Science.gov

Sample records for quoteswater watchclose quotes

  1. Chromogravity explains {open_quotes}strong gravity{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    Ne`eman, Y. |; Sijacki, D.

    1993-03-01

    In this paper the authors deal with the question of gravitational type interactions in the case of strong interaction phenomena. They present arguments which indicate that it is not necessary to invoke a gravity type interaction into QCD in order to account for observed phenomena. They argue that the gravitational type phenomena discussed in previous work is a manifestation of a class of Feynmann diagrams. These seem to generate an analog to gravity, a J=2 {open_quotes}chromograviton{close_quotes} or {open_quotes}pseudo-graviton{close_quotes} whose action effectively generates Salam`s {open_quotes}Strong Gravity{close_quotes} or {open_quotes}f-gravity{close_quotes}, withthough having to introduce the theory as an additional input.

  2. Inference in {open_quotes}poor{close_quotes} languages

    SciTech Connect

    Petrov, S.

    1996-12-31

    Languages with a solvable implication problem but without complete and consistent systems of inference rules ({open_quote}poor{close_quote} languages) are considered. The problem of existence of a finite, complete, and consistent inference rule system for a {open_quotes}poor{close_quotes} language is stated independently of the language or the rule syntax. Several properties of the problem are proved. An application of the results to the language of join dependencies is given.

  3. Energy level inequalities in a {open_quote}{open_quote}wrinkled{close_quote}{close_quote} quarkonium potential

    SciTech Connect

    Bambah, B.A.; Dharamvir, K.; Sharma, A.C.

    1996-04-01

    The {open_quote}{open_quote}concave{close_quote}{close_quote} downward property of the standard static {ital q{bar q}} potentials leads to the energy level inequalities {ital E}{sub {ital n}+2}{minus}{ital E}{sub {ital n}+1}{lt}{ital E}{sub {ital n}+1}{minus}{ital E}{sub {ital n}} in the quarkonium mass spectrum. However, this inequality is experimentally observed to be reversed for {ital n}=2 in charmonium and {ital n}=3 in bottomonium, a fact that is inexplicable in terms of any known concave downward potential. We attempt to explain this by allowing for the violation of the concavity condition in a small interval, i.e., a {open_quote}{open_quote}wrinkle{close_quote}{close_quote} in some recently proposed quarkonium potentials. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  4. Russia's [open quotes]red-brown[close quotes] hawks

    SciTech Connect

    Goldanskii, V.I. )

    1993-06-01

    Since the beginning of the [open quotes]Gorbachev years,[close quotes] there has been a remarkable democratization in Russia, but there has also been a sharpening of internal contradictions. These years have led to a coalition of [open quotes]red-brown[close quotes] groups -- the most reactionary elements of society -- Stalinists, extremely aggressive members of the military-industrial complex, self-styled [open quotes]protectors of the Russian Empire,[close quotes] national patriotic unions, and groups with their own storm troops. These have also been years of economic decline and the withering of research in the fundamental sciences. This article describes the anger of Soviet nuclear specialists at vanishing funds and prestige. The desire of the neo-fascist groups for arms and power is addressed. The development of these groups is reviewed. Implications of political unrest for nuclear proliferation and the future of Russian nuclear specialists are discussed. Possibilities for government reorganization are proposed. 8 refs.

  5. The {open_quotes}first{close_quotes} problem

    SciTech Connect

    Holsinger, R.F.

    1995-02-01

    This paper describes the first magnet design problem that Klaus and the author worked on together. At the time, over 30 years ago, Klaus was working as a plasma physicist in the Controlled Thermonuclear Research (CTR) Group, and the author was assigned from the Mechanical Engineering Department to help with the design of experimental equipment for various research projects. Klaus` primary research program was to develop a {open_quotes}plasma gun{close_quotes} for injecting plasma into {open_quotes}mirror machines.{close_quotes} As described, the magnet design aspect of this plasma gun was a challenging task, and led to some innovations that were quite advanced at that time.

  6. The Kent State {open_quote}{open_quote}2{pi}{close_quote}{close_quote} neutron polarimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, J.W.; Du, Q.; Anderson, B.D.; Baldwin, A.R.; Foster, C.C.; Garcia, L.A.; Hu, X.; Kurmanov, R.; Lamm, D.L.; Madey, R.; Pella, P.J.; Stephenson, E.J.; Wang, Y. |; Wetmore, B.; Zhang, W.

    1995-09-01

    We designed, tested and calibrated a medium-energy neutron polarimeter of a new design, which we call the {open_quote}{open_quote}2{pi}{close_quote}{close_quote} polarimeter because of its symmetric coverage of all 2{pi} of azimuth for double-scattered neutrons. During calibration tests at the IUCF we observed an over all neutron time-of-flight resolution of 360 ps. The measured analyzing power is typically 39{percent} for neutrons of both 130 and 165 MeV for optimum software cuts. The efficiency is typically 0.3{percent}. {copyright} {ital 1995 American Institute of Physics.}

  7. Great Quotes for Great Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitaker, Todd; Lumpa, Dale

    2005-01-01

    Over 600 insightful, witty nuggets to motivate and inspire you... and everyone else at your school. Teachers--display these quotes in your classrooms! Administrators--insert them into your faculty memos and share them at staff meetings! Why is this book unique? (1) it includes over 100 original quotes from internationally acclaimed speaker and…

  8. Options for human {open_quote}{open_quote}return to the moon{close_quote}{close_quote} using tomorrow{close_quote}s SSTO, ISRU, and LOX-augmented NTR technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Borowski, S.K.

    1996-03-01

    The feasibility of conducting human missions to the Moon is examined assuming the use of three {open_quote}{open_quote}high leverage{close_quote}{close_quote} technologies: (1) a single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) launch vehicle, (2) {open_quote}{open_quote}{ital in}-{ital situ}{close_quote}{close_quote} {ital resource} {ital utilization} (ISRU){emdash}specifically {open_quote}{open_quote}lunar-derived{close_quote}{close_quote} liquid oxygen (LUNOX), and (3) LOX-augmented nuclear thermal rocket (LANTR) propulsion. Lunar transportation system elements consisting of a LANTR-powered lunar transfer vehicle (LTV) and a chemical propulsion lunar landing/Earth return vehicle (LERV) are configured to fit within the {open_quote}{open_quote}compact{close_quote}{close_quote} dimensions of the SSTO cargo bay (diameter: 4.6 m/length: 9.0 m) while satisfying an initial mass in low Earth orbit (IMLEO) limit of {approximately}60 t (3 SSTO launches). Using {approximately}8 t of LUNOX to {open_quote}{open_quote}reoxidize{close_quote}{close_quote} the LERV for a {open_quote}{open_quote}direct return{close_quote}{close_quote} flight to Earth reduces its size and mass allowing delivery to LEO on a single 20 t SSTO launch. Similarly, the LANTR engine{close_quote}s ability to operate at any oxygen/hydrogen mixture ratio from 0 to 7 with high specific impulse ({approximately}940 to 515 s) is exploited to reduce hydrogen tank volume, thereby improving packaging of the LANTR LTV{close_quote}s {open_quote}{open_quote}propulsion{close_quote}{close_quote} and {open_quote}{open_quote}propellant modules{close_quote}{close_quote}. Expendable and reusable, piloted and cargo missions and vehicle designs are presented along with estimates of LUNOX production required to support the different mission modes. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  9. Stable maps and Quot schemes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popa, Mihnea; Roth, Mike

    2003-06-01

    In this paper we study the relationship between two different compactifications of the space of vector bundle quotients of an arbitrary vector bundle on a curve. One is Grothendieck's Quot scheme, while the other is a moduli space of stable maps to the relative Grassmannian. We establish an essentially optimal upper bound on the dimension of the two compactifications. Based on that, we prove that for an arbitrary vector bundle, the Quot schemes of quotients of large degree are irreducible and generically smooth. We precisely describe all the vector bundles for which the same thing holds in the case of the moduli spaces of stable maps. We show that there are in general no natural morphisms between the two compactifications. Finally, as an application, we obtain new cases of a conjecture on effective base point freeness for pluritheta linear series on moduli spaces of vector bundles.

  10. Text, Talk, and Journalistic Quoting Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zelizer, Barbie

    1995-01-01

    Explores journalistic quoting practices as an interface between written and oral modes of communication, or between text and talk. Examines both prescriptive and performative dimensions of journalistic quoting across the media. States that when quoting, journalists creatively mix and meld text and talk. Suggests that the cogency of news…

  11. Projection in English: The Environment of Quoting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthiessen, Christian M. I. M.; Teruya, Kazuhiro

    2013-01-01

    This article is a report on an investigation of quoting strategies in English, an investigation that is part of a longer-term research programme exploring clauses of "saying" and their quoted and reported content as direct and indirect speech by members of the SAL (Systemics Across Languages) Group. Here the focus is on how quotes are…

  12. [open quotes]Shared pain[close quotes] and its effects on utilities

    SciTech Connect

    Byus, L.C. )

    1993-04-01

    After the conspicuous consumption of the 1980s and the economic recession of the early 1990s, President Clinton has introduced the era of [open quotes]shared pain,[close quotes] with increased [open quotes]contribution.[close quotes] [open quotes]Contribution[close quotes] is the euphemistic term for higher taxes. The president's proposed economic plan will undergo a number of changes, additions, and deletions before becoming law. However, it is obvious that the final plan will have an impact on the electric utility, as well as the nuclear power industry.

  13. New results of the {open_quotes}CLIO{close_quotes} infrared FEL using the new undulator {open_quotes}OMIR{close_quotes} and a hole coupling extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Prazeres, R.; Berset, J.M.; Glotin, F.

    1995-12-31

    In order to extend the {open_quote}CLIO{close_quote} laser spectral range toward larger wavelength, the previous undulator {open_quotes}POPOO{close_quotes} has been replaced by a new one called {open_quotes}OMIR{close_quotes}. The new undulator has now N=38 periods of {lambda}{sub o}=5.04cm, instead of N=48 and {lambda}{sub o}=4cm. Lasing toward larger wavelength needs also a new larger undulator vacuum chamber to avoid laser diffraction. The ZnSe Brewster plate, which was initially used for laser extraction, has been replaced by a hole coupling extraction in order to allow lasing above 17{mu}m. This paper summarizes the general performances of CLIO with this new configuration, and makes a comparison with the previous results. The laser power has been increased for the users, and the wavelength range has been extended. Two colours operating mode has also been observed with hole coupling.

  14. MR {open_quotes}hot nose sign{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}intravascular enhancement sign{close_quotes} in brain death

    SciTech Connect

    Orrison, W.W. Jr.; Champlin, A.M.; Kesterson, O.L.; Hartshorne, M.F.; King, J.N. |

    1994-05-01

    Three cases of MR with gadopentetate dimeglumine in patients diagnosed with cerebral death are presented. Observation of an MR {open_quotes}hot nose sign{close_quotes} and an {open_quotes}intravascular enhancement sign{close_quotes} provided additional imaging support in the clinical diagnosis of brain death. The MR findings in brain death include: (1) transtentorial and foramen magnum herniation, (2) absent intracranial vascular flow void, (3) poor gray matter/white matter differentiation, (4) no intracranial contrast enhancement, (5) carotid artery enhancement (intravascular enhancement sign), and (6) prominent nasal and scalp enhancement (MR hot nose sign). Additional modalities for confirming brain death are discussed. 41 refs., 2 figs.

  15. {open_quotes}BIOX{close_quotes} hydrogen sulfide abatement process - application analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Gallup, D.L.

    1996-12-31

    A new hydrogen sulfide abatement process, known as {open_quotes}BIOX,{close_quotes} has been specifically developed for the geothermal industry. {open_quotes}BIOX{close_quotes} (biocide induced oxidation) successfully controls both primary and secondary emissions from cooling towers in pilot, demonstration, and commercial operations by air-wet oxidation. Independent laboratory tests recently controverted the efficacy of {open_quotes}BIOX{close_quotes} to catalytically oxidize sulfides to sulfate. Studies conducted in our laboratory with a simulated cooling tower indicate that the experimental conditions employed by Nardini, et al, are unrealistic for geothermal cooling towers. Furthermore, our investigations demonstrate that the {open_quotes}BIOX{close_quotes} process performs optimally at near neutral pH, a condition common to most geothermal cooling tower circulating water systems. A {open_quotes}BIOX{close_quotes} agent, trichloroisocyanuric acid (TCCA), proved to mitigate sulfide emissions much more efficiently than air, sodium hypochlorite or chlorine dioxide. {open_quotes}BIOX{close_quotes} is a proven, cost-effective H{sub 2}S abatement technology.

  16. The effect of char {open_quotes}age{close_quotes} on gasification reactivity

    SciTech Connect

    Calo, J.M.; Zhang, L.; Lu, W.

    1996-10-01

    It is well known that {open_quotes}age{close_quotes} (i.e., the degree of pyrolysis severity) can significantly affect char reactivity, generally with {open_quotes}younger{close_quotes} chars being more reactive than {open_quotes}older{close_quotes} chars. In the current work we investigate this issue via the analysis of post-reaction thermal desorption data for a few different char samples (coal chars and a resin char), that were prepared under different conditions of pyrolysis severity, in both CO{sub 2} and steam. It is observed that the total amount of desorbed oxygen increases with char {open_quotes}age,{close_quotes} in both CO{sub 2} and steam, while the reactivity decreases significantly. The CO TPD spectra for the samples gasified in one atmosphere of CO{sub 2} are analyzed using a kinetic model based on energetic heterogeneity of the char surface. It is demonstrated that this model correlates the variation in reactivity with {open_quotes}age{close_quotes} very well. These results support a conclusion that reactivity decrease with age is dependent on a decrease in the active site population in addition to a shift in the energetic distributions to higher values.

  17. Comment on {open_quote}{open_quote}Why quantum mechanics cannot be formulated as a Markov process{close_quote}{close_quote}

    SciTech Connect

    Garbaczewski, P.; Olkiewicz, R.

    1996-08-01

    In the paper with the above-noted title, D. T. Gillespie [Phys. Rev. A {bold 49}, 1607 (1994)] claims that the theory of Markov stochastic processes cannot provide an adequate mathematical framework for quantum mechanics. In conjunction with the specific quantum dynamics considered there, we give a general analysis of the associated dichotomic jump processes. If we assume that Gillespie{close_quote}s {open_quote}{open_quote}measurement probabilities{close_quote}{close_quote} {ital are} the transition probabilities of a stochastic process, then the process must have an invariant (time independent) probability measure. Alternatively, if we demand the probability measure of the process follow the quantally implemented (via the Born statistical postulate) evolution, then we arrive at the jump process which {ital can} be interpreted as a Markov process if restricted to a suitable duration time. However, there is no corresponding Markov process consistent with the {ital Z}{sub 2} event space assumption, if we require its existence for all times {ital t}{element_of}{bold R}{sub +}. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  18. Optimizing performance in a self-conducted {open_quotes}Rightsizing{close_quotes} effort

    SciTech Connect

    Annon, M.C.

    1996-12-31

    The differentiation among {open_quotes}rightsizing,{close_quotes} {open_quotes}downsizing,{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}reengineering{close_quotes} has been lost by many organizations. Also, unfortunately of late, the approaches to improved competitiveness and worker productivity are being viewed, by many companies, as neither worth the effort nor achieving the desired results. In some cases, the effort may actually create more negative results. This type of negative perception has been documented in a variety of sources that include the following: (1) less than half the companies reporting improvements in operating profits after the cuts were made, (2) the processes resulting in significantly degraded morale among more than 75% of the employees, (3) less than one-third of organizations reporting improvements in worker productivity, and (4) even Michael Hammer (the reengineering {open_quotes}guru{close_quotes}) believing that more than 50% and maybe as much as 70% of the organizations do not achieve the intended results. This paper describes an integrated organizational review process that was applied within a nuclear utility that did achieve the desired results.

  19. Great Quotes To Inspire Great Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    benShea, Noah

    This book provides a collection of quotes designed to offer support and inspiration to teachers as they face the daily emotional, spiritual, intellectual, and physical challenges of their professional and personal lives. The book's 26 sections focus on: the art of teaching; adversity; behavior; character; children; collaboration and teamwork;…

  20. Nonabelian Debye screening and the {open_quotes}tsunami{close_quotes} problem

    SciTech Connect

    Pisarski, R.D.

    1997-09-22

    The phenomenon of Debye screening is familiar from electrolytes and many other systems. Recently, it has been recognized that in nonabelian gauge theories at high temperature, even perturbatively Debye screening is much more complicated than in nonrelativistic systems. This was originally derived as {open_quotes}hard thermal loops{close_quotes}. Hard thermal loops have been derived perturbatively, by a semiclassical truncation of the Schwinger-Dyson equations, and by classical kinetic theory. In this talk I give a pedagogical derivation, following that of Kelly, Liu, Lucchesi, and Manuel. The derivation is valid not just for a thermal distribution, but (modulo certain obvious restrictions) for an arbitrary initial distribution of particles. Consider, for example, the {open_quotes}tsunami{close_quotes} problem: suppose that one starts, at time t = 0, with a spatially homogenous, infinite wall of particles, all moving with the same velocity at the speed of light.

  1. Enhanced monitoring rule-{open_quotes}fact or fiction{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, D.D.

    1995-12-31

    This paper presents the direction EPA is taking in relationship to the Enhanced Monitoring Rule of 40 CFR 64. The old Enhanced Monitoring Rule can be discarded. The title of the new rule, called {open_quotes}Compliance Assurance Monitoring{close_quotes}, appears to be nothing like old rule. A change must be called for in the way EPA conducts their rule making process. The following discussion contains the author`s views, suggestions and techniques for implementing such a change.

  2. {open_quotes}Heavy light bullets{close_quotes} in electron-positron plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Berezhiani, V.I.; Mahajan, S.M.

    1995-03-01

    The nonlinear propagation of circularly polarized electromagnetic waves with relativistically strong amplitudes in an unmagnetized hot electron-positron plasma with a small fraction of ions is investigated. The possibility of finding localized solutions in such a plasma is explored. It is shown that these plasmas support the propagation of {open_quotes}heavy light bullets{close_quotes}; nondiffracting and nondispersive electromagnetic (EM) pulses with large density bunching.

  3. Greenland ice core {open_quotes}signal{close_quotes} characteristics: An expanded view of climate change

    SciTech Connect

    Mayewski, P.A.; Meeker, L.D.; Morrison, M.C.; Twickler, M.S.; Whitlow, S.I.; Ferland, K.K.; Meese, D.A.; Legrand, M.R.; Steffensen, J.P.

    1993-07-20

    The last millenium of Earth history is of particular interest because it documents the environmental complexities of both natural variability and anthropogenic activity. The authors have analyzed the major ions contained in the Greenland Ice Sheet Project 2 (GISP 2) ice core from the present to {approximately}674 A.D. to yield an environmental reconstruction for this period that includes a description of nitrogen and sulfur cycling, volcanic emissions, sea salt and terrestrial influences. They have adapted and extended mathematical procedures for extracting sporadic (e.g., volcanic) events, secular trends, and periodicities found in the data sets. Finally, by not assuming that periodic components (signals) were {open_quotes}stationary{close_quotes} and by utilizing evolutionary spectral analysis, they were able to reveal periodic processes in the climate system which change in frequency, {open_quotes}turn on,{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}turn off{close_quotes} with other climate transitions such as that between the little ice age and the medieval warm period. 42 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Specific heat and transport {open_quotes}anomalies{close_quotes} in mixed alkali glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Green, P.F.; Brow, R.K.; Hudgens, J.J.

    1998-11-01

    We show that changes in the relative mole fractions of Li{sub 2}O and Na{sub 2}O in alkali metaphosphate glasses lead to {open_quotes}anomalies{close_quotes} in the specific heat and structural relaxations. The heat capacity change between the liquid and glassy states, {Delta}c{sub p}(T{sub g}), at the calorimetric glass transition temperature, T{sub g}, exhibits a minimum when the mole fractions of Li{sub 2}O and Na{sub 2}O are comparable. Moreover, systematic changes in the temperature dependence of the viscosity, {eta}, i.e., changes in the {open_quotes}fragility{close_quotes} of the system, accompany these changes in mole fraction. This observed dependence of the {open_quotes}fragility{close_quotes} on the mixed alkali ion composition occurs in the absence of apparent changes in the covalent network connectivity which normally accounts for this behavior in glasses. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  5. {open_quotes}Shift-Betel{close_quotes}: A (very) distributed mainframe

    SciTech Connect

    Segal, B.; Martin, O.; Hassine, F.; Hemmer, F.; Jouanigot, J.M.

    1994-12-31

    Over the last four years, CERN has progressively converted its central batch production facilities from classic mainframe platforms (Cray XMP, IBM, ESA, Vax 9000) to distributed RISC based facilities, which have now attained a very large size. Both a CPU-intensive system ({open_quotes}CSF{close_quotes}, the Central Simulation Facility) and an I/O-intensive system ({open_quotes}SHIFT{close_quotes}, the Scaleable Heterogeneous Integrated Facility) have been developed, plus a distributed data management subsystem allowing seamless access to CERN`S central tape store and to large amounts of economical disk space. The full system is known as {open_quotes}CORE{close_quotes}, the Centrally Operated Risc Environment; at the time of writing CORE comprises around 2000 CERN Units of Computing (about 8000 MIPs) and over a TeraByte of online disk space. This distributed system is connected using standard networking technologies (IP protocols over Ethernet, FDDI and UltraNet), but which until quite recently were only implemented at sufficiently high speed in the Local Area.

  6. Comment on [open quotes]Nonlocality, counterfactuals, and quantum mechanics[close quotes

    SciTech Connect

    Stapp, H.P. )

    1999-09-01

    A recent proof [H. P. Stapp, Am. J. Phys. [bold 65], 300 (1997)], formulated in the symbolic language of modal logic, claims to show that contemporary quantum theory, viewed as a set of rules that allow us to calculate statistical predictions among certain kinds of observations, cannot be imbedded in any rational framework that conforms to the principles that (1) the experimenters[close quote] choices of which experiments they will perform can be considered to be free choices, (2) outcomes of measurements are unique, and (3) the free choices just mentioned have no backward-in-time effects of any kind. This claim is similar to Bell[close quote]s theorem, but much stronger, because no reality assumption alien to quantum philosophy is used. The paper being commented on [W. Unruh, Phys. Rev. A [bold 59], 126 (1999)] argues that some such reality assumption has been [open quotes]smuggled[close quotes] in. That argument is examined here and shown, I believe, to be defective. [copyright] [ital 1999] [ital The American Physical Society

  7. A {open_quotes}community-based{close_quotes} approach to landfill closure

    SciTech Connect

    Sungaila, M.; Fisher, J.

    1995-09-01

    Closure plans for landfill sites are typically developed by landfill owners/operators in conjunction with the appropriate regulatory agency. Often, technical issues are considered first and end use and the needs of the local community are treated as a secondary concern. This can be termed a {open_quotes}top-down{close_quotes} approach. This paper present a case study of closure plan development for the Taro West Quarry Landfill, located in Stoney Creek, Ontario. A {open_quotes}bottom-up{close_quotes}, or {open_quotes}community-based{close_quotes} approach was followed, in which local residents participated early in the closure planning process. Neighbours were allowed to obtain large amounts of information about the site, gained a solid understanding of technical issues, and had influence on decision making. The landfill has been in operation since 1980. The site is licensed to accept solid, non-hazardous industrial waste. Closure plan development began in the mid 1980s with planning for placement of a final cover and end use as a recreational community park. A community liaison committee was subsequently formed in 1992 which included members of the local public, staff from the City of Stoney Creek and provincial regulators, and the owners. By the late 1980s routine monitoring indicated that the wastes produced leachate containing elevated levels of chloride, ammonia, and phenols, and that this had affected local ground and surface water quality in excess of regulatory guidelines. Monitoring also indicated that combustible gas had migrated off-site, under winter conditions, to near a residential subdivision in potentially explosive concentrations. The problems were addressed immediately upon their detection, with the involvement of the community, the City, and the regulators. The prior establishment of good communications with various stakeholders was a key factor in facilitating remedial work.

  8. Investigation of processes in system {open_quotes}uranium-water-oxygen-hydrogen{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    Borisov, V.N.; Laptev, N.N.; Akhlyustin, M.A.

    1996-12-31

    The solutions of some kinetic equations of Uranium corrosion in Hydrogen, Oxygen and Water media are obtained. Corrosion processes on a surface of components made of uranium and its alloys depend not only by the surface state (degree of mechanical purity, chemical state, presence and nature of technological or hygienic covers, etc.) but also by presence and parameters of gaseous medium. A lot of interdependent reactions proceed in the system {open_quotes}uranium - hydrogen - water - oxygen{close_quotes}, and their depth and direction depend on initial gaseous medium, temperature, pressure, etc.

  9. Depostional systems, provenance, and sequence stratigraphy, Carter and [open quotes]Millerella[close quotes] sandstones of northeast Mississippi

    SciTech Connect

    Cleaves, A.W. II )

    1993-09-01

    The subsurface [open quotes]Millerella[close quotes] and Carter sandstones (middle Chesterian) of the Black Warrior basin represent the highest units of the thick Muldon clastics deltaic facies tract. Lowstand marine conditions during Carter deposition allowed for southeastwardly progradation of five distinct deltaic lobe complexes onto the stable northern shelf of the basin. With each of these lobes, both an [open quotes]A[close quotes] (upper) and a [open quotes]B[close quotes] (lower) reservoir unit can be identified. The [open quotes]B[close quotes] sandstone produces from delta-front sheet sands, channel-mouth bars, and possible bar fingers of river-dominated deltas. The more prolific [open quotes]A[close quotes] subdivision contains reservoirs in upper delta-plain point bars, crevasse splays, and distributary channel fills. The most easterly of the lobes, preserved in the Bean's Ferry field of Itawamba County, comprises an amalgamated valley-fill facies that removed a maximum of 250 ft (76 m) of lower Bangor platform carbonates. In contrast, the [open quotes]Millerella[close quotes] sandstone is a series of unconnected pods that formed as marine-reworked sand bodies during a eustatic rise in sea level. The average detrital sand grain composition for four cores taken in Monroe County is 94.7% monocrystalline quartz, 2.9% polycrystalline quartz, 1.6% albite feldspar, 0.1% low-rank metamorphic rock fragments, 0.5 chert, and 0.2% muscovite. These data indicate that neither the Ozark uplift nor the Ouachita orogen could have acted as the principal source area for the Carter and [open quotes]Millerella[close quotes] sandstones. More likely, the sedimentary-igneous terrains along the northern margin of the Illinois basin served this function. A major eustatic lowstand brought this mineralogically mature sediment across the Illinois basin through incised valleys to the northern self of the Black Warrior basin.

  10. {open_quotes}Hot{close_quotes} - Electron laser using a Bragg reflection of electrons

    SciTech Connect

    Malov, Yu.A.; Babadzhan, E.I.

    1995-12-31

    Authors of paper (1) have suggested developing FEL which uses hot ballistic electrons in a superlattices under the assumption that the superlattices is short, equivalently, one would be dealing with the motion of electrons within a single band. The single-band model is valid if the reflection coefficient of the superlattices less unit. In the present paper analyze a {open_quote}hot{close_quotes}-ballistic-electron laser under the condition that there is a Bragg reflection of electrons from the superlattices or, equivalently, under the condition that the energy of a hot electron is close to the bottom of one of the quasibands of the superlattices. In this case the interaction of the electron with the superlattices is not weak and the reflection coefficient is approximately unit. If the photon energy is greater than the width of the quasigap {open_quotes}vertical{close_quotes} transitions can occur between the edges of neighboring quasibands, corresponding to a stimulated emission. If the lower quasiband is not filled, there would be essentially no absorption. The IR gain in the area 0.1-0.4 eV is approximately 100 %. The possibility of experimentally observing the effect is discussed for realistic values of the parameters of the superlattices and of the injected electron beam.

  11. A {open_quotes}New{close_quotes} regime for nuclear weapons and materials

    SciTech Connect

    Sutcliffe, W.G.

    1994-02-15

    In this paper, I discuss the principal ideas that I covered in my presentation on December 8, 1993, at the Future of Foreign Nuclear Materials Symposium held by the Naval Postgraduate School in Monterey, California. I was asked to discuss issues related to military inventories of plutonium, and I took this opportunity to describe a possible declaratory regime that could encompass military as well as civilian inventories of plutonium. The {open_quote}new{close_quotes} in the title does not imply that the regime discussed here is an original idea. Rather, the regime will be {open_quotes}new,{close_quotes} when it is adopted. The regime proposed here and in other works is one in which all stocks of nuclear weapons and materials are declared. Originally, declarations were proposed as a traditional arms control measure. Here, declarations are proposed to support the prevention of misuse of nuclear weapons and materials, including support for the nonproliferation regime. In the following, I discuss: (1) Worldwide inventories of nuclear weapons and materials, including the fact that military plutonium must be viewed as part of that worldwide inventory. (2) Life cycles of nuclear weapons and materials, including the various stages from the creation of nuclear materials for weapons through deployment and retirement of weapons to the final disposition of the materials. (3) Mechanisms for making declarations. (4) Risks and benefits to be derived from declarations. (5) Possibilities for supporting evidence or verification.

  12. Analyzing markets for {open_quotes}new products{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, L.L.; Miedema, A.K.; Cates, S.C.

    1995-05-01

    Utilities across the U.S. have been promoting energy-efficient technologies for several years. However, questions remain about the best way to design programs to market these technologies to achieve the desired market penetration. This paper describes the conjoint analysis that Research Triangle Institute (RTI) conducted to estimate residential customer purchase likelihoods for heating technologies, including high-efficiency air-source and geothermal heat pumps, in the Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation (NMPC) service area. Conjoint analysis is a technique for eliciting customers` preferences for a set of {open_quotes}product{close_quotes} profiles where a {open_quotes}product{close_quotes} - in this case heating technologies - is defined as a collection of product characteristics or attributes (e.g., initial cost, fuel type, etc.). We used the predicted purchase likelihoods from the conjoint analysis in EPRI`s MarketTREK software to forecast the market penetration of high-efficiency air-source and geothermal heat pumps under NMPC`s current rebate program an under alternative program designs (e.g., low-cost financing).

  13. Refiners seek help to {open_quotes}think beyond conventional fuels{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, G.D.L.; Roberts, M.

    1995-03-15

    {open_quotes}Jet fuel today, diesel tomorrow, and naphtha next week.{close_quotes} That is what Carroll Moore, director of marketing for UOP`s (Des Plaines, IL) catalysts, says refiners expect from catalysis. To accomplish that flexibility - while constantly adjusting for everchanging feedstock slates and end-product specifications - refiners are placing more demands on their catalyst suppliers. {open_quotes}When the dog wags, the tail had better move quickly,{close_quotes} says Richard Nozemack, v.p./fluidized catalytic cracking (FCC) for Grace Davison (Baltimore). Davison is the largest supplier of catalysts for FCC units, which represent half of the $1.5-billion worldwide refinery catalyst market. Growth in the various catalyst markets differs by region, from GDP rates in North America and western Europe to double digits in parts of Asia. Refineries in coastal China, Korea, and Southeast Asia fire the Pacific region`s demand surge, while the placid pace of growth on both sides of the Atlantic masks furious competition for replacement and recharge business.

  14. Comment on {open_quote}{open_quote}Superconductivity and Madelung potential of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 6+{ital x}} ordered superstructures{close_quote}{close_quote}

    SciTech Connect

    Ukrainskii, I.I.; Shramko, O.V.

    1996-11-01

    We note discrepancies in numerical results in our calculations of the Coulomb potentials in YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 6+{ital x}} ({ital x} = 0, 0.5, 1) with those given by Wang {ital et} {ital al}. in {open_quote}{open_quote}Superconductivity and Madelung potential of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 6+{ital x}} ordered superstructures{close_quote}{close_quote} [Phys. Rev. B {bold 45}, 10834 (1992)]. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  15. From hyperons to applied optics: {open_quotes}Winston Cones{close_quotes} during and after ZGS era

    SciTech Connect

    Swallow, E.C. |

    1994-12-31

    This paper discusses developments in light collection which had their origin in efforts to construct high performance gas Cerenkov detectors for precision studies of hyperon beta decays at the ZGS. The resulting devices, know generally as {open_quotes}compound parabolic concentrators,{close_quotes} have found applications ranging from nuclear and particle physics experiments to solar energy concentration, instrument illumination, and understanding the optics of visual receptors. Interest in these devices and the ideas underlying them stimulated the development of a substantial new subfield of physics: nonimaging optics. This progression provides an excellent example of some ways in which unanticipated - and often unanticipatable - applied science and {open_quotes}practical{close_quotes} devices naturally emerge from first-rate basic science. The characteristics of this process suggest that the term {open_quotes}spinoff{close_quotes} commonly used to denote it is misleading and in need of replacement.

  16. {open_quotes}Quadrupoled{close_quotes} materials for second-order nonlinear optics

    SciTech Connect

    Hubbard, S.F.; Petschek, R.G.; Singer, K.D.

    1997-10-01

    We describe a new approach to second-order nonlinear optical materials, namely quadrupoling. This approach is valid in the regime of Kleinman (full permutation) symmetry breaking, and thus requires a two- or three dimensional microscopic nonlinearity at wavelengths away from material resonances. This {open_quotes}quadrupolar{close_quotes} nonlinearity arises from the second rank pseudotensor of the rotationally invariant representation of the second-order nonlinear optical tensor. We have experimentally investigated candidate molecules comprised of chiral camphorquinone derivatives by measuring the scalar invariant associated with the rank two pseudotensor using hyper-Rayleigh scattering. We have found sizable scalar figures of merit for several compounds using light for which the second harmonic wavelengths are greater than 100 nm longer than the absorption peak location. At these wavelengths, the quadrupolar scalar is as large as the polar (EFISH) scalar of p-nitroaniline. Prospects for applications are discussed.

  17. Causes of {open_quotes}undercut{close_quotes} development in coke-oven brickwork

    SciTech Connect

    Krivoshein, V.T.

    1992-12-31

    By no means the least important fault that can develop in coke-oven refractories, and which lowers the productivity and shortens the life of coke-oven batteries is the development of so-called {open_quotes}undercuts,{close_quotes} whereby longitudinal fissures of variable depth and length appear in the first one or two rows of bricks form the floor. On the other hand, large-scale undercutting only develops in individual batteries, and many coking plant workers employed in the servicing and upkeep of the coke ovens are unfamiliar with the problem. No convincing explanation has yet been forthcoming, and consequently no effective measures have been laid down for its prevention. The first large-scale outbreak of undercutting in this country occurred in 1956-1957, in No. 1-4 batteries (side heating) at the Kuznetsk and Magnitogorsk II & SW-plants. 2 refs., 3 tabs.

  18. Characterization and restoration of performance of {open_quotes}aged{close_quotes} radioiodine removing activated carbons

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, W.P.

    1997-08-01

    The degradation of radioiodine removal performance for impregnated activated carbons because of ageing is well established. However, the causes for this degradation remain unclear. One theory is that this reduction in performance from the ageing process results from an oxidation of the surface of the carbon. Radioiodine removing activated carbons that failed radioiodine removal tests showed an oxidized surface that had become hydrophilic compared with new carbons. We attempted to restore the performance of these {open_quotes}failed{close_quotes} carbons with a combination of thermal and chemical treatment. The results of these investigations are presented and discussed with the view of extending the life of radioiodine removing activated carbons. 4 refs., 2 tabs.

  19. Thesis - keeping the management system {open_quotes}live{close_quotes} and reaching the workforce

    SciTech Connect

    Primrose, M.J.; Bentley, P.D.; Graaf, G.C. van der

    1996-12-31

    Previous papers given to SPE conferences have described the Shell Group approach to Safety Management Systems and to Safety Cases. Their extension to HSE MS and to HSE Cases has also been addressed. Since 1984 the Enhanced Safety Management (ESM) programme within Shell companies has led to a significant improvement in the management of safety but it was only when structured management systems (based upon an understanding of the business processes) were introduced that true integration of HSE as a line responsibility became a reality. This paper describes the THESIS software package and the way that management systems have been made {open_quote}live{close_quote} and how workforce involvement can be demonstrated.

  20. Status of {open_quotes}Nirvana{close_quotes}: High quality GUI based software for HEP

    SciTech Connect

    Edel, M.; Kryiakopulos, J.; Lebrun, P.; Kallenbach, J.; Ravoor, S.; Iourcha, K.

    1994-12-31

    The Fermilab {open_quotes}Nirvana{close_quotes} project has produced a number of tools for data analysis in High Energy Physics. The authors goal has been to produce software which takes maximum advantage of the workstation graphical user interface. Histo-Scope and NPlot enable users to browse data from running programs and HBOOK, Histo-Scope, and columnar text files. They also provide highly interactive two and three dimensional plots which can be rotated, scaled and adjusted directly with the workstation mouse. The newest program, NFit, a GUI version of the MINUIT fitting program, will be ready in a few months. In addition, NEdit, the programmer`s text editor, was released as public domain in December. The authors discuss the basics of these software products, as well as improvements in the newest versions of Histo-Scope, NPlot, and NEdit.

  1. Agriculture and the recent [open quotes]Benign Climate[close quotes] in Minnesota

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, D.G.; Ruschy, D.L.; Skaggs, R.H. )

    1993-06-01

    This work provides data supporting a little noticed but remarkably consistent and agriculturally favorable climatic period existed for approximately 18 years, beginning in the mid-1950s in the US Corn Belt and perhaps even earlier in Minnesota. The full application of technology to agriculture was delayed due to world political events (World War II and the Korean conflict, for example) until the 1950s. It is concluded that from then until about 1974, the interaction between this favorable climatic period and the applied technology and the enthusiasm they engendered in agricultural circles were subtle and unrealized factors that helped lead to the agricultural inflation of the 1970s, while the unexpected and generally unrecognized cessation of the [open quotes]benign[close quotes] climate must be considered as a factor leading to the agricultural depression in the 1980s. 17 refs., 10 figs.

  2. Is {open_quotes}early commitment{close_quotes} in plan generation ever a good idea?

    SciTech Connect

    Joslin, D.; Pollack, M.E.

    1996-12-31

    Partial-Order Causal Link planners typically take a {open_quotes}least-commitment{close_quotes} approach to some decisions (notably, step ordering), postponing those decisions until constraints force them to be made. However, these planners rely to some degree on early commitments in making other types of decisions, including threat resolution and operator choice. We show why existing planners cannot support full least-commitment decision-making, and present an alternative approach that can. The approach has been implemented in the Descartes system, which we describe. We also provide experimental results that demonstrate that a least-commitment approach to planning can be profitably extended beyond what is done in POCL and similar planners, but that taking a least-commitment approach to every planning decision can be inefficient: early commitment in plan generation is sometimes a good idea.

  3. Commentary: Racist Quotes from Persons of Note Part I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fikes, Robert, Jr.

    1987-01-01

    This series of quotes documents negative statements about various racial, religious, and socio-economic groups. The quotes cover a time period from 1787 through 1987. All of them were made by persons of note such as U.S. presidents, members of congress, authors, and journalists. (VM)

  4. New performance data for {open_quotes}Emery 3002{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}Emery 3004,{close_quotes} two Army-approved safe materials to replace DOP in mask and filter testing

    SciTech Connect

    Carlon, H.R.; Guelta, M.A.

    1995-02-01

    At the 22nd Conference in Denver, we reported that the U.S. Army Surgeon General (SGJ) had approved our developmental material {open_quotes}Emery 3004{close_quotes} as a safe replacement for the suspected carcinogen DOP (dioctyl phthalate) in mask and filter testing throughout the Army. Subsequently the SG approved a second, less viscous material, {open_quotes}Emery 3002,{close_quotes} for similar applications. We have measured the viscosities and surface tensions of these liquids over a wide range of temperatures, and have initiated liquid breakup studies through Laskin and two-fluid nozzles. New measurements have been carried out with both liquids, e.g. using the ATI, Inc., TDA-4A cold generator to disperse aerosols for which droplet size distributions were measured using the TSI, Inc., Differential Mobility Particle Sizer (DMPS). Among the findings were that Emery 3004 performs much like DOP in the TDA-4A, with some possible advantages, while Emery 3002 in the TDA-4A produces mean droplet diameters about one-half those of Emery 3004 or DOP. This suggests that Emery 3002 could yield more rigorous filter tests with a smaller consumption of material. New laboratory results will be summarized. Sources of the {open_quotes}Emery{close_quotes} materials will be discussed since the production facility formerly operated by Emery is now run by the Ethyl Corporation and the source products are now known as {open_quotes}Ethylflo 192{close_quotes} (Emery 3002) and{open_quotes}Ethylflo 194{close_quotes} (Emery 3004).

  5. Coal air turbine {open_quotes}CAT{close_quotes} program, Invention 604. Third quarter project report, April 1995--June 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Foster-Pegg, R.W.

    1995-07-31

    The primary objective of this {open_quotes}CAT{close_quotes} project is to complete a conceptual design of this unique new combination of existing technology with cost estimates to show that the {open_quotes}CAT{close_quotes} system offers the economic incentive with low technical risk for a plant to be built which will demonstrate its viability. The technologies involved in the components of a {open_quotes}CAT{close_quotes} plant are proven, and the integration of the components into a complete plant is the only new development activity involved. Industry and the Federal General Services Administration (GSA), require the demonstration of a {open_quotes}commercial plant{close_quotes} before the viability of a new concept is accepted. To satisfy this requirement and construction of a plant of commercially viable size in excess of 15 MW if cogeneration and above 30 MW if all power, is proposed. This plant will produce economical power and heat for the owner. The plant will operate a full commercial life and continue as an operating demonstration of the viability of the technology, gathering long term life and maintenance data, all adding to the credibility of the concept.

  6. {open_quotes}Heated layer{close_quotes} effect in interaction of an interplanetary shock wave with a geomagnetic tail

    SciTech Connect

    Aleksandrov, P.E.

    1993-11-01

    Using the numerical solution as the base the conditions of propagating a parallel MGD shock wave in the presence of a heated layer are analyzed, a new {open_quotes}raking regime{open_quotes} of interaction not observed with no magnetic field is revealed. A flow steadiness criterion is obtained, and conditions for the onset of a similarity precursor are estimated.

  7. The dolomitized{open_quotes}O{close_quotes} Limestone in the Barinas basin: A hydrocarbon reservoir in carbonate rocks

    SciTech Connect

    Aquino, R.; Boujana, M.

    1996-08-01

    The {open_quotes}O{close_quotes} Limestone Member, top of Escandalosa Formation of a Lower to Upper Cretaceous age, is an interval of about 70 feet thick. It represents a coastal facies of caitonate platform; dominated by carbonates of calcarenitic lithologies intercalated with some sandy, glauconitic, calcareous bodies and thin bioturbated shaly intervals. Detailed studies carried out in five cores yield to a new approach and subdivision within this interval based on diagnostic erosive surfaces that may be interpreted as sequence boundaries. Based on sedimentology, trace fossil assemblages and diagenetic events, the milieu of sedimentation varies from foreshore to offshore. Porous dolomite levels occur within the {open_quotes}O{close_quotes} Limestone. This porosity is of intergranular, moldic and vuggy types. Some microfractures are also observed. Subaerial karstification is an alternative hypothesis that can explain the origin of the localized dolomitized vuggy reservoirs. The following sequence of events is suggested: (1) Sedimentation followed by bioturbation, then lithification with a probable replacement of aragonite by calcite, (2) Early dolomitization undergoing the {open_quotes}mixing{close_quote} or {open_quotes}Dorag {close_quotes} Model, (3) Dedolomitization and dissolution generating a moldic porosity enhanced the vuggy forms. This stage may have been influenced by karst processes, (4) Burial diagenesis accompanied by stylolitization and fracturation with pressure-solution effects, and (5) Some levels increase their porosity because of partial dolomitization; in others the vuggy porosity is totally infilled with sparry calcite.

  8. New calculation schemes for the {open_quotes}building-base{close_quotes} system in conditions of collapsing loess soils

    SciTech Connect

    Mezherovskii, V.A.

    1994-05-01

    New calculation schemes are suggested for the {open_quotes}building-loess collapsing base{close_quotes} system, with the help of which it is possible to obtain values of the forces and movements occurring in a building as a result of collapses of bases that are close to the real ones in the nature of moistening and deformations of loess strata.

  9. Salvaging dipmeters using an oil field {open_quotes}Dinosaur{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    Breimayer, A.R.P.; Puzio, L.B.

    1996-09-01

    Although state-of-the-art methods such as 3-D seismic and formation imaging tools are widely used, the advantages of the old standard dipmeter should not be dismissed. Seismic dip is subject to velocity errors, and formation imagers cannot be run in all borehole conditions. The dipmeter offers a relatively low cost, highly effective alternative for defining geologic features. The 60{double_prime}= 100{prime} scale playback of the raw dipmeter data may be an oil field {open_quotes}dinosaur,{close_quotes} but it is also the key to assessing the reliability of a dipmeter. This playback should be used to determine CORRELATION QUALITY, critical to the accuracy of any dipmeter. Computer computation of the raw dipmeter data does not always yield reliable dip information, particularly when dipmeters are run under adverse hole conditions or in complex geology. This data can be often salvaged by optical correlation of the 60{close_quote} playback - the process of manually correlating raw dipmeter resistivity curves to determine the attitude of bedding planes in the subsurface. Problems such as tool noise, tool pulls, and poor pad contact compromise data quality. These problems can be recognized and compensated for using optical correlation. Finally, at the 60{double_prime} scale many formation textures and structural characteristics visible on the formation imaging logs are also discernible on the standard dipmeter traces. We will offer many Gulf Coast examples and some hands-on demonstrations using the 60{double_prime} data, and show improved tadpole plots which result from optical correlation.

  10. The {open_quotes}INVERSE PROBLEM{close_quotes} to the evaluation of the magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Caspi, S.; Helm, M.; Laslett, L.J.

    1995-06-01

    In the design of superconducting magnet elements, such as may be required to guide and focus ions in a particle accelerator, one frequently premises some particular current distribution and then proceeds to compute the consequent magnetic field through use of the laws of Blot and Savart or of Ampere. When working in this manner one of course may need to revise frequently the postulated current distribution before arriving at a resulting magnetic field of acceptable field quality. It therefore is of interest to consider an alternative ({open_quotes}inverse{close_quotes}) procedure in which one specifies a desired character for the field required in the region interior to the winding and undertakes then to evaluate the current distribution on the specified winding surface that would provide this desired field. By evaluating the specified potential in the region interior to the winding along the interface, the authors have determined that a relaxation solution to the potential in the region outside the winding can be converged and used to calculate wire location. They have demonstrated this method by applying a slightly modified version of the program POISSON to a periodic alternating sinusoidal quadrupole field.

  11. Myth-building: The [open quotes]Islamic[close quotes] bomb

    SciTech Connect

    Hoodbhoy, P. )

    1993-06-01

    The [open quotes]Islamic Bomb[close quotes] is roughly understood to be a nuclear weapon aquired for broad ideological reasons--a weapon that supposedly belongs to the Muslim [ital ummah] or community and, as such, is the ultimate expression of Islamic solidarity. Concern about the Islamic bomb is at the heart of the intense effort to prevent the spread of nuclear weapons to Muslim countries. The official justification is a general one: proliferation must be curbed globally. But unofficially, the Islamic bomb gets special attention. The reasons behind this special attention are described in this article. The reasons include fear of terrorism, of a [ital jihad] willing to indiscriminately use nuclear weapons in hope of a reward in the Hereafter, and of the transfer of nuclear arms from nuclear to non-nuclear Muslim countries in times of crisis. Possibilities for controlling the proliferation of nuclear weapons in Muslim countries are addressed. Reasons are cited as to why various Muslim countries wish to acquire nuclear weapons.

  12. {open_quotes}Unspecific{close_quotes} X-linked mental retardation: Clinical, genetic and molecular studies

    SciTech Connect

    Ropers, H.H.; Maacel, S. van der; Knoers, N.

    1994-09-01

    Previous linkage studies have assigned a gene for non-syndromic X-linked mental retardation (XMR) to at least 8 different regions on the X-chromosome. The fragile X-syndrome (FRAXA) does not account for more than 40% of all cases; in most XMR families early diagnosis and prevention is not possible. As part of a systematic study into {open_quotes}unspecific{close_quotes} XMR involving more than 30 non-FRAXA families, linkage studies have enabled us to map the respective genes in 4 families to the Xp11.4-q12 interval with peak lod scores around the ALAS2 locus. In three other families, the gene defect could be assigned to the KAL-DMD, DXS424-FRAXAC2 and DSX52-Xqter intervals, respectively. In one of these families, small stature due to growth hormone deficiency was observed as a distinctive clinical feature. Molecular cloning of the breakpoint in a mentally retarded girl with a balanced t(Xq13;13q) translocation has enabled us to isolate an X-chromosomal gene which is disrupted in this patient and is highly expressed in brain. YAC cloning strategies are being employed to clone another XMR gene, which has been identified previously in the vicinity of the CHM locus and genes involved in mentally retarded patients with two different inversions, inv(X)(q21p11) and inv(X)(p21q24), respectively.

  13. Containment technology at the {open_quotes}Griftpark{close_quotes} former MGP site in the Netherlands

    SciTech Connect

    Vries, P.W. de; Viveen, B.

    1997-12-31

    {open_quotes}Griftpark{close_quotes} is a former highly contaminated gasworks site of approximately 8 hectares situated in Utrecht (The Netherlands). The MGP site is contained by a vertical barrier wall made of a specific mixture of bentonite-concrete and underlying clay layers at depths of 50 to 60 m which are slowly permeable. The barrier wall is 80 cm thick, has an average depth of 64 m, a length of 1260 m and has a total surface area of approximately 70,000 m{sup 2}. The construction of the barrier wall took nearly three years, from 1993 to 1995, to complete and building costs approximated 35 million US$ whereas the total project costs amounted to more than 150 million US$ including water detoxification. Migration of contaminants in the soil strata is successfully arrested by the construction of the barrier wall which was built conform NEN-ISO 9000/9001 standards. Wall permeability which was tested during a ten months period after construction demonstrates fully warranted reliability. This year a top layer will be installed consisting of an open insolation without foil. After placement of the top the site will be developed into a recreation park. Contaminant migration will permanently be monitored.

  14. Upper stage options for reusable launch vehicle {open_quotes}pop-up{close_quotes} missions

    SciTech Connect

    Eckmann, J.B.; Cotta, R.B.; Matuszak, L.W.; Perkins, D.R.

    1997-01-01

    Suborbital separation of an expendable upper stage from a small, single-stage Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) to transfer spacecraft into Geosynchronous Equatorial Orbit (GEO) was investigated and found to significantly increase spacecraft mass into GEO (over 400{percent}) although operational issues exist. An assessment of propulsion system options for this {open_quotes}Pop-Up{close_quotes} Mission was performed to determine the propellant combinations, stage configurations, and propulsion technologies that maximize spacecraft mass and minimize size. Propellants included earth and space storable combinations, cryogenic LH{sub 2}/LO{sub 2}, and Class 1.3 solids. Stage configurations employing cylindrical metal and overwrapped tanks, isogrid tanks, and toroidal tanks were considered. Non-toxic earth storable propellants provided comparable performance (5{endash}10{percent}) to existing storables while the use of pressure-fed engines gave about 15{percent} lower performance than pump-fed. Solid stage performance was within 5{percent} of existing storable propellants. Stages employing toroidal tanks packaged more efficiently in length constrained RLV payload bays than 4-cylindrical tank configurations, giving up to 30{percent} greater mass into GEO. The use of Extendable Exit Cones (EEC) for length constrained cases resulted in about 5{endash}10{percent} higher stage performance. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  15. A {open_quotes}zero waste{close_quotes} coolant management strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Kennicott, M.A.

    1994-04-01

    In June of 1992 the Waste Minimization Program at Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) began a study to determine the best methods of managing water-based industrial metalworking fluids in the plant`s Tool Manufacturing Shop. The shop was faced with the challenge of managing fluids that could no longer be disposed of in the traditional manner, through the plant`s liquid process waste drains, due to a problem they, were having causing in the Liquid Waste Operations Evaporator. The study`s goal was to reduce the waste coolants being generated and to reduce worker exposure to a serious health risk. Results of this study and those of a subsequent study to determine relative compatibilities of various coolants and metals, led to the application of a {open_quotes}zero waste{close_quotes} machine coolant management program. This program is currently saving the generation of 10,000 gallons of liquid waste annually, has eliminated worker exposure to harmful bacteria and biocides, and should result in extended machine tool life, increased product quality, fewer rejected parts, and decreases labor costs.

  16. [open quote]Endangered[close quote] salmon: More than just a Northwest hydro problem

    SciTech Connect

    Pfeiffer, D.E. )

    1992-06-01

    In the US, about 600 species of plants and animals are considered threatened or endangered under the Endangered Species Act. One of those, the Snake River sockeye salmon, has been making news in the Pacific Northwest. In November 1991, the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) declared Snake River sockeye salmon an endangered species, mandating the creation of a recovery plan that could cost more than $70 million a year. Many in the Northwest believe that the Endangered Species Act has never been applied in a case affecting so large an area or such a wide range of economic interests, including hydropower, agriculture, hatcheries, and commercial and sport fishing. Implications of this listing go far beyond regional economics, though. The way in which the federal government applied the Endangered Species Act in this instance has set a precedent that could affect hydro development throughout the US. The Endangered Species Act must be reauthorized by Congress by late October 1992. As explained in the accompanying story, [open quotes]Reauthorizing the ESA: Many Groups Calling for Change,[close quotes] the majority opinion in the US is that the act needs reform. Reviewing the act and its application in the Pacific Northwest will help members of the US hydro industry understand how hydro developments could be affected.

  17. [open quotes]Passing the test[close quotes] - Human behavior and California's smog check program

    SciTech Connect

    Lawson, D.R. )

    1993-12-01

    We have analyzed data obtained from more than 11,000 vehicles inspected in California's random roadside surveys to assess the real-world characteristics of the in-use motor vehicle fleet and to test the effectiveness of California's inspection and maintenance (I/M) program. The low-idle emissions data from these surveys show that 10 percent of the fleet are responsible for about 60 percent of the exhaust hydrocarbons and also that 10 percent of the fleet (not necessarily the same vehicles) are responsible for about 60 percent of the carbon monoxide emissions. We also show that high emitters appear among all model years, and not just among old vehicles, as previously assumed. Old vehicles, on average, have higher idle emissions than new vehicles, but they contribute relatively little to the total idle emissions because there are so few on the road. We compare roadside survey results at I/M and non-I/M locations in California, and observe identical tampering and overall failure rates at the two types of locations. We also show that motorists are taking steps to [open quotes]pass the test,[close quotes] and that the high-emitting vehicles' idle-emissions performance and tampering rates in the roadside surveys are unaffected by the Smog Check test. These results imply that success in California's Smog Check program in reducing emissions will require consideration of human behavior and the attendant negative incentives inherent in the program as historically conceived. 29 refs., 9 figs., 6 tabs.

  18. A microwave inverse Cerenkov accelerator ({open_quotes}MICA{close_quotes})

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, T.B.; Marshall, T.C.

    1995-12-31

    By {open_quotes}inverting{close_quotes} the stimulated Cerenkov effect to stimulated Cerenkov absorption, it is possible to build an electron accelerator device driven by high power microwaves that propagate in a slow-wave TM mode (axial E-field). An experiment now running at Brookhaven uses a powerful C02 laser and a 50MeV electron beam moving in a gas-loaded cell. Our approach is to use the 15MW available at 2.865GHz from a SLAC klystron to accelerate an electron beam provided from an rf gun ({approximately}6MeV, few psec pulses) to energy {approximately}20MeV. The use of microwaves permits a well defined group of electrons to be accelerated in a narrow window of phase. The waveguide is a cylinder, radius = 1.59cm, which contains an annular tube of alumina ({epsilon} = 9.4) having a hole about 1cm diameter, we show this will slow the waves to 0.9943c and permit electrons to be accelerated by a co-propagating field. This results in a relatively compact structure that has the advantage of a smooth-bore design and no need of magnetic focussing. We have solved for the wave dispersion in the structure, found the fields, and then used the Lorentz force equations to obtain the motion of a group of electrons distributed in radius and along the axis. We find the radial forces are focussing. Electrons in a well-defined filament (r < 0.5mm) remain collimated and do not strike the dielectric. Techniques for improving the dielectric breakdown of the surface should permit axial fields in the range of 100-200 kV/cm.

  19. The restructuring and future of {open_quotes}Mendelian Inheritance in Man{close_quotes} (MIM)

    SciTech Connect

    Pearson, P.L.; Francomano, C.; Antonarakis, S.

    1994-09-01

    Victor McKusick`s catalog {open_quotes}Mendelian Inheritance in Man{close_quotes} represents the most comprehensive compendum of human genetic disease information available today and has appeared as a series in book form for the last 30 years. The 11th edition will contain almost 7000 entries: approximately 2800 descriptions of human genetic disorders, 700 combined disorder/gene descriptions and 3500 pure gene descriptions. Until recently the content of the catalogs was maintained solely by McKusick with a support staff. However, a distributed editing system has now been established with the following primary components. New entries are initiated in Baltimore by science writers under the guidance of the senior editors and McKusick, following which the information is made immediately available to the public through online access. The subject editors can then review and edit the new or modified information without impeding the timeliness of entering new information. Entries are being reconstructured so that clinical disorder and gene information is divided into separate entries which will better represent the frequently complex relationship of gene mutations to individual clinical disorders in the data files. Further, each entry is being subdivided into logical topics which will enhance the power of electronic searching, making links between topics and improving readability. The old division of entries into autosomal dominant and recessive, etc., is being abandoned in favor of clinical disorder (phenotypes) and gene catalogs. The information is maintained in an SGML format which facilitates the production of many different types of output varying from the traditional book form to CD ROMs and various online formats including IRx, WAIS, Gopher and World Wide Web. This latter offers the exciting possibility of making hypertext links between entries and other data resources, including photographic, sound and video clips as part of the total MIM information.

  20. Detecting MOV stem to stem-nut lubricant degradation by reviewing MOV {open_quotes}seating time{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    Loweth, W.A.

    1996-12-01

    The objective is to describe a methodology, suitable for IST Programs, that obtains sufficient data to assess and trend the overall condition of AC and DC MOVs. Using existing diagnostic test equipment, recording the time from Hard Seat Contact to the Torque Switch Trip point (TST), {open_quote}Seating Time (msec){close_quotes}, can provide a means to quickly detect for signs of lubricant degradation in the interface between the stem and stem-nut for MOVs. Obtaining and trending the {open_quote}Seating Time{close_quote} parameter can be easily accomplished using the sensors which provide motor current, torque or thrust. From the initial baseline test to subsequent tests, it is the change in time between Hard Seat Contact to Torque Switch Trip point that is utilized to monitor changes in the coefficient of friction between the stem and stem-nut. While many Licensees have begun their MOV Periodic Verification Programs, obtaining the {open_quotes}Seating Time{close_quotes} during Refueling Outages and comparing the results from subsequent outages can be an input to the justification for changing the MOV baseline test frequency.

  1. {open_quotes}Balanced{close_quotes} karyotypes in six abnormal offspring of balanced reciprocal translocation normal carrier parents

    SciTech Connect

    Wenger, S.L.; Steele, M.W.; Boone, L.Y.

    1995-01-02

    Among 6800 consecutive blood samples studies for clinical cytogenetic diagnosis, we identified 30 families in which one parent of the proband had a balanced reciprocal autosomal translocation (excluding Robertsonian rearrangements). Twenty-eight of the 30 families had a malformed and/or mentally retarded proband: 19 with an unbalanced derived chromosome, 3 with abnormalities involving chromosomes other than those in the translocation, 5 with a {open_quotes}balanced{close_quotes} reciprocal translocation, and 1 with a normal karyotype. We hypothesize that a latter 6 affected probands with {open_quotes}balanced{close_quotes} karyotypes could be abnormal due to submicroscopic deletions and duplications as was originally suggested by Jacobs. Particularly in these 6 families, 83% of translocation breakpoints were associated with fragile sites, more than expected by chance (P < 0.025). This supports the report of an association between fragile sites and constitutional chromosome breakpoints by Hecht and Hecht. To explain these findings, we propose that autosomal fragile sites are unstable areas which predispose to breaks and unequal crossing over near the fragile site breakpoints creating minute duplications and deletions. Consequently, newborn infants inheriting a seemingly {open_quotes}balanced{close_quotes} karyotype from a normal parent with a balanced reciprocal translocation may still be at an increased risk of being malformed and/or developmentally delayed because of submicroscopic chromosomal imbalances. 19 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. {open_quotes}Media-On-Demand{close_quotes} multimedia electronic mail: A tool for collaboration on the web

    SciTech Connect

    Tsoi, Kei Nam; Rahman, S.M.

    1996-12-31

    Undoubtedly, multimedia electronic mail has many advantages in exchanging information electronically in a collaborative work. The existing design of e-mail systems architecture is inefficient in exchanging multimedia message which has much larger volume, and requires more bandwidth and storage space than the text-only messages. This paper presents an innovative method for exchanging multimedia mail messages in a heterogeneous environment to support collaborative work over YAW on the Internet. We propose a {open_quotes}Parcel Collection{close_quotes} approach for exchanging multimedia electronic mail messages. This approach for exchanging multimedia electronic mail messages integrates the current WWW technologies with the existing electronic mail systems.

  3. Final report for LDRD project {open_quotes}A new approach to protein function and structure prediction{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, C.A.

    1997-03-01

    This report describes the research performed under the laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) grant {open_quotes}A new approach to protein function and structure prediction{close_quotes}, funded FY94-6. We describe the goals of the research, motivate and list our improvements to the state of the art in multiple sequence alignment and phylogeny (evolutionary tree) construction, but leave technical details to the six publications resulting from this work. At least three algorithms for phylogeny construction or tree consensus have been implemented and used by researchers outside of Sandia.

  4. Selecting Solar. Insights into Residential Photovoltaic (PV) Quote Variation

    SciTech Connect

    Davidson, Carolyn; Margolis, Robert

    2015-10-01

    This analysis leverages available data from EnergySage, an online solar marketplace, to offer the first data-driven characterization of quote variation faced by prospective PV customers, lending early insight into the decisions customers face once they have initial buy-in.

  5. 400 Quotable Quotes from the World's Leading Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sennett, Frank

    2004-01-01

    This book represents a showcase of thoughts on important education issues by groundbreakers such as Dewey, Montessori, and Bloom as well as contemporary educators like Fullan, Glasser, and Lambert. The reader will find a wealth of subjects, indexed under dozens of pertinent headings. Included are: (1) Inspirational quotes to apply to any project…

  6. Racist Quotes from Persons of Note, Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fikes, Robert, Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Offers racist quotes about Blacks, Jews, Hispanics, Asians, Italians, Poles, and others, from famous persons such as John Wayne, Woodrow Wilson, William F. Buckley, Richard Wagner, Jesse Helms, Sam Rayburn, Walter Lippman, Jack London, Paul Lynde, Theodore Roosevelt, Frank Sinatra, Errol Flynn, Ezra Pound, Richard M. Nixon, and Ronald Reagan. (BJV)

  7. Quotable Quotes on the Value of Language Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Language Association Bulletin, 1974

    1974-01-01

    Quotations about the importance of and need for foreign language teaching and learning by well-known U. S. politicians, college and university presidents, religious leaders, and government officials are presented. Those quoted include: (1) J. M. Leslie; (2) E. Nyquist; (3) J. M. Hester; (4) C. B. Saunders; (5) L. White, Jr.; (6) H. Humphrey; (7)…

  8. {open_quotes}Optical guiding{close_quotes} limits on extraction efficiencies of single-pass, tapered wiggler amplifiers

    SciTech Connect

    Fawley, W.M.

    1995-12-31

    Single-pass, tapered wiggler amplifiers have an attractive feature of being able, in theory at least, of extracting a large portion of the electron beam energy into light. In circumstances where an optical FEL`s wiggler length is significantly longer than the Rayleigh length Z{sub R} corresponding to the electron beam radius, diffraction losses must be controlled via the phenomenon of {open_quotes}optical guiding{close_quotes}. Since the strength of the guiding depends upon the effective refractive index {eta}{sub r} exceeding one, and since ({eta}{sub r}-1) is inversely proportional to the optical electric field, there is a natural {open_quotes}limiting{close_quotes} mechanism to the on-axis field strength and thus the rate at which energy may be extracted from the electron beam. In particular, the extraction efficiency for a prebunched beam asymptotically grows linearly with z rather than quadratically. We present analytical and numerical simulation results concerning this behavior and discuss its applicability to various FEL designs including oscillator/amplifier-radiator configurations.

  9. The {open_quotes}Command and Control{close_quotes} philosophy of the Communist party of China

    SciTech Connect

    Kominiak, G.J.; Eisenberger, J.C.; Menaul, K.L.

    1996-01-01

    China`s central political authorities have constructed a system which is designed to enable them to exert their personal influence and control over each level of every organization in the country -- both civil and military. The Communist Party of China (CPC) is represented at all levels of each and every organization, including the People`s Liberation Army (PLA). These Party entities are intended to both provide oversight and to ensure that Party policies, directives and orders are obeyed. This penchant for political control, which may have its roots in China`s imperial past, appears to have been reinforced by the early developmental path chosen by the Party`s leadership. Current attempts aimed at maintaining political control of its resources, especially the military, are embodied in the formal system of {open_quotes}Political Work.{close_quotes} In the PLA, this system of political control results in the involvement of political organs in day-to-day military matters to an extent unheard of in the West. Further work is needed in order to understand, more fully, both the system of {open_quotes}Political Work{close_quotes} and its contributions to the overall military (and civil) command and control philosophic of the Communist Party of China.

  10. Clinical and molecular cytogenetic observations in three cases of {open_quotes}trisomy 12p syndrome{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    Rauch, A.; Trautmann, U.; Pfeiffer, R.A.

    1996-05-03

    Two unpublished cases with partial tandem duplication of 12p and one previously published case were studied by fluorescence in situ hybridization using 11 cosmid DNA probes from 12p. We propose that the smallest duplications of 12(p13.2pter) and 12(p13.1p13.33) produce the {open_quotes}trisomy 12p syndrome{close_quotes} which is characterized by heavy birth weight, macrocephaly, muscular hypotonia, short neck, flat face, high forehead, prominent cheeks, large philtrum, short nose with anteverted nostrils, and broad everted lower lip. From a review of the published cases we conclude that gross malformations are lacking in {open_quotes}pure{close_quotes} trisomy 12p, and mental retardation is severe in complete and moderate in partial trisomy 12p. Polydactyly and accessory nipples were found only with almost complete trisomy 12p. Abnormalities of hair growth may be related to a gene at 12p. The sub-band 12p11.21 may be critical for acrocallosal syndrome. Macrocephaly may be due to a metabolic disorder. 26 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Massive {open_quotes}turbidite{close_quotes} sandstones in the Vocontian Basin (south-east of France): An analogue for blocky {open_quotes}basin floor fan{close_quotes} reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Imbert, P.; Rubino, J.L.; Olivier, P.; Rubino, J.L.

    1995-08-01

    The concept of {open_quotes}Basin Floor Fan{close_quotes} used to describe deep-marine massive sandstone reservoirs is largely derived from subsurface data, with little sedimentological support from outcrops. This paper discusses outcrop analogues for such types of massive sandstones. The Aptian-Albian sandstones in the intracratonic Vocontian Basin form elongate deposits of massive, channelized deep-marine turbidite sands up to 80 meters thick, interbedded with a predominantly shaley series. These channels, several kilometers wide, extend over a distance of 80 kilometers, with a width/thickness ratio between 20 and 100; an interesting feature of these deposits is the apparent lack of mounded depositional lobes at their extremity. These massive sands are multistory and represent stacked 1-30 meters thick units. The turbidites were sourced by the reworking of well-sorted shelf sand deposits. The massive sands are fine to medium-grained and devoid of visible structures, except for subtle grain size grading and crude parallel lamination. Sand distribution is controlled by the regional palaeotopography which forms elongate trough-like depressions (structurally controlled?). Some sandstones have a strongly irregular, erosional base and fill channel-like features. Deposition of the background shales, erosion of the valley floor and sandy infill occurred as distinct and separate phrases. The main controls on the massive sand distribution are the source of the sand and the palaeotopography. In these examples, the depositional mechanism of the {open_quotes}Basin Floor Fan{close_quotes}-like sands corresponds to the high density turbidity currents rather than slumps or contourites, as suggested from some subsurface data.

  12. Deposition of {open_quotes}unattached{close_quotes} radon daughters in models of human nasal and oral airways

    SciTech Connect

    Strong, J.C.; Swift, D.L.

    1992-12-31

    In order to estimate accurately an effective dose equivalent for exposures to radon daughters, knowledge of their deposition in the lung is required. However, the nose and mouth are effective filters for removing aerosol particles, especially in the range of sizes of {open_quotes}unattached{close_quotes} radon daughters. Therefore, it is equally important to have reliable data on deposition in this region of the respiratory tract. We will describe our work in studying nasal and oral deposition of {open_quotes}unattached{close_quotes} radon daughters in casts of these airways. Several hollow casts of adult and child nasal and oral airways were fabricated at The John Hopkins University from layers of Perspect{trademark} (an acrylic plastic). The shapes of the airway passages were obtained from nuclear magnetic resonance sectional images of healthy subjects. The casts were exposed to radon gas and daughters produced by flushing filtered air through a commercially available {sup 226}Ra source. The gas stream was drawn through a 1.4-L cylindrical tube to allow measurable growth of {sup 218}Po activity before it was passed through casts of both nasal passages or the oral cavity. The deposition of {open_quotes}unattached{close_quotes} {sup 218}Po was measured by comparing the activity collected on filters mounted in series and in parallel with a cast. Measurements were made at various flow rates (Q; 4 to 20 L min{sup -1}). The diffusion coefficient (D) of {sup 218}Po was measured each time the flow rate was changed, by replacing the cast with a stainless steel gauze screen and measuring the activity penetrating the screen. The measured diffusion coefficient ranged from 0.02 to 0.05 cm{sup 2} s{sup -1} and was found to vary with the residence time of {sup 218}Po in the growth tube. The deposition efficiency ({eta}) of {sup 218}Po measured in these casts ranged from 50 to 70%, and was similar to values we found previously, using casts of nasal and oral airways from cadavers.

  13. Crossed and Locked Quotes in a Multi-Market Simulation.

    PubMed

    Todd, Andrew; Beling, Peter; Scherer, William

    2016-01-01

    Financial markets are often fragmented, introducing the possibility that quotes in identical securities may become crossed or locked. There are a number of theoretical explanations for the existence of crossed and locked quotes, including competition, simultaneous actions, inattentiveness, fee structure and market access. In this paper, we perform a simulation experiment designed to examine the effect of simple order routing procedures on the properties of a fragmented market consisting of a single security trading in two independent limit order books. The quotes in the two markets are connected solely by the routing decision of the market participants. We report on the health of the consolidated market as measured by the duration of crossed and locked states, as well as the spread and the volatility of transaction prices in the consolidated market. We aim to quantify exactly how the prevalence of order routing among a population of market participants affects properties of the consolidated market. Our model contributes to the zero-intelligence literature by treating order routing as an experimental variable. Additionally, we introduce a parsimonious heuristic for limit order routing, allowing us to study the effects of both market order routing and limit order routing. Our model refines intuition for the sometimes subtle relationships between the prevalence of order routing and various market measures. Our model also provides a benchmark for more complex agent-based models. PMID:26959416

  14. Crossed and Locked Quotes in a Multi-Market Simulation

    PubMed Central

    Todd, Andrew; Beling, Peter; Scherer, William

    2016-01-01

    Financial markets are often fragmented, introducing the possibility that quotes in identical securities may become crossed or locked. There are a number of theoretical explanations for the existence of crossed and locked quotes, including competition, simultaneous actions, inattentiveness, fee structure and market access. In this paper, we perform a simulation experiment designed to examine the effect of simple order routing procedures on the properties of a fragmented market consisting of a single security trading in two independent limit order books. The quotes in the two markets are connected solely by the routing decision of the market participants. We report on the health of the consolidated market as measured by the duration of crossed and locked states, as well as the spread and the volatility of transaction prices in the consolidated market. We aim to quantify exactly how the prevalence of order routing among a population of market participants affects properties of the consolidated market. Our model contributes to the zero-intelligence literature by treating order routing as an experimental variable. Additionally, we introduce a parsimonious heuristic for limit order routing, allowing us to study the effects of both market order routing and limit order routing. Our model refines intuition for the sometimes subtle relationships between the prevalence of order routing and various market measures. Our model also provides a benchmark for more complex agent-based models. PMID:26959416

  15. Development and implementation of a {open_quotes}green rate{close_quotes} utility wind power project in Michigan

    SciTech Connect

    Smiley, S.B.

    1995-12-31

    Traverse City Light & Power (TCL&P), a Michigan municipal electric utility serving 9,000 customers in the Traverse City, Michigan area is in the final development stages of the first {open_quotes}green rate{close_quotes} wind power project in the USA. By the fall of 1995 the utility will be producing wind generated electricity to supply the annual needs of approximately 200 customers who have voluntarily agreed to pay a green price premium in order to encourage their community electric utility to implement wind power generation. The 500 kW, $620,000 wind power project was promoted in early 1994 with a requirement target of 200 customers - and by mid-year a total of 263 residential and commercial customers had been signed. TCL&P was then obliged to proceed with the project installation as planned and promoted.

  16. Integrated analysis of the {open_quotes}sponge iron reactor and fuel cell system{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    Lehrhofer, J.; Ghaemi, M.; Wernigg, H.

    1996-12-31

    The system Sponge Iron Reactor/Fuel Cell (SIR/FC) is investigated from the ecological and technical aspects and also the pre-conversion energy chain as a part of the natural gas fuel cycle is analyzed. What are the decisive characteristics of a sponge iron reactor or the basic process cycle sponge iron/hydrogen/iron oxide? This process cycle offers a simple possibility to store the energy of synthesis gases in the form of sponge iron and at the same time to reform and condition these synthesis gases. As {open_quote}product{close_quote} of this energy storage one receives pure hydrogen which is intended for the running of fuel cells.

  17. Application of innovative policies for controlling radionuclide releases: The {open_quotes}open-market trading rule{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    Moeller, D.W.

    1997-08-01

    In the past, most efforts for reducing airborne radio nuclide releases and controlling radioactive wastes have been directed to the development of new and improved technologies. Little attention has been paid to the possible application to these problems of new, innovative policies. Yet, experience in other fields shows that such applications could be beneficial. A prime example is the {open_quotes}open-market trading rule,{close_quotes} now being widely used in the U.S. for the control of a range of environmental problems. Through this rule, nuclear facility operators would be permitted to control airborne emissions in a more cost-effective manner, and those responsible for decommissioning and decontaminating nuclear facilities no longer in operation could do so at far lower costs while generating significantly smaller volumes of radioactive wastes. Application of such a policy would also significantly reduce the demands on existing, and the need for research to develop new, improved, control technologies. 16 refs.

  18. Report on {open_quotes}inspection of human subject research in intelligence and intelligence-related projects{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-16

    Executive Order 12333, {open_quotes}United States Intelligence Activities,{close_quotes} (1) designates the Department`s intelligence element as a member of the Intelligence Community, and (2) states that no agency within the Intelligence community shall sponsor, contract for or conduct research on human subjects except in accordance with guidelines issued by the Department of Health and Human Services. The Federal policy for the Protection of Human Subjects, which was based on Department of Health and Human Services regulations, was promulgated in Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations Part 745 by the Department of Energy. The purpose of this inspection was to review the internal control procedures used by the Office of Nonproliferation and National Security to manage selected intelligence and intelligence-related projects that involve human subject research.

  19. [Hydrotris(3-isopropyl-5-methylpyazolyl)borato]-iodocobalt(II): Unusual purification by {open_quotes}inverse recrystallization{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    Reinaud, O.M.; Rheingold, A.L.; Theopold, K.H.

    1994-05-11

    In the search for homogeneous oxidation catalysts, the authors are investigating sterically hindered tris(pyrazolyl) borate complexes. For example, hydrotris(3-tert-butyl-5-methylpyrazolyl)borate (Tp{prime}) stabilizes the unusual side-on bonded superoxo-cobalt complex Tp{prime}Co{sup II}(O{sub 2}). During study of this complex there arose the need to prepare an analogous molecule with isopropyl groups in place of the tert-butyl substituents of the pyrazolyl rings. As a starting material for this chemistry, the authors prepared and structurally characterized Tp{double_prime}Co{sup II}I (Tp{double_prime} = hydrotris(3-isopropyl-5-methylpyrazoly)borate). The separation of the latter from its regioisomers takes advantage of a rather unusual solubility effect, termed {open_quotes}inverse recrystallization{close_quotes}. The potential utility of this phenomenon in related systems prompted this note.

  20. Absence of {lambda} immunoglobulin sequences on the supernumerary chromosome of the {open_quotes}cat eye{close_quotes} syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Hough, C.A.; White, B.N.; Holden, J.J.A.

    1995-09-11

    The supernumerary bisatellited chromosome causing the {open_quotes}cat eye{close_quotes} syndrome (CES) is of chromosome 22 origin and consists of an inverted duplication of the 22pter{r_arrow}22q11.2 region. To determine the extent of involvement of band q11.2 on the bisatellited chromosome, copy number assessment of sequences homologous to cloned {lambda} immunoglobulin ({lambda} Ig) gene region probes was carried out on DNA from individuals with CES using densitometric analysis of Southern blots. None of the 10 {lambda} Ig sequences studied was found in increased copy number in DNA from any of the 10 CES individuals tested, indicating that these sequences are not present on the supernumerary chromosome. The breakpoints involved in the generation of the bisatellited supernumerary chromosome associated with CES are therefore proximal to the {lambda} Ig gene region. 20 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  1. {open_quotes}Full steam ahead{close_quotes} (a historical review of geothermal power development in the Philippines)

    SciTech Connect

    Gazo, F.M.

    1997-12-31

    The Philippine geothermal energy development is now considered in a state of maturity. After more than 20 years of geothermal experience, the total geothermal installed capacity in the Philippines reached 1,455 MW (1996) or about 12% of the total installed power plant capacity. This also enabled the Philippines to become the second largest producer of geothermal energy in the world. The country`s track record in harnessing geothermal energy is considered a revelation, as it continues with its vision of {open_quotes}full steam ahead{close_quotes}, originally conceived when commercial geothermal operation started in 1973. It is thus proper and timely to refer to historical highlights and experiences in geothermal energy development for planning and implementation of the country`s geothermal energy program.

  2. Development of the simulation system {open_quotes}IMPACT{close_quotes} for analysis of nuclear power plant severe accidents

    SciTech Connect

    Naitoh, Masanori; Ujita, Hiroshi; Nagumo, Hiroichi

    1997-07-01

    The Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation (NUPEC) has initiated a long-term program to develop the simulation system {open_quotes}IMPACT{close_quotes} for analysis of hypothetical severe accidents in nuclear power plants. IMPACT employs advanced methods of physical modeling and numerical computation, and can simulate a wide spectrum of senarios ranging from normal operation to hypothetical, beyond-design-basis-accident events. Designed as a large-scale system of interconnected, hierarchical modules, IMPACT`s distinguishing features include mechanistic models based on first principles and high speed simulation on parallel processing computers. The present plan is a ten-year program starting from 1993, consisting of the initial one-year of preparatory work followed by three technical phases: Phase-1 for development of a prototype system; Phase-2 for completion of the simulation system, incorporating new achievements from basic studies; and Phase-3 for refinement through extensive verification and validation against test results and available real plant data.

  3. Selecting Solar: Insights into Residential Photovoltaic (PV) Quote Variation

    SciTech Connect

    Davidson, Carolyn; Margolis, Robert

    2015-10-01

    Before investing in a system, a prospective PV customer must not only have initial concept 'buy in,' but also be able to evaluate the tradeoffs associated with different system parameters. Prospective customers might need to evaluate disparate costs for each system attribute by comparing multiple bids. The difficulty of making such an evaluation with limited information can create a cognitive barrier to proceeding with the investment. This analysis leverages recently available data from EnergySage, an online solar marketplace, to offer the first data-driven characterization of quote variation faced by prospective PV customers, lending early insight into the decisions customers face once they have initial buy-in.

  4. Recognition and regional correlation of impact-related {open_quotes}Ames Crater{close_quotes} Arbuckle and Simpson reservoir lithofacies

    SciTech Connect

    Kuykendall, M.D.

    1995-09-01

    The concentric structural feature known as the {open_quotes}Ames Hole{close_quotes} or {open_quotes}Ames Crater{close_quotes}, located on the northern shelf of the Anadarko Basin, contains several heterogeneous and uniquely associated hydrocarbon reservoirs, as well as a locally thick (craterfilling) Middle Ordovician (Simpson shale) source rock. Critical diagnostic structural and morphological features, along with petrographic and shock metamorphism evidence, strongly support and impact origin of the structure. Principle crater reservoirs include extremely brecciated, fractured, and faulted, Cambro-Ordovician Arbuckle Group dolomites, Pre-Cambrian granodiorities, devitrified pseudo-pyroclastic (impact melt) rocks, and a rather homogenous, dolomitic ejecta-fallout breccia, which is present along the rim and flanks of the crater. Stratigraphic trapping of hydrocarbons associated with the presence of reservoir-quality ejecta-fallout lithologies unconformably present in the upper portion of the Arbuckle Group, and in reworked, arkosic/dolomitic impact-related lithofacies within the overlying basal Simpson Group, may exist both locally and regionally relative to the {open_quotes}Ames Crater{close_quotes}. Calibration of log-rock characteristics of ejecta-fallout reservoir lithofacies from key crater rim wells provides the basis for field-wide and regional inferences about lithologies, reservoir quality, and related production characteristics. An awareness and understanding of impact-related {open_quotes}Ames Crater{close_quotes} Arbuckle and Simpson lithofacies should lead to refinement of regional Lower and Middle Ordovician stratigraphy, and create renewed exploration strategies for potential stratigraphic traps.

  5. Laboratory {open_quotes}proof of principle{close_quotes} investigation for the acoustically enhanced remediation technology

    SciTech Connect

    Iovenitti, J.L.; Spencer, J.W. Jr.; Hill, D.G.

    1995-10-01

    Weiss Associates is conducting a three phase program investigating the systematics of using acoustic excitation fields (AEFs) to enhance the in-situ remediation of contaminated soil and ground water under both saturated and unsaturated conditions: Phase I - Laboratory Scale Parametric Investigation; Phase II - Technology Scaling Study; and Phase III - Large Scale Field Tests. Phase I, the subject of this paper, consisted primarily of a laboratory proof of principle investigation. The field deployment and engineering viability of acoustically enhanced remediation (AER) technology was also examined. Phase II is a technology scaling study addressing the scale up between laboratory size samples on the order of inches, and the data required for field scale testing, on the order of hundreds of feet. Phase III will consist of field scale testing at an non-industrialized, non-contaminated site and at a contaminated site to validate the technology. Summarized herein are the results of the Phase I {open_quotes}proof-of-principle{close_quotes} investigation, and recommendations for Phase H. A general overview of AER technology along with the plan for the Phase I investigation was presented.

  6. {open_quotes}Airborne Research Australia (ARA){close_quotes} a new research aircraft facility on the southern hemisphere

    SciTech Connect

    Hacker, J.M.

    1996-11-01

    {open_quotes}Airborne Research Australia{close_quotes} (ARA) is a new research aircraft facility in Australia. It will serve the scientific community of Australia and will also make its aircraft and expertise available for commercial users. To cover the widest possible range of applications, the facility will operate up to five research aircraft, from a small, low-cost platform to medium-sized multi-purpose aircraft, as well as a unique high altitude aircraft capable of carrying scientific loads to altitudes of up to 15km. The aircraft will be equipped with basic instrumentation and data systems, as well as facilities to mount user-supplied instrumentation and systems internally and externally on the aircraft. The ARA operations base consisting of a hangar, workshops, offices, laboratories, etc. is currently being constructed at Parafield Airport near Adelaide/South Australia. The following text reports about the current state of development of the facility. An update will be given in a presentation at the Conference. 6 figs.

  7. Another look at US passenger vehicle use and the {open_quotes}rebound{close_quotes} effect from improved fuel efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, C.T.

    1993-12-31

    Recently, Greene (1992) analyzed vehicle miles travelled for U.S. passenger vehicles over 1966-89 to econometrically estimate the {open_quotes}rebound{close_quotes} effect in fuel consumption resulting from improved fuel efficiency. He found that a static AR(1) model could not be rejected, implying that the rebound effect is small (13%) with no significant long-run adjustments, regardless of the assumed functional form (linear or loglinear). Another look at the data from a different model selection approach shows that while a loglinear AR(1) model is acceptable, the linear version is not. Using either form, a lagged dependent variable model cannot be rejected on statistical grounds yet has insignificant GNP effects, yielding similarly small short-run rebound effects but significant long-run rebound effects of about 30%. Thus, the evidence from these competing models for a significant long-run adjustment process is mixed, so that its presence cannot be completely ruled out. 13 refs., 2 tabs.

  8. The making of a successful seminar: Pacific Northwest Laboratory`s {open_quotes}Quest for Quality{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    Lumetta, C.C.; Downs, S.L.; Parnell, K.A.; Allen, R.E.

    1994-10-01

    Five contractors located on or near the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State support technical communications staffs, all trying to meet the needs of one primary customer the U.S. Department of Energy. Historically, these staffs have maintained different processes and standards with regard to document production, and little interaction or information-sharing has occurred. To begin remedying that situation, the communications staff of Pacific Northwest Laboratory, a multiprogram national laboratory located in Richland, Wash., planned and hosted a one-day {open_quotes}Quest for Quality{close_quotes} seminar. The seminar was the first of its kind to comprise technical communications professionals from all the local DOE prime contractors, including technical editors and writers, publications assistants, text processors, and document production staff. The goals of the seminar were to identify ways to improve the quality of Hanford`s communication products and processes, to strengthen ties among technical communications staffs, and to open the lines of communication for future collaborative efforts. An eight-person committee selected topics, arranged facilities, recruited speakers, coordinated activities, hosted the seminar, and prepared proceedings.

  9. Pulling the [open quotes]reverse trigger[close quotes]: A way to define local competition. [Competition among Public Utilities

    SciTech Connect

    Barnich, T.L.; Clausen, C.L.

    1994-06-15

    The communications convergence, brought about largely by the digitalization revolution, is now moving in a double helix through the horizontal telecommunications hierarchy. Competition for customer premises is aspiring upward toward the competition that is spiraling downward from the long-distance market. The competitive-access market is growing rapidly. MCI Metro, MCI/Nextel, and AT T/McCaw are poised to reach down into the traditionally [open quotes]local[close quotes] markets through wires and airwaves alike. Even the electric utilities are building persuasive business cases and regulatory arguments to transform their erstwhile internal communications systems, conduits, and rights-of-way into commercial networks offering cable TV, multimedia, Personal Communications Service (PCS), and alternative telephony services. The four principles in developing a regulatory standard should be: create standards that ease regulatory babysitting, recognize the relationship between the costs of regulatory compliance and building the networks, minimize transaction costs, and let the networks begin to grow now, without time and energy being spent on gaming the regulatory system.

  10. Ulysses observations of a {open_quotes}density hole{close_quotes} in the high-speed solar wind

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, P.; Gosling, J.T.; McComas, D.J.; Forsyth, R.J.

    1998-02-01

    Ulysses observations at mid and high heliographic latitudes have revealed a solar wind devoid of the large variations in density, temperature, and speed that are commonly observed at low latitudes. One event, however, observed on May 1, 1996, while Ulysses was located at {approximately}3.7AU and 38.5{degree}, stands out in the plasma data set. The structure, which is unique in the Ulysses high-latitude data set, is seen as a drop in proton density of almost an order of magnitude and a comparable rise in proton temperature. The event lasts {approximately}3(1)/(2) hours giving the structure a size of {approximately}9.6{times}10{sup 6}km (0.06 AU) along the spacecraft trajectory. Minimum variance analysis of this interval indicates that the angle between the average magnetic field direction and the minimum variance direction is {approximately}92{degree}, suggesting that the {open_quotes}density hole{close_quotes} may be approximated by a series of planar slabs separated by several tangential discontinuities. We discuss several possible explanations for the origin of this structure, but ultimately the origin of the density hole remains unknown. {copyright} 1998 American Geophysical Union

  11. {open_quotes}Hot-lab{close_quotes} experience on hydrometallurgical mutual separation and conditioning of three-valence transplutonium and rare earth elements

    SciTech Connect

    Renard, E.V.; Pavlovich, V.B.

    1996-12-31

    The paper contains results of {open_quotes}hot-lab{close_quotes} investigation experience of multistage liquid-liquid extraction and mixed (extraction-precipitation) operations of intergroup 3-valence transplutonides (TPE) and lanthanides (RE) separation using both modelling and real high active solutions produced in the process of fissile actinides recovery, i.e. high-level liquid waste (HLLW) of PUREX-technology. Extractive TPE-RE separation processes on the systems with acidic and amine extractants, inorganic salt-out agents, strong complex ones have been studied and modified. The presented real high activity products management results may be useful both in the {open_quotes}minor{close_quotes} actinides transmutation (chemical) technology and HLLW conditioning as well before vitrification on the stage of TPE removal and their separation from RE fission products.

  12. On the article by Henri Poincare` {open_quotes}on the dynamics of the electron{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    Logunov, A.A.

    1996-04-01

    The first complete translations into English are presented of two articles written by the outstanding French scientist Henri Poincare and submitted by him in 1905 under the common title of {open_quotes}Sur la dynamique de l`electron{close_quotes} to different journals. In the present edition of these articles by H. Poincare, modern notation is used, and the articles are accompanied by comments written by A.A. Logunov. The author of the comments explains the profound physical meaning and essential novelty of the particular points and relationships established by Poincare. Such explanations are often interspersed with quotations from earlier articles by Poincare, thus clearly indicating that the main initial points of the new theory were put forward by the French scientist much before 1905, while certain concepts like `local` time and the arbitrariness of simultaneity were given a clear explanation from the point of view of physical meaning. A.A. Logunov`s book, presenting the works of Poincare on the development of relativity theory, has had quite a high success among specialists interested in the history of physics, and since 1984 it has been published in Russian three times. The present English-language edition is identical to the last 1988 Russian edition, and is dedicated to the 90th anniversary of Poincare`s articles `On the Dynamics of the Electron`. In preparing the English text, fragments were used of the translation of the long article by H.Poincare published in the book by Professor C.W. Kilmister from King`s College in London/Special Theory of Relativity, Pergamon Press, New York, 1970/.

  13. Belgian experience in applying the {open_quotes}leak-before-break{close_quotes} concept to the primary loop piping

    SciTech Connect

    Gerard, R.; Malekian, C.; Meessen, O.

    1997-04-01

    The Leak Before Break (LBB) concept allows to eliminate from the design basis the double-ended guillotine break of the primary loop piping, provided it can be demonstrated by a fracture mechanics analysis that a through-wall flaw, of a size giving rise to a leakage still well detectable by the plant leak detection systems, remains stable even under accident conditions (including the Safe Shutdown Earthquake (SSE)). This concept was successfully applied to the primary loop piping of several Belgian Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) units, operated by the Utility Electrabel. One of the main benefits is to permit justification of supports in the primary loop and justification of the integrity of the reactor pressure vessel and internals in case of a Loss Of Coolant Accident (LOCA) in stretch-out conditions. For two of the Belgian PWR units, the LBB approach also made it possible to reduce the number of large hydraulic snubbers installed on the primary coolant pumps. Last but not least, the LBB concept also facilitates the steam generator replacement operations, by eliminating the need for some pipe whip restraints located close to the steam generator. In addition to the U.S. regulatory requirements, the Belgian safety authorities impose additional requirements which are described in details in a separate paper. An novel aspect of the studies performed in Belgium is the way in which residual loads in the primary loop are taken into account. Such loads may result from displacements imposed to close the primary loop in a steam generator replacement operation, especially when it is performed using the {open_quote}two cuts{close_quotes} technique. The influence of such residual loads on the LBB margins is discussed in details and typical results are presented.

  14. Air pollutant emissions from MSW landfills - the {open_quotes}sleeper{close_quotes} issue for landfill design and regulation

    SciTech Connect

    Minott, D.H.

    1995-05-01

    Five years have passed since US EPA adopted the now well-known hierarchy for management of MSW - source reduction, recycling, waste-to-energy, and, for waste that cannot be practically recycled or combusted, landfilling. Despite US EPA`s preferred waste-management hierarchy, the United States, as a country, continues to rely on landfilling as its principal means of MSW management. This disparity is also true locally, in the case of the nation`s most populous city, New York City. The City deposits most residential MSW in its Fresh Kills Landfill on Staten Island, some four million tons of MSW per year. What is more, while the City is indeed implementing recycling, its formal waste-management plans also call for continued heavy reliance on the Fresh Kills Landfill for 10 years or more into the future. Because landfills continue to serve as the MSW management {open_quotes}workhorse{close_quotes} in many locales, it is believed that a full accounting of landfill environmental emissions is called for, to enable adequate environmental safeguards in the design of landfills, appropriate regulation of landfill environmental emissions, and informed public decision-making about MSW management in general. Evidence is presented that air pollutant emissions, in particular, from landfills pose a significant environmental threat that is largely unrecognized by most people. Locally in New York City, there is an awakening to the issue of landfill air-pollutant emissions, as evidenced by the recent undertaking of a study of air quality near the Fresh Kills Landfill by Federal, State, and local agencies. In general, however, the public`s concern over landfill air-pollutant emissions is limited to odor nuisance.

  15. Characterization of a [open quotes]kissing[close quotes] hairpin complex derived from the human immunodeficiency virus genome

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Kung-Yao; Tinoco, Ignacio Jr. )

    1994-08-30

    Base-pair formation between hairpin loops-a [open quotes]kissing[close quotes] complex-is an RNA-folding motif that links two elements of RNA secondary structure. It is also a unique protein recognition site involved in regulation of ColE1 plasmid DNA replication. The trans-activation response element (TAR), a hairpin and bulge at the 5[prime] end of the untranslated leader region of the human immunodeficiency virus 1 mRNA, enhances the transcription of the virus and is necessary for viral replication. Gel electrophoresis and absorbance melting curves indicate that a synthesized RNA hairpin (Tar*-16) with a loop sequence complementary to the TAR loop sequence (CUGGGA) associates specifically with a 16-nucleotide TAR hairpin (Tar-16) to form a stable complex. RNase T1 probing indicates that the three guanines in the Tar-16 loop become inaccessible in the complex. NMR imino proton spectra reveal that 5 base pairs are formed between the two hairpin loops (Tar-16 and Tar*-16); only the adenine at the 3[prime] terminus of the TAR loop does not form a base pair with the 5[prime]-terminal uracil of the complementary loop. A 14-nucleotide hairpin [CCUA-(UCCCAG)UAGG] with a loop sequence complementary to the TAR loop is conserved within the gag gene of human immunodeficiency virus 1. A synthesized RNA hairpin corresponding to this conserved sequence also binds to the Tar-16 hairpin with high affinity. It is possible that the same RNA loop-loop interaction occurs during the viral life cycle. 40 refs., 7 figs.

  16. The risk of cancer among nuclear workers at the {open_quotes}Mayak{close_quotes} production association: Preliminary results of an epidemiological study

    SciTech Connect

    Koshurnikova, N.A.; Shilnikova, N.S.; Okatenko, P.V.

    1997-03-01

    Studies of nuclear workers can provide useful supplementary information on radiation risks, since these studies have a number of advantages. Availability of measured individual doses, standardized medical care provided for nuclear workers, long-term preservation of archival medical and personnel documents are among these advantages. The authors are presenting preliminary results of an epidemiological study of workers at the {open_quotes}Mayak{close_quotes} Production Association (PA). {open_quotes}Mayak{close_quotes} PA, which started operations in 1948, and was the first military nuclear complex in Russia. It is located in what was once called Chelyabinsk-65 and is now called Ozyorsk in the Southern Urals. From the beginning of its operation, the {open_quotes}Mayak{close_quotes} PA included nuclear reactors, a radiochemical plant and a plant for standard plutonium production. Working conditions at these plants in the first years of their operation resulted in a considerable proportion of workers being exposed to high doses of radiation. A wide range of radiation doses, both external and internal delivered at low dose rate, makes the cohort of Mayak`s workers potentially important for the purpose of radiation risk assessment.

  17. Mitochondrial DNA control region sequence variation suggests an independent origin of an {open_quotes}Asian-specific{close_quotes} 9-bp deletion in Africans

    SciTech Connect

    Soodyall, H.; Redd, A.; Vigilant

    1994-09-01

    The intergenic noncoding region between the cytochrome oxidase II and lysyl tRNA genes of human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is associated with two tandemly arranged copies of a 9-bp sequence. A deletion of one of these repeats has been found at varying frequencies in populations of Asian descent, and is commonly referred to as an {open_quotes}Asian-specific{close_quotes} marker. We report here that the 9-bp deletion is also found at a frequency of 10.2% (66/649) in some indigenous African populations, with frequencies of 28.6% (20/70) in Pygmies, 26.6% (12/45) in Malawians and 15.4% (31/199) in southeastern Bantu-speaking populations. The deletion was not found in 123 Khoisan individuals nor in 209 western Bantu-speaking individuals, with the exception of 3 individuals from one group that was admixed with Pygmies. Sequence analysis of the two hypervariable segments of the mtDNA control region reveals that the types associated with the African 9-bp deletion are different from those found in Asian-derived populations with the deletion. Phylogenetic analysis separates the {open_quotes}African{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}Asian{close_quotes} 9-bp deletion types into two different clusters which are statistically supported. Mismatch distributions based on the number of differences between pairs of mtDNA types are consistent with this separation. These findings strongly support the view that the 9-bp deletion originated independently in Africa and in Asia.

  18. Sequence stratigraphic re-interpretation of [open quotes]stray[close quotes] sandstones in the Cretaceous Mancos Shale, Book Cliffs, Utah: Implications for exploration models

    SciTech Connect

    Hampson, G.J.; Howell, J.A.; Flint, S.S. )

    1996-01-01

    The Mancos Shale, Book Cliffs, eastern Utah, represents the open marine mudstones of the Cretaceous Western Interior Seaway and contains a number of detached sandstone bodies ([open quotes]Mancos B[close quotes]) which are located 30-150 km down depositional dip from contemporaneous highstand shoreline deposits in the Blackhawk Formation. Examination of these [open quotes]stray[close quotes] sandstones reveals that they do not represent deep water deposition, as previously supposed, but instead comprise three shallow marine facies associations; (1) tidally-influenced fluvial channel fills, (2) fluvially-dominated delta front successions and (3) low-energy shorelines. Tidally-influenced fluvial channel fills are commonly stacked into multistorey bodies at discrete stratigraphic levels, thereby defining incised valley fill (IVF) networks. Fluvially-dominated deltas are eroded into by, and lie at the down-dip terminations of, IVFs and are therefore interpreted as falling stage and lowstand shorelines. Low-energy shorelines are inferred to lie along strike from these deltas. The above shallow marine deposits have been mapped at five discrete stratigraphic horizons, which can be either traced or projected up-dip to previously-documented IVFs in the Blackhawk Formation. Their paleocurrents imply that falling stage and lowstand shoreline trends were sub-parallel to mapped highstand shorelines, although there is evidence for a perpendicular lowstand shoreline trend in the east of the study area. This facies and sequence stratigraphic re-interpretation enables predictive exploration modelling of subsurface [open quotes]Mancos B[close quotes] gas reservoir sandstones.

  19. Sequence stratigraphic re-interpretation of {open_quotes}stray{close_quotes} sandstones in the Cretaceous Mancos Shale, Book Cliffs, Utah: Implications for exploration models

    SciTech Connect

    Hampson, G.J.; Howell, J.A.; Flint, S.S.

    1996-12-31

    The Mancos Shale, Book Cliffs, eastern Utah, represents the open marine mudstones of the Cretaceous Western Interior Seaway and contains a number of detached sandstone bodies ({open_quotes}Mancos B{close_quotes}) which are located 30-150 km down depositional dip from contemporaneous highstand shoreline deposits in the Blackhawk Formation. Examination of these {open_quotes}stray{close_quotes} sandstones reveals that they do not represent deep water deposition, as previously supposed, but instead comprise three shallow marine facies associations; (1) tidally-influenced fluvial channel fills, (2) fluvially-dominated delta front successions and (3) low-energy shorelines. Tidally-influenced fluvial channel fills are commonly stacked into multistorey bodies at discrete stratigraphic levels, thereby defining incised valley fill (IVF) networks. Fluvially-dominated deltas are eroded into by, and lie at the down-dip terminations of, IVFs and are therefore interpreted as falling stage and lowstand shorelines. Low-energy shorelines are inferred to lie along strike from these deltas. The above shallow marine deposits have been mapped at five discrete stratigraphic horizons, which can be either traced or projected up-dip to previously-documented IVFs in the Blackhawk Formation. Their paleocurrents imply that falling stage and lowstand shoreline trends were sub-parallel to mapped highstand shorelines, although there is evidence for a perpendicular lowstand shoreline trend in the east of the study area. This facies and sequence stratigraphic re-interpretation enables predictive exploration modelling of subsurface {open_quotes}Mancos B{close_quotes} gas reservoir sandstones.

  20. {open_quotes}Anomalous peak effect{close_quotes} - is it indicative of a generalized Fulde-Ferrell-Larkin-Ovchinnikov state?

    SciTech Connect

    Modler, R.

    1996-10-01

    Dilatometric and magnetic studies on single crystals of the high-{kappa} superconductors UPd{sub 2}Al{sub 3} and CeRu{sub 2} reveal a spontaneous increase of the volume-pinning force at high magnetic fields of more than one order of magnitude. This {open_quotes}anomalous peak effect{close_quotes} was claimed to be a signature of a new staggered high-field superconducting order parameter. We will review the recent developments and discuss alternative explanations.

  1. Problem on the United States Continental Shelf - measuring the environmental {open_quotes}effectiveness{close_quotes} of the Outer Continental Shelf Act (OCSA)

    SciTech Connect

    Dubner, B.H.

    1994-12-31

    This article reviews the interplay of environmental standard with oil and gas leasing on the Outer Continental Shelf (OSC) in order to determine if the marine environment is really protected by the interplay of domestic legislation. The 1982 LOS treaty leaves environmental protection to State (domestic) regulation. There is no customary law regarding this type of domestic shelf regulation. The main problem is measuring the {open_quotes}effectiveness{close_quotes} of our domestic shelf legislation. For example, do we simply review effectiveness in terms of controlling operational damage or in terms of environmental injury caused by catastrophic accidents?

  2. Evidence for {open_quotes}magnetic rotation{close_quotes} in nuclei: New results on the M1-bands of {sup 198,199}Pb

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, R.M.

    1996-12-31

    Lifetimes of states in four of the M1-bands in {sup 198,199}Pb have been determined through a Doppler Shift Attenuation Method measurement performed using the Gammasphere array. The deduced B(M1) values, which are a sensitive probe of the underlying mechanism for generating these sequences, show remarkable agreement with Tilted Axis Cranking (TAC) calculations. Evidence is also presented for the possible termination of the bands. The results represent clear evidence for a new concept in nuclear excitations: {open_quote}magnetic rotation{close_quote}.

  3. Comment on [open quotes]Weathering, plants, and the long-term carbon cycle[close quotes] by Robert A. Berner

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, T.A. )

    1993-05-01

    Berner (1992) has asserted that Jackson and Keller (1970a) misinterpreted the conspicuous reddish crust which forms on young lava flows in areas of rock surface colonised by the lichen Stereocaulon vulcani (but not in adjacent areas of bare rock) in regions of high rain fall on the Island of Hawaii. Jackson (1968) and Jackson and Keller (1970a,b) concluded from the results of a thorough interdisiplinary investigation employing a wide spectrum of techniques and information that his reddish coating, is an intensely leached weathering crust formed in situ, and that biochemical activities of the lichen or its associated microflora not only accelerate the chemical weathering of the rock by orders of magnitude but also determine the specific mineralogical and chemical properties of the weathering products. Berner, however, maintained that the reddish crust is in reality a deposit of [open quotes]wind-blown soil dust[close quotes] entrapped by a sticky organic substance secreted by the lichen. Berner fixed his attention on just one aspect of the many-sided body of interrelated data on which the conclusions of Jackson and Keller are founded-the observation that the weathering crust is much thicker on lichen-covered rock surfaces than on lichen-free [open quotes]control[close quotes] areas of the same rock. The totality of published evidence overwhelmingly supports the conclusions of Jackson and Keller an demonstrates that Berner's rival hypothesis is untenable.

  4. Mitochondrial D-loop {open_quotes}signatures{close_quotes} produced by low-stringency single specific primer PCR constitute a simple comparative human identity test

    SciTech Connect

    Barreto, G.; Vago, A.R.; Pena, S.D.J.

    1996-03-01

    We have developed a technique called {open_quotes}LSSP-PCR{close_quotes} (low-stringency single specific primer PCR) that detects single or multiple mutations in DNA. A purified DNA fragment is submitted to PCR by using a single primer specific for one of the extremities of the fragment, under conditions of very low stringency. The primer hybridizes specifically to its complementary extremity and nonspecifically to multiple sites within the fragment, in a sequence-dependent manner. A complex set of reaction products is thus created that, when separated by electrophoresis, constitutes a unique {open_quotes}gene signature.{close_quotes} We here report the application of LSSP-PCR to the detection of sequence variation in the control (D-loop) region of human mtDNA, which is known to differ significantly between unrelated individuals. We prepared human DNA samples from blood and amplified a 1,024-bp portion of the mtDNA control region, using primers L15996 and H408. The amplified mtDNA fragments were then reamplified under LSSP-PCR conditions by using L15996 or H408 as drivers to produce complex signatures that always differed between unrelated individuals and yet were highly reproducible. In contrast, all mother-child pairs tested were identical, as expected from the matrilineal inheritance of mtDNA. Thus, the use of LSSP-PCR to produce D-loop signatures constitutes a powerful new technique for mtDNA-based comparative identity testing. 18 refs., 7 figs.

  5. {open_quotes}Horizontal{close_quotes} gene transfer from a transgenic potato line to a bacterial pathogen (Erwinia chrysanthemi) occurs - if at all - at an extremely low frequency

    SciTech Connect

    Schlueter, K.; Fuetterer, J.; Potrykus, I.

    1995-10-01

    The frequency of possible {open_quotes}horizontal{close_quotes} gene transfer between a plant and a tightly associated bacterial pathogen was studied in a model system consisting of transgenic Solanum tuberosum, containing a {beta}-lactamase gene linked to a pBR322 origin of replication, and Erwinia chrysanthemi. This experimental system offers optimal conditions for the detection of possible horizontal gene transfer events, even when they occur at very low frequency. Horizontal gene transfer was not detected under conditions mimicking a {open_quotes}natural{close_quotes} infection. The gradual, stepwise alteration of artificial, positive control conditions to idealized natural conditions, however, allowed the characterization of factors that affected gene transfer, and revealed a gradual decrease of the gene transfer frequency from 6.3 x 10{sup -2} under optimal control conditions to a calculated 2.0 x 10{sub -17} under idealized natural conditions. These data, in combination with other published studies, argue that horizontal gene transfer is so rare as to be essentially irrelevant to any realistic assessment of the risk involved in release experiments involving transgenic plants. 22 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Did the Mississippian Lodgepole buildup at Dickinson Field (North Dakota) form as a gas seep ({open_quotes}vent{close_quotes}) community?

    SciTech Connect

    Longman, M.W.

    1996-10-01

    The Lower Mississippian Lodgepole carbonate buildup reservoir at Dickinson Field in Stark County, North Dakota, has been widely reported as being a Waulsortian (or Waulsortian-like) mound. The term {open_quotes}Waulsortian mound{close_quotes} is used for a variety of Early Mississippian carbonate buildups that share a number of features including an abundance of carbonate mud, a {open_quotes}framework{close_quotes} of organisms such as fenestrate bryozoans and crinoids that tended to trap or baffle sediment, and a general absence of marine-cemented reef framework. Although the age of the Lodgepole mound at Dickinson Field qualifies it to be a Waulsortian mound, petrographic study of cores reveals that the reservoir rocks are quite unlike those in true Waulsortian mounds. Instead of being dominated by carbonate mud, the Lodgepole mound core is dominated by marine cement. Furthermore, ostracods and microbial limestones are common in the mound core where they occur with crinoid debris and small amounts of bryozoan, coral, and brachiopod debris. The abundant microbial limestones and marine cement indicate that the Dickinson mound formed as a lithified reef on the sea floor rather than as a Waulsortian mud mound. The microbial limestones, marine cement, and common ostracods in the mount core, and the fact that the mound nucleated almost directly o top of the Bakken Shale, suggest that the Dickinson Lodgepole mound formed at the site of a submarine spring and gas seep.

  7. International shipment of light weight radioisotopic heater units (LWRHU) using the USA/9516/B(U)F Mound 1 kW shipping package in support of the {open_quotes}Pluto Express{close_quotes} mission

    SciTech Connect

    Barklay, C.D.; Merten, C.W.

    1997-01-01

    Radioisotopes have provided heat that has been used to maintain specific operating environments within remote satellites and spacecraft. For the {open_quotes}Pluto Express{close_quotes} mission the {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} fueled light weight radioisotopic heater unit (LWRHU) will be used within the spacecraft. Since the current plan for the {open_quotes}Pluto Express{close_quotes} mission incorporates the use of a Russian launch platform for the spacecraft, the LWRHUs must be transported in an internationally certified shipping container. An internationally certified shipping package that is versatile enough to be reconfigured to transport the LWRHUs that will be required to support the {open_quotes}Pluto Express{close_quotes} mission is the Mound USA/9516/B(U)F. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  8. Review of the NAS/NRC report: {open_quotes}Groundwater at Yucca Mountain: How high can it rise?{close_quotes}. Special report No. 1

    SciTech Connect

    Archambeau, C.B.

    1992-12-01

    There are three basic and serious problems that produce disagreement with the conclusions and recommendations of the Academy report entitled {open_quotes}Groundwater at Yucca Mountain: How high can it rise?{close_quotes}. These are: First, the report ignores a considerable body of critical data relating to the ages and nature of hydrothermal alterations at the site; second, many of the strong conclusions expressed in the report are not reasonably supported by the evidence presented and, in some cases, are inconsistent with data and results available to the committee but which are not cited or used by them; and finally, there are statements describing field relationships and data that are not consistent with the facts or are made in such a way as to be misleading.

  9. Multiple recurrence of trisomy 21 in two Bedouin families: Parental gonadal mosaicism or {open_quotes}aneuploidy{close_quotes} gene effect?

    SciTech Connect

    Farag, T.I.; Murthy, D.S.K.

    1994-09-01

    Two unrelated multiplex Down syndrome families is reported in Kuwait among the highly inbred population with Bedouin ancestors. Each family showed recurrent aneuploidies in three sibs with regular trisomy 21. Recurrent regular trisomy 21 in two or more siblings of healthy, normal parents (parental age <35 years) occurs rarely. Several possible etiological factors for recurrent aneuploidy have been suggested. The recurrence risks for regular trisomy 21 based on livebirth and prenatal diagnosis data were estimated at 1% - 2% for young women. However, there are no estimates for multiple recurrence of regular trisomy 21 in the young parents (<35 years). Clustering of trisomy 21 and trisomy 18 have been observed in Bedouin tribal population. The possibility of parental gonadal mosaicism and/or a possibility of an {open_quotes}aneuploidy gene{close_quotes} effect should be considered in practical genetic counselling of families with multiple recurrence of trisomy 21.

  10. The potential value of employing a RLV-based {open_quotes}pop-up{close_quotes} trajectory approach for space access

    SciTech Connect

    Nielsen, E.; OLeary, R.

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents the potential benefits of employing useful upper stages with planned reusable launch vehicle systems to increase payload performance to various earth orbits. It highlights these benefits through performance analysis on a generic vehicle/upper-stage combination (basing all estimates on realistic technology availability). A nominal 34,019 kg [75,000 lbm] dry mass RLV capable of orbiting 454 kg into a polar orbit by itself (SSTO) would be capable of orbiting 9500{endash}10,000 kg into a polar orbit using a nominal upper stage released from a suborbital trajectory. The paper also emphasizes the technical and operational issues associated with actually executing a {open_quotes}pop-up{close_quotes} trajectory launch and deployment. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  11. On the dynamical and physical state of the {open_quotes}diffuse ionized medium{close_quotes} in nearby spiral galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, J.; Heckman, T.M.; Lehnert, M.D.

    1997-12-01

    We report the initial results from a program to study the morphology, physical state, and kinematics of the {open_quotes}diffuse ionized medium{close_quotes} (DIM) in a sample of the nearest and brightest late-type galaxies. For each of five galaxies (NGC 2403, M81, NGC 4395, M51, and M101), we have analyzed deep narrowband H{alpha} images of the entire star-forming disk and long-slit spectra of the inner ({approximately}10kpc) disk with a resolution of 40{endash}75kms{sup {minus}1}. We find that the DIM covers most of the star-forming disk and is morphologically related to the presence of high surface brightness gas (the giant HII regions). The DIM and the giant HII regions differ systematically in their physical and dynamical state. The DIM is characterized by enhanced emission in the low-ionization forbidden lines ([OI], [NII], and [SII]), and even the high-ionization [OIII] {lambda}5007 line is moderately strong in the DIM in at least three cases. This last result contrasts with upper limits on the [OIII] surface brightness in the local DIM of our own Galaxy (the {open_quotes}Reynolds Layer{close_quotes}). We directly verify the inference made by Lehnert and Heckman that the DIM contributes significantly to the spatially integrated (global) emission-line ratios measured in late-type galaxies. We also find that the DIM is more disturbed kinematically than the gas in the giant HII regions. The deconvolved (intrinsic) widths of the H{alpha} and [NII] {lambda}6584 lines range from 30 to 100kms{sup {minus}1} (FWHM) in the DIM compared to 20{endash}50kms{sup {minus}1} in the giant HII regions. The high-ionization gas in the DIM is more kinematically disturbed than the low-ionization gas: the [OIII] {lambda}5007 lines have intrinsic widths of 70{endash}150kms{sup {minus}1}. The differing kinematics implies that the DIM is not a single monolithic phase of the ISM. Instead, it may consist of a {open_quotes}quiescent{close_quotes} DIM with a low ionization state and

  12. Accumulation of Cd by the marine sponge Halichondria panicea pallas: Effects upon filtration rate and its relevance for biomonitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Olesen, T.M.E.; Weeks, J.M. )

    1994-05-01

    The marine demosponge Halichondria panicea Pallas, is a cosmopolitan species occurring in coastal waters with varied conditions of light, current, salinity and turbidity. H. panicea has a leuconoid structure and is composed of siliceous spicules and spongin fibers. Sponges are important members of many shallow water marine benthic communities, but comparatively little is known of their trace metal biology. Sponge architecture is constructed around a system of water canals and the physiology of the sponge is largely dependent on the currents of water flowing through their bodies. The volume of water pumped by a sponge is remarkable, ca. 100-1200 ml h[sup [minus]1] g[sup [minus]1]. This large volume of water passing through the body of a sponge means that most cells are in direct contact with the external medium. Many sponges are able to accumulate trace metals and are highly tolerant of such pollutants. This has led to the proposal that a [open quotes]sponge watch[close quotes] program be initiated supplementary to the existing [open quotes]mussel watch[close quotes] program. In view of the large volume of water passing through the bodies of sponges such as H. panicea, the suitability of this species as a biomonitoring organism was further investigated. This study describes the accumulation strategy of the demosponge H. panicea exposed to dissolved cadmium (Cd) and the effect of Cd upon sponge filtration rate.

  13. Model oxygen ions distributions in the Earth{close_quote}s magnetosphere for different pitch-angles

    SciTech Connect

    Beliaev, A.A.; Koroteyeva, E.G.; Panasyuk, M.I.

    1996-07-01

    Results of calculations of energetic, spatial and charge distributions of oxygen ions in the Earth{close_quote}s radiation belts are present. The model of oxygen radiation belts for various pitch angles is suggested. Model is based on the solution of stationary Fokker-Planck equation for particles{close_quote} diffusion due to magnetic and electric field fluctuations and accounts for particles losses due to Coulomb interactions and charge exchange. Particles{close_quote} distributions are studied as function of fluctuations{close_quote} power indices and source spectra (both solar and ionospheric) on the magnetosphere boundary. Comparison is made with experimental data. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  14. Kähler classes on universal moduli spaces and volumina of Quot spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okonek, Christian; Teleman, Andrei

    2015-10-01

    We study canonical Kähler metrics on moduli spaces of stable oriented pairs in a very general framework, and we prove a universal formula expressing the Kähler class of such a moduli space in terms of characteristic classes of the universal bundle. We use these results to compute the volumina of certain Quot spaces.

  15. Characterization of the gene encoding nitrite reductase and the physiological consequences of its expression in the nondenitrifying Rhizobium {open_quotes}hedysari{close_quotes} strain HCNT1

    SciTech Connect

    Toffanin, A.; Shapleigh, J.P.; Maskus, M.

    1996-11-01

    Rhizobium {open_quotes}hedysari{close_quotes} HCNT1 is an unclassified rhizobium which contains a nitric oxide-producing nitrite reductase but is apparently incapable of coupling the reduction of nitrite to energy conservation. The gene encoding the nitrite reductase, nirK, has been cloned and sequenced and was found to encode a protein closely related to the copper-containing family of nitrite reductases. Unlike other members of this family, nirK expression in HCNT1 is not dependent on the presence of nitrogen oxides, being dependent only on oxygen concentration. Oxygen respiration of microaerobically grown Nir-deficient cells is not affected by concentrations of nitrite that completely inhibit oxygen respiration in wild-type cells. This loss of sensitivity suggests that the product of nitrite reductase, nitric oxide, is responsible for inhibition of oxygen respiration. By using a newly developed chemically modified electrode to detect nitric oxide, it was found that nitrite reduction by HCNT1 produces significantly higher nitric oxide concentrations than are observed in true denitrifiers. This indicates that nitrite reductase is the only nitrogen oxide reductase active in HCNT1. The capacity to generate such large concentrations of freely diffusible nitric oxide as a consequence of nitrite respiration makes HCNT1 unique among bacteria. 33 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Volume II solicitation package for solicitation no. 522887-5422 {open_quotes}site electrical replacements & substation{close_quotes} subproject: 69 KV substation

    SciTech Connect

    1991-05-03

    This solicitation is for the U.S. Department of Energy under Prime Contract No. DE-AC04-88-DP43495 with EG&G Mound Applied Technologies. Ohio Sales or Use taxes are not to be included in the proposal price. Applicable taxes due or owing to the State of Ohio will be paid by the buyer under Direct Payment Permit No. 98-002230. Refer to Form ML-2487, General Provisions, Article 24, {open_quotes}Federal, State & Local Taxes{close_quotes}. Sellers are advised that purchases of building and construction materials for incorporation into a structure or improvement to a real property which is accepted for ownership by the United States or one of its agencies are exempt from Ohio Sales and Use taxes. Unnecessarily elaborate brochures or other presentations beyond those sufficient to present a complete and effective response to this solicitation are not desired and may be construed as an indication of the seller`s lack of cost consciousness. Elaborate art work, expensive paper and binding, and expensive visual and other presentation aids are neither necessary nor wanted.

  17. Depositional environment and distribution of Late Cretaceous [open quotes]source rocks[close quotes] from Costa Rica to West Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Erlich, R.N.; Sofer, Z. ); Pratt, L.M. ); Palmer, S.E. )

    1993-02-01

    Late Cretaceous [open quotes]source rocks[close quotes] from Costa Rica, western and eastern Venezuela, and Trinidad were studied using organic and inorganic geochemistry, biostratigraphy, and sedimentology in order to determine their depositional environments. Bulk mineralogy and major element geochemistry for 304 samples were combined with Rock Eval data and extract biomaker analysis to infer the types and distributions of the various Late Cretaceous productivity systems represented in the dataset. When data from this study are combined with published and proprietary data from offshore West Africa, Guyana/Suriname, and the central Caribbean, they show that these Late Cretaceous units can be correlated by their biogeochemical characteristics to establish their temporal and spatial relationships. Paleogeographic maps constructed for the early to late Cenomanian, Turonian, Coniacian to middle Santonian, and late Santonian to latest Campanian show that upwelling and excessive fluvial runoff were probably the dominant sources of nutrient supply to the coastal productivity systems. The late Santonian to Maastrichtian rocks examined in this study indicate that organic material was poorly preserved after deposition, even though biologic productivity remained constant or changed only slightly. A rapid influx of oxygenated bottom water may have occurred following the opening of a deep water connection between the North and South Atlantic oceans, and/or separation of India from Africa and the establishment of an Antarctic oceanic connection. This study suggests that the most important factors that controlled source rock quality in northern South America were productivity, preservation, degree of clastic dilution, and subsurface diagenesis.

  18. Nonmonotonic behavior of the {open_quotes}C{close_quotes} eigenvalue of the one-speed neutron transport problem in two-dimensional cylindrical (R,Z) geometry

    SciTech Connect

    Kulkarni, A.K.; Paranjape, S.D.; Kumar, V.; Sahni, D.C.

    1994-12-31

    Nonmonotonic variation of the {open_quotes}C{close_quotes} eigenvalue (average number of secondaries per collision) with increasing {alpha}, the strength of forward scattering, has been observed earlier for one-dimensional infinite homogeneous slabs and infinitely long homogeneous cylinders. The authors have developed the Integral Transform (IT) method, an accurate semi-analytical method to obtain the C eigenvalue for a homogeneous cylinder (two-dimensional system). They are thus able to detect any nonmonotonic variation of C (with {alpha}) using the Sahni and Sjoestrand criterion. Along with the IT method, the authors also present the results obtained by the well-known numerical techniques like the discrete ordinates method using a high quadrature order and the Monte Carlo method for the same problem. The S{sub N} results show disagreement with the other two methods when one of the dimensions is very small (<0.05{lambda}{sub t}). They believe that even the 16th order quadrature set cannot integrate the angular flux accurately in these extreme situations. 12 refs., 9 tabs.

  19. Linkage disequilibrium in the insulin gene region: Size variation at the 5{prime} flanking polymorphism and bimodality among {open_quotes}Class I{close_quotes} alleles

    SciTech Connect

    McGinnis, R.E.; Spielman, R.S.

    1994-09-01

    The 5{prime} flanking polymorphism (5{prime}FP), a hypervariable region at the 5{prime} end of the insulin gene, has {open_quotes}class 1{close_quotes} alleles (650-900 bp long) that are in positive linkage disequilibrium with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM). The authors report that precise sizing of the 5{prime}FP yields a bimodal frequency distribution of class 1 allele lengths. Class 1 alleles belonging to the lower component (650-750 bp) of the bimodal distribution were somewhat more highly associated with IDDM than were alleles from the upper component (760-900 bp), but the difference was not statistically significant. They also examined 5{prime}FP length variation in relation to allelic variation at nearby polymorphisms. At biallelic RFLPs on both sides of the 5{prime}FP, they found that one allele exhibits near-total association with the upper component of the 5FP class 1 distribution. Such associations represent a little-known but potentially wide-spread form of linkage disequilibrium. In this type of disequilibrium, a flanking allele has near-complete association with a single mode of VNTR alleles whose lengths represent consecutive numbers of tandem repeats (CNTR). Such extreme disequilibrium between a CNTR mode and flanking alleles may originate and persist because length mutations at some VNTR loci usually add or delete only one or two repeat units. 22 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs.

  20. Vibrational spectra and structure of {open_quotes}staircase{close_quotes} carbonyl {pi}-complexes of transition metals 2. Rotational isomerism

    SciTech Connect

    Ezernitskaya, M.G.; Lokshin, B.V.; Orlova, T.Yu.; Setkina, V.N.; Shilnikov, V.I.; Cesaro, S.N.

    1995-05-01

    FTIR spectra have been studied for {open_quotes}staircase{close_quotes} cyclopentadienyl complexes containing two or three metal carbonyl fragments bound by the metal-carbon bond Cp(CO){sub 2}Fe-CpmMn(CO){sub 3} (1), Cp(CO){sub 2}Fe-CpmFe(CO){sub 2}CH{sub 2}Ph, Cp(CO){sub 2}Fe-Cpm(CO){sub 2}Fe-CpmMn(CO){sub 3}, Cp(CO){sub 2}Mo-Cpm(CO){sub 2}Fe-CpmMn(CO){sub 3}, Cp(CO){sub 3}W-Cpm(CO){sub 2}Fe-CpmMn(CO){sub 3}, Cp(CO){sub 2}Fe-Cpm(CO){sub 2}Fe-BmCr(CO){sub 3}, Cr(CO){sub 3}Bm-CpmFe(CO){sub 2}CH{sub 2}Ph, where Cp = {eta}{sup 5}-C{sub 5}H{sub 5}, Cpm = {eta}{sup 1}:{eta}{sup 5}-C{sub 5}H{sub 4}, Bm = {eta}{sup 1}:{eta}{sup 6}-C{sub 6}H{sub 5}. Temperature-dependent FTIR spectra were measured in n-pentane solutions over a wide temperature range and in the low-temperature solid matrices of argon and nitrogen. Rotamers, formed due to rotation about the metal-carbon {sigma}-bond, were found in solutions and matrices. A molecular mechanics calculation of 1 proved the possibility of such rotation.

  1. {open_quotes}Feature{close_quotes} mapping of the HLA-C linked DNA region: Construction by sequencing from nested deletions

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnan, B.R.; Chaplin, D.D. |

    1994-09-01

    The HLA complex located on chromosome 6p spans {approximately}4 Mb and is gene dense. To enable systematic analysis of less well-characterized portions of HLA, we are defining significant {open_quotes}features{close_quotes} of these DNA regions: locations of putative genes (prediction of exons by GRAIL analysis) and Alu elements, regions with homology to the database, and regions of evolutionarily conserved DNA sequence. Initially, we cloned a 35 kb DNA segment adjacent to HLA-C into a transposon {gamma}{delta}-based cosmid vector designed for generating nested deletions in vivo. Over 70 informative nested deletions were obtained and sequenced by fluorescent-automated technology. Islands of DNA sequences were obtained and used to construct a feature map of the 35 kb HLA segment. Our data (i) defined the organization of the previously identified keratinocyte-specific S gene, (ii) generated the DNA sequence of two evolutionarily conserved DNA segments, and (iii) located otherwise undefined putative exons and Alu elements. The construction of such feature maps of large DNA segments using the nested deletion-sequencing approach provides an efficient means to identify DNA segments meriting systematic and detailed analysis.

  2. Hund{close_quote}s-rule effects in the {ital f}{sup 1}-{ital f}{sup 2} Anderson impurity model: Renormalization of Hund{close_quote}s-rule Coulomb interactions down to low energies

    SciTech Connect

    Landgraf, J.M.; Rasul, J.W.

    1996-10-01

    We examine the problem of an Anderson impurity model where the lowest configurations are {ital f}{sup 1} and {ital f}{sup 2}, with a Hund{close_quote}s-rule splitting (corresponding to Hunds first rule) present. We calculate (using the 1/{ital N} expansion) the single-particle spectrum in the limit of large ferromagnetic triplet-singlet splitting, and find the spectrum to be mostly equivalent to that of a zero Hund{close_quote}s-rule splitting model with reduced hybridization. At low energies, however, additional features arise on a scale given by the Kondo temperature. The results illustrate how the effects of a strong Hund{close_quote}s-rule interaction are renormalized down to low energies, and help understand how a heavy fermion band structure can be resilient against Hund{close_quote}s-rule couplings. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  3. Compatibility issues of potential payloads for the USA/9904/B(U)F-85 RTG transportation system (RTGTS) for the {open_quotes}Pluto Express{close_quotes} mission

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R.G.; Barklay, C.D.; Howell, E.I.; Frazier, T.A.

    1997-01-01

    The specific electric power system for the {open_quotes}Pluto Express{close_quotes} mission has yet to be specified. However, electric power will be provided by either radioisotopic thermoelectric generators (RTG), radioisotope thermophotovoltaic systems (RTPV), alkali metal thermal to electrical conversion (AMTEC) systems, radioisotope Stirling systems, or a combination of these. The selected radioisotopic power system will also be transported using the USA/9904/B(U)F-85, Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) Transportation System (RTGTS). As a result, all of the potential payloads present uniquely different environmental and physical configuration requirements. This paper presents the major compatibility issues of the potential payloads for the USA/9904/B(U)F-85 RTG Transportation System for the {open_quotes}Pluto Express{close_quotes} mission. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  4. Improved clearance of radiolabeled biotinylated monoclonal antibody following the infusion of avidin as a {open_quotes}chase{close_quotes} without decreased accumulation in the target tumor

    SciTech Connect

    Kobayashi, Hisataka; Sakahara, Harumi; Hosono, Makoto

    1994-10-01

    The techniques of radioimmunoimaging and radioimmunotherapy suffer from prolonged high background radioactivity because intravenously injected antibodies remain in the circulation and in the organs far longer than necessary for effective binding to the target. To decrease background and increase radionuclide excretion without decreasing the dose of radioactivity delivered to the target tumor, we used radiolabeled biotinylated antibodies followed by a {open_quotes}chase{close_quotes} avidin injection. A mouse monoclonal antibody, OST7 (lgG1), which reacts with human osteosarcoma, was biotinylated and labeled with {sup 125}I, {sup 131}I or {sup 22m}Tc. Radiolabeled biotinylated OST7 (10 {mu}g) was administered intravenously into nude mice bearing human osteosarcomas and 30 {mu}g of avidin was injected intravenously 6 or 24 hr later. Following avidin injection in mice pretreated with radiolabeled biotinylated antibodies, radioactivity was promptly cleared from the blood and deposited in the liver and spleen, after which radioiodine was rapidly detached from the antibody and excreted in the urine. The tumor-to-blood ratios at 6 and 24 hr after the injection of {sup 125}I-labeled biotinylated OST7 increased compared with the values before the avidin chase without any loss of tumor radioactivity. Furthermore, the tumor -to-background radioactivity ratio was improved and better images were obtained more rapidly after the injection of radiolabeled biotiny-lated antibodies than with conventional immunoscintigraphy. This method may find application in clinical radio-immunoimaging, especially using short half-life radionuclides such as {sup 39m}Tc and {sup 123}I. 24 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. Vibrational spectra and structure of {open_quotes}staircase{close_quotes} carbonyl {pi}-complexes of transition metals 1. Electronic effects

    SciTech Connect

    Ezernitskaya, M.G.; Lokshin, B.V.; Orlova, T.Yu.; Setkina, V.N.; Cesaro, S.N.

    1995-05-01

    FTIR spectra have been studied for {open_quotes}staircase{close_quotes} cyclopentadienyl complexes comprising two or three metal carbonyl fragments bound by the metal-carbon bond Cp(CO){sub 2}Fe-CpmMn(CO){sub 3}, Cp(CO){sub 2}Fe-CpmFe(CO){sub 2}CH{sub 2}Ph, Cp(CO){sub 2}Fe-Cpm(CO){sub 2}Fe-CpmMn(CO){sub 3}, Cp(CO){sub 2}Mo-Cpm(CO){sub 2}Fe-CpmMn(CO){sub 3}, Cp(CO){sub 3}W-Cpm(CO){sub 2}Fe-CpmMn(CO){sub 3}, Cp(CO){sub 2}Fe-Cpm(CO){sub 2}Fe-BmCr(CO){sub 3}, Cr(CO){sub 3}Bm-CpmFe(CO){sub 2}CH{sub 2}Ph, where Cp = {eta}{sup 5}-C{sub 5}H{sub 5}, Cpm = {eta}{sup 1}: {eta}{sup 5}-C{sub 5}H{sub 4}, Bm = {eta}{sup 1}:{eta}{sup 6}-C{sub 6}H{sub 5}, as well as mononuclear model complexes Cp(CO){sub 2}Fe(CH){sub 2}Ph, CpMn(CO){sub 3}, and ({eta}{sup 6}-C{sub 6}H{sub 6})Cr(CO){sub 3}. The spectra were interpreted on the basis of the local symmetry of each metal carbonyl center. The positions of vCOs are determined by the mutual electronic effect of each center. CpmM(CO){sub n} groups are strong electron acceptors and cause an increase in vCOs of adjacent M(CO){sub n} groups. Cp(CO){sub n}M groups, being electron donors, cause a decrease in the frequencies of neighboring groups. In trinuclear complexes, the frequencies of the central Fe(CO){sub 2} group are not changed much due to the compensation of donor and acceptor influences of two neighboring substituents.

  6. 3-D architecture modeling using high-resolution seismic data and sparse well control: Example from the Mars {open_quotes}Pink{close_quotes} reservoir, Mississippi Canyon Area, Gulf of Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Chapin, M.A.; Tiller, G.M.; Mahaffie, M.J.

    1996-12-31

    Economic considerations of the deep-water turbidite play, in the Gulf of Mexico and elsewhere, require large reservoir volumes to be drained by relatively few, very expensive wells. Deep-water development projects to date have been planned on the basis of high-quality 3-D seismic data and sparse well control. The link between 3-D seismic, well control, and the 3-D geological and reservoir architecture model are demonstrated here for Pliocene turbidite sands of the {open_quotes}Pink{close_quotes} reservoir, Prospect Mars, Mississippi Canyon Areas 763 and 807, Gulf of Mexico. This information was used to better understand potential reservoir compartments for development well planning.

  7. Innovations in the design of mechanical components for a beamline{emdash}The SRI{close_quote}95 Workshop 2 Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Kuzay, T.; Warwick, T. |

    1996-09-01

    The Synchrotron Radiation Instrumentation 1995 Conference (SRI{close_quote}95) was hosted by the Advanced Photon Source (APS) at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). Of the many workshops within the conference, the SRI{close_quote}95 Workshop 2 was {open_quote}{open_quote}Innovations in the Design of Mechanical Components of a Beamline.{close_quote}{close_quote} The workshop was well attended with over 140 registrants. The following topics were discussed. Industry{close_quote}s perspective on the status and future was provided by Huber Diffraktionstechnik GMBH on goniometers/diffractometers, Oxford Instruments on advanced manufacturing technique of high heat load components, such as the APS photon shutter, and Kohzu Seiki Co. Ltd. on the specialties of monochromators provided to the third-generation synchrotrons. This was followed by a description of the engineering of a dual function monochromator design for water-cooled diamond or cryogenically cooled silicon monochromators by CMC CAT/APS. Another category was the nagging problem of sensitivity of the photon beam position monitors (XBPM) to bending magnet radiation ({open_quote}{open_quote}BM contamination{close_quote}{close_quote}) and the undulator magnet gap changes. Problem descriptions and suggested solutions were provided by both the Advanced Light Source (ALS) and the APS. Other innovative ideas were the cooling schemes (enhanced cooling of beamline components using metallic porous meshes including cryo-cooled applications); Glidcop photon shutter design using microchannels at the ALS; and window/filter design, manufacture and operational experiences at CHESS and PETRA/HASYLAB. Additional discussions were held on designing for micromotions and precision in the optical support systems and smart user filter schemes. This is a summary of the presentations at the Workshop. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  8. Words of Wisdom from the Literacy Symposium (Washington, D.C., May 25, 1988). Quotes from Participants and Attendees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potter, Charles, Comp.

    Materials from the Literacy Symposium that begin this document are a letter of support from Barbara Bush, a symposium agenda, and lists of panel participants, speakers, symposium staff, and members of the Academic Advisory Council to the U.S. Government Printing Office. These are followed by 21 pages of quotes from particpants. Those quoted…

  9. 46 CFR Exhibit No. 1 to Subpart Q... - Application for Refund or Waiver of Freight Charges Due to Tariff or Quoting Error

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Application for Refund or Waiver of Freight Charges Due to Tariff or Quoting Error No. Exhibit No. 1 to Subpart Q of Part 502 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME... of Freight Charges Due to Tariff or Quoting Error Federal Maritime Commission Special Docket...

  10. 46 CFR Exhibit No. 1 to Subpart Q... - Application for Refund or Waiver of Freight Charges Due to Tariff or Quoting Error

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Application for Refund or Waiver of Freight Charges Due to Tariff or Quoting Error No. Exhibit No. 1 to Subpart Q of Part 502 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME... of Freight Charges Due to Tariff or Quoting Error Federal Maritime Commission Special Docket...

  11. Nonperturbative renormalization and the electron{close_quote}s anomalous moment in large-{alpha} QED

    SciTech Connect

    Hiller, J.R.; Brodsky, S.J.

    1999-01-01

    We study the physical electron in quantum electrodynamics expanded on the light-cone Fock space in order to address two problems: (1) the physics of the electron{close_quote}s anomalous magnetic moment a{sub e} in nonperturbative QED and (2) the practical problems of ultraviolet regularization and renormalization in truncated nonperturbative light-cone Hamiltonian theory. We present results for a{sub e} computed in a light-cone gauge Fock space truncated to include one bare electron and at most two photons, i.e., up to two photons in flight. The calculational scheme uses an invariant mass cutoff, discretized light-cone quantization (DLCQ), a Tamm-Dancoff truncation of the Fock space, and a photon mass regulator. We introduce new weighting methods which greatly improve convergence to the continuum within DLCQ. Nonperturbative renormalization of the coupling and electron mass are carried out, and a limit on the magnitude of the effective physical coupling strength is computed. A large renormalized coupling strength {alpha}{sub R}=0.1 is then used to make the nonperturbative effects in the electron anomalous moment from the one-electron, two-photon Fock state sector numerically detectable. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

  12. Introduction of artificial pinning centre in {open_quotes}Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8}{close_quotes} ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Majewski, P.; Aldinger, F.; Elschner, S.

    1994-12-31

    Considering the phase equilibrium diagram of the system Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}-SrO-CaO-CuO, single phase {open_quotes}Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8}{close_quotes} ceramics have been transformed by a simple annealing procedure into multi phase samples. The transformation results in the formation of second phases and in an increase of the intra grain critical current density at 1 T of five times. This increase is believed to express improved pinning properties of the superconducting crystals. The prepared pinning centres are believed to be e.g. coherent precipitates (Guinier-Preston-zones) within the superconducting crystals.

  13. Imaging of neuroendocrine tumors in 300 patients following injection of I-123 mIBG or 1-131 mIBG prepared from a {open_quotes}cold kit{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    Karesh, S.M.; Henkin, R.E.

    1994-05-01

    During the past 6 years, we have performed approximately 300 scans for neuroendocrine tumors in an extremely varied patient base, with 65% of patients receiving I-123 mIBG and 35%, I-131 mIBG. Imaging was performed at 24-72 hr, depending upon the isotope used. The most common clinical indication was for pheochromocytoma (>90%), followed by neuroblastoma, paraganglioma, medullary carcinoma of the thyroid, and carcinoid tumors. Radiolabeling was performed by a modification of Mock`s procedure. The radioiodide was added to a very stable {open_quotes}cold kit{close_quotes} developed in-house. The kit contains 1 ml of water for injection, 2 mg of mIBG hemisulfate, and 12 mg of ammonium sulfate. After 2 heating cycles, a yield >85% and a radiochemical purity {>=}96% were routinely obtained. Overall preparation time, including determination of radiochemical purity, is approximately 2.5 hr. The only equipment required is a thermostatically controlled block heater. Biodistribution of our I-131 product was indistinguishable from that distributed by the Nuclear Pharmacy at the University of Michigan, as was the radiochemical purity; the diagnostic efficacy matched that reported in the literature. The image quality obtained using I-123 mIBG was definitely superior, due to both the much higher count rate and the ideal imaging energy of I-123. On one occasion, the I-131 scan was equivocal, whereas the I-123 scan in the same patient was clearly positive. Retrospectively, for studies performed with I-123 mIBG using the {open_quotes}cold kit{close_quotes} method, the specificity and sensitivity both exceed 90%, correlating well with multiple studies reported in the literature. The preparation of I-123 mIBG in-house using this technique is recommended.

  14. Hole localization and spin coupling in [pi]-mono- and [pi]-dications of [mu]-oxoporphyrin dimers, relevance to structure of oxidized [open quotes]special pair[close quotes] in photosynthetic reaction centers

    SciTech Connect

    Binstead, R.A.; Hush, N.S. )

    1993-12-16

    The antiferromagnetically coupled cofacial [mu]-oxoiron(III) dimers of octaethylporphyrin (OEP) and [alpha],[beta],[gamma],[Delta]-tetraphenylporphyrin (TPP) can be oxidized in two one-electron steps to yield [pi]-monocations and [pi]-dications. Hitherto unreported absorption bands are observed in the mid-infrared region in the spectra of the monocations. These are identified as intervalence transitions of dynamically trapped holes. The electron-phonon coupling energies (CH[sub 2]Cl[sub 2] solution, 295 K) are 0.31 [+-] 0.04 eV, and the inter-ring, predominantly through-space, electronic coupling constants J are 0.07 and 0.03 eV, respectively. The small values of J are a consequence of the large mean plane separation of the porphyrin rings (4.53 A). Since it is impossible that the electron-phonon coupling energies will vary greatly between cofacial porphyrin dimers, it is suggested that absorption hands around 1 eV in the [pi]-monocations of [open quotes]sandwich[close quotes] compounds such as M[sup III]P[sub 2] or M[sup IV]P[sub 2][sup +], where P is a porphyrin and M are lanthanide, actinide, or transition metals (3-12) observed under similar conditions will have electronic ground states that are delocalized on at least the vibrational time scale, with frequency maxima equal to 2J in the tight-binding approximation. The thermal inter-ring hole-transfer times in the [mu]-oxo dimer monocations are estimated to be approximately 1 ps. The relevance of these results to the problem of the structure of the oxidized [open quotes]special pair[close quotes] in the photosynthetic reaction center is briefly discussed. 52 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  15. Hamiltonian structure of Dubrovin{close_quote}s equation of associativity in 2-d topological field theory

    SciTech Connect

    Galvao, C.A.; Nutku, Y.

    1996-12-01

    mA third order Monge-Amp{grave e}re type equation of associativity that Dubrovin has obtained in 2-d topological field theory is formulated in terms of a variational principle subject to second class constraints. Using Dirac{close_quote}s theory of constraints this degenerate Lagrangian system is cast into Hamiltonian form and the Hamiltonian operator is obtained from the Dirac bracket. There is a new type of Kac-Moody algebra that corresponds to this Hamiltonian operator. In particular, it is not a W-algebra. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  16. Use of geostatistic techniques to describe a reservoir to be submitted into a secondary recovery process field case: {open_quotes}Eocene B-Inferior/VLG-3659, Ceuta, Venezuela{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    Hernandez, T.; Poquioma, W.

    1997-08-01

    This study presents the results of an integrated reservoir study of the Eocene B-Inferior/VLG-3659, Area 7, Ceuta filed. This field located in the Maracaibo Lake in the western side of Venezuela. The objective was to evaluating the feasibility to implement a secondary recovery project by means of water flooding. Core information was used for this study (194 ft), PVT analysis, RFI, build-up and statistic`s pressure analysis, modem logs and production history data. Using geostatistical techniques (Kriging) it was defined a low uncertainty geological model that was validated by means of a black oil simulator (Eclipse). The results showed a good comparison of historical pressure of the reservoir against those obtained from the model, without the need of {open_quotes}history matching{close_quotes}. It means without modifying neither the initial rock properties nor reservoir fluids. The results of this study recommended drilling in two new locations, also the reactivation of four producing wells and water flooding under peripherical array by means of four injection wells, with the recovery of an additional 30.2 MMSTB. The economical evaluation shows an internal return rate of 31.4%.

  17. 11q23 Translocations split the [open quotes]AT-hook[close quotes] cruciform DNA-binding region and the transcriptional repression domain from the activation domain of the mixed-lineage leukemia (MLL) gene

    SciTech Connect

    Zeleznik-Le, N.J.; Harden, A.M.; Rowley, J.D. )

    1994-10-25

    Translocations involving chromosome band 11q23, found in acute lymphoid and myeloid leukemias, disrupt the MLL gene. This gene encodes a putative transcription factor with homology to the zinc fingers and other domains of the Drosophila trithorax gene product and to the [open quotes]AT-hook[close quotes] motif of high mobility group proteins. To map potential transcriptional activation or repression domains of the MLL protein, yeast GAL4 DNA-binding domain and MLL hybrid protein-expressing plasmids were cotransfected with chloramphenicol acetyltransferase reporter plasmids in a transient transfection system. We found that MLL contains a strong activation domain and a repression domain. The former, located telomeric (3[prime]) to the breakpoint region, activated transcription 18-fold to >200-fold, depending on the promoter and cell line used for transfection. A repression domain that repressed transcription 4-fold was located centromeric (5[prime]) to the breakpoint region of MLL. The MLL AT-hook domain protein was expressed in bacteria and was utilized in a gel mobility shift assay to assess DNA-binding activity. The MLL AT-hook domain could bind cruciform DNA, recognizing structure rather than sequence of the target DNA. In translocations involving MLL, loss of an activation domain with retention of a repression domain and a DNA-binding domain on the der(11) chromosome could alter the expression of downstream target genes, suggesting a potential mechanism of action for MLL in leukemia. 35 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Revisiting Neil Armstrongs Moon-Landing Quote: Implications for Speech Perception, Function Word Reduction, and Acoustic Ambiguity.

    PubMed

    Baese-Berk, Melissa M; Dilley, Laura C; Schmidt, Stephanie; Morrill, Tuuli H; Pitt, Mark A

    2016-01-01

    Neil Armstrong insisted that his quote upon landing on the moon was misheard, and that he had said one small step for a man, instead of one small step for man. What he said is unclear in part because function words like a can be reduced and spectrally indistinguishable from the preceding context. Therefore, their presence can be ambiguous, and they may disappear perceptually depending on the rate of surrounding speech. Two experiments are presented examining production and perception of reduced tokens of for and for a in spontaneous speech. Experiment 1 investigates the distributions of several acoustic features of for and for a. The results suggest that the distributions of for and for a overlap substantially, both in terms of temporal and spectral characteristics. Experiment 2 examines perception of these same tokens when the context speaking rate differs. The perceptibility of the function word a varies as a function of this context speaking rate. These results demonstrate that substantial ambiguity exists in the original quote from Armstrong, and that this ambiguity may be understood through context speaking rate. PMID:27603209

  19. [open quotes]Cryptic[close quotes] repeating triplets of purines and pyrimidines (cRRY(i)) are frequent and polymorphic: Analysis of coding cRRY(i) in the proopiomelanocortin (POMC) and TATA-binding protein (TBP) genes

    SciTech Connect

    Gostout, B.; Qiang Liu; Sommer, S.S. )

    1993-06-01

    Triplets of the form of purine, purine, pyrimidine (RRY(i)) are enhanced in frequency in the genomes of primates, rodents, and bacteria. Some RRY(i) are [open quotes]cryptic[close quotes] repeats (cRRY(i)) in which no one tandem run of a trinucleotide predominates. A search of human GenBank sequence revealed that the sequences of cRRY(i) are highly nonrandom. Three randomly chosen human cRRY(i) were sequenced in search of polymorphic alleles. Multiple polymorphic alleles were found in cRRY(i) in the coding regions of the genes for proopiomelanocortin (POMC) and TATA-binding protein (TBP). The highly polymorphic TBP cRRY(i) was characterized in detail. Direct sequencing of 157 unrelated human alleles demonstrated the presence of 20 different alleles which resulted in 29--40 consecutive glutamines in the amino-terminal region of TBP. These alleles are differently distributed among the races. PCR was used to screen 1,846 additional alleles in order to characterize more fully the range of variation in the population. Three additional alleles were discovered, but there was no example of a substantial sequence amplification as is seen in the repeat sequences associated with X-linked spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy, myotonic dystrophy, or the fragile-X syndrome. The structure of the TBP cRRY(i) is conserved in the five monkey species examined. In the chimpanzee, examination of four individuals revealed that the cRRY(i) was highly polymorphic, but the pattern of polymorphism differed from that in humans. The TBP cRRY(i) displays both similarities with and differences from the previously described RRY(i) in the coding sequence of the androgen receptor. The data suggest how simple tandem repeats could evolve from cryptic repeats. 18 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs.

  20. Mutation in and lack of expression of tyrosinase-related protein-1 (TRP-1) in melanocytes from an individual with brown oculocutaneous albinism: A new subtype of albinism classified as {open_quotes}OCA3{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    Boissy, R.E.; Zhao, H.; Austin, L.M.; Boissy, Y.L.; Zhao, Y.

    1996-06-01

    Most types of human oculocutaneous albinism (OCA) result from mutations in the gene for tyrosinase (OCA1) or the P protein (OCA2), although other types of OCA have been described but have not been mapped to specific loci. Melanocytes were cultured from an African-American with OCA, who exhibited the phenotype of Brown OCA, and his normal fraternal twin. Melanocytes cultured from the patient with OCA and the normal twin appeared brown versus black, respectively. Melanocytes from both the patient with OCA and the normal twin demonstrated equal amounts of NP-40-soluble melanin; however, melanocytes from the patient with OCA contained only 7% of the amount of insoluble melanin found from the normal twin. Tyrosinase-related protein-1 (TRP-1) was not detected in the OCA melanocytes by use of various anti-TRP-1 probes. Furthermore, transcripts for TRP-1 were absent in cultured OCA melanocytes. The affected twin was homozygous for a single-bp deletion in exon 6, removing an A in codon 368 and leading to a premature stop at codon 384. Tyrosine hydroxylase activity of the OCA melanocytes was comparable to controls when assayed in cell lysates but was only 30% of controls when assayed in intact cells. We conclude that this mutation of the human TRP-1 gene affects its interaction with tyrosinase, resulting in dysregulation of tyrosinase activity, promotes the synthesis of brown versus black melanin, and is responsible for a third genetic type of OCA in humans, which we classify as {open_quotes}OCA3.{close_quotes} 69 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Electronic stopping in a He-H{sub 2} mixture substantially exceeds Bragg{close_quote}s rule value

    SciTech Connect

    Golser, R.; Semrad, D.; Aumayr, F.

    1996-04-01

    We measured the energy loss of 8 keV deuterons in mixtures of He and H{sub 2} gases using a time-of-flight technique. According to Bragg{close_quote}s rule the stopping cross section {var_epsilon} of a mixture of nonreacting gases should be the weighted average of the stopping cross sections of its constituents. Experimentally we find {var_epsilon} to exceed the Bragg value by more than 50{percent}. This can be traced to large differences in the electron capture and electron loss cross sections of He and H{sub 2}, respectively, that strongly enhance energy losses due to charge-changing collisions. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  2. [The old transcript "Kosha-hon" quoted by Chusai Shibue in his lecture manuscript for Spiritual Pivot (Lingshu) "Reisu Kogi"].

    PubMed

    Nagatsuka, Kenji

    2010-12-01

    The details about the old transcript "Kosha-hon" quoted by Chusai Shibue in his Reisu Kogi had remained unspecified. However, the author found that the Kosha-hon is probably now in the possession of the Peking University Library. In addition, through the investigation, the following facts emerged: 1) The date of writing of the transcript can be presumed to be between the Kanbun and Enpo eras in the Edo period. 2) The book, called "Kosha-hon", can be presumed to transcribe the lost version of the text in the group of the twelve volumes of XinKan Huangdi Neijing Lingshu. 3) Shibue left side notes, headed "Kosha-hon Hoki", and he used them for revision, but in fact these notes originated in the Ma Taixuan's Huangdi Neijing Lingshu Zhuzheng Fawei. PMID:21661230

  3. A three-dimensional phase space dynamical model of the Earth{close_quote}s radiation belt

    SciTech Connect

    Boscher, D.M.; Beutier, T.; Bourdarie, S.

    1996-07-01

    A three dimensional phase space model of the Earth{close_quote}s radiation belt is presented. We have taken into account the magnetic and electric radial diffusions, the pitch angle diffusions due to Coulomb interactions and interactions with the plasmaspheric hiss, and the Coulomb drag. First, a steady state of the belt is presented. Two main maxima are obtained, corresponding to the inner and outer parts of the belt. Then, we have modelled a simple injection at the external boundary. The particle transport seems like what was measured aboard satellites. A high energy particle loss is found, by comparing the model results and the measurements. It remains to be explained. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  4. Self-Interaction Free Relativistic Local Spin Density Approximation: Equivalent of Hund{close_quote}s Rules in {ital {gamma}} -Ce

    SciTech Connect

    Beiden, S.V.; Gehring, G.A.; Temmerman, W.M.; Szotek, Z.

    1997-11-01

    In this Letter we present an {ital ab initio,} density functional theory, justification for the validity of Hund{close_quote}s type of rules in the solid state with localized electrons. We demonstrate that an orbital dependent functional, such as the self-interaction-corrected local spin density, is capable of fully describing the localized nature of the f state, so that all three Hund{close_quote}s rules are fulfilled. We argue this on the basis of linear-muffin-tin-orbital calculations in the atomic-sphere approximation for the {gamma} phase of Ce. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  5. Quotes on Caring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knowledge Quest, 2012

    2012-01-01

    In this article, school librarians from Henrico County Public Schools in Virginia [the AASL 2011 National School Library Programs of the Year (NSLPY) Award recipient] share some of their experiences caring for students in their libraries.

  6. Beyond Sound Bites and News Quotes: NSIDC's Arctic Sea Ice and News Analysis Web blog and Scientific Uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beitler, J.; Vizcarra, N.; Scambos, T. A.; Meier, W.

    2013-12-01

    The public, the media, and policymakers often turn to scientists for definite answers about Earth's changing climate. Researchers, in turn, offer observations with the caveat that there is always an amount of uncertainty in the data and the analysis. More or better data could modify trends. Random processes in Earth's most complex systems, like clouds, could contradict current theories about how they evolve and develop into weather systems that could put lives in danger. Often, these careful answers are reduced to a soundbite in TV or a quote in a newspaper report, and the public gets an answer, but the message of scientific uncertainty is almost always omitted. Arctic sea ice has long been recognized as a sensitive climate indicator, and has undergone a dramatic decline over the past thirty years. The National Snow and Ice Data Center has evolved into a top source for sea ice data and analysis. How does NSIDC respond to increasing questions about Arctic sea ice and climate and how does it communicate scientific uncertainty? This poster examines the ways that NSIDC's Arctic Sea Ice News and Analysis (ASINA) Web blog offers the public a transparent view of sea ice analysis, with discussions in scientific uncertainty that are lost in news reportage. It highlights the Web blog's interactive sea ice graph called ChArctic, which the pubic can use to explore sea ice data by year and make their own observations. It also discusses issues around the replacement of NSIDC's 20-year baseline with a new 30-year baseline for analyzing sea ice.

  7. Berry{close_quote}s phase in the presence of a stochastically evolving environment: A geometric mechanism for energy-level broadening

    SciTech Connect

    Gaitan, F.

    1998-09-01

    The generic Berry phase scenario in which a two-level system is coupled to a second system whose dynamical coordinate is slowly varying is generalized to allow for stochastic evolution of the slow system. The stochastic behavior is produced by coupling the slow system to a heat reservoir, which is modeled by a bath of harmonic oscillators initially in equilibrium at temperature T, and whose spectral density has a bandwidth that is small compared to the energy-level spacing of the fast system. The well-known energy-level shifts produced by Berry{close_quote}s phase in the fast system, in conjunction with the stochastic motion of the slow system, leads to a broadening of the fast system energy levels. In the limit of strong damping and sufficiently low temperature, we determine the degree of level broadening analytically, and show that the slow system dynamics satisfies a Langevin equation in which Lorentz-like and electriclike forces appear as a consequence of geometrical effects. We also determine the average energy level shift produced in the fast system by this mechanism. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

  8. [Textual research on Guang dong xin yu (New Sayings of Guangdong) quoted in Ben cao gang mu shi yi (Supplements to Compendium of Materia Medica].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ruixian; Zhang, Wei; Li, Jian; Liang, Fei

    2014-05-01

    Altogether 15 terms for Guang dong xin yu (New Sayings of Guangdong) were used in Ben cao gang mu shi yi (Supplements to Compendium of Materia Medica), including Yue yu (Cantonese sayings), Chong yu (Sayings from Insect Drug), Jie yu (Sayings from Crustacean Drug), Xin yu (New Sayings), Yue hai xiang yu (Fragrant Sayings from Cantonese Region), Yue zhi mu yu (Sayings from Plants in Cantonese Annals), Guang dong suo yu (Trivial Sayings from Guangdong), Yue shan lu (Records of Cantonese Mountains), Yue lu (Cantonese Records), Jiao guang lu (Joint Guangdong Records), Yue cao zhi (Records of Cantonese Grasses), Guang guo lu (Records of Guangdong Fruits), Nan yue suo ji (Trivial Records of Southern Canton), Guang zhi (Guangdong Records), Yue zhi (Cantonese Records) etc. dealing with 57 sorts of drugs (with individual overlapping ones), the author of Xin yu was Qu Dajun, a surviving fogy of the Ming Dynasty actively involved in the activities to restore the old dynasty and resist the Qing Dynasty, and was persecuted in the literary inquisition in which his works were burnt so that Zhao Xuemin, when quoting his texts, had to go in a roundabout way. PMID:25208840

  9. {open_quote}Lasagna{close_quote} process treats contaminants

    SciTech Connect

    Drennan, D.

    1994-09-01

    This paper describes an integrated in-situ remedial technology for organic or inorganic contaminants in dense soils termed the Lasagna Process. The process, so named for its layers, forces contaminants out of microscopic pores in clay and silt soil regions so they do not leach into groundwater. It introduces in-situ treatment zones in the contaminated area so the waste will not have to be brought to the surface and treats the material within the newly created zones.

  10. {open_quotes}Lure{close_quotes} North Korea

    SciTech Connect

    Park, M.Y.M.

    1994-12-31

    The author discusses the frustrations of the international community in dealing with North Korea after negotiation of the Nuclear Non-proliferation treaty. In the past, the international community has not been well prepared to deal with the North Korean obstinacy. It has repeatedly misjudged North Korean goals, South Korean Interests, and Japanese reactions. A new approach is proposed for the long run, that avoids coercion or appeasement. Economic incentives are suggested as the means to bring about changes in North Korean attitudes that will ultimately foster the desire for maintaining economic stability and well being rather than warlike independence. China and the former Soviet Union are not considered supportive of a warlike posture in North Korean but are making economic overtures to South Korea themselves. If the economic approach proves successful, it will enhance the chances of Korean unification by peaceful means and under democratic rule because time is on the side of democracy. In the long run nonproliferation will be achieved through unification.

  11. Strategic {open_quote}deception{close_quote} initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Pike, J.

    1993-11-01

    Veteran observers of the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) were only mildly surprised by reports in late August by Tim Weiner in The New York Times and R. Jeffrey Smith in The Washington Post that the Homing Overlay Experiment (HOE) tests of 10 years ago involved deception. According to the reports, the fourth and final test, conducted June 10, 1984, and said at the time by officials to be a major success, has been rigged in several ways in a systematic program designed to fool the Kremlin. The news reports charge that it fooled Congress as well. The Pentagon claimed that the test was the world`s first successful direct-impact intercept of a mock Soviet reentry vehicle (RV).

  12. Resolving the CFE {open_quotes}Flank{close_quotes} dispute

    SciTech Connect

    Falkenrath, R.A.

    1995-05-01

    A serious arms control problem lies on the horizon for Western policy makers. Russia and the Ukraine have been calling on a major change in the 1990 Conventional Armed Forces in Europe (CFE) Treaty. Other members, which border the zone, reject the idea. The author examines the Treaty and the issues and threats because of this dispute.

  13. Comment on {open_quote}{open_quote}Confirmation of the Sigma Meson{close_quote}{close_quote}

    SciTech Connect

    Isgur, N.; Speth, J.

    1996-09-01

    A Comment on the Letter by Nils A. T{umlt o}rnqvist and Matts Roos, Phys. Rev. Lett. {bold 76}, 1575 (1996). The authors of the Letter offer a Reply. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  14. The {open_quotes}leak-before-break{close_quotes} applicability in decision support system {open_quotes}strength{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    Torop, V.M.; Orynyak, I.V.; Kutovoy, O.L.

    1997-04-01

    A software decision support system, STRENGTH, for application of leak before break analysis, is described. The background methodology and sample application are outlined. The program allows multioptional computation of loading parameters for different types of defects, and variable properties for metals and welded joints. Structural strength is assessed, and service life predictions are made. The program is used to analyze specific defects identified by nondestructive testing.

  15. Notes & Quotes on Adult Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobson, John R. A.

    This document is a review of literature on adult learning, assembled in a computer-printout format. It brings together brief statements made by authors on the various major aspects of individual and social (associational) learning, as well as information on planning and evaluation. The document also contains a glossary of adult education terms and…

  16. Comment on {open_quotes}Confirmation of the Sigma Meson{close_quote}{close_quote}

    SciTech Connect

    Harada, M.; Sannino, F.; Schechter, J.; Sannino, F.

    1997-02-01

    A Comment on the Letter by Nils A. Tornqvist and Matts Roos, Phys.Rev.Lett.{bold 76}, 1575 (1996). The authors of the Letter offer a Reply. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  17. Reply to {open_quote}{open_quote}Comment on {open_quote}Why quantum mechanics cannot be formulated as a Markov process{close_quote}{close_quote}{close_quote}

    SciTech Connect

    Gillespie, D.T.

    1996-08-01

    In reply to the preceding Comment on an article by D. T. Gillespie [Phys. Rev. A {bold 49}, 1607 (1994)], it is emphasized that the most plausible interpretation of the singly conditioned probability function implies that the evolution of the two-state quantum system being considered {ital cannot} be characterized as a Markov process on those states over {ital any} time interval. And it is pointed out that an alternative interpretation that is offered in the Comment appears to be in conflict with quantum mechanics.

  18. Absence of a {open_quote}{open_quote}Threshold Effect{close_quote}{close_quote} in the Energy Loss of Slow Protons Traversing Large-Band-Gap Insulators

    SciTech Connect

    Eder, K.; Semrad, D.; Bauer, P.; Golser, R.; Maier-Komor, P.; Aumayr, F.; Penalba, M.; Arnau, A.; Ugalde, J.M.; Echenique, P.M.

    1997-11-01

    The electronic stopping cross section {var_epsilon} of slow hydrogen projectiles in large-band-gap insulators has been measured at energies of a few keV. Even at velocities as low as v{sub 0}/3 (v{sub 0}=c/137) , we find no influence of the band gap on the velocity dependence of {var_epsilon} , contrary to the case of gaseous targets with similar minimum excitation energy. The magnitude of {var_epsilon} and its essentially linear velocity dependence allow us to arrive at the following conclusion: Electron promotion processes contribute substantially to stopping due to formation of molecular orbitals. This points towards the existence of a bound electron state at a proton that moves slowly in an insulator. A simple model based on the calculation of molecular orbital correlation diagrams for the H/LiF collision system supports the idea of local reduction of the band gap of an insulating target. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  19. Reply to {open_quotes}Comment on {open_quote}Paramagnetic Meissner effect in Nb{close_quote} {close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    Kostic, P.; Veal, B.; Paulikas, A.P.; Welp, U.; Todt, V.R.; Gu, C.; Geiser, U.; Williams, J.M.; Carlson, K.D.; Klemm, R.A.

    1997-06-01

    Rice and Sigrist (RS) have proposed a d-wave mechanism to explain the paramagnetic Meissner effect (PME) observed in some inhomogeneous samples of high-T{sub c} superconductors. However, the observation of a PME in some inhomogeneous samples of Nb (an s-wave superconductor) demonstrates that a d-wave pairing mechanism is not needed to produce the effect. Moreover, the remarkable similarity between the PME observed in these Nb and in the high-T{sub c} samples argues that the same mechanism is operable in both types of superconductors. In this Reply, new measurements on La{sub 2}CuO{sub 4+{delta}} and on irradiated Nb are discussed, which strongly support the notion that the PME is most likely associated with layered T{sub c} inhomogeneities. Further experiments to test this notion are proposed. We also discuss critically the three experiments proposed by RS to distinguish between two PME mechanisms unrelated to layered T{sub c} inhomogeneities. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  20. You Can Quote Me on That

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chanko, Pamela

    2005-01-01

    This article presents several punctuation activities that help students practice dialogue-writing skills. Teachers can help their students become intrepid reporters by providing them with story ideas or by inviting them to develop their own "scoops." In addition, comic strips can also be used for dialogue-writing practice.

  1. Reply to {open_quotes}Comment on {open_quote}NMR in manganese perovskites: Detection of spatially varying electron states in domain walls{close_quote}{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    Papavassiliou, G.; Fardis, M.; Milia, F.; Pissas, M.; Kallias, G.; Niarchos, D.; Dimitropoulos, C.; Scherrer, P.

    2001-06-01

    In their Comment Savosta and Novak claim that the doubly peaked {sup 55}Mn NMR line shape observed in La{sub 0.67}Ca{sub 0.33}MnO{sub 3} for T{lt}70 K [Phys. Rev. B >58, 12237 (1998)] is not real, but an artifact resulting from the experimental conditions. In support to their arguments, they present {sup 55}Mn line-shape measurements at 77 K. In this reply we present {sup 55}Mn NMR line-shape measurements under the experimental requirements suggested by Savosta and Novak, and show that at low temperatures the line shape still consists of two distinct peaks with different rf enhancement factors. This effect is explained in view of recent experimental results.

  2. Tuning and characterization of the {open_quotes}Teufel{close_quotes}-undulator

    SciTech Connect

    Verschuur, J.W.J.; Ernst, G.J.; Witteman, W.J.

    1995-12-31

    Three important criteria are used to tune the undulator are: reduce longitudinal phase errors, have approximately equal two plane focusing and have a good overlap between the electron beam and the optical beam. Although these criteria are the main design goals it is hard to meet them directly from the assembling. Small errors inevitably appear during the assembly, even when care is taken to keep the tolerances as tight as possible. The magnetic field was constantly monitored during construction using the pulsed wire method. However some kind of tuning mechanism is always needed to improve the performance of the undulator. The undulator we designed and build is of the Hybrid type, i.e. permanent magnets and high permeable poles. The well known method of using small permanent magnets to correct the field errors is nearly impossible due to the presence of iron poles. Hence, as a logical step, we decided to try to correct the various errors with shims in the form of small iron plates. The shims were put on the pole face at the edge of the poles. Different configurations were used to correct the different kind of errors. In the presentation an overview of the various shim configurations will be discussed. Steering errors are quite easy to correct, since only dipole fields are involved. We did put quite some effort in correcting the quadrupole errors. Gradients dBy/dx and dBx/dy were easy to correct with two shims on one side. The other gradients, on the other hand needed extensive shimming to be corrected. The error correction is limited by the presence of sextupole errors. We even found by experience that sextupole errors increased with the number of shims used. The ratio of the focusing strength of the undulator is measured to be 3/2, being slightly stronger in the direction of the wiggle motion. Longitudinal phase errors are introduced by amplitude and wavelength deviations in the undulator.

  3. Communicating risk: More than {open_quotes}all talk{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    Feldman, J.

    1993-02-01

    Developing a community consensus when sitting an incinerator or planning other projects perceived as environmentally unsafe will increase the possibility of receiving public assistance and support. The importance of risk assessment and information dissemination to the public is described.

  4. Comment on {open_quotes}Covariant duality symmetric actions{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    Pasti, P.; Sorokin, D.; Tonin, M.

    1997-08-01

    We demonstrate that an action proposed by Khoudeir and Pantoja [Phys. Rev. D {bold 53}, 5974 (1996)] for endowing Maxwell theory with manifest electric-magnetic duality symmetry contains, in addition to the Maxwell field, additional propagating vector degrees of freedom. Hence it cannot be considered as a duality symmetric action for a {ital single} Abelian gauge field. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  5. Summary report: Working Group 2 on {open_quotes}Plasma Based Acceleration Concepts{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    Leemans, W.P.; Esarey, E.; Esarey, E.

    1999-07-01

    A summary of the talks, papers and discussion sessions presented in the Working Group on Plasma Based Acceleration Concepts is given within the context of the progress towards a 1 GeV laser driven accelerator module. The topics covered within the Working Group were self-modulated laser wakefield acceleration, standard laser wakefield acceleration, plasma beatwave acceleration, laser guiding and wake excitation in plasma channels, plasma wakefield acceleration, plasma lenses and optical injection techniques for laser wakefield accelerators. An overview will be given of the present status of experimental and theoretical progress as well as an outlook towards the future physics and technological challenges for the development of an optimized accelerator module. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

  6. The {open_quotes}special employer{close_quotes} issue for nuclear utilities

    SciTech Connect

    Jose, D.E.

    1992-01-01

    Legal aspects of the Rudenjak versus Jersey Central Power and Light Company lawsuit are summarized in the article. Rudenjak, while working for an independent contractor at the Oyster Creek Nuclear Power Plant, received a 3.335 Rem dose of whole-body radiation over a 4-month period in 1980. In 1988, Rudenjak died of acute leukemia and his widow sued the power company. The utility filed a motion to dismiss based on the statutory employer defense, which was granted by the court; excepts of the court`s decision are included in the article. A similar suit in California is also described; the implication is that legal precedent has been established in California and New Jersey to prevent employees of independent contractors from suing utilities.

  7. Offshore environmental risks, perceptions, and {open_quotes}corrective{close_quotes} legislation

    SciTech Connect

    Marsh, R.G.

    1994-09-01

    The offshore petroleum industry in the United States has been subject to intense scrutiny ever since the first barge left the dock. Various interest groups have pointed out every possible negative event that could occur in marine petroleum operations, apparently employing the theory that if a circumstance can be imagined, it will likely happen. And, if the event happens, its impact on the environment will probably be ruinous. Congress has responded to these concerns, frequently in inappropriate and punitive ways. Over the past 40 yr of federal legislation, Congress` attitude has moved from one of aiding offshore exploration and development to one of seeming to stifle it. This paper will look at the potential for environmental endangerment in the outer continental shelf, the causes for the public`s disproportionate concern, the progression of legislation to address these concerns, its effect on the offshore industry and, finally, what geologists can do to help ameliorate what has become an almost untenable exploration environment.

  8. Offshore environmental risks, perceptions and {open_quotes}corrective{close_quotes} legislation

    SciTech Connect

    Marsh, G.R.

    1994-12-31

    The offshore petroleum industry in the United States has been subject to intense scrutiny ever since the first barge left the dock. Various interest groups have point out every possible negative event that could occur in marine petroleum operations, apparently employing the theory that if a circumstance can be imagined, it will likely happen. And, if the event happens, its impact on the environment will probably be devastating. Congress has responded to these concerns, frequently in inappropriate and punitive ways. Over the past 40 years of Federal legislation, Congress` attitude has moved from facilitating offshore exploration and development to stifling it. This paper will look at the potential for environmental endangerment in the Outer Continental Shelf, some of the reasons for the public`s disproportionate concern, and the progression of legislation to address these concerns.

  9. About the {open_quotes}Asian{close_quotes}-specific 9-bp deletion of mtDNA...

    SciTech Connect

    Torroni, A.; Petrozzi, M.; Santolamazza, P.

    1995-08-01

    The 9-bp deletion between the COII and tRNA{sup Lys} genes is due to the lack of one of two adjacent copies of a 9-bp sequence usually present in human mtDNA. This mutation is very common in Asians and populations of Asian ancestry (e.g., Polynesians and Amerinds) and often has been considered and ethnic-specific polymorphism for these populations. We now report the detection of the COII-tRNA{sup Lys} 9-bp deletion in an individual of Italian descent. To our knowledge, this is the first time that the 9-bp deletion has been observed in Europeans. 19 refs.

  10. Comment on {open_quotes}Multicritical Behavior in Coupled Directed Percolation Processes{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    Goldschmidt, Y.Y.

    1998-09-01

    A Comment on the Letter by Uwe C. T{umlt a}uber, Martin J. Howard, and Haye Hinrichsen, Phys.thinspthinspRev.thinspthinspLett.thinspthinsp{bold 80}, 2165 (1998). The authors of the Letter offer a Reply. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

  11. Dual annular rotating [open quotes]windowed[close quotes] nuclear reflector reactor control system

    DOEpatents

    Jacox, M.G.; Drexler, R.L.; Hunt, R.N.M.; Lake, J.A.

    1994-03-29

    A nuclear reactor control system is provided in a nuclear reactor having a core operating in the fast neutron energy spectrum where criticality control is achieved by neutron leakage. The control system includes dual annular, rotatable reflector rings. There are two reflector rings: an inner reflector ring and an outer reflector ring. The reflectors are concentrically assembled, surround the reactor core, and each reflector ring includes a plurality of openings. The openings in each ring are capable of being aligned or non-aligned with each other. Independent driving means for each of the annular reflector rings is provided so that reactor criticality can be initiated and controlled by rotation of either reflector ring such that the extent of alignment of the openings in each ring controls the reflection of neutrons from the core. 4 figures.

  12. Design of a {open_quotes}slow-wave{close_quotes} ubitron

    SciTech Connect

    Pershing, D.E.; Jackson, R.H.; Freund, H.P.

    1995-12-31

    The NRL fundamental TE{sub 11} mode ubitron has been successful in demonstrating high gain (29 dB large signal), broad instantaneous bandwidth (>20 %), high power (>4 MW), and efficient (18%) amplification in K{sub u} band with a 245 kV, 94 A beam. For a second generation ubitron amplifier design, it is desired to operate at higher frequencies and lower voltages, while preserving the gain, power, and bandwidth characteristics measured with the K{sub u} band amplifier. A K{sub a} band ubitron amplifier is currently under development utilizing the basic design concepts of the K{sub a} band amplifier: grazing intersection for wide instantaneous bandwidth, circularly polarized wiggler and microwave fields for high gain and power, and a high quality Pierce gun generating a cylindrical, uniform density electron beam for high efficiency. As has been previously demonstrated, the dispersion characteristics of a periodic waveguide can be exploited for low voltage FEL operation. This is the major point of departure from the K{sub u} band design; operation in the HE{sub 11} mode of corrugated cylindrical waveguide which permits broader bandwidth amplification at lower voltages than is possible with smooth waveguide. Preliminary calculations indicate that 30 % bandwidth operation in K{sub a} band is possible at voltages less than 150 kV with a 8-9 mm period wiggler. Design details and performance calculations will be presented.

  13. Can a {open_quotes}superconductor{close_quotes} always expel the generalized magnetic field?

    SciTech Connect

    Mahajan, S.M.

    1998-03-10

    The conservation of generalized helicity in a perfectly conducting fluid may act as an electrodynamic barrier for the transition to the London (superconducting) state when the system is immersed in a topologically nontrival magnetic field (with a nonzero generalized helicity). An experiment is proposed to test whether the mechanism responsible (quantum correlations) for superconductivity respects the electrodynamic constraint.

  14. Comment on {open_quotes}Paramagnetic Meissner effect in Nb{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    Rice, T.M.; Sigrist, M.

    1997-06-01

    The observation of a small paramagnetic signal in a bulk s-wave superconductor Nb does not justify the conclusion drawn by Kosti{hacek c} {ital et al.} that our previous proposal interpreting the paramagnetism of ceramic high-T{sub c} cuprates as arising from the d-wave symmetry of the superconducting state is unlikely to be correct. Several experimental tests are proposed to distinguish between paramagnetism caused by flux compression and that associated with unconventional symmetry. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  15. {open_quotes}Super{close_quotes} Japanese site gears up to sole neutrino puzzle

    SciTech Connect

    Normile, D.

    1995-11-03

    Ever since Wolfgang Pauli proposed the existence of neutrinos in 1930 to explain some puzzling features of the radioactive decay of certain atoms, expermentalists have labored hard to detect enough of the elusive particles to determine their properties. It took 26 years to prove that Pauli`s particle even exits-a feat for which Frederick Reines of the University of California (UC), Irvine, won the Nobel Prize last month. Soon, however, physicists will be capturing neutrinos in unprecedented numbers in a 50,000-metric-ton tank that will fill with water starting next month. Researchers hope that this colossal waterbath will yield an answer to one of the most pressing questions is cosmology and high-energy physics: Do neutrinos have mass?The $100 million experiment, called Super-Kamiokande, in located in a lead mine west of Tokyo. This article describes the work to be conducted.

  16. Producing biodiesel for the {open_quotes}truck in the park{close_quotes} project

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, C.; Reece, D.; Thompson, J.

    1995-11-01

    One of the principal advantages of Biodiesel is its environmental compatibility. Its biodegradability and reduced toxicity make it an ideal candidate fuel for environmentally sensitive areas. Biodiesel has potential as a fuel for equipment operating in or near waterways, sensitive wildlife habitat and other environmentally sensitive areas. The national park system has a mandate to maintain the environment in the areas they supervise. Use of Biodiesel could be one more tool in achieving that goal. This paper is a progress report of a joint project between the University of Idaho, The Montana Department of Natural Resources and Conservation, Wyoming Department of Energy, the PNW and Alaska Regional Bioenergy Program, Chrysler Corporation and the National Park Service to fuel an on-road vehicle for service in Yellowstone National Park. A 5.9L Cummins powered Dodge pickup, supplied by Dodge Truck, is being operated by NPS with fuel produced by the University of Idaho. Tests include regular dynamometer testing, emissions tests, injector coking analysis, oil analysis, detailed operational records and fuel characterization tests according to the ASAE proposed Engineering Practice for Testing of Fuels from Biological Materials, X552.

  17. Leak-detection device is {open_quotes}all ears{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    Malm, H.; Halpern, F.

    1996-04-01

    Ultrasonic detection devices for locating air or liquid leaks are described. Standard packages consist of a hand-held detection instrument, high-impedance headphones, a localization sound probe, an ultrasound transmitter, and a precision contact probe. The ultrasonic vibrations are converted into either an audible frequency or a digital readout. The use of ultrasonic devices in leak testing single-wall underground storage tanks is detailed.

  18. Geology of the Ferron Sandstone coalbed gas [open quotes]fairway,[close quotes] central Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Tabet, D.E.; Hucka, B.P.; Sommer, S.N. )

    1996-01-01

    A major new coalbed gas play with as many as 1,000 wells already proposed is being developed in the Upper Cretaceous Ferron Sandstone of central Utah. The Ferron consists of a vertically stacked sequence of as many as seven fluvial-deltaic sandstones and laterally equivalent interdistributary coal swamp units. A new total-net-coal isopach map for the Ferron, compiled from the review of hundreds of well records, shows the greatest accumulation of coal generally occurs in a 6-to 10-mile-wide band, or fairway, directly to the west (landward) of the fluvial-deltaic sandstones. This fairway can be traced a distance of at least 80 miles, heading southwest from the vicinity of Price to the southeast corner of Sevier County. The fairway is interrupted roughly every 8-to-12 miles along its length by deltaic, distributary-channel systems. Well samples of Ferron coal were examined microscopically to determine vitrinite reflectance and maturity level. Near-surface coals, on the east side of the fairway, have vitrinite reflectance measurements as low as 0.5 percent. Reflectance values increase to the west, reaching a maximum of 0.71 percent. The maturity of coals with vitrinite reflectance readings between 0.5 and 0.71 percent is the early stage in which thermogenic methane generation begins. Examination of drill-hole data also shows that the coal fairway exists at shallow to moderate depths, ranging from surface exposures to 8,000 feet deep.

  19. Geology of the Ferron Sandstone coalbed gas {open_quotes}fairway,{close_quotes} central Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Tabet, D.E.; Hucka, B.P.; Sommer, S.N.

    1996-12-31

    A major new coalbed gas play with as many as 1,000 wells already proposed is being developed in the Upper Cretaceous Ferron Sandstone of central Utah. The Ferron consists of a vertically stacked sequence of as many as seven fluvial-deltaic sandstones and laterally equivalent interdistributary coal swamp units. A new total-net-coal isopach map for the Ferron, compiled from the review of hundreds of well records, shows the greatest accumulation of coal generally occurs in a 6-to 10-mile-wide band, or fairway, directly to the west (landward) of the fluvial-deltaic sandstones. This fairway can be traced a distance of at least 80 miles, heading southwest from the vicinity of Price to the southeast corner of Sevier County. The fairway is interrupted roughly every 8-to-12 miles along its length by deltaic, distributary-channel systems. Well samples of Ferron coal were examined microscopically to determine vitrinite reflectance and maturity level. Near-surface coals, on the east side of the fairway, have vitrinite reflectance measurements as low as 0.5 percent. Reflectance values increase to the west, reaching a maximum of 0.71 percent. The maturity of coals with vitrinite reflectance readings between 0.5 and 0.71 percent is the early stage in which thermogenic methane generation begins. Examination of drill-hole data also shows that the coal fairway exists at shallow to moderate depths, ranging from surface exposures to 8,000 feet deep.

  20. The {open_quotes}obligation to serve{close_quotes} and a competitive electric industry

    SciTech Connect

    Colton, R.D.

    1997-11-01

    This report presents an assessment of what the ``obligation to serve`` might look like in a competitive electric industry. Broadly, this research has three objectives: to define the ``duty to serve`` of a competitive electric industry; to identify those companies to whom that duty applies; and to explain how that duty protects residual classes.

  1. {open_quotes}Green{close_quotes} certification: An option for helping the biomass energy industry grow

    SciTech Connect

    Easterly, J.L.

    1995-09-01

    This article explores the potential merits of `green` certification as an approach that may help overcome barriers and facilitate the future growth of the biomass power industry. Two methods of certification are addressed in this article, independent certification and self certification. Topics discussed include the following: utility `green Pricing` opportunities; perspectives on sustainable forestry and biomass energy; market incentives and the role of biomass in mitigating greenhouse gas emissions. 7 refs.

  2. {open_quotes}Radon{close_quotes} - the system of Soviet designed regional waste management facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Horak, W.C.; Reisman, A.; Purvis, E.E. III

    1997-07-01

    The Soviet Union established a system of specialized regional facilities to dispose of radioactive waste generated by sources other than the nuclear fuel cycle. The system had 16 facilities in Russia, 5 in Ukraine, one in each of the other CIS states, and one in each of the Baltic Republics. These facilities are still being used. The major generators of radioactive waste they process these are research and industrial organizations, medical and agricultural institution and other activities not related to nuclear power. Waste handled by these facilities is mainly beta- and gamma-emitting nuclides with half lives of less than 30 years. The long-lived and alpha-emitting isotopic content is insignificant. Most of the radwaste has low and medium radioactivity levels. The facilities also handle spent radiation sources, which are highly radioactive and contain 95-98 percent of the activity of all the radwaste buried at these facilities.

  3. {open_quotes}Industry overview: Agriculture and forestry{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, G.

    1995-12-31

    The Climate Change negotiators left Berlin, very tired and bleary eyed, but with a Declaration which included agreements, among other things, to take a close look at what the likely effects of commitments will be and where those commitments will be going between now and 2000. Debate would then open on a new or amended legal instrument to meet the Objective of the Climate Change Convention, in the Twenty First Century. One hundred and fifty nations also declared that a new way of transfering technology could be tried on a pilot basis, thus, Joint Implementation also will move into the Twenty First Century. These two parts of the Berlin Declaration are very important to the role to be played by agriculture and forestry. Agriculture and forestry currently are playing a significant role and will continue this role in the stabilization of atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases. These two sectors, whether in an industrialized nation or in developing nation represent the only economically viable technologies for carbon sequestration, at this time. These sinks are constrained, however, by the reservoir capacity of the soils and are a function of temperature, moisture, soil, and history of use. The outlook is, therefore both one of optimisim and of pessimism. The view will have some global overtones, however, the focus is primarily within the U.S.

  4. Plasma transferred arc rotary furnace for {open_quotes}corium{close_quotes} melting

    SciTech Connect

    Kassabji, F.; Cognet, G.; Jegou, C.; Roubaud, A.

    1995-12-31

    This paper presents a new plasma transferred arc rotary furnace equipment installed for the CEA in the research Centre of Cadarache in France; this project is conducted with EDF technical assistance. It is constructed by GEC-ALSTHOM for the total project and TETRONICS for plasma systems. This furnace is the central unit of a new facility, VULCANO E-30, prototype of a larger one, built in order to study the key phenomena involved in the behaviour and cooling of CORIUM at temperatures up to 3000{degrees}C. This centrifugal and tilted furnace is water cooled in a double shielded jacket. A self crucible is made up by the centrifugation of the powder material. A 300kW transferred arc is created between two plasma electrodes-torches allowing the creation of a plasma column at a high and relatively homogeneous temperature. The furnace is equipped by a product feeder at one of its extremities and by a boarded telemtry system allowing the transmission by infrared signals of the temperature measurements.

  5. Citrate-based {open_quotes}Talspeak{close_quotes} actinide-lanthanide separation process

    SciTech Connect

    Del Cul, G.D.; Toth, L.M.; Bond, W.D.

    1997-01-01

    Lanthanide elements are produced in relatively high yield by fission of {sup 235}U. Almost all the lanthanide isotopes decay to stable nonradioactive lanthanide isotopes in a relatively short time. Consequently, it is highly advantageous to separate the relatively small actinide fraction from the relatively large quantities of lanthanide isotopes. The TALSPEAK process (Trivalent Actinide Lanthanide Separations by Phosphorus-reagent Extraction from Aqueous Complexes) is one of the few means available to separate the trivalent actinides from the lanthanides. Previous work based on the use of lactic or glycolic acid has shown deleterious effects of some impurity ions such as zirconium(IV), even at concentrations on the order of 10{sup {minus}4} M. Other perceived problems were the need to maintain the pH and reagent concentrations within a narrow range and a significant solubility of the organic phase at high carboxylic acid concentrations. The authors` cold experiments showed that replacing the traditional extractants glycolic or lactic acid with citric acid eliminates or greatly reduces the deleterious effects produced by impurities such as zirconium. An extensive series of batch tests was done using a wide range of reagent concentrations at different pH values, temperatures, and contact times. The results demonstrated that the citrate-based TALSPEAK can tolerate appreciable changes in pH and reagent concentrations while maintaining an adequate lanthanide extraction. Experiments using a three-stage glass mixer-settler showed a good lanthanide extraction, appropriate phase disengagement, no appreciable deleterious effects due to the presence of impurities such as zirconium, excellent pH buffering, and no significant loss of organic phase.

  6. Coping with the new {open_quotes}clear and present danger{close_quotes} from Russia

    SciTech Connect

    Blaker, J.

    1995-04-01

    The time has come to consider a different way to ensure that none of Russia`s nuclear weapons and fissile material ever falls into the hands of terrorists, criminals or rogue states. The current situation in Russia makes such a prospect all too plausible. The author examines mechanisms to control weapons and fissile materials.

  7. [open quotes]Victory[close quotes] a matter of perception in Ward Valley dispute

    SciTech Connect

    Newman, P.

    1994-02-17

    This article concerns the legal battle over the siting of Ward Valley, a proposed low-level nuclear waste site in California's Mojave Desert. The discussion centers around a judge's decision to deny a pretrial request for adjudicatory hearings to determine the site's suitability as a repository. The site is within an area designated as territory for the desert tortoise by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

  8. State regulators go with the [open quotes]flow[close quotes

    SciTech Connect

    Cross, P.S.

    1994-03-01

    Regulators must allow utilities to earn enough profit to attract capital. And because utilities are capital intensive, the issue of the appropriate allowance for return on common equity (ROE) is both vital and contentious. In the past, debate has focused primarily on technical questions involving the appropriate values for dividend yield and growth rate under the discounted cash flow (DCF) analysis that most regulators use to set the ROE rate component. A review of base-rate rulings at the state level over the past year, however, finds more and more utilities arguing that the DCF method itself is irreparably flawed. For example, Dr. William Avera, a utility witness in a recent Public Service Company of Colorado rate case, said that current capital markets are distorted as a result of the Federal Reserve Bank's attempts to ignite economic recovery by lowering short-term interest rates. He concluded that the DCF does not provide acceptable cost-of-equity estimates under the current economic conditions, because many of the indicated rates are not substantially higher than the yields on less risky capital investments, such as utility bonds. Dr. Avera also contended that DCF-calculated equity rates did not account for the additional market-structure risk that results from a utility's heavy reliance on purchased power as opposed to other resource options.

  9. Permian {open_quotes}Wolfcamp{close_quotes} limestone reservoirs: Powell Ranch field, Eastern Midland Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Montgomery, S.L.

    1996-09-01

    Deep-water carbonate channel reservoirs form important oil reservoirs along the toe of the Eastern Shelf of the Permian basin in west Texas. In northwestern Glasscock County, these `Wolfcamp` reservoirs are Leonardian (Early Permian) in age and define high-energy channels incised into surrounding carbonate detritus and basinal shale. Porous grain-flow material filling these channels, along with encasing detritus, was derived from the shallow shelf located six miles to the east. Reservoirs are in packstone and grainstone facies and have significant interparticle and moldic porosity. Relevant exploration began in the 1960s, but expanded slowly thereafter due to lack of success caused by complex patterns of channel occurrence. Results of a three-dimensional (3-D) seismic survey conducted in 1990 have greatly enhanced the identification and mapping of productive channels in the Powell Ranch field complex. Wells in this complex are capable of flowing 400-1200 bbl of oil per day, and have reserves ranging from 0.2 to 1.3 MBO. The new 3-D data have improved the relevant geologic model and dramatically increased rates of drilling success. Application of such data to this setting offers a potential model for other parts of the Permian basin.

  10. Challenging the human crisis: {open_quotes}The Trilemma{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    Nitta, Yoshitaka; Yoda, Susumu

    1995-06-01

    The great increase in world population in the coming century will result in a human crisis of worldwide proportions. A new concept for describing and proposing solutions to this crisis, called the Trilemma, is described by the authors. To feed large and growing populations, humankind is now being forced to make the difficult choice between producing sufficient food for the world population and preserving the environment, or generating economic growth, requiring the consumption of energy and natural resources. These difficult choices present the Trilemma, a new concept that is composed of three dimensions: economic growth, resources such as energy and food, and the environment. None of these three dimensions can be optimized individually as they are mutually interdependent. This paper describes a possible world energy condition in the 21st century. Three scenarios of this energy consumption are presented and compared with the possible energy supply at that time. This supply is estimated from the extrapolation of the renewable energy development of the past and the possible fossil fuel supply. The comparison of the energy supply and the energy consumption indicates that the annual rate of economic growth in the developed region would be only 1% if the gross national product (GNP) per capita of the developing region increases gradually from 1/26 of the GNP of the developed regions in 1990, to 1/10 in 2020, and finally to 1/3 in 2100. Another possibility is that if the GNP per capita of the developing region remains 1/26 of the GNP of the developed regions between 1990 and 2100, the economic growth rate in the developed region could be as large as 3%. In the latter case, an energy shortage would develop in the middle of the 21st century, even if the fast breeder reactor were fully operational by the year 2030. Energy technological developments in Japan are also described as a part of the possible countermeasures against the Trilemma. 9 refs., 11 figs.

  11. Russia`s {open_quotes}new look{close_quotes} arms sales strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Sorokin, K.

    1993-10-01

    Despite new policies and strategies, Russia is largely unsuccessful in selling its arms on the competitive international open market. No matter how hard they try, sales by Russian arms dealers have continued to plummet to less than 10 percent of what they were a few short years ago when the Soviet Union competed with the United States for the position as the world`s No. 1 arms dealer.

  12. A novel form of {open_quotes}Tyrosinase-positive{close_quotes} oculocutaneous albinism

    SciTech Connect

    Fukai, K.; Lee, S.T.; Bundey, S.; Spritz, R.A. |

    1994-09-01

    Tyrosinase-positive oculocutaneous albinism (ty-pos OCA) is an autosomal recessive disorder in which the biosynthesis of melanin pigment is greatly reduced in the skin, hair, and eyes. We have shown that typical ty-pos OCA (OCA2) results from mutations of the P gene in chromosome segment 15q11-q13. We have also shown that some patients diagnosed with ty-pos OCA actually have mild forms of type I OCA (OCAI), resulting from mutations at the tyrosinase (TYR) gene at 11q14-q21. However, in about one-third of patients with ty-pos OCA we have failed to identify abnormalities of either the P or TYR genes, suggesting the possible existence of a third ty-pos OCA locus. To test this hypothesis, we investigated a large, complex, inbred Pakistani kindred. Affected individuals exhibit slight skin pigmentation with no tanning, hair that is silver at birth and darkens somewhat over time, brown irides, and reduced visual acuity with nystagmus. SSCP/heteroduplex screening and complete DNA sequence analysis of TYR gene in the proband identified no abnormalities, and analysis of a CA repeat in the TYR gene promoter showed no linkage of ty-pos OCA to this marker in this kindred. SSCP/ heteroduplex screening of the P gene also detected no abnormalities, and the (inbred) proband was heterozygous for numerous intragenic polymorphisms. These data thus exclude TYP and P. We next carried out genetic linkage analyses and homozygisty mapping using various SSLP repeats at the locations of the human homologues of the mouse brown (TYRP, 9p23), slaty (13q32), and silver (12pter-q21) genes, all of which are associated with generalized hypopigmentation in mutant animals. However, we found no evidence of linkage of any of these markers. We are currently carrying out similar analyses using markers near the putative locations of the human homologues of several other mouse hypopigmentation genes in an effort to map this novel human ty-pos OCA locus.

  13. {open_quotes}The next generations of Tampella Power`s CFB boilers{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    Alliston, M.G.

    1995-12-31

    The next generation of Tampella Power Corporation`s CFB boilers is discussed in outline form. The following topics are outlined: CFB boiler advantages, CFB boiler fuel flexibility and CYMIC boiler construction.

  14. A novel [open quotes]flat-plate[close quotes] PV concentrator package

    SciTech Connect

    Tuttle, J.R.; Cole, E.D.; Berens, T.A.; Szalaj, A. ); Alleman, J. )

    1999-03-01

    DayStar Technologies is developing a PV module technology using low-level concentration (2[endash]8 suns) that can package existing industry cell materials into a lower cost/higher value product suitable for both low-power (10W) solar lantern and 1-KW and greater power generation applications. Cell materials incorporated to date include Cu(In, hthinsp;Ga)Se[sub 2](CIGS), a-Si, and c-Si. The use of thin-film cell materials in a concentrator application is the first of its kind. The performance and reliability of CIGS and a-Si under concentration has been demonstrated. The efficacy of the proprietary optics developed by DayStar has been demonstrated. Cell integration and subsequent mating to optics has proven to be nearly lossless. A 7.2[percent] active-area CIGS-based mini-module has been measured. [copyright] [ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.

  15. {open_quotes}Industry views--timing/structure of consultative process{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    Volgelsberg, T.

    1995-12-31

    This paper examines industry`s perspective on the issues concerning the politics and economics of climatic change. The climate change issue complexity goes beyond science and involves: technology, economics, lifestyle, population, intergenerational equity, etc. Industry resources should be actively involved in technology, timeframes, economic assessments, and the political process. Climate mitigation options should be viewed on a holistic or total impact basis. Technology and economic assessment should not create winners and losers. The climate change process is like peeling an onion - long timeframes are required for cultural and infrastructure changes, there are both short term small improvement and long term structural changes, and implementation may take generations. Interdisciplinary communications are critical, cutting across the fields of social science, physical science, economics, technology, demographics, etc. Finally, industry must play or be played - industry can either help shape or be left to live with policy.

  16. Final report for {open_quotes}Production of mild gasification co-products{close_quotes} project

    SciTech Connect

    Horne, D.A.; Castro, J.C.

    1994-12-04

    The SGI International Liquids From Coal (LFC) Process is a mild pyrolysis, or mild gasification, treatment that upgrades low-rank coals by removing almost all of the moisture and a substantial portion of the volatile matter. The process produces two value-added co-products: a Coal Derived Liquid (CDL) and a solid Process Derived Fuel (PDF). A third co-product, a low-heating-value non-condensible gas, is recirculated and combusted in a commercial sized plant to provide drying and pyrolysis process heat. The LFC Process consists of three basic steps. The first step, drying, involves essentially inert gas convectively raising the coal temperature and removing most of the moisture. The drying temperature is limited to ensure that no hydrocarbon gases evolve, and the flow rate is limited below fluidization levels for most of the coal particles. The second step, pyrolysis, consists of additional inert gas heating that raises the temperature of the dried coal so that more than half of the volatile matter is removed under a controlled temperature history that is characteristic for each particular coal and customer demand. The third step, finishing or conditioning, consists of exposure to a cooling inert gas that quenches the pyrolysis reaction, followed by controlled exposure to oxygen for the purposes of stabilization. The processed solid char is then brought to moisture equilibrium (much less than the parent coal`s equilibrium level), and, if necessary, a dust suppressant is added to the PDF. The PDF co-product is environmentally more attractive than the parent coal because a large fraction of the organic sulfur is removed with the volatile matter, and the heating value of the fuel is increased with a concurrent increase in combustion efficiency. When subjected to appropriate finishing steps, the PDF represents a stable, economically transportable, high-heat-value reactive combustion fuel with stable flame characteristics similar to natural gas.

  17. University of Virginia {open_quotes}virtual{close_quotes} reactor facility tours

    SciTech Connect

    Krause, D.R.; Mulder, R.U.

    1995-12-31

    An electronic information and tour book has been constructed for the University of Virginia reactor (UVAR) facility. Utilizing the global Internet, the document resides on the University of Virginia World Wide Web (WWW or W) server within the UVAR Homepage at http://www.virginia. edu/{approximately}reactor/. It is quickly accessible wherever an Internet connection exists. The UVAR Homepage files are accessed with the hypertext transfer protocol (http) prefix. The files are written in hypertext markup language (HTML), a very simple method of preparing ASCII text for W3 presentation. The HTML allows use of various hierarchies of headers, indentation, fonts, and the linking of words and/or pictures to other addresses-uniform resource locators. The linking of texts, pictures, sounds, and server addresses is known as hypermedia.

  18. Some general reflections on {open_quotes}long pulse{close_quotes} neutron sources

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, G.S.

    1995-12-31

    A long pulse spallation neutron source (LPSS) having about 20 times more time average thermal flux than its short pulse counterpart (SPSS) at the same proton beam power and featuring a pronounced time structure not available on CW sources (CWNS) of equal time average flux can in principle host instruments typical for both classes of facilities. While the need for additional choppers introduces some restrictions on inverted time of flight techniques typical for SPSS and high incident neutron energies are not easier to use on LPSS than on CWNS, taking advantage of the pulsed nature of the neutron flux can enhance significantly the performance of direct time of flight instruments and of crystal spectrometers or diffractometers. In the paper some of the options are reviewed in a general manner and criteria are discussed which can be used to optimize the performance enhancement.

  19. Explanations for {open_quotes}anomalous methane{close_quotes} in submarine hydrothermal fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Shock, E.L.; McCollon, T.M.

    1996-10-01

    Concentrations of CH{sub 4}, CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2} reported for submarine hydrothermal fluids are not generally in equilibrium at the measured temperatures. Although the concentrations of CH{sub 4} in Endeavor Ridge fluids are called anomalous the degree of disequilibrium indicated by the fluid composition is essentially the same as that of all other fluids except one measurement from 21{degrees}N on the East Pacific Rise (EPR). Therefore, it is possible that a single explanation may serve to reconcile a majority of the data on hydrothermal fluids. The 21{degrees}N EPR fluid has the highest reported concentration of H{sub 2}, a factor of 4 to 12 greater than other fluids. One explanation is that all other H{sub 2} analyses are low owing to H{sub 2} loss during sampling or analysis. If this is not the case, then a second plausible hypothesis is that microbial methanogenesis in the downwelling parts of submarine hydrothermal systems contributes CH{sub 4} to all systems, even those lacking any plausible sedimentary source of organic matter. Thermodynamic analysis of all available data shows that any approach toward equilibrium at temperatures {<=}300{degrees}C could explain the concentrations of CH{sub 4}. This analysis also shows that methanogenesis is an energetically favored lifestyle as hydrothermal fluids mix with seawater at temperatures from {>=}50{degrees}C to {<=}350{degrees}C, assuming that the H{sub 2} analyses are reliable. In fact, these two explanations might be related. Any thermophilic methanogens trapped during collection of a mixed sample of seawater and vent fluid could feast on CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2} as the sample cooled, and the extent of disequilibrium may be governed by the temperature dependence of CH{sub 4}/CO{sub 2}/H{sub 2} reactions and the optimal temperature range of the organisms.

  20. Comment on {open_quotes}Magnetic-coherence-length scaling in metallic multilayers{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    Aarts, J.

    1997-10-01

    In a recent paper [Phys. Rev. B {bold 54}, 515 (1996)], Koperdraad and Lodder compare calculations of the parallel critical field H{sub c2}{sup {parallel}} in superconductor{endash}normal-metal multilayers with experimental data taken from the literature. The poor agreement leads them to introduce a scaling factor {alpha} in the superconducting coherence length. The aim of this Comment is to point out the importance of the boundary conditions of the problem. Free sample surfaces will yield different results than an infinite stack of layers. The effect of free surfaces on the temperature of the dimensional crossover in H{sub c2}{sup {parallel}} is shown to be similar to the effect of {alpha}, making the need for the latter parameter questionable. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  1. Answer to Question {number_sign}21 [{open_quote}{open_quote}Snell{close_quote}s law in quantum mechanics,{close_quote}{close_quote} Steve Blau and Brad Halfpap, Am. J. Phys. {bold 63} (7), 583 (1995)

    SciTech Connect

    Milonni, P.W.

    1996-07-01

    The quantum mechanical description of reflection and refraction in terms of photons is further extrapolated. The probability amplitude for a photon to be found inside or outside the medium is derived.

  2. Comment on {open_quote}{open_quote}Determination of highly excited states of diatomic-molecular ions using exact H{sub 2}{sup +}-like orbitals{close_quote}{close_quote}

    SciTech Connect

    Wolniewicz, L.

    1996-06-01

    Recently, Le Sech [Phys. Rev. A {bold 51}, R2668 (1995)] presented results of variational computations of electronic energies for some two-electron diatomic-molecular ions. These energies, obtained with a very simple wave function, are, for some internuclear distances, lower than ever reported. We claim that these results are incorrect. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  3. Response to {open_quotes}Comment on {open_quote}Reversible work of formation of an embryo of a new phase within a uniform macroscopic mother phase{close_quote}thinsp{close_quotes} [J. Chem. Phys. {bold 111}, 3769 (1999)

    SciTech Connect

    Debenedetti, P.G.; Reiss, H.

    1999-08-01

    External constraints are necessary in order to calculate the energetics of embryo formation when the embryo is not a critical nucleus. The expression for the reversible work of formation obtained in by Debenedetti and Reiss [J. Chem. Phys. {bold 108}, 5498 (1998)] is rigorous and valid regardless of the relative densities of the embryo and mother phase. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

  4. Thermal state of the safety system, reactor, side reflector and shielding of the {open_quote}{open_quote}TOPAZ-2{close_quote}{close_quote} system under conditions of fire caused by a launcher accident at the launch pad

    SciTech Connect

    Grinberg, E.I.; Doschatov, V.V.; Nikolaev, V.S.; Sokolov, N.S.; Usov, V.A.

    1996-03-01

    The paper presents some results of calculational analyses performed to determine thermal state of the TOPAZ II safety system structure, radiation shielding, reactor without the side reflector, rods and inserts of the side reflector under conditions of fire at the launch pad when an accident occurs to a launch vehicle. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  5. Heart rate never lies: interventional cardiologist and Braude's quote revised

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Stéphane; Stauffer, Jean-Christophe; Goy, Jean-Jacques; Graf, Denis; Puricel, Serban; Frobert, Aurélien; Muller, Olivier; Togni, Mario; Arroyo, Diego

    2016-01-01

    Background Interventional cardiologists may be immune to stress, allowing them to perform complex percutaneous interventions under pressure. Objectives To assess heart rate (HR) variations as a surrogate marker of stress of interventional cardiologists during percutaneous cardiac procedures and in every-day life. Design This is a single-centre observational study including a total of six male interventional cardiologists performing coronary interventions and pacemaker implantations. Participants were asked to record their HR with the Apple Watch Device during procedures, every-day life and control activities such as outpatient consultations, sport, marital conflicts and sexual intercourse. Results Average daily HR was 88±17 bpm. During work days, HR increased significantly during procedures (90±17 bpm) compared with days outside the cathlab (87±17 bpm, p=0.02). The average HR was higher during a regular week working (88±16 bpm) compared with weekends off (84±18 bpm, p=0.002). Complex cardiac procedures were associated with higher HR up to 122 bpm. Peak HR were higher during physical exertion. Of note, participants complained of hypersexuality and mania after night shifts. Conclusions Work and especially percutaneous cardiac procedures increase HR independently of physical exertion suggesting that interventional cardiologists experience mental stress and emotions. PMID:26835145

  6. Film quality in relation to deposition conditions of {ital a}-SI:H films deposited by the {open_quote}{open_quote}hot wire{close_quote}{close_quote} method using highly diluted silane

    SciTech Connect

    Molenbroek, E.C.; Mahan, A.H.; Johnson, E.J.; Gallagher, A.C.

    1996-05-01

    The deposition parameter space has been extensively explored using the hot wire technique with 1{percent} SiH{sub 4} in He as a source gas. To achieve reasonable deposition rates despite the high dilution, the filament was positioned at 1{endash}2 cm from the substrate. This short distance introduced a large nonuniformity across the substrate in deposition rate as well as in film properties. These spatial variations were used to analyze which factors in the deposition determine film quality. Radiation from the filament as well as deposition rate cannot explain the large variation in film properties, leaving gas-phase reactions of Si and H from the hot filament as the primary cause. It is clear that radicals evaporated from the filament must undergo gas-phase reactions with SiH{sub 4} before deposition in order to produce high-quality material. Thus, conditions such as increasing the chamber pressure or going to a heavier carrier gas increase the fraction of radicals that can react before reaching the substrate and, therefore, improve the film quality. However, such conditions also enhance multiple radical reactions before such radicals reach the substrate and this can have a negative effect on film quality: this is attributed to gas-phase nucleation with incorporation of conglomerates. The gas-phase chemistry is quite different from that of plasma-enhanced decomposition in that no disilane or trisilane is formed in significant quantities. This, and the dependence on pressure, indicates that the pathway for formation of these heavier particles is radical{endash}radical reactions. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  7. Global arrays: A portable {open_quotes}shared-memory{close_quotes} programming model for distributed memory computers

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, R.J.; Nieplocha, J.; Littlefield, R.J.

    1994-11-01

    Portability, efficiency, and ease of coding are all important considerations in choosing the programming model for a scalable parallel application. The message-passing programming model is widely used because of its portability, yet some applications are too complex to code in it while also trying to maintain a balanced computation load and avoid redundant computations. The shared-memory programming model simplifies coding, but it is not portable and often provides little control over interprocessor data transfer costs. This paper describes a new approach, called Global Arrays (GA), that combines the better features of both other models, leading to both simple coding and efficient execution. The key concept of GA is that it provides a portable interface through which each process in a MIMD parallel program can asynchronously access logical blocks of physically distributed matrices, with no need for explicit cooperation by other processes. The authors have implemented GA libraries on a variety of computer systems, including the Intel DELTA and Paragon, the IBM SP-1 (all message-passers), the Kendall Square KSR-2 (a nonuniform access shared-memory machine), and networks of Unix workstations. They discuss the design and implementation of these libraries, report their performance, illustrate the use of GA in the context of computational chemistry applications, and describe the use of a GA performance visualization tool.

  8. Reply to the comments on [open quotes]Weathering, plants, and the long-term carbon cycle[close quotes

    SciTech Connect

    Cochran, M.F.; Berner, R.A. )

    1993-05-01

    Some lichens can and do promote the weathering of their substrates. The authors' sole interest for purposes of carbon-cycle modeling is the degree of that enhancement for calcium and magnesium silicates relative to both abiotic chemical weathering due to water-rock interaction and the weathering that occurs beneath higher plants. The work by Jackson and Keller (1970) had offered the most dramatic quantitative, empirical evidence for weathering-rate enhancement by a primitive terrestrial organism; thus, reassessment of their conclusions is of considerable importance. In analyzing their samples, the authors used the technique of back-scattered electron imaging. Their results showed that the ferrihydrite-rich gels created by Stereocaulon vulcani were formed from wind-supplied dust, volcanic ash, and detrital rock fragments, not the lichen's immediate substrate.

  9. ATHEANA: {open_quotes}a technique for human error analysis{close_quotes} entering the implementation phase

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, J.; O`Hara, J.; Luckas, W.

    1997-02-01

    Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) has become an increasingly important tool in the nuclear power industry, both for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the operating utilities. The NRC recently published a final policy statement, SECY-95-126, encouraging the use of PRA in regulatory activities. Human reliability analysis (HRA), while a critical element of PRA, has limitations in the analysis of human actions in PRAs that have long been recognized as a constraint when using PRA. In fact, better integration of HRA into the PRA process has long been a NRC issue. Of particular concern, has been the omission of errors of commission - those errors that are associated with inappropriate interventions by operators with operating systems. To address these concerns, the NRC identified the need to develop an improved HRA method, so that human reliability can be better represented and integrated into PRA modeling and quantification. The purpose of the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) project, entitled `Improved HRA Method Based on Operating Experience` is to develop a new method for HRA which is supported by the analysis of risk-significant operating experience. This approach will allow a more realistic assessment and representation of the human contribution to plant risk, and thereby increase the utility of PRA. The project`s completed, ongoing, and future efforts fall into four phases: (1) Assessment phase (FY 92/93); (2) Analysis and Characterization phase (FY 93/94); (3) Development phase (FY 95/96); and (4) Implementation phase (FY 96/97 ongoing).

  10. Keys to evaluating {open_quotes}paleokarst{close_quotes} reservoirs - guidelines from Quaternary carbonates and enhanced petrography

    SciTech Connect

    Dravis, J.J.

    1996-12-31

    Paleokarst is often invoked to explain reservoir development in ancient brecciated carbonates. However, the paleokarst model is valid only when fabrics seen in Quaternary cave systems are present and petrography of the non-brecciated zones supports subaerial exposure. Quaternary caves typically exhibit early fractures, microscopic to cavernous secondary porosity, solution collapse and brecciation, cave cements, and reddish-brown cave fill. Inter-cavern rocks show fabric-selective dissolution, porosity inversion, precompaction cements, and capping laminated soil crusts. In brecciated Ellenburger and Upper Elk Point (Devonian, W. Canada) reservoirs, major discrepancies exist between what the paleokarst model predicts and what is actually observed. Reddish calcretes, cavernous porosity and cave cements are absent. Enhanced petrography reveals relict sutured grains, implying burial dolomitization. These same dolomites are brecciated and breccia clasts contain stylolites rotated at different angles to each other and the horizon, implying burial brecciation. Fractures cutting these burial dolomites and stylolites are burial in origin. Preserved secondary porosity is unrelated to brecciated zones and facies controlled. Therefore, brecciation and reservoir quality in both sequences were created by burial dissolution of replacement dolomites and not by subaerial karstification. Brecciation alone does not prove the unconformity-related paleokarst model or the timing of porosity development.

  11. Keys to evaluating [open quotes]paleokarst[close quotes] reservoirs - guidelines from Quaternary carbonates and enhanced petrography

    SciTech Connect

    Dravis, J.J. )

    1996-01-01

    Paleokarst is often invoked to explain reservoir development in ancient brecciated carbonates. However, the paleokarst model is valid only when fabrics seen in Quaternary cave systems are present and petrography of the non-brecciated zones supports subaerial exposure. Quaternary caves typically exhibit early fractures, microscopic to cavernous secondary porosity, solution collapse and brecciation, cave cements, and reddish-brown cave fill. Inter-cavern rocks show fabric-selective dissolution, porosity inversion, precompaction cements, and capping laminated soil crusts. In brecciated Ellenburger and Upper Elk Point (Devonian, W. Canada) reservoirs, major discrepancies exist between what the paleokarst model predicts and what is actually observed. Reddish calcretes, cavernous porosity and cave cements are absent. Enhanced petrography reveals relict sutured grains, implying burial dolomitization. These same dolomites are brecciated and breccia clasts contain stylolites rotated at different angles to each other and the horizon, implying burial brecciation. Fractures cutting these burial dolomites and stylolites are burial in origin. Preserved secondary porosity is unrelated to brecciated zones and facies controlled. Therefore, brecciation and reservoir quality in both sequences were created by burial dissolution of replacement dolomites and not by subaerial karstification. Brecciation alone does not prove the unconformity-related paleokarst model or the timing of porosity development.

  12. Recent experimental and analytical results on hydrogen combustion at RRC {open_quotes}Kurchatov Institute{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    Dorofeev, S.B.; Efimenko, A.A.; Kochurko, A.S.; Sidorov, V.P.

    1996-03-01

    A review of hydrogen combustion research at Kurchatov Institute is presented. Criterion for spontaneous detonation onset possibility and its application to severe accidents in a nuclear power plant is discussed. Theoretical and experimental results on spontaneous detonation onset conditions are summarized. Three series of large scale turbulent jet initiation experiments have been carried out in KOPER facility (50 m{sup 3} and 150 m{sup 3}). Series of jet initiation experiments in initially confined H{sub 2} - air mixtures have been carried out in KOPER facility (20-46 m{sup 3}). Turbulent deflagration/DDT experiments were carried out in large scale confined volume of 480 m{sup 3} in RUT facility. Results showed, that the characteristic volume size should be used for conservative estimates in accident analysis. Series of experiments on detonation transition from one mixture to another of lower sensitivity has been carried in DRIVER facility. The experiments were aimed on the estimation of the minimum size of a detonation kernel. The received results are in a good agreement with the 7 cell width criterion. Results of combined hydrogen injection/ignition experiments are presented. The experiments are aimed on the investigation of possible consequences of deliberate ignition at dynamic conditions. Analysis of the experimental data showed applicability of 7 cell width criterion to dynamic conditions. The sum of the results on the scaling of spontaneous detonations is discussed in connection with the strategy of hydrogen mitigation at severe accidents.

  13. United States based agricultural {open_quotes}waste products{close_quotes} as fillers in a polypropylene homopolymer

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobson, R.E.; Rowell, R.M.; Caulfield, D.F.

    1995-11-01

    With the advent of modern coupling agents (MAPP or maleic anhydride grafted polypropylene), the potential use of various types of renewable, sustainable agricultural byproducts as fillers in thermoplastics is explored. Over 7.7 billion pounds of fillers were used in the plastics industry in 1993. With sharp price increases in commodity thermoplastics (i.e. approximately 25% in 94`), the amount of fillers in thermoplastic materials will increase throughout the 90`s. Various types of agricultural fibers are evaluated for mechanical properties vs. 50% wood flour and 40% talc filled polypropylene (PP). The fibers included in this study are: kenaf core, oat straw, wheat straw, oat hulls, wood flour (pine), corncob, hard corncob, rice hulls, peanut hulls, corn fiber, soybean hull, residue, and jojoba seed meal. Composite interfaces were modified with MAPP to improve the mechanical properties through increased adhesion between the hydrophilic and polar fibers with the hydrophobic and non-polar matrix. The agro-waste composites had compositions of 50% agro-waste/48% PP/2% MAPP. All of the agricultural waste by-products were granulated through a Wiley mill with a 30 mesh screen and compounded in a high intensity shear-thermo kinetic mixer. The resultant blends were injection molded into ASTM standard samples and tested for tensile, flexural, and impact properties. This paper reports on the mechanical properties of the twelve resultant composites and compares them to wood flour and talc-filled polypropylene composites. The mechanical properties of kenaf core, oat straw, wheat straw, and oat hulls compare favorably to the wood flour and talc-filled PP, which are both commercially available and used in the automotive and furniture markets.

  14. Development of NZP ceramic based {open_quotes}cast-in-place{close_quotes} diesel engine port liners

    SciTech Connect

    Nagaswaran, R.; Limaye, S.Y.

    1996-02-01

    BSX (Ba{sub 1+x}Zr{sub 4}P{sub 6-2x}Si{sub 2x}O{sub 24}) and CSX (Ca{sub l-x}Sr{sub x}Zr{sub 4}P{sub 6}O{sub 24}) type NZP ceramics were fabricated and characterized for: (i) thermal properties viz., thermal conductivity, thermal expansion, thermal stability and thermal shock resistance; (ii) mechanical properties viz., flexure strength and elastic modulus; and (iii) microstructures. Results of these tests and analysis indicated that the BS-25 (x=0.25 in BSX) and CS-50 (x=0.50 in CSX) ceramics had the most desirable properties for casting metal with ceramic in place. Finite element analysis (FEA) of metal casting (with ceramic in place) was conducted to analyze thermomechanical stresses generated and determine material property requirements. Actual metal casting trials were also conducted to verify the results of finite element analysis. In initial trials, the ceramic cracked because of the large thermal expansion mismatch (hoop) stresses (predicted by FEA also). A process for introduction of a compliant layer between the metal and ceramic to alleviate such destructive stresses was developed. The compliant layer was successful in preventing cracking of either the ceramic or the metal. In addition to these achievements, pressure slip casting and gel-casting processes for fabrication of NZP components; and acoustic emission and ultrasonics-based NDE techniques for detection of microcracks and internal flaws, respectively, were successfully developed.

  15. Russian multispectral-hyperspectral airborne scanner for geological and environmental investigations - {open_quotes}Vesuvius-EC{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    Yassinsky, G.I.; Shilin, B.V.

    1996-07-01

    Small variations of spectral characteristics in 0,3-14 microns band are of great significance in geological and environmental investigations. Multipurpose multispectral digital scanner with narrow field of view, high spectral resolution and radiometric calibration designed in Russia. Changeable modules permit to obtain parameters of the device for practical using.

  16. Incidence and origin of [open quotes]Null[close quotes] alleles in the (AC)n microsatellite markers

    SciTech Connect

    Callen, D.F.,; Thompson, A.D.; Shen, Y.; Phillips, H.A.; Richards, R.I.; Mulley, J.C.; Sutherland, G.R. )

    1993-05-01

    Twenty-three (AC)n repeat markers from chromosome 16 were typed in the parents of the 40 CEPH (Centre d'Etude du Polymorphisme Humain) families. Where parents were informative, the entire families were then typed. There were seven markers in which null alleles were demonstrated, as recognized by the apparent noninheritance, by a sib, of a parental allele. Four of these markers showed a null allele in a single sibship, while in the other three at least 30% of the CEPH sibships were shown to have a null allele segregating. One null allele was sequenced and shown to be the result of an 8-bp deletion occurring within the priming sequence for PCR amplification of the (AC)n repeats. In gene mapping or in application to diagnosis, the presence of a segregating null allele will not corrupt the linkage data but could result in loss of information. In isolated instances a segregating null allele may be interpreted as nonpaternity. The presence of a null allele may generate misleading data when individuals are haplotyped to determine the presence of linkage disequilibrium with a disease gene. 10 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  17. ESCA study of [open quotes]model[close quotes] allyl-based Mo/SiO[sub 2] catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Aigler, J.M.; Brito, J.L.; Leach, P.A.; Houalla, M.; Proctor, A.; Cooper, N.J.; Hall, W.K.; Hercules, D.M. )

    1993-05-27

    Stoichiometric redox measurements and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS or ESCA) studies were performed on an allyl-based Mo/SiO[sub 2] catalyst (1.7 wt % Mo) obtained by the sublimation of Mo([eta][sup 3]-C[sub 3]H[sub 5])[sub 4] onto SiO[sub 2] at 40 [degrees]C. The average oxidation state estimated from stoichiometric measurements correlated well with those reported in the literature. ESCA results indicated that reduction of the Mo/SiO[sub 2] catalyst at 550 [degrees]C primarily led to the formation of Mo[sup 2+]. Also, the results were consistent the reported reversibility of the redox cycle. However, the reported formation of discrete Mo[sup 4+] by oxidation of the reduced catalyst at room temperature could not be substantiated. 17 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. {open_quotes}Optical Guiding{close_quotes} limits on extraction efficiencies of single-pass, tapered wiggler amplifiers

    SciTech Connect

    Fawley, W.M.

    1995-08-01

    Single-pass, tapered wiggler amplifiers have an attractive feature of being able, in theory at least, of extracting a large portion of the electron beam energy into light. In circumstances where an optical FEL wiggler length is significantly longer than the Rayleigh length Z{sub R} corresponding to the electron beam radius, diffraction losses must be controlled via the phenomenon of optical guiding. Since the strength of the guiding depends upon the effective refractive index n exceeding one, and since (n-1) is inversely proportional to the optical electric field, there is a natural limiting mechanism to the on-axis field strength and thus the rate at which energy may be extracted from the electron beam. In particular, the extraction efficiency for a prebunched beam asymptotically grows linearly with z rather than quadratically. We present analytical and numerical simulation results concerning this behavior and discuss its applicability to various FEL designs including oscillator/amplifier-radiator configurations.

  19. Molecular genetics of the glaucomas: Mapping of the first five {open_quotes}GLC{close_quotes} loci

    SciTech Connect

    Raymond, V.

    1997-02-01

    Glaucoma encompasses a complex of ocular-disease entities characterized by an optic neuropathy in which degeneration of retinal ganglion cells leads to a characteristic excavation of the head of the optic nerve. Such damage causes progressive narrowing of the visual fields and, when uncontrolled, blindness. Affected people often have ocular hypertension defined as intraocular pressures consistently >21 mm Hg in both eyes. Although ocular hypertension is no longer an obligatory diagnostic criterion for glaucoma, it is still recognized as one of the most important risk factors. A diagnosis of glaucoma is made after observation of the characteristic atrophy of the optic nerve, which is associated with typical visual field defects. In 1992, the World Health Organization estimated that, in the global population, 5.2 million people were blind as a result of glaucoma, making it the third leading cause of blindness worldwide. The most common form is adult-onset primary open-angle glaucoma, which represents {ge}50% of all cases of glaucoma. Among Caucasians, this form of the disorder affects {approximately}2% of the population >45 years old. In African Americans, prevalence of adult-onset open-angle glaucoma is three to four times higher than that observed in White Americans. More than 15 million North Americans may have some form of glaucoma, but at least half of them may not be aware of it. 43 refs., 1 tab.

  20. China`s new {open_quotes}old thinking{close_quotes}: The concept of limited deterrence

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, A.I.

    1995-12-31

    In the last five to ten years, Chinese military strategists have developed a concept of limited deterrence that is now used to describe what China`s nuclear forces ought to be able to do. Limited deterrence rests on a limited war-fighting capability aimed at communicating China`s ability to inflict costly damage on the adversary at every rung on the escalation ladder and thus denying the adversary victory in a nuclear war. It is this capability, Chinese strategists argue, that will deter such a war in the first place. Limited deterrence therefore requires the development of a greater number of tactical, theater, and strategic nuclear weapons that are accurate enough to hit counterforce targets, are mobile, can be used in the earliest stages of a nuclear crisis, and in a world of THAAD are capable of penetrating ballistic missile defense systems. These forces would thus require effective space-based early warning, and some configuration of BMD capabilities. Given that China does not now have such capabilities, the straight-line prediction would be that over the next decade or so, we should expect to see a discernible effort to shift the forces away from a minimum strike-back assured destruction posture, which China now has, toward limited war-fighting. This may or may not entail a dramatic short-run increase in the absolute numbers of warheads and delivery systems: the pace will depend in part on whether the United States proceeds with TMD deployment. The speed of change in China`s nuclear capabilities will also depend in part on whether the implementation of START II leads to a steep relative increase in the size of the Chinese arsenal and reduces the relative number of counterforce targets. The primary constraints on any such efforts are exogenous, namely, budgetary and arms control constraints. It is an open question whether endogenous constraints-a shift in doctrine toward minimum deterrence-might be encouraged. 120 refs.

  1. {open_quote}Nintendo Rig{close_quote} lets two men do work of three on traditional servicing rig

    SciTech Connect

    Rintoul, B.

    1996-01-01

    New well servicing rig saves costs and increases safety by using a robot derrickman. The rigs is called the Nintendo Rig, taking the name from the joystick that controls the robot on the racking board 25 feet above the ground. An automated tong/slip package permanently mounted on the front of the rig handles pipe and rods on the ground.

  2. {open_quotes}Understanding district energy customer behavior - the key to getting customers and keeping them happy{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    Kattner, J.F.

    1995-09-01

    The market share achieved by district energy systems is frequently represented as a percentage of a particular country`s total energy consumption, or as a percentage of the energy used for heating and cooling. While such characterizations of district energy`s market share are valid and important from a producer`s perspective, the position of the customer is not well represented. The effectiveness of communicating market share in this way greatly depends on the district energy customers` knowledge about the local, regional and national energy markets. It also fails to take into account the differences among customer buildings and their individual energy consumption patterns. An alternative view of market share is suggested when the perspective of the district energy markets shifts from that of the producer`s to the ends user`s. End users of district energy typically are responsible for the ownership and/or the operation of a building. This includes providing energy for comfort, lighting and any processes being conducted in the building. Fundamentally, district energy customers are in the property management business. Their business operations are represented and rated with respect to the building area they manage. Frequently, several buildings are managed by one company. An extensive amount of research has been done about the behavior of consumers when making buying decisions. This includes the fact that product and service buying behavior differs. Also, the field of customer satisfaction is rich with clues on how to keep our customers happy with their decisions to use district energy. This report presents key considerations about buyer behavior and customer satisfaction as they relate to marketing in the district energy field.

  3. {open_quotes}Successful and cost-effective commercial waste prevention and recycling programs{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, A.L.

    1996-08-01

    Components of an integrated solid waste management program are detailed, with emphasis on government and business partnerships. The program incorporates waste reduction, reuse, waste exchange, recycling, composting, and recycled product procurement. Program options, which focus on educational materials, methods, and technical assistance for promoting commercial waste prevention and recycling, are specified for the business, manufacturing, and industrial sectors. A sample commercial recycling program budget and budget description is included.

  4. Superconductivity of {open_quotes}conducting polymer-fullerene alkali metal{close_quotes} composites: Dreams and realities

    SciTech Connect

    Zakhidov, A.A.; Yoshino, K.

    1996-10-01

    Composites of fullerene C{sub 60} with conjugated polymers (CP) like polyalkylthiophene (PAT) and polyphenylene vinylene derivative (OO-PPV) have earlier demonstrated intensive charge transfer upon photoexcitation. Doping of CP/C{sub 60} composites by A metal vapors (A=K,Rb) is aimed at C{sub 60} induced SC, in which electrons of CP chains may participate in SC pairing, induced via hybridization with C{sub 60} molecules. We have found an SC phase experimentally both in PAT. (C{sub 60}) {sub y}K{sub x} and OO.PPV (C{sub 60}){sub y}K{sub x} by a sensitive method of low field microwave absorption (LFMA), and proved by SQUID. The SCT{sub c} ranges from 12 to 17 K, depending on y and x. This SC phase shows a granular behavior in LFMA, and thus originates from SC A{sub 3}C{sub 60} clusters weakly linked by Josephson junctions. True C{sub 60} induced SC might be masked by granular A{sub 3}C{sub 60}. Anomalous LFMA and paramagnetic Meissner effects observed in SQUID, indicate the existence of Josephson {pi}-junctions. CP is apparently involved in SC via spin carrying polarons P in CP chains, which play a role of {pi}-junctions. Strategies for further search of C{sub 60} induced SC are discussed.

  5. Optimal greenhouse-gas reductions and tax policy in the [open quotes]DICE[close quotes] model

    SciTech Connect

    Nordhaus, W.D. )

    1993-05-01

    This new model DICE, (dynamic integrated climate-economy), extends earlier studies by integrating the economic costs and benefits of greenhouse gas reductions with a simple dynamic representation of the scientific links of emissions, concentrations, and climate change. This paper sketches the DICE model, presents the major results, and inquires into alternative approaches to recycling carbon-tax revenues.

  6. Object {open_quotes}request{close_quotes} based clustering for method processing in object-oriented database system

    SciTech Connect

    Goel, S.; Bhargava, B.

    1996-12-31

    Static grouping (clustering) of component objects in a complex object at the server has been an active area of research in client/server based object oriented database systems. We present a client-driven object grouping approach. A client executing a method makes dynamic decisions and groups objects for a request to the server. The client requires run-time and statically analyzed information for the method to make its decisions. Complex object skeletons are used for navigating the complex object. We have conducted experimental studies to evaluate our approach. We have used a prototype object-oriented database system called O-Raid for our experiments.

  7. To pool or not to pool: The latest from California`s {open_quotes}Blue Book{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    Radford, B.W.

    1995-07-01

    This article is a review of the California Public Service Commission`s decision 95-05-045, culminating more than a year of `Blue Book Hearings` and inviting comments on two distinct proposals for a restructured electric utility industry. The debate is between direct access and power pooling, and key points of each are listed and proponents of each strategy are given a forum.

  8. BIG KARL and COSY: Examples for high performance magnet design taught by {open_quotes}Papa Klaus{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    Bechtstedt, U.; Hacker, U.; Maier, R.; Martin, S.; Berg, G.P.A.; Hardt, A.; Huerlimann, W.; Meissburger, J.; Roemer, J.G.M.

    1995-02-01

    The past decades have seen a tremendous development in nuclear, middle, and high energy physics. This advance was in a great part promoted by the availability of newer and more powerful instruments. Over time, these instruments grew in size as well as in sophistication and precision. Nearly all these devices had one fundamental thing in common - magnetic fields produced with currents and iron. The precision demanded by the new experiments and machines did bring the magnet technology to new frontiers requiring the utmost in the accuracy of magnetic fields. The complex properties of the iron challenged innumerable physicists in the attempt to force the magnetic fields into the desired shape. Experience and analytical insight were the pillars for coping with those problems and only few mastered the skills and were in addition able to communicate their intricate knowledge. It was a fortuitous situation that the authors got to know Klaus Halbach who belonged to those few and who shared his knowledge contributing thus largely to the successful completion of two large instruments that were built at the Forschungszentrum Juelich, KFA, for nuclear and middle energy physics. In one case the efforts went to the large spectrometer named BIG KARL whose design phase started in the early 70`s. In the second case the work started in the early 80`s with the task to build a high precision 2.5 GeV proton accelerator for cooled stored and extracted beams known as COSY-Juelich.

  9. Development and properties of the {open_quotes}Stonehart{close_quotes} humidity stabilized perfluoro-polymer membrane

    SciTech Connect

    Stonehart, P.

    1996-12-31

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the role that water plays in the Polymer (or Proton) Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells (PEMFCs -- also called PEFCs). Since proton conduction is the main ionic charge carrier, it is worthwhile to examine how this happens and how the water interacts with the perfluoro-polymer structures; examining the microstructure of the membranes and how they have been modified to overcome the water transport limitations inherent in the PEMFC.

  10. {open_quotes}Exchange-spring{close_quotes} Nd-Fe-B alloys: Investigations into reversal mechanisms and their temperature dependence

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, L.H.; Welch, D.O.; Panchanathan, V.

    1996-10-01

    In order to investigate factors affecting coercivity a series of two-phase Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B-based nanocomposite alloys with different excess iron concentrations were produced by melt-spinning methods. The constituent grain size was estimated by diffraction methods to be in the range of 150 {Angstrom} - 500 {Angstrom}, and room-temperature demagnetization curves verify that the alloys studied exhibit a modest remanence enhancement. Isothermal remanence magnetization (IRM) and dc-demagnetization (DCD) measurements performed at temperatures in the range 275 K {le} T {le} 350 K illustrate that the coercivity and irreversible magnetization develops in a bimodal, incoherent manner from a demagnetized state but upon demagnetization from a saturated state the system evinces collective, exchange-coupled behavior as illustrated by the reversible magnetization M{sub rev}. The temperature dependencies and values of the irreversible susceptibility X{sub irr} (DCD) suggest that a moderating phase with a magnetic anisotropy intermediate to the two constituent main phases may be present in the alloys.

  11. Comment on [open quotes]Weathering, plants, and the long-term carbon cycle[close quotes] by Robert A. Berner

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartzman, D. )

    1993-05-01

    Schwartzman contends that lichens and other microbes may significantly contribute to chemical denudation of exposed rock by their combined physical and chemical activity. Lichens do not generate a thick soil but they do stabilize already existing soil (cryptogamic). Studies on chemical denudation in soil-free alpine terrains may contribute to a better understanding of the microbial role in weathering since lichens and algae are commonly found on bare rock in these settings.

  12. Review of recent studies from central and eastern Europe associating respiratory health effects with high levels of exposure to {open_quotes}traditional{close_quotes} air pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Jedrychowski, W.

    1995-03-01

    The serious environmental problems caused by decades of Communist mismanagement of natural resources in countries of Central and Eastern Europe have been brought to light in recent years. All environmental media, including air, water, food, and soil have been burdened with toxic chemicals. Large segments of the population have been, and are now being exposed to air pollution levels exceeding guidelines established by western countries and by international health organizations. This review focuses on epidemiologic evidence regarding health effects of poor air quality in Central and Eastern Europe. It appears that short-term high levels of air pollutants (primarily particulates and SO{sub 2}) may increase mortality in sensitive parts of the population. Associations were also seen between air pollution levels and prevalence of respiratory diseases as well as lung function disturbances in adults and children. One study indicated that urban air pollution increased the risk of lung cancer. Several investigations pointed to strong interactions between risk factors. The poor scientific standard of the studies often makes it difficult to evaluate the findings. Several steps should be taken to develop environmental epidemiology in Central and Eastern Europe, including international collaboration in research projects and training. 30 refs., 1 fig., 11 tabs.

  13. QA (Quality Assurance) role in advanced energy activities: Towards an /open quotes/orthodox/close quotes/ Quality Program: Canonizing the traditions at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Bodnarczuk, M.W.

    1988-02-01

    After a brief description of the goal of Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) this paper poses and answers three questions related to Quality Assurance (QA) at the Laboratory. First, what is the difference between 'orthodox' and 'unorthodox' QA and is there a place for 'orthodox' QA at a laboratory like Fermilab. Second, are the deeper philosophical and cultural frameworks of high-energy physics acommodating or antagonistic to an 'orthodox' QA Program. Finally, faced with the task of developing an institutional QA program for Fermilab where does one begin. The paper is based on experience with the on-going development and implementation of an institutional QA Program at Fermilab. 10 refs.

  14. Development and demonstration of a teleoperated modular {open_quotes}snake{close_quotes} robot system. Final report, September 30, 1986--December 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Tesar, D.; Hooper, R.

    1995-04-12

    The U.S. Department of Energy has provided support to four universities and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in order to pursue research leading to the development and deployment of advanced robotic systems capable of performing tasks that generate significant occupational radiation exposure and/or whose execution times can be reduced if performed by an automated system. The goal was to develop advanced robotic systems capable of performing surveillance, maintenance, and repair tasks in nuclear facilities and other hazardous environments. The approach to achieving the program objective was a transition from teleoperation to the capability of autonomous operation within three successive generations of robotic systems. The robotic system will always have the capability to request human assistance. The development of general purpose robots to perform skilled labor tasks in restricted environments was shown to have extensive payback in areas of energy systems (nuclear and fossil units), chemical plants, fire fighting, space operations, underwater activities, defense, and other hazardous activities. The strategy that was used to achieve the program goals in an efficient and timely manner consisted in utilizing, and advancing where required, state-of-the-art robotics technology through close interaction between the universities and the manufacturers and operators of nuclear power plants. The research effort showed that a broad range of applications for the robotic systems existed for the improved operation of nuclear reactors and in other hazardous tasks. As a consequence, each institution was able to obtain additional support from other agencies, e.g., DoD and NASA. Areas of cooperation with other nations (e.g., Japan, France, Germany) were utilized.

  15. {open_quotes}Black Gold{close_quotes} leads to new structural interpretation, Northern Sangre de Cristo Mountains/Northeast San Luis Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Watkins, T.A.; Belcher, J.S.; Gries, R.

    1995-06-01

    In the course of exploring for gold along the east margin of the Rio Grande Rift (northern Sangre de Cristo Mountains and northeastern San Luis Basin) live Cretaceous oil was discovered in fractured Precambrian gneiss in 25 of 42 shallow drill holes. Geologic mapping located two outcrops of Mesozoic sediments along the west flank of the Sangre de Cristo Mountains. Mancos Shale, Dakota Group and Morrison Formation sediments were identified from 17 drill holes. These are the first known occurrences of Mesozoic sediments in the area. Previous investigations had concluded that the Mesozoic section eroded from the San Luis uplift during the Laramide. Surface and subsurface geologic data was integrated with gravity, magnetic and seismic surveys for a new structural interpretation. The San Luis Basin is separated from the mountains by an intermediate block and the main basin-bounding fault is three miles west-southwest of the mountain front. A major low-angle, normal fault or detachment fault is related to Miocene rifting. A thick section of Mesozoic sediments are interpreted to be present in the hanging wall of this low angle fault. Buried and thermally matured in a Laramide intermountane basin, these sediments are likely the source of the present day oil found in Precambrian rocks.

  16. A user`s guide to GAETR: Sandia`s {open_quotes}Graphical Analysis of Event Trees{close_quotes} software

    SciTech Connect

    Hays, K.M.

    1997-09-01

    This document is a reference guide for GAETR, Graphical Analysis of Event Trees, a software package developed at Sandia National Laboratories. GAETR may be used as a stand-alone code or as a module in the ARRAMIS{trademark} risk and reliability code suite. GAETR is designed to graphically create event trees and plot SETAC (Sandia Event Tree Analysis Code) output on IBM-compatible personal computers using the Microsoft{reg_sign} Windows{trademark} 95/NT operating environment. This manual explains the fundamentals of creating an event tree, including formatting, saving sequence information, printing, editing, and importing graphics to other software packages.

  17. Nature of plant stimulators in the production of Acetobacter xylinum ({open_quotes}Tea fungas{close_quotes}) biofilm used in skin therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Fontana, J.D.; Franco, V.C.; Lyra, I.N.; De Souza, A.M.; De Souza, S.

    1991-12-31

    Caffeine and related xanthines were identified as potent stimulators for the bacterial cellulose production in A. xylinum. These compounds are present in several plants whose infusions are useful as culture-medium supplements for this acetobacterium. The proposed target for these native purine-like inhibitory substances is the novel diguanyl nucleotide phosphodiesterase(s) that participates in the bacterial cellulogenic complex.

  18. Detection of {open_quotes}cryptic{close_quotes}karyotypic rearrangements in closely related primate species by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using human subtelomeric DNA probes

    SciTech Connect

    Youngblom, J.J.; Trask, B.J.; Friedman, C.

    1994-09-01

    Specific human subtelomeric DNA probes were used to reveal cryptic chromosomal rearrangements that cannot be detected by conventional high resolution cytogenetic techniques, or by chromosomal in situ suppression hybridization using whole chromosome paint analysis. Two cosmids containing different subtelomeric DNA sequences were derived from human chromosome 19 and designated as 7501 and 16432. Cosmid 7501 was hybridized to chromosomes from humans, chimpanzee, gorilla and orangutan. In humans, 7501 consistently labeled chromosomes 3q, 15q, and 19p. Additional chromosomes were labeled in different individuals, indicating a polymorphic distribution of this sequence in the human genome. In contrast, 7501 consistently and strongly labeled only the q arm terminus of chromosome 3 in both chimp and gorilla. The identification of the chromosome was made by two-color FISH analysis using human chromosome 4-specific paint and homologous to human chromosome 4. None of the human subjects showed labeling of chromosome 4 with 7501. This finding suggests that in the course of human evolution, subsequent to the divergence of humans and African apes, a cryptic translocation occurred between the ancestral human chromosome 4 and one or more of the other human chromosomes that now contain this DNA segment. In orangutan, 7501 labeled a single acrocentric chromosome pair, a distinctly different chromosome than that labeled in chimp and gorilla. Comparison of chromosome sites labeled with cosmid 16432 showed the distribution of signals on chromosome 1q arm is the same for humans and chimp, but different in the gorilla. Humans and chimps show distinct labeling on sites 1q terminus and 1q41-42. In gorilla, there is instead a large cluster of intense signal near the terminus of 1q that clearly does not extend all the way to the terminus. A paracentric inversion or an unequal cross-over event may account for the observed difference between these species.

  19. The DuPont, Monsanto, General Electric {open_quotes}Lasagna{close_quotes} Remediation Project - joint R&D and financing

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, P.A.

    1995-03-01

    The Lasagna project is the first of what we expect will be several large cooperative projects between industry consortia and government to develop improved remediation technologies. In 1992, Monsanto Company began contacting other major corporations to see if they were experiencing similar difficulties in applying cost-effective, or even workable technologies for industrial site remediation. Both General Electric and DuPont were early participants in the effort to develop a meeting with the EPA to discuss technical problems faced in cleanup, research needs, and ways to accelerate development of more cost-effective techniques. This paper provides some background on how this cooperative process came to reality, what the Lasagna process is and how the cooperative arrangements and financing are structured.

  20. Bananas, allegators, and {open_quotes}hot rocks that shoot ghost bullets{close_quotes}: Sitings along the trail to an MRS

    SciTech Connect

    Trebules, V.; Kane, D.

    1994-04-01

    Building new electric power facilities in a community used to be greeted warmly by that community. However, during the 20 year hiatus in power plant siting, opposition to siting just about every kind of facility has grown. The challenge to site a monitored retrievable storage (MRS) facility for the temporary storage of commercial spent nuclear fuel is monumental but not insurmountable. The safety and environmental records on commercial spent-fuel storage to date are impressive. This article gives an overall perspective on siting an MRS. Topics covered include the following: the Nuclear waste Policy Act; the Nuclear Waste Negotiator; DOE`s Feasibility Grand`s program; Looking back at past efforts; using portable information in some areas; and where the efforts go now in trying to site a MRS.

  1. Ferric complexes as catalysts for {open_quotes}Fenton{close_quotes} degradation of 2,4-D and metolachlor in soil

    SciTech Connect

    Pignatello, J.J.; Baehr, K.

    1994-03-01

    Fenton-type reactions of hydrogen peroxide with Fe compounds generate bydroxyl radical (OH{center_dot}) or other reactive species and are potentially useful for degrading organic contaminants in soil. The use of simple Fe salts is limited, however. This study investigated certain pH 6-soluble Fe(III) complexes (Fe-L, where L is an organic tigand) as catalysts for degradation of herbicides 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and metolachlor (2-chloro-N-[2-ethyl 6-methylphenyl]-N-[2-methoxy-l-methylethyl]acetamide). Reactions were carried out in 1:1 aqueous suspensions of a topsoil (15.7 g kg{sup -1} organic C) at the natural pH of 5.7 with herbicides at concentrations representative of a spill (2-3 g kg{sup -1} about 0.01 mol kg{sup -1}). The two herbicides had contrasting sorption behavior in that 2,4-D was mostly in solution, whereas metotachlor was mostly sorbed. The best results were obtained using Fe-nitrilotriscetate (NTA) or Fe-hydroxyethyleniminodiacetate (HEIDA) at 0.01 mol kg-{sup -1} and [H{sub 2}O{sub 2}]{ge} 0.5 mol kg{sup -1}. The gallic acid complex was less effective. In 3 h,{sup 14}C-labeled 2,4-D was quantitatively dechlorinated and partially (15-30%) converted to {sup 14}CO{sub 2}: metolachlor was 93% transformed and 29% dechlorinated. Controls using free ligand plus peroxide or peroxide alone gave little or no reaction. Fe-L + H{sub 2}O{sub 2} was superior to the Fenton reagent itself (Fe{sup 2+} + H{sub 2}O{sub 2}). The results of this study demonstrate that relatively mild chemical oxidation can be effective for remediation of certain contaminants in soil 23 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs.

  2. Characterization of three de novo derivative chromosomes 16 by [open quotes]Reverse Chromosome Painting[close quotes] and molecular analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Rack, K.A.; Harris, P.C.; MacCarthy, A.B.; Boone, R.; Raynham, H.; Buckle, V.J. )

    1993-05-01

    The authors have analyzed three de novo chromosome 16 rearrangements-two with a 16p+ chromosome and one a 16q+-none of which could be fully characterized by conventional cytogenetics. In each case, flow karyotypes have been produced, and the aberrant chromosome has been isolated by flow sorting. The origin of the additional material has been ascertained by amplifying and labeling the DNA of the abnormal chromosome by degenerate-oligonucleotide-primer-PCR and hybridizing it in situ to normal metaphase spreads (reverse chromosome painting). Both 16p+ chromosomes contain more than 30 Mb of DNA from the short arm of chromosome 9 (9p21.2-pter), while the 16q+ contains approximately 9 Mb of DNA from 2q37. The breakpoints on chromosome 16 have been localized in each case; the two breakpoints on the short arm are at different points within the terminal band, 16p13.3. The breakpoint on the long arm of chromosome 16 is very close to (within 230 kb of) the 16q telomere. Determination of the regions of monosomy and trisomy allowed the observed phenotypes to be compared with other reported cases involving aneuploidy for these regions. 41 refs., 4 figs.

  3. Sequential {open_quotes}double-Michael{close_quotes} additions of dienolates with C{sub 60}: Rapid access to sterically congested Buckminsterfullerene derivatives with defined stereochemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Ganapathi, P.S.; Rubin, Y.; Friedman, S.H.; Kenyon, G.L.

    1995-05-19

    This article focuses on the success of establishing an easy method for the synthesis of sterically crowded fullerene derivatives. The target molecule diastereomeric alcohol 1 was readily available and will allow for the testing of the inhibition of HIV-1 protease. 11 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  4. Augmented Computer Exercise for Inspection Training (ACE-IT) - an interactive training tool for {open_quotes}challenge inspections{close_quotes} under the chemical weapons convention

    SciTech Connect

    Dobranich, P.R.

    1997-08-01

    The on-site inspection provisions in many current and proposed arms control agreements require extensive preparation and training on the part of both the Inspection Teams and the Inspected Parties. Current training techniques include lectures, table-top inspections, and practice inspections. The Augmented Computer Exercise for Inspection Training (ACE-IT), an interactive computer training tool, increases the utility of table-top inspections. Under the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) challenge inspections are short-notice inspections that may occur anywhere, anytime, and with no right of refusal. The time interval between notice of intent to inspect a facility and the arrival of inspectors at the facility may be as short as 72 hours. Therefore, advance training is important. ACE-IT is used for training both the Inspection Team (inspector) and the Inspected Party (host) to conduct a hypothetical challenge inspection under the CWC. An exercise moderator controls the exercise. The training covers all of the events in the challenge inspection regime, from initial notification of an inspection through post-inspection activities. But the primary emphasis of the training tool is on conducting the inspection itself, and in particular, the concept of managed access. Managed access is used to assure the inspectors that the facility is in compliance with the CWC, while protecting sensitive information that is not related to the CWC.

  5. 24th WRSM panel discussion: {open_quotes}The role of research in nuclear regulation: The case of qualified importers{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    Alonso, A.

    1997-01-01

    Scientific knowledge and technological maturity are needed to establish regulatory requirements, what also needs talent and skills. Scientists are rarely interested in regulation and regulators not always are closely connected to scientific research. This has created gaps in regulations, mainly within qualified importers. A qualified importer, in the sense of this presentation, is a country who has acquired nuclear power plants from more technologically advanced exporters but with an increasing participation of its own industry and institutions in the design, construction, component manufacture and assembly of such nuclear power plants and is fully responsible for the operation of the nuclear units and the corresponding fuel cycle. These countries have also a long standing and independent nuclear regulatory organization and the corresponding technical body. Spain is a qualified importer. In the case of Spain, it originally adopted the codes and regulations of the UE which it was a member of, as well as the codes and standards of the country from which their reactors were produced. Since Spain added KWU plants they even went to German regulations. Plant operation rested with Spain. As problems began to appear in operating plants, local research projects were funded to study the problems, aimed at immediate solutions, but also providing training for local personnel in addition to information of use for regulators. Spain has participated in many joint research projects, which have trained people, and given confidence to Spaniards involved in science and regulations. Qualified importers, like Spain, participate in research, even though it may not translate itself into regulation. Such participation will always serve to give self-confidence and independence to regulators and licensees, to better understand the adopted regulations of the most advanced countries and to solve specific problems.

  6. Calculation and classification of the radioactive waste inventory in the structural components of the {open_quotes}IGNITOR{close_quotes} compact ignition torus

    SciTech Connect

    Cepraga, D.G.; Siddiqui, S.A.M.M.; Cambi, G.

    1994-12-31

    The choice of structural material for future fusion plants is based on a multiplicity of considerations. While these materials should possess adequate thermo-mechanical properties they should also satisfy certain criteria with regard to the eventual treatment and disposal of radioactive wastes. From this point of view it is important to have a knowledge of the radioactive inventory produced in the structural materials of a nuclear fusion plant during its operation and the evolution of this radioactivity in time. In this work the authors have calculated the radioactive inventory and decay heat produced in the structural components of the projected fusion plant IGNITOR-ULT due to D-T neutrons produced in the plasma. In particular, the dose rate and the heat production in the following materials have been studied: graphite in the first wall, INCONEL 625 in the vacuum vessel and copper in the magnet. All the results presented are for the outboard plasma components.

  7. {open_quotes}What you don`t know can`t hurt you{close_quotes}: The right to know and the Shetland Island oil spill

    SciTech Connect

    Button, G.V.

    1995-06-01

    This paper, an account of the Shetlands Islands oil spill (1993), examines the public health controversies surrounding the spill and the clean-up response. It critically examines the risk management policies of both the United Kingdom and the Shetland Islands Public Health Office, and suggests that the withholding of critical information contributed to increased anxiety and suspicion among the disaster victims. In an attempt to reassure the victims, the policies contributed to an increased air of uncertainty. It is further argued with the withholding of information prevents those who are at greatest risk from participating in critical decisions that may affect their health and livelihoods and asserts that a right-to-know policy is a critical first step in risk management practices.

  8. Conference on the topic: {open_quotes}Exploration and production of petroleum and gas from chalk reservoirs worldwide{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    Kuznetsov, V.G.

    1995-07-01

    More than 170 delegates from 14 countries in Europe, North America, Africa, and Asia took part in a conference on the topic: Exploration and Production of Petroleum and Gas from Chalk Reservoirs Worldwide. The conference was held in Copenhagen, Denmark in September,1994, and was a joint meeting of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG), and the European Association of Petroleum Geoscientists and Engineers (EAPG). In addition to the opening remarks, 25 oral and nine poster reports were presented. The topics included chalk deposits as reservoir rocks, the occurrence of chalk deposits worldwide, the North Sea oil and gas fields, and other related topics.

  9. [open quotes]Bucketfoot Al[close quotes] Simmons and the extremes of independent power. [The financial effects of purchasing indepedent power by utilites

    SciTech Connect

    Hart, L.

    1993-11-01

    This article analyzes the financial risks to utilities for purchasing power from independents. The conclusion of the author is that purchasing of power should not be considered a debt obligation, nor is it entirely risk free. Purchasing is, however, less risky than building. Utilities should be provided with financial incentives for purchasing independent power, such as an incremental return on equity, a formulaic higher component of equity, some combination of the two, or even an incentive fee successful power purchasing.

  10. Plant and environment interactions: Growth and yield response of commercial bearing-age {open_quote}Casselman{close_quote} plum trees to various ozone partial pressures

    SciTech Connect

    Retzlaff, W.A.; Williams, L.E.; DeJong, T.M.

    1997-05-01

    Nursery stock of plum (Prunus salicina Lindel., cv. Casselman) was planted 1 Apr. 1988 in an experimental orchard at the Univ. of California Kearney Agricultural Center near Fresno, CA. Trees in this study were enclosed in open-top fumigation chambers on 1 May 1989, and exposed to three atmospheric ozone partial pressures (charcoal filtered air, ambient air, and ambient air + ozone) during the 1989 through 1992 growing seasons (typically 1 Apr. - 1 Nov.). A nonchamber treatment plot was used to assess chamber effects on tree performance. This study details the results of the exposures during the initial commercial bearing period (1991 through 1993) in this orchard. The mean 12-h (0800-2000 h Pacific Daylight Time [PDT]) ozone partial pressures during the experimental periods in the charcoal filtered, ambient, ambient + ozone, and nonchamber treatments averaged 0.031, 0.048, 0.091, and 0.056 {mu}Pa Pa{sup {minus}1} in 1991 and 1992, respectively. Fruit number per tree decreased as atmospheric ozone partial pressure increased from the charcoal filtered to ambient + ozone treatment, significantly affecting yield. Yield of plum trees averaged 23.6, 19.8, 13.7, and 17.9 kg tree{sup {minus}1} in 1991 and 1992 in the charcoal filtered, ambient, ambient + ozone, and nonchamber treatments, respectively. Only one out of the five original treatment plots was exposed to ozone treatments during the 1993 growing season. Yield of plum trees in this single replicate in 1993 was reduced by increased atmospheric ozone partial pressure. Yield of plum trees in the four remaining unexposed treatment plots in 1993 was 16.7, 17.9, and 16.0 kg tree{sup {minus}1} in the previous charcoal filtered, ambient, and ambient + ozone treatments respectively. The similarity in yield of the post-chamber treatments indicates that a change in air quality in the current growing season can affect yield of Casselman plum trees. 26 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  11. Summary evaluation of the video, {open_quotes}Transportation of radioactive and hazardous materials: Safety for all concerned{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    Monroe, M.C.; Young, C.F.

    1993-07-01

    Outreach materials are often developed and distributed without evaluation of their effectiveness. This report provides a glimpse of the effectiveness of one of the US Department of Energy`s videos on transportation of radioactive and hazardous materials. Data from a survey developed by Modern Talking Picture Service, Inc. are summarized. This survey was sent to recipients of the video at three to six weeks after they had received and viewed the video. The response rate is unknown; hence, the results suggest the range of perspectives on the video, rather than the representativeness of those perspectives. The results are also limited by incomplete responses to the survey. Most respondents were middle school and high school teachers who resided throughout the country. Respondents used the video in nearly all school subjects. Most respondents indicated that the video was fairly good and appreciated the factual information, although some saw it as propaganda. Respondents indicated that they would like additional information on hazardous wastes, nuclear power, and transportation. The test crashes were mentioned as a highlight of the video. Recommendations for revising the video and survey are included.

  12. Near-real time infrared observations of acidic sulfates in /open quotes/clean/close quotes/ air at Mauna Loa, Hawaii

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, S.A.; Kumar, R.

    1988-01-01

    Sulfuric acid and its partially or completely neutralized salts with ammonia are believed to result from the oxidation of sulfur dioxide in cloud water and in other heterogeneous media present in the atmosphere. Due to the natural abundance of ammonia and the ubiquitous presence of sulfur in the atmosphere, (NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ is commonly the dominant chemical species in the ambient aerosol. The amounts of ammonium sulfates are expected to be very low in areas far removed from anthropogenic emissions of sulfur dioxide. The chemical composition of submicrometer aerosol particles was determined at the Mauna Loa Observatory (MLO) on Mauna Loa in Hawaii during an eight-day period in August 1986. The MLO site was selected for this measurement because it is the only ground-based aerosol observatory in the remote Pacific Ocean that allows extended sampling of aerosols in the free troposphere. Measurements were made using an attenuated total internal reflection (ATR) impactor system. The impactor collects size-fractionated submicrometer particles for analysis by ATR infrared spectroscopy. The collected samples were analyzed using an on-site Perkin Elmer dispersive infrared spectrophotometer. Infrared absorption spectra (4000 to 250 cm/sup /minus/1/) of the samples were obtained within minutes after the ATR substrates were removed from the impactor. Absorbances were measured for sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium. Acidic sulfate showed infrared absorbances at 600 cm/sup /minus/1/ and 1210 cm/sup /minus/1/ in addition. Results showed that ammonium sulfate was the dominant chemical species in the submicrometer particles. Over half of the nearly 40 samples collected showed an acidic sulfate component. Consecutive samples were found to change from completely neutralized ammonium sulfate to acidic ammonium sulfates in a two-hour time interval. 5 refs., 1 tab.

  13. Assessment of possible consequences of a hypothetical reactivity accident associated with a {open_quotes}Topaz-2{close_quotes} spacecraft reactor entering water

    SciTech Connect

    Glushkov, E.S.; Ermoshin, M.Yu.; Ponomarev-Stepnoi; Skorlygin, V.V.

    1994-12-01

    An accident analysis for a Russian Topaz-2 nuclear reactor is summarized. The accident scenario involves emergency return from orbit, severe damage to reactor structural elements, and subsequent falling of the reactor core into the ocean. The thermionic converter reactor, used in spacecraft, has a large neutron leakage which decreases when water enters the inner core cavity. Preliminary results of numerical modeling, summarized in the article, show that the possible consequences of the hypothetical accidental submersion are limited. 8 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. A progress report on the LDRD project entitled {open_quotes}Microelectronic silicon-based chemical sensors: Ultradetection of high value molecules{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, R.C.

    1996-09-01

    This work addresses a new kind of silicon based chemical sensor that combines the reliability and stability of silicon microelectronic field effect devices with the highly selective and sensitive immunoassay. The sensor works on the principle that thin SiN layers on lightly doped Si can detect pH changes rapidly and reversibly. The pH changes affect the surface potential, and that can be quickly determined by pulsed photovoltage measurements. To detect other species, chemically sensitive films were deposited on the SiN where the presence of the chosen analyte results in pH changes through chemical reactions. A invention of a cell sorting device based on these principles is also described. A new method of immobilizing enzymes using Sandia`s sol-gel glasses is documented and biosensors based on the silicon wafer and an amperometric technique are detailed.

  15. Preparation of 3R- and 3S-methyl isomers of the myocardial imaging agent 15-(p-IODOPHENYL)-3-methylpentadecanoic acid ({open_quotes}BMIPP{close_quotes})

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Q. |; Luo, J.; Mokler, F.

    1996-10-01

    Iodine-123-labeled racemic BMIPP is used for clinical evaluation of heart disease. To evaluate the expected importance of configuration of the asymmetric C-3 center, we have synthesized the 3R-isomer. 6-Phenylhexanoyl chloride was condensed with thiophene (Friedel-Crafts), followed by Wolff-Kishner reduction and subsequent acylation with the ethyl-3-R-methylglutaroyl chloride, Wolff-Kishner reduction and Raney-Ni ring opening. Para Thallation (TTFA)/KI provided 3R-BMIPP, m.p. 51-52{degrees}C, [{alpha}{sub D}] = +0.74{degrees}. The diastereomeric amide mixture was prepared by reaction of racemic 3-R,S-BMIPP with (S)-(-)-{alpha}-methylbenzylamine. Chromatographic separation and HCl hydrolysis (at 175{degrees}C) provided the 3R- and 3S- (m.p. 45-46{degrees}C, [{alpha}{sub D}] = -1.67{degrees}) BMIPP isomers. The more polar amide (m.p. 93-94{degrees}C) was identical with the amide from the synthetic 3R-BMIPP (m.p., HPLC, NMR). Availability of the 3R- and 3S-BMIPP isomers will permit preparation of the radioiodinated isomers and animal evaluation to determine the effects of the methyl group configuration on myocardial uptake and metabolism.

  16. A study of the structural activation caused by proton beam loss in the {open_quotes}accelerator production of tritium{close_quotes} LINAC

    SciTech Connect

    Daemen, L.L.; Beard, C.A.; Eaton, S.L.; Waters, L.S.; Wilson, W.B.

    1997-01-01

    The Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory makes use of a high power linear proton accelerator to produce neutrons via spallation reactions m a heavy metal target. The fast spallation neutrons are moderated by a heavy water blanket, and used to produce tritium by means of the reaction: {sup 3}He(n,p)T, APT 1993. Various accelerator designs are currently under consideration. At the time when this study was performed, the project called for a 1 GeV proton linear accelerator with a beam current of 200 mA, i.e., a proton beam power of 200 MW. Given the high power at which the APT accelerator is expected to operate, as well as the heavy maintenance that is likely to be required to keep it operating, it is essential to consider health physics issues at an early stage of the design.

  17. You won`t find these leaks with a blower door: The latest in {open_quotes}leaking electricity{close_quotes} in homes

    SciTech Connect

    Rainer, L.; Greenberg, S.; Meier, A.

    1996-08-01

    Leaking electricity is the energy consumed by appliances when they are switched off or not performing their principal functions. Field measurements in Florida, California, and Japan show that leaking electricity represents 50 to 100 Watts in typical homes, corresponding to about 5 GW of total electricity demand in the United States. There are three strategies to reduce leaking electricity: eliminate leakage entirely, eliminate constant leakage and replace with intermittent charge plus storage, and improve efficiency of conversion. These options are constrained by the low value of energy savings-less than $5 per saved Watt. Some technical and lifestyle solutions are proposed. 13 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  18. Comment on {open_quotes}QCD fragmentation functions for B{sub c} and B{sub c}{sup {asterisk}} production{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    Ji, C.; Binger, M.; Amiri, F.

    1998-06-01

    For the inclusive production process of heavy pseudoscalar and vector mesons in e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} annihilation, we have improved the analytic calculation of the fragmentation function of heavy quarks up to {tau}{sup 2}ln({tau}{sup 2}) where {tau}{sup 2}=4m{sup 2}/s, m is the meson mass, and s is the square of the total c.m. energy. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

  19. Mental retardation in a child with a {open_quotes}de novo{close_quotes} deletion of terminal 14q and a family history of dyslexia

    SciTech Connect

    Mak-Tam, E.; Capua, E.; Shugar, A.

    1994-09-01

    A couple presented for prenatal diagnosis for advanced maternal age. A review of the family history revealed that their elder daughter was mentally retarded while their second daughter was of normal intelligence. The father and his brother were both dyslexic. The paternal grandmother had lost three pregnancies, all female. The elder daughter had been fully assessed in the past, but no diagnosis had been made. During her first few years, she was frequently ill and failed to thrive. A developmental assessment at age 5 years concluded that she was moderately mentally retarded. She was minimally dysmorphic. DNA testing for fragile X and urine amnio acids, organic acids and metabolic screen were negative. Chromosome and FISH analyses revealed a satellited 14q with a deletion of 14q32.3. Parents did not show the karyotypic changes, but FISH studies on them and the dyslexic uncle are pending. A molecular work-up of chromosome 14 in this family is also in progress. In this child, the phenotype is probably related to the cytogenetic findings. The information about 14q terminal deletions in the literature is limited but a fairly consistent phenotype, which is slightly different from ring 14, is emerging. This is more obvious in infants that in older children. The family history of dyslexia could be unrelated to our patient`s findings but it is also possible that there is a recessive gene for dyslexia in this family which maps to 14q32.3. The current molecular map of this area provides no answer to this question. Genes mapped to 14q3.3 include the alpha-1-antitrypsin gene, the brain component of creative kinase (CKB) and the immunoglobulin heavy chain genes. Loss of heterozygosity of 14q has been associated with end stage human neuroblastoma and colonic neoplasia.

  20. The final LDRD report for the project entitled: {open_quotes}Enhanced analysis of complex gas mixtures by pattern recognition of microsensor array signals{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, R.C.; Osbourn, G.C.

    1996-09-01

    Microsensors do not have the selectivity to chemical species available in large laboratory instruments. This project employed arrays of catalytically gated silicon microsensors with different catalysts to create data streams which can be analyzed by pattern recognition programs. One of the most significant accomplishments of the program was the demonstration of that mixtures of H{sub 2} with the oxidants NO{sub x} and O{sub 2} could distinguished from one another by the use of different catalytic metals on the Sandia Robust Hydrogen (SRH) sensors and the newly developed pattern recognition algorithm. This sensor system could be used to identify explosive gas mixtures and analyze exhaust streams for pollution control.

  1. {open_quotes}The effects of diabetes on the activity of the enzyme glutamine: fructose-6-phosphate amindotransferase{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, S.P.

    1994-12-31

    Hexsoamine synthetic pathway (HexNSP) controls the supply of essential substrates for glycoprotein synthesis. In vitro studies suggest that increased flux of glucose via the hexsoamine synthetic pathway may play a role in glucose induced insulin resistance of glucose transport. Glutamine: fructose-6-phosphate amindotransferase (GFAT) controls flux into the hexsoamine synthetic pathway; the major products are UDPN-acetylhexosamines (UDP.HexNac=UDP.GlcNAc= UDP.GalNac). I examined whether diabetes ({approximately} 7 days post intravenous streptozotocin, and genetically linked) affects the activity of glutamine: fructose-6-phosphate in rat and mouse skeletal muscle in vivo. Nucleotide linked HexNAc were analyzed by high pressure liquid chromatography(HPLC) in deproteinized hind limb muscle extracts.

  2. Comment on {open_quotes}Experimental Fusion Barrier Distributions Reflecting Projectile Octupole State Coupling to Prolate and Oblate Target Nuclei{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    Dasso, C.H.; Dasso, C.H.; Fernandez-Niello, J.

    1997-05-01

    The authors comment on the Letter by J.D. Bierman et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 1587(1996), and show the method by which they have been constructed is not the most appropriate. A Comment on the Letter by J.D. Bierman, {ital et al. }, Phys.Rev.Lett.{bold 76}, 1587 (1996). The authors of the Letter offer a Reply. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  3. [2 + 2 + 2]Cycloadditions of alkynes to furans and thiophenes. A cobalt-mediated [open quotes]enol ether walk[close quotes

    SciTech Connect

    Boese, R. ); Harvey, D.F.; Malaska, M.J.; Vollhardt, K.P.C. )

    1994-11-30

    Involvement of the 2,3-double bond of furan and thiophene in cycloadditions is relatively uncommon, usually limited to specific substrates or by special conditions. Our finding that indoles, pyrroles, imidazoles, and uracils can be activated by CpCo to undergo cocyclizations with alkynes suggested an extension of these efforts to the title heterocycles, in particular because the latter constitute new brackets for the degree of aromaticity (furan lowest, thiophene highest) that is subject to neutralization in these reactions and because the anticipated enol (thio)ether products exhibit potential synthetic utility. This study demonstrates that the cobalt-mediated [2 + 2 + 2] methodology can be extended to furans and thiophenes but that in these, and possibly generally in related heteroalkenes, the generation of potential dienylic leaving groups in the resulting CpCo diene product may cause rearrangements and that formal C-H activations may complicate the outcome of the reaction. The observation that the relatively highly aromatic thiophene nucleus functions as a cocyclization partner points the way to a number of even more challenging substrates in this process. 20 refs.

  4. {open_quotes}Local texture, current flow, and superconductive transport properties of Tl1223 deposits on practical substrates{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    Christen, D.K.; Specht, E.D.; Goyal, A.

    1996-05-01

    Quantitative investigations of the crystal grain orientations and electrical transport properties of high temperature superconducting (HTS)TiBa{sub 2}Ca{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 8+x} (Tl1223) deposits on polycrystalline substrates show that current flow comprises percolative networks of strongly-coupled material. Superconductive transport properties on different samples, on the same samples at different widths, and on samples with artificially-induced strong flux pinning defects confirm the nature of current flow, and suggest that these materials may be useful as a new class of HTS conductors.

  5. Inheriting workplace risks: The effect of workers` compensation {open_quotes}exclusive remedy{close_quotes} clauses on the preconception tort after Johnson Controls

    SciTech Connect

    Stern, C.; Tierney, C.M.G.

    1993-12-31

    This article explores whether exclusive remedy clauses will bar a tort action by a child seeking recovery for injury caused by his or her parent`s occupational exposure to mutagenic or toxic agents before the child`s conception in the same manner that the clauses bar spouses` loss of consortium suits. Because both the child`s right to recover for injury and the spouse`s right to recover for loss of consortium depend on proof of employer negligence toward the employee, a comparison of the two rights provides a framework for analyzing the effect exclusive remedy clauses could have on the preconception tort action. Part I of this article discusses exclusive remedy clauses of workers` compensation acts and illustrates how it might be asserted as a defense to a preconception tort action. Part II traces the development of the preconception tort action and its underlying theory of liability. Part III reviews how exclusive remedy clauses have served to bar loss of consortium suits. Part IV analyzes the applicability of exclusive remedy clauses to the preconception tort action. This article concludes that, absent revision to workers` compensation statutes or judicial reliance on public policy to distinguish loss of consortium and preconception tort suits, exclusive remedy clauses probably will be held to bar recovery in preconception tort actions. 121 refs.

  6. Coal handling {open_quotes}RCM{close_quotes} Preventive Maintenance Optimization Pilot Project Pawnee Station, Public Service Company of Colorado 1995

    SciTech Connect

    August, J.

    1996-07-01

    Public Service Company of Colorado (PSCo)`s Pawnee Station piloted a demonstration preventive maintenance optimization (PMO) on the coal handling system in 1995. This PMO effort used streamlined reliability-centered maintenance (RCM) methods. Performance, cost, and intangibles were examined before, during, and after implementation. Significant results included 20% cost reduction, 90+% emergency maintenance cost reduction, and overall improved system performance as reported by the operating personnel. Annual maintenance costs have been reduced from $440,000 to $330,000 from 1994 through 1995, and continue to decline. Current projection of annual maintenance costs (from current monthly costs) are under $250,000 for 1997. The major lessons and implications from this project are discussed here.

  7. Irradiation-level and late effects among personnel working at {open_quotes}Mayak{close_quotes} during first years of exploitation

    SciTech Connect

    Nikipelov, B.V.; Lyzlov, A.F.; Koshurnikova, N.A.

    1993-12-31

    This research contains the information about the irradiation and late effects among the personnel of the first atomic power industry enterprise in this country. This research includes the characteristic of working standards, especially in radioactive dangerous departments. The research contains data on the organization of dosimetrical control and measures on normalizing the radioactive conditions. The research presents the information about the external {gamma}-irradiation levels among different groups of the personnel; the analysis of late effects, depending upon doses of external {gamma}-irradiation, which were essentially higher than the norm during the first years of the exploitation of the plant.

  8. Accident analysis of railway transportation of low-level radioactive and hazardous chemical wastes: Application of the /open quotes/Maximum Credible Accident/close quotes/ concept

    SciTech Connect

    Ricci, E.; McLean, R.B.

    1988-09-01

    The maximum credible accident (MCA) approach to accident analysis places an upper bound on the potential adverse effects of a proposed action by using conservative but simplifying assumptions. It is often used when data are lacking to support a more realistic scenario or when MCA calculations result in acceptable consequences. The MCA approach can also be combined with realistic scenarios to assess potential adverse effects. This report presents a guide for the preparation of transportation accident analyses based on the use of the MCA concept. Rail transportation of contaminated wastes is used as an example. The example is the analysis of the environmental impact of the potential derailment of a train transporting a large shipment of wastes. The shipment is assumed to be contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls and low-level radioactivities of uranium and technetium. The train is assumed to plunge into a river used as a source of drinking water. The conclusions from the example accident analysis are based on the calculation of the number of foreseeable premature cancer deaths the might result as a consequence of this accident. These calculations are presented, and the reference material forming the basis for all assumptions and calculations is also provided.

  9. Brush up Your Dewey... Start Quoting Him Now, or John Dewey for Teaching Artists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Judith

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author provides five reasons why teachers should care about John Dewey. John Dewey was an "American Pragmatist philosopher, educator, reformer." Dewey lived a long and amazingly productive life, spanning the turn of the 20th century, from 1859-1952. In addition to lots of writing, he taught at the University of Chicago (where…

  10. "Hey, I Didn't Say That!": Teaching Textual Integrity through Misrepresented Quotes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Jessica L.

    2015-01-01

    Despite specialized areas of expertise, communication instructors are unified, to a large extent, by a singular belief: the meaning people give words produces behavioral ramifications (Mead, 2009). Communication instructors revere language's ability to reflect both meaning and reality. Yet, they also are tasked with the responsibility of conveying…

  11. Rolling and slipping down Galileo{close_quote}s inclined plane: Rhythms of the spheres

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, F.S.

    1996-05-01

    In ``Two New Sciences`` (TNS) Galileo presents a number of theorems and propositions for smooth solid spheres released from rest and rolling a distance {ital d} in time {ital t} down an incline of height {ital H} and length {ital L}. We collect and summarize his results in a single grand proportionality {ital P}: {ital d}{sub 1}/{ital d}{sub 2}=({ital t}{sup 2}{sub 1}/{ital t}{sup 2}{sub 2})({ital H}/{ital L}){sub 1}/({ital H}/{ital L}){sub 2}. ({ital P}) From TNS it is clear that what we call {ital P} is assumed by Galileo to hold for all inclinations including vertical free fall with {ital H}/{ital L}=1. But in TNS he describes only experiments with gentle inclinations {ital H}/{ital L}{lt}1/2. Indeed he cannot have performed the vertical free fall ({ital H}={ital L}) experiment, because we (moderns) know that as we increase {ital H}/{ital L}, {ital P} starts to break down when {ital H}/{ital L} exceeds about 0.5, because the sphere, which rolls without slipping for small {ital H}/{ital L}, starts to slip, whence {ital d} starts to exceed the predictions of {ital P}, becoming too large by a factor of 7/5 for vertical free fall at {ital H}/{ital L}=1. In 1973 Drake and in 1975 Drake and MacLachlan published their analysis of a previously unpublished experiment that Galileo performed that (without his realizing it) directly compared rolling without slipping to free fall. In the experiment, a sphere that has gained speed {ital v}{sub 1} while rolling down a gentle incline is deflected so as to be launched horizontally with speed {ital v}{sub 1} into a free fall orbit discovered by Galileo to be a parabola. The measured horizontal distance {ital X}{sub 2} traveled in this parabolic orbit (for a given vertical distance fallen to the floor) was smaller than he expected, by a factor 0.84. But that is exactly what we (moderns) expect, since we know that Galileo did not appreciate the difference between rolling without slipping, and slipping on a frictionless surface.

  12. FEA analysis of diamond as IMCA{close_quote}s monochromator crystal

    SciTech Connect

    Chrzas, J.; Cimpoes, S.; Ivanov, I.N.

    1996-09-01

    A great deal of effort has been make in recent years in the field of undulator high heat load optics, and currently there are several tractable options [Rev. Sci. Instrum. {bold 69}, 2792 (1994); Nucl. Instrum. Methods A {bold 266}, 517 (1988); Nucl. Instrum. Methods A {bold 239}, 555 (1993)]. Diamond crystals offer some attractive options{endash}water as the coolant, the use of established monochromator mechanisms, simpler monochromator design as compared to the use of liquid nitrogen or gallium. The use of diamond crystals as the optical elements in a double-crystal monochromator for the IMCA-CAT and MR-CAT ID beamlines has been studied. A first crystal mounting scheme using an indium-gallium eutectic as the heat transfer medium developed in collaboration with DND-CAT and M. Hart will be presented. A FEA analysis of the IMCA-CAT ID beamline arrangement using the APS undulator A as the radiaiton source will be presented. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  13. Julio Cortázar quotes on normal and abnormal movements: magical realism or reality?

    PubMed

    Merello, Marcelo

    2006-08-01

    Together with Mario Vargas Llosa and Gabriel García Márquez, Julio Cortázar was one of the most representative authors of the Latin American magical realism genre. Within his extensive body of work, many descriptions of characters suffering physical disabilities, as well as situations suggesting such medical conditions, can be extracted. In this review, two short stories by Cortázar are presented. In the first one, the main character could easily be a man suffering from corticobasal degeneration; in the second, an old woman with symptoms suggestive of progressive supranuclear palsy is clearly depicted. Despite the fact that one of the main ingredients in Cortázar's magical realism is fiction, cases described here fit real medical conditions quite well, making it hard to believe that they represent purely fantastic descriptions rather than the product of Cortázar's inquisitive observation and the description of real patients. PMID:16685680

  14. The prospective ways of development of Russia{close_quote}s launch vehicles and their infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Kalmykov, A.V.; Kuzin, A.I.; Menshikov, V.A.

    1997-01-01

    In the report the main directions of development and perfecting of Russian launch vehicle system are submitted. Problems, connected with perfecting of an infrastructure of rocket-carriers complexes, including space ports and their basic elements, are considered. Alongside with conventional directions of perfecting and development of launch vehicles nontraditional variants of orbit-to-orbit space means on the basis of transport-power modules are offered as well. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  15. More than just great quotes: An introduction to the Canadian Tri-Council’s qualitative requirements

    PubMed Central

    Boffa, Jody; Moules, Nancy; Mayan, Maria; Cowie, Robert L

    2013-01-01

    Although at times misunderstood by the general research community, qualitative research has developed out of diverse, rich and complex philosophical traditions and theoretical paradigms. In the most recent Canadian Tri-Council policy statement on the ethical conduct of research involving humans, a chapter was devoted to a summary of methods and methodological requirements that characterize robust qualitative research, despite the diversity of approaches. To dispel common misperceptions about qualitative research and introduce the unfamiliar reader to these requirements, the work of a qualitative study on isoniazid preventive therapy for prophylaxis of tuberculosis published in AIDS is critiqued alongside each of the Tri-Council’s nine requirements. PMID:24421811

  16. Observations of the Earth{close_quote}s Plasma Sheet at Geosynchronous Orbit

    SciTech Connect

    Thomsen, M.F.; Borovsky, J.E.; McComas, D.J.; Moldwin, M.B.

    1996-07-01

    Geosynchronous orbit typically lies within the near-Earth portion of the plasma sheet and its dayside extension. Los Alamos magnetospheric plasma analyzers (MPA) on three geosynchronous satellites routinely observe the plasma-sheet ion and electron distributions over the energy range of {approximately}1 eV to {approximately}40 keV. Based on these observations, we describe the typical appearance of the plasma sheet at synchronous altitude under both fairly steady and fairly active conditions. We also present a statistical analysis of the bulk properties (density temperature, and anisotropy) of the plasma sheet ion and electron populations, and we illustrate the dependence of these average properties on local time. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  17. The New Broom: A Fiction for Our Times with True Quotes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neill, Arthur

    2015-01-01

    This article spins a yarn about the appointment of António Coimbra, the first vice-chancellor of an Australian university, who came from Portugal, well-equipped for the job. Described is his approach to this new role and his unusual way of handling the unexpected task of a vice-chancellor.

  18. Blogs and Twitter in medical publications: too unreliable to quote, or a change waiting to happen?

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Pranab; Biswas, Tamoghna

    2011-10-01

    With the ubiquitous connectivity offered by the Internet, social media sites (like Twitter and Facebook) and personal publishing platforms (blogs) are proliferating rapidly. In this new, evolving scenario of social media, these tools become an important medium to disseminate information at a lightning speed. However, the conventional medical publication model is less than eager to regard them as equivalent to traditional modes of information dissemination. In this article we examine the role played by social media as a critic of the medical publication system, and how it acts as a safeguard by building a platform for post-publication peer review. PMID:22272866

  19. Ulysses{close_quote} rapid crossing of the polar coronal hole boundary

    SciTech Connect

    McComas, D.J.; Riley, P.; Gosling, J.T.; Balogh, A.; Forsyth, R.

    1998-02-01

    The Ulysses spacecraft crossed from the slow dense solar wind characteristic of the solar streamer belt into the fast, less dense flow from the northern polar coronal hole over a very short interval (several days) in late March 1995. The spacecraft, which was at 1.35 AU and {approximately}19{degree} north heliographic latitude, moving northward in its orbit, remained in the fast solar wind from then through summer 1996. This boundary crossing is unique in that the combination of the spacecraft motion and rotation of the structure past the spacecraft caused Ulysses to move smoothly and completely from one regime into the other. In this study we examine this crossing in detail. The crossing is marked by a region of enhanced pressure, typical of stream interaction regions, which extends {approximately}2{times}10{sup 7}km across. We find that the transition between the slow and fast regimes occurs on several temporal, and hence spatial, scales. On the shortest scale ({lt}8{times}10{sup 4}km) the stream interface is a tangential discontinuity where the proton and core electron densities and ion and electron pressures all drop while the magnetic pressure jumps to maintain a rough pressure balance. The alpha to proton ratio also jumps across the stream interface to reach the comparatively constant polar hole value of {approximately}4.3{percent}. On larger scales (a few {times}10{sup 6}km) the proton and alpha temperatures rise to their high-speed wind values. Finally, on the largest scale ({approximately}10{sup 8}km) the solar wind speed ramps up from {approximately}400kms{sup {minus}1} to {approximately}750kms{sup {minus}1}, typical of polar hole flows. While it seems likely that the stream interface maps back to a sharp boundary near the Sun, the large region of increasing flow speed suggests that there is also an extended gradient in solar wind source speed close to the Sun. {copyright} 1998 American Geophysical Union

  20. Reflection of Transverse Waves in a Structure "Dielectric-Piezoelectric Semiconductor with Current&quot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyamshev, L. M.; Shevyakhov, N. S.

    2000-05-01

    Reflection of a plane monochromatic transverse wave by the boundary of the acoustic contact of a dielectric with a hexagonal piezoelectric semiconductor in the presence of a longitudinal charge drift is treated in the small-signal approximation within the framework of the hydrodynamic description of a charge carrier plasma. A procedure of selecting the branches with allowance for the conversion of the quasi-acoustic mode (a refracted transverse wave) into plasma-acoustic disturbances, both in-leaking at the boundary or out-leaking from it, is proposed for the determination of the solution under the conditions of a supersonic drift and “overcritical” angles of incidence. Beyond the restrictions of White’s theory of ultrasonic wave propagation in piezoelectric semiconductors, it is demonstrated that this technique removes the defects of the solutions obtained earlier in the form of discontinuities in angular dependences of the modulus of the reflection coefficient of a transverse wave in the vicinity of the “critical” angle of incidence and leads to a solution that does not contain a resonance singularity of a polar type.

  1. Wavefront Motion in the Vicinity of a Phase Dislocation: "Optical Vortex&quot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasnetsov, M. V.; Gorshkov, V. N.; Marienko, I. G.; Soskin, M. S.

    2000-02-01

    In the scalar approximation, an analysis is made of the light field structure in the vicinity of a line of the ring phase dislocation corresponding to the zero value of the field formed by the interference of two uniaxial Gaussian beams. The formation of an “optical vortex” or the toroidal motion of a portion of a light flow around a ring phase dislocation is shown.

  2. Transatmospheric vehicle (TAV) research & development at Wright Laboratory{close_quote}s Flight Dynamics Directorate

    SciTech Connect

    Karasopoulos, H.

    1996-03-01

    The Structures and Aeromechanics Divisions of the Flight Dynamics Directorate, Wright Laboratory, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio have a long history of activities in transatmospheric vehicle (TAV) technology development. Included in these activities were research and development efforts in thermal protection systems (TPS), cryogenic fuel tanks, and hot structures. Additional efforts existed in the aerodynamics, aerothermodynamics, and performance of transatmospheric, hypersonic, and lifting reentry vehicle configurations. High payoff TAVresearch and development activities in the Flight Dynamics Directorate continue today and are planned for the future. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  3. Does C-C bonding proceed during exposure of adequate metal surfaces to CH{sub 4}? Reply to {open_quotes}Comment by Z. Hlavathy, Z. Paal, and P. Tetenyi{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    Amaraiglio, A.; Pareja, P.; Amariglio, H.

    1997-02-01

    The comments, results, and reflections presented by Hlavathy and co-workers in their Letter aim at demonstrating that C-C bonding between CH{sub x} adspecies, formed upon exposure of Pt to CH{sub 4}, can proceed as well during the exposure itself as during further exposure to H{sub 2}. This possibility was implicitly put forward because they thought that a tight parallelism exists between the interactions of CH{sub 4} and CO with a metal surface, provided that the exposure to CH{sub 4} is carried out at a high enough temperature (450{degrees}C). In both cases these authors assumed that three kinds of carbon, C{sub {alpha}}, C{sub {beta}}, and C{sub {gamma}}, can be formed, C{sub {alpha}} being the main species responsible for the production of CH{sub 4} and of the C{sub 2}, alkanes obtained when the metal was further contacted with H{sub 2} at 100{degrees}C. As they argued that C{sub {alpha}} (also named carbidic carbon) has only metal atoms in its first coordination shell, they were implicitly led it that C-C bonding must take place during the hydrogenation step. The authors have not denied this possibility, but they have suggested that different situations can result from exposures to CH{sub 4} conducted at temperatures much lower than those used by Koerts et al.. 13 refs.

  4. {open_quotes}Neglect of diatomic differential overlap{close_quotes} in nonempirical quantum chemical orbital theories. V. A calculus of error concerning the justification of the neglect of diatomic differential overlap (NDDO) approximation

    SciTech Connect

    Neymeyr, K.

    1995-03-05

    Several types of approximations have been used for the justification of the Neglect of Diatomic Differential Overlap (NDDO) in Part IV but control of the introduced error remains insufficient. Analytic formulas describing the induced error for all types of approximations are given. Numerically lower bounds for these errors can be derived from the discussion on diatomic molecules. Far-reaching consequences on the applicability of NDDO will be discussed. 7 refs., 6 tabs.

  5. The efficacy of the table-top or {open_quote}white paper{close_quote} approach to emergency response planning of drills and exercises is examined for process improvement

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, D.N.; Wesley, T.H.

    1995-11-01

    This paper examines the development of a set of procedures for the use by Radiological Assistance Program (RAP) Team, Region 6 with particular emphasis to the steps used and the feedback provided by peer review, external review, and exercise and drill critiques. This paper also presents a brief history of the RAP and recommends Total Quality Management techniques reduce the costs associated with procedure development.

  6. Trisomy 1q42{r_arrow}qter in a sister and brother: Further delineation of the {open_quotes}trisomy 1q42{r_arrow}qter syndrome{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    Verschuuren-Bemelmans, C.C.; Leegte, B.; Hodenius, T.M.J.

    1995-07-31

    We report on a 22-year-old woman and her 21-year-old brother with mild mental retardation, long face, prominent forehead, retrognathia, and (relative) macrocephaly. At birth they were small for date, their length is now below the 10th centile. Chromosome analysis demonstrated a nearly pure trisomy 1q42{r_arrow}qter in both patients due to unbalanced segregation of a paternal reciprocal balanced translocation 46,XY,t(1;15) (q42;p11). This is the second report of a nearly pure trisomy 1q42{r_arrow}qter. When comparing the manifestations of our patients with those of other reported cases we conclude that the most characteristic clinical manifestations of this syndrome are macrocephaly, prominent forehead, micro/retrognathia, large fontanelle, intrauterine growth retardation, postnatal growth retardation, and mental retardation. 56 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  7. {open_quote}Optimism{close_quote} is watchword in deep water U.S. Gulf. Exploration, development in OCS frontiers over 1,500 feet threaten domestic drilling depth records

    SciTech Connect

    Pagano, S.S.

    1995-04-01

    An air of optimism surrounds deep water drilling and field development activity in the U.S. Gulf of Mexico. In a marketplace that is otherwise characterized by sagging mobile rig activity and worrisome natural gas prices, millions of dollars are budgeted in 1995 for new drilling programs and development of hydrocarbon fields in domestic record-setting water depths on the outer continental shelf`s deep water frontier. It`s possible that exploration and development projects in water depths greater than 1,500 feet offshore Texas and Louisiana could take priority over subsalt development in the near future. Many geologists and reservoir engineers believe deep water areas of the Gulf of Mexico have the potential to rival the largest oil field in the United States-Alaska`s Prudhoe Bay field.

  8. Natural fission reactors in the Franceville basin, Gabon: A review of the conditions and results of a {open_quotes}critical event{close_quotes} in a geologic system

    SciTech Connect

    Gauthier-Lafaye, F.; Holliger, P.; Blanc, P.L.

    1996-12-01

    Natural nuclear fission reactors are only known in two uranium deposits in the world, the Oklo and Bangombe deposits of the Franceville basin: Gabon. Since 1982, five new reactor zones have been discovered in these deposits and studied since 1989 in a cooperative European program. New geological, mineralogical, and geochemical studies have been carried out in order to understand the behavior of the actinides and fission products which have been stored in a geological environment for more than 2.0 Ga years. The Franceville basin and the uranium deposits remained geologically stable over a long period of time. Therefore, the sites of Oklo and Bangombe are well preserved. For the reactors, two main periods of actinide and radionuclides migration have been observed: during the criticality, under P-T conditions of 300 bars and 400-500{degrees}C, respectively, and during a distention event which affected the Franceville basin 800 to 900 Ma ago and which was responsible for the intrusion of dolerite dikes close to the reactors. New isotopic analyses on uranium dioxides, clays, and phosphates allow us to determine their respective importance for the retention of fission products. The UO{sub 2} matrix appears to be efficient at retaining most actinides and fission products such as REEs, Y, and Zr but not the volatile fission products (Cd, Cs, Xe, and Kr) nor Rb, Sr, and Ba. Some fissiogenic elements such as Mo, Tc, Ru, Rh, Pd, and Te could have formed metallic and oxide inclusion in the UO{sub 2} matrix which are similar to those observed in artificial spent fuel. Clays and phosphate minerals also appear to have played a role in the retention of fissiogenic REEs and also of Pu. 82 refs., 21 figs., 12 tabs.

  9. Computers and small satellites: How FORTE is utilizing the WWW as a {open_quotes}paperless{close_quotes} information resource and the development of a unique resource management planning tool

    SciTech Connect

    Roussel-Dupre, D.; Carter, M.; Franz, R.

    1997-10-01

    The Fast-On-orbit Recording of Transient Events (FORTE) satellite is the second satellite to be developed and flown by Los Alamos National Laboratory and is scheduled to be launched August, 1997 by a Pegasus XL rocket. FORTE follows in the footsteps of the ALEXIS satellite in utilizing a very small operations crew for mission operations. Partially based upon the ALEXIS automation and World Wide Web (WWW) usage for data dissemination, FORTE began at an early stage of ground processing to use the web as a repository of information about all aspects of the satellite. Detailed descriptions of the various satellite and experiment components, cable diagrams, integration photographs as well as extensive test data have all been compiled into a single site as a means of archiving the data at a single location. In this manner, it is readily available during times of ground testing, ground station operation training as well as anomaly resolution. Small satellites usually require extensive effort to optimize operation under minimal resources. For the FORTE satellite, a unique planning tool has been developed over the past 2 years which balances the various resources of the satellite (power, memory, downlink, on board command buffer, etc.) to provide the maximum data acquisition. This paper will concentrate on a description of both the extensive web interface and the planning tool. 6 refs.

  10. Measuring velocity with the {open_quotes}optic boom{close_quotes}: The contribution of the Ring Imaging Cerenkov, Detector to the search for charmless beauty decay at fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Schnathorst, R.

    1992-12-01

    A charged particle traveling in a medium with a speed exceeding the speed of light in that medium produces Cerenkov radiation (light). This effect is, in a very loose sense, the optical analogue of a sonic boom. The light is emitted at a specific angle, {theta}, determined by the velocity, {beta}, of the particle according to the equation {beta}=1/(ncos{theta}) where n is the index of refraction of the medium. In the Ring Imaging Cerenkov Detector (RICH), light emitted at an angle {theta} is focused as a ring of radius r=f tan {theta} (f=local length) onto a detector. The velocity of the particle is calculated from the radius of the circular ring of light striking the detector, allowing the mass of the particle to be determined. E789 makes use of the well-known E605 RICH detector to study D- and B-meson decays. The physics explored by E789 and the operation of the RICH will be described, and images produced by analysis of data from the RICH will be presented.

  11. Intramolecular transfer of {open_quotes}CO{close_quotes} from ({eta}{sup 6}-arene)Cr(CO){sub 3} complexes in stille-type palladium-catalyzed cross coupling reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Caldirola, P.; Chowdhury, R.; Johansson, A.M.; Hacksell, U.

    1995-12-31

    The reaction between [{eta}{sup 6}-(trialkylstannyl)benzene]Cr(CO){sub 3} complexes and different electrophiles such as iodobenzene and aryltriflate and the coupling between (tributylphenyl)stannane and the Cr(CO){sub 3} complex of chlorobenzene have been studied. Products from two different types of reactions were observed: (1) benzophenone along with the alkylarylketone, resulting from a carbonylative coupling, and (2) biphenyl, arising from a direct coupling.

  12. Noble metal (Ru{sup III}, Pd{sup II}, Pt{sup II}) substituted {open_quotes}sandwich{close_quotes} type polyoxometalates: Preparation, characterization, and catalytic activity in oxidations of alkanes and alkenes by peroxides

    SciTech Connect

    Neumann, R.; Khenkin, A.M.

    1995-11-08

    The polyoxometalates substituted with noble metals, Pd(II), Pt(II) and Ru(III), K{sub 12}([WZnPd{sup II}{sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}](ZnW{sub 9}O{sub 34}){sub 2}){center_dot}38H{sub 2}O, K{sub 12}[WZnPt{sup II}{sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}][(ZnW{sub 9}O{sub 34}){sub 2}]{center_dot}36H{sub 2}O, and Na{sub 11}[WZnRu{sup III}{sub 2}(OH)(H{sub 2}O)][(ZnW{sub 9}O{sub 34}){sub 2}]{center_dot}42H{sub 2}O, were prepared by exchange of labile zinc atoms with noble metal atoms from the isostructural starting material, N{sub 12}-[WZn{sub 3}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}][(ZnW{sub 9}O{sub 34}){sub 2}]{center_dot}46H{sub 2}O. Magnetic susceptibility studies as a function of temperature provide convincing evidence of two ruthenium (III) centers with no magnetic interaction between them. The catalytic activity of these compounds was tested for the oxidation of alkenes and alkanes using aqueous 30% hydrogen peroxide and 70% tert-butyl hydroperoxide as oxidants. The alkene oxidation proceeded in high reactivity and moderate selectivity to the epoxide product using 30% H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. Kinetic profiles as well as UV-vis and IR spectra before, during and after the reaction indicate that the catalysts are stable throughout the reaction. Formation of epoxides rather than ketonization in the reaction of terminal alkenes as well as low reactivity with iodosobenzene indicates that the reaction is tungsten centered and not noble metal centered. Oxidation of alkenes with tert-butyl hydroperoxide gave mostly allylic oxidation and/or addition of tert-butyl alcohol to the double bond. Oxidation of cyclic alkanes such as cyclohexane and adamantane was successful with tert-butyl hydroperoxide with catalytic activity 10 times higher than previously found for transition metal substituted Keggin compounds. Ratios of hydroxylation of adamantane at tertiary vs secondary positions indicates different active species in the palladium-, platinum-, and ruthenium substituted-polyoxometalates.

  13. Mitigation of atmospheric carbon emissions through increased energy efficiency versus increased non-carbon energy sources: A trade study using a simplified {open_quotes}market-free{close_quotes} exogenously driven model

    SciTech Connect

    Krakowski, R.A.

    1997-08-24

    A simplified model of global, long-term energy use is described and used to make a `top-level` comparison of two generic approaches for mitigating atmospheric carbon emissions: (a) those based on increased energy efficiency; and (b) those based on increased use of reduced- or non-carbon fuels. As approximate as is the model, first-order estimates of and trade offs between increasing non-carbon generation capacities (e.g., supply-side solutions) versus energy-use efficiency (e.g., demand-side solutions) to stem atmospheric carbon accumulations can be useful in guiding more elaborate models. At the level of this analysis, both the costs of abatement and the costs of damage can be large, with the formation of benefit-to-cost ratios as a means of assessment being limited by uncertainties associated with relating given climatic responses to greenhouse warming to aggregate damage cost, as well as uncertainties associated with procedures used for multi-generation discounting of both abatement and damage costs. In view of uncertainties associated with both supply-side and demand-side approaches, as well as the estimation of greenhouse-warming responses per se, a combination of solutions seems prudent. Key findings are: (a) the relative insensitivity of the benefit-to-cost ratio adopted in this study to supply-side versus demand-side approaches to abating atmospheric carbon-dioxide emissions; (b) the extreme sensitivity of damage costs, abatement costs, and the related benefit-to-cost ratios to the combination of discounting procedure and the (time) concavity of the function used to relate global temperature rise to damage costs; and (c) no matter the discounting procedure and/or functional relationship between average temperature rise and a damage cost, a goal of increased per-capita gross world product at minimum damage suggests action now rather than delay.

  14. US Geological Survey Committee for the Advancement of Science in the Yucca Mountain Project symposium on {open_quotes}Fractures, Hydrology, and Yucca Mountain{close_quotes}: Abstracts and summary

    SciTech Connect

    Gomberg, J.

    1991-12-31

    The principal objective of this symposium is to review the available information on fractured/faulted terrains in terms of a coherent hydrogeologic model of ground-water fluid flow and transport, particularly as it pertains to the Yucca Mountain region. This review addresses the influence and significance of fractures on ground-water flow and the transport of conservative-species solutes within the context of the hydrogeologic setting of the Yucca Mountain area. The relations between fluid flow and fractured or faulted host rock are examined integrally from information on geologic, seismologic, hydrologic, and geomechanical properties of the system. The development of new hydrogeologic approaches that incorporate information from this integrated database are contrasted with more standard approaches toward understanding flow in fractured reservoirs. Ground-water flow in both the unsaturated zone and the saturated zone are considered. The application of various models of flow is addressed, examples include porous-media equivalent and discontinuum fracture-network models. Data and interpretations from the Yucca Mountain area are presented to establish a context for information exchange. The symposium includes discussions relevant to technical considerations for characterizing the Yucca Mountain area hydrogeology. On the basis of these discussions, CASY has compiled this document in order to formally summarize the proceedings and communicate recommendations for future directions of research and investigation.

  15. Catalytic characterization of lithium aluminum oxides: Including a study of both the cation replacement chemistry and the structure of the [alpha]LiAlO[sub 2]/[open quotes]HAlO[sub 2][close quotes] system

    SciTech Connect

    Tomczak, D.C.

    1993-01-01

    Cation replacement is a low temperature synthetic technique used to replace most of the lithium cations in [alpha]LiAlO[sub 2] with protons without significantly modifying the structure of the reactant. Lauric acid worked well as a proton source because it was capable of 90% replacement without significant dissolution of [alpha]LiAlO[sub 2]. High pressure CO[sub 2]/H[sub 2]O treatment of the cation replaced product resulted in the decomposition of the reactant to form boehmite and Li[sub 2]CO[sub 3]. The XRD characterization of a series of partially replaced samples from the [alpha]LiAlO[sub 2]/HAlO[sub 2] system was used to develop an understanding of the cation replacement mechanism. A two phase mechanism is proposed, which consists of particles with an outer shell of lithiated HAlO[sub 2] and an inner core of [alpha]LiAlO[sub 2] (for 0.0 < x < 0.90). A model for the structure of HAlO[sub 2] was developed to describe the location of the protons and the lithium cations. The 3,3-dimethyl-1-isomerization reaction did not detect any intrinsic acidity on HAlO[sub 2] and detected only small amounts on calcined HAlO[sub 2] at 350[degrees]C. Lithium free [gamma]-alumina was extremely active for 3,3-dimethyl-1-butene isomerization demonstrating that the small concentration of lithium in both HAlO[sub 2] and calcined HAlO[sub 2] is sufficient to neutralize strong acid sites. The conversion of isopropyl alcohol produces propylene on acid-base sites and acetone on basic sites. [alpha]LiAlO[sub 2], [gamma]LiAlO[sub 2], and calcined HAlO[sub 2], produced varying amounts of propylene and acetone. [alpha]LiAlO[sub 2] and calcined HAlO[sub 2] produced a C6 diene, which indicates the presence of basic sites stronger than those needed for acetone formation. [alpha]LiAlO[sub 2] was the only sample that produced 4-methyl-2-pentanone and 4-methyl-2-pentanol.

  16. A familial {open_quotes}balanced{close_quotes} 3;9 translocation with cryptic 8q insertion leading to deletion and duplication of 9p23 loci in siblings

    SciTech Connect

    Wagstaff, J.; Hemann, M.

    1995-01-01

    A child with phenotypic features of the 9p{sup {minus}} syndrome, including metopic craniosynostosis, small ears, abdominal wall defect, and mental retardation, as well as hypopigmentation, was found to have a cytogenetically balanced 3;9 translocation, with breakpoints at 3p11 and 9p23, inherited from his phenotypically normal father. Molecular analysis showed heterozygous deletion of the TYRP (tyrosinase-related protein) locus, as well as loci D9S157, D9S274, D9S268, and D9S267, in the child but in neither parent. FISH analysis of the proband`s father indicated that loci deleted in his son, including TYRP, were present on neither the der(3) nor the der(9) translocation products but had been inserted into the long arm of chromosome 8. Therefore, the apparent deletion of these loci in the proband was the result of meiotic segregation of the father`s 3;9 translocation chromosomes together with his normal chromosome 8 (not bearing the insertion from 9p23). Neither the deletion of these 9p23 loci from the translocation chromosomes nor their insertion into 8q was detectable by standard chromosome banding techniques. The proband`s sister exhibited speech delay, mild facial dysmorphism, and renal malformation, and her karyotype was 46,XX. Molecular analysis showed that she had inherited normal chromosomes 3 and 9, as well as the chromosome 8 with the insertion of 9p23 material, from her father. This analysis illustrates a new mechanism to explain cases in which an apparently balanced translocation has been transmitted from a normal parent to a child with a phenotypic abnormality: submicroscopic deletion of material from the translocation breakpoint and insertion into a third chromosome in the balanced parent, with meiotic segregation leading to loss of the inserted material in the child. 36 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  17. A familial {open_quotes}balanced{close_quotes} 3;9 translocation with cryptic 8q insertion leading to deletion and duplication of 9p23 loci in siblings

    SciTech Connect

    Wagstaff, J.; Hemann, M.

    1994-09-01

    Families in which a balanced translocation has been transmitted from a normal parent to a child with a phenotypic abnormality have been a longstanding puzzle for human geneticists. A child with phenotypic features of the 9p- syndrome, including metopic craniosynostosis, small ears, abdominal wall defect, and mental retardation, was found to have a cytogenetically balanced 3;9 translocation, with breakpoints at 3p11 and 9p23, inherited from his normal father. He also exhibited marked hypopigmentation of hair and skin. Analysis with a cDNA probe from the TYRP1 (tyrosinase-related protein 1) gene in 9p23 showed heterozygous deletion in the child but in neither parent. This submicroscopic deletion also included loci D9S157, D9S274, D9S268, and D9S267. FISH analysis of the proband`s father indicated the 9p23 loci deleted in his son were present on neither the der(3) nor the der(9) translocation product, but had been inserted into the long arm of chromosome 8. Therefore, the apparent deletion of these loci in the proband was the result of meiotic segregation of the father`s 3;9 translocation chromosomes together with his normal chromosome 8. Neither the deletion from the translocation chromosomes nor the insertion into 8q was detectable by standard chromosome banding techniques. The proband`s sister exhibited speech delay, mild facial dysmorphism, and renal malformation, and her karyotype was 46,XX. Molecular analysis of this sister showed 3 copies of 9p23 sequences, indicating that she had inherited normal chromosomes 3 and 9 from her father as well as the chromosome 8 with the insertion from 9p23. This analysis illustrates a new mechanism to explain cases of phenotypic discordance in familial balanced translocations: submicroscopic deletion of material from the translocation breakpoint and insertion into a third chromosome in the balanced parent, with meiotic segregation leading to loss of the inserted material in the child.

  18. Equation of state and electrical conductivity of {open_quotes}synthetic Uranus,{close_quotes} a mixture of water, ammonia, and isopropanol, at shock pressure up to 200 GPa (2 Mbar)

    SciTech Connect

    Nellis, W.J.; Holmes, N.C.; Mitchell, A.C.; Hamilton, D.C.; Nicol, M.

    1997-12-01

    Equation-of-state, temperature, and electrical-conductivity data were measured for a solution of water, ammonia, and isopropanol at shock pressures up to 200 GPa. The chemical composition is similar to that of the fluid mixture thought to be the major constituent of the giant planets Uranus and Neptune. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  19. Experimental study to validate a model of hillock{close_quote}s formation in aluminum thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Genin, F.Y.; Siekhaus, W.J.

    1996-04-01

    The growth of holes and hillocks in thin films has been reported extensively and for a multitude of film{endash}substrate systems. A recently developed model [F. Y. G{acute e}nin, J. Appl. Phys. {bold 77}, 5130 (1995)] which analyzes the formation of a ridge at a traveling grain boundary due to stress and capillarity driving forces provides a quantitative description of the growth of the hillocks. In order to test the model, the surface morphology of aluminum thin films deposited on oxidized silicon substrates and annealed at 450{degree}C in argon is investigated; the profiles of thermal hillocks are measured by atomic force microscopy. The comparison shows excellent agreement between modeled and experimental profiles. {copyright}{ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  20. Photovoltaic manufacturing technology (PVMaT) improvements for ENTECH{close_quote}s fourth-generation concentrator systems

    SciTech Connect

    ONeill, M.J.; McDanal, A.J.

    1997-02-01

    This paper describes recent improvements in manufacturing technology for fourth-generation photovoltaic concentrator systems. The fourth-generation systems are firmly based on prior generations of a field-proven, high-efficiency, stable photovoltaic technology. The fourth-generation manufacturing process has been streamlined and validated through pilot runs and field deployments. Future plans include a 1.5 MW installation in 1998, as part of the Solar Enterprise Zone (SEZ) program in Nevada. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  1. Driven-dissipative Euler{close_quote}s equations for a rigid body: A chaotic system relevant to fluid dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, L.

    1996-11-01

    Adhering to the lore that vorticity is a critical ingredient of fluid turbulence, a triad of coupled helicity (vorticity) states of the incompressible Navier-Stokes fluid are followed. Effects of the remaining states of the fluid on the triad are then modeled as a simple driving term. Numerical solution of the equations yield attractors that seem strange and chaotic. This suggests that the unpredictability of nonlinear fluid dynamics (i.e., turbulence) may be traced back to the most primordial structure of the Navier-Stokes equation; namely, the driven triadic interaction. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  2. Taking Race out of Scare Quotes: Race-Conscious Social Analysis in an Ostensibly Post-Racial World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warmington, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Academics and activists concerned with race and racism have rightly coalesced around the sociological project to refute biologistic conceptions of race. By and large, our default position as teachers, writers and researchers is that race is a social construct. However, the deconstruction of race and its claims to theoretical intelligibility has…

  3. Ni/Si based multilayer for the reflection of soft x rays in the "water window&quot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cilia, M.; Verhoeven, J.

    1997-11-01

    As nickel and silicon have no absorption edges in the "water window" (2.4-4.4 nm), these materials form suitable components for multilayers to be applied as optical components in this wavelength region. The practical feasibility of using these components is limited by their chemical reactivity, resulting in intermixing at the interfaces. A procedure, based on the application of ion implantation and ion beam mixing, has been developed to produce silicon nitride and nickel silicide layers. As these processes also cause ion etching, an additional reduction of the surface roughness of the layers has been observed.

  4. 1995 Edward teller lecture. Patience and optimism

    SciTech Connect

    Miley, G.H.

    1996-05-01

    Remarks made in the author{close_quote}s acceptance lecture for the 1995 Edward Teller Medal are presented and expanded. Topics covered include research on nuclear-pumped lasers, the first direct e-beam-pumped laser, direct energy conversion and advanced fuel fusion, plus recent work on inertial electrostatic confinement. {open_quote}{open_quote}Patience{close_quote}{close_quote} and {open_quote}{open_quote}optimism{close_quote}{close_quote} are viewed as essential elements needed by scientists following the {open_quote}{open_quote}zig-zag{close_quote}{close_quote} path to fusion energy production. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  5. I Thought Composition Was about Commas and Quotes, Not Queers: Diversity and Campus Change at a Rural Two-Year College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Danielle

    2008-01-01

    Fayette County, once home to the Carnegies, the Mellons, and the Fricks, now punctuated by abandoned mines and coke ovens, is the second poorest county in Pennsylvania. Gay and lesbian students experience discrimination in this County. In this article, the author discusses her efforts to intervene in this complicated problem by deploying a…

  6. 46 CFR Exhibit No. 1 to Subpart Q... - Application for Refund or Waiver of Freight Charges Due to Tariff or Quoting Error

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... on the date the intended rate would have become effective and ending on the day before the effective..., a notary public in and for the State of ______ , County of ______, this ___ day of ___ . (Seal... this day served the foregoing document upon the (insert the conference name if a conference tariff...

  7. 46 CFR Exhibit No. 1 to Subpart Q... - Application for Refund or Waiver of Freight Charges Due to Tariff or Quoting Error

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... shipments. (d)(1) Date(s) of receipt of shipment(s) by the carrier; (2) Date(s) of sailing(s) (furnish... on the date the intended rate would have become effective and ending on the day before the effective..., a notary public in and for the State of ______ , County of ______, this ___ day of ___ ....

  8. 46 CFR Exhibit No. 1 to Subpart Q... - Application for Refund or Waiver of Freight Charges Due to Tariff or Quoting Error

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... shipments. (d)(1) Date(s) of receipt of shipment(s) by the carrier; (2) Date(s) of sailing(s) (furnish... on the date the intended rate would have become effective and ending on the day before the effective..., a notary public in and for the State of ______ , County of ______, this ___ day of ___ ....

  9. Distinguishing between satisfaction and loyalty: Conceptual, methodological & analytical differences

    SciTech Connect

    Hinson, K.A.

    1994-11-01

    This paper briefly presents a discussion of the conceptual definition of {open_quotes}Customer Satisfaction{close_quotes} followed by review of operational definitions of {open_quotes}Satisfaction{close_quotes} as a criterion variable and the kinds of predictor variables and analytic methods employed in its modeling. A model of {open_quotes}Customer Satisfaction{close_quotes} is presented developed by the discussed methodology. Conceptual and operational definitions of {open_quotes}Customer Loyalty{close_quotes} are then reviewed, contrasting the kinds of predictor variables and analytic methods most appropriate for understanding a {open_quotes}Loyalty{close_quotes} decision and how these differ from {open_quotes}Customer Satisfaction.{close_quotes} A more fully specified model of {open_quotes}Customer Loyalty{close_quotes} is presented. Finally, the risks of employing a {open_quotes}Satisfaction{close_quotes} methodology in modeling {open_quotes}Customer Loyalty{close_quotes} are discussed.

  10. 78 FR 49586 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Miami International Securities Exchange LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-14

    ... Market Makers with the ability to send Market Maker Standard quotes, eQuotes,\\6\\ and quote purge messages... eQuotes and quote purge messages only, but not Market Maker Standard quotes, to the MIAX System... flexibility to connect the Limited Service Ports to independent servers that host their eQuote and...

  11. Analysis of the Pace University Center for Environmental Legal Studies report of September 1990 entitled, {open_quotes}Environmental costs of electicity{close_quotes} by R.L. Ottinger, D.R. Wooley, N.A. Robinson, D.R. Hodas, Babb, S.E.

    SciTech Connect

    Catlin, R.J.

    1992-06-01

    This report evaluates the figures used by Pace University in its September 1990 report entitled `Environmental Costs of Electricity` and the conclusions the Pace authors come to using those figures. The data Paces uses in its report is given on pages 379-381 of the US DOE report entitled `Health and Environmental Consequences of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Accident.` 10 refs., 1 fig., 22 tabs.

  12. {open_quotes}Nb{sub 2-x}P{sub 3-y}O{sub 12},{close_quotes} a novel Nb{sup v} oxophosphate with disordered cation vacancies in a Sc{sub 2}(WO{sub 4}){sub 3}-type structure

    SciTech Connect

    Zah-Letho, J.J.; Verbaere, A.; Jouanneaux, A.

    1995-05-01

    The title compound was prepared at 360{degrees}C, starting from Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} and NH{sub 4}H{sub 2}PO{sub 4}. The orthorhombic unit-cell parameters were determined by electron and X-ray diffractions: a = 12.0819 (2) {angstrom}, b = 8.6848 (1) {angstrom}, c = 8.7452 (1) {angstrom}, space group Pbcn. Reitveld refinements from X-ray powder diffraction data, chemical analyses, and the measured density show that the basic structure consists of a three-dimensional framework of the Sc{sub 2}(WO{sub 4}){sub 3} structure type, with NbO{sub 6} octahedra and PO{sub 4} tetrahedra sharing corners, and that both Nb and P vacancies occur. The actual formula is close to Nb{sub 2-x}P{sub 3-y}O{sub 12}. Comparative spectroscopic studies of the title compound and of Nb{sub 3}(NbO){sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 7} confirm the occurrence of the vacancies, and thus an important local variation of the bond lengths near the defect sites. The presence of small amounts of H and N in the structure is discussed. Upon heating in air, the structure is preserved up to 900{degrees}C. The so-called {epsilon}-NbOPO{sub 4} has the same basic structure, and its existence seems questionable.

  13. Preliminary results of the correlation between ion concentrations in rainwater samples and atmospheric back trajectories as a part of the study {open_quotes}impact to acid rain in the deterioration of Mexican Maya monuments{close_quotes} (project Conacyt-UNAM: 0128T9106)

    SciTech Connect

    Bravo, A.H.; Saavedra, M.I.; Snchez, P.; Camacho, R.

    1996-12-31

    The environmental Pollution Section at the Center of Atmospheric Sciences, National Autonomus University of Mexico (UNAM), has been conducting a research project on their potential of impact of acid rain on the Mexican Maya monuments since 1993. As a part of such study, 49 rainwater samples were collected during the years 1994 through 1995 at the Puerto Morelos Oceanographic Station Located close to the Tulum Maya ruins in the State of Qintana Roo. The rain water samples were collected using an automatic rain collector. After the rain event, the water samples were transferred to clean Nalgene bottles. The bottles were stored under refrigeration prior to their shipment to the UNAM laboratory in Mexico City. Concentrations of anions Cl{sup -}, NO{sup -}{sub 3}, and SO{sup 2-}{sub 4} and cations Na{sup +}, NH{sup +}{sub 4}, K{sup +}, Mg{sup 2+} an Ca{sup 2+} were determined by the High Pressure Ion Chromatographic Procedure. The pH of samples was measured in the laboratory. Also, wind back upper trajectories which arrived to the Puerto Morelos are at the same date of each rain event, were calculated using the GMCC atmospheric trajectory program at NOAA. A thorough analysis on the relations between anions and cations is made and preliminary correlations of these results with the calculated long range trajectories are explored in order to find the possible origin of the event.

  14. Elements of gas contracts

    SciTech Connect

    O`Neal, J.

    1995-12-01

    The gas marketing scene has taken on a new look from the days of the {open_quotes}Long Term{close_quotes} or {open_quotes}Life of Lease{close_quotes} Contracts. In the past natural gas was of ten sold direct from the wellhead or a producer-owned facility to a pipeline company at a flat rate price and the only parties involved were producer or seller and buyer. Today, the parties involved in the marketing process might include a gathering entity to gather gas at a central point and provide gathering, compression and/or dehydration services; multiple pipeline companies for transportation; sales representatives or marketing brokers to negotiate a sale of the available gas on a monthly basis; and purchasers or end users. New terms have also been introduced in the process such as: {open_quotes}LDC{close_quotes} (local distribution company), {open_quotes}FERC Order 636{close_quotes}, {open_quotes}Price Delivered-to-Pipeline{close_quotes} and the various {open_quotes}levels of Service{close_quotes} under Gas Sales and Purchase Agreements. Four common levels of service are: {open_quotes}Firm{close_quotes}, {open_quotes}Baseload{close_quotes}, {open_quotes}Swing{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}Baseload/Operational{close_quotes}. It is evident that current marketing plans often require a separate contract for each service or commitment. Contract contents vary greatly, but most contain the following elements.

  15. 78 FR 70615 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Miami International Securities Exchange LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-26

    ... Exchange Act Release No. 70137 (August 8, 2013), 78 FR 49586 (August 14, 2013) (SR-MIAX-2013-39). The... Market Makers with the ability to send Market Maker quotes, eQuotes, and quote purge messages to the MIAX... Market Makers with the ability to send eQuotes and quote purge messages only, but not Market Maker...

  16. 17 CFR 242.605 - Disclosure of order execution information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... following columns of information: (i) For market orders, marketable limit orders, inside-the-quote limit orders, at-the-quote limit orders, and near-the-quote limit orders: (A) The number of covered orders; (B... the quote; (F) For shares executed at the quote, the share-weighted average period from the time...

  17. 78 FR 4914 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ OMX PHLX LLC; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change To Amend...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-23

    ... Performance Evaluations With Respect to Quote Submissions of Streaming Quote Traders and Remote Streaming Quote Traders January 3, 2013. Correction In notice document 2013-00201, appearing on pages 1906-1907...

  18. 40 CFR 33.501 - What are the recordkeeping requirements of this part?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quote on prime contracts, or bid or quote subcontracts on EPA assisted projects, including both MBE/WBEs... procurement on which the entity bid or quoted, and when; and (4) Entity's status as an MBE/WBE or...

  19. 40 CFR 33.501 - What are the recordkeeping requirements of this part?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quote on prime contracts, or bid or quote subcontracts on EPA assisted projects, including both MBE/WBEs... procurement on which the entity bid or quoted, and when; and (4) Entity's status as an MBE/WBE or...

  20. Fuzzy logic and neural networks

    SciTech Connect

    Loos, J.R.

    1994-11-01

    Combine fuzzy logic`s fuzzy sets, fuzzy operators, fuzzy inference, and fuzzy rules - like defuzzification - with neural networks and you can arrive at very unfuzzy real-time control. Fuzzy logic, cursed with a very whimsical title, simply means multivalued logic, which includes not only the conventional two-valued (true/false) crisp logic, but also the logic of three or more values. This means one can assign logic values of true, false, and somewhere in between. This is where fuzziness comes in. Multi-valued logic avoids the black-and-white, all-or-nothing assignment of true or false to an assertion. Instead, it permits the assignment of shades of gray. When assigning a value of true or false to an assertion, the numbers typically used are {open_quotes}1{close_quotes} or {open_quotes}0{close_quotes}. This is the case for programmed systems. If {open_quotes}0{close_quotes} means {open_quotes}false{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}1{close_quotes} means {open_quotes}true,{close_quotes} then {open_quotes}shades of gray{close_quotes} are any numbers between 0 and 1. Therefore, {open_quotes}nearly true{close_quotes} may be represented by 0.8 or 0.9, {open_quotes}nearly false{close_quotes} may be represented by 0.1 or 0.2, and {close_quotes}your guess is as good as mine{close_quotes} may be represented by 0.5. The flexibility available to one is limitless. One can associate any meaning, such as {open_quotes}nearly true{close_quotes}, to any value of any granularity, such as 0.9999. 2 figs.

  1. A decoupling theorem for the BPHZL-scheme

    SciTech Connect

    Aschenbrenner, M.

    1996-09-01

    Conditions are stated, which are sufficient for the heavy-mass-suppression of BPHZL-subtracted Feynman-integrals containing propagators of {open_quote}{open_quote}heavy fields{close_quote}{close_quote}. This result generalizes the Decoupling Theorems of Ambjo/rn, Manoukian and Landsman to cases, where massless fields (e.g., gauge fields) are present. {copyright} 1996 Academic Press, Inc.

  2. Environmental laws regulating chemicals: Uses of information in decision making under environmental statutes

    SciTech Connect

    Gaba, J.M.

    1990-12-31

    Three areas are addressed in this paper: generic issues that arise simply in the process of decision-making under environmental statutes; different decision-making standards under various environmental statutes; and efforts to legislate a {open_quotes}safe{close_quotes} or {open_quotes}acceptable{close_quotes} risk from exposure to carcinogenic chemicals.

  3. 75 FR 20016 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change by NASDAQ OMX PHLX, Inc...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-16

    .... Relating to Quote Spread Parameters and Batching of Violations April 7, 2010. Pursuant to Section 19(b)(1...\\ proposes to amend Options Floor Procedure Advice (``Advice'') F-6, Option Quote Parameters, to copy from... known as quotation or quote spread parameters; quote spread parameters establish the maximum...

  4. Reforming telecommunications: How utilities fare on Capitol Hill

    SciTech Connect

    Stokes, S.A.

    1994-06-15

    While the traditional players in the telephone and cable industries have grabbed headlines and jockeyed for the inside track on the [open quotes]information superhighway,[close quotes] electric and gas utilities and natural gas pipelines have been quietly positioning themselves to play a strategic role in the actual construction of the [open quotes]National Information Infrastructure[close quotes] (NII).

  5. Overview of nonlinear dynamical systems and complexity theory

    SciTech Connect

    Herbert, D.E.

    1996-06-01

    A brief overview is presented of the principal elements of {open_quote}{open_quote}nonlinear dynamics{close_quote}{close_quote}: catastrophes, fractals, chaos, solitary waves, and coherent and dissipative structures. The text is followed by a set of 10 portraits of the strange and violent world of nonlinear dynamics. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  6. 77 FR 3019 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-20

    ... Opt Out of the Automated Quote Management Service January 13, 2012. Pursuant to Section 19(b)(1) of... allow Exchange market makers to opt out of the Automated Quote Management service. Automated Quote... Automated Quote Management service provided under Rules 4613(a)(2)(F) and (G).\\3\\ The Automated...

  7. 48 CFR 570.402-6 - Cost-benefit analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... quoted for standard space for any special requirements. (2) You do not need a formal SFO to obtain the... firm solicited. (ii) Name of the firm's representative providing the quote. (iii) Price(s) quoted. (iv) Description of the space and services for which the quote is provided. (v) Name of the Government...

  8. 75 FR 61538 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Chicago Board Options Exchange, Incorporated; Notice of Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-05

    ... Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change To Increase the Class Quoting Limit in One Option Classes... quoting limit in one option class. The text of the proposed rule change is available on CBOE's Web site... Quoting Electronically per Product, establishes class quoting limits (``CQLs'') for each class traded...

  9. 76 FR 82024 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; New York Stock Exchange LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-29

    ... 30, 2009), 74 FR 64103 (December 7, 2009) (SR-NYSE-2009-106). The Exchange also proposes to add new... Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change Amending Supplementary Material .26 (Pegging for d-Quotes and e-Quotes) to... Exchange proposes to amend Supplementary Material .26 (Pegging for d-Quotes and e-Quotes) to NYSE Rule...

  10. 78 FR 77736 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-24

    ... of a Proposed Rule Change To Modify BATS Options Market Maker Continuous Quoting Obligation Rules... respect to the continuous quoting requirement applicable to Market Makers (as defined below) registered... quotes. For the purposes of Rule 22.6, the Exchange will consider the continuous quoting...

  11. 76 FR 82009 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Amex LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-29

    ..., 2009), 74 FR 64105 (December 7, 2009) (SR-NYSEAmex-2009-76). The Exchange also proposes to add new... Proposed Rule Change Amending Supplementary Material .26 (Pegging for d-Quotes and e-Quotes) to NYSE Amex... proposes to amend Supplementary Material .26 (Pegging for d-Quotes and e-Quotes) to NYSE Amex Equities...

  12. Past, present and future of laser fusion research

    SciTech Connect

    Yamanaka, C.

    1996-05-01

    The concept of laser fusion was devised very shortly after the invention of laser. In 1972, the Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University was established by the author in accordance with the Edward Teller{close_quote}s special lecture on {open_quote}{open_quote}New Internal Combustion Engine{close_quote}{close_quote} for IQEC at Montreal which predicted the implosion fusion. In 1975 we invented the so called indirect drive fusion concept {open_quote}{open_quote}Cannonball Target{close_quote}{close_quote} which became later to be recognize as a same concept of {open_quote}{open_quote}Hohlraum Target{close_quote}{close_quote} from Livermore. As well known, ICF research in the US had been veiled for a long time due to the defense classification. While researchers from Japan, Germany and elsewhere have concentrated the efforts to investigate the inertial fusion energy which seems to be very interesting for a future civil energy. They were publishing their own works not only on the direct implosion scheme but also the indirect implosion experiment. These advanced results often frustrated the US researchers who were not allowed to talk about the details of their works. In 1988, international members of the ICF research society including the US scientists gathered together at ECLIM to discuss the necessity of freedom in the ICF research and concluded to make a statement {open_quote}{open_quote}Madrid Manifest{close_quote}{close_quote} which requested the declassification of the ICF research internationally. After 6 years of halt, the US DOE decided to declassify portions of the program as a part of secretary Hazel O{close_quote}Leary{close_quote}s openness initiative. The first revealed presentation from the US was done at Seville 1994, which however were well known already. Classification impeded the progress by restricting the flow of information and did not allow the ICF work to compete by the open scientific security. (Abstract Truncated)

  13. Simplified approaches to some nonoverlapping domain decomposition methods

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Jinchao

    1996-12-31

    An attempt will be made in this talk to present various domain decomposition methods in a way that is intuitively clear and technically coherent and concise. The basic framework used for analysis is the {open_quotes}parallel subspace correction{close_quotes} or {open_quotes}additive Schwarz{close_quotes} method, and other simple technical tools include {open_quotes}local-global{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}global-local{close_quotes} techniques, the formal one is for constructing subspace preconditioner based on a preconditioner on the whole space whereas the later one for constructing preconditioner on the whole space based on a subspace preconditioner. The domain decomposition methods discussed in this talk fall into two major categories: one, based on local Dirichlet problems, is related to the {open_quotes}substructuring method{close_quotes} and the other, based on local Neumann problems, is related to the {open_quotes}Neumann-Neumann method{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}balancing method{close_quotes}. All these methods will be presented in a systematic and coherent manner and the analysis for both two and three dimensional cases are carried out simultaneously. In particular, some intimate relationship between these algorithms are observed and some new variants of the algorithms are obtained.

  14. Tungsten

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    The name tungsten, derived from the Swedish words {open_quotes}tung{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}sten{close_quotes}, meaning heavy stone, was first applied to a tungsten-containing mineral in 1755. The mineral, itself, was subsequently identified by C.W. Scheele in 1781, and named scheelite. Metallic tungsten was first isolated from the mineral wolframite in 1783, and given the German name {open_quotes}wolfram,{close_quotes} which remains an alternative name for the element. Ultimately, the English word, tungsten, became the official name, while W remains the element`s chemical symbol. This article discusses the geology, exploitation, applications, and market overview of tungsten.

  15. Ecosystems and landscapes: Describing and valuing whole ecosystems

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, B.E.

    1995-12-31

    Ecosystem management involves both the design and management of complex ecological systems. This involves the application of {open_quotes}ecological engineering{close_quotes} principles. There are many alternative {open_quotes}states{close_quotes} of a landscape, all of which are ecologically sustainable. Once one fulfills the constraints of healthy, diverse, self-reproducing stocks of desirable species, there exists a wide array of alternative states, the characteristics of which represent social, economic and lifestyle trade-offs. There is no single {open_quotes}right{close_quotes} ecological design. Case studies will be used to illustrate these points.

  16. Mosaicism most likely accounts for extended survival of trisomy 22

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, W.P.; Kalousek, D.K.

    1996-03-01

    This {open_quotes}Letter to the Editor{close_quotes} discusses the implications of meiotic versus somatic chromosomal aberrations and how this corresponds to the discussion of trisomy 22, including the survival time of the patient. 5 refs.

  17. 29 CFR 2520.103-6 - Definition of reportable transaction for Annual Return/Report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... securities exchange registered under section 6 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 or quoted on NASDAQ... common stock of Able Industries is not listed on any national securities exchange or quoted on...

  18. Growth energizes lithium ion interest

    SciTech Connect

    D`Amico, E.

    1996-03-20

    The prospects for big growth in the US for lithium ion batteries (LIBs) has sparked the interest of potential domestic suppliers. {open_quotes}The money that can be made in this market is staggering,{close_quotes} says one industry expert. {open_quotes}Everybody who is remotely related to this industry is interested.{close_quotes} The size of the market, still in its infancy, is difficult to gauge, say consultants, who estimate that leading Japanese producers are each making millions of lithium ion cells/month. {open_quotes}The market is not too measurable right now because the only production is really limited to prototypes being sampled,{close_quotes} says Ward Seitz, a consultant with SRI International (Menlo Park, CA), {open_quotes}but there is phenomenal interest.{close_quotes}

  19. Insurance for electric and magnetic field litigation: Are you covered

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, E.R.; Stewart, C.A. III

    1993-04-01

    Electrical power generating companies, power transmission companies and large generators and users of electrical power recently felt the sting of a second shock. The first shock came when lawsuits were first filed against companies in the electrical power industry claiming real or imagined damages from electrical and magnetic fields ([open quotes]EMFs[close quotes]). The new and second shock is potentially more devastating because it comes from the [open quotes]safe hands[close quotes] of the insurance industry. Standard-form comprehensive general liability ([open quotes]CGL[close quotes]) insurance policies purchased by nearly every company in the electrical power industry for generations are supposed to cover EMF bodily injury and property damage claims. Not so, say the lawyers for the most prominent insurance company selling insurance coverage to electric utilities, Associated Electric Gas Insurance Services, Ltd. ([open quotes]AEGIS[close quotes]).

  20. Clinical and molecular studies in full trisomy 22: Further delineation of the phenotype and review of the literature. Reply to Dr. Hirschhorn

    SciTech Connect

    Bacino, C.A.; Graham, J.M. Jr.

    1996-03-01

    This {open_quotes}Letter to the Editor{close_quotes} responds to the criticism that certain trisomy 22 cases in the literature were not included in an earlier review by delineating the phenotype more specifically. 2 refs.

  1. Considerations in the fabrication, assembly, and testing of radioisotopic thermo-photovoltaic (RTPV) generators for future space missions

    SciTech Connect

    Barklay, C.D.; Miller, R.G.; Frazier, T.A.

    1996-03-01

    To increase energy output with a smaller size and mass than the radioisotopic thermoelectric generators (RTGs) that were previously used on deep space missions, a radioisotopic thermophotovoltaic (RTPV) system is being developed for the {open_quote}{open_quote}Pluto Express{close_quote}{close_quote} flyby mission. To minimize cost and development time, some facilities and components currently used for RTG production can be used to produce RTPVs. Production options also include out-sourcing and use of off-the-shelf hardware. Necessary modifications to tooling, production equipment, testing and shipping methods can be achieved in a timely manner so that the RTPV will be ready well before the planned launch of {open_quote}{open_quote}Pluto Express.{close_quote}{close_quote} {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  2. Fractal scaling properties in nonstationary heartbeat time series

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, C. |; Havlin, S. |; Stanley, H.E.; Goldberger, A.L. |

    1996-06-01

    Under healthy conditions, the normal cardiac (sinus) interbeat interval fluctuates in a complex manner. Quantitative analysis using techniques adapted from statistical physics reveals the presence of long-range power-law correlations extending over thousands of heartbeats. This scale-invariant (fractal) behavior suggests that the regulatory system generating these fluctuations is operating far from equilibrium. In contrast, we find that for subjects at high risk of sudden death (e.g. congestive heart failure patients) these long-range correlations break down. Application of fractal scaling analysis and related techniques provides new approaches to assessing cardiac risk and forecasting sudden cardiac death, as well as motivating development of novel physiological models of systems that appear to be {open_quote}{open_quote}hetero-dynamic{close_quote}{close_quote} rather than {open_quote}{open_quote}homeo-static.{close_quote}{close_quote} {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  3. Large data series: Modeling the usual to identify the unusual

    SciTech Connect

    Downing, D.J.; Fedorov, V.V.; Lawkins, W.F.; Morris, M.D.; Ostrouchov, G.

    1997-04-01

    {open_quotes}Standard{close_quotes} approaches such as regression analysis, Fourier analysis, Box-Jenkins procedure, et al., which handle a data series as a whole, are not useful for very large data sets for at least two reasons. First, even with computer hardware available today, including parallel processors and storage devices, there are no effective means for manipulating and analyzing gigabyte, or larger, data files. Second, in general it can not be assumed that a very large data set is {open_quotes}stable{close_quotes} by the usual measures, like homogeneity, stationarity, and ergodicity, that standard analysis techniques require. Both reasons dictate the necessity to use {open_quotes}local{close_quotes} data analysis methods whereby the data is segmented and ordered, where order leads to a sense of {open_quotes}neighbor,{close_quotes} and then analyzed segment by segment. The idea of local data analysis is central to the study reported here.

  4. 17 CFR 36.2 - Exempt boards of trade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... bids, offers or transactions are directly based on, or quoted at a differential to, the prices... reason to believe that cash market bids, offers or transactions are directly based on, or quoted at...

  5. 48 CFR 13.106-3 - Award and documentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... basis. (3) Occasionally an item can be obtained only from a supplier that quotes a minimum order price... contacted and the prices and other terms and conditions quoted by each. (2) Written solicitations (see...

  6. 48 CFR 552.211-87 - Export packing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...) Offerors are requested to quote, in the pricelist accompanying their offer (or by separate attachment... specifications describing the packing to be furnished at the price quoted. (b) Ordering activities will not...

  7. 12 CFR 552.14 - Dissenter and appraisal rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., if such stock was listed on a national securities exchange or quoted on the National Association of... quoted on NASDAQ, or any combination of such shares of stock and cash. (c) Procedure—(1) Notice....

  8. 7 CFR 59.104 - Mandatory reporting of boxed beef sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...) The price for each lot of each boxed beef sale, quoted in dollars per hundredweight on a F.O.B. plant basis; (2) The quantity for each lot of each sale, quoted by number of pounds sold; and (3)...

  9. 7 CFR 1753.48 - Procurement procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., at the prices quoted in Form 787, Supplement A, for all materials furnished by the borrower and... quoted in Supplement A. (g) Changes or corrections in construction. (1) When changes or corrections...

  10. 48 CFR 52.207-4 - Economic Purchase Quantity-Supplies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... quantity(ies) of supplies on which bids, proposals or quotes are requested in this solicitation is (are... quantities are recommended, a total and a unit price must be quoted for applicable items. An...

  11. 48 CFR 239.7406 - Cost or pricing data and information other than cost or pricing data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... data before award of contracts for tariffed services. Rates or preliminary estimates quoted by a common...) Rates or preliminary estimates quoted by a common carrier for nontariffed telecommunications services...

  12. Letters to a Young Writer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waldman, Anne; Becker, Robin

    2002-01-01

    Presents words of encouragement to a young poet. Includes empathetic words and motivating ideas. Presents a letter including a quote from "Tintern Abbey" by William Wordsworth and ideas about that quote. (SG)

  13. 26 CFR 1.897-9T - Treatment of certain interest in publicly traded corporations, definition of foreign person, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... regularly traded for any calendar quarter during which it is regularly quoted by brokers or dealers making a... dealer holds himself out to buy or sell interests in such class at the quoted price. Stock of...

  14. 17 CFR 240.12h-7 - Exemption for issuers of securities that are subject to insurance regulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... are not listed, traded, or quoted on an exchange, alternative trading system (as defined in § 242.300... communications network, or any other similar system, network, or publication for trading or quoting; (e)...

  15. 48 CFR 47.305-13 - Transit arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... restricted to f.o.b. origin offers, as f.o.b. destination offers can only quote fixed overall delivered... amount quoted in the offer. (4) The contracting officer shall insert in solicitations and contracts...

  16. 48 CFR 1523.703-1 - Acquisition of environmentally preferable meeting and conference services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... provision, when soliciting quotes or offers for meeting and conference services on behalf of the EPA. (f... may be provided to the vendor orally or electronically. Contractors soliciting quotes or offers...

  17. 48 CFR 552.211-87 - Export packing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...) Offerors are requested to quote, in the pricelist accompanying their offer (or by separate attachment... specifications describing the packing to be furnished at the price quoted. (b) Ordering activities will not...

  18. FFTF Asbestos Location Tracking Program

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, J.A.

    1994-09-15

    An Asbestos Location Tracking Program was prepared to list, locate, and determine Asbestos content and to provide baseline {open_quotes}good faith{close_quotes} for yearly condition inspections for the FFTF Plant and buildings and grounds.

  19. On third Poisson structure of KdV equation

    SciTech Connect

    Gorsky, A.; Marshakov, A.; Orlov, A.

    1995-12-01

    The third Poisson structure of the KdV equation in terms of canonical {open_quote}free fields{close_quote} and the reduced WZNW model is discussed. We prove that it is {open_quotes}diagonalized{close_quotes} in the Lagrange variables which were used before in the formulation of 2d gravity. We propose a quantum path integral for the KdV equation based on this representation.

  20. Exotic low-energy separation in 1D quantum liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Carmelo, J.M.P.; Neto, A.H.C.; Campbell, D.K.

    1995-05-01

    We define the low-energy separation of the Hubbard chain in a magnetic field and chemical potential in terms of two {open_quotes}c{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}s{close_quotes} bosonic algebras. This generalizes the usual charge-spin separation, which is recovered in the limit of zero magnetization only. The corresponding pseudoparticle bosonization follows directly from the perturbative character of the pseudoparticle operator basis.

  1. The implausible current interpretations of radiobiological linear, nonthreshold functions

    SciTech Connect

    Bond, V.P.

    1994-12-31

    The goal of this paper is to show that inappropriate coordinates are now assigned to the assumed linearly proportional {open_quotes}dose-response{close_quotes} functions for quantal quantal (i.e., either-or) responses in the elements of a cell population system exposed to low-level radiation. The result is that the present interpretation, {open_quotes}any amount of radiation, however small, can be harmful or lethal{close_quotes} is of highly questionable validity.

  2. The problem of living in a world contaminated with chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Metcalf, R.L.

    1990-12-31

    The proliferation of xenobiotic chemicals in the global environment poses living problems for each of us aboard {open_quotes}spaceship earth.{close_quotes} Seven case studies are presented that illustrate the magnitude of the problem that can result from waiting to identify toxic hazards until there have been decades of {open_quotes}human guinea pig{close_quotes} exposure. 25 refs., 5 tabs.

  3. A high energy physics perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Marciano, W.J.

    1997-01-13

    The status of the Standard model and role of symmetry in its development are reviewed. Some outstanding problems are surveyed and possible solutions in the form of additional {open_quotes}Hidden Symmetries {close_quotes} are discussed. Experimental approaches to uncover {open_quotes}New Physics{close_quotes} associated with those symmetries are described with emphasis on high energy colliders. An outlook for the future is given.

  4. Reformulated gasoline deal with Venezuela draws heat

    SciTech Connect

    Begley, R.

    1994-04-06

    A fight is brewing in Congress over a deal to let Venezuela off the hook in complying with the Clean Air Act reformulated gasoline rule. When Venezuela threatened to call for a GATT panel to challenge the rule as a trade barrier, the Clinton Administration negotiated to alter the rule, a deal that members of Congress are characterizing as {open_quotes}secret{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}back door.{close_quotes}

  5. Interaction of impurity ions with a weakly non-Maxwellian simple hydrogenic plasma. [None

    SciTech Connect

    Terry, W.K.

    1988-03-01

    The average acceleration of an ensemble of /open quotes/test particles/close quotes/ in a plasma is called the /open quotes/dynamical friction/close quotes/; the average rate at which their velocity vectors spread out in velocity-space diffusion-rate tensor. These quantities are derived for impurity ions intereacting with a weakly non-Maxwellian simple hydrogenic plasma. The distribution functions for the plasma ions and electrons are written explicitly.

  6. Array enhanced stochastic resonance: Implications for signal processing

    SciTech Connect

    Inchiosa, M.E.; Bulsara, A.R.; Lindner, J.F.; Meadows, B.K.; Ditto, W.L.

    1996-06-01

    In computer simulations, we enhance the response of a {open_quote}{open_quote}stochastic resonator{close_quote}{close_quote} by coupling it into an array of identical resonators. We relate this array enhanced stochastic resonance (AESR) to the global spatiotemporal dynamics of the array and show how noise and coupling cooperate to organize spatial order, temporal periodicity, and peak output signal-to-noise ratio. We consider the application of AESR to signal processing. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  7. Acoustic chaos

    SciTech Connect

    Lauterborn, W.; Parlitz, U.; Holzfuss, J.; Billo, A.; Akhatov, I.

    1996-06-01

    Acoustic cavitation, a complex, spatio-temporal dynamical system, is investigated with respect to its chaotic properties. The sound output, the {open_quote}{open_quote}noise{close_quote}{close_quote}, is subjected to time series analysis. The spatial dynamics of the bubble filaments is captured by high speed holographic cinematography and subsequent digital picture processing from the holograms. Theoretical models are put forward for describing the pattern formation. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  8. Geophone design evolution related to non-geophysical applications

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, P.

    1996-04-01

    Acoustic velocity sensors, {open_quote}{open_quote}geophones,{close_quote}{close_quote} are used for geophysical exploration in large numbers worldwide. Information is presented to aid potential users in other fields to evaluate the geophone as a viable sensor. Past history and present design are covered in a series of slides and drawings. Intrinsic noise, frequency bandwidth, and dynamic range of typical production geophones are characterized. Some successful non-geophysical applications are described. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  9. Global warming science & policy: Progress 1996-1997

    SciTech Connect

    Sinyan, Shen

    1997-12-31

    Recent progress in science and policy is summarized. The most significant progress has been the recognition worldwide of the importance of Extreme Events (EE), short for extreme climatic events, during the earth`s current climatic transition, in which the magnitudes of the {open_quotes}oscillatory amplitude{close_quotes} in climatic patterns could easily {open_quotes}exceed{close_quotes} the difference between the end points.

  10. The pulse modulator for the mod-anode of the cluster klystron

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Y.; Palmer, R.; Wang, H.

    1996-05-01

    A high voltage pulse generator using a Zarem type modulator was developed. The Zarem type circuit doesn`t require a matched load, making it suitable to drive the mod-anode of the cluster klystron, which has a capacitive load. The principle and the experiments, as well as the analyses and the simulations of the observed phenomena, (ringing, pulse {open_quotes}skirt{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}deficiency{close_quotes}) are presented.

  11. The Cook Mountain problem: Stratigraphic reality and semantic confusion

    SciTech Connect

    Ewing, T.E. |

    1994-12-31

    Historical inconsistency as to what constitutes the Cook Mountain Formation illustrates the semantic confusion resulting from extending surface-derived stratigraphic names into the subsurface without a full understanding of basin architecture. At the surface, the Cook Mountain Formation consists of fossilerous marine shale, glaucony and marl, and marginal-marine sandstone and shale between the nonmarine Sparta Formation sandstones below and the nonmarine Yegua Formation sandstones and lignitic shales above. Fossils are abundant, including the benthic foraminifer Ceratobulimina eximia. As subsurface exploration began, the first occurrence of Ceratobulimina eximia {open_quotes}Cerat{close_quotes} was used as the top of the marine {open_quotes}Cook Mountain Shale{close_quotes} below the Yegua section. Downdip, the overlying Yegua was found to become a sequence of marine shales and marginal-marine sandstones, the lower part of which yielded {open_quotes}Cerat{close_quotes}. Because of this, the lower sandstones were called {open_quotes}Cook Mountain{close_quotes} in many fields. At the Yegua shelf margin, {open_quotes}Cerat{close_quotes} is absent. Different exploration teams have used their own definitions for {open_quotes}Cook Mountain{close_quotes}, leading to substantial confusion.

  12. Lee Hot Springs power project. First topical report management plan

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-18

    The Lee Hot Springs Project ({open_quotes}the Project{close_quotes}) will use binary cycle turbine-generators supplied by geothermal hot water to make electricity. Two clusters of three (3) 1,000 kilowatt ({open_quotes}kw{close_quotes}) projects, each cluster comprising a {open_quotes}plant,{close_quotes} will use the pumped output of one geothermal well. The plants will tie into Sierra Pacific Power Company`s ({open_quotes}Sierra`s{open_quotes}) transmission system. The Project objectives are designed to demonstrate that geothermal energy is a non-polluting, non-CO{sub 2} emitting form of generation, which if used in larger increments, will significantly reduce the emissions of greenhouse gasses. The Project will also demonstrate the use of modular, {open_quotes}non-grid{close_quotes} or {open_quotes}village{close_quotes} units which can be used throughout the world where geothermal energy is present in remote locations and power is not. The Project was conceived as a 20,000 kw Qualifying Facility, divided into two phases, a 5,000 kw phase one followed by a 15,000 kw phase two. The first phase of the Project now consists of two (2) 3,000 kw plants to generate 6,000 kws.

  13. Lie{endash}Poisson deformation of the Poincar{acute e} algebra

    SciTech Connect

    Stern, A. |

    1996-04-01

    We find a one-parameter family of quadratic Poisson structures on {bold R}{sup 4}{times}SL(2,{ital C}) which satisfies the properties: (a) that it reduces to the standard Poincar{acute e} algebra for a particular limiting value of the parameter (which we associate with the {open_quote}{open_quote}canonical limit{close_quote}{close_quote}), as well as, (b) that it is preserved under the Lie{endash}Poisson action of the Lorentz group (and the Lie{endash}Poisson transformations reduce to canonical ones in the canonical limit). As with the Poincar{acute e} algebra, our deformed Poincar{acute e} algebra has two Casimir functions which correspond to {open_quote}{open_quote}mass{close_quote}{close_quote} and {open_quote}{open_quote}spin.{close_quote}{close_quote} The constant mass and spin surfaces in {bold R}{sup 4}{times}SL(2,{ital C}) define symplectic leaves which we parametrize with space{endash}time coordinates, momenta, and spin. We thereby obtain realizations of the deformed Poincar{acute e} algebra for both spinning and spinless particles. The formalism can be applied for finding a one-parameter family of canonically inequivalent descriptions of the photon. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  14. The Clean Air Act`s enforcement ace: An overview of EPA`s credible evidence rule

    SciTech Connect

    Paul, P.J.

    1997-12-31

    The 1990 Clean Air Act ({open_quotes}CAA{close_quotes}) amendments included numerous provisions directing EPA to require owners or operators to conduct enhanced monitoring and to make compliance certifications. These provisions contained in both those Title V (Operating Permits) and Title VII (Enforcement) of those amendments. Section 503(b)(2) of the amended CAA requires at least annual certifications of compliance with permit requirements and prompt reporting of any deviations from such requirements. Section 114(a)(3) of the CAA requires EPA to promulgate rules on enhanced monitoring and compliance certifications. On October 23, 1993, EPA proposed its {open_quotes}enhanced monitoring{close_quotes} rule. The enhanced monitoring proposal also included the Conceptual approach of using {open_quotes}presumptively credible evidence{close_quotes} in enforcement actions. Further, this proposal also would have allowed the use of {open_quotes}credible evidence,{close_quotes} other than reference or compliance test data to establish noncompliance in an enforcement action. In approximately three weeks, EPA is scheduled to republish as a final rule, the credible evidence provisions of the original enhanced monitoring rule with apparently minor revisions. This paper briefly summarizes the history, status, and likely impact EPA`s {open_quotes}any credible evidence{close_quotes} ({open_quotes}ACE{close_quotes}) rule.

  15. A comparative survey of non-adaptive pooling designs

    SciTech Connect

    Balding, D.J.; Bruno, W.J.; Torney, D.C.

    1996-12-31

    Pooling (or {open_quotes}group testing{close_quotes}) designs for screening clone libraries for rare {open_quotes}positives{close_quotes} are described and compared. We focus on non-adaptive designs in which, in order both to facilitate automation and to minimize the total number of pools required in multiple screenings, all the pools are specified in advance of the experiments. The designs considered include deterministic designs, such as set-packing designs, the widely-used {open_quotes}row and column{close_quotes} designs and the more general {open_quotes}transversal{close_quotes} designs, as well as random designs such as {open_quotes}random incidence{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}random k-set{close_quotes} designs. A range of possible performance measures is considered, including the expected numbers of unresolved positive and negative clones, and the probability of a one-pass solution. We describe a flexible strategy in which the experimenter chooses a compromise between the random k-set and the set-packing designs. In general, the latter have superior performance while the former are nearly as efficient and are easier to construct. 39 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  16. Fissile material smuggling: German politics, hype and reality

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, H.

    1994-12-01

    The spy novel nightmare scenarios of nuclear smuggling have become reality, and much of the recent news has focused on Germany. But these events must be put in perspective, and a number of apparent {open_quotes}facts{close_quotes} must be examined more carefully. For example, while authorities in Germany have seized weapons-usable material in various incidents that have captured international attention, none of this material is from nuclear weapons or weapons production facilities. Moreover, despite the fact that the number of criminal cases has risen, the quantity of {open_quotes}loose{close_quotes} weapons-usable material is still not significant. Nor are there any indications so far that powerful criminal organizations or buyers from nuclear-ambitious {open_quotes}rogue{close_quotes} states are involved. Rather, the incidents so far involve individuals or small groups of criminals who found that their {open_quotes}buyers{close_quotes} were, more often than not, German security agents working {open_quotes}sting{close_quotes} operations to trap the smugglers and black marketeers or journalists working on a {open_quotes}big story.{close_quotes}

  17. Plume fluxes in clear and cloudy convective boundary layers

    SciTech Connect

    Schumann, U. ); Moeng, C.H. )

    1991-08-01

    From results of large-eddy simulations of the clear convective boundary layer and of a stratus-topped boundary layer, mean properties of [open quotes]plumes[close quotes] that consist of [open quotes]updrafts[close quotes] and [open quotes]downdrafts[close quotes] are determined. The plumes are defined locally by the sign of the vertical velocity or of moisture fluctuation or by a combination of both. As a further alternative, updrafts and downdrafts in which the vertical velocity magnitude exceeds certain threshold values are considered. The first two variants divide the motion field into two streams, whereas in the other variants [open quotes]environmental[close quotes] air forms a separate stream. The computed mean properties are in general agreement with existing measurements. From the results we compute mean vertical fluxes assuming [open quotes]top-hat profiles[close quotes] and compare these with the actual fluxes. It is shown that the most uniform flux approximation is obtained if the plume structure is classified in terms of vertical velocity w. For such [open quotes]w plumes,[close quotes] the top-hat profiles approximate about 60% of the actual fluxes if updrafts and downdrafts are distinguished with zero threshold values just according to the sign of the vertical velocity. A higher percentage is obtained with nonzero threshold values. 23 refs., 40 figs.

  18. 76 FR 52032 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-19

    ... of Proposed Rule Change To Offer a Bulk-Quoting Interface August 15, 2011. Pursuant to Section 19(b... bulk-quoting interface for BATS Options Market Makers \\3\\ that will help them meet their obligations as... proposes to introduce a bulk-quoting interface for market makers in order to offer an additional...

  19. 46 CFR 280.5 - Criteria for determining whether or not civilian preference cargo is carried at a premium rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... demonstrate is reasonably equated to or less, than a rate quoted or actually charged by a foreign-flag carrier... conference or other rate making group that has only U.S. flag carriers as voting members; (2) Quoted by an... member to negotiate or otherwise establish its own rate; or (3) Quoted by a carrier and not published...

  20. 26 CFR 1.453-3 - Purchaser evidences of indebtedness payable on demand or readily tradable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... quoted by brokers or dealers making a market in such obligation or is part of an issue a portion of which... bonds are not quoted by any brokers or dealers who deal in corporate bonds, and, furthermore, there are... forth in subparagraph (2) of this paragraph) which are so quoted. Therefore, the bonds are not...

  1. 78 FR 69918 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Chicago Board Options Exchange, Incorporated; Notice of Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-21

    ... Immediate Effectiveness of a Proposed Rule Change Relating To Amend Rule 53.23 Related to CBSX RMM Quoting... Market-Maker (``RMM'') quoting obligations. The text of the proposed rule change is provided below...-Maker submits a two-sided quote in a security to which it is not appointed, it must fulfill...

  2. 75 FR 54407 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Amex LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-07

    ... Proposed Rule Change Amending Rule 107B--NYSE Amex Equities To Revise the Quoting Requirement August 30... program, to revise the quoting requirement. The text of the proposed rule change is available on the..., to eliminate the ability for an SLP to earn a rebate if it maintains a quote at the National Best...

  3. 75 FR 78312 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ OMX BX; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-15

    ... Proposed Rule Change To Clarify Quote Management Procedures December 9, 2010. Pursuant to Section 19(b)(1... quote management procedures. The text of the proposed rule change is below. Proposed new language is in... immediately re-adjust and display the Equities Market Maker's quote to the appropriate Designated...

  4. 77 FR 42040 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Chicago Board Options Exchange, Incorporated; Notice of Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-17

    ... Immediate Effectiveness of a Proposed Rule Change Relating to Continuous Electronic Quotes July 11, 2012... its Rules relating to continuous electronic quotes. The text of the proposed rule change is available... purpose of the proposed rule change is to amend Rule 1.1(ccc), ``Continuous Electronic Quotes,'' to...

  5. 78 FR 1906 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ OX PHLX LLC; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change To Amend...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-09

    ... Act Release No. 68217 (November 13, 2012), 77 FR 69525. II. Description of the Proposal The Exchange... Performance Evaluations With Respect to Quote Submissions of Streaming Quote Traders and Remote Streaming Quote Traders January 3, 2013. I. Introduction On October 31, 2012, NASDAQ OMX PHLX LLC (``Exchange''...

  6. 76 FR 72011 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; C2 Options Exchange, Incorporated; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-21

    ... Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change Related to the Quote Risk Monitor Mechanism November 14, 2011. Pursuant to... Rule 8.12 Quote Risk Monitor Mechanism. The text of the proposed rule change is available on the... quotations. C2 Rules require Market-Makers to maintain continuous electronic quotes.\\5\\ To comply with...

  7. 26 CFR 301.6501(c)-1 - Exceptions to general period of limitations on assessment and collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... is listed, the CUSIP number of the security, and the mean between the highest and lowest quoted... accordance with § 25.2512-2(b) of this chapter (based on the mean between the highest and lowest quoted... mean between the highest and lowest quoted selling prices for the date of transfer. (ii) Application...

  8. 76 FR 4965 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-27

    ... Proposed Rule Change Adopting Standards for Market Maker Electronic Quotes That Are Present During an... Exchange proposes to adopt standards for Market Maker electronic quotes that are present during an opening... 1. Purpose The purpose of this filing is to adopt rules governing quote widths for Market...

  9. 76 FR 54518 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Amex LLC; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change Adding...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-01

    ... Release No. 61095 (December 2, 2009) 74 FR 64786 (December 8, 2009). Rule 925.1NY discusses the quoting... Commentary .01 to Rule 925.1NY To Indicate That Market Makers Will Not Be Obligated To Quote in Adjusted Option Series and To Clarify an Existing Exception to the Quoting Obligations August 26, 2011....

  10. 16 CFR 453.2 - Price disclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... another funeral home, together with a list of the services provided for any quoted price; (B) Receiving remains from another funeral home, together with a list of the services provided for any quoted price; (C... provided for any quoted price and, if the charge cannot be declined by the purchaser, the statement:...

  11. 7 CFR 27.96 - Quotations in bona fide spot markets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Cotton Division will on each business day determine and quote by bale volume the prices or values of base... determined and quoted by bale volume in each such spot market for those qualities normally produced or traded... settlement of futures contracts, the Cotton Division will on each business day determine and quote by...

  12. 17 CFR 31.11 - Disclosure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... contract and a widely available source from which such price quotes may be obtained on a timely basis. (3... discounts), and where quotes of this series can be obtained on a timely basis; and (2) Not later than the... applicable premiums or discounts), and where quotes of this series can be obtained on a timely basis....

  13. 75 FR 77034 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-10

    ... Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change To Clarify Market Maker Quote Management Procedures December 6, 2010... change to clarify market maker quote management procedures. The text of the proposed rule change is below... immediately re-adjust and display the Market Maker's quote to the appropriate Designated Percentage set...

  14. 77 FR 49846 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Chicago Board Options Exchange, Incorporated; Notice of Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-17

    ... continuous electronic quotes. \\3\\ Securities Exchange Act Release No. 34-67410 (July 11, 2012), 77 FR 42040...-Makers' Continuous Quoting Obligations August 13, 2012. Pursuant to Section 19(b)(1) of the Securities... quoting obligations. The text of the proposed rule change is available on the Exchange's Web site (...

  15. 7 CFR 27.96 - Quotations in bona fide spot markets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Cotton Division will on each business day determine and quote by bale volume the prices or values of base... determined and quoted by bale volume in each such spot market for those qualities normally produced or traded... settlement of futures contracts, the Cotton Division will on each business day determine and quote by...

  16. 48 CFR 8.405-1 - Ordering procedures for supplies, and services not requiring a statement of work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... multiple award schedule(s) an opportunity to submit a quote; or (ii) Provide the RFQ to as many schedule... ensure that quotes will be received from at least three contractors that can fulfill the requirements. When fewer than three quotes are received from schedule contractors that can fulfill the...

  17. 75 FR 17981 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ OMX BX, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-08

    ... of Proposed Rule Change Relating to Market Maker Quoting Obligations April 1, 2010. Pursuant to... Proposed Rule Change 1. Purpose The purpose of this proposed rule change is to update certain quoting... thereafter make markets such that on a daily basis a Market Maker posts quotes at least eighty percent...

  18. 7 CFR 1427.1202 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... daily price quotations are available for the LFQ for the foreign growth, quoted C/F Far East, the price... are available for the LFQ for foreign growths, quoted C/F Far East, the price quotation for cotton for... Friday through Thursday week of the price quotations for foreign growths of ELS cotton, quoted cost...

  19. 76 FR 4961 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Amex LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-27

    ... Proposed Rule Change Adopting Standards for Market Maker Electronic Quotes That Are Present During an... Exchange proposes to adopt standards for Market Maker electronic quotes that are present during an opening... 1. Purpose The purpose of this filing is to adopt rules governing quote widths for Market ]...

  20. 77 FR 42038 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; C2 Options Exchange, Incorporated; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-17

    ... Effectiveness of a Proposed Rule Change Relating to Continuous Quotes July 11, 2012. Pursuant to Section 19(b)(1... of the Proposed Rule Change The Exchange proposes to amend its Rules relating to continuous quotes... reduce to 90% the percentage of time for which a Market-Maker is required to provide quotes in...

  1. 12 CFR 704.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... forced or liquidation sale. Quoted market prices in active markets are the best evidence of fair value. If a quoted market price in an active market is not available, fair value may be estimated using a valuation technique that is reasonable and supportable, a quoted market price in an active market for...

  2. 49 CFR 1103.20 - Practitioner's fees and related practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... all. Publicly quoted fees should be adhered to when actual charges are made. Practitioners are bound to charge no more than the quoted rates for 30 days following the date of their quotations unless a different period of time for the effectiveness of such rates is clearly specified when quoted, or...

  3. 49 CFR 1103.20 - Practitioner's fees and related practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... all. Publicly quoted fees should be adhered to when actual charges are made. Practitioners are bound to charge no more than the quoted rates for 30 days following the date of their quotations unless a different period of time for the effectiveness of such rates is clearly specified when quoted, or...

  4. 76 FR 72991 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; C2 Options Exchange, Incorporated; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-28

    ... Effectiveness of a Proposed Rule Change Related to a Temporary Quote Risk Monitor Mechanism Rule November 21... adopt Rule 8.12A Pilot Quote Risk Monitor Mechanism. The text of the proposed rule change is available... November 7, 2011, the Exchange filed to adopt a Quote Risk Monitor (QRM) rule.\\5\\ That rule change...

  5. 7 CFR 1427.1202 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... daily price quotations are available for the LFQ for the foreign growth, quoted C/F Far East, the price... are available for the LFQ for foreign growths, quoted C/F Far East, the price quotation for cotton for... Friday through Thursday week of the price quotations for foreign growths of ELS cotton, quoted cost...

  6. 77 FR 74034 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; New York Stock Exchange LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-12

    ... Certain Volume, Liquidity and Quoting Thresholds Applicable to Billing on the Exchange in Relation to a..., liquidity and quoting thresholds applicable to billing on the Exchange in relation to a systems issue... to modify the manner in which it calculates certain volume, liquidity and quoting...

  7. 75 FR 25019 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-06

    ... Change by NYSE Arca, Inc. To Make a Technical Adjustment to Its Rules To Allow Sub-Penny Quoting of... technical adjustment to its rules to allow sub-penny quoting of certain securities priced less than $1.00... Exchange proposes to make a technical adjustment its rules to allow sub-penny quoting of Investment...

  8. 38 CFR 36.4313 - Charges and fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... forward bid closing quote for any day 1 to 4 business days prior to loan closing. “Loan closing” is... discount must be the closing quote for the business day prior to the date of the commitment. Lenders... discount based on the GNMA 90-day forward bid closing quote for any day 1 to 4 business days prior to...

  9. 78 FR 16749 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BOX Options Exchange LLC; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-18

    ... To Clarify How the Exchange Will Treat a Market Maker's Quoting Obligations When the Underlying... quoting obligations when the underlying equity security enters a Limit State or Straddle State. The text..., this proposed rule change will address how the Exchange will treat Market Maker quoting obligations...

  10. 76 FR 65310 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Amex LLC; Order Granting Approval of Proposed Rule Change...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-20

    ... (August 26, 2011), 76 FR 54518 (``Notice''). II. Description of the Proposed Rule Change The Exchange... Adding Commentary .01 to Rule 925.1NY Concerning Market Maker Continuous Quoting Obligations and Adjusted... quote in adjusted option series and to reference an existing exception to the quoting obligations....

  11. 17 CFR 5.18 - Trading and operational standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... the retail forex counterparty has quoted to the customer is entered for execution before any order in... by means of a trading platform, the price quoted on the trading platform when the order was placed, or, in the case of an option, the premium quoted; (D) The customer account identification...

  12. A bimorph flexural-disk accelerometer for underwater use

    SciTech Connect

    Moffett, M.B.; Powers, J.M.

    1996-04-01

    Design equations, based on Ralph Woollett{close_quote}s 1960 report [{open_quote}{open_quote}The Flexural Disk Transducer,{close_quote}{close_quote} U.S. Navy Underwater Sound Laboratory Research Report No. 490], are presented for a bimorph accelerometer. Figures-of-merit are compared for PZT-4, PZT-5A, PZT-5H, PZT-8 piezoceramics, and PVDF-TrFE copolymer. Neutrally buoyant, spherical and cylindrical accelerometer configurations can be designed to meet bandwidth, sensitivity, and depth requirements. Experimental results for PZT-8 bimorphs indicate that simply-supported edge conditions are easily achievable. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  13. Features of time-independent Wigner functions

    SciTech Connect

    Curtright, T.; Fairlie, D.; Zachos, C.

    1998-07-01

    The Wigner phase-space distribution function provides the basis for Moyal{close_quote}s deformation quantization alternative to the more conventional Hilbert space and path integral quantizations. The general features of time-independent Wigner functions are explored here, including the functional ({open_quotes}star{close_quotes}) eigenvalue equations they satisfy; their projective orthogonality spectral properties; their Darboux ({open_quotes}supersymmetric{close_quotes}) isospectral potential recursions; and their canonical transformations. These features are illustrated explicitly through simple solvable potentials: the harmonic oscillator, the linear potential, the P{umlt o}schl-Teller potential, and the Liouville potential. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

  14. Wet and dry removal of sulfur in Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Yiwen; Carmichael, G.R.

    1996-12-31

    {open_quotes}The Branching and Atmosphere Trajectory Model{close_quotes} imitates the emission and its motion in the atmosphere by a series of puffs transported by the imitated meteorological fields. This model was modified to provide a more detailed treatment of the removal processes. Two of the major modification for this model include the simulation of cloud scavenging and simulation of dry deposition velocities over varieties of land use types. The simulation of cloud scavenging enables the model to predict the amount of wet deposition by cloud as well as the sulfate concentration in rain water. The imitated cloud exits at the point at which it is raining, and at the same time through which the puff passes. The area that the {open_quotes}cloud{close_quotes} covers is determined by the puff`s dispersion. The puffs center is treated as a batch reactor. In the puff`s center, the suspended sulfate aerosol is scavenged by the {open_quotes}cloud{close_quotes} nucleation process. The adsorbed SO{sub 2} into the {open_quotes}cloud{close_quotes} undergoes pseudo first order oxidation reaction in gaseous phase and rain water droplets to produce sulfate. Then the SO{sub 2} and sulfate inside the {open_quotes}cloud{close_quotes} are removed by falling rain. The accumulated sulfur mass inside the {open_quotes}cloud{close_quotes} is released to the atmosphere when the {open_quotes}cloud{close_quotes} disappears. This process is incorporated with every six hour precipitation in put data. The purpose of this study is to understand the sulfur deposition mechanism in Asia, focusing on two major questions (1) how are sulfur pollutants removed from the atmosphere and (2) what is the ratio of in-cloud process and below cloud process to total wet deposition.

  15. Mining landforms - A renewable energy development opportunity

    SciTech Connect

    Lombardi, J.A.

    1995-12-01

    A {open_quotes}landforming{close_quotes} land development opportunity unique to metals mining is described. {open_quotes}Landforming{close_quotes}, wherein the earth`s surface is reconfigured with mining waste rock and tails for the capture of renewable energy, is proposed by the United States Bureau of Mines (USBM) to be ecologically acceptable and, in selected cases, economically superior to conventional mineral extraction, reclamation, and minesite abandonment practices. Landforming is primary land construction that uses mining waste and applies the principles of land overlay architecture. Landforms can be layered, shaped, and configured through the use of binders and plastic sheeting to the engineering specifications necessary for the support of physical structures and passage or retention of fluids. Landforms that are terraced and south facing (in the Northern Hemisphere) are an ideal mount for sun-tracking mirror (heliostat) arrays. In {open_quotes}blue sky{close_quotes}. solar-rich environments, the mirrors can be targeted on a common area to form a {open_quotes}solar furnace.{close_quotes} The heat generated at the focal point of the solar array can be used to flash generate steam and run a turbine electric generator. The solar steam power generation cycle coproducers distilled water that can be sprayed onto the surfaces of the landform to create {open_quotes}greenscape.{close_quotes} Waters not consumed or evaporated in the site greening process percolate into and are stored by the landform if it is underlain with plastic. The landform serves, in effect as a shallow aquifer. The terrace-landform development of mineral properties in remote, infrastructurally destitute areas creates renewable energy, sustainable, electric power-water {open_quotes}oases.{close_quotes} The landform development of mineral properties adjacent to metropolitan areas creates utilities expansions and recreational {open_quotes}greenspace{close_quotes} in areas of growing urban need.

  16. ITER Building Design (D230-B), Task No. 28. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-01

    The International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) Project requires a set of buildings, each with its own distinct function, to support ITER`s mission. The Joint Central Team (JCT) has identified all the buildings in the set and has placed them in an efficient arrangement on the site. The JCT has developed a conceptual layout of each individual building. The buildings have been categorized into two main groups: (1) {open_quotes}Level 1 Buildings{close_quotes} which are on the construction schedule critical path and (2) {open_quotes}Level 2 Buildings{close_quotes} which, while important, are not on the critical path. The buildings are further categorized according to construction material, that is, {open_quotes}reinforced concrete{close_quotes} or {open_quotes}steel-frame on concrete slab{close_quotes}. This Report responds to the Project`s request to perform the initial structural steel design for all the {open_quotes}steel-frame on concrete slab{close_quotes} buildings. Of the twelve (12) {open_quotes}steel-frame on concrete slab{close_quotes} buildings, four (4) are Level 1 and eight (8) are Level 2 Buildings. This Report is a deliverable for the ITER Task Assignment entitled {open_quotes}ITER Buildings Design (D230-B){close_quotes}, also designated as Task No. 28. ITER U.S. Home Team Industrial Consortium members, Raytheon Engineers & Constructors (RE&C) and Stone & Webster Engineering Corporation (SWEC), teamed to perform Task 28. This task commenced in May 1995. It was performed in accordance with the design criteria specified by the ITER-JCT, San Diego Joint Work Site.

  17. City of Austin: Green habitat learning project. A green builder model home project

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-01

    The purpose of the Year 14 UCETF project was to design and construct a residential structure that could serve as a demonstration facility, training site, and testing and monitoring laboratory for issues related to the implementation of sustainable building practices and materials. The Model Home Project builds on the previous and existing efforts, partially funded by the UCETF, of the City of Austin Green Builder Program to incorporate sustainable building practices into mainstream building activities. The Green Builder Program uses the term {open_quotes}green{close_quotes} as a synonym for sustainability. In the research and analysis that was completed for our earlier reports in Years 12 and 13, we characterized specific elements that we associate with sustainability and, thus, green building. In general, we refer to a modified life cycle assessment to ascertain if {open_quotes}green{close_quotes} building options reflect similar positive cyclical patterns found in nature (i.e. recyclability, recycled content, renewable resources, etc.). We additionally consider economic, human health and synergistic ecological impacts associated with our building choices and characterize the best choices as {open_quotes}green.{close_quotes} Our ultimate goal is to identify and use those {open_quotes}green{close_quotes} materials and processes that provide well for us now and do not compromise similar benefits for future generations. The original partnership developed for this project shifted during the year from a project stressing advanced (many prototypical) {open_quotes}green{close_quotes} building materials and techniques in a research and demonstration context, to off-the-shelf but underutilized {open_quotes}green{close_quotes} materials in the practical social context of using {open_quotes}green{close_quotes} technologies for low income housing. That project, discussed in this report, is called the Green Habitat Learning Project.

  18. Diagnosing and curing system freeze-ups: Part II

    SciTech Connect

    Frey, R.

    1996-02-01

    In our last article, we discussed determination and possible causes leading to frozen pipes in the heating system. We now turn to the matter of dealing with such freeze-ups. There are two major categories of frozen heating systems. The first and worst we can label the {open_quotes}Floridian Flew{close_quotes} type, when the usual occupants have taken off for warmer climates. The second is the {open_quotes}Howcudit {open_quote}B{close_quote} virus,{close_quotes} which occurs to normal people under an unusual Arctic Attack right while they are living there. Regarding the first, I never cease to be amazed how folks can just up and leave their house for three days to three months without making proper arrangements for monitoring the temperature of their home during their absence. There are a frightening number of humanoids out there, who either lack a minimal presence of common sense, or who are terrible gamblers. The amazing thing is that some of these folks wouldn`t even gamble a postage stamp on a magazine sweepstakes, but still will gamble the contents of their home by driving off for two weeks at Disneyland in the middle of January without ever making any provision for assuring that their house doesn`t freeze up while they are away. The {open_quotes}Howcudit {open_quote}B{close_quote}{close_quotes} type is not nearly as devasting as the {open_quotes}Floridian Flew.{close_quotes} Imagine coming home to an icy cold house after flying in from the sunny beaches of some tropical paradise. The oilburner switch is on. The thermostate is set at 60 where we left it, but the needle is buried somewhere down behind the cover, like it is cowering from guilt. {open_quotes}Oh Man! I just checked the bathroom; there is an icicle hanging from the vanity faucet and the toilet bowl is a block of ice.{close_quotes}

  19. Making manufacturers responsible for recycling: Passing the garbage buck

    SciTech Connect

    Chilton, K.; Boerner, C.; Ansehl-Fellow, J.

    1995-09-01

    During a meeting with the Conference of Mayor and the National Association of Counties in April of 1993, Senator Max Baucus, then-Chairman of the Senate Environment and Public Works Committee, unveiled his solution to America`s {open_quotes}garbage crisis{close_quotes}. Modeled after Germany`s draconian {open_quotes}green dot{close_quotes} recycling program, the Senator`s solution rested on a principle which he called {open_quotes}manufacturers` responsibility for the life-cycle of a product.{close_quotes} {open_quotes}Anyone who sells a product,{close_quotes} Senator Baucus noted, {open_quotes}should also be responsible for the product when it becomes waste{close_quotes}. Other variations on this life-cycle stewardship concept were a central element of Congress`s failed attempts in 1992-1993 to reauthorize the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Likewise, on July 11, 1994 the United States Conference of Mayors` Energy and Environment Committee passed a resolution calling on Congress to study the concept of {open_quotes}shared responsibility for waste reduction{close_quotes}. The committee cited the virtues of Western Europe`s systems of manufacturers` responsibility and claimed that a U.S. version would create jobs, promote new environmental technology and {open_quotes}result in the emergence of entire new industries{close_quotes}. This report describes a recycling program in Germany in which the manaufacturers are responsible for waste collection. The overall waste reduction benefits are described.

  20. Monitored plutonium aerosols at a soil cleanup site on Johnston Atoll

    SciTech Connect

    Shinn, J.H.; Fry, C.O.; Johnson, J.S.

    1996-01-23

    Suspended plutonium in air was monitored for four periods near the operation of a stationary sorting system used to {open_quotes}mine{close_quotes} contaminated soil on Johnston Atoll. The monitoring periods were 14 October-14 November 1992, 20 October-15 November 1993, 16 August-3 November 1994, and 17 February-27 February 1995. Pairs of high volume air samplers were located at each of four locations of the process stream: the {open_quotes}spoils pile{close_quotes} that was the feedstock, the {open_quotes}plant area{close_quotes} near the hot soil gate of the sorter, the {open_quotes}clean pile{close_quotes} conveyer area where sorted clean soil was moved, and the {open_quotes}oversize soil{close_quotes} crushing area. These locations were monitored only during the working hours, while air monitoring was also done at an upwind, {open_quotes}background{close_quotes} area 24-hours per day. The median concentrations of Pu in {open_quotes}workplace{close_quotes} air (combined spoils pile, plant area, and clean pile sites) in 1992 was 397 aCi/m{sup 3} (15 {mu}Bq/m{sup 3}), but increased to median values of 23000 aCi/m{sup 3} (852 {mu}Bq/m{sup 3}) in August-November 1994 and 29800 aCi/m{sup 3} (1100 {mu}Bq/m{sup 3}) in February 1995. The highest median value at the worksites (29800 aCi/m{sup 3}) was more than 200 times lower than the regulatory level. The highest observed value was 84200 aCi/m{sup 3} at the spoils pile site, and this was more than 70 times lower than the regulatory level. The conclusion was that, in spite of the dusty environment, and the increased level of specific activity, we did not find that the soil processing posed any significant risk to workers during the observation periods 1992-1995.

  1. Cold prebiotic evolution, tunneling, chirality and exobiology

    SciTech Connect

    Goldanskii, V.I.

    1996-07-01

    The extra-terrestrial scenario of the origin of life suggested by Svante Arrhenius (1) as the {open_quote}panspermia{close_quote} hypothesis was revived by the discovery of a low-temperature quantum limit of a chemical reaction rate caused by the molecular tunneling (2). Entropy factors play no role near absolute zero, and slow molecular tunneling can lead to the exothermic formation of quite complex molecules. Interstellar grains or particles of cometary tails could serve as possible cold seeds of life, with acetic acid, urea and products of their polycondensation as quasi-equilibrium intermediates. Very cold solid environment hinders racemization and stabilizes optical activity under conditions typical for outer space. Neither {open_quote}advantage{close_quote} factors can secure the evolutionary formation of chiral purity of initial prebiotic monomeric medium{emdash}even being temporary achieved it cannot be maintained at subsequent stages of prebiotic evolution because of counteraction of {open_quote}enantioselective pressure{close_quote}. Only bifurcational mechanism of the formation of prebiotic homochiral{emdash}monomeric and afterwards polymeric{emdash}medium and its subsequent transformation in {open_quote}homochiral chemical automata{close_quote} ({open_quote}biological big bang{close_quote}{emdash}passage from {open_quote}stochastic{close_quote} to {open_quote}algorithmic{close_quote} chemistry) is possible and can be realized. Extra-terrestrial (cold, solid phase) scenarios of the origin of life seem to be more promising from that point of view than terrestrial (warm) scenarios. Within a scheme of five main stages of prebiological evolution some problems important for further investigation are briefly discussed. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  2. Enhancement of computer program SPECTRAN to provide optional synthesis of 1/12 octave-band and critical-band spectra from 1/3 octave-band spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Young-Soo; Liebich, R.E.

    1997-07-01

    This paper describes greatly enhanced version of the computer program SPECTRAN, which was initially presented in Paper No. 96-RA104.01, at the A&WMA 89th Annual Meeting in June 1996. The program has had three basic upgrades since that time. The first is provision of an option to use either batch-mode input from previously prepared data files or a {open_quotes}user-friendly{close_quotes} interactive input routine. The latter is primarily for first-time users and those having only one, or very few, spectra to process. The second improvement is the synthesis of 1/12 octave-band spectra from 1/3 octave-band spectra, with {open_quotes}tone correction,{close_quotes} in a manner similar to that used in the original version of the program. The third fundamental improvement is addition of a unique new capability to synthesize classic {open_quotes}critical-band{close_quotes} spectra from 1/3 octave-band input spectra. Critical-band spectra are also termed {open_quotes}equivalent-rectangular-bandwidth (ERB){close_quotes} and {open_quotes}equal-contribution-to-speech (ECS){close_quotes} spectra.

  3. Effects of pressure and temperature on gate valve unwedging

    SciTech Connect

    Damerell, P.S.; Harrison, D.H.; Hayes, P.W.; Simons, J.W.; Walker, T.A.

    1996-12-01

    The stem thrust required to unwedge a gate valve is influenced by the pressure and temperature when the valve is closed and by the changes in these conditions between closure and opening. {open_quotes}Pressure locking{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}thermal binding{close_quotes} refer to situations where pressure and temperature effects cause the unwedging load to be much higher than normal. A model of these phenomena has been developed. Wedging (closure) is modeled as developing an {open_quotes}interference{close_quotes} between the disk and its seat rings in the valve. The effects of pressure and temperature are analyzed to determine the change in this disk-to-seat {open_quotes}interference{close_quotes}. Flexibilities, of the disk, body, stem and yoke strongly influence the unwedging thrust. Calculations and limited comparisons to data have been performed for a range of valve designs and scenarios. Pressure changes can increase the unwedging load when there is either a uniform pressure decrease, or a situation where the bonnet pressure exceeds the pressures in the adjacent piping. Temperature changes can increase the unwedging load when: (1) valve closure at elevated system temperature produces a delayed stem expansion, (2) a temperature increase after closure produces a bonnet pressure increase, or (3) a temperature change after closure produces an increase in the disk-to-seat {open_quotes}interference{close_quotes} or disk-to-seat friction.

  4. Engineering change in global climate

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, S.H.

    1996-12-31

    {open_quotes}With increased public focus on global warming and in the wake of the intense heat waves, drought, fires, and super-hurricanes that occurred in 1988 and 1989, interest in geoengineering has surged,{close_quotes} says Stephen H. Schneider, professor of biological science at Stanford University in Stanford, California. One scheme set forth in a National Research Council report proposes using 16-inch naval guns to fire aerosol shells into the stratosphere in hopes of offsetting {open_quotes}the radiative effects of increasing carbon dioxide,{close_quotes} Schneider says. Schneider, however, would prefer that we {open_quotes}seek measures that can cure our global {open_quote}addiction{close_quote} to polluting practices.{close_quotes} Rather than playing God, he says we should {open_quotes}stick to being human and pursue problem - solving methods currently within our grasp.{close_quotes} Such strategies include efforts to promote energy efficiency and reduce our reliance on automobiles.

  5. How to swallow an elephant

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, K.B.

    1995-03-01

    There is an old East Indian fable of a young man who went to see a wise man. The young man had a question - {open_quotes}How can I become rich and powerful?{close_quotes} The wise man paused for a moment then asked a question in return - {open_quotes}How can you swallow an elephant?{close_quotes} The young man was astounded, {open_quotes}There is no way a man can swallow an elephant!{close_quotes} {open_quotes}Yes, there is,{close_quotes} replied the wise man, {open_quotes}You just have to do it one bite at a time.{close_quotes} Many large problems can only be handled the same way that an elephant is swallowed, one bite at a time. Global warming and other environmental problems are obviously of elephant-swallowing scale. Some have set a goal for our society of reducing atmospheric greenhouse gases, particularly carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), by 20%. The cost to accomplish this has been estimated to be about five trillion dollars! As big as this elephant is, I suspect that its size is understated, if all the factors involved are included. The proponents of the plan tell us that it is well worth the cost to save the world. Therein lies another elephant-style problem.

  6. Segregation analysis of Alzheimer pedigrees: Rare Mendelian dominant mutation(s) explain a minority of early-onset cases

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez, M.; Campion, D.; Babron, M.C.; Darpoux, F.C.

    1996-02-16

    Segregation analysis of Alzheimer disease (AD) in 92 families ascertained through early-onset ({le}age 60 years) AD (EOAD) probands has been carried out, allowing for a mixture in AD inheritance among probands. The goal was to quantify the proportion of probands that could be explained by autosomal inheritance of a rare disease allele {open_quotes}a{close_quotes} at a Mendelian dominant gene (MDG). Our data provide strong evidence for a mixture of two distributions; AD transmission is fully explained by MDG inheritance in <20% of probands. Male and female age-of-onset distributions are significantly different for {open_quotes}AA{close_quote} but not for {open_quotes}aA{close_quote} subjects. For {open_quotes}aA{close_quote} subjects the estimated penetrance value was close to 1 by age 60. For {open_quotes}AA{close_quotes} subjects, it reaches, by age 90, 10% (males) and 30% (females). We show a clear cutoff in the posterior probability of being an MDG case. 10 refs., 1 tab.

  7. Punishing the mine safety ostrich -- a primer on personal liabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Biddle, T.M.; Robertson, J.F.

    1995-12-31

    Mine personnel, from firebosses to company presidents, who ignore or flaunt safety, face increasing peril of personal civil and criminal liability under the Mine Act and various federal criminal statutes. This article surveys the many ways none safety {open_quotes}ostriches{close_quotes} can be punished. The most common source for personal liability comes from {section} 110(c) of the Federal Mine Safety and Health Act of 1977 {open_quotes}Mine Act{close_quotes} or {open_quotes}Act{close_quotes}). Section 110(c) allows the Department of Labor`s Mine Safety and Health Administration ({open_quotes}MSHA{close_quotes} to seek both civil and criminal charges against corporate directors, officers and agents for {open_quotes}knowingly{close_quotes} authorizing, ordering or carrying out a violation of a mandatory safety or health standard or Mine Act provision. Similar charges may be brought against those individuals for failure to comply with an order of withdrawal or with an order incorporated in a final decision under the Act (except an order to pay civil penalties or an order in a discrimination case).

  8. Do disk drives dream of buffer cache hits?

    SciTech Connect

    Holt, A.

    1994-12-31

    G.E. Moore, in his book Principia Ethica, examines the popular view of ethics that deals with {open_quotes}what we ought to do{close_quotes} as well as using ethics to cover the general inquiry: {open_quotes}what is good?{close_quotes} This paper utilises Moore`s view of Ethics to examine computer systems performance. Moore asserts that {open_quotes}good{close_quotes} in itself is indefinable. It is argued in this report that, although we describe computer systems as good (or bad) a computer system cannot be good in itself, rather a means to good! In terms of {open_quotes}what we ought to do{close_quotes} this paper looks at what actions (would) bring about good computer system performance according to computer science and engineering literature. In particular we look at duties, responsibilities and {open_quotes}to do what is right{close_quotes} in terms of system administration, design and usage. We further argue that in order to first make ethical observations with respect computer system performance and then apply them, requires technical knowledge which is typically limited to industry specialists and experts.

  9. Applicable Railroad Commission rules regarding notification, cleanup, and follow up reporting of inland crude spills

    SciTech Connect

    Grossman, G.M.

    1996-08-01

    There are a myriad of regulations, both federal, state, and local dealing with spill notification cleanup, and follow up reporting. This paper describes the applicable Railroad Commission (RRC) Oil and Gas Division Rules and Regulations requiring notification, cleanup, and follow up reporting of inland crude oil spills in the state of Texas. Statewide Rule (SWR) titled {open_quotes}water protection{close_quotes} requires that {open_quotes}no person conducting activities subject to the regulation of RRC may cause or allow pollution of the surface or subsurface water in the state{close_quotes}. SWR 20 titled {open_quotes}notification of fire, breaks, leaks, or blowouts{close_quotes}, requires immediate notice of a fire, leak, spill, or break from production facilities to the appropriate district office and follow up written reporting. SWR 71 titled {open_quotes}Pipeline Tariffs{close_quotes} requires pipeline companies to give immediate notice of spills and fires to the appropriate district office along with follow up reports. SWR 91 titled {open_quotes}Cleanup of soil contaminated by a crude oil spill{close_quotes} requires notification, cleanup, and follow up reporting requirements for crude oil spills.

  10. Modeling the association of metals with heterogeneous environmental sorbents

    SciTech Connect

    Westall, J.C.

    1995-12-01

    We have critically evaluated several approaches to modeling the association of metals with heterogeneous environmental materials such as humic acids and soil particle surfaces. We conclude that {open_quotes}mechanistic{close_quotes} models are not nearly as {open_quotes}mechanistic{close_quotes} as one generally assumes, and that {open_quotes}semi-empirical{close_quotes} models are much more valuable than one might assume by comparison to simple {open_quotes}K{sub d}{close_quotes} models. We present a semi-empirical {open_quotes}discrete-log-K-spectrum{close_quotes} model and use it to describe the binding of Co(II), as a function of pH and NaClO{sub 4} concentration, to two environmental substrates: leonardite humic acid and a kaolinitic subsoil. We conclude that a semi-empirical model, based on a discrete log K spectrum, is the most efficient approach to representing the interactions of metals with heterogeneous environmental materials over a wide range of solution composition.

  11. An empirical test of the weighted effect approach to generalized prediction using recursive neural nets

    SciTech Connect

    Lang, R.

    1996-12-31

    The requirement of a strict and fixed distinction between dependent variables and independent variables, together with the presence of missing data, typically imposes considerable problems for most standard statistical prediction procedures. This paper describes a solution of these problems through the {open_quotes}weighted effect{close_quotes} approach in which recursive neural nets are used to learn how to compensate for any main and interaction effects attributable to missing data through the use of an {open_quotes}effect set{close_quotes} in addition to the data of actual cases. Extensive simulations of the approach based on an existing psychological data base showed high predictive validity, and a graceful degradation in performance with an increase in the number of unknown predictor variables. Moreover, the method proved amenable to the use of two-parameter logistic curves to arrive at a three way {open_quotes}low,{close_quotes} {open_quotes}high,{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}undecided{close_quotes} decision scheme with a-priori known error rates.

  12. Set theory and physics

    SciTech Connect

    Svozil, K.

    1995-11-01

    Inasmuch as physical theories are formalizable, set theory provides a framework for theoretical physics. Four speculations about the relevance of set theoretical modeling for physics are presented: the role of transcendental set theory (i) in chaos theory, (ii) for paradoxical decompositions of solid three-dimensional objects, (iii) in the theory of effective computability (Church-Turing thesis) related to the possible {open_quotes}solution of supertasks,{close_quotes} and (iv) for weak solutions. Several approaches to set theory and their advantages and disadvantages for physical applications are discussed: Cantorian {open_quotes}naive{close_quotes} (i.e., nonaxiomatic) set theory, contructivism, and operationalism. In the author`s opinion, an attitude, of {open_quotes}suspended attention{close_quotes} (a term borrowed from psychoanalysis) seems most promising for progress. Physical and set theoretical entities must be operationalized wherever possible. At the same time, physicists should be open to {open_quotes}bizarre{close_quotes} or {open_quotes}mindboggling{close_quotes} new formalisms, which need not be operationalizable or testable at the time of their creation, but which may successfully lead to novel fields of phenomenology and technology.

  13. Photosynthesis biomolecular electronics, and renewable fuels production

    SciTech Connect

    Greenbaum, E.

    1995-12-31

    The term {open_quotes}biomolecular electronics{close_quotes} evokes two powerful images of 20th century science and technology. First, the {open_quotes}bio{close_quotes} prefix of {open_quotes}molecular{close_quotes} explicitly acknowledges the molecular basis and understanding of living state systems. It is this understanding that forms the foundation of molecular biology, immunology, and genetic engineering. Second, {open_quotes}electronics{close_quotes} in the context of technology is understood to be that of electronic devices, starting from vacuum tubes and progressing through transistors, integrated circuits, and the semiconductor electronics industry comprising communications and consumer electronics, as examples. The conflation of these two terms into {open_quotes}biomolecular electronics{close_quotes} implies a radical concept: the construction of practical electronic devices from biomolecular components. This presentation will focus on an understanding and interpretation of the molecular architecture of the photosynthetic membrane and its potential application for the construction of optoelectronic devices and the production of renewable hydrogen via photosynthetic water splitting. Recent advances on direct electrical contact of the electron transport chain of photosynthesis with metallocatalysts as well as the discovery of new photoreactions in mutants of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii will be discussed.

  14. Liquid and gas flowmeters based on the waveguide properties of pipelines

    SciTech Connect

    Kolmakov, I.A.

    1995-08-01

    A fundamentally new type of flowmeter based on the waveguide properties of pipelines is discussed and the influence of the flow of the fluid on the critical frequencies is considered. Waveguides have a set of critical frequencies. Waves with frequencies below the critical values do not propagate, i.e., the waveguides are {open_quotes}blocked{close_quotes} to such waves. This circumstance, along with the possibility of kinematic {open_quotes}unblocking{close_quotes} of pipeline-waveguides, forms the basis for a new flowmeter. This article discusses the essence and operating principle of a new flowmeter, based on the waveguide properties of the measuring segment of the pipeline, where the fluid moving in it is probed with acoustic signals. Waves of a different kind can be used, however, because the {open_quotes}unblocking{close_quotes} of the pipeline-waveguide is kinematic.

  15. Use of SSH on a compartmented mode workstation

    SciTech Connect

    Tolliver, J.S.; Dillow, D.

    1997-08-01

    SSH stands for {open_quotes}Secure Shell.{close_quotes} It is now a user shell like csh or ksh. Instead it is a widely-used means to accomplish secure, encrypted communication among cooperating nodes. It is a secure replacement for the {open_quotes}r-commands{close_quotes}, rlogin, and rcp. SSH is free for noncommercial use and builds and runs on most any Unix platform. A Compartmented Mode Workstation (CMW) is an example of a secure or {open_quotes}trusted{close_quotes} operating system. The use of SSH on a CMW introduces security problems unless the SSH source code is modified to take advantage of the security features of the CMW. This paper describes the port and use of SSH on one particular brand of CMW.

  16. Ethanol mandate thrown out by appeals court

    SciTech Connect

    Begley, R.

    1995-05-10

    In a victory for the oil industry, a federal appeals court has overturned EPA`s mandate for ethanol use in reformulated gasoline (REG), saying the agency lacks authority to require 30% of the oxygenate market be reserved for ethanol. EPA says the ruling does not prevent ethanols use in RFG - {open_quotes}It only says that EPA cannot dictate the recipe.{close_quotes} Charles DiBona, president of the American Petroleum Institute (API), says {open_quotes}API and its member companies are not opposed to the use of ethanol as an oxygenate. We oppose this illegal mandate.{close_quotes} Urvan Sternfels, president of the National Petroleum Refiners Association, says, {open_quotes}Mandating market shares for any product is unsound economic policy.{close_quotes} The two trade groups led the legal battle against the ethanol requirement.

  17. Hypermedia systems: An introduction

    SciTech Connect

    Lennon, J.; Maurer, H.

    1995-03-01

    For the support of mega-quantities of documents there are now emerging radically new communication and general information systems. In this paper we suggest that although many {open_quotes}first generation{close_quotes} systems currently being used have major drawbacks, the {open_quotes}second generation systems{close_quotes} that are appearing address these problems. We also suggest that since few people appreciate the ramifications of new high-resolution graphics technology, the term {open_quotes}multimedia{close_quotes} is frequently used with too narrow a meaning. It can be argued that hypermedia systems can revolutionize all work, leisure, and lifelong learning. This paper considers, under each of these headings, the implications of the new technology. One thing is certain: the impact will be tremendous and irresistible. Before long, organizations will not be able to afford not to use hypermedia.

  18. Thermal properties of explosives. Quarterly report, April--June 1964

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, L.C.

    1997-09-01

    Changes in the loading technique for the Henkin test to be used when investigating high temperatures explosives are reported. Data comparing times-to-explosion for lead, aluminum {open_quotes}foil{close_quotes}, insulated lead, and insulated aluminum {open_quotes}foil{close_quotes} plugs are included. A preliminary temperature-time curve for an HMX sample in the Henkin batch at 272{degrees}C, is reported. The pyrolysis apparatus has been reworked to increase its sensitivity and the results of the changes are readily apparent in the pyrolytic decomposition curves that are reported. Thermal data are reported for some {open_quotes}tailormade{close_quotes} samples of HMX, samples of PETN from different manufacturers, and the six simulated samples of Bridgewater HMX. Differences within these groups are detected by one or another of the tests. Work has begun on a two column gas chromatograph to be used in obtaining chemical reactivity data for use in specifications.

  19. Application of break preclusion concept in German nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Roos, E.; Maier, V.; Nagel, G.

    1997-04-01

    The break preclusion concept is based on {open_quotes}KTA rules{close_quotes}, {open_quotes}RSK guidelines{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}Rahmenspeziflkation Basissicherheit{close_quotes}. These fundamental rules containing for example requirements on material, design, calculation, manufacturing and testing procedures are explained and the technical realisation is shown by means of examples. The proof of the quality of these piping systems can be executed by means of fracture mechanics calculations by showing that in every case the leakage monitoring system already detect cracks which are clearly smaller than the critical crack. Thus the leak before break behavior and the break preclusion concept is implicitly affirmed. In order to further diminish conservativities in the fracture mechanics procedures, specific research projects are executed which are explained in this contribution.

  20. Crystal growth of a layered silicate clay mineral as revealed by atomic force microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Carrado, K.A.; Song, Kang; Zajac, G.W.

    1997-12-31

    Non-contact atomic force microscopy, commonly referred to as {open_quotes}tapping mode{close_quotes} AFM, has been used to scan primarily the morphological features of growing hectorite clay crystallites synthesized in the presence of organo-ammonium cations. The use of such cations allows larger crystals to form in this system, making study by AFM feasible. This is the first time that actual temporal {open_quotes}snapshots{close_quotes} of a clay`s nucleation and crystallization processes have been presented. The observed view does not support the perhaps predicted scene of small crystallites slowly ripening into larger and larger plates. Instead, larger and larger aggregates appear to coalesce from a larger number of small crystallites that are closely associated in globular networks similar in appearance to {open_quotes}strings of pearls{close_quotes} at the initial stages of crystallization.

  1. Earth systems education: Report from 60 U.S. teams

    SciTech Connect

    Hoyt. W.H.; Mayer, V.J.; Tschillard, R.L.

    1994-12-31

    Efforts are now underway to radically change the content and organization of the K-12 curriculum. Earth Systems Education is consistent with {open_quotes}Project 2061{close_quotes} (AAAS), {open_quotes}Scope, Sequence, and Coordination{close_quotes} (NSTA), and the emerging {open_quotes}National Science Standards{close_quotes} (NRC), but differs in that the focus is systems science of planet Earth, especially as it connects to all areas of the curriculum. NSF has supported about 200 teachers along with school administrators and college professors from leadership teams to pilot reform and restructuring efforts tailored to needs of local districts and states. Evaluation of Earth Systems Education has been undertaken by Horizon Research, and a clear conclusion has emerged that teacher/school administrator/college professor teaming and support over several years within a local school district is most effective at encouraging significant school curriculum and structural reform.

  2. Refinery suppliers face tough times

    SciTech Connect

    Rotman, D.; Walsh, K.

    1997-03-12

    Despite a handful of bright spots in hydroprocessing and petrochemical sectors, economic woes plague much of the refinery and petrochemical catalysts business, as suppliers are feeling the impact of mature markets and refiners` ongoing cost cutting. Industry experts say the doldrums could spur further restructuring in the catalyst business, with suppliers scrambling for market share and jockeying for position in growing sectors. Expect further consolidation over the next several years, says Pierre Bonnifay, president of IFP Enterprises (New York). {open_quotes}There are still too many players for the mature [refinery catalyst] markets.{close_quotes} Others agree. {open_quotes}Only about seven [or] eight major suppliers will survive,{close_quotes} says Robert Allsmiller, v.p./refinery and petrochemical catalysts at United Catalysts Inc. (UCI; Louisville, KY). {open_quotes}Who they [will be] is still up in the air.{close_quotes}

  3. Measurements and analysis of the equivalent circuit of the GEC RF Reference Cell. [GEC (Gaseous Electronics Conference); RF (radio-frequency)

    SciTech Connect

    Verdeyen, J.T. . Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering)

    1992-09-01

    The equivalent circuit of the GEC RF Reference Cell is determined by the use of a vector impedance meter and reported here. The measurement procedure and data reduction techniques are discussed and typical data are presented from which the component values are determined. Once the circuit is established, one can use it to define the ABCD parameters of the Cell which relate the terminal measurements to those at the plasma. A significant and as yet unresolved question is emphasized: namely, [open quotes]what is the path for the rf current [close quotes] An experimental procedure for answering this question is suggested, but there does not appear to be a simple [open quotes]plasma[close quotes] reason for the answer. To obtain such an answer is a challenge to the experimenters and modelers. While the emphasis is on the GEC RF Reference Cell, the procedure, data reduction techniques, and [open quotes]the question[close quotes] are pertinent to all reactors.

  4. Report of the committee on natural gas certificate and authorization regulations

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    On January 17, 1991, the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) began conditioning certain Natural Gas Act (NGA) section 7(c) construction certificates (as well as certificates for facilities originally built solely for Natural Gas Policy Act (NGPA) section 311 transportation service) in such a way that pipeline companies would bear the risk of recovering project costs. Several topics concerning natural gas certificates and the authorization regulations are discussed in this report. Subjects covered are the [open quotes]at-risk[close quotes] condition, the [open quotes] construction rule,[close quotes] order No. 555, LDC bypass, capacity brokering, interruptible sales service (Orders Nos. 636 and 547, Arkla Energy Resources, Inc.), optional certificates, storage certificates, the [open quotes]on behalf of[close quotes] requirement of NGPA section 311, and construction of section 311 facilities and subsequent conversion to section 7(c) status.

  5. Whither goest gathering? -- A producer prospective

    SciTech Connect

    Pate, M.L.

    1994-12-31

    On May 27, 1994, the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission ({open_quotes}Commission{close_quotes}) significantly altered the gas industry`s debate on the issue of gas gathering. While {open_quotes}gathering{close_quotes} may generally be defined as some physical collection or aggregation activity, its legal definition is crucial under section 1(b) of the Natural Gas Act (NGA) as it effectively describes the limits of commission regulatory authority. In addition, {open_quotes}gathering{close_quotes} as a separately functionalized service of interstate pipeline transportation has significance as it is distinguished as an unbundled service for purposes of pipeline rate design. That is not to say that these two definitions have always been the same. And if they have, it does not mean that they have been subject to the same regulatory treatment. Commencing on May 27, the commission has made a giant step in attempting to rationalize its somewhat disparate efforts in the regulation of gathering.

  6. Sistersville, West Virginia: 1893 oil capital of the world

    SciTech Connect

    Johns, P.J.; Woodfork, L.D.; Patchen, D.G.; Avary, K.L.

    1996-09-01

    By the early 1890`s, production had peaked and was declining in the Pennsylvania oil fields. Drilling activity shifted south into West Virginia. The Sistersville oil field, discovered in 1891, became the {open_quotes}oil capital of the world{close_quotes} in 1893. For a brief period of time, Sistersville, West Virginia experienced its {open_quotes}moment of fame{close_quotes} with all of the attendant growth, excitement, glamour, prosperity, turmoil, rowdiness, disillusionment and eventual decline typical of {open_quotes}oil booms.{close_quotes} The geology of the Sistersville pool as well as aspects of the history and culture of the town during the boom are portrayed on the poster by maps, photographs and narrative. The history and heritage of that bygone era are also celebrated annually at the Sistersville Oil and Gas Festival and memorialized in The Oil and Gas Museum. Parkersburg, WV.

  7. Scenarios of energy demand and efficiency potential for Bulgaria

    SciTech Connect

    Tzvetanov, P.; Ruicheva, M.; Denisiev, M.

    1996-12-31

    The paper presents aggregated results on macroeconomic and final energy demand scenarios developed within the Bulgarian Country Study on Greenhouse Gas Emissions Mitigation, supported by US Country Studies Program. The studies in this area cover 5 main stages: (1) {open_quotes}Baseline{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}Energy Efficiency{close_quotes} socioeconomic and energy policy philosophy; (2) Modeling of macroeconomic and sectoral development till 2020; (3) Expert assessments on the technological options for energy efficiency increase and GHG mitigation in the Production, Transport and Households and Services Sectors; (4) Bottom-up modeling of final energy demand; and (5) Sectoral and overall energy efficiency potential and policy. Within the Bulgarian Country Study, the presented results have served as a basis for the final integration stage {open_quotes}Assessment of the Mitigation Policy and Measures in the Energy System of Bulgaria{close_quotes}.

  8. Measurement accuracy, bit-strings, Manthey`s quaternions, and RRQM

    SciTech Connect

    Noyes, H.P.

    1995-02-01

    The author continues the discussion started last year. By now three potentially divergent research programs have surfaced in ANPA: (1) the Bastin-Kilmister understanding of the combinatorial hierarchy (Clive`s {open_quotes}Menshevik{close_quotes} position); (2) the author`s bit-string {open_quotes}Theory of Everything{close_quotes} (which Clive has dubbed {open_quotes}Bolshevik{close_quotes}); (3) Manthey`s cycle hierarchy based on co-occurrence and mutual exclusion that Clive helped him map onto quaternions (as an yet unnamed heresy?). Unless a common objective can be found, these three points of view will continue to diverge. The authors suggests the reconstruction of relativistic quantum mechanism (RRQM) as a reasonable, and attainable, goal that might aid convergence rather than divergence.

  9. Classical methods for interpreting objective function minimization as intelligent inference

    SciTech Connect

    Golden, R.M.

    1996-12-31

    Most recognition algorithms and neural networks can be formally viewed as seeking a minimum value of an appropriate objective function during either classification or learning phases. The goal of this paper is to argue that in order to show a recognition algorithm is making intelligent inferences, it is not sufficient to show that the recognition algorithm is computing (or trying to compute) the global minimum of some objective function. One must explicitly define a {open_quotes}relational system{close_quotes} for the recognition algorithm or neural network which identifies the: (i) sample space, (ii) the relevant sigmafield of events generated by the sample space, and (iii) the {open_quotes}relation{close_quotes} for that relational system. Only when such a {open_quotes}relational system{close_quotes} is properly defined, is it possible to formally establish the sense in which computing the global minimum of an objective function is an intelligent, inference.

  10. {product}Strong focusing and the radiofrequency quadrupole accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Wangler, T.P.

    1996-02-01

    The {open_quote}{open_quote}New Problems{close_quote}{close_quote} department presents novel problems for use in undergraduate physics courses beyond the introductory level. In this article the problems and solutions use basic principles of electromagnetism to explain strong-focusing accelerator known as the radiofrequency quadrupole. Their solutions use Laplace{close_quote}s equation and require the extraction of information from boundary conditions. They also introduce the quasistatic approximation and show how under appropriate conditions Laplace{close_quote}s equation can be used to solve time-dependent problems. The problems are suitable for a course in electromagnetism and may be of interest for a cours in classical mechanics.

  11. Use of sulfur hexafluoride and perfluorocarbon tracers in plutonium storage containers for leak detection

    SciTech Connect

    Kung, J.K.

    1998-05-01

    This study involves an investigation of the feasibility of a tracer-based leak detection system for long-term interim plutonium storage. In particular, a protocol has been developed based on the use of inert tracers with varying concentrations in order to {open_quotes}fingerprint{close_quotes} or {open_quotes}tag{close_quotes} specific containers. A particular combination of tracers at specific ratios could be injected into the free volume of each container, allowing for the detection of leaks as well as determination of the location of leaking containers. Based on plutonium storage considerations, sulfur hexafluoride and four perfluorocarbon tracers were selected and should allow a wide range of viable fingerprinting combinations. A {open_quotes}high-low{close_quotes} protocol which uses two distinct chromatographic peak areas or concentration levels, is recommended. Combinations of air exchange rates, detection durations, and detectability limits are examined in order to predict minimum tracer concentrations required for injection in storage containers.

  12. Challenge problems for artificial intelligence

    SciTech Connect

    Selman, B.; Brooks, R.A.; Dean, T.

    1996-12-31

    AI textbooks and papers of ten discuss the big questions, such as {open_quotes}how to reason with uncertainty{close_quotes}, {open_quotes}how to reason efficiently{close_quotes}, or {open_quotes}how to improve performance through learning.{close_quotes} It is more difficult, however, to find descriptions of concrete problems or challenges that are still ambitious and interesting, yet not so open-ended. The goal of this panel is to formulate a set of such challenge problems for the field. Each panelist was asked to formulate one or more challenges. The emphasis is on problems for which there is a good chance that they will be resolved within the next five to ten years.

  13. Compilation for critically constrained knowledge bases

    SciTech Connect

    Schrag, R.

    1996-12-31

    We show that many {open_quotes}critically constrained{close_quotes} Random 3SAT knowledge bases (KBs) can be compiled into disjunctive normal form easily by using a variant of the {open_quotes}Davis-Putnam{close_quotes} proof procedure. From these compiled KBs we can answer all queries about entailment of conjunctive normal formulas, also easily - compared to a {open_quotes}brute-force{close_quotes} approach to approximate knowledge compilation into unit clauses for the same KBs. We exploit this fact to develop an aggressive hybrid approach which attempts to compile a KB exactly until a given resource limit is reached, then falls back to approximate compilation into unit clauses. The resulting approach handles all of the critically constrained Random 3SAT KBs with average savings of an order of magnitude over the brute-force approach.

  14. HUNTER-GATHERER: Three search techniques integrated for natural language semantics

    SciTech Connect

    Beale, S.; Nirenburg, S.; Mahesh, K.

    1996-12-31

    This work integrates three related Al search techniques - constraint satisfaction, branch-and-bound and solution synthesis - and applies the result to semantic processing in natural language (NL). We summarize the approach as {open_quote}Hunter-Gatherer:{close_quotes} (1) branch-and-bound and constraint satisfaction allow us to {open_quote}hunt down{close_quotes} non-optimal and impossible solutions and prune them from the search space. (2) solution synthesis methods then {open_quote}gather{close_quotes} all optimal solutions avoiding exponential complexity. Each of the three techniques is briefly described, as well as their extensions and combinations used in our system. We focus on the combination of solution synthesis and branch-and-bound methods which has enabled near-linear-time processing in our applications. Finally, we illustrate how the use of our technique in a large-scale MT project allowed a drastic reduction in search space.

  15. Memos trace routine radiation overexposures

    SciTech Connect

    Lobsenz, G.

    1994-03-09

    Workers at the Energy Department's Fernald plant routinely received [open quotes]gross,[close quotes] [open quotes]unacceptable[close quotes] and [open quotes]undue[close quotes] radiation exposures during uranium processing operations from the 1950s through the early 1970s, according to internal Fernald memos. The documents come to light as DOE continues to pay hundreds of thousands of dollars every month to defend its former Fernald contractor, NLO Inc., from a workers' lawsuit seeking compensation for alleged injuries from poor safety practices at the Ohio facility. DOE officials have contended the NLO defense effort is justified because there is no evidence that any former Fernald workers have suffered injury as a result of radiation exposures at the plant. However, the internal Fernald memos document major concerns expressed by Fernald health officials about unsafe working conditions at the plant and what appear in some cases to be routine overexposures of workers.

  16. Development of the understanding of the influence of wetting behavior on quenching and the merits in these developments of Prof. Imao Tamura

    SciTech Connect

    Tensi, H.M.; Totten, G.E.

    1996-12-31

    The knowledge about the heat transfer during the three cooling phases {open_quote}Film Boiling{close_quote}, {open_quote}Nucleat Boiling {close_quote} and {open_quote}Convection Cooling{close_quote} is compared with the fundamental quenching studies conducted by Professor Tamura 40 years ago. It is shown that his assumptions from that time are more than topical nowadays. Not only his experimental works show his excellent scientific power but also his interpretation of experimental results, especially the part about the influence of convection on cooling and its applicability in industrial quenching tanks. The actuality is shown also by other presentations at this ASM - meeting. Particular attention will be paid on heat transfer mechanisms and data analysis.

  17. Whatever happened to the 60 Hertz power?

    SciTech Connect

    Waggoner, R.M.

    1996-05-01

    We have all become used to 60 Hertz electrical power - in fact that is what we have expected at the electrical outlet ever since the DC days of George Westinghouse and others in the early part of the 20th Century, We knew that 60 Hertz was generated and transmitted by the power supplier, and we knew that our load devices, when {open_quotes}plugged-in{close_quotes} would accept that frequency when we turned on the switch. The surprise for most of us is that this happy {open_quotes}marriage{close_quotes} of 60 Hertz supply and 60 Hertz load just does not exist much anymore and the prospect for the future is an ever increasing {open_quotes}multiple-frequency{close_quotes} demand by the new sensitive loads. These multiple frequencies, in addition to 60 Hertz, are what we call Harmonics; and, their presence introduces both current and voltage interactions which can disturb our power systems.

  18. Toxicity evaluation and hazard review for Rigid Foam

    SciTech Connect

    Archuleta, M.M.; Stocum, W.E.

    1994-02-01

    Rigid Foam is a chemical delay foam used to completely encapsulate an object or to block access to an area. Prior studies have indicated that the final foam product is essentially non-toxic. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and summarize the current chemical and toxicological data available on the components of Rigid Foam and to update the information available on the toxicity of the final Rigid Foam product. Since the possibility exists for a partial deployment of Rigid Foam where only one of the components is released, this study also examined the toxicity of its chemical constituents. Rigid Foam is composed of an {open_quotes}A{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}B{close_quotes} Component. The {open_quotes}A{close_quotes} component is primarily a polymeric isocyanate and the {open_quotes}B{close_quotes} component is a mixture of polyols. In addition to the primary constituents, dichlorodifluoromethane and trichlorofluoromethane are present as blowing agents along with catalysts and silicone surfactants necessary for foaming. The pre-deployed {open_quotes}A{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}B{close_quotes} components are stored in separate vessels and are brought together in static mixing nozzles for dispersal. The results of this evaluation indicate that a completely deployed Rigid Foam under normal conditions is essentially non-toxic as determined previously. However, in the event of a partial deployment or deployment of an individual component directly at an unprotected individual, the degree of hazard is increased due to the toxic and corrosive nature of the individual constituents. The health hazard would depend on the properties of the material to which the person was exposed.

  19. Climbing the walls

    SciTech Connect

    Duey, R.

    1997-07-01

    {open_quotes}Integrated solutions{close_quotes} has become such a buzzword in the business world that it`s beginning to lose its semantic impact. But when the business is oil and gas and the integrated solutions revolve around information technology, the impact is very great indeed. A recent Cambridge Energy Research Associates study called the use of information technology within the petroleum industry a {open_quotes}quiet revolution.{close_quotes} The technology has been {open_quotes}a powerful, enabling factor in the survival and rebirth{close_quotes} of the industry since the price collapse of 1986, the report states, adding, {open_quotes}It will be even more important to the industry`s future, shaping business strategy and competitive advantage-- and company structure.{close_quotes} Like many other industries, oil and gas companies are moving away from hierarchical structures, relying on asset teams and other interdisciplinary approaches to maximize profits in an era of downsizing, volatile prices and stiff competition. {open_quotes}I think in the past the energy industry had a commodity mindset,{close_quotes} says Robert Shaw, senior vice president and head of the worldwide sector for Oracle Energy. {open_quotes}The industry was fairly controlled, stable and regulated, and there was a feeling that there wasn`t much to do except find oil, own reserves, refine as much as they can, run the pipe full, dispose of as much as they can and hopefully make a lot of money{close_quotes}.

  20. Tank 241-BY-106 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Huckaby, J.L.

    1995-05-31

    Tank 241-BY-106 headspace gas and vapor samples were collected and analyzed to help determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank. The drivers and objectives of waste tank headspace sampling and analysis are discussed in {open_quotes}Program Plan for the Resolution of Tank Vapor Issues.{close_quotes} Tank 241-BY-106 was vapor sampled in accordance with {open_quotes}Data Quality Objectives for Generic In-Tank Health and Safety Issue Resolution.{close_quotes}

  1. Tank 241-BY-105 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Huckaby, J.L.

    1995-05-31

    Tank 241-BY-105 headspace gas and vapor samples were collected and analyzed to help determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank. The drivers and objectives of waste tank headspace sampling and analysis are discussed in {open_quotes}Program Plan for the Resolution of Tank Vapor Issues.{close_quotes} Tank 241-BY-105 was vapor sampled in accordance with {open_quotes}Data Quality Objectives for Generic In-Tank Health and Safety Issue Resolution.{close_quotes}

  2. Induction-accelerator heavy-ion fusion: Status and beam physics issues

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, A.

    1996-01-26

    Inertial confinement fusion driven by beams of heavy ions is an attractive route to controlled fusion. In the U.S., induction accelerators are being developed as {open_quotes}drivers{close_quotes} for this process. This paper is divided into two main sections. In the first section, the concept of induction-accelerator driven heavy-ion fusion is briefly reviewed, and the U.S. program of experiments and theoretical investigations is described. In the second, a {open_quotes}taxonomy{close_quotes} of space-charge-dominated beam physics issues is presented, accompanied by a brief discussion of each area.

  3. Flute vortices in a plasma with hot particles

    SciTech Connect

    Andrushchenko, Zh.N.; Pavlenko, V.P.; Cheremnykh, O.K.

    1992-01-01

    Flute perturbations in a plasma with {open_quotes}hot{close_quotes} are considered. Steady-state solutions are found which describe localized vortex structures. Two types of vortex solutions are considered: a dipolar vortex and a combination of a dipolar and a monopolar vortex. It is shown that the presence of {open_quotes}hot{close_quotes} particles has an effect on the region in which the vortex solutions exist in velocity space, which can give rise to a change in the particle flux leaving the plasma due to eddy convection. It is shown that the perturbed density profile in flute vortices must be nonmonotonic. 10 refs.

  4. Technical and economic evaluation of selected compact drill rigs for drilling 10,000 foot geothermal production wells

    SciTech Connect

    Huttrer, G.W.

    1997-11-01

    This report summarizes the investigation and evaluation of several {open_quotes}compact{close_quotes} drill rigs which could be used for drilling geothermal production wells. Use of these smaller rigs would save money by reducing mobilization costs, fuel consumption, crew sizes, and environmental impact. Advantages and disadvantages of currently-manufactured rigs are identified, and desirable characteristics for the {open_quotes}ideal{close_quotes} compact rig are defined. The report includes a detailed cost estimate of a specific rig, and an evaluation of the cost/benefit ratio of using this rig. Industry contacts for further information are given.

  5. Coal: More than silver linings

    SciTech Connect

    Doerell, P.E.

    1995-03-01

    While last year`s coal survey was subtitled {open_quotes}Less than lackluster{close_quotes} because of overproduction and depressed prices, the end of 1994 showed a definitely brighter picture. An indication was the recent attendance and the mood at the CoalTrans `94 Conference in Hamburg, the trade`s biggest meeting. This atmosphere was described by many of the 1,300 delegates as {open_quotes}bullish{close_quotes}, with coal traders and consumers actually chasing suppliers-a rare occurrence in recent years. The reason for optimism is, of course, the end of the worldwide recession, resulting in increasing coal demand which stabilizes prices.

  6. Wholesale bakeries: A small-business guide. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-09-01

    Commercial baking is thought to be one of the world`s oldest industries, with evidence of commercial bakeries dating back to the Egyptians. In the late 19th century, technological innovations such as the development of {open_quotes}tame{close_quotes} yeast and the mechanization of bread kneading enabled mass production of baked goods. As a result, larger {open_quotes}wholesale{close_quotes} baking facilities began to replace smaller local bakeries. Today, there are over 3000 wholesale bakeries across the United States. This report is intended to provide information on the bakery business from the perspective of processes, issues, and challenges faced, including energy consumption of electrically driven equipment.

  7. Integrated predictive maintenance program vibration and lube oil analysis: Part I - history and the vibration program

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, H.

    1996-12-01

    This paper is the first of two papers which describe the Predictive Maintenance Program for rotating machines at the Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station. The organization has recently been restructured and significant benefits have been realized by the interaction, or {open_quotes}synergy{close_quotes} between the Vibration Program and the Lube Oil Analysis Program. This paper starts with the oldest part of the program - the Vibration Program and discusses the evolution of the program to its current state. The {open_quotes}Vibration{close_quotes} view of the combined program is then presented.

  8. Chemical warfare detectors worldwide

    SciTech Connect

    Corriveau, J.

    1995-06-01

    The purpose of this presentation is to provide information on the principal technologies used to detect and identify chemical warfare (CW) agents. Detectors of harmful CW agents may be grouped into three major categories based on their operating principles. The three technologies involved are biochemical, ion mobility spectrometry (IMS), and flame photometry (FP). Once a chemical agent has been detected by one of these means, the presence must often be {open_quotes}confirmed{close_quotes} by a second test that is based on a different technology. Two major means of confirming the presence of a chemical agent are mass spectrometry (MS) and {open_quotes}classical{close_quotes} wet chemistry.

  9. Programmed cell death for defense against anomaly and tumor formation

    SciTech Connect

    Kondo, Sohei; Norimura, Toshiyuki; Nomura, Taisei

    1995-12-31

    Cell death after exposure to low-level radiation is often considered evidence that radiation is poisonous, however small the dose. Evidence has been accumulating to support the notion that cell death after low-level exposure to radiation results from activation of suicidal genes {open_quote}programmed cell death{close_quote} or {open_quote}apoptosis{close_quote} - for the health of the whole body. This paper gives experimental evidence that embryos of fruit flies and mouse fetuses have potent defense mechanisms against teratogenic or tumorigenic injury caused by radiation and carcinogens, which function through programmed cell death.

  10. Stability of 2{radical} (2) {times}2{radical} (2) oxygen ordered superstructures in YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 6+x}

    SciTech Connect

    Aligia, A.A.; Koval, S.; Migoni, R.

    1998-01-01

    We have compared the ground-state energy of several observed or proposed {open_quotes}2{radical} (2) {times}2{radical} (2) oxygen ordered superstructures{close_quotes} [{open_quotes}herringbone{close_quotes} structures (HS{close_quote}s)], with those of {open_quotes}chain superstructures{close_quotes} (CS{close_quote}s) (in which the O atoms of the basal plane are ordered in chains), for different compositions x in YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 6+x}. The model Hamiltonian contains (i) the Madelung energy, (ii) a term linear in the difference between Cu and O hole occupancies which controls charge transfer, and (iii) covalency effects based on known results for t-J models in one and two dimensions. The optimum distribution of charge is determined, minimizing the total energy, and depends on two parameters which are determined from known results for x=1 and x=0.5. We obtain that on the O lean side, only CS{close_quote}s are stable, while for x=7/8, a HS with regularly spaced O vacancies added to the x=1 structure is more stable than the corresponding CS for the same x. We find that the detailed positions of the atoms in the structure and long-range Coulomb interactions are crucial for the electronic structure, the mechanism of charge transfer, the stability of the different phases, and the possibility of phase separation. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

  11. Readiness assessment plan for the Radioactive Mixed Waste Land Disposal Facility (Trench 31)

    SciTech Connect

    Irons, L.G.

    1994-11-22

    This document provides the Readiness Assessment Plan (RAP) for the Project W-025 (Radioactive Mixed Waste Land Disposal Facility) Readiness Assessment (RA). The RAP documents prerequisites to be met by the operating organization prior to the RA. The RAP is to be implemented by the RA Team identified in the RAP. The RA Team is to verify the facility`s compliance with criteria identified in the RAP. The criteria are based upon the {open_quotes}Core Requirements{close_quotes} listed in DOE Order 5480.31, {open_quotes}Startup and Restart of Nuclear Facilities{close_quotes}.

  12. Outlook: Federal aid called vital. [High Speed Rail Transportation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-16

    When high speed rail (HSR) proponents survey the future of their emerging industry, they invariably pepper their forecasts with [open quotes]ifs,[close quotes] most keyed to financing. In a typical comment, Jim Betts says his agency is [open quotes]waiting for a realistic and plausible funding capability[close quotes] before starting work on the 3-C's Cleveland-Cincinnati line. Betts wants federal funding to go beyond loan guarantees or greater access to tax-exempt bonds. He favors a generous direct-subsidy formula - similar to the one that financed the Interstates - in which the federal government matched every dollar from the states with nine of its own.

  13. Modules for 6.0 Tesla, vertically separated, clustered or distributed lattices

    SciTech Connect

    Peggs, S.

    1985-10-01

    A total of four lattices have been designed for distributed and (3,3) clustered versions of the SSC, and are available in the SSC database, SSCDB. These lattices are constructed of the same four basic modules, which with only minor tuning can be re-organised to form many conceivable realistic geometries. One module is trivial, consisting of regular cells in a long main arc. The description of the other three modules is the central theme of this report. Potential improvements in both the modules and their implementation are also mentioned. The lattices, with the generic name VSDlbnn.DAT, are in MAD/standard input format in the [SSCDB.LATTICES] directory of the database. Lower case letters in the generic name represent variable characters, where {open_quotes}b{close_quotes} is either C or D, according to whether the lattice is (3,3) Clustered or Distributed, and where {open_quotes}nn{close_quotes} is 01 or 10, according to whether the collision beta is {beta}{sup *} = 1.0 or 10.0 metres, in luminosity or injection lattices. The general title {open_quotes}VS{close_quotes} stands for the Vertical Separation of the two beam lines, with a (total) separation in the main arcs of 0.70 metres, while the notation {open_quotes}Dl{close_quotes} reflects the regular cell dipoles of 6.0 Tesla ({open_quotes}D{close_quotes}), with a phase advance per cell of 60 degrees ({open_quotes}1{close_quotes}). The half cell length is 100 metres. It would be useful for lattice designers and users in the SSC design community to agree on some such lattice naming convention, even if the agreement is merely informal. Two criticisms of the above convention are first, that since the magnet selection for the SSC has fixed the dipole field to be close to 6.4 Tesla, the {open_quotes}D{close_quotes} definition of dipole strength is redundant, and second, that collision betas of less than 1.0 metre can not be handled unless three digits, {open_quotes}nnn{close_quotes}, are included.

  14. Radionuclide air emission report for the Hanford Site Calendar Year 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Diediker, L.P.; Curn, B.L.; Rhoads, K.; Damberg, E.G.; Soldat, J.K.; Jette, S.J.

    1994-08-01

    This report documents radionuclide air emissions from the Hanford Site in 1993 and the resulting effective dose equivalent to any member of the public. The report has been prepared and will be submitted in accordance with reporting requirements in the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, Protection of the Environment, Part 61, {open_quotes}National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants,{close_quotes} Subpart H, {open_quotes}National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities.{close_quotes}

  15. Counter guarantee options

    SciTech Connect

    Gunguli, B.

    1995-07-01

    In November 1994, the Government of India announced a set of guidelines which independent power producers (IPPs) would have to follow if they were to receive counter guarantees for their power projects. It simultaneously announced that no further counter guarantees would be given apart from the first eight projects (See {open_quotes}India`s Fast-Track Projects{close_quotes}) where they had already been promised. {open_quotes}No other project, beyond the first eight, will be given a counter guarantee under any circumstance,{close_quotes} says P. Abraham, special secretary in the Ministry of Power.

  16. Hidden but important parameters in Ga{sub 0.5}In{sub 0.5}P cell growth

    SciTech Connect

    Kurtz, S.R.; Olson, J.M.; Bertness, K.A.

    1996-05-01

    Despite their best intentions, authors often omit from publications many important technical details. These omissions can lead to contradictions in the literature and inhibit {open_quotes}researchers{close_quotes} abilities to duplicate published results. Here, the authors explore {open_quote}hidden{close_quote} parameters that are usually not reported, either because they are unknown (e.g., impurity levels) or because they are considered to be of little importance. Specifically the authors focus on the effects - and how to reduce the effects - of growth parameters in nearby layers (diffusion), impurities (oxygen), and the cooldown atmosphere (hydrogen passivation).

  17. Studies in combustion dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Koszykowski, M.L.

    1993-12-01

    The goal of this program is to develop a fundamental understanding and a quantitative predictive capability in combustion modeling. A large part of the understanding of the chemistry of combustion processes comes from {open_quotes}chemical kinetic modeling.{close_quotes} However, successful modeling is not an isolated activity. It necessarily involves the integration of methods and results from several diverse disciplines and activities including theoretical chemistry, elementary reaction kinetics, fluid mechanics and computational science. Recently the authors have developed and utilized new tools for parallel processing to implement the first numerical model of a turbulent diffusion flame including a {open_quotes}full{close_quotes} chemical mechanism.

  18. From subsistance farming to agro-business

    SciTech Connect

    Delfino, M.

    1994-12-31

    A review of the parallel session on Hardware Architectures is presented. Legacy systems from the {open_quotes}subsistance farming{close_quotes} era, where small groups from experiments built or assembled their own loosely-coupled parallel systems must still be maintained, but the major trend is towards a re-birth of the Computer Center, using {open_quotes}agrobusiness{close_quotes} technology, the large scale use of loosely-coupled parallel systems using a high performance network to communicate with storage subsystems.

  19. CIMFUELS: NPRA computer conference continues to grow

    SciTech Connect

    Latour, P.R.

    1997-01-01

    Process computer control has been a bedrock topic of NPRA computer conferences for many years. Traditionally this has included basic and advanced dynamic control, multivariable control (CMVPC), on-line optimization (CLRTO), scheduling, on-line integration and performance measures. These are the five active function of CIMFUELS that make money. Lately some have excluded scheduling and integration from {open_quotes}process control{close_quotes} but as they go closed loop, they become basic functions of {open_quotes}process control.{close_quotes} These new techniques to determine the financial performance of computer systems technology are discussed.

  20. Oil Heat Manufacturers Association (OMA) - update

    SciTech Connect

    Hedden, R.

    1996-07-01

    Our industry must undergo a major paradigm shift if we are to prosper. We must change our {open_quotes}Fix it when it breaks{close_quotes} mind set to {open_quotes}Fix it so it won`t break.{close_quotes} Our main focus must be to improve Oilheat reliability. We have entered the era of the 100,000 mile tune-up. Meeting this challenge will require the best efforts of everyone in the industry from researchers, scientists, and engineers to manufacturers, dealers, sales people, installers, and service technicians.

  1. New ligands for the asymmetric dihydroxylation

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, H.; King, S.B.; Richardson, P.

    1995-12-31

    The asymmetric dibydroxylation of olefins in the presence of cinchona alkaloid derivatives (the AD reaction) has proven to be a reliable method in organic syntheses. For most olefins, the enantioselectivities using the {open_quotes}standard{close_quotes} phathalazine ligands are excellent; however, facial selectivity is still moderate for some olefins. 2,3-Diphenyl pyrazinopyridazine (DPP) and anthraquinone (AQN) as spacers for the {open_quotes}pseudo enantiomeric{close_quotes} alkaloids dihydroquinidine (DHQD) or dihydroquinine (DHQ) give superior enantioselectivities for almost all olefins.

  2. Ferroelectric domain gratings and Barkhausen spikes in potassium lithium tantalate niobate

    SciTech Connect

    Tong, X.; Yariv, A.; Zhang, M.; Agranat, A.J.; Hofmeister, R.; Leyva, V.

    1997-04-01

    The observation of Barkhausen current spikes during the recording of volume phase holograms in potassium lithium tantalate niobate is reported on. These spikes are due to the ferroelectric domain reversal induced by photorefractive space charge fields. Both {open_quotes}small{close_quotes} (1 nA) and {open_quotes}large{close_quotes} (100 nA) spikes are observed, which correspond to micro and macro domain reversal, respectively. The diffraction efficiency can change as much as 50{percent} during a single macrodomain switching. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  3. 75 FR 32826 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ OMX PHLX, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-09

    ... electronic interface with AUTOM via an Exchange approved proprietary electronic quoting device in eligible... the Exchange to generate and submit option quotations electronically through AUTOM in eligible...

  4. 75 FR 21375 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ OMX PHLX, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-23

    ... interface with AUTOM via an Exchange approved proprietary electronic quoting device in eligible options to... to generate and submit option quotations electronically through AUTOM in eligible options to...

  5. 75 FR 13186 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ OMX PHLX, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-18

    ... through an electronic interface with AUTOM via an Exchange approved proprietary electronic quoting device... received permission from the Exchange to generate and submit option quotations electronically through...

  6. Surface tension, hydrophobicity, and black holes: The entropic connection

    SciTech Connect

    Callaway, D.J.

    1996-04-01

    The geometric entropy arising from partitioning space in a fluid {open_quote}{open_quote}field theory{close_quote}{close_quote} is shown to be linearly proportional to the area of an excluded region. The coefficient of proportionality is related to surface tension by a thermodynamic argument. Good agreement with experimental data is obtained for a number of fluids. The calculation employs a density-matrix formalism developed previously for studying the origin of black hole entropy. This approach may lead to a practical technique for the evaluation of thermodynamic quantities with important entropic components. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  7. Nuclear power failure signals end of an era

    SciTech Connect

    Mariotte, M.

    1996-07-01

    In the United States, {open_quotes}the nuclear industry is dead, kaput, finished{close_quotes} says Michael Mariotte, executive director of the Nuclear Information and Resource Service in Washington, D.C. Why? Investors are reluctant to gamble their money on a future generation of supposedly safe, economic nuclear power plants. {open_quotes}in 1979, the `safe` Three Mile Island-2 reactor turned a several-hundred-million-dollar investment into a billion-dollar loss in a matter of hours,{close_quotes} Mariotte says. {open_quotes}In fact, investing in nuclear power at this point would be like investing in the Titanic II.{close_quotes} However, diehard proponents of nuclear energy persist in their optimism for a new nuclear age, Mariotte says. These nuclear backers see the need to replace aging plants with a new generation of safer plants. But would a new generation of reactors really be safer? {open_quotes}To date, the industry may spur some new nuclear plants, it is more likely to lead to alternative renewable sources of energy that are more economical. {open_quotes}The nuclear age has ended as a result of inefficiency and unacceptable risks...After 50 years of sustained abuse, the Earth has finally and deservedly entered the end of the nuclear age,{close_quotes} Mariotte says.

  8. Transition-metal complexes with sulfur ligands. 82. H{sub 2}S, S{sub 2}, and CS{sub 2} molecules as ligands in sulfur-rich [Ru(PPh{sub 3})`S{sub 4}] complexes (`S{sub 4}{sup 2-} = 1,2-Bis[(2-mercaptophenyl)thio]ethane(2-))

    SciTech Connect

    Sellmann, D.; Lechner, P.; Knoch, F.; Moll, M.

    1992-01-29

    Red (Ru(PPh{sub 3}){open_quote}S{sub 4}{close_quote}){sub x} ({open_quote}S{sub 4}{close_quote}{sup 2} = 1,2-bis((2-mercaptophenyl)thio)ethane(2-) reacts in liquid H{sub 2}S at -70 C to give (Ru(SH{sub 2})(PPh{sub 3}){open_quote}S{sub 4}{close_quote}) (1) which recrystallizes from H{sub 2}S-saturated THF as 1-THF in yellow-orange single crystals. 1-THF is the first of the rare and often very unstable H{sub 2}S complexes that could be characterized by X-ray crystallography and shows how H{sub 2}S in complexes with sulfur-dominated coordination spheres is stabilized by hydrogen bonds. 1 and 1-THF are rapidly oxidized by O{sub 2} to yield deep turquoise-blue (({mu}-S{sub 2})(Ru(PPh{sub 3}{open_quote}S{sub 4}{close_quote}){sub 2}) (2) which has a trans {eta}{sup 1}-{eta}{sup 1}-S{sub 2} bridge and exists in two diastereomeric forms as proved by X-ray structure determination of 2{center_dot}CH{sub 2}Cl{sub 2} and 2{center_dot}CS{sub 2}. Crystals of 2{center_dot}CH{sub 2}Cl{sub 2} are triclinic. The RuSSRu core in 2 is a chromophore and is described as delocalized 4c-6e {pi} system. A high degree of sulfur coordination at the Ru centers is assumed to be responsible for the unusual electronic properties of 2 compared with other {mu}-S{sub 2} complexes. Addition of CS{sub 2} to (Ru(PPh{sub 3}) {open_quote}S{sub 4}{close_quote}) fragments leads to formation of binuclear deep red ((Ru(PPh{sub 3}))({mu}-{open_quote}S{sub 4}{close_quote}CS{sub 2})(Ru(PPh{sub 3}){open_quote}S{sub 4}{close_quote})) (3; {open_quote}S{sub 4}{close_quote}CS{sub 2}{sup 2{minus}} = 2-))2-((2-mercaptophenyl)-thio)phenyl trithiocarbonate (2-)) that exists in two diastereomeric pairs of enantiomers. One pair was characterized by X-ray crystallography of 3{center_dot}CS{sub 2} that contains a bridging thioxanthate ligand in an unprecedented bonding mode. Crystals of 3{center_dot}CS{sub 2} are monoclinic, space group P1.

  9. Fundamental threshold of chaos in some nonlinear oscillators

    SciTech Connect

    Ryabov, V.B.

    1996-06-01

    A technique for predicting chaos arising in a broad class of nonlinear oscillatory systems is proposed. It is based on the notion of running Lyapunov exponents and uses the local stability properties of trajectories for determining the {open_quote}{open_quote}safe{close_quote}{close_quote} areas in the phase space where any trajectory is regular and stable in the sense of Lyapunov. The combination of this approach with harmonic balance method permits to obtain the corresponding {open_quote}{open_quote}safe{close_quote}{close_quote} regions in the control parameter space. The borders of these regions may be considered as threshold lines delimiting the areas of possible chaotic instability. An example of the two-well Duffing oscillator demonstrates good agreement between theoretically predicted values of control parameters where chaos arises with those obtained numerically. The technique is especially effective for rather high dissipation levels when other known methods such as Melnikov{close_quote}s criterion or combination of harmonic balance with analysis of variational equations fail to provide correct results. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  10. Anionic polymerization of azo substituted methacrylates

    SciTech Connect

    Dimov, D.K.; Dalton, L.R.; Hogen-Esch, T.E.

    1993-12-31

    The anionic polymerization of 4-phenylazophenyl methacrylate (PAM) and 6-(4-phenylazophenoxy)-hexyl methacrylate (PAHM) initiated by {open_quotes}living{close_quotes} PMMA with lithium counterion was studied in THF at {minus}78{degrees}C. The polymerization of PAM was prevented by a side termination reaction. The polymerization of PAHM proceeded smoothly to furnish PMMA/azopolymer block copolymers. The process showed features typical of {open_quotes}living{close_quotes} anionic polymerization. No phase transitions could be detected by DSC to prove liquid crystalline mesophase formation by the block copolymers.

  11. New FORTRAN computer programs to acquire and process isotopic mass spectrometric data: Operator`s manual

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.H.; McKown, H.S.

    1993-09-01

    This TM is one of a pair that describes ORNL-developed software for acquisition and processing of isotope ratio mass spectral data. This TM is directed at the laboratory analyst. No technical knowledge of the programs and programming is required. It describes how to create and edit files, how to acquire and process data, and how to set up files to obtain the desired results. The aim of this TM is to serve as a utilitarian instruction manual, a {open_quotes}how to{close_quotes} approach rather than a {open_quotes}why?{close_quotes}

  12. General regularities of explosion initiation in determining impact and friction sensitivity of an explosive

    SciTech Connect

    Kondrikov, B.N.

    1995-09-01

    The impact and friction sensitivities of explosives were measured by 12 methods used in Russia and abroad. Correlations between explosion frequency on devices No. 1 and No. 2 with a {open_quotes}lower sensitivity limit{open_quotes} according to Russian standard 4545-88 and {open_quotes}critical clamping pressure{close_quotes} for the I-6-2 device are obtained. Almost all results are well correlated with critical stress p{sub 1} thus representing a good base for explanation of experimental results for impact and friction. The values we obtained determining friction sensitivity are often proportional to p{sub 1}. The regularities obtained are explained.

  13. DOE TMD transportation training module 14 transportation of explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Griffith, R.L. Jr.

    1994-07-01

    The Department of Energy Transportation Management Division has developed training module 14, entitled {open_quotes}Transportation of Explosives{close_quotes} to compliment the basic {open_quotes}core ten{close_quotes} training modules of the Hazardous Materials Modular Training Program. The purpose of this training module is to increase awareness of the Department of Transportation (DOT) requirements concerning the packaging and transportation of explosives. Topics covered in module 14 include the classification of explosives, approval and registration of explosives, packaging requirements, hazard communication requirements, separation and segregation compatibility requirements, loading and unloading operations, as well as safety measures required in the event of a vehicle accident involving explosives.

  14. Mixed constraint satisfaction: A framework for decision problems under incomplete knowledge

    SciTech Connect

    Fargier, H.; Lang, J.; Schiex, T.

    1996-12-31

    Constraint satisfaction is a powerful tool for representing and solving decision problems with complete knowledge about the world. We extend the CSP framework so as to represent decision problems under incomplete knowledge. The basis of the extension consists in a distinction between controllable and uncontrollable variables - hence the terminology {open_quotes}mixed CSP{close_quotes} - and a {open_quotes}solution{close_quotes} gives actually a conditional decision. We study the complexity of deciding the consistency of a mixed CSP. As the problem is generally intractable, we propose an algorithm for finding an approximate solution.

  15. Splitting a default theory

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, H.

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents mathematical results that can sometimes be used to simplify the task of reasoning about a default theory, by {open_quotes}splitting it into parts.{close_quotes} These so-called Splitting Theorems for default logic are related in spirit to {open_quotes}partial evaluation{close_quotes} in logic programming, in which results obtained from one part of a program are used to simplify the remainder of the program. In this paper we focus primarily on the statement and proof of the Splitting Theorems for default logic. We illustrate the usefulness of the results by applying them to an example default theory for commonsense reasoning about action.

  16. High temperature fracture and fatigue of ceramics. Annual technical progress report No. 6, August 15, 1994--August 14, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, B.

    1996-04-01

    This report covers work done in the first year of our new contract {open_quotes}High Temperature Fracture and Fatigue of Ceramics,{close_quotes} which commenced in August, 1995 as a follow-on from our prior contract {open_quotes}Mechanisms of Mechanical Fatigue in Ceramics.{close_quotes} Our activities have consisted mainly of studies of the failure of fibrous ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) at high temperature; with a little fundamental work on the role of stress redistribution in the statistics of fracture and cracking in the presence of viscous fluids.

  17. 17 CFR 230.144A - Private resales of securities to institutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... exchange registered under section 6 of the Exchange Act or quoted in a U.S. automated inter-dealer... securities listed on a national securities exchange or quoted in a U.S. automated inter-dealer quotation... principal trading markets. (e) Offers and sales of securities pursuant to this section shall be deemed...

  18. 17 CFR 230.144A - Private resales of securities to institutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... exchange registered under section 6 of the Exchange Act or quoted in a U.S. automated inter-dealer... securities listed on a national securities exchange or quoted in a U.S. automated inter-dealer quotation... principal trading markets. (e) Offers and sales of securities pursuant to this section shall be deemed...

  19. 17 CFR 230.144A - Private resales of securities to institutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... exchange registered under section 6 of the Exchange Act or quoted in a U.S. automated inter-dealer... securities listed on a national securities exchange or quoted in a U.S. automated inter-dealer quotation... principal trading markets. (e) Offers and sales of securities pursuant to this section shall be deemed...

  20. 17 CFR 230.144A - Private resales of securities to institutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... exchange registered under section 6 of the Exchange Act or quoted in a U.S. automated inter-dealer... securities listed on a national securities exchange or quoted in a U.S. automated inter-dealer quotation... principal trading markets. (e) Offers and sales of securities pursuant to this section shall be deemed...