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Sample records for quoteswater watchclose quotes

  1. Defining {open_quotes}proband{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    Marazita, M.L.

    1995-10-01

    Bennett et al. presented recommendations of the Pedigree Standardization Task Force of the National Society of Genetic Counselors. As the authors clearly state, the importance of standardized nomenclature is without question for reducing the chances of incorrect interpretation of patient and family information and for facillitating communication between researchers and clinicians involved in genetic family studies. Most of the recommendations are appropriate and allow recording of the complex situations that can result from today`s reproductive and diagnostic technologies. However, there is a problem with the definition presented for {open_quotes}proband{close_quotes}, i.e. the {open_quotes}first affected family member coming to medical attention{close_quotes}. 6 refs.

  2. Chromogravity explains {open_quotes}strong gravity{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    Ne`eman, Y. |; Sijacki, D.

    1993-03-01

    In this paper the authors deal with the question of gravitational type interactions in the case of strong interaction phenomena. They present arguments which indicate that it is not necessary to invoke a gravity type interaction into QCD in order to account for observed phenomena. They argue that the gravitational type phenomena discussed in previous work is a manifestation of a class of Feynmann diagrams. These seem to generate an analog to gravity, a J=2 {open_quotes}chromograviton{close_quotes} or {open_quotes}pseudo-graviton{close_quotes} whose action effectively generates Salam`s {open_quotes}Strong Gravity{close_quotes} or {open_quotes}f-gravity{close_quotes}, withthough having to introduce the theory as an additional input.

  3. {open_quotes}Car Talk{close_quotes}: An autopsy

    SciTech Connect

    Eads, G.C.

    1996-11-01

    {open_quotes}Car Talk{close_quotes} - the Clinton administration`s vehicle for reducing greenhouse gas emissions from passenger cars and light-duty trucks-hit the wall amid charges and countercharges hurled by its frustrated participants. A careful post-mortem reveals lessons that can redeem the process for dealing with future public policy controversies.

  4. Great Quotes for Great Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitaker, Todd; Lumpa, Dale

    2005-01-01

    Over 600 insightful, witty nuggets to motivate and inspire you... and everyone else at your school. Teachers--display these quotes in your classrooms! Administrators--insert them into your faculty memos and share them at staff meetings! Why is this book unique? (1) it includes over 100 original quotes from internationally acclaimed speaker and…

  5. Options for human {open_quote}{open_quote}return to the moon{close_quote}{close_quote} using tomorrow{close_quote}s SSTO, ISRU, and LOX-augmented NTR technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Borowski, S.K.

    1996-03-01

    The feasibility of conducting human missions to the Moon is examined assuming the use of three {open_quote}{open_quote}high leverage{close_quote}{close_quote} technologies: (1) a single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) launch vehicle, (2) {open_quote}{open_quote}{ital in}-{ital situ}{close_quote}{close_quote} {ital resource} {ital utilization} (ISRU){emdash}specifically {open_quote}{open_quote}lunar-derived{close_quote}{close_quote} liquid oxygen (LUNOX), and (3) LOX-augmented nuclear thermal rocket (LANTR) propulsion. Lunar transportation system elements consisting of a LANTR-powered lunar transfer vehicle (LTV) and a chemical propulsion lunar landing/Earth return vehicle (LERV) are configured to fit within the {open_quote}{open_quote}compact{close_quote}{close_quote} dimensions of the SSTO cargo bay (diameter: 4.6 m/length: 9.0 m) while satisfying an initial mass in low Earth orbit (IMLEO) limit of {approximately}60 t (3 SSTO launches). Using {approximately}8 t of LUNOX to {open_quote}{open_quote}reoxidize{close_quote}{close_quote} the LERV for a {open_quote}{open_quote}direct return{close_quote}{close_quote} flight to Earth reduces its size and mass allowing delivery to LEO on a single 20 t SSTO launch. Similarly, the LANTR engine{close_quote}s ability to operate at any oxygen/hydrogen mixture ratio from 0 to 7 with high specific impulse ({approximately}940 to 515 s) is exploited to reduce hydrogen tank volume, thereby improving packaging of the LANTR LTV{close_quote}s {open_quote}{open_quote}propulsion{close_quote}{close_quote} and {open_quote}{open_quote}propellant modules{close_quote}{close_quote}. Expendable and reusable, piloted and cargo missions and vehicle designs are presented along with estimates of LUNOX production required to support the different mission modes. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  6. Projection in English: The Environment of Quoting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthiessen, Christian M. I. M.; Teruya, Kazuhiro

    2013-01-01

    This article is a report on an investigation of quoting strategies in English, an investigation that is part of a longer-term research programme exploring clauses of "saying" and their quoted and reported content as direct and indirect speech by members of the SAL (Systemics Across Languages) Group. Here the focus is on how quotes are…

  7. PVC, combustion and {open_quote}dioxins{close_quote}

    SciTech Connect

    Kanters, J.; Louw, R.

    1993-12-31

    The incineration of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) yields {open_quote}dioxins{close_quote}. Important precursors of the dioxins are (poly)ChloroPhenols (CP`s). A lab-scale mini combustion reactor has been constructed, capable of handling representative MSW-samples in a batch-wise manner. Flue gas samples were analyzed for CP`s and HCl. In most MSW the NaCl and PVC are about equally important as contributors to the chlorine load. Representative Dutch MSW was also available separated into 14 different fractions, allowing wide variations in composition. By elimination, replacement and/or enrichment the authors aim to discover which components, or conditions, promote CP-formation (for example by catalysis) and its emission in the flue gases. Some features to be discussed are (1) at a given NaCl load the addition of PVC does not increase the CP level (2) Replacing the original Cl-sources by NaCl + cellulose does not change CP-emission, (3) Where and how are CP`s formed?

  8. MR {open_quotes}hot nose sign{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}intravascular enhancement sign{close_quotes} in brain death

    SciTech Connect

    Orrison, W.W. Jr.; Champlin, A.M.; Kesterson, O.L.; Hartshorne, M.F.; King, J.N. |

    1994-05-01

    Three cases of MR with gadopentetate dimeglumine in patients diagnosed with cerebral death are presented. Observation of an MR {open_quotes}hot nose sign{close_quotes} and an {open_quotes}intravascular enhancement sign{close_quotes} provided additional imaging support in the clinical diagnosis of brain death. The MR findings in brain death include: (1) transtentorial and foramen magnum herniation, (2) absent intracranial vascular flow void, (3) poor gray matter/white matter differentiation, (4) no intracranial contrast enhancement, (5) carotid artery enhancement (intravascular enhancement sign), and (6) prominent nasal and scalp enhancement (MR hot nose sign). Additional modalities for confirming brain death are discussed. 41 refs., 2 figs.

  9. {open_quote}Oblique Corrections{close_quote} and physics beyond the standard model

    SciTech Connect

    Ramirez, C.A.

    1996-02-01

    It is shown how the {open_quote}Oblique Corrections{close_quote} (O. C.) formalism is useful to constrain the physics beyond the Standard Model. Several examples are presented. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  10. From Newton{close_quote}s moon to Einstein{close_quote}s moon

    SciTech Connect

    Nordtvedt, K.

    1996-05-01

    Continuing the lunar orbit{close_quote}s 300-year role as gravity{close_quote}s testing ground, laser ranging to the Moon precisely confirms the foundations and structure of general relativity. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  11. {open_quotes}BIOX{close_quotes} hydrogen sulfide abatement process - application analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Gallup, D.L.

    1996-12-31

    A new hydrogen sulfide abatement process, known as {open_quotes}BIOX,{close_quotes} has been specifically developed for the geothermal industry. {open_quotes}BIOX{close_quotes} (biocide induced oxidation) successfully controls both primary and secondary emissions from cooling towers in pilot, demonstration, and commercial operations by air-wet oxidation. Independent laboratory tests recently controverted the efficacy of {open_quotes}BIOX{close_quotes} to catalytically oxidize sulfides to sulfate. Studies conducted in our laboratory with a simulated cooling tower indicate that the experimental conditions employed by Nardini, et al, are unrealistic for geothermal cooling towers. Furthermore, our investigations demonstrate that the {open_quotes}BIOX{close_quotes} process performs optimally at near neutral pH, a condition common to most geothermal cooling tower circulating water systems. A {open_quotes}BIOX{close_quotes} agent, trichloroisocyanuric acid (TCCA), proved to mitigate sulfide emissions much more efficiently than air, sodium hypochlorite or chlorine dioxide. {open_quotes}BIOX{close_quotes} is a proven, cost-effective H{sub 2}S abatement technology.

  12. Peculiar fragile X {open_quotes}mosaics{close_quotes} suggest deletion from full mutations as a mechanism for generating {open_quotes}mosaic{close_quotes} cases

    SciTech Connect

    Rouillard, P.; Rousseau, F.; Lemieux, B.

    1994-09-01

    We report four cases of fragile X males with a {open_quotes}mosaic{close_quotes} pattern as detected by Southern blot analysis with probe StB12.3. These four {open_quotes}mosaics{close_quotes} are peculiar as full mutations are observed without premutations but rather associated with an EcoRI-EagI fragment of normal or reduced size. We have sequenced the fragment of reduced size and determined that the CGG repeats were missing as part of a 99 bp deletion with respect of the published FMR-1 gene sequence. Otherwise, the three other cases showed, in association with full mutations, a fragment of normal size including the CGG repeats. These cases did not show any premutation in association to their full mutations but rather normal or subnormal fragments where part or all of the CGG repeats were deleted at some time, most probably from a full mutation since premutations are known to be much more stable somatically. These cases raise the question whether usual {open_quotes}mosaic{close_quotes} cases (full + premature) are generated from the absence of postzygotic expansion of a premutation transmitted as such by the carrier mother or from a deletion of a full mutation during their period of somatic instability. Furthermore, these cases of {open_quotes}normal + full mosaics{close_quotes}, even if rare, challenge the usual DNA-based diagnostic means as the presence of a normal-sized fragment in part of the cells may be falsely interpreted as a normal genotype with catastrophic consequences in a context of prenatal diagnosis. This suggests again that Southern blotting with overexposure may be the preferred diagnostic method.

  13. Dispersion morphology diagrams for three-phase, [open quotes]microemulsion[close quotes] emulsions. 2. [open quotes]Disappearance[close quotes] of morphology-transition lines

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, G.K. ); Dadyburjor, D.B. ); Smith, D.H. Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK )

    1994-11-17

    The limits over which the oil-rich top phase (T), middle-phase microemulsion (M), or water-rich bottom phase (B) is the continuous phase in steady-state, three-phase macroemulsions have been determined by means of electrical conductivity measurements for the amphiphile/oil/[open quotes]water[close quotes] system C[sub 6]H[sub 13](OC[sub 2]H[sub 4])[sub 2]OH/n-tetradecane/aqueous 10 mM NaCl. Measurements were made at three different temperatures and apparent wettability conditions: (a) 45[degrees]C, wetting middle phase; (b) 25[degrees]C, no wetting phase; and (c) 12[degrees]C, wetting bottom phase. The results at 25[degrees]C were in accord with expectations from previous predictions and experiments; but for both two-phase and three-phase emulsions no abrupt, [open quotes]first-order[close quotes] transitions between M- and T-continuous emulsions at 45[degrees]C or between M- and B-continuous emulsions at 12[degrees]C were found. Instead, these changes of continuous phase appeared to occur smoothly and continuously between their respective single-phase and two-phase limits. It is not yet clear if the [open quotes]disappearance[close quotes] of first-order morphology transitions correlates with phase wettability transitions; the phenomenon suggests the possibility of bicontinuous two-phase and three-phase macroemulsions. 31 refs., 11 figs.

  14. Comment on {open_quote}{open_quote}Why quantum mechanics cannot be formulated as a Markov process{close_quote}{close_quote}

    SciTech Connect

    Garbaczewski, P.; Olkiewicz, R.

    1996-08-01

    In the paper with the above-noted title, D. T. Gillespie [Phys. Rev. A {bold 49}, 1607 (1994)] claims that the theory of Markov stochastic processes cannot provide an adequate mathematical framework for quantum mechanics. In conjunction with the specific quantum dynamics considered there, we give a general analysis of the associated dichotomic jump processes. If we assume that Gillespie{close_quote}s {open_quote}{open_quote}measurement probabilities{close_quote}{close_quote} {ital are} the transition probabilities of a stochastic process, then the process must have an invariant (time independent) probability measure. Alternatively, if we demand the probability measure of the process follow the quantally implemented (via the Born statistical postulate) evolution, then we arrive at the jump process which {ital can} be interpreted as a Markov process if restricted to a suitable duration time. However, there is no corresponding Markov process consistent with the {ital Z}{sub 2} event space assumption, if we require its existence for all times {ital t}{element_of}{bold R}{sub +}. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  15. Reply to {open_quote}{open_quote}Comment on {open_quote}Very weak {gamma} transitions in the {epsilon}/{beta}{sup +} decay of {sup 68}Ga{close_quote}{close_quote}{close_quote}

    SciTech Connect

    Vo, D.T.; Kelly, W.H.; Wohn, F.K.; Hill, J.C.; Vary, J.P.; Deleplanque, M.A.; Stephens, F.S.; Diamond, R.M.; Oliveira, J.R.; Macchiavelli, A.O.; Becker, J.A.; Henry, E.A.; Brinkman, M.J.; Stoyer, M.A.; Draper, J.E.

    1996-07-01

    Using the spectra in the article {open_quote}{open_quote}Very weak {gamma} transitions in the {epsilon}/{beta}{sup +} decay of 68 Ga{close_quote}{close_quote} [D. T. Vo {ital et} {ital al}.. Phys. Rev. C {bold 50}, 1713 (1994)], Skalsey makes an interesting speculation in the accompanying article [M. Skalsey, Phys. Rev. C {bold 54}, 439 (1996), the preceding paper] on the possible existence of a positron feeding with a kinetic endpoint energy of 16 keV in the decay of {sup 68}Ga. Skalsey also points out the facts supporting the {ital e}{sup +} feeding to the 1656-keV level that were not mentioned by Vo {ital et} {ital al}. In this Reply to the Comment, we present information supporting the new {ital e}{sup +} decay to the 1656-keV level and further information on the statistical uncertainties that suggest an even greater skepticism than that shown by Skalsey about the possible existence of the 16-keV {ital e}{sup +} decay to the 1883-keV level upon which he commented. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  16. Great Quotes To Inspire Great Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    benShea, Noah

    This book provides a collection of quotes designed to offer support and inspiration to teachers as they face the daily emotional, spiritual, intellectual, and physical challenges of their professional and personal lives. The book's 26 sections focus on: the art of teaching; adversity; behavior; character; children; collaboration and teamwork;…

  17. Gulf of Mexico-{open_quote}Silicon Valley{close_quote} to offshore oil & gas industry

    SciTech Connect

    Simmons, M.R.

    1996-08-01

    To think that it was only four years ago when the Gulf of Mexico was sadly being dismissed as a mature, drilled up basin. How wrong this perception was. Today, the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) stands out as an offshore technology showcase, where every bit of genuine high technology used to produce energy from the ocean is now being employed. In fact, what cynics described as the {open_quotes}Dead Sea{close_quotes} only four years ago has suddenly risen from the ashes of 1992 to become an offshore {open_quotes}Silicon Valley{close_quotes}. How just-in-time drilling, deep water and subsalt development, technology and royalty relief enable the GOM to become the backbone of America`s energy supply are discussed. How just-in-time drilling, deep water and subsalt development, technology, and royalty relief enable the GOM to become the backbone of America`s energy supply are discussed.

  18. Nonabelian Debye screening and the {open_quotes}tsunami{close_quotes} problem

    SciTech Connect

    Pisarski, R.D.

    1997-09-22

    The phenomenon of Debye screening is familiar from electrolytes and many other systems. Recently, it has been recognized that in nonabelian gauge theories at high temperature, even perturbatively Debye screening is much more complicated than in nonrelativistic systems. This was originally derived as {open_quotes}hard thermal loops{close_quotes}. Hard thermal loops have been derived perturbatively, by a semiclassical truncation of the Schwinger-Dyson equations, and by classical kinetic theory. In this talk I give a pedagogical derivation, following that of Kelly, Liu, Lucchesi, and Manuel. The derivation is valid not just for a thermal distribution, but (modulo certain obvious restrictions) for an arbitrary initial distribution of particles. Consider, for example, the {open_quotes}tsunami{close_quotes} problem: suppose that one starts, at time t = 0, with a spatially homogenous, infinite wall of particles, all moving with the same velocity at the speed of light.

  19. {open_quotes}Heavy light bullets{close_quotes} in electron-positron plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Berezhiani, V.I.; Mahajan, S.M.

    1995-03-01

    The nonlinear propagation of circularly polarized electromagnetic waves with relativistically strong amplitudes in an unmagnetized hot electron-positron plasma with a small fraction of ions is investigated. The possibility of finding localized solutions in such a plasma is explored. It is shown that these plasmas support the propagation of {open_quotes}heavy light bullets{close_quotes}; nondiffracting and nondispersive electromagnetic (EM) pulses with large density bunching.

  20. Greenland ice core {open_quotes}signal{close_quotes} characteristics: An expanded view of climate change

    SciTech Connect

    Mayewski, P.A.; Meeker, L.D.; Morrison, M.C.; Twickler, M.S.; Whitlow, S.I.; Ferland, K.K.; Meese, D.A.; Legrand, M.R.; Steffensen, J.P.

    1993-07-20

    The last millenium of Earth history is of particular interest because it documents the environmental complexities of both natural variability and anthropogenic activity. The authors have analyzed the major ions contained in the Greenland Ice Sheet Project 2 (GISP 2) ice core from the present to {approximately}674 A.D. to yield an environmental reconstruction for this period that includes a description of nitrogen and sulfur cycling, volcanic emissions, sea salt and terrestrial influences. They have adapted and extended mathematical procedures for extracting sporadic (e.g., volcanic) events, secular trends, and periodicities found in the data sets. Finally, by not assuming that periodic components (signals) were {open_quotes}stationary{close_quotes} and by utilizing evolutionary spectral analysis, they were able to reveal periodic processes in the climate system which change in frequency, {open_quotes}turn on,{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}turn off{close_quotes} with other climate transitions such as that between the little ice age and the medieval warm period. 42 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Specific heat and transport {open_quotes}anomalies{close_quotes} in mixed alkali glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Green, P.F.; Brow, R.K.; Hudgens, J.J.

    1998-11-01

    We show that changes in the relative mole fractions of Li{sub 2}O and Na{sub 2}O in alkali metaphosphate glasses lead to {open_quotes}anomalies{close_quotes} in the specific heat and structural relaxations. The heat capacity change between the liquid and glassy states, {Delta}c{sub p}(T{sub g}), at the calorimetric glass transition temperature, T{sub g}, exhibits a minimum when the mole fractions of Li{sub 2}O and Na{sub 2}O are comparable. Moreover, systematic changes in the temperature dependence of the viscosity, {eta}, i.e., changes in the {open_quotes}fragility{close_quotes} of the system, accompany these changes in mole fraction. This observed dependence of the {open_quotes}fragility{close_quotes} on the mixed alkali ion composition occurs in the absence of apparent changes in the covalent network connectivity which normally accounts for this behavior in glasses. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  2. Comment on [open quotes]Nonlocality, counterfactuals, and quantum mechanics[close quotes

    SciTech Connect

    Stapp, H.P. )

    1999-09-01

    A recent proof [H. P. Stapp, Am. J. Phys. [bold 65], 300 (1997)], formulated in the symbolic language of modal logic, claims to show that contemporary quantum theory, viewed as a set of rules that allow us to calculate statistical predictions among certain kinds of observations, cannot be imbedded in any rational framework that conforms to the principles that (1) the experimenters[close quote] choices of which experiments they will perform can be considered to be free choices, (2) outcomes of measurements are unique, and (3) the free choices just mentioned have no backward-in-time effects of any kind. This claim is similar to Bell[close quote]s theorem, but much stronger, because no reality assumption alien to quantum philosophy is used. The paper being commented on [W. Unruh, Phys. Rev. A [bold 59], 126 (1999)] argues that some such reality assumption has been [open quotes]smuggled[close quotes] in. That argument is examined here and shown, I believe, to be defective. [copyright] [ital 1999] [ital The American Physical Society

  3. A {open_quotes}community-based{close_quotes} approach to landfill closure

    SciTech Connect

    Sungaila, M.; Fisher, J.

    1995-09-01

    Closure plans for landfill sites are typically developed by landfill owners/operators in conjunction with the appropriate regulatory agency. Often, technical issues are considered first and end use and the needs of the local community are treated as a secondary concern. This can be termed a {open_quotes}top-down{close_quotes} approach. This paper present a case study of closure plan development for the Taro West Quarry Landfill, located in Stoney Creek, Ontario. A {open_quotes}bottom-up{close_quotes}, or {open_quotes}community-based{close_quotes} approach was followed, in which local residents participated early in the closure planning process. Neighbours were allowed to obtain large amounts of information about the site, gained a solid understanding of technical issues, and had influence on decision making. The landfill has been in operation since 1980. The site is licensed to accept solid, non-hazardous industrial waste. Closure plan development began in the mid 1980s with planning for placement of a final cover and end use as a recreational community park. A community liaison committee was subsequently formed in 1992 which included members of the local public, staff from the City of Stoney Creek and provincial regulators, and the owners. By the late 1980s routine monitoring indicated that the wastes produced leachate containing elevated levels of chloride, ammonia, and phenols, and that this had affected local ground and surface water quality in excess of regulatory guidelines. Monitoring also indicated that combustible gas had migrated off-site, under winter conditions, to near a residential subdivision in potentially explosive concentrations. The problems were addressed immediately upon their detection, with the involvement of the community, the City, and the regulators. The prior establishment of good communications with various stakeholders was a key factor in facilitating remedial work.

  4. Do oil producers act as [open quotes]oil[close quotes]igopolists

    SciTech Connect

    Polasky, S. )

    1992-09-01

    In this paper, I analyze an oligopoly model of exhaustible resource extraction and develop predictions about relative extraction patterns of different producers. Using the [open quotes]oil[close quotes]igopoly model of Loury, one can show that producers with large stocks produce a larger amount, but a smaller percentage, of their stocks than producers with small stocks. I extend Loury's model to cases where extraction costs differ among producers and where costs are a function of cumulative extraction. An increase in extraction costs for a producer causes it to produce less relative to its rivals. When extraction costs rise with cumulative extraction, producers with large reserves tend to have lower extraction costs and a smaller ratio of cumulative production to initial reserves than producers with small reserves. I test the predictions of the model using oil industry data and find that the empirical results are consistent with the predictions of [open quotes]oil[close quotes]igopoly theory. Producers with larger reserves extract a smaller share of their reserves and have lower production costs than producers with smaller reserves. This pattern holds for 73 countries with oil reserves during the time period 1970-1989, and for approximately 400 US oil companies in 1983 and 1984. The observed pattern of production for both OPEC and non-OPEC producers is consistent with [open quotes]oil[close quotes]igopoly theory. OPEC producers do not appear to restrain production given their level of reserves relative to non-OPEC producers. Thus, viewing the oil market as containing one dominant firm (OPEC) with a competitive fringe may be misleading. Further, the pattern of extraction observed in oil markets is inconsistent with the pattern predicted by competitive theory. 29 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs.

  5. Do oil producers act as [open quote]oil[close quote]igopolists

    SciTech Connect

    Polasky, S. )

    1992-11-01

    In this paper, the author analyzes an oligopoly model of exhaustible resource extraction and develop predictions about relative extraction patterns of different producers. Using the [open quote]oil[close quote]igopoly model of Loury, one can show that producers with large stocks produce a larger amount, but a smaller percentage, of their stocks than producers with small stocks. The authors extend Loury's model to cases where extraction costs differ among producers and where costs are a function of cumulative extraction. An increase in extraction costs for a producer causes it to produce less relative to its rivals. When extraction costs rise with cumulative extraction, producers with large reserves tend to have lower extraction costs and a smaller ratio of cumulative production to initial reserves than producers with small reserves. The authors test the predictions of the model using oil industry data and find that the empirical results are consistent with the predictions of [open quotes]oil[close quotes]igopoly theory. Producers with larger reserves extract a smaller share of their reserves and have lower production costs than producers with smaller reserves. This pattern holds for 73 countries with oil reserves during the time period 1970-1989, and for approximately 400 US oil companies in 1983 and 1984. The observed pattern of production for both OPEC and non-OPEC producers is consistent with [open quote]oil[close quote]igopoly theory. OPEC producers do not appear to restrain production given their level of reserves relative to non-OPEC producers. Thus, viewing the oil market as containing one dominant firm (OPEC) with a competitive fringe may be misleading. Further, the pattern of extraction observed in oil markets is inconsistent with the pattern predicted by competitive theory. 29 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs.

  6. {open_quotes}Electronic Growth{close_quotes} of Metallic Overlayers on Semiconductor Substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Z.; Niu, Q.; Shih, C.

    1998-06-01

    We present a novel {open_quotes}electronic growth{close_quotes} model for metallic thin films on semiconductor substrates. Depending on the competition between the effects of quantum confinement, charge spilling, and interface-induced Friedel oscillations, different types of film stability are defined, as characterized by the existence of critical/magic thicknesses for smooth growth. In particular, smooth growth can be achieved only above a few monolayers for noble metals, and only for the first layer for alkali metals. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

  7. Independent Technical ({open_quotes}Red Team{close_quotes}) Reviews

    SciTech Connect

    Thullen, P.; Bennett, D.R.; Kosiewicz, S.T.; Weaver, D.L.

    1995-12-31

    Offices under the Assistant Secretary for Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) in the Department of Energy (DOE) and some National Laboratories are using Independent Technical or {open_quotes}Red Team{close_quotes} Reviews to understand and improve the performance of major projects, major system acquisitions, programs and organizations. A core group formed in 1991 by Los Alamos National Laboratory and Sandia National Laboratories, has organized teams of commercial and private consultants to perform over fifteen Independent Technical Reviews (ITRs) throughout the DOE Complex. This paper discusses: review initiation, team formation, methodology, site response, and observations gathered over the past three years.

  8. A {open_quotes}New{close_quotes} regime for nuclear weapons and materials

    SciTech Connect

    Sutcliffe, W.G.

    1994-02-15

    In this paper, I discuss the principal ideas that I covered in my presentation on December 8, 1993, at the Future of Foreign Nuclear Materials Symposium held by the Naval Postgraduate School in Monterey, California. I was asked to discuss issues related to military inventories of plutonium, and I took this opportunity to describe a possible declaratory regime that could encompass military as well as civilian inventories of plutonium. The {open_quote}new{close_quotes} in the title does not imply that the regime discussed here is an original idea. Rather, the regime will be {open_quotes}new,{close_quotes} when it is adopted. The regime proposed here and in other works is one in which all stocks of nuclear weapons and materials are declared. Originally, declarations were proposed as a traditional arms control measure. Here, declarations are proposed to support the prevention of misuse of nuclear weapons and materials, including support for the nonproliferation regime. In the following, I discuss: (1) Worldwide inventories of nuclear weapons and materials, including the fact that military plutonium must be viewed as part of that worldwide inventory. (2) Life cycles of nuclear weapons and materials, including the various stages from the creation of nuclear materials for weapons through deployment and retirement of weapons to the final disposition of the materials. (3) Mechanisms for making declarations. (4) Risks and benefits to be derived from declarations. (5) Possibilities for supporting evidence or verification.

  9. Liouville{close_quote}s theorems, Gibbs{close_quote} entropy, and multifractal distributions for nonequilibrium steady states

    SciTech Connect

    Hoover, W.G.

    1998-09-01

    Liouville{close_quote}s best-known theorem, {dot f}({l_brace}q,p{r_brace},t)=0, describes the incompressible flow of phase-space probability density, f({l_brace}q,p{r_brace},t). This incompressible-flow theorem follows directly from Hamilton{close_quote}s equations of motion. It applies to simulations of isolated systems composed of interacting particles, whether or not the particles are confined by a box potential. Provided that the particle{endash}particle and particle{endash}box collisions are sufficiently mixing, the long-time-averaged value {l_angle}f{r_angle} approaches, in a {open_quotes}coarse-grained{close_quotes} sense, Gibbs{close_quote} equilibrium microcanonical probability density, f{sub eq}, from which all equilibrium properties follow, according to Gibbs{close_quote} statistical mechanics. All these ideas can be extended to many-body simulations of deterministic open systems with nonequilibrium boundary conditions incorporating heat transfer. Then Liouville{close_quote}s compressible phase-space-flow theorem{emdash}in the original {dot f}{ne}0 form{emdash}applies. I illustrate and contrast Liouville{close_quote}s two theorems for two simple nonequilibrium systems, in each case considering both stationary and time-dependent cases. Gibbs{close_quote} distributions for incompressible (equilibrium) flows are typically smooth. Surprisingly, the long-time-averaged phase-space distributions of nonequilibrium compressible-flow systems are instead singular and {open_quotes}multifractal.{close_quotes} The nonequilibrium analog of Gibbs{close_quote} entropy, S{equivalent_to}{minus}k{l_angle}lnf{r_angle}, diverges, to {minus}{infinity}, in such a case. Gibbs{close_quote} classic remedy for such entropy errors was to {open_quotes}coarse-grain{close_quotes} the probability density{emdash}by averaging over finite cells of dimensions {product}{Delta}qthinsp{Delta}p. Such a coarse graining is effective for isolated systems approaching equilibrium, and leads to a unique entropy. Coarse graining is not as useful for deterministic open systems, constrained so as to describe stationary nonequilibrium states. Such systems have a Gibbs{close_quote} entropy which depends, logarithmically, upon the grain size. The two Liouville{close_quote}s theorems, their applications to Gibbs{close_quote} entropy, and to the grain-size dependence of that entropy, are clearly illustrated here with simple example problems. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  10. Is {open_quotes}early commitment{close_quotes} in plan generation ever a good idea?

    SciTech Connect

    Joslin, D.; Pollack, M.E.

    1996-12-31

    Partial-Order Causal Link planners typically take a {open_quotes}least-commitment{close_quotes} approach to some decisions (notably, step ordering), postponing those decisions until constraints force them to be made. However, these planners rely to some degree on early commitments in making other types of decisions, including threat resolution and operator choice. We show why existing planners cannot support full least-commitment decision-making, and present an alternative approach that can. The approach has been implemented in the Descartes system, which we describe. We also provide experimental results that demonstrate that a least-commitment approach to planning can be profitably extended beyond what is done in POCL and similar planners, but that taking a least-commitment approach to every planning decision can be inefficient: early commitment in plan generation is sometimes a good idea.

  11. Causes of {open_quotes}undercut{close_quotes} development in coke-oven brickwork

    SciTech Connect

    Krivoshein, V.T.

    1992-12-31

    By no means the least important fault that can develop in coke-oven refractories, and which lowers the productivity and shortens the life of coke-oven batteries is the development of so-called {open_quotes}undercuts,{close_quotes} whereby longitudinal fissures of variable depth and length appear in the first one or two rows of bricks form the floor. On the other hand, large-scale undercutting only develops in individual batteries, and many coking plant workers employed in the servicing and upkeep of the coke ovens are unfamiliar with the problem. No convincing explanation has yet been forthcoming, and consequently no effective measures have been laid down for its prevention. The first large-scale outbreak of undercutting in this country occurred in 1956-1957, in No. 1-4 batteries (side heating) at the Kuznetsk and Magnitogorsk II & SW-plants. 2 refs., 3 tabs.

  12. Report on {open_quotes}audit of internal controls over special nuclear materials{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-01

    The Department of Energy (Department) is responsible for safeguarding a significant amount of plutonium, uranium-233 and enriched uranium - collectively referred to as special nuclear materials - stored in the United States. The Department`s office of Nonproliferation and National Security has overall management cognizance for developing policies for safeguarding these materials, while other Headquarters program offices have {open_quotes}landlord{close_quotes} responsibilities for the sites where the materials are stored, and the Department`s operations and field offices provide onsite management of contractor operations. The Department`s management and operating contractors, under the direction of the Department, safeguard and account for the special nuclear material stored at Department sites.

  13. Status of {open_quotes}Nirvana{close_quotes}: High quality GUI based software for HEP

    SciTech Connect

    Edel, M.; Kryiakopulos, J.; Lebrun, P.; Kallenbach, J.; Ravoor, S.; Iourcha, K.

    1994-12-31

    The Fermilab {open_quotes}Nirvana{close_quotes} project has produced a number of tools for data analysis in High Energy Physics. The authors goal has been to produce software which takes maximum advantage of the workstation graphical user interface. Histo-Scope and NPlot enable users to browse data from running programs and HBOOK, Histo-Scope, and columnar text files. They also provide highly interactive two and three dimensional plots which can be rotated, scaled and adjusted directly with the workstation mouse. The newest program, NFit, a GUI version of the MINUIT fitting program, will be ready in a few months. In addition, NEdit, the programmer`s text editor, was released as public domain in December. The authors discuss the basics of these software products, as well as improvements in the newest versions of Histo-Scope, NPlot, and NEdit.

  14. {open_quotes}Quadrupoled{close_quotes} materials for second-order nonlinear optics

    SciTech Connect

    Hubbard, S.F.; Petschek, R.G.; Singer, K.D.

    1997-10-01

    We describe a new approach to second-order nonlinear optical materials, namely quadrupoling. This approach is valid in the regime of Kleinman (full permutation) symmetry breaking, and thus requires a two- or three dimensional microscopic nonlinearity at wavelengths away from material resonances. This {open_quotes}quadrupolar{close_quotes} nonlinearity arises from the second rank pseudotensor of the rotationally invariant representation of the second-order nonlinear optical tensor. We have experimentally investigated candidate molecules comprised of chiral camphorquinone derivatives by measuring the scalar invariant associated with the rank two pseudotensor using hyper-Rayleigh scattering. We have found sizable scalar figures of merit for several compounds using light for which the second harmonic wavelengths are greater than 100 nm longer than the absorption peak location. At these wavelengths, the quadrupolar scalar is as large as the polar (EFISH) scalar of p-nitroaniline. Prospects for applications are discussed.

  15. New performance data for {open_quotes}Emery 3002{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}Emery 3004,{close_quotes} two Army-approved safe materials to replace DOP in mask and filter testing

    SciTech Connect

    Carlon, H.R.; Guelta, M.A.

    1995-02-01

    At the 22nd Conference in Denver, we reported that the U.S. Army Surgeon General (SGJ) had approved our developmental material {open_quotes}Emery 3004{close_quotes} as a safe replacement for the suspected carcinogen DOP (dioctyl phthalate) in mask and filter testing throughout the Army. Subsequently the SG approved a second, less viscous material, {open_quotes}Emery 3002,{close_quotes} for similar applications. We have measured the viscosities and surface tensions of these liquids over a wide range of temperatures, and have initiated liquid breakup studies through Laskin and two-fluid nozzles. New measurements have been carried out with both liquids, e.g. using the ATI, Inc., TDA-4A cold generator to disperse aerosols for which droplet size distributions were measured using the TSI, Inc., Differential Mobility Particle Sizer (DMPS). Among the findings were that Emery 3004 performs much like DOP in the TDA-4A, with some possible advantages, while Emery 3002 in the TDA-4A produces mean droplet diameters about one-half those of Emery 3004 or DOP. This suggests that Emery 3002 could yield more rigorous filter tests with a smaller consumption of material. New laboratory results will be summarized. Sources of the {open_quotes}Emery{close_quotes} materials will be discussed since the production facility formerly operated by Emery is now run by the Ethyl Corporation and the source products are now known as {open_quotes}Ethylflo 192{close_quotes} (Emery 3002) and{open_quotes}Ethylflo 194{close_quotes} (Emery 3004).

  16. The dolomitized{open_quotes}O{close_quotes} Limestone in the Barinas basin: A hydrocarbon reservoir in carbonate rocks

    SciTech Connect

    Aquino, R.; Boujana, M.

    1996-08-01

    The {open_quotes}O{close_quotes} Limestone Member, top of Escandalosa Formation of a Lower to Upper Cretaceous age, is an interval of about 70 feet thick. It represents a coastal facies of caitonate platform; dominated by carbonates of calcarenitic lithologies intercalated with some sandy, glauconitic, calcareous bodies and thin bioturbated shaly intervals. Detailed studies carried out in five cores yield to a new approach and subdivision within this interval based on diagnostic erosive surfaces that may be interpreted as sequence boundaries. Based on sedimentology, trace fossil assemblages and diagenetic events, the milieu of sedimentation varies from foreshore to offshore. Porous dolomite levels occur within the {open_quotes}O{close_quotes} Limestone. This porosity is of intergranular, moldic and vuggy types. Some microfractures are also observed. Subaerial karstification is an alternative hypothesis that can explain the origin of the localized dolomitized vuggy reservoirs. The following sequence of events is suggested: (1) Sedimentation followed by bioturbation, then lithification with a probable replacement of aragonite by calcite, (2) Early dolomitization undergoing the {open_quotes}mixing{close_quote} or {open_quotes}Dorag {close_quotes} Model, (3) Dedolomitization and dissolution generating a moldic porosity enhanced the vuggy forms. This stage may have been influenced by karst processes, (4) Burial diagenesis accompanied by stylolitization and fracturation with pressure-solution effects, and (5) Some levels increase their porosity because of partial dolomitization; in others the vuggy porosity is totally infilled with sparry calcite.

  17. New calculation schemes for the {open_quotes}building-base{close_quotes} system in conditions of collapsing loess soils

    SciTech Connect

    Mezherovskii, V.A.

    1994-05-01

    New calculation schemes are suggested for the {open_quotes}building-loess collapsing base{close_quotes} system, with the help of which it is possible to obtain values of the forces and movements occurring in a building as a result of collapses of bases that are close to the real ones in the nature of moistening and deformations of loess strata.

  18. Use of {open_quotes}value of information{close_quotes} concept in justification and ranking of subsurface appraisal

    SciTech Connect

    Demirmen, F.

    1996-12-31

    The {open_quotes}value of information{close_quotes} (VOI) concept can be applied to subsurface appraisal in petroleum exploration and production to provide an auditable, consistent criterion for justification of such activity. Based on this concept the {open_quotes}value{close_quotes} of subsurface appraisal can be defined as the difference in expected project (monetary) value with and without appraisal. Comparison of this value with the net appraisal cost provides a pragmatic decision tool for decision-making in subsurface appraisal. If the value is greater than the appraisal cost the appraisal is justified, otherwise it is not. Quantification of underlying uncertainty in probability form, and economic evaluation of alternative development scenarios as impacted by the uncertainty, are involved in the methodology. By extension of the concept, VOI can also be used as a ranking tool in a portfolio of subsurface appraisal activities. {open_quotes}Partial information{close_quotes} and unreliable information, both of which are common in practice, reduce the {open_quotes}value{close_quotes} of subsurface appraisal, and realistic evaluation of subsurface appraisal must take both of these effects into account. The VOI approach to subsurface appraisal helps avoid under- and overappraisal and could have a significant impact on upstream economics.

  19. Coal air turbine {open_quotes}CAT{close_quotes} program, Invention 604. Third quarter project report, April 1995--June 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Foster-Pegg, R.W.

    1995-07-31

    The primary objective of this {open_quotes}CAT{close_quotes} project is to complete a conceptual design of this unique new combination of existing technology with cost estimates to show that the {open_quotes}CAT{close_quotes} system offers the economic incentive with low technical risk for a plant to be built which will demonstrate its viability. The technologies involved in the components of a {open_quotes}CAT{close_quotes} plant are proven, and the integration of the components into a complete plant is the only new development activity involved. Industry and the Federal General Services Administration (GSA), require the demonstration of a {open_quotes}commercial plant{close_quotes} before the viability of a new concept is accepted. To satisfy this requirement and construction of a plant of commercially viable size in excess of 15 MW if cogeneration and above 30 MW if all power, is proposed. This plant will produce economical power and heat for the owner. The plant will operate a full commercial life and continue as an operating demonstration of the viability of the technology, gathering long term life and maintenance data, all adding to the credibility of the concept.

  20. Salvaging dipmeters using an oil field {open_quotes}Dinosaur{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    Breimayer, A.R.P.; Puzio, L.B.

    1996-09-01

    Although state-of-the-art methods such as 3-D seismic and formation imaging tools are widely used, the advantages of the old standard dipmeter should not be dismissed. Seismic dip is subject to velocity errors, and formation imagers cannot be run in all borehole conditions. The dipmeter offers a relatively low cost, highly effective alternative for defining geologic features. The 60{double_prime}= 100{prime} scale playback of the raw dipmeter data may be an oil field {open_quotes}dinosaur,{close_quotes} but it is also the key to assessing the reliability of a dipmeter. This playback should be used to determine CORRELATION QUALITY, critical to the accuracy of any dipmeter. Computer computation of the raw dipmeter data does not always yield reliable dip information, particularly when dipmeters are run under adverse hole conditions or in complex geology. This data can be often salvaged by optical correlation of the 60{close_quote} playback - the process of manually correlating raw dipmeter resistivity curves to determine the attitude of bedding planes in the subsurface. Problems such as tool noise, tool pulls, and poor pad contact compromise data quality. These problems can be recognized and compensated for using optical correlation. Finally, at the 60{double_prime} scale many formation textures and structural characteristics visible on the formation imaging logs are also discernible on the standard dipmeter traces. We will offer many Gulf Coast examples and some hands-on demonstrations using the 60{double_prime} data, and show improved tadpole plots which result from optical correlation.

  1. Comment on {open_quotes}Method for calculating elastic scattering between two composite many-body systems at high energies{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    Shalaby, A.S. El-Gogary, M.M.H. Hassan, M.Y.M.

    1997-11-01

    We comment on a paper by Huang Xiang Zhong, concerning the final analytical formula [Eq. (16)] for evaluating the scattering amplitude for collision between two composite nuclei {open_quotes}A{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}B.{close_quotes} {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  2. Carnot{close_quote}s theorem as Noether{close_quote}s theorem for thermoacoustic engines

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, E.

    1998-09-01

    Onset in thermoacoustic engines, the transition to spontaneous self-generation of oscillations, is studied here as both a dynamical critical transition and a limiting heat engine behavior. The critical transition is interesting because it occurs for both dissipative and conservative systems, with common scaling properties. When conservative, the stable oscillations above the critical point also implement a reversible engine cycle satisfying Carnot{close_quote}s theorem, a universal conservation law for entropy flux. While criticality in equilibrium systems is naturally associated with symmetries and universal conservation laws, these are usually exploited with global minimization principles, which dynamical critical systems may not have if dissipation is essential to their criticality. Acoustic heat engines furnish an example connecting equilibrium methods with dynamical and possibly even dissipative critical transitions: A reversible engine is shown to map, by a change of variables, to an equivalent system in apparent thermal equilibrium; a Noether symmetry in the equilibrium field theory implies Carnot{close_quote}s theorem for the engine. Under the same association, onset is shown to be a process of spontaneous symmetry breaking and the scaling of the quality factor predicted for both the reversible {ital and irreversible} engines is shown to arise from the Ginzburg-Landau description of the broken phase. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

  3. Stored Guthrie cards as DNA [open quotes]Banks[close quotes

    SciTech Connect

    McEwen, J.E.; Reilly, P.R. )

    1994-07-01

    Recently there has been much discussion about the possibility of using dried blood spots on Guthrie cards as a source of DNA for research or testing purposes. The collections of Guthrie cards stored by state newborn-screening laboratories can thus be viewed as inchoate [open quotes]DNA banks[close quotes]. This has generated concern among some persons who are interested in preserving the privacy of medical records. This study examines the policies of state newborn-screening laboratories in the United States, regarding their retention of Guthrie cards and the degree to which they permit the sharing of those cards with various third parties. The authors found that although most laboratories retain their cards, if at all, for only a short time, a growing number plan to keep them for an extended period-and, in several cases, indefinitely. They also found that although most laboratories would decline to release individually identifiable blood spots from the cards to third parties without a written release or other explicit authorization, a large number would at least consider sharing anonymous cards for research purposes. 10 refs., 2 tabs.

  4. {open_quotes}Unspecific{close_quotes} X-linked mental retardation: Clinical, genetic and molecular studies

    SciTech Connect

    Ropers, H.H.; Maacel, S. van der; Knoers, N.

    1994-09-01

    Previous linkage studies have assigned a gene for non-syndromic X-linked mental retardation (XMR) to at least 8 different regions on the X-chromosome. The fragile X-syndrome (FRAXA) does not account for more than 40% of all cases; in most XMR families early diagnosis and prevention is not possible. As part of a systematic study into {open_quotes}unspecific{close_quotes} XMR involving more than 30 non-FRAXA families, linkage studies have enabled us to map the respective genes in 4 families to the Xp11.4-q12 interval with peak lod scores around the ALAS2 locus. In three other families, the gene defect could be assigned to the KAL-DMD, DXS424-FRAXAC2 and DSX52-Xqter intervals, respectively. In one of these families, small stature due to growth hormone deficiency was observed as a distinctive clinical feature. Molecular cloning of the breakpoint in a mentally retarded girl with a balanced t(Xq13;13q) translocation has enabled us to isolate an X-chromosomal gene which is disrupted in this patient and is highly expressed in brain. YAC cloning strategies are being employed to clone another XMR gene, which has been identified previously in the vicinity of the CHM locus and genes involved in mentally retarded patients with two different inversions, inv(X)(q21p11) and inv(X)(p21q24), respectively.

  5. Upper stage options for reusable launch vehicle {open_quotes}pop-up{close_quotes} missions

    SciTech Connect

    Eckmann, J.B.; Cotta, R.B.; Matuszak, L.W.; Perkins, D.R.

    1997-01-01

    Suborbital separation of an expendable upper stage from a small, single-stage Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) to transfer spacecraft into Geosynchronous Equatorial Orbit (GEO) was investigated and found to significantly increase spacecraft mass into GEO (over 400{percent}) although operational issues exist. An assessment of propulsion system options for this {open_quotes}Pop-Up{close_quotes} Mission was performed to determine the propellant combinations, stage configurations, and propulsion technologies that maximize spacecraft mass and minimize size. Propellants included earth and space storable combinations, cryogenic LH{sub 2}/LO{sub 2}, and Class 1.3 solids. Stage configurations employing cylindrical metal and overwrapped tanks, isogrid tanks, and toroidal tanks were considered. Non-toxic earth storable propellants provided comparable performance (5{endash}10{percent}) to existing storables while the use of pressure-fed engines gave about 15{percent} lower performance than pump-fed. Solid stage performance was within 5{percent} of existing storable propellants. Stages employing toroidal tanks packaged more efficiently in length constrained RLV payload bays than 4-cylindrical tank configurations, giving up to 30{percent} greater mass into GEO. The use of Extendable Exit Cones (EEC) for length constrained cases resulted in about 5{endash}10{percent} higher stage performance. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  6. [open quote]Endangered[close quote] salmon: More than just a Northwest hydro problem

    SciTech Connect

    Pfeiffer, D.E. )

    1992-06-01

    In the US, about 600 species of plants and animals are considered threatened or endangered under the Endangered Species Act. One of those, the Snake River sockeye salmon, has been making news in the Pacific Northwest. In November 1991, the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) declared Snake River sockeye salmon an endangered species, mandating the creation of a recovery plan that could cost more than $70 million a year. Many in the Northwest believe that the Endangered Species Act has never been applied in a case affecting so large an area or such a wide range of economic interests, including hydropower, agriculture, hatcheries, and commercial and sport fishing. Implications of this listing go far beyond regional economics, though. The way in which the federal government applied the Endangered Species Act in this instance has set a precedent that could affect hydro development throughout the US. The Endangered Species Act must be reauthorized by Congress by late October 1992. As explained in the accompanying story, [open quotes]Reauthorizing the ESA: Many Groups Calling for Change,[close quotes] the majority opinion in the US is that the act needs reform. Reviewing the act and its application in the Pacific Northwest will help members of the US hydro industry understand how hydro developments could be affected.

  7. The {open_quotes}ozone deficit{close_quotes} problem: A new channel in ozone photodissociation

    SciTech Connect

    Houston, P.L.; Miller, R.L.; Suits, A.G.

    1995-12-31

    Highly vibrationally excited O{sub 2}(X {sup 3}{Sigma}{sub g}-, v{>=}26) has been observed from the photodissociation of ozone (O{sub 3}) and the quantum yield for this reaction has been determined for excitation at 226 nm. This observation may help to address the {open_quotes}ozone deficit{close_quotes} problem, or why the previously predicted stratospheric O{sub 3} concentration is less than that observed. Recent kinetic studies have suggested that O{sub 2}(X {sup 3}{Sigma}{sub g}-, v{>=}26) can react rapidly with O{sub 2} to form O{sub 3} + O and have led to speculation that, if produced in the photodissociation of O{sub 3}, this species might be involved in resolving the discrepancy. The sequence O{sub 3} + hv {yields} O{sub 2}(X {sup 3}{Sigma}{sub g}-, v{>=}26) + O; O{sub 2}(X {sup 3}{Sigma}{sub g}-, v{>=}26) + O{sub 2} {yields} O{sub 3} + O would be an autocatalytic mechanism for production of odd oxygen. A two-dimensional atmospheric model has been used to evaluate the importance of this new mechanism. The new mechanism can completely account for the tropical ozone deficit at an altitude of 43 km, but it does not completely account for the deficit at higher altitudes.

  8. Myth-building: The [open quotes]Islamic[close quotes] bomb

    SciTech Connect

    Hoodbhoy, P. )

    1993-06-01

    The [open quotes]Islamic Bomb[close quotes] is roughly understood to be a nuclear weapon aquired for broad ideological reasons--a weapon that supposedly belongs to the Muslim [ital ummah] or community and, as such, is the ultimate expression of Islamic solidarity. Concern about the Islamic bomb is at the heart of the intense effort to prevent the spread of nuclear weapons to Muslim countries. The official justification is a general one: proliferation must be curbed globally. But unofficially, the Islamic bomb gets special attention. The reasons behind this special attention are described in this article. The reasons include fear of terrorism, of a [ital jihad] willing to indiscriminately use nuclear weapons in hope of a reward in the Hereafter, and of the transfer of nuclear arms from nuclear to non-nuclear Muslim countries in times of crisis. Possibilities for controlling the proliferation of nuclear weapons in Muslim countries are addressed. Reasons are cited as to why various Muslim countries wish to acquire nuclear weapons.

  9. A {open_quotes}zero waste{close_quotes} coolant management strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Kennicott, M.A.

    1994-04-01

    In June of 1992 the Waste Minimization Program at Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) began a study to determine the best methods of managing water-based industrial metalworking fluids in the plant`s Tool Manufacturing Shop. The shop was faced with the challenge of managing fluids that could no longer be disposed of in the traditional manner, through the plant`s liquid process waste drains, due to a problem they, were having causing in the Liquid Waste Operations Evaporator. The study`s goal was to reduce the waste coolants being generated and to reduce worker exposure to a serious health risk. Results of this study and those of a subsequent study to determine relative compatibilities of various coolants and metals, led to the application of a {open_quotes}zero waste{close_quotes} machine coolant management program. This program is currently saving the generation of 10,000 gallons of liquid waste annually, has eliminated worker exposure to harmful bacteria and biocides, and should result in extended machine tool life, increased product quality, fewer rejected parts, and decreases labor costs.

  10. {open_quotes}Accelerators and beams,{close_quotes} a multimedia tutorial

    SciTech Connect

    Silbar, R.R.

    1997-02-01

    We are developing a computer-based tutorial for charged-particle beam optics under a grant from the DOE. This subject is important to the DOE not only for its use in providing basic research tools but because the physics is the underpinning for accelerators used in industry and medicine. The tutorial, which will be delivered on Macintosh and Windows platforms, uses multimedia techniques to enhance the student{close_quote}s rate of learning and length of retention of the material. As such, it integrates our interactive On-Screen Laboratories{trademark} with hypertext, line drawings, photographs, animation, video, and sound. We are targeting an audience from technicians to graduate students in science and engineering. At this time we have about a fourth of the material (about equivalent to a one-semester three-credit-hour upper under-graduate physics course) available in prototype form. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  11. [open quotes]Passing the test[close quotes] - Human behavior and California's smog check program

    SciTech Connect

    Lawson, D.R. )

    1993-12-01

    We have analyzed data obtained from more than 11,000 vehicles inspected in California's random roadside surveys to assess the real-world characteristics of the in-use motor vehicle fleet and to test the effectiveness of California's inspection and maintenance (I/M) program. The low-idle emissions data from these surveys show that 10 percent of the fleet are responsible for about 60 percent of the exhaust hydrocarbons and also that 10 percent of the fleet (not necessarily the same vehicles) are responsible for about 60 percent of the carbon monoxide emissions. We also show that high emitters appear among all model years, and not just among old vehicles, as previously assumed. Old vehicles, on average, have higher idle emissions than new vehicles, but they contribute relatively little to the total idle emissions because there are so few on the road. We compare roadside survey results at I/M and non-I/M locations in California, and observe identical tampering and overall failure rates at the two types of locations. We also show that motorists are taking steps to [open quotes]pass the test,[close quotes] and that the high-emitting vehicles' idle-emissions performance and tampering rates in the roadside surveys are unaffected by the Smog Check test. These results imply that success in California's Smog Check program in reducing emissions will require consideration of human behavior and the attendant negative incentives inherent in the program as historically conceived. 29 refs., 9 figs., 6 tabs.

  12. The restructuring and future of {open_quotes}Mendelian Inheritance in Man{close_quotes} (MIM)

    SciTech Connect

    Pearson, P.L.; Francomano, C.; Antonarakis, S.

    1994-09-01

    Victor McKusick`s catalog {open_quotes}Mendelian Inheritance in Man{close_quotes} represents the most comprehensive compendum of human genetic disease information available today and has appeared as a series in book form for the last 30 years. The 11th edition will contain almost 7000 entries: approximately 2800 descriptions of human genetic disorders, 700 combined disorder/gene descriptions and 3500 pure gene descriptions. Until recently the content of the catalogs was maintained solely by McKusick with a support staff. However, a distributed editing system has now been established with the following primary components. New entries are initiated in Baltimore by science writers under the guidance of the senior editors and McKusick, following which the information is made immediately available to the public through online access. The subject editors can then review and edit the new or modified information without impeding the timeliness of entering new information. Entries are being reconstructured so that clinical disorder and gene information is divided into separate entries which will better represent the frequently complex relationship of gene mutations to individual clinical disorders in the data files. Further, each entry is being subdivided into logical topics which will enhance the power of electronic searching, making links between topics and improving readability. The old division of entries into autosomal dominant and recessive, etc., is being abandoned in favor of clinical disorder (phenotypes) and gene catalogs. The information is maintained in an SGML format which facilitates the production of many different types of output varying from the traditional book form to CD ROMs and various online formats including IRx, WAIS, Gopher and World Wide Web. This latter offers the exciting possibility of making hypertext links between entries and other data resources, including photographic, sound and video clips as part of the total MIM information.

  13. {open_quotes}Balanced{close_quotes} karyotypes in six abnormal offspring of balanced reciprocal translocation normal carrier parents

    SciTech Connect

    Wenger, S.L.; Steele, M.W.; Boone, L.Y.

    1995-01-02

    Among 6800 consecutive blood samples studies for clinical cytogenetic diagnosis, we identified 30 families in which one parent of the proband had a balanced reciprocal autosomal translocation (excluding Robertsonian rearrangements). Twenty-eight of the 30 families had a malformed and/or mentally retarded proband: 19 with an unbalanced derived chromosome, 3 with abnormalities involving chromosomes other than those in the translocation, 5 with a {open_quotes}balanced{close_quotes} reciprocal translocation, and 1 with a normal karyotype. We hypothesize that a latter 6 affected probands with {open_quotes}balanced{close_quotes} karyotypes could be abnormal due to submicroscopic deletions and duplications as was originally suggested by Jacobs. Particularly in these 6 families, 83% of translocation breakpoints were associated with fragile sites, more than expected by chance (P < 0.025). This supports the report of an association between fragile sites and constitutional chromosome breakpoints by Hecht and Hecht. To explain these findings, we propose that autosomal fragile sites are unstable areas which predispose to breaks and unequal crossing over near the fragile site breakpoints creating minute duplications and deletions. Consequently, newborn infants inheriting a seemingly {open_quotes}balanced{close_quotes} karyotype from a normal parent with a balanced reciprocal translocation may still be at an increased risk of being malformed and/or developmentally delayed because of submicroscopic chromosomal imbalances. 19 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. {open_quotes}Accelerators and Beams,{close_quotes} multimedia computer-based training in accelerator physics

    SciTech Connect

    Silbar, R.R.; Browman, A.A.; Mead, W.C.; Williams, R.A.

    1999-06-01

    We are developing a set of computer-based tutorials on accelerators and charged-particle beams under an SBIR grant from the DOE. These self-paced, interactive tutorials, available for Macintosh and Windows platforms, use multimedia techniques to enhance the user{close_quote}s rate of learning and length of retention of the material. They integrate interactive {open_quotes}On-Screen Laboratories,{close_quotes} hypertext, line drawings, photographs, two- and three-dimensional animations, video, and sound. They target a broad audience, from undergraduates or technicians to professionals. Presently, three modules have been published ({ital Vectors, Forces}, and {ital Motion}), a fourth ({ital Dipole Magnets}) has been submitted for review, and three more exist in prototype form ({ital Quadrupoles, Matrix Transport}, and {ital Properties of Charged-Particle Beams}). Participants in the poster session will have the opportunity to try out these modules on a laptop computer. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

  15. Integral indicatrix of light scattering from {open_quotes}soft{close_quotes} spherical particles in the region of small angles

    SciTech Connect

    Lopatin, V.N.; Shapovalov, K.A.

    1995-05-01

    The integral indicatrix of light scattering from a {open_quotes}soft{close_quotes} spherical particle is studied as a function of the phase shift. It is shown analytically in the WKB approximation and numerically on the basis of the Mie theory and the WKB approximation that the dependence of the integral indicatrix on the phase shift is similar to that for the factor of light scattering efficiency. Asymptotic expressions for the integral indicatrix are obtained for large diffraction parameters in the limiting cases of small and large phase shifts in the region of small angles. 8 refs., 3 figs.

  16. Final report for LDRD project {open_quotes}A new approach to protein function and structure prediction{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, C.A.

    1997-03-01

    This report describes the research performed under the laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) grant {open_quotes}A new approach to protein function and structure prediction{close_quotes}, funded FY94-6. We describe the goals of the research, motivate and list our improvements to the state of the art in multiple sequence alignment and phylogeny (evolutionary tree) construction, but leave technical details to the six publications resulting from this work. At least three algorithms for phylogeny construction or tree consensus have been implemented and used by researchers outside of Sandia.

  17. Racist Quotes from Persons of Note, Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fikes, Robert, Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Offers racist quotes about Blacks, Jews, Hispanics, Asians, Italians, Poles, and others, from famous persons such as John Wayne, Woodrow Wilson, William F. Buckley, Richard Wagner, Jesse Helms, Sam Rayburn, Walter Lippman, Jack London, Paul Lynde, Theodore Roosevelt, Frank Sinatra, Errol Flynn, Ezra Pound, Richard M. Nixon, and Ronald Reagan. (BJV)

  18. Quotable Quotes on the Value of Language Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Language Association Bulletin, 1974

    1974-01-01

    Quotations about the importance of and need for foreign language teaching and learning by well-known U. S. politicians, college and university presidents, religious leaders, and government officials are presented. Those quoted include: (1) J. M. Leslie; (2) E. Nyquist; (3) J. M. Hester; (4) C. B. Saunders; (5) L. White, Jr.; (6) H. Humphrey; (7)…

  19. 400 Quotable Quotes from the World's Leading Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sennett, Frank

    2004-01-01

    This book represents a showcase of thoughts on important education issues by groundbreakers such as Dewey, Montessori, and Bloom as well as contemporary educators like Fullan, Glasser, and Lambert. The reader will find a wealth of subjects, indexed under dozens of pertinent headings. Included are: (1) Inspirational quotes to apply to any project…

  20. Selecting Solar. Insights into Residential Photovoltaic (PV) Quote Variation

    SciTech Connect

    Davidson, Carolyn; Margolis, Robert

    2015-10-01

    This analysis leverages available data from EnergySage, an online solar marketplace, to offer the first data-driven characterization of quote variation faced by prospective PV customers, lending early insight into the decisions customers face once they have initial buy-in.

  1. Well Said, Well Spoken: 736 Quotable Quotes for Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsey, Robert D., Comp.

    Designed to meet the needs and interests of busy principals and teachers, this easy-to-access collection of quotations can be used as "attention-getters, point-makers, openers, closers, and clinchers for all occasions." The classic and contemporary quotes and anecdotes in the collection feature topics and sources not found in other references for…

  2. The {open_quotes}Command and Control{close_quotes} philosophy of the Communist party of China

    SciTech Connect

    Kominiak, G.J.; Eisenberger, J.C.; Menaul, K.L.

    1996-01-01

    China`s central political authorities have constructed a system which is designed to enable them to exert their personal influence and control over each level of every organization in the country -- both civil and military. The Communist Party of China (CPC) is represented at all levels of each and every organization, including the People`s Liberation Army (PLA). These Party entities are intended to both provide oversight and to ensure that Party policies, directives and orders are obeyed. This penchant for political control, which may have its roots in China`s imperial past, appears to have been reinforced by the early developmental path chosen by the Party`s leadership. Current attempts aimed at maintaining political control of its resources, especially the military, are embodied in the formal system of {open_quotes}Political Work.{close_quotes} In the PLA, this system of political control results in the involvement of political organs in day-to-day military matters to an extent unheard of in the West. Further work is needed in order to understand, more fully, both the system of {open_quotes}Political Work{close_quotes} and its contributions to the overall military (and civil) command and control philosophic of the Communist Party of China.

  3. Clinical and molecular cytogenetic observations in three cases of {open_quotes}trisomy 12p syndrome{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    Rauch, A.; Trautmann, U.; Pfeiffer, R.A.

    1996-05-03

    Two unpublished cases with partial tandem duplication of 12p and one previously published case were studied by fluorescence in situ hybridization using 11 cosmid DNA probes from 12p. We propose that the smallest duplications of 12(p13.2pter) and 12(p13.1p13.33) produce the {open_quotes}trisomy 12p syndrome{close_quotes} which is characterized by heavy birth weight, macrocephaly, muscular hypotonia, short neck, flat face, high forehead, prominent cheeks, large philtrum, short nose with anteverted nostrils, and broad everted lower lip. From a review of the published cases we conclude that gross malformations are lacking in {open_quotes}pure{close_quotes} trisomy 12p, and mental retardation is severe in complete and moderate in partial trisomy 12p. Polydactyly and accessory nipples were found only with almost complete trisomy 12p. Abnormalities of hair growth may be related to a gene at 12p. The sub-band 12p11.21 may be critical for acrocallosal syndrome. Macrocephaly may be due to a metabolic disorder. 26 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Simulations of metal(100) homoepitaxy: Submonolayer island formation, {open_quotes}mound{close_quotes} formation during multilayer growth, and kinetic phase transitions to re-entrant smooth growth

    SciTech Connect

    Bartlet, M.C.; Evans, J.W.

    1997-12-31

    We describe recent developments in the modeling of metal(100) homoepitaxy, and in the interpretation of STM and high-resolution diffraction experiments. Our model includes (I) a detailed description of nucleation and growth of near-square islands in each layer; (ii) an additional barrier to downward transport at island or step edges; and (iii) downward {open_quotes}funneling{close_quotes} of atoms deposited at step-edges to lower fourfold-hollow adsorption sites. For Ag(100), Cu(100), and Fe(100) homoepitaxy, we compare model predictions with observed behavior of the submonolayer island densities and size distributions, as well as layer populations at the onset of multilayer growth. At {open_quotes}low{close_quotes} temperature, T, where island formation is irreversible, we thus determine effective barriers for adatom diffusion on terraces and across step-edges. Adatom-adatom bonding is assessed from the transition to reversible island formation at higher T. Results for multilayer growth show strong dependence of film roughness and morphology on T. At typical T, the presence of step-edge barriers produces {open_quotes}mounds{close_quotes} with fixed average slope. At {open_quotes}low{close_quotes} T, downward funneling dominates, due to higher island and step densities, driving reentrant smooth growth, and eventually a transition from mounded to smooth films. Possible re-emergence of rough growth at {open_quotes}very low{close_quotes} T, due to void formation. is discussed.

  5. Role of RT6{sup +} T lymphocytes in mercury-induced renal autoimmunity: Experimental manipulations of {open_quotes}susceptible{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}resistant{close_quotes} rats

    SciTech Connect

    Kosuda, L.L.; Hosseinzadeh, H.; Bigazzi, P.E.; Greiner, D.L. |

    1994-12-31

    Brown Norway (BN) rats, {open_quotes}susceptible{close_quotes} to the autoimmune effects of mercury, experience a decrease of peripheral RT6.2{sup +} T lymphocytes after the injection of relatively low doses of mercury chloride. This change coincides with the appearance of circulating autoantibodies to renal antigens (e.g., laminin). Lewis (LEW) rats, {open_quotes}resistant{close_quotes} to the autoimmune effects of mercury, do not show significant decreases of RT6{sup +} T cells. It is possible that BN rats are particularly sensitive to stress induced by mercury and that secretion of adrenocortical hormones decreases levels of RT6{sup +} T cells in this rat strain. Alternatively, mercury may induce a graft-versus-host-like syndrome in BN rats, resulting in higher levels of corticosteroids capable of affecting RT6{sup +} lymphocytes. To eliminate the possible influence of adrenocortical hormones, we have adrenalectomized BN rats prior to administration of mercury. Autoimmune responses to renal antigens were not affected by this experimental manipulation. Similarly, adrenalectomized rats exposed to mercury showed a significant decrease of RT6{sup +} T lymphocytes in cervical lymph nodes. Overall, these observations do not support the hypothesis that increases in adrenocortical hormones play a major role in mercury-induced changes of RT6{sup +} T cells. We have also explored whether experimental depletion of RT6{sup +} T lymphocytes would result in autoimmunity. Gamma irradiation of BN rats led to a decrease of RT6{sup +} T splenocytes, but by itself (i.e., without exposure to mercury) did not cause autoimmune responses to renal antigens. In addition, gamma-irradiated BN rats treated with mercury had autoimmune responses similar to those observed in mercury-treated nonirradiated controls. 38 refs., 4 tabs.

  6. Deposition of {open_quotes}unattached{close_quotes} radon daughters in models of human nasal and oral airways

    SciTech Connect

    Strong, J.C.; Swift, D.L.

    1992-12-31

    In order to estimate accurately an effective dose equivalent for exposures to radon daughters, knowledge of their deposition in the lung is required. However, the nose and mouth are effective filters for removing aerosol particles, especially in the range of sizes of {open_quotes}unattached{close_quotes} radon daughters. Therefore, it is equally important to have reliable data on deposition in this region of the respiratory tract. We will describe our work in studying nasal and oral deposition of {open_quotes}unattached{close_quotes} radon daughters in casts of these airways. Several hollow casts of adult and child nasal and oral airways were fabricated at The John Hopkins University from layers of Perspect{trademark} (an acrylic plastic). The shapes of the airway passages were obtained from nuclear magnetic resonance sectional images of healthy subjects. The casts were exposed to radon gas and daughters produced by flushing filtered air through a commercially available {sup 226}Ra source. The gas stream was drawn through a 1.4-L cylindrical tube to allow measurable growth of {sup 218}Po activity before it was passed through casts of both nasal passages or the oral cavity. The deposition of {open_quotes}unattached{close_quotes} {sup 218}Po was measured by comparing the activity collected on filters mounted in series and in parallel with a cast. Measurements were made at various flow rates (Q; 4 to 20 L min{sup -1}). The diffusion coefficient (D) of {sup 218}Po was measured each time the flow rate was changed, by replacing the cast with a stainless steel gauze screen and measuring the activity penetrating the screen. The measured diffusion coefficient ranged from 0.02 to 0.05 cm{sup 2} s{sup -1} and was found to vary with the residence time of {sup 218}Po in the growth tube. The deposition efficiency ({eta}) of {sup 218}Po measured in these casts ranged from 50 to 70%, and was similar to values we found previously, using casts of nasal and oral airways from cadavers.

  7. Crossed and Locked Quotes in a Multi-Market Simulation.

    PubMed

    Todd, Andrew; Beling, Peter; Scherer, William

    2016-01-01

    Financial markets are often fragmented, introducing the possibility that quotes in identical securities may become crossed or locked. There are a number of theoretical explanations for the existence of crossed and locked quotes, including competition, simultaneous actions, inattentiveness, fee structure and market access. In this paper, we perform a simulation experiment designed to examine the effect of simple order routing procedures on the properties of a fragmented market consisting of a single security trading in two independent limit order books. The quotes in the two markets are connected solely by the routing decision of the market participants. We report on the health of the consolidated market as measured by the duration of crossed and locked states, as well as the spread and the volatility of transaction prices in the consolidated market. We aim to quantify exactly how the prevalence of order routing among a population of market participants affects properties of the consolidated market. Our model contributes to the zero-intelligence literature by treating order routing as an experimental variable. Additionally, we introduce a parsimonious heuristic for limit order routing, allowing us to study the effects of both market order routing and limit order routing. Our model refines intuition for the sometimes subtle relationships between the prevalence of order routing and various market measures. Our model also provides a benchmark for more complex agent-based models. PMID:26959416

  8. Crossed and Locked Quotes in a Multi-Market Simulation

    PubMed Central

    Todd, Andrew; Beling, Peter; Scherer, William

    2016-01-01

    Financial markets are often fragmented, introducing the possibility that quotes in identical securities may become crossed or locked. There are a number of theoretical explanations for the existence of crossed and locked quotes, including competition, simultaneous actions, inattentiveness, fee structure and market access. In this paper, we perform a simulation experiment designed to examine the effect of simple order routing procedures on the properties of a fragmented market consisting of a single security trading in two independent limit order books. The quotes in the two markets are connected solely by the routing decision of the market participants. We report on the health of the consolidated market as measured by the duration of crossed and locked states, as well as the spread and the volatility of transaction prices in the consolidated market. We aim to quantify exactly how the prevalence of order routing among a population of market participants affects properties of the consolidated market. Our model contributes to the zero-intelligence literature by treating order routing as an experimental variable. Additionally, we introduce a parsimonious heuristic for limit order routing, allowing us to study the effects of both market order routing and limit order routing. Our model refines intuition for the sometimes subtle relationships between the prevalence of order routing and various market measures. Our model also provides a benchmark for more complex agent-based models. PMID:26959416

  9. Absence of {lambda} immunoglobulin sequences on the supernumerary chromosome of the {open_quotes}cat eye{close_quotes} syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Hough, C.A.; White, B.N.; Holden, J.J.A.

    1995-09-11

    The supernumerary bisatellited chromosome causing the {open_quotes}cat eye{close_quotes} syndrome (CES) is of chromosome 22 origin and consists of an inverted duplication of the 22pter{r_arrow}22q11.2 region. To determine the extent of involvement of band q11.2 on the bisatellited chromosome, copy number assessment of sequences homologous to cloned {lambda} immunoglobulin ({lambda} Ig) gene region probes was carried out on DNA from individuals with CES using densitometric analysis of Southern blots. None of the 10 {lambda} Ig sequences studied was found in increased copy number in DNA from any of the 10 CES individuals tested, indicating that these sequences are not present on the supernumerary chromosome. The breakpoints involved in the generation of the bisatellited supernumerary chromosome associated with CES are therefore proximal to the {lambda} Ig gene region. 20 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  10. Integrated analysis of the {open_quotes}sponge iron reactor and fuel cell system{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    Lehrhofer, J.; Ghaemi, M.; Wernigg, H.

    1996-12-31

    The system Sponge Iron Reactor/Fuel Cell (SIR/FC) is investigated from the ecological and technical aspects and also the pre-conversion energy chain as a part of the natural gas fuel cycle is analyzed. What are the decisive characteristics of a sponge iron reactor or the basic process cycle sponge iron/hydrogen/iron oxide? This process cycle offers a simple possibility to store the energy of synthesis gases in the form of sponge iron and at the same time to reform and condition these synthesis gases. As {open_quote}product{close_quote} of this energy storage one receives pure hydrogen which is intended for the running of fuel cells.

  11. Installation effects on multi-path ultrasonic flow meters: The {open_quote}ULTRAFLOW{close_quote} project

    SciTech Connect

    Bloemendaal, K. van; Kam, P.M.A. van der

    1995-12-31

    {open_quote}ULTRAFLOW{close_quote} was a Joint Industry Project aimed at establishing the effect of installation conditions on multi-path ultrasonic flow meters. An extensive test series was performed at 5 test facilities on 6 inch and 12 inch meters operating on natural gas at pressures from 10 to 60 bar. All test facilities and procedures are reviewed by an independent international Quality Assessment Team, comprising experts from legal metrological authorities, to ensure that the work was appropriate to support International Standards activity. This paper is a condensed version of the projects final report describing the project and test results. The tests in ideal flow conditions pay attention to meter stability and effects of signal averaging and pressure. From the error shifts in the tests with upstream disturbances (1 or 2 bends, step changes in pipe diameter and pressure reduction) values for uncertainties due to the presence of these disturbances are proposed.

  12. Report on {open_quotes}inspection of human subject research in intelligence and intelligence-related projects{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-16

    Executive Order 12333, {open_quotes}United States Intelligence Activities,{close_quotes} (1) designates the Department`s intelligence element as a member of the Intelligence Community, and (2) states that no agency within the Intelligence community shall sponsor, contract for or conduct research on human subjects except in accordance with guidelines issued by the Department of Health and Human Services. The Federal policy for the Protection of Human Subjects, which was based on Department of Health and Human Services regulations, was promulgated in Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations Part 745 by the Department of Energy. The purpose of this inspection was to review the internal control procedures used by the Office of Nonproliferation and National Security to manage selected intelligence and intelligence-related projects that involve human subject research.

  13. Morphologies of emulsions of conjugate phase pairs of amphiphile/oil/water {open_quotes}microemulsion{close_quotes} tie triangles

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.H.; Nwosu, S.N.; Johnson, G.K.

    1992-04-01

    Electrical conductivity measurements were made on emulsions formed, respectively, from the conjugate top-middle, top-bottom, and middle-bottom phase pairs that define the three sides of various nonionic amphiphile/oil/water {open_quotes}microemulsion{close_quotes} tie triangles. Effective-medium conductivity models and observations of creaming behavior were used to substantiate assignments of steady-state emulsion morphologies. The phase volume fractions at which morphology changes occurred were measured for both directions along each tie line, and the hysteresis was obtained as the difference between the volume fractions for the two directions. The results support the dispersion morphology diagram previously postulated, including the formation of mixtures of emulsions whose morphologies are the inverse of each other. 31 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Experiences with maintaining containment {open_quotes}street clothes{close_quotes} clean at Comanche Peak Steam Electric Station

    SciTech Connect

    Kay, D.

    1995-11-01

    At TU Electric`s Comanche Peak Steam Electric Station (CPSES) much effort has been put into Decontaminating the Reactor Containment Building during outages with the objective of maintaining areas outside of the bioshield clean to allow access without protective clothing. The purpose of this paper is to describe the philosophy for maintaining Containment as a non-contaminated area and the resulting benefits (tangible and intangible) problems (real and perceived). If you are looking for a black and white cost justification, you will not find it here. Although some tangible economic benefits will be shown, it is not believed that maintaining containment clean can be justified solely on a cost-benefit basis. So, why do it? The answer is simple. {open_quotes}It is simply a matter of what message you want to send to the Radiation workers,{close_quotes} said Robert Prince, the former Radiation Protection Manager at CPSES and driving force behind the clean containment initiative. {open_quotes}The message is that radioactive contamination and contaminated areas are not acceptable in our plant.{close_quotes} If containment can be maintained clean, then it is believed that any area in the plant can be maintained in the same fashion. Then the overall benefits to the plant are obvious. A second factor supporting the clean containment philosophy relates to housekeeping and material condition of the plant. Many plants are currently realizing the benefits to plant operations and NRC and INPO performance ratings resulting om proved housekeeping and material condition of the plant. In the CPSES Radiation Protection Department, it is believed that minimizing contaminated areas, including those in containment, is consistent with the current industry trends toward improved material condition.

  15. Beam and radiation tests of a fast, warm liquid {open_quotes}swimming pool{close_quotes} calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Kadyk, J.; WALIC Collaboration

    1993-09-01

    A fast, warm liquid calorimeter module with lead absorber immersed in tetramethyl pentane (TMP) as the liquid medium (i.e. a {open_quotes}swimming pool{close_quotes} configuration) has been built and tested in a high energy beam at FNAL, and exposed to intense radiation from a strong Co{sup 60} source. A two-tower prototype, incorporating the concept of the electrostatic transformer for fast readout, exhibited very good uniformity and small cross-talk in the beam test. This same calorimeter was exposed to over 10 Mrad of radiation from the Co{sup 60} source, and the electron drift lifetime was measured as a function of accumulated dose. The lifetime improved significantly with small doses of radiation, up to a few hundred krad, then decreased gradually at higher doses, and extrapolated to a minimum useful lifetime of 0.1 {mu}s at over 150 Mrad. This result was confirmed by measurements on a small single-electrode test cell which was irradiated to more than 25 Mrad. In this case, the lifetime decreased from 10{mu}s to 0.1 {mu}s when extrapolated to a dose of over 600 Mrad. This cell was also used to measure the effect of positive ion {open_quotes}space charge{close_quotes} buildup under intense radiation. The results suggest that such effects are small even at the highest intensity available, about 1.3 Mrad/day, for applied fields {ge}25 kV/cm.

  16. Mutation {open_quotes}hot spots{close_quotes} in the iduronate-sulfatase gene, and evidence for a pseudogene

    SciTech Connect

    Rathmann, M.; Bunge, S.; Gal, A.

    1994-09-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis type II (Hunter syndrome), iduronate-sulfatase (IDS) deficiency, is an X-linked disorder. Analysis of genomic DNA and cDNA from a total of 60 patients was performed in our laboratory during the last two years. In each case the gene defect was identified, resulting in 41 different mutations, including nonsense, missense, and splice site-point mutations, deletions of various sizes, and a 14 bp duplication. While in only 20% of the patients the whole IDS gene is deleted or largely altered, in about 80% of the cases small deletions (up to 17 bp) and point mutations were found. Of the 9 IDS gene exons, exons III, VIII, and IX harbor 78% of all point mutations, whereas 35% of these latter were found in exon III. Obviously, codon 374 in exon VIII is another mutation {open_quotes}hot spot{close_quotes} as the same point mutation has been found in 7 unrelated patients. Two further {open_quotes}hot spots{close_quotes} are at codons 443 and 468 in exon IX with five different mutations each. Remarkably, all mutations in exon III were found to be heterozygous in the genomic DNA but not in the IDS cDNA of the patients. Of the more than 200 unaffected male controls studied by us, two are heterozygotes for two different point mutations in exon III. Contamination of the samples can be excluded and we hypothesize the existence of a pseudogene that consists of at least exon III. As three patients with submicroscopic deletion and Hunter syndrome show no IDS hybridization signal in Southern analysis, we speculate that the putative pseudogene is in the neighborhood of the functional gene.

  17. Cosmological parameters from supernovae: Two groups[close quote] results agree7

    SciTech Connect

    Perlmutter, Saul Riess, Adam )

    1999-07-01

    Measurements of type Ia supernova apparent brightnesses over a range of distances allows a measurement of changes in the universe[close quote]s expansion rate. This measurement yields information about the mass density and vacuum energy density ([open quotes]cosmological constant[close quotes]) of the universe. We present results from two research groups that are in excellent agreement. Both groups[close quote] results indicated with high statistical confidence that the Universe is currently accelerating (q[sub 0][lt]0) and that the cosmological constant ([Omega][sub [Lambda

  18. Selecting Solar: Insights into Residential Photovoltaic (PV) Quote Variation

    SciTech Connect

    Davidson, Carolyn; Margolis, Robert

    2015-10-01

    Before investing in a system, a prospective PV customer must not only have initial concept 'buy in,' but also be able to evaluate the tradeoffs associated with different system parameters. Prospective customers might need to evaluate disparate costs for each system attribute by comparing multiple bids. The difficulty of making such an evaluation with limited information can create a cognitive barrier to proceeding with the investment. This analysis leverages recently available data from EnergySage, an online solar marketplace, to offer the first data-driven characterization of quote variation faced by prospective PV customers, lending early insight into the decisions customers face once they have initial buy-in.

  19. Recognition and regional correlation of impact-related {open_quotes}Ames Crater{close_quotes} Arbuckle and Simpson reservoir lithofacies

    SciTech Connect

    Kuykendall, M.D.

    1995-09-01

    The concentric structural feature known as the {open_quotes}Ames Hole{close_quotes} or {open_quotes}Ames Crater{close_quotes}, located on the northern shelf of the Anadarko Basin, contains several heterogeneous and uniquely associated hydrocarbon reservoirs, as well as a locally thick (craterfilling) Middle Ordovician (Simpson shale) source rock. Critical diagnostic structural and morphological features, along with petrographic and shock metamorphism evidence, strongly support and impact origin of the structure. Principle crater reservoirs include extremely brecciated, fractured, and faulted, Cambro-Ordovician Arbuckle Group dolomites, Pre-Cambrian granodiorities, devitrified pseudo-pyroclastic (impact melt) rocks, and a rather homogenous, dolomitic ejecta-fallout breccia, which is present along the rim and flanks of the crater. Stratigraphic trapping of hydrocarbons associated with the presence of reservoir-quality ejecta-fallout lithologies unconformably present in the upper portion of the Arbuckle Group, and in reworked, arkosic/dolomitic impact-related lithofacies within the overlying basal Simpson Group, may exist both locally and regionally relative to the {open_quotes}Ames Crater{close_quotes}. Calibration of log-rock characteristics of ejecta-fallout reservoir lithofacies from key crater rim wells provides the basis for field-wide and regional inferences about lithologies, reservoir quality, and related production characteristics. An awareness and understanding of impact-related {open_quotes}Ames Crater{close_quotes} Arbuckle and Simpson lithofacies should lead to refinement of regional Lower and Middle Ordovician stratigraphy, and create renewed exploration strategies for potential stratigraphic traps.

  20. {open_quotes}Airborne Research Australia (ARA){close_quotes} a new research aircraft facility on the southern hemisphere

    SciTech Connect

    Hacker, J.M.

    1996-11-01

    {open_quotes}Airborne Research Australia{close_quotes} (ARA) is a new research aircraft facility in Australia. It will serve the scientific community of Australia and will also make its aircraft and expertise available for commercial users. To cover the widest possible range of applications, the facility will operate up to five research aircraft, from a small, low-cost platform to medium-sized multi-purpose aircraft, as well as a unique high altitude aircraft capable of carrying scientific loads to altitudes of up to 15km. The aircraft will be equipped with basic instrumentation and data systems, as well as facilities to mount user-supplied instrumentation and systems internally and externally on the aircraft. The ARA operations base consisting of a hangar, workshops, offices, laboratories, etc. is currently being constructed at Parafield Airport near Adelaide/South Australia. The following text reports about the current state of development of the facility. An update will be given in a presentation at the Conference. 6 figs.

  1. Ulysses observations of a {open_quotes}density hole{close_quotes} in the high-speed solar wind

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, P.; Gosling, J.T.; McComas, D.J.; Forsyth, R.J.

    1998-02-01

    Ulysses observations at mid and high heliographic latitudes have revealed a solar wind devoid of the large variations in density, temperature, and speed that are commonly observed at low latitudes. One event, however, observed on May 1, 1996, while Ulysses was located at {approximately}3.7AU and 38.5{degree}, stands out in the plasma data set. The structure, which is unique in the Ulysses high-latitude data set, is seen as a drop in proton density of almost an order of magnitude and a comparable rise in proton temperature. The event lasts {approximately}3(1)/(2) hours giving the structure a size of {approximately}9.6{times}10{sup 6}km (0.06 AU) along the spacecraft trajectory. Minimum variance analysis of this interval indicates that the angle between the average magnetic field direction and the minimum variance direction is {approximately}92{degree}, suggesting that the {open_quotes}density hole{close_quotes} may be approximated by a series of planar slabs separated by several tangential discontinuities. We discuss several possible explanations for the origin of this structure, but ultimately the origin of the density hole remains unknown. {copyright} 1998 American Geophysical Union

  2. Thermal insulation of the target plasma in the {open_quotes}Ambal-Yu{close_quotes} mirror device

    SciTech Connect

    Dimov, G.I.; Kabantsev, A.A.; Kuz`min, S.V.; Sokolov, V.G.; Taskaev, S.Yu.

    1993-03-01

    When open magnetic confinement systems are filled with a target plasma through the mirror it is possible in principle to obtain a thermal barrier between the gas-discharge source and the target plasma it produces in the mirror device. Without using auxiliary heating systems (hf power, neutral beams, magnetic compression) a hot target plasma with density {approximately} 3 {center_dot} 10{sup 13} cm{sup {minus}3} and electron temperature greater than 50 eV has been produced in the {open_quotes}Ambal-Yu{close_quotes} mirror device from a quasisteady plasma source with a low temperature {approximately} 10 eV. The ions reach a high temperature (T{sub i}/T{sub e}{much_gt}1) because they undergo heating in the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability. When a particular magnetic field topology is used in the system the electron component that has been heated by the ions is observed to be thermally insulated from the plasma source. The measured density, potential, and plasma temperature profiles confirm that there is a thermal barrier localized in the entry mirror of the confinement system. 9 refs., 8 figs.

  3. The making of a successful seminar: Pacific Northwest Laboratory`s {open_quotes}Quest for Quality{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    Lumetta, C.C.; Downs, S.L.; Parnell, K.A.; Allen, R.E.

    1994-10-01

    Five contractors located on or near the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State support technical communications staffs, all trying to meet the needs of one primary customer the U.S. Department of Energy. Historically, these staffs have maintained different processes and standards with regard to document production, and little interaction or information-sharing has occurred. To begin remedying that situation, the communications staff of Pacific Northwest Laboratory, a multiprogram national laboratory located in Richland, Wash., planned and hosted a one-day {open_quotes}Quest for Quality{close_quotes} seminar. The seminar was the first of its kind to comprise technical communications professionals from all the local DOE prime contractors, including technical editors and writers, publications assistants, text processors, and document production staff. The goals of the seminar were to identify ways to improve the quality of Hanford`s communication products and processes, to strengthen ties among technical communications staffs, and to open the lines of communication for future collaborative efforts. An eight-person committee selected topics, arranged facilities, recruited speakers, coordinated activities, hosted the seminar, and prepared proceedings.

  4. Accumulation of Cd by the marine sponge Halichondria panicea pallas: Effects upon filtration rate and its relevance for biomonitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Olesen, T.M.E.; Weeks, J.M. )

    1994-05-01

    The marine demosponge Halichondria panicea Pallas, is a cosmopolitan species occurring in coastal waters with varied conditions of light, current, salinity and turbidity. H. panicea has a leuconoid structure and is composed of siliceous spicules and spongin fibers. Sponges are important members of many shallow water marine benthic communities, but comparatively little is known of their trace metal biology. Sponge architecture is constructed around a system of water canals and the physiology of the sponge is largely dependent on the currents of water flowing through their bodies. The volume of water pumped by a sponge is remarkable, ca. 100-1200 ml h[sup [minus]1] g[sup [minus]1]. This large volume of water passing through the body of a sponge means that most cells are in direct contact with the external medium. Many sponges are able to accumulate trace metals and are highly tolerant of such pollutants. This has led to the proposal that a [open quotes]sponge watch[close quotes] program be initiated supplementary to the existing [open quotes]mussel watch[close quotes] program. In view of the large volume of water passing through the bodies of sponges such as H. panicea, the suitability of this species as a biomonitoring organism was further investigated. This study describes the accumulation strategy of the demosponge H. panicea exposed to dissolved cadmium (Cd) and the effect of Cd upon sponge filtration rate.

  5. Fragile X {open_quotes}gray zone{close_quotes} alleles: AGG patterns, expansion risks, and associated haplotypes

    SciTech Connect

    Zhong, Nan; Ju, Weina; Pietrofesa, J.

    1996-08-09

    The risk for fragile X {open_quotes}gray-zone{close_quotes} alleles to expand appears to depend on the absence of stabilizing AGGs, which interrupt the CGG repeat region. To characterize such alleles better, we analyzed a series of 101 chromosomes with triplet repeat lengths ranging from 35 to 59 for variations in their AGG interspersion patterns. Among these, 11.9% had 3 AGGs, 59.3%, had 2, 24.8% had 1, and 4.0% had 0. An inverse relationship between FMR1 repeat length and the number of interrupting AGGs was observed. Within the range of 35-44 repeats, 98.7% of alleles were found to have a pure CGG repeat length (P{sub CGG}) of less than 33. However, among alleles with 45-59 repeats, 50% were found to have 0 or 1 AGG and a P{sub CGG} of more than 33. Thus, gray-zone alleles with 45-59 repeats frequently have a long stretch of pure CGGs and thus are more likely to be unstably inherited than alleles with 35-44 repeats. We found length associations of P{sub GCC} with 2 flanking microsatellites, DXS548 and FRAXAC 1: a P{sub CGG} < 20 was strongly associated with haplotype 20-19, whereas a P{sub GCC} > 20 was more strongly associated with the haplotype 25-21. This result could reflect a founder effect or a generalized instability of CGGs and microsatellites. 28 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  6. Global climate change - the United Nations FCCC, {open_quotes}Berlin Mandate{close_quotes}, COP-2, and electric utilities

    SciTech Connect

    Mathai, C.V.

    1997-12-31

    Over the past 100 years, there has been a steady increase in man-made emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs, such as carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and most halogenated substances) due to human activities including combustion of fossil fuels and deforestation. Scientific studies suggest that these emissions are contributing to increases in atmospheric concentrations of GHGs which in turn, cause an enhanced greenhouse effect by trapping more of the sun`s energy leading to global climate change. Recently, a consensus position has emerged among the scientific community that man-made GHG emissions appear to be contributing to global climate change. Based on that finding, United States representative, Under Secretary of State Tim Wirth stated at the July 1996 meeting of the {open_quotes}Conference of Parties{close_quotes} (COP) of the FCCC, that global voluntary efforts to meet the GHG emission reduction goal have failed He called for the COP to expedite ongoing international negotiations toward establishing (in 1997) medium-term, realistic, legally-binding GHG emission targets and implementation schedules for each country. Setting a legally binding GHG emission target would have significant impacts on the nation, and especially on the electric utility sector. This article provides a general overview of the United States and international efforts toward implementing the FCCC and their potential impacts on the utility industry. A future article is anticipated to address an update on the international negotiations and their potential impacts on other sectors of the U.S. economy, and the rapidly growing GHG emissions from developing countries such as China and India.

  7. {open_quotes}Bubble fusion{close_quotes}: Preliminary estimates of spherical micro-implosions in cavitating liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Krakowski, R.A.

    1995-02-01

    Liquids irradiated with intense ultrasonic waves can generate small cavities or bubbles. Upon nonlinear expansion to a state of disequilibrium, wherein the externally imposed hydrostatic pressure far exceeds that of entrapped non-condensable gas, these bubbles undergo a rapid and violent collapse. This collapse, if symmetric, can generate high pressures and temperatures through a number of possible mechanisms. The simplest and oldest explanation suggests a focusing of the kinetic energy of all the surrounding liquid onto the collapsing bubble and the subsequent heating of entrapped gases under either adiabatic or isothermal conditions. Although induced by externally imposed millisecond pressure oscillations, these collapses can occur on sub-microsecond timescales and are accompanied by picosecond light emissions; this combination of sound and light is called sonoluminescence. Recent explanations of observed high temperatures and picosecond radiation pulses accompanying such collapses are based on the interaction of multiple shock waves that are launched off the inward cavity wall. Other potential explanations invoke dipole emissions induced by intermolecular collisions or the release of Casimir energy when a dielectric hole is filled. Conjectures have been made that the processes responsible for sonoluminescence may be extended to generated conditions where thermonuclear fusion might occur. Such an achievement would extend scientific interest in sonoluminescence out of a purely chemical context to include the study of matter subjected to more extreme conditions. The main goal of this {open_quotes}scoping{close_quotes} study is to understand better conditions where deuterium-tritium fusion might be observed in conjunction with micro-implosions in cavitating liquids; prognoses of fusion application at this point are unintended.

  8. Orex based {open_quotes}point of generation{close_quotes} low-level radioactive waste reduction program

    SciTech Connect

    Haynes, B.

    1995-11-01

    Nuclear power facilities, both commercial and government operated, generate material called Dry Active Waste (DAW). DAW is a by-product of maintenance and operation of the power systems which contain radioactive materials. DAW can be any material contaminated with radioactive particles as long as it is not a fluid, typically: paper, cardboard, wood, plastics, cloth, and any other solid which is contaminated and determined to be dry. DAW is generated when any material is exposed to loose radioactive particles and subsequently becomes contaminated. In the United States, once a material is contaminated it must be treated as radioactive waste and disposed of in accordance with the requirements of Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations. Problems facing all commercial and non-commercial nuclear facilities are escalating costs of processing DAW and volumetric reduction of the DAW generated. Currently, approximately 85% of all DAW generated at a typical facility is comprised of anti-contamination clothing and protective barrier materials. A typical 800 megawatt power station will generate between 6,000 to 10,000 cubic feet of DAW annually. Facilities that generate low-level radioactive waste need to dramatically reduce their waste volumes. This curtailment is required for several reasons: (1). The number of radioactive waste repositories now accepting new waste is limited. (2). The current cost of burial at an operating dump site is significant. Costs can be as high as $4,000 for a single 55 gallon drum. (3). The cost of burial is constantly increasing. (4). Onsite storage of low-level radioactive waste is costly and results in a burial fee at plant decommissioning. In order to address this issue, the industry must look to the application of {open_quotes}point of generation{close_quotes} technologies.

  9. Belgian experience in applying the {open_quotes}leak-before-break{close_quotes} concept to the primary loop piping

    SciTech Connect

    Gerard, R.; Malekian, C.; Meessen, O.

    1997-04-01

    The Leak Before Break (LBB) concept allows to eliminate from the design basis the double-ended guillotine break of the primary loop piping, provided it can be demonstrated by a fracture mechanics analysis that a through-wall flaw, of a size giving rise to a leakage still well detectable by the plant leak detection systems, remains stable even under accident conditions (including the Safe Shutdown Earthquake (SSE)). This concept was successfully applied to the primary loop piping of several Belgian Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) units, operated by the Utility Electrabel. One of the main benefits is to permit justification of supports in the primary loop and justification of the integrity of the reactor pressure vessel and internals in case of a Loss Of Coolant Accident (LOCA) in stretch-out conditions. For two of the Belgian PWR units, the LBB approach also made it possible to reduce the number of large hydraulic snubbers installed on the primary coolant pumps. Last but not least, the LBB concept also facilitates the steam generator replacement operations, by eliminating the need for some pipe whip restraints located close to the steam generator. In addition to the U.S. regulatory requirements, the Belgian safety authorities impose additional requirements which are described in details in a separate paper. An novel aspect of the studies performed in Belgium is the way in which residual loads in the primary loop are taken into account. Such loads may result from displacements imposed to close the primary loop in a steam generator replacement operation, especially when it is performed using the {open_quote}two cuts{close_quotes} technique. The influence of such residual loads on the LBB margins is discussed in details and typical results are presented.

  10. On the article by Henri Poincare` {open_quotes}on the dynamics of the electron{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    Logunov, A.A.

    1996-04-01

    The first complete translations into English are presented of two articles written by the outstanding French scientist Henri Poincare and submitted by him in 1905 under the common title of {open_quotes}Sur la dynamique de l`electron{close_quotes} to different journals. In the present edition of these articles by H. Poincare, modern notation is used, and the articles are accompanied by comments written by A.A. Logunov. The author of the comments explains the profound physical meaning and essential novelty of the particular points and relationships established by Poincare. Such explanations are often interspersed with quotations from earlier articles by Poincare, thus clearly indicating that the main initial points of the new theory were put forward by the French scientist much before 1905, while certain concepts like `local` time and the arbitrariness of simultaneity were given a clear explanation from the point of view of physical meaning. A.A. Logunov`s book, presenting the works of Poincare on the development of relativity theory, has had quite a high success among specialists interested in the history of physics, and since 1984 it has been published in Russian three times. The present English-language edition is identical to the last 1988 Russian edition, and is dedicated to the 90th anniversary of Poincare`s articles `On the Dynamics of the Electron`. In preparing the English text, fragments were used of the translation of the long article by H.Poincare published in the book by Professor C.W. Kilmister from King`s College in London/Special Theory of Relativity, Pergamon Press, New York, 1970/.

  11. Air pollutant emissions from MSW landfills - the {open_quotes}sleeper{close_quotes} issue for landfill design and regulation

    SciTech Connect

    Minott, D.H.

    1995-05-01

    Five years have passed since US EPA adopted the now well-known hierarchy for management of MSW - source reduction, recycling, waste-to-energy, and, for waste that cannot be practically recycled or combusted, landfilling. Despite US EPA`s preferred waste-management hierarchy, the United States, as a country, continues to rely on landfilling as its principal means of MSW management. This disparity is also true locally, in the case of the nation`s most populous city, New York City. The City deposits most residential MSW in its Fresh Kills Landfill on Staten Island, some four million tons of MSW per year. What is more, while the City is indeed implementing recycling, its formal waste-management plans also call for continued heavy reliance on the Fresh Kills Landfill for 10 years or more into the future. Because landfills continue to serve as the MSW management {open_quotes}workhorse{close_quotes} in many locales, it is believed that a full accounting of landfill environmental emissions is called for, to enable adequate environmental safeguards in the design of landfills, appropriate regulation of landfill environmental emissions, and informed public decision-making about MSW management in general. Evidence is presented that air pollutant emissions, in particular, from landfills pose a significant environmental threat that is largely unrecognized by most people. Locally in New York City, there is an awakening to the issue of landfill air-pollutant emissions, as evidenced by the recent undertaking of a study of air quality near the Fresh Kills Landfill by Federal, State, and local agencies. In general, however, the public`s concern over landfill air-pollutant emissions is limited to odor nuisance.

  12. The {open_quotes}Dragon of Kovachitsa{close_quotes}: Local perceptions of radioactive pollution near the Kozlodui Nuclear Power Station (Bulgaria)

    SciTech Connect

    Konstantinov, Y.

    1995-03-01

    There is continuing uncertainty surrounding the safety of nuclear power stations in Eastern Europe, among them the one at Kozlodui, Bulgaria. It is argued in this paper that attempts on the part of the state to assert the safety of nuclear power stations are expressed in terms of an official {open_quotes}nuclear-safe{close_quotes} discourse, while the local inhabitants near the Kozlodui nuclear power station employ a vernacular mode of expression to explain possible radioactive pollution.

  13. [open quotes]Fingerprints[close quotes] approach to the identification of anthropogenic trace metal sources in the nearshore and estuarine environments

    SciTech Connect

    Krumgalz, B.S. )

    1993-12-01

    The problem of source identification of anthropogenic pollutants in a local marine environment has been intensively studied during the last two decades. Recently we have started intensively using an approach, called by us the [open quotes]fingerprints[close quotes] approach, for tracing anthropogenic pollutant sources and for the description of various geochemical and chemical processes related to contamination by anthropogenic heavy metals in the marine environment. This approach was based on the assumption that if anthropogenic pollutants for any particular area had originated from the same source, then the pairwise relationships between the concentrations of these pollutants in sediments from various stations in the contaminated area would be linear. The discussed approach was applied to the case study of heavy metal contamination of the estuarine environment of the Kishon River (Israel). The [open quotes]fingerprints[close quotes] approach can be successfully used for source contamination assessments even when there is significant trace metal fractionation or sediment fractionation in an area under study. However, in these cases this approach should be applied to each sediment fraction separately. The distribution of various heavy metal [open quotes]fingerprints[close quotes] for sediments from the case study of the Kishon River estuary and from the marine area close to the estuary have been used for the explanation of heavy metal redistribution on Kishon sediments consisting of a high fraction of anthropogenic fluorite after the contact of these sediments with seawater. 23 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. A Sixteen Journal Study of Accuracy of Direct Quotes and Associated Reference List Entries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Arden; And Others

    A study examined the nature and frequency of faults and errors in reference list entries and direct quotes selected from all 1988 issues of 16 social and biological science journals. All departures from the original (additions, omissions, or changes) were labelled as either a word or punctuation deviation. Of the 402 quotes verified, 33.33%…

  15. Sequence stratigraphic re-interpretation of [open quotes]stray[close quotes] sandstones in the Cretaceous Mancos Shale, Book Cliffs, Utah: Implications for exploration models

    SciTech Connect

    Hampson, G.J.; Howell, J.A.; Flint, S.S. )

    1996-01-01

    The Mancos Shale, Book Cliffs, eastern Utah, represents the open marine mudstones of the Cretaceous Western Interior Seaway and contains a number of detached sandstone bodies ([open quotes]Mancos B[close quotes]) which are located 30-150 km down depositional dip from contemporaneous highstand shoreline deposits in the Blackhawk Formation. Examination of these [open quotes]stray[close quotes] sandstones reveals that they do not represent deep water deposition, as previously supposed, but instead comprise three shallow marine facies associations; (1) tidally-influenced fluvial channel fills, (2) fluvially-dominated delta front successions and (3) low-energy shorelines. Tidally-influenced fluvial channel fills are commonly stacked into multistorey bodies at discrete stratigraphic levels, thereby defining incised valley fill (IVF) networks. Fluvially-dominated deltas are eroded into by, and lie at the down-dip terminations of, IVFs and are therefore interpreted as falling stage and lowstand shorelines. Low-energy shorelines are inferred to lie along strike from these deltas. The above shallow marine deposits have been mapped at five discrete stratigraphic horizons, which can be either traced or projected up-dip to previously-documented IVFs in the Blackhawk Formation. Their paleocurrents imply that falling stage and lowstand shoreline trends were sub-parallel to mapped highstand shorelines, although there is evidence for a perpendicular lowstand shoreline trend in the east of the study area. This facies and sequence stratigraphic re-interpretation enables predictive exploration modelling of subsurface [open quotes]Mancos B[close quotes] gas reservoir sandstones.

  16. Sequence stratigraphic re-interpretation of {open_quotes}stray{close_quotes} sandstones in the Cretaceous Mancos Shale, Book Cliffs, Utah: Implications for exploration models

    SciTech Connect

    Hampson, G.J.; Howell, J.A.; Flint, S.S.

    1996-12-31

    The Mancos Shale, Book Cliffs, eastern Utah, represents the open marine mudstones of the Cretaceous Western Interior Seaway and contains a number of detached sandstone bodies ({open_quotes}Mancos B{close_quotes}) which are located 30-150 km down depositional dip from contemporaneous highstand shoreline deposits in the Blackhawk Formation. Examination of these {open_quotes}stray{close_quotes} sandstones reveals that they do not represent deep water deposition, as previously supposed, but instead comprise three shallow marine facies associations; (1) tidally-influenced fluvial channel fills, (2) fluvially-dominated delta front successions and (3) low-energy shorelines. Tidally-influenced fluvial channel fills are commonly stacked into multistorey bodies at discrete stratigraphic levels, thereby defining incised valley fill (IVF) networks. Fluvially-dominated deltas are eroded into by, and lie at the down-dip terminations of, IVFs and are therefore interpreted as falling stage and lowstand shorelines. Low-energy shorelines are inferred to lie along strike from these deltas. The above shallow marine deposits have been mapped at five discrete stratigraphic horizons, which can be either traced or projected up-dip to previously-documented IVFs in the Blackhawk Formation. Their paleocurrents imply that falling stage and lowstand shoreline trends were sub-parallel to mapped highstand shorelines, although there is evidence for a perpendicular lowstand shoreline trend in the east of the study area. This facies and sequence stratigraphic re-interpretation enables predictive exploration modelling of subsurface {open_quotes}Mancos B{close_quotes} gas reservoir sandstones.

  17. Problem on the United States Continental Shelf - measuring the environmental {open_quotes}effectiveness{close_quotes} of the Outer Continental Shelf Act (OCSA)

    SciTech Connect

    Dubner, B.H.

    1994-12-31

    This article reviews the interplay of environmental standard with oil and gas leasing on the Outer Continental Shelf (OSC) in order to determine if the marine environment is really protected by the interplay of domestic legislation. The 1982 LOS treaty leaves environmental protection to State (domestic) regulation. There is no customary law regarding this type of domestic shelf regulation. The main problem is measuring the {open_quotes}effectiveness{close_quotes} of our domestic shelf legislation. For example, do we simply review effectiveness in terms of controlling operational damage or in terms of environmental injury caused by catastrophic accidents?

  18. Mortality coefficients among personnel of radiochemical plants of {open_quotes}Mayak{close_quotes}-Combine for 40-year period of observation

    SciTech Connect

    Koshurnikova, N.A.; Komleva, N.S.; Baisogolov, G.D.

    1993-12-31

    The results of the epidemiological research, conducted among the personnel of the radiochemical plants of {open_quotes}Mayak{close_quotes}. Combine are as follows: during the 40-year-period of observation the mortality rate from all and separate causes, except age, is lower, than the expected one, which is calculated on the basis of the National Statistics. Oncological mortality rate is reliably higher, than the expected one, which is conditioned by the high frequency of lung cancer and leucaemia. Internal {alpha}-irradiation plays the leading role in the induction of lung cancer, and the increase of mortality rate from leukemia is closely connected with external {gamma}-irradiation.

  19. {open_quotes}Anomalous peak effect{close_quotes} - is it indicative of a generalized Fulde-Ferrell-Larkin-Ovchinnikov state?

    SciTech Connect

    Modler, R.

    1996-10-01

    Dilatometric and magnetic studies on single crystals of the high-{kappa} superconductors UPd{sub 2}Al{sub 3} and CeRu{sub 2} reveal a spontaneous increase of the volume-pinning force at high magnetic fields of more than one order of magnitude. This {open_quotes}anomalous peak effect{close_quotes} was claimed to be a signature of a new staggered high-field superconducting order parameter. We will review the recent developments and discuss alternative explanations.

  20. {open_quotes}Horizontal{close_quotes} gene transfer from a transgenic potato line to a bacterial pathogen (Erwinia chrysanthemi) occurs - if at all - at an extremely low frequency

    SciTech Connect

    Schlueter, K.; Fuetterer, J.; Potrykus, I.

    1995-10-01

    The frequency of possible {open_quotes}horizontal{close_quotes} gene transfer between a plant and a tightly associated bacterial pathogen was studied in a model system consisting of transgenic Solanum tuberosum, containing a {beta}-lactamase gene linked to a pBR322 origin of replication, and Erwinia chrysanthemi. This experimental system offers optimal conditions for the detection of possible horizontal gene transfer events, even when they occur at very low frequency. Horizontal gene transfer was not detected under conditions mimicking a {open_quotes}natural{close_quotes} infection. The gradual, stepwise alteration of artificial, positive control conditions to idealized natural conditions, however, allowed the characterization of factors that affected gene transfer, and revealed a gradual decrease of the gene transfer frequency from 6.3 x 10{sup -2} under optimal control conditions to a calculated 2.0 x 10{sub -17} under idealized natural conditions. These data, in combination with other published studies, argue that horizontal gene transfer is so rare as to be essentially irrelevant to any realistic assessment of the risk involved in release experiments involving transgenic plants. 22 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Comment on [open quotes]Weathering, plants, and the long-term carbon cycle[close quotes] by Robert A. Berner

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, T.A. )

    1993-05-01

    Berner (1992) has asserted that Jackson and Keller (1970a) misinterpreted the conspicuous reddish crust which forms on young lava flows in areas of rock surface colonised by the lichen Stereocaulon vulcani (but not in adjacent areas of bare rock) in regions of high rain fall on the Island of Hawaii. Jackson (1968) and Jackson and Keller (1970a,b) concluded from the results of a thorough interdisiplinary investigation employing a wide spectrum of techniques and information that his reddish coating, is an intensely leached weathering crust formed in situ, and that biochemical activities of the lichen or its associated microflora not only accelerate the chemical weathering of the rock by orders of magnitude but also determine the specific mineralogical and chemical properties of the weathering products. Berner, however, maintained that the reddish crust is in reality a deposit of [open quotes]wind-blown soil dust[close quotes] entrapped by a sticky organic substance secreted by the lichen. Berner fixed his attention on just one aspect of the many-sided body of interrelated data on which the conclusions of Jackson and Keller are founded-the observation that the weathering crust is much thicker on lichen-covered rock surfaces than on lichen-free [open quotes]control[close quotes] areas of the same rock. The totality of published evidence overwhelmingly supports the conclusions of Jackson and Keller an demonstrates that Berner's rival hypothesis is untenable.

  2. Mitochondrial D-loop {open_quotes}signatures{close_quotes} produced by low-stringency single specific primer PCR constitute a simple comparative human identity test

    SciTech Connect

    Barreto, G.; Vago, A.R.; Pena, S.D.J.

    1996-03-01

    We have developed a technique called {open_quotes}LSSP-PCR{close_quotes} (low-stringency single specific primer PCR) that detects single or multiple mutations in DNA. A purified DNA fragment is submitted to PCR by using a single primer specific for one of the extremities of the fragment, under conditions of very low stringency. The primer hybridizes specifically to its complementary extremity and nonspecifically to multiple sites within the fragment, in a sequence-dependent manner. A complex set of reaction products is thus created that, when separated by electrophoresis, constitutes a unique {open_quotes}gene signature.{close_quotes} We here report the application of LSSP-PCR to the detection of sequence variation in the control (D-loop) region of human mtDNA, which is known to differ significantly between unrelated individuals. We prepared human DNA samples from blood and amplified a 1,024-bp portion of the mtDNA control region, using primers L15996 and H408. The amplified mtDNA fragments were then reamplified under LSSP-PCR conditions by using L15996 or H408 as drivers to produce complex signatures that always differed between unrelated individuals and yet were highly reproducible. In contrast, all mother-child pairs tested were identical, as expected from the matrilineal inheritance of mtDNA. Thus, the use of LSSP-PCR to produce D-loop signatures constitutes a powerful new technique for mtDNA-based comparative identity testing. 18 refs., 7 figs.

  3. Did the Mississippian Lodgepole buildup at Dickinson Field (North Dakota) form as a gas seep ({open_quotes}vent{close_quotes}) community?

    SciTech Connect

    Longman, M.W.

    1996-10-01

    The Lower Mississippian Lodgepole carbonate buildup reservoir at Dickinson Field in Stark County, North Dakota, has been widely reported as being a Waulsortian (or Waulsortian-like) mound. The term {open_quotes}Waulsortian mound{close_quotes} is used for a variety of Early Mississippian carbonate buildups that share a number of features including an abundance of carbonate mud, a {open_quotes}framework{close_quotes} of organisms such as fenestrate bryozoans and crinoids that tended to trap or baffle sediment, and a general absence of marine-cemented reef framework. Although the age of the Lodgepole mound at Dickinson Field qualifies it to be a Waulsortian mound, petrographic study of cores reveals that the reservoir rocks are quite unlike those in true Waulsortian mounds. Instead of being dominated by carbonate mud, the Lodgepole mound core is dominated by marine cement. Furthermore, ostracods and microbial limestones are common in the mound core where they occur with crinoid debris and small amounts of bryozoan, coral, and brachiopod debris. The abundant microbial limestones and marine cement indicate that the Dickinson mound formed as a lithified reef on the sea floor rather than as a Waulsortian mud mound. The microbial limestones, marine cement, and common ostracods in the mount core, and the fact that the mound nucleated almost directly o top of the Bakken Shale, suggest that the Dickinson Lodgepole mound formed at the site of a submarine spring and gas seep.

  4. International shipment of light weight radioisotopic heater units (LWRHU) using the USA/9516/B(U)F Mound 1 kW shipping package in support of the {open_quotes}Pluto Express{close_quotes} mission

    SciTech Connect

    Barklay, C.D.; Merten, C.W.

    1997-01-01

    Radioisotopes have provided heat that has been used to maintain specific operating environments within remote satellites and spacecraft. For the {open_quotes}Pluto Express{close_quotes} mission the {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} fueled light weight radioisotopic heater unit (LWRHU) will be used within the spacecraft. Since the current plan for the {open_quotes}Pluto Express{close_quotes} mission incorporates the use of a Russian launch platform for the spacecraft, the LWRHUs must be transported in an internationally certified shipping container. An internationally certified shipping package that is versatile enough to be reconfigured to transport the LWRHUs that will be required to support the {open_quotes}Pluto Express{close_quotes} mission is the Mound USA/9516/B(U)F. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  5. Review of the NAS/NRC report: {open_quotes}Groundwater at Yucca Mountain: How high can it rise?{close_quotes}. Special report No. 1

    SciTech Connect

    Archambeau, C.B.

    1992-12-01

    There are three basic and serious problems that produce disagreement with the conclusions and recommendations of the Academy report entitled {open_quotes}Groundwater at Yucca Mountain: How high can it rise?{close_quotes}. These are: First, the report ignores a considerable body of critical data relating to the ages and nature of hydrothermal alterations at the site; second, many of the strong conclusions expressed in the report are not reasonably supported by the evidence presented and, in some cases, are inconsistent with data and results available to the committee but which are not cited or used by them; and finally, there are statements describing field relationships and data that are not consistent with the facts or are made in such a way as to be misleading.

  6. The potential value of employing a RLV-based {open_quotes}pop-up{close_quotes} trajectory approach for space access

    SciTech Connect

    Nielsen, E.; OLeary, R.

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents the potential benefits of employing useful upper stages with planned reusable launch vehicle systems to increase payload performance to various earth orbits. It highlights these benefits through performance analysis on a generic vehicle/upper-stage combination (basing all estimates on realistic technology availability). A nominal 34,019 kg [75,000 lbm] dry mass RLV capable of orbiting 454 kg into a polar orbit by itself (SSTO) would be capable of orbiting 9500{endash}10,000 kg into a polar orbit using a nominal upper stage released from a suborbital trajectory. The paper also emphasizes the technical and operational issues associated with actually executing a {open_quotes}pop-up{close_quotes} trajectory launch and deployment. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  7. Dispersion morphology diagram for three-phase, [open quotes]microemulsion[close quotes] emulsions and comparison to predictions from the two-phase dispersion morphology diagram

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.H. Univ. of Oklahoma, Norma, OK ); Wang, Y.H.C. )

    1994-07-21

    The phase-volume and component-concentration limits over which the oil-rich top phase, middle-phase microemulsion, or water-rich bottom phase was the continuous phase in their steady-state, three-phase macroemulsions were determined by means of electrical conductivity measurements for the amphiphile/oil/[open quotes]water[close quotes] system C[sub 4]H[sub 9]OC[sub 2]H[sub 4]OH/n-decane/aqueous 10 mM NaCl. The measured limits are consistent with predictions based on the dispersion morphology diagram for the two-phase regions that surround the tie triangle. 23 refs., 10 figs.

  8. Two channel model as a possible microscopic configuration of the [open quotes]barrier[close quotes] in high-T[sub c] grain boundary junctions

    SciTech Connect

    Sarnelli, E.; Esposito, E. ); Testa, G. Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Napoli )

    1994-04-01

    High-T[sub c] superconductors are intensively studied for applications such as biomagnetism, but the great difficulties in making integrated dc SQUIDs have slowed down applications in the biomedical field. Moreover, magnetic noise and energy resolution are not always low enough to permit measurements of human body magnetic signals. Noise in bicrystal and biepitaxial grain boundary junctions has been extensively analyzed, and both structures showed similar 1/f noise behaviors. In order to account for the experimental results, different models describing grain boundary junctions have been made, each able to explain some aspects of the phenomenology. In this work we suggest that the [open quotes]barrier[close quotes] is constituted by a large number of microscopic weak links in parallel, and we analyze the effects of such a model on noise properties and the temperature dependences of the critical current, finding a good agreement with most experiments carried out on grain boundary junctions. 15 refs., 1 fig.

  9. Multiple recurrence of trisomy 21 in two Bedouin families: Parental gonadal mosaicism or {open_quotes}aneuploidy{close_quotes} gene effect?

    SciTech Connect

    Farag, T.I.; Murthy, D.S.K.

    1994-09-01

    Two unrelated multiplex Down syndrome families is reported in Kuwait among the highly inbred population with Bedouin ancestors. Each family showed recurrent aneuploidies in three sibs with regular trisomy 21. Recurrent regular trisomy 21 in two or more siblings of healthy, normal parents (parental age <35 years) occurs rarely. Several possible etiological factors for recurrent aneuploidy have been suggested. The recurrence risks for regular trisomy 21 based on livebirth and prenatal diagnosis data were estimated at 1% - 2% for young women. However, there are no estimates for multiple recurrence of regular trisomy 21 in the young parents (<35 years). Clustering of trisomy 21 and trisomy 18 have been observed in Bedouin tribal population. The possibility of parental gonadal mosaicism and/or a possibility of an {open_quotes}aneuploidy gene{close_quotes} effect should be considered in practical genetic counselling of families with multiple recurrence of trisomy 21.

  10. Cosmological parameters from supernovae: Two groups{close_quote} results agree7

    SciTech Connect

    Perlmutter, Saul Riess, Adam

    1999-07-01

    Measurements of type Ia supernova apparent brightnesses over a range of distances allows a measurement of changes in the universe{close_quote}s expansion rate. This measurement yields information about the mass density and vacuum energy density ({open_quotes}cosmological constant{close_quotes}) of the universe. We present results from two research groups that are in excellent agreement. Both groups{close_quote} results indicated with high statistical confidence that the Universe is currently accelerating (q{sub 0}{lt}0) and that the cosmological constant ({Omega}{sub {Lambda}}) makes an important contribution to the total energy density. We discuss the techniques involved in these measurements, and the systematic uncertainties due to supernova evolution, gray extinction, weak lensing, selection bias, sample contamination, a local void, and methodology. To date, none of the sources of systematic uncertainty that have been identified and estimated can reconcile the data with {Omega}{sub {Lambda}}=0 and q{sub 0}{gt}0. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

  11. {open_quotes}Feature{close_quotes} mapping of the HLA-C linked DNA region: Construction by sequencing from nested deletions

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnan, B.R.; Chaplin, D.D. |

    1994-09-01

    The HLA complex located on chromosome 6p spans {approximately}4 Mb and is gene dense. To enable systematic analysis of less well-characterized portions of HLA, we are defining significant {open_quotes}features{close_quotes} of these DNA regions: locations of putative genes (prediction of exons by GRAIL analysis) and Alu elements, regions with homology to the database, and regions of evolutionarily conserved DNA sequence. Initially, we cloned a 35 kb DNA segment adjacent to HLA-C into a transposon {gamma}{delta}-based cosmid vector designed for generating nested deletions in vivo. Over 70 informative nested deletions were obtained and sequenced by fluorescent-automated technology. Islands of DNA sequences were obtained and used to construct a feature map of the 35 kb HLA segment. Our data (i) defined the organization of the previously identified keratinocyte-specific S gene, (ii) generated the DNA sequence of two evolutionarily conserved DNA segments, and (iii) located otherwise undefined putative exons and Alu elements. The construction of such feature maps of large DNA segments using the nested deletion-sequencing approach provides an efficient means to identify DNA segments meriting systematic and detailed analysis.

  12. Sharp microwave frequency dependence in {open_quotes}ionization{close_quotes} of 3d H atoms and the effect of additive noise

    SciTech Connect

    Sirko, L.; Bellermann, M.; Haffmans, A.; Koch, P.M.

    1993-05-01

    For weak broadband (26-40 GHz) added shot noise (rms amplitude F{sub n} {approx_equal} 0.5 V/cm, <5% of the coherent amplitude F), we saw sharp variations around {nu}=30 GHz in e.g., F(10%) for 10%-{open_quotes}ionization{close_quotes} probability (n-cutoff {approx_equal} 89) of n{sub 0}=57 3d H atoms. Sharp means varying {nu} {approx_lt} 1/3 of the Fourier bandwidth 0.35 GHz of the 4.3 ns long half-sinewave pulseshape. Increased noise lowered (raised) F(10%) near sharp maxima (minima). (For some other cases noise did very little.) F{sub n} {approx_equal} 2.2 V/cm. suppressed the sharp {nu}-variation of F(10%). Our bound-basis integration of the 1d Schrodinger equation reproduces the results well, including influence of noise. Leopold, Richards, and Jensen are developing theory for a perturbed pendulum effective Hamiltonian H{sub eff} locally describing the dynamics at the classical nonlinear resonance island centered near n{sub 0}{sup 3}{omega}=1. Our data may be the first spectroscopic glimpse of novel quantal states of H{sub eff}.

  13. Volume II solicitation package for solicitation no. 522887-5422 {open_quotes}site electrical replacements & substation{close_quotes} subproject: 69 KV substation

    SciTech Connect

    1991-05-03

    This solicitation is for the U.S. Department of Energy under Prime Contract No. DE-AC04-88-DP43495 with EG&G Mound Applied Technologies. Ohio Sales or Use taxes are not to be included in the proposal price. Applicable taxes due or owing to the State of Ohio will be paid by the buyer under Direct Payment Permit No. 98-002230. Refer to Form ML-2487, General Provisions, Article 24, {open_quotes}Federal, State & Local Taxes{close_quotes}. Sellers are advised that purchases of building and construction materials for incorporation into a structure or improvement to a real property which is accepted for ownership by the United States or one of its agencies are exempt from Ohio Sales and Use taxes. Unnecessarily elaborate brochures or other presentations beyond those sufficient to present a complete and effective response to this solicitation are not desired and may be construed as an indication of the seller`s lack of cost consciousness. Elaborate art work, expensive paper and binding, and expensive visual and other presentation aids are neither necessary nor wanted.

  14. [The most frequently quoted national journals in the thesis studies of sociology of medicine].

    PubMed

    Delariu, V V

    2010-01-01

    The analysis of the most frequently quoted national journals in dissertation studies in the field of sociology of medicine established that the most demanded among periodicals of public health and health care are "The problems of social hygiene, health care and history of medicine", "The health care of the Russian Federation" and "The health care". This is a testimony of recognition of significance of publications in these periodicals made by researchers defending dissertations. PMID:21032909

  15. Updated experience of the first CFB boilers in Spain: HUNOSA`S {open_quotes}La PEREDA{close_quotes} power station

    SciTech Connect

    Rivero, R.N.; Garcia, J.P.

    1995-12-31

    HUNOSA`s {open_quotes}La Pereda{close_quotes} cogeneration facility is equipped with a Foster Wheeler circulating fluidized bed boiler designed to produce 185000 Kg/h (407850 lb/hr) of superheated steam to generate 50 MW of electricity, HUNOSA, a Spanish public mining company, uses a fuel mixture of 65% culm waste and 35% run off mine coal with a High Heating Value as low as 8700 Kj/Kg (3740 BTU/lb), and an ash content as high as 65%. The efficient and clean use of such a waste fuel, which is a subproduct of the company`s mining activity, is attempted by the first time in Spain, and was possible by using a circulating fluid bed (CFB) boiler which takes advantage of Foster Wheeler previous experience firing waste fuels of this type. This paper summarizes La Pereda`s CFB boiler main design characteristics and describes the results attained during its first year and a half of operation. This project was partially financed by the European Community, as well as by another Spanish official entities. It is the first industrial installation in operation with a circulating fluidized bed boiler in Spain and will serve as a basis to develop an important program of waste fuel valorization and environmental regeneration by using low grade energy resources which were not susceptible of being used up to now. The authors believe that the case described might be of interest to other mining companies and in general, to all those considering the potential use of waste fuels of this type for steam and electricity generation.

  16. Improved clearance of radiolabeled biotinylated monoclonal antibody following the infusion of avidin as a {open_quotes}chase{close_quotes} without decreased accumulation in the target tumor

    SciTech Connect

    Kobayashi, Hisataka; Sakahara, Harumi; Hosono, Makoto

    1994-10-01

    The techniques of radioimmunoimaging and radioimmunotherapy suffer from prolonged high background radioactivity because intravenously injected antibodies remain in the circulation and in the organs far longer than necessary for effective binding to the target. To decrease background and increase radionuclide excretion without decreasing the dose of radioactivity delivered to the target tumor, we used radiolabeled biotinylated antibodies followed by a {open_quotes}chase{close_quotes} avidin injection. A mouse monoclonal antibody, OST7 (lgG1), which reacts with human osteosarcoma, was biotinylated and labeled with {sup 125}I, {sup 131}I or {sup 22m}Tc. Radiolabeled biotinylated OST7 (10 {mu}g) was administered intravenously into nude mice bearing human osteosarcomas and 30 {mu}g of avidin was injected intravenously 6 or 24 hr later. Following avidin injection in mice pretreated with radiolabeled biotinylated antibodies, radioactivity was promptly cleared from the blood and deposited in the liver and spleen, after which radioiodine was rapidly detached from the antibody and excreted in the urine. The tumor-to-blood ratios at 6 and 24 hr after the injection of {sup 125}I-labeled biotinylated OST7 increased compared with the values before the avidin chase without any loss of tumor radioactivity. Furthermore, the tumor -to-background radioactivity ratio was improved and better images were obtained more rapidly after the injection of radiolabeled biotiny-lated antibodies than with conventional immunoscintigraphy. This method may find application in clinical radio-immunoimaging, especially using short half-life radionuclides such as {sup 39m}Tc and {sup 123}I. 24 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Compatibility issues of potential payloads for the USA/9904/B(U)F-85 RTG transportation system (RTGTS) for the {open_quotes}Pluto Express{close_quotes} mission

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R.G.; Barklay, C.D.; Howell, E.I.; Frazier, T.A.

    1997-01-01

    The specific electric power system for the {open_quotes}Pluto Express{close_quotes} mission has yet to be specified. However, electric power will be provided by either radioisotopic thermoelectric generators (RTG), radioisotope thermophotovoltaic systems (RTPV), alkali metal thermal to electrical conversion (AMTEC) systems, radioisotope Stirling systems, or a combination of these. The selected radioisotopic power system will also be transported using the USA/9904/B(U)F-85, Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) Transportation System (RTGTS). As a result, all of the potential payloads present uniquely different environmental and physical configuration requirements. This paper presents the major compatibility issues of the potential payloads for the USA/9904/B(U)F-85 RTG Transportation System for the {open_quotes}Pluto Express{close_quotes} mission. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  18. [A study of the Chinese books quoted in "Chotei Kaitai-schinsho", "Yi Xue Yuan Shi" and "Wu Li Xiao Shi"].

    PubMed

    Huining, Tao

    2002-06-01

    Gentaku Otsuki quoted from "Yi Xue Yuan Shi" and "Wu Li Xiao Shi" when revising "Kaitaishinsho". He quoted from them in three ways; quoting the original text, quoting them to annotate the difficult terms, and quoting them to correct errors in the original text. When Western medicine was first introduced to Japan, the interpretation and the explanation of Chinese classics was utilized to translate Dutch medical books. The study has clarified for the first time that "Yi Xue Yuan Shi" and "Wu Li Xia Shi" contributed greatly to the accomplishment of "Chotei Kaitai-shinsho" and to the importation of Western medicine into Japan. PMID:12398070

  19. 3-D architecture modeling using high-resolution seismic data and sparse well control: Example from the Mars {open_quotes}Pink{close_quotes} reservoir, Mississippi Canyon Area, Gulf of Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Chapin, M.A.; Tiller, G.M.; Mahaffie, M.J.

    1996-12-31

    Economic considerations of the deep-water turbidite play, in the Gulf of Mexico and elsewhere, require large reservoir volumes to be drained by relatively few, very expensive wells. Deep-water development projects to date have been planned on the basis of high-quality 3-D seismic data and sparse well control. The link between 3-D seismic, well control, and the 3-D geological and reservoir architecture model are demonstrated here for Pliocene turbidite sands of the {open_quotes}Pink{close_quotes} reservoir, Prospect Mars, Mississippi Canyon Areas 763 and 807, Gulf of Mexico. This information was used to better understand potential reservoir compartments for development well planning.

  20. Overview of ICF program at Centre D{close_quote}Etudes de Limeil-Valenton

    SciTech Connect

    Cel-V Laser Team

    1996-05-01

    The major objectives of the CEA-DAM laser program is to determine the various requirements to achieve thermonuclear fusion in laboratory. We report here recent results obtained at Centre d{close_quote}Etudes de Limeil-Valenton on high density X-Ray implosions, radiative transfer processes, hydrodynamic instabilities and laser-plasma interaction involved in cavity physics. Ignition and a moderate gain appears to be achievable with a laser energy of about 1.5{minus}2 MJ delivered at {lambda}=0, 35 {mu}m with a shaped pulse (duration{approximately}16 ns). The construction of such a laser is realizable and a conceptual design is under preparation. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  1. A {open_quotes}balanced{close_quotes} Y:16 translocation with the Y breakpoint just proximal to the Yq heterochromatin boundary associated with Turner-like neonatal lymphedema suggests the location of a potential anti-Turner gene

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, R.P.; Hudgins, L.; Stone, J.F.

    1994-09-01

    A male patient with Turner-like hydrops in the newborn period (Bonnevie-Ullrich syndrome) was studied. The extensive nucchal cystic hygroma and hydrops resolved over several weeks. The karyotype was 46,X,t(Y;16)(q11.2;q24). The paternal karyotype was normal. Chromosome painting with the heterochromatic long arm repeat DYZ2 disclosed that all the hybridization was on the derivative 16. This was confirmed by chromosome painting with DYZ1, the other major Y long arm heterochromatic repeat, and DYZ3, the Y alphoid, centromeric repeat, which showed chromosomal separation of the 2 stained regions. A {open_quotes}FISHing trip{close_quotes} was performed using the Y YAC contig created in Dr. David Page`s laboratory. This disclosed 2 YACs located just proximal to the Y heterochromatin which {open_quotes}jumped{close_quotes} the translocation. The recent discovery of a candidate gene for the azoospermia factor (AZF) in this region suggests the possibility that there are several Y-expressed genes adjacent to the heterochromatin boundary as there are near the pseudoautosomal boundary.

  2. Characterization of the acidic and basic properties of [alpha]LiAlO[sub 2], [gamma]LiAlO[sub 2], and calcined [open quotes]HAlO[sub 2][close quotes] using isopropyl alcohol

    SciTech Connect

    Tomczak, D.C.; Allen, J.L.; Poeppelmeier, K.R. )

    1994-03-01

    Characterization of both the acidic and basic sites of [alpha]LiAlO[sub 2], [gamma]LiAlO[sub 2], and calcined [open quotes]HAlO[sub 2][close quotes] was carried out with the isopropyl alcohol probe reaction. All three materials catalyzed the formation of both propylene and acetone. The formation of propylene is indicative of acidic-basic pair sites, while the presence of acetone is indicative of basic sites. In addition to the formation of both propylene and acetone, base-catalyzed acetone aldol condensation products were formed on both [alpha]LiAlO[sub 2], and calcined [open quotes]HAlO[sub 2][close quotes]. Both materials produced a C6DIENE (2-methyl-1,3-pentadiene or 4-methyl-1,3-pentadiene) aldol condensation product, while [alpha]M2PONE (4-methyl-2-pentanone) and 4M2POL (4-methyl-2-pentanol). The reaction pathways that describe the formation of the various C6 products were used to infer the nature of the basic sites on the materials. Additional information obtained from TPD and FTIR of chemisorbed CO[sub 2] demonstrate that the basic sites on [alpha]LiAlO[sub 2] are similar in strength and number to MgO. 35 refs., 9 figs., 6 tabs.

  3. Words of Wisdom from the Literacy Symposium (Washington, D.C., May 25, 1988). Quotes from Participants and Attendees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potter, Charles, Comp.

    Materials from the Literacy Symposium that begin this document are a letter of support from Barbara Bush, a symposium agenda, and lists of panel participants, speakers, symposium staff, and members of the Academic Advisory Council to the U.S. Government Printing Office. These are followed by 21 pages of quotes from particpants. Those quoted…

  4. Imaging of neuroendocrine tumors in 300 patients following injection of I-123 mIBG or 1-131 mIBG prepared from a {open_quotes}cold kit{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    Karesh, S.M.; Henkin, R.E.

    1994-05-01

    During the past 6 years, we have performed approximately 300 scans for neuroendocrine tumors in an extremely varied patient base, with 65% of patients receiving I-123 mIBG and 35%, I-131 mIBG. Imaging was performed at 24-72 hr, depending upon the isotope used. The most common clinical indication was for pheochromocytoma (>90%), followed by neuroblastoma, paraganglioma, medullary carcinoma of the thyroid, and carcinoid tumors. Radiolabeling was performed by a modification of Mock`s procedure. The radioiodide was added to a very stable {open_quotes}cold kit{close_quotes} developed in-house. The kit contains 1 ml of water for injection, 2 mg of mIBG hemisulfate, and 12 mg of ammonium sulfate. After 2 heating cycles, a yield >85% and a radiochemical purity {>=}96% were routinely obtained. Overall preparation time, including determination of radiochemical purity, is approximately 2.5 hr. The only equipment required is a thermostatically controlled block heater. Biodistribution of our I-131 product was indistinguishable from that distributed by the Nuclear Pharmacy at the University of Michigan, as was the radiochemical purity; the diagnostic efficacy matched that reported in the literature. The image quality obtained using I-123 mIBG was definitely superior, due to both the much higher count rate and the ideal imaging energy of I-123. On one occasion, the I-131 scan was equivocal, whereas the I-123 scan in the same patient was clearly positive. Retrospectively, for studies performed with I-123 mIBG using the {open_quotes}cold kit{close_quotes} method, the specificity and sensitivity both exceed 90%, correlating well with multiple studies reported in the literature. The preparation of I-123 mIBG in-house using this technique is recommended.

  5. Diagnosis and treatment of pancreatic pseudocysts and cystic tumors based on own material and quoted literature

    PubMed Central

    Krupski, Witold; Zako?cielny, Artur; Wallner, Grzegorz

    2013-01-01

    Pseudocysts constitute the most basic cystic lesions of the pancreas. Symptomatic cysts may be treated by means of both minimally invasive methods and surgery. Currently, it is believed that approximately 5% of cystic lesions in the pancreas may in fact, be neoplastic cystic tumors. Their presence is manifested by generally irregular multilocular structures, solid nodules inside the cyst or in the pancreatic duct, frequently vascularized, as well as fragmentary thickening of the cystic wall or septation. Aim The aim of this paper was to present current management, both diagnostic and therapeutic, in patients with pancreatic pseudocysts and cystic tumors. The article has been written based on the material collected and prepared in the author's Department as well as on the basis of current reports found in the quoted literature. Material and methods, results In 2000–2012, the Second Department of General, Gastrointestinal and Oncological Surgery of the Alimentary Tract treated 179 patients with cystic lesions in the region of the pancreas. This group comprised 12 cases of cystic tumors and 167 pseudocysts. Twenty-three patients (13.8%) were monitored only and 144 received procedural treatment. Out of the latter group, 75 patients underwent drainage procedures and 48 were qualified to endoscopic cystogastrostomy or cystoduodenostomy. The endoscopic procedure was unsuccessful in 11 cases (23%). In a group of patients with a pancreatic cystic tumor (12 patients), 6 of them (50%) underwent therapeutic resection of the tumor with adequate fragment of the gland. Conclusions Endoscopic drainage is an effective and safe method of minimally invasive treatment of pancreatic cysts. The patients who do not qualify to endoscopic procedures require surgical treatment. The differentiation of a neoplasm from a typical cyst is of fundamental significance for the selection of the treatment method.

  6. Comment on {open_quotes}On the Longuet-Higgins phase and its relation to the electronic adiabatic{endash}diabatic transformation angle{close_quotes} [J. Chem. Phys. {bold 107}, 2694 (1997)

    SciTech Connect

    Kendrick, B.K.; Mead, C.A.; Truhlar, D.G.

    1999-04-01

    We show that the new equation for nuclear motion obtained by Baer {ital et al.} is based on an invalid and self-contradictory approximation, and leads to incorrect results for the wave functions, energy levels, degeneracies, and matrix elements. Baer{close_quote}s conclusion about the connection between the Longuet{endash}Higgins (LH) phase and the adiabatic-diabatic transformation (ADT) angle is also shown to be incorrect. Applications of the method by Baer {ital et al.} are shown to contain further errors. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

  7. Hamiltonian structure of Dubrovin{close_quote}s equation of associativity in 2-d topological field theory

    SciTech Connect

    Galvao, C.A.; Nutku, Y.

    1996-12-01

    mA third order Monge-Amp{grave e}re type equation of associativity that Dubrovin has obtained in 2-d topological field theory is formulated in terms of a variational principle subject to second class constraints. Using Dirac{close_quote}s theory of constraints this degenerate Lagrangian system is cast into Hamiltonian form and the Hamiltonian operator is obtained from the Dirac bracket. There is a new type of Kac-Moody algebra that corresponds to this Hamiltonian operator. In particular, it is not a W-algebra. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  8. Use of geostatistic techniques to describe a reservoir to be submitted into a secondary recovery process field case: {open_quotes}Eocene B-Inferior/VLG-3659, Ceuta, Venezuela{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    Hernandez, T.; Poquioma, W.

    1997-08-01

    This study presents the results of an integrated reservoir study of the Eocene B-Inferior/VLG-3659, Area 7, Ceuta filed. This field located in the Maracaibo Lake in the western side of Venezuela. The objective was to evaluating the feasibility to implement a secondary recovery project by means of water flooding. Core information was used for this study (194 ft), PVT analysis, RFI, build-up and statistic`s pressure analysis, modem logs and production history data. Using geostatistical techniques (Kriging) it was defined a low uncertainty geological model that was validated by means of a black oil simulator (Eclipse). The results showed a good comparison of historical pressure of the reservoir against those obtained from the model, without the need of {open_quotes}history matching{close_quotes}. It means without modifying neither the initial rock properties nor reservoir fluids. The results of this study recommended drilling in two new locations, also the reactivation of four producing wells and water flooding under peripherical array by means of four injection wells, with the recovery of an additional 30.2 MMSTB. The economical evaluation shows an internal return rate of 31.4%.

  9. {open_quotes}Methods for the determination of the Clean Air Act Title III metallic HAPS in coal

    SciTech Connect

    Snider, J.

    1995-08-01

    The Clean Air Act was amended in 1990 and additional requirements were added to Title III {open_quotes}Air Toxics.{close_quotes} Title III identified one hundred eighty-nine hazardous air pollutants (HAPS) and Congress directed the EPA to study the effects of emissions of these HAPS on public health and the environment. EPA is to report to Congress in the fall of 1995 concerning their findings and make recommendations regarding fossil fuel fired combustion units. The outcome of the EPA recommendations will be of great interest to coal producers and users. Of the one hundred eighty-nine listed HAPS, eleven are trace metals found in coal. The producers and users may be required to analyze coal for these HAPS, to determine if selective mining and/or beneficiation can lower their occurrence, to determine their fate in the combustion process, etc. Indeed many coal companies have begun to study their reserves to aid the EPA investigation. Currently there are no EPA promulgated test methodologies for these elements in coal. Moreover, the American Society for Testing Materials (ASTM) does not provide standards for the analyses of all of the eleven HAPS either. In view of this lack of standardized analytical protocols the commercial laboratory is left with finding the best methods for meeting these analytical needs. This paper describes how Standard Laboratories, Inc. as a whole and particularly its Environmental Laboratory Division has met this need.

  10. [open quotes]Cryptic[close quotes] repeating triplets of purines and pyrimidines (cRRY(i)) are frequent and polymorphic: Analysis of coding cRRY(i) in the proopiomelanocortin (POMC) and TATA-binding protein (TBP) genes

    SciTech Connect

    Gostout, B.; Qiang Liu; Sommer, S.S. )

    1993-06-01

    Triplets of the form of purine, purine, pyrimidine (RRY(i)) are enhanced in frequency in the genomes of primates, rodents, and bacteria. Some RRY(i) are [open quotes]cryptic[close quotes] repeats (cRRY(i)) in which no one tandem run of a trinucleotide predominates. A search of human GenBank sequence revealed that the sequences of cRRY(i) are highly nonrandom. Three randomly chosen human cRRY(i) were sequenced in search of polymorphic alleles. Multiple polymorphic alleles were found in cRRY(i) in the coding regions of the genes for proopiomelanocortin (POMC) and TATA-binding protein (TBP). The highly polymorphic TBP cRRY(i) was characterized in detail. Direct sequencing of 157 unrelated human alleles demonstrated the presence of 20 different alleles which resulted in 29--40 consecutive glutamines in the amino-terminal region of TBP. These alleles are differently distributed among the races. PCR was used to screen 1,846 additional alleles in order to characterize more fully the range of variation in the population. Three additional alleles were discovered, but there was no example of a substantial sequence amplification as is seen in the repeat sequences associated with X-linked spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy, myotonic dystrophy, or the fragile-X syndrome. The structure of the TBP cRRY(i) is conserved in the five monkey species examined. In the chimpanzee, examination of four individuals revealed that the cRRY(i) was highly polymorphic, but the pattern of polymorphism differed from that in humans. The TBP cRRY(i) displays both similarities with and differences from the previously described RRY(i) in the coding sequence of the androgen receptor. The data suggest how simple tandem repeats could evolve from cryptic repeats. 18 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs.

  11. Mutation in and lack of expression of tyrosinase-related protein-1 (TRP-1) in melanocytes from an individual with brown oculocutaneous albinism: A new subtype of albinism classified as {open_quotes}OCA3{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    Boissy, R.E.; Zhao, H.; Austin, L.M.; Boissy, Y.L.; Zhao, Y.

    1996-06-01

    Most types of human oculocutaneous albinism (OCA) result from mutations in the gene for tyrosinase (OCA1) or the P protein (OCA2), although other types of OCA have been described but have not been mapped to specific loci. Melanocytes were cultured from an African-American with OCA, who exhibited the phenotype of Brown OCA, and his normal fraternal twin. Melanocytes cultured from the patient with OCA and the normal twin appeared brown versus black, respectively. Melanocytes from both the patient with OCA and the normal twin demonstrated equal amounts of NP-40-soluble melanin; however, melanocytes from the patient with OCA contained only 7% of the amount of insoluble melanin found from the normal twin. Tyrosinase-related protein-1 (TRP-1) was not detected in the OCA melanocytes by use of various anti-TRP-1 probes. Furthermore, transcripts for TRP-1 were absent in cultured OCA melanocytes. The affected twin was homozygous for a single-bp deletion in exon 6, removing an A in codon 368 and leading to a premature stop at codon 384. Tyrosine hydroxylase activity of the OCA melanocytes was comparable to controls when assayed in cell lysates but was only 30% of controls when assayed in intact cells. We conclude that this mutation of the human TRP-1 gene affects its interaction with tyrosinase, resulting in dysregulation of tyrosinase activity, promotes the synthesis of brown versus black melanin, and is responsible for a third genetic type of OCA in humans, which we classify as {open_quotes}OCA3.{close_quotes} 69 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. Electronic stopping in a He-H{sub 2} mixture substantially exceeds Bragg{close_quote}s rule value

    SciTech Connect

    Golser, R.; Semrad, D.; Aumayr, F.

    1996-04-01

    We measured the energy loss of 8 keV deuterons in mixtures of He and H{sub 2} gases using a time-of-flight technique. According to Bragg{close_quote}s rule the stopping cross section {var_epsilon} of a mixture of nonreacting gases should be the weighted average of the stopping cross sections of its constituents. Experimentally we find {var_epsilon} to exceed the Bragg value by more than 50{percent}. This can be traced to large differences in the electron capture and electron loss cross sections of He and H{sub 2}, respectively, that strongly enhance energy losses due to charge-changing collisions. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  13. 46 CFR Exhibit No. 1 to Subpart Q... - Application for Refund or Waiver of Freight Charges Due to Tariff or Quoting Error

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Application for Refund or Waiver of Freight Charges Due to Tariff or Quoting Error No. Exhibit No. 1 to Subpart Q of Part 502 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME... Charges Pt. 502, Subpt. Q, Exh. 1 Exhibit No. 1 to Subpart Q of Part 502—Application for Refund or...

  14. Quotes on Caring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knowledge Quest, 2012

    2012-01-01

    In this article, school librarians from Henrico County Public Schools in Virginia [the AASL 2011 National School Library Programs of the Year (NSLPY) Award recipient] share some of their experiences caring for students in their libraries.

  15. Famous endoscopy quotes.

    PubMed

    Cappell, Mitchell S

    2012-01-01

    These quotations, whether humorous or serious, provide insight into how gastroenterology nurses, gastroenterologists, and endoscopists feel about themselves as professionals, how other healthcare professionals perceive them, and their image in popular culture. Recognition of these aspects of gastroenterology nursing, gastroenterology, and endoscopy are important for self-improvement, correcting public misperceptions, and appreciating how patient misperceptions about gastroenterology nurses and gastroenterologists and patient attitudes toward endoscopy may present barriers that gastroenterology professionals must overcome to improve patient care. These quotations also fulfill a need for witticisms during dry endoscopy lectures! PMID:22472673

  16. Quotable Quotes in Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lo, Bruce W. N.

    1983-01-01

    As a way to dispel negative feelings toward mathematics, a variety of quotations are given. They are categorized by: what mathematics is, mathematicians, mathematics and other disciplines, different areas of mathematics, mathematics and humor, applications of mathematics, and pure versus applied mathematics. (MNS)

  17. Beyond Sound Bites and News Quotes: NSIDC's Arctic Sea Ice and News Analysis Web blog and Scientific Uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beitler, J.; Vizcarra, N.; Scambos, T. A.; Meier, W.

    2013-12-01

    The public, the media, and policymakers often turn to scientists for definite answers about Earth's changing climate. Researchers, in turn, offer observations with the caveat that there is always an amount of uncertainty in the data and the analysis. More or better data could modify trends. Random processes in Earth's most complex systems, like clouds, could contradict current theories about how they evolve and develop into weather systems that could put lives in danger. Often, these careful answers are reduced to a soundbite in TV or a quote in a newspaper report, and the public gets an answer, but the message of scientific uncertainty is almost always omitted. Arctic sea ice has long been recognized as a sensitive climate indicator, and has undergone a dramatic decline over the past thirty years. The National Snow and Ice Data Center has evolved into a top source for sea ice data and analysis. How does NSIDC respond to increasing questions about Arctic sea ice and climate and how does it communicate scientific uncertainty? This poster examines the ways that NSIDC's Arctic Sea Ice News and Analysis (ASINA) Web blog offers the public a transparent view of sea ice analysis, with discussions in scientific uncertainty that are lost in news reportage. It highlights the Web blog's interactive sea ice graph called ChArctic, which the pubic can use to explore sea ice data by year and make their own observations. It also discusses issues around the replacement of NSIDC's 20-year baseline with a new 30-year baseline for analyzing sea ice.

  18. Soft-x-ray laser interferometry of a plasma with a tabletop laser and a Lloyd{close_quote}s mirror

    SciTech Connect

    Rocca, J.J.; Moreno, C.H.; Marconi, M.C.; Kanizay, K.

    1999-03-01

    We report what is believed to be the first demonstration of soft-x-ray interferometry of a plasma with a tabletop soft-x-ray laser. A Lloyd{close_quote}s mirror interferometer was used in combination with a very compact {lambda}=46.9 nm capillary-discharge-pumped laser to map the electron density in the cathode region of a pinch plasma. {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital Optical Society of America}

  19. {open_quote}Lasagna{close_quote} process treats contaminants

    SciTech Connect

    Drennan, D.

    1994-09-01

    This paper describes an integrated in-situ remedial technology for organic or inorganic contaminants in dense soils termed the Lasagna Process. The process, so named for its layers, forces contaminants out of microscopic pores in clay and silt soil regions so they do not leach into groundwater. It introduces in-situ treatment zones in the contaminated area so the waste will not have to be brought to the surface and treats the material within the newly created zones.

  20. Electrorefining {open_quotes}N{close_quotes} reactor fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Gay, E.C.; Miller, W.E.

    1995-02-01

    Principles of purifying of uranium metal by electrorefining are reviewed. Metal reactor fuel after irradiation is a form of impure uranium. Dissolution and deposition electrorefining processes were developed for spent metal fuel under the Integral Fast Reactor Program. Application of these processes to the conditioning of spent N-reactor fuel slugs is examined.

  1. Comment on {open_quote}{open_quote}Confirmation of the Sigma Meson{close_quote}{close_quote}

    SciTech Connect

    Isgur, N.; Speth, J.

    1996-09-01

    A Comment on the Letter by Nils A. T{umlt o}rnqvist and Matts Roos, Phys. Rev. Lett. {bold 76}, 1575 (1996). The authors of the Letter offer a Reply. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  2. Notes & Quotes on Adult Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobson, John R. A.

    This document is a review of literature on adult learning, assembled in a computer-printout format. It brings together brief statements made by authors on the various major aspects of individual and social (associational) learning, as well as information on planning and evaluation. The document also contains a glossary of adult education terms and…

  3. The {open_quotes}leak-before-break{close_quotes} applicability in decision support system {open_quotes}strength{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    Torop, V.M.; Orynyak, I.V.; Kutovoy, O.L.

    1997-04-01

    A software decision support system, STRENGTH, for application of leak before break analysis, is described. The background methodology and sample application are outlined. The program allows multioptional computation of loading parameters for different types of defects, and variable properties for metals and welded joints. Structural strength is assessed, and service life predictions are made. The program is used to analyze specific defects identified by nondestructive testing.

  4. Comment on {open_quotes}Confirmation of the Sigma Meson{close_quote}{close_quote}

    SciTech Connect

    Harada, M.; Sannino, F.; Schechter, J.; Sannino, F.

    1997-02-01

    A Comment on the Letter by Nils A. Tornqvist and Matts Roos, Phys.Rev.Lett.{bold 76}, 1575 (1996). The authors of the Letter offer a Reply. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  5. Reply to {open_quote}{open_quote}Comment on {open_quote}Why quantum mechanics cannot be formulated as a Markov process{close_quote}{close_quote}{close_quote}

    SciTech Connect

    Gillespie, D.T.

    1996-08-01

    In reply to the preceding Comment on an article by D. T. Gillespie [Phys. Rev. A {bold 49}, 1607 (1994)], it is emphasized that the most plausible interpretation of the singly conditioned probability function implies that the evolution of the two-state quantum system being considered {ital cannot} be characterized as a Markov process on those states over {ital any} time interval. And it is pointed out that an alternative interpretation that is offered in the Comment appears to be in conflict with quantum mechanics.

  6. Response to {open_quote}{open_quote}Comment on {open_quote}Free electron laser with longitudinal wiggler and finite magnetic field in a partially filled waveguide{close_quote}{close_quote}{close_quote} [Phys. Plasmas {bold 3}, 1130 (1996)

    SciTech Connect

    Willett, J.E.

    1996-10-01

    Shoucri`s [Phys. Plasmas {bold 3}, 3864 (1996)] comments concerning use of a biquadratic equation for the radial wave numbers [Eq. (3) in his comment], are regarded as inappropriate. Results are presented based on correct biquadratic radial-wave number equation derived by using the approach of Uddholm {ital et al.} [J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. {bold 24}, 1278 (1991)] (AIP) {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  7. Absence of a {open_quote}{open_quote}Threshold Effect{close_quote}{close_quote} in the Energy Loss of Slow Protons Traversing Large-Band-Gap Insulators

    SciTech Connect

    Eder, K.; Semrad, D.; Bauer, P.; Golser, R.; Maier-Komor, P.; Aumayr, F.; Penalba, M.; Arnau, A.; Ugalde, J.M.; Echenique, P.M.

    1997-11-01

    The electronic stopping cross section {var_epsilon} of slow hydrogen projectiles in large-band-gap insulators has been measured at energies of a few keV. Even at velocities as low as v{sub 0}/3 (v{sub 0}=c/137) , we find no influence of the band gap on the velocity dependence of {var_epsilon} , contrary to the case of gaseous targets with similar minimum excitation energy. The magnitude of {var_epsilon} and its essentially linear velocity dependence allow us to arrive at the following conclusion: Electron promotion processes contribute substantially to stopping due to formation of molecular orbitals. This points towards the existence of a bound electron state at a proton that moves slowly in an insulator. A simple model based on the calculation of molecular orbital correlation diagrams for the H/LiF collision system supports the idea of local reduction of the band gap of an insulating target. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  8. Children's Rights: A Quote from Toyohiko Kagawa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ishigaki, Emiko Hannah

    Toyohiko Kagawa, a Japanese Christian minister nominated for the Nobel Peace prize in 1955, had important contributions to the establishment of children's rights and protection in Japan. This paper reviews Kagawa's personal and educational experiences, his work in the labor movement, his missionary work in Manchuria and China, and his…

  9. Reply to {open_quotes}Comment on {open_quote}Paramagnetic Meissner effect in Nb{close_quote} {close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    Kostic, P.; Veal, B.; Paulikas, A.P.; Welp, U.; Todt, V.R.; Gu, C.; Geiser, U.; Williams, J.M.; Carlson, K.D.; Klemm, R.A.

    1997-06-01

    Rice and Sigrist (RS) have proposed a d-wave mechanism to explain the paramagnetic Meissner effect (PME) observed in some inhomogeneous samples of high-T{sub c} superconductors. However, the observation of a PME in some inhomogeneous samples of Nb (an s-wave superconductor) demonstrates that a d-wave pairing mechanism is not needed to produce the effect. Moreover, the remarkable similarity between the PME observed in these Nb and in the high-T{sub c} samples argues that the same mechanism is operable in both types of superconductors. In this Reply, new measurements on La{sub 2}CuO{sub 4+{delta}} and on irradiated Nb are discussed, which strongly support the notion that the PME is most likely associated with layered T{sub c} inhomogeneities. Further experiments to test this notion are proposed. We also discuss critically the three experiments proposed by RS to distinguish between two PME mechanisms unrelated to layered T{sub c} inhomogeneities. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  10. You Can Quote Me on That

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chanko, Pamela

    2005-01-01

    This article presents several punctuation activities that help students practice dialogue-writing skills. Teachers can help their students become intrepid reporters by providing them with story ideas or by inviting them to develop their own "scoops." In addition, comic strips can also be used for dialogue-writing practice.

  11. Reply to {open_quotes}Comment on {open_quote}Quantum-mechanical equivalent-photon spectrum for heavy ion physics{close_quote}{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    Benesh, C.J.; Hayes, A.C.; Friar, J.L.

    1997-07-01

    Shortcomings of a momentum-space treatment of strong absorption, as discussed in the preceding Comment, are only of concern at low projectile energies, {gamma}{lt}1.5. At intermediate and high energies, for which the quantum-mechanical equivalent-photon spectrum is intended, the quantum-mechanical cross sections are reduced relative to the semiclassical results whether one treats strong effects via a momentum-space or an impact-parameter (spatial) cutoff. At these energies the origin of the discrepancy between the predictions of fully quantum-mechanical and the semiclassical calculations cannot be traced to differences in the treatment of strong-interaction effects. Rather, they arise from quantum effects neglected in the semiclassical calculations. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  12. {open_quotes}Recycling 9 to 5{close_quotes} - Commercial/business recycling programs

    SciTech Connect

    Zimms, M.A.

    1996-08-01

    A brief description of a commercial and business recycling program is given. The program was implemented by the Solid Waste Authority of Palm Beach County in Florida to reduce the amount of waste entering the disposal system. Program elements include collection, processing, and outreach; the education program is described in detail. Other services provided were waste audits, business advisory council, and a buy recycled business alliance.

  13. {open_quotes}Insuring success through employee education{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    Estreller, S.R.

    1996-08-01

    This paper describes solid waste management in the city of Los Angeles, California, and the implementation of recycling and waste prevention programs. The emphasis of the paper is on educating city employees. The approach and goals are outlined, and the education components are described in some detail. Program cost and funding are also briefly described.

  14. Leak-detection device is {open_quotes}all ears{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    Malm, H.; Halpern, F.

    1996-04-01

    Ultrasonic detection devices for locating air or liquid leaks are described. Standard packages consist of a hand-held detection instrument, high-impedance headphones, a localization sound probe, an ultrasound transmitter, and a precision contact probe. The ultrasonic vibrations are converted into either an audible frequency or a digital readout. The use of ultrasonic devices in leak testing single-wall underground storage tanks is detailed.

  15. {open_quotes}The next generations of Tampella Power`s CFB boilers{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    Alliston, M.G.

    1995-12-31

    The next generation of Tampella Power Corporation`s CFB boilers is discussed in outline form. The following topics are outlined: CFB boiler advantages, CFB boiler fuel flexibility and CYMIC boiler construction.

  16. University of Virginia {open_quotes}virtual{close_quotes} reactor facility tours

    SciTech Connect

    Krause, D.R.; Mulder, R.U.

    1995-12-31

    An electronic information and tour book has been constructed for the University of Virginia reactor (UVAR) facility. Utilizing the global Internet, the document resides on the University of Virginia World Wide Web (WWW or W) server within the UVAR Homepage at http://www.virginia. edu/{approximately}reactor/. It is quickly accessible wherever an Internet connection exists. The UVAR Homepage files are accessed with the hypertext transfer protocol (http) prefix. The files are written in hypertext markup language (HTML), a very simple method of preparing ASCII text for W3 presentation. The HTML allows use of various hierarchies of headers, indentation, fonts, and the linking of words and/or pictures to other addresses-uniform resource locators. The linking of texts, pictures, sounds, and server addresses is known as hypermedia.

  17. Value map methodology for appraising {open_quotes}settled{close_quotes} producing properties

    SciTech Connect

    Moran, S.S.

    1995-09-01

    Seventy five percent of the oil wells in the United Stated are stripper wells producing an average of slightly over two barrels per day. Stripper properties are often sold by major companies to independents or by one independent to another. Although computer programs are available to analyze property values, value maps can be constructed which combine the technical aspects of a property with the economic projections of the evaluator. These maps permit very rapid property evaluation while revealing relationships among the parameters affecting property values that would not be apparent from a number of individual computer runs. In addition to oil individual computer runs. In addition to oil properties, many late stage gas properties can also be analyzed using the value map methodology. Geologists having the necessary skills to appraise stripper properties benefit both through potential consulting opportunities, and through the opportunity to invest personally in producing properties, which can offer superior rates of return.

  18. Chattanooga, belle of the {open_quotes}sustainable communities{close_quotes} ball

    SciTech Connect

    Lerner, S.

    1995-06-01

    Over the past two decades, the combined efforts of thousands of Chattanoogans have begun to clean up the city`s air, revitalize its riverfront, and diversity its economy. Chattanooga has launched a number of public/private partnerships for green development, ranging from renovation of low-income housing to construction of the nation`s largest freshwater aquarium and including plans for a zero emissions industrial park. The city has pollution prevention measures such as an initiative to protect waterways by installing oil skimming devices on parking lots and commercial properties. This article describes in detail Chattanooga`s efforts and the idea of sustainable communities.

  19. [open quotes]PCR karyotype[close quotes] of monochromosomal somatic cell hybrids

    SciTech Connect

    Ning, Yi; Pereira-Smith, O.M. Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX ); Lovell, M.; Cooley, L.D. )

    1993-06-01

    Following fusion of human diploid fibroblast-derived microcells with mouse A9 cells, the authors isolated seven monochromosomal hybrids containing a single human chromosome 2, 3, 5, 12, 15, 20, or 22. Cytogenetic analysis as well as PCR karyotyping (chromosome-specific banding pattern generated by Alu-PCR) was performed on all the hybrids. They present, for the first time, the specific PCR karyotypes of human chromosome 2 and 20. 7 refs., 2 figs.

  20. Jardin botanico {open_quotes}Cerro Prieto, B.C.{close_quotes} Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Gutierrez Gomez, C.

    1996-12-31

    The Cerro Prieto Geothermal Field is located at North of the Baja California State in Mexico, (32{degrees}22` - 32{degrees}26` N, 115{degrees}12` - 115{degrees}18` W) is part of the Colorado River Delta geological sub-province. This geothermal field is the more important in Mexico and in Latin America. The surface occupied by the installations (power plants, wells and evaporation lake) is of 12 km{sup 2} and in future it may reach 20 km{sup 2}. The construction of a Botanical Garden is projected in this field. Their main objectives are: to preserve the botanical patrimony of the regional flora, to promote the botanical research and the adoption of educational programs on this address.

  1. {open_quotes}Radon{close_quotes} - the system of Soviet designed regional waste management facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Horak, W.C.; Reisman, A.; Purvis, E.E. III

    1997-07-01

    The Soviet Union established a system of specialized regional facilities to dispose of radioactive waste generated by sources other than the nuclear fuel cycle. The system had 16 facilities in Russia, 5 in Ukraine, one in each of the other CIS states, and one in each of the Baltic Republics. These facilities are still being used. The major generators of radioactive waste they process these are research and industrial organizations, medical and agricultural institution and other activities not related to nuclear power. Waste handled by these facilities is mainly beta- and gamma-emitting nuclides with half lives of less than 30 years. The long-lived and alpha-emitting isotopic content is insignificant. Most of the radwaste has low and medium radioactivity levels. The facilities also handle spent radiation sources, which are highly radioactive and contain 95-98 percent of the activity of all the radwaste buried at these facilities.

  2. Can a {open_quotes}superconductor{close_quotes} always expel the generalized magnetic field?

    SciTech Connect

    Mahajan, S.M.

    1998-03-10

    The conservation of generalized helicity in a perfectly conducting fluid may act as an electrodynamic barrier for the transition to the London (superconducting) state when the system is immersed in a topologically nontrival magnetic field (with a nonzero generalized helicity). An experiment is proposed to test whether the mechanism responsible (quantum correlations) for superconductivity respects the electrodynamic constraint.

  3. {open_quotes}Fine particulate control and air toxics{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, R.; Greiner, G.P.; Harrison, W.; Nichols, G.B.

    1994-12-31

    Tables 1-4 give an overview of current TSP control capabilities of fabric filters on some applications. Very little data is available as to the control of PM{sub 10} and under. Most air toxic limitations will require much higher control as can be seen in Tables 5 and 6. The control of most air toxics is definitely related to the control of TSP and PM{sub 10}, however it appears that meeting current limits of TSP do not ensure meeting the desired air toxic limits. Since TSP is desired to be used as a surrogate and is all that is routinely monitored through opacity or other stack CEM systems, lower TSP limits would have to be met which opens the question of how accurate we can monitor TSP or PM{sub 10} on a continuous basis. Tables 3 and 4 provide some insight as to the uniformity of TSP results between identical operating units and over time at two NSW installation. Except for the 9/10/91 test, the baghouses were inspected for failing bags prior to testing. Tables 7 and 8 show the impact of TSP and air toxic metals of a plant upset. In this case it took up to one day for the emissions to return to normal following a 30 minute complete shutdown of the incinerator and three baghouse systems being tested. Table 9 describes the impact of broken bags on emissions for a typical size baghouse. As emission levels become tighter in attempts to control air toxics, response to broken bags will take on new importance. More importantly, system design changes to promote longer bag life and better emission monitoring will be needed. Once continuous monitoring of outlet particulate is required, the industry will be challenged. Until then it will be business as usual with designs aimed at passing a one time or yearly stack test with the baghouse primed for peak performance. This won`t do much to protect the environment from air toxics to the proposed units.

  4. Licensing and {open_quotes}CRADA`s{close_quotes} in Oak Ridge technology transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Prosser, G.A.

    1993-10-01

    In the belief that effective technology transfer is a ``contact sport,`` Martin Marietta Energy Systems (Energy Systems), the Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) management contractor in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, encourages its research and engineering employees to directly interact with their commercial-sector counterparts. Over the years, relationships which have been initiated through such technical interactions have led to many of the patent licenses ad cooperative research and development agreements (CRADAs) which currently exist among Energy Systems, US companies, universities, and industrial consortia. The responsibility for creating and implementing Energy Systems policies and procedures to accomplish DOE`s technology transfer objectives in Oak Ridge lies with the Office of Technology Transfer (OTT). In addition, licensing executives within OTT are responsible for negotiating the terms and conditions of patent licenses and CRADAs for the commercialization of government-funded technologies and research expertise. Other technology transfer initiatives in Oak Ridge help companies in a wide range of industries overcome manufacturing obstacles, enabling them to retain existing jobs and to create new business opportunities.

  5. Planting the [open quote]seeds[close quote] for increased water availability for hydro

    SciTech Connect

    Griffith, D.A. )

    1993-08-01

    Cloud seeding programs are providing some hydro producers with a way of increasing their water reserves on short notice and with relatively low cost. The fundamental formula has been known for half a century: clouds plus cold plus solid particles equal precipitation. What was not certain until more recently is how that relationship could be effectively used to alter the weather in positive ways. Research and practical experience now show that cloud seeding -- adding tiny solid particles to the right clouds at the right temperature -- works. More pertinent, evidence is mounting that hydropower producers can use well-designed, carefully times seeding programs to increase the amount of water available to their systems and thus enhance electricity generation. Cloud seeding has several advantages as a tool to augment hydroelectric production. Seeding programs typically require no capital investment by the utility or other power producer, and can be started and stopped on relatively short notice. Operating costs usually are less than $10 per acre-foot of additional streamflow. More broadly, the additional water produced for hydro generation has the environmental and community relations benefits of being reusable and less expensive than thermal power alternatives. There also normally are the additional benefits of increased water supplies for other users.

  6. The {open_quotes}obligation to serve{close_quotes} and a competitive electric industry

    SciTech Connect

    Colton, R.D.

    1997-11-01

    This report presents an assessment of what the ``obligation to serve`` might look like in a competitive electric industry. Broadly, this research has three objectives: to define the ``duty to serve`` of a competitive electric industry; to identify those companies to whom that duty applies; and to explain how that duty protects residual classes.

  7. Permian {open_quotes}Wolfcamp{close_quotes} limestone reservoirs: Powell Ranch field, Eastern Midland Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Montgomery, S.L.

    1996-09-01

    Deep-water carbonate channel reservoirs form important oil reservoirs along the toe of the Eastern Shelf of the Permian basin in west Texas. In northwestern Glasscock County, these `Wolfcamp` reservoirs are Leonardian (Early Permian) in age and define high-energy channels incised into surrounding carbonate detritus and basinal shale. Porous grain-flow material filling these channels, along with encasing detritus, was derived from the shallow shelf located six miles to the east. Reservoirs are in packstone and grainstone facies and have significant interparticle and moldic porosity. Relevant exploration began in the 1960s, but expanded slowly thereafter due to lack of success caused by complex patterns of channel occurrence. Results of a three-dimensional (3-D) seismic survey conducted in 1990 have greatly enhanced the identification and mapping of productive channels in the Powell Ranch field complex. Wells in this complex are capable of flowing 400-1200 bbl of oil per day, and have reserves ranging from 0.2 to 1.3 MBO. The new 3-D data have improved the relevant geologic model and dramatically increased rates of drilling success. Application of such data to this setting offers a potential model for other parts of the Permian basin.

  8. Responsive pricing for retail competition {open_quotes}real time pricing{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, L.N.

    1994-12-31

    A series of slide presents `Real Time Pricing` as responsive pricing for retail competition which will likely increase over the next few years. Deregulation started with the Energy Policy Act of 1992 which granted open transmission access and gave states right to allow retail wheeling of power. Customers will demand low cost and quality service. The company missions and goals, competition, existing customers and cost to serve should be clearly understood. Cost of service considerations, rate structure objectives, and rate options are included. A computerized economy power purchasing system is also discussed.

  9. The Solid Waste Authority: {open_quotes}This place is for the birds{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    Mihalik, M.B.

    1995-12-01

    The Solid Waste Authority of Palm Beach County (SWA) manages a waste-to-energy facility and landfill adjacent to a site which, during the 1985 Florida drought, served as the largest communal Snail Kite (Rostrhamus sociabilis plumbeus) roost documented in the United States. Listed as an endangered species, the Snail Kite initiated a Section 7 consulation process as a USCOAE Dredge & Fill permit was sought for construction in 1987. In response to environmental permit requirements, SWA developed and implemented a Wildlife Conservation & Management Program which evaluated the roost`s response to activities associated with site development. Specifically, a seven-year bird monitoring program was conducted on kite usage of this roost from 1987-1993. Impact assessment was expanded to include monitoring the mixed-species wading bird colony which inhabits the same roosting area. Monitoring at the community level serves as a better environmental indicator because Snail Kites are nomadic and respond to regional water level changes. This paper gives an overview of the environmental concerns and approach taken to monitor the roost, describes the different components of the bird monitoring program, and summarizes the findings of the 7-year data collection. An evaluation of the SWA project with regards to impacts on Snail Kite and wading bird usage of the area is also discussed.

  10. A novel form of {open_quotes}Tyrosinase-positive{close_quotes} oculocutaneous albinism

    SciTech Connect

    Fukai, K.; Lee, S.T.; Bundey, S.; Spritz, R.A. |

    1994-09-01

    Tyrosinase-positive oculocutaneous albinism (ty-pos OCA) is an autosomal recessive disorder in which the biosynthesis of melanin pigment is greatly reduced in the skin, hair, and eyes. We have shown that typical ty-pos OCA (OCA2) results from mutations of the P gene in chromosome segment 15q11-q13. We have also shown that some patients diagnosed with ty-pos OCA actually have mild forms of type I OCA (OCAI), resulting from mutations at the tyrosinase (TYR) gene at 11q14-q21. However, in about one-third of patients with ty-pos OCA we have failed to identify abnormalities of either the P or TYR genes, suggesting the possible existence of a third ty-pos OCA locus. To test this hypothesis, we investigated a large, complex, inbred Pakistani kindred. Affected individuals exhibit slight skin pigmentation with no tanning, hair that is silver at birth and darkens somewhat over time, brown irides, and reduced visual acuity with nystagmus. SSCP/heteroduplex screening and complete DNA sequence analysis of TYR gene in the proband identified no abnormalities, and analysis of a CA repeat in the TYR gene promoter showed no linkage of ty-pos OCA to this marker in this kindred. SSCP/ heteroduplex screening of the P gene also detected no abnormalities, and the (inbred) proband was heterozygous for numerous intragenic polymorphisms. These data thus exclude TYP and P. We next carried out genetic linkage analyses and homozygisty mapping using various SSLP repeats at the locations of the human homologues of the mouse brown (TYRP, 9p23), slaty (13q32), and silver (12pter-q21) genes, all of which are associated with generalized hypopigmentation in mutant animals. However, we found no evidence of linkage of any of these markers. We are currently carrying out similar analyses using markers near the putative locations of the human homologues of several other mouse hypopigmentation genes in an effort to map this novel human ty-pos OCA locus.

  11. Plasma transferred arc rotary furnace for {open_quotes}corium{close_quotes} melting

    SciTech Connect

    Kassabji, F.; Cognet, G.; Jegou, C.; Roubaud, A.

    1995-12-31

    This paper presents a new plasma transferred arc rotary furnace equipment installed for the CEA in the research Centre of Cadarache in France; this project is conducted with EDF technical assistance. It is constructed by GEC-ALSTHOM for the total project and TETRONICS for plasma systems. This furnace is the central unit of a new facility, VULCANO E-30, prototype of a larger one, built in order to study the key phenomena involved in the behaviour and cooling of CORIUM at temperatures up to 3000{degrees}C. This centrifugal and tilted furnace is water cooled in a double shielded jacket. A self crucible is made up by the centrifugation of the powder material. A 300kW transferred arc is created between two plasma electrodes-torches allowing the creation of a plasma column at a high and relatively homogeneous temperature. The furnace is equipped by a product feeder at one of its extremities and by a boarded telemtry system allowing the transmission by infrared signals of the temperature measurements.

  12. {open_quotes}Industry views--timing/structure of consultative process{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    Volgelsberg, T.

    1995-12-31

    This paper examines industry`s perspective on the issues concerning the politics and economics of climatic change. The climate change issue complexity goes beyond science and involves: technology, economics, lifestyle, population, intergenerational equity, etc. Industry resources should be actively involved in technology, timeframes, economic assessments, and the political process. Climate mitigation options should be viewed on a holistic or total impact basis. Technology and economic assessment should not create winners and losers. The climate change process is like peeling an onion - long timeframes are required for cultural and infrastructure changes, there are both short term small improvement and long term structural changes, and implementation may take generations. Interdisciplinary communications are critical, cutting across the fields of social science, physical science, economics, technology, demographics, etc. Finally, industry must play or be played - industry can either help shape or be left to live with policy.

  13. Rerouting fish {open_quotes}traffic{close_quotes} in the Columbia River Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Christensen, P.J.; Wielick, R.G.

    1995-07-01

    Grant County PUD is testing a prototype downstream fish bypass system at Wanapum Dam that promises to be more effective than screens. If successful at diverting juvenile salmon away from turbine intakes, the concept could be applied at other hydro facilities facing fish passage challenges. The tested method---an attraction flow system---is an alternative to screens. In this system, entrances are strategically located above turbine intakes. This takes advantage of the natural tendency for juvenile salmonids to occupy the upper portion of the water column as they move downstream. Fish attracted to the channel by the water flow into the slots are passed to the tailrace, thus avoiding the turbines.

  14. Comment on {open_quotes}Multicritical Behavior in Coupled Directed Percolation Processes{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    Goldschmidt, Y.Y.

    1998-09-01

    A Comment on the Letter by Uwe C. T{umlt a}uber, Martin J. Howard, and Haye Hinrichsen, Phys.thinspthinspRev.thinspthinspLett.thinspthinsp{bold 80}, 2165 (1998). The authors of the Letter offer a Reply. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

  15. Hanford [open quote]burping tank[close quote] to get relief

    SciTech Connect

    King, H.

    1993-06-21

    Relatively soon waste cleanup experts at the US Dept. of Energy's Hanford nuclear weapon production plant in Richland, Washington, will embark on a $30-million effort to defuse the site's most potentially dangerous environmental problem - a radioactive waste storage vat that vents potentially explosive hydrogen gas about every three months. The tank, officially known as 101-SY, is the most serious safety issue at Hanford, and both DOE and site management and operations contractor Westinghouse Hanford Co. have been under pressure from regulators to solve it. 101-SY is one of 177 huge tanks that contain wastes from former plutonium production at Hanford. Unlike its 68 single-shelled counterparts, the double-shelled 101-SY has not leaked wastes but its hydrogen gas buildup has environmental officials more concerned. The current strategy for 101-SY is to insert a giant recirculating pump to slowly mix or agitate its 1.1 million gallons of waste.

  16. Final report for {open_quotes}Production of mild gasification co-products{close_quotes} project

    SciTech Connect

    Horne, D.A.; Castro, J.C.

    1994-12-04

    The SGI International Liquids From Coal (LFC) Process is a mild pyrolysis, or mild gasification, treatment that upgrades low-rank coals by removing almost all of the moisture and a substantial portion of the volatile matter. The process produces two value-added co-products: a Coal Derived Liquid (CDL) and a solid Process Derived Fuel (PDF). A third co-product, a low-heating-value non-condensible gas, is recirculated and combusted in a commercial sized plant to provide drying and pyrolysis process heat. The LFC Process consists of three basic steps. The first step, drying, involves essentially inert gas convectively raising the coal temperature and removing most of the moisture. The drying temperature is limited to ensure that no hydrocarbon gases evolve, and the flow rate is limited below fluidization levels for most of the coal particles. The second step, pyrolysis, consists of additional inert gas heating that raises the temperature of the dried coal so that more than half of the volatile matter is removed under a controlled temperature history that is characteristic for each particular coal and customer demand. The third step, finishing or conditioning, consists of exposure to a cooling inert gas that quenches the pyrolysis reaction, followed by controlled exposure to oxygen for the purposes of stabilization. The processed solid char is then brought to moisture equilibrium (much less than the parent coal`s equilibrium level), and, if necessary, a dust suppressant is added to the PDF. The PDF co-product is environmentally more attractive than the parent coal because a large fraction of the organic sulfur is removed with the volatile matter, and the heating value of the fuel is increased with a concurrent increase in combustion efficiency. When subjected to appropriate finishing steps, the PDF represents a stable, economically transportable, high-heat-value reactive combustion fuel with stable flame characteristics similar to natural gas.

  17. Artificial barriers to control excessive frac height growth [open quotes]Bracketfrac[close quotes

    SciTech Connect

    Arbaugh, R. ); Greener, M. )

    1994-08-01

    The Garfield and Beaver Creek fields produce from several dolomite layers in the Devonian Richland formation at depths of 4200-4600 ft. The Richfield is a series of relatively thin, 4-20 ft dolomite reservoirs, which are confined above and below by anhydrites. These anhydrites are comparable to the dolomite reservoirs in fracture resistance and essentially do not present an effective stress barrier to fracture growth. The dolomite zones have a porosity range of 12-20%, and permeability ranges from 6-20 md. The dolomite reservoirs also contain significant amounts of free salt, which is apparent in the large quantities of produced salt in new wells. There are eight producing zones, oil gravity is 43[degrees] APi, and viscosity is 1 cp at the reservoir with a temperature of 110[degrees]F. Previous completions in the Richfield have been plagued by unrestricted fractured height growth because there is no control over where the frac is going. Standard practice has been to perforate and treat the zones in groups. If all zones are opened at the same time, communication usually occurs (up or down) during the fracturing of any group of zones. Artificial barriers to control excessive frac height growth were used in the Richfield formation for the stated reasons. Because no barrier was present between producing zones, the production capabilities of each zone and each new and existing well in the field were limited. INVERTAFRAC and DIVERTAFRAC services are techniques developed and used exclusively by Dowell Oilfield Service Company to control vertical fracture height. When both services are simultaneously used, the treatment is called BRACKETFRAC. By limiting fracture height to the pay zone, several important results are achieved: diversion from barren zones, water, or other undesirable fluids; improved fracture efficiency; deeper penetrating fractures; improved proppant distribution; and consistently better stimulation results.

  18. {open_quotes}Super{close_quotes} Japanese site gears up to sole neutrino puzzle

    SciTech Connect

    Normile, D.

    1995-11-03

    Ever since Wolfgang Pauli proposed the existence of neutrinos in 1930 to explain some puzzling features of the radioactive decay of certain atoms, expermentalists have labored hard to detect enough of the elusive particles to determine their properties. It took 26 years to prove that Pauli`s particle even exits-a feat for which Frederick Reines of the University of California (UC), Irvine, won the Nobel Prize last month. Soon, however, physicists will be capturing neutrinos in unprecedented numbers in a 50,000-metric-ton tank that will fill with water starting next month. Researchers hope that this colossal waterbath will yield an answer to one of the most pressing questions is cosmology and high-energy physics: Do neutrinos have mass?The $100 million experiment, called Super-Kamiokande, in located in a lead mine west of Tokyo. This article describes the work to be conducted.

  19. Dual annular rotating [open quotes]windowed[close quotes] nuclear reflector reactor control system

    DOEpatents

    Jacox, M.G.; Drexler, R.L.; Hunt, R.N.M.; Lake, J.A.

    1994-03-29

    A nuclear reactor control system is provided in a nuclear reactor having a core operating in the fast neutron energy spectrum where criticality control is achieved by neutron leakage. The control system includes dual annular, rotatable reflector rings. There are two reflector rings: an inner reflector ring and an outer reflector ring. The reflectors are concentrically assembled, surround the reactor core, and each reflector ring includes a plurality of openings. The openings in each ring are capable of being aligned or non-aligned with each other. Independent driving means for each of the annular reflector rings is provided so that reactor criticality can be initiated and controlled by rotation of either reflector ring such that the extent of alignment of the openings in each ring controls the reflection of neutrons from the core. 4 figures.

  20. {open_quotes}Instrument calibration using the pneumatic deadweight tester{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    Calvin, A.

    1995-12-01

    One of the most difficult problems facing the instrument engineer is the accurate calibration of pressure or differential pressure measuring instruments. The deadweight tester or gauge is the economic answer to many of these problems. This paper describes methods to select deadweight testers and gauges. Also included are procedures for using hydraulic deadweight testers.

  1. Implications of a {open_quotes}cross-rolled{close_quotes} yield surface approximation on deep drawing

    SciTech Connect

    Logan, R.W.

    1996-03-01

    During deep-drawing, two issues manifest themselves that are due to normal and planar anisotropy in the sheet. These are a dependence of the Limiting Draw Ratio (LDR) on the average thinning ratio (R-value), and a dependence of ear formation and thinning around the circumference on the variation of R-value in the plane of the sheet. The quadratic (1948 Hill) yield surface has been applied to these issues and it has been demonstrated that there are numerous higher exponent yield criteria that may more closely duplicate experimental trends. These predict varying degrees of R-value dependencies of uniaxial yields and strength ratios in multiaxial loading paths. The result of this is that there are sometimes subtle and sometimes substantial differences in the predictions of the various yield surfaces on deep drawing regarding LDR and earing. Additional differences arise due to the way the shear term (45-degree yield) and the 0-degree vs. 90-degree strengths are treated in each criterion. These dependencies (in-plane strengths generated by the yield surfaces) are shown to affect the results of both LDR and earing during cupping. In particular, the 1979 Hosford and 1989 Barlat (Tricomponent) criteria, although identical for the normal anisotropy (planar isotropy) case, are strikingly different for cases where there are differences at 45 degrees and 90 degrees from the rolling direction.

  2. The {open_quotes}special employer{close_quotes} issue for nuclear utilities

    SciTech Connect

    Jose, D.E.

    1992-01-01

    Legal aspects of the Rudenjak versus Jersey Central Power and Light Company lawsuit are summarized in the article. Rudenjak, while working for an independent contractor at the Oyster Creek Nuclear Power Plant, received a 3.335 Rem dose of whole-body radiation over a 4-month period in 1980. In 1988, Rudenjak died of acute leukemia and his widow sued the power company. The utility filed a motion to dismiss based on the statutory employer defense, which was granted by the court; excepts of the court`s decision are included in the article. A similar suit in California is also described; the implication is that legal precedent has been established in California and New Jersey to prevent employees of independent contractors from suing utilities.

  3. Taking a bottom-to-sky [open quotes]slice[close quotes] of the Arctic Ocean

    SciTech Connect

    Travis, J.

    1994-12-23

    This article discusses a Canadian-USA scientific expedition to study the Amerasian basin, comprising 2/3 of the Arctic Ocean, the world's least studied. Since the oceans remote location makes it particularly sensitive to indications of global climate change, a baseline of data is critical. Among the areas researched and discussed in this article are the following: the warm water layers in the intermediate space of the Arctic ocean; the albedo of the ocean; cloud cover; air pollution; plants and animals; cores of ocean bottom sediments. 2 figs.

  4. Evidence found for a possible [open quote]aggression gene[close quote

    SciTech Connect

    Morell, V.

    1993-06-18

    Researchers in the Netherlands are on the track of a genetic mutation in a large Dutch family that may cause periodic outbursts of aggression in its possessors. Han G. Brunner and his colleagues at Univ. Hospital in Nijmegen report evidence suggesting that a mutation in the gene for monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) may underlie the aggressive and sometimes violent behavior displayed by certain males in this family. A linkage between MAOA gene defect and behavioral problems would make biological sense because the enzyme encoded by the gene helps break down several neurotransmitters that might, if their concentrations build up abnormally, cause a person to respond excessively-and at times even violently-to stress. If this original report is borne out by further work, it would be the first time that a specific gene defect has been found to predispose its bearers to aggressive behavior. Using markers for the X chromosome, Brunner and his colleagues identified the MAO gene region as the likely site for the diseased gene.

  5. Challenging the human crisis: {open_quotes}The Trilemma{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    Nitta, Yoshitaka; Yoda, Susumu

    1995-06-01

    The great increase in world population in the coming century will result in a human crisis of worldwide proportions. A new concept for describing and proposing solutions to this crisis, called the Trilemma, is described by the authors. To feed large and growing populations, humankind is now being forced to make the difficult choice between producing sufficient food for the world population and preserving the environment, or generating economic growth, requiring the consumption of energy and natural resources. These difficult choices present the Trilemma, a new concept that is composed of three dimensions: economic growth, resources such as energy and food, and the environment. None of these three dimensions can be optimized individually as they are mutually interdependent. This paper describes a possible world energy condition in the 21st century. Three scenarios of this energy consumption are presented and compared with the possible energy supply at that time. This supply is estimated from the extrapolation of the renewable energy development of the past and the possible fossil fuel supply. The comparison of the energy supply and the energy consumption indicates that the annual rate of economic growth in the developed region would be only 1% if the gross national product (GNP) per capita of the developing region increases gradually from 1/26 of the GNP of the developed regions in 1990, to 1/10 in 2020, and finally to 1/3 in 2100. Another possibility is that if the GNP per capita of the developing region remains 1/26 of the GNP of the developed regions between 1990 and 2100, the economic growth rate in the developed region could be as large as 3%. In the latter case, an energy shortage would develop in the middle of the 21st century, even if the fast breeder reactor were fully operational by the year 2030. Energy technological developments in Japan are also described as a part of the possible countermeasures against the Trilemma. 9 refs., 11 figs.

  6. Comment on {open_quotes}Covariant duality symmetric actions{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    Pasti, P.; Sorokin, D.; Tonin, M.

    1997-08-01

    We demonstrate that an action proposed by Khoudeir and Pantoja [Phys. Rev. D {bold 53}, 5974 (1996)] for endowing Maxwell theory with manifest electric-magnetic duality symmetry contains, in addition to the Maxwell field, additional propagating vector degrees of freedom. Hence it cannot be considered as a duality symmetric action for a {ital single} Abelian gauge field. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  7. Comment on {open_quotes}Local responsivity in quantum well photodetectors{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    Ryzhii, M.; Khmyrova, I.

    2001-06-01

    The response of multiple quantum well (QW) infrared photodetectors (QW) to the photoexcitation of one QW selected from many identical QWs was recently modeled [M. Ershov, J. Appl. Phys. 86, 7059 (1999)]. We point out here that the presented analysis based on the use of drift-diffusion model for a system with a few electrons is incorrect. {copyright} 2001 American Institute of Physics.

  8. [open quotes]Victory[close quotes] a matter of perception in Ward Valley dispute

    SciTech Connect

    Newman, P.

    1994-02-17

    This article concerns the legal battle over the siting of Ward Valley, a proposed low-level nuclear waste site in California's Mojave Desert. The discussion centers around a judge's decision to deny a pretrial request for adjudicatory hearings to determine the site's suitability as a repository. The site is within an area designated as territory for the desert tortoise by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

  9. Producing biodiesel for the {open_quotes}truck in the park{close_quotes} project

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, C.; Reece, D.; Thompson, J.

    1995-11-01

    One of the principal advantages of Biodiesel is its environmental compatibility. Its biodegradability and reduced toxicity make it an ideal candidate fuel for environmentally sensitive areas. Biodiesel has potential as a fuel for equipment operating in or near waterways, sensitive wildlife habitat and other environmentally sensitive areas. The national park system has a mandate to maintain the environment in the areas they supervise. Use of Biodiesel could be one more tool in achieving that goal. This paper is a progress report of a joint project between the University of Idaho, The Montana Department of Natural Resources and Conservation, Wyoming Department of Energy, the PNW and Alaska Regional Bioenergy Program, Chrysler Corporation and the National Park Service to fuel an on-road vehicle for service in Yellowstone National Park. A 5.9L Cummins powered Dodge pickup, supplied by Dodge Truck, is being operated by NPS with fuel produced by the University of Idaho. Tests include regular dynamometer testing, emissions tests, injector coking analysis, oil analysis, detailed operational records and fuel characterization tests according to the ASAE proposed Engineering Practice for Testing of Fuels from Biological Materials, X552.

  10. Heart rate never lies: interventional cardiologist and Braude's quote revised

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Stéphane; Stauffer, Jean-Christophe; Goy, Jean-Jacques; Graf, Denis; Puricel, Serban; Frobert, Aurélien; Muller, Olivier; Togni, Mario; Arroyo, Diego

    2016-01-01

    Background Interventional cardiologists may be immune to stress, allowing them to perform complex percutaneous interventions under pressure. Objectives To assess heart rate (HR) variations as a surrogate marker of stress of interventional cardiologists during percutaneous cardiac procedures and in every-day life. Design This is a single-centre observational study including a total of six male interventional cardiologists performing coronary interventions and pacemaker implantations. Participants were asked to record their HR with the Apple Watch Device during procedures, every-day life and control activities such as outpatient consultations, sport, marital conflicts and sexual intercourse. Results Average daily HR was 88±17 bpm. During work days, HR increased significantly during procedures (90±17 bpm) compared with days outside the cathlab (87±17 bpm, p=0.02). The average HR was higher during a regular week working (88±16 bpm) compared with weekends off (84±18 bpm, p=0.002). Complex cardiac procedures were associated with higher HR up to 122 bpm. Peak HR were higher during physical exertion. Of note, participants complained of hypersexuality and mania after night shifts. Conclusions Work and especially percutaneous cardiac procedures increase HR independently of physical exertion suggesting that interventional cardiologists experience mental stress and emotions. PMID:26835145

  11. Thermal state of the safety system, reactor, side reflector and shielding of the {open_quote}{open_quote}TOPAZ-2{close_quote}{close_quote} system under conditions of fire caused by a launcher accident at the launch pad

    SciTech Connect

    Grinberg, E.I.; Doschatov, V.V.; Nikolaev, V.S.; Sokolov, N.S.; Usov, V.A.

    1996-03-01

    The paper presents some results of calculational analyses performed to determine thermal state of the TOPAZ II safety system structure, radiation shielding, reactor without the side reflector, rods and inserts of the side reflector under conditions of fire at the launch pad when an accident occurs to a launch vehicle. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  12. Reply to {open_quotes}Comment on {open_quote}Double-exchange ferromagnetism in La(Mn{sub 1{minus}x}Co{sub x})O{sub 3}{close_quote}&hthinsp;{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    Park, J.

    1999-09-01

    In response to the comment by van Elp, the x-ray-absorption spectroscopy (XAS) result at Co {ital L} edge in LaMn{sub 1{minus}x}Co{sub x}O{sub 3} is examined. As reported previously [Park {ital et al.}, Phys. Rev. B {bold 55}, 11&hthinsp;072 (1997)] the valence state must be understood as Co{sup 2+}, not the Co{sup 2+}-Co{sup 3+} mixed valence. An early XAS study of the induced Co{sup 3+} state in Li-doped CoO [van Elp {ital et al.}, Phys. Rev. B {bold 44}, 6090 (1991)], which is deeply related to the comment, is also examined. It is found that the XAS results obviously represent the {sup 1}A{sub 1} low spin state for the Co{sup 3+} state as in LiCoO{sub 2}, not the intermediate spin {sup 3}T{sub 1} state claimed in the study. {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital The American Physical Society}

  13. Response to {open_quotes}Comment on {open_quote}Reversible work of formation of an embryo of a new phase within a uniform macroscopic mother phase{close_quote}thinsp{close_quotes} [J. Chem. Phys. {bold 111}, 3769 (1999)

    SciTech Connect

    Debenedetti, P.G.; Reiss, H.

    1999-08-01

    External constraints are necessary in order to calculate the energetics of embryo formation when the embryo is not a critical nucleus. The expression for the reversible work of formation obtained in by Debenedetti and Reiss [J. Chem. Phys. {bold 108}, 5498 (1998)] is rigorous and valid regardless of the relative densities of the embryo and mother phase. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

  14. Intermodal transportation simulation system {open_quotes}A new prototype for the 21st century{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    Bragdon, C.R.; Berkowitz, C.M.

    1996-12-31

    The National Aviation and Transportation Center{reg_sign} (NAT Center) has established the first Intermodal Transportation Simulation System (OTSS) in the United States. This system identifies and contributes to the solution of intermodal transportation problems using computer-based simulation that includes all three spatial dimensions: aerial, surface and subsurface. The system utilizes the five human senses and all modes of transportation related to air, land and sea. The first phase of this program is supported by a $2.9 million United States Department of Transportation grant. This funding was used to recently establish an advanced technology simulation laboratory. The simulation laboratory is used for strategic planning and problem solving, environmental issues, route and system planning, public participation and conflict resolution, emergency preparedness and risk assessment, human factor issues, logistics and scheduling, economic development as well as financial feasibility and business planning. This technology helps define the systems that enable transportation specialists to better understand the movement of people and goods in a safe and efficient manner using risk-free and less environmentally intrusive training techniques. The simulation system is capable of evaluating problems and provide training at the micro and macro levels. Micro activities include operator-level training, planning and gaming; macro activities range from regional planning to project design and evaluation. Some of the other activities involve personnel and equipment resource management and electronic multimedia simulations applied to large-scale transportation projects and issues using electronic rehearsal exercises. Key to the use of this simulation based facility is the enhancement of transportation that has economic development benefits.

  15. Do more with less-make your trash can {open_quotes}A lonely trash can{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    Yelton, D.

    1996-08-01

    A paper recycling program in North Carolina is described in this paper. Problems with the current paper recycling system are identified. A new system is proposed to address these problems. A cost analysis of the system is compared to a cost analysis of a proposed system; the proposed system cost is significantly lower.

  16. {open_quotes}Successful and cost-effective commercial waste prevention and recycling programs{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, A.L.

    1996-08-01

    Components of an integrated solid waste management program are detailed, with emphasis on government and business partnerships. The program incorporates waste reduction, reuse, waste exchange, recycling, composting, and recycled product procurement. Program options, which focus on educational materials, methods, and technical assistance for promoting commercial waste prevention and recycling, are specified for the business, manufacturing, and industrial sectors. A sample commercial recycling program budget and budget description is included.

  17. Global arrays: A portable {open_quotes}shared-memory{close_quotes} programming model for distributed memory computers

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, R.J.; Nieplocha, J.; Littlefield, R.J.

    1994-11-01

    Portability, efficiency, and ease of coding are all important considerations in choosing the programming model for a scalable parallel application. The message-passing programming model is widely used because of its portability, yet some applications are too complex to code in it while also trying to maintain a balanced computation load and avoid redundant computations. The shared-memory programming model simplifies coding, but it is not portable and often provides little control over interprocessor data transfer costs. This paper describes a new approach, called Global Arrays (GA), that combines the better features of both other models, leading to both simple coding and efficient execution. The key concept of GA is that it provides a portable interface through which each process in a MIMD parallel program can asynchronously access logical blocks of physically distributed matrices, with no need for explicit cooperation by other processes. The authors have implemented GA libraries on a variety of computer systems, including the Intel DELTA and Paragon, the IBM SP-1 (all message-passers), the Kendall Square KSR-2 (a nonuniform access shared-memory machine), and networks of Unix workstations. They discuss the design and implementation of these libraries, report their performance, illustrate the use of GA in the context of computational chemistry applications, and describe the use of a GA performance visualization tool.

  18. Excerpt from {open_quotes}Summary of Near-Term Options for Russian Plutonium-Production Reactors{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-01

    The Russian Federation desires to stop producing weapons-grade plutonium. During the last several years, ten graphite-moderated, water-cooled, production reactors have been shut down. However, complete cessation of weapons-grade plutonium production is impeded by the fact that the last three operating Russian plutonium-production reactors supply electrical energy and district heat as well as produce plutonium. These reactors are major suppliers of heat in the Tomsk and Krasnoyarsk regions of Siberia.

  19. Chelant extraction and {open_quotes}redox{close_quotes} manipulation for remediation of heavy metal contaminated soils

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, R.W.; Li, W.; Miller, G.

    1995-12-31

    This paper summarizes several treatability studies for decontamination of soils at the Aberdeen Proving Ground in Maryland. The surface soil contains elevated levels of heavy metals, especially lead, mercury, and cadmium. Other contaminants include PCBs, 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane, and trichloroethene. Batch extraction studies identified ethylenediamine-tetraacetic acid (EDTA) and citric acid as potential chelating agents for soil washing to remove heavy metals. Column flooding experiments using these agents resulted in significantly lower removal efficiencies. The reason for this behavior is thought to be the result of channeling the chelant solution through the soil column and less contact between the extracting solution and the soil. As a result, soil flooding is not recommended. Sonication was ineffective in enhancing the heavy metal extraction efficiencies of chelating agents. Screening tests identified sodium borohydride, sodium metabisulfite, and sodium percarbonate as potential redox agents. Lead and copper removal by EDTA and citric acid extraction was minimially affected by pretreatment with redox agents. Enhanced removal of copper, lead, and zinc was observed in column flooding experiments using sodium borohydride and EDTA. The reagents used for redox manipulation significantly improved the performance of citric acid for removing zinc. The soil was washed using a multiple-stage batch extraction. The overall removal of copper, lead, and zine were 98.9%, 98.9%, and 97.2%, respectively.

  20. BIG KARL and COSY: Examples for high performance magnet design taught by {open_quotes}Papa Klaus{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    Bechtstedt, U.; Hacker, U.; Maier, R.; Martin, S.; Berg, G.P.A.; Hardt, A.; Huerlimann, W.; Meissburger, J.; Roemer, J.G.M.

    1995-02-01

    The past decades have seen a tremendous development in nuclear, middle, and high energy physics. This advance was in a great part promoted by the availability of newer and more powerful instruments. Over time, these instruments grew in size as well as in sophistication and precision. Nearly all these devices had one fundamental thing in common - magnetic fields produced with currents and iron. The precision demanded by the new experiments and machines did bring the magnet technology to new frontiers requiring the utmost in the accuracy of magnetic fields. The complex properties of the iron challenged innumerable physicists in the attempt to force the magnetic fields into the desired shape. Experience and analytical insight were the pillars for coping with those problems and only few mastered the skills and were in addition able to communicate their intricate knowledge. It was a fortuitous situation that the authors got to know Klaus Halbach who belonged to those few and who shared his knowledge contributing thus largely to the successful completion of two large instruments that were built at the Forschungszentrum Juelich, KFA, for nuclear and middle energy physics. In one case the efforts went to the large spectrometer named BIG KARL whose design phase started in the early 70`s. In the second case the work started in the early 80`s with the task to build a high precision 2.5 GeV proton accelerator for cooled stored and extracted beams known as COSY-Juelich.

  1. China`s new {open_quotes}old thinking{close_quotes}: The concept of limited deterrence

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, A.I.

    1995-12-31

    In the last five to ten years, Chinese military strategists have developed a concept of limited deterrence that is now used to describe what China`s nuclear forces ought to be able to do. Limited deterrence rests on a limited war-fighting capability aimed at communicating China`s ability to inflict costly damage on the adversary at every rung on the escalation ladder and thus denying the adversary victory in a nuclear war. It is this capability, Chinese strategists argue, that will deter such a war in the first place. Limited deterrence therefore requires the development of a greater number of tactical, theater, and strategic nuclear weapons that are accurate enough to hit counterforce targets, are mobile, can be used in the earliest stages of a nuclear crisis, and in a world of THAAD are capable of penetrating ballistic missile defense systems. These forces would thus require effective space-based early warning, and some configuration of BMD capabilities. Given that China does not now have such capabilities, the straight-line prediction would be that over the next decade or so, we should expect to see a discernible effort to shift the forces away from a minimum strike-back assured destruction posture, which China now has, toward limited war-fighting. This may or may not entail a dramatic short-run increase in the absolute numbers of warheads and delivery systems: the pace will depend in part on whether the United States proceeds with TMD deployment. The speed of change in China`s nuclear capabilities will also depend in part on whether the implementation of START II leads to a steep relative increase in the size of the Chinese arsenal and reduces the relative number of counterforce targets. The primary constraints on any such efforts are exogenous, namely, budgetary and arms control constraints. It is an open question whether endogenous constraints-a shift in doctrine toward minimum deterrence-might be encouraged. 120 refs.

  2. Superconductivity of {open_quotes}conducting polymer-fullerene alkali metal{close_quotes} composites: Dreams and realities

    SciTech Connect

    Zakhidov, A.A.; Yoshino, K.

    1996-10-01

    Composites of fullerene C{sub 60} with conjugated polymers (CP) like polyalkylthiophene (PAT) and polyphenylene vinylene derivative (OO-PPV) have earlier demonstrated intensive charge transfer upon photoexcitation. Doping of CP/C{sub 60} composites by A metal vapors (A=K,Rb) is aimed at C{sub 60} induced SC, in which electrons of CP chains may participate in SC pairing, induced via hybridization with C{sub 60} molecules. We have found an SC phase experimentally both in PAT. (C{sub 60}) {sub y}K{sub x} and OO.PPV (C{sub 60}){sub y}K{sub x} by a sensitive method of low field microwave absorption (LFMA), and proved by SQUID. The SCT{sub c} ranges from 12 to 17 K, depending on y and x. This SC phase shows a granular behavior in LFMA, and thus originates from SC A{sub 3}C{sub 60} clusters weakly linked by Josephson junctions. True C{sub 60} induced SC might be masked by granular A{sub 3}C{sub 60}. Anomalous LFMA and paramagnetic Meissner effects observed in SQUID, indicate the existence of Josephson {pi}-junctions. CP is apparently involved in SC via spin carrying polarons P in CP chains, which play a role of {pi}-junctions. Strategies for further search of C{sub 60} induced SC are discussed.

  3. Keys to evaluating {open_quotes}paleokarst{close_quotes} reservoirs - guidelines from Quaternary carbonates and enhanced petrography

    SciTech Connect

    Dravis, J.J.

    1996-12-31

    Paleokarst is often invoked to explain reservoir development in ancient brecciated carbonates. However, the paleokarst model is valid only when fabrics seen in Quaternary cave systems are present and petrography of the non-brecciated zones supports subaerial exposure. Quaternary caves typically exhibit early fractures, microscopic to cavernous secondary porosity, solution collapse and brecciation, cave cements, and reddish-brown cave fill. Inter-cavern rocks show fabric-selective dissolution, porosity inversion, precompaction cements, and capping laminated soil crusts. In brecciated Ellenburger and Upper Elk Point (Devonian, W. Canada) reservoirs, major discrepancies exist between what the paleokarst model predicts and what is actually observed. Reddish calcretes, cavernous porosity and cave cements are absent. Enhanced petrography reveals relict sutured grains, implying burial dolomitization. These same dolomites are brecciated and breccia clasts contain stylolites rotated at different angles to each other and the horizon, implying burial brecciation. Fractures cutting these burial dolomites and stylolites are burial in origin. Preserved secondary porosity is unrelated to brecciated zones and facies controlled. Therefore, brecciation and reservoir quality in both sequences were created by burial dissolution of replacement dolomites and not by subaerial karstification. Brecciation alone does not prove the unconformity-related paleokarst model or the timing of porosity development.

  4. Keys to evaluating [open quotes]paleokarst[close quotes] reservoirs - guidelines from Quaternary carbonates and enhanced petrography

    SciTech Connect

    Dravis, J.J. )

    1996-01-01

    Paleokarst is often invoked to explain reservoir development in ancient brecciated carbonates. However, the paleokarst model is valid only when fabrics seen in Quaternary cave systems are present and petrography of the non-brecciated zones supports subaerial exposure. Quaternary caves typically exhibit early fractures, microscopic to cavernous secondary porosity, solution collapse and brecciation, cave cements, and reddish-brown cave fill. Inter-cavern rocks show fabric-selective dissolution, porosity inversion, precompaction cements, and capping laminated soil crusts. In brecciated Ellenburger and Upper Elk Point (Devonian, W. Canada) reservoirs, major discrepancies exist between what the paleokarst model predicts and what is actually observed. Reddish calcretes, cavernous porosity and cave cements are absent. Enhanced petrography reveals relict sutured grains, implying burial dolomitization. These same dolomites are brecciated and breccia clasts contain stylolites rotated at different angles to each other and the horizon, implying burial brecciation. Fractures cutting these burial dolomites and stylolites are burial in origin. Preserved secondary porosity is unrelated to brecciated zones and facies controlled. Therefore, brecciation and reservoir quality in both sequences were created by burial dissolution of replacement dolomites and not by subaerial karstification. Brecciation alone does not prove the unconformity-related paleokarst model or the timing of porosity development.

  5. Development of NZP ceramic based {open_quotes}cast-in-place{close_quotes} diesel engine port liners

    SciTech Connect

    Nagaswaran, R.; Limaye, S.Y.

    1996-02-01

    BSX (Ba{sub 1+x}Zr{sub 4}P{sub 6-2x}Si{sub 2x}O{sub 24}) and CSX (Ca{sub l-x}Sr{sub x}Zr{sub 4}P{sub 6}O{sub 24}) type NZP ceramics were fabricated and characterized for: (i) thermal properties viz., thermal conductivity, thermal expansion, thermal stability and thermal shock resistance; (ii) mechanical properties viz., flexure strength and elastic modulus; and (iii) microstructures. Results of these tests and analysis indicated that the BS-25 (x=0.25 in BSX) and CS-50 (x=0.50 in CSX) ceramics had the most desirable properties for casting metal with ceramic in place. Finite element analysis (FEA) of metal casting (with ceramic in place) was conducted to analyze thermomechanical stresses generated and determine material property requirements. Actual metal casting trials were also conducted to verify the results of finite element analysis. In initial trials, the ceramic cracked because of the large thermal expansion mismatch (hoop) stresses (predicted by FEA also). A process for introduction of a compliant layer between the metal and ceramic to alleviate such destructive stresses was developed. The compliant layer was successful in preventing cracking of either the ceramic or the metal. In addition to these achievements, pressure slip casting and gel-casting processes for fabrication of NZP components; and acoustic emission and ultrasonics-based NDE techniques for detection of microcracks and internal flaws, respectively, were successfully developed.

  6. {open_quotes}Secure Bus{close_quotes} disturbance-free power at the utility substation level

    SciTech Connect

    Boenig, H.J.; Jones, W.H.

    1996-12-01

    Over the last 18 months Public Service Company of New Mexico (PNM), El Camino Real Engineering, Inc. (CRE), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) have worked on the development of disturbance-free power at the medium voltage substation level. The work resulted in the Secure Bus concept, a system in which a medium voltage bus in a substation is immune to power outages and voltage sags on the utility source. The Secure Bus voltage is also immune to voltage sags resulting from faults on any distribution feeder connected to the bus. The Secure Bus concept originated from work conducted to improve power quality for large high-tech manufacturing facilities, in particular for large semiconductor manufacturing plants. For the demands on quality power of a modern facility conventional equipment is not adequate for protecting the end user. For example, the operation of conventional vacuum breakers during short circuit conditions on a feeder circuit, requiring 3 to 5 cycles for breaker opening, does not allow for fast enough current interruption to avoid a voltage dip on the main bus. A sever voltage sag could result in a shut down of sensitive equipment being supplied by the other feeder circuits, which are connected to the main bus. The circumvent the problem, a fast breaker was introduced which interrupts the short circuit before the current causes a significant voltage disturbance. To make the bus immune also to power disturbances caused by power outages, energy storage is introduced to provide the necessary energy back-up in case the primary source is not available.

  7. The information retrieval system of {open_quotes}heat abd nass transfer{close_quotes} software complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Tsitsin, A.G.

    1994-01-01

    A project is discussed which is aimed at creating the International Center for certification of software complexes (SC), intended to for soling various heat and mass transfer problems. Information on the experience gained in the operation of an information retrieval SC system is presented.

  8. Russian multispectral-hyperspectral airborne scanner for geological and environmental investigations - {open_quotes}Vesuvius-EC{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    Yassinsky, G.I.; Shilin, B.V.

    1996-07-01

    Small variations of spectral characteristics in 0,3-14 microns band are of great significance in geological and environmental investigations. Multipurpose multispectral digital scanner with narrow field of view, high spectral resolution and radiometric calibration designed in Russia. Changeable modules permit to obtain parameters of the device for practical using.

  9. Mechanism of chromosome exchange formation in human fibroblasts: Insights from [open quotes]chromosome painting[close quotes

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, J.M.; Evans, J.W.; Kovacs, M.S. )

    1993-01-01

    The authors have used the techniques of premature chromosome condensation (PCC) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with a library for human chromosome 4 to analyze the rate of rejoining of chromosome breaks and development of exchange aberrations in AG1522 human fibroblasts. AG1522 cells were irradiated in plateau phase with 10 Gy and fused with mitotic HeLa cells either immediately after irradiation or at intervals up to eight days later. The slides were then hybridized with the chromosome 4 library and unrejoined breaks and exchange events (visualized as bicolor chromosomes) scored in these cells. At the earliest time point after irradiation, the number of exchange events in the irradiated cells was low, but increased with kinetics similar to that of the joining of the breaks. Furthermore, when those cells which had exchange events for their distribution were analyzed , almost all of the cells initially contained one exchange event (1 bicolor chromosome). As time progressed, the number of cells containing exchanges with two exchange events per cell increased as the number with one exchange event per cell decreased. Extrapolation of the number of exchange events to zero time (with an estimate of 20 min for the fusion and condensation times) gave a value consistent with zero exchanges at zero time after irradiation. In a separate experiment, the authors also scored AG1522 cells at the first metaphase after a dose of 6 Gy and were able to show that as many as 50% of the complete exchanges were non-reciprocal in nature, that is, the two broken ends of a single break in chromosome 4 joined to two different chromosomes. These data support the classical breakage-and-reunion model rather than the Revell Exchange Theory of exchange formation. 20 refs., 5 figs.

  10. Incidence and origin of [open quotes]Null[close quotes] alleles in the (AC)n microsatellite markers

    SciTech Connect

    Callen, D.F.,; Thompson, A.D.; Shen, Y.; Phillips, H.A.; Richards, R.I.; Mulley, J.C.; Sutherland, G.R. )

    1993-05-01

    Twenty-three (AC)n repeat markers from chromosome 16 were typed in the parents of the 40 CEPH (Centre d'Etude du Polymorphisme Humain) families. Where parents were informative, the entire families were then typed. There were seven markers in which null alleles were demonstrated, as recognized by the apparent noninheritance, by a sib, of a parental allele. Four of these markers showed a null allele in a single sibship, while in the other three at least 30% of the CEPH sibships were shown to have a null allele segregating. One null allele was sequenced and shown to be the result of an 8-bp deletion occurring within the priming sequence for PCR amplification of the (AC)n repeats. In gene mapping or in application to diagnosis, the presence of a segregating null allele will not corrupt the linkage data but could result in loss of information. In isolated instances a segregating null allele may be interpreted as nonpaternity. The presence of a null allele may generate misleading data when individuals are haplotyped to determine the presence of linkage disequilibrium with a disease gene. 10 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  11. A GCM study of the late January 1992 [open quotes]mini-hole[close quotes] event observed during EASOE

    SciTech Connect

    Orsolini, Y.; Cariolle, D.; Deque, M. )

    1994-06-22

    The authors have developed a model for the ozone field in the northern hemisphere, based on a general circulation model Arpege'. They take advantage of the large number of readings of ozone profiles available as a result of the EASOE campaign to test this model against measurements. The model delimits the vortex by the use of potential vorticity. It was applied against an ozone density excursion observed over northern Europe in late January 1992. The model shows that this event was the result of transport of a large tropical air mass, low in ozone density to the north.

  12. {open_quotes}Exchange-spring{close_quotes} Nd-Fe-B alloys: Investigations into reversal mechanisms and their temperature dependence

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, L.H.; Welch, D.O.; Panchanathan, V.

    1996-10-01

    In order to investigate factors affecting coercivity a series of two-phase Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B-based nanocomposite alloys with different excess iron concentrations were produced by melt-spinning methods. The constituent grain size was estimated by diffraction methods to be in the range of 150 {Angstrom} - 500 {Angstrom}, and room-temperature demagnetization curves verify that the alloys studied exhibit a modest remanence enhancement. Isothermal remanence magnetization (IRM) and dc-demagnetization (DCD) measurements performed at temperatures in the range 275 K {le} T {le} 350 K illustrate that the coercivity and irreversible magnetization develops in a bimodal, incoherent manner from a demagnetized state but upon demagnetization from a saturated state the system evinces collective, exchange-coupled behavior as illustrated by the reversible magnetization M{sub rev}. The temperature dependencies and values of the irreversible susceptibility X{sub irr} (DCD) suggest that a moderating phase with a magnetic anisotropy intermediate to the two constituent main phases may be present in the alloys.

  13. ESCA study of [open quotes]model[close quotes] allyl-based Mo/SiO[sub 2] catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Aigler, J.M.; Brito, J.L.; Leach, P.A.; Houalla, M.; Proctor, A.; Cooper, N.J.; Hall, W.K.; Hercules, D.M. )

    1993-05-27

    Stoichiometric redox measurements and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS or ESCA) studies were performed on an allyl-based Mo/SiO[sub 2] catalyst (1.7 wt % Mo) obtained by the sublimation of Mo([eta][sup 3]-C[sub 3]H[sub 5])[sub 4] onto SiO[sub 2] at 40 [degrees]C. The average oxidation state estimated from stoichiometric measurements correlated well with those reported in the literature. ESCA results indicated that reduction of the Mo/SiO[sub 2] catalyst at 550 [degrees]C primarily led to the formation of Mo[sup 2+]. Also, the results were consistent the reported reversibility of the redox cycle. However, the reported formation of discrete Mo[sup 4+] by oxidation of the reduced catalyst at room temperature could not be substantiated. 17 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. The origins of utility regulation and the [open quotes]theories of regulation[close quotes] debate

    SciTech Connect

    Priest, G.L.

    1993-04-01

    In this article, the author attempts to show that the effort to ascribe regulatory effects to a theory largely deflects attention from the dynamic relationships between the regulator and the regulated firm or industry played out most frequently within a long-term relationship closely resembling more familiar forms of long-term contracts. The focus on regulation by commission is misguided and the differences between regulation by commission and by other regulatory techniques are less important than has been appreciated. The author's examination of the history of public utility regulation makes impossible any clear-cut distinction between competing public interest and private interest theories.

  15. Giant fields of the late 80s associated with type [open quotes]A[close quotes] subduction in South America

    SciTech Connect

    Duval, B.; Cramez, C. ); Figuera, J. ); Lander, R. ); Hernandez, G. )

    1993-02-01

    About 10 billion bbl of recoverable oil have been found in these three fields for which the petroleum generating subsystem is very similar. The potential source rocks are the organic sediments associated with the major downlap surface of the post-Pangea continental encroachment sedimentary cycle, i.e., MFS 91, 5 Ma (La Luna formation). However, the concentrating physico-chemical petroleum subsystem is quite different. The El Furrial/Musipan field is associated with a Tertiary foredeep basin overlying a generating Atlantic type passive margin. On the other hand, Cusiana and Ceuta fields are associated with a Tertiary foredeep basin developed over a generating back-arc basin. The different stacking of sedimentary basins controls the migration/entrapment petroleum subsystem. In El Furrial/Musipan, decollement surfaces and their associated thrusts are predominant whereas, in Ceuta and Cusiana the majority of compressional structures are created by tectonic inversions. These tectonic settings create different petroleum systems: (a) supercharged with low impedance and lateral drainage in El Furrial/Musipan, (b) normally charged with high impedance and vertically drained in Ceuta and Cusiana area. Each case requires appropriated exploration approaches.

  16. Coal air turbine {open_quotes}CAT{close_quotes} program invention 604. Fourth quarter project report, July 1995--September 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Foster-Pegg, R.W.

    1995-10-31

    A coal air turbine `CAT` generates electric power and heat from coal combustion. The purpose of this project is the conceptual design of a `CAT` plant, and to make a comparison of the capital cost and and cost of power and steam from the `CAT` plant with power produced by alternate plants at the same site. Three configurations investigated include: condensing plant utilizing coal fuel and a condenser tower, or river, for cooling; a cogeneration plant utilizing coal and a steam turbine; and a cogeneration plant utilizing steam export and injection with waste coal fuel.

  17. Molecular genetics of the glaucomas: Mapping of the first five {open_quotes}GLC{close_quotes} loci

    SciTech Connect

    Raymond, V.

    1997-02-01

    Glaucoma encompasses a complex of ocular-disease entities characterized by an optic neuropathy in which degeneration of retinal ganglion cells leads to a characteristic excavation of the head of the optic nerve. Such damage causes progressive narrowing of the visual fields and, when uncontrolled, blindness. Affected people often have ocular hypertension defined as intraocular pressures consistently >21 mm Hg in both eyes. Although ocular hypertension is no longer an obligatory diagnostic criterion for glaucoma, it is still recognized as one of the most important risk factors. A diagnosis of glaucoma is made after observation of the characteristic atrophy of the optic nerve, which is associated with typical visual field defects. In 1992, the World Health Organization estimated that, in the global population, 5.2 million people were blind as a result of glaucoma, making it the third leading cause of blindness worldwide. The most common form is adult-onset primary open-angle glaucoma, which represents {ge}50% of all cases of glaucoma. Among Caucasians, this form of the disorder affects {approximately}2% of the population >45 years old. In African Americans, prevalence of adult-onset open-angle glaucoma is three to four times higher than that observed in White Americans. More than 15 million North Americans may have some form of glaucoma, but at least half of them may not be aware of it. 43 refs., 1 tab.

  18. Improved power quality with {open_quotes}Written-Pole{close_quotes}{sup trademark} motor-generators and motors

    SciTech Connect

    Morash, R.T.

    1995-12-31

    Written-Pole{trademark} motor-generators and motors improve power quality because the magnetic pattern of rotor field poles can be changed while the machines operate. Applied in a motor-generator set, pole writing allows the generator to produce high quality constant frequency output at variable speed. The motor efficiently operates its own high inertial energy rotor as a flywheel energy storage device. The M-G set provides continuous on-line isolation between the electrical distribution system and load. It also rides through blackouts of 15 seconds or more while supplying full load at exact frequency and regulated voltage. Rotating flywheel energy is used, thereby eliminating the need for batteries for uninterruptible power. Power quality is also improved for the electrical distribution system because the generator prevents harmonic feedback. The motor is a unity power factor load with negligible harmonics and has added advantages of high efficiency and very low inrush current during across-the-line starts. Mechanical loads such as pumps and fans can be driven by written-pole motors. These can also have advantages of load ride-through during momentary power interruptions and can instantly restart. Additionally, low starting current significantly reduces voltage sags on the distribution system, improving power quality. Such motors are being developed in single-phase with the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and member utilities. The paper describes the benefits for power quality as a result of written-pole machines.

  19. United States based agricultural {open_quotes}waste products{close_quotes} as fillers in a polypropylene homopolymer

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobson, R.E.; Rowell, R.M.; Caulfield, D.F.

    1995-11-01

    With the advent of modern coupling agents (MAPP or maleic anhydride grafted polypropylene), the potential use of various types of renewable, sustainable agricultural byproducts as fillers in thermoplastics is explored. Over 7.7 billion pounds of fillers were used in the plastics industry in 1993. With sharp price increases in commodity thermoplastics (i.e. approximately 25% in 94`), the amount of fillers in thermoplastic materials will increase throughout the 90`s. Various types of agricultural fibers are evaluated for mechanical properties vs. 50% wood flour and 40% talc filled polypropylene (PP). The fibers included in this study are: kenaf core, oat straw, wheat straw, oat hulls, wood flour (pine), corncob, hard corncob, rice hulls, peanut hulls, corn fiber, soybean hull, residue, and jojoba seed meal. Composite interfaces were modified with MAPP to improve the mechanical properties through increased adhesion between the hydrophilic and polar fibers with the hydrophobic and non-polar matrix. The agro-waste composites had compositions of 50% agro-waste/48% PP/2% MAPP. All of the agricultural waste by-products were granulated through a Wiley mill with a 30 mesh screen and compounded in a high intensity shear-thermo kinetic mixer. The resultant blends were injection molded into ASTM standard samples and tested for tensile, flexural, and impact properties. This paper reports on the mechanical properties of the twelve resultant composites and compares them to wood flour and talc-filled polypropylene composites. The mechanical properties of kenaf core, oat straw, wheat straw, and oat hulls compare favorably to the wood flour and talc-filled PP, which are both commercially available and used in the automotive and furniture markets.

  20. {open_quote}Nintendo Rig{close_quote} lets two men do work of three on traditional servicing rig

    SciTech Connect

    Rintoul, B.

    1996-01-01

    New well servicing rig saves costs and increases safety by using a robot derrickman. The rigs is called the Nintendo Rig, taking the name from the joystick that controls the robot on the racking board 25 feet above the ground. An automated tong/slip package permanently mounted on the front of the rig handles pipe and rods on the ground.

  1. Augmented Computer Exercise for Inspection Training (ACE-IT) - an interactive training tool for {open_quotes}challenge inspections{close_quotes} under the chemical weapons convention

    SciTech Connect

    Dobranich, P.R.

    1997-08-01

    The on-site inspection provisions in many current and proposed arms control agreements require extensive preparation and training on the part of both the Inspection Teams and the Inspected Parties. Current training techniques include lectures, table-top inspections, and practice inspections. The Augmented Computer Exercise for Inspection Training (ACE-IT), an interactive computer training tool, increases the utility of table-top inspections. Under the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) challenge inspections are short-notice inspections that may occur anywhere, anytime, and with no right of refusal. The time interval between notice of intent to inspect a facility and the arrival of inspectors at the facility may be as short as 72 hours. Therefore, advance training is important. ACE-IT is used for training both the Inspection Team (inspector) and the Inspected Party (host) to conduct a hypothetical challenge inspection under the CWC. An exercise moderator controls the exercise. The training covers all of the events in the challenge inspection regime, from initial notification of an inspection through post-inspection activities. But the primary emphasis of the training tool is on conducting the inspection itself, and in particular, the concept of managed access. Managed access is used to assure the inspectors that the facility is in compliance with the CWC, while protecting sensitive information that is not related to the CWC.

  2. Characterization of the patterns of polymorphism in a [open quotes]cryptic repeat[close quotes] reveals a novel type of hypervariable sequence

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobson, D.P.; Schmeling, P.; Sommer, S.S. )

    1993-08-01

    Alternating purine and pyrimidine repeats (RY(i)) are an abundant source of polymorphism. The subset with long tandem repeats of GT or AC (GT(i)) have been studied extensively, but cryptic RY(i) (i.e., no single tandem repeat predominates) have received little attention. The factor IX gene has a polymorphic cryptic RY(i) of 142-216 bp. Previously, there were four known polymorphic alleles, of the form AB, A[sub 2]B, A[sub 2]B[sub 2], and A[sub 3]B[sub 2], where A = (GT)(AC)[sub 3](AT)[sub 3](GT)(AT)[sub 4] and B = A with an additional 3' AT dinucleotide. To further characterize this locus, the authors examined more than 1,700 additional human chromosomes and determined the sequences of the homologous sites in orangutans and chimpanzees. The novel alleles found in humans expand the repertoire of A/B alleles to A[sub 0-4]B[sub 1] and A[sub 1-3]B[sub 2]. The A[sub n]B[sub 2] series are abundant in Caucasians but are absent in blacks and Asians. Conversely, the A[sub 0]B[sub 1] allele is common in blacks but is not found in more than 1,700 Caucasian chromosomes. The data are compatible with a model in which recombination is more frequent than polymerase slippage at this locus. In orangutans, the RY(i) is present, but the sequence is markedly different. An A/B-type of pattern was discerned in which B differs from A by an additional six (AT) dinucleotides at the 3' end. In chimpanzees, the size of the RY(i) locus was greatly expanded, and the sequence showed a novel pattern of hypervariability in which there are many tandem repeats of the form (GT)[sub n](AC)[sub 0](AT)[sub p](GT)[sub q](AT)[sub s], where n, o, p, q, and s are different integers. The sequences of the factor IX intron 1 cryptic RY(i) in three primates provide perspective on the range of possible patterns of polymorphism. Analysis of the patterns suggests how the RY(i) can be conserved during evolution, while the precise sequence varies. 25 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Ferric complexes as catalysts for {open_quotes}Fenton{close_quotes} degradation of 2,4-D and metolachlor in soil

    SciTech Connect

    Pignatello, J.J.; Baehr, K.

    1994-03-01

    Fenton-type reactions of hydrogen peroxide with Fe compounds generate bydroxyl radical (OH{center_dot}) or other reactive species and are potentially useful for degrading organic contaminants in soil. The use of simple Fe salts is limited, however. This study investigated certain pH 6-soluble Fe(III) complexes (Fe-L, where L is an organic tigand) as catalysts for degradation of herbicides 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and metolachlor (2-chloro-N-[2-ethyl 6-methylphenyl]-N-[2-methoxy-l-methylethyl]acetamide). Reactions were carried out in 1:1 aqueous suspensions of a topsoil (15.7 g kg{sup -1} organic C) at the natural pH of 5.7 with herbicides at concentrations representative of a spill (2-3 g kg{sup -1} about 0.01 mol kg{sup -1}). The two herbicides had contrasting sorption behavior in that 2,4-D was mostly in solution, whereas metotachlor was mostly sorbed. The best results were obtained using Fe-nitrilotriscetate (NTA) or Fe-hydroxyethyleniminodiacetate (HEIDA) at 0.01 mol kg-{sup -1} and [H{sub 2}O{sub 2}]{ge} 0.5 mol kg{sup -1}. The gallic acid complex was less effective. In 3 h,{sup 14}C-labeled 2,4-D was quantitatively dechlorinated and partially (15-30%) converted to {sup 14}CO{sub 2}: metolachlor was 93% transformed and 29% dechlorinated. Controls using free ligand plus peroxide or peroxide alone gave little or no reaction. Fe-L + H{sub 2}O{sub 2} was superior to the Fenton reagent itself (Fe{sup 2+} + H{sub 2}O{sub 2}). The results of this study demonstrate that relatively mild chemical oxidation can be effective for remediation of certain contaminants in soil 23 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs.

  4. {open_quotes}Black Gold{close_quotes} leads to new structural interpretation, Northern Sangre de Cristo Mountains/Northeast San Luis Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Watkins, T.A.; Belcher, J.S.; Gries, R.

    1995-06-01

    In the course of exploring for gold along the east margin of the Rio Grande Rift (northern Sangre de Cristo Mountains and northeastern San Luis Basin) live Cretaceous oil was discovered in fractured Precambrian gneiss in 25 of 42 shallow drill holes. Geologic mapping located two outcrops of Mesozoic sediments along the west flank of the Sangre de Cristo Mountains. Mancos Shale, Dakota Group and Morrison Formation sediments were identified from 17 drill holes. These are the first known occurrences of Mesozoic sediments in the area. Previous investigations had concluded that the Mesozoic section eroded from the San Luis uplift during the Laramide. Surface and subsurface geologic data was integrated with gravity, magnetic and seismic surveys for a new structural interpretation. The San Luis Basin is separated from the mountains by an intermediate block and the main basin-bounding fault is three miles west-southwest of the mountain front. A major low-angle, normal fault or detachment fault is related to Miocene rifting. A thick section of Mesozoic sediments are interpreted to be present in the hanging wall of this low angle fault. Buried and thermally matured in a Laramide intermountane basin, these sediments are likely the source of the present day oil found in Precambrian rocks.

  5. Accident analysis of railway transportation of low-level radioactive and hazardous chemical wastes: Application of the /open quotes/Maximum Credible Accident/close quotes/ concept

    SciTech Connect

    Ricci, E.; McLean, R.B.

    1988-09-01

    The maximum credible accident (MCA) approach to accident analysis places an upper bound on the potential adverse effects of a proposed action by using conservative but simplifying assumptions. It is often used when data are lacking to support a more realistic scenario or when MCA calculations result in acceptable consequences. The MCA approach can also be combined with realistic scenarios to assess potential adverse effects. This report presents a guide for the preparation of transportation accident analyses based on the use of the MCA concept. Rail transportation of contaminated wastes is used as an example. The example is the analysis of the environmental impact of the potential derailment of a train transporting a large shipment of wastes. The shipment is assumed to be contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls and low-level radioactivities of uranium and technetium. The train is assumed to plunge into a river used as a source of drinking water. The conclusions from the example accident analysis are based on the calculation of the number of foreseeable premature cancer deaths the might result as a consequence of this accident. These calculations are presented, and the reference material forming the basis for all assumptions and calculations is also provided.

  6. Micro-earthquake monitoring and tri-axial drill-bit VSP in NEDO {open_quotes}Deep-seated geothermal reservoir survey{close_quotes} in Kakkonda, Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, M.; Kondo, T.; Suzuki, I.

    1995-12-31

    New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization has been drilling well WD-1 and employing micro-earthquake monitoring and tri-axial drill-bit VSP as the exploration techniques for the deep geothermal reservoir in the Kakkonda geothermal field, Japan. The results of them are as follows: (1) More than 1000 micro-earthquakes were observed from December 23, 1994 to July 1, 1995 in the Kakkonda geothermal field. Epicenters are distributed NW-SE from a macroscopic viewpoint; they distribute almost in the same areas as the fractured zone in the Kakkonda shallow reservoir as pointed out by Doi et al. (1988). They include three groups trending NE-SW. Depths of hypocenters range from the ground surface to about -2.5 km Sea level; they seem to be deeper in the western part. (2) Well WD-1 drilled into a swarm of micro-earthquakes at depths 1200 to 2200 m and encountered many lost circulations in those depths. However, these earthquakes occurred before well WD-1 reached those depths. (3) The bottom boundary of micro-earthquake distribution has a very similar shape to that of the top of the Kakkonda granite, though all of the micro-earthquakes are plotted 300 m shallower than the top of the granite. (4) The TAD VSP shows a possibility of existence of seismic reflectors at sea levels around -2.0, -2.2 and -2.6 km. These reflectors seem to correspond to the top of the Pre-Tertiary formation, the top of the Kakkonda granite and reflectors within the Kakkonda granite.

  7. {open_quotes}The effects of diabetes on the activity of the enzyme glutamine: fructose-6-phosphate amindotransferase{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, S.P.

    1994-12-31

    Hexsoamine synthetic pathway (HexNSP) controls the supply of essential substrates for glycoprotein synthesis. In vitro studies suggest that increased flux of glucose via the hexsoamine synthetic pathway may play a role in glucose induced insulin resistance of glucose transport. Glutamine: fructose-6-phosphate amindotransferase (GFAT) controls flux into the hexsoamine synthetic pathway; the major products are UDPN-acetylhexosamines (UDP.HexNac=UDP.GlcNAc= UDP.GalNac). I examined whether diabetes ({approximately} 7 days post intravenous streptozotocin, and genetically linked) affects the activity of glutamine: fructose-6-phosphate in rat and mouse skeletal muscle in vivo. Nucleotide linked HexNAc were analyzed by high pressure liquid chromatography(HPLC) in deproteinized hind limb muscle extracts.

  8. Oil spill Cleanup: {open_quote}windows of opportunity{close_quote}: Operational decision-making integrates combination of factors to improve contingency planning, response worldwide

    SciTech Connect

    Nordvik, A.B.; Simmons, J.L.; Champ, M.A.

    1995-10-01

    Oil spill contingency planning and response is an extremely complex and challenging cross-disciplinary activity. It combines a wide range of activities under emergency response conditions that include the nature of the material spilled, local environmental conditions, sensitivity of impacted natural resources, and selection and effectiveness of response/cleanup technologies. This also emcompasses emergency mobilization, marine operations and effectiveness of operations, air surveillance, remote sensing, on-site and regional spill trajectory, human protection, safety assessments, oily waste minimization, handling and disposal, and education and training. Effective oil spill planning and response today also requires a large amount of available data and information and the ability to rapidly process and manage this information. In addition, the decision-making process must integrate all of this information on a sound scientific and engineering basis, which is now possible with the technology windows-of-opportunity. This new concept integrates scientific and engineering data and information, which together provide a common foundation for the development of a rapid and cost-effective tool as an operational instrument for oil spill contingency planning and spill response. It is intended to be used by state and federal agencies, response planners, cleanup organizations, insurance companies, tanker owners, and oil transporters.

  9. Comment on [open quotes]Prediction of Geomagnetic Activity[close quotes] by C. K. Goertz, Lin-Hua Shan, and R. A. Smith

    SciTech Connect

    McPherron, R.L. ); Rostoker, G. )

    1993-05-01

    The authors comment on the previous paper by Goertz, et. al., which they had refereed prior to the authors deaths. They question a number of correlations claimed in that paper. In particular the auroral electrojet index observed, and that infered from ISEE 3 measurements. They also point out possible problems with a cutoff time filter applied to data used in the study. This filter would remove high frequency variations in the electrojet observations. Goertz, et. al. obtain equations for the ionospheric electric field which mimic the field across a resistor in an inductive circuit driven by a time varying voltage. The authors argue that their success in making predictions based on these equations is a consequence of several factors which they did not fully explore.

  10. The DuPont, Monsanto, General Electric {open_quotes}Lasagna{close_quotes} Remediation Project - joint R&D and financing

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, P.A.

    1995-03-01

    The Lasagna project is the first of what we expect will be several large cooperative projects between industry consortia and government to develop improved remediation technologies. In 1992, Monsanto Company began contacting other major corporations to see if they were experiencing similar difficulties in applying cost-effective, or even workable technologies for industrial site remediation. Both General Electric and DuPont were early participants in the effort to develop a meeting with the EPA to discuss technical problems faced in cleanup, research needs, and ways to accelerate development of more cost-effective techniques. This paper provides some background on how this cooperative process came to reality, what the Lasagna process is and how the cooperative arrangements and financing are structured.

  11. {open_quotes}Local texture, current flow, and superconductive transport properties of Tl1223 deposits on practical substrates{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    Christen, D.K.; Specht, E.D.; Goyal, A.

    1996-05-01

    Quantitative investigations of the crystal grain orientations and electrical transport properties of high temperature superconducting (HTS)TiBa{sub 2}Ca{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 8+x} (Tl1223) deposits on polycrystalline substrates show that current flow comprises percolative networks of strongly-coupled material. Superconductive transport properties on different samples, on the same samples at different widths, and on samples with artificially-induced strong flux pinning defects confirm the nature of current flow, and suggest that these materials may be useful as a new class of HTS conductors.

  12. Plant and environment interactions: Growth and yield response of commercial bearing-age {open_quote}Casselman{close_quote} plum trees to various ozone partial pressures

    SciTech Connect

    Retzlaff, W.A.; Williams, L.E.; DeJong, T.M.

    1997-05-01

    Nursery stock of plum (Prunus salicina Lindel., cv. Casselman) was planted 1 Apr. 1988 in an experimental orchard at the Univ. of California Kearney Agricultural Center near Fresno, CA. Trees in this study were enclosed in open-top fumigation chambers on 1 May 1989, and exposed to three atmospheric ozone partial pressures (charcoal filtered air, ambient air, and ambient air + ozone) during the 1989 through 1992 growing seasons (typically 1 Apr. - 1 Nov.). A nonchamber treatment plot was used to assess chamber effects on tree performance. This study details the results of the exposures during the initial commercial bearing period (1991 through 1993) in this orchard. The mean 12-h (0800-2000 h Pacific Daylight Time [PDT]) ozone partial pressures during the experimental periods in the charcoal filtered, ambient, ambient + ozone, and nonchamber treatments averaged 0.031, 0.048, 0.091, and 0.056 {mu}Pa Pa{sup {minus}1} in 1991 and 1992, respectively. Fruit number per tree decreased as atmospheric ozone partial pressure increased from the charcoal filtered to ambient + ozone treatment, significantly affecting yield. Yield of plum trees averaged 23.6, 19.8, 13.7, and 17.9 kg tree{sup {minus}1} in 1991 and 1992 in the charcoal filtered, ambient, ambient + ozone, and nonchamber treatments, respectively. Only one out of the five original treatment plots was exposed to ozone treatments during the 1993 growing season. Yield of plum trees in this single replicate in 1993 was reduced by increased atmospheric ozone partial pressure. Yield of plum trees in the four remaining unexposed treatment plots in 1993 was 16.7, 17.9, and 16.0 kg tree{sup {minus}1} in the previous charcoal filtered, ambient, and ambient + ozone treatments respectively. The similarity in yield of the post-chamber treatments indicates that a change in air quality in the current growing season can affect yield of Casselman plum trees. 26 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  13. Corrections to the paper {open_quotes}fitting the armitage-doll model to radiation-exposed cohorts and implications for population cancer risks{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    Little, M.P.; Hawkins, M.M.; Charles, M.W.; Hildreth, N.G.

    1994-01-01

    A recent paper analyzed patterns of cancer in the Japanese atomic bomb survivors and three other groups exposed to radiation by fitting the so-called multistage model of Armitage and Doll. The paper concluded that the incidence of solid cancer could be described adequately by a model in which up to two stages affected by radiation were assumed but that the data for leukemia within the bomb survivors might not be so well fitted. This was in part because of a failure to account for the observed linear-quadratic dose response that has been observed in the Japanese cohort. It has recently come to our attention that there was a mistake in the fits of the model with two adjacent radiation-affected stages, whereby the quadratic coefficient in dose was being set to zero in all the fits. This paper provides corrections in the calculations for the model and discusses the results.

  14. Nature of plant stimulators in the production of Acetobacter xylinum ({open_quotes}Tea fungas{close_quotes}) biofilm used in skin therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Fontana, J.D.; Franco, V.C.; Lyra, I.N.; De Souza, A.M.; De Souza, S.

    1991-12-31

    Caffeine and related xanthines were identified as potent stimulators for the bacterial cellulose production in A. xylinum. These compounds are present in several plants whose infusions are useful as culture-medium supplements for this acetobacterium. The proposed target for these native purine-like inhibitory substances is the novel diguanyl nucleotide phosphodiesterase(s) that participates in the bacterial cellulogenic complex.

  15. Mental retardation in a child with a {open_quotes}de novo{close_quotes} deletion of terminal 14q and a family history of dyslexia

    SciTech Connect

    Mak-Tam, E.; Capua, E.; Shugar, A.

    1994-09-01

    A couple presented for prenatal diagnosis for advanced maternal age. A review of the family history revealed that their elder daughter was mentally retarded while their second daughter was of normal intelligence. The father and his brother were both dyslexic. The paternal grandmother had lost three pregnancies, all female. The elder daughter had been fully assessed in the past, but no diagnosis had been made. During her first few years, she was frequently ill and failed to thrive. A developmental assessment at age 5 years concluded that she was moderately mentally retarded. She was minimally dysmorphic. DNA testing for fragile X and urine amnio acids, organic acids and metabolic screen were negative. Chromosome and FISH analyses revealed a satellited 14q with a deletion of 14q32.3. Parents did not show the karyotypic changes, but FISH studies on them and the dyslexic uncle are pending. A molecular work-up of chromosome 14 in this family is also in progress. In this child, the phenotype is probably related to the cytogenetic findings. The information about 14q terminal deletions in the literature is limited but a fairly consistent phenotype, which is slightly different from ring 14, is emerging. This is more obvious in infants that in older children. The family history of dyslexia could be unrelated to our patient`s findings but it is also possible that there is a recessive gene for dyslexia in this family which maps to 14q32.3. The current molecular map of this area provides no answer to this question. Genes mapped to 14q3.3 include the alpha-1-antitrypsin gene, the brain component of creative kinase (CKB) and the immunoglobulin heavy chain genes. Loss of heterozygosity of 14q has been associated with end stage human neuroblastoma and colonic neoplasia.

  16. Conference on the topic: {open_quotes}Exploration and production of petroleum and gas from chalk reservoirs worldwide{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    Kuznetsov, V.G.

    1995-07-01

    More than 170 delegates from 14 countries in Europe, North America, Africa, and Asia took part in a conference on the topic: Exploration and Production of Petroleum and Gas from Chalk Reservoirs Worldwide. The conference was held in Copenhagen, Denmark in September,1994, and was a joint meeting of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG), and the European Association of Petroleum Geoscientists and Engineers (EAPG). In addition to the opening remarks, 25 oral and nine poster reports were presented. The topics included chalk deposits as reservoir rocks, the occurrence of chalk deposits worldwide, the North Sea oil and gas fields, and other related topics.

  17. Detection of {open_quotes}cryptic{close_quotes}karyotypic rearrangements in closely related primate species by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using human subtelomeric DNA probes

    SciTech Connect

    Youngblom, J.J.; Trask, B.J.; Friedman, C.

    1994-09-01

    Specific human subtelomeric DNA probes were used to reveal cryptic chromosomal rearrangements that cannot be detected by conventional high resolution cytogenetic techniques, or by chromosomal in situ suppression hybridization using whole chromosome paint analysis. Two cosmids containing different subtelomeric DNA sequences were derived from human chromosome 19 and designated as 7501 and 16432. Cosmid 7501 was hybridized to chromosomes from humans, chimpanzee, gorilla and orangutan. In humans, 7501 consistently labeled chromosomes 3q, 15q, and 19p. Additional chromosomes were labeled in different individuals, indicating a polymorphic distribution of this sequence in the human genome. In contrast, 7501 consistently and strongly labeled only the q arm terminus of chromosome 3 in both chimp and gorilla. The identification of the chromosome was made by two-color FISH analysis using human chromosome 4-specific paint and homologous to human chromosome 4. None of the human subjects showed labeling of chromosome 4 with 7501. This finding suggests that in the course of human evolution, subsequent to the divergence of humans and African apes, a cryptic translocation occurred between the ancestral human chromosome 4 and one or more of the other human chromosomes that now contain this DNA segment. In orangutan, 7501 labeled a single acrocentric chromosome pair, a distinctly different chromosome than that labeled in chimp and gorilla. Comparison of chromosome sites labeled with cosmid 16432 showed the distribution of signals on chromosome 1q arm is the same for humans and chimp, but different in the gorilla. Humans and chimps show distinct labeling on sites 1q terminus and 1q41-42. In gorilla, there is instead a large cluster of intense signal near the terminus of 1q that clearly does not extend all the way to the terminus. A paracentric inversion or an unequal cross-over event may account for the observed difference between these species.

  18. Comment on {open_quotes}Experimental Fusion Barrier Distributions Reflecting Projectile Octupole State Coupling to Prolate and Oblate Target Nuclei{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    Dasso, C.H.; Dasso, C.H.; Fernandez-Niello, J.

    1997-05-01

    The authors comment on the Letter by J.D. Bierman et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 1587(1996), and show the method by which they have been constructed is not the most appropriate. A Comment on the Letter by J.D. Bierman, {ital et al. }, Phys.Rev.Lett.{bold 76}, 1587 (1996). The authors of the Letter offer a Reply. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  19. Inheriting workplace risks: The effect of workers` compensation {open_quotes}exclusive remedy{close_quotes} clauses on the preconception tort after Johnson Controls

    SciTech Connect

    Stern, C.; Tierney, C.M.G.

    1993-12-31

    This article explores whether exclusive remedy clauses will bar a tort action by a child seeking recovery for injury caused by his or her parent`s occupational exposure to mutagenic or toxic agents before the child`s conception in the same manner that the clauses bar spouses` loss of consortium suits. Because both the child`s right to recover for injury and the spouse`s right to recover for loss of consortium depend on proof of employer negligence toward the employee, a comparison of the two rights provides a framework for analyzing the effect exclusive remedy clauses could have on the preconception tort action. Part I of this article discusses exclusive remedy clauses of workers` compensation acts and illustrates how it might be asserted as a defense to a preconception tort action. Part II traces the development of the preconception tort action and its underlying theory of liability. Part III reviews how exclusive remedy clauses have served to bar loss of consortium suits. Part IV analyzes the applicability of exclusive remedy clauses to the preconception tort action. This article concludes that, absent revision to workers` compensation statutes or judicial reliance on public policy to distinguish loss of consortium and preconception tort suits, exclusive remedy clauses probably will be held to bar recovery in preconception tort actions. 121 refs.

  20. Assessment of possible consequences of a hypothetical reactivity accident associated with a {open_quotes}Topaz-2{close_quotes} spacecraft reactor entering water

    SciTech Connect

    Glushkov, E.S.; Ermoshin, M.Yu.; Ponomarev-Stepnoi; Skorlygin, V.V.

    1994-12-01

    An accident analysis for a Russian Topaz-2 nuclear reactor is summarized. The accident scenario involves emergency return from orbit, severe damage to reactor structural elements, and subsequent falling of the reactor core into the ocean. The thermionic converter reactor, used in spacecraft, has a large neutron leakage which decreases when water enters the inner core cavity. Preliminary results of numerical modeling, summarized in the article, show that the possible consequences of the hypothetical accidental submersion are limited. 8 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Development and demonstration of a teleoperated modular {open_quotes}snake{close_quotes} robot system. Final report, September 30, 1986--December 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Tesar, D.; Hooper, R.

    1995-04-12

    The U.S. Department of Energy has provided support to four universities and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in order to pursue research leading to the development and deployment of advanced robotic systems capable of performing tasks that generate significant occupational radiation exposure and/or whose execution times can be reduced if performed by an automated system. The goal was to develop advanced robotic systems capable of performing surveillance, maintenance, and repair tasks in nuclear facilities and other hazardous environments. The approach to achieving the program objective was a transition from teleoperation to the capability of autonomous operation within three successive generations of robotic systems. The robotic system will always have the capability to request human assistance. The development of general purpose robots to perform skilled labor tasks in restricted environments was shown to have extensive payback in areas of energy systems (nuclear and fossil units), chemical plants, fire fighting, space operations, underwater activities, defense, and other hazardous activities. The strategy that was used to achieve the program goals in an efficient and timely manner consisted in utilizing, and advancing where required, state-of-the-art robotics technology through close interaction between the universities and the manufacturers and operators of nuclear power plants. The research effort showed that a broad range of applications for the robotic systems existed for the improved operation of nuclear reactors and in other hazardous tasks. As a consequence, each institution was able to obtain additional support from other agencies, e.g., DoD and NASA. Areas of cooperation with other nations (e.g., Japan, France, Germany) were utilized.

  2. Near-real time infrared observations of acidic sulfates in /open quotes/clean/close quotes/ air at Mauna Loa, Hawaii

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, S.A.; Kumar, R.

    1988-01-01

    Sulfuric acid and its partially or completely neutralized salts with ammonia are believed to result from the oxidation of sulfur dioxide in cloud water and in other heterogeneous media present in the atmosphere. Due to the natural abundance of ammonia and the ubiquitous presence of sulfur in the atmosphere, (NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ is commonly the dominant chemical species in the ambient aerosol. The amounts of ammonium sulfates are expected to be very low in areas far removed from anthropogenic emissions of sulfur dioxide. The chemical composition of submicrometer aerosol particles was determined at the Mauna Loa Observatory (MLO) on Mauna Loa in Hawaii during an eight-day period in August 1986. The MLO site was selected for this measurement because it is the only ground-based aerosol observatory in the remote Pacific Ocean that allows extended sampling of aerosols in the free troposphere. Measurements were made using an attenuated total internal reflection (ATR) impactor system. The impactor collects size-fractionated submicrometer particles for analysis by ATR infrared spectroscopy. The collected samples were analyzed using an on-site Perkin Elmer dispersive infrared spectrophotometer. Infrared absorption spectra (4000 to 250 cm/sup /minus/1/) of the samples were obtained within minutes after the ATR substrates were removed from the impactor. Absorbances were measured for sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium. Acidic sulfate showed infrared absorbances at 600 cm/sup /minus/1/ and 1210 cm/sup /minus/1/ in addition. Results showed that ammonium sulfate was the dominant chemical species in the submicrometer particles. Over half of the nearly 40 samples collected showed an acidic sulfate component. Consecutive samples were found to change from completely neutralized ammonium sulfate to acidic ammonium sulfates in a two-hour time interval. 5 refs., 1 tab.

  3. The {open_quotes}ASR{close_quotes} story where we are and how we got there: A history of Sandia National Laboratories maintenance employee safety committee

    SciTech Connect

    1997-08-01

    The Area Safety Representative (ASR) Team is an employee based safety committee that was originated in the latter part of 1994. It was introduced by the Operations and Engineering Center ES&H Coordinator who had heard about an employee based safety program implemented at the EG&G Corporation. This information was the first step in creating Sandia`s Maintenance `Area Safety Representative` (ASR) Program. An advertisement went out from the ES&H Coordinator to all the Maintenance Organizations asking for individuals who would be interested in performing as a volunteer safety representative for their section. The interest was moderate but effective. The committee consisted of one volunteer from each of the working sections within the Maintenance Organization, e.e., HVAC Mechanics, Electricians, Millwrights, Plumbers, Sheetmetal Workers, High-Voltage Technicians, a Union Representative, and representatives from the Operations Group that manage sub-contracted personnel. During the past year, organizational changes have brought about the addition of representatives to include the Planners and the Custodians. The original committee members were enrolled in a 30-hour OSHA Voluntary Compliance Outreach Course. This information provided the members with a broad overview of the Safety Guidelines set forth by OSHA for themselves and their coworkers. It is to be noted that this is an employee based safety team. There are no supervisors or managers on the committee but their attendance is always welcomed at the ASR meetings.

  4. Comments on {open_quotes}measurements of {sup 7}Be and {sup 210}Pb in rain, snow, and hail{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    Baskaran, M.

    1995-09-01

    Comments on a previous journal article reporting the first measurement of {sup 7}Be and {sup 210}Pb of a hail sample are made in this article. The comments pertain to the possible problems in the reported data and interpretations made in the original paper. The author of the comments states that since the daughter products of {sup 222}Rn and {sup 7}Be that are produced in the lower and upper atmosphere, respectively, are powerful tracers of atmospheric and meteorological processes, it is important that the right perspective is given so that a wider community can possibly use these isotopes to investigate many other meteorological and atmospheric processes. 6 refs., 2 figs.

  5. Reply to comments on [open quotes]Detection of climatic change in the western North American Arctic using a synoptic climatological approach[close quotes

    SciTech Connect

    Kalkstein, L.S.; Dunne, P.C.; Ye, H. )

    1993-07-01

    It has been suggested that previous results indicating an increase in surface temperatures over the past 40 years within the coldest air masses at four stations in the western North American Arctic may be attributed to the shorter residence time of these air masses through the time period. if true, this contradicts the original contention that these are masses have undergone physical character changes, possibly attributed to anthropogenic sources, during the period. A reevaluation of the data at two of these stations indicates that a long-term warming is, in fact, taking place even when residence time is kept constant. Thus, it is suggested that changes in the physical character of these very cold air masses are due to factors other than residence time. 4 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Summary evaluation of the video, {open_quotes}Transportation of radioactive and hazardous materials: Safety for all concerned{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    Monroe, M.C.; Young, C.F.

    1993-07-01

    Outreach materials are often developed and distributed without evaluation of their effectiveness. This report provides a glimpse of the effectiveness of one of the US Department of Energy`s videos on transportation of radioactive and hazardous materials. Data from a survey developed by Modern Talking Picture Service, Inc. are summarized. This survey was sent to recipients of the video at three to six weeks after they had received and viewed the video. The response rate is unknown; hence, the results suggest the range of perspectives on the video, rather than the representativeness of those perspectives. The results are also limited by incomplete responses to the survey. Most respondents were middle school and high school teachers who resided throughout the country. Respondents used the video in nearly all school subjects. Most respondents indicated that the video was fairly good and appreciated the factual information, although some saw it as propaganda. Respondents indicated that they would like additional information on hazardous wastes, nuclear power, and transportation. The test crashes were mentioned as a highlight of the video. Recommendations for revising the video and survey are included.

  7. Comment on {open_quotes}Stopping power of nonmonochromatic heavy-ion clusters with two-ion correlation effects{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    Tkachenko, I.M.; Munoz-Cobo, J.L.; Munoz, A.

    1997-11-01

    We reconsider the results of Lontano and Raimondi [Phys. Rev. E {bold 51}, R2755 (1995)] within the full random-phase approximation. We show that the correlation and also velocity dispersion of the cluster ions enhance and reduce the stopping power, respectively. Nevertheless, the enhancement of energy losses due to ionic correlation is much stronger than that obtained by Lontano and Raimondi, and furthermore, the projectile velocity dependence of the stopping power is strictly monotonic, presenting no oscillations. We also did not obtain negative values for the cluster stopping power, as did Lontano and Raimondi. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  8. {open_quotes}What you don`t know can`t hurt you{close_quotes}: The right to know and the Shetland Island oil spill

    SciTech Connect

    Button, G.V.

    1995-06-01

    This paper, an account of the Shetlands Islands oil spill (1993), examines the public health controversies surrounding the spill and the clean-up response. It critically examines the risk management policies of both the United Kingdom and the Shetland Islands Public Health Office, and suggests that the withholding of critical information contributed to increased anxiety and suspicion among the disaster victims. In an attempt to reassure the victims, the policies contributed to an increased air of uncertainty. It is further argued with the withholding of information prevents those who are at greatest risk from participating in critical decisions that may affect their health and livelihoods and asserts that a right-to-know policy is a critical first step in risk management practices.

  9. Effect of {open_quotes}bamboo{close_quotes} grain boundaries on the maximum electromigration-induced stress in microelectronic interconnect lines

    SciTech Connect

    Gleixner, R.J.; Nix, W.D.

    1998-04-01

    A model which describes the steady-state mechanical stresses resulting from electromigration in microelectronic interconnect lines is presented. This model is valid when sidewall and grain boundary interface diffusion are the dominant transport paths, and accounts for the two-dimensional microstructure present in such lines. By applying the model to simulated line microstructures, we find that bamboo grain boundaries may substantially increase the maximum electromigration stress. Furthermore, microstructural simulations on bounded interconnect segments show that variations in grain size may lead to a large scatter in the maximum stress, particularly as line length decreases. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  10. A progress report on the LDRD project entitled {open_quotes}Microelectronic silicon-based chemical sensors: Ultradetection of high value molecules{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, R.C.

    1996-09-01

    This work addresses a new kind of silicon based chemical sensor that combines the reliability and stability of silicon microelectronic field effect devices with the highly selective and sensitive immunoassay. The sensor works on the principle that thin SiN layers on lightly doped Si can detect pH changes rapidly and reversibly. The pH changes affect the surface potential, and that can be quickly determined by pulsed photovoltage measurements. To detect other species, chemically sensitive films were deposited on the SiN where the presence of the chosen analyte results in pH changes through chemical reactions. A invention of a cell sorting device based on these principles is also described. A new method of immobilizing enzymes using Sandia`s sol-gel glasses is documented and biosensors based on the silicon wafer and an amperometric technique are detailed.

  11. SSC 17-meter dipole magnet DD000Z test results and investigation of coil failure: The report of the {open_quotes}Z{close_quotes} Committee

    SciTech Connect

    Coombes, R.; Mirk, K.; Tompkins, J.; Zbasnik, J.; Lundy, R.; Schneider, W.; Wanderer, P.

    1988-03-01

    Following the failure of the lower inner coil of magnet DD000Z on November 3, 1987, a committee was formed on November 11 and given the following charges: `To review the events leading up to and including the failure of the coils of magnet DD000Z. The intent of the review will be to determine the cause of the failure and to make recommendations to reduce the likelihood of such failures in the future. Given the fact that this is the first long magnet to be disassembled, the committee may uncover leads which point to other opportunities for improvement. The committee should follow up on these leads. The committee should prepare a plan to serve as an initial guide for the disassembly and provide guidance as the disassembly progresses.` The committee held its first meeting at FNAL on 17 and 18 Nov to review the record of events leading up to the failure and to establish an initial disassembly procedure. This was followed by further meetings at FNAL, BNL, and CDG, leading to this final report. Committee activities included interviewing personnel who had been involved in the design, assembly and testing of DD000Z, reviewing all documents relating to the magnet and its failure, and participating in and providing guidance during the disassembly. The intention of the committee was to report factual findings, to consider well founded hypotheses, not to consider conjecture and to avoid speculation.

  12. QA (Quality Assurance) role in advanced energy activities: Towards an /open quotes/orthodox/close quotes/ Quality Program: Canonizing the traditions at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Bodnarczuk, M.W.

    1988-02-01

    After a brief description of the goal of Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) this paper poses and answers three questions related to Quality Assurance (QA) at the Laboratory. First, what is the difference between 'orthodox' and 'unorthodox' QA and is there a place for 'orthodox' QA at a laboratory like Fermilab. Second, are the deeper philosophical and cultural frameworks of high-energy physics acommodating or antagonistic to an 'orthodox' QA Program. Finally, faced with the task of developing an institutional QA program for Fermilab where does one begin. The paper is based on experience with the on-going development and implementation of an institutional QA Program at Fermilab. 10 refs.

  13. [2 + 2 + 2]Cycloadditions of alkynes to furans and thiophenes. A cobalt-mediated [open quotes]enol ether walk[close quotes

    SciTech Connect

    Boese, R. ); Harvey, D.F.; Malaska, M.J.; Vollhardt, K.P.C. )

    1994-11-30

    Involvement of the 2,3-double bond of furan and thiophene in cycloadditions is relatively uncommon, usually limited to specific substrates or by special conditions. Our finding that indoles, pyrroles, imidazoles, and uracils can be activated by CpCo to undergo cocyclizations with alkynes suggested an extension of these efforts to the title heterocycles, in particular because the latter constitute new brackets for the degree of aromaticity (furan lowest, thiophene highest) that is subject to neutralization in these reactions and because the anticipated enol (thio)ether products exhibit potential synthetic utility. This study demonstrates that the cobalt-mediated [2 + 2 + 2] methodology can be extended to furans and thiophenes but that in these, and possibly generally in related heteroalkenes, the generation of potential dienylic leaving groups in the resulting CpCo diene product may cause rearrangements and that formal C-H activations may complicate the outcome of the reaction. The observation that the relatively highly aromatic thiophene nucleus functions as a cocyclization partner points the way to a number of even more challenging substrates in this process. 20 refs.

  14. Characterization of printing and laser trimming of DuPont 2000 series resistors on DuPont 951 {open_quotes}Green Tape{trademark}{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    Morgenstern, H.; Bandler, S.; Barner, G.

    1996-10-01

    DuPont 2000 series resistors were reviewed and found to come closest to our requirement of 1% resistor tolerance over the expected 30-year life of our products. The evaluation performed involved the characterization of both the printing and trimming processes. The printing process was characterized for firing temperature print thickness, print direction, resistor geometry and encapsulant effect. Laser trimming was characterized by first finding an operating envelope and then selecting an operating point. The envelope was located by varying the trimming parameters and determining their acceptability to electrical and visual criteria. Samples from both the envelope and operating point were environmentally conditioned The conditioning included thermal shock temperature cycle, 1000-hour temperature aging, 1000-hour humidity aging, and a simulated gold/tin solder reflow.

  15. You won`t find these leaks with a blower door: The latest in {open_quotes}leaking electricity{close_quotes} in homes

    SciTech Connect

    Rainer, L.; Greenberg, S.; Meier, A.

    1996-08-01

    Leaking electricity is the energy consumed by appliances when they are switched off or not performing their principal functions. Field measurements in Florida, California, and Japan show that leaking electricity represents 50 to 100 Watts in typical homes, corresponding to about 5 GW of total electricity demand in the United States. There are three strategies to reduce leaking electricity: eliminate leakage entirely, eliminate constant leakage and replace with intermittent charge plus storage, and improve efficiency of conversion. These options are constrained by the low value of energy savings-less than $5 per saved Watt. Some technical and lifestyle solutions are proposed. 13 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  16. Comment on William C. Metz' [open quotes]Potential Impacts of Nuclear Activities on Local Economics: Rethinking the Issue[close quotes

    SciTech Connect

    Erikson, K. )

    1994-10-01

    This commentary examines points not presented in the paper Potential Impacts of Nuclear Activities on Local Economics: Rethinking the Issue', in particular why people don't move away from locations they see as dangerous. Reasons suggested by the author include: they do not feel they can; they feel that the fiscal and emotional costs of relocating will only place them within range of another peril; People feel that they knew less when they moved near the location that they know now about the risks. 1 ref.

  17. Sequential {open_quotes}double-Michael{close_quotes} additions of dienolates with C{sub 60}: Rapid access to sterically congested Buckminsterfullerene derivatives with defined stereochemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Ganapathi, P.S.; Rubin, Y.; Friedman, S.H.; Kenyon, G.L.

    1995-05-19

    This article focuses on the success of establishing an easy method for the synthesis of sterically crowded fullerene derivatives. The target molecule diastereomeric alcohol 1 was readily available and will allow for the testing of the inhibition of HIV-1 protease. 11 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  18. Bananas, allegators, and {open_quotes}hot rocks that shoot ghost bullets{close_quotes}: Sitings along the trail to an MRS

    SciTech Connect

    Trebules, V.; Kane, D.

    1994-04-01

    Building new electric power facilities in a community used to be greeted warmly by that community. However, during the 20 year hiatus in power plant siting, opposition to siting just about every kind of facility has grown. The challenge to site a monitored retrievable storage (MRS) facility for the temporary storage of commercial spent nuclear fuel is monumental but not insurmountable. The safety and environmental records on commercial spent-fuel storage to date are impressive. This article gives an overall perspective on siting an MRS. Topics covered include the following: the Nuclear waste Policy Act; the Nuclear Waste Negotiator; DOE`s Feasibility Grand`s program; Looking back at past efforts; using portable information in some areas; and where the efforts go now in trying to site a MRS.

  19. Measurements of the Solar Neutrino Flux from Super-Kamiokande{close_quote}s First 300 Days

    SciTech Connect

    Fukuda, Y.; Hayakawa, T.; Ichihara, E.; Inoue, K.; Ishihara, K.; Ishino, H.; Itow, Y.; Kajita, T.; Kameda, J.; Kasuga, S.; Kobayashi, K.; Kobayashi, Y.; Koshio, Y.; Martens, K.; Miura, M.; Nakahata, M.; Nakayama, S.; Okada, A.; Oketa, M.; Okumura, K.; Ota, M.; Sakurai, N.; Shiozawa, M.; Suzuki, Y.; Takeuchi, Y.; Totsuka, Y.; Yamada, S.; Earl, M.; Habig, A.; Hong, J.T.; Kearns, E.; Kim, S.B.; Masuzawa, M.; Messier, M.D.; Scholberg, K.; Stone, J.L.; Sulak, L.R.; Walter, C.W.; Goldhaber, M.; Barszczak, T.; Gajewski, W.; Halverson, P.G.; Hsu, J.; Kropp, W.R.; Price, L.R.; Reines, F.; Sobel, H.W.; Vagins, M.R.; Haines, T.J.; Kielczewska, D.; Ganezer, K.S.; Keig, W.E.; Ellsworth, R.W.; Tasaka, S.; Flanagan, J.W.; Kibayashi, A.; Learned, J.G.; Matsuno, S.; Stenger, V.; Takemori, D.; Ishii, T.; Kanzaki, J.; Kobayashi, T.; Nakamura, K.; Nishikawa, K.; Oyama, Y.; Sakai, A.; Sakuda, M.; Sasaki, O.; Echigo, S.; Kohama, M.; Suzuki, A.T.; Haines, T.J.

    1998-08-01

    The first results of the solar neutrino flux measurement from Super-Kamiokande are presented. The results shown here are obtained from data taken between 31 May 1996, and 23 June 1997. Using our measurement of recoil electrons with energies above 6.5thinspthinspMeV, we infer the total flux of {sup 8}B solar neutrinos to be 2.42{plus_minus}0.06(stat){sup +0.10}{sub {minus}0.07}(syst){times}10{sup 6} thinspcm{sup {minus}2}thinsp s{sup {minus}1} . This result is consistent with the Kamiokande measurement and is 36{percent} of the flux predicted by the BP95 solar model. The flux is also measured in 1.5 month subsets and shown to be consistent with a constant rate. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society }

  20. Blogs and Twitter in medical publications: too unreliable to quote, or a change waiting to happen?

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Pranab; Biswas, Tamoghna

    2011-10-01

    With the ubiquitous connectivity offered by the Internet, social media sites (like Twitter and Facebook) and personal publishing platforms (blogs) are proliferating rapidly. In this new, evolving scenario of social media, these tools become an important medium to disseminate information at a lightning speed. However, the conventional medical publication model is less than eager to regard them as equivalent to traditional modes of information dissemination. In this article we examine the role played by social media as a critic of the medical publication system, and how it acts as a safeguard by building a platform for post-publication peer review. PMID:22272866

  1. Ulysses{close_quote} rapid crossing of the polar coronal hole boundary

    SciTech Connect

    McComas, D.J.; Riley, P.; Gosling, J.T.; Balogh, A.; Forsyth, R.

    1998-02-01

    The Ulysses spacecraft crossed from the slow dense solar wind characteristic of the solar streamer belt into the fast, less dense flow from the northern polar coronal hole over a very short interval (several days) in late March 1995. The spacecraft, which was at 1.35 AU and {approximately}19{degree} north heliographic latitude, moving northward in its orbit, remained in the fast solar wind from then through summer 1996. This boundary crossing is unique in that the combination of the spacecraft motion and rotation of the structure past the spacecraft caused Ulysses to move smoothly and completely from one regime into the other. In this study we examine this crossing in detail. The crossing is marked by a region of enhanced pressure, typical of stream interaction regions, which extends {approximately}2{times}10{sup 7}km across. We find that the transition between the slow and fast regimes occurs on several temporal, and hence spatial, scales. On the shortest scale ({lt}8{times}10{sup 4}km) the stream interface is a tangential discontinuity where the proton and core electron densities and ion and electron pressures all drop while the magnetic pressure jumps to maintain a rough pressure balance. The alpha to proton ratio also jumps across the stream interface to reach the comparatively constant polar hole value of {approximately}4.3{percent}. On larger scales (a few {times}10{sup 6}km) the proton and alpha temperatures rise to their high-speed wind values. Finally, on the largest scale ({approximately}10{sup 8}km) the solar wind speed ramps up from {approximately}400kms{sup {minus}1} to {approximately}750kms{sup {minus}1}, typical of polar hole flows. While it seems likely that the stream interface maps back to a sharp boundary near the Sun, the large region of increasing flow speed suggests that there is also an extended gradient in solar wind source speed close to the Sun. {copyright} 1998 American Geophysical Union

  2. "Hey, I Didn't Say That!": Teaching Textual Integrity through Misrepresented Quotes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Jessica L.

    2015-01-01

    Despite specialized areas of expertise, communication instructors are unified, to a large extent, by a singular belief: the meaning people give words produces behavioral ramifications (Mead, 2009). Communication instructors revere language's ability to reflect both meaning and reality. Yet, they also are tasked with the responsibility of conveying…

  3. Rolling and slipping down Galileo{close_quote}s inclined plane: Rhythms of the spheres

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, F.S.

    1996-05-01

    In ``Two New Sciences`` (TNS) Galileo presents a number of theorems and propositions for smooth solid spheres released from rest and rolling a distance {ital d} in time {ital t} down an incline of height {ital H} and length {ital L}. We collect and summarize his results in a single grand proportionality {ital P}: {ital d}{sub 1}/{ital d}{sub 2}=({ital t}{sup 2}{sub 1}/{ital t}{sup 2}{sub 2})({ital H}/{ital L}){sub 1}/({ital H}/{ital L}){sub 2}. ({ital P}) From TNS it is clear that what we call {ital P} is assumed by Galileo to hold for all inclinations including vertical free fall with {ital H}/{ital L}=1. But in TNS he describes only experiments with gentle inclinations {ital H}/{ital L}{lt}1/2. Indeed he cannot have performed the vertical free fall ({ital H}={ital L}) experiment, because we (moderns) know that as we increase {ital H}/{ital L}, {ital P} starts to break down when {ital H}/{ital L} exceeds about 0.5, because the sphere, which rolls without slipping for small {ital H}/{ital L}, starts to slip, whence {ital d} starts to exceed the predictions of {ital P}, becoming too large by a factor of 7/5 for vertical free fall at {ital H}/{ital L}=1. In 1973 Drake and in 1975 Drake and MacLachlan published their analysis of a previously unpublished experiment that Galileo performed that (without his realizing it) directly compared rolling without slipping to free fall. In the experiment, a sphere that has gained speed {ital v}{sub 1} while rolling down a gentle incline is deflected so as to be launched horizontally with speed {ital v}{sub 1} into a free fall orbit discovered by Galileo to be a parabola. The measured horizontal distance {ital X}{sub 2} traveled in this parabolic orbit (for a given vertical distance fallen to the floor) was smaller than he expected, by a factor 0.84. But that is exactly what we (moderns) expect, since we know that Galileo did not appreciate the difference between rolling without slipping, and slipping on a frictionless surface.

  4. Click C@refully Before You Quote: Citing Internet-Based Sources

    PubMed Central

    1999-01-01

    At the end of the 20th century, access to information provided by the World Wide Web (WWW) is changing as never before. The fast availability of current medical literature and the availability of tools for easy access to information, as well as for the easy production of information, have confronted research physicians, scholars, and students with new kinds of problems, many of which concern us personally. Quality control, difficulty establishing basic citation components, lack of standard guidelines for citing, as well as the short lifetime of Internet addresses concern us deeply. Some of these problems could be solved by the concept of an “Online-Library of Medicine” presented in the following paper. Since, however, at the present time there are no good answers to the problems regarding citing Internet-based sources, a Web surfer must keep in his or her mind the motto “caveat lector” (let the reader beware) - or, rather, in the spirit of our time: click c@refully before you cite. PMID:10527339

  5. The New Broom: A Fiction for Our Times with True Quotes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neill, Arthur

    2015-01-01

    This article spins a yarn about the appointment of AntĂłnio Coimbra, the first vice-chancellor of an Australian university, who came from Portugal, well-equipped for the job. Described is his approach to this new role and his unusual way of handling the unexpected task of a vice-chancellor.

  6. More than just great quotes: An introduction to the Canadian Tri-Council’s qualitative requirements

    PubMed Central

    Boffa, Jody; Moules, Nancy; Mayan, Maria; Cowie, Robert L

    2013-01-01

    Although at times misunderstood by the general research community, qualitative research has developed out of diverse, rich and complex philosophical traditions and theoretical paradigms. In the most recent Canadian Tri-Council policy statement on the ethical conduct of research involving humans, a chapter was devoted to a summary of methods and methodological requirements that characterize robust qualitative research, despite the diversity of approaches. To dispel common misperceptions about qualitative research and introduce the unfamiliar reader to these requirements, the work of a qualitative study on isoniazid preventive therapy for prophylaxis of tuberculosis published in AIDS is critiqued alongside each of the Tri-Council’s nine requirements. PMID:24421811

  7. Transatmospheric vehicle (TAV) research & development at Wright Laboratory{close_quote}s Flight Dynamics Directorate

    SciTech Connect

    Karasopoulos, H.

    1996-03-01

    The Structures and Aeromechanics Divisions of the Flight Dynamics Directorate, Wright Laboratory, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio have a long history of activities in transatmospheric vehicle (TAV) technology development. Included in these activities were research and development efforts in thermal protection systems (TPS), cryogenic fuel tanks, and hot structures. Additional efforts existed in the aerodynamics, aerothermodynamics, and performance of transatmospheric, hypersonic, and lifting reentry vehicle configurations. High payoff TAVresearch and development activities in the Flight Dynamics Directorate continue today and are planned for the future. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  8. {degrees}SnapPea{close_quotes} OS/2 Warp graphical user interface for hyperbolic 3-manifolds

    SciTech Connect

    Manoharan, A.C.; Weeks, J.

    1996-12-31

    An interactive color graphical user interface, with animation, has been developed to port SnapPea to the OS/2 Warp Personal Computer (IBM type PC) platform. This fulfills the interest to use an Intel microprocessor based computer to study the geometry and topology of three-dimensional hyperbolic manifolds and to perform mathematical computations with them. Hitherto the program was available only on Macintosh computers. The OS/2 operating system kernel program has for many years supported long file names, had multithreading, pre-emptive multitasking an built in crash-protection. There is also a full 32-bit graphics engine. Already, there is much interest in this product. The software is expected soon to be available to mathematicians around the world, to use in their research. A demonstration was given at the conference.

  9. {sup 237}Np in Hemp-palm leaves of Bontenchiku for fishing gear used by the Fifth Fukuryu-Maru: 40 year after {open_quotes}Bravo{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, Masayoshi; Komura, Kazuhisa; Ueno, Kaoru

    1996-05-01

    The alpha radioactive components in the Hemp-palm leaves of Bontenchiku were determined with emphasis on the measurement of low-level {sup 237}Np by alpha-ray spectrometry after chemical separation. Bontenchiku is a kind of fishing gear for long-line fishing used by the Fifth Fukuryu-Maru (Lucky Dragon). This gear was exposed to fallout from the second thermonuclear test explosion (Bravo) at Bikini Atoll in March 1954. The {sup 237}Np content in the Bontenchiku sample was determined to be 11.5 {plus_minus}0.8 mBq g{sup {minus}1} with an activity ratio of {sup 237}Np: {sup 239,240}Pu and an atom ratio of {sup 237}Np: {sup 239}Pu estimated to be (2.2 {plus_minus}0.2) x 10{sup {minus}3} and 0.42 {plus_minus}0.04, respectively. The data showed the existence of a chain reaction of {sup 238}U and its ratio to be {sup 237}Np: {sup 239}Pu, as well as the presence of {sup 237}U at the time of fallout from Bravo event in March 1954. 12 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Mutation detection in large genes: Use of overlapping PCR fragments for {open_quotes}double{close_quotes}screening of the APC gene and a PCR modification to concatenate multiple exons

    SciTech Connect

    Tuohy, T.M.F.; Groden, J.; White, R.

    1994-09-01

    We report developments of earlier work which demonstrated the suitability of PCR-cloning in the 5{prime} terminus of IacZ for the detection of frameshift and nonsense mutations of in APC, the gene which predisposes carriers to adenomatous polyposis coli and, ultimately, colon cancer. A test set of clinically diagnosed APC patients and their unaffected relatives is being used to test a combination of multiplex PCR of several overlapping segments of coding sequence and a lethal negative selection against in-frame, i.e., wild type, clones. This modification will balance the strigency of the negative selection with the low-level readthrough, frameshifting and/or re-initiation of mutant clones, such that high-level {beta}-galactosidase production results in death, while a low level allows discrimination between APC mutant insertions and insert-free vector transformants. The same patient base is also serving as a test set for a PCR-based cloning technique that allows the concatenation of two exons into a single synthetic fragment by skipping over the intervening intron, bypassing the need for single exon analysis or mRNA/cDNA preparation. This technique is based on the design of primers with homology to intron sequences immediately adjacent to the exon sequences of interest, maintaining the reading frame, and adjusting for in-frame termination codons by base-substitutions. The conditions necessary for the concatenation of a large number of exons in a two-step PCR protocol are under investigation. These methods have advantages over other rapid mutation-detection systems by being (1) capable of detecting previously unidentified mutations, (2) non gel-based and (3) non-radioactive.

  11. Novel microporous solid {open_quotes}superacids{close_quotes}: Cs{sub x}H{sub 3-x}PW{sub 12}O{sub 40} (2{le}x{le}3)

    SciTech Connect

    Okuhara, T.; Nishimura, T.; Misono, M.

    1996-12-31

    It was confirmed that pore size of the acidic Cs salts was controlled by the Cs content. For example, CS{sub 2.5}H{sub 0.5}PW{sub 12}O{sub 40} had mesopores and micropores larger than 8.5 {Angstrom} in diameter, and Cs{sub 2.2}H{sub 0.8}PW{sub 12}O{sub 40} micropores of about 7 {Angstrom}. Shape selective catalysis was clearly observed for the latter catalyst. The acidic Cs salts as well as H{sub 3}PW{sub 12}O{sub 40} possess very strong acidity and were more catalytically active than zeolites and SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}/ZrO{sub 2} for decomposition of esters and alkylation in liquid-solid reaction system.

  12. A familial {open_quotes}balanced{close_quotes} 3;9 translocation with cryptic 8q insertion leading to deletion and duplication of 9p23 loci in siblings

    SciTech Connect

    Wagstaff, J.; Hemann, M.

    1995-01-01

    A child with phenotypic features of the 9p{sup {minus}} syndrome, including metopic craniosynostosis, small ears, abdominal wall defect, and mental retardation, as well as hypopigmentation, was found to have a cytogenetically balanced 3;9 translocation, with breakpoints at 3p11 and 9p23, inherited from his phenotypically normal father. Molecular analysis showed heterozygous deletion of the TYRP (tyrosinase-related protein) locus, as well as loci D9S157, D9S274, D9S268, and D9S267, in the child but in neither parent. FISH analysis of the proband`s father indicated that loci deleted in his son, including TYRP, were present on neither the der(3) nor the der(9) translocation products but had been inserted into the long arm of chromosome 8. Therefore, the apparent deletion of these loci in the proband was the result of meiotic segregation of the father`s 3;9 translocation chromosomes together with his normal chromosome 8 (not bearing the insertion from 9p23). Neither the deletion of these 9p23 loci from the translocation chromosomes nor their insertion into 8q was detectable by standard chromosome banding techniques. The proband`s sister exhibited speech delay, mild facial dysmorphism, and renal malformation, and her karyotype was 46,XX. Molecular analysis showed that she had inherited normal chromosomes 3 and 9, as well as the chromosome 8 with the insertion of 9p23 material, from her father. This analysis illustrates a new mechanism to explain cases in which an apparently balanced translocation has been transmitted from a normal parent to a child with a phenotypic abnormality: submicroscopic deletion of material from the translocation breakpoint and insertion into a third chromosome in the balanced parent, with meiotic segregation leading to loss of the inserted material in the child. 36 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  13. A familial {open_quotes}balanced{close_quotes} 3;9 translocation with cryptic 8q insertion leading to deletion and duplication of 9p23 loci in siblings

    SciTech Connect

    Wagstaff, J.; Hemann, M.

    1994-09-01

    Families in which a balanced translocation has been transmitted from a normal parent to a child with a phenotypic abnormality have been a longstanding puzzle for human geneticists. A child with phenotypic features of the 9p- syndrome, including metopic craniosynostosis, small ears, abdominal wall defect, and mental retardation, was found to have a cytogenetically balanced 3;9 translocation, with breakpoints at 3p11 and 9p23, inherited from his normal father. He also exhibited marked hypopigmentation of hair and skin. Analysis with a cDNA probe from the TYRP1 (tyrosinase-related protein 1) gene in 9p23 showed heterozygous deletion in the child but in neither parent. This submicroscopic deletion also included loci D9S157, D9S274, D9S268, and D9S267. FISH analysis of the proband`s father indicated the 9p23 loci deleted in his son were present on neither the der(3) nor the der(9) translocation product, but had been inserted into the long arm of chromosome 8. Therefore, the apparent deletion of these loci in the proband was the result of meiotic segregation of the father`s 3;9 translocation chromosomes together with his normal chromosome 8. Neither the deletion from the translocation chromosomes nor the insertion into 8q was detectable by standard chromosome banding techniques. The proband`s sister exhibited speech delay, mild facial dysmorphism, and renal malformation, and her karyotype was 46,XX. Molecular analysis of this sister showed 3 copies of 9p23 sequences, indicating that she had inherited normal chromosomes 3 and 9 from her father as well as the chromosome 8 with the insertion from 9p23. This analysis illustrates a new mechanism to explain cases of phenotypic discordance in familial balanced translocations: submicroscopic deletion of material from the translocation breakpoint and insertion into a third chromosome in the balanced parent, with meiotic segregation leading to loss of the inserted material in the child.

  14. The efficacy of the table-top or {open_quote}white paper{close_quote} approach to emergency response planning of drills and exercises is examined for process improvement

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, D.N.; Wesley, T.H.

    1995-11-01

    This paper examines the development of a set of procedures for the use by Radiological Assistance Program (RAP) Team, Region 6 with particular emphasis to the steps used and the feedback provided by peer review, external review, and exercise and drill critiques. This paper also presents a brief history of the RAP and recommends Total Quality Management techniques reduce the costs associated with procedure development.

  15. Computers and small satellites: How FORTE is utilizing the WWW as a {open_quotes}paperless{close_quotes} information resource and the development of a unique resource management planning tool

    SciTech Connect

    Roussel-Dupre, D.; Carter, M.; Franz, R.

    1997-10-01

    The Fast-On-orbit Recording of Transient Events (FORTE) satellite is the second satellite to be developed and flown by Los Alamos National Laboratory and is scheduled to be launched August, 1997 by a Pegasus XL rocket. FORTE follows in the footsteps of the ALEXIS satellite in utilizing a very small operations crew for mission operations. Partially based upon the ALEXIS automation and World Wide Web (WWW) usage for data dissemination, FORTE began at an early stage of ground processing to use the web as a repository of information about all aspects of the satellite. Detailed descriptions of the various satellite and experiment components, cable diagrams, integration photographs as well as extensive test data have all been compiled into a single site as a means of archiving the data at a single location. In this manner, it is readily available during times of ground testing, ground station operation training as well as anomaly resolution. Small satellites usually require extensive effort to optimize operation under minimal resources. For the FORTE satellite, a unique planning tool has been developed over the past 2 years which balances the various resources of the satellite (power, memory, downlink, on board command buffer, etc.) to provide the maximum data acquisition. This paper will concentrate on a description of both the extensive web interface and the planning tool. 6 refs.

  16. Continued support of {open_quotes}The Natural Resources Information System (NRIS) for the State of Oklahoma{close_quotes}. Quarterly technical progress report, October 1, 1993--December 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Mankin, C.J.; Rizzuti, T.P.

    1993-12-31

    The objective of this research program is to continue developing, editing, maintaining, utilizing and making publicly available the Oil and Gas Well History file portion of the Natural Resources Information System (NRIS) for the State of Oklahoma. This grant funds that ongoing development work as a continuation of earlier grant numbers DE-FG19-88BC14233 and DE-FG22-89BC14483. The Oklahoma Geological Survey, working with Geological Information Systems at the University of Oklahoma Sarkeys Energy Center, has undertaken to construct this information system in response to the need for a computerized, centrally located library containing accurate, detailed information on the state`s natural resources. Particular emphasis during this phase of NRIS development is being placed on computerizing information related to the energy needs of the nation, specifically oil and gas.

  17. Mitigation of atmospheric carbon emissions through increased energy efficiency versus increased non-carbon energy sources: A trade study using a simplified {open_quotes}market-free{close_quotes} exogenously driven model

    SciTech Connect

    Krakowski, R.A.

    1997-08-24

    A simplified model of global, long-term energy use is described and used to make a `top-level` comparison of two generic approaches for mitigating atmospheric carbon emissions: (a) those based on increased energy efficiency; and (b) those based on increased use of reduced- or non-carbon fuels. As approximate as is the model, first-order estimates of and trade offs between increasing non-carbon generation capacities (e.g., supply-side solutions) versus energy-use efficiency (e.g., demand-side solutions) to stem atmospheric carbon accumulations can be useful in guiding more elaborate models. At the level of this analysis, both the costs of abatement and the costs of damage can be large, with the formation of benefit-to-cost ratios as a means of assessment being limited by uncertainties associated with relating given climatic responses to greenhouse warming to aggregate damage cost, as well as uncertainties associated with procedures used for multi-generation discounting of both abatement and damage costs. In view of uncertainties associated with both supply-side and demand-side approaches, as well as the estimation of greenhouse-warming responses per se, a combination of solutions seems prudent. Key findings are: (a) the relative insensitivity of the benefit-to-cost ratio adopted in this study to supply-side versus demand-side approaches to abating atmospheric carbon-dioxide emissions; (b) the extreme sensitivity of damage costs, abatement costs, and the related benefit-to-cost ratios to the combination of discounting procedure and the (time) concavity of the function used to relate global temperature rise to damage costs; and (c) no matter the discounting procedure and/or functional relationship between average temperature rise and a damage cost, a goal of increased per-capita gross world product at minimum damage suggests action now rather than delay.

  18. Equation of state and electrical conductivity of {open_quotes}synthetic Uranus,{close_quotes} a mixture of water, ammonia, and isopropanol, at shock pressure up to 200 GPa (2 Mbar)

    SciTech Connect

    Nellis, W.J.; Holmes, N.C.; Mitchell, A.C.; Hamilton, D.C.; Nicol, M.

    1997-12-01

    Equation-of-state, temperature, and electrical-conductivity data were measured for a solution of water, ammonia, and isopropanol at shock pressures up to 200 GPa. The chemical composition is similar to that of the fluid mixture thought to be the major constituent of the giant planets Uranus and Neptune. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  19. Physical characteristics of the performance and increase of the reliability of functioning of overflow dams with a {open_quotes}second limit state{close_quotes} of the rock foundation

    SciTech Connect

    Khlopenkov, P.R.

    1994-08-01

    The main danger for the stability of high-head overflow dams having large safety factors is related to unfavorable processes in two zones of the foundation - near the upstream and downstream sides of the dam - due to fracturing of the rock foundation next to the dam by flood discharges. Fracturing of the toe of a dam, especially a gravity-arch dam, is accompanied by an increase of shear stresses in the rock under it to values exceeding the design values, and owing to fracturing of the rock below the dam foundation deformation movements of the dam toward the lower pool increase markedly, moreover, the greater amount, the more considerable the depth of fracturing below the dam foundation. As a result the tensile stresses in the rock in front of the dam increase to values exceeding the allowable, which intensifies cracking of this rock zone to a greater depth, the deeper the fracturing of the rock beyond the dam. Owing to this, the stress state of the foundation directly under the dam, accompanied by a decrease of the bearing capacity of the rock and increase of its deformation with loss of the required seepage strength, worsens.

  20. US Geological Survey Committee for the Advancement of Science in the Yucca Mountain Project symposium on {open_quotes}Fractures, Hydrology, and Yucca Mountain{close_quotes}: Abstracts and summary

    SciTech Connect

    Gomberg, J.

    1991-12-31

    The principal objective of this symposium is to review the available information on fractured/faulted terrains in terms of a coherent hydrogeologic model of ground-water fluid flow and transport, particularly as it pertains to the Yucca Mountain region. This review addresses the influence and significance of fractures on ground-water flow and the transport of conservative-species solutes within the context of the hydrogeologic setting of the Yucca Mountain area. The relations between fluid flow and fractured or faulted host rock are examined integrally from information on geologic, seismologic, hydrologic, and geomechanical properties of the system. The development of new hydrogeologic approaches that incorporate information from this integrated database are contrasted with more standard approaches toward understanding flow in fractured reservoirs. Ground-water flow in both the unsaturated zone and the saturated zone are considered. The application of various models of flow is addressed, examples include porous-media equivalent and discontinuum fracture-network models. Data and interpretations from the Yucca Mountain area are presented to establish a context for information exchange. The symposium includes discussions relevant to technical considerations for characterizing the Yucca Mountain area hydrogeology. On the basis of these discussions, CASY has compiled this document in order to formally summarize the proceedings and communicate recommendations for future directions of research and investigation.

  1. Taking Race out of Scare Quotes: Race-Conscious Social Analysis in an Ostensibly Post-Racial World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warmington, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Academics and activists concerned with race and racism have rightly coalesced around the sociological project to refute biologistic conceptions of race. By and large, our default position as teachers, writers and researchers is that race is a social construct. However, the deconstruction of race and its claims to theoretical intelligibility has…

  2. Taking Race out of Scare Quotes: Race-Conscious Social Analysis in an Ostensibly Post-Racial World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warmington, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Academics and activists concerned with race and racism have rightly coalesced around the sociological project to refute biologistic conceptions of race. By and large, our default position as teachers, writers and researchers is that race is a social construct. However, the deconstruction of race and its claims to theoretical intelligibility has…

  3. Photovoltaic manufacturing technology (PVMaT) improvements for ENTECH{close_quote}s fourth-generation concentrator systems

    SciTech Connect

    ONeill, M.J.; McDanal, A.J.

    1997-02-01

    This paper describes recent improvements in manufacturing technology for fourth-generation photovoltaic concentrator systems. The fourth-generation systems are firmly based on prior generations of a field-proven, high-efficiency, stable photovoltaic technology. The fourth-generation manufacturing process has been streamlined and validated through pilot runs and field deployments. Future plans include a 1.5 MW installation in 1998, as part of the Solar Enterprise Zone (SEZ) program in Nevada. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  4. I Thought Composition Was about Commas and Quotes, Not Queers: Diversity and Campus Change at a Rural Two-Year College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Danielle

    2008-01-01

    Fayette County, once home to the Carnegies, the Mellons, and the Fricks, now punctuated by abandoned mines and coke ovens, is the second poorest county in Pennsylvania. Gay and lesbian students experience discrimination in this County. In this article, the author discusses her efforts to intervene in this complicated problem by deploying a…

  5. 1995 Edward teller lecture. Patience and optimism

    SciTech Connect

    Miley, G.H.

    1996-05-01

    Remarks made in the author{close_quote}s acceptance lecture for the 1995 Edward Teller Medal are presented and expanded. Topics covered include research on nuclear-pumped lasers, the first direct e-beam-pumped laser, direct energy conversion and advanced fuel fusion, plus recent work on inertial electrostatic confinement. {open_quote}{open_quote}Patience{close_quote}{close_quote} and {open_quote}{open_quote}optimism{close_quote}{close_quote} are viewed as essential elements needed by scientists following the {open_quote}{open_quote}zig-zag{close_quote}{close_quote} path to fusion energy production. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  6. Distinguishing between satisfaction and loyalty: Conceptual, methodological & analytical differences

    SciTech Connect

    Hinson, K.A.

    1994-11-01

    This paper briefly presents a discussion of the conceptual definition of {open_quotes}Customer Satisfaction{close_quotes} followed by review of operational definitions of {open_quotes}Satisfaction{close_quotes} as a criterion variable and the kinds of predictor variables and analytic methods employed in its modeling. A model of {open_quotes}Customer Satisfaction{close_quotes} is presented developed by the discussed methodology. Conceptual and operational definitions of {open_quotes}Customer Loyalty{close_quotes} are then reviewed, contrasting the kinds of predictor variables and analytic methods most appropriate for understanding a {open_quotes}Loyalty{close_quotes} decision and how these differ from {open_quotes}Customer Satisfaction.{close_quotes} A more fully specified model of {open_quotes}Customer Loyalty{close_quotes} is presented. Finally, the risks of employing a {open_quotes}Satisfaction{close_quotes} methodology in modeling {open_quotes}Customer Loyalty{close_quotes} are discussed.

  7. 78 FR 49586 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Miami International Securities Exchange LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-14

    ... Market Makers with the ability to send Market Maker Standard quotes, eQuotes,\\6\\ and quote purge messages... eQuotes and quote purge messages only, but not Market Maker Standard quotes, to the MIAX System... flexibility to connect the Limited Service Ports to independent servers that host their eQuote and...

  8. Preliminary results of the correlation between ion concentrations in rainwater samples and atmospheric back trajectories as a part of the study {open_quotes}impact to acid rain in the deterioration of Mexican Maya monuments{close_quotes} (project Conacyt-UNAM: 0128T9106)

    SciTech Connect

    Bravo, A.H.; Saavedra, M.I.; Snchez, P.; Camacho, R.

    1996-12-31

    The environmental Pollution Section at the Center of Atmospheric Sciences, National Autonomus University of Mexico (UNAM), has been conducting a research project on their potential of impact of acid rain on the Mexican Maya monuments since 1993. As a part of such study, 49 rainwater samples were collected during the years 1994 through 1995 at the Puerto Morelos Oceanographic Station Located close to the Tulum Maya ruins in the State of Qintana Roo. The rain water samples were collected using an automatic rain collector. After the rain event, the water samples were transferred to clean Nalgene bottles. The bottles were stored under refrigeration prior to their shipment to the UNAM laboratory in Mexico City. Concentrations of anions Cl{sup -}, NO{sup -}{sub 3}, and SO{sup 2-}{sub 4} and cations Na{sup +}, NH{sup +}{sub 4}, K{sup +}, Mg{sup 2+} an Ca{sup 2+} were determined by the High Pressure Ion Chromatographic Procedure. The pH of samples was measured in the laboratory. Also, wind back upper trajectories which arrived to the Puerto Morelos are at the same date of each rain event, were calculated using the GMCC atmospheric trajectory program at NOAA. A thorough analysis on the relations between anions and cations is made and preliminary correlations of these results with the calculated long range trajectories are explored in order to find the possible origin of the event.

  9. 77 FR 4068 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ OMX PHLX LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-26

    ... Registration Fees; (2) B. Streaming Quote Trader (``SQT'') Fees; and (3) C. Remote Streaming Quote Trader...\\ Streaming Quote Trader (``SQT'') Fees, Remote Streaming Quote Trader (``RSQT'') Fees, Options Trading...

  10. Scaling laws for particle growth in plasma reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Lemons, D.S.; Keinigs, R.K.; Winske, D.; Jones, M.E.

    1996-01-01

    We quantify a model which incorporates observed features of contaminant particle growth in plasma processing reactors. According to the model, large {open_quote}{open_quote}predator{close_quote}{close_quote} particles grow by adsorbing smaller, typically neutral, {open_quote}{open_quote}prey{close_quote}{close_quote} protoparticles. The latter are supplied by an assumed constant mass injection of contaminant material. Scaling laws and quantitative predictions compare favorably with published experimental results. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  11. Metals Fact Sheet: Neodymium

    SciTech Connect

    1992-11-01

    Neodymium was discovered in 1898 when it was separated from {open_quotes}dydimium,{close_quotes} a praseodymium-neodymium compound that was thought to be only one element. {open_quotes}Neodymium{close_quotes} is derived from the Greek words {open_quotes}neos{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}didymos,{close_quotes} which translates to {open_quotes}new twin.{close_quotes} This article discusses sources and applications of the element, and reviews world reserves and demands. Price trends in the commodity are also noted.

  12. Penetrance estimates for BRCA1 and BRCA2 based on genetic testing in a Clinical Cancer Genetics service setting: Risks of breast/ovarian cancer quoted should reflect the cancer burden in the family

    PubMed Central

    Evans, D Gareth; Shenton, Andrew; Woodward, Emma; Lalloo, Fiona; Howell, Anthony; Maher, Eamonn R

    2008-01-01

    Background The identification of a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation in familial breast cancer kindreds allows genetic testing of at risk relatives. However, considerable controversy exists regarding the cancer risks in women who test positive for the family mutation. Methods We reviewed 385 unrelated families (223 with BRCA1 and 162 with BRCA2 mutations) ascertained through two regional cancer genetics services. We estimated the penetrance for both breast and ovarian cancer in female mutation carriers (904 proven mutation carriers – 1442 females in total assumed to carry the mutation) and also assessed the effect on penetrance of mutation position and birth cohort. Results Breast cancer penetrance to 70 and to 80 years was 68% (95%CI 64.7–71.3%) and 79.5% (95%CI 75.5–83.5%) respectively for BRCA1 and 75% (95%CI 71.7–78.3%) and 88% (95%CI 85.3–91.7%) for BRCA2. Ovarian cancer risk to 70 and to 80 years was 60% (95%CI 65–71%) and 65% (95%CI 75–84%) for BRCA1 and 30% (95%CI 25.5–34.5%) and 37% (95%CI 31.5–42.5%) for BRCA2. These risks were borne out by a prospective study of cancer in the families and genetic testing of unaffected relatives. We also found evidence of a strong cohort effect with women born after 1940 having a cumulative risk of 22% for breast cancer by 40 years of age compared to 8% in women born before 1930 (p = 0.0005). Conclusion In high-risk families, selected in a genetics service setting, women who test positive for the familial BRCA1/BRCA2 mutation are likely to have cumulative breast cancer risks in keeping with the estimates obtained originally from large families. This is particularly true for women born after 1940. PMID:18513387

  13. Multiple additions of Vaska-type iridium complexes to C{sub 60}. Preferential crystallization of the {open_quotes}para{close_quotes} double addition products C{sub 60}(Ir(CO)Cl(PMe{sub 3}){sub 2}){sub 2}{center_dot}2C{sub 6}H{sub 6} and C{sub 60}(Ir(CO)Cl(Pet{sub 3}){sub 2}){sub 2}{center_dot}C{sub 6}H{sub 6}

    SciTech Connect

    Balch, A.L.; Lee, Joong, W.; Noll, B.C.

    1994-11-09

    The authors investigated addition of Vaska-type iridium complexes to C{sub 60} fullerene. Two products were observed and characterized: C{sub 60}(Ir(CO)Cl(PMe{sub 3}){sub 2}){sub 2}{center_dot}2C{sub 6}H{sub 6} and C{sub 60}(Ir(CO)Cl(PEt{sub 3}){sub 2}){sub 2}{center_dot}C{sub 6}H{sub 6}. These compounds were structurally characterized by X-ray crystallography and NMR spectroscopy. It is suggested that many isomers of the adducts are present in the reaction liquor, but low solubility of the observed products drives the observed distribution of solid products.

  14. H.R. 4849: A Bill to implement the obligations of the United States under the Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production, Stockpiling and Use of Chemical Weapons and on Their Destruction, known as the {open_quotes}Chemical Weapons Convention{close_quotes} and opened for signature and signed by the United States on January 13, 1993. Introduced in the House of Representatives, One Hundred Third Congress, Second Session, July 28, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    The report H.R. 4849 is a bill to implement the obligations of the United States under the convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production, Stockpiling and Use of Chemical Weapons and on Their Destruction, known as the Chemical Weapons Convention. The proposed legislative text is included.

  15. Reply to Marazita and Curtis

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, R.L.; O`Sullivan, C.K.; Hamanishi, J.

    1995-10-01

    We thank Dr. Marazita for her careful reading of our suggestions and appreciate her point regarding the importance of standardized nomenclature, particularly the definition of proband. Our review of the definition of proband showed a long history of imprecise definitions of the terms {open_quotes}proband,{close_quotes} {open_quotes}index case,{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}propositus/ proposita.{close_quotes} In agreement with the definition in our paper, many authors define proband as {open_quotes}the first family member coming to medical attention{close_quotes}. However, not all of these authors agree that a proband must necessarily be affected with a genetic disease. If the proband is affected, these authors use {open_quotes}proband,{close_quotes} {open_quotes}index case,{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}propositus/proposita{close_quotes} interchangeably. Other authors define a proband as {open_quotes}an affected individual through whom a family is ascertained{close_quotes} These latter authors would then define an index case to be the first affected family member coming to medical attention. If the proband is unaffected, this individual would be termed the {open_quotes}consultand{close_quotes} but would not be a proband. 13 refs.

  16. Defining the normal turbine inflow within a wind park environment

    SciTech Connect

    Kelley, N.D.

    1993-06-01

    This brief paper discusses factors that must be considered when defining the [open quotes]normal[close quotes] (as opposed to [open quotes]extreme[close quotes]) loading conditions seen in wind turbines operating within a wind park environment. The author defines the [open quotes]normal[close quotes] conditions to include fatigue damage accumulation as a result of: (1) start/stop cycles, (2) emergency shutdowns, and (3) the turbulence environment associated with site and turbine location. He also interprets [open quotes]extreme[close quotes] loading conditions to include those events that can challenge the survivability of the turbine.

  17. Defining the normal turbine inflow within a wind park environment

    SciTech Connect

    Kelley, N.D.

    1993-06-01

    This brief paper discusses factors that must be considered when defining the {open_quotes}normal{close_quotes} (as opposed to {open_quotes}extreme{close_quotes}) loading conditions seen in wind turbines operating within a wind park environment. The author defines the {open_quotes}normal{close_quotes} conditions to include fatigue damage accumulation as a result of: (1) start/stop cycles, (2) emergency shutdowns, and (3) the turbulence environment associated with site and turbine location. He also interprets {open_quotes}extreme{close_quotes} loading conditions to include those events that can challenge the survivability of the turbine.

  18. Fuzzy logic and neural networks

    SciTech Connect

    Loos, J.R.

    1994-11-01

    Combine fuzzy logic`s fuzzy sets, fuzzy operators, fuzzy inference, and fuzzy rules - like defuzzification - with neural networks and you can arrive at very unfuzzy real-time control. Fuzzy logic, cursed with a very whimsical title, simply means multivalued logic, which includes not only the conventional two-valued (true/false) crisp logic, but also the logic of three or more values. This means one can assign logic values of true, false, and somewhere in between. This is where fuzziness comes in. Multi-valued logic avoids the black-and-white, all-or-nothing assignment of true or false to an assertion. Instead, it permits the assignment of shades of gray. When assigning a value of true or false to an assertion, the numbers typically used are {open_quotes}1{close_quotes} or {open_quotes}0{close_quotes}. This is the case for programmed systems. If {open_quotes}0{close_quotes} means {open_quotes}false{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}1{close_quotes} means {open_quotes}true,{close_quotes} then {open_quotes}shades of gray{close_quotes} are any numbers between 0 and 1. Therefore, {open_quotes}nearly true{close_quotes} may be represented by 0.8 or 0.9, {open_quotes}nearly false{close_quotes} may be represented by 0.1 or 0.2, and {close_quotes}your guess is as good as mine{close_quotes} may be represented by 0.5. The flexibility available to one is limitless. One can associate any meaning, such as {open_quotes}nearly true{close_quotes}, to any value of any granularity, such as 0.9999. 2 figs.

  19. Nuclear steam supply system KLT-40 enhanced safety as independent power supply source. Employment prospects.

    SciTech Connect

    Polunichev, V.I.; Sayanov, D.G.; Ardabievsky, A.A.

    1993-12-31

    High quality of KLT-40 nuclear steam supply system (NSSS) providing enhanced safety is attained owing to the development and operation experience of equipments and systems in Soviet nuclear icebreakers. First of all they are the operating nuclear-powered icebreakers {open_quotes}Arktika{close_quotes}, {open_quotes}Sibir{close_quotes}, {open_quotes}Rossiya{close_quotes}, {open_quotes}Sovetsky Soyuz{close_quotes}, the limited draught icebreakers of joint Soviet-Finnish manufacturing {open_quotes}Taimyr{close_quotes} {open_quotes}Vaigach{close_quotes}. 30-years trouble-free operation of icebreaker {open_quotes}Lenin{close_quotes}, the ancestor of nuclear powered fleet, is unprecedented. Operation life of individual equipment items amounts to 107000 hours, that testifies to high reliability and life characteristics of NSSS. Trouble-free operation of the nuclear-powered icebreakers` reactor plants (RPs) exceeded 130 reactor years, that proves high quality of design decisions being underlain in the basis of the KLT-40 NSSS for the lighter-cargo carrier {open_quotes}Sevmorput{close_quotes}, which was put into operation into 1988. Besides it testifies to the expediency of KLT-40 NSSS employment as a power source in different power installations. The KLT-40 is a reactor plant with a pwr type reactor. The design is described in detail with diagrams.

  20. The inside observer in quantum mechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Mould, R.

    1995-11-01

    The {open_quotes}observer{close_quotes} in physics has always referred to someone who stands on the outside of a system looking in. In this paper an {open_quotes}inside observer{close_quotes} is defined, and an experiment is proposed that tests a given formulation of the problem of measurement in quantum mechanics.

  1. 75 FR 8762 - NASDAQ OMX PHLX, Inc.; Order of Summary Abrogation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-25

    ..., Streaming Quote Traders (``SQTs'') and Remote Streaming Quote Traders (``RSQTs'') \\2\\ for equity option... Russell 2000 (``IWM''), and Citigroup Inc. (``C''). \\2\\ Streaming Quote Traders, or ``SQTs,'' and Remote Streaming Quote Traders, or ``RSQTs,'' are Phlx market makers who may generate and submit option...

  2. 75 FR 29788 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ OMX PHLX, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-27

    ... account of a Specialist, \\7\\ Streaming Quote Trader \\8\\ (an ``SQT'') or Remote Streaming Quote Trader \\9... who is registered as an options specialist pursuant to Rule 1020(a). \\8\\ A Streaming Quote Trader is... assigned. \\9\\ A Remote Streaming Quote Trader is defined Exchange Rule in 1014(b)(ii)(B) as an ROT that...

  3. Environmental laws regulating chemicals: Uses of information in decision making under environmental statutes

    SciTech Connect

    Gaba, J.M.

    1990-12-31

    Three areas are addressed in this paper: generic issues that arise simply in the process of decision-making under environmental statutes; different decision-making standards under various environmental statutes; and efforts to legislate a {open_quotes}safe{close_quotes} or {open_quotes}acceptable{close_quotes} risk from exposure to carcinogenic chemicals.

  4. A decoupling theorem for the BPHZL-scheme

    SciTech Connect

    Aschenbrenner, M.

    1996-09-01

    Conditions are stated, which are sufficient for the heavy-mass-suppression of BPHZL-subtracted Feynman-integrals containing propagators of {open_quote}{open_quote}heavy fields{close_quote}{close_quote}. This result generalizes the Decoupling Theorems of Ambjo/rn, Manoukian and Landsman to cases, where massless fields (e.g., gauge fields) are present. {copyright} 1996 Academic Press, Inc.

  5. Proven methods of reducing non-fatal days lost (NFDL) in coal preparation plants

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, K.K.; Kirkwood, D.T.; Dubina, S.B. Jr.; Snyder, J.L.; Ondrey, R.S.; Marraccini, L.C.; Cooper, W.E.

    1995-08-01

    Correcting the safety and health problems in coal preparation plants involves many different specialties, due to the varied nature of the operations within the plant. Field experience and accident statistical data show that most of the accidents that occur in coal preparation plants fall into a general categories, namely {open_quotes}Handling of Materials,{close_quotes} {open_quotes}Working with Hand Tools,{close_quotes} {open_quotes}Powered Haulage,{close_quotes} {open_quotes}Machinery,{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}Slips and Falls.{close_quotes} These accidents can only be minimized by continually emphasizing task training and the awareness of the dangers of each operation. This paper looks at six specific technical categories and the health and safety problems encountered around coal preparation facilities related to each. Simple recommendations for improving safety are included with each section.

  6. Past, present and future of laser fusion research

    SciTech Connect

    Yamanaka, C.

    1996-05-01

    The concept of laser fusion was devised very shortly after the invention of laser. In 1972, the Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University was established by the author in accordance with the Edward Teller{close_quote}s special lecture on {open_quote}{open_quote}New Internal Combustion Engine{close_quote}{close_quote} for IQEC at Montreal which predicted the implosion fusion. In 1975 we invented the so called indirect drive fusion concept {open_quote}{open_quote}Cannonball Target{close_quote}{close_quote} which became later to be recognize as a same concept of {open_quote}{open_quote}Hohlraum Target{close_quote}{close_quote} from Livermore. As well known, ICF research in the US had been veiled for a long time due to the defense classification. While researchers from Japan, Germany and elsewhere have concentrated the efforts to investigate the inertial fusion energy which seems to be very interesting for a future civil energy. They were publishing their own works not only on the direct implosion scheme but also the indirect implosion experiment. These advanced results often frustrated the US researchers who were not allowed to talk about the details of their works. In 1988, international members of the ICF research society including the US scientists gathered together at ECLIM to discuss the necessity of freedom in the ICF research and concluded to make a statement {open_quote}{open_quote}Madrid Manifest{close_quote}{close_quote} which requested the declassification of the ICF research internationally. After 6 years of halt, the US DOE decided to declassify portions of the program as a part of secretary Hazel O{close_quote}Leary{close_quote}s openness initiative. The first revealed presentation from the US was done at Seville 1994, which however were well known already. Classification impeded the progress by restricting the flow of information and did not allow the ICF work to compete by the open scientific security. (Abstract Truncated)

  7. Heterogeneity, geostatistics, horizontal wells, and blackjack poker

    SciTech Connect

    Beliveau, D.

    1995-12-31

    This paper presents data on more than one thousand horizontal wells specifically comparing their hydrocarbon production performance to offsetting vertical wells. The data are striking, revealing an approximate log-normal distribution of Productivity Improvement Factors (PIFs). This distribution is ascribed primarily to geological heterogeneities compounded by mechanical drilling and completion effects. H-wells in conventional reservoirs show a mode or {open_quotes}most-likely{close_quotes} PIF just over 2, a median or {open_quotes}50/50 {close_quotes} PIF just over 3, and a mean or {open_quotes}average{close_quotes} PIF just over 4; with somewhat higher PIFs observed for heavy-oil h-wells and h-wells in heavily-fractured fields. The data also show an operator`s {open_quotes}expectation{close_quotes} should be based on the number of wells planned, with a larger number of wells yielding a higher {open_quotes}average{close_quotes} production per well. In some cases, it was possible to compare actual production results to those predicted by the operator. This also showed some rather startling results: though our {open_quotes}predictive models{close_quotes} appear quite accurate when averaged over several wells, the error expected for any individual h-well is greater than 50%! Some simple gaming examples show this size of error should be expected for almost any reservoir calculation (perhaps a better phrase is {open_quotes}reservoir estimate{close_quotes}).

  8. Factors affecting acceptability of radioactive metal recycling to the public and stakeholders

    SciTech Connect

    Nieves, L.A.; Burke, C.J.

    1995-08-01

    The perception of risk takes place within a cultural context that is affected by individual and societal values, risk information, personal experience, and the physical environment. Researchers have found that measures of {open_quotes}voluntariness of risk assumption,{close_quotes} of {open_quotes}disaster potential,{close_quotes} and of {open_quotes}benefit{close_quotes} are important in explaining risk acceptability. A review of cross-cultural studies of risk perception and risk acceptance, as well as an informal stakeholder survey, are used to assess the public acceptability of radioactive scrap metal recycling.

  9. Performance indicators are leveling off: AEOD

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    An annual report by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Office for Analysis and Evaluation of Operational Data (AEOD) says that plant performance indicators (PIs) of US power reactors, on a nationwide basis, appear to have stabilized. It noted, however, that [open quotes]additional effort is warranted among the poorer performers.[close quotes] That [open quotes]apparent leveling off of performance[close quotes] widened in 1992 to include all but one of the PIs - safety system actuations, which [open quotes]continues to exhibit a significant improving trend,[close quotes] the study declares.

  10. Technology transfer at Department of Energy and Office of Fusion Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Marton, W.

    1993-12-01

    Technology transfer is a timely topic. International and national events have come together in a way that has motivated the federal government to use the major technology resources at government labs to help strengthen the economy. Within DOE, industry business principles are being employed in support of technology transfer. The question, {open_quotes}Who is the customer?{close_quotes} is being asked more and more. A transition is occurring from {open_quotes}technology-push{close_quotes} to {open_quotes}market pull.{close_quotes}

  11. Tungsten

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    The name tungsten, derived from the Swedish words {open_quotes}tung{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}sten{close_quotes}, meaning heavy stone, was first applied to a tungsten-containing mineral in 1755. The mineral, itself, was subsequently identified by C.W. Scheele in 1781, and named scheelite. Metallic tungsten was first isolated from the mineral wolframite in 1783, and given the German name {open_quotes}wolfram,{close_quotes} which remains an alternative name for the element. Ultimately, the English word, tungsten, became the official name, while W remains the element`s chemical symbol. This article discusses the geology, exploitation, applications, and market overview of tungsten.

  12. Liquid crystals of polyelectrolyte networks

    SciTech Connect

    Bruinsma, R.

    2001-06-01

    The Onsager theory of nematic liquid crystals is extended to rigid polyelectrolytes cross-linked by polyvalent ions. Recent synchrotron x-ray diffraction experiments showed that dilute, birefringent networks are formed under these conditions. The application of Onsager theory to this system leads to the prediction of the existence of a range of exotic mesophases such as the {open_quotes}cubatic,{close_quotes} the {open_quotes}tetratic,{close_quotes} and the {open_quotes}trigatic.{close_quotes} The exotic network phases appear on the border of regions of phase coexistence of network phase with isotropic material (at low polyvalent ion concentration) and with dense bundles (at high polyvalent ion concentration).

  13. Boundary S Matrix and the Anti{endash}de Sitter Space to Conformal Field Theory Dictionary

    SciTech Connect

    Giddings, S.B.

    1999-10-01

    An S matrix analog is defined for anti{endash}de Sitter (Ads) space by constructing {open_quotes}in{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}out{close_quotes} states that asymptote to the timelike boundary. A derivation parallel to that of the Lehmann-Symanzik-Zimmermann formula shows that this {open_quotes}boundary S matrix{close_quotes} is given directly by correlation functions in the boundary conformal theory. This provides a key entry in the AdS to conformal field theory dictionary. {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital The American Physical Society }

  14. The database approach to knowledge representation

    SciTech Connect

    Ullman, J.D.

    1996-12-31

    The database theory community, centered around the PODS (Principles of Database Systems) conference has had a long-term interest in logic as a way to represent {open_quotes}data,{close_quotes} {open_quotes}information,{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}knowledge{close_quotes} (take your pick on the term - it boils down to facts or atoms and rules, usually Horn clauses). The approach of this community has been {open_quotes}slow and steady,{close_quotes} preferring to build up carefully from simple special cases to more general ideas, always paying attention to how efficiently we can process queries and perform other operations on the facts and rules. A powerful theory has developed, and it is beginning to have some impact on applications, especially information-integration engines.

  15. Growth energizes lithium ion interest

    SciTech Connect

    D`Amico, E.

    1996-03-20

    The prospects for big growth in the US for lithium ion batteries (LIBs) has sparked the interest of potential domestic suppliers. {open_quotes}The money that can be made in this market is staggering,{close_quotes} says one industry expert. {open_quotes}Everybody who is remotely related to this industry is interested.{close_quotes} The size of the market, still in its infancy, is difficult to gauge, say consultants, who estimate that leading Japanese producers are each making millions of lithium ion cells/month. {open_quotes}The market is not too measurable right now because the only production is really limited to prototypes being sampled,{close_quotes} says Ward Seitz, a consultant with SRI International (Menlo Park, CA), {open_quotes}but there is phenomenal interest.{close_quotes}

  16. Large data series: Modeling the usual to identify the unusual

    SciTech Connect

    Downing, D.J.; Fedorov, V.V.; Lawkins, W.F.; Morris, M.D.; Ostrouchov, G.

    1997-04-01

    {open_quotes}Standard{close_quotes} approaches such as regression analysis, Fourier analysis, Box-Jenkins procedure, et al., which handle a data series as a whole, are not useful for very large data sets for at least two reasons. First, even with computer hardware available today, including parallel processors and storage devices, there are no effective means for manipulating and analyzing gigabyte, or larger, data files. Second, in general it can not be assumed that a very large data set is {open_quotes}stable{close_quotes} by the usual measures, like homogeneity, stationarity, and ergodicity, that standard analysis techniques require. Both reasons dictate the necessity to use {open_quotes}local{close_quotes} data analysis methods whereby the data is segmented and ordered, where order leads to a sense of {open_quotes}neighbor,{close_quotes} and then analyzed segment by segment. The idea of local data analysis is central to the study reported here.

  17. Considerations in the fabrication, assembly, and testing of radioisotopic thermo-photovoltaic (RTPV) generators for future space missions

    SciTech Connect

    Barklay, C.D.; Miller, R.G.; Frazier, T.A.

    1996-03-01

    To increase energy output with a smaller size and mass than the radioisotopic thermoelectric generators (RTGs) that were previously used on deep space missions, a radioisotopic thermophotovoltaic (RTPV) system is being developed for the {open_quote}{open_quote}Pluto Express{close_quote}{close_quote} flyby mission. To minimize cost and development time, some facilities and components currently used for RTG production can be used to produce RTPVs. Production options also include out-sourcing and use of off-the-shelf hardware. Necessary modifications to tooling, production equipment, testing and shipping methods can be achieved in a timely manner so that the RTPV will be ready well before the planned launch of {open_quote}{open_quote}Pluto Express.{close_quote}{close_quote} {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  18. 77 FR 74037 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ OMX PHLX LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-12

    ... Options Traders (``ROTs'') (Rule 1014(b)(i) and (ii)), which include Streaming Quote Traders (``SQTs'') (See Rule 1014(b)(ii)(A)) and Remote Streaming Quote Traders (``RSQTs'') (See Rule 1014(b)(ii)(B))....

  19. 76 FR 17468 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-29

    ... Customer complex order.\\13\\ \\13\\ See Securities Exchange Act Release No. 62518 (July 16, 2010), 75 FR 43219... Streaming Quote Trader (``SQT''), a Remote Streaming Quote Trader (``RSQT'') and a Non-SQT ROT, which...

  20. Hv: A graphical user interface library for scientific and engineering applications

    SciTech Connect

    Heddle, D.P.

    1996-03-01

    We have developed Hv, a library based on Motif and X-Windows for use in scientific and engineering applications. Through more than 500 public functions, Hv provides for multiple {open_quote}{open_quote}views{close_quote}{close_quote} with independent world and pixel coordinate systems. Hv will perform all necessary coordinate transformations and window maintenance and will automatically provide Hv applications with the ability to print their views to postscript printers or to save their contents as encapsulated postscript files for inclusion into other documents. Applications may draw upon a rich suite of predefined graphical items or easily add their own. Examples of applications written in Hv include the single event display for the CEBAF large acceptance spectrometer (CLAS), the graphical level-one {open_quote}{open_quote}trigger{close_quote}{close_quote} programming software for experiments using CLAS, a scientific plotter, and a simulation of theater missile defense architectures. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  1. Insurance for electric and magnetic field litigation: Are you covered

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, E.R.; Stewart, C.A. III

    1993-04-01

    Electrical power generating companies, power transmission companies and large generators and users of electrical power recently felt the sting of a second shock. The first shock came when lawsuits were first filed against companies in the electrical power industry claiming real or imagined damages from electrical and magnetic fields ([open quotes]EMFs[close quotes]). The new and second shock is potentially more devastating because it comes from the [open quotes]safe hands[close quotes] of the insurance industry. Standard-form comprehensive general liability ([open quotes]CGL[close quotes]) insurance policies purchased by nearly every company in the electrical power industry for generations are supposed to cover EMF bodily injury and property damage claims. Not so, say the lawyers for the most prominent insurance company selling insurance coverage to electric utilities, Associated Electric Gas Insurance Services, Ltd. ([open quotes]AEGIS[close quotes]).

  2. FFTF Asbestos Location Tracking Program

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, J.A.

    1994-09-15

    An Asbestos Location Tracking Program was prepared to list, locate, and determine Asbestos content and to provide baseline {open_quotes}good faith{close_quotes} for yearly condition inspections for the FFTF Plant and buildings and grounds.

  3. Reply to Reichardt

    SciTech Connect

    Fridovich-Keil, J.L.

    1995-10-01

    In his letter Dr. Reichardt raises a number of issues concerning two articles recently published in the Journal. I have addressed each of the issues relating to Fridovich-Keil et al. Dr. Reichardt suggests that we have misattributed to him the {open_quotes}assumption{close_quotes} that nonconserved residues (within the galactose-l-phosphate uridyl transferase [GALT] sequence) are likely to be {open_quotes}unimportant{close_quotes} for function. In fact, our article described this idea as a {open_quotes}commonly invoked assumption{close_quotes}. With regard to the R148W substitution, the Reichardt et al. article states that {open_quotes}the mutated arginine is not conserved{hor_ellipsis}. However, this mutation results in an unstable polypeptide and, therefore, the mutated arginine 148 is probably not enzymatically important.{close_quotes} We certainly apologize for any misunderstandings resulting from our interpretation, or possible misinterpretation of these words. 9 refs.

  4. The Pomeron beyond BFKL

    SciTech Connect

    White, A.R.

    1997-05-12

    Conformally invariant reggeon interactions derived from t-channel unitarity are discussed and progress towards understanding the {open_quotes}physical Pomeron{close_quotes}, via massless quark reggeon interactions, is briefly out-lined.

  5. Mosaicism most likely accounts for extended survival of trisomy 22

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, W.P.; Kalousek, D.K.

    1996-03-01

    This {open_quotes}Letter to the Editor{close_quotes} discusses the implications of meiotic versus somatic chromosomal aberrations and how this corresponds to the discussion of trisomy 22, including the survival time of the patient. 5 refs.

  6. Clinical and molecular studies in full trisomy 22: Further delineation of the phenotype and review of the literature. Reply to Dr. Hirschhorn

    SciTech Connect

    Bacino, C.A.; Graham, J.M. Jr.

    1996-03-01

    This {open_quotes}Letter to the Editor{close_quotes} responds to the criticism that certain trisomy 22 cases in the literature were not included in an earlier review by delineating the phenotype more specifically. 2 refs.

  7. Two single base polymorphisms in introns 41 and 16 of the NF1 gene

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Ming Hong; Upadhyaya, M.

    1995-04-24

    We have characterized two intragenic polymorphisms in the neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) gene by direct sequencing of PCR products. The variants for these polymorphisms were initially detected on Hydrolink gels. One of the polymorphisms involves a G to A transition in intron 41 at the 28th base upstream of exon 42 with an observed {open_quote}G{close_quote}/{open_quote}A{close_quote} heterozygosity of 0.42. The other polymorphism is a T to C transition in intron 16 at the 16th base upstream of exon 17 with an observed {open_quote}T{close_quote}/{open_quote}C{close_quote} heterozygosity of 0.09. In combination with other documented polymorphisms in the NF1 gene, these variants should assist in genetic analysis of NF1 families. 24 refs., 3 figs.

  8. Inert plug formation in the DDT of granular energetic materials

    SciTech Connect

    Son, S.F.; Asay, B.W.; Bdzil, J.B.

    1995-09-01

    A mechanism is proposed to explain the {open_quotes}plugs{close_quotes} that have been observed in deflagration-to-detonation transition (DDT) of granular explosives. Numerical simulations are performed that demonstrate the proposed mechanism. Observed trends are reproduced.

  9. Air pollution estimates

    SciTech Connect

    Skiba, Y.N.

    1997-12-31

    Global and limited area pollutant transport models based on the 3-D transport diffusion equation are considered provided that the air velocity field is known. As a first approximation, climatic monthly mean velocities are taken, though more precise velocity field can be obtained with a special dynamic model. The problem of pollutant flows through the open horizontal and vertical boundaries is discussed. Different boundary conditions are set at the {open_quotes}inflow{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}outflow{close_quotes} parts of such boundaries in order to get the well-posed problems according to Hadamard when either solution is unique and stable to initial perturbations. In the non-diffusion limit, these conditions are reduced to the well-known ones for the pure advection problem, when the only {open_quotes}inflow{close_quotes} boundary conditions are to be set, while the {open_quotes}outflow{close_quotes} conditions are not prescribed, and determined by the characteristics method.

  10. On third Poisson structure of KdV equation

    SciTech Connect

    Gorsky, A.; Marshakov, A.; Orlov, A.

    1995-12-01

    The third Poisson structure of the KdV equation in terms of canonical {open_quote}free fields{close_quote} and the reduced WZNW model is discussed. We prove that it is {open_quotes}diagonalized{close_quotes} in the Lagrange variables which were used before in the formulation of 2d gravity. We propose a quantum path integral for the KdV equation based on this representation.

  11. The NRC weighs public input on plant cleanup standards

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, J.

    1993-07-01

    In the wake of seven public [open quotes]work-shops[close quotes] held around the country over the past several months, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is preparing to develop radiological criteria for decommissioning nuclear power plants. The criteria will apply to plants that operate for their normal lifespan, those that shut down prematurely, as well as a range of other NRC-licensed facilities, including materials licensees, fuel reprocessing and fabrication plants, and independent spent fuel storage installations. The criteria have been years in the making, and their progress is being monitored closely by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), which shares with the NRC the authority to regulate radiological hazards. Both agencies have made abortive attempts to promulgate standards in the past. The EPA's most recent proposal, dating from 1986, has yet to reach the final rule stage. The NCRC's 1990 policy statement, [open quotes]Below Regulatory Concern,[close quotes] was overturned by the Energy Policy Act of 1992, a setback that prompted the Commission's call for [open quotes]enhanced participatory rulemaking[close quotes]-a.k.a., public meetings-last December. In its Rulemaking Issues Paper, the NRC outlined for discussion four [open quotes]fundamental[close quotes] objectives as a basis for developing decommissioning criteria: (1) establishing limits above which the risks to the public are deemed [open quotes]unacceptable[close quotes]; (2) establishing [open quotes]goals[close quotes] below which the risks to the public are deemed [open quotes]trivial[close quotes]; (3) establishing criteria for what is achievable using the [open quotes]best available[close quotes] cleanup technology; and (4) removing all radioactivity attributable to plant activity. The NRC expects to publish a proposed rule and a draft generic environmental impact statement in April 1994; the final rule is scheduled for May 1995.

  12. A high energy physics perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Marciano, W.J.

    1997-01-13

    The status of the Standard model and role of symmetry in its development are reviewed. Some outstanding problems are surveyed and possible solutions in the form of additional {open_quotes}Hidden Symmetries {close_quotes} are discussed. Experimental approaches to uncover {open_quotes}New Physics{close_quotes} associated with those symmetries are described with emphasis on high energy colliders. An outlook for the future is given.

  13. In need of sustainable leadership: Which strategies are fit to meet future core challenges?

    SciTech Connect

    Schwendner, R.

    1997-12-31

    {open_quotes}Sustainable leadership{close_quotes} supports the management of complexity and diversity. But it is not an easy task. It requires a high level of awareness of system interrelation and a high level of {open_quotes}preventive wisdom{close_quotes} rather than {open_quotes}reactive cleverness{close_quotes} or {open_quotes}reactive reckoning{close_quotes}. Preventive wisdom seeks to be alert to and anticipate the multifaceted influences resulting from varied social and environmental context conditions. Management decisions based on preventive wisdom are likely to result in innovative solutions that avoid the well known negative social and environmental side effects or long-term economic damages of reactive decision making. Sustainable management thus represents a highly skilled, engaged and professional attempt to reach out for nothing less than the best solution. {open_quotes}Sustainable management{close_quotes} is the reflection of social, cultural, ecological, organizational and economic interrelations. Otherwise it would not fit the criteria of {open_quotes}sustainability{close_quotes}. From that point of view {open_quotes}sustainable management{close_quotes} requires a tough and multi process rooted training, as sustainability is a complex challenge in itself to deal with complexity, whether in nature, human cultures, organizational networks, means to understand, to balance, to integrate and to relate a variety of interdependencies. Thus sustainable and economic development may contribute to a win-win-strategy, instead of excluding each other, and represent a newly designed meaning of {open_quotes}Concentrate on what you can do best{close_quotes}.

  14. Icosahedral quasicrystal decoration models. II. Optimization under realistic Al-Mn potentials

    SciTech Connect

    Mihalkovic, M. |; Zhu, W.; Henley, C.L.; Phillips, R.

    1996-04-01

    We have constructed and relaxed over 200 different finite structure models for the quasicrystal {ital i}-AlMn based on decorations of the {open_quote}{open_quote}canonical-cell tiling.{close_quote}{close_quote} We adopted {ital ab} {ital initio}-based pair potentials with strong Friedel oscillations, which reproduce the phase diagram of real Al-Mn intermetallic crystal structures fairly well. Our various decoration rules encompass cases with face-centered icosahedral (FCI) symmetry and with simple icosahedral (SI) symmetry, and include additional variations in the occupancy and/or chemistry of certain site types. Each decoration was applied to 11 distinct periodic approximants of the tiling. We found that (i) the relaxed atomic positions of each site type can be closely approximated by fixed positions on each tile type, even though the environments (beyond the first neighbor) are inequivalent. (ii) Models with simple icosahedral (SI) space-group symmetry were better than those with face-centered icosahedral (FCI) space-group symmetry. (iii) {open_quote}{open_quote}Loose{close_quote}{close_quote} decorations, containing voids almost large enough for an atom, were better than the {open_quote}{open_quote}dense{close_quote}{close_quote} decorations which were suggested by packing considerations. (iv) Our results depended on using the realistic potentials; {ital short}-range potentials favor the {open_quote}{open_quote}dense{close_quote}{close_quote} structures, and many details depend on the second or further oscillations in the potentials. (v) For our best model, there is relatively little variation of the energy when tiles are rearranged, i.e., a {ital random}-{ital tiling} {ital model} is a good zero-order description of the system. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  15. Acoustic chaos

    SciTech Connect

    Lauterborn, W.; Parlitz, U.; Holzfuss, J.; Billo, A.; Akhatov, I.

    1996-06-01

    Acoustic cavitation, a complex, spatio-temporal dynamical system, is investigated with respect to its chaotic properties. The sound output, the {open_quote}{open_quote}noise{close_quote}{close_quote}, is subjected to time series analysis. The spatial dynamics of the bubble filaments is captured by high speed holographic cinematography and subsequent digital picture processing from the holograms. Theoretical models are put forward for describing the pattern formation. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  16. Reformulated gasoline deal with Venezuela draws heat

    SciTech Connect

    Begley, R.

    1994-04-06

    A fight is brewing in Congress over a deal to let Venezuela off the hook in complying with the Clean Air Act reformulated gasoline rule. When Venezuela threatened to call for a GATT panel to challenge the rule as a trade barrier, the Clinton Administration negotiated to alter the rule, a deal that members of Congress are characterizing as {open_quotes}secret{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}back door.{close_quotes}

  17. The implausible current interpretations of radiobiological linear, nonthreshold functions

    SciTech Connect

    Bond, V.P.

    1994-12-31

    The goal of this paper is to show that inappropriate coordinates are now assigned to the assumed linearly proportional {open_quotes}dose-response{close_quotes} functions for quantal quantal (i.e., either-or) responses in the elements of a cell population system exposed to low-level radiation. The result is that the present interpretation, {open_quotes}any amount of radiation, however small, can be harmful or lethal{close_quotes} is of highly questionable validity.

  18. The problem of living in a world contaminated with chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Metcalf, R.L.

    1990-12-31

    The proliferation of xenobiotic chemicals in the global environment poses living problems for each of us aboard {open_quotes}spaceship earth.{close_quotes} Seven case studies are presented that illustrate the magnitude of the problem that can result from waiting to identify toxic hazards until there have been decades of {open_quotes}human guinea pig{close_quotes} exposure. 25 refs., 5 tabs.

  19. Formaldehyde as hypothetical primer of biohomochirality

    SciTech Connect

    Goldanskii, V.I.

    1996-07-01

    One of the most intriguing and crucial problems of the prebiotic evolution and the origin of life is the explanation of the origin of biohomochirality. A scheme of conversions originated by formaldehyde (FA) as hypothetical primer of biohomochirality is proposed. The merit of FA as executor of this function is based -inter alia - on the distinguished role of FA as one of the earliest and simplest molecules in both warm, terrestrial and cold, extraterrestrial scenarios of the origin of life. The confirmation of the role of FA as primer of biohomochirality would support the option of an RNA world as an alternative to the protein world. The suggested hypothesis puts forward for the first time a concrete sequence of chemical reactions which can lead to biohomochirality. The spontaneous breaking of the mirror symmetry is secured by the application of the well-known Frank scheme (combination of autocatalysis and {open_quote}{open_quote}annihilation{close_quote}{close_quote} of L and D enantiomers) to the series of interactions of FA {open_quote}{open_quote}trimers{close_quote}{close_quote} (i.e. C{sub 3}H{sub 6}O{sub 3} compounds) of (aaa), (apa) and (app) types, where the monomeric groups (a) means {open_quote}{open_quote}achirons{close_quote}{close_quote} (a=CH{sub n}, n{ge}2 and C=M, M=C,O) and (p) mean {open_quote}{open_quote}prochirons{close_quote}{close_quote} (p=HC{asterisk}OM, M=H,C). {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  20. Global warming science & policy: Progress 1996-1997

    SciTech Connect

    Sinyan, Shen

    1997-12-31

    Recent progress in science and policy is summarized. The most significant progress has been the recognition worldwide of the importance of Extreme Events (EE), short for extreme climatic events, during the earth`s current climatic transition, in which the magnitudes of the {open_quotes}oscillatory amplitude{close_quotes} in climatic patterns could easily {open_quotes}exceed{close_quotes} the difference between the end points.

  1. Can waste management become an issue for the public acceptance of fusion?

    SciTech Connect

    Dworschak, H.; Rocco, P.

    1994-12-31

    Studies on the public perception of risks indicate that: (1) The most feared risks, together with {open_quotes}AIDS{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}crime{close_quotes}, are those related to {open_quotes}nuclear accidents{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}nuclear waste{close_quotes}, which are almost as dreadful as {open_quotes}nuclear war{close_quotes} whereas, {open_quotes}nuclear power production{close_quotes} raises less concern, almost comparable to that of other social risks. (2) Low probability, high consequence risks are those of most concern. Scarce consideration is given by the public to the likelihood of occurrence. The management strategies for fusion waste should be presented taking into account the previous statements. Sensible items are: (1) Planned waste management procedures should be describe in a well detailed fashion, indicating the aim of complying with conservative limits of environmental impact. (2) The build-up of optimistic thoughts on the complete lack of potential hazard in fusion waste as well as the opposite opinion of little or no progress at all by referring to fission waste should be avoided. (3) The hazards related to fission waste should not be over emphasized. It should be stated instead that studies on this waste have produced effective handling and segregation concepts, which are being progressively applied even to conventional waste in order to reduce risks which were not perceived before. This mature and well proven technology will be applied where pertinent to fusion waste too.

  2. The Clean Air Act`s enforcement ace: An overview of EPA`s credible evidence rule

    SciTech Connect

    Paul, P.J.

    1997-12-31

    The 1990 Clean Air Act ({open_quotes}CAA{close_quotes}) amendments included numerous provisions directing EPA to require owners or operators to conduct enhanced monitoring and to make compliance certifications. These provisions contained in both those Title V (Operating Permits) and Title VII (Enforcement) of those amendments. Section 503(b)(2) of the amended CAA requires at least annual certifications of compliance with permit requirements and prompt reporting of any deviations from such requirements. Section 114(a)(3) of the CAA requires EPA to promulgate rules on enhanced monitoring and compliance certifications. On October 23, 1993, EPA proposed its {open_quotes}enhanced monitoring{close_quotes} rule. The enhanced monitoring proposal also included the Conceptual approach of using {open_quotes}presumptively credible evidence{close_quotes} in enforcement actions. Further, this proposal also would have allowed the use of {open_quotes}credible evidence,{close_quotes} other than reference or compliance test data to establish noncompliance in an enforcement action. In approximately three weeks, EPA is scheduled to republish as a final rule, the credible evidence provisions of the original enhanced monitoring rule with apparently minor revisions. This paper briefly summarizes the history, status, and likely impact EPA`s {open_quotes}any credible evidence{close_quotes} ({open_quotes}ACE{close_quotes}) rule.

  3. 78 FR 1906 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ OX PHLX LLC; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change To Amend...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-09

    ... Act Release No. 68217 (November 13, 2012), 77 FR 69525. II. Description of the Proposal The Exchange... Performance Evaluations With Respect to Quote Submissions of Streaming Quote Traders and Remote Streaming... change to amend performance evaluations with respect to Streaming Quote Traders (``SQTs'') and...

  4. 77 FR 69525 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ OMX PHLX LLC; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-19

    .... Purpose The purpose of the proposed rule change is to amend a standard by which Streaming Quote Traders \\3\\ and Remote Streaming Quote Traders \\4\\ are evaluated to determine whether they have fulfilled... submissions. \\3\\ A Streaming Quote Trader (``SQT'') is defined in Exchange Rule 1014(b)(ii)(A) as...

  5. Fissile material smuggling: German politics, hype and reality

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, H.

    1994-12-01

    The spy novel nightmare scenarios of nuclear smuggling have become reality, and much of the recent news has focused on Germany. But these events must be put in perspective, and a number of apparent {open_quotes}facts{close_quotes} must be examined more carefully. For example, while authorities in Germany have seized weapons-usable material in various incidents that have captured international attention, none of this material is from nuclear weapons or weapons production facilities. Moreover, despite the fact that the number of criminal cases has risen, the quantity of {open_quotes}loose{close_quotes} weapons-usable material is still not significant. Nor are there any indications so far that powerful criminal organizations or buyers from nuclear-ambitious {open_quotes}rogue{close_quotes} states are involved. Rather, the incidents so far involve individuals or small groups of criminals who found that their {open_quotes}buyers{close_quotes} were, more often than not, German security agents working {open_quotes}sting{close_quotes} operations to trap the smugglers and black marketeers or journalists working on a {open_quotes}big story.{close_quotes}

  6. The Cook Mountain problem: Stratigraphic reality and semantic confusion

    SciTech Connect

    Ewing, T.E.

    1994-12-31

    Historical inconsistency as to what constitutes the Cook Mountain Formation illustrates the semantic confusion resulting from extending surface-derived stratigraphic names into the subsurface without a full understanding of basin architecture. At the surface, the Cook Mountain Formation consists of fossilerous marine shale, glaucony and marl, and marginal-marine sandstone and shale between the nonmarine Sparta Formation sandstones below and the nonmarine Yegua Formation sandstones and lignitic shales above. Fossils are abundant, including the benthic foraminifer Ceratobulimina eximia. As subsurface exploration began, the first occurrence of Ceratobulimina eximia {open_quotes}Cerat{close_quotes} was used as the top of the marine {open_quotes}Cook Mountain Shale{close_quotes} below the Yegua section. Downdip, the overlying Yegua was found to become a sequence of marine shales and marginal-marine sandstones, the lower part of which yielded {open_quotes}Cerat{close_quotes}. Because of this, the lower sandstones were called {open_quotes}Cook Mountain{close_quotes} in many fields. At the Yegua shelf margin, {open_quotes}Cerat{close_quotes} is absent. Different exploration teams have used their own definitions for {open_quotes}Cook Mountain{close_quotes}, leading to substantial confusion.

  7. 76 FR 62872 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ OMX PHLX LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-11

    ... The Exchange proposes to amend the Streaming Quote Trader \\3\\ (``SQT'') Fees. \\3\\ An SQT is defined in... streaming quote systems as compared to RSQTs. For example, SQTs generally have to purchase additional software programs and hardware from outside vendor to support their streaming quote systems, in addition...

  8. Lee Hot Springs power project. First topical report management plan

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-18

    The Lee Hot Springs Project ({open_quotes}the Project{close_quotes}) will use binary cycle turbine-generators supplied by geothermal hot water to make electricity. Two clusters of three (3) 1,000 kilowatt ({open_quotes}kw{close_quotes}) projects, each cluster comprising a {open_quotes}plant,{close_quotes} will use the pumped output of one geothermal well. The plants will tie into Sierra Pacific Power Company`s ({open_quotes}Sierra`s{open_quotes}) transmission system. The Project objectives are designed to demonstrate that geothermal energy is a non-polluting, non-CO{sub 2} emitting form of generation, which if used in larger increments, will significantly reduce the emissions of greenhouse gasses. The Project will also demonstrate the use of modular, {open_quotes}non-grid{close_quotes} or {open_quotes}village{close_quotes} units which can be used throughout the world where geothermal energy is present in remote locations and power is not. The Project was conceived as a 20,000 kw Qualifying Facility, divided into two phases, a 5,000 kw phase one followed by a 15,000 kw phase two. The first phase of the Project now consists of two (2) 3,000 kw plants to generate 6,000 kws.

  9. To Your Health: NLM update transcript - Impact of Oregon's pioneering health insurance program

    MedlinePLUS

    ... improve population health, and slow the growth of health care spending' (end of quote). The viewpoint concludes Oregon's pioneering efforts (and we quote) ' could serve as a template for Medicaid reform' (end of quote). Meanwhile, MedlinePlus.gov's Medicaid health ...

  10. 76 FR 6646 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-07

    ... new 60% quoting requirement is needed to balance the proposed, new quotation spread parameters. \\13\\ For example, on a normal trading day, which lasts 390 minutes (from 9:30 a.m. to 4 p.m.), quoting in a...% (rather than 90%), then on a normal trading day, quoting would need to be maintained for 386 (rather...

  11. 75 FR 25019 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-06

    ... Change by NYSE Arca, Inc. To Make a Technical Adjustment to Its Rules To Allow Sub-Penny Quoting of... technical adjustment to its rules to allow sub-penny quoting of certain securities priced less than $1.00... Exchange proposes to make a technical adjustment its rules to allow sub-penny quoting of Investment...

  12. 76 FR 77878 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Chicago Board Options Exchange, Incorporated; Notice of Proposed...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-14

    ... individual orders and quotes residing in the electronic book (``EBook'') provided the complex order can be... other orders, in the EBook. The function of generating the aggregate trading crowd quote is currently... automatically execute with the individual quotes residing in the EBook.\\4\\ In such classes, the allocation...

  13. A bimorph flexural-disk accelerometer for underwater use

    SciTech Connect

    Moffett, M.B.; Powers, J.M.

    1996-04-01

    Design equations, based on Ralph Woollett{close_quote}s 1960 report [{open_quote}{open_quote}The Flexural Disk Transducer,{close_quote}{close_quote} U.S. Navy Underwater Sound Laboratory Research Report No. 490], are presented for a bimorph accelerometer. Figures-of-merit are compared for PZT-4, PZT-5A, PZT-5H, PZT-8 piezoceramics, and PVDF-TrFE copolymer. Neutrally buoyant, spherical and cylindrical accelerometer configurations can be designed to meet bandwidth, sensitivity, and depth requirements. Experimental results for PZT-8 bimorphs indicate that simply-supported edge conditions are easily achievable. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  14. Cold prebiotic evolution, tunneling, chirality and exobiology

    SciTech Connect

    Goldanskii, V.I.

    1996-07-01

    The extra-terrestrial scenario of the origin of life suggested by Svante Arrhenius (1) as the {open_quote}panspermia{close_quote} hypothesis was revived by the discovery of a low-temperature quantum limit of a chemical reaction rate caused by the molecular tunneling (2). Entropy factors play no role near absolute zero, and slow molecular tunneling can lead to the exothermic formation of quite complex molecules. Interstellar grains or particles of cometary tails could serve as possible cold seeds of life, with acetic acid, urea and products of their polycondensation as quasi-equilibrium intermediates. Very cold solid environment hinders racemization and stabilizes optical activity under conditions typical for outer space. Neither {open_quote}advantage{close_quote} factors can secure the evolutionary formation of chiral purity of initial prebiotic monomeric medium{emdash}even being temporary achieved it cannot be maintained at subsequent stages of prebiotic evolution because of counteraction of {open_quote}enantioselective pressure{close_quote}. Only bifurcational mechanism of the formation of prebiotic homochiral{emdash}monomeric and afterwards polymeric{emdash}medium and its subsequent transformation in {open_quote}homochiral chemical automata{close_quote} ({open_quote}biological big bang{close_quote}{emdash}passage from {open_quote}stochastic{close_quote} to {open_quote}algorithmic{close_quote} chemistry) is possible and can be realized. Extra-terrestrial (cold, solid phase) scenarios of the origin of life seem to be more promising from that point of view than terrestrial (warm) scenarios. Within a scheme of five main stages of prebiological evolution some problems important for further investigation are briefly discussed. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  15. Mining landforms - A renewable energy development opportunity

    SciTech Connect

    Lombardi, J.A.

    1995-12-01

    A {open_quotes}landforming{close_quotes} land development opportunity unique to metals mining is described. {open_quotes}Landforming{close_quotes}, wherein the earth`s surface is reconfigured with mining waste rock and tails for the capture of renewable energy, is proposed by the United States Bureau of Mines (USBM) to be ecologically acceptable and, in selected cases, economically superior to conventional mineral extraction, reclamation, and minesite abandonment practices. Landforming is primary land construction that uses mining waste and applies the principles of land overlay architecture. Landforms can be layered, shaped, and configured through the use of binders and plastic sheeting to the engineering specifications necessary for the support of physical structures and passage or retention of fluids. Landforms that are terraced and south facing (in the Northern Hemisphere) are an ideal mount for sun-tracking mirror (heliostat) arrays. In {open_quotes}blue sky{close_quotes}. solar-rich environments, the mirrors can be targeted on a common area to form a {open_quotes}solar furnace.{close_quotes} The heat generated at the focal point of the solar array can be used to flash generate steam and run a turbine electric generator. The solar steam power generation cycle coproducers distilled water that can be sprayed onto the surfaces of the landform to create {open_quotes}greenscape.{close_quotes} Waters not consumed or evaporated in the site greening process percolate into and are stored by the landform if it is underlain with plastic. The landform serves, in effect as a shallow aquifer. The terrace-landform development of mineral properties in remote, infrastructurally destitute areas creates renewable energy, sustainable, electric power-water {open_quotes}oases.{close_quotes} The landform development of mineral properties adjacent to metropolitan areas creates utilities expansions and recreational {open_quotes}greenspace{close_quotes} in areas of growing urban need.

  16. Diagnosing and curing system freeze-ups: Part II

    SciTech Connect

    Frey, R.

    1996-02-01

    In our last article, we discussed determination and possible causes leading to frozen pipes in the heating system. We now turn to the matter of dealing with such freeze-ups. There are two major categories of frozen heating systems. The first and worst we can label the {open_quotes}Floridian Flew{close_quotes} type, when the usual occupants have taken off for warmer climates. The second is the {open_quotes}Howcudit {open_quote}B{close_quote} virus,{close_quotes} which occurs to normal people under an unusual Arctic Attack right while they are living there. Regarding the first, I never cease to be amazed how folks can just up and leave their house for three days to three months without making proper arrangements for monitoring the temperature of their home during their absence. There are a frightening number of humanoids out there, who either lack a minimal presence of common sense, or who are terrible gamblers. The amazing thing is that some of these folks wouldn`t even gamble a postage stamp on a magazine sweepstakes, but still will gamble the contents of their home by driving off for two weeks at Disneyland in the middle of January without ever making any provision for assuring that their house doesn`t freeze up while they are away. The {open_quotes}Howcudit {open_quote}B{close_quote}{close_quotes} type is not nearly as devasting as the {open_quotes}Floridian Flew.{close_quotes} Imagine coming home to an icy cold house after flying in from the sunny beaches of some tropical paradise. The oilburner switch is on. The thermostate is set at 60 where we left it, but the needle is buried somewhere down behind the cover, like it is cowering from guilt. {open_quotes}Oh Man! I just checked the bathroom; there is an icicle hanging from the vanity faucet and the toilet bowl is a block of ice.{close_quotes}

  17. Monitored plutonium aerosols at a soil cleanup site on Johnston Atoll

    SciTech Connect

    Shinn, J.H.; Fry, C.O.; Johnson, J.S.

    1996-01-23

    Suspended plutonium in air was monitored for four periods near the operation of a stationary sorting system used to {open_quotes}mine{close_quotes} contaminated soil on Johnston Atoll. The monitoring periods were 14 October-14 November 1992, 20 October-15 November 1993, 16 August-3 November 1994, and 17 February-27 February 1995. Pairs of high volume air samplers were located at each of four locations of the process stream: the {open_quotes}spoils pile{close_quotes} that was the feedstock, the {open_quotes}plant area{close_quotes} near the hot soil gate of the sorter, the {open_quotes}clean pile{close_quotes} conveyer area where sorted clean soil was moved, and the {open_quotes}oversize soil{close_quotes} crushing area. These locations were monitored only during the working hours, while air monitoring was also done at an upwind, {open_quotes}background{close_quotes} area 24-hours per day. The median concentrations of Pu in {open_quotes}workplace{close_quotes} air (combined spoils pile, plant area, and clean pile sites) in 1992 was 397 aCi/m{sup 3} (15 {mu}Bq/m{sup 3}), but increased to median values of 23000 aCi/m{sup 3} (852 {mu}Bq/m{sup 3}) in August-November 1994 and 29800 aCi/m{sup 3} (1100 {mu}Bq/m{sup 3}) in February 1995. The highest median value at the worksites (29800 aCi/m{sup 3}) was more than 200 times lower than the regulatory level. The highest observed value was 84200 aCi/m{sup 3} at the spoils pile site, and this was more than 70 times lower than the regulatory level. The conclusion was that, in spite of the dusty environment, and the increased level of specific activity, we did not find that the soil processing posed any significant risk to workers during the observation periods 1992-1995.

  18. Clean Water Act: Bill heads for house vote

    SciTech Connect

    Begley, R.; Rotman, D.

    1995-04-19

    The House Transportation and Infrastructure Committee has approved and sent to the House floor a bill to scale back regulations under the Clean Water Act (CWA). Amending clean water legislation has been one of the top items on the Republican regulatory reform agenda. The bill removes federal jurisdiction over stormwater runoff and abandons national standards for pesticide, fertilizer, and other agricultural runoff. The committee okayed the bill despite strong objections from Democrats, some state regulators, and environmental groups. State water pollution regulators say the bill fails to set clear water quality goals, sets protection standards too low, and stretches the use of risk assessment and cost benefit analyses too far. The Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC; Washington) says the legislation is {open_quotes}a dirty water bill{close_quotes} that was {open_quotes}crafted by industries and cities seeking loopholes and exemptions.{close_quotes} Effects of the proposed bill, says NRDC, will include {open_quotes}more toxic water pollution from industries{close_quotes} and an {open_quotes}inevitable repeal of chemical discharge limits.{close_quotes} The chemical industry, however, is cheering the legislation. CMA calls the CWA amendments a {open_quotes}smart bill{close_quotes} and says it {open_quotes}emphasizes cost-effective risk reduction without compromising environmental protection,{close_quotes} CMA says that by requiring EPA to conduct risk assessment and cost-benefit analysis for clean water rules, the bill will {open_quotes}help the agency use its resources wisely and focus on those areas where the most good can be accomplished.{close_quotes}

  19. ITER Building Design (D230-B), Task No. 28. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-01

    The International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) Project requires a set of buildings, each with its own distinct function, to support ITER`s mission. The Joint Central Team (JCT) has identified all the buildings in the set and has placed them in an efficient arrangement on the site. The JCT has developed a conceptual layout of each individual building. The buildings have been categorized into two main groups: (1) {open_quotes}Level 1 Buildings{close_quotes} which are on the construction schedule critical path and (2) {open_quotes}Level 2 Buildings{close_quotes} which, while important, are not on the critical path. The buildings are further categorized according to construction material, that is, {open_quotes}reinforced concrete{close_quotes} or {open_quotes}steel-frame on concrete slab{close_quotes}. This Report responds to the Project`s request to perform the initial structural steel design for all the {open_quotes}steel-frame on concrete slab{close_quotes} buildings. Of the twelve (12) {open_quotes}steel-frame on concrete slab{close_quotes} buildings, four (4) are Level 1 and eight (8) are Level 2 Buildings. This Report is a deliverable for the ITER Task Assignment entitled {open_quotes}ITER Buildings Design (D230-B){close_quotes}, also designated as Task No. 28. ITER U.S. Home Team Industrial Consortium members, Raytheon Engineers & Constructors (RE&C) and Stone & Webster Engineering Corporation (SWEC), teamed to perform Task 28. This task commenced in May 1995. It was performed in accordance with the design criteria specified by the ITER-JCT, San Diego Joint Work Site.

  20. Making manufacturers responsible for recycling: Passing the garbage buck

    SciTech Connect

    Chilton, K.; Boerner, C.; Ansehl-Fellow, J.

    1995-09-01

    During a meeting with the Conference of Mayor and the National Association of Counties in April of 1993, Senator Max Baucus, then-Chairman of the Senate Environment and Public Works Committee, unveiled his solution to America`s {open_quotes}garbage crisis{close_quotes}. Modeled after Germany`s draconian {open_quotes}green dot{close_quotes} recycling program, the Senator`s solution rested on a principle which he called {open_quotes}manufacturers` responsibility for the life-cycle of a product.{close_quotes} {open_quotes}Anyone who sells a product,{close_quotes} Senator Baucus noted, {open_quotes}should also be responsible for the product when it becomes waste{close_quotes}. Other variations on this life-cycle stewardship concept were a central element of Congress`s failed attempts in 1992-1993 to reauthorize the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Likewise, on July 11, 1994 the United States Conference of Mayors` Energy and Environment Committee passed a resolution calling on Congress to study the concept of {open_quotes}shared responsibility for waste reduction{close_quotes}. The committee cited the virtues of Western Europe`s systems of manufacturers` responsibility and claimed that a U.S. version would create jobs, promote new environmental technology and {open_quotes}result in the emergence of entire new industries{close_quotes}. This report describes a recycling program in Germany in which the manaufacturers are responsible for waste collection. The overall waste reduction benefits are described.

  1. Engineering change in global climate

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, S.H.

    1996-12-31

    {open_quotes}With increased public focus on global warming and in the wake of the intense heat waves, drought, fires, and super-hurricanes that occurred in 1988 and 1989, interest in geoengineering has surged,{close_quotes} says Stephen H. Schneider, professor of biological science at Stanford University in Stanford, California. One scheme set forth in a National Research Council report proposes using 16-inch naval guns to fire aerosol shells into the stratosphere in hopes of offsetting {open_quotes}the radiative effects of increasing carbon dioxide,{close_quotes} Schneider says. Schneider, however, would prefer that we {open_quotes}seek measures that can cure our global {open_quote}addiction{close_quote} to polluting practices.{close_quotes} Rather than playing God, he says we should {open_quotes}stick to being human and pursue problem - solving methods currently within our grasp.{close_quotes} Such strategies include efforts to promote energy efficiency and reduce our reliance on automobiles.

  2. Enhancement of computer program SPECTRAN to provide optional synthesis of 1/12 octave-band and critical-band spectra from 1/3 octave-band spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Young-Soo; Liebich, R.E.

    1997-07-01

    This paper describes greatly enhanced version of the computer program SPECTRAN, which was initially presented in Paper No. 96-RA104.01, at the A&WMA 89th Annual Meeting in June 1996. The program has had three basic upgrades since that time. The first is provision of an option to use either batch-mode input from previously prepared data files or a {open_quotes}user-friendly{close_quotes} interactive input routine. The latter is primarily for first-time users and those having only one, or very few, spectra to process. The second improvement is the synthesis of 1/12 octave-band spectra from 1/3 octave-band spectra, with {open_quotes}tone correction,{close_quotes} in a manner similar to that used in the original version of the program. The third fundamental improvement is addition of a unique new capability to synthesize classic {open_quotes}critical-band{close_quotes} spectra from 1/3 octave-band input spectra. Critical-band spectra are also termed {open_quotes}equivalent-rectangular-bandwidth (ERB){close_quotes} and {open_quotes}equal-contribution-to-speech (ECS){close_quotes} spectra.

  3. An empirical test of the weighted effect approach to generalized prediction using recursive neural nets

    SciTech Connect

    Lang, R.

    1996-12-31

    The requirement of a strict and fixed distinction between dependent variables and independent variables, together with the presence of missing data, typically imposes considerable problems for most standard statistical prediction procedures. This paper describes a solution of these problems through the {open_quotes}weighted effect{close_quotes} approach in which recursive neural nets are used to learn how to compensate for any main and interaction effects attributable to missing data through the use of an {open_quotes}effect set{close_quotes} in addition to the data of actual cases. Extensive simulations of the approach based on an existing psychological data base showed high predictive validity, and a graceful degradation in performance with an increase in the number of unknown predictor variables. Moreover, the method proved amenable to the use of two-parameter logistic curves to arrive at a three way {open_quotes}low,{close_quotes} {open_quotes}high,{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}undecided{close_quotes} decision scheme with a-priori known error rates.

  4. Do disk drives dream of buffer cache hits?

    SciTech Connect

    Holt, A.

    1994-12-31

    G.E. Moore, in his book Principia Ethica, examines the popular view of ethics that deals with {open_quotes}what we ought to do{close_quotes} as well as using ethics to cover the general inquiry: {open_quotes}what is good?{close_quotes} This paper utilises Moore`s view of Ethics to examine computer systems performance. Moore asserts that {open_quotes}good{close_quotes} in itself is indefinable. It is argued in this report that, although we describe computer systems as good (or bad) a computer system cannot be good in itself, rather a means to good! In terms of {open_quotes}what we ought to do{close_quotes} this paper looks at what actions (would) bring about good computer system performance according to computer science and engineering literature. In particular we look at duties, responsibilities and {open_quotes}to do what is right{close_quotes} in terms of system administration, design and usage. We further argue that in order to first make ethical observations with respect computer system performance and then apply them, requires technical knowledge which is typically limited to industry specialists and experts.

  5. Applicable Railroad Commission rules regarding notification, cleanup, and follow up reporting of inland crude spills

    SciTech Connect

    Grossman, G.M.

    1996-08-01

    There are a myriad of regulations, both federal, state, and local dealing with spill notification cleanup, and follow up reporting. This paper describes the applicable Railroad Commission (RRC) Oil and Gas Division Rules and Regulations requiring notification, cleanup, and follow up reporting of inland crude oil spills in the state of Texas. Statewide Rule (SWR) titled {open_quotes}water protection{close_quotes} requires that {open_quotes}no person conducting activities subject to the regulation of RRC may cause or allow pollution of the surface or subsurface water in the state{close_quotes}. SWR 20 titled {open_quotes}notification of fire, breaks, leaks, or blowouts{close_quotes}, requires immediate notice of a fire, leak, spill, or break from production facilities to the appropriate district office and follow up written reporting. SWR 71 titled {open_quotes}Pipeline Tariffs{close_quotes} requires pipeline companies to give immediate notice of spills and fires to the appropriate district office along with follow up reports. SWR 91 titled {open_quotes}Cleanup of soil contaminated by a crude oil spill{close_quotes} requires notification, cleanup, and follow up reporting requirements for crude oil spills.

  6. 1996 PAMS hydrocarbon QA studies in EPA Region II: Part I. Methodology and results

    SciTech Connect

    Teitz, A.; Kantz, M.

    1997-12-31

    Analytical agreement for PAMS hydrocarbon analyses between the monitoring organizations within EPA Region II, and between EPA Regions I, II, and the State of Maryland (representing Region III), was tested through a series of audit and round robin analyses. Audit/round robin samples consisted of ambient air collected in Summa canisters which were analyzed by the participating monitoring agencies. The level of agreement in each audit/round robin was determined on a compound by compound basis, through the comparison of {open_quotes}reference{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}challenge{close_quotes} laboratory results. EPA Region II was the reference laboratory for these studies. Seven levels of agreement were developed; excellent, good, fair, poor, fail, false positive, and false negative. Criteria for these levels were established on a sliding scale dependent on sample concentration. Excellent agreement between the respective monitoring organizations and EPA Region II were typically found for 60% - 70% of the PAMS compounds. The sum of {open_quotes}good{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}excellent{close_quotes} agreement was typically found for 80-90% of the target compounds, with {open_quotes}poor{close_quotes} agreement < 10%. False positive/false negatives were typically below 5%. Performance worse than these typical levels often indicated the presence of analytical difficulties that required corrective action.

  7. Segregation analysis of Alzheimer pedigrees: Rare Mendelian dominant mutation(s) explain a minority of early-onset cases

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez, M.; Campion, D.; Babron, M.C.; Darpoux, F.C.

    1996-02-16

    Segregation analysis of Alzheimer disease (AD) in 92 families ascertained through early-onset ({le}age 60 years) AD (EOAD) probands has been carried out, allowing for a mixture in AD inheritance among probands. The goal was to quantify the proportion of probands that could be explained by autosomal inheritance of a rare disease allele {open_quotes}a{close_quotes} at a Mendelian dominant gene (MDG). Our data provide strong evidence for a mixture of two distributions; AD transmission is fully explained by MDG inheritance in <20% of probands. Male and female age-of-onset distributions are significantly different for {open_quotes}AA{close_quote} but not for {open_quotes}aA{close_quote} subjects. For {open_quotes}aA{close_quote} subjects the estimated penetrance value was close to 1 by age 60. For {open_quotes}AA{close_quotes} subjects, it reaches, by age 90, 10% (males) and 30% (females). We show a clear cutoff in the posterior probability of being an MDG case. 10 refs., 1 tab.

  8. Products, processes and technology in the elementary school curriculum

    SciTech Connect

    Goldberg, V.; Williams, S.

    1994-12-31

    This project is designed to improve science education at the elementary school level by facilitating collaborative efforts among teachers, science coordinators, principals, and representatives of local industries. The project is funded by the National Science Foundation and six Boston-area companies. In conjunction with these companies, we developed six sample modules which provide students with concrete examples of products, processes, and technologies that demonstrate scientific principles found in the elementary school science curriculum. These sample modules include {open_quotes}Treating Vascular Disease{close_quotes} with Boston Scientific Corporation, {open_quotes}Decision-Making Processes{close_quotes} with Clearpoint Corporation, {open_quotes}Patterns in Miniature{close_quotes} with Digital Equipment Corporation, {open_quotes}Inventing the Pen{close_quotes} with the Gillette Company, and {open_quotes}Fiber Optics Communication{close_quotes} with Peter Fuller Oldsmobile, Inc. One hundred participants worked with these sample modules during summer workshops and then, using them as guides, developed their own modules with businesses and industries in their communities.

  9. Modeling the association of metals with heterogeneous environmental sorbents

    SciTech Connect

    Westall, J.C.

    1995-12-01

    We have critically evaluated several approaches to modeling the association of metals with heterogeneous environmental materials such as humic acids and soil particle surfaces. We conclude that {open_quotes}mechanistic{close_quotes} models are not nearly as {open_quotes}mechanistic{close_quotes} as one generally assumes, and that {open_quotes}semi-empirical{close_quotes} models are much more valuable than one might assume by comparison to simple {open_quotes}K{sub d}{close_quotes} models. We present a semi-empirical {open_quotes}discrete-log-K-spectrum{close_quotes} model and use it to describe the binding of Co(II), as a function of pH and NaClO{sub 4} concentration, to two environmental substrates: leonardite humic acid and a kaolinitic subsoil. We conclude that a semi-empirical model, based on a discrete log K spectrum, is the most efficient approach to representing the interactions of metals with heterogeneous environmental materials over a wide range of solution composition.

  10. Set theory and physics

    SciTech Connect

    Svozil, K.

    1995-11-01

    Inasmuch as physical theories are formalizable, set theory provides a framework for theoretical physics. Four speculations about the relevance of set theoretical modeling for physics are presented: the role of transcendental set theory (i) in chaos theory, (ii) for paradoxical decompositions of solid three-dimensional objects, (iii) in the theory of effective computability (Church-Turing thesis) related to the possible {open_quotes}solution of supertasks,{close_quotes} and (iv) for weak solutions. Several approaches to set theory and their advantages and disadvantages for physical applications are discussed: Cantorian {open_quotes}naive{close_quotes} (i.e., nonaxiomatic) set theory, contructivism, and operationalism. In the author`s opinion, an attitude, of {open_quotes}suspended attention{close_quotes} (a term borrowed from psychoanalysis) seems most promising for progress. Physical and set theoretical entities must be operationalized wherever possible. At the same time, physicists should be open to {open_quotes}bizarre{close_quotes} or {open_quotes}mindboggling{close_quotes} new formalisms, which need not be operationalizable or testable at the time of their creation, but which may successfully lead to novel fields of phenomenology and technology.

  11. Structural analysis of a superconducting central solenoid for the Tokamak Physics Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    O`Connor, T.G.; Heim, J.R.

    1993-09-15

    The Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX) concept design uses superconducting coils to accomplish magnetic confinement. The central solenoid (CS) magnet is divided vertically into 8 equal segments which are powered independently. The eddy current heating from the pulsed operation is too high for a case type construction; therefore, a {open_quotes}no case{close_quotes} design has been chosen. This {open_quotes}no case{close_quotes} design uses the conductor conduit as the primary structure and the electrical insulation as a structural adhesive. This electrical insulation is the {open_quotes}weak link{close_quotes} in the coil winding pack structure and needs to be modeled in detail. A global finite element model with smeared winding pack properties was used to study the CS magnet structural behavior. The structural analysis results and peak stresses will be presented.

  12. Selection criteria for adding management units to the SAMAB regional biosphere reserve

    SciTech Connect

    Mann, L.K.; Martin, G.; Abrell, J.; Meriwether, D. )

    1994-06-01

    The SAMAB (Southern Appalachian Man and the Biosphere) regional biosphere reserve initially consisted of three land management units in the southern Appalachians (Great Smoky Mountains National Park, Coweeta Hydrologic Laboratory, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory's National Environmental Research Park). Traditional biosphere reserves in UNESCOs Man and the Biosphere (MAB) program have been defined by [open quote]core[close quote], [open quote]buffer[close quote], and [open quote]transition[close quote] zones. These concepts are difficult to apply to regional biosphere reserves. Therefore, selection criteria for incorporating additional land management units into SAMAB were developed which recognize 4 components of the regional reserve: biosphere reserve (core) units, varied and harmonious landscapes, modified landscapes, and the zone of cooperation. Selection criteria define ecological, political, logistic, and educational requirements for inclusion. The Tennessee River Gorge Trust is currently under evaluation for inclusion in SAMAB.

  13. Crystal growth of a layered silicate clay mineral as revealed by atomic force microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Carrado, K.A.; Song, Kang; Zajac, G.W.

    1997-12-31

    Non-contact atomic force microscopy, commonly referred to as {open_quotes}tapping mode{close_quotes} AFM, has been used to scan primarily the morphological features of growing hectorite clay crystallites synthesized in the presence of organo-ammonium cations. The use of such cations allows larger crystals to form in this system, making study by AFM feasible. This is the first time that actual temporal {open_quotes}snapshots{close_quotes} of a clay`s nucleation and crystallization processes have been presented. The observed view does not support the perhaps predicted scene of small crystallites slowly ripening into larger and larger plates. Instead, larger and larger aggregates appear to coalesce from a larger number of small crystallites that are closely associated in globular networks similar in appearance to {open_quotes}strings of pearls{close_quotes} at the initial stages of crystallization.

  14. Compilation for critically constrained knowledge bases

    SciTech Connect

    Schrag, R.

    1996-12-31

    We show that many {open_quotes}critically constrained{close_quotes} Random 3SAT knowledge bases (KBs) can be compiled into disjunctive normal form easily by using a variant of the {open_quotes}Davis-Putnam{close_quotes} proof procedure. From these compiled KBs we can answer all queries about entailment of conjunctive normal formulas, also easily - compared to a {open_quotes}brute-force{close_quotes} approach to approximate knowledge compilation into unit clauses for the same KBs. We exploit this fact to develop an aggressive hybrid approach which attempts to compile a KB exactly until a given resource limit is reached, then falls back to approximate compilation into unit clauses. The resulting approach handles all of the critically constrained Random 3SAT KBs with average savings of an order of magnitude over the brute-force approach.

  15. HUNTER-GATHERER: Three search techniques integrated for natural language semantics

    SciTech Connect

    Beale, S.; Nirenburg, S.; Mahesh, K.

    1996-12-31

    This work integrates three related Al search techniques - constraint satisfaction, branch-and-bound and solution synthesis - and applies the result to semantic processing in natural language (NL). We summarize the approach as {open_quote}Hunter-Gatherer:{close_quotes} (1) branch-and-bound and constraint satisfaction allow us to {open_quote}hunt down{close_quotes} non-optimal and impossible solutions and prune them from the search space. (2) solution synthesis methods then {open_quote}gather{close_quotes} all optimal solutions avoiding exponential complexity. Each of the three techniques is briefly described, as well as their extensions and combinations used in our system. We focus on the combination of solution synthesis and branch-and-bound methods which has enabled near-linear-time processing in our applications. Finally, we illustrate how the use of our technique in a large-scale MT project allowed a drastic reduction in search space.

  16. Effective materials for reducing damage rates to PWR pressure vessels

    SciTech Connect

    Greenspan, E.; Abrefah, J.; Olander, D.; Shayer, Z. )

    1993-01-01

    Among the proposed measures for reducing the damage rate to pressurized water reactor (PWR) pressure vessels are the following: 1. replacement of fuel rods in peripheral fuel assemblies with dummy rods-the [open quotes]fuel replacement[close quotes] (FR) approach; 2. insertion of neutron reflecting and attenuating materials between the core baffle and the core barrel-the [open quotes]reflector-shield[close quotes] (RS) approach; 3. attachment of shielding patches to the thermal shield-the [open quotes]thermal shield[close quotes] approach. The material commonly proposed for all three approaches is stainless steel (SS). While searching for optimal compact shield compositions, Gilai et al. found that a combination of tungsten and titanium hydride is significantly more effective than SS for attenuating fusion and fission neutrons. A preliminary feasibility study later indicated that tungsten and titanium-hydride can, indeed, make a more effective reflector shield than SS.

  17. Study, outlines why outages go long, short, or on-time

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    A recent report by a nuclear industry professional, based on a survey of outage managers at US nuclear power plants, declares that [open quotes]preplanned outage schedules appear to be grossly inaccurate, and the outage management planners and schedulers do not have a grasp of the requirements and/or the resources needed to complete the actual activities on schedule.[close quotes] It declares that [open quotes]the scheduled duration of a planned outage must be realistic.[close quotes] The study identifies personnel, planning and scheduling, and equipment/hardware as [open quotes]the primary reasons why refueling outages and outage activities finished ahead of, right on, or behind schedule.[close quotes

  18. The Solar Flare Myth in solar-terrestrial physics

    SciTech Connect

    Gosling, J.T.

    1993-07-01

    Early observations of associations between solar flares and large non- recurrent geomagnetic storms, large {open_quote}solar{close_quote} energetic particle events, and transient shock wave disturbances in the solar wind led to a paradigm of cause and effect that gave flares a central position in the chain of events leading from solar activity to major transient disturbances in the near-earth space environment. However, research in the last two decades shows that this emphasis on flares is misplaced. In this paper the author outlines briefly the rationale for a different paradigm of cause and effect in solar- terrestrial physics that removes solar flares from their central position as the {open_quote}cause{close_quote} of major disturbances in the near-earth space environment. Instead, this central role of {open_quote}cause{close_quote} is played by events now known as coronal mass ejections, or CMEs.

  19. Use of sulfur hexafluoride and perfluorocarbon tracers in plutonium storage containers for leak detection

    SciTech Connect

    Kung, J.K.

    1998-05-01

    This study involves an investigation of the feasibility of a tracer-based leak detection system for long-term interim plutonium storage. In particular, a protocol has been developed based on the use of inert tracers with varying concentrations in order to {open_quotes}fingerprint{close_quotes} or {open_quotes}tag{close_quotes} specific containers. A particular combination of tracers at specific ratios could be injected into the free volume of each container, allowing for the detection of leaks as well as determination of the location of leaking containers. Based on plutonium storage considerations, sulfur hexafluoride and four perfluorocarbon tracers were selected and should allow a wide range of viable fingerprinting combinations. A {open_quotes}high-low{close_quotes} protocol which uses two distinct chromatographic peak areas or concentration levels, is recommended. Combinations of air exchange rates, detection durations, and detectability limits are examined in order to predict minimum tracer concentrations required for injection in storage containers.

  20. Whatever happened to the 60 Hertz power?

    SciTech Connect

    Waggoner, R.M.

    1996-05-01

    We have all become used to 60 Hertz electrical power - in fact that is what we have expected at the electrical outlet ever since the DC days of George Westinghouse and others in the early part of the 20th Century, We knew that 60 Hertz was generated and transmitted by the power supplier, and we knew that our load devices, when {open_quotes}plugged-in{close_quotes} would accept that frequency when we turned on the switch. The surprise for most of us is that this happy {open_quotes}marriage{close_quotes} of 60 Hertz supply and 60 Hertz load just does not exist much anymore and the prospect for the future is an ever increasing {open_quotes}multiple-frequency{close_quotes} demand by the new sensitive loads. These multiple frequencies, in addition to 60 Hertz, are what we call Harmonics; and, their presence introduces both current and voltage interactions which can disturb our power systems.

  1. Advanced secondary recovery demonstration for the Sooner unit. Quarterly technical report, October 1, 1995--December 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Sippel, M.A.; Cammon, T.J.

    1995-12-31

    The Sooner {open_quotes}D{close_quotes} Sand Unit is located about 100 miles northeast from Denver. The Cretaceous {open_quotes}D{close_quotes} Sand has good primary recovery but disappointing waterflood performance. The nearest ten waterflood projects in the area of the Sooner Unit produced only an average of 2 percent incremental oil from waterflooding after an average primary recovery of 16 percent OOIP. Poor waterflood recovery is attributed to reservoir heterogeneity, poor reservoir management practices and lack of infill drilling. Three-dimensional (3-D) seismic had not been used in the D-J Basin for exploration or development of {open_quotes}D{close_quotes} Sand reservoirs prior to this project.

  2. A survey of the effect of primary coolant pH on Westinghouse PWR plant radiation fields. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Polley, M.V.; Garbett, K.; Pick, M.E.

    1994-11-01

    PWR coolants contain lithium hydroxide in order to increase the coolant pH and, therefore, to inhibit corrosion and to minimize deposition of {open_quote}crud{close_quote} on fuel cladding. This, in turn, reduces the production of radioactive corrosion products and reduces dose rates arising from radioactivity deposited on primary circuit components. A detailed survey has been carried out of primary coolant pH at up to 16 Westinghouse PWRs during their first two cycles of operation. Dose rates at plants which have operated the standard coordinated pH{sub 300} 6.9 regime were compared with those which have operated higher pH chemistry regimes. It was concluded that plants which have adopted {open_quote}modified chemistry{close_quote} and {open_quote}elevated lithium{close_quote} regimes have lower dose rates than plants which have operated coordinated pH{sub 300} 6.9 regimes.

  3. Challenge problems for artificial intelligence

    SciTech Connect

    Selman, B.; Brooks, R.A.; Dean, T.

    1996-12-31

    AI textbooks and papers of ten discuss the big questions, such as {open_quotes}how to reason with uncertainty{close_quotes}, {open_quotes}how to reason efficiently{close_quotes}, or {open_quotes}how to improve performance through learning.{close_quotes} It is more difficult, however, to find descriptions of concrete problems or challenges that are still ambitious and interesting, yet not so open-ended. The goal of this panel is to formulate a set of such challenge problems for the field. Each panelist was asked to formulate one or more challenges. The emphasis is on problems for which there is a good chance that they will be resolved within the next five to ten years.

  4. Refinery suppliers face tough times

    SciTech Connect

    Rotman, D.; Walsh, K.

    1997-03-12

    Despite a handful of bright spots in hydroprocessing and petrochemical sectors, economic woes plague much of the refinery and petrochemical catalysts business, as suppliers are feeling the impact of mature markets and refiners` ongoing cost cutting. Industry experts say the doldrums could spur further restructuring in the catalyst business, with suppliers scrambling for market share and jockeying for position in growing sectors. Expect further consolidation over the next several years, says Pierre Bonnifay, president of IFP Enterprises (New York). {open_quotes}There are still too many players for the mature [refinery catalyst] markets.{close_quotes} Others agree. {open_quotes}Only about seven [or] eight major suppliers will survive,{close_quotes} says Robert Allsmiller, v.p./refinery and petrochemical catalysts at United Catalysts Inc. (UCI; Louisville, KY). {open_quotes}Who they [will be] is still up in the air.{close_quotes}

  5. Use of SSH on a compartmented mode workstation

    SciTech Connect

    Tolliver, J.S.; Dillow, D.

    1997-08-01

    SSH stands for {open_quotes}Secure Shell.{close_quotes} It is now a user shell like csh or ksh. Instead it is a widely-used means to accomplish secure, encrypted communication among cooperating nodes. It is a secure replacement for the {open_quotes}r-commands{close_quotes}, rlogin, and rcp. SSH is free for noncommercial use and builds and runs on most any Unix platform. A Compartmented Mode Workstation (CMW) is an example of a secure or {open_quotes}trusted{close_quotes} operating system. The use of SSH on a CMW introduces security problems unless the SSH source code is modified to take advantage of the security features of the CMW. This paper describes the port and use of SSH on one particular brand of CMW.

  6. Field investigation of heat transfer in hydraulic fractures and the effect of heat transfer on fracturing fluid design

    SciTech Connect

    Craig, D.P.; Brown, T.D.; Ely, J.W.

    1996-12-31

    Fracturing fluid temperature is a key variable in the design of hydraulic fracturing treatments and the formulation of fracturing fluids. Heat transfer in a hydraulic fracture dictates the fluid formulation and the concentration of chemical {open_quotes}breakers{close_quotes} used to degrade the fluid and maximize proppant pack conductivity. This paper contains the results of an investigation of heat transfer in hydraulic fractures, and documents the recording of bottomhole temperature during Piceance Basin Mesaverde fracturing treatments and during immediate flow back ({open_quotes}forced closure{close_quotes}). Bottomhole temperature was measured with a gauge set in a perforated interval, and the data shows minimal {open_quotes}cool down{close_quotes} of fracturing fluids, i.e., flow back temperatures increased rapidly to near bottomhole static temperature. Computer simulations are also presented and a fracturing fluid design methodology is suggested which balances fluid rheological requirements with degradation requirements, for maximizing proppant pack conductivity.

  7. Measurement accuracy, bit-strings, Manthey`s quaternions, and RRQM

    SciTech Connect

    Noyes, H.P.

    1995-02-01

    The author continues the discussion started last year. By now three potentially divergent research programs have surfaced in ANPA: (1) the Bastin-Kilmister understanding of the combinatorial hierarchy (Clive`s {open_quotes}Menshevik{close_quotes} position); (2) the author`s bit-string {open_quotes}Theory of Everything{close_quotes} (which Clive has dubbed {open_quotes}Bolshevik{close_quotes}); (3) Manthey`s cycle hierarchy based on co-occurrence and mutual exclusion that Clive helped him map onto quaternions (as an yet unnamed heresy?). Unless a common objective can be found, these three points of view will continue to diverge. The authors suggests the reconstruction of relativistic quantum mechanism (RRQM) as a reasonable, and attainable, goal that might aid convergence rather than divergence.

  8. Application of break preclusion concept in German nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Roos, E.; Maier, V.; Nagel, G.

    1997-04-01

    The break preclusion concept is based on {open_quotes}KTA rules{close_quotes}, {open_quotes}RSK guidelines{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}Rahmenspeziflkation Basissicherheit{close_quotes}. These fundamental rules containing for example requirements on material, design, calculation, manufacturing and testing procedures are explained and the technical realisation is shown by means of examples. The proof of the quality of these piping systems can be executed by means of fracture mechanics calculations by showing that in every case the leakage monitoring system already detect cracks which are clearly smaller than the critical crack. Thus the leak before break behavior and the break preclusion concept is implicitly affirmed. In order to further diminish conservativities in the fracture mechanics procedures, specific research projects are executed which are explained in this contribution.

  9. The small-strain moduli of tetrafunctional networks of vinyl-terminated polydimethylsiloxane chains

    SciTech Connect

    Sharaf, M.A.; Alshamsi, A.S.; Mark, J.E.

    1993-12-31

    Model polydimethylsiloxane networks were prepared by crosslinking vinyl terminated chains with employing hydrosilylation reactions at low temperature. At low temperatures, significant side reactions were found be absent, thereby leading to networks with well defined stoichiometries. These networks were study with regard to their stress-strain isotherms in elongation. The results can be best explained on premises of the more recent molecular theory of Flory and Erman, within limits set by inaccuracies in the determination of the sol fraction and so the structural parameters of the network. Also, the nonquivalence of the {open_quotes}effective{close_quotes} number of chains {nu}{sub eff} relevant to theory and the commonly used {open_quotes}active{close_quotes} relevant to theory and the commonly used {open_quotes}active{close_quotes} number of chains {nu}{sub a} is emphasized.

  10. Dynamics of melting argon clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Tanner, G.M.; Bhattacharya, A.; Nayak, S.K.; Mahanti, S.D.

    1997-01-01

    With increasing total energy, small atomic clusters show a {ital smooth} transition from a rigid solidlike to a floppy liquidlike {open_quotes}phase.{close_quotes} In certain clusters, depending on their structure and stability, this transition takes place over a finite energy range where both these {open_quotes}phases{close_quotes} coexist in a dynamical sense, whereas in others the transition does not involve a coexistence region and has been called {open_quotes}slushlike.{close_quotes} Previous studies in Ar{sub 13}, which belongs to the first kind, have established the energy variation of maximal Lyapunov exponent (MLE) and the dynamic structure factor (DSF) as {open_quotes}dynamical indicators{close_quotes} of this transition. To understand the general features of these dynamic indicators better, we investigated the dynamic properties of two clusters Ar{sub 19} and Ar{sub 17}. The former is a magic number cluster whose behavior is expected to be similar to Ar{sub 13}, whereas the latter which does not show a coexistence region belongs to the second kind. Ar{sub 19} shows a behavior similar to Ar{sub 13}. In Ar{sub 17}, we find that above the transition but close to it, the DSF still shows features exhibiting the interplay of a {open_quotes}hot solid{close_quotes}and a {open_quotes}cold liquid{close_quotes} as observed in the coexistence region of Ar{sub 13} and Ar{sub 19}. Unlike the bond length fluctuation which exhibits a rapid increase near the transition, the behavior of MLE is rather smooth and it does not serve as a good dynamical indicator of the transition in the Ar{sub 17} system. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  11. Right-to-know reporting: Who has access to reported information and how will it be used?

    SciTech Connect

    Blanchard, S.E.

    1995-06-01

    Considered {open_quotes}paper tigers{close_quotes} by many during their first few years of existence, state and federal right-to-know and hazard communication laws are not only increasingly the subject of enforcement activity, they are eliciting information which will result in increased enforcement of other environmental laws. The growth in popularity of {open_quotes}regulation by information{close_quotes} programs like TRI reflects a fundamental transition in the nature of environmental regulation. For years, source reduction has been a stated top priority for the major federal regulatory programs, but regulators have made little progress toward achieving this goal. Frustrated after years of managing {open_quotes}end-of- the-pipe{close_quotes} programs without any headway toward source reduction, regulators have gravitated toward {open_quotes}right-to-know{close_quotes} regulatory schemes requiring disclosure of the regulated facility`s use of materials and patterns of waste management. Recognizing that {open_quotes}knowledge is power,{close_quotes} regulators cite a number of advantages in adopting such strategies. First, the public availability of reported data provides a strong incentive for companies to eliminate the need to report. Second, compilation of such data invites analysis and comparisons. Data can be evaluated by regulatory program, by environmental media, by industry, by geographic region, and even by individual facility. Third, right-to-know programs conserve scarce regulatory resources by inviting state and local governments, as well as citizen groups, to enforce environmental law. This new decentralized {open_quotes}holistic{close_quotes} approach to regulation, linking information reported under right-to-know laws to pollution prevention requirements and cross-media or facility-wide enforcement initiatives, makes careful attention to this area of law essential.

  12. Icosahedral quasicrystal decoration models. I. Geometrical principles

    SciTech Connect

    Mihalkovic, M. |; Zhu, W.; Henley, C.L.; Oxborrow, M. |

    1996-04-01

    It is proposed that quasicrystal structure determination should include the calculation of cohesive energies using realistic potentials. A class of atomic decoration models for {ital i}-AlMn is then presented, adopting the {open_quote}{open_quote}canonical-cell{close_quote}{close_quote} tiling geometry, with {open_quote}{open_quote}Mackay icosahedron{close_quote}{close_quote} clusters placed on all its nodes. The remaining atomic positions are based, as far as possible, on the known structure of {alpha}-AlMnSi. These models guarantee good local packing of the atoms, whose displacements away from {open_quote}{open_quote}ideal{close_quote}{close_quote} positions are specified by only a moderate number of parameters. Certain atomic sites are uncertain as regards their occupancy and/or chemistry; variations of the decoration rules on these sites must be compared, in order to discover the correct one. Our models are well adapted to be relaxed under an effective Hamiltonian to optimize the cohesive energy; we show how the energies found in such relaxations can be used to extract an effective tile-tile Hamiltonian, as would be needed for future studies of phason elasticity and the development of long-range order. In addition, we clarify concepts needed for decoration models in general (in particular, the ways in which elaborate, more realistic decorations may be evolved from simpler ones). We also show that these decoration models are closely related, but not identical, to quasiperiodic structures defined using six-dimensional formalism. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  13. Progress toward a genotype/phenotype correlation in galactosemia

    SciTech Connect

    Reichardt, J.K.V.; Lin, Hsien-Chin; Ng, Won G.

    1994-09-01

    Galactosemia is secondary to deficiency of the enzyme galactose-1-phosphate uridyl transferase (GALT). If untreated this condition results in severe neonatal symptoms and can be fatal. Most symptoms disappear upon the institution of a galactose-restricted diet. Therefore, most states in the US and many developed countries have implemented newborn screening programs for galactosemia. We have characterized thus far twelve disease-causing point mutations, four protein polymorphisms, one silent nucleotide substitution and a RFLP (restriction fragment length polymorphism) in over 200 patients. The most common galactosemia mutation, Q188R, is present on about 64% of Caucasian galactosemia alleles in the US. This mutation is present on 67% of {open_quotes}classic{close_quotes} Caucasian alleles with severe neonatal symptoms and undetectable crythrocytic GALT activity. Thus, Q188R almost defines the {open_quotes}classic{close_quotes} phenotype in Caucasian galactosemia patients. This mutation, however, is present on only 16% of the milder {open_quotes}variant{close_quotes} alleles and never in the homozygous state. Variant patients have up to 10% residual GALT activity in their red cells. Therefore, one or more as of yet uncharacterized mutations other than Q188R must be present in {open_quotes}variant{close_quotes} patients. The Q188R mutations is very rare in other ethnic and racial groups. Thus, Galactosemia is panethnic but the mutational basis of this disease differs among human populations. The frequency of Q188R is intermediate in Hispanic-American patients, probably reflecting the Spanish contribution to the gene pool in this population. We conclude that the Q188R mutation encodes the severe {open_quotes}classic{close_quotes}galactosemia phenotype in Caucasians and that other mutations produce the {open_quotes}variant{close_quotes} galactosemia phenotype.

  14. Fault seal analysis: Methodology and case studies

    SciTech Connect

    Badley, M.E.; Freeman, B.; Needham, D.T.

    1996-12-31

    Fault seal can arise from reservoir/non-reservoir juxtaposition or by development of fault rock of high entry-pressure. The methodology for evaluating these possibilities uses detailed seismic mapping and well analysis. A {open_quote}first-order{close_quote} seal analysis involves identifying reservoir juxtaposition areas over the fault surface, using the mapped horizons and a refined reservoir stratigraphy defined by isochores at the fault surface. The {open_quote}second-order{close_quote} phase of the analysis assesses whether the sand-sand contacts are likely to support a pressure difference. We define two lithology-dependent attributes {open_quote}Gouge Ratio{close_quote} and {open_quote}Smear Factor{close_quote}. Gouge Ratio is an estimate of the proportion of fine-grained material entrained into the fault gouge from the wall rocks. Smear Factor methods estimate the profile thickness of a ductile shale drawn along the fault zone during faulting. Both of these parameters vary over the fault surface implying that faults cannot simply be designated {open_quote}sealing{close_quote} or {open_quote}non-sealing{close_quote}. An important step in using these parameters is to calibrate them in areas where across-fault pressure differences are explicitly known from wells on both sides of a fault. Our calibration for a number of datasets shows remarkably consistent results despite their diverse settings (e.g. Brent Province, Niger Delta, Columbus Basin). For example, a Shale Gouge Ratio of c. 20% (volume of shale in the slipped interval) is a typical threshold between minimal across-fault pressure difference and significant seal.

  15. Fault seal analysis: Methodology and case studies

    SciTech Connect

    Badley, M.E.; Freeman, B.; Needham, D.T. )

    1996-01-01

    Fault seal can arise from reservoir/non-reservoir juxtaposition or by development of fault rock of high entry-pressure. The methodology for evaluating these possibilities uses detailed seismic mapping and well analysis. A [open quote]first-order[close quote] seal analysis involves identifying reservoir juxtaposition areas over the fault surface, using the mapped horizons and a refined reservoir stratigraphy defined by isochores at the fault surface. The [open quote]second-order[close quote] phase of the analysis assesses whether the sand-sand contacts are likely to support a pressure difference. We define two lithology-dependent attributes [open quote]Gouge Ratio[close quote] and [open quote]Smear Factor[close quote]. Gouge Ratio is an estimate of the proportion of fine-grained material entrained into the fault gouge from the wall rocks. Smear Factor methods estimate the profile thickness of a ductile shale drawn along the fault zone during faulting. Both of these parameters vary over the fault surface implying that faults cannot simply be designated [open quote]sealing[close quote] or [open quote]non-sealing[close quote]. An important step in using these parameters is to calibrate them in areas where across-fault pressure differences are explicitly known from wells on both sides of a fault. Our calibration for a number of datasets shows remarkably consistent results despite their diverse settings (e.g. Brent Province, Niger Delta, Columbus Basin). For example, a Shale Gouge Ratio of c. 20% (volume of shale in the slipped interval) is a typical threshold between minimal across-fault pressure difference and significant seal.

  16. Toxicity evaluation and hazard review for Rigid Foam

    SciTech Connect

    Archuleta, M.M.; Stocum, W.E.

    1994-02-01

    Rigid Foam is a chemical delay foam used to completely encapsulate an object or to block access to an area. Prior studies have indicated that the final foam product is essentially non-toxic. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and summarize the current chemical and toxicological data available on the components of Rigid Foam and to update the information available on the toxicity of the final Rigid Foam product. Since the possibility exists for a partial deployment of Rigid Foam where only one of the components is released, this study also examined the toxicity of its chemical constituents. Rigid Foam is composed of an {open_quotes}A{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}B{close_quotes} Component. The {open_quotes}A{close_quotes} component is primarily a polymeric isocyanate and the {open_quotes}B{close_quotes} component is a mixture of polyols. In addition to the primary constituents, dichlorodifluoromethane and trichlorofluoromethane are present as blowing agents along with catalysts and silicone surfactants necessary for foaming. The pre-deployed {open_quotes}A{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}B{close_quotes} components are stored in separate vessels and are brought together in static mixing nozzles for dispersal. The results of this evaluation indicate that a completely deployed Rigid Foam under normal conditions is essentially non-toxic as determined previously. However, in the event of a partial deployment or deployment of an individual component directly at an unprotected individual, the degree of hazard is increased due to the toxic and corrosive nature of the individual constituents. The health hazard would depend on the properties of the material to which the person was exposed.

  17. Effect of sintering periods on the microstructure and electrical transport properties of high-{ital T}{sub {ital c}} superconducting Bi{endash}(Pb){endash}Sr{endash}Ca{endash}Cu{endash}O tapes

    SciTech Connect

    Vo, N.V.; Liu, H.K.; Dou, S.X.

    1996-05-01

    The effect of sintering periods for monocore (Bi,Pb){sub 2}Sr{sub 2}Ca{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 10+{ital x}} (Bi-2223) tapes on microstructure and critical current density ({ital J}{sub {ital c}}) have been studied. The results show that long sintering periods (of duration {ge}100 h) give better grain growth, but greater misalignment. Prolonged sintering also necessitates the increase in porosity of the core due to random grain growth, increasing the chance of penetrating into the silver matrix and oxide core interface. Critical currents for long sintering periods are found to be lower in comparison with those obtained for slightly shorter sintering periods. The increase in frequency of intermediate cold uniaxial pressing between sintering periods assists grain alignment. However when the sintering period is further reduced by increasing the frequency of intermediate deformation, it is found that microcracks are unable to heal as there is not enough time for grain regrowth. The tapes made using {open_quote}{open_quote}three-to-four-sinter-period{close_quote}{close_quote} (each period {approximately}60 h) show superior electrical transport properties which are attributable to the fact that their oxide core is more dense and better aligned relative to the {open_quote}{open_quote}two-sinter-period{close_quote}{close_quote} (each period {ge}100 h) tapes and contain less cracks relative to the {open_quote}{open_quote}five-to-six-sinter-period{close_quote}{close_quote} (each period {approximately}40 h) tapes. {copyright} {ital 1996 Materials Research Society.}

  18. Climate change: Clinton affirms binding emissions reduction policy

    SciTech Connect

    Fairley, P.

    1996-12-04

    In Australia last month President Clinton called for an international agreement to negotiate {open_quotes}legally binding commitments to fight climate change.{close_quotes} His comments affirmed the line the Administration adopted in July and lent prominence to the effort to bring about a treaty by December 1997. Environmentalists welcomed Clinton`s comments, but industry response is divided. The Global Climate Coalition (Washington), of which CMA is a member, has tried to slow negotiations by questioning the scientific consensus on climate change and suggesting {open_quotes}serious damage to the American economy{close_quotes} could result from emissions reduction.

  19. Technical and economic evaluation of selected compact drill rigs for drilling 10,000 foot geothermal production wells

    SciTech Connect

    Huttrer, G.W.

    1997-11-01

    This report summarizes the investigation and evaluation of several {open_quotes}compact{close_quotes} drill rigs which could be used for drilling geothermal production wells. Use of these smaller rigs would save money by reducing mobilization costs, fuel consumption, crew sizes, and environmental impact. Advantages and disadvantages of currently-manufactured rigs are identified, and desirable characteristics for the {open_quotes}ideal{close_quotes} compact rig are defined. The report includes a detailed cost estimate of a specific rig, and an evaluation of the cost/benefit ratio of using this rig. Industry contacts for further information are given.

  20. The use of the information highway to explore climate variability with the Global Climate Perspectives System (GCPS)

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, C.B.; Brinegar, D.E.

    1996-12-31

    Current concerns over global and regional climate change fluctuations require development of a system that is capable of answering inquiries about the state of the climate from many sectors of society. Often however, when the general public is confronted with studies concerning climate change the results are presented as {open_quotes}global{close_quotes} averages. These averages can mask important regional changes which are {open_quotes}key{close_quotes} to understanding the climate system. The Global Climate Perspectives System (GCPS) system is being designed to examine regional to global scale climate changes by using station and gridded climate data.

  1. DOE TMD transportation training module 14 transportation of explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Griffith, R.L. Jr.

    1994-07-01

    The Department of Energy Transportation Management Division has developed training module 14, entitled {open_quotes}Transportation of Explosives{close_quotes} to compliment the basic {open_quotes}core ten{close_quotes} training modules of the Hazardous Materials Modular Training Program. The purpose of this training module is to increase awareness of the Department of Transportation (DOT) requirements concerning the packaging and transportation of explosives. Topics covered in module 14 include the classification of explosives, approval and registration of explosives, packaging requirements, hazard communication requirements, separation and segregation compatibility requirements, loading and unloading operations, as well as safety measures required in the event of a vehicle accident involving explosives.

  2. Integrated predictive maintenance program vibration and lube oil analysis: Part I - history and the vibration program

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, H.

    1996-12-01

    This paper is the first of two papers which describe the Predictive Maintenance Program for rotating machines at the Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station. The organization has recently been restructured and significant benefits have been realized by the interaction, or {open_quotes}synergy{close_quotes} between the Vibration Program and the Lube Oil Analysis Program. This paper starts with the oldest part of the program - the Vibration Program and discusses the evolution of the program to its current state. The {open_quotes}Vibration{close_quotes} view of the combined program is then presented.

  3. Wholesale bakeries: A small-business guide. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-09-01

    Commercial baking is thought to be one of the world`s oldest industries, with evidence of commercial bakeries dating back to the Egyptians. In the late 19th century, technological innovations such as the development of {open_quotes}tame{close_quotes} yeast and the mechanization of bread kneading enabled mass production of baked goods. As a result, larger {open_quotes}wholesale{close_quotes} baking facilities began to replace smaller local bakeries. Today, there are over 3000 wholesale bakeries across the United States. This report is intended to provide information on the bakery business from the perspective of processes, issues, and challenges faced, including energy consumption of electrically driven equipment.

  4. From subsistance farming to agro-business

    SciTech Connect

    Delfino, M.

    1994-12-31

    A review of the parallel session on Hardware Architectures is presented. Legacy systems from the {open_quotes}subsistance farming{close_quotes} era, where small groups from experiments built or assembled their own loosely-coupled parallel systems must still be maintained, but the major trend is towards a re-birth of the Computer Center, using {open_quotes}agrobusiness{close_quotes} technology, the large scale use of loosely-coupled parallel systems using a high performance network to communicate with storage subsystems.

  5. House passes RCRA fix by wide margin

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-07

    The House of Representatives has passed a bill to prevent expensive, court-ordered tightening of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act`s (RCRA) land-disposal rules. The measure was initiated last March as part of the Clinton Administration`s {open_quotes}reinventing environmental regulation{close_quotes} initiative and was championed by House Republicans. It passed, 402 to 19, drawing overwhelming support from Democrats. CMA president and CEO Fred Webber hailed the bipartisan approach as the right way to legislate. {open_quotes}We hope this bill can serve as a model for Superfund and other pieces of unfinished business,{close_quotes} he says.

  6. Splitting a default theory

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, H.

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents mathematical results that can sometimes be used to simplify the task of reasoning about a default theory, by {open_quotes}splitting it into parts.{close_quotes} These so-called Splitting Theorems for default logic are related in spirit to {open_quotes}partial evaluation{close_quotes} in logic programming, in which results obtained from one part of a program are used to simplify the remainder of the program. In this paper we focus primarily on the statement and proof of the Splitting Theorems for default logic. We illustrate the usefulness of the results by applying them to an example default theory for commonsense reasoning about action.

  7. Magnetic Dichroism in the Angular Distribution of Atomic Oxygen {bold 2}{ital p} Photoelectrons

    SciTech Connect

    Plotzke, O.; Pruemper, G.; Zimmermann, B.; Becker, U.; Kleinpoppen, H.

    1996-09-01

    A substantial difference in the angular distributions of 2{ital p} photoelectrons from polarized oxygen atoms was found for two antiparallel atomic polarizations. This magnetic dichroism was studied as a function of photon energy from 25 to 52eV. Our method extends traditional photoelectron angular distribution measurements of open shell atoms to {open_quote}{open_quote}complete{close_quote}{close_quote} experiments in similar to spin-resolved measurements. The observed dichroism allows a determination of the dipole matrix elements for the {epsilon}{ital s} and {epsilon}{ital d} photoelectrons and their phase difference including the sign. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  8. New ligands for the asymmetric dihydroxylation

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, H.; King, S.B.; Richardson, P.

    1995-12-31

    The asymmetric dibydroxylation of olefins in the presence of cinchona alkaloid derivatives (the AD reaction) has proven to be a reliable method in organic syntheses. For most olefins, the enantioselectivities using the {open_quotes}standard{close_quotes} phathalazine ligands are excellent; however, facial selectivity is still moderate for some olefins. 2,3-Diphenyl pyrazinopyridazine (DPP) and anthraquinone (AQN) as spacers for the {open_quotes}pseudo enantiomeric{close_quotes} alkaloids dihydroquinidine (DHQD) or dihydroquinine (DHQ) give superior enantioselectivities for almost all olefins.

  9. Transition-metal complexes with sulfur ligands. 82. H{sub 2}S, S{sub 2}, and CS{sub 2} molecules as ligands in sulfur-rich [Ru(PPh{sub 3})`S{sub 4}] complexes (`S{sub 4}{sup 2-} = 1,2-Bis[(2-mercaptophenyl)thio]ethane(2-))

    SciTech Connect

    Sellmann, D.; Lechner, P.; Knoch, F.; Moll, M.

    1992-01-29

    Red (Ru(PPh{sub 3}){open_quote}S{sub 4}{close_quote}){sub x} ({open_quote}S{sub 4}{close_quote}{sup 2} = 1,2-bis((2-mercaptophenyl)thio)ethane(2-) reacts in liquid H{sub 2}S at -70 C to give (Ru(SH{sub 2})(PPh{sub 3}){open_quote}S{sub 4}{close_quote}) (1) which recrystallizes from H{sub 2}S-saturated THF as 1-THF in yellow-orange single crystals. 1-THF is the first of the rare and often very unstable H{sub 2}S complexes that could be characterized by X-ray crystallography and shows how H{sub 2}S in complexes with sulfur-dominated coordination spheres is stabilized by hydrogen bonds. 1 and 1-THF are rapidly oxidized by O{sub 2} to yield deep turquoise-blue (({mu}-S{sub 2})(Ru(PPh{sub 3}{open_quote}S{sub 4}{close_quote}){sub 2}) (2) which has a trans {eta}{sup 1}-{eta}{sup 1}-S{sub 2} bridge and exists in two diastereomeric forms as proved by X-ray structure determination of 2{center_dot}CH{sub 2}Cl{sub 2} and 2{center_dot}CS{sub 2}. Crystals of 2{center_dot}CH{sub 2}Cl{sub 2} are triclinic. The RuSSRu core in 2 is a chromophore and is described as delocalized 4c-6e {pi} system. A high degree of sulfur coordination at the Ru centers is assumed to be responsible for the unusual electronic properties of 2 compared with other {mu}-S{sub 2} complexes. Addition of CS{sub 2} to (Ru(PPh{sub 3}) {open_quote}S{sub 4}{close_quote}) fragments leads to formation of binuclear deep red ((Ru(PPh{sub 3}))({mu}-{open_quote}S{sub 4}{close_quote}CS{sub 2})(Ru(PPh{sub 3}){open_quote}S{sub 4}{close_quote})) (3; {open_quote}S{sub 4}{close_quote}CS{sub 2}{sup 2{minus}} = 2-))2-((2-mercaptophenyl)-thio)phenyl trithiocarbonate (2-)) that exists in two diastereomeric pairs of enantiomers. One pair was characterized by X-ray crystallography of 3{center_dot}CS{sub 2} that contains a bridging thioxanthate ligand in an unprecedented bonding mode. Crystals of 3{center_dot}CS{sub 2} are monoclinic, space group P1.

  10. Encapsulation of palladium crystallites in carbon and the formation of wormlike nanostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Y. )

    1994-01-12

    This note reports the successful inclusion of cubic palladium crystals inside giant carbon clusters and the formation of novel wormlike carbon nanostructures (nanoworms). The head of the [open quotes]worm[close quotes] typically 20-50 nm in diameter, consists of palladium encapsulated in carbon, and the body of the [open quotes]worm[close quotes] several hundred nanometers in length, consists of many sections of carbon tubes with cone-shaped internal voids. The technique used to generate carbon-encapsulated palladium is the electric arc method. 17 refs., 3 figs.

  11. Catalytic Growth of Single-Wall Carbon Nanotubes: An {ital Ab Initio} Study

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Y.H.; Kim, S.G.; Tomanek, D.; Lee, Y.H.

    1997-03-01

    We propose a catalytic growth mechanism of single-wall carbon nanotubes based on density functional total energy calculations. Our results indicate nanotubes with an {open_quotes}armchair{close_quotes} edge to be energetically favored over {open_quotes}zigzag{close_quotes} nanotubes. We also suggest that highly mobile Ni catalyst atoms adsorb at the growing edge of the nanotube, where they catalyze the continuing assembly of hexagons from carbon feedstock diffusing along the nanotube wall. In a concerted exchange mechanism, Ni atoms anneal carbon pentagons that would initiate a dome closure of the nanotube. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  12. Filled skutterudite antimonides: Validation of the electron-crystal phonon-glass approach to new thermoelectric materials

    SciTech Connect

    Mandrus, D.; Sales, B.C.; Keppens, V.

    1997-04-01

    After a brief review of the transport and thermoelectric properties of filled skutterudite antimonides, the authors present resonant ultrasound, specific heat, and inelastic neutron scattering results that establish the existence of two low-energy vibrational modes in the filled skutterudite LaFe{sub 3}CoSb{sub 12}. It is likely that at least one of these modes represents the localized, incoherent vibrations of the La ion in an oversized atomic {open_quotes}cage{close_quotes}. These results support the usefulness of weakly bound, {open_quotes}rattling{close_quotes} ions for the improvement of thermoelectric performance.

  13. Filled skutterudite antimonides: Validation of the electron-crystal phonon-glass approach to new thermoelectric materials

    SciTech Connect

    Mandrus, D.; Dai, P.; Keppens, V.

    1997-04-01

    After a brief review of the transport and thermoelectric properties of filled skutterudite antimonides, we present resonant ultrasound, specific heat, and inelastic neutron scattering results that establish the existence of two low-energy vibrational modes in the filled skutterudite LaFe{sub 3}CoSb{sub 12}. It is likely that at least one of these modes represents the localized, incoherent vibrations of the La ion in an oversized atomic {open_quotes}cage.{close_quotes} These results support the usefulness of weakly bound, {open_quotes}rattling{close_quotes} ions for the improvement of thermoelectric performance.

  14. CIMFUELS: NPRA computer conference continues to grow

    SciTech Connect

    Latour, P.R.

    1997-01-01

    Process computer control has been a bedrock topic of NPRA computer conferences for many years. Traditionally this has included basic and advanced dynamic control, multivariable control (CMVPC), on-line optimization (CLRTO), scheduling, on-line integration and performance measures. These are the five active function of CIMFUELS that make money. Lately some have excluded scheduling and integration from {open_quotes}process control{close_quotes} but as they go closed loop, they become basic functions of {open_quotes}process control.{close_quotes} These new techniques to determine the financial performance of computer systems technology are discussed.

  15. Ten practical guidelines for successful business process reengineering

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchin, J.W.

    1996-12-31

    Well-skilled in the technical elements of their own process design specialty, many BPR consultants operating in industry today believe that a state-of-the-art command of what they {open_quotes}do{close_quotes} is sufficient to bring value to their clients. Understandable though it may be, this perspective can impair the development of the sound consultant/client relationship needed for the buyer to fully realize the value received from the consulting engagement. And, for the process design consultant, failure to competently manage the {open_quotes}human component{close_quotes} can often be the barrier that impedes the development of a growing and profitable practice.

  16. Dead material and energy measurements in hadronic calorimeters

    SciTech Connect

    Green, D.

    1993-01-01

    Often the question arises as to where is the optimal place to locate [open quotes]dead[close quotes] material in a calorimeter. This material may be needed for structural reasons, for example. There needs to be a quantified answer to the question of what damage this [open quotes]dead[close quotes] material does to the performance of a calorimeter. For the purposes of this note, a hadronic calorimeter (HAD) is characterized by the mean and standard deviation of the energy measurement made by that detector.

  17. Phase instability in ZrO{sub 2}{endash}NiAl functionally graded materials

    SciTech Connect

    He, Y.; Subramanian, V.; Lannutti, J.J.

    1997-10-01

    Sedimentation in organic solvents was followed by hot-pressing to produce 2 mole{percent} yttria stabilized zirconia-NiAl functionally graded materials (FGM{close_quote}s). These FGM{close_quote}s were better able to accommodate high levels of residual stress than alumina-NiAl FGM{close_quote}s; this is possibly due to enhanced tetragonal phase retention. However, we found that the zirconia layer in these FGM{close_quote}s subsequently experiences room temperature transformation of t-ZrO{sub 2} to m-ZrO{sub 2}. {copyright} {ital 1997 Materials Research Society.}

  18. Programmed cell death for defense against anomaly and tumor formation

    SciTech Connect

    Kondo, Sohei; Norimura, Toshiyuki; Nomura, Taisei

    1995-12-31

    Cell death after exposure to low-level radiation is often considered evidence that radiation is poisonous, however small the dose. Evidence has been accumulating to support the notion that cell death after low-level exposure to radiation results from activation of suicidal genes {open_quote}programmed cell death{close_quote} or {open_quote}apoptosis{close_quote} - for the health of the whole body. This paper gives experimental evidence that embryos of fruit flies and mouse fetuses have potent defense mechanisms against teratogenic or tumorigenic injury caused by radiation and carcinogens, which function through programmed cell death.

  19. Flute vortices in a plasma with hot particles

    SciTech Connect

    Andrushchenko, Zh.N.; Pavlenko, V.P.; Cheremnykh, O.K.

    1992-01-01

    Flute perturbations in a plasma with {open_quotes}hot{close_quotes} are considered. Steady-state solutions are found which describe localized vortex structures. Two types of vortex solutions are considered: a dipolar vortex and a combination of a dipolar and a monopolar vortex. It is shown that the presence of {open_quotes}hot{close_quotes} particles has an effect on the region in which the vortex solutions exist in velocity space, which can give rise to a change in the particle flux leaving the plasma due to eddy convection. It is shown that the perturbed density profile in flute vortices must be nonmonotonic. 10 refs.

  20. Mixed constraint satisfaction: A framework for decision problems under incomplete knowledge

    SciTech Connect

    Fargier, H.; Lang, J.; Schiex, T.

    1996-12-31

    Constraint satisfaction is a powerful tool for representing and solving decision problems with complete knowledge about the world. We extend the CSP framework so as to represent decision problems under incomplete knowledge. The basis of the extension consists in a distinction between controllable and uncontrollable variables - hence the terminology {open_quotes}mixed CSP{close_quotes} - and a {open_quotes}solution{close_quotes} gives actually a conditional decision. We study the complexity of deciding the consistency of a mixed CSP. As the problem is generally intractable, we propose an algorithm for finding an approximate solution.

  1. Hazardous materials transportation

    SciTech Connect

    Wyman, C.

    1995-12-31

    This paper addresses the transportation of {open_quotes}hazardous materials{close_quotes} by highway, railcar, pipeline, and vessel. As defined by the U.S. Department of Transportation, {open_quotes}hazardous materials{close_quotes} are substances or materials capable of posing a unreasonable risk to health, safety and property when transported in commerce. After a brief discussion of the general federal framework of hazardous materials transportation regulation, the paper will offer more detailed discussion of the Hazardous Materials Transportation Authorization Act of 1994, followed by a brief overview of pipeline and bulk vessel transportation regulations.

  2. Curing of freshly pasted plates (hydroset)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    The method of plate curing that is popularly followed is known as the [open quotes]hydroset[close quotes] process. This consists of taking the freshly pasted plates from the end of the posting oven and controlling the rate of drying over a period of some two to ten days, after which time the plate active material should contain at least 98% lead oxide and lead sulfate and less than 1% moisture. The plates are [open quotes]set-up[close quotes] and rigid enough so that they can be handled or processed by machine with minimum loss. Equipment requirements and processing details are discussed.

  3. Counter guarantee options

    SciTech Connect

    Gunguli, B.

    1995-07-01

    In November 1994, the Government of India announced a set of guidelines which independent power producers (IPPs) would have to follow if they were to receive counter guarantees for their power projects. It simultaneously announced that no further counter guarantees would be given apart from the first eight projects (See {open_quotes}India`s Fast-Track Projects{close_quotes}) where they had already been promised. {open_quotes}No other project, beyond the first eight, will be given a counter guarantee under any circumstance,{close_quotes} says P. Abraham, special secretary in the Ministry of Power.

  4. Nuclear power failure signals end of an era

    SciTech Connect

    Mariotte, M.

    1996-07-01

    In the United States, {open_quotes}the nuclear industry is dead, kaput, finished{close_quotes} says Michael Mariotte, executive director of the Nuclear Information and Resource Service in Washington, D.C. Why? Investors are reluctant to gamble their money on a future generation of supposedly safe, economic nuclear power plants. {open_quotes}in 1979, the `safe` Three Mile Island-2 reactor turned a several-hundred-million-dollar investment into a billion-dollar loss in a matter of hours,{close_quotes} Mariotte says. {open_quotes}In fact, investing in nuclear power at this point would be like investing in the Titanic II.{close_quotes} However, diehard proponents of nuclear energy persist in their optimism for a new nuclear age, Mariotte says. These nuclear backers see the need to replace aging plants with a new generation of safer plants. But would a new generation of reactors really be safer? {open_quotes}To date, the industry may spur some new nuclear plants, it is more likely to lead to alternative renewable sources of energy that are more economical. {open_quotes}The nuclear age has ended as a result of inefficiency and unacceptable risks...After 50 years of sustained abuse, the Earth has finally and deservedly entered the end of the nuclear age,{close_quotes} Mariotte says.

  5. Bose-Einstein source of intermittency in hadronic interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Wibig, T.

    1996-04-01

    The multiparticle Bose-Einstein correlations are the source of {open_quote}{open_quote}intermittency{close_quote}{close_quote} in high energy hadronic collisions. The power-law-like increase of factorial moments with decreasing bin size is obtained by a complete event weighing technique with a Gaussian approximation of space-time particle emitting source shape. The value of the source size parameter is found to be higher than the common one fitted with the help of the standard Hanbury Brown{endash}Twiss procedure. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  6. Readiness assessment plan for the Radioactive Mixed Waste Land Disposal Facility (Trench 31)

    SciTech Connect

    Irons, L.G.

    1994-11-22

    This document provides the Readiness Assessment Plan (RAP) for the Project W-025 (Radioactive Mixed Waste Land Disposal Facility) Readiness Assessment (RA). The RAP documents prerequisites to be met by the operating organization prior to the RA. The RAP is to be implemented by the RA Team identified in the RAP. The RA Team is to verify the facility`s compliance with criteria identified in the RAP. The criteria are based upon the {open_quotes}Core Requirements{close_quotes} listed in DOE Order 5480.31, {open_quotes}Startup and Restart of Nuclear Facilities{close_quotes}.

  7. Outlook: Federal aid called vital. [High Speed Rail Transportation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-16

    When high speed rail (HSR) proponents survey the future of their emerging industry, they invariably pepper their forecasts with [open quotes]ifs,[close quotes] most keyed to financing. In a typical comment, Jim Betts says his agency is [open quotes]waiting for a realistic and plausible funding capability[close quotes] before starting work on the 3-C's Cleveland-Cincinnati line. Betts wants federal funding to go beyond loan guarantees or greater access to tax-exempt bonds. He favors a generous direct-subsidy formula - similar to the one that financed the Interstates - in which the federal government matched every dollar from the states with nine of its own.

  8. New FORTRAN computer programs to acquire and process isotopic mass spectrometric data: Operator`s manual

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.H.; McKown, H.S.

    1993-09-01

    This TM is one of a pair that describes ORNL-developed software for acquisition and processing of isotope ratio mass spectral data. This TM is directed at the laboratory analyst. No technical knowledge of the programs and programming is required. It describes how to create and edit files, how to acquire and process data, and how to set up files to obtain the desired results. The aim of this TM is to serve as a utilitarian instruction manual, a {open_quotes}how to{close_quotes} approach rather than a {open_quotes}why?{close_quotes}

  9. Dynamical Phases of Driven Vortex Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Moon, K.; Scalettar, R.T.; Zimanyi, G.T.

    1996-09-01

    We study numerically the motion of vortices in dirty type II superconductors. In two dimensions at strong driving currents, vortices form highly correlated {open_quote}{open_quote}static channels.{close_quote}{close_quote} The static structure factor exhibits convincing scaling behavior, demonstrating quasi-long-range translational order in the transverse direction. However, order in the longitudinal direction is only short range. We clearly establish the existence of a finite transverse critical current, suggesting strong barriers against transverse driving forces. We discuss these results in terms of recently proposed theories of the moving vortex systems. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  10. Tank 241-S-102 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report

    SciTech Connect

    Huckaby, J.L.

    1995-05-31

    Tank 241-S-102 headspace gas and vapor samples were collected and analyzed to help determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank. The drivers and objectives of waste tank headspace sampling and analysis are discussed in {open_quotes}Program Plan for the Resolution of Tank Vapor Issues.{close_quotes} Tank 241-S-102 was vapor sampled in accordance with {open_quotes}Data Quality Objectives for Generic In-Tank Health and Safety Issue Resolution. {close_quotes}

  11. Tank 241-U-107 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report

    SciTech Connect

    Huckaby, J.L.

    1995-05-31

    Tank 241-U-107 headspace gas and vapor samples were collected and analyzed to help determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank. The drivers and objectives of waste tank headspace sampling and analysis are discussed in {open_quotes}Program Plan for the Resolution of Tank Vapor Issues.{close_quotes} Tank 241-U-107 was vapor sampled in accordance with {open_quotes}Data Quality Objectives for Generic In-Tank Health and Safety Issue Resolution.{close_quotes}

  12. Tank 241-TX-118 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report

    SciTech Connect

    Huckaby, J.L.

    1995-05-31

    Tank 241-TX-118 headspace gas and vapor samples were collected and analyzed to help determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank. The drivers and objectives of waste tank headspace sampling and analysis are discussed in {open_quotes}Program Plan for the Resolution of Tank Vapor Issues.{close_quotes} Tank 241-TX-118 was vapor sampled in accordance with {open_quotes}Data Quality Objectives for Generic In-Tank Health and Safety Issue Resolution.{close_quotes}

  13. Tank 241-BY-112 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report

    SciTech Connect

    Huckaby, J.L.

    1995-05-31

    Tank 241-BY-112 headspace gas and vapor samples were collected and analyzed to help determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank. The drivers and objectives of waste tank headspace sampling and analysis are discussed in {open_quotes}Program Plan for the Resolution of Tank Vapor Issues.{close_quotes} Tank 241-BY-112 was vapor sampled in accordance with {open_quotes}Data Quality Objectives for Generic In-Tank Health and Safety Issue Resolution.{close_quotes}

  14. Tank 241-TX-105 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report

    SciTech Connect

    Huckaby, J.L.

    1995-05-31

    Tank 241-TX-105 headspace gas and vapor samples were collected and analyzed to help determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank. The drivers and objectives of waste tank headspace sampling and analysis are discussed in {open_quotes}Program Plan for the Resolution of Tank Vapor Issues.{close_quotes} Tank 241-TX-105 was vapor sampled in accordance with {open_quotes}Data Quality Objectives for Generic In-Tank Health and Safety Issue Resolution.{close_quotes}

  15. Tank 241-C-104 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report

    SciTech Connect

    Huckaby, J.L.

    1995-05-31

    Tank 241-C-104 headspace gas and vapor samples were collected and analyzed to help determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank. The drivers and objectives of waste tank headspace sampling and analysis are discussed in {open_quotes}Program Plan for the Resolution of Tank Vapor Issues.{close_quotes} Tank 241-C-104 was vapor sampled in accordance with {open_quotes}Data Quality Objectives for Generic In-Tank Health and Safety Issue Resolution.{close_quotes}

  16. Tank 241-U-111 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report

    SciTech Connect

    Huckaby, J.L.

    1995-05-31

    Tank 241-U-111 headspace gas and vapor samples were collected and analyzed to help determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank. The drivers and objectives of waste tank headspace sampling and analysis are discussed in {open_quotes}Program Plan for the Resolution of Tank Vapor Issues.{close_quotes} Tank 241-U-111 was vapor sampled in accordance with {open_quotes}Data Quality Objectives for Generic In-Tank Health and Safety Issue Resolution.{close_quotes}

  17. Lessons learned{emdash}DC-X

    SciTech Connect

    Steinmeyer, D.A.

    1996-03-01

    The DC-X was conceived and developed specifically to lay the ground work, for developing a data base of {open_quote}{open_quote}lessons learned{close_quote}{close_quote}, for significantly lowering the cost of space operations. Program content and execution as well as technical solutions were addressed. Additionally, methods and solutions used in the past (50s and 60s) were exercised to expose to a new generation the possibilities of what we now call rapid prototyping. (The first Thor was launched less than a year from contract start. The operational countdown achieved 3 years later was less than 15 minutes.) {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  18. MTBE: Capacity boosts on hold amid demand concerns

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-03

    Uncertainty reigns in the methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) market. {open_quotes}We have no choice but to put our expansion plans on the back burner,{close_quotes} says one producer. {open_quotes}Because of government actions, there are no MTBE plants being built or expanded.{close_quotes} Spot MTBE prices have risen ti 82 cts- 83 cts/gal from 76 cts-78 cts/gal earlier this month as the demand for octane enhancement increases for the summer driving season. Some observers say EPA may relax different oxygen requirements for gasoline in different seasons. That would simplify production and supply for MTBE makers.

  19. Chiral Symmetry Breaking in Crystal Growth: Is Hydrodynamic Convection Relevant?

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, B.; Tharrington, A.; Wu, X.

    1996-09-01

    The effects of mechanical stirring on nucleation and chiral symmetry breaking have been investigated for a simple inorganic molecule, sodium chlorate. In contrast to earlier findings, our experiments suggest that hydrodynamic convection may have little to do with the observed symmetry breaking. Rather the effect can be reasonably accounted for by mechanical damage to incipient crystals. The catastrophic events, creating numerous small {open_quote}{open_quote}secondary{close_quote}{close_quote} crystals, produce statistical domination of one chiral species over the other. A number of observations using different mixing methods support this conclusion. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  20. 46 CFR 525.1 - Purpose and scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... regard to identifying and preventing unreasonable preference or prejudice and unjust discrimination... personal representatives. (16) Rate means a price quoted in a schedule for providing a specified level...

  1. 46 CFR 525.1 - Purpose and scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... regard to identifying and preventing unreasonable preference or prejudice and unjust discrimination... personal representatives. (16) Rate means a price quoted in a schedule for providing a specified level...

  2. Induction-accelerator heavy-ion fusion: Status and beam physics issues

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, A.

    1996-01-26

    Inertial confinement fusion driven by beams of heavy ions is an attractive route to controlled fusion. In the U.S., induction accelerators are being developed as {open_quotes}drivers{close_quotes} for this process. This paper is divided into two main sections. In the first section, the concept of induction-accelerator driven heavy-ion fusion is briefly reviewed, and the U.S. program of experiments and theoretical investigations is described. In the second, a {open_quotes}taxonomy{close_quotes} of space-charge-dominated beam physics issues is presented, accompanied by a brief discussion of each area.

  3. High temperature fracture and fatigue of ceramics. Annual technical progress report No. 6, August 15, 1994--August 14, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, B.

    1996-04-01

    This report covers work done in the first year of our new contract {open_quotes}High Temperature Fracture and Fatigue of Ceramics,{close_quotes} which commenced in August, 1995 as a follow-on from our prior contract {open_quotes}Mechanisms of Mechanical Fatigue in Ceramics.{close_quotes} Our activities have consisted mainly of studies of the failure of fibrous ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) at high temperature; with a little fundamental work on the role of stress redistribution in the statistics of fracture and cracking in the presence of viscous fluids.

  4. Radionuclide air emission report for the Hanford Site Calendar Year 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Diediker, L.P.; Curn, B.L.; Rhoads, K.; Damberg, E.G.; Soldat, J.K.; Jette, S.J.

    1994-08-01

    This report documents radionuclide air emissions from the Hanford Site in 1993 and the resulting effective dose equivalent to any member of the public. The report has been prepared and will be submitted in accordance with reporting requirements in the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, Protection of the Environment, Part 61, {open_quotes}National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants,{close_quotes} Subpart H, {open_quotes}National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities.{close_quotes}

  5. Bound states in Galilean-invariant quantum field theory

    SciTech Connect

    Corley, S.R.; Greenberg, O.W.

    1997-02-01

    We consider the nonrelativistic quantum mechanics of a model of two spinless fermions interacting via a two-body potential. We introduce quantum fields associated with the two particles as well as the expansion of these fields in asymptotic {open_quotes}in{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}out{close_quotes} fields, including such fields for bound states, in principle. We limit our explicit discussion to a two-body bound state. In this context we discuss the implications of the Galilean invariance of the model and, in particular, show how to include bound states in a strictly Galilean-invariant quantum field theory. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  6. Studies in combustion dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Koszykowski, M.L.

    1993-12-01

    The goal of this program is to develop a fundamental understanding and a quantitative predictive capability in combustion modeling. A large part of the understanding of the chemistry of combustion processes comes from {open_quotes}chemical kinetic modeling.{close_quotes} However, successful modeling is not an isolated activity. It necessarily involves the integration of methods and results from several diverse disciplines and activities including theoretical chemistry, elementary reaction kinetics, fluid mechanics and computational science. Recently the authors have developed and utilized new tools for parallel processing to implement the first numerical model of a turbulent diffusion flame including a {open_quotes}full{close_quotes} chemical mechanism.

  7. 76 FR 814 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ OMX PHLX LLC; Order Approving a Proposed Rule Change To...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-06

    ...), 75 FR 70331 (``Notice''). II. Description of the Proposal The purpose of the proposed rule change is... and RSQTs that receive a Directed Order. Exchange Rule 1080(l)(i)(A) defines Directed Order. Rules 511... defined in Rule 1080 by evaluating the number of individual quotes per quote block received by...

  8. The cleanup of releases of radioactive materials from commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal sites: Whose jurisdiction?

    SciTech Connect

    Hartnett, C.

    1994-12-31

    There exists an overlap between the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Recovery Act ({open_quotes}CERCLA{close_quotes}) and the Atomic Energy Act ({open_quotes}AEA{close_quotes}) regarding the cleanup of releases of radioactive materials from commercial low-level radioactive waste sites. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission ({open_quotes}NRC{close_quotes}) and Agreement States have jurisdiction under the AEA, and the Environmental Protection Agency ({open_quotes}EPA{close_quotes}) has jurisdiction pursuant to CERCLA. This overlapping jurisdiction has the effect of imposing CERCLA liability on parties who have complied with AEA regulations. However, CERCLA was not intended to preempt existing legislation. This is evidenced by the federally permitted release exemption, which explicitly exempts releases from CERCLA liability pursuant to an AEA license. With little guidance as to the applicability of this exemption, it is uncertain whether CERCLA`s liability is broad enough to supersede the Atomic Energy Act. It is the purpose of this paper to discuss the overlapping jurisdiction for the cleanup of releases of radioactive materials from commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal sites with particular emphasis on the cleanup at the Maxey Flats, West Valley and Sheffield sites.

  9. Standardized equipment labeling program for electrical utilities

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-19

    The purpose of this supporting document is to provide specific guidelines required for Electrical Utilities to implement and maintain a standard equipment and piping labeling program in accordance with WHC-SP-0708, Chapter 18, {open_quotes}Westinghouse Hanford Company Conduct of Operations Manual{close_quotes}. Specific guidelines include definition of program responsibilities.

  10. 75 FR 18935 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-13

    ... close.\\6\\ \\5\\ See Securities Exchange Act Release Nos. 61233 (Dec. 23, 2009), 74 FR 69169 (Dec. 30, 2009) (SR-NYSE-2009-111); 61244 (Dec. 28, 2009), 75 FR 4797 (Jan. 5, 2010) (SR-NYSEAmex-2009-81). The... the Entry of D-Quotes and Pegging E-Quotes April 6, 2010. Pursuant to Section 19(b)(1) \\1\\ of...

  11. Informational temperature concept and the nature of self-organization

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Shu-Kun

    1996-12-31

    Self-organization phenomena are spontaneous processes. Their behavior should be governed by the second law of thermodynamics. The dissipative structure theory of the Prigogine school of thermodynamics claims that {open_quotes}order out of chaos{close_quotes} through {open_quotes}self-organization{close_quotes} and challenges the validity of the second law of thermodynamics. Unfortunately this theory is questionable. Therefore we have to reconsider the related fundamental theoretical problems. Informational entropy (S) and information (I) are related by S = S{sub max} - I, where S{sub max} is the maximum informational entropy. This conforms with the broadly accepted definition that entropy is the information loss. As informational entropy concept has been proved to be useful, it will be convenient to define an informational temperature, T{sub I}. This can be related to energy E and the informational entropy S. Information registration is a process of {Delta}I > 0, or {Delta}S < 0, and involves the energetically excited states ({Delta}E > 0). Therefore, T{sub I} is negative, and has the opposite sign of the conventional thermodynamic temperature, T. This concept is useful for clarifying the concepts of {open_quotes}order{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}disorder{close_quotes} of static structures and characterizing many typical information loss processes of self-organization.

  12. 76 FR 41850 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-15

    ... orders in the regular market \\3\\ and to make the same risk management tools available for such quotes as... changes to ISE Rule 804 to reflect the enhanced risk management tools that will be available for market... (October 15, 2010), 75 FR 65042 (October 21, 2010) (SR-ISE-2010-101). \\5\\ Quotes and orders are...

  13. 7 CFR 1427.25 - Determination of the prevailing world market price and the adjusted world price for upland cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    .../32-inch) cotton, CFR (cost and freight) Far East, the prevailing world market price for upland cotton... growths quoted for M 13/32-inch cotton, CFR Far East, the prevailing world market price for upland cotton... lowest-priced growths of the growths quoted for M 13/32-inch cotton, CFR Far East. (2) During the...

  14. Quantum nonlinear resonance and quantum chaos in Aharonov-Bohm oscillations in mesoscopic semiconductor rings

    SciTech Connect

    Berman, G.P.; Bulgakov, E.N.; Campbell, D.K.; Krive, I.V.

    1997-10-01

    We consider Aharonov-Bohm oscillations in a mesoscopic semiconductor ring threaded by both a constant magnetic flux and a time-dependent, resonant magnetic field with one or two frequencies. Working in the ballistic regime, we establish that the theory of {open_quotes}quantum nonlinear resonance{close_quotes} applies, and thus that this system represents a possible solid-state realization of {open_quotes}quantum nonlinear resonance{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}quantum chaos.{close_quotes} In particular, we investigate the behavior of the time-averaged electron energy at zero temperature in the regimes of (i) an isolated quantum nonlinear resonance and (ii) the transition to quantum chaos, when two quantum nonlinear resonances overlap. The time-averaged energy exhibits sharp resonant behavior as a function of the applied constant magnetic flux, and has a staircase dependence on the amplitude of the external time-dependent field. In the chaotic regime, the resonant behavior exhibits complex structure as a function of flux and frequency. We compare and contrast the quantum chaos expected in these mesoscopic {open_quotes}solid-state atoms{close_quotes} with that observed in Rydberg atoms in microwave fields, and discuss the prospects for experimental observation of the effects we predict. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  15. 7 CFR 1427.25 - Determination of the prevailing world market price and the adjusted world price for upland cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    .../32-inch) cotton, CFR (cost and freight) Far East, the prevailing world market price for upland cotton... lowest-priced growths of the growths quoted for M 13/32-inch cotton, CFR Far East. (2) During the period... growths quoted for M 13/32-inch cotton, CFR Far East, the prevailing world market price for upland...

  16. 7 CFR 1427.25 - Determination of the prevailing world market price and the adjusted world price for upland cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    .../32-inch) cotton, CFR (cost and freight) Far East, the prevailing world market price for upland cotton... lowest-priced growths of the growths quoted for M 13/32-inch cotton, CFR Far East. (2) During the period... growths quoted for M 13/32-inch cotton, CFR Far East, the prevailing world market price for upland...

  17. 7 CFR 1427.25 - Determination of the prevailing world market price and the adjusted world price for upland cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    .../32-inch) cotton, CFR (cost and freight) Far East, the prevailing world market price for upland cotton... lowest-priced growths of the growths quoted for M 13/32-inch cotton, CFR Far East. (2) During the period... growths quoted for M 13/32-inch cotton, CFR Far East, the prevailing world market price for upland...

  18. 7 CFR 1427.25 - Determination of the prevailing world market price and the adjusted world price for upland cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    .../32-inch) cotton, CFR (cost and freight) Far East, the prevailing world market price for upland cotton... lowest-priced growths of the growths quoted for M 13/32-inch cotton, CFR Far East. (2) During the period... growths quoted for M 13/32-inch cotton, CFR Far East, the prevailing world market price for upland...

  19. Joint utility task group CGI data-base procurement history module

    SciTech Connect

    Rosch, F. )

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of the procurement history record module of the Joint Utility Task Group's (JUTG's) commercial-grade item (CGI) data base is to assist utilities to cost effectively implement the dedication methodology provided in the Electric Power Research Institute's (EPRI's) report NP-5652, [open quotes]Guidelines for the Utilization of Commercial Grade Items in Nuclear Safety-Related Applications.[close quotes

  20. Special problems of getting good news published in the news media

    SciTech Connect

    Grimsley, M. )

    1993-01-01

    Those of us who work in the nuclear industry face a special set of problems in getting our good news out to the public. Our biggest problem is the general public has a negative emotional reaction to the term [open quotes]nuclear.[close quotes] I conduct tours at Wolf Creek generating station near Burlington, Kansas, in America's heartland. When visitors come to our plant, many of them are concerned with their own personal safety. They want to know how much radiation exposure they are receiving and tell me about friends who were supposed to accompany them on their tour but who were so concerned about their safety that they opted to stay at home. Once these people have completed their tour, their minds are eased. It is at that point that I ask them to do a simple word association test on themselves. I have them think of the word nuclear, then tell me the next word that comes to their minds. Generally, they will say words such as [open quotes]bomb,[close quotes] [open quotes]explosion,[close quotes] [open quotes]radiation,[close quotes] and so forth. What is the best way to speak to people's fears about nuclear issues One of the most effective, efficient ways is by asking the media to help spread the good word.

  1. 17 CFR 230.144A - Private resales of securities to institutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... or quoted at the time of issuance and that had an effective conversion premium of less than 10... that warrants that may be exercised for securities so listed or quoted at the time of issuance, for a... further, That the Commission may from time to time, taking into account then-existing market...

  2. Point-splitting method of the commutator anomaly of Gauss law operators

    SciTech Connect

    Bertlmann, R.A.; Sykora, T.

    1997-08-01

    We analyze the generalized point-splitting method and Jo{close_quote}s result for the commutator anomaly. We find that certain classes of general regularization kernels satisfying integral conditions provide a {ital unique} result, which, however, {ital differs} from Faddeev{close_quote}s cohomological result. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  3. Introduction to efficient lighting for retail environments

    SciTech Connect

    Kruger, M.

    1996-01-01

    Before establishing a framework for the discussion of efficient lighting in retail environments, one may first ask, {open_quotes}Why is it is necessary to conserve energy?{close_quotes} The reasons for doing so are personal, social, and environmental. Think of Earth`s natural resources beyond this generation`s uses, but also the needs of posterity. In the words of Iroquois tribal leader Audrey Shenandoah, {open_quotes}In our tradition, we`re responsible for seven generations. Our leadership must not make decisions that will bring pain, harm, or suffering to our children.{close_quotes} Compare the effort of taking care of this planet to the effort involved in caring for one`s home: it is just {open_quotes}good housekeeping.{close_quotes} There is nothing inherently sacred, spiritual, or religious about this effort. It simply must be done, for there is no other planet; no other {open_quotes}house{close_quotes} to go to once this planet is befouled. Having established the framework and the need for utilizing energy-efficient methods in retail lighting, how can it be accomplished. Retail lighting serves to: attract the customer`s attention; initiate the sale; and complete the sale. The author goes on to discuss the impact of lighting on the customer, typical illuminances used in different sales areas, general lighting patterns, and finally recommends that lighting designers be observant. Study settings which `work`, both for layout, and equipment used, and consider energy efficient appliances.

  4. 76 FR 13688 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; C2 Options Exchange, Incorporated; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-14

    ... the Exchange may determine on a class-by-class basis which electronic allocation algorithm \\6\\ would... with the allocation algorithm in effect for the option class), then to limit orders and quotes at the opening price (with multiple orders and quotes ranked in accordance with the allocation algorithm...

  5. Shooting down the ABM Treaty

    SciTech Connect

    Mendelsohn, J.; Rhinelander, J.B.

    1994-09-01

    The Clinton administration is on a path to undermine the Anti-Ballistic Missile (ABM) Treaty by proposing {open_quotes}clarifications{close_quotes} to the treaty that would permit the deployment of an extensive, highly capable anti-theater ballistic missile (ATBM) defense system.

  6. Floating atomic central heating-and-power plant converted from a strategic submarine

    SciTech Connect

    Bilashenko, V.P.; Gorigledzhan, E.A.; Slonimsky, V.J.

    1993-12-31

    In accordance with {open_quotes}The Treaty on the Reduction of Strategic Offensive Arms{close_quotes} signed in July 1991, the operations envisages by {open_quotes}The Procedures for elimination of SSBN`s Launchers{close_quotes} should be accomplished at submarines of the second generation both by eliminating missile compartments together with launchers and by removal of launchers only from missile compartments. THe number of such ships could reach 30 units as has been forecasted for the year of 1998 inclusive. With regard to the fact that the remaining operation life of the main power plant equipment of a nuclear submarine decommissioned in accordance with the Treaty is about 50 per cent, potentially there is a possibility to convert them into floating atomic central heating-and-power plants. The latter variant envisaged in the {open_quotes}Procedures...{close_quotes} is preferable for developing a floating plant based on ships decommissioned from the Navy, since it permits to remove launchers without cutting and subsequent connection of main cables, pipelines and systems which provide the control of the main power plant, nuclear safety, radiological safety, damage control and fire safety of the floating plant. A submarine could be delivered for refitting into a floating plant only after accomplishing the works envisaged by the {open_quotes}Procedures...{close_quotes}.

  7. 76 FR 20034 - Louisiana All Snax, Inc.; Dismissal of Proceeding

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-11

    ... (quoting David L. Wood, M.D., 72 FR 54936, 54937 (2007) (quoting Ronald J. Riegel, D.V.M., 63 FR 67132... moot. See, e.g., Riegel, 63 FR at 67133. Order Pursuant to the authority vested in me by 21 U.S.C. 823... Enforcement Administration Louisiana All Snax, Inc.; Dismissal of Proceeding On January 21, 2010, the...

  8. The geometry of SU(3)

    SciTech Connect

    Byrd, M.

    1997-10-01

    The group SU(3) is parameterized in terms of generalized {open_quotes}Euler angles{close_quotes}. The differential operators of SU(3) corresponding to the Lie Algebra elements are obtained, the invariant forms are found, the group invariant volume element is found, and some relevant comments about the geometry of the group manifold are made.

  9. Radioactive and hazardous constituents screening plan for industrial waste landfill IV

    SciTech Connect

    Lankford, L.L.; Bohrman, D.E.

    1994-05-01

    Industrial Waste Landfill IV (IWLF IV) is permitted (Registration Number IDL 01 1030075) to accept nonhazardous, nonradioactive industrial waste as detailed in the {open_quotes}Design and Operating Procedures for the Y-12 Industrial Waste Landfill IV,{close_quotes} Y/TS-399 and by Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) special waste approval. Both are approved by the TDEC.

  10. 77 FR 69670 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of a...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-20

    ... of ports. The text of the proposed rule change is available on the Exchange's Web site at www.nyse... the receipt of ``drop copies'' of order or transaction information (``drop copy ports'' and, together... order/quote entry port that is used to enter the order or quote. A ``drop copy'' contains...

  11. 77 FR 69682 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE MKT LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of a...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-20

    ... of ports. The text of the proposed rule change is available on the Exchange's Web site at www.nyse... the receipt of ``drop copies'' of order or transaction information (``drop copy ports'' and, together... order/quote entry port that is used to enter the order or quote. A ``drop copy'' contains...

  12. Russia`s nuke complex: A case for downsizing

    SciTech Connect

    Bukharin, O.

    1995-07-01

    Nuclear weapons stored in former Soviet republics, uncontrolled export of bomb-grade nuclear materials, and recruitment of ex-Soviet nuclear physicists by Third-World nations remain today`s top proliferation risks, reports Oleg Bukharin, a visiting researcher at Princeton University`s Center for Energy and Environment Studies. To address these risks, Russia {open_quotes}must shift its weapons production and development to weapons dismantlement, management of weapons materials, and maintenance of a much smaller...arsenal,{close_quotes} Bukharin writes. The goal of such conversion, he says, {open_quotes}is a nuclear complex that is environmentally safe...and compatible with nonproliferation objectives.{close_quotes} Reconfiguration of Russia`s weapons complex also must provide for redeployment of the hundreds of thousands of scientists, engineers, and technicians who have supported the federation`s nuclear weapons program, Bukharin insists. {open_quotes}A truly durable strategy to prevent the dispersion of Russian weapons expertise must [involve] these weapons experts in non-weapons research,{close_quotes} says Bukharin. Furthermore, Bukharin writes, the Russian conversion program must prevent nuclear materials from falling into the wrong hands. {open_quotes}Widespread corruption, crime, and emerging black markets increase the risk of diversion of weapons-grade uranium or plutonium,{close_quotes} he says.

  13. 77 FR 74034 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; New York Stock Exchange LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-12

    ... Certain Volume, Liquidity and Quoting Thresholds Applicable to Billing on the Exchange in Relation to a... Proposed Rule Change The Exchange proposes to modify the manner in which it calculates certain volume... to modify the manner in which it calculates certain volume, liquidity and quoting...

  14. 76 FR 65225 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ OMX PHLX LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-20

    .... See Securities Exchange Act Release No. 51428 (March 24, 2005), 70 FR 16325 (March 30, 2005) (SR-Phlx... Proposed Rule Change The Exchange proposes to amend the Remote Streaming Quote Trader (``RSQT'') \\3\\ Fee in... and Other Fees.'' \\3\\ A Registered Options Trader (``ROT'') includes a Streaming Quote Trader...

  15. 77 FR 23531 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ OMX PHLX LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-19

    ... Exchange Act Release No. 58828 (October 21, 2008), 73 FR 63749 (October 27, 2008) (SR-CBOE-2008-107). \\4\\ See Securities Exchange Act Release No. 60854 (October 21, 2009) 74 FR 55613 (October 28, 2009) (SR... apply to Streaming Quote Traders (``SQTs''), \\5\\ Remote Streaming Quote Traders (``RSQTs'') \\6\\...

  16. 78 FR 4914 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ OMX PHLX LLC; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change To Amend...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ OMX PHLX LLC; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change To Amend Performance Evaluations With Respect to Quote Submissions of Streaming Quote Traders and Remote...

  17. 78 FR 62780 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ OMX PHLX LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-22

    ... Securities Exchange Act Release No. 67700 (August 21, 2012) 77 FR 51835 (August 27, 2012) (SR-Phlx-2012-108... Market makers on the Exchange include Registered Options Traders (``ROTs''),\\3\\ Streaming Quote Traders (``SQTs''),\\4\\ Remote Streaming Quote Traders (``RSQTs''),\\5\\ specialists,\\6\\ and Remote...

  18. 76 FR 67786 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ OMX PHLX LLC; Order Granting Approval of Proposed Rule...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-02

    ... 240.19b-4. \\3\\ Securities Exchange Act Release No. 65257 (September 2, 2011), 76 FR 55996. II... ROTs. ROTs can be either Streaming Quote Traders (``SQTs''), Remote SQTs (``RSQTs'') or non-SQT ROTs...; while SQTs quote electronically by ``streaming'' quotations into the Exchange, non-SQT ROTs may...

  19. 78 FR 24280 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ OMX PHLX LLC; Order Approving a Proposed Rule Change, as...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-24

    ... (January 18, 2013), 78 FR 5518. \\2\\ In Partial Amendment No. 1, the Exchange provided clarification for the... Modified by Amendment No. 1, To Amend Exchange Rules 507 and 1014 To Establish Remote Streaming Quote... Exchange Rules 507 and 1014 to establish Remote Streaming Quote Trader Organizations. The proposed...

  20. 75 FR 63878 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Self-Regulatory Organizations; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-18

    .... 62632 (August 3, 2010), 75 FR 47869 (August 3, 2010) (SR-BX-2010-049). \\18\\ See the ISE schedule of fee... categories: Customers, Directed Participants,\\6\\ Specialists,\\7\\ Streaming Quote Traders (``SQT''),\\8\\ Remote Streaming Quote Traders (``RSQT''),\\9\\ Firms and Broker-Dealers. All options traded on the Exchange...

  1. 78 FR 5518 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ OMX PHLX LLC; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change To...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-25

    ..., 2009), 74 FR 26750 (June 3, 2009) (SR-Phlx-2009-32) (approval order regarding current electronic... Amend Exchange Rules 507 and 1014 To Establish Remote Streaming Quote Trader Organizations January 18... organizations may qualify to be Remote Streaming Quote Trader Organizations with which as many as three...

  2. 77 FR 11615 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ OMX PHLX LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-27

    ... options participant.'' \\7\\ See Securities Exchange Act Release No. 64338 (April 25, 2011), 76 FR 24069... ``Market Maker'' as a Specialist,\\3\\ Registered Options Trader (``ROT''),\\4\\ Streaming Quote Trader (``SQT''),\\5\\ and Remote Streaming Quote Trader (``RSQT'').\\6\\ The Exchange proposes to also amend the...

  3. 77 FR 22365 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ OMX PHLX LLC; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-13

    ... test''). \\6\\ See Securities Exchange Act Release No. 65644 (October 27, 2011), 76 FR 67786 (November 2..., 2011), 76 FR 67786 (November 2, 2011) (approving SR- Phlx-2011-123). Finally, a reference to non-SQT...'').\\3\\ ROTs can be either Streaming Quote Traders (``SQTs'') \\4\\, Remote Streaming Quote...

  4. News of Hurricane Andrew: The Agenda of Sources and the Sources' Agendas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salwen, Michael B.

    1995-01-01

    Studies quotations in newspaper coverage of Hurricane Andrew, showing that individuals who were not affiliated with government or business were quoted most often. Shows that most sources were quoted as experts, with individuals represented as suffering victims, providing the news media with human interest quotations. Notes that most sources…

  5. Feedback stabilization of the resistive shell mode in a tokamak fusion reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Fitzpatrick, R.

    1997-07-01

    Stabilization of the {open_quotes}resistive shell mode{close_quotes} is vital to the success of the {open_quotes}advanced tokamak{close_quotes} concept. The most promising reactor relevant approach is to apply external feedback using, for instance, the previously proposed {open_quotes}fake rotating shell{close_quotes} scheme [R. Fitzpatrick and T. H. Jensen, Phys. Plasmas {bold 3}, 2641 (1996)]. This scheme, like other simple feedback schemes, only works if the feedback controlled conductors are located inside the {open_quotes}critical radius{close_quotes} at which a perfectly conducting shell is just able to stabilize the ideal external kink mode. In general, this is not possible in a reactor, since engineering constraints demand that any feedback controlled conductors be placed {ital outside} the neutron shielding blanket (i.e., relatively far from the edge of the plasma). It is demonstrated that the fake rotating shell feedback scheme can be modified so that it works even when the feedback controlled conductors are located well beyond the critical radius. The gain, bandwidth, current, and total power requirements of such a feedback system for a reactor sized plasma are estimated to be less than 100, a few Hz, a fews tens of kA, and a few MW, respectively. These requirements could easily be met using existing technology. It is concluded that feedback stabilization of the resistive shell mode is possible in a tokamak fusion reactor. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  6. Permian `Wolfcamp` limestone reservoirs: Powell ranch field, eastern Midland basin: Discussion

    SciTech Connect

    Mazzullo, S.J.

    1997-10-01

    The {open_quotes}E&P Notes{close_quotes} paper by S.L. Montgomery (1996) on Wolfcamp resedimented carbonates in the Permian basin concerns an exploration play with the potential for significant reserves; however, its economic importance and geological complexity, and the question of whether his model can be extended to other areas in the Permian basin warrant this discussion.

  7. Flexible ultrasonic pipe inspection apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Jenkins, C.F.; Howard, B.D.

    1994-01-01

    Pipe crawlers, pipe inspection {open_quotes}rabbits{close_quotes} and similar vehicles are widely used for inspecting the interior surfaces of piping systems, storage tanks and process vessels for damaged or flawed structural features. This paper describes the design of a flexible, modular ultrasonic pipe inspection apparatus.

  8. High performance systems

    SciTech Connect

    Vigil, M.B.

    1995-03-01

    This document provides a written compilation of the presentations and viewgraphs from the 1994 Conference on High Speed Computing given at the High Speed Computing Conference, {open_quotes}High Performance Systems,{close_quotes} held at Gleneden Beach, Oregon, on April 18 through 21, 1994.

  9. 76 FR 82024 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; New York Stock Exchange LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; New York Stock Exchange LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change Amending Supplementary Material .26 (Pegging for d-Quotes and e-Quotes) to NYSE Rule 70 December 22,...

  10. 76 FR 82009 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Amex LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Amex LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change Amending Supplementary Material .26 (Pegging for d-Quotes and e-Quotes) to NYSE Amex Equities Rule 70 December 22,...

  11. Unipolar arcing phenomena observed in laboratory and nature

    SciTech Connect

    Sanduloviciu, M.

    1995-12-31

    Unipolar arcing phenomena observed as coherent {open_quotes}plasma{close_quotes} balls operating on a surface of constant potential are explained in the frame of a new already proposed self-organisation mechanism considered at the origin of the formation and stability of extended coherent structures observed in plasma devices.

  12. Prototype development of an apparatus to locate and map sea floor petroleum seepages. First quarterly technical progress report, August 1, 1995--October 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-01

    This document is the first quarterly technical progress report for the project entitled {open_quotes}Prototype Development of an Apparatus to Locate and Map Sea Floor Petroleum Seepages{close_quotes}. This report describes progress in three areas: electronic design, mechanical design, and experiment/research.

  13. Metaphysics, science and the asphaltene phase behavior problem

    SciTech Connect

    Lockhart, T.P.

    1996-12-31

    Spontaneous phase separation and deposition of the asphaltenic component of crude oils is the source of costly problems in the petroleum industry. Over the past several decades so-called {open_quotes}colloid stabilization{close_quotes} model has dominated attempts to account for the phase behavior of the asphaltene fraction of the crude oil. We will argue that this model is not {open_quotes}scientific{close_quotes} in the sense that is has been applied only for the post-hoc rationalization of experimental results; absent have been serious attempts to experimentally test specific predictions deduced from the model. A critical examination of the colloid stabilization model brings to light several fundamental shortcomings. An alternative thermodynamic, or {open_quotes}solvation{close_quotes} model is shown to make predictions in far better agreement with experiment, and has been the key to developing an analytical model that accurately predicts the conditions under which crude oils become unstable to asphaltene deposition. This example will be used to argue that the defining elements of (good) scientific research - the formulation of explicit hypotheses of high predictive content and their critical evaluation, above all by experimental attempts at falsification - are also effective, indeed necessary, for analyzing the complex problems offered by the {open_quotes}real{close_quotes} world and for achieving technological advancement.

  14. 40 CFR 33.501 - What are the recordkeeping requirements of this part?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... of MBE/WBE and non-MBE/WBE prime and subcontractors. The list must include all firms that bid or quote on prime contracts, or bid or quote subcontracts on EPA assisted projects, including both MBE/WBEs and non-MBE/WBEs. The bidders list must only be kept until the grant project period has expired...

  15. 40 CFR 33.501 - What are the recordkeeping requirements of this part?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... of MBE/WBE and non-MBE/WBE prime and subcontractors. The list must include all firms that bid or quote on prime contracts, or bid or quote subcontracts on EPA assisted projects, including both MBE/WBEs and non-MBE/WBEs. The bidders list must only be kept until the grant project period has expired...

  16. 40 CFR 33.501 - What are the recordkeeping requirements of this part?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... of MBE/WBE and non-MBE/WBE prime and subcontractors. The list must include all firms that bid or quote on prime contracts, or bid or quote subcontracts on EPA assisted projects, including both MBE/WBEs and non-MBE/WBEs. The bidders list must only be kept until the grant project period has expired...

  17. 40 CFR 33.501 - What are the recordkeeping requirements of this part?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... of MBE/WBE and non-MBE/WBE prime and subcontractors. The list must include all firms that bid or quote on prime contracts, or bid or quote subcontracts on EPA assisted projects, including both MBE/WBEs and non-MBE/WBEs. The bidders list must only be kept until the grant project period has expired...

  18. Reply to Reichardt

    SciTech Connect

    Elsas, L.J. II

    1995-10-01

    We thank Dr. Reichardt for carefully scrutinizing table 2 in Elsas et al. for attribution of mutations. He is concerned about the S135L mutation, which we attributed to Reichardt and Woo instead of Reichardt et al. In Reichardt et al., he describes the S135L as a {open_quotes}polymorphism{close_quotes} that {open_quotes}encodes almost normal activity{close_quotes}. Typographical errors did inadvertently attribute the R333G and K334R mutations to Reichardt rather than to Leslie et al. and the L195P to Leslie et al. rather than to Reichardt et al.. In this dynamic field, it is sometimes difficult to acknowledge description of a given {open_quotes}mutation.{close_quotes} For example, although N314D was identified in 1991, it was first recognized as associated with the Duarte biochemical phenotype in 1992, and its prevalence was defined in 1994. Lin et al. confirmed its association with the Duarte phenotype and found four N314D alleles in 95 biochemically defined G-alleles. Lin et al. found no {open_quotes}additional nucleotide substitutions in the entire [galactose-l-phosphate uridyl transferase] GALT region.{close_quotes} The article by Elsas et al. suggests that he missed non-Q188R G-alleles associated with the generally prevalent N314D allele (5.9% in the general population). 8 refs.

  19. Derivative expansions of renormaliztion group effective potentials for {phi}{sup 4} field theories

    SciTech Connect

    Shepard, J.R.; McNeil, J.A.

    1995-10-01

    We approximate an exact Renormalization Group (RG) equation for the flow of the effective action of {phi}{sup 4} field theories by including next-to-leading order (NLO) terms in a derivative expansion. This level of approximation allows us to treat effects of wavefunction renormalization which are beyond the scope of the leading order (LO) formulation. We compare calculations based on a {open_quote}latticized {close_quotes} version of our RG equation in 3 Euclidean dimensions directly with Monte Carlo (MC) results and find excellent overall agreement as well as substantial improvement over LO calculations. We solve the continuum form of our equation to find the Wilson fixed point and determine the critical exponent {eta} (0.046). We also find the critical exponents {nu} (0.666) and {omega} (0.735). These latter two are in much improved agreement with {open_quote}world`s best{close_quotes} values com- pared to those obtained at LO (where no prediction for {eta} is possible). We also find that the {open_quote}universal potential{close_quote} determined via MC methods by Tsypin can be understood quantitatively using our NLO RG equations. Careful analysis shows that ambiguities which plague {open_quote}smooth cutoff{close_quotes} formulations do not arise with our RG equations.

  20. Biomorphic robots as a persistent means for removing explosive mines

    SciTech Connect

    Tilden, M.W.

    1995-04-01

    The current variety and dispersion of explosive mines is a daunting technological problem for current sensory techniques. The bottom line is that the only way to insure a mine has been found and removed is to step on it. As this is an upsetting proposition for biological organisms like animals or children, this paper details a proposed non-biological method that may have validity following additional research into the new science of Biomorphic Machines. A Robobiologist at LANL has invented and developed a variety of {open_quotes}living{close_quotes} robots that are solar powered, legged, autonomous, adaptive to massive damage and terrain, and very inexpensive. This technology, called Nervous Net (Nv) design, allows for the creation of capable walking mechanisms (known as {open_quotes}Biomorphic Robots{close_quotes}) which rather than run on a {open_quotes}work{close_quotes} ethic, use {open_quotes}survivalist{close_quotes} design principles. These principles allow Nv based machines to continue doing work even after multiple limbs have been removed or damaged, and to dynamically negotiate complex terrains as an emergent property of their operation. They are not programmed, and indeed, the 12 transistor controller used keeps their electronic cost well below that of most pocket radios. It is suspected that in finding and removing randomly placed explosive mines, they may be an interesting, capable solution.