-quorum sensing properties as their active compounds may serve as promising anti-pathogenic drugs.

Priya, Kumutha; Yin, Wai-Fong; Chan, Kok-Gan

2013-01-01

141

The Transcriptional Regulator VqmA Increases Expression of the Quorum-Sensing Activator HapR in Vibrio cholerae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vibrio cholerae is the causative agent of the severe diarrheal disease cholera. A number of environmental stimuli regulate virulence gene expression in V. cholerae, including quorum-sensing signals. At high cell densities, quorum sensing in V. cholerae invokes a series of signal transduction pathways in order to activate the expression of the master regulator HapR, which then represses the virulence regulon

Zhi Liu; Ansel Hsiao; Adam Joelsson; Jun Zhu

2006-01-01

142

The Vibrio harveyi quorum-sensing system uses shared regulatory components to discriminate between multiple autoinducers.  

PubMed

The quorum-sensing bacterium Vibrio harveyi produces and responds to three autoinducers (AIs), and this sensory information converges to control the expression of bioluminescence, biofilm formation, type III secretion (TTS), and protease production. The AIs are detected by cognate sensor histidine kinases that all relay phosphate to the shared response regulator LuxO. LuxO indirectly represses the master regulator of quorum sensing, LuxR, through the activation of multiple genes encoding small regulatory RNAs (called qrr genes for Quorum Regulatory RNA). Here we use differential fluorescence induction to identify 50 quorum-sensing-controlled promoters. Some promoters only showed significant responses in the simultaneous presence of all three AIs, while others displayed substantial responses to the individual AIs. A differential response to each AI input state was also observed for qrr and luxR expression and LuxR protein production. Individual cell analyses revealed that, in each case, all the bacteria in the population respond in unison to the various AI inputs. We propose that the V. harveyi quorum-sensing transition is not switch-like but rather operates in a graded manner, and that this signaling arrangement, which uses shared regulatory proteins, nonetheless provides V. harveyi a mechanism to respond uniquely to different AI input states. PMID:17015436

Waters, Christopher M; Bassler, Bonnie L

2006-10-01

143

Quorum Sensing-Controlled Biofilm Development in Serratia liquefaciens MG1  

PubMed Central

Serratia liquefaciens MG1 contains an N-acylhomoserine lactone-mediated quorum-sensing system that is known to regulate swarming motility colonization. In this study, we describe for S. liquefaciens MG1 the development of a novel biofilm consisting of cell aggregates and differentiated cell types, such as cell chains and long filamentous cells. Furthermore, quorum sensing is shown to be crucial for normal biofilm development and for elaborate differentiation. A mutant of S. liquefaciens MG1 that was incapable of synthesizing extracellular signal formed a thin and nonmature biofilm lacking cell aggregates and differentiated cell chains. Signal-based complementation of this mutant resulted in a biofilm with the wild-type architecture. Two quorum-sensing-regulated genes (bsmA and bsmB) involved in biofilm development were identified, and we propose that these genes are engaged in fine-tuning the formation of cell aggregates at a specific point in biofilm development.

Labbate, Maurizio; Queck, Shu Yeong; Koh, Kai Shyang; Rice, Scott A.; Givskov, Michael; Kjelleberg, Staffan

2004-01-01

144

Negative regulation of bacterial quorum sensing tunes public goods cooperation.  

PubMed

Bacterial quorum sensing (QS) often coordinates the expression of other, generally more costly public goods involved in virulence and nutrient acquisition. In many Proteobacteria, the basic QS circuitry consists of a synthase that produces a diffusible acyl-homoserine lactone and a cognate receptor that activates public goods expression. In some species, the circuitry also contains negative regulators that have the potential to modulate the timing and magnitude of activation. In this study, we experimentally investigated the contribution of this regulatory function to the evolutionary stability of public goods cooperation in the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. We compared fitness and public goods expression rates of strains lacking either qteE or qscR, each encoding a distinct negative regulator, with those of the wild-type parent and a signal-blind receptor mutant under defined growth conditions. We found that (1) qteE and qscR mutations behave virtually identically and have a stronger effect on the magnitude than on the timing of expression, (2) high expression in qteE and qscR mutants imposes a metabolic burden under nutrient conditions that advance induction and (3) high expression in qteE and qscR mutants increases population growth when QS is required, but also permits invasion by both wild-type and receptor mutant strains. Our data indicate that negative regulation of QS balances the costs and benefits of public goods by attenuating expression after transition to the induced state. As the cells cannot accurately assess the amount of cooperation needed, such bet-hedging would be advantageous in changing parasitic and nonparasitic environments. PMID:23823496

Gupta, Rashmi; Schuster, Martin

2013-11-01

145

Quorum Sensing Controls Flagellar Morphogenesis in Burkholderia glumae  

PubMed Central

Burkholderia glumae is a motile plant pathogenic bacterium that has multiple polar flagella and one LuxR/LuxI-type quorum sensing (QS) system, TofR/TofI. A QS-dependent transcriptional regulator, QsmR, activates flagellar master regulator flhDC genes. FlhDC subsequently activates flagellar gene expression in B. glumae at 37°C. Here, we confirm that the interplay between QS and temperature is critical for normal polar flagellar morphogenesis in B. glumae. In the wild-type bacterium, flagellar gene expression and flagellar number were greater at 28°C compared to 37°C. The QS-dependent flhC gene was significantly expressed at 28°C in two QS-defective (tofI::? and qsmR::?) mutants. Thus, flagella were present in both tofI::? and qsmR::? mutants at 28°C, but were absent at 37°C. Most tofI::? and qsmR::? mutant cells possessed polar or nonpolar flagella at 28°C. Nonpolarly flagellated cells processing flagella around cell surface of both tofI::? and qsmR::? mutants exhibited tumbling and spinning movements. The flhF gene encoding GTPase involved in regulating the correct placement of flagella in other bacteria was expressed in QS mutants in a FlhDC-dependent manner at 28°C. However, FlhF was mislocalized in QS mutants, and was associated with nonpolar flagellar formation in QS mutants at 28°C. These results indicate that QS-independent expression of flagellar genes at 28°C allows flagellar biogenesis, but is not sufficient for normal polar flagellar morphogenesis in B. glumae. Our findings demonstrate that QS functions together with temperature to control flagellar morphogenesis in B. glumae.

Jang, Moon Sun; Goo, Eunhye; An, Jae Hyung; Kim, Jinwoo; Hwang, Ingyu

2014-01-01

146

Quorum sensing inhibitory activities of surface immobilized antibacterial dihydropyrrolones via click chemistry.  

PubMed

Device-related infection remains a major barrier to the use of biomaterial implants as life-saving devices. This study aims to examine the effectiveness and mechanism of action of surface attached dihydropyrrolones (DHPs), a quorum sensing (QS) inhibitor, against bacterial colonization. DHPs were covalently attached on glass surfaces via copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition (CuAAC) click reaction. The covalent attachment of DHP surfaces was confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and contact angle measurements, and the antimicrobial efficacy of the DHP coatings was assessed by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and image analysis. The results demonstrated that covalently bound DHP compounds are effective in reducing the adhesion by up to 97% (p < 0.05) for both Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. Furthermore, using the green fluorescent protein (Gfp)-based reporter technology, it is demonstrated that surface attached DHPs were able to repress the expression of a lasB-gfp reporter fusion of P. aeruginosa by 72% (p < 0.001) without affecting cell viability. This demonstrates the ability of the covalently bound QS inhibitor to inhibit QS and suggests the existence of a membrane-based pathway(s) for QS inhibition. Hence, strategies based on incorporation of QS inhibitors such as DHPs represent a potential approach for prevention of device-related infections. PMID:24345737

Ho, Kitty K K; Chen, Renxun; Willcox, Mark D P; Rice, Scott A; Cole, Nerida; Iskander, George; Kumar, Naresh

2014-02-01

147

Pharmacological inhibition of quorum sensing for the treatment of chronic bacterial infections  

PubMed Central

Traditional treatment of infectious diseases is based on compounds that aim to kill or inhibit bacterial growth. A major concern with this approach is the frequently observed development of resistance to antimicrobial compounds. The discovery of bacterial-communication systems (quorum-sensing systems), which orchestrate important temporal events during the infection process, has afforded a novel opportunity to ameliorate bacterial infection by means other than growth inhibition. Compounds able to override bacterial signaling are present in nature. Herein we discuss the known signaling mechanisms and potential antipathogenic drugs that specifically target quorum-sensing systems in a manner unlikely to pose a selective pressure for the development of resistant mutants.

Hentzer, Morten; Givskov, Michael

2003-01-01

148

Assessment of anti-quorum sensing activity for some ornamental and medicinal plants native to egypt.  

PubMed

This study investigated the effects of some plant extracts on the bacterial communication system, expressed as quorum sensing (QS) activity. Quorum sensing has a directly proportional effect on the amount of certain compounds, such as pigments, produced by the bacteria. Alcohol extracts of 23 ornamental and medicinal plants were tested for anti-QS activity by the Chromobacterium violaceum assay using the agar cup diffusion method. The screening revealed the anti-QS activity of six plants; namely the leaves of Adhatoda vasica Nees, Bauhinia purpurea L., Lantana camara L., Myoporum laetum G. Forst.; the fruits of Piper longum L.; and the aerial parts of Taraxacum officinale F.H. Wigg. PMID:23641343

Zaki, Ahmed A; Shaaban, Mona I; Hashish, Nadia E; Amer, Mohamed A; Lahloub, Mohamed-Farid

2013-03-01

149

Quorum-Sensing in CD4+ T Cell Homeostasis: A Hypothesis and a Model  

PubMed Central

Homeostasis of lymphocyte numbers is believed to be due to competition between cellular populations for a common niche of restricted size, defined by the combination of interactions and trophic factors required for cell survival. Here we propose a new mechanism: homeostasis of lymphocyte numbers could also be achieved by the ability of lymphocytes to perceive the density of their own populations. Such a mechanism would be reminiscent of the primordial quorum-sensing systems used by bacteria, in which some bacteria sense the accumulation of bacterial metabolites secreted by other elements of the population, allowing them to “count” the number of cells present and adapt their growth accordingly. We propose that homeostasis of CD4+ T cell numbers may occur via a quorum-sensing-like mechanism, where IL-2 is produced by activated CD4+ T cells and sensed by a population of CD4+ Treg cells that expresses the high-affinity IL-2R?-chain and can regulate the number of activated IL-2-producing CD4+ T cells and the total CD4+ T cell population. In other words, CD4+ T cell populations can restrain their growth by monitoring the number of activated cells, thus preventing uncontrolled lymphocyte proliferation during immune responses. We hypothesize that malfunction of this quorum-sensing mechanism may lead to uncontrolled T cell activation and autoimmunity. Finally, we present a mathematical model that describes the key role of IL-2 and quorum-sensing mechanisms in CD4+ T cell homeostasis during an immune response.

Almeida, Afonso R. M.; Amado, Ines F.; Reynolds, Joseph; Berges, Julien; Lythe, Grant; Molina-Paris, Carmen; Freitas, Antonio A.

2012-01-01

150

Acyl homoserine lactone-based quorum sensing in a methanogenic archaeon  

PubMed Central

Acyl homoserine lactone (AHL)-based quorum sensing commonly refers to cell density-dependent regulatory mechanisms found in bacteria. However, beyond bacteria, this cell-to-cell communication mechanism is poorly understood. Here we show that a methanogenic archaeon, Methanosaeta harundinacea 6Ac, encodes an active quorum sensing system that is used to regulate cell assembly and carbon metabolic flux. The methanogen 6Ac showed a cell density-dependent physiology transition, which was related to the AHL present in the spent culture and the filI gene-encoded AHL synthase. Through extensive chemical analyses, a new class of carboxylated AHLs synthesized by FilI protein was identified. These carboxylated AHLs facilitated the transition from a short cell to filamentous growth, with an altered carbon metabolic flux that favoured the conversion of acetate to methane and a reduced yield in cellular biomass. The transcriptomes of the filaments and the short cell forms differed with gene expression profiles consistent with the physiology. In the filaments, genes encoding the initial enzymes in the methanogenesis pathway were upregulated, whereas those for cellular carbon assimilation were downregulated. A luxI–luxR ortholog filI–filR was present in the genome of strain 6Ac. The carboxylated AHLs were also detected in other methanogen cultures and putative filI orthologs were identified in other methanogenic genomes as well. This discovery of AHL-based quorum sensing systems in methanogenic archaea implies that quorum sensing mechanisms are universal among prokaryotes.

Zhang, Guishan; Zhang, Fan; Ding, Gang; Li, Jie; Guo, Xiaopeng; Zhu, Jinxing; Zhou, Liguang; Cai, Shichun; Liu, Xiaoli; Luo, Yuanming; Zhang, Guifeng; Shi, Wenyuan; Dong, Xiuzhu

2012-01-01

151

Surface Hardness Impairment of Quorum Sensing and Swarming for Pseudomonas aeruginosa  

PubMed Central

The importance of rhamnolipid to swarming of the bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa is well established. It is frequently, but not exclusively, observed that P. aeruginosa swarms in tendril patterns—formation of these tendrils requires rhamnolipid. We were interested to explain the impact of surface changes on P. aeruginosa swarm tendril development. Here we report that P. aeruginosa quorum sensing and rhamnolipid production is impaired when growing on harder semi-solid surfaces. P. aeruginosa wild-type swarms showed huge variation in tendril formation with small deviations to the “standard” swarm agar concentration of 0.5%. These macroscopic differences correlated with microscopic investigation of cells close to the advancing swarm edge using fluorescent gene reporters. Tendril swarms showed significant rhlA-gfp reporter expression right up to the advancing edge of swarming cells while swarms without tendrils (grown on harder agar) showed no rhlA-gfp reporter expression near the advancing edge. This difference in rhamnolipid gene expression can be explained by the necessity of quorum sensing for rhamnolipid production. We provide evidence that harder surfaces seem to limit induction of quorum sensing genes near the advancing swarm edge and these localized effects were sufficient to explain the lack of tendril formation on hard agar. We were unable to artificially stimulate rhamnolipid tendril formation with added acyl-homoserine lactone signals or increasing the carbon nutrients. This suggests that quorum sensing on surfaces is controlled in a manner that is not solely population dependent.

Kamatkar, Nachiket G.; Shrout, Joshua D.

2011-01-01

152

Quorum-sensing signals in the microbial community of the cabbage white butterfly larval midgut  

Microsoft Academic Search

The overall goal of this study was to examine the role of quorum-sensing (QS) signals in a multispecies microbial community. Toward this aim, we studied QS signals produced by an indigenous member and an invading pathogen of the microbial community of the cabbage white butterfly (CWB) larval midgut (Pieris rapae). As an initial step, we characterized the QS system in

Bradley R Borlee; Grant D Geske; Courtney J Robinson; Helen E Blackwell; Jo Handelsman

2008-01-01

153

Microarray Analysis of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Quorum-Sensing Regulons: Effects of Growth Phase and Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacterial communication via quorum sensing (QS) has been reported to be important in the production of virulence factors, antibiotic sensitivity, and biofilm development. Two QS systems, known as the las and rhl systems, have been identified previously in the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. High-density oligonucleotide microarrays for the P. aeruginosa PAO1 genome were used to investigate global gene expression patterns

Victoria E. Wagner; Daniel Bushnell; Luciano Passador; Andrew I. Brooks; Barbara H. Iglewski

2003-01-01

154

Biofouling of reverse osmosis membranes: Microbial quorum sensing and fouling propensity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fouled RO membranes from a real water treatment plant were analyzed biochemically to investigate the role of quorum sensing in controlling the rate and the extent of biofilm formation on the membrane surface. The results showed that 60% of bacterial species found on the fouled membrane surface contribute to biofilm formation through the active intraspecies as well as interspecies communication.

Sejin Kim; Sangyoup Lee; Seungkwan Hong; Youngsook Oh; Jihyang Kweon; Taehyun Kim

2009-01-01

155

A negative regulator mediates quorum-sensing control of exopolysaccharide production in Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii.  

PubMed

Classical quorum-sensing (autoinduction) regulation, as exemplified by the lux system of Vibrio fischeri, requires N-acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) signals to stimulate cognate transcriptional activators for the cell density-dependent expression of specific target gene systems. For Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii, a bacterial pathogen of sweet corn and maize, the extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) stewartan is a major virulence factor, and its production is controlled by quorum sensing in a population density-dependent manner. Two genes, esaI and esaR, encode essential regulatory proteins for quorum sensing. EsaI is the AHL signal synthase, and EsaR is the cognate gene regulator. esaI, DeltaesaR, and DeltaesaI-esaR mutations were constructed to establish the regulatory role of EsaR. We report here that strains containing an esaR mutation produce high levels of EPS independently of cell density and in the absence of the AHL signal. Our data indicate that quorum-sensing regulation in P. s. subsp. stewartii, in contrast to most other described systems, uses EsaR to repress EPS synthesis at low cell density, and that derepression requires micromolar amounts of AHL. In addition, derepressed esaR strains, which synthesize EPS constitutively at low cell densities, were significantly less virulent than the wild-type parent. This finding suggests that quorum sensing in P. s. subsp. stewartii may be a mechanism to delay the expression of EPS during the early stages of infection so that it does not interfere with other mechanisms of pathogenesis. PMID:9636211

von Bodman, S B; Majerczak, D R; Coplin, D L

1998-06-23

156

Quorum-sensing regulators control virulence gene expression in Vibrio cholerae  

Microsoft Academic Search

The production of virulence factors including cholera toxin and the toxin-coregulated pilus in the human pathogen Vibrio cholerae is strongly influenced by environmental conditions. The well-characterized ToxR signal transduction cascade is responsible for sensing and integrating the environmental information and controlling the virulence regulon. We show here that, in addition to the known components of the ToxR signaling circuit, quorum-sensing

Jun Zhu; Melissa B. Miller; Russell E. Vance; Michelle Dziejman; John J. Mekalanos

2002-01-01

157

Review article Quorum sensing-controlled gene expression in lactic acid bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quorum sensing in lactic acid bacteria (LAB) involves peptides that are directly sensed by membrane-located histidine kinases, after which the signal is transmitted to an intracellular response regulator. This regulator in turn activates transcription of target genes, that commonly include the structural gene for the inducer molecule. The two-component signal-transduction machinery has proven to be indispensable for transcription activation and

Oscar P. Kuipers; Pascalle G. G. A. de Ruyter; Michiel Kleerebezem; Willem M. de Vos

158

Degradation of N-acyl homoserine lactone quorum sensing signal molecules by forest root-associated fungi.  

PubMed

A collection of mycorrhizal and nonmycorrhizal root-associated fungi coming from forest environments was screened for their ability to degrade N-acyl homoserine lactones (AHL) or to prevent AHL recognition by producing quorum sensing inhibitors (QSI). No production of QS-inhibitors or -activators was detected using the two biosensors Chromobacterium violaceum CV026 and Agrobacterium tumefaciens in the culture supernatant of these fungi. However, the ability to degrade C6- and 3O,C6-HSL was detected for three fungal isolates. Acidification assay revealed that the AHL were degraded by a lactonase activity for two of these isolates. These results demonstrated for the first time that the forest root-associated fungi are capable of degrading the AHL signal molecules. PMID:18400006

Uroz, Stephane; Heinonsalo, Jussi

2008-08-01

159

Selective Chemical Inhibition of agr Quorum Sensing in Staphylococcus aureus Promotes Host Defense with Minimal Impact on Resistance.  

PubMed

Bacterial signaling systems are prime drug targets for combating the global health threat of antibiotic resistant bacterial infections including those caused by Staphylococcus aureus. S. aureus is the primary cause of acute bacterial skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) and the quorum sensing operon agr is causally associated with these. Whether efficacious chemical inhibitors of agr signaling can be developed that promote host defense against SSTIs while sparing the normal microbiota of the skin is unknown. In a high throughput screen, we identified a small molecule inhibitor (SMI), savirin (S. aureus virulence inhibitor) that disrupted agr-mediated quorum sensing in this pathogen but not in the important skin commensal Staphylococcus epidermidis. Mechanistic studies employing electrophoretic mobility shift assays and a novel AgrA activation reporter strain revealed the transcriptional regulator AgrA as the target of inhibition within the pathogen, preventing virulence gene upregulation. Consistent with its minimal impact on exponential phase growth, including skin microbiota members, savirin did not provoke stress responses or membrane dysfunction induced by conventional antibiotics as determined by transcriptional profiling and membrane potential and integrity studies. Importantly, savirin was efficacious in two murine skin infection models, abating tissue injury and selectively promoting clearance of agr+ but not ?agr bacteria when administered at the time of infection or delayed until maximal abscess development. The mechanism of enhanced host defense involved in part enhanced intracellular killing of agr+ but not ?agr in macrophages and by low pH. Notably, resistance or tolerance to savirin inhibition of agr was not observed after multiple passages either in vivo or in vitro where under the same conditions resistance to growth inhibition was induced after passage with conventional antibiotics. Therefore, chemical inhibitors can selectively target AgrA in S. aureus to promote host defense while sparing agr signaling in S. epidermidis and limiting resistance development. PMID:24945495

Sully, Erin K; Malachowa, Natalia; Elmore, Bradley O; Alexander, Susan M; Femling, Jon K; Gray, Brian M; DeLeo, Frank R; Otto, Michael; Cheung, Ambrose L; Edwards, Bruce S; Sklar, Larry A; Horswill, Alexander R; Hall, Pamela R; Gresham, Hattie D

2014-06-01

160

Selective Chemical Inhibition of agr Quorum Sensing in Staphylococcus aureus Promotes Host Defense with Minimal Impact on Resistance  

PubMed Central

Bacterial signaling systems are prime drug targets for combating the global health threat of antibiotic resistant bacterial infections including those caused by Staphylococcus aureus. S. aureus is the primary cause of acute bacterial skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) and the quorum sensing operon agr is causally associated with these. Whether efficacious chemical inhibitors of agr signaling can be developed that promote host defense against SSTIs while sparing the normal microbiota of the skin is unknown. In a high throughput screen, we identified a small molecule inhibitor (SMI), savirin (S. aureus virulence inhibitor) that disrupted agr-mediated quorum sensing in this pathogen but not in the important skin commensal Staphylococcus epidermidis. Mechanistic studies employing electrophoretic mobility shift assays and a novel AgrA activation reporter strain revealed the transcriptional regulator AgrA as the target of inhibition within the pathogen, preventing virulence gene upregulation. Consistent with its minimal impact on exponential phase growth, including skin microbiota members, savirin did not provoke stress responses or membrane dysfunction induced by conventional antibiotics as determined by transcriptional profiling and membrane potential and integrity studies. Importantly, savirin was efficacious in two murine skin infection models, abating tissue injury and selectively promoting clearance of agr+ but not ?agr bacteria when administered at the time of infection or delayed until maximal abscess development. The mechanism of enhanced host defense involved in part enhanced intracellular killing of agr+ but not ?agr in macrophages and by low pH. Notably, resistance or tolerance to savirin inhibition of agr was not observed after multiple passages either in vivo or in vitro where under the same conditions resistance to growth inhibition was induced after passage with conventional antibiotics. Therefore, chemical inhibitors can selectively target AgrA in S. aureus to promote host defense while sparing agr signaling in S. epidermidis and limiting resistance development.

Sully, Erin K.; Malachowa, Natalia; Elmore, Bradley O.; Alexander, Susan M.; Femling, Jon K.; Gray, Brian M.; DeLeo, Frank R.; Otto, Michael; Cheung, Ambrose L.; Edwards, Bruce S.; Sklar, Larry A.; Horswill, Alexander R.; Hall, Pamela R.; Gresham, Hattie D.

2014-01-01

161

Complete Genome Sequence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Strain YL84, a Quorum-Sensing Strain Isolated from Compost.  

PubMed

Here, we report the complete genome sequence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain YL84, which was isolated from compost. This strain was found to be a chitinase-producing quorum-sensing bacterium. PMID:24699957

Chan, Kok-Gan; Yin, Wai-Fong; Lim, Yan Lue

2014-01-01

162

A Nitric Oxide-Responsive Quorum Sensing Circuit in Vibrio harveyi Regulates Flagella Production and Biofilm Formation  

PubMed Central

Cell signaling plays an important role in the survival of bacterial colonies. They use small molecules to coordinate gene expression in a cell density dependent manner. This process, known as quorum sensing, helps bacteria regulate diverse functions such as bioluminescence, biofilm formation and virulence. In Vibrio harveyi, a bioluminescent marine bacterium, four parallel quorum-sensing systems have been identified to regulate light production. We have previously reported that nitric oxide (NO), through the H-NOX/HqsK quorum sensing pathway contributes to light production in V. harveyi through the LuxU/LuxO/LuxR quorum sensing pathway. In this study, we show that nitric oxide (NO) also regulates flagellar production and enhances biofilm formation. Our data suggest that V. harveyi is capable of switching between lifestyles to be able to adapt to changes in the environment.

Henares, Bernadette M.; Xu, Yueming; Boon, Elizabeth M.

2013-01-01

163

Ajoene, a Sulfur-Rich Molecule from Garlic, Inhibits Genes Controlled by Quorum Sensing  

PubMed Central

In relation to emerging multiresistant bacteria, development of antimicrobials and new treatment strategies of infections should be expected to become a high-priority research area. Quorum sensing (QS), a communication system used by pathogenic bacteria like Pseudomonas aeruginosa to synchronize the expression of specific genes involved in pathogenicity, is a possible drug target. Previous in vitro and in vivo studies revealed a significant inhibition of P. aeruginosa QS by crude garlic extract. By bioassay-guided fractionation of garlic extracts, we determined the primary QS inhibitor present in garlic to be ajoene, a sulfur-containing compound with potential as an antipathogenic drug. By comprehensive in vitro and in vivo studies, the effect of synthetic ajoene toward P. aeruginosa was elucidated. DNA microarray studies of ajoene-treated P. aeruginosa cultures revealed a concentration-dependent attenuation of a few but central QS-controlled virulence factors, including rhamnolipid. Furthermore, ajoene treatment of in vitro biofilms demonstrated a clear synergistic, antimicrobial effect with tobramycin on biofilm killing and a cease in lytic necrosis of polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Furthermore, in a mouse model of pulmonary infection, a significant clearing of infecting P. aeruginosa was detected in ajoene-treated mice compared to a nontreated control group. This study adds to the list of examples demonstrating the potential of QS-interfering compounds in the treatment of bacterial infections.

Jakobsen, Tim Holm; van Gennip, Maria; Phipps, Richard Kerry; Shanmugham, Meenakshi Sundaram; Christensen, Louise Dahl; Alhede, Morten; Skindersoe, Mette Eline; Rasmussen, Thomas Bovbjerg; Friedrich, Karlheinz; Uthe, Friedrich; Jensen, Peter ?strup; Moser, Claus; Nielsen, Kristian Fog; Eberl, Leo; Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld; Tanner, David; H?iby, Niels; Bjarnsholt, Thomas

2012-01-01

164

AiiA quorum-sensing quenching controls proteolytic activity and biofilm formation by Enterobacter cloacae.  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to evaluate a quorum-quenching approach to identify functions regulated by quorum sensing in Enterobacter cloacae. We employed an aiiA transconjugant strain of E. cloacae that synthesizes a lactonase enzyme that hydrolyzes N-acyl homoserine lactone signaling molecules to compare bacterial phenotypes in the presence and absence of quorum signals. The aiiA-expressing strain displayed increased proteolytic activity and intensity of a milk-clotting reaction when compared to the wild-type strain. Although both strains growing on polystyrene plates in rich media and a minimal medium of salts formed biofilms, the wild-type strain exhibited a higher number of adhered cells. On the surface of stainless steel coupons that were submerged in culture media, the number of adhered cells of the wild type contained up to one log more cells compared with the aiiA transconjugant. However, after 48 h of incubation, there was no significant difference between the strains. The results demonstrated that the quorum-sensing system negatively regulates proteolytic activity and is likely involved in the early steps of biofilm formation by E. cloacae 067. PMID:22986817

dos Reis Ponce, Adriana; Martins, Maurilio Lopes; de Araujo, Elza Fernandes; Mantovani, Hilário Cuquetto; Vanetti, Maria Cristina Dantas

2012-12-01

165

Drosophila host model reveals new enterococcus faecalis quorum-sensing associated virulence factors.  

PubMed

Enterococcus faecalis V583 is a vancomycin-resistant clinical isolate which belongs to the hospital-adapted clade, CC2. This strain harbours several factors that have been associated with virulence, including the fsr quorum-sensing regulatory system that is known to control the expression of GelE and SprE proteases. To discriminate between genes directly regulated by Fsr, and those indirectly regulated as the result of protease expression or activity, we compared gene expression in isogenic mutants of V583 variously defective in either Fsr quorum sensing or protease expression. Quorum sensing was artificially induced by addition of the quorum signal, GBAP, exogenously in a controlled manner. The Fsr regulon was found to be restricted to five genes, gelE, sprE, ef1097, ef1351 and ef1352. Twelve additional genes were found to be dependent on the presence of GBAP-induced proteases. Induction of GelE and SprE by GBAP via Fsr resulted in accumulation of mRNA encoding lrgAB, and this induction was found to be lytRS dependent. Drosophila infection was used to discern varying levels of toxicity stemming from mutations in the fsr quorum regulatory system and the genes that it regulates, highlighting the contribution of LrgAB and bacteriocin EF1097 to infection toxicity. A contribution of SprE to infection toxicity was also detected. This work brought to light new players in E. faecalis success as a pathogen and paves the way for future studies on host tolerance mechanisms to infections caused by this important nosocomial pathogen. PMID:23734216

Teixeira, Neuza; Varahan, Sriram; Gorman, Matthew J; Palmer, Kelli L; Zaidman-Remy, Anna; Yokohata, Ryoji; Nakayama, Jiro; Hancock, Lynn E; Jacinto, António; Gilmore, Michael S; de Fátima Silva Lopes, Maria

2013-01-01

166

The Small RNA Chaperone Hfq and Multiple Small RNAs Control Quorum Sensing in Vibrio harveyi and Vibrio cholerae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quorum-sensing bacteria communicate with extracellular signal molecules called autoinducers. This process allows community-wide synchronization of gene expression. A screen for additional components of the Vibrio harveyi and Vibrio cholerae quorum-sensing circuits revealed the protein Hfq. Hfq mediates interactions between small, regulatory RNAs (sRNAs) and specific messenger RNA (mRNA) targets. These interactions typically alter the stability of the target transcripts. We

Derrick H. Lenz; Kenny C. Mok; Brendan N. Lilley; Rahul V. Kulkarni; Ned S. Wingreen; Bonnie L. Bassler

2004-01-01

167

Pseudomonas aeruginosa mutations in lasI and rhlI quorum sensing systems result in milder chronic lung infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

To understand the importance of quorum sensing in chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection, the in vivo pathogenic effects of the wild-type P. aeruginosa PAO1 and its double mutant, PAO1 lasI rhlI, in which the signal- generating parts of the quorum sensing systems are defective were compared. The rat model of P. aeruginosa lung infection was used in the present study.

Hong Wu; Zhijun Song; Michael Givskov; Gerd Doring; Dieter Worlitzsch; Kalai Mathee; Jørgen Rygaard; Niels Høiby

2001-01-01

168

Role of the luxS Quorum-Sensing System in Biofilm Formation and Virulence of Staphylococcus epidermidis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nosocomial infections caused by Staphylococcus epidermidis are characterized by biofilm formation on implanted medical devices. Quorum-sensing regulation plays a major role in the biofilm development of many bacterial pathogens. Here, we describe luxS, a quorum-sensing system in staphylococci that has a significant impact on biofilm development and virulence. We constructed an isogenic luxS mutant strain of a biofilm- forming clinical

Lin Xu; Hualin Li; Cuong Vuong; Viveka Vadyvaloo; Jianping Wang; Yufeng Yao; Michael Otto; Qian Gao

2006-01-01

169

The impact of quorum sensing on the virulence of Aeromonas hydrophila and Aeromonas salmonicida towards burbot (Lota lota L.) larvae  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the link between quorum sensing in Aeromonas spp. and its virulence towards burbot (Lota lota) was investigated. High mortality occurred in burbot juveniles challenged with Aeromonas salmonicida HN-00, but not in juveniles challenged with Aeromonas hydrophila AH-1N. Meanwhile, both A. hydrophila AH-1N and A salmonicida HN-00 were virulent towards larvae. The effect of quorum sensing on the

F. M. I. Natrah; M. I. Alam; S. Pawar; A. S. Harzevili; N. Nevejan; N. Boon; P. Sorgeloos; P. Bossier; T. Defoirdt

2012-01-01

170

Genome-wide dissection of the quorum sensing signalling pathway in Trypanosoma brucei.  

PubMed

The protozoan parasites Trypanosoma brucei spp. cause important human and livestock diseases in sub-Saharan Africa. In mammalian blood, two developmental forms of the parasite exist: proliferative 'slender' forms and arrested 'stumpy' forms that are responsible for transmission to tsetse flies. The slender to stumpy differentiation is a density-dependent response that resembles quorum sensing in microbial systems and is crucial for the parasite life cycle, ensuring both infection chronicity and disease transmission. This response is triggered by an elusive 'stumpy induction factor' (SIF) whose intracellular signalling pathway is also uncharacterized. Laboratory-adapted (monomorphic) trypanosome strains respond inefficiently to SIF but can generate forms with stumpy characteristics when exposed to cell-permeable cAMP and AMP analogues. Exploiting this, we have used a genome-wide RNA interference library screen to identify the signalling components driving stumpy formation. In separate screens, monomorphic parasites were exposed to 8-(4-chlorophenylthio)-cAMP (pCPT-cAMP) or 8-pCPT-2'-O-methyl-5'-AMP to select cells that were unresponsive to these signals and hence remained proliferative. Genome-wide Ion Torrent based RNAi target sequencing identified cohorts of genes implicated in each step of the signalling pathway, from purine metabolism, through signal transducers (kinases, phosphatases) to gene expression regulators. Genes at each step were independently validated in cells naturally capable of stumpy formation, confirming their role in density sensing in vivo. The putative RNA-binding protein, RBP7, was required for normal quorum sensing and promoted cell-cycle arrest and transmission competence when overexpressed. This study reveals that quorum sensing signalling in trypanosomes shares similarities to fundamental quiescence pathways in eukaryotic cells, its components providing targets for quorum-sensing interference-based therapeutics. PMID:24336212

Mony, Binny M; MacGregor, Paula; Ivens, Alasdair; Rojas, Federico; Cowton, Andrew; Young, Julie; Horn, David; Matthews, Keith

2014-01-30

171

Quorum-sensing regulators control virulence gene expression in Vibrio cholerae  

PubMed Central

The production of virulence factors including cholera toxin and the toxin-coregulated pilus in the human pathogen Vibrio cholerae is strongly influenced by environmental conditions. The well-characterized ToxR signal transduction cascade is responsible for sensing and integrating the environmental information and controlling the virulence regulon. We show here that, in addition to the known components of the ToxR signaling circuit, quorum-sensing regulators are involved in regulation of V. cholerae virulence. We focused on the regulators LuxO and HapR because homologues of these two proteins control quorum sensing in the closely related luminous marine bacterium Vibrio harveyi. Using an infant mouse model, we found that a luxO mutant is severely defective in colonization of the small intestine. Gene arrays were used to profile transcription in the V. cholerae wild type and the luxO mutant. These studies revealed that the ToxR regulon is repressed in the luxO mutant, and that this effect is mediated by another negative regulator, HapR. We show that LuxO represses hapR expression early in log-phase growth, and constitutive expression of hapR blocks ToxR-regulon expression. Additionally, LuxO and HapR regulate a variety of other cellular processes including motility, protease production, and biofilm formation. Together these data suggest a role for quorum sensing in modulating expression of blocks of virulence genes in a reciprocal fashion in vivo.

Zhu, Jun; Miller, Melissa B.; Vance, Russell E.; Dziejman, Michelle; Bassler, Bonnie L.; Mekalanos, John J.

2002-01-01

172

Role of Quorum Sensing and Antimicrobial Component Production by Serratia plymuthica in Formation of Biofilms, Including Mixed Biofilms with Escherichia coli  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have previously characterized the N-acyl-L-homoserine lactone-based quorum-sensing system of the biofilm isolate Serratia plymuthica RVH1. Here we investigated the role of quorum sensing and of quorum- sensing-dependent production of an antimicrobial compound (AC) on biofilm formation by RVH1 and on the cocultivation of RVH1 and Escherichia coli in planktonic cultures or in biofilms. Biofilm formation of S. plymuthica was

Pieter Moons; Rob Van Houdt; Abram Aertsen; Kristof Vanoirbeek; Yves Engelborghs; Chris W. Michiels

2006-01-01

173

Dynamical quorum-sensing in oscillators coupled through an external medium  

PubMed Central

Many biological and physical systems exhibit population-density dependent transitions to synchronized oscillations in a process often termed “dynamical quorum sensing”. Synchronization frequently arises through chemical communication via signaling molecules distributed through an external medium. We study a simple theoretical model for dynamical quorum sensing: a heterogenous population of limit-cycle oscillators diffusively coupled through a common medium. We show that this model exhibits a rich phase diagram with four qualitatively distinct physical mechanisms that can lead to a loss of coherent population-level oscillations, including a novel mechanism arising from effective time-delays introduced by the external medium. We derive a single pair of analytic equations that allow us to calculate phase boundaries as a function of population density and show that the model reproduces many of the qualitative features of recent experiments on BZ catalytic particles as well as synthetically engineered bacteria.

Schwab, David J.; Baetica, Ania; Mehta, Pankaj

2012-01-01

174

Chromosomal Arrangement of AHL-Driven Quorum Sensing Circuits in Pseudomonas  

PubMed Central

Pseudomonas spp. are able to colonize a large variety of environments due to their wide adaptability which is also associated with an N-acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) gene regulation mechanism called quorum sensing (QS). In this article we present a systematic overview of the genomic arrangement patterns of quorum sensing genes found in Pseudomonas and compare the topologies with those found in other bacterial genomes. We find that the topological arrangement of QS genes is more variable than previously thought but there are a few unifying features that occur in many of the topological arrangements. We hypothesize that the negative regulators of QS that are often found between the canonical luxR/ and luxI-family genes may be crucial for stabilizing the output of QS circuits.

Gelencser, Zsolt; Galbats, Borisz; Gonzalez, Juan F.; Choudhary, K. Sonal; Hudaiberdiev, Sanjarbek; Venturi, Vittorio; Pongor, Sandor

2012-01-01

175

A negative feedback loop involving small RNAs accelerates Vibrio cholerae's transition out of quorum-sensing mode  

PubMed Central

Quorum sensing is a cell-to-cell communication process that allows bacteria to measure their population numbers and to synchronously alter gene expression in response to changes in cell population density. At the core of the Vibrio cholerae quorum-sensing signal transduction pathway lie four redundant small RNAs (sRNAs), named the Quorum Regulatory RNAs (Qrr1–4). Expression of qrr1–4 is cell population density-dependent due to a requirement for the quorum-sensing controlled phosphorylated response regulator LuxO-P, which is abundant only at low cell population density. When expressed, Qrr1–4 repress translation of HapR, the “master” quorum-sensing transcription factor. Here we show a negative feedback loop in which HapR activates transcription of the qrr genes, which indirectly leads to hapR repression. Efficient feedback activation of the qrr genes requires the simultaneous presence of LuxO-P (present only at low cell population density) and HapR (present only at high cell population density). For this reason, the feedback loop does not influence quorum sensing at steady-state low or high cell population density. However, LuxO-P and HapR are simultaneously present immediately following the switch from high to low cell density conditions. In this state, the HapR feedback loop dramatically accelerates V. cholerae’s transition from the high to the low cell density mode.

Svenningsen, Sine L.; Waters, Christopher M.; Bassler, Bonnie L.

2008-01-01

176

A negative regulator mediates quorum-sensing control of exopolysaccharide production in Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii  

Microsoft Academic Search

Classical quorum-sensing (autoinduction) regulation, as exemplified by the lux system of Vibrio fischeri, requires N-acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) signals to stimulate cognate transcriptional activators for the cell density-dependent expression of specific target gene systems. For Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii, a bacterial pathogen of sweet corn and maize, the extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) stewartan is a major virulence factor, and its production

S. B. von Bodman; D R Majerczak; D L Coplin

1998-01-01

177

Synthetic quorum-sensing circuit to control consortial biofilm formation and dispersal in a microfluidic device  

Microsoft Academic Search

To utilize biofilms for chemical transformations in biorefineries they need to be controlled and replaced. Previously, we engineered the global regulator Hha and cyclic diguanylate-binding BdcA to create proteins that enable biofilm dispersal. Here we report a biofilm circuit that utilizes these two dispersal proteins along with a population-driven quorum-sensing switch. With this synthetic circuit, in a novel microfluidic device,

Seok Hoon Hong; Manjunath Hegde; Jeongyun Kim; Xiaoxue Wang; Arul Jayaraman; Thomas K. Wood

2012-01-01

178

Quorum Sensing: a Transcriptional Regulatory System Involved in the Pathogenicity of Burkholderia mallei  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous gram-negative bacterial pathogens regulate virulence factor expression by using a cell density mechanism termed quorum sensing (QS). An in silico analysis of the Burkholderia mallei ATCC 23344 genome revealed that it encodes at least two luxI and four luxR homologues. Using mass spectrometry, we showed that wild-type B. mallei produces the signaling molecules N-octanoyl-homoserine lactone and N-decanoyl-homo- serine lactone.

Ricky L. Ulrich; David DeShazer; Harry B. Hines; Jeffrey A. Jeddeloh

2004-01-01

179

Engineering of quorum-sensing systems for improved production of alkaline protease by Bacillus subtilis  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIM: Engineering of Rap-Phr quorum-sensing systems of Bacillus subtilis and subsequent evaluation of the transcription of the aprE gene, encoding a major extracellular alkaline protease. METHODS AND RESULTS: Addition of synthetic Phr pentapeptides to the growth medium, or overproduction of pre-Phr peptides, slightly improved the transcription of the aprE gene in B. subtilis. Disruption of certain rap genes similarly improved

H. Tjalsma; E. J. Koetje; R. Kiewiet; O. P. Kuipers; M. J. M. Kolkman; J. H. van der Laan; R. Daskin; E. Ferrari; S. Bron

2004-01-01

180

Mutational Analysis of Burkholderia thailandensis Quorum Sensing and Self-Aggregation ? †  

PubMed Central

Acyl-homoserine lactone (acyl-HSL) quorum-sensing signaling is common to many Proteobacteria. Acyl-HSLs are synthesized by the LuxI family of synthases, and the signal response is mediated by members of the LuxR family of transcriptional regulators. Burkholderia thailandensis is a member of a closely related cluster of three species, including the animal pathogens Burkholderia mallei and Burkholderia pseudomallei. Members of this group have similar luxI and luxR homologs, and these genes contribute to B. pseudomallei and B. mallei virulence. B. thailandensis possesses three pairs of luxI-luxR homologs. One of these pairs, BtaI2-BtaR2, has been shown to produce and respond to 3OHC10-HSL and to control the synthesis of an antibiotic. By using a markerless-exhange method, we constructed an assortment of B. thailandensis quorum-sensing mutants, and we used these mutants to show that BtaI1 is responsible for C8-HSL production and BtaI3 is responsible for 3OHC8-HSL production. We also show that a strain incapable of acyl-HSL production is capable of growth on the same assortment of carbon and nitrogen sources as the wild type. Furthermore, this mutant shows no loss of virulence compared to the wild type in mice. However, the wild type self-aggregates in minimal medium, whereas the quorum-sensing mutant does not. The wild-type aggregation phenotype is recovered by addition of the BtaI1-R1 HSL signal C8-HSL. We propose that the key function of the BtaR1-BtaI1 quorum-sensing system is to cause cells to gather into aggregates once a sufficient population has been established.

Chandler, Josephine R.; Duerkop, Breck A.; Hinz, Aaron; West, T. Eoin; Herman, Jake P.; Churchill, Mair E. A.; Skerrett, Shawn J.; Greenberg, E. Peter

2009-01-01

181

Quorum Sensing Is a Global Regulatory Mechanism in Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7 is responsible for outbreaks of bloody diarrhea and hemolytic-uremic syndrome in many countries. EHEC virulence mechanisms include the production of Shiga toxins (Stx) and formation of attaching and effacing (AE) lesions on intestinal epithelial cells. We recently reported that genes involved in the formation of the AE lesion were regulated by quorum sensing through autoinducer-2,

VANESSA SPERANDIO; ALFREDO G. TORRES; JORGE A. GIRON; JAMES B. KAPER

2001-01-01

182

The Pseudomonas Quinolone Signal Regulates rhl Quorum Sensing in Pseudomonas aeruginosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa uses intercellular signals to control the density-depen- dent expression of many virulence factors. The las and rhl quorum-sensing systems function, respectively, through the autoinducers N-(3-oxododecanoyl)-L-homoserine lactone and N-butyryl-L-homoserine lactone (C4- HSL), which are known to positively regulate the transcription of the elastase-encoding gene, lasB. Recently, we reported that a second type of intercellular signal is

SUSAN L. MCKNIGHT; BARBARA H. IGLEWSKI; EVERETT C. PESCI

2000-01-01

183

Involvement of quorum sensing and RpoS in rice seedling blight caused by Burkholderia plantarii.  

PubMed

Burkholderia plantarii is a plant pathogen responsible for causing rice seedling blight. The molecular mechanisms responsible for this pathogenicity are currently unknown. In this study, we report the identification and characterization of N-acyl homoserine lactone quorum sensing and the stationary phase RpoS sigma factor of B. plantarii. Both global regulatory systems are involved in causing rice seedling blight. This is the first report of gene regulators of B. plantarii implicated in the disease. PMID:16684109

Solis, Renando; Bertani, Iris; Degrassi, Giuliano; Devescovi, Giulia; Venturi, Vittorio

2006-06-01

184

Intracellular screen to identify metagenomic clones that induce or inhibit a quorum-sensing biosensor.  

PubMed

The goal of this study was to design and evaluate a rapid screen to identify metagenomic clones that produce biologically active small molecules. We built metagenomic libraries with DNA from soil on the floodplain of the Tanana River in Alaska. We extracted DNA directly from the soil and cloned it into fosmid and bacterial artificial chromosome vectors, constructing eight metagenomic libraries that contain 53,000 clones with inserts ranging from 1 to 190 kb. To identify clones of interest, we designed a high throughput "intracellular" screen, designated METREX, in which metagenomic DNA is in a host cell containing a biosensor for compounds that induce bacterial quorum sensing. If the metagenomic clone produces a quorum-sensing inducer, the cell produces green fluorescent protein (GFP) and can be identified by fluorescence microscopy or captured by fluorescence-activated cell sorting. Our initial screen identified 11 clones that induce and two that inhibit expression of GFP. The intracellular screen detected quorum-sensing inducers among metagenomic clones that a traditional overlay screen would not. One inducing clone carries a LuxI homologue that directs the synthesis of an N-acyl homoserine lactone quorum-sensing signal molecule. The LuxI homologue has 62% amino acid sequence identity to its closest match in GenBank, AmfI from Pseudomonas fluorescens, and is on a 78-kb insert that contains 67 open reading frames. Another inducing clone carries a gene with homology to homocitrate synthase. Our results demonstrate the power of an intracellular screen to identify functionally active clones and biologically active small molecules in metagenomic libraries. PMID:16204555

Williamson, Lynn L; Borlee, Bradley R; Schloss, Patrick D; Guan, Changhui; Allen, Heather K; Handelsman, Jo

2005-10-01

185

Crystal Structure of the Vibrio Cholerae Quorum-Sensing Regulatory Protein HapR  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quorum sensing in Vibrio cholerae involves signaling between two-component sensor protein kinases and the response regulator LuxO to control the expression of the master regulator HapR. HapR, in turn, plays a central role in regulating a number of important processes, such as virulence gene expression and biofilm formation. We have determined the crystal structure of HapR to 2.2- Angstroms resolution.

R. DeSilva; Gabriela Kovacikova; Wei Lin; Ronald K. Taylor; Karen Skorupski; F. Jon Kull

2007-01-01

186

Therapeutic frontiers: preventing and treating infectious diseases by inhibiting bacterial quorum sensing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Density-dependent cell–cell communication, or quorum sensing (QS), has been demonstrated in numerous species of bacteria.\\u000a The basic function of QS is likely to confer a nutritional advantage, particularly in a highly populated, mixed-species environment.\\u000a QS also has ramifications on the production of colonization and virulence factors. Pheromone-like substances secreted into\\u000a the extracellular milieu appear to govern many of the transcription

C. A. Martin; A. D. Hoven; A. M. Cook

2008-01-01

187

Efficient Synthesis and Evaluation of Quorum Sensing Modulators Using Small Molecule Macroarrays  

PubMed Central

A method for the synthesis of small molecule macroarrays of N-acylated L-homoserine lactones (AHLs) is reported. A focused library of AHLs was constructed, and the macroarray platform was found to be compatible with both solution and agar-overlay assays using quorum-sensing (QS) reporter strains. Several QS antagonists were discovered and serve to showcase the macroarray as a straightforward technique for QS research.

Praneenararat, Thanit; Geske, Grant D.; Blackwell, Helen E.

2011-01-01

188

Presence of Quorum-sensing Systems Associated with Multidrug Resistance and Biofilm Formation in Bacteroides fragilis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacteroides fragilis constitutes 1–2% of the natural microbiota of the human digestive tract and is the predominant anaerobic opportunistic pathogen\\u000a in gastrointestinal infections. Most bacteria use quorum sensing (QS) to monitor cell density in relation to other cells and\\u000a their environment. In Gram-negative bacteria, the LuxRI system is common. The luxR gene encodes a transcriptional activator inducible by type I

Lilian Pumbwe; Christopher A. Skilbeck; Hannah M. Wexler

2008-01-01

189

AinS Quorum Sensing Regulates the Vibrio fischeri Acetate Switch  

Microsoft Academic Search

The marine bacterium Vibrio fischeri uses two acyl-homoserine lactone (acyl-HSL) quorum-sensing systems. The earlier signal, octanoyl-HSL, produced by AinS, is required for normal colonization of the squid Euprymna scolopes and, in culture, is necessary for a normal growth yield. In examining the latter requirement, we found that during growth in a glycerol\\/tryptone-based medium, wild-type V. fischeri cells initially excrete acetate

Sarah V. Studer; Mark J. Mandel; Edward G. Ruby

2008-01-01

190

Biosensors for qualitative and semiquantitative analysis of quorum sensing signal molecules.  

PubMed

Biosensors are biological tools that can be used to assay bacterial cultures for quorum sensing signal molecules (QSSMs) both qualitatively and semiquantitatively. QSSMs can be extracted from Pseudomonas aeruginosa cultures using organic solvents and tentatively identified via thin layer chromatography in combination with biosensor overlays. Alternatively, QSSMs can be quantified in spent culture supernatants or solvent extracts using biosensor-based spectrophotometric, luminescence, or fluorescence assays. PMID:24818910

Fletcher, Matthew; Cámara, Miguel; Barrett, David A; Williams, Paul

2014-01-01

191

Quorum sensing signaling molecules involved in the production of violacein by Pseudoalteromonas.  

PubMed

The production of violacein by Pseudoalteromonas sp. 520P1 has many features of quorum sensing. Signaling molecules were extracted from bacterial culture and subsequently identified as N-(3-oxooctanoyl)-homoserine lactone and N-tetradecanoyl-homoserine lactone. The former but not the latter induced the production of violacein in strain 520P1. We conclude that N-(3-oxooctanoyl)-homoserine lactone is a signaling molecule involved in the production of violacein. PMID:18603795

Wang, Yi; Ikawa, Atsushi; Okaue, Satoka; Taniguchi, Seishin; Osaka, Issey; Yoshimoto, Arihumi; Kishida, Yoshie; Arakawa, Ryuichi; Enomoto, Keiichi

2008-07-01

192

Measurement of the copy number of the master quorum-sensing regulator of a bacterial cell.  

PubMed

Quorum-sensing is the mechanism by which bacteria communicate and synchronize group behaviors. Quantitative information on parameters such as the copy number of particular quorum-sensing proteins should contribute strongly to understanding how the quorum-sensing network functions. Here, we show that the copy number of the master regulator protein LuxR in Vibrio harveyi can be determined in vivo by exploiting small-number fluctuations of the protein distribution when cells undergo division. When a cell divides, both its volume and LuxR protein copy number, N, are partitioned with slight asymmetries. We measured the distribution functions describing the partitioning of the protein fluorescence and the cell volume. The fluorescence distribution is found to narrow systematically as the LuxR population increases, whereas the volume partitioning is unchanged. Analyzing these changes statistically, we determined that N = 80-135 dimers at low cell density and 575 dimers at high cell density. In addition, we measured the static distribution of LuxR over a large (3000) clonal population. Combining the static and time-lapse experiments, we determine the magnitude of the Fano factor of the distribution. This technique has broad applicability as a general in vivo technique for measuring protein copy number and burst size. PMID:20441767

Teng, Shu-Wen; Wang, Yufang; Tu, Kimberly C; Long, Tao; Mehta, Pankaj; Wingreen, Ned S; Bassler, Bonnie L; Ong, N P

2010-05-19

193

Environmental Regulation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 Las and Rhl Quorum-Sensing Systems?  

PubMed Central

The lasI-lasR and the rhlI-rhlR quorum-sensing systems in Pseudomonas aeruginosa regulate the expression of numerous cellular and secreted virulence factor genes and play important roles in the development of biofilms. The las and rhl systems themselves are known to be directly or indirectly regulated by a number of transcriptional regulators, and consequently, their expression is sensitive to environmental conditions. In this report, the activities of these two quorum-sensing systems have been examined systematically under 46 growth conditions, and the regulation by environmental conditions has been investigated. The relative timing and strength of expression of these two systems varied significantly under different conditions, which contrasts with the notion of a preset hierarchy with these two systems in P. aeruginosa. Depending on the growth conditions, the correlation between each synthase and its cognate transcriptional regulator also varied, suggesting that the transcription of these genes independently allows for further fine tuning of each system. Finally, we observe that the activities of both the lasI-lasR and the rhlI-rhlR quorum-sensing systems were dramatically enhanced in the presence of extracts of sputum samples from cystic fibrosis patients.

Duan, Kangmin; Surette, Michael G.

2007-01-01

194

AphA and LuxR/HapR reciprocally control quorum sensing in vibrios  

PubMed Central

Bacteria cycle between periods when they perform individual behaviors and periods when they perform group behaviors. These transitions are controlled by a cell–cell communication process called quorum sensing, in which extracellular signal molecules, called autoinducers (AIs), are released, accumulate, and are synchronously detected by a group of bacteria. AI detection results in community-wide changes in gene expression, enabling bacteria to collectively execute behaviors such as bioluminescence, biofilm formation, and virulence factor production. In this study, we show that the transcription factor AphA is a master regulator of quorum sensing that operates at low cell density (LCD) in Vibrio harveyi and Vibrio cholerae. In contrast, LuxR (V. harveyi)/HapR (V. cholerae) is the master regulator that operates at high cell density (HCD). At LCD, redundant small noncoding RNAs (sRNAs) activate production of AphA, and AphA and the sRNAs repress production of LuxR/HapR. Conversely, at HCD, LuxR/HapR represses aphA. This network architecture ensures maximal AphA production at LCD and maximal LuxR/HapR production at HCD. Microarray analyses reveal that 300 genes are regulated by AphA at LCD in V. harveyi, a subset of which is also controlled by LuxR. We propose that reciprocal gradients of AphA and LuxR/HapR establish the quorum-sensing LCD and HCD gene expression patterns, respectively.

Rutherford, Steven T.; van Kessel, Julia C.; Shao, Yi; Bassler, Bonnie L.

2011-01-01

195

The Role of the CAI-1 Fatty Acid Tail in the Vibrio cholerae Quorum Sensing Response  

PubMed Central

Quorum sensing is a mechanism of chemical communication among bacteria that enables collective behaviors. In V. cholerae, the etiological agent of the disease cholera, quorum sensing controls group behaviors including virulence factor production and biofilm formation. The major V. cholerae quorum-sensing system consists of the extracellular signal molecule called CAI-1 and its cognate membrane bound receptor called CqsS. Here, the ligand binding activity of CqsS is probed with structural analogs of the natural signal. Enabled by our discovery of a structurally simplified analog of CAI-1, we prepared and analyzed a focused library. The molecules were designed to probe the effects of conformational and structural changes along the length of the fatty acid tail of CAI-1. Our results, combined with pharmacophore modeling, suggest a molecular basis for signal molecule recognition and receptor fidelity with respect to the fatty acid tail portion of CAI-1. These efforts provide novel probes to enhance discovery of anti-virulence agents for the treatment of V. cholerae.

Perez, Lark J.; Ng, Wai-Leung; Marano, Paul; Brook, Karolina; Bassler, Bonnie L.; Semmelhack, Martin F.

2013-01-01

196

Quorum sensing activity of Aeromonas caviae strain YL12, a bacterium isolated from compost.  

PubMed

Quorum sensing is a well-studied cell-to-cell communication method that involves a cell-density dependent regulation of genes expression mediated by signalling molecules. In this study, a bacterium isolated from a plant material compost pile was found to possess quorum sensing activity based on bioassay screening. Isolate YL12 was identified using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry and molecular typing using rpoD gene which identified the isolate as Aeromonas caviae. High resolution tandem mass spectrometry was subsequently employed to identify the N-acyl homoserine lactone profile of Aeromonas caviae YL12 and confirmed that this isolate produced two short chain N-acyl homoserine lactones, namely C4-HSL and C6, and the production was observed to be cell density-dependent. Using the thin layer chromatography (TLC) bioassay, both AHLs were found to activate C. violaceum CV026, whereas only C6-HSL was revealed to induce bioluminescence expression of E. coli [pSB401]. The data presented in this study will be the leading steps in understanding the role of quorum sensing in Aeromonas caviae strain YL12. PMID:24759107

Lim, Yan-Lue; Ee, Robson; Yin, Wai-Fong; Chan, Kok-Gan

2014-01-01

197

Quorum Sensing Activity of Aeromonas Caviae Strain YL12, A Bacterium Isolated from Compost  

PubMed Central

Quorum sensing is a well-studied cell-to-cell communication method that involves a cell-density dependent regulation of genes expression mediated by signalling molecules. In this study, a bacterium isolated from a plant material compost pile was found to possess quorum sensing activity based on bioassay screening. Isolate YL12 was identified using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry and molecular typing using rpoD gene which identified the isolate as Aeromonas caviae. High resolution tandem mass spectrometry was subsequently employed to identify the N-acyl homoserine lactone profile of Aeromonas caviae YL12 and confirmed that this isolate produced two short chain N-acyl homoserine lactones, namely C4-HSL and C6, and the production was observed to be cell density-dependent. Using the thin layer chromatography (TLC) bioassay, both AHLs were found to activate C. violaceum CV026, whereas only C6-HSL was revealed to induce bioluminescence expression of E. coli [pSB401]. The data presented in this study will be the leading steps in understanding the role of quorum sensing in Aeromonas caviae strain YL12.

Lim, Yan-Lue; Ee, Robson; Yin, Wai-Fong; Chan, Kok-Gan

2014-01-01

198

Heterogeneous Response to a Quorum-Sensing Signal in the Luminescence of Individual Vibrio fischeri  

PubMed Central

The marine bacterium Vibrio fischeri regulates its bioluminescence through a quorum sensing mechanism: the bacterium releases diffusible small molecules (autoinducers) that accumulate in the environment as the population density increases. This accumulation of autoinducer (AI) eventually activates transcriptional regulators for bioluminescence as well as host colonization behaviors. Although V.fischeri quorum sensing has been extensively characterized in bulk populations, far less is known about how it performs at the level of the individual cell, where biochemical noise is likely to limit the precision of luminescence regulation. We have measured the time-dependence and AI-dependence of light production by individual V.fischeri cells that are immobilized in a perfusion chamber and supplied with a defined concentration of exogenous AI. We use low-light level microscopy to record and quantify the photon emission from the cells over periods of several hours as they respond to the introduction of AI. We observe an extremely heterogeneous response to the AI signal. Individual cells differ widely in the onset time for their luminescence and in their resulting brightness, even in the presence of high AI concentrations that saturate the light output from a bulk population. The observed heterogeneity shows that although a given concentration of quorum signal may determine the average light output from a population of cells, it provides far weaker control over the luminescence output of each individual cell.

Perez, Pablo Delfino; Hagen, Stephen J.

2010-01-01

199

A Cysteine-Rich Extracellular Protein Containing a PA14 Domain Mediates Quorum Sensing in Dictyostelium discoideum  

PubMed Central

Much remains to be understood about quorum-sensing factors that allow cells to sense their local density. Dictyostelium discoideum is a simple eukaryote that grows as single-celled amoebae and switches to multicellular development when food becomes limited. As the growing cells reach a high density, they begin expressing discoidin genes. The cells secrete an unknown factor, and at high cell densities the concomitant high levels of the factor induce discoidin expression. We report here the enrichment of discoidin-inducing complex (DIC), an ?400-kDa protein complex that induces discoidin expression during growth and development. Two proteins in the DIC preparation, DicA1 and DicB, were identified by sequencing proteolytic digests. DicA1 and DicB were expressed in Escherichia coli and tested for their ability to induce discoidin during growth and development. Recombinant DicB was unable to induce discoidin expression, while recombinant DicA1 was able to induce discoidin expression. This suggests that DicA1 is an active component of DIC and indicates that posttranslational modification is dispensable for activity. DicA1 mRNA is expressed in vegetative and developing cells. The mature secreted form of DicA1 has a molecular mass of 80 kDa and has a 24-amino-acid cysteine-rich repeat that is similar to repeats in Dictyostelium proteins, such as the extracellular matrix protein ecmB/PstA, the prespore cell-inducing factor PSI, and the cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase inhibitor PDI. Together, the data suggest that DicA1 is a component of a secreted quorum-sensing signal regulating discoidin gene expression during Dictyostelium growth and development.

Kolbinger, Alexandra; Gao, Tong; Brock, Debbie; Ammann, Robin; Kisters, Axel; Kellermann, Joseph; Hatton, Diane; Gomer, Richard H.; Wetterauer, Birgit

2005-01-01

200

Investigating the effect of antibiotics on quorum sensing with whole-cell biosensing systems.  

PubMed

Quorum sensing (QS) allows bacteria to communicate with one another by means of QS signaling molecules and control certain behaviors in a group-based manner, including pathogenicity and biofilm formation. Bacterial gut microflora may play a role in inflammatory bowel disease pathogenesis, and antibiotics are one of the available therapeutic options for Crohn's disease. In the present study, we employed genetically engineered bioluminescent bacterial whole-cell sensing systems as a tool to evaluate the ability of antibiotics commonly employed in the treatment of chronic inflammatory conditions to interfere with QS. We investigated the effect of ciprofloxacin, metronidazole, and tinidazole on quorum sensing. Several concentrations of individual antibiotics were allowed to interact with two different types of bacterial sensing cells, in both the presence and absence of a fixed concentration of N-acylhomoserine lactone (AHL) QS molecules. The antibiotic effect was then determined by monitoring the biosensor's bioluminescence response. Ciprofloxacin, metronidazole, and tinidazole exhibited a dose-dependent augmentation in the response of both bacterial sensing systems, thus showing an AHL-like effect. Additionally, such an augmentation was observed, in both the presence and absence of AHL. The data obtained indicate that ciprofloxacin, metronidazole, and tinidazole may interfere with bacterial communication systems. The results suggest that these antibiotics, at the concentrations tested, may themselves act as bacterial signaling molecules. The beneficial effect of these antibiotics in the treatment of intestinal inflammation may be due, at least in part, to their effect on QS-related bacterial behavior in the gut. PMID:22290388

Struss, Anjali K; Pasini, Patrizia; Flomenhoft, Deborah; Shashidhar, Harohalli; Daunert, Sylvia

2012-04-01

201

Heterologous overexpression of quorum-sensing regulators to study cell-density-dependent phenotypes in a symbiotic plant bacterium Mesorhizobium huakuii.  

PubMed

Quorum-sensing is widespread among many prokaryotic lineages. In order to investigate quorum regulation in the plant bacterium Mesorhizobium huakuii which produces an N-acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) quorum signal, the Agrobacterium quorum-sensing regulator TraR was heterologously expressed in this bacterium. The resulting strains showed reduced AHL production in the supernatant compared to wild-type, but similar intracellular levels of AHLs were detected, suggesting that M. huakuii AHLs can be bound to intracellular TraR proteins and thus become unavailable for its own quorum systems. M. huakuii overexpressing TraR formed thinner biofilms than the wild-type, suggesting a role played by quorum-sensing in biofilm formation. PMID:15480575

Wang, Hui; Zhong, Zengtao; Cai, Tao; Li, Shunpeng; Zhu, Jun

2004-12-01

202

Quorum sensing regulation of virulence gene expression in Vibrio harveyi in vitro and in vivo during infection of gnotobiotic brine shrimp larvae.  

PubMed

In this study, we investigated quorum sensing regulation of virulence genes in Vibrio harveyi by determining their expression levels, both in vitro and in vivo during infection of gnotobiotic brine shrimp. The quorum sensing master regulator luxR and the vhp metalloprotease showed around threefold and fivefold higher expression levels in a luxO mutant with maximum quorum sensing activity than in a luxO mutant with minimum quorum sensing activity. There was no difference in expression of the vhh haemolysin gene between the two mutants. There was however more than 2.5-fold lower expression in an AI-2-negative mutant, suggesting that this gene is specifically regulated by AI-2 quorum sensing through a yet unknown signal transduction cascade. The in vivo expression data showed a peak in expression of the quorum sensing master regulator luxR and the vhp metalloprotease after 24?h of incubation in wild-type V. harveyi and the luxO mutant mimicking a maximally activated quorum sensing system, whereas the expression remained low in the luxO mutant mimicking a completely inactivated quorum sensing system. The vhh haemolysin gene showed a peak in expression after 24?h in the wild type and a constantly low expression in an AI-2-negative mutant. PMID:23761340

Ruwandeepika, H A Darshanee; Bhowmick, Patit Paban; Karunasagar, Indrani; Bossier, Peter; Defoirdt, Tom

2011-10-01

203

Quorum Sensing-Disrupting Brominated Furanones Protect the Gnotobiotic Brine Shrimp Artemia franciscana from Pathogenic Vibrio harveyi, Vibrio campbellii, and Vibrio parahaemolyticus Isolates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autoinducer 2 (AI-2) quorum sensing was shown before to regulate the virulence of Vibrio harveyi towards the brine shrimp Artemia franciscana. In this study, several different pathogenic V. harveyi, Vibrio campbellii, and Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolates were shown to produce AI-2. Furthermore, disruption of AI-2 quorum sensing by a natural and a synthetic brominated furanone protected gnotobiotic Artemia from the pathogenic

Tom Defoirdt; Roselien Crab; Thomas K. Wood; Patrick Sorgeloos; Willy Verstraete; Peter Bossier

2006-01-01

204

De Novo Assembly of the Quorum-Sensing Pandoraea sp. Strain RB-44 Complete Genome Sequence Using PacBio Single-Molecule Real-Time Sequencing Technology  

PubMed Central

We report the first complete genome sequence of Pandoraea sp. strain RB-44, which was found to possess quorum-sensing properties. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first documentation of both a complete genome sequence and quorum-sensing properties of a Pandoraea species.

Ee, Robson; Lim, Yan-Lue; Yin, Wai-Fong

2014-01-01

205

Prevention of bacterial quorum sensing in aquifer materials and effect on bioclogging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In aquifer materials that are clogged as a result of the growth and metabolism of bacteria, microscopic observations usually show the bacterial cells to be present in aggregates that tend to be strategically located at constrictions in the pore space, either strained there, or accumulating at these spots for metabolic advantages. Aggregation appears to be fostered by exopolymer production, but can also occur purely as a result of electrostatic interactions. On membranes, research has shown that if bacteria are discouraged from aggregating, for example by eliminating the biochemical means (e.g., "quorum sensing") by which they communicate in order to do so, biofouling of the membranes is significantly delayed and in some cases even largely alleviated. In this context, the goal of the research described in this presentation was to determine if a similar situation might arise when quorum quenchers are added to the liquid injected in columns of fine sand inoculated with various bacterial strains. Traditional saturated hydraulic conductivity and piezometer measurements asre complemented with detailed microscopic observations in the pore space. Perspectives on the possible use of quorum quenchers in practical situations is discussed.

Baveye, P.; Superak, C.; Farris, K.

2012-12-01

206

Inhibition of Biofilm Formation, Quorum Sensing and Infection in Pseudomonas aeruginosa by Natural Products-Inspired Organosulfur Compounds  

PubMed Central

Using a microplate-based screening assay, the effects on Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 biofilm formation of several S-substituted cysteine sulfoxides and their corresponding disulfide derivatives were evaluated. From our library of compounds, S-phenyl-L-cysteine sulfoxide and its breakdown product, diphenyl disulfide, significantly reduced the amount of biofilm formation by P. aeruginosa at levels equivalent to the active concentration of 4-nitropyridine-N-oxide (NPO) (1 mM). Unlike NPO, which is an established inhibitor of bacterial biofilms, our active compounds did not reduce planktonic cell growth and only affected biofilm formation. When used in a Drosophila-based infection model, both S-phenyl-L-cysteine sulfoxide and diphenyl disulfide significantly reduced the P. aeruginosa recovered 18 h post infection (relative to the control), and were non-lethal to the fly hosts. The possibility that the observed biofilm inhibitory effects were related to quorum sensing inhibition (QSI) was investigated using Escherichia coli-based reporters expressing P. aeruginosa lasR or rhIR response proteins, as well as an endogenous P. aeruginosa reporter from the lasI/lasR QS system. Inhibition of quorum sensing by S-phenyl-L-cysteine sulfoxide was observed in all of the reporter systems tested, whereas diphenyl disulfide did not exhibit QSI in either of the E. coli reporters, and showed very limited inhibition in the P. aeruginosa reporter. Since both compounds inhibit biofilm formation but do not show similar QSI activity, it is concluded that they may be functioning by different pathways. The hypothesis that biofilm inhibition by the two active compounds discovered in this work occurs through QSI is discussed.

Cady, Nathaniel C.; McKean, Kurt A.; Behnke, Jason; Kubec, Roman; Mosier, Aaron P.; Kasper, Stephen H.; Burz, David S.; Musah, Rabi A.

2012-01-01

207

Antisense RNA that affects Rhodopseudomonas palustris quorum-sensing signal receptor expression  

PubMed Central

Quorum sensing in the bacterium Rhodopseudomonas palustris involves the RpaI signal synthase, which produces p-coumaroyl-homoserine lactone (pC-HSL) and RpaR, which is a pC-HSL–dependent transcriptional activator. There is also an antisense rpaR transcript (asrpaR) of unknown function. Recent RNAseq studies have revealed that bacterial antisense RNAs are abundant, but little is known about the function of these molecules. Because asrpaR expression is quorum sensing dependent, we sought to characterize its production and function. We show that asrpaR is approximately 300–600 bases and is produced in response to pC-HSL and RpaR. There is an RpaR-binding site centered 51.5 bp from the mapped asrpaR transcript start site. We show that asrpaR overexpression reduces RpaR levels, rpaI expression, and pC-HSL production. We also generated an asrpaR mutant, which shows elevated RpaR levels, and elevated rpaI expression. Thus, asrpaR inhibits rpaR translation, and this inhibition results in suppression of RpaR-dependent rpaI expression and, thus, pC-HSL production. The R. palustris asrpaR represents an antisense RNA for which an activity can be measured and for which a distinct regulatory circuit related to a function is elucidated. It also represents yet another subtle regulatory layer for acyl-homoserine lactone quorum-sensing signal-responsive transcription factors.

Hirakawa, Hidetada; Harwood, Caroline S.; Pechter, Kieran B.; Schaefer, Amy L.; Greenberg, E. Peter

2012-01-01

208

Quorum sensing and butanediol fermentation affect colonization and spoilage of carrot slices by Serratia plymuthica.  

PubMed

In this work we investigated the role of quorum sensing and specific quorum-sensing dependent properties in the colonization and spoilage of carrot slices by Serratia plymuthica RVH1, a strain isolated previously from a vegetable washing and cutting machine in an industrial kitchen. Disinfected carrot slices were inoculated by immersion in a bacterial suspension and then placed in a Petri dish with a shallow layer of the same bacterial suspension. Subsequently, visible spoilage of the air-exposed upper side of the slices and the evolution of bacterial numbers and pH of the surrounding suspension were recorded during 19 days. A knockout mutant in the N-acyl-homoserine lactone (AHL) synthase splI was clearly compromised in its ability to colonize the surface of the carrot and cause browning, and the addition of synthetic AHL could restore this phenotype. To examine in more detail which properties contribute to this phenomenon, we isolated mutants deficient in the production of extracellular proteases and in butanediol fermentation, both of which are regulated by quorum sensing in S. plymuthica RVH1. The protease-deficient mutant (lipB) was not affected in the carrot slice spoilage assay. Since RVH1 does not produce pectinolytic enzymes, this suggests that hydrolytic enzymes do not play a major role in produce spoilage by this organism. On the other hand, a budB mutant with inactive butanediol fermentation pathway showed strongly enhanced growth on the carrot slices, in spite of a reduced survival in the surrounding medium. To explain these results, we hypothesize that a response is induced in the carrot slices that suppresses bacterial colonization and outgrowth, similar to the defense response induced by volatile butanediol pathway products in intact plants. PMID:19162357

Wevers, Eva; Moons, Pieter; Van Houdt, Rob; Lurquin, Ine; Aertsen, Abram; Michiels, Chris W

2009-08-31

209

Quorum sensing regulates exopolysaccharide production, motility, and virulence in Pseudomonas syringae.  

PubMed

The N-acyl homoserine lactone (AHL)-mediated quorum-sensing system in the phytopathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae requires the AHL synthase AhlI and the regulator AhlR, and is additionally subject to regulation by AefR. The contribution of quorum sensing to the expression of a variety of traits expected to be involved in epiphytic fitness and virulence of P syringae were examined. Both an aefR- mutant and an ahlI- ahlR- double mutant, deficient in AHL production, were significantly impaired in alginate production and had an increased susceptibility to hydrogen peroxide compared with the wild-type strain. These mutants were hypermotile in culture, invaded leaves more rapidly, and caused an increased incidence of brown spot lesions on bean leaves after a 48-h moist incubation. Interestingly, an aefR- mutant was both the most motile and virulent. Like the wild-type strain, the AHL-deficient mutant strains incited water-soaked lesions on bean pods. However, lesions caused by an ahlI- ahlR- double mutant were larger, whereas those incited by an aefR- mutant were smaller. In contrast, tissue maceration of pods, which occurs at a later stage of infection, was completely abolished in the AHL-deficient mutants. Both the incidence of disease and in planta growth of P syringae pv. tabaci were greatly reduced in transgenic tobacco plants that produced AHL compared with wild-type plants. These results demonstrate that quorum sensing in E syringae regulates traits that contribute to epiphytic fitness as well as to distinct stages of disease development during plant infection. PMID:16042014

Quiñones, Beatriz; Dulla, Glenn; Lindow, Steven E

2005-07-01

210

Nonenzymatic Turnover of an Erwinia carotovora Quorum-Sensing Signaling Molecule  

PubMed Central

The production of virulence factors and carbapenem antibiotic in the phytopathogen Erwinia carotovora is under the control of quorum sensing. The quorum-sensing signaling molecule, N-(3-oxohexanoyl)-l-homoserine lactone (OHHL), accumulates in log-phase culture supernatants of E. carotovora but diminishes in concentration during the stationary phase. In this study, we show that the diminution in OHHL was not due to sequestration of the ligand by the cells, although some partitioning did occur. Rather, it was caused by degradation of the molecule. The rate of stationary-phase degradation of OHHL was as rapid as the rate of log-phase accumulation of the ligand, but it was nonenzymatic and led to a decrease in the expression of selected genes known to be under the control of quorum sensing. The degradation of OHHL was dependent on the pH of the supernatant, which increased as the growth curve progressed in cultures grown in Luria-Bertani medium from pH 7 to ?8.5. OHHL became unstable over a narrow pH range (pH 7 to 8). Instability was increased at high temperatures even at neutral pH but could be prevented at the growth temperature (30°C) by buffering the samples at pH 6.8. These results may provide a rationale for the observation that an early response of plants which are under attack by Erwinia is to activate a proton pump which alkalizes the site of infection to a pH of >8.2.

Byers, Joseph T.; Lucas, Claire; Salmond, George P. C.; Welch, Martin

2002-01-01

211

Aryl-homoserine lactone quorum sensing in stem-nodulating photosynthetic bradyrhizobia  

PubMed Central

Many Proteobacteria possess LuxI-LuxR–type quorum-sensing systems that produce and detect fatty acyl-homoserine lactone (HSL) signals. The photoheterotroph Rhodopseudomonas palustris is unusual in that it produces and detects an aryl-HSL, p-coumaroyl-HSL, and signal production requires an exogenous source of p-coumarate. A photosynthetic stem-nodulating member of the genus Bradyrhizobium produces a small molecule signal that elicits an R. palustris quorum-sensing response. Here, we show that this signal is cinnamoyl-HSL and that cinnamoyl-HSL is produced by the LuxI homolog BraI and detected by BraR. Cinnamoyl-HSL reaches concentrations on the order of 50 nM in cultures of stem-nodulating bradyrhizobia grown in the presence or absence of cinnamate. Acyl-HSLs often reach concentrations of 0.1–30 ?M in bacterial cultures, and generally, LuxR-type receptors respond to signals in a concentration range from 5 to a few hundred nanomolar. Our stem-nodulating Bradyrhizobium strain responds to picomolar concentrations of cinnamoyl-HSL and thus, produces cinnamoyl-HSL in excess of the levels required for a signal response without an exogenous source of cinnamate. The ability of Bradyrhizobium to produce and respond to cinnamoyl-HSL shows that aryl-HSL production is not unique to R. palustris, that the aromatic acid substrate for aryl-HSL synthesis does not have to be supplied exogenously, and that some acyl-HSL quorum-sensing systems may function at very low signal production and response levels.

Ahlgren, Nathan A.; Harwood, Caroline S.; Schaefer, Amy L.; Giraud, Eric; Greenberg, E. Peter

2011-01-01

212

Chlamydomonas reinhardtii Secretes Compounds That Mimic Bacterial Signals and Interfere with Quorum Sensing Regulation in Bacteria1  

PubMed Central

The unicellular soil-freshwater alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii was found to secrete substances that mimic the activity of the N-acyl-l-homoserine lactone (AHL) signal molecules used by many bacteria for quorum sensing regulation of gene expression. More than a dozen chemically separable but unidentified substances capable of specifically stimulating the LasR or CepR but not the LuxR, AhyR, or CviR AHL bacterial quorum sensing reporter strains were detected in ethyl acetate extracts of C. reinhardtii culture filtrates. Colonies of C. reinhardtii and Chlorella spp. stimulated quorum sensing-dependent luminescence in Vibrio harveyi, indicating that these algae may produce compounds that affect the AI-2 furanosyl borate diester-mediated quorum sensing system of Vibrio spp. Treatment of the soil bacterium Sinorhizobium meliloti with a partially purified LasR mimic from C. reinhardtii affected the accumulation of 16 of the 25 proteins that were altered in response to the bacterium's own AHL signals, providing evidence that the algal mimic affected quorum sensing-regulated functions in this wild-type bacterium. Peptide mass fingerprinting identified 32 proteins affected by the bacterium's AHLs or the purified algal mimic, including GroEL chaperonins, the nitrogen regulatory protein PII, and a GTP-binding protein. The algal mimic was able to cancel the stimulatory effects of bacterial AHLs on the accumulation of seven of these proteins, providing evidence that the secretion of AHL mimics by the alga could be effective in disruption of quorum sensing in naturally encountered bacteria.

Teplitski, Max; Chen, Hancai; Rajamani, Sathish; Gao, Mengsheng; Merighi, Massimo; Sayre, Richard T.; Robinson, Jayne B.; Rolfe, Barry G.; Bauer, Wolfgang D.

2004-01-01

213

Quorum-Sensing Mutations Affect Attachment and Stability of Burkholderia cenocepacia Biofilms  

PubMed Central

Biofilm formation in Burkholderia cenocepacia has been shown to rely in part on acylhomoserine lactone-based quorum sensing. For many other bacterial species, it appears that both the initial adherence and the later stages of biofilm maturation are affected when quorum sensing pathways are inhibited. In this study, we examined the effects of mutations in the cepIR and cciIR quorum-sensing systems of Burkholderia cenocepacia K56-2 with respect to biofilm attachment and antibiotic resistance. We also examined the role of the cepIR system in biofilm stability and structural development. Using the high-throughput MBEC assay system to produce multiple equivalent biofilms, the biomasses of both the cepI and cepR mutant biofilms, measured by crystal violet staining, were less than half of the value observed for the wild-type strain. Attachment was partially restored upon providing functional gene copies via multicopy expression vectors. Surprisingly, neither the cciI mutant nor the double cciI cepI mutant was deficient in attachment, and restoration of the cciI gene resulted in less attachment than for the mutants. Meanwhile, the cciR mutant did show a significant reduction in attachment, as did the cciR cepIR mutant. While there was no change in antibiotic susceptibility with the individual cepIR and cciIR mutants, the cepI cciI mutant biofilms were more sensitive to ciprofloxacin. A significant increase in sensitivity to removal by sodium dodecyl sulfate was seen for the cepI and cepR mutants. Flow cell analysis of the individual cepIR mutant biofilms indicated that they were both structurally and temporally impaired in attachment and development. These results suggest that biofilm structural defects might be present in quorum-sensing mutants of B. cenocepacia that affect the stability and resistance of the adherent cell mass, providing a basis for future studies to design preventative measures against biofilm formation in this species, an important lung pathogen of cystic fibrosis patients.

Tomlin, Kerry L.; Malott, Rebecca J.; Ramage, Gordon; Storey, Douglas G.; Sokol, Pamela A.; Ceri, H.

2005-01-01

214

Quorumpeps database: chemical space, microbial origin and functionality of quorum sensing peptides  

PubMed Central

Quorum-sensing (QS) peptides are biologically attractive molecules, with a wide diversity of structures and prone to modifications altering or presenting new functionalities. Therefore, the Quorumpeps database (http://quorumpeps.ugent.be) is developed to give a structured overview of the QS oligopeptides, describing their microbial origin (species), functionality (method, result and receptor), peptide links and chemical characteristics (3D-structure-derived physicochemical properties). The chemical diversity observed within this group of QS signalling molecules can be used to develop new synthetic bio-active compounds.

Wynendaele, Evelien; Bronselaer, Antoon; Nielandt, Joachim; D'Hondt, Matthias; Stalmans, Sofie; Bracke, Nathalie; Verbeke, Frederick; Van De Wiele, Christophe; De Tre, Guy; De Spiegeleer, Bart

2013-01-01

215

Distribution of Quorum-Sensing Genes in the Burkholderia cepacia Complex  

PubMed Central

The distribution of quorum-sensing genes among strains from seven genomovars of the Burkholderia cepacia complex was examined by PCR. cepR and cepI were amplified from B. cepacia genomovars I and III, B. stabilis, and B. vietnamiensis. cepR was also amplified from B. multivorans and B. cepacia genomovar VI. bviIR were amplified from B. vietnamiensis. All genomovars produced N-octanoyl-l-homoserine lactone and N-hexanoyl-l-homoserine lactone. B. vietnamiensis and B. cepacia genomovar VII produced additional N-acyl-l-homoserine lactones.

Lutter, E.; Lewenza, S.; Dennis, J. J.; Visser, M. B.; Sokol, P. A.

2001-01-01

216

Quorum-sensing system influences root colonization and biological control ability in Pseudomonas fluorescens 2P24  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pseudomonas fluorescens 2P24 is a biocontrol agent isolated from a wheat take-all decline soil in China. This strain produces several antifungal\\u000a compounds, such as 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (2,4-DAPG), hydrogen cyanide and siderophore(s). Our recent work revealed that\\u000a strain 2P24 employs a quorum-sensing system to regulate its biocontrol activity. In this study, we identified a quorum-sensing\\u000a system consisting of PcoR and PcoI of

Hai-Lei Wei; Li-Qun Zhang

2006-01-01

217

A Tangled Web: Regulatory Connections between Quorum Sensing and Cyclic Di-GMP  

PubMed Central

Bacteria sense and respond to environmental cues to control important developmental processes. Two widely conserved and important strategies that bacteria employ to sense changes in population density and local environmental conditions are quorum sensing (QS) and cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) signaling, respectively. The importance of these pathways in controlling a broad variety of functions, including virulence, biofilm formation, and motility, has been recognized in many species. Recent research has shown that these pathways are intricately intertwined. Here we review the regulatory connections between QS and c-di-GMP signaling. We propose that the integration of QS with c-di-GMP allows bacteria to assimilate information about the local bacterial population density with other physicochemical environmental signals within the broader c-di-GMP signaling network.

Srivastava, Disha

2012-01-01

218

AinS quorum sensing regulates the Vibrio fischeri acetate switch.  

PubMed

The marine bacterium Vibrio fischeri uses two acyl-homoserine lactone (acyl-HSL) quorum-sensing systems. The earlier signal, octanoyl-HSL, produced by AinS, is required for normal colonization of the squid Euprymna scolopes and, in culture, is necessary for a normal growth yield. In examining the latter requirement, we found that during growth in a glycerol/tryptone-based medium, wild-type V. fischeri cells initially excrete acetate but, in a metabolic shift termed the acetate switch, they subsequently utilize the acetate, removing it from the medium. In contrast, an ainS mutant strain grown in this medium does not remove the excreted acetate, which accumulates to lethal levels. The acetate switch is characterized by the induction of acs, the gene encoding acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) synthetase, leading to uptake of the excreted acetate. Wild-type cells induce an acs transcriptional reporter 25-fold, coincident with the disappearance of the extracellular acetate; in contrast, the ainS mutant did not display significant induction of the acs reporter. Supplementation of the medium of an ainS mutant with octanoyl-HSL restored normal levels of acs induction and acetate uptake. Additional mutant analyses indicated that acs regulation was accomplished through the regulator LitR but was independent of the LuxIR quorum-signaling pathway. Importantly, the acs mutant of V. fischeri has a competitive defect when colonizing the squid, indicating the importance of proper control of acetate metabolism in the light of organ symbiosis. This is the first report of quorum-sensing control of the acetate switch, and it indicates a metabolic connection between acetate utilization and cell density. PMID:18487321

Studer, Sarah V; Mandel, Mark J; Ruby, Edward G

2008-09-01

219

The ExpR/Sin Quorum-Sensing System Controls Succinoglycan Production in Sinorhizobium meliloti?  

PubMed Central

Sinorhizobium meliloti is a gram-negative soil bacterium capable of forming a symbiotic nitrogen-fixing relationship with its plant host, Medicago sativa. Various bacterially produced factors are essential for successful nodulation. For example, at least one of two exopolysaccharides produced by S. meliloti (succinoglycan or EPS II) is required for nodule invasion. Both of these polymers are produced in high- and low-molecular-weight (HMW and LMW, respectively) fractions; however, only the LMW forms of either succinoglycan or EPS II are active in nodule invasion. The production of LMW succinoglycan can be generated by direct synthesis or through the depolymerization of HMW products by the action of two specific endoglycanases, ExsH and ExoK. Here, we show that the ExpR/Sin quorum-sensing system in S. meliloti is involved in the regulation of genes responsible for succinoglycan biosynthesis as well as in the production of LMW succinoglycan. Therefore, quorum sensing, which has been shown to regulate the production of EPS II, also plays an important role in succinoglycan biosynthesis.

Glenn, Sarah A.; Gurich, Nataliya; Feeney, Morgan A.; Gonzalez, Juan E.

2007-01-01

220

Quorum Sensing Activity of Serratia fonticola Strain RB-25 Isolated from an Ex-landfill Site  

PubMed Central

Quorum sensing is a unique bacterial communication system which permits bacteria to synchronize their behaviour in accordance with the population density. The operation of this communication network involves the use of diffusible autoinducer molecules, termed N-acylhomoserine lactones (AHLs). Serratia spp. are well known for their use of quorum sensing to regulate the expression of various genes. In this study, we aimed to characterized the AHL production of a bacterium designated as strain RB-25 isolated from a former domestic waste landfill site. It was identified as Serratia fonticola using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry analysis and this was confirmed by 16S ribosomal DNA sequencing. High resolution triple quadrupole liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of S. fonticola strain RB-25 spent culture supernatant indicated the existence of three AHLs namely: N-butyryl-L-homoserine lactone (C4-HSL), N-hexanoyl-L-homoserine lactone (C6-HSL) and N-(3-oxohexanoyl) homoserine-lactone (3-oxo-C6 HSL). This is the first report of the production of these AHLs in S. fonticola.

Ee, Robson; Lim, Yan-Lue; Tee, Kok-Keng; Yin, Wai-Fong; Chan, Kok-Gan

2014-01-01

221

GABA controls the level of quorum-sensing signal in Agrobacterium tumefaciens  

PubMed Central

The concentration of GABA increases rapidly in wounded plant tissues, but the implication of this GABA pulse for plant–bacteria interactions is not known. Here we reveal that GABA stimulated the inactivation of the N-(3-oxooctanoyl)homoserine lactone (OC8-HSL) quorum-sensing signal (or “quormone”) by the Agrobacterium lactonase AttM. GABA induced the expression of the attKLM operon, which was correlated to a decrease in OC8-HSL concentration in Agrobacterium tumefaciens cultures. The Agrobacterium GABA transporter Bra was required for this GABA-signaling pathway. Furthermore, transgenic tobacco plants with elevated GABA levels were less sensitive to A. tumefaciens C58 infection than were wild-type plants. These findings indicate that plant GABA may modulate quorum sensing in A. tumefaciens, thereby affecting its virulence on plants. Whereas GABA is an essential cell-to-cell signal in eukaryotes, here we provide evidence of GABA acting as a signal between eukaryotes and pathogenic bacteria. The GABA signal represents a potential target for the development of a strategy to control the virulence of bacterial pathogens.

Chevrot, Romain; Rosen, Ran; Haudecoeur, Elise; Cirou, Amelie; Shelp, Barry J.; Ron, Eliora; Faure, Denis

2006-01-01

222

Novel Sinorhizobium meliloti quorum sensing positive and negative regulatory feedback mechanisms respond to phosphate availability.  

PubMed

The Sin quorum sensing system of Sinorhizobium meliloti depends upon at least three genes, sinR, sinI and expR, and N-acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs) as signals to regulate multiple processes in its free-living state in the rhizosphere and in the development towards symbiosis with its plant host. In this study, we have characterized novel mechanisms of transcription control through which the system regulates itself. At low AHL levels a positive feedback loop activates expression of sinI (AHL synthase), resulting in amplification of AHL levels. At high AHL levels, expression of sinI is reduced by a negative feedback loop. These feedback mechanisms are mediated by the LuxR-type regulators ExpR and SinR. Expression of sinR and expR is regulated by ExpR in the presence of AHLs. A novel ExpR binding site in the promoter of sinR is responsible for the reduction of expression of this gene. In addition, expression of sinR, upon which sinI expression is dependent, is induced by phoB during growth under phosphate-limiting conditions. This indicates that this response ensures quorum sensing in phosphate-restricted growth. PMID:19889097

McIntosh, Matthew; Meyer, Stefan; Becker, Anke

2009-12-01

223

Pleiotropic Role of Quorum-Sensing Autoinducer 2 in Photorhabdus luminescens†  

PubMed Central

Bacterial virulence is an integrative process that may involve quorum sensing. In this work, we compared by global expression profiling the wild-type entomopathogenic Photorhabdus luminescens subsp. laumondii TT01 to a luxS-deficient mutant unable to synthesize the type 2 quorum-sensing inducer AI-2. AI-2 was shown to regulate more than 300 targets involved in most compartments and metabolic pathways of the cell. AI-2 is located high in the hierarchy, as it controls the expression of several transcriptional regulators. The regulatory effect of AI-2 appeared to be dose dependent. The luxS-deficient strain exhibited decreased biofilm formation and increased type IV/V pilus-dependent twitching motility. AI-2 activated its own synthesis and transport. It also modulated bioluminescence by regulating the synthesis of spermidine. AI-2 was further shown to increase oxidative stress resistance, which is necessary to overcome part of the innate immune response of the host insect involving reactive oxygen species. Finally, we showed that the luxS-deficient strain had attenuated virulence against the lepidopteran Spodoptera littoralis. We concluded that AI-2 is involved mainly in early steps of insect invasion in P. luminescens.

Krin, Evelyne; Chakroun, Nesrine; Turlin, Evelyne; Givaudan, Alain; Gaboriau, Francois; Bonne, Isabelle; Rousselle, Jean-Claude; Frangeul, Lionel; Lacroix, Celine; Hullo, Marie-Francoise; Marisa, Laetitia; Danchin, Antoine; Derzelle, Sylviane

2006-01-01

224

Anti-quorum sensing activity of essential oils from Colombian plants.  

PubMed

Essential oils from Colombian plants were characterised by GC-MS, and assayed for anti-quorum sensing activity in bacteria sensor strains. Two major chemotypes were found for Lippia alba, the limonene-carvone and the citral (geranial-neral). For other species, the main components included ?-pinene (Ocotea sp.), ?-pinene (Swinglea glutinosa), cineol (Elettaria cardamomun), ?-zingiberene (Zingiber officinale) and pulegone (Minthostachys mollis). Several essential oils presented promising inhibitory properties for the short chain AHL quorum sensing (QS) system, in Escherichia coli containing the biosensor plasmid pJBA132, in particular Lippia alba. Moderate activity as anti-QS using the same plasmid, were also found for selected constituents of essential oils studied here, such as citral, carvone and ?-pinene, although solely at the highest tested concentration (250?µg?mL(-1)). Only citral presented some activity for the long chain AHL QS system, in Pseudomonas putida containing the plasmid pRK-C12. In short, essential oils from Colombian flora have promising properties as QS modulators. PMID:21936639

Jaramillo-Colorado, Beatriz; Olivero-Verbel, Jesus; Stashenko, Elena E; Wagner-Döbler, Irene; Kunze, Brigitte

2012-01-01

225

Quantifying the Integration of Quorum-Sensing Signals with Single-Cell Resolution  

PubMed Central

Cell-to-cell communication in bacteria is a process known as quorum sensing that relies on the production, detection, and response to the extracellular accumulation of signaling molecules called autoinducers. Often, bacteria use multiple autoinducers to obtain information about the vicinal cell density. However, how cells integrate and interpret the information contained within multiple autoinducers remains a mystery. Using single-cell fluorescence microscopy, we quantified the signaling responses to and analyzed the integration of multiple autoinducers by the model quorum-sensing bacterium Vibrio harveyi. Our results revealed that signals from two distinct autoinducers, AI-1 and AI-2, are combined strictly additively in a shared phosphorelay pathway, with each autoinducer contributing nearly equally to the total response. We found a coherent response across the population with little cell-to-cell variation, indicating that the entire population of cells can reliably distinguish several distinct conditions of external autoinducer concentration. We speculate that the use of multiple autoinducers allows a growing population of cells to synchronize gene expression during a series of distinct developmental stages.

Long, Tao; Tu, Kimberly C; Wang, Yufang; Mehta, Pankaj; Ong, N. P; Bassler, Bonnie L; Wingreen, Ned S

2009-01-01

226

Quorum sensing and biofilm formation investigated using laser-trapped bacterial arrays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Studies of individual, free-swimming (planktonic) bacteria have yielded much information about their genetic and phenotypic characteristics and about ``quorum sensing,'' the autoinducing process by which bacteria detect high concentrations of other bacteria. However, in most environments the majority of bacteria are not in the planktonic form but are rather in biofilms, which are highly-structured, dynamic communities of multiple bacteria that adhere to a surface and to each other using an extracellular polysaccharide matrix. Bacteria in biofilms are phenotypically very different from their genetically-identical planktonic counterparts. Among other characteristics, they are much more antibiotic-resistant and virulent. Such biofilms form persistent infections on medical implants and in the lungs of cystic fibrosis patients, where Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms are the leading cause of lung damage and, ultimately, death. To understand the importance of different extracellular materials, motility mechanisms, and quorum sensing for biofilm formation and stability, we use single-gene knockout mutants and an infrared laser trap to create a bacterial aggregate that serves as a model biofilm and allows us to measure the importance of these factors as a function of trapping time, surface, and nutritional environment.

Gordon, Vernita; Butler, John; Smalyukh, Ivan; Parsek, Matthew; Wong, Gerard

2008-03-01

227

A LuxR/LuxI-type quorum-sensing system in a plant bacterium, Mesorhizobium tianshanense, controls symbiotic nodulation.  

PubMed

The ability of rhizobia to symbiotically fix nitrogen from the atmosphere when forming nodules on their plant hosts requires various signal transduction pathways. LuxR-LuxI-type quorum-sensing systems have been shown to be one of the players in a number of rhizobium species. In this study, we found that Mesorhizobium tianshanense, a moderate-growth Rhizobium that forms nodules on a number of licorice plants, produces multiple N-acyl homoserine lactone (AHL)-like molecules. A simple screen for AHL synthase genes using an M. tianshanense genomic expression library in Escherichia coli, coupled with a sensitive AHL detector, uncovered a LuxI-type synthase, MrtI, and a LuxR-type regulator, MrtR, in M. tianshanense. Deletions of the mrtI or mrtR locus completely abolished AHL production in M. tianshanense. Using lacZ transcriptional fusions, we found that expression of the quorum-sensing regulators is autoinduced, as mrtI gene expression requires MrtR and cognate AHLs and mrtR expression is dependent on AHLs. Compared with the wild-type strains, quorum-sensing-deficient mutants showed a marked reduction in the efficiency of root hair adherence and, more importantly, were defective in nodule formation on their host plant, Glycyrrhiza uralensis. These data provide strong evidence that quorum sensing plays a critical role in the M. tianshanense symbiotic process. PMID:16484206

Zheng, Huiming; Zhong, Zengtao; Lai, Xin; Chen, Wen-Xin; Li, Shunpeng; Zhu, Jun

2006-03-01

228

Role of the luxS Quorum-Sensing System in Biofilm Formation and Virulence of Staphylococcus epidermidis  

PubMed Central

Nosocomial infections caused by Staphylococcus epidermidis are characterized by biofilm formation on implanted medical devices. Quorum-sensing regulation plays a major role in the biofilm development of many bacterial pathogens. Here, we describe luxS, a quorum-sensing system in staphylococci that has a significant impact on biofilm development and virulence. We constructed an isogenic ?luxS mutant strain of a biofilm-forming clinical isolate of S. epidermidis and demonstrated that luxS signaling is functional in S. epidermidis. The mutant strain showed increased biofilm formation in vitro and enhanced virulence in a rat model of biofilm-associated infection. Genetic complementation and addition of autoinducer 2-containing culture filtrate restored the wild-type phenotype, demonstrating that luxS repressed biofilm formation through a cell-cell signaling mechanism based on autoinducer 2 secretion. Enhanced production of the biofilm exopolysaccharide polysaccharide intercellular adhesin in the mutant strain is presumably the major cause of the observed phenotype. The agr quorum-sensing system has previously been shown to impact biofilm development and biofilm-associated infection in a way similar to that of luxS, although by regulation of different factors. Our study indicates a general scheme of quorum-sensing regulation of biofilm development in staphylococci, which contrasts with that observed in many other bacterial pathogens.

Xu, Lin; Li, Hualin; Vuong, Cuong; Vadyvaloo, Viveka; Wang, Jianping; Yao, Yufeng; Otto, Michael; Gao, Qian

2006-01-01

229

Complete Genome Sequence of Pandoraea pnomenusa 3kgm, a Quorum-Sensing Strain Isolated from a Former Landfill Site.  

PubMed

Pandoraea pnomenusa strain 3kgm has been identified as a quorum-sensing strain isolated from soil. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of P. pnomenusa strain 3kgm by using the Pacific Biosciences single-molecule real-time (PacBio RS SMRT) sequencer high-resolution technology. PMID:24812228

Chan, Kok-Gan; Yin, Wai-Fong; Goh, Share-Yuan

2014-01-01

230

Complete Genome Sequence of Pandoraea pnomenusa 3kgm, a Quorum-Sensing Strain Isolated from a Former Landfill Site  

PubMed Central

Pandoraea pnomenusa strain 3kgm has been identified as a quorum-sensing strain isolated from soil. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of P. pnomenusa strain 3kgm by using the Pacific Biosciences single-molecule real-time (PacBio RS SMRT) sequencer high-resolution technology.

Yin, Wai-Fong; Goh, Share-Yuan

2014-01-01

231

The role of quorum sensing and the effect of environmental conditions on biofilm formation by strains of Vibrio vulnificus  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been suggested that Vibrio vulnificus attaches to plankton and algae and is found in large numbers in the environment. Factors affecting attachment, biofilm formation and morphology of V. vulnificus have not been thoroughly investigated. This study evaluated the role of quorum sensing (QS) and environmental conditions on biofilm development of V. vulnificus. It was found that biofilm development

D. McDougald; W. H. Lin; S. A. Rice; S. Kjelleberg

2006-01-01

232

Quorum sensing controls expression of the type III secretion gene transcription and protein secretion in enterohemorrhagic and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli.  

PubMed

Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 and enteropathogenic E. coli cause a characteristic histopathology in intestinal cells known as attaching and effacing. The attaching and effacing lesion is encoded by the Locus of Enterocyte Effacement (LEE) pathogenicity island, which encodes a type III secretion system, the intimin intestinal colonization factor, and the translocated intimin receptor protein that is translocated from the bacterium to the host epithelial cells. Using lacZ reporter gene fusions, we show that expression of the LEE operons encoding the type III secretion system, translocated intimin receptor, and intimin is regulated by quorum sensing in both enterohemorrhagic E. coli and enteropathogenic E. coli. The luxS gene recently shown to be responsible for production of autoinducer in the Vibrio harveyi and E. coli quorum-sensing systems is responsible for regulation of the LEE operons, as shown by the mutation and complementation of the luxS gene. Regulation of intestinal colonization factors by quorum sensing could play an important role in the pathogenesis of disease caused by these organisms. These results suggest that intestinal colonization by E. coli O157:H7, which has an unusually low infectious dose, could be induced by quorum sensing of signals produced by nonpathogenic E. coli of the normal intestinal flora. PMID:10611361

Sperandio, V; Mellies, J L; Nguyen, W; Shin, S; Kaper, J B

1999-12-21

233

Quorum-sensing system influences root colonization and biological control ability in Pseudomonas fluorescens 2P24.  

PubMed

Pseudomonas fluorescens 2P24 is a biocontrol agent isolated from a wheat take-all decline soil in China. This strain produces several antifungal compounds, such as 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (2,4-DAPG), hydrogen cyanide and siderophore(s). Our recent work revealed that strain 2P24 employs a quorum-sensing system to regulate its biocontrol activity. In this study, we identified a quorum-sensing system consisting of PcoR and PcoI of the LuxR-LuxI family from strain 2P24. Deletion of pcoI from 2P24 abolishes the production of the quorum-sensing signals, but does not detectably affect the production of antifungal metabolites. However, the mutant is significantly defective in biofilm formation, colonization on wheat rhizosphere and biocontrol ability against wheat take-all, whilst complementation of pcoI restores the biocontrol activity to the wild-type level. Our data indicate that quorum sensing is involved in regulation of biocontrol activity in P. fluorescens 2P24. PMID:16710638

Wei, Hai-Lei; Zhang, Li-Qun

2006-02-01

234

DNA Microarray-Based Identification of Genes Controlled by Autoinducer 2-Stimulated Quorum Sensing in Escherichia coli  

PubMed Central

Bacterial cell-to-cell communication facilitates coordinated expression of specific genes in a growth rate-II and cell density-dependent manner, a process known as quorum sensing. While the discovery of a diffusible Escherichia coli signaling pheromone, termed autoinducer 2 (AI-2), has been made along with several quorum sensing genes, the overall number and coordination of genes controlled by quorum sensing through the AI-2 signal has not been studied systematically. We investigated global changes in mRNA abundance elicited by the AI-2 signaling molecule through the use of a luxS mutant that was unable to synthesize AI-2. Remarkably, 242 genes, comprising ca. 5.6% of the E. coli genome, exhibited significant transcriptional changes (either induction or repression) in response to a 300-fold AI-2 signaling differential, with many of the identified genes displaying high induction levels (more than fivefold). Significant induction of ygeV, a putative ?54-dependent transcriptional activator, and yhbH, a ?54 modulating protein, suggests ?54 may be involved in E. coli quorum sensing.

DeLisa, Matthew P.; Wu, Chi-Fang; Wang, Liang; Valdes, James J.; Bentley, William E.

2001-01-01

235

Effects of AiiA-mediated quorum quenching in Sinorhizobium meliloti on quorum-sensing signals, proteome patterns, and symbiotic interactions.  

PubMed

Many behaviors in bacteria, including behaviors important to pathogenic and symbiotic interactions with eukaryotic hosts, are regulated by a mechanism called quorum sensing (QS). A "quorum-quenching" approach was used here to identify QS-regulated behaviors in the N-fixing bacterial symbiont Sinorhizobium meliloti. The AiiA lactonase from Bacillus produced in S. meliloti was shown to enzymatically inactivate S. meliloti's N-acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) QS signals, thereby disrupting normal QS regulation. Sixty proteins were differentially accumulated in the AiiA-producing strain versus the control in early log or early stationary phase cultures. Fifty-two of these QS-regulated proteins, with putative functions that include cell division, protein processing and translation, metabolite transport, oxidative stress, and amino acid metabolism, were identified by peptide mass fingerprinting. Transcription of representative genes was reduced significantly in the AiiA-producing strain, although the effects of AiiA on protein accumulation did not always correspond to effects on transcription. The QS signal-deficient strain was reduced significantly in nodule initiation during the first 12 h after inoculation onto Medicago truncatula host plants. The AiiA lactonase also was found to substantially inactivate two of the AHL mimic compounds secreted by M. truncatula. This suggests some structural similarity between bacterial AHLs and these mimic compounds. It also indicates that quorum quenching could be useful in identifying Sinorhizobium genes that are affected by such host QS mimics in planta. PMID:17601171

Gao, Mengsheng; Chen, Hancai; Eberhard, Anatol; Gronquist, Matthew R; Robinson, Jayne B; Connolly, Mary; Teplitski, Max; Rolfe, Barry G; Bauer, Wolfgang D

2007-07-01

236

Exposure to Static Magnetic Field Stimulates Quorum Sensing Circuit in Luminescent Vibrio Strains of the Harveyi Clade  

PubMed Central

In this study, the evidence of electron-dense magnetic inclusions with polyhedral shape in the cytoplasm of Harveyi clade Vibrio strain PS1, a bioluminescent bacterium living in symbiosis with marine organisms, led us to investigate the behavior of this bacterium under exposure to static magnetic fields ranging between 20 and 2000 Gauss. When compared to sham-exposed, the light emission of magnetic field-exposed bacteria growing on solid medium at 18°C ±0.1°C was increased up to two-fold as a function of dose and growth phase. Stimulation of bioluminescence by magnetic field was more pronounced during the post-exponential growth and stationary phase, and was lost when bacteria were grown in the presence of the iron chelator deferoxamine, which caused disassembly of the magnetic inclusions suggesting their involvement in magnetic response. As in luminescent Vibrio spp. bioluminescence is regulated by quorum sensing, possible effects of magnetic field exposure on quorum sensing were investigated. Measurement of mRNA levels by reverse transcriptase real time-PCR demonstrated that luxR regulatory gene and luxCDABE operon coding for luciferase and fatty acid reductase complex were significantly up-regulated in magnetic field-exposed bacteria. In contrast, genes coding for a type III secretion system, whose expression was negatively affected by LuxR, were down-regulated. Up-regulation of luxR paralleled with down-regulation of small RNAs that mediate destabilization of luxR mRNA in quorum sensing signaling pathways. The results of experiments with the well-studied Vibrio campbellii strain BB120 (originally classified as Vibrio harveyi) and derivative mutants unable to synthesize autoinducers suggest that the effects of magnetic fields on quorum sensing may be mediated by AI-2, the interspecies quorum sensing signal molecule.

Tala, Adelfia; Delle Side, Domenico; Buccolieri, Giovanni; Tredici, Salvatore Maurizio; Velardi, Luciano; Paladini, Fabio; De Stefano, Mario; Nassisi, Vincenzo; Alifano, Pietro

2014-01-01

237

The Quorum-Sensing Molecules Farnesol/Homoserine Lactone and Dodecanol Operate via Distinct Modes of Action in Candida albicans?  

PubMed Central

Living as a commensal, Candida albicans must adapt and respond to environmental cues generated by the mammalian host and by microbes comprising the natural flora. These signals have opposing effects on C. albicans, with host cues promoting the yeast-to-hyphal transition and bacteria-derived quorum-sensing molecules inhibiting hyphal development. Hyphal development is regulated through modulation of the cyclic AMP (cAMP)/protein kinase A (PKA) signaling pathway, and it has been postulated that quorum-sensing molecules can affect filamentation by inhibiting the cAMP pathway. Here, we show that both farnesol and 3-oxo-C12-homoserine lactone, a quorum-sensing molecule secreted by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, block hyphal development by affecting cAMP signaling; they both directly inhibited the activity of the Candida adenylyl cyclase, Cyr1p. In contrast, the 12-carbon alcohol dodecanol appeared to modulate hyphal development and the cAMP signaling pathway without directly affecting the activity of Cyr1p. Instead, we show that dodecanol exerted its effects through a mechanism involving the C. albicans hyphal repressor, Sfl1p. Deletion of SFL1 did not affect the response to farnesol but did interfere with the response to dodecanol. Therefore, quorum sensing in C. albicans is mediated via multiple mechanisms of action. Interestingly, our experiments raise the possibility that the Burkholderia cenocepacia diffusible signal factor, BDSF, also mediates its effects via Sfl1p, suggesting that dodecanol's mode of action, but not farnesol or 3-oxo-C12-homoserine lactone, may be used by other quorum-sensing molecules.

Hall, Rebecca A.; Turner, Kara J.; Chaloupka, James; Cottier, Fabien; De Sordi, Luisa; Sanglard, Dominique; Levin, Lonny R.; Buck, Jochen; Muhlschlegel, Fritz A.

2011-01-01

238

Quorum sensing of bacteria and trans-kingdom interactions of N-acyl homoserine lactones with eukaryotes.  

PubMed

Many environmental and interactive important traits of bacteria, such as antibiotic, siderophore or exoenzyme (like cellulose, pectinase) production, virulence factors of pathogens, as well as symbiotic interactions, are regulated in a population density-dependent manner by using small signaling molecules. This phenomenon, called quorum sensing (QS), is widespread among bacteria. Many different bacterial species are communicating or "speaking" through diffusible small molecules. The production often is sophisticatedly regulated via an autoinducing mechanism. A good example is the production of N-acyl homoserine lactones (AHL), which occur in many variations of molecular structure in a wide variety of Gram-negative bacteria. In Gram-positive bacteria, other compounds, such as peptides, regulate cellular activity and behavior by sensing the cell density. The degradation of the signaling molecule--called quorum quenching--is probably another important integral part in the complex quorum sensing circuit. Most interestingly, bacterial quorum sensing molecules also are recognized by eukaryotes that are colonized by QS-active bacteria. In this case, the cross-kingdom interaction can lead to specific adjustment and physiological adaptations in the colonized eukaryote. The responses are manifold, such as modifications of the defense system, modulation of the immune response, or changes in the hormonal status and growth responses. Thus, the interaction with the quorum sensing signaling molecules of bacteria can profoundly change the physiology of higher organisms too. Higher organisms are obligatorily associated with microbial communities, and these truly multi-organismic consortia, which are also called holobionts, can actually be steered via multiple interlinked signaling substances that originate not only from the host but also from the associated bacteria. PMID:22648507

Hartmann, Anton; Schikora, Adam

2012-06-01

239

An agr Quorum Sensing System That Regulates Granulose Formation and Sporulation in Clostridium acetobutylicum  

PubMed Central

The Gram-positive, anaerobic, endospore-forming bacterium Clostridium acetobutylicum has considerable biotechnological potential due to its ability to produce solvents as fermentation products, in particular the biofuel butanol. Its genome contains a putative agr locus, agrBDCA, known in staphylococci to constitute a cyclic peptide-based quorum sensing system. In staphylococci, agrBD is required for the generation of a peptide signal that, upon extracellular accumulation, is sensed by an agrCA-encoded two-component system. Using ClosTron technology, agrB, agrC, and agrA mutants of C. acetobutylicum ATCC 824 were generated and phenotypically characterized. Mutants and wild type displayed similar growth kinetics and no apparent differences in solvent formation under the conditions tested. However, the number of heat-resistant endospores formed by the mutants in liquid culture was reduced by about one order of magnitude. On agar-solidified medium, spore formation was more strongly affected, particularly in agrA and agrC mutants. Similarly, accumulation of the starch-like storage compound granulose was almost undetectable in colonies of agrB, agrA, and agrC mutants. Importantly, these defects could be genetically complemented, demonstrating that they were directly linked to agr inactivation. A diffusible factor produced by agrBD-expressing strains was found to restore granulose and spore formation in the agrB mutant. Furthermore, a synthetic cyclic peptide, designed on the basis of the C. acetobutylicum AgrD sequence, was also capable of complementing the defects of the agrB mutant when added exogenously to the culture. Together, these findings support the hypothesis that agr-dependent quorum sensing is involved in the regulation of sporulation and granulose formation in C. acetobutylicum.

Steiner, Elisabeth; Scott, Jamie

2012-01-01

240

Autonomous induction of recombinant proteins by minimally rewiring native quorum sensing regulon of E. coli.  

PubMed

Quorum sensing (QS) enables an individual bacterium's metabolic state to be communicated to and ultimately control the phenotype of an emerging population. Harnessing the hierarchical nature of this signal transduction process may enable the exploitation of individual cell characteristics to direct or "program" entire populations of cells. We re-engineered the native QS regulon so that individual cell signals (autoinducers) are used to guide high level expression of recombinant proteins in E. coli populations. Specifically, the autoinducer-2 (AI-2) QS signal initiates and guides the overexpression of green fluorescent protein (GFP), chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (CAT) and beta-galactosidase (LacZ). The new process requires no supervision or input (e.g., sampling for optical density measurement, inducer addition, or medium exchange) and represents a low-cost, high-yield platform for recombinant protein production. Moreover, rewiring a native signal transduction circuit exemplifies an emerging class of metabolic engineering approaches that target regulatory functions. PMID:20060924

Tsao, Chen-Yu; Hooshangi, Sara; Wu, Hsuan-Chen; Valdes, James J; Bentley, William E

2010-05-01

241

Identification of four new agr quorum sensing-interfering cyclodepsipeptides from a marine Photobacterium.  

PubMed

During our search for new natural products from the marine environment, we discovered a wide range of cyclic peptides from a marine Photobacterium, closely related to P. halotolerans. The chemical fingerprint of the bacterium showed primarily non-ribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS)-like compounds, including the known pyrrothine antibiotic holomycin and a wide range of peptides, from diketopiperazines to cyclodepsipeptides of 500-900 Da. Purification of components from the pellet fraction led to the isolation and structure elucidation of four new cyclodepsipeptides, ngercheumicin F, G, H, and I. The ngercheumicins interfered with expression of virulence genes known to be controlled by the agr quorum sensing system of Staphylococcus aureus, although to a lesser extent than the previously described solonamides from the same strain of Photobacterium. PMID:24351904

Kjaerulff, Louise; Nielsen, Anita; Mansson, Maria; Gram, Lone; Larsen, Thomas O; Ingmer, Hanne; Gotfredsen, Charlotte H

2013-12-01

242

Dynamics and Mechanism of A Quorum Sensing Network Regulated by Small RNAs in Vibrio Harveyi  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bacterial quorum sensing (QS) has attracted much interests and it is an important process of cell communication. Recently, Bassler et al. studied the phenomena of QS regulated by small RNAs and the experimental data showed that small RNAs played important role in the QS of Vibrio harveyi and it can permit the fine-tuning of gene regulation and maintenance of homeostasis. According to Michaelis—Menten kinetics and mass action law in this paper, we construct a mathematical model to investigate the mechanism induced QS by coexist of small RNA and signal molecular (AI) and show that there are periodic oscillation when the time delay and Hill coefficient exceed a critical value and the periodic oscillation produces the change of concentration and induces QS. These results are fit to the experimental results. In the meanwhile, we also get some theoretical value of Hopf Bifurcation on time deday. In addition, we also find this network is robust against noise.

Shen, Jian-Wei

2011-03-01

243

Piper nigrum, Piper betle and Gnetum gnemon- Natural Food Sources with Anti-Quorum Sensing Properties  

PubMed Central

Various parts of Piper nigrum, Piper betle and Gnetum gnemon are used as food sources by Malaysians. The purpose of this study is to examine the anti-quorum sensing (anti-QS) properties of P. nigrum, P. betle and G. gnemon extracts. The hexane, chloroform and methanol extracts of these plants were assessed in bioassays involving Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA01, Escherichia coli [pSB401], E. coli [pSB1075] and Chromobacterium violaceum CV026. It was found that the extracts of these three plants have anti-QS ability. Interestingly, the hexane, chloroform and methanol extracts from P. betle showed the most potent anti-QS activity as judged by the bioassays. Since there is a variety of plants that serve as food sources in Malaysia that have yet to be tested for anti-QS activity, future work should focus on identification of these plants and isolation of the anti-QS compounds.

Tan, Li Ying; Yin, Wai-Fong; Chan, Kok-Gan

2013-01-01

244

Synthesis and quorum sensing inhibitory activity of key phenolic compounds of ginger and their derivatives.  

PubMed

Phenolic components of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) viz. [6]-gingerol, [6]-shogaol and zingerone exhibited quorum sensing inhibitory activity (QSI) against Chromobacterium violaceum and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The inhibitory activity of all the compounds was studied by zone inhibition, pyocyanin, and violacein assay. All the compounds displayed good inhibition at 500ppm. [6]-Azashogaol, a new derivative of [6]-shogaol has been synthesized by Beckmann rearrangement of its oxime in the presence of ZnCl2. The structure elucidation of this new derivative was carried out by 1D ((1)H NMR and (13)C NMR) and 2D-NMR (COSY, HSQC and NOESY) spectral studies. This compound showed good QSI activity against P. aeruginosa. An isoxazoline derivative of [6]-gingerol was prepared and it exhibited good QSI activity. Present study illustrated that, the phenolic compounds of ginger and their derivatives form a class of compounds with promising QSI activity. PMID:24767081

Vijendra Kumar, N; Murthy, Pushpa S; Manjunatha, J R; Bettadaiah, B K

2014-09-15

245

Synthetic quorum-sensing circuit to control consortial biofilm formation and dispersal in a microfluidic device  

PubMed Central

To utilize biofilms for chemical transformations in biorefineries they need to be controlled and replaced. Previously, we engineered the global regulator Hha and cyclic diguanylate-binding BdcA to create proteins that enable biofilm dispersal. Here we report a biofilm circuit that utilizes these two dispersal proteins along with a population-driven quorum-sensing switch. With this synthetic circuit, in a novel microfluidic device, we form an initial colonizer biofilm, introduce a second cell type (dispersers) into this existing biofilm, form a robust dual-species biofilm and displace the initial colonizer cells in the biofilm with an extracellular signal from the disperser cells. We also remove the disperser biofilm with a chemically induced switch, and the consortial population could tune. Therefore, for the first time, cells have been engineered that are able to displace an existing biofilm and then be removed on command allowing one to control consortial biofilm formation for various applications.

Hong, Seok Hoon; Hegde, Manjunath; Kim, Jeongyun; Wang, Xiaoxue; Jayaraman, Arul; Wood, Thomas K.

2012-01-01

246

Quorum-sensing regulation of the biofilm matrix genes (pel) of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.  

PubMed

Quorum sensing (QS) has been previously shown to play an important role in the development of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms (D. G. Davies et al., Science 280:295-298, 1998). Although QS regulation of swarming and DNA release has been shown to play important roles in biofilm development, regulation of genes directly involved in biosynthesis of biofilm matrix has not been described. Here, transcription of the pel operon, essential for the production of a glucose-rich matrix exopolysaccharide, is shown to be greatly reduced in lasI and rhlI mutants. Chemical complementation of the lasI mutant with 3-oxo-dodecanoyl homoserine lactone restores pel transcription to the wild-type level and biofilm formation ability. These findings thus connect QS signaling and transcription of genes responsible for biofilm matrix biosynthesis. PMID:17496081

Sakuragi, Yumiko; Kolter, Roberto

2007-07-01

247

Synthetic quorum-sensing circuit to control consortial biofilm formation and dispersal in a microfluidic device.  

PubMed

To utilize biofilms for chemical transformations in biorefineries they need to be controlled and replaced. Previously, we engineered the global regulator Hha and cyclic diguanylate-binding BdcA to create proteins that enable biofilm dispersal. Here we report a biofilm circuit that utilizes these two dispersal proteins along with a population-driven quorum-sensing switch. With this synthetic circuit, in a novel microfluidic device, we form an initial colonizer biofilm, introduce a second cell type (dispersers) into this existing biofilm, form a robust dual-species biofilm and displace the initial colonizer cells in the biofilm with an extracellular signal from the disperser cells. We also remove the disperser biofilm with a chemically induced switch, and the consortial population could tune. Therefore, for the first time, cells have been engineered that are able to displace an existing biofilm and then be removed on command allowing one to control consortial biofilm formation for various applications. PMID:22215088

Hong, Seok Hoon; Hegde, Manjunath; Kim, Jeongyun; Wang, Xiaoxue; Jayaraman, Arul; Wood, Thomas K

2012-01-01

248

Methylthioadenosine Deaminase in an Alternative Quorum Sensing Pathway in Pseudomonas aeruginosa  

PubMed Central

Pseudomonas aeruginosa possesses an unusual pathway for 5?-methylthioadenosine (MTA) metabolism involving deamination to 5?-methylthioinosine (MTI) followed by N-ribosyl phosphorolysis to hypoxanthine and 5-methylthio-?-D-ribose 1-phosphate. The specific MTI phosphorylase of P. aeruginosa has been reported (Guan, R., Ho, M. C., Almo, S. C. and Schramm, V. L. (2011) Biochemistry 50, 1247–1254) and here we characterize MTA deaminase from P. aeruginosa (PaMTADA). Genomic analysis indicated the PA3170 locus to be a candidate for MTA deaminase (MTADA). Protein encoded by PA3170 was expressed and shown to deaminate MTA with 40-fold greater catalytic efficiency for MTA than for adenosine. The kcat/Km value of 1.6 × 107 M?1s?1 for MTA is the highest catalytic efficiency known for an MTA deaminase. 5?-Methylthiocoformycin (MTCF) is a 4.8 pM transition state analogue for PaMTADA but causes no significant inhibition of human adenosine deaminase or MTA phosphorylase. MTCF is permeable to P. aeruginosa and exhibits an IC50 of 3 nM on cellular PaMTADA activity. PaMTADA is the only activity in P. aeruginosa extracts to act on MTA. MTA and 5-methylthio-?-D-ribose are involved in quorum sensing pathways, thus PaMTADA is a potential target for quorum sensing. The crystal structure of PaMTADA in complex with MTCF shows the transition state mimic 8-R-hydroxyl group in contact with a catalytic site Zn2+, the 5?-methylthio group in a hydrophobic pocket and the transition state mimic of the diazepine ring in contact with a catalytic site Glu.

Guan, Rong; Ho, Meng-Chiao; Frohlich, Richard F.G.; Tyler, Peter C.; Almo, Steven C.; Schramm, Vern L.

2012-01-01

249

Chitinolytic Activity in Chromobacterium violaceum: Substrate Analysis and Regulation by Quorum Sensing  

PubMed Central

Quorum sensing control mediated by N-acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) signaling molecules has been established as a key feature of the regulation of exoenzyme production in many gram-negative bacteria. In Chromobacterium violaceum ATCC 31532 a number of phenotypic characteristics, including production of the purple pigment violacein, hydrogen cyanide, antibiotics, and exoproteases are known to be regulated by the endogenous AHL N-hexanoyl-l-homoserine lactone (HHL). In this study we show that C. violaceum produces a set of chitinolytic enzymes whose production is regulated by HHL. The chitinolytic activity was induced in strains grown in the presence of chitin as the sole carbon source and quantitated in the secreted proteins by using p-nitrophenol analogs of disaccharide, trisaccharide, and tetrasaccharide oligomers of N-acetylglucosamine. By using 4-methylumbelliferyl analogs of the same oligomers of N-acetylglucosamine as substrates for proteins separated and renatured by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, at least six enzymes were detected: a chitobiase with high specificity to a dimeric substrate of 87 kDa, two N-acetylglucosaminidases with apparent molecular masses of 162 and 133 kDa, two endochitinases of 108 and 67 kDa, and a chitobiosidase of 56 kDa. In addition, two unidentified bands of >205 kDa were found where a tetrameric chitin derivative was used as a substrate. A pleiotropic mini-Tn5 mutant of C. violaceum (CV026) that is defective in HHL production and other quorum-sensing-regulated factors was also found to be completely deficient in chitinolytic activity. Growth of this mutant on minimal medium with chitin supplemented with culture supernatant from the C. violaceum wild-type strain or 10 ?M synthetic HHL restored chitinase production to the level shown by the parental strain. These results constitute the most complete evidence so far for regulation of chitinolytic activity by AHL signaling in a gram-negative bacterium.

Chernin, Leonid S.; Winson, Michael K.; Thompson, Jacquelyn M.; Haran, Shoshan; Bycroft, Barrie W.; Chet, Ilan; Williams, Paul; Stewart, Gordon S. A. B.

1998-01-01

250

Production of Tyrosol by Candida albicans Biofilms and Its Role in Quorum Sensing and Biofilm Development?  

PubMed Central

Tyrosol and farnesol are quorum-sensing molecules produced by Candida albicans which accelerate and block, respectively, the morphological transition from yeasts to hyphae. In this study, we have investigated the secretion of tyrosol by C. albicans and explored its likely role in biofilm development. Both planktonic (suspended) cells and biofilms of four C. albicans strains, including three mutants with defined defects in the Efg 1 and Cph 1 morphogenetic signaling pathways, synthesized extracellular tyrosol during growth at 37°C. There was a correlation between tyrosol production and biomass for both cell types. However, biofilm cells secreted at least 50% more tyrosol than did planktonic cells when tyrosol production was related to cell dry weight. The addition of exogenous farnesol to a wild-type strain inhibited biofilm formation by up to 33% after 48 h. Exogenous tyrosol appeared to have no effect, but scanning electron microscopy revealed that tyrosol stimulated hypha production during the early stages (1 to 6 h) of biofilm development. Experiments involving the simultaneous addition of tyrosol and farnesol at different concentrations suggested that the action of farnesol was dominant, and 48-h biofilms formed in the presence of both compounds consisted almost entirely of yeast cells. When biofilm supernatants were tested for their abilities to inhibit or enhance germ tube formation by planktonic cells, the results indicated that tyrosol activity exceeds that of farnesol after 14 h, but not after 24 h, and that farnesol activity increases significantly during the later stages (48 to 72 h) of biofilm development. Overall, our results support the conclusion that tyrosol acts as a quorum-sensing molecule for biofilms as well as for planktonic cells and that its action is most significant during the early and intermediate stages of biofilm formation.

Alem, Mohammed A. S.; Oteef, Mohammed D. Y.; Flowers, T. Hugh; Douglas, L. Julia

2006-01-01

251

Antagonistic Rgg Regulators Mediate Quorum Sensing via Competitive DNA Binding in Streptococcus pyogenes  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Recent studies have established the fact that multiple members of the Rgg family of transcriptional regulators serve as key components of quorum sensing (QS) pathways that utilize peptides as intercellular signaling molecules. We previously described a novel QS system in Streptococcus pyogenes which utilizes two Rgg-family regulators (Rgg2 and Rgg3) that respond to neighboring signaling peptides (SHP2 and SHP3) to control gene expression and biofilm formation. We have shown that Rgg2 is a transcriptional activator of target genes, whereas Rgg3 represses expression of these genes, and that SHPs function to activate the QS system. The mechanisms by which Rgg proteins regulate both QS-dependent and QS-independent processes remain poorly defined; thus, we sought to further elucidate how Rgg2 and Rgg3 mediate gene regulation. Here we provide evidence that S. pyogenes employs a unique mechanism of direct competition between the antagonistic, peptide-responsive proteins Rgg2 and Rgg3 for binding at target promoters. The highly conserved, shared binding sites for Rgg2 and Rgg3 are located proximal to the ?35 nucleotide in the target promoters, and the direct competition between the two regulators results in concentration-dependent, exclusive occupation of the target promoters that can be skewed in favor of Rgg2 in vitro by the presence of SHP. These results suggest that exclusionary binding of target promoters by Rgg3 may prevent Rgg2 binding under SHP-limiting conditions, thereby preventing premature induction of the quorum sensing circuit.

LaSarre, Breah; Aggarwal, Chaitanya; Federle, Michael J.

2012-01-01

252

Inhibition of Quorum Sensing-Controlled Virulence Factor Production in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 by Ayurveda Spice Clove (Syzygium Aromaticum) Bud Extract  

PubMed Central

Quorum sensing controls the virulence determinants in most proteobacteria. In this work, the hexane, chloroform and methanol extracts of an Ayurveda spice, namely clove (Syzygium aromaticum), shown anti-quorum sensing activity. Hexane and methanol extracts of clove inhibited the response of C. violaceum CV026 to exogenously supplied N?hexanoylhomoserine lactone, in turn preventing violacein production. Chloroform and methanol extracts of clove significantly reduced bioluminescence production by E. coli [pSB1075] grown in the presence of N-(3-oxododecanoyl)-l-homoserine lactone. We demonstrated that clove extract inhibited quorum sensing-regulated phenotypes in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA01, including expression of lecA::lux (by hexane extract), swarming (maximum inhibition by methanol extract), pyocyanin (maximum inhibition by hexane extract). This study shows that the presence of natural compounds that exhibit anti-quorum sensing activity in the clove extracts may be useful as the lead of anti-infective drugs.

Krishnan, Thiba; Yin, Wai-Fong; Chan, Kok-Gan

2012-01-01

253

Disruption of epithelial barrier by quorum-sensing N-3-(oxododecanoyl)-homoserine lactone is mediated by matrix metalloproteinases.  

PubMed

The intestinal epithelium forms a selective barrier maintained by tight junctions (TJs) and separating the luminal environment from the submucosal tissues. N-acylhomoserine lactone (AHL) quorum-sensing molecules produced by gram-negative bacteria in the gut can influence homeostasis of the host intestinal epithelium. In the present study, we evaluated the regulatory mechanisms affecting the impact of two representative long- and short-chain AHLs, N-3-(oxododecanoyl)-homoserine lactone (C12-HSL) and N-butyryl homoserine lactone (C4-HSL), on barrier function of human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells. Treatment with C12-HSL, but not with C4-HSL, perturbed Caco-2 barrier function; the effect was associated with decreased levels of the TJ proteins occludin and tricellulin and their delocalization from the TJs. C12-HSL also induced matrix metalloprotease (MMP)-2 and MMP-3 activation via lipid raft- and protease-activated receptor (PAR)-dependent signaling. Pretreatment with lipid raft disruptors, PAR antagonists, or MMP inhibitors restored the C12-HSL-induced loss of the TJ proteins and increased permeability of Caco-2 cell monolayers. These results indicate that PAR/lipid raft-dependent MMP-2 and -3 activation followed by degradation of occludin and tricellulin are involved in C12-HSL-induced alterations of epithelial paracellular barrier functions. PMID:24742991

Eum, Sung Yong; Jaraki, Dima; Bertrand, Luc; András, Ibolya E; Toborek, Michal

2014-06-01

254

Single drop microextraction of homoserine lactones based quorum sensing signal molecules, and the separation of their enantiomers using gas chromatography mass spectrometry in the presence of biological matrices  

Microsoft Academic Search

N-acylated homoserine lactones (AHLs) are produced by Gram-negative bacteria as communication signals and are frequently studied\\u000a as mediators of the “quorum sensing” response of bacterial communities. AHLs are optically active components and the L-form\\u000a is known to have activity in the quorum sensing. However, the knowledge regarding the stereospecific production of the AHLs\\u000a in bacterial cultures is limited; therefore, there

Ashok Kumar Malik; Agnes Fekete; Istvan Gebefuegi; Michael Rothballer; Philippe Schmitt-Kopplin

2009-01-01

255

N-Acyl-L-Homoserine Lactone Quorum Sensing Controls Butanediol Fermentation in Serratia plymuthica RVH1 and Serratia marcescens MG1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Butanediol fermentation in two Serratia species is shown to be affected by N-acyl-L-homoserine lactone- dependent quorum sensing. Knockout of quorum-sensing signal production caused a shift towards enhanced acid production, resulting in early growth arrest, which was reversible by the addition of synthetic signal molecules. The Enterobacteriaceae are commonly divided into two groups with different fermentation pathways (4). Members of genera

Rob Van Houdt; Pieter Moons; Maria Hueso Buj; Chris W. Michiels

2006-01-01

256

Quorum Sensing-Disrupting Brominated Furanones Protect the Gnotobiotic Brine Shrimp Artemia franciscana from Pathogenic Vibrio harveyi, Vibrio campbellii, and Vibrio parahaemolyticus Isolates†  

PubMed Central

Autoinducer 2 (AI-2) quorum sensing was shown before to regulate the virulence of Vibrio harveyi towards the brine shrimp Artemia franciscana. In this study, several different pathogenic V. harveyi, Vibrio campbellii, and Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolates were shown to produce AI-2. Furthermore, disruption of AI-2 quorum sensing by a natural and a synthetic brominated furanone protected gnotobiotic Artemia from the pathogenic isolates in in vivo challenge tests.

Defoirdt, Tom; Crab, Roselien; Wood, Thomas K.; Sorgeloos, Patrick; Verstraete, Willy; Bossier, Peter

2006-01-01

257

Microbial growth and quorum sensing antagonist activities of herbal plants extracts.  

PubMed

Antimicrobial and antiquorum sensing (AQS) activities of fourteen ethanolic extracts of different parts of eight plants were screened against four Gram-positive, five Gram-negative bacteria and four fungi. Depending on the plant part extract used and the test microorganism, variable activities were recorded at 3 mg per disc. Among the Grampositive bacteria tested, for example, activities of Laurus nobilis bark extract ranged between a 9.5 mm inhibition zone against Bacillus subtilis up to a 25 mm one against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Staphylococcus aureus and Aspergillus fumigatus were the most susceptible among bacteria and fungi tested towards other plant parts. Of interest is the tangible antifungal activity of a Tecoma capensis flower extract, which is reported for the first time. However, minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC's) for both bacteria and fungi were relatively high (0.5-3.0 mg). As for antiquorum sensing activity against Chromobacterium violaceum, superior activity (>17 mm QS inhibition) was associated with Sonchus oleraceus and Laurus nobilis extracts and weak to good activity (8-17 mm) was recorded for other plants. In conclusion, results indicate the potential of these plant extracts in treating microbial infections through cell growth inhibition or quorum sensing antagonism, which is reported for the first time, thus validating their medicinal use. PMID:19783935

Al-Hussaini, Reema; Mahasneh, Adel M

2009-01-01

258

Inhibition of biofilm development of uropathogens by curcumin - an anti-quorum sensing agent from Curcuma longa.  

PubMed

Urinary tract infection is caused primarily by the quorum sensing (QS)-dependent biofilm forming ability of uropathogens. In the present investigation, an anti-quorum sensing (anti-QS) agent curcumin from Curcuma longa (turmeric) was shown to inhibit the biofilm formation of uropathogens, such as Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1, Proteus mirabilis and Serratia marcescens, possibly by interfering with their QS systems. The antibiofilm potential of curcumin on uropathogens as well as its efficacy in disturbing the mature biofilms was examined under light microscope and confocal laser scanning microscope. The treatment with curcumin was also found to attenuate the QS-dependent factors, such as exopolysaccharide production, alginate production, swimming and swarming motility of uropathogens. Furthermore, it was documented that curcumin enhanced the susceptibility of a marker strain and uropathogens to conventional antibiotics. PMID:24262582

Packiavathy, Issac Abraham Sybiya Vasantha; Priya, Selvam; Pandian, Shunmugiah Karutha; Ravi, Arumugam Veera

2014-04-01

259

N-acyl-homoserine-lactone quorum sensing in tomato phytopathogenic Pseudomonas spp. is involved in the regulation of lipodepsipeptide production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pseudomonas corrugata and Pseudomonas mediterranea are two closely related phytopathogenic bacteria both causal agents of tomato pith necrosis. P. corrugata produces phytotoxic and antimicrobial cationic lipodepsipeptides (LDPs) which are thought to act as major virulence factors. Previous studies have demonstrated that P. corrugata CFBP 5454 has an N-acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) quorum sensing (QS) system PcoI\\/PcoR and that LDP production

Grazia Licciardello; Cinzia P. Strano; Iris Bertani; Patrizia Bella; Alberto Fiore; Vincenzo Fogliano; Vittorio Venturi; Vittoria Catara

260

Regulatory targets of quorum sensing in Vibrio cholerae: evidence for two distinct HapR-binding motifs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The quorum-sensing pathway in Vibrio cholerae controls the expression of the master regulator HapR, which in turn regulates several important pro- cesses such as virulence factor production and bio- film formation. While HapR is known to control several important phenotypes, there are only a few target genes known to be transcriptionally regulated by HapR. In this work, we combine bioinformatic

Amy M. Tsou; Tao Cai; Zhi Liu; Jun Zhu; Rahul V. Kulkarni

2009-01-01

261

Amino Acid Residues in LuxR Critical for Its Mechanism of Transcriptional Activation during Quorum Sensing in Vibrio fischeri  

Microsoft Academic Search

PCR-based site-directed mutagenesis has been used to generate 38 alanine-substitution mutations in the C-terminal 41 amino acid residues of LuxR. This region plays a critical role in the mechanism of LuxR- dependent transcriptional activation of the Vibrio fischeri lux operon during quorum sensing. The ability of the variant forms of LuxR to activate transcription of the lux operon was examined

AMY E. TROTT; ANN M. STEVENS

2001-01-01

262

Quorum Sensing and Phenazines are Involved in Biofilm Formation by Pseudomonas chlororaphis (aureofaciens) Strain 30-84  

Microsoft Academic Search

The biological control bacterium Pseudomonas chlororaphis (aureofaciens) strain 30-84 employs two quorum sensing (QS) systems: PhzR\\/PhzI regulates the production of the antibiotics phenazine-1-carboxylic acid, 2-hydroxy-phenazine-1-carboxylic acid, and 2-hydroxy-phenazine, whereas CsaR\\/CsaI regulates currently unknown aspects of the cell surface. Previously characterized derivatives of strain 30-84 with mutations in each QS system and in the phenazine biosynthetic genes were screened for their

V. S. R. K. Maddula; Z. Zhang; E. A. Pierson; L. S. Pierson

2006-01-01

263

Evidence of quorum sensing in the rumen ecosystem: detection of N -acyl homoserine lactone autoinducers in ruminal contents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acyl-homoserine lactone (AHL) based quorum-sensing systems are widespread among gram-negative bacte- ria, particularly in association with plants and animals. As yet, there have been no reports of AHL signaling in the an - aerobic rumen environment, an ecosystem of great complexity in which cell-cell signaling is likely to occur. We detected multiple AHL autoinducers in the rumen contents of 6

D. L. Erickson; V. L. Nsereko; D. P. Morgavi; L. B. Selinger; L. M. Rode; K. A. Beauchemin

2002-01-01

264

Virulence Effect of Enterococcus faecalis Protease Genes and the Quorum-Sensing Locus fsr in Caenorhabditis elegans and Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The expression of two Enterococcus faecalis extracellular virulence-related proteins, gelatinase (GelE) and serine protease (SprE), has been shown to be positively regulated by the fsr quorum-sensing system. We recently developed a novel system for studying E. faecalis pathogenicity that involves killing of the nematode worm Caenorhabditis elegans and showed that an E. faecalis fsrB mutant (strain TX5266) exhibited attenuated killing.

Costi D. Sifri; Eleftherios Mylonakis; Kavindra V. Singh; Xiang Qin; Danielle A. Garsin; Barbara E. Murray; Frederick M. Ausubel; Stephen B. Calderwood

2002-01-01

265

[Quorum sensing of genes expression--perspective drug target against bacterial pathogenicity].  

PubMed

Bacteria are capable to sense an increase of cell density population and to reply quickly and coordinately by the induction of special sets of genes. This type of the regulation was named Quorum Sensing (QS); it is based on the effect of low-molecular-weight signaling molecules of different nature (autoinducers) which accumulate in the culture at high density of bacterial population and interact with receptor regulatory proteins. QS systems are the global regulators of bacterial genes expression and play a key role in the control of many metabolic processes in cell including the regulation of virulence of bacteria. Here we review the molecular mechanisms of QS systems functioning in bacteria belonging to different taxonomic groups and discuss the potential of QS regulation as a new drug target for the treatment of bacterial infections. At present this approach is accounted as a new alternative strategy of antimicrobial therapy directed on the development of drugs inhibiting QS regulation and active just against pathogenicity of bacteria (antipathogenic drugs). Such a strategy allows to avoid a wide dissemination of resistant forms of pathogenic bacteria and the formation of biofilms increasing in many times the resistance of bacteria to drug preparations. PMID:16637260

Khmel', I A; Metlitskaia, A Z

2006-01-01

266

A Quorum Sensing Regulated Small Volatile Molecule Reduces Acute Virulence and Promotes Chronic Infection Phenotypes  

PubMed Central

A significant number of environmental microorganisms can cause serious, even fatal, acute and chronic infections in humans. The severity and outcome of each type of infection depends on the expression of specific bacterial phenotypes controlled by complex regulatory networks that sense and respond to the host environment. Although bacterial signals that contribute to a successful acute infection have been identified in a number of pathogens, the signals that mediate the onset and establishment of chronic infections have yet to be discovered. We identified a volatile, low molecular weight molecule, 2-amino acetophenone (2-AA), produced by the opportunistic human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa that reduces bacterial virulence in vivo in flies and in an acute mouse infection model. 2-AA modulates the activity of the virulence regulator MvfR (multiple virulence factor regulator) via a negative feedback loop and it promotes the emergence of P. aeruginosa phenotypes that likely promote chronic lung infections, including accumulation of lasR mutants, long-term survival at stationary phase, and persistence in a Drosophila infection model. We report for the first time the existence of a quorum sensing (QS) regulated volatile molecule that induces bistability phenotype by stochastically silencing acute virulence functions in P. aeruginosa. We propose that 2-AA mediates changes in a subpopulation of cells that facilitate the exploitation of dynamic host environments and promote gene expression changes that favor chronic infections.

Kesarwani, Meenu; Hazan, Ronen; He, Jianxin; Que, YokAi; Apidianakis, Yiorgos; Lesic, Biliana; Xiao, Gaoping; Dekimpe, Valerie; Milot, Sylvain; Deziel, Eric; Lepine, Francois; Rahme, Laurence G.

2011-01-01

267

Modeling of cell-to-cell communication processes with Petri nets using the example of quorum sensing.  

PubMed

The understanding of the molecular mechanism of cell-to-cell communication is fundamental for system biology. Up to now, the main objectives of bioinformatics have been reconstruction, modeling and analysis of metabolic, regulatory and signaling processes, based on data generated from high-throughput technologies. Cell-to-cell communication or quorum sensing (QS), the use of small molecule signals to coordinate complex patterns of behavior in bacteria, has been the focus of many reports over the past decade. Based on the quorum sensing process of the organism Aliivibrio salmonicida, we aim at developing a functional Petri net, which will allow modeling and simulating cell-to-cell communication processes. Using a new editor-controlled information system called VANESA (http://vanesa.sf.net), we present how to combine different fields of studies such as life-science, database consulting, modeling, visualization and simulation for a semi-automatic reconstruction of the complex signaling quorum sensing network. We show how cell-to-cell communication processes and information-flow within a cell and across cell colonies can be modeled using VANESA and how those models can be simulated with Petri net network structures in a sophisticated way. PMID:22430220

Janowski, Sebastian; Kormeier, Benjamin; Töpel, Thoralf; Hippe, Klaus; Hofestädt, Ralf; Willassen, Nils; Friesen, Rafael; Rubert, Sebastian; Borck, Daniela; Haugen, Peik; Chen, Ming

2010-01-01

268

Modeling of Cell-to-Cell Communication Processes with Petri Nets Using the Example of Quorum Sensing.  

PubMed

The understanding of the molecular mechanism of cell-to-cell communication is fundamental for system biology. Up to now, the main objectives of bioinformatics have been reconstruction, modeling and analysis of metabolic, regulatory and signaling processes, based on data generated from high-throughput technologies. Cell-to-cell communication or quorum sensing (QS), the use of small molecule signals to coordinate complex patterns of behavior in bacteria, has been the focus of many reports over the past decade. Based on the quorum sensing process of the organism Aliivibrio salmonicida, we aim at developing a functional Petri net, which will allow modeling and simulating cell-to-cell communication processes. Using a new editor-controlled information system called VANESA (http://vanesa.sf.net), we present how to combine different fields of studies such as life-science, database consulting, modeling, visualization and simulation for a semi-automatic reconstruction of the complex signaling quorum sensing network. We show how cell-to-cell communication processes and information-flow within a cell and across cell colonies can be modeled using VANESA and how those models can be simulated with Petri net network structures in a sophisticated way. PMID:21685572

Janowski, Sebastian; Kormeier, Benjamin; Töpel, Thoralf; Hippe, Klaus; Hofestädt, Ralf; Willassen, Nils; Friesen, Rafael; Rubert, Sebastian; Borck, Daniela; Haugen, Peik; Chen, Ming

2011-01-01

269

A Quorum-Sensing Antagonist Targets Both Membrane-Bound and Cytoplasmic Receptors And Controls Bacterial Pathogenicity  

PubMed Central

Summary Quorum sensing is a process of bacterial communication involving production and detection of secreted molecules called autoinducers. Gram-negative bacteria use acyl-homoserine lactone (AHL) autoinducers, which are detected by one of two receptor types. First, cytoplasmic LuxR-type receptors bind accumulated intracellular AHLs. AHL-LuxR complexes bind DNA and alter gene expression. Second, membrane-bound LuxN-type receptors bind accumulated extracellular AHLs. AHL-LuxN complexes relay information internally by phosphorylation cascades that direct gene-expression changes. Here we show that a small molecule, previously identified as an antagonist of LuxN-type receptors, is also a potent antagonist of the LuxR family, despite differences in receptor structure, localization, AHL specificity, and signaling mechanism. Derivatives were synthesized and optimized for potency, and in each case, we characterized the mode of action of antagonism. The most potent antagonist protects Caenorhabditis elegans from quorum-sensing-mediated killing by Chromobacterium violaceum, validating the notion that targeting quorum sensing has potential for antimicrobial drug development.

Swem, Lee R.; Swem, Danielle L.; O'Loughlin, Colleen T.; Gatmaitan, Raleene; Zhao, Bixiao; Ulrich, Scott M.; Bassler, Bonnie L.

2009-01-01

270

Functional Analysis of the Quorum-Sensing Streptococcal Invasion Locus (sil)  

PubMed Central

Group A streptococcus (GAS) causes a wide variety of human diseases, and at the same time, GAS can also circulate without producing symptoms, similar to its close commensal relative, group G streptococcus (GGS). We previously identified, by transposon-tagged mutagenesis, the streptococcal invasion locus (sil). sil is a quorum-sensing regulated locus which is activated by the autoinducer peptide SilCR through the two-component system SilA-SilB. Here we characterize the DNA promoter region necessary for SilA-mediated activation. This site is composed of two direct repeats of 10 bp, separated by a spacer of 11 bp. Fusion of this site to gfp allowed us to systematically introduce single-base substitutions in the repeats region and to assess the relative contribution of various positions to promoter strength. We then developed an algorithm giving different weights to these positions, and performed a chromosome-wide bioinformatics search which was validated by transcriptome analysis. We identified 13 genes, mostly bacteriocin related, that are directly under the control of SilA. Having developed the ability to quantify SilCR signaling via GFP accumulation prompted us to search for GAS and GGS strains that sense and produce SilCR. While the majority of GAS strains lost sil, all GGS strains examined still possess the locus and ?63% are able to respond to exogenously added SilCR. By triggering the autoinduction circle using a minute concentration of synthetic SilCR, we identified GAS and GGS strains that are capable of sensing and naturally producing SilCR, and showed that SilCR can be sensed across these streptococci species. These findings suggest that sil may be involved in colonization and establishment of commensal host-bacterial relationships.

Belotserkovsky, Ilia; Baruch, Moshe; Peer, Asaf; Dov, Eran; Ravins, Miriam; Mishalian, Inbal; Persky, Merav; Smith, Yoav; Hanski, Emanuel

2009-01-01

271

Attenuation of Edwardsiella tarda Virulence by Small Peptides That Interfere with LuxS/Autoinducer Type 2 Quorum Sensing?  

PubMed Central

Edwardsiella tarda is a gram-negative pathogen with a broad host range that includes humans, animals, and fish. Recent studies have shown that the LuxS/autoinducer type 2 (AI-2) quorum sensing system is involved in the virulence of E. tarda. In the present study, it was found that the E. tarda LuxS mutants bearing deletions of the catalytic site (C site) and the tyrosine kinase phosphorylation site, respectively, are functionally inactive and that these dysfunctional mutants can interfere with the activity of the wild-type LuxS. Two small peptides, 5411 and 5906, which share sequence identities with the C site of LuxS, were identified. 5411 and 5906 proved to be inhibitors of AI-2 activity and could vitiate the infectivity of the pathogenic E. tarda strain TX1. The inhibitory effect of 5411 and 5906 on AI-2 activity is exerted on LuxS, with which these peptides specifically interact. The expression of 5411 and 5906 in TX1 has multiple effects (altering biofilm production and the expression of certain virulence-associated genes), which are similar to those caused by interruption of luxS expression. Further study found that it is very likely that 5411 and 5906 can be released from the strains expressing them and, should TX1 be in the vicinity, captured by TX1. Based on this observation, a constitutive 5411 producer (Pseudomonas sp. strain FP3/pT5411) was constructed in the form of a fish commensal isolate that expresses 5411 from a plasmid source. The presence of FP3/pT5411 in fish attenuates the virulence of TX1. Finally, it was demonstrated that fish expressing 5411 directly from tissues exhibit enhanced resistance against TX1 infection.

Zhang, Min; Jiao, Xu-dong; Hu, Yong-hua; Sun, Li

2009-01-01

272

The flavanone naringenin reduces the production of quorum sensing-controlled virulence factors in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1.  

PubMed

Preliminary screening of the Malagasy plant Combretum albiflorum for compounds attenuating the production of quorum sensing (QS)-controlled virulence factors in bacteria led to the identification of active fractions containing flavonoids. In the present study, several flavonoids belonging to the flavone, flavanone, flavonol and chalcone structural groups were screened for their capacity to reduce the production of QS-controlled factors in the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa (strain PAO1). Flavanones (i.e. naringenin, eriodictyol and taxifolin) significantly reduced the production of pyocyanin and elastase in P. aeruginosa without affecting bacterial growth. Consistently, naringenin and taxifolin reduced the expression of several QS-controlled genes (i.e. lasI, lasR, rhlI, rhlR, lasA, lasB, phzA1 and rhlA) in P. aeruginosa PAO1. Naringenin also dramatically reduced the production of the acylhomoserine lactones N-(3-oxododecanoyl)-L-homoserine lactone (3-oxo-C12-HSL) and N-butanoyl-L-homoserine lactone (C4-HSL), which is driven by the lasI and rhlI gene products, respectively. In addition, using mutant strains deficient for autoinduction (?lasI and ?rhlI) and LasR- and RhlR-based biosensors, it was shown that QS inhibition by naringenin not only is the consequence of a reduced production of autoinduction compounds but also results from a defect in the proper functioning of the RlhR-C4-HSL complex. Widely distributed in the plant kingdom, flavonoids are known for their numerous and determinant roles in plant physiology, plant development and in the success of plant-rhizobia interactions, but, as shown here, some of them also have a role as inhibitors of the virulence of pathogenic bacteria by interfering with QS mechanisms. PMID:21546585

Vandeputte, Olivier M; Kiendrebeogo, Martin; Rasamiravaka, Tsiry; Stévigny, Caroline; Duez, Pierre; Rajaonson, Sanda; Diallo, Billo; Mol, Adeline; Baucher, Marie; El Jaziri, Mondher

2011-07-01

273

Quorum sensing in Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. achromogenes and the effect of the autoinducer synthase AsaI on bacterial virulence.  

PubMed

The Gram-negative fish pathogenic bacterium Aeromonas salmonicida possesses the LuxIR-type quorum sensing (QS) system, termed AsaIR. In this study the role of QS in A. salmonicida subsp. achromogenes virulence and pigment production was investigated. Five wild-type Asa strains induced the N-acyl-homoserinelactone (AHL) monitor bacteria. HPLC-HR-MS analysis identified only one type of AHL, N-butanoyl-L-homoserine lactone (C4-HSL). A knock out mutant of AsaI, constructed by allelic exchange, did not produce a detectable QS signal and its virulence in fish was significantly impaired, as LD(50) of the AsaI-deficient mutant was 20-fold higher than that of the isogenic wt strain and the mean day to death of the mutant was significantly prolonged. Furthermore, the expression of two virulence factors (a toxic protease, AsaP1, and a cytotoxic factor) and a brown pigment were reduced in the mutant. AsaP1 production was inhibited by synthetic QS inhibitors (N-(propylsulfanylacetyl)-L-homoserine lactone; N-(pentylsulfanylacetyl)-L-homoserine lactone; and N-(heptylsulfanylacetyl)-L-homoserine lactone) at concentrations that did not affect bacterial growth. It is a new finding that the AHL synthase of Aeromonas affects virulence in fish and QS has not previously been associated with A. salmonicida infections in fish. Furthermore, AsaP1 production has not previously been shown to be QS regulated. The simplicity of the A. salmonicida subsp. achromogenes LuxIR-type QS system and the observation that synthetic QSI can inhibit an important virulence factor, AsaP1, without affecting bacterial growth, makes A. salmonicida subsp. achromogenes an interesting target organism to study the effects of QS in disease development and QSI in disease control. PMID:20708354

Schwenteit, Johanna; Gram, Lone; Nielsen, Kristian F; Fridjonsson, Olafur H; Bornscheuer, Uwe T; Givskov, Michael; Gudmundsdottir, Bjarnheidur K

2011-01-27

274

Quorum sensing-controlled buoyancy through gas vesicles: Intracellular bacterial microcompartments for environmental adaptation  

PubMed Central

Gas vesicles are gas-filled microcompartments produced by many cyanobacteria and haloarchaea to regulate buoyancy and control positioning in the water column. Recently we identified the first case of gas vesicle production by a member of the Enterobacteriaceae, Serratia sp ATCC39006. Gas vesicle production enabled colonisation of the air-liquid interface and was positively regulated in low-oxygen conditions, suggesting development of these intracellular organelles is an adpative mechanism facilitating migration to the water surface. Vesicle production was also regulated by the intercellular communication molecule N?butanoyl-L?homoserine lactone (BHL) showing that gas vesicle production is controlled at the population level, through quorum sensing, with BHL acting as a morphogen. Gas vesicle production was also reciprocally regulated with flagella-driven swarming motility by the global regulatory protein RsmA, suggesting a fork in the regulatory pathway that controls induction of these distinct modes of mobility. Here we discuss these findings in the context of the interesting physiology of Serratia 39006 and highlight future prospects for gas vesicle research in this highly tractable strain.

Ramsay, Joshua P.

2012-01-01

275

Inhibition of quorum sensing in gram-negative bacteria by alkylamine-modified cyclodextrins.  

PubMed

N-Acylhomoserine lactones (AHLs) are used as quorum-sensing (QS) signals by gram-negative bacteria. We have reported that the cyclic oligosaccharides known as cyclodextrins (CDs) form inclusion complexes with AHLs and disrupt QS signaling. In this study, a series of CD derivatives were designed and synthesized to improve the QS inhibitory activity over that of native CDs. The production of the red pigment prodigiosin by Serratia marcescens AS-1, which is regulated by AHL-mediated QS, was drastically decreased by adding 10 mg/ml 6-alkylacylamino-?-CD with an alkyl chain ranging from C7 to C12. An improvement in the QS inhibitory activity was also observed for 6-alkylamino-?- or ?-CDs and 2-alkylamino-CDs. Furthermore, 6,6'-dioctylamino-?-CD, which contains two octylamino groups, exhibited greater inhibitory activity than 6-monooctylamino-?-CD. The synthesized CD derivatives also had strong inhibitory effects on QS by other gram-negative bacteria, including Chromobacterium violaceum and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The synthetic alkylamine-modified CD derivatives had higher equilibrium binding constants for binding with AHL than the native CDs did, consistent with the improved QS inhibition. ¹H NMR measurements suggested that the alkyl side chains of 6-alkylacylamino-?-CDs with alkyl chains up to 6 carbon atoms long could form self-inclusion complexes with the CD unit. PMID:23466297

Morohoshi, Tomohiro; Tokita, Kazuho; Ito, Satoshi; Saito, Yuki; Maeda, Saki; Kato, Norihiro; Ikeda, Tsukasa

2013-08-01

276

Inhibition of quorum sensing regulated biofilm formation in Serratia marcescens causing nosocomial infections.  

PubMed

Serratia marcescens is an opportunistic pathogen causing severe urinary tract infections in hospitalized individuals. Infections of S. marcescens are of great concern because of its increasing resistance towards conventional antibiotics. Quorum sensing (QS)-a cell to cell communication-system of S. marcescens acts as a global regulator of almost all the virulence factors and majorly its biofilm formation. Since, the QS system of S. marcescens directly accords to its pathogenesis, targeting QS system will provide an improved strategy to combat drug resistant pathogens. In the present study, QS system of S. marcescens has been used as target and its inhibition has been studied upon exposure to bioactives from coral associated bacteria (CAB). This study also emphasises the potential of CAB in producing bioactive agents with anti-QS and antibiofilm properties. Two CAB isolates CAB 23 and 41 have shown to inhibit biofilm formation and the production of QS dependent virulence factors like prodigiosin, protease, lipase and swarming motility. The study, on the whole explicates the potential of QS system as a target to treat drug resistant bacterial infections. PMID:22487181

Bakkiyaraj, Dhamodharan; Sivasankar, Chandran; Pandian, Shunmugiah Karutha

2012-05-01

277

Quorum Sensing in the Dimorphic Fungus Candida albicans Is Mediated by Farnesol  

PubMed Central

The inoculum size effect in the dimorphic fungus Candida albicans results from production of an extracellular quorum-sensing molecule (QSM). This molecule prevents mycelial development in both a growth morphology assay and a differentiation assay using three chemically distinct triggers for germ tube formation (GTF): l-proline, N-acetylglucosamine, and serum (either pig or fetal bovine). In all cases, the presence of QSM prevents the yeast-to-mycelium conversion, resulting in actively budding yeasts without influencing cellular growth rates. QSM exhibits general cross-reactivity within C. albicans in that supernatants from strain A72 are active on five other strains of C. albicans and vice versa. The QSM excreted by C. albicans is farnesol (C15H26O; molecular weight, 222.37). QSM is extracellular, and is produced continuously during growth and over a temperature range from 23 to 43°C, in amounts roughly proportional to the CFU/milliliter. Production is not dependent on the type of carbon source nor nitrogen source or on the chemical nature of the growth medium. Both commercial mixed isomer and (E,E)-farnesol exhibited QSM activity (the ability to prevent GTF) at a level sufficient to account for all the QSM activity present in C. albicans supernatants, i.e., 50% GTF at ca. 30 to 35 ?M. Nerolidol was ca. two times less active than farnesol. Neither geraniol (C10), geranylgeraniol (C20), nor farnesyl pyrophosphate had any QSM activity.

Hornby, Jacob M.; Jensen, Ellen C.; Lisec, Amber D.; Tasto, Joseph J.; Jahnke, Brandon; Shoemaker, Richard; Dussault, Patrick; Nickerson, Kenneth W.

2001-01-01

278

Proteomic analysis of quorum sensing-dependent proteins in Burkholderia glumae.  

PubMed

Burkholderia glumae, the causal agent of bacterial rice grain rot, utilizes quorum sensing (QS) systems that rely on N-octanoyl homoserine lactone (synthesized by TofI) and its cognate receptor TofR to activate toxoflavin biosynthesis genes and an IclR-type transcriptional regulator gene, qsmR. Since QS is essential for B. glumae pathogenicity, we analyzed the QS-dependent proteome by 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis. A total of 79 proteins, including previously known QS-dependent proteins, were differentially expressed between the wild-type BGR1 and the tofI mutant BGS2 strains. Among this set, 59 proteins were found in the extracellular fraction, and 20 were cytoplasmic. Thirty-four proteins, including lipase and proteases, were secreted through the type II secretion system (T2SS). Real-time RT-PCR analysis showed that the corresponding genes of the 49 extracellular and 13 intracellular proteins are regulated by QS at the transcriptional level. The T2SS, encoded by 12 general secretion pathway (gsp) genes with 3 independent transcriptional units, was controlled by QS. beta-Glucuronidase activity analysis of gsp::Tn3-gusA gene fusions and electrophoretic mobility shift assays revealed that the expression of gsp genes is directly regulated by QsmR. T2SS-defective mutants exhibited reduced virulence, indicating that the T2SS-dependent extracellular proteins play important roles in B. glumae virulence. PMID:20408571

Goo, Eunhye; Kang, Yongsung; Kim, Hongsup; Hwang, Ingyu

2010-06-01

279

Crystal Structure of the Vibrio cholerae Quorum-Sensing Regulatory Protein HapR?  

PubMed Central

Quorum sensing in Vibrio cholerae involves signaling between two-component sensor protein kinases and the response regulator LuxO to control the expression of the master regulator HapR. HapR, in turn, plays a central role in regulating a number of important processes, such as virulence gene expression and biofilm formation. We have determined the crystal structure of HapR to 2.2-Å resolution. Its structure reveals a dimeric, two-domain molecule with an all-helical structure that is strongly conserved with members of the TetR family of transcriptional regulators. The N-terminal DNA-binding domain contains a helix-turn-helix DNA-binding motif and alteration of certain residues in this domain completely abolishes the ability of HapR to bind to DNA, alleviating repression of both virulence gene expression and biofilm formation. The C-terminal dimerization domain contains a unique solvent accessible tunnel connected to an amphipathic cavity, which by analogy with other TetR regulators, may serve as a binding pocket for an as-yet-unidentified ligand.

De Silva, Rukman S.; Kovacikova, Gabriela; Lin, Wei; Taylor, Ronald K.; Skorupski, Karen; Kull, F. Jon

2007-01-01

280

Bacillus marcorestinctum sp. nov., a novel soil acylhomoserine lactone quorum-sensing signal quenching bacterium.  

PubMed

A Gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, endospore-forming and rod-shaped bacterium was isolated from soil samples and designated strain LQQ. This organism strongly quenches the acylhomoserine lactone quorum-sensing signal. The LQQ strain exhibits phenotypic characteristics consistent with its classification in the genus Bacillus. It is positive in catalase and no special growth factor is needed. It uses glucose as sole carbon source. The DNA G + C content is 39.8 mol %. The closest relatives based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence are Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus thuringiensis, and Brevibacillus brevis (syn. Bacillus brevis) with the similarity of 96.5%. The DNA-DNA hybridization data indicates a low level of genomic relatedness with the relative type strains of Bacillus thuringiensis (6.1%), Bacillus anthracis (10.5%) and Brevibacillus brevis (8.7%). On the basis of the phenotypic and phylogenetic data together with the genomic distinctiveness, the LQQ strain represents a novel species of the genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus marcorestinctum sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is LQQ(T). PMID:20386651

Han, Yan; Chen, Fang; Li, Nuo; Zhu, Bo; Li, Xianzhen

2010-01-01

281

Dynamics of AHL mediated quorum sensing under flow and non-flow conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quorum sensing (QS) describes the capability of microbes to communicate with each other by the aid of small molecules. Here we investigate the dynamics of QS-regulated gene expression induced by acylhomoserine lactones (AHLs) in Pseudomonas putida IsoF containing a green fluorescent protein-based AHL reporter. The fluorescence time course of individual colonies is monitored following the external addition of a defined AHL concentration to cells which had previously reached the QS-inactive state in AHL-free medium. Using a microfluidic setup the experiment is performed both under flow and non-flow conditions. We find that without supplying external AHL gene expression is induced without flow while flow suppresses the induction. Both without and with flow, at a low AHL concentration the fluorescence onset is significantly delayed while fluorescence starts to increase directly upon the addition of AHL at a high concentration. The differences between no flow and flow can be accounted for using a two-compartment model. This indicates AHL accumulation in a volume which is not affected by the flow. The experiments furthermore show significant cell-to-cell and colony-to-colony variability which is discussed in the context of a compartmentalized QS mechanism.

Meyer, Andrea; Megerle, Judith A.; Kuttler, Christina; Müller, Johannes; Aguilar, Claudio; Eberl, Leo; Hense, Burkhard A.; Rädler, Joachim O.

2012-04-01

282

Quorum Sensing Activity of a Kluyvera sp. Isolated from a Malaysian Waterfall  

PubMed Central

In many species of bacteria, the quorum sensing mechanism is used as a unique communication system which allows them to regulate gene expression and behavior in accordance with their population density. N-Acylhomoserine lactones (AHLs) are known as diffusible autoinducer molecules involved in this communication network. This finding aimed to characterize the production of AHL of a bacterial strain ND04 isolated from a Malaysian waterfall. Strain ND04 was identified as Kluyvera sp. as confirmed by molecular analysis of its 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequence. Kluyvera sp. is closely related to the Enterobacteriaceae family. Chromobacterium violaceum CV026 was used as a biosensor to detect the production of AHL by strain ND04. High resolution triple quadrupole liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of strain ND04 showed our isolate produced two AHLs which are N-(3-oxohexanoyl)homoserine lactone (3-oxo-C6 HSL) and N-3-oxo-octanoyl-L-homoserine lactone (3-oxo-C8 HSL).

Yunos, Nina Yusrina Muhamad; Tan, Wen-Si; Mohamad, Nur Izzati; Tan, Pui-Wan; Adrian, Tan-Guan-Sheng; Yin, Wai-Fong; Chan, Kok-Gan

2014-01-01

283

Revisiting synthetic preparation of the quorum sensing substrate S-d-ribosyl-l-homocysteine (SRH).  

PubMed

Cleavage of the thioether bond of S-d-ribosyl-l-homocysteine (SRH) by the enzyme S-ribosylhomocysteinase (LuxS) serves as the final biosynthetic step in the generation of the quorum sensing autoinducer AI-2 by bacteria. Herein, a revised chemical synthesis of SRH is presented at convenient scale and purity for in vitro studies of LuxS. Potassium bis(trimethylsilyl)amide (KHMDS) is identified as a judicious base for the formation of the thioether of the target compound from readily-accessible precursors: a thiol nucleophile derived from l-homocystine and a sulfonate-activated d-ribosyl electrophile. The exclusive use of acid-labile protecting groups allows for facile deprotection to the final product, producing the TFA salt of SRH in five synthetic steps and 26% overall yield. The chemically-synthesized material is isolated at high purity and demonstrated to serve as the LuxS substrate by an in vitro assay. PMID:24967680

Bolitho, Megan E; Corcoran, Brendan J; Showell-Rouse, Emily I; Wang, Keeshia Q

2014-07-23

284

Quorum sensing communication between bacteria and human cells: signals, targets, and functions  

PubMed Central

Both direct and long-range interactions between pathogenic Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteria and their eukaryotic hosts are important in the outcome of infections. For cell-to-cell communication, these bacteria employ the quorum sensing (QS) system to pass on information of the density of the bacterial population and collectively switch on virulence factor production, biofilm formation, and resistance development. Thus, QS allows bacteria to behave as a community to perform tasks which would be impossible for individual cells, e.g., to overcome defense and immune systems and establish infections in higher organisms. This review highlights these aspects of QS and our own recent research on how P. aeruginosa communicates with human cells using the small QS signal molecules N-acyl homoserine lactones (AHL). We focus on how this conversation changes the behavior and function of neutrophils, macrophages, and epithelial cells and on how the signaling machinery in human cells responsible for the recognition of AHL. Understanding the bacteria–host relationships at both cellular and molecular levels is essential for the identification of new targets and for the development of novel strategies to fight bacterial infections in the future.

Holm, Angelika; Vikstrom, Elena

2014-01-01

285

Evaluation of the effects of selected phytochemicals on quorum sensing inhibition and in vitro cytotoxicity.  

PubMed

Quorum sensing (QS) is an important regulatory mechanism in biofilm formation and differentiation. Interference with QS can affect biofilm development and antimicrobial susceptibility. This study evaluates the potential of selected phytochemical products to inhibit QS. Three isothiocyanates (allylisothiocyanate - AITC, benzylisothiocyanate - BITC and 2-phenylethylisothiocyanate - PEITC) and six phenolic products (gallic acid - GA, ferulic acid - FA, caffeic acid - CA, phloridzin - PHL, (-) epicatechin - EPI and oleuropein glucoside - OG) were tested. A disc diffusion assay based on pigment inhibition in Chromobacterium violaceum CV12472 was performed. In addition, the mechanisms of QS inhibition (QSI) based on the modulation of N-acyl homoserine lactone (AHLs) activity and synthesis by the phytochemicals were investigated. The cytotoxicity of each product was tested on a cell line of mouse lung fibroblasts. AITC, BITC and PEITC demonstrated a capacity for QSI by modulation of AHL activity and synthesis, interfering the with QS systems of C. violaceum CviI/CviR homologs of LuxI/LuxR systems. The cytotoxic assays demonstrated low effects on the metabolic viability of the fibroblast cell line only for FA, PHL and EPI. PMID:24344870

Borges, Anabela; Serra, Sofia; Cristina Abreu, Ana; Saavedra, Maria J; Salgado, António; Simões, Manuel

2014-02-01

286

Quorum-sensing effects in the antagonistic rhizosphere bacterium Serratia plymuthica HRO-C48.  

PubMed

The rhizosphere-associated bacterium Serratia plymuthica HRO-C48 is not only able to suppress symptoms caused by soil-borne pathogens but is also able to stimulate growth of plants. Detailed knowledge about the underlying mechanisms and regulation are crucial for the application in biocontrol strategies. To analyse the influence of N-acyl homoserine lactone (AHL)-mediated communication on the biocontrol activity, the AHL-degrading lactonase AiiA was heterologously expressed in the strain, resulting in abolished AHL production. The comparative analysis of the wild type and AHL negative mutants led to the identification of new AHL-regulated phenotypes. In the pathosystem Verticillium dahliae-oilseed rape, the essential role of AHL-mediated signaling for disease suppression was demonstrated. In vitro, the regulatory function of AHLs in the synthesis of the plant growth hormone indole-3-acetic acid is shown for the first time. Additionally, swimming motility was found to be negatively AHL regulated. In contrast, production of extracellular hydrolytic enzymes is shown to be positively AHL-regulated. HRO-C48 emits a broad spectrum of volatile organic compounds that are involved in antifungal activity and, interestingly, whose relative abundances are influenced by quorum sensing (QS). This study shows that QS is crucial for biocontrol activity of S. plymuthica and discusses the impact for the application of the strain as a biocontrol agent. PMID:19220861

Müller, Henry; Westendorf, Christian; Leitner, Erich; Chernin, Leonid; Riedel, Kathrin; Schmidt, Silvia; Eberl, Leo; Berg, Gabriele

2009-03-01

287

QsIA disrupts LasR dimerization in antiactivation of bacterial quorum sensing  

PubMed Central

The human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa coordinates the expression of virulence factors by using quorum sensing (QS), a signaling cascade triggered by the QS signal molecule and its receptor, a member of the LuxR family of QS transcriptional factors (LasR). The QS threshold and response in P. aeruginosa is defined by a QS LasR-specific antiactivator (QslA), which binds to LasR and prevents it from binding to its target promoter. However, how QslA binds to LasR and regulates its DNA binding activity in QS remains elusive. Here we report the crystal structure of QslA in complex with the N-terminal ligand binding domain of LasR. QsIA exists as a functional dimer to interact with the LasR ligand binding domain. Further analysis shows that QsIA binding occupies the LasR dimerization interface and consequently disrupts LasR dimerization, thereby preventing LasR from binding to its target DNA and disturbing normal QS. Our findings provide a structural model for understanding the QslA-mediated antiactivation mechanism in QS through protein–protein interaction.

Fan, Hui; Dong, Yihu; Wu, Donghui; Bowler, Matthew W.; Zhang, Lianhui; Song, Haiwei

2013-01-01

288

Rapid hydrolysis of quorum-sensing molecules in the gut of lepidopteran larvae.  

PubMed

Microorganisms compete for nutrients and living space in the gut of plant-feeding insect larvae, such as Spodoptera spp. Their physiological activities and their organization are generally controlled or synchronised by "autoinducers", such as N-acylhomoserinelactones (AHLs). Due to the strongly alkaline milieu in the insect gut, the lactone ring of AHLs is rapidly and spontaneously opened. Further degradation to the inactive components homoserine and the acyl moiety is then achieved by a microbial N-acylamino acid hydrolase (AAH) and related enzymatic activities in the insect gut. Initialised by the alkaline milieu, such activities might account for the complete absence of AHLs in the intestinal fluid of the studied Spodoptera spp. The AHL-recognition system of E. coli RV308pSB40, but not that of Agrobacterium tumefaciens NT1/pZLR4 and Chromobacterium violaceum CV026, was found to be inhibited by the structurally related N-acylglutamines, which are abundantly present in the gut of many lepidopteran larvae. Our observations suggest an active role of the insect in interfering with the quorum sensing of their gut microbiota by several independent strategies. PMID:18642255

Funke, Matthias; Büchler, Rita; Mahobia, Vertica; Schneeberg, Alexander; Ramm, Michael; Boland, Wilhelm

2008-08-11

289

Uracil influences quorum sensing and biofilm formation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and fluorouracil is an antagonist  

PubMed Central

Summary Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an ubiquitous, opportunistic pathogen whose biofilms are notoriously difficult to control. Here we discover uracil influences all three known quorum?sensing (QS) pathways of P. aeruginosa. By screening 5850 transposon mutants for altered biofilm formation, we identified seven uracil?related mutations that abolished biofilm formation. Whole?transcriptome studies showed the uracil mutations (e.g. pyrF that catalyses the last step in uridine monophosphate synthesis) alter the regulation of all three QS pathways [LasR?, RhlR? and 2?heptyl?3?hydroxy?4?quinolone (PQS)?related regulons]; addition of extracellular uracil restored global wild?type regulation. Phenotypic studies confirmed uracil influences the LasR (elastase), RhlR (pyocyanin, rhamnolipids), PQS and swarming regulons. Our results also demonstrate uracil influences virulence (the pyrF mutant was less virulent to barley). Additionally, we found an anticancer uracil analogue, 5?fluorouracil, that repressed biofilm formation, abolished QS phenotypes and reduced virulence. Hence, we have identified a central regulator of an important pathogen and a potential novel class of efficacious drugs for controlling cellular behaviour (e.g. biofilm formation and virulence).

Ueda, Akihiro; Attila, Can; Whiteley, Marvin; Wood, Thomas K.

2009-01-01

290

A transcriptional regulator linking quorum sensing and chitin induction to render Vibrio cholerae naturally transformable  

PubMed Central

The human pathogen Vibrio cholerae is an aquatic bacterium associated with zooplankton and their chitinous exoskeletons. On chitinous surfaces, V. cholerae initiates a developmental programme, known as natural competence, to mediate transformation, which is a mode of horizontal gene transfer. Competence facilitates the uptake of free DNA and recombination into the bacterial genome. Recent studies have indicated that chitin surfaces are required, but not sufficient to induce competence. Two additional regulatory pathways, i.e. catabolite repression and quorum sensing (QS), are components of the regulatory network that controls natural competence in V. cholerae. In this study, we investigated the link between chitin induction and QS. We show that the major regulators of these two pathways, TfoX and HapR, are both involved in the activation of a gene encoding a transcriptional regulator of the LuxR-type family, which we named QS and TfoX-dependent regulator (QstR). We demonstrate that HapR binds the promoter of qstR in a site-specific manner, indicating a role for HapR as an activator of qstR. In addition, epistasis experiments indicate that QstR compensates for the absence of HapR. We also provide evidence that QstR is required for the proper expression of a small but essential subset of competence genes and propose a new regulatory model in which QstR links chitin-induced TfoX activity with QS.

Lo Scrudato, Mirella; Blokesch, Melanie

2013-01-01

291

Small Molecules that Modulate Quorum Sensing and Control Virulence in Pseudomonas aeruginosa  

PubMed Central

Bacteria use small molecule signals to access their local population densities in a process called quorum sensing (QS). Once a threshold signal concentration is reached, and therefore a certain number of bacteria have assembled, bacteria use QS to change gene expression levels and initiate behaviors that benefit the group. These group processes play central roles in both bacterial virulence and symbiosis, and can have significant impacts on human health, agriculture, and the environment. The dependence of QS on small molecule signals has inspired organic chemists to design non-native molecules that can intercept these signals and thereby perturb bacterial group behaviors. The opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa has been the target of many of these efforts due to its prevalence in human infections. P. aeruginosa uses at least two N-acyl L-homoserine lactone signals and three homologous LuxR-type receptors to initiate a range of pathogenic behaviors at high cell densities, including biofilm formation and the production of an arsenal of virulence factors. This review highlights recent chemical efforts to modulate LuxR-type receptor activity in P. aeruginosa, and offers insight into the development of receptor-specific ligands as potential anti-virulence strategies.

Mattmann, Margrith E.; Blackwell, Helen E.

2010-01-01

292

Identification of an rsh gene from a Novosphingobium sp. necessary for quorum-sensing signal accumulation.  

PubMed

The stringent response is a mechanism by which bacteria adapt to environmental stresses and nutritional deficiencies through the synthesis and hydrolysis of (p)ppGpp by RelA/SpoT enzymes. Alphaproteobacteria and plants contain a single Rsh enzyme (named for RelA/SpoT homolog) that is bifunctional. Here we report the identification of a new species of bacteria belonging to the genus Novosphingobium and characterization of an rsh mutation in this plant tumor-associated isolate. Isolate Rr 2-17, from a grapevine crown gall tumor, is a member of the Novosphingobium genus that produces the N-acyl-homoserine lactone (AHL) quorum-sensing (QS) signals. A Tn5 mutant, Hx 699, deficient in AHL production was found to have an insertion in an rsh gene. The Rsh protein showed significant percent sequence identity to Rsh proteins of alphaproteobacteria. The Novosphingobium sp. rsh gene (rsh(Nsp)) complemented the multiple amino acid requirements of the Escherichia coli relA spoT double mutant by restoring the growth on selection media. Besides QS signal production, the rsh mutation also affects soluble polysaccharide production and cell aggregation. Genetic complementation of the Hx 699 mutant with the rsh(Nsp) gene restored these phenotypes. This is the first discovery of a functional rsh gene in a member of the Novosphingobium genus. PMID:19201802

Gan, Han Ming; Buckley, Larry; Szegedi, Erno; Hudson, André O; Savka, Michael A

2009-04-01

293

Freshwater-borne bacteria isolated from a malaysian rainforest waterfall exhibiting quorum sensing properties.  

PubMed

One obvious requirement for concerted action by a bacterial population is for an individual to be aware of and respond to the other individuals of the same species in order to form a response in unison. The term "quorum sensing" (QS) was coined to describe bacterial communication that is able to stimulate expression of a series of genes when the concentration of the signaling molecules has reached a threshold level. Here we report the isolation from aquatic environment of a bacterium that was later identified as Enterobacter sp.. Chromobacterium violaceum CV026 and Escherichia coli [pSB401] were used for preliminary screening of N-acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) production. The Enterobacter sp. isolated was shown to produce two types of AHLs as confirmed by analysis using high resolution tandem mass spectrometry. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first documentation of an Enterobacter sp. that produced both 3-oxo-C6-HSL and 3-oxo-C8-HSL as QS signaling molecules. PMID:24932870

Tan, Wen-Si; Yunos, Nina Yusrina Muhamad; Tan, Pui-Wan; Mohamad, Nur Izzati; Adrian, Tan-Guan-Sheng; Yin, Wai-Fong; Chan, Kok-Gan

2014-01-01

294

The Transcriptional Regulator CzcR Modulates Antibiotic Resistance and Quorum Sensing in Pseudomonas aeruginosa  

PubMed Central

The opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa responds to zinc, cadmium and cobalt by way of the CzcRS two-component system. In presence of these metals the regulatory protein CzcR induces the expression of the CzcCBA efflux pump, expelling and thereby inducing resistance to Zn, Cd and Co. Importantly, CzcR co-regulates carbapenem antibiotic resistance by repressing the expression of the OprD porin, the route of entry for these antibiotics. This unexpected co-regulation led us to address the role of CzcR in other cellular processes unrelated to the metal response. We found that CzcR affected the expression of numerous genes directly involved in the virulence of P. aeruginosa even in the absence of the inducible metals. Notably the full expression of quorum sensing 3-oxo-C12-HSL and C4-HSL autoinducer molecules is impaired in the absence of CzcR. In agreement with this, the virulence of the czcRS deletion mutant is affected in a C. elegans animal killing assay. Additionally, chromosome immunoprecipitation experiments allowed us to localize CzcR on the promoter of several regulated genes, suggesting a direct control of target genes such as oprD, phzA1 and lasI. All together our data identify CzcR as a novel regulator involved in the control of several key genes for P. aeruginosa virulence processes.

Dieppois, Guennaelle; Ducret, Verena; Caille, Olivier; Perron, Karl

2012-01-01

295

Identification of functions linking quorum sensing with biofilm formation in Burkholderia cenocepacia H111  

PubMed Central

Burkholderia cenocepacia has emerged as an important pathogen for patients suffering from cystic fibrosis (CF). Previous work has shown that this organism employs the CepIR quorum-sensing (QS) system to control the expression of virulence factors as well as the formation of biofilms. To date, however, very little is known about the QS-regulated virulence factors and virtually nothing about the factors that link QS and biofilm formation. Here, we have employed a combined transcriptomic and proteomic approach to precisely define the QS regulon in our model strain B. cenocepacia H111, a CF isolate. Among the identified CepR-activated loci, three were analyzed in better detail for their roles in biofilm development: (i) a gene cluster coding for the BclACB lectins, (ii) the large surface protein BapA, and (iii) a type I pilus. The analysis of defined mutants revealed that BapA plays a major role in biofilm formation on abiotic surfaces while inactivation of the type I pilus showed little effect both in a static microtitre dish-based biofilm assay and in flow-through cells. Inactivation of the bclACB lectin genes resulted in biofilms containing hollow microcolonies, suggesting that the lectins are important for biofilm structural development.

Inhulsen, Silja; Aguilar, Claudio; Schmid, Nadine; Suppiger, Angela; Riedel, Kathrin; Eberl, Leo

2012-01-01

296

The presence and role of bacterial quorum sensing in activated sludge  

PubMed Central

Summary Activated sludge used for wastewater treatment globally is composed of a high?density microbial community of great biotechnological significance. In this study the presence and purpose of quorum sensing via N?acylated?l?homoserine lactones (AHLs) in activated sludge was explored. The presence of N?heptanoyl?l?homoserine lactone in organic extracts of sludge was demonstrated along with activation of a LuxR?based AHL monitor strain deployed in sludge, indicating AHL?mediated gene expression is active in sludge flocculates but not in the bulk aqueous phase. Bacterial isolates from activated sludge were screened for AHL production and expression of phenotypes commonly but not exclusively regulated by AHL?mediated gene transcription. N?acylated?l?homoserine lactone and exoenzyme production were frequently observed among the isolates. N?acylated?l?homoserine lactone addition to sludge upregulated chitinase activity and an AHL? and chitinase?producing isolate closely related to Aeromonas hydrophila was shown to respond to AHL addition with upregulation of chitinase activity. N?acylated?l?homoserine lactones produced by this strain were identified and genes ahyI/R and chiA, encoding AHL production and response and chitinase activity respectively, were sequenced. These experiments provide insight into the relationship between AHL?mediated gene expression and exoenzyme activity in activated sludge and may ultimately create opportunities to improve sludge performance.

Chong, Grace; Kimyon, Onder; Rice, Scott A.; Kjelleberg, Staffan; Manefield, Mike

2012-01-01

297

An aqueous extract of Yunnan Baiyao inhibits the quorum-sensing-related virulence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.  

PubMed

Yunnan Baiyao is a famous Chinese medicine that has long been directly applied to wounds to reduce bleeding, pain, and swelling without causing infection. However, little is known about its ability to prevent infection. The present study aimed to assess in vitro the anti-virulence activity of an aqueous extract of Yunnan Baiyao (YBX) using Pseudomonas aeruginosa as a pathogenic model. We found that a sub-MIC (2.5 mg/ml) of YBX can efficiently interfere with the quorum-sensing (QS) signaling circuit. Real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that a sub-MIC of YBX down-regulated the transcriptions of lasR, lasI, rhlR, and rhlI, which resulted in global attenuation of QS-regulated virulence activities, such as biofilm formation, and secretion of LasA protease, LasB elastase and pyocyanin. Further, YBX reduced the motility of P. aeruginosa related to QS, and impaired the formation of biofilms. These results suggest that YBX may possess global inhibitory activity against the virulence of P. aeruginosa and that YBX may also exhibit antimicrobial activity in vivo. The present study suggests that Yunnan Baiyao represents a potential source for isolating novel, safe, and efficacious antimicrobial agents. PMID:23625222

Zhao, Zu-Guo; Yan, Shuang-Shuang; Yu, Yun-Mei; Mi, Na; Zhang, La-Xi; Liu, Jun; Li, Xiao-Ling; Liu, Fang; Xu, Jun-Fa; Yang, Wei-Qing; Li, Guo-Ming

2013-04-01

298

Attenuation of quorum sensing controlled virulence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa by cranberry  

PubMed Central

Background & objectives: Emergence of antimicrobial resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa has led to the search for alternative agents for infections control. Natural products have been a good alternative to present antibiotics. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effectiveness of cranberry in attenuation of virulence of P. aeruginosa in experimental urinary tract infection (UTI) in mouse model. Efforts were also directed to explore the action of cranberry towards virulence of P. aeruginosa through quorum sensing (QS) inhibition. Methods: Efficacy of cranberry was evaluated in an experimental UTI mouse model and on production of QS signals, alginate, pyochelin, haemolysin, phospholipase-C, cell-surface hydrophobicity, uroepithelial cell-adhesion assay and biofilm formation by already standardized methods. Results: Presence of cranberry showed significant decline in the production of QS signals, biofilm formation and virulence factors of P. aeruginosa in vitro (P<0.001). Further, cranberry was found to be useful in prevention of experimental UTI in mouse model as indicated by reduced renal bacterial colonization and kidney tissues destruction. Interpretation & conclusions: The findings of the present study indicated that cranberry inhibited QS and hence elaboration of virulence factors of P. aeruginosa. It also affected the adherence ability of this pathogen. This approach can lead to the discovery of new category of safe anti-bacterial drugs from dietary sources such as cranberry with reduced toxicity without the risk of antibiotic resistance.

Harjai, Kusum; Gupta, Ravi Kumar; Sehgal, Himanshi

2014-01-01

299

Genes as Early Responders Regulate Quorum-Sensing and Control Bacterial Cooperation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa  

PubMed Central

Quorum-sensing (QS) allows bacterial communication to coordinate the production of extracellular products essential for population fitness at higher cell densities. It has been generally accepted that a significant time duration is required to reach appropriate cell density to activate the relevant quiescent genes encoding these costly but beneficial public goods. Which regulatory genes are involved and how these genes control bacterial communication at the early phases are largely un-explored. By determining time-dependent expression of QS-related genes of the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aerugionsa, we show that the induction of social cooperation could be critically influenced by environmental factors to optimize the density of population. In particular, small regulatory RNAs (RsmY and RsmZ) serving as early responders, can promote the expression of dependent genes (e.g. lasR) to boost the synthesis of intracellular enzymes and coordinate instant cooperative behavior in bacterial cells. These early responders, acting as a rheostat to finely modulate bacterial cooperation, which may be quickly activated under environment threats, but peter off when critical QS dependent genes are fully functional for cooperation. Our findings suggest that RsmY and RsmZ critically control the timing and levels of public goods production, which may have implications in sociomicrobiology and infection control.

Zhao, Kelei; Li, Yi; Yue, Bisong; Wu, Min

2014-01-01

300

Inhibition of quorum sensing in Chromobacterium violaceum by Syzygium cumini L. and Pimenta dioica L.  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigated into the anti-quorum sensing (QS) activity of Syzygium cumini L. (S. cumini) and Pimenta dioica L. (P. dioica) using Chromobacterium violaceum (C. violaceum) strains. Methods In this study, anti-QS activity of ethanol extract of Syzygium cumini L. and Pimenta dioica L. were screened using C. violaceum CV026 biosensor bioassay. By bioassay guided fractionation of S. cumini and P. dioica, ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) with strong anti-QS activity was separated. Inhibition of QS regulated violacein production in C. violaceum ATCC12472 by EAF was assessed at different concentrations. The effect of EAF on the synthesis of autoinducer like N-acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) was studied in C. violaceum ATCC31532 using its mutant C. violaceum CV026 by standard methods. Results EAF inhibited violacein production in C. violaceum ATCC12472 in a concentration dependent manner without significant reduction in bacterial growth. Complete inhibition of violacein production was evidenced in 0.75-1.0 mg/mL concentration of EAF without inhibiting the synthesis of the AHL. TLC biosensor overlay profile of EAF revealed two translucent spots in S. cumini and P. dioica that inhibited C6-AHL mediated violacein production in C. violaceum CV026. Conclusions This study indicates the anti-QS activity of the tested medicinal plants against C. violaceum.

Vasavi, Halkare Suryanarayana; Arun, Ananthapadmanabha Bhagwath; Rekha, Punchapady Devasya

2013-01-01

301

Kinetic Model for Signal Binding to the Quorum Sensing Regulator LasR  

PubMed Central

We propose a kinetic model for the activation of the las regulon in the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The model is based on in vitro data and accounts for the LasR dimerization and consecutive activation by binding of two OdDHL signal molecules. Experimentally, the production of the active LasR quorum-sensing regulator was studied in an Escherichia coli background as a function of signal molecule concentration. The functional activity of the regulator was monitored via a GFP reporter fusion to lasB expressed from the native lasB promoter. The new data shows that the active form of the LasR dimer binds two signal molecules cooperatively and that the timescale for reaching saturation is independent of the signal molecule concentration. This favors a picture where the dimerized regulator is protected against proteases and remains protected as it is activated through binding of two successive signal molecules. In absence of signal molecules, the dimerized regulator can dissociate and degrade through proteolytic turnover of the monomer. This resolves the apparent contradiction between our data and recent reports that the fully protected dimer is able to “degrade” when the induction of LasR ceases.

Claussen, Anetta; Jakobsen, Tim Holm; Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Givskov, Michael; Welch, Martin; Ferkinghoff-Borg, Jesper; Sams, Thomas

2013-01-01

302

Detecting the Molecular Signature of Social Conflict: Theory and a Test with Bacterial Quorum Sensing Genes  

PubMed Central

Extending social evolution theory to the molecular level opens the door to an unparalleled abundance of data and statistical tools for testing alternative hypotheses about the long-term evolutionary dynamics of cooperation and conflict. To this end, we take a collection of known sociality genes (bacterial quorum sensing [QS] genes), model their evolution in terms of patterns that are detectable using gene sequence data, and then test model predictions using available genetic data sets. Specifically, we test two alternative hypotheses of social conflict: (1) the “adaptive” hypothesis that cheaters are maintained in natural populations by frequency-dependent balancing selection as an evolutionarily stable strategy and (2) the “evolutionary null” hypothesis that cheaters are opposed by purifying kin selection yet exist transiently because of their recurrent introduction into populations by mutation (i.e., kin selection-mutation balance). We find that QS genes have elevated within- and among-species sequence variation, nonsignificant signatures of natural selection, and putatively small effect sizes of mutant alleles, all patterns predicted by our evolutionary null model but not by the stable cheater hypothesis. These empirical findings support our theoretical prediction that QS genes experience relaxed selection due to nonclonality of social groups, conditional expression, and the individual-level advantage enjoyed by cheaters. Furthermore, cheaters are evolutionarily transient, persisting in populations because of their recurrent introduction by mutation and not because they enjoy a frequency-dependent fitness advantage.

Van Dyken, J. David; Wade, Michael J.

2014-01-01

303

Presence of quorum sensing signal molecules in minced beef stored under various temperature and packaging conditions.  

PubMed

The presence of acylated homoserine lactones (AHLs) and autoinducer-2 (AI-2)-like activity was observed in meat stored under various temperatures (0, 5, 10 and 15°C) and packaging (air, modified atmospheres and modified atmospheres with oregano essential oil) conditions, and correlated with the ephemeral spoilage organisms that comprise the microbial community generally associated with this product. Quorum sensing signal molecules were found to be affected by the packaging conditions e.g. temperature and atmosphere used for meat preservation as a consequence of the development of a distinct microbial community. AHL signal molecules were detected at all incubation temperatures in minced beef samples, both stored aerobically and under modified atmospheres, when both pseudomonads and Enterobacteriaceae populations ranged from 10(7) to 10(9)CFU/g, but no signal molecules were detected in minced beef stored under modified atmospheres in the presence of volatile compounds of oregano essential oil, where both these groups failed to grow in high numbers. Additionally, no significant AI-2 activity was observed in the tested cell-free meat extracts (CFME), regardless of the indigenous bacterial populations. The presence of N-(?-ketocaproyl)-homoserine lactone was confirmed with TLC analysis of CFME. PMID:24380750

Blana, Vasiliki A; Nychas, George-John E

2014-03-01

304

Antibiotic-Mediated Selection of Quorum-Sensing-Negative Staphylococcus aureus  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Staphylococcus aureus is a human commensal that at times turns into a serious bacterial pathogen causing life-threatening infections. For the delicate control of virulence, S. aureus employs the agr quorum-sensing system that, via the intracellular effector molecule RNAIII, regulates virulence gene expression. We demonstrate that the presence of the agr locus imposes a fitness cost on S. aureus that is mediated by the expression of RNAIII. Further, we show that exposure to sublethal levels of the antibiotics ciprofloxacin, mupirocin, and rifampin, each targeting separate cellular functions, markedly increases the agr-mediated fitness cost by inducing the expression of RNAIII. Thus, the extensive use of antibiotics in hospitals may explain why agr-negative variants are frequently isolated from hospital-acquired S. aureus infections but rarely found among community-acquired S. aureus strains. Importantly, agr deficiency correlates with increased duration of and mortality due to bacteremia during antibiotic treatment and with a higher frequency of glycopeptide resistance than in agr-carrying strains. Our results provide an explanation for the frequent isolation of agr-defective strains from hospital-acquired S. aureus infections and suggest that the adaptability of S. aureus to antibiotics involves the agr locus.

Paulander, Wilhelm; Nissen Varming, Anders; Baek, Kristoffer T.; Haaber, Jakob; Frees, Dorte; Ingmer, Hanne

2012-01-01

305

Freshwater-Borne Bacteria Isolated from a Malaysian Rainforest Waterfall Exhibiting Quorum Sensing Properties  

PubMed Central

One obvious requirement for concerted action by a bacterial population is for an individual to be aware of and respond to the other individuals of the same species in order to form a response in unison. The term “quorum sensing” (QS) was coined to describe bacterial communication that is able to stimulate expression of a series of genes when the concentration of the signaling molecules has reached a threshold level. Here we report the isolation from aquatic environment of a bacterium that was later identified as Enterobacter sp.. Chromobacterium violaceum CV026 and Escherichia coli [pSB401] were used for preliminary screening of N-acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) production. The Enterobacter sp. isolated was shown to produce two types of AHLs as confirmed by analysis using high resolution tandem mass spectrometry. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first documentation of an Enterobacter sp. that produced both 3-oxo-C6-HSL and 3-oxo-C8-HSL as QS signaling molecules.

Tan, Wen-Si; Yunos, Nina Yusrina Muhamad; Tan, Pui-Wan; Mohamad, Nur Izzati; Adrian, Tan-Guan-Sheng; Yin, Wai-Fong; Chan, Kok-Gan

2014-01-01

306

Quorum sensing activity and control of yeast-mycelium dimorphism in Ophiostoma floccosum.  

PubMed

Quorum sensing (QS) activity in Ophiostoma fungi has not been described. We have examined the growth conditions on the control of dimorphism in Ophiostoma floccosum, an attractive biocontrol agent against blue-stain fungi, and its relationship with QS activity. In a defined culture medium with L-proline as the N source, a high inoculum size (10(7) c.f.u. ml(-1)) was the principal factor that promoted yeast-like growth. Inoculum size effect can be explained by the secretion of a QS molecule(s) (QSMs) responsible for inducing yeast morphology. QSM candidates were extracted from spent medium and their structure was determined by GC-MS. Three cyclic sesquiterpenes were found. The most abundant molecule, and therefore the principal candidate to be the QSM responsible for yeast growth of O. floccosum, was 1,1,4a-trimethyl-5,6-dimethylene-decalin (C15H24). Other two compounds were also detected. PMID:24737073

Berrocal, Alexander; Oviedo, Claudia; Nickerson, Kenneth W; Navarrete, José

2014-07-01

307

Single cell analysis of Vibrio harveyi uncovers functional heterogeneity in response to quorum sensing signals  

PubMed Central

Background Vibrio harveyi and closely related species are important pathogens in aquaculture. A complex quorum sensing cascade involving three autoinducers controls bioluminescence and several genes encoding virulence factors. Single cell analysis of a V. harveyi population has already indicated intercellular heterogeneity in the production of bioluminescence. This study was undertaken to analyze the expression of various autoinducer-dependent genes in individual cells. Results Here we used reporter strains bearing promoter::gfp fusions to monitor the induction/repression of three autoinducer-regulated genes in wild type conjugates at the single cell level. Two genes involved in pathogenesis - vhp and vscP, which code for an exoprotease and a component of the type III secretion system, respectively, and luxC (the first gene in the lux operon) were chosen for analysis. The lux operon and the exoprotease gene are induced, while vscP is repressed at high cell density. As controls luxS and recA, whose expression is not dependent on autoinducers, were examined. The responses of the promoter::gfp fusions in individual cells from the same culture ranged from no to high induction. Importantly, simultaneous analysis of two autoinducer induced phenotypes, bioluminescence (light detection) and exoproteolytic activity (fluorescence of a promoter::gfp fusion), in single cells provided evidence for functional heterogeneity within a V. harveyi population. Conclusions Autoinducers are not only an indicator for cell density, but play a pivotal role in the coordination of physiological activities within the population.

2012-01-01

308

Antibacterial and quorum sensing regulatory activities of some traditional Eastern-European medicinal plants.  

PubMed

Abstract The objective of this study was to screen extracts of twenty Eastern European medicinal plants, using wild-type and reporter Chromobacterium violaceum bioassays, for novel components that target bacterial cells and their quorum sensing (QS) communication systems. Three types of activity and their combinations were revealed: (i) direct antimicrobial growth-inhibitory activity, (ii) non-specific and specific pro-QS activities, (iii) anti-QS activity. Among seven plant extracts showing direct growth-inhibitory activity, the strongest effect was shown by Arctostaphylos uva- -ursi (bearberry) leaves. Many plants stimulated violacein production by wild-type C. violaceum ATCC 31532 in a non-specific manner, and only the herb Bidens tripartita (three-lobe beggarticks) contained compounds that mimic acyl-homoserine lactone and operated as a QS agonist. Anti-QS activity was found in eleven plants including Quercus robur (oak) cortex, Betula verrucosa (birch) buds and Eucalyptus viminalis (Manna Gum) leaves. Subsequent statistical analysis showed differences between antimicrobial and anti-QS activities, whereas both activities were defined by phylogenetic position of medical resource plant. Finally, extract from Quercus robur cortex revealed at least two fractions, showing different anti-QS mechanisms. These data confirm that multicomponent anti-infectious mechanisms are used by plants, which may be useful for drug development. PMID:24914718

Tolmacheva, Anna A; Rogozhin, Eugene A; Deryabin, Dmitry G

2014-06-01

309

Ligand and antagonist driven regulation of the Vibrio cholerae quorum-sensing receptor CqsS  

PubMed Central

Quorum sensing, a bacterial cell–cell communication process, controls biofilm formation and virulence factor production in Vibrio cholerae, a human pathogen that causes the disease cholera. The major V. cholerae autoinducer is (S)-3-hydroxytridecan-4-one (CAI-1). A membrane bound two-component sensor histidine kinase called CqsS detects CAI-1, and the CqsS ? LuxU ? LuxO phosphorelay cascade transduces the information encoded in CAI-1 into the cell. Because the CAI-1 ligand is known and because the signalling circuit is simple, consisting of only three proteins, this system is ideal for analysing ligand regulation of a sensor histidine kinase. Here we reconstitute the CqsS ? LuxU ? LuxO phosphorylation cascade in vitro. We find that CAI-1 inhibits the initial auto-phosphorylation of CqsS whereas subsequent phosphotransfer steps and CqsS phosphatase activity are not CAI-1-controlled. CAI-1 binding to CqsS causes a conformational change that renders His194 in CqsS inaccessible to the CqsS catalytic domain. CqsS mutants with altered ligand detection specificities are faithfully controlled by their corresponding modified ligands in vitro. Likewise, pairing of agonists and antagonists allows in vitro assessment of their opposing activities. Our data are consistent with a two-state model for ligand control of histidine kinases.

Wei, Yunzhou; Ng, Wai-Leung; Cong, Jianping; Bassler, Bonnie L

2012-01-01

310

Bacterial quorum sensing, cooperativity, and anticipation of stationary-phase stress  

PubMed Central

Acyl-homoserine lactone–mediated quorum sensing (QS) regulates diverse activities in many species of Proteobacteria. QS-controlled genes commonly code for production of secreted or excreted public goods. The acyl-homoserine lactones are synthesized by members of the LuxI signal synthase family and are detected by cognate members of the LuxR family of transcriptional regulators. QS affords a means of population density-dependent gene regulation. Control of public goods via QS provides a fitness benefit. Another potential role for QS is to anticipate overcrowding. As population density increases and stationary phase approaches, QS might induce functions important for existence in stationary phase. Here we provide evidence that in three related species of the genus Burkholderia QS allows individuals to anticipate and survive stationary-phase stress. Survival requires QS-dependent activation of cellular enzymes required for production of excreted oxalate, which serves to counteract ammonia-mediated alkaline toxicity during stationary phase. Our findings provide an example of QS serving as a means to anticipate stationary phase or life at the carrying capacity of a population by activating the expression of cytoplasmic enzymes, altering cellular metabolism, and producing a shared resource or public good, oxalate.

Goo, Eunhye; Majerczyk, Charlotte D.; An, Jae Hyung; Chandler, Josephine R.; Seo, Young-Su; Ham, Hyeonheui; Lim, Jae Yun; Kim, Hongsup; Lee, Bongsoo; Jang, Moon Sun; Greenberg, E. Peter; Hwang, Ingyu

2012-01-01

311

Global position analysis of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa quorum-sensing transcription factor LasR  

PubMed Central

Summary In Pseudomonas aeruginosa quorum sensing (QS), the transcriptional regulator LasR controls the expression of more than 300 genes. Several of these genes are activated indirectly via a second, subordinate QS regulator, RhlR. Conserved sequence elements upstream of individual other genes have been shown to bind LasR in vitro. To comprehensively identify all regions that are bound by LasR in vivo, we employed chromatin immunoprecipitation in conjunction with microarray analysis. We identified 35 putative promoter regions that direct the expression of up to 74 genes. In vitro DNA binding studies allowed us to distinguish between cooperative and non-cooperative LasR binding sites, and allowed us to build consensus sequences according to the mode of binding. Five promoter regions were not previously recognized as QS-controlled. Two of the associated transcript units encode proteins involved in the cold-shock response and in Psl exopolysaccharide synthesis, respectively. The LasR regulon includes seven genes encoding transcriptional regulators, while secreted factors and secretion machinery are the most overrepresented functional categories overall. This supports the notion that the core function of LasR is to coordinate the production of extracellular factors, although many of its effects on global gene expression are likely mediated indirectly by regulatory genes under its control.

Gilbert, Kerrigan B.; Kim, Tae Hoon; Gupta, Rashmi; Greenberg, E. P.; Schuster, Martin

2009-01-01

312

A fine control of quorum-sensing communication in Agrobacterium tumefaciens  

PubMed Central

The bacterial pathogen Agrobacterium tumefaciens produces the quorum-sensing (QS) signal 3-oxo-octanoylhomoserine lactone (OC8HSL) for controlling horizontal transfer of its tumor inducing (Ti) plasmid that carries both the T-DNA and the virulence genes. Over-accumulation of OC8HSL also increases severity of plant symptoms (number of emerging tumors at infection site) by an unknown mechanism. A. tumefaciens strain C58 expresses two lactonases, AttM (BlcC) and AiiB, that cleave OC8HSL and are potential modulators of QS. Recent data highlight the direct contribution of lactonases AttM and AiiB in the control of OC8HSL level and QS-regulated functions such as conjugation of Ti plasmid and seriousness of plant symptoms. Expression of the two lactonases is regulated by different plant signals. A working model of QS in the course of the A. tumefaciens-plant host interaction is proposed and discussed.

Haudecoeur, Elise

2010-01-01

313

Screening of certain medicinal plants from India for their anti-quorum sensing activity.  

PubMed

Discovery of quorum sensing (QS) system to coordinate virulence and biofilm formation in bacterial pathogens has triggered search for safe, stable and non-toxic anti-QS compounds from natural products. Ethanolic extracts of 24 Indian medicinal plants were tested by agar well and disc diffusion assay for anti-QS activity using Chromobacterium violaceum (CV12472 and CVO26) reporter strains. AHL from C. violaceum CV31532 was isolated and partially purified for its use in CVO26 based bioassay. Effect on swarming-motility of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PAO1) was also recorded at sub-MIC concentrations of extracts. Of the 24 medicinal plants screened Hemidesmus indicus (L.) Schult (root), Holarrhena antidysenterica (Roth) A.DC. (bark), Mangifera indica L. (seed) Punica granatum L. (pericarp) and Psoralea corylifolia L. (seed) demonstrated varying level of inhibition of violacein production in the reporter strains. Moreover, a significant reduction in swarms was recorded over control. The inhibition of violacein production and swarming motility may be due to direct or indirect interference on QS by active constituents or the interactive effect of different phytocompounds present in the extracts. These plant extracts may be selected for activity guided fractionation to identify and characterize the active principle. PMID:21250604

Zahin, Maryam; Hasan, Sameena; Aqil, Farrukh; Khan, Mohd Sajjad Ahmad; Husain, Fohad Mabood; Ahmad, Iqbal

2010-12-01

314

Quorum sensing-mediated regulation of staphylococcal virulence and antibiotic resistance.  

PubMed

Accessory gene regulator (agr)-mediated quorum sensing plays a central role in staphylococcal pathogenesis. It primarily upregulates secreted virulence factors and downregulates cell surface proteins, thereby governing invasiveness of staphylococci and cell dispersal from biofilms. Except for ?- and ?-PSMs, which are directly controlled by AgrA, the effector functions of agr are primarily mediated by RNAIII, a regulatory RNA encoded by this operon. agr phenotype and expression considerably influence the chronicity of an infection. It has also been linked with altered susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus against antibiotics. Four classes of S. aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis AIPs exist based on sequence variation, and lead to inter-strain and species cross-inhibition. Certain agr classes have been associated with specific clonal complexes, disease syndromes and intermediate-susceptibility to glycopeptides. It is also being investigated as a prophylactic and therapeutic target. This article describes the presently available literature regarding the role of agr in S. aureus and S. epidermidis infections. PMID:24957093

Singh, Rachna; Ray, Pallab

2014-05-01

315

Solonamide B Inhibits Quorum Sensing and Reduces Staphylococcus aureus Mediated Killing of Human Neutrophils  

PubMed Central

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) continues to be a serious human pathogen, and particularly the spread of community associated (CA)-MRSA strains such as USA300 is a concern, as these strains can cause severe infections in otherwise healthy adults. Recently, we reported that a cyclodepsipeptide termed Solonamide B isolated from the marine bacterium, Photobacterium halotolerans strongly reduces expression of RNAIII, the effector molecule of the agr quorum sensing system. Here we show that Solonamide B interferes with the binding of S. aureus autoinducing peptides (AIPs) to sensor histidine kinase, AgrC, of the agr two-component system. The hypervirulence of USA300 has been linked to increased expression of central virulence factors like ?-hemolysin and the phenol soluble modulins (PSMs). Importantly, in strain USA300 Solonamide B dramatically reduced the activity of ?-hemolysin and the transcription of psma encoding PSMs with an 80% reduction in toxicity of supernatants towards human neutrophils and rabbit erythrocytes. To our knowledge this is the first report of a compound produced naturally by a Gram-negative marine bacterium that interferes with agr and affects both RNAIII and AgrA controlled virulence gene expression in S. aureus.

Nielsen, Anita; Mansson, Maria; Bojer, Martin S.; Gram, Lone; Larsen, Thomas O.; Novick, Richard P.; Frees, Dorte; Fr?kiaer, Hanne; Ingmer, Hanne

2014-01-01

316

Solonamide B inhibits quorum sensing and reduces Staphylococcus aureus mediated killing of human neutrophils.  

PubMed

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) continues to be a serious human pathogen, and particularly the spread of community associated (CA)-MRSA strains such as USA300 is a concern, as these strains can cause severe infections in otherwise healthy adults. Recently, we reported that a cyclodepsipeptide termed Solonamide B isolated from the marine bacterium, Photobacterium halotolerans strongly reduces expression of RNAIII, the effector molecule of the agr quorum sensing system. Here we show that Solonamide B interferes with the binding of S. aureus autoinducing peptides (AIPs) to sensor histidine kinase, AgrC, of the agr two-component system. The hypervirulence of USA300 has been linked to increased expression of central virulence factors like ?-hemolysin and the phenol soluble modulins (PSMs). Importantly, in strain USA300 Solonamide B dramatically reduced the activity of ?-hemolysin and the transcription of psma encoding PSMs with an 80% reduction in toxicity of supernatants towards human neutrophils and rabbit erythrocytes. To our knowledge this is the first report of a compound produced naturally by a Gram-negative marine bacterium that interferes with agr and affects both RNAIII and AgrA controlled virulence gene expression in S. aureus. PMID:24416329

Nielsen, Anita; Månsson, Maria; Bojer, Martin S; Gram, Lone; Larsen, Thomas O; Novick, Richard P; Frees, Dorte; Frøkiær, Hanne; Ingmer, Hanne

2014-01-01

317

Regulated proteolysis of Candida albicans Ras1 is involved in morphogenesis and quorum sensing regulation  

PubMed Central

Summary In Candida albicans, a fungal pathogen, the small G-protein Ras1 regulates many important behaviors including white-opaque switching, biofilm formation, and the induction and maintenance of hyphal growth. Like other Ras proteins, Ras1 is activated upon guanine triphosphate binding, and its activity is further modulated by post-translational lipid modifications. Here, we report that the levels of membrane-associated, full-length Ras1 were higher in hyphae than in yeast, and that yeast contained a shorter, soluble Ras1 species that resulted from cleavage. Deletion of the putative cleavage site led to more rapid induction of hyphal growth and delayed hypha-to-yeast transitions. The cleaved Ras1 species was less able to activate its effector, adenylate cyclase (Cyr1), unless tethered to the membrane by a heterologous membrane-targeting domain. Ras1 cleavage was repressed by cAMP-signaling, indicating the presence of a positive feedback loop in which Cyr1 and cAMP influence Ras1. The C. albicans quorum sensing molecule farnesol, which inhibits Cyr1 and represses filamentation, caused an increase in the fraction of Ras1 in the cleaved form, particularly in nascent yeast formed from hyphae. This newly recognized mode of Ras regulation may control C. albicans Ras1 activity in important ways.

Piispanen, Amy; Grahl, Nora; Hollomon, Jeffrey M.; Hogan, Deborah A.

2013-01-01

318

Bioinformatic Prediction of Gene Functions Regulated by Quorum Sensing in the Bioleaching Bacterium Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans  

PubMed Central

The biomining bacterium Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans oxidizes sulfide ores and promotes metal solubilization. The efficiency of this process depends on the attachment of cells to surfaces, a process regulated by quorum sensing (QS) cell-to-cell signalling in many Gram-negative bacteria. At. ferrooxidans has a functional QS system and the presence of AHLs enhances its attachment to pyrite. However, direct targets of the QS transcription factor AfeR remain unknown. In this study, a bioinformatic approach was used to infer possible AfeR direct targets based on the particular palindromic features of the AfeR binding site. A set of Hidden Markov Models designed to maintain palindromic regions and vary non-palindromic regions was used to screen for putative binding sites. By annotating the context of each predicted binding site (PBS), we classified them according to their positional coherence relative to other putative genomic structures such as start codons, RNA polymerase promoter elements and intergenic regions. We further used the Multiple EM for Motif Elicitation algorithm (MEME) to further filter out low homology PBSs. In summary, 75 target-genes were identified, 34 of which have a higher confidence level. Among the identified genes, we found afeR itself, zwf, genes encoding glycosyltransferase activities, metallo-beta lactamases, and active transport-related proteins. Glycosyltransferases and Zwf (Glucose 6-phosphate-1-dehydrogenase) might be directly involved in polysaccharide biosynthesis and attachment to minerals by At. ferrooxidans cells during the bioleaching process.

Banderas, Alvaro; Guiliani, Nicolas

2013-01-01

319

Effects of 14-Alpha-Lipoyl Andrographolide on Quorum Sensing in Pseudomonas aeruginosa  

PubMed Central

In Pseudomonas aeruginosa, the quorum-sensing (QS) system is closely related to biofilm formation. We previously demonstrated that 14-alpha-lipoyl andrographolide (AL-1) has synergistic effects on antibiofilm and antivirulence factors (pyocyanin and exopolysaccharide) of P. aeruginosa when combined with conventional antibiotics, while it has little inhibitory effect on its growth. However, its molecular mechanism remains elusive. Here we investigated the effect of AL-1 on QS systems, especially the Las and Rhl systems. This investigation showed that AL-1 can inhibit LasR–3-oxo-C12-homoserine lactone (HSL) interactions and repress the transcriptional level of QS-regulated genes. Reverse transcription (RT)-PCR data showed that AL-1 significantly reduced the expression levels of lasR, lasI, rhlR, and rhlI in a dose-dependent manner. AL-1 not only decreased the expression level of Psl, which is positively regulated by the Las system, but also increased the level of secretion of ExoS, which is negatively regulated by the Rhl system, indicating that AL-1 has multiple effects on both the Las and Rhl systems. It is no wonder that AL-1 showed synergistic effects with other antimicrobial agents in the treatment of P. aeruginosa infections.

Ma, Li; Liu, Xiangyang; Liang, Haihua; Che, Yizhou; Chen, Caixia; Dai, Huanqin; Yu, Ke; Liu, Mei; Ma, Luyan; Yang, Ching-Hong; Song, Fuhang

2012-01-01

320

Effects of 14-alpha-lipoyl andrographolide on quorum sensing in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.  

PubMed

In Pseudomonas aeruginosa, the quorum-sensing (QS) system is closely related to biofilm formation. We previously demonstrated that 14-alpha-lipoyl andrographolide (AL-1) has synergistic effects on antibiofilm and antivirulence factors (pyocyanin and exopolysaccharide) of P. aeruginosa when combined with conventional antibiotics, while it has little inhibitory effect on its growth. However, its molecular mechanism remains elusive. Here we investigated the effect of AL-1 on QS systems, especially the Las and Rhl systems. This investigation showed that AL-1 can inhibit LasR-3-oxo-C(12)-homoserine lactone (HSL) interactions and repress the transcriptional level of QS-regulated genes. Reverse transcription (RT)-PCR data showed that AL-1 significantly reduced the expression levels of lasR, lasI, rhlR, and rhlI in a dose-dependent manner. AL-1 not only decreased the expression level of Psl, which is positively regulated by the Las system, but also increased the level of secretion of ExoS, which is negatively regulated by the Rhl system, indicating that AL-1 has multiple effects on both the Las and Rhl systems. It is no wonder that AL-1 showed synergistic effects with other antimicrobial agents in the treatment of P. aeruginosa infections. PMID:22802260

Ma, Li; Liu, Xiangyang; Liang, Haihua; Che, Yizhou; Chen, Caixia; Dai, Huanqin; Yu, Ke; Liu, Mei; Ma, Luyan; Yang, Ching-Hong; Song, Fuhang; Wang, Yuqiang; Zhang, Lixin

2012-12-01

321

Optimality and robustness in quorum sensing (QS)-mediated regulation of a costly public good enzyme  

PubMed Central

Bacteria secrete a variety of public good exoproducts into their environment. These exoproducts are typically produced under the control of quorum sensing (QS), a signaling mechanism by which bacteria sense and respond to changes in their density. QS seems to provide an advantageous strategy to regulate these costly but beneficial exoproducts: it delays production until sufficiently high cell density, when the overall benefit of exoproducts outweighs cost of their production. This notion raises several fundamental questions about QS as a general control strategy adopted by bacteria. How much delay is advantageous? Under what conditions does QS-mediated regulation become advantageous? How does this advantage depend on the kinetic properties of QS? How robust is a given QS system to the stochastic events that occur over bacterial lifecycles? To quantitatively address these questions, we engineered a gene circuit in Escherichia coli to control the synthesis and secretion of a costly but beneficial exoenzyme. We show that exoenzyme production is overall advantageous only if initiated at a sufficiently high density. This property sets the potential advantage for QS-mediated regulation when the initial density is low and the growth cycle is sufficiently long compared with the exoenzyme response time. This advantage of QS-mediated regulation is robust to varying initial cell densities and growth durations, and it is particularly striking when bacteria face uncertainty, such as from stochastic dispersal during their lifecycle. We show, however, that, for QS to be optimal, its kinetic properties must be appropriately tuned; this property has implications for antibacterial treatments that target QS.

Pai, Anand; Tanouchi, Yu; You, Lingchong

2012-01-01

322

Luminescent reporters and their applications for the characterization of signals and signal-mimics that alter LasR-mediated quorum sensing.  

PubMed

In many pathogenic bacteria, quorum sensing (QS) controls expression of genes that are involved in virulence, production and resistance to antibiotics, formation and maintenance of microbial multicellular consortia on biotic and abiotic surfaces of medical and industrial importance. N-acyl homoserine lactones (AHL) are the best characterized quorum sensing signals in Gram-negative bacteria. Interference with AHL-mediated QS, therefore, is considered an attractive strategy for controlling virulence in pathogens. The search for AHL signals and their mimics has been facilitated by the development of sensitive bioassays, in which QS reporters luminesce in response to AHL signals. These bioassays have already led to the identification of dozens of compounds with QS modulating activities. The characterization of the mode of action of QS signals and their mimics requires follow-up biochemical studies. Here, we describe a set of luminescent reporters, which could be used in high, medium or low throughput format, for the discovery and validation of agonists or antagonists of the Las QS system of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. These nearly isogenic reporters contain truncations or point mutations in the AHL binding domain of the AHL receptor LasR, as well as mutations in the promoter for the gene encoding LasI AHL synthase. We also developed reporters for documenting the regulation of lasI and lasR promoters. The use of these reporters significantly streamlines identification and characterization of the Las QS signal agonists and antagonists prior to biochemical experiments. To test the usefulness of these reporters, we carried out bioassays with patulin, a known inhibitor of Las QS. PMID:21031308

Alagely, Ali; Rajamani, Sathish; Teplitski, Max

2011-01-01

323

Targeting agr- and agr-Like Quorum Sensing Systems for Development of Common Therapeutics to Treat Multiple Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections  

PubMed Central

Invasive infection by the Gram-positive pathogen Staphylococcus aureus is controlled by a four gene operon, agr that encodes a quorum sensing system for the regulation of virulence. While agr has been well studied in S. aureus, the contribution of agr homologues and analogues in other Gram-positive pathogens is just beginning to be understood. Intriguingly, other significant human pathogens, including Clostridium perfringens, Listeria monocytogenes, and Enterococcus faecalis contain agr or analogues linked to virulence. Moreover, other significant human Gram-positive pathogens use peptide based quorum sensing systems to establish or maintain infection. The potential for commonality in aspects of these signaling systems across different species raises the prospect of identifying therapeutics that could target multiple pathogens. Here, we review the status of research into these agr homologues, analogues, and other peptide based quorum sensing systems in Gram-positive pathogens as well as the potential for identifying common pathways and signaling mechanisms for therapeutic discovery.

Gray, Brian; Hall, Pamela; Gresham, Hattie

2013-01-01

324

Complex Regulation of Symbiotic Functions Is Coordinated by MucR and Quorum Sensing in Sinorhizobium meliloti? †  

PubMed Central

In Sinorhizobium meliloti, the production of exopolysaccharides such as succinoglycan and exopolysaccharide II (EPS II) enables the bacterium to invade root nodules on Medicago sativa and establish a nitrogen-fixing symbiosis. While extensive research has focused on succinoglycan, less is known concerning the regulation of EPS II or the mechanism by which it mediates entrance into the host plant. Previously, we reported that the ExpR/Sin quorum-sensing system is required to produce the symbiotically active low-molecular-weight fraction of this exopolysaccharide. Here, we show that this system induces EPS II production by increasing expression of the expG-expC operon, encoding both a transcriptional regulator (ExpG) and a glycosyl transferase (ExpC). ExpG derepresses EPS II production at the transcriptional level from MucR, a RosR homolog, while concurrently elevating expression of expC, resulting in the synthesis of the low-molecular-weight form. While the ExpR/Sin system abolishes the role of MucR on EPS II production, it preserves a multitude of other quorum-sensing-independent regulatory functions which promote the establishment of symbiosis. In planktonic S. meliloti, MucR properly coordinates a diverse set of bacterial behaviors by repressing a variety of genes intended for expression during symbiosis and enhancing the bacterial ability to induce root nodule formation. Quorum sensing precisely modulates the functions of MucR to take advantage of both the production of symbiotically active EPS II as well as the proper coordination of bacterial behavior required to promote symbiosis.

Mueller, Konrad; Gonzalez, Juan E.

2011-01-01

325

Hierarchical gene regulatory systems arising from fortuitous gene associations: controlling quorum sensing by the opine regulon in Agrobacterium.  

PubMed

Conjugation of the Agrobacterium Ti plasmid pTiC58 is regulated by a hierarchy involving induction by the opines agrocinopines A and B and a quorum-sensing system. Regulation by the opines is mediated by the repressor AccR, while quorum sensing is effected by the transcriptional activator TraR and its ligand, the acyl-homoserine lactone signal molecule Agrobacterium autoinducer (AAI). These last two elements combine to activate expression of the tra system at high population densities. Sequence analysis indicated that traR is the fourth gene of an operon, which we named arc, that is transcribed divergently from accR. Complementation analysis of mutations in the genes 5' to traR showed that the other members of the arc operon are not required for conjugation. Analysis of lacZ reporter fusions demonstrated that traR expression is regulated directly by AccR. Deletion analysis showed that AccR-regulated expression of traR initiates from a promoter located in the intergenic region between accR and orfA, the first gene of the arc operon. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and primer extension analyses indicated that the arc transcript initiates upstream of orfA and proceeds uninterrupted through traR. These results are consistent with a model in which quorum sensing is subordinate to the opine regulon because traR has become associated with an operon controlled by the opine-responsive transcriptional regulator. PMID:10361309

Piper, K R; Beck Von Bodman, S; Hwang, I; Farrand, S K

1999-06-01

326

Pyocyanin Stimulates Quorum Sensing-Mediated Tolerance to Oxidative Stress and Increases Persister Cell Populations in Acinetobacter baumannii.  

PubMed

Acinetobacter baumannii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa are nosocomial pathogens with overlapping sites of infection. This work reports that the two can coexist stably in mixed-culture biofilms. In a study intended to improve our understanding of the mechanism of their coexistence, it was found that pyocyanin, produced by P. aeruginosa that generally eliminates competition from other pathogens, led to the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in A. baumannii cells, which in response showed a significant (P ? 0.05) increase in production of enzymes, specifically, catalase and superoxide dismutase (SOD). This work shows for the first time that the expression of catalase and SOD is under the control of a quorum-sensing system in A. baumannii. In support of this observation, a quorum-sensing mutant of A. baumannii (abaI::Km) was found to be sensitive to pyocyanin compared to its wild type and showed significantly (P ? 0.001) lower levels of the antioxidant enzymes, which increased on addition of 5 ?M N-(3-hydroxydodecanoyl)-l-homoserine lactone. Likewise, in wild-type A. baumannii, there was a significant (P < 0.01) decrease in the level of anti-oxidant enzymes in the presence of salicylic acid, a known quencher of quorum sensing. In the presence of amikacin and carbenicillin, A. baumannii formed 0.07 and 0.02% persister cells, which increased 4- and 3-fold, respectively, in the presence of pyocyanin. These findings show that pyocyanin induces a protective mechanism in A. baumannii against oxidative stress and also increases its persistence against antibiotics which could be of clinical significance in the case of coinfections with A. baumannii and P. aeruginosa. PMID:24891106

Bhargava, Nidhi; Sharma, Prince; Capalash, Neena

2014-08-01

327

Regulation of universal stress protein genes by quorum sensing and RpoS in Burkholderia glumae.  

PubMed

Burkholderia glumae possesses a quorum-sensing (QS) system mediated by N-octanoyl-homoserine lactone (C(8)-HSL) and its cognate receptor TofR. TofR/C(8)-HSL regulates the expression of a transcriptional regulator, qsmR. We identified one of the universal stress proteins (Usps), Usp2, from a genome-wide analysis of QS-dependent proteomes of B. glumae. In the whole genome of B. glumae BGR1, 11 usp genes (usp1 to usp11) were identified. Among the stress conditions tested, usp1 and usp2 mutants died 1 h after heat shock stress, whereas the other usp mutants and the wild-type strain survived for more than 3 h at 45°C. The expressions of all usp genes were positively regulated by QS, directly by QsmR. In addition, the expressions of usp1 and usp2 were dependent on RpoS in the stationary phase, as confirmed by the direct binding of RpoS-RNA holoenzyme to the promoter regions of the usp1 and usp2 genes. The expression of usp1 was upregulated upon a temperature shift from 37°C to either 28°C or 45°C, whereas the expression of usp2 was independent of temperature stress. This indicates that the regulation of usp1 and usp2 expression is different from what is known about Escherichia coli. Compared to the diverse roles of Usps in E. coli, Usps in B. glumae are dedicated to heat shock stress. PMID:22178971

Kim, Hongsup; Goo, Eunhye; Kang, Yongsung; Kim, Jinwoo; Hwang, Ingyu

2012-03-01

328

Private link between signal and response in Bacillus subtilis quorum sensing.  

PubMed

Bacteria coordinate their behavior using quorum sensing (QS), whereby cells secrete diffusible signals that generate phenotypic responses associated with group living. The canonical model of QS is one of extracellular signaling, where signal molecules bind to cognate receptors and cause a coordinated response across many cells. Here we study the link between QS input (signaling) and QS output (response) in the ComQXPA QS system of Bacillus subtilis by characterizing the phenotype and fitness of comQ null mutants. These lack the enzyme to produce the ComX signal and do not activate the ComQXPA QS system in other cells. In addition to the activation effect of the signal, however, we find evidence of a second, repressive effect of signal production on the QS system. Unlike activation, which can affect other cells, repression acts privately: the de-repression of QS in comQ cells is intracellular and only affects mutant cells lacking ComQ. As a result, the QS signal mutants have an overly responsive QS system and overproduce the secondary metabolite surfactin in the presence of the signal. This surfactin overproduction is associated with a strong fitness cost, as resources are diverted away from primary metabolism. Therefore, by acting as a private QS repressor, ComQ may be protected against evolutionary competition from loss-of-function mutations. Additionally, we find that surfactin participates in a social selection mechanism that targets signal null mutants in coculture with signal producers. Our study shows that by pleiotropically combining intracellular and extracellular signaling, bacteria may generate evolutionarily stable QS systems. PMID:24425772

Oslizlo, Anna; Stefanic, Polonca; Dogsa, Iztok; Mandic-Mulec, Ines

2014-01-28

329

Quorum-sensing inhibitory compounds from extremophilic microorganisms isolated from a hypersaline cyanobacterial mat.  

PubMed

In this study, extremely halophilic and moderately thermophilic microorganisms from a hypersaline microbial mat were screened for their ability to produce antibacterial, antidiatom, antialgal, and quorum-sensing (QS) inhibitory compounds. Five bacterial strains belonging to the genera Marinobacter and Halomonas and one archaeal strain belonging to the genus Haloterrigena were isolated from a microbial mat. The strains were able to grow at a maximum salinity of 22-25 % and a maximum temperature of 45-60 °C. Hexanes, dichloromethane, and butanol extracts from the strains inhibited the growth of at least one out of nine human pathogens. Only butanol extracts of supernatants of Halomonas sp. SK-1 inhibited growth of the microalga Dunaliella salina. Most extracts from isolates inhibited QS of the acyl homoserine lactone producer and reporter Chromobacterium violaceum CV017. Purification of QS inhibitory dichloromethane extracts of Marinobacter sp. SK-3 resulted in isolation of four related diketopiperazines (DKPs): cyclo(L-Pro-L-Phe), cyclo(L-Pro-L-Leu), cyclo(L-Pro-L-isoLeu), and cyclo(L-Pro-D-Phe). QS inhibitory properties of these DKPs were tested using C. violaceum CV017 and Escherichia coli-based QS reporters (pSB401 and pSB1075) deficient in AHL production. Cyclo(L-Pro-L-Phe) and cyclo(L-Pro-L-isoLeu) inhibited QS-dependent production of violacein by C. violaceum CV017. Cyclo(L-Pro-L-Phe), cyclo(L-Pro-L-Leu), and cyclo(L-Pro-L-isoLeu) reduced QS-dependent luminescence of the reporter E. coli pSB401 induced by 3-oxo-C6-HSL. Our study demonstrated the ability of halophilic and moderately thermophilic strains from a hypersaline microbial mat to produce biotechnologically relevant compounds that could be used as antifouling agents. PMID:23645384

Abed, Raeid M M; Dobretsov, Sergey; Al-Fori, Marwan; Gunasekera, Sarath P; Sudesh, Kumar; Paul, Valerie J

2013-07-01

330

What does the talking?: quorum sensing signalling genes discovered in a bacteriophage genome.  

PubMed

The transfer of novel genetic material into the genomes of bacterial viruses (phages) has been widely documented in several host-phage systems. Bacterial genes are incorporated into the phage genome and, if retained, subsequently evolve within them. The expression of these phage genes can subvert or bolster bacterial processes, including altering bacterial pathogenicity. The phage phiCDHM1 infects Clostridium difficile, a pathogenic bacterium that causes nosocomial infections and is associated with antibiotic treatment. Genome sequencing and annotation of phiCDHM1 shows that despite being closely related to other C. difficile myoviruses, it has several genes that have not been previously reported in any phage genomes. Notably, these include three homologs of bacterial genes from the accessory gene regulator (agr) quorum sensing (QS) system. These are; a pre-peptide (AgrD) of an autoinducing peptide (AIP), an enzyme which processes the pre-peptide (AgrB) and a histidine kinase (AgrC) that detects the AIP to activate a response regulator. Phylogenetic analysis of the phage and C. difficile agr genes revealed that there are three types of agr loci in this species. We propose that the phage genes belonging to a third type, agr3, and have been horizontally transferred from the host. AgrB and AgrC are transcribed during the infection of two different strains. In addition, the phage agrC appears not to be confined to the phiCDHM1 genome as it was detected in genetically distinct C. difficile strains. The discovery of QS gene homologs in a phage genome presents a novel way in which phages could influence their bacterial hosts, or neighbouring bacterial populations. This is the first time that these QS genes have been reported in a phage genome and their distribution both in C. difficile and phage genomes suggests that the agr3 locus undergoes horizontal gene transfer within this species. PMID:24475037

Hargreaves, Katherine R; Kropinski, Andrew M; Clokie, Martha R J

2014-01-01

331

Quorum-Sensing Regulation of Adhesion in Serratia marcescens MG1 Is Surface Dependent?  

PubMed Central

Serratia marcescens is an opportunistic pathogen and a major cause of ocular infections. In previous studies of S. marcescens MG1, we showed that biofilm maturation and sloughing were regulated by N-acyl homoserine lactone (AHL)-based quorum sensing (QS). Because of the importance of adhesion in initiating biofilm formation and infection, the primary goal of this study was to determine whether QS is important in adhesion to both abiotic and biotic surfaces, as assessed by determining the degree of attachment to hydrophilic tissue culture plates and human corneal epithelial (HCE) cells. Our results demonstrate that while adhesion to the abiotic surface was AHL regulated, adhesion to the HCE cell biotic surface was not. Type I fimbriae were identified as the critical adhesin for non-QS-mediated attachment to the biotic HCE cell surface but played no role in adhesion to the abiotic surface. While we were not able to identify a single QS-regulated adhesin essential for attachment to the abiotic surface, four AHL-regulated genes involved in adhesion to the abiotic surface were identified. Interestingly, two of these genes, bsmA and bsmB, were also shown to be involved in adhesion to the biotic surface in a non-QS-controlled fashion. Therefore, the expression of these two genes appears to be cocontrolled by regulators other than the QS system for mediation of attachment to HCE cells. We also found that QS in S. marcescens regulates other potential cell surface adhesins, including exopolysaccharide and the outer membrane protein OmpX. We concluded that S. marcescens MG1 utilizes different regulatory systems and adhesins in attachment to biotic and abiotic surfaces and that QS is a main regulatory pathway in adhesion to an abiotic surface but not in adhesion to a biotic surface.

Labbate, Maurizio; Zhu, Hua; Thung, Leena; Bandara, Rani; Larsen, Martin R.; Willcox, Mark D. P.; Givskov, Michael; Rice, Scott A.; Kjelleberg, Staffan

2007-01-01

332

Staphylococcus aureus autoinducer-2 quorum sensing decreases biofilm formation in an icaR-dependent manner  

PubMed Central

Background Staphylococcus aureus is an important pathogen that causes biofilm-associated infection in humans. Autoinducer 2 (AI-2), a quorum-sensing (QS) signal for interspecies communication, has a wide range of regulatory functions in both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, but its exact role in biofilm formation in S. aureus remains unclear. Results Here we demonstrate that mutation of the AI-2 synthase gene luxS in S. aureus RN6390B results in increased biofilm formation compared with the wild-type (WT) strain under static, flowing and anaerobic conditions and in a mouse model. Addition of the chemically synthesized AI-2 precursor in the luxS mutation strain (?luxS) restored the WT phenotype. Real-time RT-PCR analysis showed that AI-2 activated the transcription of icaR, a repressor of the ica operon, and subsequently a decreased level of icaA transcription, which was presumably the main reason why luxS mutation influences biofilm formation. Furthermore, we compared the roles of the agr-mediated QS system and the LuxS/AI-2 QS system in the regulation of biofilm formation using the ?luxS strain, RN6911 and the ?agr ?luxS strain. Our data indicate a cumulative effect of the two QS systems on the regulation of biofilm formation in S. aureus. Conclusion These findings demonstrate that AI-2 can decrease biofilm formation in S. aureus via an icaR-activation pathway. This study may provide clues for therapy in S. aureus biofilm-associated infection.

2012-01-01

333

Farnesol, a Fungal Quorum-Sensing Molecule Triggers Apoptosis in Human Oral Squamous Carcinoma Cells1  

PubMed Central

Farnesol is a catabolite within the isoprenoid/cholesterol pathway that has exhibited significant antitumor activity. Farnesol was recently identified as a quorum-sensing molecule produced by the fungal pathogen Candida albicans. In this study, we hypothesize that synthetic and Candida-produced farnesol can induce apoptosis in vitro in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) lines. Cell proliferation, apoptosis, mitochondrial degradation, and survivin and caspase expressions were examined. In addition, global protein expression profiles were analyzed using proteomic analysis. Results demonstrated significant decrease in proliferation and increase in apoptosis in cells exposed to farnesol and C. albicans culture media. Concurrently, protein expression analysis demonstrated a significant decrease in survivin and an increase in cleaved-caspase expression, whereas fluorescent microscopy revealed the presence of active caspases with mitochondrial degradation in exposed cells. A total of 36 differentially expressed proteins were identified by proteomic analysis. Among the 26 up-regulated proteins were those involved in the inhibition of carcinogenesis, proliferation suppression, and aging. Most notable among the 10 down-regulated proteins were those involved in the inhibition of apoptosis and proteins overexpressed in epithelial carcinomas. This study demonstrates that farnesol significantly inhibits the proliferation of OSCCs and promotes apoptosis in vitro through both the intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic signaling pathways. In addition, we report for the first time the ability of Candida-produced farnesol to induce a similar apoptotic response through the same pathways. The capability of farnesol to trigger apoptosis in cancer cells makes it a potential tool for studying tumor progression and an attractive candidate as a therapeutic agent.

Scheper, Mark A; Shirtliff, Mark E; Meiller, Timothy F; Peters, Brian M; Jabra-Rizk, Mary Ann

2008-01-01

334

Transgenic tomato plants alter quorum sensing in plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria.  

PubMed

Two Gram-negative, plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPRs), denominated as M12 and M14, were classified by 16S rDNA sequencing as Burkholderia graminis species. Both strains were shown to produce a variety of N-acyl-homoserine lactone (AHL) quorum sensing (QS) signalling molecules. The involvement of these molecules in plant growth promotion and the induction of protection against salt stress was examined. AHL production was evaluated in vitro by thin-layer chromatography using AHL biosensors, and the identity of the AHLs produced was determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The in situ production of AHLs by M12 and M14 in the rhizosphere of Arabidopsis thaliana plants was detected by co-inoculation with green fluorescent protein-based biosensor strains and confocal laser scanning microscopy. To determine whether plant growth promotion and protection against salt stress were mediated by QS, these PGPRs were assayed on wild-type tomato plants, as well as their corresponding transgenics expressing YenI (short-chain AHL producers) and LasI (long-chain AHL producers). In wild-type tomato plants, only M12 promoted plant growth, and this effect disappeared in both transgenic lines. In contrast, M14 did not promote growth in wild-type tomatoes, but did so in the LasI transgenic line. Resistance to salt stress was induced by M14 in wild-type tomato, but this effect disappeared in both transgenic lines. The strain M12, however, did not induce salt resistance in wild-type tomato, but did so in LasI tomato plants. These results reveal that AHL QS signalling molecules mediate the ability of both PGPR strains M12 and M14 to promote plant growth and to induce protection against salt stress. PMID:18384507

Barriuso, Jorge; Ramos Solano, Beatriz; Fray, Rupert G; Cámara, Miguel; Hartmann, Anton; Gutiérrez Mañero, F Javier

2008-06-01

335

Temporal Expression Program of Quorum Sensing-Based Transcription Regulation in Sinorhizobium meliloti  

PubMed Central

The Sin quorum sensing (QS) system of S. meliloti activates exopolysaccharide and represses flagellum production. The system consists of an N-acyl-homoserine lactone (AHL) synthase, SinI, and at least two LuxR-type regulators, SinR and ExpR. SinR appears to be independent of AHLs for its control of sinI expression, while ExpR is almost completely dependent upon AHLs. In this study, we confirmed 7 previously detected ExpR-DNA binding sites and used the consensus sequence to identify another 26 sites, some of which regulate genes previously not known to be members of the ExpR/AHL regulon. The activities of promoters dependent upon ExpR/AHL were titrated against AHL levels, with varied outcomes in AHL sensitivity. The data suggest a type of temporal expression program whereby the activity of each promoter is subject to a specific range of AHL concentrations. For example, genes responsible for exopolysaccharide production are activated at lower concentrations of AHLs than those required for the repression of genes controlling flagellum production. Several features of ExpR-regulated promoters appear to determine their response to AHLs. The location of the ExpR-binding site with respect to the relevant transcription start within each promoter region determines whether ExpR/AHL activates or represses promoter activity. Furthermore, the strength of the response is dependent upon the concentration of AHLs. We propose that this differential sensitivity to AHLs provides a bacterial colony with a transcription control program that is dynamic and precise.

Charoenpanich, Pornsri; Meyer, Stefan; McIntosh, Matthew

2013-01-01

336

Evolved Quorum Sensing Regulator, LsrR, for Altered Switching Functions.  

PubMed

In order to carry out innovative complex, multistep synthetic biology functions, members of a cell population often must communicate with one another to coordinate processes in a programmed manner. It therefore follows that native microbial communication systems are a conspicuous target for developing engineered populations and networks. Quorum sensing (QS) is a highly conserved mechanism of bacterial cell-cell communication and QS-based synthetic signal transduction pathways represent a new generation of biotechnology toolbox members. Specifically, the E. coli QS master regulator, LsrR, is uniquely positioned to actuate gene expression in response to a QS signal. In order to expand the use of LsrR in synthetic biology, two novel LsrR switches were generated through directed evolution: an "enhanced" repression and derepression eLsrR and a reversed repression/derepression function "activator" aLsrR. Protein modeling and docking studies are presented to gain insight into the QS signal binding to these two evolved proteins and their newly acquired functionality. We demonstrated the use of the aLsrR switch using a coculture system in which a QS signal, produced by one bacterial strain, is used to inhibit gene expression via aLsrR in a different strain. These first ever AI-2 controlled synthetic switches allow gene expression from the lsr promoter to be tuned simultaneously in two distinct cell populations. This work expands the tools available to create engineered microbial populations capable of carrying out complex functions necessary for the development of advanced synthetic products. PMID:24111753

Adams, Bryn L; Carter, Karen K; Guo, Min; Wu, Hsuan-Chen; Tsao, Chen-Yu; Sintim, Herman O; Valdes, James J; Bentley, William E

2014-04-18

337

Quorum sensing controls hyphal initiation in Candida albicans through Ubr1-mediated protein degradation  

PubMed Central

Candida albicans is the most common cause of invasive fungal infections in humans. Its ability to undergo the morphological transition from yeast to hyphal growth forms is critical for its pathogenesis. Hyphal initiation requires the activation of the cAMP-PKA pathway, which down-regulates the expression of NRG1, the major repressor of hyphal development. Hyphal initiation also requires inoculation of a small amount of C. albicans cells from overnight culture to fresh medium. This inoculation releases the inhibition from farnesol, a quorum-sensing molecule of C. albicans, that accumulated in the spent medium. Here, we show that farnesol inhibits hyphal initiation mainly through blocking the protein degradation of Nrg1. Through screening a kinase mutant library, we identified Sok1 as the kinase required for Nrg1 degradation during inoculation. SOK1 expression is transiently activated on inoculation during hyphal initiation, and overexpression of SOK1 overcomes the farnesol-mediated inhibition of hyphal initiation. Screening a collection of transcription factor mutants, the homeodomain-containing transcription repressor Cup9 is found to be responsible for the repression of SOK1 expression in response to farnesol inhibition. Interestingly, farnesol inhibits Cup9 degradation mediated by the N-end rule E3 ubiquitin ligase, Ubr1. Therefore, hyphal initiation requires both the cAMP-PKA pathway-dependent transcriptional down-regulation of NRG1 and Sok1-mediated degradation of Nrg1 protein. The latter is triggered by the release from farnesol inhibition of Cup9 degradation and consequently, derepression of SOK1 transcription. Neither pathway alone is sufficient for hyphal initiation.

Lu, Yang; Su, Chang; Unoje, Ohimai; Liu, Haoping

2014-01-01

338

Quorum sensing controls hyphal initiation in Candida albicans through Ubr1-mediated protein degradation.  

PubMed

Candida albicans is the most common cause of invasive fungal infections in humans. Its ability to undergo the morphological transition from yeast to hyphal growth forms is critical for its pathogenesis. Hyphal initiation requires the activation of the cAMP-PKA pathway, which down-regulates the expression of NRG1, the major repressor of hyphal development. Hyphal initiation also requires inoculation of a small amount of C. albicans cells from overnight culture to fresh medium. This inoculation releases the inhibition from farnesol, a quorum-sensing molecule of C. albicans, that accumulated in the spent medium. Here, we show that farnesol inhibits hyphal initiation mainly through blocking the protein degradation of Nrg1. Through screening a kinase mutant library, we identified Sok1 as the kinase required for Nrg1 degradation during inoculation. SOK1 expression is transiently activated on inoculation during hyphal initiation, and overexpression of SOK1 overcomes the farnesol-mediated inhibition of hyphal initiation. Screening a collection of transcription factor mutants, the homeodomain-containing transcription repressor Cup9 is found to be responsible for the repression of SOK1 expression in response to farnesol inhibition. Interestingly, farnesol inhibits Cup9 degradation mediated by the N-end rule E3 ubiquitin ligase, Ubr1. Therefore, hyphal initiation requires both the cAMP-PKA pathway-dependent transcriptional down-regulation of NRG1 and Sok1-mediated degradation of Nrg1 protein. The latter is triggered by the release from farnesol inhibition of Cup9 degradation and consequently, derepression of SOK1 transcription. Neither pathway alone is sufficient for hyphal initiation. PMID:24449897

Lu, Yang; Su, Chang; Unoje, Ohimai; Liu, Haoping

2014-02-01

339

LuxR- and Acyl-Homoserine-Lactone-Controlled Non-lux Genes Define a Quorum-Sensing Regulon in Vibrio fischeri  

Microsoft Academic Search

The luminescence (lux) operon (luxICDABEG) of the symbiotic bacterium Vibrio fischeri is regulated by the transcriptional activator LuxR and two acyl-homoserine lactone (acyl-HSL) autoinducers (the luxI-dependent 3-oxo-hexanoyl-HSL (3-oxo-C6-HSL) and the ainS-dependent octanoyl-HSL (C8-HSL)) in a population den- sity-responsive manner called quorum sensing. To identify quorum-sensing-regulated (QSR) proteins different from those encoded by lux genes, we examined the protein patterns of

SEAN M. CALLAHAN; PAUL V. DUNLAP

2000-01-01

340

Synthetic analogs of bacterial quorum sensors  

DOEpatents

Bacterial quorum-sensing molecule analogs having the following structures: ##STR00001## and methods of reducing bacterial pathogenicity, comprising providing a biological system comprising pathogenic bacteria which produce natural quorum-sensing molecule; providing a synthetic bacterial quorum-sensing molecule having the above structures and introducing the synthetic quorum-sensing molecule into the biological system comprising pathogenic bacteria. Further is provided a method of targeted delivery of an antibiotic, comprising providing a synthetic quorum-sensing molecule; chemically linking the synthetic quorum-sensing molecule to an antibiotic to produce a quorum-sensing molecule-antibiotic conjugate; and introducing the conjugate into a biological system comprising pathogenic bacteria susceptible to the antibiotic.

Iyer, Rashi S.; Ganguly, Kumkum; Silks, Louis A.

2013-01-08

341

Inhibition of Quorum Sensing Mediated Virulence Factors Production in Urinary Pathogen Serratia marcescens PS1 by Marine Sponges.  

PubMed

The focal intent of this study was to find out an alternative strategy for the antibiotic usage against bacterial infections. The quorum sensing inhibitory (QSI) activity of marine sponges collected from Palk Bay, India was evaluated against acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) mediated violacein production in Chromobacterium violaceum (ATCC 12472), CV026 and virulence gene expressions in clinical isolate Serratia marcescens PS1. Out of 29 marine sponges tested, the methanol extracts of Aphrocallistes bocagei (TS 8), Haliclona (Gellius) megastoma (TS 25) and Clathria atrasanguinea (TS 27) inhibited the AHL mediated violacein production in C. violaceum (ATCC 12472) and CV026. Further, these sponge extracts inhibited the AHL dependent prodigiosin pigment, virulence enzymes such as protease, hemolysin production and biofilm formation in S. marcescens PS1. However, these sponge extracts were not inhibitory to bacterial growth, which reveals the fact that the QSI activity of these extracts was not related to static or killing effects on bacteria. Based on the obtained results, it is envisaged that the marine sponges could pave the way to prevent quorum sensing (QS) mediated bacterial infections. PMID:23729876

Annapoorani, Angusamy; Jabbar, Abdul Karim Kamil Abdul; Musthafa, Syed Khadar Syed; Pandian, Shunmugiah Karutha; Ravi, Arumugam Veera

2012-06-01

342

Alveolar epithelium protects macrophages from quorum sensing-induced cytotoxicity in a three-dimensional co-culture model.  

PubMed

The quorum sensing signal N-(3-oxododecanoyl)-l-homoserine lactone (3-oxo-C(12) HSL), produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, exerts cytotoxic effects in macrophages in vitro, which is believed to affect host innate immunity in vivo. However, the medical significance of this finding to pulmonary disease remains unclear since the multicellular complexity of the lung was not considered in the assessment of macrophage responses to 3-oxo-C(12) HSL. We developed a novel three-dimensional co-culture model of alveolar epithelium and macrophages using the rotating wall vessel (RWV) bioreactor, by adding undifferentiated monocytes to RWV-derived alveolar epithelium. Our three-dimensional model expressed important architectural/phenotypic hallmarks of the parental tissue, as evidenced by highly differentiated epithelium, spontaneous differentiation of monocytes to functional macrophage-like cells, localization of these cells on the alveolar surface and a macrophage-to-epithelial cell ratio relevant to the in vivo situation. Co-cultivation of macrophages with alveolar epithelium counteracted 3-oxo-C(12) HSL-induced cytotoxicity via removal of quorum sensing molecules by alveolar cells. Furthermore, 3-oxo-C(12) HSL induced the intercellular adhesion molecule ICAM-1 in both alveolar epithelium and macrophages. These data stress the importance of multicellular organotypic models to integrate the role of different cell types in overall lung homeostasis and disease development in response to external factors. PMID:21054742

Crabbé, Aurélie; Sarker, Shameema F; Van Houdt, Rob; Ott, C Mark; Leys, Natalie; Cornelis, Pierre; Nickerson, Cheryl A

2011-03-01

343

The Vibrio cholerae quorum-sensing autoinducer CAI-1: analysis of the biosynthetic enzyme CqsA  

SciTech Connect

Vibrio cholerae, the bacterium that causes the disease cholera, controls virulence factor production and biofilm development in response to two extracellular quorum-sensing molecules, called autoinducers. The strongest autoinducer, called CAI-1 (for cholera autoinducer-1), was previously identified as (S)-3-hydroxytridecan-4-one. Biosynthesis of CAI-1 requires the enzyme CqsA. Here, we determine the CqsA reaction mechanism, identify the CqsA substrates as (S)-2-aminobutyrate and decanoyl coenzyme A, and demonstrate that the product of the reaction is 3-aminotridecan-4-one, dubbed amino-CAI-1. CqsA produces amino-CAI-1 by a pyridoxal phosphate-dependent acyl-CoA transferase reaction. Amino-CAI-1 is converted to CAI-1 in a subsequent step via a CqsA-independent mechanism. Consistent with this, we find cells release {ge}100 times more CAI-1 than amino-CAI-1. Nonetheless, V. cholerae responds to amino-CAI-1 as well as CAI-1, whereas other CAI-1 variants do not elicit a quorum-sensing response. Thus, both CAI-1 and amino-CAI-1 have potential as lead molecules in the development of an anticholera treatment.

Kelly, R.; Bolitho, M; Higgins, D; Lu, W; Ng, W; Jeffrey, P; Rabinowitz, J; Semmelhack, M; Hughson, F; Bassler, B

2009-01-01

344

Antipathogenic potential of Rhizophora spp. against the quorum sensing mediated virulence factors production in drug resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa.  

PubMed

Quorum sensing (QS) is a process of cell-cell communication mechanism occurs between the bacterial cells through the secretary signal molecules. This QS mechanism has been shown to control over the expression of various genes responsible for the production of virulence factors in several bacterial pathogens. Hence, the present study was intended to evaluate the antipathogenic potential of mangrove trees of the genus Rhizophora against the QS dependent virulence factors production in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1, clinical isolates CI-I (GU447237) and CI-II (GU447238). The methanol extract of Rhizophora apiculata and R. mucronata (1 mg/ml) showed significant inhibition against QS dependent virulence factors production such as LasA protease, LasB elastase, total protease, pyocyanin pigment production and biofilm formation in P. aeruginosa PAO1, CI-I and CI-II. This study for the first time, reports the quorum sensing inhibitory (QSI) potential of Rhizophora spp. against P. aeruginosa infections. PMID:23746758

Annapoorani, Angusamy; Kalpana, Balaji; Musthafa, Khadar Syed; Pandian, Shunmugiah Karutha; Ravi, Arumugam Veera

2013-08-15

345

Quorum-sensing signals produced by plant-growth promoting Burkholderia strains under in vitro and in planta conditions.  

PubMed

The genus Burkholderia is a heterogeneous group with extraordinary nutritional versatility and which occupies a diversity of niches. In recent decades, members of Burkholderia have been shown to be active participants in plant-microbe interactions, imparting beneficial effects as plant-growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) or as pathogens. The study of quorum sensing and cell-density-dependent gene regulation, which play an important role in host colonization and pathogenesis, is extremely important in such a versatile organism. We report the identification and characterization by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) of N-acyl homoserine lactone (HSL) quorum sensing signal molecules by PGP Burkholderia. The Burkholderia spp. strains CBMB40, CBPB-HOD and CBPB-HIM investigated in this study were isolated from rice and possessed one or more PGP characteristics. Culture extracts of these strains contained detectable levels of hexanoyl (C(6)-), heptanoyl (C(7)-) and octanoyl (C(8)-) HSLs. Burkholderia sp. strain CBMB40 produced an additional molecule that migrated along decanoyl (C(10)-) HSL. Inoculation of HSL-producing Burkholderia strains through seed bacterization to canola stimulated root elongation. Signal molecules produced by Burkholderia strains could also be detected in planta, as determined by plate assays and TLC analysis of plant extracts. This study advances the hypothesis that signaling molecules by PGPB in planta might play a substantial role in increasing the pathogen resistance of plants. PMID:17350232

Poonguzhali, Selvaraj; Madhaiyan, Munusamy; Sa, Tongmin

2007-04-01

346

Response of Arabidopsis thaliana to N-hexanoyl-DL-homoserine-lactone, a bacterial quorum sensing molecule produced in the rhizosphere.  

PubMed

The bacterial quorum sensing signals N-acyl-L: -homoserine lactones enable bacterial cells to regulate gene expression depending on population density, in order to undertake collective actions such as the infection of host cells. Only little is known about the molecular ways of plants reacting to these bacterial signals. In this study we show that the contact of Arabidopsis thaliana roots with N-hexanoyl-DL: -homoserine-lactone (C6-HSL) resulted in distinct transcriptional changes in roots and shoots, respectively. Interestingly, unlike most other bacterial signals, C6-HSL influenced only a few defense-related transcripts. Instead, several genes associated with cell growth as well as genes regulated by growth hormones showed changes in their expression after C6-HSL treatment. C6-HSL did not induce plant systemic resistance against Pseudomonas syringae. The inoculation of roots with different types of AHLs led predominantly for short chain N-butyryl-DL: -homoserine lactone and C6-HSL to root elongation. Determination of plant hormone concentrations in root and shoot tissues supported alterations of auxin to cytokinin ratio. Finally, we provide evidence that Arabidopsis takes up bacterial C6-HSL and allows systemic distribution throughout the plant. In sum, the bacterial quorum sensing signal C6-HSL does induce transcriptional changes in Arabidopsis and may contribute to tuning plant growth to the microbial composition of the rhizosphere. PMID:18766372

von Rad, Uta; Klein, Ilona; Dobrev, Petre I; Kottova, Jana; Zazimalova, Eva; Fekete, Agnes; Hartmann, Anton; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe; Durner, Jörg

2008-12-01

347

Detection of AI-2 Receptors in Genomes of Enterobacteriaceae Suggests a Role of Type-2 Quorum Sensing in Closed Ecosystems  

PubMed Central

The LuxS enzyme, an S-ribosyl-homocysteine lyase, catalyzes the production of the signal precursor for autoinducer-2 mediated quorum sensing (QS-2) in Vibrio. Its widespread occurrence among bacteria is often considered the evidence for a universal language for interspecies communication. Presence of the luxS gene and production of the autoinducer-2 (AI-2) signal have repeatedly been the only evidences presented to assign a functional QS-2 to the most diverse species. In fact, LuxS has a primary metabolic role as part of the activated methyl cycle. In this review we have analyzed the distribution of QS-2 related genes in Enterobacteriaceae by moving the focus of the investigation from AI-2 production to the detection of potential AI-2 receptors. The latter are common in pathogens or endosymbionts of animals, but were also found in a limited number of Enterobacteriaceae of the genera Enterobacter, Klebsiella, and Pantoea that live in close association with plants or fungi. Although a precise function of QS-2 in these species has not been identified, they all show an endophytic or endosymbiontic lifestyle that suggests a role of type-2 quorum sensing in the adaptation to closed ecosystems.

Rezzonico, Fabio; Smits, Theo H. M.; Duffy, Brion

2012-01-01

348

ComQXPA Quorum Sensing Systems May Not Be Unique to Bacillus subtilis: A Census in Prokaryotic Genomes.  

PubMed

The comQXPA locus of Bacillus subtilis encodes a quorum sensing (QS) system typical of Gram positive bacteria. It encodes four proteins, the ComQ isoprenyl transferase, the ComX pre-peptide signal, the ComP histidine kinase, and the ComA response regulator. These are encoded by four adjacent genes all situated on the same chromosome strand. Here we present results of a comprehensive census of comQXPA-like gene arrangements in 2620 complete and 6970 draft prokaryotic genomes (sequenced by the end of 2013). After manually checking the data for false-positive and false-negative hits, we found 39 novel com-like predictions. The census data show that in addition to B. subtilis and close relatives, 20 comQXPA-like loci are predicted to occur outside the B. subtilis clade. These include some species of Clostridiales order, but none outside the phylum Firmicutes. Characteristic gene-overlap patterns were observed in comQXPA loci, which were different for the B. subtilis-like and non-B. subtilis-like clades. Pronounced sequence variability associated with the ComX peptide in B. subtilis clade is evident also in the non-B. subtilis clade suggesting grossly similar evolutionary constraints in the underlying quorum sensing systems. PMID:24788106

Dogsa, Iztok; Choudhary, Kumari Sonal; Marsetic, Ziva; Hudaiberdiev, Sanjarbek; Vera, Roberto; Pongor, Sándor; Mandic-Mulec, Ines

2014-01-01

349

ComQXPA Quorum Sensing Systems May Not Be Unique to Bacillus subtilis: A Census in Prokaryotic Genomes  

PubMed Central

The comQXPA locus of Bacillus subtilis encodes a quorum sensing (QS) system typical of Gram positive bacteria. It encodes four proteins, the ComQ isoprenyl transferase, the ComX pre-peptide signal, the ComP histidine kinase, and the ComA response regulator. These are encoded by four adjacent genes all situated on the same chromosome strand. Here we present results of a comprehensive census of comQXPA-like gene arrangements in 2620 complete and 6970 draft prokaryotic genomes (sequenced by the end of 2013). After manually checking the data for false-positive and false-negative hits, we found 39 novel com-like predictions. The census data show that in addition to B. subtilis and close relatives, 20 comQXPA-like loci are predicted to occur outside the B. subtilis clade. These include some species of Clostridiales order, but none outside the phylum Firmicutes. Characteristic gene-overlap patterns were observed in comQXPA loci, which were different for the B. subtilis-like and non-B. subtilis-like clades. Pronounced sequence variability associated with the ComX peptide in B. subtilis clade is evident also in the non-B. subtilis clade suggesting grossly similar evolutionary constraints in the underlying quorum sensing systems.

Marsetic, Ziva; Hudaiberdiev, Sanjarbek; Vera, Roberto; Pongor, Sandor; Mandic-Mulec, Ines

2014-01-01

350

A modular view of the diversity of cell-density-encoding schemes in bacterial quorum-sensing systems.  

PubMed

Certain environmental parameters are accessible to cells only indirectly and require an encoding step for cells to retrieve the relevant information. A prominent example is the phenomenon of quorum sensing by microorganisms, where information about cell density is encoded by means of secreted signaling molecules. The mapping of cell density to signal molecule concentration and the corresponding network modules involved have been at least partially characterized in many bacteria, and vary markedly between different systems. In this study, we investigate theoretically how differences in signal transport, signal modification, and site of signal detection shape the encoding function and affect the sensitivity and the noise characteristics of the cell-density-encoding process. We find that different modules are capable of implementing both fairly basic as well as more complex encoding schemes, whose qualitative characteristics vary with cell density and are linked to network architecture, providing the basis for a hierarchical classification scheme. We exploit the tight relationship between encoding behavior and network architecture to constrain the network topology of partially characterized natural systems, and verify one such prediction by showing experimentally that Vibrio harveyi is capable of importing Autoinducer 2. The framework developed in this research can serve not only to guide reverse engineering of natural systems but also to stimulate the design of synthetic systems and generally facilitate a better understanding of the complexities arising in the quorum-sensing process because of variations in the physical organization of the encoder network module. PMID:24988360

Drees, Bastian; Reiger, Matthias; Jung, Kirsten; Bischofs, Ilka B

2014-07-01

351

Dynamics of the quorum sensing switch: stochastic and non-stationary effects  

PubMed Central

Background A wide range of bacteria species are known to communicate through the so called quorum sensing (QS) mechanism by means of which they produce a small molecule that can freely diffuse in the environment and in the cells. Upon reaching a threshold concentration, the signalling molecule activates the QS-controlled genes that promote phenotypic changes. This mechanism, for its simplicity, has become the model system for studying the emergence of a global response in prokaryotic cells. Yet, how cells precisely measure the signal concentration and act coordinately, despite the presence of fluctuations that unavoidably affects cell regulation and signalling, remains unclear. Results We propose a model for the QS signalling mechanism in Vibrio fischeri based on the synthetic strains lux01 and lux02. Our approach takes into account the key regulatory interactions between LuxR and LuxI, the autoinducer transport, the cellular growth and the division dynamics. By using both deterministic and stochastic models, we analyze the response and dynamics at the single-cell level and compare them to the global response at the population level. Our results show how fluctuations interfere with the synchronization of the cell activation and lead to a bimodal phenotypic distribution. In this context, we introduce the concept of precision in order to characterize the reliability of the QS communication process in the colony. We show that increasing the noise in the expression of LuxR helps cells to get activated at lower autoinducer concentrations but, at the same time, slows down the global response. The precision of the QS switch under non-stationary conditions decreases with noise, while at steady-state it is independent of the noise value. Conclusions Our in silico experiments show that the response of the LuxR/LuxI system depends on the interplay between non-stationary and stochastic effects and that the burst size of the transcription/translation noise at the level of LuxR controls the phenotypic variability of the population. These results, together with recent experimental evidences on LuxR regulation in wild-type species, suggest that bacteria have evolved mechanisms to regulate the intensity of those fluctuations.

2013-01-01

352

Detection, Characterization, and Biological Effect of Quorum-Sensing Signaling Molecules in Peanut-Nodulating Bradyrhizobia  

PubMed Central

Bacteria of the genus Bradyrhizobium are able to establish a symbiotic relationship with peanut (Arachis hypogaea) root cells and to fix atmospheric nitrogen by converting it to nitrogenous compounds. Quorum sensing (QS) is a cell-cell communication mechanism employed by a variety of bacterial species to coordinate behavior at a community level through regulation of gene expression. The QS process depends on bacterial production of various signaling molecules, among which the N-acylhomoserine lactones (AHLs) are most commonly used by Gram-negative bacteria. Some previous reports have shown the production of QS signaling molecules by various rhizobia, but little is known regarding mechanisms of communication among peanut-nodulating strains. The aims of this study were to identify and characterize QS signals produced by peanut-nodulating bradyrhizobial strains and to evaluate their effects on processes related to cell interaction. Detection of AHLs in 53 rhizobial strains was performed using the biosensor strains Agrobacterium tumefaciens NTL4 (pZLR4) and Chromobacterium violaceum CV026 for AHLs with long and short acyl chains, respectively. None of the strains screened were found to produce AHLs with short acyl chains, but 14 strains produced AHLs with long acyl chains. These 14 AHL-producing strains were further studied by quantification of ?-galactosidase activity levels (AHL-like inducer activity) in NTL4 (pZLR4). Strains displaying moderate to high levels of AHL-like inducer activity were subjected to chemical identification of signaling molecules by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). For each AHL-producing strain, we found at least four different AHLs, corresponding to N-hexanoyl-dl-homoserine lactone (C6), N-(3-oxodecanoyl)-l-homoserine lactone (3OC10), N-(3-oxododecanoyl)-l-homoserine lactone (3OC12), and N-(3-oxotetradecanoyl)-l-homoserine lactone (3OC14). Biological roles of 3OC10, 3OC12, and 3OC14 AHLs were evaluated in both AHL-producing and -non-producing peanut-nodulating strains. Bacterial processes related to survival and nodulation, including motility, biofilm formation, and cell aggregation, were affected or modified by the exogenous addition of increasing concentrations of synthetic AHLs. Our results clearly demonstrate the existence of cell communication mechanisms among bradyrhizobial strains symbiotic of peanut. AHLs with long acyl chains appear to be signaling molecules regulating important QS physiological processes in these bacteria.

Nievas, Fiorela; Bogino, Pablo; Sorroche, Fernando; Giordano, Walter

2012-01-01

353

Antimicrobial effect of farnesol, a Candida albicans quorum sensing molecule, on Paracoccidioides brasiliensis growth and morphogenesis  

PubMed Central

Background Farnesol is a sesquiterpene alcohol produced by many organisms, and also found in several essential oils. Its role as a quorum sensing molecule and as a virulence factor of Candida albicans has been well described. Studies revealed that farnesol affect the growth of a number of bacteria and fungi, pointing to a potential role as an antimicrobial agent. Methods Growth assays of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis cells incubated in the presence of different concentrations of farnesol were performed by measuring the optical density of the cultures. The viability of fungal cells was determined by MTT assay and by counting the colony forming units, after each farnesol treatment. The effects of farnesol on P. brasiliensis dimorphism were also evaluated by optical microscopy. The ultrastructural morphology of farnesol-treated P. brasiliensis yeast cells was evaluated by transmission and scanning electron microscopy. Results In this study, the effects of farnesol on Paracoccidioides brasiliensis growth and dimorphism were described. Concentrations of this isoprenoid ranging from 25 to 300 ?M strongly inhibited P. brasiliensis growth. We have estimated that the MIC of farnesol for P. brasiliensis is 25 ?M, while the MLC is around 30 ?M. When employing levels which don't compromise cell viability (5 to 15 ?M), it was shown that farnesol also affected the morphogenesis of this fungus. We observed about 60% of inhibition in hyphal development following P. brasiliensis yeast cells treatment with 15 ?M of farnesol for 48 h. At these farnesol concentrations we also observed a significant hyphal shortening. Electron microscopy experiments showed that, despite of a remaining intact cell wall, P. brasiliensis cells treated with farnesol concentrations above 25 ?M exhibited a fully cytoplasmic degeneration. Conclusion Our data indicate that farnesol acts as a potent antimicrobial agent against P. brasiliensis. The fungicide activity of farnesol against this pathogen is probably associated to cytoplasmic degeneration. In concentrations that do not affect fungal viability, farnesol retards the germ-tube formation of P. brasiliensis, suggesting that the morphogenesis of this fungal is controlled by environmental conditions.

Derengowski, Lorena S; De-Souza-Silva, Calliandra; Braz, Shelida V; Mello-De-Sousa, Thiago M; Bao, Sonia N; Kyaw, Cynthia M; Silva-Pereira, Ildinete

2009-01-01

354

Detection of Quorum Sensing Signal Molecules and Identification of an Autoinducer Synthase Gene among Biofilm Forming Clinical Isolates of Acinetobacter spp.  

PubMed Central

Background Quorum sensing is a term that describes an environmental sensing system that allows bacteria to monitor their own population density which contributes significantly to the size and development of the biofilm. Many gram negative bacteria use N-acyl-homoserine lactones as quorum sensing signal molecules. In this study, we sought to find out if the biofilm formation among clinical isolates of Acinetobacter spp. is under the control of autoinducing quorum sensing molecules. Methodology/Principal Findings Biofilm formation among clinical isolates of Acinetobacter spp. was assessed and the production of signal molecules were detected with Chromobacterium violaceum CV026 biosensor system. Characterisation of autoinducers was carried out by mass spectrometric analysis. We have also reported the identification of an autoinducer synthase gene, aba? among the isolates that produce quorum sensing signal molecules and have reported that the mutation in the abaI gene influences their biofilm forming capabilities. Using a microtitre-plate assay it was shown that 60% of the 50 Acinetobacter spp. isolates significantly formed biofilms. Further detection with the biosensor strain showed that some of these isolates produced long chain signal molecules. Mass spectrometric analysis revealed that five of these isolates produced N-decanoyl homoserine lactone and two isolates produced acyl-homoserine lactone with a chain length equal to C12. The aba? gene was identified and a tetracycline mutant of the aba? gene was created and the inhibition in biofilm formation in the mutant was shown. Conclusions/Significance These data are of great significance as the signal molecules aid in biofilm formation which in turn confer various properties of pathogenicity to the clinical isolates including drug resistance. The use of quorum sensing signal blockers to attenuate bacterial pathogenicity is therefore highly attractive, particularly with respect to the emergence of multi antibiotic resistant bacteria.

Anbazhagan, Deepa; Mansor, Marzida; Yan, Gracie Ong Siok; Md Yusof, Mohd Yasim; Hassan, Hamimah; Sekaran, Shamala Devi

2012-01-01

355

The VarS/VarA two-component system modulates the activity of the Vibrio cholerae quorum-sensing transcriptional regulator HapR  

PubMed Central

The human pathogen Vibrio cholerae uses quorum sensing to regulate the expression of a number of phenotypes, including virulence factor production, in response to changes in cell density. It produces small molecules called autoinducers that increase in concentration as cell density increases, and these autoinducers bind to membrane sensors once they reach a certain threshold. This binding leads to signalling through a downstream phosphorelay pathway to alter the expression of the transcriptional regulator HapR. Previously, it was shown that the VarS/VarA two-component system acts on a component of the phosphorelay pathway upstream of HapR to regulate HapR expression levels. Here, we show that in addition to this mechanism of regulation, VarS and VarA also indirectly modulate HapR protein activity. This modulation is mediated by the small RNA CsrB but is independent of the known quorum-sensing system that links the autoinducers to HapR. Thus, the VarS/VarA two-component system intersects with the quorum-sensing network at two levels. In both cases, the effect of VarS and VarA on quorum sensing is dependent on the Csr small RNAs, which regulate carbon metabolism, suggesting that V. cholerae may integrate nutrient status and cell density sensory inputs to tailor its gene expression profile more precisely to surrounding conditions.

Tsou, Amy M.; Liu, Zhi; Cai, Tao

2011-01-01

356

Pseudomonas corrugata contains a conserved N-acyl homoserine lactone quorum sensing system; its role in tomato pathogenicity and tobacco hypersensitivity response.  

PubMed

Pseudomonas corrugata is a phytopathogenic bacterium, causal agent of tomato pith necrosis, yet it is an ubiquitous bacterium that is part of the microbial community in the soil and in the rhizosphere of different plant species. Although it is a very heterogeneous species, all the strains tested were able to produce short chain acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) quorum sensing signal molecules. The main AHL produced was N-hexanoyl-L-homoserine lactone (C(6)-AHL). An AHL quorum sensing system, designated PcoI/PcoR, was identified and characterized. The role of the quorum sensing system in the expression of a variety of traits was evaluated. Inactivation of pcoI abolished the production of AHLs. The pcoR mutant, but not the pcoI mutant, was impaired in swarming, unable to cause a hypersensitivity response on tobacco and resulted in a reduced tomato pith necrosis phenotype. The pcoI mutant showed a reduced antimicrobial activity against various fungi and bacteria when assayed on King's B medium. These results demonstrate that the AHL quorum sensing in Ps. corrugata regulates traits that contribute to virulence, antimicrobial activity and fitness. This is the first report of genes of Ps. corrugata involved in the disease development and biological control activity. PMID:17537174

Licciardello, Grazia; Bertani, Iris; Steindler, Laura; Bella, Patrizia; Venturi, Vittorio; Catara, Vittoria

2007-08-01

357

Interference with the quorum sensing systems in a Vibrio harveyi strain alters the growth rate of gnotobiotically cultured rotifer Brachionus plicatilis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims: To evaluate the effect of Vibrio harveyi strains on the growth rate of the gnotobiotically cultured rotifer Brachionus plicatilis, and to establish whether quorum sensing is involved in the observed phenomena. Methods and Results: Gnotobiotic B. plicatilis sensu strictu, obtained by hatch- ing glutaraldehyde-treated amictic eggs, were used as test organisms. Challenge tests were performed with 11 V. harveyi

N. T. N. Tinh; N. D. Linh; T. K. Wood; K. Dierckens; P. Sorgeloos; P. Bossier

2007-01-01

358

Cinnamaldehyde and cinnamaldehyde derivatives reduce virulence in Vibrio spp. by decreasing the DNA-binding activity of the quorum sensing response regulator LuxR  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: To date, only few compounds targeting the AI-2 based quorum sensing (QS) system are known. In the present study, we screened cinnamaldehyde and substituted cinnamaldehydes for their ability to interfere with AI-2 based QS. The mechanism of QS inhibition was elucidated by measuring the effect on bioluminescence in several Vibrio harveyi mutants. We also studied in vitro the ability

Gilles Brackman; Tom Defoirdt; Carol Miyamoto; Peter Bossier; Serge Van Calenbergh; Hans Nelis; Tom Coenye

2008-01-01

359

Octanoyl-Homoserine Lactone Is the Cognate Signal for Burkholderia mallei BmaR1-BmaI1 Quorum Sensing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Acyl-homoserine lactones (HSLs) serve as quorum-sensing signals for many Proteobacteria. Members of the LuxI family of signal generators catalyze the production of acyl-HSLs, which bind to a cognate receptor in the LuxR family of transcription factors. Th...

B. A. Duerkop R. L. Ulrich E. P. Greenberg

2007-01-01

360

Role of Quorum Sensing and Antimicrobial Component Production by Serratia plymuthica in Formation of Biofilms, Including Mixed Biofilms with Escherichia coli?  

PubMed Central

We have previously characterized the N-acyl-l-homoserine lactone-based quorum-sensing system of the biofilm isolate Serratia plymuthica RVH1. Here we investigated the role of quorum sensing and of quorum-sensing-dependent production of an antimicrobial compound (AC) on biofilm formation by RVH1 and on the cocultivation of RVH1 and Escherichia coli in planktonic cultures or in biofilms. Biofilm formation of S. plymuthica was not affected by the knockout of splI or splR, the S. plymuthica homologs of the luxI or luxR quorum-sensing gene, respectively, or by the knockout of AC production. E. coli grew well in mixed broth culture with RVH1 until the latter reached 8.5 to 9.5 log CFU/ml, after which the E. coli colony counts steeply declined. In comparison, only a very small decline occurred in cocultures with the S. plymuthica AC-deficient and splI mutants. Complementation with exogenous N-hexanoyl-l-homoserine lactone rescued the wild-type phenotype of the splI mutant. The splR knockout mutant also induced a steep decline of E. coli, consistent with its proposed function as a repressor of quorum-sensing-regulated genes. The numbers of E. coli in 3-day-old mixed biofilms followed a similar pattern, being higher with S. plymuthica deficient in SplI or AC production than with wild-type S. plymuthica, the splR mutant, or the splI mutant in the presence of N-hexanoyl-l-homoserine lactone. Confocal laser scanning microscopic analysis of mixed biofilms established with strains producing different fluorescent proteins showed that E. coli microcolonies were less developed in the presence of RVH1 than in the presence of the AC-deficient mutant.

Moons, Pieter; Van Houdt, Rob; Aertsen, Abram; Vanoirbeek, Kristof; Engelborghs, Yves; Michiels, Chris W.

2006-01-01

361

The quorum sensing transcriptional regulator TraR has separate binding sites for DNA and the anti-activator  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Quorum sensing transcription factor TraR is inhibited by forming TraR-TraM complex. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer K213 is a key DNA binding residue, but not involved in interaction with TraM. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mutations of TraM-interacting TraR residues did not affect DNA-binding of TraR. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mutations of TraR residues reduced the TraR-TraM interaction more than those of TraM. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TraM inhibition on DNA-binding of TraR is driven by thermodynamics. -- Abstract: Quorum sensing represents a mechanism by which bacteria control their genetic behaviors via diffusible signals that reflect their population density. TraR, a quorum sensing transcriptional activator in the Rhizobiaceae family, is regulated negatively by the anti-activator TraM via formation of a TraR-TraM heterocomplex. Prior structural analysis suggests that TraM and DNA bind to TraR in distinct sites. Here we combined isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) and electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA) to investigate roles of TraR residues from Rhizobium sp. NGR234 in binding of both TraM and DNA. We found that K213A mutation of TraR{sub NGR} abolished DNA binding, however, did not alter TraM binding. Mutations of TraM-interfacing TraR{sub NGR} residues decreased the TraR-TraM interaction, but did not affect the DNA-binding activity of TraR{sub NGR}. Thus, our biochemical studies support the independent binding sites on TraR for TraM and DNA. We also found that point mutations in TraR{sub NGR} appeared to decrease the TraR-TraM interaction more effectively than those in TraM{sub NGR}, consistent with structural observations that individual TraR{sub NGR} residues contact with more TraM{sub NGR} residues than each TraM{sub NGR} residues with TraR{sub NGR} residues. Finally, we showed that TraM inhibition on DNA-binding of TraR was driven thermodynamically. We discussed subtle mechanistic differences in TraM anti-activation on TraR activity between homologous systems.

Zheng, Zhida; Fuqua, Clay [Department of Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, 212 S. Hawthorne Dr. Simon Hall 400A, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405 (United States)] [Department of Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, 212 S. Hawthorne Dr. Simon Hall 400A, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405 (United States); Chen, Lingling, E-mail: linchen@indiana.edu [Department of Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, 212 S. Hawthorne Dr. Simon Hall 400A, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405 (United States)] [Department of Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, 212 S. Hawthorne Dr. Simon Hall 400A, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405 (United States)

2012-02-10

362

Implication of Quorum Sensing in Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Virulence: the luxS Gene Is Necessary for Expression of Genes in Pathogenicity Island 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the fact that the regulatory system sensing density of cell population and its signaling molecule have been identified in Salmonella enterica, the biological significance of this phenomenon termed as quorum sensing remains unknown. In this report, we provide evidence that the luxS gene is necessary for Salmonella virulence phenotypes. Transcription assays showed that the cell-density-dependent induction of the invF

Jeongjoon Choi; Dongwoo Shin; Sangryeol Ryu

2007-01-01

363

Quorum quenching activity in cell-free lysate of endophytic bacteria isolated from Pterocarpus santalinus Linn., and its effect on quorum sensing regulated biofilm in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1.  

PubMed

Quorum sensing mechanism allows the microorganisms to resist the antibiotic treatment by forming biofilms. Quorum quenching is one of the mechanisms to control the development of drug resistance in microbes. Endophyte bacteria are beneficial to plant growth as they support the immune system against the pathogen attack. The endophytic bacteria present in Pterocarpus santalinus were screened for the presence of N-acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs) degrading bacteria using biosensor strains and further confirmed by quantifying the violacein production. Cell-free lysate of endophytic bacteria, Bacillus firmus PT18 and Enterobacter asburiae PT39 exhibited potent AHL degrading ability by inhibiting about 80% violacein production in biosensor strain. Furthermore, when the cell-free lysate was applied to Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 and PAO1-JP2 biofilm it resulted in significant (p<0.01) inhibition of biofilm formation. The biofilm inhibition was confirmed by visualization of biofilm slides under fluorescence microscopy, which showed decrease in total biomass formation in treated slides. Isolation and amplification of the gene (aiiA) indicated that the presence of AHL lactonase in cell-free lysate and sequence alignment indicated that AiiA contains a "HXHXDH" zinc-binding motif that is being conserved in several groups of metallohydrolases. Therefore, the study shows the potential of AHLs degradation by AHL lactonase present in cell-free lysate of isolated endophytic bacteria and inhibition of quorum sensing regulated biofilm formation in P. aeruginosa PAO1. PMID:24268182

Rajesh, P S; Ravishankar Rai, V

2014-01-01

364

Disrupting the luxS quorum sensing gene does not significantly affect Bacillus anthracis virulence in mice or guinea pigs  

PubMed Central

Many bacterial species use secreted quorum-sensing autoinducer molecules to regulate cell density- and growth phase-dependent gene expression, including virulence factor production, as sufficient environmental autoinducer concentrations are achieved. Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax, contains a functional autoinducer (AI-2) system, which appears to regulate virulence gene expression. To determine if the AI-2 system is necessary for disease, we constructed a LuxS AI-2 synthase-deficient mutant in the virulent Ames strain of B. anthracis. We found that growth of the LuxS-deficient mutant was inhibited and sporulation was delayed when compared with the parental strain. However, spores of the Ames luxS mutant remained fully virulent in both mice and guinea pigs.

Bozue, Joel; Powell, Bradford S.; Cote, Christopher K.; Moody, Krishna L.; Gelhaus, H. Carl; Vietri, Nicholas J.; Rozak, David A.

2012-01-01

365

Prevention of quorum-sensing-mediated biofilm development and virulence factors production in Vibrio spp. by curcumin.  

PubMed

The increasing occurrence of disease outbreaks caused by Vibrio spp. and the emergence of antibiotic resistance has led to a growing interest in finding alternative strategies to prevent vibriosis. Since the pathogenicity of vibrios is controlled in part by quorum-sensing (QS) system, interfering with this mechanism would prevent the pathogenicity of vibrios without developing resistance. Hence, a non-toxic phytochemical curcumin from Curcuma longa was assessed for its potential in reducing the production of QS-dependent virulence factors in Vibrio spp. The obtained results evidenced 88% reduction in bioluminescence of Vibrio harveyi by curcumin. Further, curcumin exhibited a significant inhibition in alginate, exopolysaccharides, motility, biofilm development and other virulence factors production in Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio vulnificus and V. harveyi. In in vivo analysis, curcumin enhanced the survival rate of Artemia nauplii up to 67% against V. harveyi infection by attenuating its QS-mediated virulence. PMID:23354447

Packiavathy, Issac Abraham Sybiya Vasantha; Sasikumar, Pitchaikani; Pandian, Shunmugiah Karutha; Veera Ravi, Arumugam

2013-12-01

366

A quorum-sensing molecule acts as a morphogen controlling gas vesicle organelle biogenesis and adaptive flotation in an enterobacterium.  

PubMed

Gas vesicles are hollow intracellular proteinaceous organelles produced by aquatic Eubacteria and Archaea, including cyanobacteria and halobacteria. Gas vesicles increase buoyancy and allow taxis toward air-liquid interfaces, enabling subsequent niche colonization. Here we report a unique example of gas vesicle-mediated flotation in an enterobacterium; Serratia sp. strain ATCC39006. This strain is a member of the Enterobacteriaceae previously studied for its production of prodigiosin and carbapenem antibiotics. Genes required for gas vesicle synthesis mapped to a 16.6-kb gene cluster encoding three distinct homologs of the main structural protein, GvpA. Heterologous expression of this locus in Escherichia coli induced copious vesicle production and efficient cell buoyancy. Gas vesicle morphogenesis in Serratia enabled formation of a pellicle-like layer of highly vacuolated cells, which was dependent on oxygen limitation and the expression of ntrB/C and cheY-like regulatory genes within the gas-vesicle gene cluster. Gas vesicle biogenesis was strictly controlled by intercellular chemical signaling, through an N-acyl homoserine lactone, indicating that in this system the quorum-sensing molecule acts as a morphogen initiating organelle development. Flagella-based motility and gas vesicle morphogenesis were also oppositely regulated by the small RNA-binding protein, RsmA, suggesting environmental adaptation through physiological control of the choice between motility and flotation as alternative taxis modes. We propose that gas vesicle biogenesis in this strain represents a distinct mechanism of mobility, regulated by oxygen availability, nutritional status, the RsmA global regulatory system, and the quorum-sensing morphogen. PMID:21873216

Ramsay, Joshua P; Williamson, Neil R; Spring, David R; Salmond, George P C

2011-09-01

367

Cell Death of Streptococcus mutans Induced by a Quorum-Sensing Peptide Occurs via a Conserved Streptococcal Autolysin  

PubMed Central

Streptococcus mutans, a member of the human indigenous oral microbiome, produces a quorum-sensing peptide called the competence-stimulating peptide (CSP) pheromone. We previously demonstrated that S. mutans expresses its CSP pheromone under specific stresses and responds to high levels of CSP by inducing cell death in a fraction of the bacterial population. Streptococci lack the classical SOS response, and the induction of the SigX regulon has been proposed to act as a general stress response in Gram-positive bacteria. We show here that inactivation of SigX abolished the CSP-induced cell death phenotype. Among SigX-regulated genes, SMU.836 (now named lytFSm), encoding a conserved streptococcal protein, is a functional peptidoglycan hydrolase involved in CSP-induced cell lysis. We also demonstrated that LytFSm is most likely a self-acting autolysin, since LytFSm produced by attacker cells cannot trigger CSP-induced lysis of LytFSm-deficient target cells present in the same environment. Electron microscopy revealed important morphological changes accompanying autolysis of CSP-induced wild-type cultures that were absent in the LytFSm-deficient mutant. The LytFSm promoter was activated in the physiological context of elevated concentrations of the CSP pheromone under stress conditions, such as exposure to heat, hydrogen peroxide, and acid. In a long-term survival assay, the viability of a mutant deficient in LytFSm autolysin was significantly lower than that observed for the wild-type strain. The results of this study suggest that cell death of S. mutans induced by its quorum-sensing CSP pheromone may represent a kind of altruistic act that provides a way for the species to survive environmental stresses at the expense of some of its cells.

Dufour, Delphine

2013-01-01

368

A quorum-sensing molecule acts as a morphogen controlling gas vesicle organelle biogenesis and adaptive flotation in an enterobacterium  

PubMed Central

Gas vesicles are hollow intracellular proteinaceous organelles produced by aquatic Eubacteria and Archaea, including cyanobacteria and halobacteria. Gas vesicles increase buoyancy and allow taxis toward air–liquid interfaces, enabling subsequent niche colonization. Here we report a unique example of gas vesicle-mediated flotation in an enterobacterium; Serratia sp. strain ATCC39006. This strain is a member of the Enterobacteriaceae previously studied for its production of prodigiosin and carbapenem antibiotics. Genes required for gas vesicle synthesis mapped to a 16.6-kb gene cluster encoding three distinct homologs of the main structural protein, GvpA. Heterologous expression of this locus in Escherichia coli induced copious vesicle production and efficient cell buoyancy. Gas vesicle morphogenesis in Serratia enabled formation of a pellicle-like layer of highly vacuolated cells, which was dependent on oxygen limitation and the expression of ntrB/C and cheY-like regulatory genes within the gas-vesicle gene cluster. Gas vesicle biogenesis was strictly controlled by intercellular chemical signaling, through an N-acyl homoserine lactone, indicating that in this system the quorum-sensing molecule acts as a morphogen initiating organelle development. Flagella-based motility and gas vesicle morphogenesis were also oppositely regulated by the small RNA-binding protein, RsmA, suggesting environmental adaptation through physiological control of the choice between motility and flotation as alternative taxis modes. We propose that gas vesicle biogenesis in this strain represents a distinct mechanism of mobility, regulated by oxygen availability, nutritional status, the RsmA global regulatory system, and the quorum-sensing morphogen.

Ramsay, Joshua P.; Williamson, Neil R.; Spring, David R.; Salmond, George P. C.

2011-01-01

369

Structural insights into the molecular mechanism of Escherichia coli SdiA, a quorum-sensing receptor.  

PubMed

Escherichia coli SdiA is a quorum-sensing (QS) receptor that responds to autoinducers produced by other bacterial species to control cell division and virulence. Crystal structures reveal that E. coli SdiA, which is composed of an N-terminal ligand-binding domain and a C-terminal DNA-binding domain (DBD), forms a symmetrical dimer. Although each domain shows structural similarity to other QS receptors, SdiA differs from them in the relative orientation of the two domains, suggesting that its ligand-binding and DNA-binding functions are independent. Consistently, in DNA gel-shift assays the binding affinity of SdiA for the ftsQP2 promoter appeared to be insensitive to the presence of autoinducers. These results suggest that autoinducers increase the functionality of SdiA by enhancing the protein stability rather than by directly affecting the DNA-binding affinity. Structural analyses of the ligand-binding pocket showed that SdiA cannot accommodate ligands with long acyl chains, which was corroborated by isothermal titration calorimetry and thermal stability analyses. The formation of an intersubunit disulfide bond that might be relevant to modulation of the DNA-binding activity was predicted from the proximal position of two Cys residues in the DBDs of dimeric SdiA. It was confirmed that the binding affinity of SdiA for the uvrY promoter was reduced under oxidizing conditions, which suggested the possibility of regulation of SdiA by multiple independent signals such as quorum-sensing inducers and the oxidation state of the cell. PMID:24598739

Kim, Truc; Duong, Thao; Wu, Chun-ai; Choi, Jongkeun; Lan, Nguyen; Kang, Sung Wook; Lokanath, Neratur K; Shin, DongWoo; Hwang, Hye-Yeon; Kim, Kyeong Kyu

2014-03-01

370

Quorum sensing differentially regulates Pseudomonas aeruginosa type VI secretion locus I and homologous loci II and III, which are required for pathogenesis  

PubMed Central

Pseudomonas aeruginosa harbours three type VI secretion (T6S) loci. Although HSI-I has been partially studied, limited knowledge is available on the homologous loci HSI-II and HSI-III. We show that quorum sensing (QS) differentially regulates the expression of genes at all three loci. HSI-I-associated gene expression is suppressed by both the homoserine lactone transcription factor LasR and the 4-hydroxy-2-alkylquinoline (HAQ) transcriptional regulator MvfR. Conversely, both HSI-II and HSI-III loci are positively controlled by LasR and MvfR. PqsE, a key component of the MvfR regulon, is required for the expression of part of HSI-III but not HSI-II, and previously identified inhibitors of HAQ biosynthesis significantly downregulate HSI-II and -III gene expression. Animal and plant infection studies reveal that both HSI-II and -III play important roles in pathogenesis. Furthermore, analysis of a double ?HSI-II?:?:?III mutant suggests that these loci functionally compensate for one another in virulence. This study illustrates the contribution of the QS systems to T6S gene regulation and reveals the importance of HSI-II and -III in mediating P. aeruginosa pathogenesis. Moreover, this work provides new insights into the design and development of selective compounds that may restrict human P. aeruginosa and possibly other clinical infections.

Lesic, B.; Starkey, M.; He, J.; Hazan, R.; Rahme, L. G.

2009-01-01

371

Flagellin and F4 fimbriae have opposite effects on biofilm formation and quorum sensing in F4ac+ enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli.  

PubMed

Bacteria that form biofilms are often highly resistant to antibiotics and are capable of evading the host immune system. To evaluate the role of flagellin and F4 fimbriae on biofilm formation by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC), we deleted the fliC (encoding the major flagellin protein) and/or the faeG (encoding the major subunit of F4 fimbriae) genes from ETEC C83902. Biofilm formation was reduced in the fliC mutant but increased in the faeG mutant, as compared with the wild-type strain. The expression of AI-2 quorum sensing associated genes was regulated in the fliC and faeG mutants, consistent with the biofilm formation of these strains. But, deleting fliC and/or faeG also inhibited AI-2 quorum sensing activity. PMID:24238669

Zhou, Mingxu; Guo, Zhiyan; Yang, Yang; Duan, Qiangde; Zhang, Qi; Yao, Fenghua; Zhu, Jun; Zhang, Xinjun; Hardwidge, Philip R; Zhu, Guoqiang

2014-01-10

372

The BlcC (AttM) Lactonase of Agrobacterium tumefaciens Does Not Quench the Quorum-Sensing System That Regulates Ti Plasmid Conjugative Transfer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The conjugative transfer of Agrobacterium plasmids is controlled by a quorum-sensing system consisting of TraR and its acyl-homoserine lactone (HSL) ligand. The acyl-HSL is essential for the TraR-mediated activation of the Ti plasmid Tra genes. Strains A6 and C58 of Agrobacterium tumefaciens produce a lactonase, BlcC (AttM), that can degrade the quormone, leading some to conclude that the enzyme quenches

Sharik R. Khan; Stephen K. Farrand

2009-01-01

373

Secondary Metabolites Produced by the Marine Bacterium Halobacillus salinus That Inhibit Quorum Sensing-Controlled Phenotypes in Gram-Negative Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Certain bacteria use cell-to-cell chemical communication to coordinate community-wide phenotypic expres- sion, including swarming motility, antibiotic biosynthesis, and biofilm production. Here we present a marine gram-positive bacterium that secretes secondary metabolites capable of quenching quorum sensing-controlled behaviors in several gram-negative reporter strains. Isolate C42, a Halobacillus salinus strain obtained from a sea grass sample, inhibits bioluminescence production by Vibrio harveyi

Margaret E. Teasdale; Jiayuan Liu; Joselynn Wallace; Fatemeh Akhlaghi; David C. Rowley

2009-01-01

374

The Burkholderia cenocepacia LysR-Type Transcriptional Regulator ShvR Influences Expression of Quorum-Sensing, Protease, Type II Secretion, and afc Genes?  

PubMed Central

Burkholderia cenocepacia is a significant opportunistic pathogen in individuals with cystic fibrosis. ShvR, a LysR-type transcriptional regulator, has previously been shown to influence colony morphology, biofilm formation, virulence in plant and animal infection models, and some quorum-sensing-dependent phenotypes. In the present study, it was shown that ShvR negatively regulates its own expression, as is typical for LysR-type regulators. The production of quorum-sensing signal molecules was detected earlier in growth in the shvR mutant than in the wild type, and ShvR repressed expression of the quorum-sensing regulatory genes cepIR and cciIR. Microarray analysis and transcriptional fusions revealed that ShvR regulated over 1,000 genes, including the zinc metalloproteases zmpA and zmpB. The shvR mutant displayed increased gene expression of the type II secretion system and significantly increased protease and lipase activities. Both ShvR and CepR influence expression of a 24-kb genomic region adjacent to shvR that includes the afcA and afcC operons, required for the production of an antifungal agent; however, the reduction in expression was substantially greater in the shvR mutant than in the cepR mutant. Only the shvR mutation resulted in reduced antifungal activity against Rhizoctonia solani. ShvR, but not CepR, was shown to directly regulate expression of the afcA and afcC promoters. In summary, ShvR was determined to have a significant influence on the expression of quorum-sensing, protease, lipase, type II secretion, and afc genes.

O'Grady, Eoin P.; Nguyen, David T.; Weisskopf, Laure; Eberl, Leo; Sokol, Pamela A.

2011-01-01

375

Involvement of region 4 of the ? 70 subunit of RNA polymerase in transcriptional activation of the lux operon during quorum sensing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quorum sensing-dependent activation of the luminescence (lux) genes of Vibrio fischeri relies on the formation of a complex between the autoinducer molecule, N-(3-oxohexanoyl)-L-homoserine lactone, and the autoinducer-dependent transcriptional activator LuxR. In its active conformation, LuxR binds to a site known as the lux box centered at position ?42.5 relative to the luxI transcriptional start site and is thought to function

Deborah C Johnson; Akira Ishihama; Ann M Stevens

2003-01-01

376

Lack of genomic evidence of AI2 receptors suggests a non-quorum sensing role for luxS in most bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Great excitement accompanied discoveries over the last decade in several Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria of the LuxS protein, which catalyzes production of the AI-2 autoinducer molecule for a second quorum sensing system (QS-2). Since the luxS gene was found to be widespread among the most diverse bacterial taxa, it was hypothesized that AI-2 may constitute the basis of a

Fabio Rezzonico; Brion Duffy

2008-01-01

377

Roles of Pseudomonas aeruginosa las and rhl quorum-sensing systems in control of elastase and rhamnolipid biosynthesis genes.  

PubMed Central

Two quorum-sensing systems (las and rhl) regulate virulence gene expression in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The las system consists of a transcriptional activator, LasR, and LasI, which directs the synthesis of the autoinducer N-(3-oxododecanoyl) homoserine lactone (PAI-1). Induction of lasB (encoding elastase) and other virulence genes requires LasR and PAI-1. The rhl system consists of a putative transcriptional activator, RhlR, and RhlI, which directs the synthesis of N-butyryl homoserine lactone (PAI-2). Rhamnolipid production in P. aeruginosa has been reported to require both the rhl system and rhlAB (encoding a rhamnosyltransferase). Here we report the generation of a delta lasI mutant and both delta lasI delta rhlI and delta lasR rhlR::Tn501 double mutants of strain PAO1. Rhamnolipid production and elastolysis were reduced in the delta lasI single mutant and abolished in the double-mutant strains. rhlAB mRNA was not detected in these strains at mid-logarithmic phase but was abundant in the parental strain. Further RNA analysis of the wild-type strain revealed that rhlAB is organized as an operon. The rhlAB transcriptional start was mapped, and putative sigma 54 and sigma 70 promoters were identified upstream. To define components required for rhlAB expression, we developed a bioassay in Escherichia coli and demonstrated that PAI-2 and RhlR are required and sufficient for expression of rhlA. To characterize the putative interaction between PAI-2 and RhlR, we demonstrated that [3H]PAI-2 binds to E. coli cells expressing RhlR and not to those expressing LasR. Finally, the specificity of the las and rhl systems was examined in E. coli bioassays. The las system was capable of mildly activating rhlA, and similarly, the rhl system partly activated lasB. However; these effects were much less than the activation of rhlA by the rhl system and lasB by the las system. The results presented here further characterize the roles of the rhl and las quorum-sensing systems in virulence gene expression.

Pearson, J P; Pesci, E C; Iglewski, B H

1997-01-01

378

In vitro biosynthesis of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa quorum-sensing signal molecule N-butanoyl-L-homoserine lactone.  

PubMed

In Pseudomonas aeruginosa, synthesis of the quorum-sensing signal molecules N-butanoyl-L-homoserine lactone (BHL) and N-hexanoyl-L-homoserine lactone (HHL) requires the Luxl homologue Rhll(Vsml). By using thin-layer chromatography in conjunction with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and mass spectrometry, we show that purified Rhll can catalyse the biosynthesis of BHL and HHL using either S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) or homoserine lactone (HSL) but not homoserine as the source of the homoserine lactone moiety. As we were unable to detect homoserine lactone in cytoplasmic extracts of Escherichia coli, we conclude that SAM is the natural substrate for Rhll-directed N-acylhomoserine lactone (AHL) biosynthesis. The N-acyl chain of BHL and HHL can be supplied by the appropriately charged coenzyme A derivative (either n-butanoyl-CoA or n-hexanoyl-CoA). The specificity of Rhll for charged CoA derivatives is demonstrated as Rhll was unable to generate AHLs detectable in our bioassays from acetyl-CoA, malonyl-CoA, n-octanoyl-CoA, n-decanoyl-CoA, DL-beta-hydroxybutanoyl-CoA or crotonoyl-CoA. Rhll was also unable to use N-acetyl-S-3-oxobutanoylcysteamine, a chemical mimic for 3-oxobutanoyl-CoA. Furthermore, the Rhll-catalysed synthesis of BHL and HHL was most efficiently driven when NADPH was included in the reaction mixture. PMID:9593307

Jiang, Y; Camara, M; Chhabra, S R; Hardie, K R; Bycroft, B W; Lazdunski, A; Salmond, G P; Stewart, G S; Williams, P

1998-04-01

379

Revisiting quorum sensing: Discovery of additional chemical and biological functions for 3-oxo-N-acylhomoserine lactones  

PubMed Central

Bacteria use small diffusible molecules to exchange information in a process called quorum sensing. An important class of autoinducers used by Gram-negative bacteria is the family of N-acylhomoserine lactones. Here, we report the discovery of a previously undescribed nonenzymatically formed product from N-(3-oxododecanoyl)-L-homoserine lactone; both the N-acylhomoserine and its novel tetramic acid degradation product, 3-(1-hydroxydecylidene)-5-(2-hydroxyethyl)pyrrolidine-2,4-dione, are potent antibacterial agents. Bactericidal activity was observed against all tested Gram-positive bacterial strains, whereas no toxicity was seen against Gram-negative bacteria. We propose that Pseudomonas aeruginosa utilizes this tetramic acid as an interference strategy to preclude encroachment by competing bacteria. Additionally, we have discovered that this tetramic acid binds iron with comparable affinity to known bacterial siderophores, possibly providing an unrecognized mechanism for iron solubilization. These findings merit new attention such that other previously identified autoinducers be reevaluated for additional biological functions.

Kaufmann, Gunnar F.; Sartorio, Rafaella; Lee, Sang-Hyeup; Rogers, Claude J.; Meijler, Michael M.; Moss, Jason A.; Clapham, Bruce; Brogan, Andrew P.; Dickerson, Tobin J.; Janda, Kim D.

2005-01-01

380

N-acyl-homoserine-lactone quorum sensing in tomato phytopathogenic Pseudomonas spp. is involved in the regulation of lipodepsipeptide production.  

PubMed

Pseudomonas corrugata and Pseudomonas mediterranea are two closely related phytopathogenic bacteria both causal agents of tomato pith necrosis. P. corrugata produces phytotoxic and antimicrobial cationic lipodepsipeptides (LDPs) which are thought to act as major virulence factors. Previous studies have demonstrated that P. corrugata CFBP 5454 has an N-acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) quorum sensing (QS) system PcoI/PcoR and that LDP production occurs at high population densities. No molecular studies on virulence have thus far been reported for P. mediterranea. In this study, we show that P. mediterranea also produces LDPs as well as possessing an AHL-dependent QS system, designated PmeI/PmeR, which is highly homologous to the PcoI/R system of P. corrugata producing and responding to C(6)-AHL. Downstream of pmeI, a partial DNA sequence revealed the presence of a homolog of the rfiA gene of P. corrugata which encodes a transcriptional regulator involved in bacterial virulence. Pathogenicity tests and MALDI-TOF spectra of wild-type strains of both bacterial species and their respective QSs and rfiA derivative mutants revealed that, in the absence of LDPs, the strains induce very weak symptoms indicating that LDPs may act as major virulence factors. Mutational analysis of both QS systems suggests that their mode of action is in places different. PMID:21839119

Licciardello, Grazia; Strano, Cinzia P; Bertani, Iris; Bella, Patrizia; Fiore, Alberto; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Venturi, Vittorio; Catara, Vittoria

2012-06-30

381

Modeling bacterial quorum sensing in open and closed environments: potential discrepancies between agar plate and culture flask experiments.  

PubMed

Quorum sensing (QS) is a process of bacterial communication and cooperation mediated by the release of jointly exploited signals and "public goods" into the environment. There are conflicting reports on the behavior of mutants deficient in the release of these materials. Namely, mutants that appear perfectly viable and capable of outgrowing wild type cells in a closed model system such as a culture flask, may not be viable or invasive on open surfaces such as agar plates. Here we show via agent-based computational simulations that this apparent discrepancy is due to the difference between open and closed systems. We suggest that the experimental difference is due to the fact that wild type cells can easily saturate a well-mixed culture flask with signals and public goods so QS will be not necessary after a certain time point. As a consequence, QS-deficient mutants can continue to grow even after the wild type population has vanished. This phenomenon is not likely to occur in open environments including open surfaces and agar plate models. In other words, even if QS is required for survival, QS deficient mutants may grow faster initially in short term laboratory experiments or computer simulations, while only WT cells appear stable over longer time scales, especially when adaptation to changing environments is important. PMID:24944091

Bihary, Dóra; Tóth, Marietta; Kerényi, Adám; Venturi, Vittorio; Pongor, Sándor

2014-07-01

382

Regulation of polar flagellum genes is mediated by quorum sensing and FlhDC in Burkholderia glumae.  

PubMed

The bacterium Burkholderia glumae causes rice grain rot by producing toxoflavin, whose expression is regulated by quorum sensing (QS). We report a major deviation from the current paradigm for the regulation of bacterial polar flagellum genes. The N-octanoyl homoserine lactone (C8-HSL)-deficient mutant of B. glumae is aflagellate and has lost the ability to swim and swarm at 37 degrees C. Mutagenesis of the bacterium with the mini-Tn5rescue identified an IclR-type transcriptional regulator, called QsmR, which is important for flagellum formation. TofR, which is a cognate C8-HSL receptor, activated qsmR expression by binding directly to the qsmR promoter region. From the flagellum gene cluster, we identified flhDC homologues that are directly activated by QsmR. FlhDC in turn activates the expression of genes involved in flagellum biosynthesis, motor functions and chemotaxis in B. glumae. Non-motile qsmR, fliA and flhDC mutants produced toxoflavin, but lost pathogenicity for rice. The unexpected discovery of FlhDC in a polarly flagellate bacterium suggests that exceptions to the typical regulatory mechanisms of flagellum genes exist in Gram-negative bacteria. The finding that functional flagella play critical roles in the pathogenicity of B. glumae suggests that either QS or flagellum formation constitutes a good target for the control of rice grain rot. PMID:17376080

Kim, Jinwoo; Kang, Yongsung; Choi, Okhee; Jeong, Yeonhwa; Jeong, Jae-Eun; Lim, Jae Yun; Kim, Minkyun; Moon, Jae Sun; Suga, Hiroaki; Hwang, Ingyu

2007-04-01

383

The Quorum Sensing-Dependent Gene katG of Burkholderia glumae Is Important for Protection from Visible Light?  

PubMed Central

Quorum sensing (QS) plays important roles in the pathogenicity of Burkholderia glumae, the causative agent of bacterial rice grain rot. We determined how QS is involved in catalase expression in B. glumae. The QS-defective mutant of B. glumae exhibited less catalase activity than wild-type B. glumae. A ?-glucuronidase assay of a katG::Tn3-gusA78 reporter fusion protein revealed that katG expression is under the control of QS. Furthermore, katG expression was upregulated by QsmR, a transcriptional activator for flagellar-gene expression that is regulated by QS. A gel mobility shift assay confirmed that QsmR directly activates katG expression. The katG mutant produced toxoflavin but exhibited less severe disease than BGR1 on rice panicles. Under visible light conditions and a photon flux density of 61.6 ?mol?1 m?2, the survival rate of the katG mutant was 105-fold lower than that of BGR1. This suggests that KatG is a major catalase that protects bacterial cells from visible light, which probably results in less severe disease caused by the katG mutant.

Chun, Heejin; Choi, Okhee; Goo, Eunhye; Kim, Nayeon; Kim, Hongsup; Kang, Yongsung; Kim, Jinwoo; Moon, Jae Sun; Hwang, Ingyu

2009-01-01

384

The Burkholderia cenocepacia sensor kinase hybrid AtsR is a global regulator modulating quorum-sensing signalling.  

PubMed

Burkholderia cenocepacia is commonly found in the environment and also as an important opportunistic pathogen infecting patients with cystic fibrosis. Successful infection by this bacterium requires coordinated expression of virulence factors, which is achieved through different quorum sensing (QS) regulatory systems. Biofilm formation and Type 6 secretion system (T6SS) expression in B. cenocepacia K56-2 are positively regulated by QS and negatively regulated by the sensor kinase hybrid AtsR. This study reveals that in addition to affecting biofilm and T6SS activity, the deletion of atsR in B. cenocepacia leads to overproduction of other QS-regulated virulence determinants including proteases and swarming motility. Expression of the QS genes, cepIR and cciIR, was upregulated in the ?atsR mutant and resulted in early and increased N-acylhomoserine lactone (AHL) production, suggesting that AtsR plays a role in controlling the timing and fine-tuning of virulence gene expression by modulating QS signalling. Furthermore, a ?atsR?cepI?cciI mutant could partially upregulate the same virulence determinants indicating that AtsR also modulates the expression of virulence genes by a second mechanism, independently of any AHL production. Together, our results strongly suggest that AtsR is a global virulence regulator in B. cenocepacia. PMID:22830644

Aubert, Daniel F; O'Grady, Eoin P; Hamad, Mohamad A; Sokol, Pamela A; Valvano, Miguel A

2013-02-01

385

Surface swarming motility by Pectobacterium atrosepticum is a latent phenotype that requires O antigen and is regulated by quorum sensing.  

PubMed

We describe a previously cryptic phenotype associated with the opportunistic phytopathogen Pectobacterium atrosepticum (Pca): surface swarming. We found that when Pca was spotted onto plates containing <0.5% (w/v) agar, the culture produced copious amounts of extracellular matrix material containing highly motile cells. Once produced, this 'slime layer' spread rapidly across the plate either as an advancing front or as tendrils. Transposon mutagenesis was used to identify mutants that were affected in swarming. Hypo-swarmer mutants mostly carried insertions in a horizontally acquired island (HAI5), which encodes a cluster of genes involved in O antigen biosynthesis. Hyper-swarmer mutants mostly carried insertions in hexY, a known antagonist of the class I flagellar master regulator, FlhD4C2. In addition, we found that the nucleoid protein, histone-like nuclear structuring protein 2 (H-NS2), also regulated swarming behaviour. A mutant in which hns2 was overexpressed displayed a hyper-swarming phenotype, whereas a mutant in which the hns2 ORF was inactivated had a hypo-swarming phenotype. Swarming was also regulated by quorum sensing (QS) and by the carbon source being utilized. We show, using a range of epistasis experiments, that optimal swarming requires both motility and O antigen biosynthesis, and that H-NS2 and QS both promote swarming through their effects on motility. PMID:24025601

Bowden, Steven D; Hale, Nicola; Chung, Jade C S; Hodgkinson, James T; Spring, David R; Welch, Martin

2013-11-01

386

New properties of wheat bran: anti-biofilm activity and interference with bacteria quorum-sensing systems.  

PubMed

Some plant extracts, have been demonstrated to interfere with the microbial metabolism of several pathogenic bacteria. Within this antimicrobial properties it has been descr