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  1. Defining {open_quotes}proband{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    Marazita, M.L.

    1995-10-01

    Bennett et al. presented recommendations of the Pedigree Standardization Task Force of the National Society of Genetic Counselors. As the authors clearly state, the importance of standardized nomenclature is without question for reducing the chances of incorrect interpretation of patient and family information and for facillitating communication between researchers and clinicians involved in genetic family studies. Most of the recommendations are appropriate and allow recording of the complex situations that can result from today`s reproductive and diagnostic technologies. However, there is a problem with the definition presented for {open_quotes}proband{close_quotes}, i.e. the {open_quotes}first affected family member coming to medical attention{close_quotes}. 6 refs.

  2. Chromogravity explains {open_quotes}strong gravity{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    Ne`eman, Y. |; Sijacki, D.

    1993-03-01

    In this paper the authors deal with the question of gravitational type interactions in the case of strong interaction phenomena. They present arguments which indicate that it is not necessary to invoke a gravity type interaction into QCD in order to account for observed phenomena. They argue that the gravitational type phenomena discussed in previous work is a manifestation of a class of Feynmann diagrams. These seem to generate an analog to gravity, a J=2 {open_quotes}chromograviton{close_quotes} or {open_quotes}pseudo-graviton{close_quotes} whose action effectively generates Salam`s {open_quotes}Strong Gravity{close_quotes} or {open_quotes}f-gravity{close_quotes}, withthough having to introduce the theory as an additional input.

  3. {open_quotes}Interaction-free{close_quotes} imaging

    SciTech Connect

    White, A.G.; Mitchell, J.R.; Nairz, O.; Kwiat, P.G.

    1998-07-01

    Using the complementary wavelike and particlelike natures of photons, it is possible to make {open_quotes}interaction-free{close_quotes} measurements where the presence of an object can be determined with no photons being absorbed. We investigated several {open_quotes}interaction-free{close_quotes} {ital imaging} systems, i.e., systems that allow optical imaging of photosensitive objects with less than the classically expected amount of light being absorbed or scattered by the object. With the most promising system, we obtained high-resolution (10-{mu}m), one-dimensional profiles of a variety of objects (human hair, glass and metal wires, and cloth fibers) by raster scanning each object through the system. We discuss possible applications and the present and future limits for interaction-free imaging. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

  4. Options for human {open_quote}{open_quote}return to the moon{close_quote}{close_quote} using tomorrow{close_quote}s SSTO, ISRU, and LOX-augmented NTR technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Borowski, S.K.

    1996-03-01

    The feasibility of conducting human missions to the Moon is examined assuming the use of three {open_quote}{open_quote}high leverage{close_quote}{close_quote} technologies: (1) a single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) launch vehicle, (2) {open_quote}{open_quote}{ital in}-{ital situ}{close_quote}{close_quote} {ital resource} {ital utilization} (ISRU){emdash}specifically {open_quote}{open_quote}lunar-derived{close_quote}{close_quote} liquid oxygen (LUNOX), and (3) LOX-augmented nuclear thermal rocket (LANTR) propulsion. Lunar transportation system elements consisting of a LANTR-powered lunar transfer vehicle (LTV) and a chemical propulsion lunar landing/Earth return vehicle (LERV) are configured to fit within the {open_quote}{open_quote}compact{close_quote}{close_quote} dimensions of the SSTO cargo bay (diameter: 4.6 m/length: 9.0 m) while satisfying an initial mass in low Earth orbit (IMLEO) limit of {approximately}60 t (3 SSTO launches). Using {approximately}8 t of LUNOX to {open_quote}{open_quote}reoxidize{close_quote}{close_quote} the LERV for a {open_quote}{open_quote}direct return{close_quote}{close_quote} flight to Earth reduces its size and mass allowing delivery to LEO on a single 20 t SSTO launch. Similarly, the LANTR engine{close_quote}s ability to operate at any oxygen/hydrogen mixture ratio from 0 to 7 with high specific impulse ({approximately}940 to 515 s) is exploited to reduce hydrogen tank volume, thereby improving packaging of the LANTR LTV{close_quote}s {open_quote}{open_quote}propulsion{close_quote}{close_quote} and {open_quote}{open_quote}propellant modules{close_quote}{close_quote}. Expendable and reusable, piloted and cargo missions and vehicle designs are presented along with estimates of LUNOX production required to support the different mission modes. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  5. PVC, combustion and {open_quote}dioxins{close_quote}

    SciTech Connect

    Kanters, J.; Louw, R.

    1993-12-31

    The incineration of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) yields {open_quote}dioxins{close_quote}. Important precursors of the dioxins are (poly)ChloroPhenols (CP`s). A lab-scale mini combustion reactor has been constructed, capable of handling representative MSW-samples in a batch-wise manner. Flue gas samples were analyzed for CP`s and HCl. In most MSW the NaCl and PVC are about equally important as contributors to the chlorine load. Representative Dutch MSW was also available separated into 14 different fractions, allowing wide variations in composition. By elimination, replacement and/or enrichment the authors aim to discover which components, or conditions, promote CP-formation (for example by catalysis) and its emission in the flue gases. Some features to be discussed are (1) at a given NaCl load the addition of PVC does not increase the CP level (2) Replacing the original Cl-sources by NaCl + cellulose does not change CP-emission, (3) Where and how are CP`s formed?

  6. [open quotes]Shared pain[close quotes] and its effects on utilities

    SciTech Connect

    Byus, L.C. )

    1993-04-01

    After the conspicuous consumption of the 1980s and the economic recession of the early 1990s, President Clinton has introduced the era of [open quotes]shared pain,[close quotes] with increased [open quotes]contribution.[close quotes] [open quotes]Contribution[close quotes] is the euphemistic term for higher taxes. The president's proposed economic plan will undergo a number of changes, additions, and deletions before becoming law. However, it is obvious that the final plan will have an impact on the electric utility, as well as the nuclear power industry.

  7. Dispersion morphology diagrams for three-phase, [open quotes]microemulsion[close quotes] emulsions. 2. [open quotes]Disappearance[close quotes] of morphology-transition lines

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, G.K. ); Dadyburjor, D.B. ); Smith, D.H. Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK )

    1994-11-17

    The limits over which the oil-rich top phase (T), middle-phase microemulsion (M), or water-rich bottom phase (B) is the continuous phase in steady-state, three-phase macroemulsions have been determined by means of electrical conductivity measurements for the amphiphile/oil/[open quotes]water[close quotes] system C[sub 6]H[sub 13](OC[sub 2]H[sub 4])[sub 2]OH/n-tetradecane/aqueous 10 mM NaCl. Measurements were made at three different temperatures and apparent wettability conditions: (a) 45[degrees]C, wetting middle phase; (b) 25[degrees]C, no wetting phase; and (c) 12[degrees]C, wetting bottom phase. The results at 25[degrees]C were in accord with expectations from previous predictions and experiments; but for both two-phase and three-phase emulsions no abrupt, [open quotes]first-order[close quotes] transitions between M- and T-continuous emulsions at 45[degrees]C or between M- and B-continuous emulsions at 12[degrees]C were found. Instead, these changes of continuous phase appeared to occur smoothly and continuously between their respective single-phase and two-phase limits. It is not yet clear if the [open quotes]disappearance[close quotes] of first-order morphology transitions correlates with phase wettability transitions; the phenomenon suggests the possibility of bicontinuous two-phase and three-phase macroemulsions. 31 refs., 11 figs.

  8. Reply to {open_quote}{open_quote}Comment on {open_quote}Very weak {gamma} transitions in the {epsilon}/{beta}{sup +} decay of {sup 68}Ga{close_quote}{close_quote}{close_quote}

    SciTech Connect

    Vo, D.T.; Kelly, W.H.; Wohn, F.K.; Hill, J.C.; Vary, J.P.; Deleplanque, M.A.; Stephens, F.S.; Diamond, R.M.; Oliveira, J.R.; Macchiavelli, A.O.; Becker, J.A.; Henry, E.A.; Brinkman, M.J.; Stoyer, M.A.; Draper, J.E.

    1996-07-01

    Using the spectra in the article {open_quote}{open_quote}Very weak {gamma} transitions in the {epsilon}/{beta}{sup +} decay of 68 Ga{close_quote}{close_quote} [D. T. Vo {ital et} {ital al}.. Phys. Rev. C {bold 50}, 1713 (1994)], Skalsey makes an interesting speculation in the accompanying article [M. Skalsey, Phys. Rev. C {bold 54}, 439 (1996), the preceding paper] on the possible existence of a positron feeding with a kinetic endpoint energy of 16 keV in the decay of {sup 68}Ga. Skalsey also points out the facts supporting the {ital e}{sup +} feeding to the 1656-keV level that were not mentioned by Vo {ital et} {ital al}. In this Reply to the Comment, we present information supporting the new {ital e}{sup +} decay to the 1656-keV level and further information on the statistical uncertainties that suggest an even greater skepticism than that shown by Skalsey about the possible existence of the 16-keV {ital e}{sup +} decay to the 1883-keV level upon which he commented. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  9. Great Quotes To Inspire Great Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    benShea, Noah

    This book provides a collection of quotes designed to offer support and inspiration to teachers as they face the daily emotional, spiritual, intellectual, and physical challenges of their professional and personal lives. The book's 26 sections focus on: the art of teaching; adversity; behavior; character; children; collaboration and teamwork;…

  10. [open quotes]Abnormal[close quotes] nuclear phenomena and possible nuclear process

    SciTech Connect

    Jiefu Yang; Dexiu Chen; Guanghui Zhou; Qiangsheng Wu; Jianping Huang; Lijun Tang; Xiaomei Cheng; Dongzhu Xie; Liming Gu )

    1994-03-01

    A careful study of [open quotes]abnormal[close quotes] nuclear phenomena in a cold fusion experiment indicates that cold fusion is a new problem in ultralow energy, and one cannot use the traditional idea of deuteron-deuteron fusion to understand and appraise cold fusion. The contradiction between the new phenomena and traditional theory is analyzed, and a possible new nuclear process is suggested. 8 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  11. La Ventosa -- {open_quotes}the windy place{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    Craig, M.

    1995-12-31

    This report describes a wind energy project located in the state of Oaxaca in southern Mexico, in an area called {open_quotes}La Ventosa{close_quotes}. La Ventosa is projected to become one of the largest wind farm complexes in the world. The factors to be evaluated for the project include environmental impacts on soils, plants, wildlife, air quality, noise levels, and human safety. The socioeconomic factors are also discussed.

  12. Specific heat and transport {open_quotes}anomalies{close_quotes} in mixed alkali glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Green, P.F.; Brow, R.K.; Hudgens, J.J.

    1998-11-01

    We show that changes in the relative mole fractions of Li{sub 2}O and Na{sub 2}O in alkali metaphosphate glasses lead to {open_quotes}anomalies{close_quotes} in the specific heat and structural relaxations. The heat capacity change between the liquid and glassy states, {Delta}c{sub p}(T{sub g}), at the calorimetric glass transition temperature, T{sub g}, exhibits a minimum when the mole fractions of Li{sub 2}O and Na{sub 2}O are comparable. Moreover, systematic changes in the temperature dependence of the viscosity, {eta}, i.e., changes in the {open_quotes}fragility{close_quotes} of the system, accompany these changes in mole fraction. This observed dependence of the {open_quotes}fragility{close_quotes} on the mixed alkali ion composition occurs in the absence of apparent changes in the covalent network connectivity which normally accounts for this behavior in glasses. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  13. Comment on [open quotes]Nonlocality, counterfactuals, and quantum mechanics[close quotes

    SciTech Connect

    Stapp, H.P. )

    1999-09-01

    A recent proof [H. P. Stapp, Am. J. Phys. [bold 65], 300 (1997)], formulated in the symbolic language of modal logic, claims to show that contemporary quantum theory, viewed as a set of rules that allow us to calculate statistical predictions among certain kinds of observations, cannot be imbedded in any rational framework that conforms to the principles that (1) the experimenters[close quote] choices of which experiments they will perform can be considered to be free choices, (2) outcomes of measurements are unique, and (3) the free choices just mentioned have no backward-in-time effects of any kind. This claim is similar to Bell[close quote]s theorem, but much stronger, because no reality assumption alien to quantum philosophy is used. The paper being commented on [W. Unruh, Phys. Rev. A [bold 59], 126 (1999)] argues that some such reality assumption has been [open quotes]smuggled[close quotes] in. That argument is examined here and shown, I believe, to be defective. [copyright] [ital 1999] [ital The American Physical Society

  14. A {open_quotes}community-based{close_quotes} approach to landfill closure

    SciTech Connect

    Sungaila, M.; Fisher, J.

    1995-09-01

    Closure plans for landfill sites are typically developed by landfill owners/operators in conjunction with the appropriate regulatory agency. Often, technical issues are considered first and end use and the needs of the local community are treated as a secondary concern. This can be termed a {open_quotes}top-down{close_quotes} approach. This paper present a case study of closure plan development for the Taro West Quarry Landfill, located in Stoney Creek, Ontario. A {open_quotes}bottom-up{close_quotes}, or {open_quotes}community-based{close_quotes} approach was followed, in which local residents participated early in the closure planning process. Neighbours were allowed to obtain large amounts of information about the site, gained a solid understanding of technical issues, and had influence on decision making. The landfill has been in operation since 1980. The site is licensed to accept solid, non-hazardous industrial waste. Closure plan development began in the mid 1980s with planning for placement of a final cover and end use as a recreational community park. A community liaison committee was subsequently formed in 1992 which included members of the local public, staff from the City of Stoney Creek and provincial regulators, and the owners. By the late 1980s routine monitoring indicated that the wastes produced leachate containing elevated levels of chloride, ammonia, and phenols, and that this had affected local ground and surface water quality in excess of regulatory guidelines. Monitoring also indicated that combustible gas had migrated off-site, under winter conditions, to near a residential subdivision in potentially explosive concentrations. The problems were addressed immediately upon their detection, with the involvement of the community, the City, and the regulators. The prior establishment of good communications with various stakeholders was a key factor in facilitating remedial work.

  15. Do oil producers act as [open quotes]oil[close quotes]igopolists

    SciTech Connect

    Polasky, S. )

    1992-09-01

    In this paper, I analyze an oligopoly model of exhaustible resource extraction and develop predictions about relative extraction patterns of different producers. Using the [open quotes]oil[close quotes]igopoly model of Loury, one can show that producers with large stocks produce a larger amount, but a smaller percentage, of their stocks than producers with small stocks. I extend Loury's model to cases where extraction costs differ among producers and where costs are a function of cumulative extraction. An increase in extraction costs for a producer causes it to produce less relative to its rivals. When extraction costs rise with cumulative extraction, producers with large reserves tend to have lower extraction costs and a smaller ratio of cumulative production to initial reserves than producers with small reserves. I test the predictions of the model using oil industry data and find that the empirical results are consistent with the predictions of [open quotes]oil[close quotes]igopoly theory. Producers with larger reserves extract a smaller share of their reserves and have lower production costs than producers with smaller reserves. This pattern holds for 73 countries with oil reserves during the time period 1970-1989, and for approximately 400 US oil companies in 1983 and 1984. The observed pattern of production for both OPEC and non-OPEC producers is consistent with [open quotes]oil[close quotes]igopoly theory. OPEC producers do not appear to restrain production given their level of reserves relative to non-OPEC producers. Thus, viewing the oil market as containing one dominant firm (OPEC) with a competitive fringe may be misleading. Further, the pattern of extraction observed in oil markets is inconsistent with the pattern predicted by competitive theory. 29 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs.

  16. Do oil producers act as [open quote]oil[close quote]igopolists

    SciTech Connect

    Polasky, S. )

    1992-11-01

    In this paper, the author analyzes an oligopoly model of exhaustible resource extraction and develop predictions about relative extraction patterns of different producers. Using the [open quote]oil[close quote]igopoly model of Loury, one can show that producers with large stocks produce a larger amount, but a smaller percentage, of their stocks than producers with small stocks. The authors extend Loury's model to cases where extraction costs differ among producers and where costs are a function of cumulative extraction. An increase in extraction costs for a producer causes it to produce less relative to its rivals. When extraction costs rise with cumulative extraction, producers with large reserves tend to have lower extraction costs and a smaller ratio of cumulative production to initial reserves than producers with small reserves. The authors test the predictions of the model using oil industry data and find that the empirical results are consistent with the predictions of [open quotes]oil[close quotes]igopoly theory. Producers with larger reserves extract a smaller share of their reserves and have lower production costs than producers with smaller reserves. This pattern holds for 73 countries with oil reserves during the time period 1970-1989, and for approximately 400 US oil companies in 1983 and 1984. The observed pattern of production for both OPEC and non-OPEC producers is consistent with [open quote]oil[close quote]igopoly theory. OPEC producers do not appear to restrain production given their level of reserves relative to non-OPEC producers. Thus, viewing the oil market as containing one dominant firm (OPEC) with a competitive fringe may be misleading. Further, the pattern of extraction observed in oil markets is inconsistent with the pattern predicted by competitive theory. 29 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs.

  17. {open_quotes}Electronic Growth{close_quotes} of Metallic Overlayers on Semiconductor Substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Z.; Niu, Q.; Shih, C.

    1998-06-01

    We present a novel {open_quotes}electronic growth{close_quotes} model for metallic thin films on semiconductor substrates. Depending on the competition between the effects of quantum confinement, charge spilling, and interface-induced Friedel oscillations, different types of film stability are defined, as characterized by the existence of critical/magic thicknesses for smooth growth. In particular, smooth growth can be achieved only above a few monolayers for noble metals, and only for the first layer for alkali metals. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

  18. {open_quotes}Meta{close_quotes}-rigid motions and frames of reference

    SciTech Connect

    Bel, L.; Llosa, J.

    1995-10-01

    We define the {open_quotes}meta{close_quotes}-rigid motions as particular classes of time-like congruences which are solutions of intrinsically defined partial differential equations that generalize Born`s conditions. We consider in particular two hierarchies of such congruences. The first one is a geometrically motivated direct generalization of the symmetry concept inherent in Born congruences. The second one is an indirect generalization based on the conditions which guarantee the existence of a particular class of adapted coordinates of space, named quo-harmonic coordinates, whose definition is akin to the definition of harmonic coordinates but which differs from it in an essential point.

  19. A {open_quotes}New{close_quotes} regime for nuclear weapons and materials

    SciTech Connect

    Sutcliffe, W.G.

    1994-02-15

    In this paper, I discuss the principal ideas that I covered in my presentation on December 8, 1993, at the Future of Foreign Nuclear Materials Symposium held by the Naval Postgraduate School in Monterey, California. I was asked to discuss issues related to military inventories of plutonium, and I took this opportunity to describe a possible declaratory regime that could encompass military as well as civilian inventories of plutonium. The {open_quote}new{close_quotes} in the title does not imply that the regime discussed here is an original idea. Rather, the regime will be {open_quotes}new,{close_quotes} when it is adopted. The regime proposed here and in other works is one in which all stocks of nuclear weapons and materials are declared. Originally, declarations were proposed as a traditional arms control measure. Here, declarations are proposed to support the prevention of misuse of nuclear weapons and materials, including support for the nonproliferation regime. In the following, I discuss: (1) Worldwide inventories of nuclear weapons and materials, including the fact that military plutonium must be viewed as part of that worldwide inventory. (2) Life cycles of nuclear weapons and materials, including the various stages from the creation of nuclear materials for weapons through deployment and retirement of weapons to the final disposition of the materials. (3) Mechanisms for making declarations. (4) Risks and benefits to be derived from declarations. (5) Possibilities for supporting evidence or verification.

  20. US adopts {open_quote}Wise{close_quote} program to combat global warming

    SciTech Connect

    Herman, P.; Kenchington, H.

    1996-12-31

    Relying on their Yankee ingenuity, some 60 American companies have pledged to reduce greenhouse-gas emissions by more than 5 million metric tons by 2000. Inspired by the Clinton administration`s Climate Change Action Plan, companies such as Dupont and General Motors have joined with the Department of Energy and the Environmental Protection Agency to implement voluntary reductions in pollution, say Pamela Herman and Hank Kenchington, co-directors of the Climate Wise Program. {open_quotes}Climate Wise provides a flexible program that encourages industries to put forth their best ideas. The government, in turn, offers companies access to technical information and help in learning from the experience of others,{close_quotes} the authors say. Conservation of resources translates into financial savings as well. In curbing its emissions of greenhouse gases, Dupont {open_quotes}anticipates savings $30 million this year,{close_quotes} say Herman and Kechington. As a result, such cooperative initiatives as Climate Wise boost both the nation`s productivity and competitiveness.

  1. Liouville{close_quote}s theorems, Gibbs{close_quote} entropy, and multifractal distributions for nonequilibrium steady states

    SciTech Connect

    Hoover, W.G.

    1998-09-01

    Liouville{close_quote}s best-known theorem, {dot f}({l_brace}q,p{r_brace},t)=0, describes the incompressible flow of phase-space probability density, f({l_brace}q,p{r_brace},t). This incompressible-flow theorem follows directly from Hamilton{close_quote}s equations of motion. It applies to simulations of isolated systems composed of interacting particles, whether or not the particles are confined by a box potential. Provided that the particle{endash}particle and particle{endash}box collisions are sufficiently mixing, the long-time-averaged value {l_angle}f{r_angle} approaches, in a {open_quotes}coarse-grained{close_quotes} sense, Gibbs{close_quote} equilibrium microcanonical probability density, f{sub eq}, from which all equilibrium properties follow, according to Gibbs{close_quote} statistical mechanics. All these ideas can be extended to many-body simulations of deterministic open systems with nonequilibrium boundary conditions incorporating heat transfer. Then Liouville{close_quote}s compressible phase-space-flow theorem{emdash}in the original {dot f}{ne}0 form{emdash}applies. I illustrate and contrast Liouville{close_quote}s two theorems for two simple nonequilibrium systems, in each case considering both stationary and time-dependent cases. Gibbs{close_quote} distributions for incompressible (equilibrium) flows are typically smooth. Surprisingly, the long-time-averaged phase-space distributions of nonequilibrium compressible-flow systems are instead singular and {open_quotes}multifractal.{close_quotes} The nonequilibrium analog of Gibbs{close_quote} entropy, S{equivalent_to}{minus}k{l_angle}lnf{r_angle}, diverges, to {minus}{infinity}, in such a case. Gibbs{close_quote} classic remedy for such entropy errors was to {open_quotes}coarse-grain{close_quotes} the probability density{emdash}by averaging over finite cells of dimensions {product}{Delta}qthinsp{Delta}p. Such a coarse graining is effective for isolated systems approaching equilibrium, and leads to a unique entropy. Coarse graining is not as useful for deterministic open systems, constrained so as to describe stationary nonequilibrium states. Such systems have a Gibbs{close_quote} entropy which depends, logarithmically, upon the grain size. The two Liouville{close_quote}s theorems, their applications to Gibbs{close_quote} entropy, and to the grain-size dependence of that entropy, are clearly illustrated here with simple example problems. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  2. Comment on {open_quote}{open_quote}Superconductivity and Madelung potential of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 6+{ital x}} ordered superstructures{close_quote}{close_quote}

    SciTech Connect

    Ukrainskii, I.I.; Shramko, O.V.

    1996-11-01

    We note discrepancies in numerical results in our calculations of the Coulomb potentials in YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 6+{ital x}} ({ital x} = 0, 0.5, 1) with those given by Wang {ital et} {ital al}. in {open_quote}{open_quote}Superconductivity and Madelung potential of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 6+{ital x}} ordered superstructures{close_quote}{close_quote} [Phys. Rev. B {bold 45}, 10834 (1992)]. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  3. Agriculture and the recent [open quotes]Benign Climate[close quotes] in Minnesota

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, D.G.; Ruschy, D.L.; Skaggs, R.H. )

    1993-06-01

    This work provides data supporting a little noticed but remarkably consistent and agriculturally favorable climatic period existed for approximately 18 years, beginning in the mid-1950s in the US Corn Belt and perhaps even earlier in Minnesota. The full application of technology to agriculture was delayed due to world political events (World War II and the Korean conflict, for example) until the 1950s. It is concluded that from then until about 1974, the interaction between this favorable climatic period and the applied technology and the enthusiasm they engendered in agricultural circles were subtle and unrealized factors that helped lead to the agricultural inflation of the 1970s, while the unexpected and generally unrecognized cessation of the [open quotes]benign[close quotes] climate must be considered as a factor leading to the agricultural depression in the 1980s. 17 refs., 10 figs.

  4. Is {open_quotes}early commitment{close_quotes} in plan generation ever a good idea?

    SciTech Connect

    Joslin, D.; Pollack, M.E.

    1996-12-31

    Partial-Order Causal Link planners typically take a {open_quotes}least-commitment{close_quotes} approach to some decisions (notably, step ordering), postponing those decisions until constraints force them to be made. However, these planners rely to some degree on early commitments in making other types of decisions, including threat resolution and operator choice. We show why existing planners cannot support full least-commitment decision-making, and present an alternative approach that can. The approach has been implemented in the Descartes system, which we describe. We also provide experimental results that demonstrate that a least-commitment approach to planning can be profitably extended beyond what is done in POCL and similar planners, but that taking a least-commitment approach to every planning decision can be inefficient: early commitment in plan generation is sometimes a good idea.

  5. Causes of {open_quotes}undercut{close_quotes} development in coke-oven brickwork

    SciTech Connect

    Krivoshein, V.T.

    1992-12-31

    By no means the least important fault that can develop in coke-oven refractories, and which lowers the productivity and shortens the life of coke-oven batteries is the development of so-called {open_quotes}undercuts,{close_quotes} whereby longitudinal fissures of variable depth and length appear in the first one or two rows of bricks form the floor. On the other hand, large-scale undercutting only develops in individual batteries, and many coking plant workers employed in the servicing and upkeep of the coke ovens are unfamiliar with the problem. No convincing explanation has yet been forthcoming, and consequently no effective measures have been laid down for its prevention. The first large-scale outbreak of undercutting in this country occurred in 1956-1957, in No. 1-4 batteries (side heating) at the Kuznetsk and Magnitogorsk II & SW-plants. 2 refs., 3 tabs.

  6. Report on {open_quotes}audit of internal controls over special nuclear materials{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-01

    The Department of Energy (Department) is responsible for safeguarding a significant amount of plutonium, uranium-233 and enriched uranium - collectively referred to as special nuclear materials - stored in the United States. The Department`s office of Nonproliferation and National Security has overall management cognizance for developing policies for safeguarding these materials, while other Headquarters program offices have {open_quotes}landlord{close_quotes} responsibilities for the sites where the materials are stored, and the Department`s operations and field offices provide onsite management of contractor operations. The Department`s management and operating contractors, under the direction of the Department, safeguard and account for the special nuclear material stored at Department sites.

  7. {open_quotes}Quadrupoled{close_quotes} materials for second-order nonlinear optics

    SciTech Connect

    Hubbard, S.F.; Petschek, R.G.; Singer, K.D.

    1997-10-01

    We describe a new approach to second-order nonlinear optical materials, namely quadrupoling. This approach is valid in the regime of Kleinman (full permutation) symmetry breaking, and thus requires a two- or three dimensional microscopic nonlinearity at wavelengths away from material resonances. This {open_quotes}quadrupolar{close_quotes} nonlinearity arises from the second rank pseudotensor of the rotationally invariant representation of the second-order nonlinear optical tensor. We have experimentally investigated candidate molecules comprised of chiral camphorquinone derivatives by measuring the scalar invariant associated with the rank two pseudotensor using hyper-Rayleigh scattering. We have found sizable scalar figures of merit for several compounds using light for which the second harmonic wavelengths are greater than 100 nm longer than the absorption peak location. At these wavelengths, the quadrupolar scalar is as large as the polar (EFISH) scalar of p-nitroaniline. Prospects for applications are discussed.

  8. New performance data for {open_quotes}Emery 3002{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}Emery 3004,{close_quotes} two Army-approved safe materials to replace DOP in mask and filter testing

    SciTech Connect

    Carlon, H.R.; Guelta, M.A.

    1995-02-01

    At the 22nd Conference in Denver, we reported that the U.S. Army Surgeon General (SGJ) had approved our developmental material {open_quotes}Emery 3004{close_quotes} as a safe replacement for the suspected carcinogen DOP (dioctyl phthalate) in mask and filter testing throughout the Army. Subsequently the SG approved a second, less viscous material, {open_quotes}Emery 3002,{close_quotes} for similar applications. We have measured the viscosities and surface tensions of these liquids over a wide range of temperatures, and have initiated liquid breakup studies through Laskin and two-fluid nozzles. New measurements have been carried out with both liquids, e.g. using the ATI, Inc., TDA-4A cold generator to disperse aerosols for which droplet size distributions were measured using the TSI, Inc., Differential Mobility Particle Sizer (DMPS). Among the findings were that Emery 3004 performs much like DOP in the TDA-4A, with some possible advantages, while Emery 3002 in the TDA-4A produces mean droplet diameters about one-half those of Emery 3004 or DOP. This suggests that Emery 3002 could yield more rigorous filter tests with a smaller consumption of material. New laboratory results will be summarized. Sources of the {open_quotes}Emery{close_quotes} materials will be discussed since the production facility formerly operated by Emery is now run by the Ethyl Corporation and the source products are now known as {open_quotes}Ethylflo 192{close_quotes} (Emery 3002) and{open_quotes}Ethylflo 194{close_quotes} (Emery 3004).

  9. Use of {open_quotes}value of information{close_quotes} concept in justification and ranking of subsurface appraisal

    SciTech Connect

    Demirmen, F.

    1996-12-31

    The {open_quotes}value of information{close_quotes} (VOI) concept can be applied to subsurface appraisal in petroleum exploration and production to provide an auditable, consistent criterion for justification of such activity. Based on this concept the {open_quotes}value{close_quotes} of subsurface appraisal can be defined as the difference in expected project (monetary) value with and without appraisal. Comparison of this value with the net appraisal cost provides a pragmatic decision tool for decision-making in subsurface appraisal. If the value is greater than the appraisal cost the appraisal is justified, otherwise it is not. Quantification of underlying uncertainty in probability form, and economic evaluation of alternative development scenarios as impacted by the uncertainty, are involved in the methodology. By extension of the concept, VOI can also be used as a ranking tool in a portfolio of subsurface appraisal activities. {open_quotes}Partial information{close_quotes} and unreliable information, both of which are common in practice, reduce the {open_quotes}value{close_quotes} of subsurface appraisal, and realistic evaluation of subsurface appraisal must take both of these effects into account. The VOI approach to subsurface appraisal helps avoid under- and overappraisal and could have a significant impact on upstream economics.

  10. New calculation schemes for the {open_quotes}building-base{close_quotes} system in conditions of collapsing loess soils

    SciTech Connect

    Mezherovskii, V.A.

    1994-05-01

    New calculation schemes are suggested for the {open_quotes}building-loess collapsing base{close_quotes} system, with the help of which it is possible to obtain values of the forces and movements occurring in a building as a result of collapses of bases that are close to the real ones in the nature of moistening and deformations of loess strata.

  11. The dolomitized{open_quotes}O{close_quotes} Limestone in the Barinas basin: A hydrocarbon reservoir in carbonate rocks

    SciTech Connect

    Aquino, R.; Boujana, M.

    1996-08-01

    The {open_quotes}O{close_quotes} Limestone Member, top of Escandalosa Formation of a Lower to Upper Cretaceous age, is an interval of about 70 feet thick. It represents a coastal facies of caitonate platform; dominated by carbonates of calcarenitic lithologies intercalated with some sandy, glauconitic, calcareous bodies and thin bioturbated shaly intervals. Detailed studies carried out in five cores yield to a new approach and subdivision within this interval based on diagnostic erosive surfaces that may be interpreted as sequence boundaries. Based on sedimentology, trace fossil assemblages and diagenetic events, the milieu of sedimentation varies from foreshore to offshore. Porous dolomite levels occur within the {open_quotes}O{close_quotes} Limestone. This porosity is of intergranular, moldic and vuggy types. Some microfractures are also observed. Subaerial karstification is an alternative hypothesis that can explain the origin of the localized dolomitized vuggy reservoirs. The following sequence of events is suggested: (1) Sedimentation followed by bioturbation, then lithification with a probable replacement of aragonite by calcite, (2) Early dolomitization undergoing the {open_quotes}mixing{close_quote} or {open_quotes}Dorag {close_quotes} Model, (3) Dedolomitization and dissolution generating a moldic porosity enhanced the vuggy forms. This stage may have been influenced by karst processes, (4) Burial diagenesis accompanied by stylolitization and fracturation with pressure-solution effects, and (5) Some levels increase their porosity because of partial dolomitization; in others the vuggy porosity is totally infilled with sparry calcite.

  12. Salvaging dipmeters using an oil field {open_quotes}Dinosaur{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    Breimayer, A.R.P.; Puzio, L.B.

    1996-09-01

    Although state-of-the-art methods such as 3-D seismic and formation imaging tools are widely used, the advantages of the old standard dipmeter should not be dismissed. Seismic dip is subject to velocity errors, and formation imagers cannot be run in all borehole conditions. The dipmeter offers a relatively low cost, highly effective alternative for defining geologic features. The 60{double_prime}= 100{prime} scale playback of the raw dipmeter data may be an oil field {open_quotes}dinosaur,{close_quotes} but it is also the key to assessing the reliability of a dipmeter. This playback should be used to determine CORRELATION QUALITY, critical to the accuracy of any dipmeter. Computer computation of the raw dipmeter data does not always yield reliable dip information, particularly when dipmeters are run under adverse hole conditions or in complex geology. This data can be often salvaged by optical correlation of the 60{close_quote} playback - the process of manually correlating raw dipmeter resistivity curves to determine the attitude of bedding planes in the subsurface. Problems such as tool noise, tool pulls, and poor pad contact compromise data quality. These problems can be recognized and compensated for using optical correlation. Finally, at the 60{double_prime} scale many formation textures and structural characteristics visible on the formation imaging logs are also discernible on the standard dipmeter traces. We will offer many Gulf Coast examples and some hands-on demonstrations using the 60{double_prime} data, and show improved tadpole plots which result from optical correlation.

  13. {open_quotes}All versus Nothing{close_quotes} Inseparability for Two Observers

    SciTech Connect

    Cabello, Adan

    2001-07-02

    A recent proof of Bell{close_quote}s theorem without inequalities [A. Cabello, Phys.Rev.Lett. 86, 1911 (2001)] is formulated as a Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger{endash}type proof involving just two observers. On one hand, this new approach allows us to derive an experimentally testable Bell inequality which is violated by quantum mechanics. On the other hand, it leads to a new state-independent proof of the Kochen-Specker theorem and provides a wider perspective on the relations between the major proofs of no hidden variables.

  14. Comment on {open_quotes}Method for calculating elastic scattering between two composite many-body systems at high energies{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    Shalaby, A.S. El-Gogary, M.M.H. Hassan, M.Y.M.

    1997-11-01

    We comment on a paper by Huang Xiang Zhong, concerning the final analytical formula [Eq. (16)] for evaluating the scattering amplitude for collision between two composite nuclei {open_quotes}A{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}B.{close_quotes} {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  15. [open quotes]Golden Rule[close quotes] Signals start of FERC utility restructuring effort

    SciTech Connect

    O'Driscoll, M.

    1994-05-13

    The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission snatched the utility industry spotlight from the California Public Utilities Commission this week when it unveiled a new standard for competition that says comparability of service cures undue discrimination and anti-competitive behavior in a competitive bulk power market. To an industry still reeling from the California proposal to restructure the way utilities do business there with full retail wheeling by 2002, FERC's version of the [open quotes]golden rule[close quotes]-do unto others as you do unto yourself-raises the specter of an industry-wide restructuring not unlike that which culminated in the natural gas pipeline industry's Order 636. Gas pipeline and electric utility differences notwithstanding-and granted, there appear to be many-it is difficult to deny that FERC's about-face on its earlier approval of American Electric Power Service Corp.'s voluntary transmission tariff is a clear signal that a restructuring of some sort is under way.

  16. Stored Guthrie cards as DNA [open quotes]Banks[close quotes

    SciTech Connect

    McEwen, J.E.; Reilly, P.R. )

    1994-07-01

    Recently there has been much discussion about the possibility of using dried blood spots on Guthrie cards as a source of DNA for research or testing purposes. The collections of Guthrie cards stored by state newborn-screening laboratories can thus be viewed as inchoate [open quotes]DNA banks[close quotes]. This has generated concern among some persons who are interested in preserving the privacy of medical records. This study examines the policies of state newborn-screening laboratories in the United States, regarding their retention of Guthrie cards and the degree to which they permit the sharing of those cards with various third parties. The authors found that although most laboratories retain their cards, if at all, for only a short time, a growing number plan to keep them for an extended period-and, in several cases, indefinitely. They also found that although most laboratories would decline to release individually identifiable blood spots from the cards to third parties without a written release or other explicit authorization, a large number would at least consider sharing anonymous cards for research purposes. 10 refs., 2 tabs.

  17. [open quote]Endangered[close quote] salmon: More than just a Northwest hydro problem

    SciTech Connect

    Pfeiffer, D.E. )

    1992-06-01

    In the US, about 600 species of plants and animals are considered threatened or endangered under the Endangered Species Act. One of those, the Snake River sockeye salmon, has been making news in the Pacific Northwest. In November 1991, the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) declared Snake River sockeye salmon an endangered species, mandating the creation of a recovery plan that could cost more than $70 million a year. Many in the Northwest believe that the Endangered Species Act has never been applied in a case affecting so large an area or such a wide range of economic interests, including hydropower, agriculture, hatcheries, and commercial and sport fishing. Implications of this listing go far beyond regional economics, though. The way in which the federal government applied the Endangered Species Act in this instance has set a precedent that could affect hydro development throughout the US. The Endangered Species Act must be reauthorized by Congress by late October 1992. As explained in the accompanying story, [open quotes]Reauthorizing the ESA: Many Groups Calling for Change,[close quotes] the majority opinion in the US is that the act needs reform. Reviewing the act and its application in the Pacific Northwest will help members of the US hydro industry understand how hydro developments could be affected.

  18. Upper stage options for reusable launch vehicle {open_quotes}pop-up{close_quotes} missions

    SciTech Connect

    Eckmann, J.B.; Cotta, R.B.; Matuszak, L.W.; Perkins, D.R.

    1997-01-01

    Suborbital separation of an expendable upper stage from a small, single-stage Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) to transfer spacecraft into Geosynchronous Equatorial Orbit (GEO) was investigated and found to significantly increase spacecraft mass into GEO (over 400{percent}) although operational issues exist. An assessment of propulsion system options for this {open_quotes}Pop-Up{close_quotes} Mission was performed to determine the propellant combinations, stage configurations, and propulsion technologies that maximize spacecraft mass and minimize size. Propellants included earth and space storable combinations, cryogenic LH{sub 2}/LO{sub 2}, and Class 1.3 solids. Stage configurations employing cylindrical metal and overwrapped tanks, isogrid tanks, and toroidal tanks were considered. Non-toxic earth storable propellants provided comparable performance (5{endash}10{percent}) to existing storables while the use of pressure-fed engines gave about 15{percent} lower performance than pump-fed. Solid stage performance was within 5{percent} of existing storable propellants. Stages employing toroidal tanks packaged more efficiently in length constrained RLV payload bays than 4-cylindrical tank configurations, giving up to 30{percent} greater mass into GEO. The use of Extendable Exit Cones (EEC) for length constrained cases resulted in about 5{endash}10{percent} higher stage performance. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  19. {open_quotes}Unspecific{close_quotes} X-linked mental retardation: Clinical, genetic and molecular studies

    SciTech Connect

    Ropers, H.H.; Maacel, S. van der; Knoers, N.

    1994-09-01

    Previous linkage studies have assigned a gene for non-syndromic X-linked mental retardation (XMR) to at least 8 different regions on the X-chromosome. The fragile X-syndrome (FRAXA) does not account for more than 40% of all cases; in most XMR families early diagnosis and prevention is not possible. As part of a systematic study into {open_quotes}unspecific{close_quotes} XMR involving more than 30 non-FRAXA families, linkage studies have enabled us to map the respective genes in 4 families to the Xp11.4-q12 interval with peak lod scores around the ALAS2 locus. In three other families, the gene defect could be assigned to the KAL-DMD, DXS424-FRAXAC2 and DSX52-Xqter intervals, respectively. In one of these families, small stature due to growth hormone deficiency was observed as a distinctive clinical feature. Molecular cloning of the breakpoint in a mentally retarded girl with a balanced t(Xq13;13q) translocation has enabled us to isolate an X-chromosomal gene which is disrupted in this patient and is highly expressed in brain. YAC cloning strategies are being employed to clone another XMR gene, which has been identified previously in the vicinity of the CHM locus and genes involved in mentally retarded patients with two different inversions, inv(X)(q21p11) and inv(X)(p21q24), respectively.

  20. The {open_quotes}ozone deficit{close_quotes} problem: A new channel in ozone photodissociation

    SciTech Connect

    Houston, P.L.; Miller, R.L.; Suits, A.G.

    1995-12-31

    Highly vibrationally excited O{sub 2}(X {sup 3}{Sigma}{sub g}-, v{>=}26) has been observed from the photodissociation of ozone (O{sub 3}) and the quantum yield for this reaction has been determined for excitation at 226 nm. This observation may help to address the {open_quotes}ozone deficit{close_quotes} problem, or why the previously predicted stratospheric O{sub 3} concentration is less than that observed. Recent kinetic studies have suggested that O{sub 2}(X {sup 3}{Sigma}{sub g}-, v{>=}26) can react rapidly with O{sub 2} to form O{sub 3} + O and have led to speculation that, if produced in the photodissociation of O{sub 3}, this species might be involved in resolving the discrepancy. The sequence O{sub 3} + hv {yields} O{sub 2}(X {sup 3}{Sigma}{sub g}-, v{>=}26) + O; O{sub 2}(X {sup 3}{Sigma}{sub g}-, v{>=}26) + O{sub 2} {yields} O{sub 3} + O would be an autocatalytic mechanism for production of odd oxygen. A two-dimensional atmospheric model has been used to evaluate the importance of this new mechanism. The new mechanism can completely account for the tropical ozone deficit at an altitude of 43 km, but it does not completely account for the deficit at higher altitudes.

  1. A {open_quotes}zero waste{close_quotes} coolant management strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Kennicott, M.A.

    1994-04-01

    In June of 1992 the Waste Minimization Program at Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) began a study to determine the best methods of managing water-based industrial metalworking fluids in the plant`s Tool Manufacturing Shop. The shop was faced with the challenge of managing fluids that could no longer be disposed of in the traditional manner, through the plant`s liquid process waste drains, due to a problem they, were having causing in the Liquid Waste Operations Evaporator. The study`s goal was to reduce the waste coolants being generated and to reduce worker exposure to a serious health risk. Results of this study and those of a subsequent study to determine relative compatibilities of various coolants and metals, led to the application of a {open_quotes}zero waste{close_quotes} machine coolant management program. This program is currently saving the generation of 10,000 gallons of liquid waste annually, has eliminated worker exposure to harmful bacteria and biocides, and should result in extended machine tool life, increased product quality, fewer rejected parts, and decreases labor costs.

  2. Myth-building: The [open quotes]Islamic[close quotes] bomb

    SciTech Connect

    Hoodbhoy, P. )

    1993-06-01

    The [open quotes]Islamic Bomb[close quotes] is roughly understood to be a nuclear weapon aquired for broad ideological reasons--a weapon that supposedly belongs to the Muslim [ital ummah] or community and, as such, is the ultimate expression of Islamic solidarity. Concern about the Islamic bomb is at the heart of the intense effort to prevent the spread of nuclear weapons to Muslim countries. The official justification is a general one: proliferation must be curbed globally. But unofficially, the Islamic bomb gets special attention. The reasons behind this special attention are described in this article. The reasons include fear of terrorism, of a [ital jihad] willing to indiscriminately use nuclear weapons in hope of a reward in the Hereafter, and of the transfer of nuclear arms from nuclear to non-nuclear Muslim countries in times of crisis. Possibilities for controlling the proliferation of nuclear weapons in Muslim countries are addressed. Reasons are cited as to why various Muslim countries wish to acquire nuclear weapons.

  3. Carnot{close_quote}s theorem as Noether{close_quote}s theorem for thermoacoustic engines

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, E.

    1998-09-01

    Onset in thermoacoustic engines, the transition to spontaneous self-generation of oscillations, is studied here as both a dynamical critical transition and a limiting heat engine behavior. The critical transition is interesting because it occurs for both dissipative and conservative systems, with common scaling properties. When conservative, the stable oscillations above the critical point also implement a reversible engine cycle satisfying Carnot{close_quote}s theorem, a universal conservation law for entropy flux. While criticality in equilibrium systems is naturally associated with symmetries and universal conservation laws, these are usually exploited with global minimization principles, which dynamical critical systems may not have if dissipation is essential to their criticality. Acoustic heat engines furnish an example connecting equilibrium methods with dynamical and possibly even dissipative critical transitions: A reversible engine is shown to map, by a change of variables, to an equivalent system in apparent thermal equilibrium; a Noether symmetry in the equilibrium field theory implies Carnot{close_quote}s theorem for the engine. Under the same association, onset is shown to be a process of spontaneous symmetry breaking and the scaling of the quality factor predicted for both the reversible {ital and irreversible} engines is shown to arise from the Ginzburg-Landau description of the broken phase. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

  4. {open_quotes}Accelerators and beams,{close_quotes} a multimedia tutorial

    SciTech Connect

    Silbar, R.R.

    1997-02-01

    We are developing a computer-based tutorial for charged-particle beam optics under a grant from the DOE. This subject is important to the DOE not only for its use in providing basic research tools but because the physics is the underpinning for accelerators used in industry and medicine. The tutorial, which will be delivered on Macintosh and Windows platforms, uses multimedia techniques to enhance the student{close_quote}s rate of learning and length of retention of the material. As such, it integrates our interactive On-Screen Laboratories{trademark} with hypertext, line drawings, photographs, animation, video, and sound. We are targeting an audience from technicians to graduate students in science and engineering. At this time we have about a fourth of the material (about equivalent to a one-semester three-credit-hour upper under-graduate physics course) available in prototype form. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  5. NEDO {open_quotes}deep-seated geothermal resources survey{close_quotes} overview

    SciTech Connect

    Yagi, M.; Muraoka, H.; Miyazaki, S.

    1995-12-31

    An overview of NEDO {open_quotes}Deep-Seated Geothermal Resources Survey{close_quotes} is presented in this paper. The research project aims to confirm the existing conditions of deep geothermal reservoirs located in basement and intrusive rocks underneath shallow reservoirs (over 2,000 m deep from the surface). A 4,000 m class drillhole, Wedge-1 (WD-1), which will be the deepest and hottest (over 350{degrees}C) well in Japan, is now being drilled at the Kakkonda geothermal field located in northern Honshu, Japan. WD-1 has reached a depth of 3,729 m with an 8 1/2 inch hole following efforts to minimize lost circulation on the way through to shallow reservoirs located approximately in depths between 1,600 m to 2,150 m. Ten conventional and three oriented cores have been taken to a depth of 3,729 m. The boundary between Tertiary and Pre-Tertiary exists at a depth of 2,729 m. Neo-granite considered to be a possible heat source of the field appears over a depth of 2,860 m. The first appearance of contact metamorphic minerals and assemblages has become a good indicator to predict the depth of neo-granite top. The latest investigation with a Formation Micro Imager (FMI) revealed that drilling induced fractures oriented towards E-W to ENE-WSW directions at a depth interval from 1,505 m to 2,550 m. This indicates that the stress field has not changed, at least from the surface to a depth of 2,550 m. The results of long-term micro-earthquake monitoring indicates the existence of deep fracture systems in the western part of the Kakkonda geothermal field.

  6. [open quotes]Passing the test[close quotes] - Human behavior and California's smog check program

    SciTech Connect

    Lawson, D.R. )

    1993-12-01

    We have analyzed data obtained from more than 11,000 vehicles inspected in California's random roadside surveys to assess the real-world characteristics of the in-use motor vehicle fleet and to test the effectiveness of California's inspection and maintenance (I/M) program. The low-idle emissions data from these surveys show that 10 percent of the fleet are responsible for about 60 percent of the exhaust hydrocarbons and also that 10 percent of the fleet (not necessarily the same vehicles) are responsible for about 60 percent of the carbon monoxide emissions. We also show that high emitters appear among all model years, and not just among old vehicles, as previously assumed. Old vehicles, on average, have higher idle emissions than new vehicles, but they contribute relatively little to the total idle emissions because there are so few on the road. We compare roadside survey results at I/M and non-I/M locations in California, and observe identical tampering and overall failure rates at the two types of locations. We also show that motorists are taking steps to [open quotes]pass the test,[close quotes] and that the high-emitting vehicles' idle-emissions performance and tampering rates in the roadside surveys are unaffected by the Smog Check test. These results imply that success in California's Smog Check program in reducing emissions will require consideration of human behavior and the attendant negative incentives inherent in the program as historically conceived. 29 refs., 9 figs., 6 tabs.

  7. The restructuring and future of {open_quotes}Mendelian Inheritance in Man{close_quotes} (MIM)

    SciTech Connect

    Pearson, P.L.; Francomano, C.; Antonarakis, S.

    1994-09-01

    Victor McKusick`s catalog {open_quotes}Mendelian Inheritance in Man{close_quotes} represents the most comprehensive compendum of human genetic disease information available today and has appeared as a series in book form for the last 30 years. The 11th edition will contain almost 7000 entries: approximately 2800 descriptions of human genetic disorders, 700 combined disorder/gene descriptions and 3500 pure gene descriptions. Until recently the content of the catalogs was maintained solely by McKusick with a support staff. However, a distributed editing system has now been established with the following primary components. New entries are initiated in Baltimore by science writers under the guidance of the senior editors and McKusick, following which the information is made immediately available to the public through online access. The subject editors can then review and edit the new or modified information without impeding the timeliness of entering new information. Entries are being reconstructured so that clinical disorder and gene information is divided into separate entries which will better represent the frequently complex relationship of gene mutations to individual clinical disorders in the data files. Further, each entry is being subdivided into logical topics which will enhance the power of electronic searching, making links between topics and improving readability. The old division of entries into autosomal dominant and recessive, etc., is being abandoned in favor of clinical disorder (phenotypes) and gene catalogs. The information is maintained in an SGML format which facilitates the production of many different types of output varying from the traditional book form to CD ROMs and various online formats including IRx, WAIS, Gopher and World Wide Web. This latter offers the exciting possibility of making hypertext links between entries and other data resources, including photographic, sound and video clips as part of the total MIM information.

  8. {open_quotes}Balanced{close_quotes} karyotypes in six abnormal offspring of balanced reciprocal translocation normal carrier parents

    SciTech Connect

    Wenger, S.L.; Steele, M.W.; Boone, L.Y.

    1995-01-02

    Among 6800 consecutive blood samples studies for clinical cytogenetic diagnosis, we identified 30 families in which one parent of the proband had a balanced reciprocal autosomal translocation (excluding Robertsonian rearrangements). Twenty-eight of the 30 families had a malformed and/or mentally retarded proband: 19 with an unbalanced derived chromosome, 3 with abnormalities involving chromosomes other than those in the translocation, 5 with a {open_quotes}balanced{close_quotes} reciprocal translocation, and 1 with a normal karyotype. We hypothesize that a latter 6 affected probands with {open_quotes}balanced{close_quotes} karyotypes could be abnormal due to submicroscopic deletions and duplications as was originally suggested by Jacobs. Particularly in these 6 families, 83% of translocation breakpoints were associated with fragile sites, more than expected by chance (P < 0.025). This supports the report of an association between fragile sites and constitutional chromosome breakpoints by Hecht and Hecht. To explain these findings, we propose that autosomal fragile sites are unstable areas which predispose to breaks and unequal crossing over near the fragile site breakpoints creating minute duplications and deletions. Consequently, newborn infants inheriting a seemingly {open_quotes}balanced{close_quotes} karyotype from a normal parent with a balanced reciprocal translocation may still be at an increased risk of being malformed and/or developmentally delayed because of submicroscopic chromosomal imbalances. 19 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. {open_quotes}Accelerators and Beams,{close_quotes} multimedia computer-based training in accelerator physics

    SciTech Connect

    Silbar, R.R.; Browman, A.A.; Mead, W.C.; Williams, R.A.

    1999-06-01

    We are developing a set of computer-based tutorials on accelerators and charged-particle beams under an SBIR grant from the DOE. These self-paced, interactive tutorials, available for Macintosh and Windows platforms, use multimedia techniques to enhance the user{close_quote}s rate of learning and length of retention of the material. They integrate interactive {open_quotes}On-Screen Laboratories,{close_quotes} hypertext, line drawings, photographs, two- and three-dimensional animations, video, and sound. They target a broad audience, from undergraduates or technicians to professionals. Presently, three modules have been published ({ital Vectors, Forces}, and {ital Motion}), a fourth ({ital Dipole Magnets}) has been submitted for review, and three more exist in prototype form ({ital Quadrupoles, Matrix Transport}, and {ital Properties of Charged-Particle Beams}). Participants in the poster session will have the opportunity to try out these modules on a laptop computer. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

  10. Geology at the steepbank [open quotes]In-Situ[close quotes] HASDrive Pilot Site, Athabasca Tar Sands, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Holloway, D.C.

    1993-02-01

    The Athabasca tar sands of northeastern Alberta contain 13 trillion bbl of bitumen in place, 5% of which is accessible by surface mining techniques. If there is to be significant exploitation of the deeper buried resources, it will have to be done using subsurface [open quotes]in-situ[close quotes] technologies. Compared to surface mining, these methods are potentially more economic, can be developed on a smaller scale and are environmentally more sound. The Lower Cretaceous McMurray Formation is by far the richest hydrocarbon bearing unit in Canada. Overall, it is a transgressive sand and mud dominated unit deposited in fluvial to marine environments. The main reservoir unit is an estuarine sand, whole complexity makes for an elusive exploration target and a challenging development project. Successful reservoir management of a subsurface [open quotes]in-situ[close quotes] operation depends on a solid understanding of estuarine stratigraphy and its lithologic heterogeneities. For the past 20 years, Chevron has been developing an [open quotes]in-situ[close quotes] heavy oil extraction process called HASDrive (Heated Annulus Steam Drive). Recently, HASDrive and other technologies have been employed on a 77 mi[sup 2] lease with 9 billion bbl of heavy oil in place. The goal is to bring the lease to a fully commercial 10,000 bbl/day operation by 1997. In the exploration phase, 64 core hole wells were located with the aid of shallow 3-D seismic and electromagnetic techniques. The current pilot phase has utilized HASDrive to extract the bitumen from and sand and specialized seismic methods to monitor the development of the steam chamber.

  11. Integral indicatrix of light scattering from {open_quotes}soft{close_quotes} spherical particles in the region of small angles

    SciTech Connect

    Lopatin, V.N.; Shapovalov, K.A.

    1995-05-01

    The integral indicatrix of light scattering from a {open_quotes}soft{close_quotes} spherical particle is studied as a function of the phase shift. It is shown analytically in the WKB approximation and numerically on the basis of the Mie theory and the WKB approximation that the dependence of the integral indicatrix on the phase shift is similar to that for the factor of light scattering efficiency. Asymptotic expressions for the integral indicatrix are obtained for large diffraction parameters in the limiting cases of small and large phase shifts in the region of small angles. 8 refs., 3 figs.

  12. Final report for LDRD project {open_quotes}A new approach to protein function and structure prediction{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, C.A.

    1997-03-01

    This report describes the research performed under the laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) grant {open_quotes}A new approach to protein function and structure prediction{close_quotes}, funded FY94-6. We describe the goals of the research, motivate and list our improvements to the state of the art in multiple sequence alignment and phylogeny (evolutionary tree) construction, but leave technical details to the six publications resulting from this work. At least three algorithms for phylogeny construction or tree consensus have been implemented and used by researchers outside of Sandia.

  13. Quotable Quotes on the Value of Language Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Language Association Bulletin, 1974

    1974-01-01

    Quotations about the importance of and need for foreign language teaching and learning by well-known U. S. politicians, college and university presidents, religious leaders, and government officials are presented. Those quoted include: (1) J. M. Leslie; (2) E. Nyquist; (3) J. M. Hester; (4) C. B. Saunders; (5) L. White, Jr.; (6) H. Humphrey; (7)…

  14. Racist Quotes from Persons of Note, Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fikes, Robert, Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Offers racist quotes about Blacks, Jews, Hispanics, Asians, Italians, Poles, and others, from famous persons such as John Wayne, Woodrow Wilson, William F. Buckley, Richard Wagner, Jesse Helms, Sam Rayburn, Walter Lippman, Jack London, Paul Lynde, Theodore Roosevelt, Frank Sinatra, Errol Flynn, Ezra Pound, Richard M. Nixon, and Ronald Reagan. (BJV)

  15. Well Said, Well Spoken: 736 Quotable Quotes for Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsey, Robert D., Comp.

    Designed to meet the needs and interests of busy principals and teachers, this easy-to-access collection of quotations can be used as "attention-getters, point-makers, openers, closers, and clinchers for all occasions." The classic and contemporary quotes and anecdotes in the collection feature topics and sources not found in other references for…

  16. Selecting Solar. Insights into Residential Photovoltaic (PV) Quote Variation

    SciTech Connect

    Davidson, Carolyn; Margolis, Robert

    2015-10-01

    This analysis leverages available data from EnergySage, an online solar marketplace, to offer the first data-driven characterization of quote variation faced by prospective PV customers, lending early insight into the decisions customers face once they have initial buy-in.

  17. Clinical and molecular cytogenetic observations in three cases of {open_quotes}trisomy 12p syndrome{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    Rauch, A.; Trautmann, U.; Pfeiffer, R.A.

    1996-05-03

    Two unpublished cases with partial tandem duplication of 12p and one previously published case were studied by fluorescence in situ hybridization using 11 cosmid DNA probes from 12p. We propose that the smallest duplications of 12(p13.2pter) and 12(p13.1p13.33) produce the {open_quotes}trisomy 12p syndrome{close_quotes} which is characterized by heavy birth weight, macrocephaly, muscular hypotonia, short neck, flat face, high forehead, prominent cheeks, large philtrum, short nose with anteverted nostrils, and broad everted lower lip. From a review of the published cases we conclude that gross malformations are lacking in {open_quotes}pure{close_quotes} trisomy 12p, and mental retardation is severe in complete and moderate in partial trisomy 12p. Polydactyly and accessory nipples were found only with almost complete trisomy 12p. Abnormalities of hair growth may be related to a gene at 12p. The sub-band 12p11.21 may be critical for acrocallosal syndrome. Macrocephaly may be due to a metabolic disorder. 26 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. The {open_quotes}Command and Control{close_quotes} philosophy of the Communist party of China

    SciTech Connect

    Kominiak, G.J.; Eisenberger, J.C.; Menaul, K.L.

    1996-01-01

    China`s central political authorities have constructed a system which is designed to enable them to exert their personal influence and control over each level of every organization in the country -- both civil and military. The Communist Party of China (CPC) is represented at all levels of each and every organization, including the People`s Liberation Army (PLA). These Party entities are intended to both provide oversight and to ensure that Party policies, directives and orders are obeyed. This penchant for political control, which may have its roots in China`s imperial past, appears to have been reinforced by the early developmental path chosen by the Party`s leadership. Current attempts aimed at maintaining political control of its resources, especially the military, are embodied in the formal system of {open_quotes}Political Work.{close_quotes} In the PLA, this system of political control results in the involvement of political organs in day-to-day military matters to an extent unheard of in the West. Further work is needed in order to understand, more fully, both the system of {open_quotes}Political Work{close_quotes} and its contributions to the overall military (and civil) command and control philosophic of the Communist Party of China.

  19. Role of RT6{sup +} T lymphocytes in mercury-induced renal autoimmunity: Experimental manipulations of {open_quotes}susceptible{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}resistant{close_quotes} rats

    SciTech Connect

    Kosuda, L.L.; Hosseinzadeh, H.; Bigazzi, P.E.; Greiner, D.L. |

    1994-12-31

    Brown Norway (BN) rats, {open_quotes}susceptible{close_quotes} to the autoimmune effects of mercury, experience a decrease of peripheral RT6.2{sup +} T lymphocytes after the injection of relatively low doses of mercury chloride. This change coincides with the appearance of circulating autoantibodies to renal antigens (e.g., laminin). Lewis (LEW) rats, {open_quotes}resistant{close_quotes} to the autoimmune effects of mercury, do not show significant decreases of RT6{sup +} T cells. It is possible that BN rats are particularly sensitive to stress induced by mercury and that secretion of adrenocortical hormones decreases levels of RT6{sup +} T cells in this rat strain. Alternatively, mercury may induce a graft-versus-host-like syndrome in BN rats, resulting in higher levels of corticosteroids capable of affecting RT6{sup +} lymphocytes. To eliminate the possible influence of adrenocortical hormones, we have adrenalectomized BN rats prior to administration of mercury. Autoimmune responses to renal antigens were not affected by this experimental manipulation. Similarly, adrenalectomized rats exposed to mercury showed a significant decrease of RT6{sup +} T lymphocytes in cervical lymph nodes. Overall, these observations do not support the hypothesis that increases in adrenocortical hormones play a major role in mercury-induced changes of RT6{sup +} T cells. We have also explored whether experimental depletion of RT6{sup +} T lymphocytes would result in autoimmunity. Gamma irradiation of BN rats led to a decrease of RT6{sup +} T splenocytes, but by itself (i.e., without exposure to mercury) did not cause autoimmune responses to renal antigens. In addition, gamma-irradiated BN rats treated with mercury had autoimmune responses similar to those observed in mercury-treated nonirradiated controls. 38 refs., 4 tabs.

  20. Deposition of {open_quotes}unattached{close_quotes} radon daughters in models of human nasal and oral airways

    SciTech Connect

    Strong, J.C.; Swift, D.L.

    1992-12-31

    In order to estimate accurately an effective dose equivalent for exposures to radon daughters, knowledge of their deposition in the lung is required. However, the nose and mouth are effective filters for removing aerosol particles, especially in the range of sizes of {open_quotes}unattached{close_quotes} radon daughters. Therefore, it is equally important to have reliable data on deposition in this region of the respiratory tract. We will describe our work in studying nasal and oral deposition of {open_quotes}unattached{close_quotes} radon daughters in casts of these airways. Several hollow casts of adult and child nasal and oral airways were fabricated at The John Hopkins University from layers of Perspect{trademark} (an acrylic plastic). The shapes of the airway passages were obtained from nuclear magnetic resonance sectional images of healthy subjects. The casts were exposed to radon gas and daughters produced by flushing filtered air through a commercially available {sup 226}Ra source. The gas stream was drawn through a 1.4-L cylindrical tube to allow measurable growth of {sup 218}Po activity before it was passed through casts of both nasal passages or the oral cavity. The deposition of {open_quotes}unattached{close_quotes} {sup 218}Po was measured by comparing the activity collected on filters mounted in series and in parallel with a cast. Measurements were made at various flow rates (Q; 4 to 20 L min{sup -1}). The diffusion coefficient (D) of {sup 218}Po was measured each time the flow rate was changed, by replacing the cast with a stainless steel gauze screen and measuring the activity penetrating the screen. The measured diffusion coefficient ranged from 0.02 to 0.05 cm{sup 2} s{sup -1} and was found to vary with the residence time of {sup 218}Po in the growth tube. The deposition efficiency ({eta}) of {sup 218}Po measured in these casts ranged from 50 to 70%, and was similar to values we found previously, using casts of nasal and oral airways from cadavers.

  1. Crossed and Locked Quotes in a Multi-Market Simulation

    PubMed Central

    Todd, Andrew; Beling, Peter; Scherer, William

    2016-01-01

    Financial markets are often fragmented, introducing the possibility that quotes in identical securities may become crossed or locked. There are a number of theoretical explanations for the existence of crossed and locked quotes, including competition, simultaneous actions, inattentiveness, fee structure and market access. In this paper, we perform a simulation experiment designed to examine the effect of simple order routing procedures on the properties of a fragmented market consisting of a single security trading in two independent limit order books. The quotes in the two markets are connected solely by the routing decision of the market participants. We report on the health of the consolidated market as measured by the duration of crossed and locked states, as well as the spread and the volatility of transaction prices in the consolidated market. We aim to quantify exactly how the prevalence of order routing among a population of market participants affects properties of the consolidated market. Our model contributes to the zero-intelligence literature by treating order routing as an experimental variable. Additionally, we introduce a parsimonious heuristic for limit order routing, allowing us to study the effects of both market order routing and limit order routing. Our model refines intuition for the sometimes subtle relationships between the prevalence of order routing and various market measures. Our model also provides a benchmark for more complex agent-based models. PMID:26959416

  2. Crossed and Locked Quotes in a Multi-Market Simulation.

    PubMed

    Todd, Andrew; Beling, Peter; Scherer, William

    2016-01-01

    Financial markets are often fragmented, introducing the possibility that quotes in identical securities may become crossed or locked. There are a number of theoretical explanations for the existence of crossed and locked quotes, including competition, simultaneous actions, inattentiveness, fee structure and market access. In this paper, we perform a simulation experiment designed to examine the effect of simple order routing procedures on the properties of a fragmented market consisting of a single security trading in two independent limit order books. The quotes in the two markets are connected solely by the routing decision of the market participants. We report on the health of the consolidated market as measured by the duration of crossed and locked states, as well as the spread and the volatility of transaction prices in the consolidated market. We aim to quantify exactly how the prevalence of order routing among a population of market participants affects properties of the consolidated market. Our model contributes to the zero-intelligence literature by treating order routing as an experimental variable. Additionally, we introduce a parsimonious heuristic for limit order routing, allowing us to study the effects of both market order routing and limit order routing. Our model refines intuition for the sometimes subtle relationships between the prevalence of order routing and various market measures. Our model also provides a benchmark for more complex agent-based models. PMID:26959416

  3. Morphologies of emulsions of conjugate phase pairs of amphiphile/oil/water {open_quotes}microemulsion{close_quotes} tie triangles

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.H.; Nwosu, S.N.; Johnson, G.K.

    1992-04-01

    Electrical conductivity measurements were made on emulsions formed, respectively, from the conjugate top-middle, top-bottom, and middle-bottom phase pairs that define the three sides of various nonionic amphiphile/oil/water {open_quotes}microemulsion{close_quotes} tie triangles. Effective-medium conductivity models and observations of creaming behavior were used to substantiate assignments of steady-state emulsion morphologies. The phase volume fractions at which morphology changes occurred were measured for both directions along each tie line, and the hysteresis was obtained as the difference between the volume fractions for the two directions. The results support the dispersion morphology diagram previously postulated, including the formation of mixtures of emulsions whose morphologies are the inverse of each other. 31 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Report on {open_quotes}inspection of human subject research in intelligence and intelligence-related projects{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-16

    Executive Order 12333, {open_quotes}United States Intelligence Activities,{close_quotes} (1) designates the Department`s intelligence element as a member of the Intelligence Community, and (2) states that no agency within the Intelligence community shall sponsor, contract for or conduct research on human subjects except in accordance with guidelines issued by the Department of Health and Human Services. The Federal policy for the Protection of Human Subjects, which was based on Department of Health and Human Services regulations, was promulgated in Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations Part 745 by the Department of Energy. The purpose of this inspection was to review the internal control procedures used by the Office of Nonproliferation and National Security to manage selected intelligence and intelligence-related projects that involve human subject research.

  5. Absence of {lambda} immunoglobulin sequences on the supernumerary chromosome of the {open_quotes}cat eye{close_quotes} syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Hough, C.A.; White, B.N.; Holden, J.J.A.

    1995-09-11

    The supernumerary bisatellited chromosome causing the {open_quotes}cat eye{close_quotes} syndrome (CES) is of chromosome 22 origin and consists of an inverted duplication of the 22pter{r_arrow}22q11.2 region. To determine the extent of involvement of band q11.2 on the bisatellited chromosome, copy number assessment of sequences homologous to cloned {lambda} immunoglobulin ({lambda} Ig) gene region probes was carried out on DNA from individuals with CES using densitometric analysis of Southern blots. None of the 10 {lambda} Ig sequences studied was found in increased copy number in DNA from any of the 10 CES individuals tested, indicating that these sequences are not present on the supernumerary chromosome. The breakpoints involved in the generation of the bisatellited supernumerary chromosome associated with CES are therefore proximal to the {lambda} Ig gene region. 20 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  6. Search systems and medical data quoting from the internet.

    PubMed

    Cvitanović, Hrvoje; Situm, Mirna

    2002-09-01

    The Internet as a new medium also has its use in medicine. Plenty of information which can be found on the world computer network, needs an efficient searching as well as an evaluation system and quoting of the information obtained. Twelve most popular search engines were chosen--9 general: Netscape, Altavista, HotBot, Goggle, Northern Light, Magellan, Infoseek, MSN; 2 specialized medical search engines: Medscape and Medline; and one Croatian search engine: Cross. The efficiency of searching was observed by analyzing the number of obtained pages, their contents and examples of the quoted references from the Internet. The searching was done using the mentioned search engines, and results varied from 2,189,793 network pages found on the Infoseek for the term 'skin cancer' to 0 pages with the search engine Cross for the term 'melanoma+therapy'. When comparing the results for a single term using various search engines, it is concluded that the number of pages varied because of different databases and specialized scooters that search and make indexes. It is possible to use logical operators and more advanced search systems with the majority of search engines. The quoting system is based on mentioning the names of the author and his work, the access date and url (uniform resource locator) addresses of the network pages. Permanent and reliable access to quotations could not be established with previous quotation systems. Dermatologic terms have been well dealt with concerning general population, whereas professionals are recommended to use Medline and reviewed web pages. There have been very few professional and professionally relevant and comprehensive pages on the Internet relative to the total of web pages. PMID:12377112

  7. Selecting Solar: Insights into Residential Photovoltaic (PV) Quote Variation

    SciTech Connect

    Davidson, Carolyn; Margolis, Robert

    2015-10-01

    Before investing in a system, a prospective PV customer must not only have initial concept 'buy in,' but also be able to evaluate the tradeoffs associated with different system parameters. Prospective customers might need to evaluate disparate costs for each system attribute by comparing multiple bids. The difficulty of making such an evaluation with limited information can create a cognitive barrier to proceeding with the investment. This analysis leverages recently available data from EnergySage, an online solar marketplace, to offer the first data-driven characterization of quote variation faced by prospective PV customers, lending early insight into the decisions customers face once they have initial buy-in.

  8. Recognition and regional correlation of impact-related {open_quotes}Ames Crater{close_quotes} Arbuckle and Simpson reservoir lithofacies

    SciTech Connect

    Kuykendall, M.D.

    1995-09-01

    The concentric structural feature known as the {open_quotes}Ames Hole{close_quotes} or {open_quotes}Ames Crater{close_quotes}, located on the northern shelf of the Anadarko Basin, contains several heterogeneous and uniquely associated hydrocarbon reservoirs, as well as a locally thick (craterfilling) Middle Ordovician (Simpson shale) source rock. Critical diagnostic structural and morphological features, along with petrographic and shock metamorphism evidence, strongly support and impact origin of the structure. Principle crater reservoirs include extremely brecciated, fractured, and faulted, Cambro-Ordovician Arbuckle Group dolomites, Pre-Cambrian granodiorities, devitrified pseudo-pyroclastic (impact melt) rocks, and a rather homogenous, dolomitic ejecta-fallout breccia, which is present along the rim and flanks of the crater. Stratigraphic trapping of hydrocarbons associated with the presence of reservoir-quality ejecta-fallout lithologies unconformably present in the upper portion of the Arbuckle Group, and in reworked, arkosic/dolomitic impact-related lithofacies within the overlying basal Simpson Group, may exist both locally and regionally relative to the {open_quotes}Ames Crater{close_quotes}. Calibration of log-rock characteristics of ejecta-fallout reservoir lithofacies from key crater rim wells provides the basis for field-wide and regional inferences about lithologies, reservoir quality, and related production characteristics. An awareness and understanding of impact-related {open_quotes}Ames Crater{close_quotes} Arbuckle and Simpson lithofacies should lead to refinement of regional Lower and Middle Ordovician stratigraphy, and create renewed exploration strategies for potential stratigraphic traps.

  9. Continuous-type (Basin-Centered) gas accumulation in the Lower Silurian {open_quotes}Clinton{close_quotes} sands, Medina Group, and Tuscarora Sandstone in the Appalachian Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Ryder, R.T.; Sanfilipo, J.R.; Hettinger, R.D.; Keighin, C.W.; Law, B.E.; Nuccio, V.F.; Perry, W.J. Jr.; Wandrey, C.J.

    1996-09-01

    Following earlier interpretations investigations at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) suggest that natural gas trapped in the Lower Silurian {open_quotes}Clinton{close_quotes} sands, Medina Group, and Tuscarora Sandstone of the Appalachian basin constitute a regionally extensive continuous-type (basin-centered) gas accumulation. Based on the USGS 1995 National Assessment of United States oil and gas resources, this accumulation contains, at a mean value, several tens of trillion cubic feet of recoverable gas estimated as undiscovered. Important characteristics of continuous-type (basin-centered) gas accumulations, such as low-permeability reservoir, abnormal formation pressure, gas fields that tend to coalesce with additional exploration, gas shows or production in most holes drilled, low water yield, lack of well-defined downdip gas-water contacts, production {open_quotes}sweet spots{close_quotes}, and a general lack of structural control on entrapment are all present in the proposed {open_quotes}Clinton{close_quotes}/Medina/Tuscarora gas accumulation. A 17,000 square mile region of western New York, northwestern Pennsylvania, eastern Ohio, and a small area of westernmost West Virginia-part of which is already gas productive in the {open_quotes}Clinton{close_quotes} sands and Medina Group-is the most favorable corridor for future continuous-type gas resources. Oil and gas produced in east-central Ohio from {open_quotes}Clinton{close_quotes} sands since the early 1880`s, located updip from the most favorable corridor of continuous-type gas resources, are considered conventional-type hydrocarbon accumulations because of their tendency to exist as discrete fields with well-defined oil- and gas-water contacts. The boundary between the conventional- and continuous-type accumulations is transitional and poorly defined.

  10. Comment on {open_quotes}Molecular-dynamics simulations of solid-phase epitaxy of Si: Growth mechanisms{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    Ishimaru, Manabu

    2001-06-15

    Based on molecular-dynamics simulations using the Tersoff interatomic potential, Motooka recently proposed an atomistic model for solid-phase epitaxial (SPE) growth onto a Si(001) substrate [Phys. Rev. B >61, 8537 (2000)]. In their model, the SPE growth mode and its activation energy are different in the lower (1450{endash}1600 K) and higher temperature (1600{endash}2000 K) regions. In this Comment, we show that the amorphous-to-liquid phase transition occurs above {similar_to}1650 K, so Motooka{close_quote}s simulations do not reproduce the SPE processes at higher temperature.

  11. {open_quotes}Airborne Research Australia (ARA){close_quotes} a new research aircraft facility on the southern hemisphere

    SciTech Connect

    Hacker, J.M.

    1996-11-01

    {open_quotes}Airborne Research Australia{close_quotes} (ARA) is a new research aircraft facility in Australia. It will serve the scientific community of Australia and will also make its aircraft and expertise available for commercial users. To cover the widest possible range of applications, the facility will operate up to five research aircraft, from a small, low-cost platform to medium-sized multi-purpose aircraft, as well as a unique high altitude aircraft capable of carrying scientific loads to altitudes of up to 15km. The aircraft will be equipped with basic instrumentation and data systems, as well as facilities to mount user-supplied instrumentation and systems internally and externally on the aircraft. The ARA operations base consisting of a hangar, workshops, offices, laboratories, etc. is currently being constructed at Parafield Airport near Adelaide/South Australia. The following text reports about the current state of development of the facility. An update will be given in a presentation at the Conference. 6 figs.

  12. Ulysses observations of a {open_quotes}density hole{close_quotes} in the high-speed solar wind

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, P.; Gosling, J.T.; McComas, D.J.; Forsyth, R.J.

    1998-02-01

    Ulysses observations at mid and high heliographic latitudes have revealed a solar wind devoid of the large variations in density, temperature, and speed that are commonly observed at low latitudes. One event, however, observed on May 1, 1996, while Ulysses was located at {approximately}3.7AU and 38.5{degree}, stands out in the plasma data set. The structure, which is unique in the Ulysses high-latitude data set, is seen as a drop in proton density of almost an order of magnitude and a comparable rise in proton temperature. The event lasts {approximately}3(1)/(2) hours giving the structure a size of {approximately}9.6{times}10{sup 6}km (0.06 AU) along the spacecraft trajectory. Minimum variance analysis of this interval indicates that the angle between the average magnetic field direction and the minimum variance direction is {approximately}92{degree}, suggesting that the {open_quotes}density hole{close_quotes} may be approximated by a series of planar slabs separated by several tangential discontinuities. We discuss several possible explanations for the origin of this structure, but ultimately the origin of the density hole remains unknown. {copyright} 1998 American Geophysical Union

  13. On the article by Henri Poincare` {open_quotes}on the dynamics of the electron{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    Logunov, A.A.

    1996-04-01

    The first complete translations into English are presented of two articles written by the outstanding French scientist Henri Poincare and submitted by him in 1905 under the common title of {open_quotes}Sur la dynamique de l`electron{close_quotes} to different journals. In the present edition of these articles by H. Poincare, modern notation is used, and the articles are accompanied by comments written by A.A. Logunov. The author of the comments explains the profound physical meaning and essential novelty of the particular points and relationships established by Poincare. Such explanations are often interspersed with quotations from earlier articles by Poincare, thus clearly indicating that the main initial points of the new theory were put forward by the French scientist much before 1905, while certain concepts like `local` time and the arbitrariness of simultaneity were given a clear explanation from the point of view of physical meaning. A.A. Logunov`s book, presenting the works of Poincare on the development of relativity theory, has had quite a high success among specialists interested in the history of physics, and since 1984 it has been published in Russian three times. The present English-language edition is identical to the last 1988 Russian edition, and is dedicated to the 90th anniversary of Poincare`s articles `On the Dynamics of the Electron`. In preparing the English text, fragments were used of the translation of the long article by H.Poincare published in the book by Professor C.W. Kilmister from King`s College in London/Special Theory of Relativity, Pergamon Press, New York, 1970/.

  14. Belgian experience in applying the {open_quotes}leak-before-break{close_quotes} concept to the primary loop piping

    SciTech Connect

    Gerard, R.; Malekian, C.; Meessen, O.

    1997-04-01

    The Leak Before Break (LBB) concept allows to eliminate from the design basis the double-ended guillotine break of the primary loop piping, provided it can be demonstrated by a fracture mechanics analysis that a through-wall flaw, of a size giving rise to a leakage still well detectable by the plant leak detection systems, remains stable even under accident conditions (including the Safe Shutdown Earthquake (SSE)). This concept was successfully applied to the primary loop piping of several Belgian Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) units, operated by the Utility Electrabel. One of the main benefits is to permit justification of supports in the primary loop and justification of the integrity of the reactor pressure vessel and internals in case of a Loss Of Coolant Accident (LOCA) in stretch-out conditions. For two of the Belgian PWR units, the LBB approach also made it possible to reduce the number of large hydraulic snubbers installed on the primary coolant pumps. Last but not least, the LBB concept also facilitates the steam generator replacement operations, by eliminating the need for some pipe whip restraints located close to the steam generator. In addition to the U.S. regulatory requirements, the Belgian safety authorities impose additional requirements which are described in details in a separate paper. An novel aspect of the studies performed in Belgium is the way in which residual loads in the primary loop are taken into account. Such loads may result from displacements imposed to close the primary loop in a steam generator replacement operation, especially when it is performed using the {open_quote}two cuts{close_quotes} technique. The influence of such residual loads on the LBB margins is discussed in details and typical results are presented.

  15. Air pollutant emissions from MSW landfills - the {open_quotes}sleeper{close_quotes} issue for landfill design and regulation

    SciTech Connect

    Minott, D.H.

    1995-05-01

    Five years have passed since US EPA adopted the now well-known hierarchy for management of MSW - source reduction, recycling, waste-to-energy, and, for waste that cannot be practically recycled or combusted, landfilling. Despite US EPA`s preferred waste-management hierarchy, the United States, as a country, continues to rely on landfilling as its principal means of MSW management. This disparity is also true locally, in the case of the nation`s most populous city, New York City. The City deposits most residential MSW in its Fresh Kills Landfill on Staten Island, some four million tons of MSW per year. What is more, while the City is indeed implementing recycling, its formal waste-management plans also call for continued heavy reliance on the Fresh Kills Landfill for 10 years or more into the future. Because landfills continue to serve as the MSW management {open_quotes}workhorse{close_quotes} in many locales, it is believed that a full accounting of landfill environmental emissions is called for, to enable adequate environmental safeguards in the design of landfills, appropriate regulation of landfill environmental emissions, and informed public decision-making about MSW management in general. Evidence is presented that air pollutant emissions, in particular, from landfills pose a significant environmental threat that is largely unrecognized by most people. Locally in New York City, there is an awakening to the issue of landfill air-pollutant emissions, as evidenced by the recent undertaking of a study of air quality near the Fresh Kills Landfill by Federal, State, and local agencies. In general, however, the public`s concern over landfill air-pollutant emissions is limited to odor nuisance.

  16. Global climate change - the United Nations FCCC, {open_quotes}Berlin Mandate{close_quotes}, COP-2, and electric utilities

    SciTech Connect

    Mathai, C.V.

    1997-12-31

    Over the past 100 years, there has been a steady increase in man-made emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs, such as carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and most halogenated substances) due to human activities including combustion of fossil fuels and deforestation. Scientific studies suggest that these emissions are contributing to increases in atmospheric concentrations of GHGs which in turn, cause an enhanced greenhouse effect by trapping more of the sun`s energy leading to global climate change. Recently, a consensus position has emerged among the scientific community that man-made GHG emissions appear to be contributing to global climate change. Based on that finding, United States representative, Under Secretary of State Tim Wirth stated at the July 1996 meeting of the {open_quotes}Conference of Parties{close_quotes} (COP) of the FCCC, that global voluntary efforts to meet the GHG emission reduction goal have failed He called for the COP to expedite ongoing international negotiations toward establishing (in 1997) medium-term, realistic, legally-binding GHG emission targets and implementation schedules for each country. Setting a legally binding GHG emission target would have significant impacts on the nation, and especially on the electric utility sector. This article provides a general overview of the United States and international efforts toward implementing the FCCC and their potential impacts on the utility industry. A future article is anticipated to address an update on the international negotiations and their potential impacts on other sectors of the U.S. economy, and the rapidly growing GHG emissions from developing countries such as China and India.

  17. {open_quotes}Bubble fusion{close_quotes}: Preliminary estimates of spherical micro-implosions in cavitating liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Krakowski, R.A.

    1995-02-01

    Liquids irradiated with intense ultrasonic waves can generate small cavities or bubbles. Upon nonlinear expansion to a state of disequilibrium, wherein the externally imposed hydrostatic pressure far exceeds that of entrapped non-condensable gas, these bubbles undergo a rapid and violent collapse. This collapse, if symmetric, can generate high pressures and temperatures through a number of possible mechanisms. The simplest and oldest explanation suggests a focusing of the kinetic energy of all the surrounding liquid onto the collapsing bubble and the subsequent heating of entrapped gases under either adiabatic or isothermal conditions. Although induced by externally imposed millisecond pressure oscillations, these collapses can occur on sub-microsecond timescales and are accompanied by picosecond light emissions; this combination of sound and light is called sonoluminescence. Recent explanations of observed high temperatures and picosecond radiation pulses accompanying such collapses are based on the interaction of multiple shock waves that are launched off the inward cavity wall. Other potential explanations invoke dipole emissions induced by intermolecular collisions or the release of Casimir energy when a dielectric hole is filled. Conjectures have been made that the processes responsible for sonoluminescence may be extended to generated conditions where thermonuclear fusion might occur. Such an achievement would extend scientific interest in sonoluminescence out of a purely chemical context to include the study of matter subjected to more extreme conditions. The main goal of this {open_quotes}scoping{close_quotes} study is to understand better conditions where deuterium-tritium fusion might be observed in conjunction with micro-implosions in cavitating liquids; prognoses of fusion application at this point are unintended.

  18. The {open_quotes}Vapor-Lock{close_quotes} Pressure Seal - A possible conection between fluid pressure distribution and structure in young, clastic basins

    SciTech Connect

    Benzing, W.M.

    1995-10-01

    Most young sedimentary basins, such as the Gulf of Mexico, contain zones of anomalously high fluid pressure that may provide clues for finding major new hydrocarbon reserves. Evidence is mounting that such basins are dynamic systems with fluids flowing across {open_quotes}leaky{close_quotes} pressure seals. The anomalously high pressure gradients within the seals define the geopressured zones. Given that fluid flow exists, the observed seal gradients are evidence of flow through a low permeability barrier. One form of low permeability barrier, a gas charged sediment, has been demonstrated in the lab. Gas in the sediment pores impedes the flow of liquids. This type of seal behaves much like the more traditional concept of a lithology seal. Since the {open_quotes}vapor-lock{close_quotes} seal depends upon factors which control gas solubility, such as pressure, temperature and salinity, it can form within a uniform lithology and cut across sedimentary layers. Assuming the {open_quotes}vapro-lock{close_quotes} seal is more likely to follow isotherms than bedding planes, the potential exists that the 3-D surface represented by the seal may have local highs which would produce localized minima in the effective stress. This would produce a mechanically unstable situation with the localized, high pressure, low density sediment creating buoyant forces within the sediment. These vertical forces, coupled with lateral variations in compaction due to geopressure, lead to sediment deformation and the formation of structural traps.

  19. A Sixteen Journal Study of Accuracy of Direct Quotes and Associated Reference List Entries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Arden; And Others

    A study examined the nature and frequency of faults and errors in reference list entries and direct quotes selected from all 1988 issues of 16 social and biological science journals. All departures from the original (additions, omissions, or changes) were labelled as either a word or punctuation deviation. Of the 402 quotes verified, 33.33%

  20. Sequence stratigraphic re-interpretation of [open quotes]stray[close quotes] sandstones in the Cretaceous Mancos Shale, Book Cliffs, Utah: Implications for exploration models

    SciTech Connect

    Hampson, G.J.; Howell, J.A.; Flint, S.S. )

    1996-01-01

    The Mancos Shale, Book Cliffs, eastern Utah, represents the open marine mudstones of the Cretaceous Western Interior Seaway and contains a number of detached sandstone bodies ([open quotes]Mancos B[close quotes]) which are located 30-150 km down depositional dip from contemporaneous highstand shoreline deposits in the Blackhawk Formation. Examination of these [open quotes]stray[close quotes] sandstones reveals that they do not represent deep water deposition, as previously supposed, but instead comprise three shallow marine facies associations; (1) tidally-influenced fluvial channel fills, (2) fluvially-dominated delta front successions and (3) low-energy shorelines. Tidally-influenced fluvial channel fills are commonly stacked into multistorey bodies at discrete stratigraphic levels, thereby defining incised valley fill (IVF) networks. Fluvially-dominated deltas are eroded into by, and lie at the down-dip terminations of, IVFs and are therefore interpreted as falling stage and lowstand shorelines. Low-energy shorelines are inferred to lie along strike from these deltas. The above shallow marine deposits have been mapped at five discrete stratigraphic horizons, which can be either traced or projected up-dip to previously-documented IVFs in the Blackhawk Formation. Their paleocurrents imply that falling stage and lowstand shoreline trends were sub-parallel to mapped highstand shorelines, although there is evidence for a perpendicular lowstand shoreline trend in the east of the study area. This facies and sequence stratigraphic re-interpretation enables predictive exploration modelling of subsurface [open quotes]Mancos B[close quotes] gas reservoir sandstones.

  1. Sequence stratigraphic re-interpretation of {open_quotes}stray{close_quotes} sandstones in the Cretaceous Mancos Shale, Book Cliffs, Utah: Implications for exploration models

    SciTech Connect

    Hampson, G.J.; Howell, J.A.; Flint, S.S.

    1996-12-31

    The Mancos Shale, Book Cliffs, eastern Utah, represents the open marine mudstones of the Cretaceous Western Interior Seaway and contains a number of detached sandstone bodies ({open_quotes}Mancos B{close_quotes}) which are located 30-150 km down depositional dip from contemporaneous highstand shoreline deposits in the Blackhawk Formation. Examination of these {open_quotes}stray{close_quotes} sandstones reveals that they do not represent deep water deposition, as previously supposed, but instead comprise three shallow marine facies associations; (1) tidally-influenced fluvial channel fills, (2) fluvially-dominated delta front successions and (3) low-energy shorelines. Tidally-influenced fluvial channel fills are commonly stacked into multistorey bodies at discrete stratigraphic levels, thereby defining incised valley fill (IVF) networks. Fluvially-dominated deltas are eroded into by, and lie at the down-dip terminations of, IVFs and are therefore interpreted as falling stage and lowstand shorelines. Low-energy shorelines are inferred to lie along strike from these deltas. The above shallow marine deposits have been mapped at five discrete stratigraphic horizons, which can be either traced or projected up-dip to previously-documented IVFs in the Blackhawk Formation. Their paleocurrents imply that falling stage and lowstand shoreline trends were sub-parallel to mapped highstand shorelines, although there is evidence for a perpendicular lowstand shoreline trend in the east of the study area. This facies and sequence stratigraphic re-interpretation enables predictive exploration modelling of subsurface {open_quotes}Mancos B{close_quotes} gas reservoir sandstones.

  2. {open_quotes}Anomalous peak effect{close_quotes} - is it indicative of a generalized Fulde-Ferrell-Larkin-Ovchinnikov state?

    SciTech Connect

    Modler, R.

    1996-10-01

    Dilatometric and magnetic studies on single crystals of the high-{kappa} superconductors UPd{sub 2}Al{sub 3} and CeRu{sub 2} reveal a spontaneous increase of the volume-pinning force at high magnetic fields of more than one order of magnitude. This {open_quotes}anomalous peak effect{close_quotes} was claimed to be a signature of a new staggered high-field superconducting order parameter. We will review the recent developments and discuss alternative explanations.

  3. Problem on the United States Continental Shelf - measuring the environmental {open_quotes}effectiveness{close_quotes} of the Outer Continental Shelf Act (OCSA)

    SciTech Connect

    Dubner, B.H.

    1994-12-31

    This article reviews the interplay of environmental standard with oil and gas leasing on the Outer Continental Shelf (OSC) in order to determine if the marine environment is really protected by the interplay of domestic legislation. The 1982 LOS treaty leaves environmental protection to State (domestic) regulation. There is no customary law regarding this type of domestic shelf regulation. The main problem is measuring the {open_quotes}effectiveness{close_quotes} of our domestic shelf legislation. For example, do we simply review effectiveness in terms of controlling operational damage or in terms of environmental injury caused by catastrophic accidents?

  4. Sequence stratigraphic elements and geochemical variable within a {open_quotes}condensed section{close_quotes}: Eagle Ford Group, East-Central Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Liro, L.M.; Dawson, W.C.; Katz, B.J.; Robison, V.D.

    1994-12-31

    The Cenomanian-Turonian Eagle Ford Group, the likely source of oil for the East Texas field, is exposed along a broad belt in Central and northeastern Texas. Detailed analysis of Eagle Ford outcrops in Central Texas reveals considerable lithologic variability at several different scales. A lower section is interpreted to represent transgressive, in part {open_quotes}condensed{close_quotes} deposits, whereas the overlying section is interpreted as a highstand deposit. This sequence stratigraphic framework is suggested by stratigraphic and geochemical evidence. The lower portion of the measured Eagle Ford Group outcrops contain dark shales with a blocky character. These shales exhibit minor bioturbation and are well laminated. A few bentonites are evident in this portion of the section but are not as significant as in the overlying unit. Above this interval, the Eagle Ford changes character dramatically, exhibiting a series of interbedded carbonate flagstones, recessive shales, and numerous bentonites. Several bentonite layers appear to be continuous regionally, and compositional analyses suggest that they may be useful in stratigraphic correlation. Detailed organic geochemical analyses clearly differentiate the upper and lower Eagle Ford. The shales in the lower transgressive unit are organically enriched, exhibit higher generation potentials, and are more oil-prone than shales in the overlying regressive interval. Even within the oil-prone intervals there is considerable variation in geochemical attributes. This work raises concerns about uncritically equating {open_quotes}condensed sections{close_quotes} with source rock potential.

  5. Sequence-stratigraphic elements and geochemical variability within a {open_quotes}condensed section{close_quotes}: Eagle Ford Group, east-central Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Liro, L.M.; Dawson, W.C.; Katz, B.J.

    1994-09-01

    The Cenomanian-Turonian Eagle Ford Group, the likely source for the East Texas field, crops out along a broad belt in central and northeastern Texas. Detailed analysis of Eagle Ford outcrops in central Texas reveals considerable variability at several different scales. A lower section is interpreted to represent transgressive, in-part {open_quotes}condensed{close_quotes} deposits, whereas the overlying section is interpreted as a highstand deposit. This sequence-stratigraphic framework is suggested by stratigraphic and geochemical evidence. The lower portion of the measured Eagle Ford Group outcrops contains dark shales with a blocky character. These shales exhibit minor bioturbation and are well laminated. A few bentonites are evident in this portion of the section but are not as significant as in the overlying unit. Above this interval, the Eagle Ford changes character dramatically, exhibiting a series of interbedded carbonate flags and recessive shales and numerous bentonites. Several bentonite layers appear to be continuous regionally, and compositional analyses suggest that they may be useful in stratigraphic correlation. Detailed organic geochemical analyses clearly differentiate the upper and lower Eagle Ford. The shales in the lower transgressive unit are organically enriched, exhibit higher generation potentials, and are more oil prone than shales in the overlying regressive interval. Even within the oil-prone intervals, there is considerable variation in geochemical attributes. This work raises concerns about uncritically equating {open_quotes}condensed sections{close_quotes} with source rock potential.

  6. Comment on [open quotes]Weathering, plants, and the long-term carbon cycle[close quotes] by Robert A. Berner

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, T.A. )

    1993-05-01

    Berner (1992) has asserted that Jackson and Keller (1970a) misinterpreted the conspicuous reddish crust which forms on young lava flows in areas of rock surface colonised by the lichen Stereocaulon vulcani (but not in adjacent areas of bare rock) in regions of high rain fall on the Island of Hawaii. Jackson (1968) and Jackson and Keller (1970a,b) concluded from the results of a thorough interdisiplinary investigation employing a wide spectrum of techniques and information that his reddish coating, is an intensely leached weathering crust formed in situ, and that biochemical activities of the lichen or its associated microflora not only accelerate the chemical weathering of the rock by orders of magnitude but also determine the specific mineralogical and chemical properties of the weathering products. Berner, however, maintained that the reddish crust is in reality a deposit of [open quotes]wind-blown soil dust[close quotes] entrapped by a sticky organic substance secreted by the lichen. Berner fixed his attention on just one aspect of the many-sided body of interrelated data on which the conclusions of Jackson and Keller are founded-the observation that the weathering crust is much thicker on lichen-covered rock surfaces than on lichen-free [open quotes]control[close quotes] areas of the same rock. The totality of published evidence overwhelmingly supports the conclusions of Jackson and Keller an demonstrates that Berner's rival hypothesis is untenable.

  7. {open_quotes}Horizontal{close_quotes} gene transfer from a transgenic potato line to a bacterial pathogen (Erwinia chrysanthemi) occurs - if at all - at an extremely low frequency

    SciTech Connect

    Schlueter, K.; Fuetterer, J.; Potrykus, I.

    1995-10-01

    The frequency of possible {open_quotes}horizontal{close_quotes} gene transfer between a plant and a tightly associated bacterial pathogen was studied in a model system consisting of transgenic Solanum tuberosum, containing a {beta}-lactamase gene linked to a pBR322 origin of replication, and Erwinia chrysanthemi. This experimental system offers optimal conditions for the detection of possible horizontal gene transfer events, even when they occur at very low frequency. Horizontal gene transfer was not detected under conditions mimicking a {open_quotes}natural{close_quotes} infection. The gradual, stepwise alteration of artificial, positive control conditions to idealized natural conditions, however, allowed the characterization of factors that affected gene transfer, and revealed a gradual decrease of the gene transfer frequency from 6.3 x 10{sup -2} under optimal control conditions to a calculated 2.0 x 10{sub -17} under idealized natural conditions. These data, in combination with other published studies, argue that horizontal gene transfer is so rare as to be essentially irrelevant to any realistic assessment of the risk involved in release experiments involving transgenic plants. 22 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Did the Mississippian Lodgepole buildup at Dickinson Field (North Dakota) form as a gas seep ({open_quotes}vent{close_quotes}) community?

    SciTech Connect

    Longman, M.W.

    1996-10-01

    The Lower Mississippian Lodgepole carbonate buildup reservoir at Dickinson Field in Stark County, North Dakota, has been widely reported as being a Waulsortian (or Waulsortian-like) mound. The term {open_quotes}Waulsortian mound{close_quotes} is used for a variety of Early Mississippian carbonate buildups that share a number of features including an abundance of carbonate mud, a {open_quotes}framework{close_quotes} of organisms such as fenestrate bryozoans and crinoids that tended to trap or baffle sediment, and a general absence of marine-cemented reef framework. Although the age of the Lodgepole mound at Dickinson Field qualifies it to be a Waulsortian mound, petrographic study of cores reveals that the reservoir rocks are quite unlike those in true Waulsortian mounds. Instead of being dominated by carbonate mud, the Lodgepole mound core is dominated by marine cement. Furthermore, ostracods and microbial limestones are common in the mound core where they occur with crinoid debris and small amounts of bryozoan, coral, and brachiopod debris. The abundant microbial limestones and marine cement indicate that the Dickinson mound formed as a lithified reef on the sea floor rather than as a Waulsortian mud mound. The microbial limestones, marine cement, and common ostracods in the mount core, and the fact that the mound nucleated almost directly o top of the Bakken Shale, suggest that the Dickinson Lodgepole mound formed at the site of a submarine spring and gas seep.

  9. Accumulation of Cd by the marine sponge Halichondria panicea pallas: Effects upon filtration rate and its relevance for biomonitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Olesen, T.M.E.; Weeks, J.M. )

    1994-05-01

    The marine demosponge Halichondria panicea Pallas, is a cosmopolitan species occurring in coastal waters with varied conditions of light, current, salinity and turbidity. H. panicea has a leuconoid structure and is composed of siliceous spicules and spongin fibers. Sponges are important members of many shallow water marine benthic communities, but comparatively little is known of their trace metal biology. Sponge architecture is constructed around a system of water canals and the physiology of the sponge is largely dependent on the currents of water flowing through their bodies. The volume of water pumped by a sponge is remarkable, ca. 100-1200 ml h[sup [minus]1] g[sup [minus]1]. This large volume of water passing through the body of a sponge means that most cells are in direct contact with the external medium. Many sponges are able to accumulate trace metals and are highly tolerant of such pollutants. This has led to the proposal that a [open quotes]sponge watch[close quotes] program be initiated supplementary to the existing [open quotes]mussel watch[close quotes] program. In view of the large volume of water passing through the bodies of sponges such as H. panicea, the suitability of this species as a biomonitoring organism was further investigated. This study describes the accumulation strategy of the demosponge H. panicea exposed to dissolved cadmium (Cd) and the effect of Cd upon sponge filtration rate.

  10. International shipment of light weight radioisotopic heater units (LWRHU) using the USA/9516/B(U)F Mound 1 kW shipping package in support of the {open_quotes}Pluto Express{close_quotes} mission

    SciTech Connect

    Barklay, C.D.; Merten, C.W.

    1997-01-01

    Radioisotopes have provided heat that has been used to maintain specific operating environments within remote satellites and spacecraft. For the {open_quotes}Pluto Express{close_quotes} mission the {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} fueled light weight radioisotopic heater unit (LWRHU) will be used within the spacecraft. Since the current plan for the {open_quotes}Pluto Express{close_quotes} mission incorporates the use of a Russian launch platform for the spacecraft, the LWRHUs must be transported in an internationally certified shipping container. An internationally certified shipping package that is versatile enough to be reconfigured to transport the LWRHUs that will be required to support the {open_quotes}Pluto Express{close_quotes} mission is the Mound USA/9516/B(U)F. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  11. Dispersion morphology diagram for three-phase, [open quotes]microemulsion[close quotes] emulsions and comparison to predictions from the two-phase dispersion morphology diagram

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.H. Univ. of Oklahoma, Norma, OK ); Wang, Y.H.C. )

    1994-07-21

    The phase-volume and component-concentration limits over which the oil-rich top phase, middle-phase microemulsion, or water-rich bottom phase was the continuous phase in their steady-state, three-phase macroemulsions were determined by means of electrical conductivity measurements for the amphiphile/oil/[open quotes]water[close quotes] system C[sub 4]H[sub 9]OC[sub 2]H[sub 4]OH/n-decane/aqueous 10 mM NaCl. The measured limits are consistent with predictions based on the dispersion morphology diagram for the two-phase regions that surround the tie triangle. 23 refs., 10 figs.

  12. Translocation 4p;21q identified by FISH in a case previously described as {open_quotes}presumptive monosomy 21{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    Yao, Xiu-Lan; Jenkins, E.C.

    1994-10-01

    Recently, Lopez-Pajares et al. (1993) reported identification of a translocation between the short arm of a chromosome 5 and the long arm of a chromosome 21 in a patient who was thought to be monosomy 21. This study is the first application of a chromosome 21 painting probe, pBS-21, and fluorescent in situ chromosome hybridization (FISH) to revise an earlier diagnosis of monosomy 21. We have now restudied skin fibroblast cultures, GM00137B, that are still available from another patient previously described as {open_quotes}presumptive monosomy 21{close_quotes} and have found that this case also has a translocation involving chromosomes 21 and 4. The authors urge that all previous cases of what appeared to be monosomy 21 should be re-examined with FISH to confirm or revise the original diagnosis so that genetic counseling of the family may be updated. 3 refs., 3 figs.

  13. Multiple recurrence of trisomy 21 in two Bedouin families: Parental gonadal mosaicism or {open_quotes}aneuploidy{close_quotes} gene effect?

    SciTech Connect

    Farag, T.I.; Murthy, D.S.K.

    1994-09-01

    Two unrelated multiplex Down syndrome families is reported in Kuwait among the highly inbred population with Bedouin ancestors. Each family showed recurrent aneuploidies in three sibs with regular trisomy 21. Recurrent regular trisomy 21 in two or more siblings of healthy, normal parents (parental age <35 years) occurs rarely. Several possible etiological factors for recurrent aneuploidy have been suggested. The recurrence risks for regular trisomy 21 based on livebirth and prenatal diagnosis data were estimated at 1% - 2% for young women. However, there are no estimates for multiple recurrence of regular trisomy 21 in the young parents (<35 years). Clustering of trisomy 21 and trisomy 18 have been observed in Bedouin tribal population. The possibility of parental gonadal mosaicism and/or a possibility of an {open_quotes}aneuploidy gene{close_quotes} effect should be considered in practical genetic counselling of families with multiple recurrence of trisomy 21.

  14. Ehrenfest{close_quote}s argument extended to a formalism of nonequilibrium thermodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Gorban, Alexander N.; Karlin, Iliya V.; Ottinger, Hans Christian; Tatarinova, Larisa L.

    2001-06-01

    A general method of constructing dissipative equations is developed, following Ehrenfest{close_quote}s idea of coarse graining. The approach resolves the major issue of discrete time coarse graining versus continuous time macroscopic equations. Proof of the H theorem for macroscopic equations is given, several examples supporting the construction are presented, and generalizations are suggested.

  15. Depositional environment and distribution of Late Cretaceous [open quotes]source rocks[close quotes] from Costa Rica to West Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Erlich, R.N.; Sofer, Z. ); Pratt, L.M. ); Palmer, S.E. )

    1993-02-01

    Late Cretaceous [open quotes]source rocks[close quotes] from Costa Rica, western and eastern Venezuela, and Trinidad were studied using organic and inorganic geochemistry, biostratigraphy, and sedimentology in order to determine their depositional environments. Bulk mineralogy and major element geochemistry for 304 samples were combined with Rock Eval data and extract biomaker analysis to infer the types and distributions of the various Late Cretaceous productivity systems represented in the dataset. When data from this study are combined with published and proprietary data from offshore West Africa, Guyana/Suriname, and the central Caribbean, they show that these Late Cretaceous units can be correlated by their biogeochemical characteristics to establish their temporal and spatial relationships. Paleogeographic maps constructed for the early to late Cenomanian, Turonian, Coniacian to middle Santonian, and late Santonian to latest Campanian show that upwelling and excessive fluvial runoff were probably the dominant sources of nutrient supply to the coastal productivity systems. The late Santonian to Maastrichtian rocks examined in this study indicate that organic material was poorly preserved after deposition, even though biologic productivity remained constant or changed only slightly. A rapid influx of oxygenated bottom water may have occurred following the opening of a deep water connection between the North and South Atlantic oceans, and/or separation of India from Africa and the establishment of an Antarctic oceanic connection. This study suggests that the most important factors that controlled source rock quality in northern South America were productivity, preservation, degree of clastic dilution, and subsurface diagenesis.

  16. Volume II solicitation package for solicitation no. 522887-5422 {open_quotes}site electrical replacements & substation{close_quotes} subproject: 69 KV substation

    SciTech Connect

    1991-05-03

    This solicitation is for the U.S. Department of Energy under Prime Contract No. DE-AC04-88-DP43495 with EG&G Mound Applied Technologies. Ohio Sales or Use taxes are not to be included in the proposal price. Applicable taxes due or owing to the State of Ohio will be paid by the buyer under Direct Payment Permit No. 98-002230. Refer to Form ML-2487, General Provisions, Article 24, {open_quotes}Federal, State & Local Taxes{close_quotes}. Sellers are advised that purchases of building and construction materials for incorporation into a structure or improvement to a real property which is accepted for ownership by the United States or one of its agencies are exempt from Ohio Sales and Use taxes. Unnecessarily elaborate brochures or other presentations beyond those sufficient to present a complete and effective response to this solicitation are not desired and may be construed as an indication of the seller`s lack of cost consciousness. Elaborate art work, expensive paper and binding, and expensive visual and other presentation aids are neither necessary nor wanted.

  17. {open_quotes}Feature{close_quotes} mapping of the HLA-C linked DNA region: Construction by sequencing from nested deletions

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnan, B.R.; Chaplin, D.D. |

    1994-09-01

    The HLA complex located on chromosome 6p spans {approximately}4 Mb and is gene dense. To enable systematic analysis of less well-characterized portions of HLA, we are defining significant {open_quotes}features{close_quotes} of these DNA regions: locations of putative genes (prediction of exons by GRAIL analysis) and Alu elements, regions with homology to the database, and regions of evolutionarily conserved DNA sequence. Initially, we cloned a 35 kb DNA segment adjacent to HLA-C into a transposon {gamma}{delta}-based cosmid vector designed for generating nested deletions in vivo. Over 70 informative nested deletions were obtained and sequenced by fluorescent-automated technology. Islands of DNA sequences were obtained and used to construct a feature map of the 35 kb HLA segment. Our data (i) defined the organization of the previously identified keratinocyte-specific S gene, (ii) generated the DNA sequence of two evolutionarily conserved DNA segments, and (iii) located otherwise undefined putative exons and Alu elements. The construction of such feature maps of large DNA segments using the nested deletion-sequencing approach provides an efficient means to identify DNA segments meriting systematic and detailed analysis.

  18. Linkage disequilibrium in the insulin gene region: Size variation at the 5{prime} flanking polymorphism and bimodality among {open_quotes}Class I{close_quotes} alleles

    SciTech Connect

    McGinnis, R.E.; Spielman, R.S.

    1994-09-01

    The 5{prime} flanking polymorphism (5{prime}FP), a hypervariable region at the 5{prime} end of the insulin gene, has {open_quotes}class 1{close_quotes} alleles (650-900 bp long) that are in positive linkage disequilibrium with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM). The authors report that precise sizing of the 5{prime}FP yields a bimodal frequency distribution of class 1 allele lengths. Class 1 alleles belonging to the lower component (650-750 bp) of the bimodal distribution were somewhat more highly associated with IDDM than were alleles from the upper component (760-900 bp), but the difference was not statistically significant. They also examined 5{prime}FP length variation in relation to allelic variation at nearby polymorphisms. At biallelic RFLPs on both sides of the 5{prime}FP, they found that one allele exhibits near-total association with the upper component of the 5FP class 1 distribution. Such associations represent a little-known but potentially wide-spread form of linkage disequilibrium. In this type of disequilibrium, a flanking allele has near-complete association with a single mode of VNTR alleles whose lengths represent consecutive numbers of tandem repeats (CNTR). Such extreme disequilibrium between a CNTR mode and flanking alleles may originate and persist because length mutations at some VNTR loci usually add or delete only one or two repeat units. 22 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs.

  19. Sharp microwave frequency dependence in {open_quotes}ionization{close_quotes} of 3d H atoms and the effect of additive noise

    SciTech Connect

    Sirko, L.; Bellermann, M.; Haffmans, A.; Koch, P.M.

    1993-05-01

    For weak broadband (26-40 GHz) added shot noise (rms amplitude F{sub n} {approx_equal} 0.5 V/cm, <5% of the coherent amplitude F), we saw sharp variations around {nu}=30 GHz in e.g., F(10%) for 10%-{open_quotes}ionization{close_quotes} probability (n-cutoff {approx_equal} 89) of n{sub 0}=57 3d H atoms. Sharp means varying {nu} {approx_lt} 1/3 of the Fourier bandwidth 0.35 GHz of the 4.3 ns long half-sinewave pulseshape. Increased noise lowered (raised) F(10%) near sharp maxima (minima). (For some other cases noise did very little.) F{sub n} {approx_equal} 2.2 V/cm. suppressed the sharp {nu}-variation of F(10%). Our bound-basis integration of the 1d Schrodinger equation reproduces the results well, including influence of noise. Leopold, Richards, and Jensen are developing theory for a perturbed pendulum effective Hamiltonian H{sub eff} locally describing the dynamics at the classical nonlinear resonance island centered near n{sub 0}{sup 3}{omega}=1. Our data may be the first spectroscopic glimpse of novel quantal states of H{sub eff}.

  20. [The most frequently quoted national journals in the thesis studies of sociology of medicine].

    PubMed

    Delariu, V V

    2010-01-01

    The analysis of the most frequently quoted national journals in dissertation studies in the field of sociology of medicine established that the most demanded among periodicals of public health and health care are "The problems of social hygiene, health care and history of medicine", "The health care of the Russian Federation" and "The health care". This is a testimony of recognition of significance of publications in these periodicals made by researchers defending dissertations. PMID:21032909

  1. Dyadic Green{close_quote}s function calculations on a layered dielectric/ferrite structure

    SciTech Connect

    How, Hoton; Zuo, Xu; Vittoria, Carmine

    2001-06-01

    Dyadic Green{close_quote}s function techniques have been applied to solve the transmission properties of a microstrip line fabricated on top of a single-crystal Y-type hexaferrite substrate. Current potentials are used to construct the Galerkin elements to facilitate solution accuracy even in the FMR region. Transmission coefficients of a microstrip line fabricated on a Y-type hexaferrite substrate were thus calculated, which compared reasonably well with measurements. {copyright} 2001 American Institute of Physics.

  2. Compatibility issues of potential payloads for the USA/9904/B(U)F-85 RTG transportation system (RTGTS) for the {open_quotes}Pluto Express{close_quotes} mission

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R.G.; Barklay, C.D.; Howell, E.I.; Frazier, T.A.

    1997-01-01

    The specific electric power system for the {open_quotes}Pluto Express{close_quotes} mission has yet to be specified. However, electric power will be provided by either radioisotopic thermoelectric generators (RTG), radioisotope thermophotovoltaic systems (RTPV), alkali metal thermal to electrical conversion (AMTEC) systems, radioisotope Stirling systems, or a combination of these. The selected radioisotopic power system will also be transported using the USA/9904/B(U)F-85, Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) Transportation System (RTGTS). As a result, all of the potential payloads present uniquely different environmental and physical configuration requirements. This paper presents the major compatibility issues of the potential payloads for the USA/9904/B(U)F-85 RTG Transportation System for the {open_quotes}Pluto Express{close_quotes} mission. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  3. The formation and behavior of {open_quotes}vapor lock{close_quotes} pressure seals and associated hydrocarbon accumulations in geologically young basins

    SciTech Connect

    Benzing, W.M.; Shook, G.M.

    1996-09-01

    This paper demonstrates a mechanism for the formation of geopressure and hydrocarbon accumulations in geologically young basins (e,g., Gulf of Mexico). Gas exsolving from solution in response to changes in temperature create a relative permeability barrier that restricts vertical fluid flow locally. Continued gas dissolution in source rock, transport and subsequent exsolution at shallower depths maintain the {open_quotes}vapor lock{close_quotes} seal. Any sands that are found within the pressure seal fill preferentially with the nonwetting gas and oil. Further migration of the trapped hydrocarbons is restricted by the capillary entry pressures of the surrounding shales; thus, capillary entry effects enhance the sealing nature of the pressure barrier. Numerical simulations demonstrate the viability of this model for the formation of geopressured reservoirs in young basins, and show that two distinct pressure seals can form under certain conditions. The model incorporates salient features from the Gulf of Mexico, including spatially-variable heat flux, methane and CO{sub 2} generation and transport, and a low-permeability shale as the continuous rock fabric. Steady state isotherms exhibit significant relief due to the variable heat flux, and gas exsolves from solution along two distinct isotherms. The gas forms a relative permeability barrier that restricts vertical fluid flow. As the gas saturation exceeds a critical saturation, any sands found within the pressure seals fill with the non-wetting hydrocarbons. Gas is trapped within the sands by capillary entry pressures of the surrounding shales, improving the sealing nature of the pressure barrier. Sensitivity studies show that specific seat geometry is sensitive to the variability in heat flow, gas content of the aqueous phase, and relative permeability and capillary pressure characteristics of both the sand and shale; however, one or more vapor lock seals form under a variety of conditions.

  4. Improved clearance of radiolabeled biotinylated monoclonal antibody following the infusion of avidin as a {open_quotes}chase{close_quotes} without decreased accumulation in the target tumor

    SciTech Connect

    Kobayashi, Hisataka; Sakahara, Harumi; Hosono, Makoto

    1994-10-01

    The techniques of radioimmunoimaging and radioimmunotherapy suffer from prolonged high background radioactivity because intravenously injected antibodies remain in the circulation and in the organs far longer than necessary for effective binding to the target. To decrease background and increase radionuclide excretion without decreasing the dose of radioactivity delivered to the target tumor, we used radiolabeled biotinylated antibodies followed by a {open_quotes}chase{close_quotes} avidin injection. A mouse monoclonal antibody, OST7 (lgG1), which reacts with human osteosarcoma, was biotinylated and labeled with {sup 125}I, {sup 131}I or {sup 22m}Tc. Radiolabeled biotinylated OST7 (10 {mu}g) was administered intravenously into nude mice bearing human osteosarcomas and 30 {mu}g of avidin was injected intravenously 6 or 24 hr later. Following avidin injection in mice pretreated with radiolabeled biotinylated antibodies, radioactivity was promptly cleared from the blood and deposited in the liver and spleen, after which radioiodine was rapidly detached from the antibody and excreted in the urine. The tumor-to-blood ratios at 6 and 24 hr after the injection of {sup 125}I-labeled biotinylated OST7 increased compared with the values before the avidin chase without any loss of tumor radioactivity. Furthermore, the tumor -to-background radioactivity ratio was improved and better images were obtained more rapidly after the injection of radiolabeled biotiny-lated antibodies than with conventional immunoscintigraphy. This method may find application in clinical radio-immunoimaging, especially using short half-life radionuclides such as {sup 39m}Tc and {sup 123}I. 24 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. Inverse scattering from arbitrary two-dimensional objects in stratified environments via a Green{close_quote}s operator

    SciTech Connect

    Wiskin, J.W.; Borup, D.T.; Johnson, S.A.

    1997-08-01

    An important problem in geophysics, medical imaging, and nondestructive imaging today is the construction of a practical, accurate, and efficient means of imaging geophysical anomalies, tumours, or material defects in layered media. This paper discusses such a method. The use of a {open_quotes}stratified Green{close_quote}s function{close_quotes} for the solution of the forward problem is detailed. This forward problem is then incorporated into an efficient and accurate inversion algorithm based on optimization. The method is nonperturbative, unlike diffraction tomography, which relies on linearization to make the problem tractable. In the inversion, a pair of Lippmann{endash}Schwinger-like integral equations are solved simultaneously via the Galerkin procedure for the unknown total internal fields and speed distribution. The computational burden is high, but made manageable by utilizing BiConjugate gradients, fast fourier transforms, and {open_quotes}sinc{close_quotes} basis functions to speed up the solution of the forward problem. The size and contrasts for which the method converges are substantially beyond the Born or Rytov approximations, and other methods heretofore reported in the literature. The convolutional character of the layered Green`s function, and thus numerical efficiency, is preserved by careful construction based on known reflection coefficients. {copyright} {ital 1997 Acoustical Society of America.}

  6. Overview of ICF program at Centre D{close_quote}Etudes de Limeil-Valenton

    SciTech Connect

    Cel-V Laser Team

    1996-05-01

    The major objectives of the CEA-DAM laser program is to determine the various requirements to achieve thermonuclear fusion in laboratory. We report here recent results obtained at Centre d{close_quote}Etudes de Limeil-Valenton on high density X-Ray implosions, radiative transfer processes, hydrodynamic instabilities and laser-plasma interaction involved in cavity physics. Ignition and a moderate gain appears to be achievable with a laser energy of about 1.5{minus}2 MJ delivered at {lambda}=0, 35 {mu}m with a shaped pulse (duration{approximately}16 ns). The construction of such a laser is realizable and a conceptual design is under preparation. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  7. Transparent conducting oxides (TCO{close_quote}s) for amorphous silicon solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Hegedus, S.; Liang, H.; Gordon, R.G.

    1996-01-01

    The stability of various textured tin oxide and zinc oxide transparent conductors was evaluated against annealing in air, in vacuum or exposed to hydrogen plasma. Only fluorine-doped zinc oxide deposited by atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition (APCVD) had stable electrical and optical properties under all conditions. Thin layers of ZnO or TiO{sub 2} greatly improved the plasma resistance of SnO{sub 2}. A new TCO material, niobium-doped titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}:Nb) was able to withstand hydrogen plasmas with only slight increases in its optical absorption and conductivity. Composite TCO{close_quote}s consisting of glass/SnO{sub 2}:F/TiO{sub 2}:Nb were shown to provide good electrical contact to amorphous silicon solar cells. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  8. A {open_quotes}balanced{close_quotes} Y:16 translocation with the Y breakpoint just proximal to the Yq heterochromatin boundary associated with Turner-like neonatal lymphedema suggests the location of a potential anti-Turner gene

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, R.P.; Hudgins, L.; Stone, J.F.

    1994-09-01

    A male patient with Turner-like hydrops in the newborn period (Bonnevie-Ullrich syndrome) was studied. The extensive nucchal cystic hygroma and hydrops resolved over several weeks. The karyotype was 46,X,t(Y;16)(q11.2;q24). The paternal karyotype was normal. Chromosome painting with the heterochromatic long arm repeat DYZ2 disclosed that all the hybridization was on the derivative 16. This was confirmed by chromosome painting with DYZ1, the other major Y long arm heterochromatic repeat, and DYZ3, the Y alphoid, centromeric repeat, which showed chromosomal separation of the 2 stained regions. A {open_quotes}FISHing trip{close_quotes} was performed using the Y YAC contig created in Dr. David Page`s laboratory. This disclosed 2 YACs located just proximal to the Y heterochromatin which {open_quotes}jumped{close_quotes} the translocation. The recent discovery of a candidate gene for the azoospermia factor (AZF) in this region suggests the possibility that there are several Y-expressed genes adjacent to the heterochromatin boundary as there are near the pseudoautosomal boundary.

  9. Innovations in the design of mechanical components for a beamline{emdash}The SRI{close_quote}95 Workshop 2 Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Kuzay, T.; Warwick, T.

    1996-09-01

    The Synchrotron Radiation Instrumentation 1995 Conference (SRI{close_quote}95) was hosted by the Advanced Photon Source (APS) at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). Of the many workshops within the conference, the SRI{close_quote}95 Workshop 2 was {open_quote}{open_quote}Innovations in the Design of Mechanical Components of a Beamline.{close_quote}{close_quote} The workshop was well attended with over 140 registrants. The following topics were discussed. Industry{close_quote}s perspective on the status and future was provided by Huber Diffraktionstechnik GMBH on goniometers/diffractometers, Oxford Instruments on advanced manufacturing technique of high heat load components, such as the APS photon shutter, and Kohzu Seiki Co. Ltd. on the specialties of monochromators provided to the third-generation synchrotrons. This was followed by a description of the engineering of a dual function monochromator design for water-cooled diamond or cryogenically cooled silicon monochromators by CMC CAT/APS. Another category was the nagging problem of sensitivity of the photon beam position monitors (XBPM) to bending magnet radiation ({open_quote}{open_quote}BM contamination{close_quote}{close_quote}) and the undulator magnet gap changes. Problem descriptions and suggested solutions were provided by both the Advanced Light Source (ALS) and the APS. Other innovative ideas were the cooling schemes (enhanced cooling of beamline components using metallic porous meshes including cryo-cooled applications); Glidcop photon shutter design using microchannels at the ALS; and window/filter design, manufacture and operational experiences at CHESS and PETRA/HASYLAB. Additional discussions were held on designing for micromotions and precision in the optical support systems and smart user filter schemes. This is a summary of the presentations at the Workshop. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  10. Words of Wisdom from the Literacy Symposium (Washington, D.C., May 25, 1988). Quotes from Participants and Attendees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potter, Charles, Comp.

    Materials from the Literacy Symposium that begin this document are a letter of support from Barbara Bush, a symposium agenda, and lists of panel participants, speakers, symposium staff, and members of the Academic Advisory Council to the U.S. Government Printing Office. These are followed by 21 pages of quotes from particpants. Those quoted…

  11. 46 CFR Exhibit No. 1 to Subpart Q... - Application for Refund or Waiver of Freight Charges Due to Tariff or Quoting Error

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... to Tariff or Quoting Error No. Exhibit No. 1 to Subpart Q of Part 502 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME... of Freight Charges Due to Tariff or Quoting Error Federal Maritime Commission Special Docket No...). Here fully describe: (a) Commodity (according to tariff description). (b) Number of shipments....

  12. Imaging of neuroendocrine tumors in 300 patients following injection of I-123 mIBG or 1-131 mIBG prepared from a {open_quotes}cold kit{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    Karesh, S.M.; Henkin, R.E.

    1994-05-01

    During the past 6 years, we have performed approximately 300 scans for neuroendocrine tumors in an extremely varied patient base, with 65% of patients receiving I-123 mIBG and 35%, I-131 mIBG. Imaging was performed at 24-72 hr, depending upon the isotope used. The most common clinical indication was for pheochromocytoma (>90%), followed by neuroblastoma, paraganglioma, medullary carcinoma of the thyroid, and carcinoid tumors. Radiolabeling was performed by a modification of Mock`s procedure. The radioiodide was added to a very stable {open_quotes}cold kit{close_quotes} developed in-house. The kit contains 1 ml of water for injection, 2 mg of mIBG hemisulfate, and 12 mg of ammonium sulfate. After 2 heating cycles, a yield >85% and a radiochemical purity {>=}96% were routinely obtained. Overall preparation time, including determination of radiochemical purity, is approximately 2.5 hr. The only equipment required is a thermostatically controlled block heater. Biodistribution of our I-131 product was indistinguishable from that distributed by the Nuclear Pharmacy at the University of Michigan, as was the radiochemical purity; the diagnostic efficacy matched that reported in the literature. The image quality obtained using I-123 mIBG was definitely superior, due to both the much higher count rate and the ideal imaging energy of I-123. On one occasion, the I-131 scan was equivocal, whereas the I-123 scan in the same patient was clearly positive. Retrospectively, for studies performed with I-123 mIBG using the {open_quotes}cold kit{close_quotes} method, the specificity and sensitivity both exceed 90%, correlating well with multiple studies reported in the literature. The preparation of I-123 mIBG in-house using this technique is recommended.

  13. Diagnosis and treatment of pancreatic pseudocysts and cystic tumors based on own material and quoted literature

    PubMed Central

    Krupski, Witold; Zakościelny, Artur; Wallner, Grzegorz

    2013-01-01

    Pseudocysts constitute the most basic cystic lesions of the pancreas. Symptomatic cysts may be treated by means of both minimally invasive methods and surgery. Currently, it is believed that approximately 5% of cystic lesions in the pancreas may in fact, be neoplastic cystic tumors. Their presence is manifested by generally irregular multilocular structures, solid nodules inside the cyst or in the pancreatic duct, frequently vascularized, as well as fragmentary thickening of the cystic wall or septation. Aim The aim of this paper was to present current management, both diagnostic and therapeutic, in patients with pancreatic pseudocysts and cystic tumors. The article has been written based on the material collected and prepared in the author's Department as well as on the basis of current reports found in the quoted literature. Material and methods, results In 2000–2012, the Second Department of General, Gastrointestinal and Oncological Surgery of the Alimentary Tract treated 179 patients with cystic lesions in the region of the pancreas. This group comprised 12 cases of cystic tumors and 167 pseudocysts. Twenty-three patients (13.8%) were monitored only and 144 received procedural treatment. Out of the latter group, 75 patients underwent drainage procedures and 48 were qualified to endoscopic cystogastrostomy or cystoduodenostomy. The endoscopic procedure was unsuccessful in 11 cases (23%). In a group of patients with a pancreatic cystic tumor (12 patients), 6 of them (50%) underwent therapeutic resection of the tumor with adequate fragment of the gland. Conclusions Endoscopic drainage is an effective and safe method of minimally invasive treatment of pancreatic cysts. The patients who do not qualify to endoscopic procedures require surgical treatment. The differentiation of a neoplasm from a typical cyst is of fundamental significance for the selection of the treatment method. PMID:26673675

  14. Comment on {open_quotes}On the Longuet-Higgins phase and its relation to the electronic adiabatic{endash}diabatic transformation angle{close_quotes} [J. Chem. Phys. {bold 107}, 2694 (1997)

    SciTech Connect

    Kendrick, B.K.; Mead, C.A.; Truhlar, D.G.

    1999-04-01

    We show that the new equation for nuclear motion obtained by Baer {ital et al.} is based on an invalid and self-contradictory approximation, and leads to incorrect results for the wave functions, energy levels, degeneracies, and matrix elements. Baer{close_quote}s conclusion about the connection between the Longuet{endash}Higgins (LH) phase and the adiabatic-diabatic transformation (ADT) angle is also shown to be incorrect. Applications of the method by Baer {ital et al.} are shown to contain further errors. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

  15. Hamiltonian structure of Dubrovin{close_quote}s equation of associativity in 2-d topological field theory

    SciTech Connect

    Galvao, C.A.; Nutku, Y.

    1996-12-01

    mA third order Monge-Amp{grave e}re type equation of associativity that Dubrovin has obtained in 2-d topological field theory is formulated in terms of a variational principle subject to second class constraints. Using Dirac{close_quote}s theory of constraints this degenerate Lagrangian system is cast into Hamiltonian form and the Hamiltonian operator is obtained from the Dirac bracket. There is a new type of Kac-Moody algebra that corresponds to this Hamiltonian operator. In particular, it is not a W-algebra. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  16. 11q23 Translocations split the [open quotes]AT-hook[close quotes] cruciform DNA-binding region and the transcriptional repression domain from the activation domain of the mixed-lineage leukemia (MLL) gene

    SciTech Connect

    Zeleznik-Le, N.J.; Harden, A.M.; Rowley, J.D. )

    1994-10-25

    Translocations involving chromosome band 11q23, found in acute lymphoid and myeloid leukemias, disrupt the MLL gene. This gene encodes a putative transcription factor with homology to the zinc fingers and other domains of the Drosophila trithorax gene product and to the [open quotes]AT-hook[close quotes] motif of high mobility group proteins. To map potential transcriptional activation or repression domains of the MLL protein, yeast GAL4 DNA-binding domain and MLL hybrid protein-expressing plasmids were cotransfected with chloramphenicol acetyltransferase reporter plasmids in a transient transfection system. We found that MLL contains a strong activation domain and a repression domain. The former, located telomeric (3[prime]) to the breakpoint region, activated transcription 18-fold to >200-fold, depending on the promoter and cell line used for transfection. A repression domain that repressed transcription 4-fold was located centromeric (5[prime]) to the breakpoint region of MLL. The MLL AT-hook domain protein was expressed in bacteria and was utilized in a gel mobility shift assay to assess DNA-binding activity. The MLL AT-hook domain could bind cruciform DNA, recognizing structure rather than sequence of the target DNA. In translocations involving MLL, loss of an activation domain with retention of a repression domain and a DNA-binding domain on the der(11) chromosome could alter the expression of downstream target genes, suggesting a potential mechanism of action for MLL in leukemia. 35 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Use of geostatistic techniques to describe a reservoir to be submitted into a secondary recovery process field case: {open_quotes}Eocene B-Inferior/VLG-3659, Ceuta, Venezuela{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    Hernandez, T.; Poquioma, W.

    1997-08-01

    This study presents the results of an integrated reservoir study of the Eocene B-Inferior/VLG-3659, Area 7, Ceuta filed. This field located in the Maracaibo Lake in the western side of Venezuela. The objective was to evaluating the feasibility to implement a secondary recovery project by means of water flooding. Core information was used for this study (194 ft), PVT analysis, RFI, build-up and statistic`s pressure analysis, modem logs and production history data. Using geostatistical techniques (Kriging) it was defined a low uncertainty geological model that was validated by means of a black oil simulator (Eclipse). The results showed a good comparison of historical pressure of the reservoir against those obtained from the model, without the need of {open_quotes}history matching{close_quotes}. It means without modifying neither the initial rock properties nor reservoir fluids. The results of this study recommended drilling in two new locations, also the reactivation of four producing wells and water flooding under peripherical array by means of four injection wells, with the recovery of an additional 30.2 MMSTB. The economical evaluation shows an internal return rate of 31.4%.

  18. {open_quotes}Methods for the determination of the Clean Air Act Title III metallic HAPS in coal

    SciTech Connect

    Snider, J.

    1995-08-01

    The Clean Air Act was amended in 1990 and additional requirements were added to Title III {open_quotes}Air Toxics.{close_quotes} Title III identified one hundred eighty-nine hazardous air pollutants (HAPS) and Congress directed the EPA to study the effects of emissions of these HAPS on public health and the environment. EPA is to report to Congress in the fall of 1995 concerning their findings and make recommendations regarding fossil fuel fired combustion units. The outcome of the EPA recommendations will be of great interest to coal producers and users. Of the one hundred eighty-nine listed HAPS, eleven are trace metals found in coal. The producers and users may be required to analyze coal for these HAPS, to determine if selective mining and/or beneficiation can lower their occurrence, to determine their fate in the combustion process, etc. Indeed many coal companies have begun to study their reserves to aid the EPA investigation. Currently there are no EPA promulgated test methodologies for these elements in coal. Moreover, the American Society for Testing Materials (ASTM) does not provide standards for the analyses of all of the eleven HAPS either. In view of this lack of standardized analytical protocols the commercial laboratory is left with finding the best methods for meeting these analytical needs. This paper describes how Standard Laboratories, Inc. as a whole and particularly its Environmental Laboratory Division has met this need.

  19. [open quotes]Cryptic[close quotes] repeating triplets of purines and pyrimidines (cRRY(i)) are frequent and polymorphic: Analysis of coding cRRY(i) in the proopiomelanocortin (POMC) and TATA-binding protein (TBP) genes

    SciTech Connect

    Gostout, B.; Qiang Liu; Sommer, S.S. )

    1993-06-01

    Triplets of the form of purine, purine, pyrimidine (RRY(i)) are enhanced in frequency in the genomes of primates, rodents, and bacteria. Some RRY(i) are [open quotes]cryptic[close quotes] repeats (cRRY(i)) in which no one tandem run of a trinucleotide predominates. A search of human GenBank sequence revealed that the sequences of cRRY(i) are highly nonrandom. Three randomly chosen human cRRY(i) were sequenced in search of polymorphic alleles. Multiple polymorphic alleles were found in cRRY(i) in the coding regions of the genes for proopiomelanocortin (POMC) and TATA-binding protein (TBP). The highly polymorphic TBP cRRY(i) was characterized in detail. Direct sequencing of 157 unrelated human alleles demonstrated the presence of 20 different alleles which resulted in 29--40 consecutive glutamines in the amino-terminal region of TBP. These alleles are differently distributed among the races. PCR was used to screen 1,846 additional alleles in order to characterize more fully the range of variation in the population. Three additional alleles were discovered, but there was no example of a substantial sequence amplification as is seen in the repeat sequences associated with X-linked spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy, myotonic dystrophy, or the fragile-X syndrome. The structure of the TBP cRRY(i) is conserved in the five monkey species examined. In the chimpanzee, examination of four individuals revealed that the cRRY(i) was highly polymorphic, but the pattern of polymorphism differed from that in humans. The TBP cRRY(i) displays both similarities with and differences from the previously described RRY(i) in the coding sequence of the androgen receptor. The data suggest how simple tandem repeats could evolve from cryptic repeats. 18 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs.

  20. Mutation in and lack of expression of tyrosinase-related protein-1 (TRP-1) in melanocytes from an individual with brown oculocutaneous albinism: A new subtype of albinism classified as {open_quotes}OCA3{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    Boissy, R.E.; Zhao, H.; Austin, L.M.; Boissy, Y.L.; Zhao, Y.

    1996-06-01

    Most types of human oculocutaneous albinism (OCA) result from mutations in the gene for tyrosinase (OCA1) or the P protein (OCA2), although other types of OCA have been described but have not been mapped to specific loci. Melanocytes were cultured from an African-American with OCA, who exhibited the phenotype of Brown OCA, and his normal fraternal twin. Melanocytes cultured from the patient with OCA and the normal twin appeared brown versus black, respectively. Melanocytes from both the patient with OCA and the normal twin demonstrated equal amounts of NP-40-soluble melanin; however, melanocytes from the patient with OCA contained only 7% of the amount of insoluble melanin found from the normal twin. Tyrosinase-related protein-1 (TRP-1) was not detected in the OCA melanocytes by use of various anti-TRP-1 probes. Furthermore, transcripts for TRP-1 were absent in cultured OCA melanocytes. The affected twin was homozygous for a single-bp deletion in exon 6, removing an A in codon 368 and leading to a premature stop at codon 384. Tyrosine hydroxylase activity of the OCA melanocytes was comparable to controls when assayed in cell lysates but was only 30% of controls when assayed in intact cells. We conclude that this mutation of the human TRP-1 gene affects its interaction with tyrosinase, resulting in dysregulation of tyrosinase activity, promotes the synthesis of brown versus black melanin, and is responsible for a third genetic type of OCA in humans, which we classify as {open_quotes}OCA3.{close_quotes} 69 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Electronic stopping in a He-H{sub 2} mixture substantially exceeds Bragg{close_quote}s rule value

    SciTech Connect

    Golser, R.; Semrad, D.; Aumayr, F.

    1996-04-01

    We measured the energy loss of 8 keV deuterons in mixtures of He and H{sub 2} gases using a time-of-flight technique. According to Bragg{close_quote}s rule the stopping cross section {var_epsilon} of a mixture of nonreacting gases should be the weighted average of the stopping cross sections of its constituents. Experimentally we find {var_epsilon} to exceed the Bragg value by more than 50{percent}. This can be traced to large differences in the electron capture and electron loss cross sections of He and H{sub 2}, respectively, that strongly enhance energy losses due to charge-changing collisions. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  2. Quote the Student, Evermore.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, Edward M.

    1999-01-01

    Describes an activity in which students present two mathematics-related quotations, one written by a famous mathematician and one original statement that they themselves have written. Encourages students with different strengths and learning styles to participate more fully in the lesson. (ASK)

  3. Famous endoscopy quotes.

    PubMed

    Cappell, Mitchell S

    2012-01-01

    These quotations, whether humorous or serious, provide insight into how gastroenterology nurses, gastroenterologists, and endoscopists feel about themselves as professionals, how other healthcare professionals perceive them, and their image in popular culture. Recognition of these aspects of gastroenterology nursing, gastroenterology, and endoscopy are important for self-improvement, correcting public misperceptions, and appreciating how patient misperceptions about gastroenterology nurses and gastroenterologists and patient attitudes toward endoscopy may present barriers that gastroenterology professionals must overcome to improve patient care. These quotations also fulfill a need for witticisms during dry endoscopy lectures! PMID:22472673

  4. Quotes on Caring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knowledge Quest, 2012

    2012-01-01

    In this article, school librarians from Henrico County Public Schools in Virginia [the AASL 2011 National School Library Programs of the Year (NSLPY) Award recipient] share some of their experiences caring for students in their libraries.

  5. Quotable Quotes in Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lo, Bruce W. N.

    1983-01-01

    As a way to dispel negative feelings toward mathematics, a variety of quotations are given. They are categorized by: what mathematics is, mathematicians, mathematics and other disciplines, different areas of mathematics, mathematics and humor, applications of mathematics, and pure versus applied mathematics. (MNS)

  6. Beyond Sound Bites and News Quotes: NSIDC's Arctic Sea Ice and News Analysis Web blog and Scientific Uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beitler, J.; Vizcarra, N.; Scambos, T. A.; Meier, W.

    2013-12-01

    The public, the media, and policymakers often turn to scientists for definite answers about Earth's changing climate. Researchers, in turn, offer observations with the caveat that there is always an amount of uncertainty in the data and the analysis. More or better data could modify trends. Random processes in Earth's most complex systems, like clouds, could contradict current theories about how they evolve and develop into weather systems that could put lives in danger. Often, these careful answers are reduced to a soundbite in TV or a quote in a newspaper report, and the public gets an answer, but the message of scientific uncertainty is almost always omitted. Arctic sea ice has long been recognized as a sensitive climate indicator, and has undergone a dramatic decline over the past thirty years. The National Snow and Ice Data Center has evolved into a top source for sea ice data and analysis. How does NSIDC respond to increasing questions about Arctic sea ice and climate and how does it communicate scientific uncertainty? This poster examines the ways that NSIDC's Arctic Sea Ice News and Analysis (ASINA) Web blog offers the public a transparent view of sea ice analysis, with discussions in scientific uncertainty that are lost in news reportage. It highlights the Web blog's interactive sea ice graph called ChArctic, which the pubic can use to explore sea ice data by year and make their own observations. It also discusses issues around the replacement of NSIDC's 20-year baseline with a new 30-year baseline for analyzing sea ice.

  7. {open_quotes}Fishtails{close_quotes} in 123-superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Werner, M.; Sauerzopf, F.M.; Weber, H.W.; Veal, B.W.; Licci, F.; Winzer, K.; Koblischka, M.R.

    1994-08-01

    Several high quality (RE)Ba{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-x} single crystals with RE = Y, Yb and Dy, with varying amounts of Au- and Al-impurities have been investigated by SQUID magnetometry. All samples show fishtail behavior. Differences in the sample preparation only influence the position of the maximum in J{sub c}. The authors conclude that the fishtail phenomenon is not a material specific property, but a generally occurring property of the flux line lattice.

  8. {open_quote}Lasagna{close_quote} process treats contaminants

    SciTech Connect

    Drennan, D.

    1994-09-01

    This paper describes an integrated in-situ remedial technology for organic or inorganic contaminants in dense soils termed the Lasagna Process. The process, so named for its layers, forces contaminants out of microscopic pores in clay and silt soil regions so they do not leach into groundwater. It introduces in-situ treatment zones in the contaminated area so the waste will not have to be brought to the surface and treats the material within the newly created zones.

  9. Resolving the CFE {open_quotes}Flank{close_quotes} dispute

    SciTech Connect

    Falkenrath, R.A.

    1995-05-01

    A serious arms control problem lies on the horizon for Western policy makers. Russia and the Ukraine have been calling on a major change in the 1990 Conventional Armed Forces in Europe (CFE) Treaty. Other members, which border the zone, reject the idea. The author examines the Treaty and the issues and threats because of this dispute.

  10. Notes & Quotes on Adult Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobson, John R. A.

    This document is a review of literature on adult learning, assembled in a computer-printout format. It brings together brief statements made by authors on the various major aspects of individual and social (associational) learning, as well as information on planning and evaluation. The document also contains a glossary of adult education terms and…

  11. Comment on {open_quote}{open_quote}Confirmation of the Sigma Meson{close_quote}{close_quote}

    SciTech Connect

    Isgur, N.; Speth, J.

    1996-09-01

    A Comment on the Letter by Nils A. T{umlt o}rnqvist and Matts Roos, Phys. Rev. Lett. {bold 76}, 1575 (1996). The authors of the Letter offer a Reply. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  12. The {open_quotes}leak-before-break{close_quotes} applicability in decision support system {open_quotes}strength{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    Torop, V.M.; Orynyak, I.V.; Kutovoy, O.L.

    1997-04-01

    A software decision support system, STRENGTH, for application of leak before break analysis, is described. The background methodology and sample application are outlined. The program allows multioptional computation of loading parameters for different types of defects, and variable properties for metals and welded joints. Structural strength is assessed, and service life predictions are made. The program is used to analyze specific defects identified by nondestructive testing.

  13. Comment on {open_quotes}Confirmation of the Sigma Meson{close_quote}{close_quote}

    SciTech Connect

    Harada, M.; Sannino, F.; Schechter, J.; Sannino, F.

    1997-02-01

    A Comment on the Letter by Nils A. Tornqvist and Matts Roos, Phys.Rev.Lett.{bold 76}, 1575 (1996). The authors of the Letter offer a Reply. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  14. On the adiabatic to diabatic states transformation in the presence of a conical intersection: A most diabatic basis from the solution to a Poisson{close_quote}s equation. I

    SciTech Connect

    Sadygov, R.G.; Yarkony, D.R.

    1998-07-01

    We report the first determination of a {open_quotes}most{close_quotes} diabatic basis for a triatomic molecule based exclusively on {ital ab initio} derivative couplings that takes careful account of the limitations imposed by the nonremovable part of those couplings. Baer [Chem. Phys. Lett. {bold 35}, 112 (1975)] showed that an orthogonal transformation from adiabatic states to diabatic states cannot remove all the derivative coupling unless the curl of the derivative coupling vanishes. Subsequently, Mead and Truhlar [J. Chem. Phys. {bold 77}, 6090 (1982)] observed that this curl does not, in general, vanish so that some of the derivative coupling is nonremovable. This observation and the historical lack of efficient algorithms for the evaluation of the derivative coupling led to a variety of methods for determining approximate diabatic bases that avoid computation of the derivative couplings. These methods neglect an indeterminate portion of the derivative coupling. Mead and Truhlar also observed that near an avoided crossing of two states the rotation angle to a most diabatic basis, i.e., the basis in which the removable part of the derivative coupling has been transformed away, could be obtained from the solution of a Poisson{close_quote}s equation requiring only knowledge of the derivative couplings. Here a generalization of this result to the case of a conical intersection is used to determine a most diabatic basis for a section of the 1thinsp{sup 1}A{sup {prime}} and 2thinsp{sup 1}A{sup {prime}} potential energy surfaces of HeH{sub 2} that includes the minimum energy point on the seam of conical intersection. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  15. You Can Quote Me on That

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chanko, Pamela

    2005-01-01

    This article presents several punctuation activities that help students practice dialogue-writing skills. Teachers can help their students become intrepid reporters by providing them with story ideas or by inviting them to develop their own "scoops." In addition, comic strips can also be used for dialogue-writing practice.

  16. Absence of a {open_quote}{open_quote}Threshold Effect{close_quote}{close_quote} in the Energy Loss of Slow Protons Traversing Large-Band-Gap Insulators

    SciTech Connect

    Eder, K.; Semrad, D.; Bauer, P.; Golser, R.; Maier-Komor, P.; Aumayr, F.; Penalba, M.; Arnau, A.; Ugalde, J.M.; Echenique, P.M.

    1997-11-01

    The electronic stopping cross section {var_epsilon} of slow hydrogen projectiles in large-band-gap insulators has been measured at energies of a few keV. Even at velocities as low as v{sub 0}/3 (v{sub 0}=c/137) , we find no influence of the band gap on the velocity dependence of {var_epsilon} , contrary to the case of gaseous targets with similar minimum excitation energy. The magnitude of {var_epsilon} and its essentially linear velocity dependence allow us to arrive at the following conclusion: Electron promotion processes contribute substantially to stopping due to formation of molecular orbitals. This points towards the existence of a bound electron state at a proton that moves slowly in an insulator. A simple model based on the calculation of molecular orbital correlation diagrams for the H/LiF collision system supports the idea of local reduction of the band gap of an insulating target. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  17. Children's Rights: A Quote from Toyohiko Kagawa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ishigaki, Emiko Hannah

    Toyohiko Kagawa, a Japanese Christian minister nominated for the Nobel Peace prize in 1955, had important contributions to the establishment of children's rights and protection in Japan. This paper reviews Kagawa's personal and educational experiences, his work in the labor movement, his missionary work in Manchuria and China, and his…

  18. Isotopic compositions of inventory designations, {open_quote}mixed fission product{close_quote} and {open_quote}mixed activation product{close_quote}

    SciTech Connect

    Vold, E.L.

    1997-03-01

    The Area G Performance Assessment requires that the entire inventory be specified in terms of specific nuclide activities. The inventory data base has historically allowed some less specific inventory designations including Mixed Fission Products (MFP), Mixed Activation Products (MAP), several Material Type (MT) designations and others. This report describes the assignment of specific nuclide activities from the listed activity amounts in two of the inventory data base categories, MFP and MAP. The MFP nuclide assignment is based on standard fission product yield data and normalized to total activity at two years post-fission. The MAP assignment is based on site-specific analyses conducted by the major generator of the activation products at Los Alamos, the LAMPE.

  19. Reply to {open_quotes}Comment on {open_quote}Paramagnetic Meissner effect in Nb{close_quote} {close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    Kostic, P.; Veal, B.; Paulikas, A.P.; Welp, U.; Todt, V.R.; Gu, C.; Geiser, U.; Williams, J.M.; Carlson, K.D.; Klemm, R.A.

    1997-06-01

    Rice and Sigrist (RS) have proposed a d-wave mechanism to explain the paramagnetic Meissner effect (PME) observed in some inhomogeneous samples of high-T{sub c} superconductors. However, the observation of a PME in some inhomogeneous samples of Nb (an s-wave superconductor) demonstrates that a d-wave pairing mechanism is not needed to produce the effect. Moreover, the remarkable similarity between the PME observed in these Nb and in the high-T{sub c} samples argues that the same mechanism is operable in both types of superconductors. In this Reply, new measurements on La{sub 2}CuO{sub 4+{delta}} and on irradiated Nb are discussed, which strongly support the notion that the PME is most likely associated with layered T{sub c} inhomogeneities. Further experiments to test this notion are proposed. We also discuss critically the three experiments proposed by RS to distinguish between two PME mechanisms unrelated to layered T{sub c} inhomogeneities. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  20. {open_quotes}Recycling 9 to 5{close_quotes} - Commercial/business recycling programs

    SciTech Connect

    Zimms, M.A.

    1996-08-01

    A brief description of a commercial and business recycling program is given. The program was implemented by the Solid Waste Authority of Palm Beach County in Florida to reduce the amount of waste entering the disposal system. Program elements include collection, processing, and outreach; the education program is described in detail. Other services provided were waste audits, business advisory council, and a buy recycled business alliance.

  1. Artificial barriers to control excessive frac height growth [open quotes]Bracketfrac[close quotes

    SciTech Connect

    Arbaugh, R. ); Greener, M. )

    1994-08-01

    The Garfield and Beaver Creek fields produce from several dolomite layers in the Devonian Richland formation at depths of 4200-4600 ft. The Richfield is a series of relatively thin, 4-20 ft dolomite reservoirs, which are confined above and below by anhydrites. These anhydrites are comparable to the dolomite reservoirs in fracture resistance and essentially do not present an effective stress barrier to fracture growth. The dolomite zones have a porosity range of 12-20%, and permeability ranges from 6-20 md. The dolomite reservoirs also contain significant amounts of free salt, which is apparent in the large quantities of produced salt in new wells. There are eight producing zones, oil gravity is 43[degrees] APi, and viscosity is 1 cp at the reservoir with a temperature of 110[degrees]F. Previous completions in the Richfield have been plagued by unrestricted fractured height growth because there is no control over where the frac is going. Standard practice has been to perforate and treat the zones in groups. If all zones are opened at the same time, communication usually occurs (up or down) during the fracturing of any group of zones. Artificial barriers to control excessive frac height growth were used in the Richfield formation for the stated reasons. Because no barrier was present between producing zones, the production capabilities of each zone and each new and existing well in the field were limited. INVERTAFRAC and DIVERTAFRAC services are techniques developed and used exclusively by Dowell Oilfield Service Company to control vertical fracture height. When both services are simultaneously used, the treatment is called BRACKETFRAC. By limiting fracture height to the pay zone, several important results are achieved: diversion from barren zones, water, or other undesirable fluids; improved fracture efficiency; deeper penetrating fractures; improved proppant distribution; and consistently better stimulation results.

  2. Can a {open_quotes}superconductor{close_quotes} always expel the generalized magnetic field?

    SciTech Connect

    Mahajan, S.M.

    1998-03-10

    The conservation of generalized helicity in a perfectly conducting fluid may act as an electrodynamic barrier for the transition to the London (superconducting) state when the system is immersed in a topologically nontrival magnetic field (with a nonzero generalized helicity). An experiment is proposed to test whether the mechanism responsible (quantum correlations) for superconductivity respects the electrodynamic constraint.

  3. The {open_quotes}special employer{close_quotes} issue for nuclear utilities

    SciTech Connect

    Jose, D.E.

    1992-01-01

    Legal aspects of the Rudenjak versus Jersey Central Power and Light Company lawsuit are summarized in the article. Rudenjak, while working for an independent contractor at the Oyster Creek Nuclear Power Plant, received a 3.335 Rem dose of whole-body radiation over a 4-month period in 1980. In 1988, Rudenjak died of acute leukemia and his widow sued the power company. The utility filed a motion to dismiss based on the statutory employer defense, which was granted by the court; excepts of the court`s decision are included in the article. A similar suit in California is also described; the implication is that legal precedent has been established in California and New Jersey to prevent employees of independent contractors from suing utilities.

  4. Value map methodology for appraising {open_quotes}settled{close_quotes} producing properties

    SciTech Connect

    Moran, S.S.

    1995-09-01

    Seventy five percent of the oil wells in the United Stated are stripper wells producing an average of slightly over two barrels per day. Stripper properties are often sold by major companies to independents or by one independent to another. Although computer programs are available to analyze property values, value maps can be constructed which combine the technical aspects of a property with the economic projections of the evaluator. These maps permit very rapid property evaluation while revealing relationships among the parameters affecting property values that would not be apparent from a number of individual computer runs. In addition to oil individual computer runs. In addition to oil properties, many late stage gas properties can also be analyzed using the value map methodology. Geologists having the necessary skills to appraise stripper properties benefit both through potential consulting opportunities, and through the opportunity to invest personally in producing properties, which can offer superior rates of return.

  5. Comment on {open_quotes}Local responsivity in quantum well photodetectors{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    Ryzhii, M.; Khmyrova, I.

    2001-06-01

    The response of multiple quantum well (QW) infrared photodetectors (QW) to the photoexcitation of one QW selected from many identical QWs was recently modeled [M. Ershov, J. Appl. Phys. 86, 7059 (1999)]. We point out here that the presented analysis based on the use of drift-diffusion model for a system with a few electrons is incorrect. {copyright} 2001 American Institute of Physics.

  6. Rerouting fish {open_quotes}traffic{close_quotes} in the Columbia River Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Christensen, P.J.; Wielick, R.G.

    1995-07-01

    Grant County PUD is testing a prototype downstream fish bypass system at Wanapum Dam that promises to be more effective than screens. If successful at diverting juvenile salmon away from turbine intakes, the concept could be applied at other hydro facilities facing fish passage challenges. The tested method---an attraction flow system---is an alternative to screens. In this system, entrances are strategically located above turbine intakes. This takes advantage of the natural tendency for juvenile salmonids to occupy the upper portion of the water column as they move downstream. Fish attracted to the channel by the water flow into the slots are passed to the tailrace, thus avoiding the turbines.

  7. The Solid Waste Authority: {open_quotes}This place is for the birds{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    Mihalik, M.B.

    1995-12-01

    The Solid Waste Authority of Palm Beach County (SWA) manages a waste-to-energy facility and landfill adjacent to a site which, during the 1985 Florida drought, served as the largest communal Snail Kite (Rostrhamus sociabilis plumbeus) roost documented in the United States. Listed as an endangered species, the Snail Kite initiated a Section 7 consulation process as a USCOAE Dredge & Fill permit was sought for construction in 1987. In response to environmental permit requirements, SWA developed and implemented a Wildlife Conservation & Management Program which evaluated the roost`s response to activities associated with site development. Specifically, a seven-year bird monitoring program was conducted on kite usage of this roost from 1987-1993. Impact assessment was expanded to include monitoring the mixed-species wading bird colony which inhabits the same roosting area. Monitoring at the community level serves as a better environmental indicator because Snail Kites are nomadic and respond to regional water level changes. This paper gives an overview of the environmental concerns and approach taken to monitor the roost, describes the different components of the bird monitoring program, and summarizes the findings of the 7-year data collection. An evaluation of the SWA project with regards to impacts on Snail Kite and wading bird usage of the area is also discussed.

  8. {open_quotes}Insuring success through employee education{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    Estreller, S.R.

    1996-08-01

    This paper describes solid waste management in the city of Los Angeles, California, and the implementation of recycling and waste prevention programs. The emphasis of the paper is on educating city employees. The approach and goals are outlined, and the education components are described in some detail. Program cost and funding are also briefly described.

  9. The union of concerned scientists {open_quotes}walk their talk{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    Aitken, D.W.; Ris, H.

    1997-03-01

    The Union of Concerned Scientists (UCS) builds its new office space to be a showcase of energy-efficient and employee-friendly daylighting design. UCS encourages responsible stewardship of the global environment and the use of life-sustaining resources. The goals for the new offices were energy efficiency, reneable energy technologies, similar or reduced costs, improved aesthetics. Topics include envelope redesign, energy systems, daylighting, electric lighting, total costs, experience to date.

  10. Project {open_quotes}Kovin{close_quotes} - economics of upgraded low-rank coal

    SciTech Connect

    Ljubicic, B.; Anderson, C.; Bukurov, Z.; Cvijanovic, P.; Stajner, K.

    1994-12-31

    Yugoslavia has large reserves of lignitic coal, some of which are in geological settings that are located below the water table, along and under the Danube River, and are difficult to mine. Since conventional strip mining in the area next to the Danube would be difficult, the Kovin lignite will be mined as course lignite-water slurry. This will be the first time that lignite coal has been mined using dredging equipment. The use of dredging technology for the recovery of multiple lignite seams is an expansion of current dredging practices used to recovery precious and other metals such as tin, as well as diamonds, sand, and gravel from alluvial deposits. The proposed lignite dredging is based on selective mining of several discrete layers. The layers consist of either waste material or lignite and can be directed to a disposal area or to further processing. It is expected that dredging will reduce the environmental impact of the mine, be highly productive since it is fully mechanized, and reduce the cost per ton of lignite. The successful operation at the Kovin mine would also enable lignite to be dredged in other reserve areas where a high water table or significant surface water is present, allowing considerable tonnages of lignite, not currently in reserves, to be moved into the minable reserve category.

  11. Planting the [open quote]seeds[close quote] for increased water availability for hydro

    SciTech Connect

    Griffith, D.A. )

    1993-08-01

    Cloud seeding programs are providing some hydro producers with a way of increasing their water reserves on short notice and with relatively low cost. The fundamental formula has been known for half a century: clouds plus cold plus solid particles equal precipitation. What was not certain until more recently is how that relationship could be effectively used to alter the weather in positive ways. Research and practical experience now show that cloud seeding -- adding tiny solid particles to the right clouds at the right temperature -- works. More pertinent, evidence is mounting that hydropower producers can use well-designed, carefully times seeding programs to increase the amount of water available to their systems and thus enhance electricity generation. Cloud seeding has several advantages as a tool to augment hydroelectric production. Seeding programs typically require no capital investment by the utility or other power producer, and can be started and stopped on relatively short notice. Operating costs usually are less than $10 per acre-foot of additional streamflow. More broadly, the additional water produced for hydro generation has the environmental and community relations benefits of being reusable and less expensive than thermal power alternatives. There also normally are the additional benefits of increased water supplies for other users.

  12. [open quotes]PCR karyotype[close quotes] of monochromosomal somatic cell hybrids

    SciTech Connect

    Ning, Yi; Pereira-Smith, O.M. Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX ); Lovell, M.; Cooley, L.D. )

    1993-06-01

    Following fusion of human diploid fibroblast-derived microcells with mouse A9 cells, the authors isolated seven monochromosomal hybrids containing a single human chromosome 2, 3, 5, 12, 15, 20, or 22. Cytogenetic analysis as well as PCR karyotyping (chromosome-specific banding pattern generated by Alu-PCR) was performed on all the hybrids. They present, for the first time, the specific PCR karyotypes of human chromosome 2 and 20. 7 refs., 2 figs.

  13. Licensing and {open_quotes}CRADA`s{close_quotes} in Oak Ridge technology transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Prosser, G.A.

    1993-10-01

    In the belief that effective technology transfer is a ``contact sport,`` Martin Marietta Energy Systems (Energy Systems), the Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) management contractor in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, encourages its research and engineering employees to directly interact with their commercial-sector counterparts. Over the years, relationships which have been initiated through such technical interactions have led to many of the patent licenses ad cooperative research and development agreements (CRADAs) which currently exist among Energy Systems, US companies, universities, and industrial consortia. The responsibility for creating and implementing Energy Systems policies and procedures to accomplish DOE`s technology transfer objectives in Oak Ridge lies with the Office of Technology Transfer (OTT). In addition, licensing executives within OTT are responsible for negotiating the terms and conditions of patent licenses and CRADAs for the commercialization of government-funded technologies and research expertise. Other technology transfer initiatives in Oak Ridge help companies in a wide range of industries overcome manufacturing obstacles, enabling them to retain existing jobs and to create new business opportunities.

  14. {open_quotes}Industry views--timing/structure of consultative process{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    Volgelsberg, T.

    1995-12-31

    This paper examines industry`s perspective on the issues concerning the politics and economics of climatic change. The climate change issue complexity goes beyond science and involves: technology, economics, lifestyle, population, intergenerational equity, etc. Industry resources should be actively involved in technology, timeframes, economic assessments, and the political process. Climate mitigation options should be viewed on a holistic or total impact basis. Technology and economic assessment should not create winners and losers. The climate change process is like peeling an onion - long timeframes are required for cultural and infrastructure changes, there are both short term small improvement and long term structural changes, and implementation may take generations. Interdisciplinary communications are critical, cutting across the fields of social science, physical science, economics, technology, demographics, etc. Finally, industry must play or be played - industry can either help shape or be left to live with policy.

  15. Dual annular rotating [open quotes]windowed[close quotes] nuclear reflector reactor control system

    DOEpatents

    Jacox, M.G.; Drexler, R.L.; Hunt, R.N.M.; Lake, J.A.

    1994-03-29

    A nuclear reactor control system is provided in a nuclear reactor having a core operating in the fast neutron energy spectrum where criticality control is achieved by neutron leakage. The control system includes dual annular, rotatable reflector rings. There are two reflector rings: an inner reflector ring and an outer reflector ring. The reflectors are concentrically assembled, surround the reactor core, and each reflector ring includes a plurality of openings. The openings in each ring are capable of being aligned or non-aligned with each other. Independent driving means for each of the annular reflector rings is provided so that reactor criticality can be initiated and controlled by rotation of either reflector ring such that the extent of alignment of the openings in each ring controls the reflection of neutrons from the core. 4 figures.

  16. Permian {open_quotes}Wolfcamp{close_quotes} limestone reservoirs: Powell Ranch field, Eastern Midland Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Montgomery, S.L.

    1996-09-01

    Deep-water carbonate channel reservoirs form important oil reservoirs along the toe of the Eastern Shelf of the Permian basin in west Texas. In northwestern Glasscock County, these `Wolfcamp` reservoirs are Leonardian (Early Permian) in age and define high-energy channels incised into surrounding carbonate detritus and basinal shale. Porous grain-flow material filling these channels, along with encasing detritus, was derived from the shallow shelf located six miles to the east. Reservoirs are in packstone and grainstone facies and have significant interparticle and moldic porosity. Relevant exploration began in the 1960s, but expanded slowly thereafter due to lack of success caused by complex patterns of channel occurrence. Results of a three-dimensional (3-D) seismic survey conducted in 1990 have greatly enhanced the identification and mapping of productive channels in the Powell Ranch field complex. Wells in this complex are capable of flowing 400-1200 bbl of oil per day, and have reserves ranging from 0.2 to 1.3 MBO. The new 3-D data have improved the relevant geologic model and dramatically increased rates of drilling success. Application of such data to this setting offers a potential model for other parts of the Permian basin.

  17. Final report for {open_quotes}Production of mild gasification co-products{close_quotes} project

    SciTech Connect

    Horne, D.A.; Castro, J.C.

    1994-12-04

    The SGI International Liquids From Coal (LFC) Process is a mild pyrolysis, or mild gasification, treatment that upgrades low-rank coals by removing almost all of the moisture and a substantial portion of the volatile matter. The process produces two value-added co-products: a Coal Derived Liquid (CDL) and a solid Process Derived Fuel (PDF). A third co-product, a low-heating-value non-condensible gas, is recirculated and combusted in a commercial sized plant to provide drying and pyrolysis process heat. The LFC Process consists of three basic steps. The first step, drying, involves essentially inert gas convectively raising the coal temperature and removing most of the moisture. The drying temperature is limited to ensure that no hydrocarbon gases evolve, and the flow rate is limited below fluidization levels for most of the coal particles. The second step, pyrolysis, consists of additional inert gas heating that raises the temperature of the dried coal so that more than half of the volatile matter is removed under a controlled temperature history that is characteristic for each particular coal and customer demand. The third step, finishing or conditioning, consists of exposure to a cooling inert gas that quenches the pyrolysis reaction, followed by controlled exposure to oxygen for the purposes of stabilization. The processed solid char is then brought to moisture equilibrium (much less than the parent coal`s equilibrium level), and, if necessary, a dust suppressant is added to the PDF. The PDF co-product is environmentally more attractive than the parent coal because a large fraction of the organic sulfur is removed with the volatile matter, and the heating value of the fuel is increased with a concurrent increase in combustion efficiency. When subjected to appropriate finishing steps, the PDF represents a stable, economically transportable, high-heat-value reactive combustion fuel with stable flame characteristics similar to natural gas.

  18. {open_quotes}Super{close_quotes} Japanese site gears up to sole neutrino puzzle

    SciTech Connect

    Normile, D.

    1995-11-03

    Ever since Wolfgang Pauli proposed the existence of neutrinos in 1930 to explain some puzzling features of the radioactive decay of certain atoms, expermentalists have labored hard to detect enough of the elusive particles to determine their properties. It took 26 years to prove that Pauli`s particle even exits-a feat for which Frederick Reines of the University of California (UC), Irvine, won the Nobel Prize last month. Soon, however, physicists will be capturing neutrinos in unprecedented numbers in a 50,000-metric-ton tank that will fill with water starting next month. Researchers hope that this colossal waterbath will yield an answer to one of the most pressing questions is cosmology and high-energy physics: Do neutrinos have mass?The $100 million experiment, called Super-Kamiokande, in located in a lead mine west of Tokyo. This article describes the work to be conducted.

  19. Comment on {open_quotes}Covariant duality symmetric actions{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    Pasti, P.; Sorokin, D.; Tonin, M.

    1997-08-01

    We demonstrate that an action proposed by Khoudeir and Pantoja [Phys. Rev. D {bold 53}, 5974 (1996)] for endowing Maxwell theory with manifest electric-magnetic duality symmetry contains, in addition to the Maxwell field, additional propagating vector degrees of freedom. Hence it cannot be considered as a duality symmetric action for a {ital single} Abelian gauge field. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  20. The {open_quotes}obligation to serve{close_quotes} and a competitive electric industry

    SciTech Connect

    Colton, R.D.

    1997-11-01

    This report presents an assessment of what the ``obligation to serve`` might look like in a competitive electric industry. Broadly, this research has three objectives: to define the ``duty to serve`` of a competitive electric industry; to identify those companies to whom that duty applies; and to explain how that duty protects residual classes.

  1. Challenging the human crisis: {open_quotes}The Trilemma{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    Nitta, Yoshitaka; Yoda, Susumu

    1995-06-01

    The great increase in world population in the coming century will result in a human crisis of worldwide proportions. A new concept for describing and proposing solutions to this crisis, called the Trilemma, is described by the authors. To feed large and growing populations, humankind is now being forced to make the difficult choice between producing sufficient food for the world population and preserving the environment, or generating economic growth, requiring the consumption of energy and natural resources. These difficult choices present the Trilemma, a new concept that is composed of three dimensions: economic growth, resources such as energy and food, and the environment. None of these three dimensions can be optimized individually as they are mutually interdependent. This paper describes a possible world energy condition in the 21st century. Three scenarios of this energy consumption are presented and compared with the possible energy supply at that time. This supply is estimated from the extrapolation of the renewable energy development of the past and the possible fossil fuel supply. The comparison of the energy supply and the energy consumption indicates that the annual rate of economic growth in the developed region would be only 1% if the gross national product (GNP) per capita of the developing region increases gradually from 1/26 of the GNP of the developed regions in 1990, to 1/10 in 2020, and finally to 1/3 in 2100. Another possibility is that if the GNP per capita of the developing region remains 1/26 of the GNP of the developed regions between 1990 and 2100, the economic growth rate in the developed region could be as large as 3%. In the latter case, an energy shortage would develop in the middle of the 21st century, even if the fast breeder reactor were fully operational by the year 2030. Energy technological developments in Japan are also described as a part of the possible countermeasures against the Trilemma. 9 refs., 11 figs.

  2. Evidence found for a possible [open quote]aggression gene[close quote

    SciTech Connect

    Morell, V.

    1993-06-18

    Researchers in the Netherlands are on the track of a genetic mutation in a large Dutch family that may cause periodic outbursts of aggression in its possessors. Han G. Brunner and his colleagues at Univ. Hospital in Nijmegen report evidence suggesting that a mutation in the gene for monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) may underlie the aggressive and sometimes violent behavior displayed by certain males in this family. A linkage between MAOA gene defect and behavioral problems would make biological sense because the enzyme encoded by the gene helps break down several neurotransmitters that might, if their concentrations build up abnormally, cause a person to respond excessively-and at times even violently-to stress. If this original report is borne out by further work, it would be the first time that a specific gene defect has been found to predispose its bearers to aggressive behavior. Using markers for the X chromosome, Brunner and his colleagues identified the MAO gene region as the likely site for the diseased gene.

  3. Explanations for {open_quotes}anomalous methane{close_quotes} in submarine hydrothermal fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Shock, E.L.; McCollon, T.M.

    1996-10-01

    Concentrations of CH{sub 4}, CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2} reported for submarine hydrothermal fluids are not generally in equilibrium at the measured temperatures. Although the concentrations of CH{sub 4} in Endeavor Ridge fluids are called anomalous the degree of disequilibrium indicated by the fluid composition is essentially the same as that of all other fluids except one measurement from 21{degrees}N on the East Pacific Rise (EPR). Therefore, it is possible that a single explanation may serve to reconcile a majority of the data on hydrothermal fluids. The 21{degrees}N EPR fluid has the highest reported concentration of H{sub 2}, a factor of 4 to 12 greater than other fluids. One explanation is that all other H{sub 2} analyses are low owing to H{sub 2} loss during sampling or analysis. If this is not the case, then a second plausible hypothesis is that microbial methanogenesis in the downwelling parts of submarine hydrothermal systems contributes CH{sub 4} to all systems, even those lacking any plausible sedimentary source of organic matter. Thermodynamic analysis of all available data shows that any approach toward equilibrium at temperatures {<=}300{degrees}C could explain the concentrations of CH{sub 4}. This analysis also shows that methanogenesis is an energetically favored lifestyle as hydrothermal fluids mix with seawater at temperatures from {>=}50{degrees}C to {<=}350{degrees}C, assuming that the H{sub 2} analyses are reliable. In fact, these two explanations might be related. Any thermophilic methanogens trapped during collection of a mixed sample of seawater and vent fluid could feast on CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2} as the sample cooled, and the extent of disequilibrium may be governed by the temperature dependence of CH{sub 4}/CO{sub 2}/H{sub 2} reactions and the optimal temperature range of the organisms.

  4. Evaluating suspect sites {open_quotes}to clean or not to clean?{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, M.E.; Coleman, R.L.; Tiner, P.F.

    1996-04-01

    Within many large government reservations are many sites that are potentially contaminated from various uses such as experiments, material storage, or material processes. There also exist many smaller areas that, by proximity to contaminated sites, or due to work contracts, are likely to be contaminated. The party responsible for such sites must evaluate if remediation is required, based on current guidelines and future uses. The Departments of Defense and Energy have many sites and properties that are suspected of being contaminated or associated with operations that could cause contamination. In some cases the contaminants may have been adequately cleaned up, then decayed away, biodegraded, or dispersed to a nondetectable level. The decision to remove these sites from any further consideration of remediation or control must be based on historical data, potential contaminants, current analytical data, future uses, and the cost associated with managing the sites. This paper deals with the methodology for evaluating small sites and gives some case studies.

  5. Plasma transferred arc rotary furnace for {open_quotes}corium{close_quotes} melting

    SciTech Connect

    Kassabji, F.; Cognet, G.; Jegou, C.; Roubaud, A.

    1995-12-31

    This paper presents a new plasma transferred arc rotary furnace equipment installed for the CEA in the research Centre of Cadarache in France; this project is conducted with EDF technical assistance. It is constructed by GEC-ALSTHOM for the total project and TETRONICS for plasma systems. This furnace is the central unit of a new facility, VULCANO E-30, prototype of a larger one, built in order to study the key phenomena involved in the behaviour and cooling of CORIUM at temperatures up to 3000{degrees}C. This centrifugal and tilted furnace is water cooled in a double shielded jacket. A self crucible is made up by the centrifugation of the powder material. A 300kW transferred arc is created between two plasma electrodes-torches allowing the creation of a plasma column at a high and relatively homogeneous temperature. The furnace is equipped by a product feeder at one of its extremities and by a boarded telemtry system allowing the transmission by infrared signals of the temperature measurements.

  6. Leak-detection device is {open_quotes}all ears{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    Malm, H.; Halpern, F.

    1996-04-01

    Ultrasonic detection devices for locating air or liquid leaks are described. Standard packages consist of a hand-held detection instrument, high-impedance headphones, a localization sound probe, an ultrasound transmitter, and a precision contact probe. The ultrasonic vibrations are converted into either an audible frequency or a digital readout. The use of ultrasonic devices in leak testing single-wall underground storage tanks is detailed.

  7. Some general reflections on {open_quotes}long pulse{close_quotes} neutron sources

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, G.S.

    1995-12-31

    A long pulse spallation neutron source (LPSS) having about 20 times more time average thermal flux than its short pulse counterpart (SPSS) at the same proton beam power and featuring a pronounced time structure not available on CW sources (CWNS) of equal time average flux can in principle host instruments typical for both classes of facilities. While the need for additional choppers introduces some restrictions on inverted time of flight techniques typical for SPSS and high incident neutron energies are not easier to use on LPSS than on CWNS, taking advantage of the pulsed nature of the neutron flux can enhance significantly the performance of direct time of flight instruments and of crystal spectrometers or diffractometers. In the paper some of the options are reviewed in a general manner and criteria are discussed which can be used to optimize the performance enhancement.

  8. Summary report: Working Group 2 on {open_quotes}Plasma Based Acceleration Concepts{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    Leemans, W.P.; Esarey, E.; Esarey, E.

    1999-07-01

    A summary of the talks, papers and discussion sessions presented in the Working Group on Plasma Based Acceleration Concepts is given within the context of the progress towards a 1 GeV laser driven accelerator module. The topics covered within the Working Group were self-modulated laser wakefield acceleration, standard laser wakefield acceleration, plasma beatwave acceleration, laser guiding and wake excitation in plasma channels, plasma wakefield acceleration, plasma lenses and optical injection techniques for laser wakefield accelerators. An overview will be given of the present status of experimental and theoretical progress as well as an outlook towards the future physics and technological challenges for the development of an optimized accelerator module. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

  9. Producing biodiesel for the {open_quotes}truck in the park{close_quotes} project

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, C.; Reece, D.; Thompson, J.

    1995-11-01

    One of the principal advantages of Biodiesel is its environmental compatibility. Its biodegradability and reduced toxicity make it an ideal candidate fuel for environmentally sensitive areas. Biodiesel has potential as a fuel for equipment operating in or near waterways, sensitive wildlife habitat and other environmentally sensitive areas. The national park system has a mandate to maintain the environment in the areas they supervise. Use of Biodiesel could be one more tool in achieving that goal. This paper is a progress report of a joint project between the University of Idaho, The Montana Department of Natural Resources and Conservation, Wyoming Department of Energy, the PNW and Alaska Regional Bioenergy Program, Chrysler Corporation and the National Park Service to fuel an on-road vehicle for service in Yellowstone National Park. A 5.9L Cummins powered Dodge pickup, supplied by Dodge Truck, is being operated by NPS with fuel produced by the University of Idaho. Tests include regular dynamometer testing, emissions tests, injector coking analysis, oil analysis, detailed operational records and fuel characterization tests according to the ASAE proposed Engineering Practice for Testing of Fuels from Biological Materials, X552.

  10. A novel form of {open_quotes}Tyrosinase-positive{close_quotes} oculocutaneous albinism

    SciTech Connect

    Fukai, K.; Lee, S.T.; Bundey, S.; Spritz, R.A. |

    1994-09-01

    Tyrosinase-positive oculocutaneous albinism (ty-pos OCA) is an autosomal recessive disorder in which the biosynthesis of melanin pigment is greatly reduced in the skin, hair, and eyes. We have shown that typical ty-pos OCA (OCA2) results from mutations of the P gene in chromosome segment 15q11-q13. We have also shown that some patients diagnosed with ty-pos OCA actually have mild forms of type I OCA (OCAI), resulting from mutations at the tyrosinase (TYR) gene at 11q14-q21. However, in about one-third of patients with ty-pos OCA we have failed to identify abnormalities of either the P or TYR genes, suggesting the possible existence of a third ty-pos OCA locus. To test this hypothesis, we investigated a large, complex, inbred Pakistani kindred. Affected individuals exhibit slight skin pigmentation with no tanning, hair that is silver at birth and darkens somewhat over time, brown irides, and reduced visual acuity with nystagmus. SSCP/heteroduplex screening and complete DNA sequence analysis of TYR gene in the proband identified no abnormalities, and analysis of a CA repeat in the TYR gene promoter showed no linkage of ty-pos OCA to this marker in this kindred. SSCP/ heteroduplex screening of the P gene also detected no abnormalities, and the (inbred) proband was heterozygous for numerous intragenic polymorphisms. These data thus exclude TYP and P. We next carried out genetic linkage analyses and homozygisty mapping using various SSLP repeats at the locations of the human homologues of the mouse brown (TYRP, 9p23), slaty (13q32), and silver (12pter-q21) genes, all of which are associated with generalized hypopigmentation in mutant animals. However, we found no evidence of linkage of any of these markers. We are currently carrying out similar analyses using markers near the putative locations of the human homologues of several other mouse hypopigmentation genes in an effort to map this novel human ty-pos OCA locus.

  11. Chattanooga, belle of the {open_quotes}sustainable communities{close_quotes} ball

    SciTech Connect

    Lerner, S.

    1995-06-01

    Over the past two decades, the combined efforts of thousands of Chattanoogans have begun to clean up the city`s air, revitalize its riverfront, and diversity its economy. Chattanooga has launched a number of public/private partnerships for green development, ranging from renovation of low-income housing to construction of the nation`s largest freshwater aquarium and including plans for a zero emissions industrial park. The city has pollution prevention measures such as an initiative to protect waterways by installing oil skimming devices on parking lots and commercial properties. This article describes in detail Chattanooga`s efforts and the idea of sustainable communities.

  12. Jardin botanico {open_quotes}Cerro Prieto, B.C.{close_quotes} Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Gutierrez Gomez, C.

    1996-12-31

    The Cerro Prieto Geothermal Field is located at North of the Baja California State in Mexico, (32{degrees}22` - 32{degrees}26` N, 115{degrees}12` - 115{degrees}18` W) is part of the Colorado River Delta geological sub-province. This geothermal field is the more important in Mexico and in Latin America. The surface occupied by the installations (power plants, wells and evaporation lake) is of 12 km{sup 2} and in future it may reach 20 km{sup 2}. The construction of a Botanical Garden is projected in this field. Their main objectives are: to preserve the botanical patrimony of the regional flora, to promote the botanical research and the adoption of educational programs on this address.

  13. Film quality in relation to deposition conditions of {ital a}-SI:H films deposited by the {open_quote}{open_quote}hot wire{close_quote}{close_quote} method using highly diluted silane

    SciTech Connect

    Molenbroek, E.C.; Mahan, A.H.; Johnson, E.J.; Gallagher, A.C.

    1996-05-01

    The deposition parameter space has been extensively explored using the hot wire technique with 1{percent} SiH{sub 4} in He as a source gas. To achieve reasonable deposition rates despite the high dilution, the filament was positioned at 1{endash}2 cm from the substrate. This short distance introduced a large nonuniformity across the substrate in deposition rate as well as in film properties. These spatial variations were used to analyze which factors in the deposition determine film quality. Radiation from the filament as well as deposition rate cannot explain the large variation in film properties, leaving gas-phase reactions of Si and H from the hot filament as the primary cause. It is clear that radicals evaporated from the filament must undergo gas-phase reactions with SiH{sub 4} before deposition in order to produce high-quality material. Thus, conditions such as increasing the chamber pressure or going to a heavier carrier gas increase the fraction of radicals that can react before reaching the substrate and, therefore, improve the film quality. However, such conditions also enhance multiple radical reactions before such radicals reach the substrate and this can have a negative effect on film quality: this is attributed to gas-phase nucleation with incorporation of conglomerates. The gas-phase chemistry is quite different from that of plasma-enhanced decomposition in that no disilane or trisilane is formed in significant quantities. This, and the dependence on pressure, indicates that the pathway for formation of these heavier particles is radical{endash}radical reactions. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  14. Heart rate never lies: interventional cardiologist and Braude's quote revised

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Stéphane; Stauffer, Jean-Christophe; Goy, Jean-Jacques; Graf, Denis; Puricel, Serban; Frobert, Aurélien; Muller, Olivier; Togni, Mario; Arroyo, Diego

    2016-01-01

    Background Interventional cardiologists may be immune to stress, allowing them to perform complex percutaneous interventions under pressure. Objectives To assess heart rate (HR) variations as a surrogate marker of stress of interventional cardiologists during percutaneous cardiac procedures and in every-day life. Design This is a single-centre observational study including a total of six male interventional cardiologists performing coronary interventions and pacemaker implantations. Participants were asked to record their HR with the Apple Watch Device during procedures, every-day life and control activities such as outpatient consultations, sport, marital conflicts and sexual intercourse. Results Average daily HR was 88±17 bpm. During work days, HR increased significantly during procedures (90±17 bpm) compared with days outside the cathlab (87±17 bpm, p=0.02). The average HR was higher during a regular week working (88±16 bpm) compared with weekends off (84±18 bpm, p=0.002). Complex cardiac procedures were associated with higher HR up to 122 bpm. Peak HR were higher during physical exertion. Of note, participants complained of hypersexuality and mania after night shifts. Conclusions Work and especially percutaneous cardiac procedures increase HR independently of physical exertion suggesting that interventional cardiologists experience mental stress and emotions. PMID:26835145

  15. Thermal state of the safety system, reactor, side reflector and shielding of the {open_quote}{open_quote}TOPAZ-2{close_quote}{close_quote} system under conditions of fire caused by a launcher accident at the launch pad

    SciTech Connect

    Grinberg, E.I.; Doschatov, V.V.; Nikolaev, V.S.; Sokolov, N.S.; Usov, V.A.

    1996-03-01

    The paper presents some results of calculational analyses performed to determine thermal state of the TOPAZ II safety system structure, radiation shielding, reactor without the side reflector, rods and inserts of the side reflector under conditions of fire at the launch pad when an accident occurs to a launch vehicle. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  16. Reply to {open_quotes}Comment on {open_quote}Double-exchange ferromagnetism in La(Mn{sub 1{minus}x}Co{sub x})O{sub 3}{close_quote}&hthinsp;{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    Park, J.

    1999-09-01

    In response to the comment by van Elp, the x-ray-absorption spectroscopy (XAS) result at Co {ital L} edge in LaMn{sub 1{minus}x}Co{sub x}O{sub 3} is examined. As reported previously [Park {ital et al.}, Phys. Rev. B {bold 55}, 11&hthinsp;072 (1997)] the valence state must be understood as Co{sup 2+}, not the Co{sup 2+}-Co{sup 3+} mixed valence. An early XAS study of the induced Co{sup 3+} state in Li-doped CoO [van Elp {ital et al.}, Phys. Rev. B {bold 44}, 6090 (1991)], which is deeply related to the comment, is also examined. It is found that the XAS results obviously represent the {sup 1}A{sub 1} low spin state for the Co{sup 3+} state as in LiCoO{sub 2}, not the intermediate spin {sup 3}T{sub 1} state claimed in the study. {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital The American Physical Society}

  17. Response to {open_quotes}Comment on {open_quote}Reversible work of formation of an embryo of a new phase within a uniform macroscopic mother phase{close_quote}thinsp{close_quotes} [J. Chem. Phys. {bold 111}, 3769 (1999)

    SciTech Connect

    Debenedetti, P.G.; Reiss, H.

    1999-08-01

    External constraints are necessary in order to calculate the energetics of embryo formation when the embryo is not a critical nucleus. The expression for the reversible work of formation obtained in by Debenedetti and Reiss [J. Chem. Phys. {bold 108}, 5498 (1998)] is rigorous and valid regardless of the relative densities of the embryo and mother phase. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

  18. {open_quotes}Successful and cost-effective commercial waste prevention and recycling programs{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, A.L.

    1996-08-01

    Components of an integrated solid waste management program are detailed, with emphasis on government and business partnerships. The program incorporates waste reduction, reuse, waste exchange, recycling, composting, and recycled product procurement. Program options, which focus on educational materials, methods, and technical assistance for promoting commercial waste prevention and recycling, are specified for the business, manufacturing, and industrial sectors. A sample commercial recycling program budget and budget description is included.

  19. Russian multispectral-hyperspectral airborne scanner for geological and environmental investigations - {open_quotes}Vesuvius-EC{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    Yassinsky, G.I.; Shilin, B.V.

    1996-07-01

    Small variations of spectral characteristics in 0,3-14 microns band are of great significance in geological and environmental investigations. Multipurpose multispectral digital scanner with narrow field of view, high spectral resolution and radiometric calibration designed in Russia. Changeable modules permit to obtain parameters of the device for practical using.

  20. Recent experimental and analytical results on hydrogen combustion at RRC {open_quotes}Kurchatov Institute{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    Dorofeev, S.B.; Efimenko, A.A.; Kochurko, A.S.; Sidorov, V.P.

    1996-03-01

    A review of hydrogen combustion research at Kurchatov Institute is presented. Criterion for spontaneous detonation onset possibility and its application to severe accidents in a nuclear power plant is discussed. Theoretical and experimental results on spontaneous detonation onset conditions are summarized. Three series of large scale turbulent jet initiation experiments have been carried out in KOPER facility (50 m{sup 3} and 150 m{sup 3}). Series of jet initiation experiments in initially confined H{sub 2} - air mixtures have been carried out in KOPER facility (20-46 m{sup 3}). Turbulent deflagration/DDT experiments were carried out in large scale confined volume of 480 m{sup 3} in RUT facility. Results showed, that the characteristic volume size should be used for conservative estimates in accident analysis. Series of experiments on detonation transition from one mixture to another of lower sensitivity has been carried in DRIVER facility. The experiments were aimed on the estimation of the minimum size of a detonation kernel. The received results are in a good agreement with the 7 cell width criterion. Results of combined hydrogen injection/ignition experiments are presented. The experiments are aimed on the investigation of possible consequences of deliberate ignition at dynamic conditions. Analysis of the experimental data showed applicability of 7 cell width criterion to dynamic conditions. The sum of the results on the scaling of spontaneous detonations is discussed in connection with the strategy of hydrogen mitigation at severe accidents.

  1. BIG KARL and COSY: Examples for high performance magnet design taught by {open_quotes}Papa Klaus{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    Bechtstedt, U.; Hacker, U.; Maier, R.; Martin, S.; Berg, G.P.A.; Hardt, A.; Huerlimann, W.; Meissburger, J.; Roemer, J.G.M.

    1995-02-01

    The past decades have seen a tremendous development in nuclear, middle, and high energy physics. This advance was in a great part promoted by the availability of newer and more powerful instruments. Over time, these instruments grew in size as well as in sophistication and precision. Nearly all these devices had one fundamental thing in common - magnetic fields produced with currents and iron. The precision demanded by the new experiments and machines did bring the magnet technology to new frontiers requiring the utmost in the accuracy of magnetic fields. The complex properties of the iron challenged innumerable physicists in the attempt to force the magnetic fields into the desired shape. Experience and analytical insight were the pillars for coping with those problems and only few mastered the skills and were in addition able to communicate their intricate knowledge. It was a fortuitous situation that the authors got to know Klaus Halbach who belonged to those few and who shared his knowledge contributing thus largely to the successful completion of two large instruments that were built at the Forschungszentrum Juelich, KFA, for nuclear and middle energy physics. In one case the efforts went to the large spectrometer named BIG KARL whose design phase started in the early 70`s. In the second case the work started in the early 80`s with the task to build a high precision 2.5 GeV proton accelerator for cooled stored and extracted beams known as COSY-Juelich.

  2. Do more with less-make your trash can {open_quotes}A lonely trash can{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    Yelton, D.

    1996-08-01

    A paper recycling program in North Carolina is described in this paper. Problems with the current paper recycling system are identified. A new system is proposed to address these problems. A cost analysis of the system is compared to a cost analysis of a proposed system; the proposed system cost is significantly lower.

  3. Laboratory {open_quotes}proof of principle{close_quotes} investigation for the acoustically enhanced remediation technology

    SciTech Connect

    Iovenitti, J.L.; Spencer, J.W.; Hill, D.G.

    1995-12-01

    This document describes a three phase program of Weiss Associates which investigates the systematics of using acoustic excitation fields (AEFs) to enhance the in-situ remediation of contaminated soil and ground water under both saturated and unsaturated conditions. The focus in this particular paper is a laboratory proof of principle investigation. The field deployment and engineering viability of acoustically enhanced remediation technology is also examined.

  4. Improved power quality with {open_quotes}Written-Pole{close_quotes}{sup trademark} motor-generators and motors

    SciTech Connect

    Morash, R.T.

    1995-12-31

    Written-Pole{trademark} motor-generators and motors improve power quality because the magnetic pattern of rotor field poles can be changed while the machines operate. Applied in a motor-generator set, pole writing allows the generator to produce high quality constant frequency output at variable speed. The motor efficiently operates its own high inertial energy rotor as a flywheel energy storage device. The M-G set provides continuous on-line isolation between the electrical distribution system and load. It also rides through blackouts of 15 seconds or more while supplying full load at exact frequency and regulated voltage. Rotating flywheel energy is used, thereby eliminating the need for batteries for uninterruptible power. Power quality is also improved for the electrical distribution system because the generator prevents harmonic feedback. The motor is a unity power factor load with negligible harmonics and has added advantages of high efficiency and very low inrush current during across-the-line starts. Mechanical loads such as pumps and fans can be driven by written-pole motors. These can also have advantages of load ride-through during momentary power interruptions and can instantly restart. Additionally, low starting current significantly reduces voltage sags on the distribution system, improving power quality. Such motors are being developed in single-phase with the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and member utilities. The paper describes the benefits for power quality as a result of written-pole machines.

  5. {open_quotes}Secure Bus{close_quotes} disturbance-free power at the utility substation level

    SciTech Connect

    Boenig, H.J.; Jones, W.H.

    1996-12-01

    Over the last 18 months Public Service Company of New Mexico (PNM), El Camino Real Engineering, Inc. (CRE), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) have worked on the development of disturbance-free power at the medium voltage substation level. The work resulted in the Secure Bus concept, a system in which a medium voltage bus in a substation is immune to power outages and voltage sags on the utility source. The Secure Bus voltage is also immune to voltage sags resulting from faults on any distribution feeder connected to the bus. The Secure Bus concept originated from work conducted to improve power quality for large high-tech manufacturing facilities, in particular for large semiconductor manufacturing plants. For the demands on quality power of a modern facility conventional equipment is not adequate for protecting the end user. For example, the operation of conventional vacuum breakers during short circuit conditions on a feeder circuit, requiring 3 to 5 cycles for breaker opening, does not allow for fast enough current interruption to avoid a voltage dip on the main bus. A sever voltage sag could result in a shut down of sensitive equipment being supplied by the other feeder circuits, which are connected to the main bus. The circumvent the problem, a fast breaker was introduced which interrupts the short circuit before the current causes a significant voltage disturbance. To make the bus immune also to power disturbances caused by power outages, energy storage is introduced to provide the necessary energy back-up in case the primary source is not available.

  6. Chelant extraction and {open_quotes}redox{close_quotes} manipulation for remediation of heavy metal contaminated soils

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, R.W.; Li, W.; Miller, G.

    1995-12-31

    This paper summarizes several treatability studies for decontamination of soils at the Aberdeen Proving Ground in Maryland. The surface soil contains elevated levels of heavy metals, especially lead, mercury, and cadmium. Other contaminants include PCBs, 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane, and trichloroethene. Batch extraction studies identified ethylenediamine-tetraacetic acid (EDTA) and citric acid as potential chelating agents for soil washing to remove heavy metals. Column flooding experiments using these agents resulted in significantly lower removal efficiencies. The reason for this behavior is thought to be the result of channeling the chelant solution through the soil column and less contact between the extracting solution and the soil. As a result, soil flooding is not recommended. Sonication was ineffective in enhancing the heavy metal extraction efficiencies of chelating agents. Screening tests identified sodium borohydride, sodium metabisulfite, and sodium percarbonate as potential redox agents. Lead and copper removal by EDTA and citric acid extraction was minimially affected by pretreatment with redox agents. Enhanced removal of copper, lead, and zinc was observed in column flooding experiments using sodium borohydride and EDTA. The reagents used for redox manipulation significantly improved the performance of citric acid for removing zinc. The soil was washed using a multiple-stage batch extraction. The overall removal of copper, lead, and zine were 98.9%, 98.9%, and 97.2%, respectively.

  7. Excerpt from {open_quotes}Summary of Near-Term Options for Russian Plutonium-Production Reactors{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-01

    The Russian Federation desires to stop producing weapons-grade plutonium. During the last several years, ten graphite-moderated, water-cooled, production reactors have been shut down. However, complete cessation of weapons-grade plutonium production is impeded by the fact that the last three operating Russian plutonium-production reactors supply electrical energy and district heat as well as produce plutonium. These reactors are major suppliers of heat in the Tomsk and Krasnoyarsk regions of Siberia.

  8. Reply to the comments on [open quotes]Weathering, plants, and the long-term carbon cycle[close quotes

    SciTech Connect

    Cochran, M.F.; Berner, R.A. )

    1993-05-01

    Some lichens can and do promote the weathering of their substrates. The authors' sole interest for purposes of carbon-cycle modeling is the degree of that enhancement for calcium and magnesium silicates relative to both abiotic chemical weathering due to water-rock interaction and the weathering that occurs beneath higher plants. The work by Jackson and Keller (1970) had offered the most dramatic quantitative, empirical evidence for weathering-rate enhancement by a primitive terrestrial organism; thus, reassessment of their conclusions is of considerable importance. In analyzing their samples, the authors used the technique of back-scattered electron imaging. Their results showed that the ferrihydrite-rich gels created by Stereocaulon vulcani were formed from wind-supplied dust, volcanic ash, and detrital rock fragments, not the lichen's immediate substrate.

  9. Autosomal dominant {open_quotes}Opitz{close_quotes} GBBB syndrome due to a 22q11.2 deletion

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald-McGinn, D.M.; Emanuel, B.S.; Zackai, E.H.

    1996-08-23

    The classification of Opitz GBBB syndrome has been associated with the deletion of the DiGeorge chromosome region on human chromosome 22q11.2. The broad phenotype involved in this deletion syndrome has been referred to as the DiGeorge/velocardiofacial syndrome. The clinical description of the patient will influence the diagnosis of the syndrome. More cooperation between the clinicians and the molecular researchers is necessary in order to locate the gene(s) for these disorders. 11 refs.

  10. {open_quotes}Understanding district energy customer behavior - the key to getting customers and keeping them happy{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    Kattner, J.F.

    1995-09-01

    The market share achieved by district energy systems is frequently represented as a percentage of a particular country`s total energy consumption, or as a percentage of the energy used for heating and cooling. While such characterizations of district energy`s market share are valid and important from a producer`s perspective, the position of the customer is not well represented. The effectiveness of communicating market share in this way greatly depends on the district energy customers` knowledge about the local, regional and national energy markets. It also fails to take into account the differences among customer buildings and their individual energy consumption patterns. An alternative view of market share is suggested when the perspective of the district energy markets shifts from that of the producer`s to the ends user`s. End users of district energy typically are responsible for the ownership and/or the operation of a building. This includes providing energy for comfort, lighting and any processes being conducted in the building. Fundamentally, district energy customers are in the property management business. Their business operations are represented and rated with respect to the building area they manage. Frequently, several buildings are managed by one company. An extensive amount of research has been done about the behavior of consumers when making buying decisions. This includes the fact that product and service buying behavior differs. Also, the field of customer satisfaction is rich with clues on how to keep our customers happy with their decisions to use district energy. This report presents key considerations about buyer behavior and customer satisfaction as they relate to marketing in the district energy field.

  11. United States based agricultural {open_quotes}waste products{close_quotes} as fillers in a polypropylene homopolymer

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobson, R.E.; Rowell, R.M.; Caulfield, D.F.

    1995-11-01

    With the advent of modern coupling agents (MAPP or maleic anhydride grafted polypropylene), the potential use of various types of renewable, sustainable agricultural byproducts as fillers in thermoplastics is explored. Over 7.7 billion pounds of fillers were used in the plastics industry in 1993. With sharp price increases in commodity thermoplastics (i.e. approximately 25% in 94`), the amount of fillers in thermoplastic materials will increase throughout the 90`s. Various types of agricultural fibers are evaluated for mechanical properties vs. 50% wood flour and 40% talc filled polypropylene (PP). The fibers included in this study are: kenaf core, oat straw, wheat straw, oat hulls, wood flour (pine), corncob, hard corncob, rice hulls, peanut hulls, corn fiber, soybean hull, residue, and jojoba seed meal. Composite interfaces were modified with MAPP to improve the mechanical properties through increased adhesion between the hydrophilic and polar fibers with the hydrophobic and non-polar matrix. The agro-waste composites had compositions of 50% agro-waste/48% PP/2% MAPP. All of the agricultural waste by-products were granulated through a Wiley mill with a 30 mesh screen and compounded in a high intensity shear-thermo kinetic mixer. The resultant blends were injection molded into ASTM standard samples and tested for tensile, flexural, and impact properties. This paper reports on the mechanical properties of the twelve resultant composites and compares them to wood flour and talc-filled polypropylene composites. The mechanical properties of kenaf core, oat straw, wheat straw, and oat hulls compare favorably to the wood flour and talc-filled PP, which are both commercially available and used in the automotive and furniture markets.

  12. {open_quote}Nintendo Rig{close_quote} lets two men do work of three on traditional servicing rig

    SciTech Connect

    Rintoul, B.

    1996-01-01

    New well servicing rig saves costs and increases safety by using a robot derrickman. The rigs is called the Nintendo Rig, taking the name from the joystick that controls the robot on the racking board 25 feet above the ground. An automated tong/slip package permanently mounted on the front of the rig handles pipe and rods on the ground.

  13. Molecular genetics of the glaucomas: Mapping of the first five {open_quotes}GLC{close_quotes} loci

    SciTech Connect

    Raymond, V.

    1997-02-01

    Glaucoma encompasses a complex of ocular-disease entities characterized by an optic neuropathy in which degeneration of retinal ganglion cells leads to a characteristic excavation of the head of the optic nerve. Such damage causes progressive narrowing of the visual fields and, when uncontrolled, blindness. Affected people often have ocular hypertension defined as intraocular pressures consistently >21 mm Hg in both eyes. Although ocular hypertension is no longer an obligatory diagnostic criterion for glaucoma, it is still recognized as one of the most important risk factors. A diagnosis of glaucoma is made after observation of the characteristic atrophy of the optic nerve, which is associated with typical visual field defects. In 1992, the World Health Organization estimated that, in the global population, 5.2 million people were blind as a result of glaucoma, making it the third leading cause of blindness worldwide. The most common form is adult-onset primary open-angle glaucoma, which represents {ge}50% of all cases of glaucoma. Among Caucasians, this form of the disorder affects {approximately}2% of the population >45 years old. In African Americans, prevalence of adult-onset open-angle glaucoma is three to four times higher than that observed in White Americans. More than 15 million North Americans may have some form of glaucoma, but at least half of them may not be aware of it. 43 refs., 1 tab.

  14. Keys to evaluating {open_quotes}paleokarst{close_quotes} reservoirs - guidelines from Quaternary carbonates and enhanced petrography

    SciTech Connect

    Dravis, J.J.

    1996-12-31

    Paleokarst is often invoked to explain reservoir development in ancient brecciated carbonates. However, the paleokarst model is valid only when fabrics seen in Quaternary cave systems are present and petrography of the non-brecciated zones supports subaerial exposure. Quaternary caves typically exhibit early fractures, microscopic to cavernous secondary porosity, solution collapse and brecciation, cave cements, and reddish-brown cave fill. Inter-cavern rocks show fabric-selective dissolution, porosity inversion, precompaction cements, and capping laminated soil crusts. In brecciated Ellenburger and Upper Elk Point (Devonian, W. Canada) reservoirs, major discrepancies exist between what the paleokarst model predicts and what is actually observed. Reddish calcretes, cavernous porosity and cave cements are absent. Enhanced petrography reveals relict sutured grains, implying burial dolomitization. These same dolomites are brecciated and breccia clasts contain stylolites rotated at different angles to each other and the horizon, implying burial brecciation. Fractures cutting these burial dolomites and stylolites are burial in origin. Preserved secondary porosity is unrelated to brecciated zones and facies controlled. Therefore, brecciation and reservoir quality in both sequences were created by burial dissolution of replacement dolomites and not by subaerial karstification. Brecciation alone does not prove the unconformity-related paleokarst model or the timing of porosity development.

  15. Keys to evaluating [open quotes]paleokarst[close quotes] reservoirs - guidelines from Quaternary carbonates and enhanced petrography

    SciTech Connect

    Dravis, J.J. )

    1996-01-01

    Paleokarst is often invoked to explain reservoir development in ancient brecciated carbonates. However, the paleokarst model is valid only when fabrics seen in Quaternary cave systems are present and petrography of the non-brecciated zones supports subaerial exposure. Quaternary caves typically exhibit early fractures, microscopic to cavernous secondary porosity, solution collapse and brecciation, cave cements, and reddish-brown cave fill. Inter-cavern rocks show fabric-selective dissolution, porosity inversion, precompaction cements, and capping laminated soil crusts. In brecciated Ellenburger and Upper Elk Point (Devonian, W. Canada) reservoirs, major discrepancies exist between what the paleokarst model predicts and what is actually observed. Reddish calcretes, cavernous porosity and cave cements are absent. Enhanced petrography reveals relict sutured grains, implying burial dolomitization. These same dolomites are brecciated and breccia clasts contain stylolites rotated at different angles to each other and the horizon, implying burial brecciation. Fractures cutting these burial dolomites and stylolites are burial in origin. Preserved secondary porosity is unrelated to brecciated zones and facies controlled. Therefore, brecciation and reservoir quality in both sequences were created by burial dissolution of replacement dolomites and not by subaerial karstification. Brecciation alone does not prove the unconformity-related paleokarst model or the timing of porosity development.

  16. A GCM study of the late January 1992 [open quotes]mini-hole[close quotes] event observed during EASOE

    SciTech Connect

    Orsolini, Y.; Cariolle, D.; Deque, M. )

    1994-06-22

    The authors have developed a model for the ozone field in the northern hemisphere, based on a general circulation model Arpege'. They take advantage of the large number of readings of ozone profiles available as a result of the EASOE campaign to test this model against measurements. The model delimits the vortex by the use of potential vorticity. It was applied against an ozone density excursion observed over northern Europe in late January 1992. The model shows that this event was the result of transport of a large tropical air mass, low in ozone density to the north.

  17. Construction and analysis of a panel of {open_quotes}whole genome{close_quotes} radiation hybrids

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, D.R.; O`Connor, K.; Hebert, S.

    1994-09-01

    In an effort to generate a single panel of radiation hybrid cell lines that can be used to construct a radiation hybrid map of the entire human genome, we have fused diploid male human lymphoblastoid cells exposed to 8000 rad of X-rays with unirradiated Chinese hamster cells deficient for the enzyme thymidine kinase (TK), and selected for radiation hybrids in the presence of HAT selective medium. Genomic DNA isolated from each of 85 independent hybrids was assayed in duplicate for the presence of 100 STSs representing at least two STSs from each of the 23 human chromosomes. The retention frequency of individual markers was found to vary from 5% to 58%, with an average retention of 17%. In addition, each radiation hybrid was scored for the retention of 85 STSs derived from a 25 Mb region of the proximal short arm of chromosome 4. An algorithm developed specifically for use with diploid radiation hybrid data was used to construct a map. Our results indicate that this set of diploid radiation hybrids can be used to construct a radiation hybrid map of the entire human genome at an average resolution of approximately 500kb.

  18. Development of NZP ceramic based {open_quotes}cast-in-place{close_quotes} diesel engine port liners

    SciTech Connect

    Nagaswaran, R.; Limaye, S.Y.

    1996-02-01

    BSX (Ba{sub 1+x}Zr{sub 4}P{sub 6-2x}Si{sub 2x}O{sub 24}) and CSX (Ca{sub l-x}Sr{sub x}Zr{sub 4}P{sub 6}O{sub 24}) type NZP ceramics were fabricated and characterized for: (i) thermal properties viz., thermal conductivity, thermal expansion, thermal stability and thermal shock resistance; (ii) mechanical properties viz., flexure strength and elastic modulus; and (iii) microstructures. Results of these tests and analysis indicated that the BS-25 (x=0.25 in BSX) and CS-50 (x=0.50 in CSX) ceramics had the most desirable properties for casting metal with ceramic in place. Finite element analysis (FEA) of metal casting (with ceramic in place) was conducted to analyze thermomechanical stresses generated and determine material property requirements. Actual metal casting trials were also conducted to verify the results of finite element analysis. In initial trials, the ceramic cracked because of the large thermal expansion mismatch (hoop) stresses (predicted by FEA also). A process for introduction of a compliant layer between the metal and ceramic to alleviate such destructive stresses was developed. The compliant layer was successful in preventing cracking of either the ceramic or the metal. In addition to these achievements, pressure slip casting and gel-casting processes for fabrication of NZP components; and acoustic emission and ultrasonics-based NDE techniques for detection of microcracks and internal flaws, respectively, were successfully developed.

  19. Superconductivity of {open_quotes}conducting polymer-fullerene alkali metal{close_quotes} composites: Dreams and realities

    SciTech Connect

    Zakhidov, A.A.; Yoshino, K.

    1996-10-01

    Composites of fullerene C{sub 60} with conjugated polymers (CP) like polyalkylthiophene (PAT) and polyphenylene vinylene derivative (OO-PPV) have earlier demonstrated intensive charge transfer upon photoexcitation. Doping of CP/C{sub 60} composites by A metal vapors (A=K,Rb) is aimed at C{sub 60} induced SC, in which electrons of CP chains may participate in SC pairing, induced via hybridization with C{sub 60} molecules. We have found an SC phase experimentally both in PAT. (C{sub 60}) {sub y}K{sub x} and OO.PPV (C{sub 60}){sub y}K{sub x} by a sensitive method of low field microwave absorption (LFMA), and proved by SQUID. The SCT{sub c} ranges from 12 to 17 K, depending on y and x. This SC phase shows a granular behavior in LFMA, and thus originates from SC A{sub 3}C{sub 60} clusters weakly linked by Josephson junctions. True C{sub 60} induced SC might be masked by granular A{sub 3}C{sub 60}. Anomalous LFMA and paramagnetic Meissner effects observed in SQUID, indicate the existence of Josephson {pi}-junctions. CP is apparently involved in SC via spin carrying polarons P in CP chains, which play a role of {pi}-junctions. Strategies for further search of C{sub 60} induced SC are discussed.

  20. Giant fields of the late 80s associated with type [open quotes]A[close quotes] subduction in South America

    SciTech Connect

    Duval, B.; Cramez, C. ); Figuera, J. ); Lander, R. ); Hernandez, G. )

    1993-02-01

    About 10 billion bbl of recoverable oil have been found in these three fields for which the petroleum generating subsystem is very similar. The potential source rocks are the organic sediments associated with the major downlap surface of the post-Pangea continental encroachment sedimentary cycle, i.e., MFS 91, 5 Ma (La Luna formation). However, the concentrating physico-chemical petroleum subsystem is quite different. The El Furrial/Musipan field is associated with a Tertiary foredeep basin overlying a generating Atlantic type passive margin. On the other hand, Cusiana and Ceuta fields are associated with a Tertiary foredeep basin developed over a generating back-arc basin. The different stacking of sedimentary basins controls the migration/entrapment petroleum subsystem. In El Furrial/Musipan, decollement surfaces and their associated thrusts are predominant whereas, in Ceuta and Cusiana the majority of compressional structures are created by tectonic inversions. These tectonic settings create different petroleum systems: (a) supercharged with low impedance and lateral drainage in El Furrial/Musipan, (b) normally charged with high impedance and vertically drained in Ceuta and Cusiana area. Each case requires appropriated exploration approaches.

  1. ESCA study of [open quotes]model[close quotes] allyl-based Mo/SiO[sub 2] catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Aigler, J.M.; Brito, J.L.; Leach, P.A.; Houalla, M.; Proctor, A.; Cooper, N.J.; Hall, W.K.; Hercules, D.M. )

    1993-05-27

    Stoichiometric redox measurements and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS or ESCA) studies were performed on an allyl-based Mo/SiO[sub 2] catalyst (1.7 wt % Mo) obtained by the sublimation of Mo([eta][sup 3]-C[sub 3]H[sub 5])[sub 4] onto SiO[sub 2] at 40 [degrees]C. The average oxidation state estimated from stoichiometric measurements correlated well with those reported in the literature. ESCA results indicated that reduction of the Mo/SiO[sub 2] catalyst at 550 [degrees]C primarily led to the formation of Mo[sup 2+]. Also, the results were consistent the reported reversibility of the redox cycle. However, the reported formation of discrete Mo[sup 4+] by oxidation of the reduced catalyst at room temperature could not be substantiated. 17 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. The origins of utility regulation and the [open quotes]theories of regulation[close quotes] debate

    SciTech Connect

    Priest, G.L.

    1993-04-01

    In this article, the author attempts to show that the effort to ascribe regulatory effects to a theory largely deflects attention from the dynamic relationships between the regulator and the regulated firm or industry played out most frequently within a long-term relationship closely resembling more familiar forms of long-term contracts. The focus on regulation by commission is misguided and the differences between regulation by commission and by other regulatory techniques are less important than has been appreciated. The author's examination of the history of public utility regulation makes impossible any clear-cut distinction between competing public interest and private interest theories.

  3. {open_quotes}Local texture, current flow, and superconductive transport properties of Tl1223 deposits on practical substrates{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    Christen, D.K.; Specht, E.D.; Goyal, A.

    1996-05-01

    Quantitative investigations of the crystal grain orientations and electrical transport properties of high temperature superconducting (HTS)TiBa{sub 2}Ca{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 8+x} (Tl1223) deposits on polycrystalline substrates show that current flow comprises percolative networks of strongly-coupled material. Superconductive transport properties on different samples, on the same samples at different widths, and on samples with artificially-induced strong flux pinning defects confirm the nature of current flow, and suggest that these materials may be useful as a new class of HTS conductors.

  4. 24th WRSM panel discussion: {open_quotes}The role of research in nuclear regulation: The case of qualified importers{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    Alonso, A.

    1997-01-01

    Scientific knowledge and technological maturity are needed to establish regulatory requirements, what also needs talent and skills. Scientists are rarely interested in regulation and regulators not always are closely connected to scientific research. This has created gaps in regulations, mainly within qualified importers. A qualified importer, in the sense of this presentation, is a country who has acquired nuclear power plants from more technologically advanced exporters but with an increasing participation of its own industry and institutions in the design, construction, component manufacture and assembly of such nuclear power plants and is fully responsible for the operation of the nuclear units and the corresponding fuel cycle. These countries have also a long standing and independent nuclear regulatory organization and the corresponding technical body. Spain is a qualified importer. In the case of Spain, it originally adopted the codes and regulations of the UE which it was a member of, as well as the codes and standards of the country from which their reactors were produced. Since Spain added KWU plants they even went to German regulations. Plant operation rested with Spain. As problems began to appear in operating plants, local research projects were funded to study the problems, aimed at immediate solutions, but also providing training for local personnel in addition to information of use for regulators. Spain has participated in many joint research projects, which have trained people, and given confidence to Spaniards involved in science and regulations. Qualified importers, like Spain, participate in research, even though it may not translate itself into regulation. Such participation will always serve to give self-confidence and independence to regulators and licensees, to better understand the adopted regulations of the most advanced countries and to solve specific problems.

  5. You won`t find these leaks with a blower door: The latest in {open_quotes}leaking electricity{close_quotes} in homes

    SciTech Connect

    Rainer, L.; Greenberg, S.; Meier, A.

    1996-08-01

    Leaking electricity is the energy consumed by appliances when they are switched off or not performing their principal functions. Field measurements in Florida, California, and Japan show that leaking electricity represents 50 to 100 Watts in typical homes, corresponding to about 5 GW of total electricity demand in the United States. There are three strategies to reduce leaking electricity: eliminate leakage entirely, eliminate constant leakage and replace with intermittent charge plus storage, and improve efficiency of conversion. These options are constrained by the low value of energy savings-less than $5 per saved Watt. Some technical and lifestyle solutions are proposed. 13 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  6. Effect of {open_quotes}bamboo{close_quotes} grain boundaries on the maximum electromigration-induced stress in microelectronic interconnect lines

    SciTech Connect

    Gleixner, R.J.; Nix, W.D.

    1998-04-01

    A model which describes the steady-state mechanical stresses resulting from electromigration in microelectronic interconnect lines is presented. This model is valid when sidewall and grain boundary interface diffusion are the dominant transport paths, and accounts for the two-dimensional microstructure present in such lines. By applying the model to simulated line microstructures, we find that bamboo grain boundaries may substantially increase the maximum electromigration stress. Furthermore, microstructural simulations on bounded interconnect segments show that variations in grain size may lead to a large scatter in the maximum stress, particularly as line length decreases. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  7. Near-real time infrared observations of acidic sulfates in /open quotes/clean/close quotes/ air at Mauna Loa, Hawaii

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, S.A.; Kumar, R.

    1988-01-01

    Sulfuric acid and its partially or completely neutralized salts with ammonia are believed to result from the oxidation of sulfur dioxide in cloud water and in other heterogeneous media present in the atmosphere. Due to the natural abundance of ammonia and the ubiquitous presence of sulfur in the atmosphere, (NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ is commonly the dominant chemical species in the ambient aerosol. The amounts of ammonium sulfates are expected to be very low in areas far removed from anthropogenic emissions of sulfur dioxide. The chemical composition of submicrometer aerosol particles was determined at the Mauna Loa Observatory (MLO) on Mauna Loa in Hawaii during an eight-day period in August 1986. The MLO site was selected for this measurement because it is the only ground-based aerosol observatory in the remote Pacific Ocean that allows extended sampling of aerosols in the free troposphere. Measurements were made using an attenuated total internal reflection (ATR) impactor system. The impactor collects size-fractionated submicrometer particles for analysis by ATR infrared spectroscopy. The collected samples were analyzed using an on-site Perkin Elmer dispersive infrared spectrophotometer. Infrared absorption spectra (4000 to 250 cm/sup /minus/1/) of the samples were obtained within minutes after the ATR substrates were removed from the impactor. Absorbances were measured for sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium. Acidic sulfate showed infrared absorbances at 600 cm/sup /minus/1/ and 1210 cm/sup /minus/1/ in addition. Results showed that ammonium sulfate was the dominant chemical species in the submicrometer particles. Over half of the nearly 40 samples collected showed an acidic sulfate component. Consecutive samples were found to change from completely neutralized ammonium sulfate to acidic ammonium sulfates in a two-hour time interval. 5 refs., 1 tab.

  8. Mental retardation in a child with a {open_quotes}de novo{close_quotes} deletion of terminal 14q and a family history of dyslexia

    SciTech Connect

    Mak-Tam, E.; Capua, E.; Shugar, A.

    1994-09-01

    A couple presented for prenatal diagnosis for advanced maternal age. A review of the family history revealed that their elder daughter was mentally retarded while their second daughter was of normal intelligence. The father and his brother were both dyslexic. The paternal grandmother had lost three pregnancies, all female. The elder daughter had been fully assessed in the past, but no diagnosis had been made. During her first few years, she was frequently ill and failed to thrive. A developmental assessment at age 5 years concluded that she was moderately mentally retarded. She was minimally dysmorphic. DNA testing for fragile X and urine amnio acids, organic acids and metabolic screen were negative. Chromosome and FISH analyses revealed a satellited 14q with a deletion of 14q32.3. Parents did not show the karyotypic changes, but FISH studies on them and the dyslexic uncle are pending. A molecular work-up of chromosome 14 in this family is also in progress. In this child, the phenotype is probably related to the cytogenetic findings. The information about 14q terminal deletions in the literature is limited but a fairly consistent phenotype, which is slightly different from ring 14, is emerging. This is more obvious in infants that in older children. The family history of dyslexia could be unrelated to our patient`s findings but it is also possible that there is a recessive gene for dyslexia in this family which maps to 14q32.3. The current molecular map of this area provides no answer to this question. Genes mapped to 14q3.3 include the alpha-1-antitrypsin gene, the brain component of creative kinase (CKB) and the immunoglobulin heavy chain genes. Loss of heterozygosity of 14q has been associated with end stage human neuroblastoma and colonic neoplasia.

  9. SSC 17-meter dipole magnet DD000Z test results and investigation of coil failure: The report of the {open_quotes}Z{close_quotes} Committee

    SciTech Connect

    Coombes, R.; Mirk, K.; Tompkins, J.; Zbasnik, J.; Lundy, R.; Schneider, W.; Wanderer, P.

    1988-03-01

    Following the failure of the lower inner coil of magnet DD000Z on November 3, 1987, a committee was formed on November 11 and given the following charges: `To review the events leading up to and including the failure of the coils of magnet DD000Z. The intent of the review will be to determine the cause of the failure and to make recommendations to reduce the likelihood of such failures in the future. Given the fact that this is the first long magnet to be disassembled, the committee may uncover leads which point to other opportunities for improvement. The committee should follow up on these leads. The committee should prepare a plan to serve as an initial guide for the disassembly and provide guidance as the disassembly progresses.` The committee held its first meeting at FNAL on 17 and 18 Nov to review the record of events leading up to the failure and to establish an initial disassembly procedure. This was followed by further meetings at FNAL, BNL, and CDG, leading to this final report. Committee activities included interviewing personnel who had been involved in the design, assembly and testing of DD000Z, reviewing all documents relating to the magnet and its failure, and participating in and providing guidance during the disassembly. The intention of the committee was to report factual findings, to consider well founded hypotheses, not to consider conjecture and to avoid speculation.

  10. Bananas, allegators, and {open_quotes}hot rocks that shoot ghost bullets{close_quotes}: Sitings along the trail to an MRS

    SciTech Connect

    Trebules, V.; Kane, D.

    1994-04-01

    Building new electric power facilities in a community used to be greeted warmly by that community. However, during the 20 year hiatus in power plant siting, opposition to siting just about every kind of facility has grown. The challenge to site a monitored retrievable storage (MRS) facility for the temporary storage of commercial spent nuclear fuel is monumental but not insurmountable. The safety and environmental records on commercial spent-fuel storage to date are impressive. This article gives an overall perspective on siting an MRS. Topics covered include the following: the Nuclear waste Policy Act; the Nuclear Waste Negotiator; DOE`s Feasibility Grand`s program; Looking back at past efforts; using portable information in some areas; and where the efforts go now in trying to site a MRS.

  11. Oil spill Cleanup: {open_quote}windows of opportunity{close_quote}: Operational decision-making integrates combination of factors to improve contingency planning, response worldwide

    SciTech Connect

    Nordvik, A.B.; Simmons, J.L.; Champ, M.A.

    1995-10-01

    Oil spill contingency planning and response is an extremely complex and challenging cross-disciplinary activity. It combines a wide range of activities under emergency response conditions that include the nature of the material spilled, local environmental conditions, sensitivity of impacted natural resources, and selection and effectiveness of response/cleanup technologies. This also emcompasses emergency mobilization, marine operations and effectiveness of operations, air surveillance, remote sensing, on-site and regional spill trajectory, human protection, safety assessments, oily waste minimization, handling and disposal, and education and training. Effective oil spill planning and response today also requires a large amount of available data and information and the ability to rapidly process and manage this information. In addition, the decision-making process must integrate all of this information on a sound scientific and engineering basis, which is now possible with the technology windows-of-opportunity. This new concept integrates scientific and engineering data and information, which together provide a common foundation for the development of a rapid and cost-effective tool as an operational instrument for oil spill contingency planning and spill response. It is intended to be used by state and federal agencies, response planners, cleanup organizations, insurance companies, tanker owners, and oil transporters.

  12. Accident analysis of railway transportation of low-level radioactive and hazardous chemical wastes: Application of the /open quotes/Maximum Credible Accident/close quotes/ concept

    SciTech Connect

    Ricci, E.; McLean, R.B.

    1988-09-01

    The maximum credible accident (MCA) approach to accident analysis places an upper bound on the potential adverse effects of a proposed action by using conservative but simplifying assumptions. It is often used when data are lacking to support a more realistic scenario or when MCA calculations result in acceptable consequences. The MCA approach can also be combined with realistic scenarios to assess potential adverse effects. This report presents a guide for the preparation of transportation accident analyses based on the use of the MCA concept. Rail transportation of contaminated wastes is used as an example. The example is the analysis of the environmental impact of the potential derailment of a train transporting a large shipment of wastes. The shipment is assumed to be contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls and low-level radioactivities of uranium and technetium. The train is assumed to plunge into a river used as a source of drinking water. The conclusions from the example accident analysis are based on the calculation of the number of foreseeable premature cancer deaths the might result as a consequence of this accident. These calculations are presented, and the reference material forming the basis for all assumptions and calculations is also provided.

  13. Assessment of possible consequences of a hypothetical reactivity accident associated with a {open_quotes}Topaz-2{close_quotes} spacecraft reactor entering water

    SciTech Connect

    Glushkov, E.S.; Ermoshin, M.Yu.; Ponomarev-Stepnoi; Skorlygin, V.V.

    1994-12-01

    An accident analysis for a Russian Topaz-2 nuclear reactor is summarized. The accident scenario involves emergency return from orbit, severe damage to reactor structural elements, and subsequent falling of the reactor core into the ocean. The thermionic converter reactor, used in spacecraft, has a large neutron leakage which decreases when water enters the inner core cavity. Preliminary results of numerical modeling, summarized in the article, show that the possible consequences of the hypothetical accidental submersion are limited. 8 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Augmented Computer Exercise for Inspection Training (ACE-IT) - an interactive training tool for {open_quotes}challenge inspections{close_quotes} under the chemical weapons convention

    SciTech Connect

    Dobranich, P.R.

    1997-08-01

    The on-site inspection provisions in many current and proposed arms control agreements require extensive preparation and training on the part of both the Inspection Teams and the Inspected Parties. Current training techniques include lectures, table-top inspections, and practice inspections. The Augmented Computer Exercise for Inspection Training (ACE-IT), an interactive computer training tool, increases the utility of table-top inspections. Under the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) challenge inspections are short-notice inspections that may occur anywhere, anytime, and with no right of refusal. The time interval between notice of intent to inspect a facility and the arrival of inspectors at the facility may be as short as 72 hours. Therefore, advance training is important. ACE-IT is used for training both the Inspection Team (inspector) and the Inspected Party (host) to conduct a hypothetical challenge inspection under the CWC. An exercise moderator controls the exercise. The training covers all of the events in the challenge inspection regime, from initial notification of an inspection through post-inspection activities. But the primary emphasis of the training tool is on conducting the inspection itself, and in particular, the concept of managed access. Managed access is used to assure the inspectors that the facility is in compliance with the CWC, while protecting sensitive information that is not related to the CWC.

  15. The DuPont, Monsanto, General Electric {open_quotes}Lasagna{close_quotes} Remediation Project - joint R&D and financing

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, P.A.

    1995-03-01

    The Lasagna project is the first of what we expect will be several large cooperative projects between industry consortia and government to develop improved remediation technologies. In 1992, Monsanto Company began contacting other major corporations to see if they were experiencing similar difficulties in applying cost-effective, or even workable technologies for industrial site remediation. Both General Electric and DuPont were early participants in the effort to develop a meeting with the EPA to discuss technical problems faced in cleanup, research needs, and ways to accelerate development of more cost-effective techniques. This paper provides some background on how this cooperative process came to reality, what the Lasagna process is and how the cooperative arrangements and financing are structured.

  16. Evidence for an oil-bearing sedimentary basin of probable Miocene age beneath {open_quotes}Silicon Valley,{close_quotes} California

    SciTech Connect

    Standley, R.G.; Jachens, R.C.; Kvenvolden, K.A.

    1996-12-31

    Gravity anomalies, records from historical oil wells, and new organic geochemical results indicate the presence of a concealed sedimentary basin of probable Miocene age beneath a densely populated part of the Santa Clara Valley. A prominent isostatic gravity low extends about 35 km from Palo Alto to near Los Gatos and reflects an asymmetric, northwest-trending sedimentary basin comprising low-density strata that rest on higher-density rocks of the Franciscan Complex. Both gravity and well data show that the low-density rocks thin gradually to the northeast over a distance of about 10 km. The thickest basin fill (about 3 km) occurs along the basin`s steep southwestern margin, which evidently is controlled by northwest-trending, southwest-dipping reverse and thrust faults of the seismically active Berrocal, Shannon, and Monte Vista fault systems. Near surface traces of these faults in Los Gatos, at least 12 wells were drilled between 1891 and 1929 to total depths as great as 840 m. No lithologic or paleontologic samples are available from the wells, but drillers logs indicate thick intervals of brown shale and sandstone resembling nearby outcrops of the Miocene Monterey Formation. Small amounts of oil and gas were encountered in several wells, but no commercial production was established. Oil from a well in Los Gatos is highly biodegraded, contains biomarkers commonly found in oils derived from the Monterey Formation, and yields a stable carbon isotopic ({delta}{sup 13}C{sub PDB}) composition of -23.32{per_thousand}, suggesting derivation from a Miocene source. Oil in mercury ore from the nearby New Almaden mine is slightly biodegraded, thermally altered, and shows a {delta}{sup 13}C PDB value of -24.70{per_thousand}, indicating a source different from that of the Los Gatos oil and perhaps of Miocene or Cretaceous age.

  17. Evidence for an oil-bearing sedimentary basin of probable Miocene age beneath [open quotes]Silicon Valley,[close quotes] California

    SciTech Connect

    Standley, R.G.; Jachens, R.C.; Kvenvolden, K.A. )

    1996-01-01

    Gravity anomalies, records from historical oil wells, and new organic geochemical results indicate the presence of a concealed sedimentary basin of probable Miocene age beneath a densely populated part of the Santa Clara Valley. A prominent isostatic gravity low extends about 35 km from Palo Alto to near Los Gatos and reflects an asymmetric, northwest-trending sedimentary basin comprising low-density strata that rest on higher-density rocks of the Franciscan Complex. Both gravity and well data show that the low-density rocks thin gradually to the northeast over a distance of about 10 km. The thickest basin fill (about 3 km) occurs along the basin's steep southwestern margin, which evidently is controlled by northwest-trending, southwest-dipping reverse and thrust faults of the seismically active Berrocal, Shannon, and Monte Vista fault systems. Near surface traces of these faults in Los Gatos, at least 12 wells were drilled between 1891 and 1929 to total depths as great as 840 m. No lithologic or paleontologic samples are available from the wells, but drillers logs indicate thick intervals of brown shale and sandstone resembling nearby outcrops of the Miocene Monterey Formation. Small amounts of oil and gas were encountered in several wells, but no commercial production was established. Oil from a well in Los Gatos is highly biodegraded, contains biomarkers commonly found in oils derived from the Monterey Formation, and yields a stable carbon isotopic ([delta][sup 13]C[sub PDB]) composition of -23.32[per thousand], suggesting derivation from a Miocene source. Oil in mercury ore from the nearby New Almaden mine is slightly biodegraded, thermally altered, and shows a [delta][sup 13]C PDB value of -24.70[per thousand], indicating a source different from that of the Los Gatos oil and perhaps of Miocene or Cretaceous age.

  18. Detection of {open_quotes}cryptic{close_quotes}karyotypic rearrangements in closely related primate species by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using human subtelomeric DNA probes

    SciTech Connect

    Youngblom, J.J.; Trask, B.J.; Friedman, C.

    1994-09-01

    Specific human subtelomeric DNA probes were used to reveal cryptic chromosomal rearrangements that cannot be detected by conventional high resolution cytogenetic techniques, or by chromosomal in situ suppression hybridization using whole chromosome paint analysis. Two cosmids containing different subtelomeric DNA sequences were derived from human chromosome 19 and designated as 7501 and 16432. Cosmid 7501 was hybridized to chromosomes from humans, chimpanzee, gorilla and orangutan. In humans, 7501 consistently labeled chromosomes 3q, 15q, and 19p. Additional chromosomes were labeled in different individuals, indicating a polymorphic distribution of this sequence in the human genome. In contrast, 7501 consistently and strongly labeled only the q arm terminus of chromosome 3 in both chimp and gorilla. The identification of the chromosome was made by two-color FISH analysis using human chromosome 4-specific paint and homologous to human chromosome 4. None of the human subjects showed labeling of chromosome 4 with 7501. This finding suggests that in the course of human evolution, subsequent to the divergence of humans and African apes, a cryptic translocation occurred between the ancestral human chromosome 4 and one or more of the other human chromosomes that now contain this DNA segment. In orangutan, 7501 labeled a single acrocentric chromosome pair, a distinctly different chromosome than that labeled in chimp and gorilla. Comparison of chromosome sites labeled with cosmid 16432 showed the distribution of signals on chromosome 1q arm is the same for humans and chimp, but different in the gorilla. Humans and chimps show distinct labeling on sites 1q terminus and 1q41-42. In gorilla, there is instead a large cluster of intense signal near the terminus of 1q that clearly does not extend all the way to the terminus. A paracentric inversion or an unequal cross-over event may account for the observed difference between these species.

  19. American National Standard ANSI/ANS-8.6: Safety in conducting subcritical neutron-multiplication measurements {open_quote}In Situ{close_quote}

    SciTech Connect

    McLaughlin, T.P.

    1996-10-01

    Safe and economical operations with fissile materials require knowledge of the subcriticality of configurations that arise in material processing, storage, and transportation. Data from critical experiments have been a principal source of information with which to establish safety margins. However, the lower cost and the expediency of performing confirmatory subcritical measurements on the process floor or in the storage vault resulted in much of the early criticality safety guidance being based on subcritical in situ experiments.

  20. Comment on [open quotes]Weathering, plants, and the long-term carbon cycle[close quotes] by Robert A. Berner

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartzman, D. )

    1993-05-01

    Schwartzman contends that lichens and other microbes may significantly contribute to chemical denudation of exposed rock by their combined physical and chemical activity. Lichens do not generate a thick soil but they do stabilize already existing soil (cryptogamic). Studies on chemical denudation in soil-free alpine terrains may contribute to a better understanding of the microbial role in weathering since lichens and algae are commonly found on bare rock in these settings.

  1. {open_quotes}Black Gold{close_quotes} leads to new structural interpretation, Northern Sangre de Cristo Mountains/Northeast San Luis Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Watkins, T.A.; Belcher, J.S.; Gries, R.

    1995-06-01

    In the course of exploring for gold along the east margin of the Rio Grande Rift (northern Sangre de Cristo Mountains and northeastern San Luis Basin) live Cretaceous oil was discovered in fractured Precambrian gneiss in 25 of 42 shallow drill holes. Geologic mapping located two outcrops of Mesozoic sediments along the west flank of the Sangre de Cristo Mountains. Mancos Shale, Dakota Group and Morrison Formation sediments were identified from 17 drill holes. These are the first known occurrences of Mesozoic sediments in the area. Previous investigations had concluded that the Mesozoic section eroded from the San Luis uplift during the Laramide. Surface and subsurface geologic data was integrated with gravity, magnetic and seismic surveys for a new structural interpretation. The San Luis Basin is separated from the mountains by an intermediate block and the main basin-bounding fault is three miles west-southwest of the mountain front. A major low-angle, normal fault or detachment fault is related to Miocene rifting. A thick section of Mesozoic sediments are interpreted to be present in the hanging wall of this low angle fault. Buried and thermally matured in a Laramide intermountane basin, these sediments are likely the source of the present day oil found in Precambrian rocks.

  2. Nature of plant stimulators in the production of Acetobacter xylinum ({open_quotes}Tea fungas{close_quotes}) biofilm used in skin therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Fontana, J.D.; Franco, V.C.; Lyra, I.N.; De Souza, A.M.; De Souza, S.

    1991-12-31

    Caffeine and related xanthines were identified as potent stimulators for the bacterial cellulose production in A. xylinum. These compounds are present in several plants whose infusions are useful as culture-medium supplements for this acetobacterium. The proposed target for these native purine-like inhibitory substances is the novel diguanyl nucleotide phosphodiesterase(s) that participates in the bacterial cellulogenic complex.

  3. Calculation and classification of the radioactive waste inventory in the structural components of the {open_quotes}IGNITOR{close_quotes} compact ignition torus

    SciTech Connect

    Cepraga, D.G.; Siddiqui, S.A.M.M.; Cambi, G.

    1994-12-31

    The choice of structural material for future fusion plants is based on a multiplicity of considerations. While these materials should possess adequate thermo-mechanical properties they should also satisfy certain criteria with regard to the eventual treatment and disposal of radioactive wastes. From this point of view it is important to have a knowledge of the radioactive inventory produced in the structural materials of a nuclear fusion plant during its operation and the evolution of this radioactivity in time. In this work the authors have calculated the radioactive inventory and decay heat produced in the structural components of the projected fusion plant IGNITOR-ULT due to D-T neutrons produced in the plasma. In particular, the dose rate and the heat production in the following materials have been studied: graphite in the first wall, INCONEL 625 in the vacuum vessel and copper in the magnet. All the results presented are for the outboard plasma components.

  4. QA (Quality Assurance) role in advanced energy activities: Towards an /open quotes/orthodox/close quotes/ Quality Program: Canonizing the traditions at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Bodnarczuk, M.W.

    1988-02-01

    After a brief description of the goal of Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) this paper poses and answers three questions related to Quality Assurance (QA) at the Laboratory. First, what is the difference between 'orthodox' and 'unorthodox' QA and is there a place for 'orthodox' QA at a laboratory like Fermilab. Second, are the deeper philosophical and cultural frameworks of high-energy physics acommodating or antagonistic to an 'orthodox' QA Program. Finally, faced with the task of developing an institutional QA program for Fermilab where does one begin. The paper is based on experience with the on-going development and implementation of an institutional QA Program at Fermilab. 10 refs.

  5. The {open_quotes}ASR{close_quotes} story where we are and how we got there: A history of Sandia National Laboratories maintenance employee safety committee

    SciTech Connect

    1997-08-01

    The Area Safety Representative (ASR) Team is an employee based safety committee that was originated in the latter part of 1994. It was introduced by the Operations and Engineering Center ES&H Coordinator who had heard about an employee based safety program implemented at the EG&G Corporation. This information was the first step in creating Sandia`s Maintenance `Area Safety Representative` (ASR) Program. An advertisement went out from the ES&H Coordinator to all the Maintenance Organizations asking for individuals who would be interested in performing as a volunteer safety representative for their section. The interest was moderate but effective. The committee consisted of one volunteer from each of the working sections within the Maintenance Organization, e.e., HVAC Mechanics, Electricians, Millwrights, Plumbers, Sheetmetal Workers, High-Voltage Technicians, a Union Representative, and representatives from the Operations Group that manage sub-contracted personnel. During the past year, organizational changes have brought about the addition of representatives to include the Planners and the Custodians. The original committee members were enrolled in a 30-hour OSHA Voluntary Compliance Outreach Course. This information provided the members with a broad overview of the Safety Guidelines set forth by OSHA for themselves and their coworkers. It is to be noted that this is an employee based safety team. There are no supervisors or managers on the committee but their attendance is always welcomed at the ASR meetings.

  6. Comments on [open quotes]Detection of climate change in the western North American Arctic using a synoptic climatological approach[close quotes

    SciTech Connect

    Burn, C.R. )

    1993-07-01

    Analyses of records from four stations in interior Yukon and adjacent Alaska concerning changes in synoptic conditions during winter indicate since the late 1940s (1) decreasing frequency of coldest air masses, (2) increasing frequency of mild air masses, and (3) warming of the coldest synoptic types. The stations used in the analyses are in valleys. The frequency analyses refer to the cumulative portion of winter when particular synoptic conditions are experienced at each site. The discussion suggests that since the lowest air temperatures are associated with topographically enhanced inversions, persistence of stable conditions may be required to generate the coldest air temperatures. As a result, the data leading to conclusion 3 may be a product of the changing airmass frequencies with cold air masses displaced more often. Upper-air observations or data from stations in upland locations may not be exhibit such effects to the same extent. 10 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Reply to comments on [open quotes]Detection of climatic change in the western North American Arctic using a synoptic climatological approach[close quotes

    SciTech Connect

    Kalkstein, L.S.; Dunne, P.C.; Ye, H. )

    1993-07-01

    It has been suggested that previous results indicating an increase in surface temperatures over the past 40 years within the coldest air masses at four stations in the western North American Arctic may be attributed to the shorter residence time of these air masses through the time period. if true, this contradicts the original contention that these are masses have undergone physical character changes, possibly attributed to anthropogenic sources, during the period. A reevaluation of the data at two of these stations indicates that a long-term warming is, in fact, taking place even when residence time is kept constant. Thus, it is suggested that changes in the physical character of these very cold air masses are due to factors other than residence time. 4 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  8. {open_quotes}Near field{close_quotes} airborne remote sensing using a laser mapping system on electric transmission line corridor surveys and capacity analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, M.D.; Lynch, O.J.

    1996-11-01

    The ability to reliably and accurately locate and survey objects without physically occupying them is the key to the productivity of the FLI-MAP{trademark} laser mapping system. This advanced technology system incorporates OTF Kinematic GPS, GPS-aided attitude, and a reflectorless laser range-finding sensor into a complete remote sensing survey platform. The FLI-MAP system is a helicopter-based scanning system capable of collecting up to 8000 geo-referenced data points per second. Key parameters of existing electric transmission lines are calculated based upon the geographic data collected by FLI-MAP, meteorological data, and power flow data collected during the survey. The affect on conductor clearances is analyzed under varying conductor temperatures, power flow, and meteorological conditions to determine the ultimate capacity of the existing transmission line. This paper presents the FLI-MAP system, the technologies it exploits, and the use of such a system for electric transmission line corridor surveys and analyses. 4 refs., 5 figs.

  9. {open_quotes}The effects of diabetes on the activity of the enzyme glutamine: fructose-6-phosphate amindotransferase{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, S.P.

    1994-12-31

    Hexsoamine synthetic pathway (HexNSP) controls the supply of essential substrates for glycoprotein synthesis. In vitro studies suggest that increased flux of glucose via the hexsoamine synthetic pathway may play a role in glucose induced insulin resistance of glucose transport. Glutamine: fructose-6-phosphate amindotransferase (GFAT) controls flux into the hexsoamine synthetic pathway; the major products are UDPN-acetylhexosamines (UDP.HexNac=UDP.GlcNAc= UDP.GalNac). I examined whether diabetes ({approximately} 7 days post intravenous streptozotocin, and genetically linked) affects the activity of glutamine: fructose-6-phosphate in rat and mouse skeletal muscle in vivo. Nucleotide linked HexNAc were analyzed by high pressure liquid chromatography(HPLC) in deproteinized hind limb muscle extracts.

  10. Characterization of printing and laser trimming of DuPont 2000 series resistors on DuPont 951 {open_quotes}Green Tape{trademark}{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    Morgenstern, H.; Bandler, S.; Barner, G.

    1996-10-01

    DuPont 2000 series resistors were reviewed and found to come closest to our requirement of 1% resistor tolerance over the expected 30-year life of our products. The evaluation performed involved the characterization of both the printing and trimming processes. The printing process was characterized for firing temperature print thickness, print direction, resistor geometry and encapsulant effect. Laser trimming was characterized by first finding an operating envelope and then selecting an operating point. The envelope was located by varying the trimming parameters and determining their acceptability to electrical and visual criteria. Samples from both the envelope and operating point were environmentally conditioned The conditioning included thermal shock temperature cycle, 1000-hour temperature aging, 1000-hour humidity aging, and a simulated gold/tin solder reflow.

  11. Comment on {open_quotes}QCD fragmentation functions for B{sub c} and B{sub c}{sup {asterisk}} production{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    Ji, C.; Binger, M.; Amiri, F.

    1998-06-01

    For the inclusive production process of heavy pseudoscalar and vector mesons in e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} annihilation, we have improved the analytic calculation of the fragmentation function of heavy quarks up to {tau}{sup 2}ln({tau}{sup 2}) where {tau}{sup 2}=4m{sup 2}/s, m is the meson mass, and s is the square of the total c.m. energy. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

  12. Ferric complexes as catalysts for {open_quotes}Fenton{close_quotes} degradation of 2,4-D and metolachlor in soil

    SciTech Connect

    Pignatello, J.J.; Baehr, K.

    1994-03-01

    Fenton-type reactions of hydrogen peroxide with Fe compounds generate bydroxyl radical (OH{center_dot}) or other reactive species and are potentially useful for degrading organic contaminants in soil. The use of simple Fe salts is limited, however. This study investigated certain pH 6-soluble Fe(III) complexes (Fe-L, where L is an organic tigand) as catalysts for degradation of herbicides 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and metolachlor (2-chloro-N-[2-ethyl 6-methylphenyl]-N-[2-methoxy-l-methylethyl]acetamide). Reactions were carried out in 1:1 aqueous suspensions of a topsoil (15.7 g kg{sup -1} organic C) at the natural pH of 5.7 with herbicides at concentrations representative of a spill (2-3 g kg{sup -1} about 0.01 mol kg{sup -1}). The two herbicides had contrasting sorption behavior in that 2,4-D was mostly in solution, whereas metotachlor was mostly sorbed. The best results were obtained using Fe-nitrilotriscetate (NTA) or Fe-hydroxyethyleniminodiacetate (HEIDA) at 0.01 mol kg-{sup -1} and [H{sub 2}O{sub 2}]{ge} 0.5 mol kg{sup -1}. The gallic acid complex was less effective. In 3 h,{sup 14}C-labeled 2,4-D was quantitatively dechlorinated and partially (15-30%) converted to {sup 14}CO{sub 2}: metolachlor was 93% transformed and 29% dechlorinated. Controls using free ligand plus peroxide or peroxide alone gave little or no reaction. Fe-L + H{sub 2}O{sub 2} was superior to the Fenton reagent itself (Fe{sup 2+} + H{sub 2}O{sub 2}). The results of this study demonstrate that relatively mild chemical oxidation can be effective for remediation of certain contaminants in soil 23 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs.

  13. [2 + 2 + 2]Cycloadditions of alkynes to furans and thiophenes. A cobalt-mediated [open quotes]enol ether walk[close quotes

    SciTech Connect

    Boese, R. ); Harvey, D.F.; Malaska, M.J.; Vollhardt, K.P.C. )

    1994-11-30

    Involvement of the 2,3-double bond of furan and thiophene in cycloadditions is relatively uncommon, usually limited to specific substrates or by special conditions. Our finding that indoles, pyrroles, imidazoles, and uracils can be activated by CpCo to undergo cocyclizations with alkynes suggested an extension of these efforts to the title heterocycles, in particular because the latter constitute new brackets for the degree of aromaticity (furan lowest, thiophene highest) that is subject to neutralization in these reactions and because the anticipated enol (thio)ether products exhibit potential synthetic utility. This study demonstrates that the cobalt-mediated [2 + 2 + 2] methodology can be extended to furans and thiophenes but that in these, and possibly generally in related heteroalkenes, the generation of potential dienylic leaving groups in the resulting CpCo diene product may cause rearrangements and that formal C-H activations may complicate the outcome of the reaction. The observation that the relatively highly aromatic thiophene nucleus functions as a cocyclization partner points the way to a number of even more challenging substrates in this process. 20 refs.

  14. Plant and environment interactions: Growth and yield response of commercial bearing-age {open_quote}Casselman{close_quote} plum trees to various ozone partial pressures

    SciTech Connect

    Retzlaff, W.A.; Williams, L.E.; DeJong, T.M.

    1997-05-01

    Nursery stock of plum (Prunus salicina Lindel., cv. Casselman) was planted 1 Apr. 1988 in an experimental orchard at the Univ. of California Kearney Agricultural Center near Fresno, CA. Trees in this study were enclosed in open-top fumigation chambers on 1 May 1989, and exposed to three atmospheric ozone partial pressures (charcoal filtered air, ambient air, and ambient air + ozone) during the 1989 through 1992 growing seasons (typically 1 Apr. - 1 Nov.). A nonchamber treatment plot was used to assess chamber effects on tree performance. This study details the results of the exposures during the initial commercial bearing period (1991 through 1993) in this orchard. The mean 12-h (0800-2000 h Pacific Daylight Time [PDT]) ozone partial pressures during the experimental periods in the charcoal filtered, ambient, ambient + ozone, and nonchamber treatments averaged 0.031, 0.048, 0.091, and 0.056 {mu}Pa Pa{sup {minus}1} in 1991 and 1992, respectively. Fruit number per tree decreased as atmospheric ozone partial pressure increased from the charcoal filtered to ambient + ozone treatment, significantly affecting yield. Yield of plum trees averaged 23.6, 19.8, 13.7, and 17.9 kg tree{sup {minus}1} in 1991 and 1992 in the charcoal filtered, ambient, ambient + ozone, and nonchamber treatments, respectively. Only one out of the five original treatment plots was exposed to ozone treatments during the 1993 growing season. Yield of plum trees in this single replicate in 1993 was reduced by increased atmospheric ozone partial pressure. Yield of plum trees in the four remaining unexposed treatment plots in 1993 was 16.7, 17.9, and 16.0 kg tree{sup {minus}1} in the previous charcoal filtered, ambient, and ambient + ozone treatments respectively. The similarity in yield of the post-chamber treatments indicates that a change in air quality in the current growing season can affect yield of Casselman plum trees. 26 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  15. [open quotes]Bucketfoot Al[close quotes] Simmons and the extremes of independent power. [The financial effects of purchasing indepedent power by utilites

    SciTech Connect

    Hart, L.

    1993-11-01

    This article analyzes the financial risks to utilities for purchasing power from independents. The conclusion of the author is that purchasing of power should not be considered a debt obligation, nor is it entirely risk free. Purchasing is, however, less risky than building. Utilities should be provided with financial incentives for purchasing independent power, such as an incremental return on equity, a formulaic higher component of equity, some combination of the two, or even an incentive fee successful power purchasing.

  16. Conference on the topic: {open_quotes}Exploration and production of petroleum and gas from chalk reservoirs worldwide{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    Kuznetsov, V.G.

    1995-07-01

    More than 170 delegates from 14 countries in Europe, North America, Africa, and Asia took part in a conference on the topic: Exploration and Production of Petroleum and Gas from Chalk Reservoirs Worldwide. The conference was held in Copenhagen, Denmark in September,1994, and was a joint meeting of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG), and the European Association of Petroleum Geoscientists and Engineers (EAPG). In addition to the opening remarks, 25 oral and nine poster reports were presented. The topics included chalk deposits as reservoir rocks, the occurrence of chalk deposits worldwide, the North Sea oil and gas fields, and other related topics.

  17. Comment on {open_quotes}Experimental Fusion Barrier Distributions Reflecting Projectile Octupole State Coupling to Prolate and Oblate Target Nuclei{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    Dasso, C.H.; Dasso, C.H.; Fernandez-Niello, J.

    1997-05-01

    The authors comment on the Letter by J.D. Bierman et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 1587(1996), and show the method by which they have been constructed is not the most appropriate. A Comment on the Letter by J.D. Bierman, {ital et al. }, Phys.Rev.Lett.{bold 76}, 1587 (1996). The authors of the Letter offer a Reply. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  18. {open_quotes}What you don`t know can`t hurt you{close_quotes}: The right to know and the Shetland Island oil spill

    SciTech Connect

    Button, G.V.

    1995-06-01

    This paper, an account of the Shetlands Islands oil spill (1993), examines the public health controversies surrounding the spill and the clean-up response. It critically examines the risk management policies of both the United Kingdom and the Shetland Islands Public Health Office, and suggests that the withholding of critical information contributed to increased anxiety and suspicion among the disaster victims. In an attempt to reassure the victims, the policies contributed to an increased air of uncertainty. It is further argued with the withholding of information prevents those who are at greatest risk from participating in critical decisions that may affect their health and livelihoods and asserts that a right-to-know policy is a critical first step in risk management practices.

  19. Sequential {open_quotes}double-Michael{close_quotes} additions of dienolates with C{sub 60}: Rapid access to sterically congested Buckminsterfullerene derivatives with defined stereochemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Ganapathi, P.S.; Rubin, Y.; Friedman, S.H.; Kenyon, G.L.

    1995-05-19

    This article focuses on the success of establishing an easy method for the synthesis of sterically crowded fullerene derivatives. The target molecule diastereomeric alcohol 1 was readily available and will allow for the testing of the inhibition of HIV-1 protease. 11 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  20. Comment on William C. Metz' [open quotes]Potential Impacts of Nuclear Activities on Local Economics: Rethinking the Issue[close quotes

    SciTech Connect

    Erikson, K. )

    1994-10-01

    This commentary examines points not presented in the paper Potential Impacts of Nuclear Activities on Local Economics: Rethinking the Issue', in particular why people don't move away from locations they see as dangerous. Reasons suggested by the author include: they do not feel they can; they feel that the fiscal and emotional costs of relocating will only place them within range of another peril; People feel that they knew less when they moved near the location that they know now about the risks. 1 ref.

  1. Summary evaluation of the video, {open_quotes}Transportation of radioactive and hazardous materials: Safety for all concerned{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    Monroe, M.C.; Young, C.F.

    1993-07-01

    Outreach materials are often developed and distributed without evaluation of their effectiveness. This report provides a glimpse of the effectiveness of one of the US Department of Energy`s videos on transportation of radioactive and hazardous materials. Data from a survey developed by Modern Talking Picture Service, Inc. are summarized. This survey was sent to recipients of the video at three to six weeks after they had received and viewed the video. The response rate is unknown; hence, the results suggest the range of perspectives on the video, rather than the representativeness of those perspectives. The results are also limited by incomplete responses to the survey. Most respondents were middle school and high school teachers who resided throughout the country. Respondents used the video in nearly all school subjects. Most respondents indicated that the video was fairly good and appreciated the factual information, although some saw it as propaganda. Respondents indicated that they would like additional information on hazardous wastes, nuclear power, and transportation. The test crashes were mentioned as a highlight of the video. Recommendations for revising the video and survey are included.

  2. A progress report on the LDRD project entitled {open_quotes}Microelectronic silicon-based chemical sensors: Ultradetection of high value molecules{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, R.C.

    1996-09-01

    This work addresses a new kind of silicon based chemical sensor that combines the reliability and stability of silicon microelectronic field effect devices with the highly selective and sensitive immunoassay. The sensor works on the principle that thin SiN layers on lightly doped Si can detect pH changes rapidly and reversibly. The pH changes affect the surface potential, and that can be quickly determined by pulsed photovoltage measurements. To detect other species, chemically sensitive films were deposited on the SiN where the presence of the chosen analyte results in pH changes through chemical reactions. A invention of a cell sorting device based on these principles is also described. A new method of immobilizing enzymes using Sandia`s sol-gel glasses is documented and biosensors based on the silicon wafer and an amperometric technique are detailed.

  3. Comment on {open_quotes}Stopping power of nonmonochromatic heavy-ion clusters with two-ion correlation effects{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    Tkachenko, I.M.; Munoz-Cobo, J.L.; Munoz, A.

    1997-11-01

    We reconsider the results of Lontano and Raimondi [Phys. Rev. E {bold 51}, R2755 (1995)] within the full random-phase approximation. We show that the correlation and also velocity dispersion of the cluster ions enhance and reduce the stopping power, respectively. Nevertheless, the enhancement of energy losses due to ionic correlation is much stronger than that obtained by Lontano and Raimondi, and furthermore, the projectile velocity dependence of the stopping power is strictly monotonic, presenting no oscillations. We also did not obtain negative values for the cluster stopping power, as did Lontano and Raimondi. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  4. Introductory remarks for the international high-level radioactive waste conference technical session on {open_quote}site characterization: Approaches, concepts, concerns{close_quote}

    SciTech Connect

    Justus, P.S.; Stockey, J.R.

    1992-12-31

    Site characterization is proceeding at high-level radioactive waste (HLW) respository sites around the world. The creative approaches used and the lessons learned from such activities are of potential benefit to all nations involved in the safe disposal of HLW, regardless of the particular geological and hydrological conditions being investigated. This technical session brings together workers from several countries who will report on site characterization status, approaches and concerns. It is a privilege and pleasure for us to facilitate the dissemination and discussion of information on international site characterization activities.

  5. Rolling and slipping down Galileo{close_quote}s inclined plane: Rhythms of the spheres

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, F.S.

    1996-05-01

    In ``Two New Sciences`` (TNS) Galileo presents a number of theorems and propositions for smooth solid spheres released from rest and rolling a distance {ital d} in time {ital t} down an incline of height {ital H} and length {ital L}. We collect and summarize his results in a single grand proportionality {ital P}: {ital d}{sub 1}/{ital d}{sub 2}=({ital t}{sup 2}{sub 1}/{ital t}{sup 2}{sub 2})({ital H}/{ital L}){sub 1}/({ital H}/{ital L}){sub 2}. ({ital P}) From TNS it is clear that what we call {ital P} is assumed by Galileo to hold for all inclinations including vertical free fall with {ital H}/{ital L}=1. But in TNS he describes only experiments with gentle inclinations {ital H}/{ital L}{lt}1/2. Indeed he cannot have performed the vertical free fall ({ital H}={ital L}) experiment, because we (moderns) know that as we increase {ital H}/{ital L}, {ital P} starts to break down when {ital H}/{ital L} exceeds about 0.5, because the sphere, which rolls without slipping for small {ital H}/{ital L}, starts to slip, whence {ital d} starts to exceed the predictions of {ital P}, becoming too large by a factor of 7/5 for vertical free fall at {ital H}/{ital L}=1. In 1973 Drake and in 1975 Drake and MacLachlan published their analysis of a previously unpublished experiment that Galileo performed that (without his realizing it) directly compared rolling without slipping to free fall. In the experiment, a sphere that has gained speed {ital v}{sub 1} while rolling down a gentle incline is deflected so as to be launched horizontally with speed {ital v}{sub 1} into a free fall orbit discovered by Galileo to be a parabola. The measured horizontal distance {ital X}{sub 2} traveled in this parabolic orbit (for a given vertical distance fallen to the floor) was smaller than he expected, by a factor 0.84. But that is exactly what we (moderns) expect, since we know that Galileo did not appreciate the difference between rolling without slipping, and slipping on a frictionless surface.

  6. How endoreversible thermodynamics relates to Onsager{close_quote}s nonequilibrium thermodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Verhas, J.; De Vos, A.

    1997-07-01

    Using the well explored endoreversible heat engine as an example, this article shows how an endoreversible model fits the general framework of nonlinear nonequilibrium thermodynamics. The heuristic power of endoreversible thermodynamics is stressed. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  7. Brush up Your Dewey... Start Quoting Him Now, or John Dewey for Teaching Artists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Judith

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author provides five reasons why teachers should care about John Dewey. John Dewey was an "American Pragmatist philosopher, educator, reformer." Dewey lived a long and amazingly productive life, spanning the turn of the 20th century, from 1859-1952. In addition to lots of writing, he taught at the University of Chicago (where…

  8. {degrees}SnapPea{close_quotes} OS/2 Warp graphical user interface for hyperbolic 3-manifolds

    SciTech Connect

    Manoharan, A.C.; Weeks, J.

    1996-12-31

    An interactive color graphical user interface, with animation, has been developed to port SnapPea to the OS/2 Warp Personal Computer (IBM type PC) platform. This fulfills the interest to use an Intel microprocessor based computer to study the geometry and topology of three-dimensional hyperbolic manifolds and to perform mathematical computations with them. Hitherto the program was available only on Macintosh computers. The OS/2 operating system kernel program has for many years supported long file names, had multithreading, pre-emptive multitasking an built in crash-protection. There is also a full 32-bit graphics engine. Already, there is much interest in this product. The software is expected soon to be available to mathematicians around the world, to use in their research. A demonstration was given at the conference.

  9. Incredible Quotations: 230 Thought-Provoking Quotes with Prompts To Spark Students' Writing, Thinking, and Discussion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweeney, Jacqueline

    Noting that hearing and reading the words of real people can personalize for students the study of social studies, language arts, and science, this book presents 230 quotations and prompts to enrich curricula and themes in grades 4 through 8. After an introduction and advice on using quotations in the classroom, quotations and prompts in the book…

  10. Blogs and Twitter in medical publications: too unreliable to quote, or a change waiting to happen?

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Pranab; Biswas, Tamoghna

    2011-10-01

    With the ubiquitous connectivity offered by the Internet, social media sites (like Twitter and Facebook) and personal publishing platforms (blogs) are proliferating rapidly. In this new, evolving scenario of social media, these tools become an important medium to disseminate information at a lightning speed. However, the conventional medical publication model is less than eager to regard them as equivalent to traditional modes of information dissemination. In this article we examine the role played by social media as a critic of the medical publication system, and how it acts as a safeguard by building a platform for post-publication peer review. PMID:22272866

  11. More than just great quotes: An introduction to the Canadian Tri-Council’s qualitative requirements

    PubMed Central

    Boffa, Jody; Moules, Nancy; Mayan, Maria; Cowie, Robert L

    2013-01-01

    Although at times misunderstood by the general research community, qualitative research has developed out of diverse, rich and complex philosophical traditions and theoretical paradigms. In the most recent Canadian Tri-Council policy statement on the ethical conduct of research involving humans, a chapter was devoted to a summary of methods and methodological requirements that characterize robust qualitative research, despite the diversity of approaches. To dispel common misperceptions about qualitative research and introduce the unfamiliar reader to these requirements, the work of a qualitative study on isoniazid preventive therapy for prophylaxis of tuberculosis published in AIDS is critiqued alongside each of the Tri-Council’s nine requirements. PMID:24421811

  12. Ulysses{close_quote} rapid crossing of the polar coronal hole boundary

    SciTech Connect

    McComas, D.J.; Riley, P.; Gosling, J.T.; Balogh, A.; Forsyth, R.

    1998-02-01

    The Ulysses spacecraft crossed from the slow dense solar wind characteristic of the solar streamer belt into the fast, less dense flow from the northern polar coronal hole over a very short interval (several days) in late March 1995. The spacecraft, which was at 1.35 AU and {approximately}19{degree} north heliographic latitude, moving northward in its orbit, remained in the fast solar wind from then through summer 1996. This boundary crossing is unique in that the combination of the spacecraft motion and rotation of the structure past the spacecraft caused Ulysses to move smoothly and completely from one regime into the other. In this study we examine this crossing in detail. The crossing is marked by a region of enhanced pressure, typical of stream interaction regions, which extends {approximately}2{times}10{sup 7}km across. We find that the transition between the slow and fast regimes occurs on several temporal, and hence spatial, scales. On the shortest scale ({lt}8{times}10{sup 4}km) the stream interface is a tangential discontinuity where the proton and core electron densities and ion and electron pressures all drop while the magnetic pressure jumps to maintain a rough pressure balance. The alpha to proton ratio also jumps across the stream interface to reach the comparatively constant polar hole value of {approximately}4.3{percent}. On larger scales (a few {times}10{sup 6}km) the proton and alpha temperatures rise to their high-speed wind values. Finally, on the largest scale ({approximately}10{sup 8}km) the solar wind speed ramps up from {approximately}400kms{sup {minus}1} to {approximately}750kms{sup {minus}1}, typical of polar hole flows. While it seems likely that the stream interface maps back to a sharp boundary near the Sun, the large region of increasing flow speed suggests that there is also an extended gradient in solar wind source speed close to the Sun. {copyright} 1998 American Geophysical Union

  13. Measurements of the Solar Neutrino Flux from Super-Kamiokande{close_quote}s First 300 Days

    SciTech Connect

    Fukuda, Y.; Hayakawa, T.; Ichihara, E.; Inoue, K.; Ishihara, K.; Ishino, H.; Itow, Y.; Kajita, T.; Kameda, J.; Kasuga, S.; Kobayashi, K.; Kobayashi, Y.; Koshio, Y.; Martens, K.; Miura, M.; Nakahata, M.; Nakayama, S.; Okada, A.; Oketa, M.; Okumura, K.; Ota, M.; Sakurai, N.; Shiozawa, M.; Suzuki, Y.; Takeuchi, Y.; Totsuka, Y.; Yamada, S.; Earl, M.; Habig, A.; Hong, J.T.; Kearns, E.; Kim, S.B.; Masuzawa, M.; Messier, M.D.; Scholberg, K.; Stone, J.L.; Sulak, L.R.; Walter, C.W.; Goldhaber, M.; Barszczak, T.; Gajewski, W.; Halverson, P.G.; Hsu, J.; Kropp, W.R.; Price, L.R.; Reines, F.; Sobel, H.W.; Vagins, M.R.; Haines, T.J.; Kielczewska, D.; Ganezer, K.S.; Keig, W.E.; Ellsworth, R.W.; Tasaka, S.; Flanagan, J.W.; Kibayashi, A.; Learned, J.G.; Matsuno, S.; Stenger, V.; Takemori, D.; Ishii, T.; Kanzaki, J.; Kobayashi, T.; Nakamura, K.; Nishikawa, K.; Oyama, Y.; Sakai, A.; Sakuda, M.; Sasaki, O.; Echigo, S.; Kohama, M.; Suzuki, A.T.; Haines, T.J.

    1998-08-01

    The first results of the solar neutrino flux measurement from Super-Kamiokande are presented. The results shown here are obtained from data taken between 31 May 1996, and 23 June 1997. Using our measurement of recoil electrons with energies above 6.5thinspthinspMeV, we infer the total flux of {sup 8}B solar neutrinos to be 2.42{plus_minus}0.06(stat){sup +0.10}{sub {minus}0.07}(syst){times}10{sup 6} thinspcm{sup {minus}2}thinsp s{sup {minus}1} . This result is consistent with the Kamiokande measurement and is 36{percent} of the flux predicted by the BP95 solar model. The flux is also measured in 1.5 month subsets and shown to be consistent with a constant rate. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society }

  14. "Hey, I Didn't Say That!": Teaching Textual Integrity through Misrepresented Quotes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Jessica L.

    2015-01-01

    Despite specialized areas of expertise, communication instructors are unified, to a large extent, by a singular belief: the meaning people give words produces behavioral ramifications (Mead, 2009). Communication instructors revere language's ability to reflect both meaning and reality. Yet, they also are tasked with the responsibility of conveying…

  15. The New Broom: A Fiction for Our Times with True Quotes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neill, Arthur

    2015-01-01

    This article spins a yarn about the appointment of António Coimbra, the first vice-chancellor of an Australian university, who came from Portugal, well-equipped for the job. Described is his approach to this new role and his unusual way of handling the unexpected task of a vice-chancellor.

  16. Julio Cortázar quotes on normal and abnormal movements: magical realism or reality?

    PubMed

    Merello, Marcelo

    2006-08-01

    Together with Mario Vargas Llosa and Gabriel García Márquez, Julio Cortázar was one of the most representative authors of the Latin American magical realism genre. Within his extensive body of work, many descriptions of characters suffering physical disabilities, as well as situations suggesting such medical conditions, can be extracted. In this review, two short stories by Cortázar are presented. In the first one, the main character could easily be a man suffering from corticobasal degeneration; in the second, an old woman with symptoms suggestive of progressive supranuclear palsy is clearly depicted. Despite the fact that one of the main ingredients in Cortázar's magical realism is fiction, cases described here fit real medical conditions quite well, making it hard to believe that they represent purely fantastic descriptions rather than the product of Cortázar's inquisitive observation and the description of real patients. PMID:16685680

  17. {sup 237}Np in Hemp-palm leaves of Bontenchiku for fishing gear used by the Fifth Fukuryu-Maru: 40 year after {open_quotes}Bravo{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, Masayoshi; Komura, Kazuhisa; Ueno, Kaoru

    1996-05-01

    The alpha radioactive components in the Hemp-palm leaves of Bontenchiku were determined with emphasis on the measurement of low-level {sup 237}Np by alpha-ray spectrometry after chemical separation. Bontenchiku is a kind of fishing gear for long-line fishing used by the Fifth Fukuryu-Maru (Lucky Dragon). This gear was exposed to fallout from the second thermonuclear test explosion (Bravo) at Bikini Atoll in March 1954. The {sup 237}Np content in the Bontenchiku sample was determined to be 11.5 {plus_minus}0.8 mBq g{sup {minus}1} with an activity ratio of {sup 237}Np: {sup 239,240}Pu and an atom ratio of {sup 237}Np: {sup 239}Pu estimated to be (2.2 {plus_minus}0.2) x 10{sup {minus}3} and 0.42 {plus_minus}0.04, respectively. The data showed the existence of a chain reaction of {sup 238}U and its ratio to be {sup 237}Np: {sup 239}Pu, as well as the presence of {sup 237}U at the time of fallout from Bravo event in March 1954. 12 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Measuring hydrocarbon contaminants on the seafloor: In-situ hyperspectral UV-imaging spectrometer for rapid mapping of hydrocarbon {open_quotes}hot spots{close_quotes} in bottom sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Rhoads, D.C.

    1995-08-01

    There is a need for high-search-rate sensors to rapidly screen sediment quality over large areas of the seafloor, lakes, or river bottoms. Applications include screening of prospective dredging sites, monitoring of disposal areas and oil spills, and evaluation of the success of Superfund remediation technologies. The REMOTS (remote ecological monitoring of the seafloor) spectrometer will enable near-real-time field measurements and identification of contaninant hot spots while a field survey is in progress. The source of the contaminants may be inferred by relating imaged fluorescence emissin patterns to conventional-color images of sedimentary bottom structures as viewed in vertical profile such as dredged-material layers, sewage layers, oil globules, and biogenic features. The resulting reconnaissance maps, in GIS format, are intended to be used to select a subset of hot stations for traditional chemical analysis. Software is being developed to collect, store, and analyze the data in near real time.

  19. Does C-C bonding proceed during exposure of adequate metal surfaces to CH{sub 4}? Reply to {open_quotes}Comment by Z. Hlavathy, Z. Paal, and P. Tetenyi{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    Amaraiglio, A.; Pareja, P.; Amariglio, H.

    1997-02-01

    The comments, results, and reflections presented by Hlavathy and co-workers in their Letter aim at demonstrating that C-C bonding between CH{sub x} adspecies, formed upon exposure of Pt to CH{sub 4}, can proceed as well during the exposure itself as during further exposure to H{sub 2}. This possibility was implicitly put forward because they thought that a tight parallelism exists between the interactions of CH{sub 4} and CO with a metal surface, provided that the exposure to CH{sub 4} is carried out at a high enough temperature (450{degrees}C). In both cases these authors assumed that three kinds of carbon, C{sub {alpha}}, C{sub {beta}}, and C{sub {gamma}}, can be formed, C{sub {alpha}} being the main species responsible for the production of CH{sub 4} and of the C{sub 2}, alkanes obtained when the metal was further contacted with H{sub 2} at 100{degrees}C. As they argued that C{sub {alpha}} (also named carbidic carbon) has only metal atoms in its first coordination shell, they were implicitly led it that C-C bonding must take place during the hydrogenation step. The authors have not denied this possibility, but they have suggested that different situations can result from exposures to CH{sub 4} conducted at temperatures much lower than those used by Koerts et al.. 13 refs.

  20. Mitigation of atmospheric carbon emissions through increased energy efficiency versus increased non-carbon energy sources: A trade study using a simplified {open_quotes}market-free{close_quotes} exogenously driven model

    SciTech Connect

    Krakowski, R.A.

    1997-08-24

    A simplified model of global, long-term energy use is described and used to make a `top-level` comparison of two generic approaches for mitigating atmospheric carbon emissions: (a) those based on increased energy efficiency; and (b) those based on increased use of reduced- or non-carbon fuels. As approximate as is the model, first-order estimates of and trade offs between increasing non-carbon generation capacities (e.g., supply-side solutions) versus energy-use efficiency (e.g., demand-side solutions) to stem atmospheric carbon accumulations can be useful in guiding more elaborate models. At the level of this analysis, both the costs of abatement and the costs of damage can be large, with the formation of benefit-to-cost ratios as a means of assessment being limited by uncertainties associated with relating given climatic responses to greenhouse warming to aggregate damage cost, as well as uncertainties associated with procedures used for multi-generation discounting of both abatement and damage costs. In view of uncertainties associated with both supply-side and demand-side approaches, as well as the estimation of greenhouse-warming responses per se, a combination of solutions seems prudent. Key findings are: (a) the relative insensitivity of the benefit-to-cost ratio adopted in this study to supply-side versus demand-side approaches to abating atmospheric carbon-dioxide emissions; (b) the extreme sensitivity of damage costs, abatement costs, and the related benefit-to-cost ratios to the combination of discounting procedure and the (time) concavity of the function used to relate global temperature rise to damage costs; and (c) no matter the discounting procedure and/or functional relationship between average temperature rise and a damage cost, a goal of increased per-capita gross world product at minimum damage suggests action now rather than delay.

  1. Equation of state and electrical conductivity of {open_quotes}synthetic Uranus,{close_quotes} a mixture of water, ammonia, and isopropanol, at shock pressure up to 200 GPa (2 Mbar)

    SciTech Connect

    Nellis, W.J.; Holmes, N.C.; Mitchell, A.C.; Hamilton, D.C.; Nicol, M.

    1997-12-01

    Equation-of-state, temperature, and electrical-conductivity data were measured for a solution of water, ammonia, and isopropanol at shock pressures up to 200 GPa. The chemical composition is similar to that of the fluid mixture thought to be the major constituent of the giant planets Uranus and Neptune. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  2. The efficacy of the table-top or {open_quote}white paper{close_quote} approach to emergency response planning of drills and exercises is examined for process improvement

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, D.N.; Wesley, T.H.

    1995-11-01

    This paper examines the development of a set of procedures for the use by Radiological Assistance Program (RAP) Team, Region 6 with particular emphasis to the steps used and the feedback provided by peer review, external review, and exercise and drill critiques. This paper also presents a brief history of the RAP and recommends Total Quality Management techniques reduce the costs associated with procedure development.

  3. A familial {open_quotes}balanced{close_quotes} 3;9 translocation with cryptic 8q insertion leading to deletion and duplication of 9p23 loci in siblings

    SciTech Connect

    Wagstaff, J.; Hemann, M.

    1994-09-01

    Families in which a balanced translocation has been transmitted from a normal parent to a child with a phenotypic abnormality have been a longstanding puzzle for human geneticists. A child with phenotypic features of the 9p- syndrome, including metopic craniosynostosis, small ears, abdominal wall defect, and mental retardation, was found to have a cytogenetically balanced 3;9 translocation, with breakpoints at 3p11 and 9p23, inherited from his normal father. He also exhibited marked hypopigmentation of hair and skin. Analysis with a cDNA probe from the TYRP1 (tyrosinase-related protein 1) gene in 9p23 showed heterozygous deletion in the child but in neither parent. This submicroscopic deletion also included loci D9S157, D9S274, D9S268, and D9S267. FISH analysis of the proband`s father indicated the 9p23 loci deleted in his son were present on neither the der(3) nor the der(9) translocation product, but had been inserted into the long arm of chromosome 8. Therefore, the apparent deletion of these loci in the proband was the result of meiotic segregation of the father`s 3;9 translocation chromosomes together with his normal chromosome 8. Neither the deletion from the translocation chromosomes nor the insertion into 8q was detectable by standard chromosome banding techniques. The proband`s sister exhibited speech delay, mild facial dysmorphism, and renal malformation, and her karyotype was 46,XX. Molecular analysis of this sister showed 3 copies of 9p23 sequences, indicating that she had inherited normal chromosomes 3 and 9 from her father as well as the chromosome 8 with the insertion from 9p23. This analysis illustrates a new mechanism to explain cases of phenotypic discordance in familial balanced translocations: submicroscopic deletion of material from the translocation breakpoint and insertion into a third chromosome in the balanced parent, with meiotic segregation leading to loss of the inserted material in the child.

  4. A familial {open_quotes}balanced{close_quotes} 3;9 translocation with cryptic 8q insertion leading to deletion and duplication of 9p23 loci in siblings

    SciTech Connect

    Wagstaff, J.; Hemann, M.

    1995-01-01

    A child with phenotypic features of the 9p{sup {minus}} syndrome, including metopic craniosynostosis, small ears, abdominal wall defect, and mental retardation, as well as hypopigmentation, was found to have a cytogenetically balanced 3;9 translocation, with breakpoints at 3p11 and 9p23, inherited from his phenotypically normal father. Molecular analysis showed heterozygous deletion of the TYRP (tyrosinase-related protein) locus, as well as loci D9S157, D9S274, D9S268, and D9S267, in the child but in neither parent. FISH analysis of the proband`s father indicated that loci deleted in his son, including TYRP, were present on neither the der(3) nor the der(9) translocation products but had been inserted into the long arm of chromosome 8. Therefore, the apparent deletion of these loci in the proband was the result of meiotic segregation of the father`s 3;9 translocation chromosomes together with his normal chromosome 8 (not bearing the insertion from 9p23). Neither the deletion of these 9p23 loci from the translocation chromosomes nor their insertion into 8q was detectable by standard chromosome banding techniques. The proband`s sister exhibited speech delay, mild facial dysmorphism, and renal malformation, and her karyotype was 46,XX. Molecular analysis showed that she had inherited normal chromosomes 3 and 9, as well as the chromosome 8 with the insertion of 9p23 material, from her father. This analysis illustrates a new mechanism to explain cases in which an apparently balanced translocation has been transmitted from a normal parent to a child with a phenotypic abnormality: submicroscopic deletion of material from the translocation breakpoint and insertion into a third chromosome in the balanced parent, with meiotic segregation leading to loss of the inserted material in the child. 36 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Cationic substitutions in the [open quotes]2201-1201[close quotes] intergrowth HgTl[sub 2]Ba[sub 4]Cu[sub 2]O[sub 10

    SciTech Connect

    Goutenoire, F.; Hervieu, M.; Martin, C.; Maignan, A.; Michel, C.; Letouze, F.; Raveau, B. )

    1994-10-01

    The study of the substitution of strontium for barium and of mercury for thallium in the cuprate HgTl[sub 2]Ba[sub 4]Cu[sub 2]O[sub 10] has allowed two solid solutions to be synthesized, HgTl[sub 2]Ba[sub 4-x]Sr[sub x]Cu[sub 2]O[sub 10] with 0 [le] x [le] 1.5 and Hg[sub 1+y]Tl[sub 2-y]Ba[sub 4]Cu[sub 2]O[sub 10+[delta

  6. US Geological Survey Committee for the Advancement of Science in the Yucca Mountain Project symposium on {open_quotes}Fractures, Hydrology, and Yucca Mountain{close_quotes}: Abstracts and summary

    SciTech Connect

    Gomberg, J.

    1991-12-31

    The principal objective of this symposium is to review the available information on fractured/faulted terrains in terms of a coherent hydrogeologic model of ground-water fluid flow and transport, particularly as it pertains to the Yucca Mountain region. This review addresses the influence and significance of fractures on ground-water flow and the transport of conservative-species solutes within the context of the hydrogeologic setting of the Yucca Mountain area. The relations between fluid flow and fractured or faulted host rock are examined integrally from information on geologic, seismologic, hydrologic, and geomechanical properties of the system. The development of new hydrogeologic approaches that incorporate information from this integrated database are contrasted with more standard approaches toward understanding flow in fractured reservoirs. Ground-water flow in both the unsaturated zone and the saturated zone are considered. The application of various models of flow is addressed, examples include porous-media equivalent and discontinuum fracture-network models. Data and interpretations from the Yucca Mountain area are presented to establish a context for information exchange. The symposium includes discussions relevant to technical considerations for characterizing the Yucca Mountain area hydrogeology. On the basis of these discussions, CASY has compiled this document in order to formally summarize the proceedings and communicate recommendations for future directions of research and investigation.

  7. Computers and small satellites: How FORTE is utilizing the WWW as a {open_quotes}paperless{close_quotes} information resource and the development of a unique resource management planning tool

    SciTech Connect

    Roussel-Dupre, D.; Carter, M.; Franz, R.

    1997-10-01

    The Fast-On-orbit Recording of Transient Events (FORTE) satellite is the second satellite to be developed and flown by Los Alamos National Laboratory and is scheduled to be launched August, 1997 by a Pegasus XL rocket. FORTE follows in the footsteps of the ALEXIS satellite in utilizing a very small operations crew for mission operations. Partially based upon the ALEXIS automation and World Wide Web (WWW) usage for data dissemination, FORTE began at an early stage of ground processing to use the web as a repository of information about all aspects of the satellite. Detailed descriptions of the various satellite and experiment components, cable diagrams, integration photographs as well as extensive test data have all been compiled into a single site as a means of archiving the data at a single location. In this manner, it is readily available during times of ground testing, ground station operation training as well as anomaly resolution. Small satellites usually require extensive effort to optimize operation under minimal resources. For the FORTE satellite, a unique planning tool has been developed over the past 2 years which balances the various resources of the satellite (power, memory, downlink, on board command buffer, etc.) to provide the maximum data acquisition. This paper will concentrate on a description of both the extensive web interface and the planning tool. 6 refs.

  8. Continued support of {open_quotes}The Natural Resources Information System (NRIS) for the State of Oklahoma{close_quotes}. Quarterly technical progress report, October 1, 1993--December 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Mankin, C.J.; Rizzuti, T.P.

    1993-12-31

    The objective of this research program is to continue developing, editing, maintaining, utilizing and making publicly available the Oil and Gas Well History file portion of the Natural Resources Information System (NRIS) for the State of Oklahoma. This grant funds that ongoing development work as a continuation of earlier grant numbers DE-FG19-88BC14233 and DE-FG22-89BC14483. The Oklahoma Geological Survey, working with Geological Information Systems at the University of Oklahoma Sarkeys Energy Center, has undertaken to construct this information system in response to the need for a computerized, centrally located library containing accurate, detailed information on the state`s natural resources. Particular emphasis during this phase of NRIS development is being placed on computerizing information related to the energy needs of the nation, specifically oil and gas.

  9. Photovoltaic manufacturing technology (PVMaT) improvements for ENTECH{close_quote}s fourth-generation concentrator systems

    SciTech Connect

    ONeill, M.J.; McDanal, A.J.

    1997-02-01

    This paper describes recent improvements in manufacturing technology for fourth-generation photovoltaic concentrator systems. The fourth-generation systems are firmly based on prior generations of a field-proven, high-efficiency, stable photovoltaic technology. The fourth-generation manufacturing process has been streamlined and validated through pilot runs and field deployments. Future plans include a 1.5 MW installation in 1998, as part of the Solar Enterprise Zone (SEZ) program in Nevada. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  10. Experimental study to validate a model of hillock{close_quote}s formation in aluminum thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Genin, F.Y.; Siekhaus, W.J.

    1996-04-01

    The growth of holes and hillocks in thin films has been reported extensively and for a multitude of film{endash}substrate systems. A recently developed model [F. Y. G{acute e}nin, J. Appl. Phys. {bold 77}, 5130 (1995)] which analyzes the formation of a ridge at a traveling grain boundary due to stress and capillarity driving forces provides a quantitative description of the growth of the hillocks. In order to test the model, the surface morphology of aluminum thin films deposited on oxidized silicon substrates and annealed at 450{degree}C in argon is investigated; the profiles of thermal hillocks are measured by atomic force microscopy. The comparison shows excellent agreement between modeled and experimental profiles. {copyright}{ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  11. Frequency analysis of tick quotes on the foreign exchange market and agent-based modeling: A spectral distance approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Aki-Hiro

    2007-08-01

    High-frequency financial data of the foreign exchange market (EUR/CHF, EUR/GBP, EUR/JPY, EUR/NOK, EUR/SEK, EUR/USD, NZD/USD, USD/CAD, USD/CHF, USD/JPY, USD/NOK, and USD/SEK) are analyzed by utilizing the Kullback-Leibler divergence between two normalized spectrograms of the tick frequency and the generalized Jensen-Shannon divergence among them. The temporal structure variations of the similarity between currency pairs is detected and characterized. A simple agent-based model in which N market participants exchange M currency pairs is proposed. The equation for the tick frequency is approximately derived theoretically. Based on the analysis of this model, the spectral distance of the tick frequency is associated with the similarity of the behavior (perception and decision) of the market participants in exchanging these currency pairs.

  12. Metrics, The Measure of Your Future: The Meter was Never Like This and MetricMisQuotes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Div. of Development.

    Humorous imitations of famous poems and quotations, altered with metric language, are presented in this document published by the Winston-Salem/Forsyth County Schools Metric Education Project. In addition, a section entitled "A Metrikey" relates metric units to familiar items such as width of doorknobs, areas of typewriter keys, etc. (MP)

  13. Taking Race out of Scare Quotes: Race-Conscious Social Analysis in an Ostensibly Post-Racial World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warmington, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Academics and activists concerned with race and racism have rightly coalesced around the sociological project to refute biologistic conceptions of race. By and large, our default position as teachers, writers and researchers is that race is a social construct. However, the deconstruction of race and its claims to theoretical intelligibility has…

  14. Taking Race out of Scare Quotes: Race-Conscious Social Analysis in an Ostensibly Post-Racial World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warmington, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Academics and activists concerned with race and racism have rightly coalesced around the sociological project to refute biologistic conceptions of race. By and large, our default position as teachers, writers and researchers is that race is a social construct. However, the deconstruction of race and its claims to theoretical intelligibility has

  15. 1995 Edward teller lecture. Patience and optimism

    SciTech Connect

    Miley, G.H.

    1996-05-01

    Remarks made in the author{close_quote}s acceptance lecture for the 1995 Edward Teller Medal are presented and expanded. Topics covered include research on nuclear-pumped lasers, the first direct e-beam-pumped laser, direct energy conversion and advanced fuel fusion, plus recent work on inertial electrostatic confinement. {open_quote}{open_quote}Patience{close_quote}{close_quote} and {open_quote}{open_quote}optimism{close_quote}{close_quote} are viewed as essential elements needed by scientists following the {open_quote}{open_quote}zig-zag{close_quote}{close_quote} path to fusion energy production. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  16. I Thought Composition Was about Commas and Quotes, Not Queers: Diversity and Campus Change at a Rural Two-Year College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Danielle

    2008-01-01

    Fayette County, once home to the Carnegies, the Mellons, and the Fricks, now punctuated by abandoned mines and coke ovens, is the second poorest county in Pennsylvania. Gay and lesbian students experience discrimination in this County. In this article, the author discusses her efforts to intervene in this complicated problem by deploying a…

  17. Distinguishing between satisfaction and loyalty: Conceptual, methodological & analytical differences

    SciTech Connect

    Hinson, K.A.

    1994-11-01

    This paper briefly presents a discussion of the conceptual definition of {open_quotes}Customer Satisfaction{close_quotes} followed by review of operational definitions of {open_quotes}Satisfaction{close_quotes} as a criterion variable and the kinds of predictor variables and analytic methods employed in its modeling. A model of {open_quotes}Customer Satisfaction{close_quotes} is presented developed by the discussed methodology. Conceptual and operational definitions of {open_quotes}Customer Loyalty{close_quotes} are then reviewed, contrasting the kinds of predictor variables and analytic methods most appropriate for understanding a {open_quotes}Loyalty{close_quotes} decision and how these differ from {open_quotes}Customer Satisfaction.{close_quotes} A more fully specified model of {open_quotes}Customer Loyalty{close_quotes} is presented. Finally, the risks of employing a {open_quotes}Satisfaction{close_quotes} methodology in modeling {open_quotes}Customer Loyalty{close_quotes} are discussed.

  18. 78 FR 49586 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Miami International Securities Exchange LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-14

    ... Market Makers with the ability to send Market Maker Standard quotes, eQuotes,\\6\\ and quote purge messages... eQuotes and quote purge messages only, but not Market Maker Standard quotes, to the MIAX System... flexibility to connect the Limited Service Ports to independent servers that host their eQuote and...

  19. Preliminary results of the correlation between ion concentrations in rainwater samples and atmospheric back trajectories as a part of the study {open_quotes}impact to acid rain in the deterioration of Mexican Maya monuments{close_quotes} (project Conacyt-UNAM: 0128T9106)

    SciTech Connect

    Bravo, A.H.; Saavedra, M.I.; Snchez, P.; Camacho, R.

    1996-12-31

    The environmental Pollution Section at the Center of Atmospheric Sciences, National Autonomus University of Mexico (UNAM), has been conducting a research project on their potential of impact of acid rain on the Mexican Maya monuments since 1993. As a part of such study, 49 rainwater samples were collected during the years 1994 through 1995 at the Puerto Morelos Oceanographic Station Located close to the Tulum Maya ruins in the State of Qintana Roo. The rain water samples were collected using an automatic rain collector. After the rain event, the water samples were transferred to clean Nalgene bottles. The bottles were stored under refrigeration prior to their shipment to the UNAM laboratory in Mexico City. Concentrations of anions Cl{sup -}, NO{sup -}{sub 3}, and SO{sup 2-}{sub 4} and cations Na{sup +}, NH{sup +}{sub 4}, K{sup +}, Mg{sup 2+} an Ca{sup 2+} were determined by the High Pressure Ion Chromatographic Procedure. The pH of samples was measured in the laboratory. Also, wind back upper trajectories which arrived to the Puerto Morelos are at the same date of each rain event, were calculated using the GMCC atmospheric trajectory program at NOAA. A thorough analysis on the relations between anions and cations is made and preliminary correlations of these results with the calculated long range trajectories are explored in order to find the possible origin of the event.

  20. Scaling laws for particle growth in plasma reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Lemons, D.S.; Keinigs, R.K.; Winske, D.; Jones, M.E.

    1996-01-01

    We quantify a model which incorporates observed features of contaminant particle growth in plasma processing reactors. According to the model, large {open_quote}{open_quote}predator{close_quote}{close_quote} particles grow by adsorbing smaller, typically neutral, {open_quote}{open_quote}prey{close_quote}{close_quote} protoparticles. The latter are supplied by an assumed constant mass injection of contaminant material. Scaling laws and quantitative predictions compare favorably with published experimental results. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  1. Penetrance estimates for BRCA1 and BRCA2 based on genetic testing in a Clinical Cancer Genetics service setting: Risks of breast/ovarian cancer quoted should reflect the cancer burden in the family

    PubMed Central

    Evans, D Gareth; Shenton, Andrew; Woodward, Emma; Lalloo, Fiona; Howell, Anthony; Maher, Eamonn R

    2008-01-01

    Background The identification of a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation in familial breast cancer kindreds allows genetic testing of at risk relatives. However, considerable controversy exists regarding the cancer risks in women who test positive for the family mutation. Methods We reviewed 385 unrelated families (223 with BRCA1 and 162 with BRCA2 mutations) ascertained through two regional cancer genetics services. We estimated the penetrance for both breast and ovarian cancer in female mutation carriers (904 proven mutation carriers 1442 females in total assumed to carry the mutation) and also assessed the effect on penetrance of mutation position and birth cohort. Results Breast cancer penetrance to 70 and to 80 years was 68% (95%CI 64.771.3%) and 79.5% (95%CI 75.583.5%) respectively for BRCA1 and 75% (95%CI 71.778.3%) and 88% (95%CI 85.391.7%) for BRCA2. Ovarian cancer risk to 70 and to 80 years was 60% (95%CI 6571%) and 65% (95%CI 7584%) for BRCA1 and 30% (95%CI 25.534.5%) and 37% (95%CI 31.542.5%) for BRCA2. These risks were borne out by a prospective study of cancer in the families and genetic testing of unaffected relatives. We also found evidence of a strong cohort effect with women born after 1940 having a cumulative risk of 22% for breast cancer by 40 years of age compared to 8% in women born before 1930 (p = 0.0005). Conclusion In high-risk families, selected in a genetics service setting, women who test positive for the familial BRCA1/BRCA2 mutation are likely to have cumulative breast cancer risks in keeping with the estimates obtained originally from large families. This is particularly true for women born after 1940. PMID:18513387

  2. H.R. 4849: A Bill to implement the obligations of the United States under the Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production, Stockpiling and Use of Chemical Weapons and on Their Destruction, known as the {open_quotes}Chemical Weapons Convention{close_quotes} and opened for signature and signed by the United States on January 13, 1993. Introduced in the House of Representatives, One Hundred Third Congress, Second Session, July 28, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    The report H.R. 4849 is a bill to implement the obligations of the United States under the convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production, Stockpiling and Use of Chemical Weapons and on Their Destruction, known as the Chemical Weapons Convention. The proposed legislative text is included.

  3. Multiple additions of Vaska-type iridium complexes to C{sub 60}. Preferential crystallization of the {open_quotes}para{close_quotes} double addition products C{sub 60}(Ir(CO)Cl(PMe{sub 3}){sub 2}){sub 2}{center_dot}2C{sub 6}H{sub 6} and C{sub 60}(Ir(CO)Cl(Pet{sub 3}){sub 2}){sub 2}{center_dot}C{sub 6}H{sub 6}

    SciTech Connect

    Balch, A.L.; Lee, Joong, W.; Noll, B.C.

    1994-11-09

    The authors investigated addition of Vaska-type iridium complexes to C{sub 60} fullerene. Two products were observed and characterized: C{sub 60}(Ir(CO)Cl(PMe{sub 3}){sub 2}){sub 2}{center_dot}2C{sub 6}H{sub 6} and C{sub 60}(Ir(CO)Cl(PEt{sub 3}){sub 2}){sub 2}{center_dot}C{sub 6}H{sub 6}. These compounds were structurally characterized by X-ray crystallography and NMR spectroscopy. It is suggested that many isomers of the adducts are present in the reaction liquor, but low solubility of the observed products drives the observed distribution of solid products.

  4. Defining the normal turbine inflow within a wind park environment

    SciTech Connect

    Kelley, N.D.

    1993-06-01

    This brief paper discusses factors that must be considered when defining the [open quotes]normal[close quotes] (as opposed to [open quotes]extreme[close quotes]) loading conditions seen in wind turbines operating within a wind park environment. The author defines the [open quotes]normal[close quotes] conditions to include fatigue damage accumulation as a result of: (1) start/stop cycles, (2) emergency shutdowns, and (3) the turbulence environment associated with site and turbine location. He also interprets [open quotes]extreme[close quotes] loading conditions to include those events that can challenge the survivability of the turbine.

  5. Defining the normal turbine inflow within a wind park environment

    SciTech Connect

    Kelley, N.D.

    1993-06-01

    This brief paper discusses factors that must be considered when defining the {open_quotes}normal{close_quotes} (as opposed to {open_quotes}extreme{close_quotes}) loading conditions seen in wind turbines operating within a wind park environment. The author defines the {open_quotes}normal{close_quotes} conditions to include fatigue damage accumulation as a result of: (1) start/stop cycles, (2) emergency shutdowns, and (3) the turbulence environment associated with site and turbine location. He also interprets {open_quotes}extreme{close_quotes} loading conditions to include those events that can challenge the survivability of the turbine.

  6. Reply to Marazita and Curtis

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, R.L.; O`Sullivan, C.K.; Hamanishi, J.

    1995-10-01

    We thank Dr. Marazita for her careful reading of our suggestions and appreciate her point regarding the importance of standardized nomenclature, particularly the definition of proband. Our review of the definition of proband showed a long history of imprecise definitions of the terms {open_quotes}proband,{close_quotes} {open_quotes}index case,{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}propositus/ proposita.{close_quotes} In agreement with the definition in our paper, many authors define proband as {open_quotes}the first family member coming to medical attention{close_quotes}. However, not all of these authors agree that a proband must necessarily be affected with a genetic disease. If the proband is affected, these authors use {open_quotes}proband,{close_quotes} {open_quotes}index case,{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}propositus/proposita{close_quotes} interchangeably. Other authors define a proband as {open_quotes}an affected individual through whom a family is ascertained{close_quotes} These latter authors would then define an index case to be the first affected family member coming to medical attention. If the proband is unaffected, this individual would be termed the {open_quotes}consultand{close_quotes} but would not be a proband. 13 refs.

  7. Fuzzy logic and neural networks

    SciTech Connect

    Loos, J.R.

    1994-11-01

    Combine fuzzy logic`s fuzzy sets, fuzzy operators, fuzzy inference, and fuzzy rules - like defuzzification - with neural networks and you can arrive at very unfuzzy real-time control. Fuzzy logic, cursed with a very whimsical title, simply means multivalued logic, which includes not only the conventional two-valued (true/false) crisp logic, but also the logic of three or more values. This means one can assign logic values of true, false, and somewhere in between. This is where fuzziness comes in. Multi-valued logic avoids the black-and-white, all-or-nothing assignment of true or false to an assertion. Instead, it permits the assignment of shades of gray. When assigning a value of true or false to an assertion, the numbers typically used are {open_quotes}1{close_quotes} or {open_quotes}0{close_quotes}. This is the case for programmed systems. If {open_quotes}0{close_quotes} means {open_quotes}false{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}1{close_quotes} means {open_quotes}true,{close_quotes} then {open_quotes}shades of gray{close_quotes} are any numbers between 0 and 1. Therefore, {open_quotes}nearly true{close_quotes} may be represented by 0.8 or 0.9, {open_quotes}nearly false{close_quotes} may be represented by 0.1 or 0.2, and {close_quotes}your guess is as good as mine{close_quotes} may be represented by 0.5. The flexibility available to one is limitless. One can associate any meaning, such as {open_quotes}nearly true{close_quotes}, to any value of any granularity, such as 0.9999. 2 figs.

  8. A decoupling theorem for the BPHZL-scheme

    SciTech Connect

    Aschenbrenner, M.

    1996-09-01

    Conditions are stated, which are sufficient for the heavy-mass-suppression of BPHZL-subtracted Feynman-integrals containing propagators of {open_quote}{open_quote}heavy fields{close_quote}{close_quote}. This result generalizes the Decoupling Theorems of Ambjo/rn, Manoukian and Landsman to cases, where massless fields (e.g., gauge fields) are present. {copyright} 1996 Academic Press, Inc.

  9. Environmental laws regulating chemicals: Uses of information in decision making under environmental statutes

    SciTech Connect

    Gaba, J.M.

    1990-12-31

    Three areas are addressed in this paper: generic issues that arise simply in the process of decision-making under environmental statutes; different decision-making standards under various environmental statutes; and efforts to legislate a {open_quotes}safe{close_quotes} or {open_quotes}acceptable{close_quotes} risk from exposure to carcinogenic chemicals.

  10. Past, present and future of laser fusion research

    SciTech Connect

    Yamanaka, C.

    1996-05-01

    The concept of laser fusion was devised very shortly after the invention of laser. In 1972, the Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University was established by the author in accordance with the Edward Teller{close_quote}s special lecture on {open_quote}{open_quote}New Internal Combustion Engine{close_quote}{close_quote} for IQEC at Montreal which predicted the implosion fusion. In 1975 we invented the so called indirect drive fusion concept {open_quote}{open_quote}Cannonball Target{close_quote}{close_quote} which became later to be recognize as a same concept of {open_quote}{open_quote}Hohlraum Target{close_quote}{close_quote} from Livermore. As well known, ICF research in the US had been veiled for a long time due to the defense classification. While researchers from Japan, Germany and elsewhere have concentrated the efforts to investigate the inertial fusion energy which seems to be very interesting for a future civil energy. They were publishing their own works not only on the direct implosion scheme but also the indirect implosion experiment. These advanced results often frustrated the US researchers who were not allowed to talk about the details of their works. In 1988, international members of the ICF research society including the US scientists gathered together at ECLIM to discuss the necessity of freedom in the ICF research and concluded to make a statement {open_quote}{open_quote}Madrid Manifest{close_quote}{close_quote} which requested the declassification of the ICF research internationally. After 6 years of halt, the US DOE decided to declassify portions of the program as a part of secretary Hazel O{close_quote}Leary{close_quote}s openness initiative. The first revealed presentation from the US was done at Seville 1994, which however were well known already. Classification impeded the progress by restricting the flow of information and did not allow the ICF work to compete by the open scientific security. (Abstract Truncated)

  11. Heterogeneity, geostatistics, horizontal wells, and blackjack poker

    SciTech Connect

    Beliveau, D.

    1995-12-31

    This paper presents data on more than one thousand horizontal wells specifically comparing their hydrocarbon production performance to offsetting vertical wells. The data are striking, revealing an approximate log-normal distribution of Productivity Improvement Factors (PIFs). This distribution is ascribed primarily to geological heterogeneities compounded by mechanical drilling and completion effects. H-wells in conventional reservoirs show a mode or {open_quotes}most-likely{close_quotes} PIF just over 2, a median or {open_quotes}50/50 {close_quotes} PIF just over 3, and a mean or {open_quotes}average{close_quotes} PIF just over 4; with somewhat higher PIFs observed for heavy-oil h-wells and h-wells in heavily-fractured fields. The data also show an operator`s {open_quotes}expectation{close_quotes} should be based on the number of wells planned, with a larger number of wells yielding a higher {open_quotes}average{close_quotes} production per well. In some cases, it was possible to compare actual production results to those predicted by the operator. This also showed some rather startling results: though our {open_quotes}predictive models{close_quotes} appear quite accurate when averaged over several wells, the error expected for any individual h-well is greater than 50%! Some simple gaming examples show this size of error should be expected for almost any reservoir calculation (perhaps a better phrase is {open_quotes}reservoir estimate{close_quotes}).

  12. Ecosystems and landscapes: Describing and valuing whole ecosystems

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, B.E.

    1995-12-31

    Ecosystem management involves both the design and management of complex ecological systems. This involves the application of {open_quotes}ecological engineering{close_quotes} principles. There are many alternative {open_quotes}states{close_quotes} of a landscape, all of which are ecologically sustainable. Once one fulfills the constraints of healthy, diverse, self-reproducing stocks of desirable species, there exists a wide array of alternative states, the characteristics of which represent social, economic and lifestyle trade-offs. There is no single {open_quotes}right{close_quotes} ecological design. Case studies will be used to illustrate these points.

  13. Tungsten

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    The name tungsten, derived from the Swedish words {open_quotes}tung{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}sten{close_quotes}, meaning heavy stone, was first applied to a tungsten-containing mineral in 1755. The mineral, itself, was subsequently identified by C.W. Scheele in 1781, and named scheelite. Metallic tungsten was first isolated from the mineral wolframite in 1783, and given the German name {open_quotes}wolfram,{close_quotes} which remains an alternative name for the element. Ultimately, the English word, tungsten, became the official name, while W remains the element`s chemical symbol. This article discusses the geology, exploitation, applications, and market overview of tungsten.

  14. Factors affecting acceptability of radioactive metal recycling to the public and stakeholders

    SciTech Connect

    Nieves, L.A.; Burke, C.J.

    1995-08-01

    The perception of risk takes place within a cultural context that is affected by individual and societal values, risk information, personal experience, and the physical environment. Researchers have found that measures of {open_quotes}voluntariness of risk assumption,{close_quotes} of {open_quotes}disaster potential,{close_quotes} and of {open_quotes}benefit{close_quotes} are important in explaining risk acceptability. A review of cross-cultural studies of risk perception and risk acceptance, as well as an informal stakeholder survey, are used to assess the public acceptability of radioactive scrap metal recycling.

  15. Boundary S Matrix and the Anti{endash}de Sitter Space to Conformal Field Theory Dictionary

    SciTech Connect

    Giddings, S.B.

    1999-10-01

    An S matrix analog is defined for anti{endash}de Sitter (Ads) space by constructing {open_quotes}in{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}out{close_quotes} states that asymptote to the timelike boundary. A derivation parallel to that of the Lehmann-Symanzik-Zimmermann formula shows that this {open_quotes}boundary S matrix{close_quotes} is given directly by correlation functions in the boundary conformal theory. This provides a key entry in the AdS to conformal field theory dictionary. {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital The American Physical Society }

  16. Fractal scaling properties in nonstationary heartbeat time series

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, C. |; Havlin, S. |; Stanley, H.E.; Goldberger, A.L. |

    1996-06-01

    Under healthy conditions, the normal cardiac (sinus) interbeat interval fluctuates in a complex manner. Quantitative analysis using techniques adapted from statistical physics reveals the presence of long-range power-law correlations extending over thousands of heartbeats. This scale-invariant (fractal) behavior suggests that the regulatory system generating these fluctuations is operating far from equilibrium. In contrast, we find that for subjects at high risk of sudden death (e.g. congestive heart failure patients) these long-range correlations break down. Application of fractal scaling analysis and related techniques provides new approaches to assessing cardiac risk and forecasting sudden cardiac death, as well as motivating development of novel physiological models of systems that appear to be {open_quote}{open_quote}hetero-dynamic{close_quote}{close_quote} rather than {open_quote}{open_quote}homeo-static.{close_quote}{close_quote} {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  17. Gas dynamics of UV-laser produced vapor plumes

    SciTech Connect

    Anisimov, S.I.; Lukyanchuk, B.S.; Luches, A.

    1996-05-01

    Dynamics of dense laser-produced vapor plume are studied. The analysis is based on the well-known special solution of gas dynamics equations that describes the expansion of an ellipsoidal gas cloud into vacuum. This solution is employed to explain the apparent {open_quote}{open_quote}rotation{close_quote}{close_quote} of the cloud (so called {open_quote}{open_quote}flip-over effect{close_quote}{close_quote}). The flux of atoms to the substrate and the film thickness profiles are calculated using the model. It is shown that the cloud expansion into vacuum and into an ambient gas both are unstable. For short-wavelength perturbations, estimates of the instability growth rate are presented. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  18. Reply to Reichardt

    SciTech Connect

    Fridovich-Keil, J.L.

    1995-10-01

    In his letter Dr. Reichardt raises a number of issues concerning two articles recently published in the Journal. I have addressed each of the issues relating to Fridovich-Keil et al. Dr. Reichardt suggests that we have misattributed to him the {open_quotes}assumption{close_quotes} that nonconserved residues (within the galactose-l-phosphate uridyl transferase [GALT] sequence) are likely to be {open_quotes}unimportant{close_quotes} for function. In fact, our article described this idea as a {open_quotes}commonly invoked assumption{close_quotes}. With regard to the R148W substitution, the Reichardt et al. article states that {open_quotes}the mutated arginine is not conserved{hor_ellipsis}. However, this mutation results in an unstable polypeptide and, therefore, the mutated arginine 148 is probably not enzymatically important.{close_quotes} We certainly apologize for any misunderstandings resulting from our interpretation, or possible misinterpretation of these words. 9 refs.

  19. Microlaser-optical-mechanical systems for biomedicine: A biological microcavity laser for cell structure analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Gourley, P.L.

    1997-04-01

    Gourley discusses the development of {open_quotes}biocavity{close_quotes} lasers and how they are allowing scientists to analyze cells in new and exciting ways. {copyright} {ital 1997} Optical Society of America

  20. The database approach to knowledge representation

    SciTech Connect

    Ullman, J.D.

    1996-12-31

    The database theory community, centered around the PODS (Principles of Database Systems) conference has had a long-term interest in logic as a way to represent {open_quotes}data,{close_quotes} {open_quotes}information,{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}knowledge{close_quotes} (take your pick on the term - it boils down to facts or atoms and rules, usually Horn clauses). The approach of this community has been {open_quotes}slow and steady,{close_quotes} preferring to build up carefully from simple special cases to more general ideas, always paying attention to how efficiently we can process queries and perform other operations on the facts and rules. A powerful theory has developed, and it is beginning to have some impact on applications, especially information-integration engines.

  1. Institute sees possible uranium supply shortages after 2000

    SciTech Connect

    Newman, P.

    1996-09-10

    This paper describes factors pertaining to the supply and demand for uranium. Forecasts described in a report titled {open_quotes}The Global Nuclear Fuel Market: Supply and Demand 1995-2015{close_quotes} are discussed.

  2. Inert plug formation in the DDT of granular energetic materials

    SciTech Connect

    Son, S.F.; Asay, B.W.; Bdzil, J.B.

    1995-09-01

    A mechanism is proposed to explain the {open_quotes}plugs{close_quotes} that have been observed in deflagration-to-detonation transition (DDT) of granular explosives. Numerical simulations are performed that demonstrate the proposed mechanism. Observed trends are reproduced.

  3. FFTF Asbestos Location Tracking Program

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, J.A.

    1994-09-15

    An Asbestos Location Tracking Program was prepared to list, locate, and determine Asbestos content and to provide baseline {open_quotes}good faith{close_quotes} for yearly condition inspections for the FFTF Plant and buildings and grounds.

  4. Hv: A graphical user interface library for scientific and engineering applications

    SciTech Connect

    Heddle, D.P.

    1996-03-01

    We have developed Hv, a library based on Motif and X-Windows for use in scientific and engineering applications. Through more than 500 public functions, Hv provides for multiple {open_quote}{open_quote}views{close_quote}{close_quote} with independent world and pixel coordinate systems. Hv will perform all necessary coordinate transformations and window maintenance and will automatically provide Hv applications with the ability to print their views to postscript printers or to save their contents as encapsulated postscript files for inclusion into other documents. Applications may draw upon a rich suite of predefined graphical items or easily add their own. Examples of applications written in Hv include the single event display for the CEBAF large acceptance spectrometer (CLAS), the graphical level-one {open_quote}{open_quote}trigger{close_quote}{close_quote} programming software for experiments using CLAS, a scientific plotter, and a simulation of theater missile defense architectures. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  5. Air pollution estimates

    SciTech Connect

    Skiba, Y.N.

    1997-12-31

    Global and limited area pollutant transport models based on the 3-D transport diffusion equation are considered provided that the air velocity field is known. As a first approximation, climatic monthly mean velocities are taken, though more precise velocity field can be obtained with a special dynamic model. The problem of pollutant flows through the open horizontal and vertical boundaries is discussed. Different boundary conditions are set at the {open_quotes}inflow{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}outflow{close_quotes} parts of such boundaries in order to get the well-posed problems according to Hadamard when either solution is unique and stable to initial perturbations. In the non-diffusion limit, these conditions are reduced to the well-known ones for the pure advection problem, when the only {open_quotes}inflow{close_quotes} boundary conditions are to be set, while the {open_quotes}outflow{close_quotes} conditions are not prescribed, and determined by the characteristics method.

  6. Mosaicism most likely accounts for extended survival of trisomy 22

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, W.P.; Kalousek, D.K.

    1996-03-01

    This {open_quotes}Letter to the Editor{close_quotes} discusses the implications of meiotic versus somatic chromosomal aberrations and how this corresponds to the discussion of trisomy 22, including the survival time of the patient. 5 refs.

  7. Considerations in the fabrication, assembly, and testing of radioisotopic thermo-photovoltaic (RTPV) generators for future space missions

    SciTech Connect

    Barklay, C.D.; Miller, R.G.; Frazier, T.A.

    1996-03-01

    To increase energy output with a smaller size and mass than the radioisotopic thermoelectric generators (RTGs) that were previously used on deep space missions, a radioisotopic thermophotovoltaic (RTPV) system is being developed for the {open_quote}{open_quote}Pluto Express{close_quote}{close_quote} flyby mission. To minimize cost and development time, some facilities and components currently used for RTG production can be used to produce RTPVs. Production options also include out-sourcing and use of off-the-shelf hardware. Necessary modifications to tooling, production equipment, testing and shipping methods can be achieved in a timely manner so that the RTPV will be ready well before the planned launch of {open_quote}{open_quote}Pluto Express.{close_quote}{close_quote} {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  8. Insurance for electric and magnetic field litigation: Are you covered

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, E.R.; Stewart, C.A. III

    1993-04-01

    Electrical power generating companies, power transmission companies and large generators and users of electrical power recently felt the sting of a second shock. The first shock came when lawsuits were first filed against companies in the electrical power industry claiming real or imagined damages from electrical and magnetic fields ([open quotes]EMFs[close quotes]). The new and second shock is potentially more devastating because it comes from the [open quotes]safe hands[close quotes] of the insurance industry. Standard-form comprehensive general liability ([open quotes]CGL[close quotes]) insurance policies purchased by nearly every company in the electrical power industry for generations are supposed to cover EMF bodily injury and property damage claims. Not so, say the lawyers for the most prominent insurance company selling insurance coverage to electric utilities, Associated Electric Gas Insurance Services, Ltd. ([open quotes]AEGIS[close quotes]).

  9. Growth energizes lithium ion interest

    SciTech Connect

    D`Amico, E.

    1996-03-20

    The prospects for big growth in the US for lithium ion batteries (LIBs) has sparked the interest of potential domestic suppliers. {open_quotes}The money that can be made in this market is staggering,{close_quotes} says one industry expert. {open_quotes}Everybody who is remotely related to this industry is interested.{close_quotes} The size of the market, still in its infancy, is difficult to gauge, say consultants, who estimate that leading Japanese producers are each making millions of lithium ion cells/month. {open_quotes}The market is not too measurable right now because the only production is really limited to prototypes being sampled,{close_quotes} says Ward Seitz, a consultant with SRI International (Menlo Park, CA), {open_quotes}but there is phenomenal interest.{close_quotes}

  10. Interaction of impurity ions with a weakly non-Maxwellian simple hydrogenic plasma. [None

    SciTech Connect

    Terry, W.K.

    1988-03-01

    The average acceleration of an ensemble of /open quotes/test particles/close quotes/ in a plasma is called the /open quotes/dynamical friction/close quotes/; the average rate at which their velocity vectors spread out in velocity-space diffusion-rate tensor. These quantities are derived for impurity ions intereacting with a weakly non-Maxwellian simple hydrogenic plasma. The distribution functions for the plasma ions and electrons are written explicitly.

  11. The pulse modulator for the mod-anode of the cluster klystron

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Y.; Palmer, R.; Wang, H.

    1996-05-01

    A high voltage pulse generator using a Zarem type modulator was developed. The Zarem type circuit doesn`t require a matched load, making it suitable to drive the mod-anode of the cluster klystron, which has a capacitive load. The principle and the experiments, as well as the analyses and the simulations of the observed phenomena, (ringing, pulse {open_quotes}skirt{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}deficiency{close_quotes}) are presented.

  12. Formaldehyde as hypothetical primer of biohomochirality

    SciTech Connect

    Goldanskii, V.I.

    1996-07-01

    One of the most intriguing and crucial problems of the prebiotic evolution and the origin of life is the explanation of the origin of biohomochirality. A scheme of conversions originated by formaldehyde (FA) as hypothetical primer of biohomochirality is proposed. The merit of FA as executor of this function is based -inter alia - on the distinguished role of FA as one of the earliest and simplest molecules in both warm, terrestrial and cold, extraterrestrial scenarios of the origin of life. The confirmation of the role of FA as primer of biohomochirality would support the option of an RNA world as an alternative to the protein world. The suggested hypothesis puts forward for the first time a concrete sequence of chemical reactions which can lead to biohomochirality. The spontaneous breaking of the mirror symmetry is secured by the application of the well-known Frank scheme (combination of autocatalysis and {open_quote}{open_quote}annihilation{close_quote}{close_quote} of L and D enantiomers) to the series of interactions of FA {open_quote}{open_quote}trimers{close_quote}{close_quote} (i.e. C{sub 3}H{sub 6}O{sub 3} compounds) of (aaa), (apa) and (app) types, where the monomeric groups (a) means {open_quote}{open_quote}achirons{close_quote}{close_quote} (a=CH{sub n}, n{ge}2 and C=M, M=C,O) and (p) mean {open_quote}{open_quote}prochirons{close_quote}{close_quote} (p=HC{asterisk}OM, M=H,C). {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  13. A high energy physics perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Marciano, W.J.

    1997-01-13

    The status of the Standard model and role of symmetry in its development are reviewed. Some outstanding problems are surveyed and possible solutions in the form of additional {open_quotes}Hidden Symmetries {close_quotes} are discussed. Experimental approaches to uncover {open_quotes}New Physics{close_quotes} associated with those symmetries are described with emphasis on high energy colliders. An outlook for the future is given.

  14. The problem of living in a world contaminated with chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Metcalf, R.L.

    1990-12-31

    The proliferation of xenobiotic chemicals in the global environment poses living problems for each of us aboard {open_quotes}spaceship earth.{close_quotes} Seven case studies are presented that illustrate the magnitude of the problem that can result from waiting to identify toxic hazards until there have been decades of {open_quotes}human guinea pig{close_quotes} exposure. 25 refs., 5 tabs.

  15. Turning bleeding edge into leading edge

    SciTech Connect

    Polaski, J.

    1995-06-01

    In an earlier paper entitled {open_quotes}Healthier Projects Through Measuring and Monitoring.{close_quotes} The benefits end-use metering provided participants in existing Demand Side Management Bidding (or {open_quotes}Pay-for Performance{close_quotes}) programs was examined. This paper takes the experiences of those same participants -- utilities, energy service companies, consultants, regulators and rate payers and examines the application of measurement and verification for new utility-sponsored DSM programs.

  16. Global warming science & policy: Progress 1996-1997

    SciTech Connect

    Sinyan, Shen

    1997-12-31

    Recent progress in science and policy is summarized. The most significant progress has been the recognition worldwide of the importance of Extreme Events (EE), short for extreme climatic events, during the earth`s current climatic transition, in which the magnitudes of the {open_quotes}oscillatory amplitude{close_quotes} in climatic patterns could easily {open_quotes}exceed{close_quotes} the difference between the end points.

  17. Icosahedral quasicrystal decoration models. II. Optimization under realistic Al-Mn potentials

    SciTech Connect

    Mihalkovic, M. |; Zhu, W.; Henley, C.L.; Phillips, R.

    1996-04-01

    We have constructed and relaxed over 200 different finite structure models for the quasicrystal {ital i}-AlMn based on decorations of the {open_quote}{open_quote}canonical-cell tiling.{close_quote}{close_quote} We adopted {ital ab} {ital initio}-based pair potentials with strong Friedel oscillations, which reproduce the phase diagram of real Al-Mn intermetallic crystal structures fairly well. Our various decoration rules encompass cases with face-centered icosahedral (FCI) symmetry and with simple icosahedral (SI) symmetry, and include additional variations in the occupancy and/or chemistry of certain site types. Each decoration was applied to 11 distinct periodic approximants of the tiling. We found that (i) the relaxed atomic positions of each site type can be closely approximated by fixed positions on each tile type, even though the environments (beyond the first neighbor) are inequivalent. (ii) Models with simple icosahedral (SI) space-group symmetry were better than those with face-centered icosahedral (FCI) space-group symmetry. (iii) {open_quote}{open_quote}Loose{close_quote}{close_quote} decorations, containing voids almost large enough for an atom, were better than the {open_quote}{open_quote}dense{close_quote}{close_quote} decorations which were suggested by packing considerations. (iv) Our results depended on using the realistic potentials; {ital short}-range potentials favor the {open_quote}{open_quote}dense{close_quote}{close_quote} structures, and many details depend on the second or further oscillations in the potentials. (v) For our best model, there is relatively little variation of the energy when tiles are rearranged, i.e., a {ital random}-{ital tiling} {ital model} is a good zero-order description of the system. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  18. The implausible current interpretations of radiobiological linear, nonthreshold functions

    SciTech Connect

    Bond, V.P.

    1994-12-31

    The goal of this paper is to show that inappropriate coordinates are now assigned to the assumed linearly proportional {open_quotes}dose-response{close_quotes} functions for quantal quantal (i.e., either-or) responses in the elements of a cell population system exposed to low-level radiation. The result is that the present interpretation, {open_quotes}any amount of radiation, however small, can be harmful or lethal{close_quotes} is of highly questionable validity.

  19. Acoustic chaos

    SciTech Connect

    Lauterborn, W.; Parlitz, U.; Holzfuss, J.; Billo, A.; Akhatov, I.

    1996-06-01

    Acoustic cavitation, a complex, spatio-temporal dynamical system, is investigated with respect to its chaotic properties. The sound output, the {open_quote}{open_quote}noise{close_quote}{close_quote}, is subjected to time series analysis. The spatial dynamics of the bubble filaments is captured by high speed holographic cinematography and subsequent digital picture processing from the holograms. Theoretical models are put forward for describing the pattern formation. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  20. In need of sustainable leadership: Which strategies are fit to meet future core challenges?

    SciTech Connect

    Schwendner, R.

    1997-12-31

    {open_quotes}Sustainable leadership{close_quotes} supports the management of complexity and diversity. But it is not an easy task. It requires a high level of awareness of system interrelation and a high level of {open_quotes}preventive wisdom{close_quotes} rather than {open_quotes}reactive cleverness{close_quotes} or {open_quotes}reactive reckoning{close_quotes}. Preventive wisdom seeks to be alert to and anticipate the multifaceted influences resulting from varied social and environmental context conditions. Management decisions based on preventive wisdom are likely to result in innovative solutions that avoid the well known negative social and environmental side effects or long-term economic damages of reactive decision making. Sustainable management thus represents a highly skilled, engaged and professional attempt to reach out for nothing less than the best solution. {open_quotes}Sustainable management{close_quotes} is the reflection of social, cultural, ecological, organizational and economic interrelations. Otherwise it would not fit the criteria of {open_quotes}sustainability{close_quotes}. From that point of view {open_quotes}sustainable management{close_quotes} requires a tough and multi process rooted training, as sustainability is a complex challenge in itself to deal with complexity, whether in nature, human cultures, organizational networks, means to understand, to balance, to integrate and to relate a variety of interdependencies. Thus sustainable and economic development may contribute to a win-win-strategy, instead of excluding each other, and represent a newly designed meaning of {open_quotes}Concentrate on what you can do best{close_quotes}.

  1. The Cook Mountain problem: Stratigraphic reality and semantic confusion

    SciTech Connect

    Ewing, T.E.

    1994-12-31

    Historical inconsistency as to what constitutes the Cook Mountain Formation illustrates the semantic confusion resulting from extending surface-derived stratigraphic names into the subsurface without a full understanding of basin architecture. At the surface, the Cook Mountain Formation consists of fossilerous marine shale, glaucony and marl, and marginal-marine sandstone and shale between the nonmarine Sparta Formation sandstones below and the nonmarine Yegua Formation sandstones and lignitic shales above. Fossils are abundant, including the benthic foraminifer Ceratobulimina eximia. As subsurface exploration began, the first occurrence of Ceratobulimina eximia {open_quotes}Cerat{close_quotes} was used as the top of the marine {open_quotes}Cook Mountain Shale{close_quotes} below the Yegua section. Downdip, the overlying Yegua was found to become a sequence of marine shales and marginal-marine sandstones, the lower part of which yielded {open_quotes}Cerat{close_quotes}. Because of this, the lower sandstones were called {open_quotes}Cook Mountain{close_quotes} in many fields. At the Yegua shelf margin, {open_quotes}Cerat{close_quotes} is absent. Different exploration teams have used their own definitions for {open_quotes}Cook Mountain{close_quotes}, leading to substantial confusion.

  2. 78 FR 37870 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-24

    ... quotes in the class. Use of these risk management tools has always been voluntary under the rules... management parameters for all options classes in which it enters quotes. The purpose of the rule change is to prevent market makers from inadvertently entering quotes without risk-management parameters. In...

  3. Can waste management become an issue for the public acceptance of fusion?

    SciTech Connect

    Dworschak, H.; Rocco, P.

    1994-12-31

    Studies on the public perception of risks indicate that: (1) The most feared risks, together with {open_quotes}AIDS{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}crime{close_quotes}, are those related to {open_quotes}nuclear accidents{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}nuclear waste{close_quotes}, which are almost as dreadful as {open_quotes}nuclear war{close_quotes} whereas, {open_quotes}nuclear power production{close_quotes} raises less concern, almost comparable to that of other social risks. (2) Low probability, high consequence risks are those of most concern. Scarce consideration is given by the public to the likelihood of occurrence. The management strategies for fusion waste should be presented taking into account the previous statements. Sensible items are: (1) Planned waste management procedures should be describe in a well detailed fashion, indicating the aim of complying with conservative limits of environmental impact. (2) The build-up of optimistic thoughts on the complete lack of potential hazard in fusion waste as well as the opposite opinion of little or no progress at all by referring to fission waste should be avoided. (3) The hazards related to fission waste should not be over emphasized. It should be stated instead that studies on this waste have produced effective handling and segregation concepts, which are being progressively applied even to conventional waste in order to reduce risks which were not perceived before. This mature and well proven technology will be applied where pertinent to fusion waste too.

  4. 78 FR 1906 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ OX PHLX LLC; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change To Amend...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-09

    ... Act Release No. 68217 (November 13, 2012), 77 FR 69525. II. Description of the Proposal The Exchange... Performance Evaluations With Respect to Quote Submissions of Streaming Quote Traders and Remote Streaming... change to amend performance evaluations with respect to Streaming Quote Traders (``SQTs'') and...

  5. 76 FR 72991 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; C2 Options Exchange, Incorporated; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-28

    ... quotation and risk management systems to determine the prices and sizes at which it quotes. \\8\\ See C2 Rule... and efficiently manage their quotations. Knowing that a helpful quote management tool is in place... Effectiveness of a Proposed Rule Change Related to a Temporary Quote Risk Monitor Mechanism Rule November...

  6. 76 FR 72011 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; C2 Options Exchange, Incorporated; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-21

    ... requirement, each Market- Maker can employ its own proprietary quotation and risk management systems to... that a helpful quote management tool is in place would, in turn, allow those Market-Makers to quote... Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change Related to the Quote Risk Monitor Mechanism November 14, 2011. Pursuant...

  7. The Clean Air Act`s enforcement ace: An overview of EPA`s credible evidence rule

    SciTech Connect

    Paul, P.J.

    1997-12-31

    The 1990 Clean Air Act ({open_quotes}CAA{close_quotes}) amendments included numerous provisions directing EPA to require owners or operators to conduct enhanced monitoring and to make compliance certifications. These provisions contained in both those Title V (Operating Permits) and Title VII (Enforcement) of those amendments. Section 503(b)(2) of the amended CAA requires at least annual certifications of compliance with permit requirements and prompt reporting of any deviations from such requirements. Section 114(a)(3) of the CAA requires EPA to promulgate rules on enhanced monitoring and compliance certifications. On October 23, 1993, EPA proposed its {open_quotes}enhanced monitoring{close_quotes} rule. The enhanced monitoring proposal also included the Conceptual approach of using {open_quotes}presumptively credible evidence{close_quotes} in enforcement actions. Further, this proposal also would have allowed the use of {open_quotes}credible evidence,{close_quotes} other than reference or compliance test data to establish noncompliance in an enforcement action. In approximately three weeks, EPA is scheduled to republish as a final rule, the credible evidence provisions of the original enhanced monitoring rule with apparently minor revisions. This paper briefly summarizes the history, status, and likely impact EPA`s {open_quotes}any credible evidence{close_quotes} ({open_quotes}ACE{close_quotes}) rule.

  8. 78 FR 35338 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BOX Options Exchange LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-12

    ... S&P 500 Index. \\4\\ See Securities Exchange Act Release No. 34-69511 (May 3, 2013), 78 FR 27271 (May... Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change To Amend BOX Rule 8050 to Lower the Minimum Quoting Requirement for Market... Rule 8050 to lower the minimum quoting requirement for Market Makers quoting in Jumbo SPY Options....

  9. 76 FR 4961 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Amex LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-27

    ... Proposed Rule Change Adopting Standards for Market Maker Electronic Quotes That Are Present During an... Exchange proposes to adopt standards for Market Maker electronic quotes that are present during an opening... 1. Purpose The purpose of this filing is to adopt rules governing quote widths for Market ]...

  10. 76 FR 4965 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-27

    ... Proposed Rule Change Adopting Standards for Market Maker Electronic Quotes That Are Present During an... Exchange proposes to adopt standards for Market Maker electronic quotes that are present during an opening... 1. Purpose The purpose of this filing is to adopt rules governing quote widths for Market...

  11. 78 FR 4175 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Miami International Securities Exchange LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-18

    ... all available quote types, quote throughput, quote management and cancellation, Aggregate Risk Manager... at other exchanges. \\4\\ See Securities Exchange Act Release No. 63257 (November 5, 2010) 75 FR 69493... complex than those tested and certified for a single Member. \\5\\ Third party vendors are subscribers...

  12. Lee Hot Springs power project. First topical report management plan

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-18

    The Lee Hot Springs Project ({open_quotes}the Project{close_quotes}) will use binary cycle turbine-generators supplied by geothermal hot water to make electricity. Two clusters of three (3) 1,000 kilowatt ({open_quotes}kw{close_quotes}) projects, each cluster comprising a {open_quotes}plant,{close_quotes} will use the pumped output of one geothermal well. The plants will tie into Sierra Pacific Power Company`s ({open_quotes}Sierra`s{open_quotes}) transmission system. The Project objectives are designed to demonstrate that geothermal energy is a non-polluting, non-CO{sub 2} emitting form of generation, which if used in larger increments, will significantly reduce the emissions of greenhouse gasses. The Project will also demonstrate the use of modular, {open_quotes}non-grid{close_quotes} or {open_quotes}village{close_quotes} units which can be used throughout the world where geothermal energy is present in remote locations and power is not. The Project was conceived as a 20,000 kw Qualifying Facility, divided into two phases, a 5,000 kw phase one followed by a 15,000 kw phase two. The first phase of the Project now consists of two (2) 3,000 kw plants to generate 6,000 kws.

  13. 75 FR 10533 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-08

    ... e-Quotes NYSE Rule 70(a). \\8\\ See Securities Exchange Release No. 59345 (February 3, 2009), 74 FR... proposed in this filing. \\4\\ See Securities Exchange Release No. 34-61233 (December 23, 2009), 74 FR 69169... informational data feed for imbalances by including d-Quotes \\6\\ and all other e-Quotes \\7\\ containing...

  14. 77 FR 42040 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Chicago Board Options Exchange, Incorporated; Notice of Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-17

    ... Immediate Effectiveness of a Proposed Rule Change Relating to Continuous Electronic Quotes July 11, 2012... its Rules relating to continuous electronic quotes. The text of the proposed rule change is available... purpose of the proposed rule change is to amend Rule 1.1(ccc), ``Continuous Electronic Quotes,'' to...

  15. 77 FR 42038 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; C2 Options Exchange, Incorporated; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-17

    ... Effectiveness of a Proposed Rule Change Relating to Continuous Quotes July 11, 2012. Pursuant to Section 19(b)(1... of the Proposed Rule Change The Exchange proposes to amend its Rules relating to continuous quotes... applicable to equivalent market participants.\\3\\ \\3\\ The continuous quoting obligations for NASDAQ...

  16. Fissile material smuggling: German politics, hype and reality

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, H.

    1994-12-01

    The spy novel nightmare scenarios of nuclear smuggling have become reality, and much of the recent news has focused on Germany. But these events must be put in perspective, and a number of apparent {open_quotes}facts{close_quotes} must be examined more carefully. For example, while authorities in Germany have seized weapons-usable material in various incidents that have captured international attention, none of this material is from nuclear weapons or weapons production facilities. Moreover, despite the fact that the number of criminal cases has risen, the quantity of {open_quotes}loose{close_quotes} weapons-usable material is still not significant. Nor are there any indications so far that powerful criminal organizations or buyers from nuclear-ambitious {open_quotes}rogue{close_quotes} states are involved. Rather, the incidents so far involve individuals or small groups of criminals who found that their {open_quotes}buyers{close_quotes} were, more often than not, German security agents working {open_quotes}sting{close_quotes} operations to trap the smugglers and black marketeers or journalists working on a {open_quotes}big story.{close_quotes}

  17. Making manufacturers responsible for recycling: Passing the garbage buck

    SciTech Connect

    Chilton, K.; Boerner, C.; Ansehl-Fellow, J.

    1995-09-01

    During a meeting with the Conference of Mayor and the National Association of Counties in April of 1993, Senator Max Baucus, then-Chairman of the Senate Environment and Public Works Committee, unveiled his solution to America`s {open_quotes}garbage crisis{close_quotes}. Modeled after Germany`s draconian {open_quotes}green dot{close_quotes} recycling program, the Senator`s solution rested on a principle which he called {open_quotes}manufacturers` responsibility for the life-cycle of a product.{close_quotes} {open_quotes}Anyone who sells a product,{close_quotes} Senator Baucus noted, {open_quotes}should also be responsible for the product when it becomes waste{close_quotes}. Other variations on this life-cycle stewardship concept were a central element of Congress`s failed attempts in 1992-1993 to reauthorize the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Likewise, on July 11, 1994 the United States Conference of Mayors` Energy and Environment Committee passed a resolution calling on Congress to study the concept of {open_quotes}shared responsibility for waste reduction{close_quotes}. The committee cited the virtues of Western Europe`s systems of manufacturers` responsibility and claimed that a U.S. version would create jobs, promote new environmental technology and {open_quotes}result in the emergence of entire new industries{close_quotes}. This report describes a recycling program in Germany in which the manaufacturers are responsible for waste collection. The overall waste reduction benefits are described.

  18. Diagnosing and curing system freeze-ups: Part II

    SciTech Connect

    Frey, R.

    1996-02-01

    In our last article, we discussed determination and possible causes leading to frozen pipes in the heating system. We now turn to the matter of dealing with such freeze-ups. There are two major categories of frozen heating systems. The first and worst we can label the {open_quotes}Floridian Flew{close_quotes} type, when the usual occupants have taken off for warmer climates. The second is the {open_quotes}Howcudit {open_quote}B{close_quote} virus,{close_quotes} which occurs to normal people under an unusual Arctic Attack right while they are living there. Regarding the first, I never cease to be amazed how folks can just up and leave their house for three days to three months without making proper arrangements for monitoring the temperature of their home during their absence. There are a frightening number of humanoids out there, who either lack a minimal presence of common sense, or who are terrible gamblers. The amazing thing is that some of these folks wouldn`t even gamble a postage stamp on a magazine sweepstakes, but still will gamble the contents of their home by driving off for two weeks at Disneyland in the middle of January without ever making any provision for assuring that their house doesn`t freeze up while they are away. The {open_quotes}Howcudit {open_quote}B{close_quote}{close_quotes} type is not nearly as devasting as the {open_quotes}Floridian Flew.{close_quotes} Imagine coming home to an icy cold house after flying in from the sunny beaches of some tropical paradise. The oilburner switch is on. The thermostate is set at 60 where we left it, but the needle is buried somewhere down behind the cover, like it is cowering from guilt. {open_quotes}Oh Man! I just checked the bathroom; there is an icicle hanging from the vanity faucet and the toilet bowl is a block of ice.{close_quotes}

  19. ITER Building Design (D230-B), Task No. 28. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-01

    The International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) Project requires a set of buildings, each with its own distinct function, to support ITER`s mission. The Joint Central Team (JCT) has identified all the buildings in the set and has placed them in an efficient arrangement on the site. The JCT has developed a conceptual layout of each individual building. The buildings have been categorized into two main groups: (1) {open_quotes}Level 1 Buildings{close_quotes} which are on the construction schedule critical path and (2) {open_quotes}Level 2 Buildings{close_quotes} which, while important, are not on the critical path. The buildings are further categorized according to construction material, that is, {open_quotes}reinforced concrete{close_quotes} or {open_quotes}steel-frame on concrete slab{close_quotes}. This Report responds to the Project`s request to perform the initial structural steel design for all the {open_quotes}steel-frame on concrete slab{close_quotes} buildings. Of the twelve (12) {open_quotes}steel-frame on concrete slab{close_quotes} buildings, four (4) are Level 1 and eight (8) are Level 2 Buildings. This Report is a deliverable for the ITER Task Assignment entitled {open_quotes}ITER Buildings Design (D230-B){close_quotes}, also designated as Task No. 28. ITER U.S. Home Team Industrial Consortium members, Raytheon Engineers & Constructors (RE&C) and Stone & Webster Engineering Corporation (SWEC), teamed to perform Task 28. This task commenced in May 1995. It was performed in accordance with the design criteria specified by the ITER-JCT, San Diego Joint Work Site.

  20. Mining landforms - A renewable energy development opportunity

    SciTech Connect

    Lombardi, J.A.

    1995-12-01

    A {open_quotes}landforming{close_quotes} land development opportunity unique to metals mining is described. {open_quotes}Landforming{close_quotes}, wherein the earth`s surface is reconfigured with mining waste rock and tails for the capture of renewable energy, is proposed by the United States Bureau of Mines (USBM) to be ecologically acceptable and, in selected cases, economically superior to conventional mineral extraction, reclamation, and minesite abandonment practices. Landforming is primary land construction that uses mining waste and applies the principles of land overlay architecture. Landforms can be layered, shaped, and configured through the use of binders and plastic sheeting to the engineering specifications necessary for the support of physical structures and passage or retention of fluids. Landforms that are terraced and south facing (in the Northern Hemisphere) are an ideal mount for sun-tracking mirror (heliostat) arrays. In {open_quotes}blue sky{close_quotes}. solar-rich environments, the mirrors can be targeted on a common area to form a {open_quotes}solar furnace.{close_quotes} The heat generated at the focal point of the solar array can be used to flash generate steam and run a turbine electric generator. The solar steam power generation cycle coproducers distilled water that can be sprayed onto the surfaces of the landform to create {open_quotes}greenscape.{close_quotes} Waters not consumed or evaporated in the site greening process percolate into and are stored by the landform if it is underlain with plastic. The landform serves, in effect as a shallow aquifer. The terrace-landform development of mineral properties in remote, infrastructurally destitute areas creates renewable energy, sustainable, electric power-water {open_quotes}oases.{close_quotes} The landform development of mineral properties adjacent to metropolitan areas creates utilities expansions and recreational {open_quotes}greenspace{close_quotes} in areas of growing urban need.

  1. Cold prebiotic evolution, tunneling, chirality and exobiology

    SciTech Connect

    Goldanskii, V.I.

    1996-07-01

    The extra-terrestrial scenario of the origin of life suggested by Svante Arrhenius (1) as the {open_quote}panspermia{close_quote} hypothesis was revived by the discovery of a low-temperature quantum limit of a chemical reaction rate caused by the molecular tunneling (2). Entropy factors play no role near absolute zero, and slow molecular tunneling can lead to the exothermic formation of quite complex molecules. Interstellar grains or particles of cometary tails could serve as possible cold seeds of life, with acetic acid, urea and products of their polycondensation as quasi-equilibrium intermediates. Very cold solid environment hinders racemization and stabilizes optical activity under conditions typical for outer space. Neither {open_quote}advantage{close_quote} factors can secure the evolutionary formation of chiral purity of initial prebiotic monomeric medium{emdash}even being temporary achieved it cannot be maintained at subsequent stages of prebiotic evolution because of counteraction of {open_quote}enantioselective pressure{close_quote}. Only bifurcational mechanism of the formation of prebiotic homochiral{emdash}monomeric and afterwards polymeric{emdash}medium and its subsequent transformation in {open_quote}homochiral chemical automata{close_quote} ({open_quote}biological big bang{close_quote}{emdash}passage from {open_quote}stochastic{close_quote} to {open_quote}algorithmic{close_quote} chemistry) is possible and can be realized. Extra-terrestrial (cold, solid phase) scenarios of the origin of life seem to be more promising from that point of view than terrestrial (warm) scenarios. Within a scheme of five main stages of prebiological evolution some problems important for further investigation are briefly discussed. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  2. Monitored plutonium aerosols at a soil cleanup site on Johnston Atoll

    SciTech Connect

    Shinn, J.H.; Fry, C.O.; Johnson, J.S.

    1996-01-23

    Suspended plutonium in air was monitored for four periods near the operation of a stationary sorting system used to {open_quotes}mine{close_quotes} contaminated soil on Johnston Atoll. The monitoring periods were 14 October-14 November 1992, 20 October-15 November 1993, 16 August-3 November 1994, and 17 February-27 February 1995. Pairs of high volume air samplers were located at each of four locations of the process stream: the {open_quotes}spoils pile{close_quotes} that was the feedstock, the {open_quotes}plant area{close_quotes} near the hot soil gate of the sorter, the {open_quotes}clean pile{close_quotes} conveyer area where sorted clean soil was moved, and the {open_quotes}oversize soil{close_quotes} crushing area. These locations were monitored only during the working hours, while air monitoring was also done at an upwind, {open_quotes}background{close_quotes} area 24-hours per day. The median concentrations of Pu in {open_quotes}workplace{close_quotes} air (combined spoils pile, plant area, and clean pile sites) in 1992 was 397 aCi/m{sup 3} (15 {mu}Bq/m{sup 3}), but increased to median values of 23000 aCi/m{sup 3} (852 {mu}Bq/m{sup 3}) in August-November 1994 and 29800 aCi/m{sup 3} (1100 {mu}Bq/m{sup 3}) in February 1995. The highest median value at the worksites (29800 aCi/m{sup 3}) was more than 200 times lower than the regulatory level. The highest observed value was 84200 aCi/m{sup 3} at the spoils pile site, and this was more than 70 times lower than the regulatory level. The conclusion was that, in spite of the dusty environment, and the increased level of specific activity, we did not find that the soil processing posed any significant risk to workers during the observation periods 1992-1995.

  3. An empirical test of the weighted effect approach to generalized prediction using recursive neural nets

    SciTech Connect

    Lang, R.

    1996-12-31

    The requirement of a strict and fixed distinction between dependent variables and independent variables, together with the presence of missing data, typically imposes considerable problems for most standard statistical prediction procedures. This paper describes a solution of these problems through the {open_quotes}weighted effect{close_quotes} approach in which recursive neural nets are used to learn how to compensate for any main and interaction effects attributable to missing data through the use of an {open_quotes}effect set{close_quotes} in addition to the data of actual cases. Extensive simulations of the approach based on an existing psychological data base showed high predictive validity, and a graceful degradation in performance with an increase in the number of unknown predictor variables. Moreover, the method proved amenable to the use of two-parameter logistic curves to arrive at a three way {open_quotes}low,{close_quotes} {open_quotes}high,{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}undecided{close_quotes} decision scheme with a-priori known error rates.

  4. Set theory and physics

    SciTech Connect

    Svozil, K.

    1995-11-01

    Inasmuch as physical theories are formalizable, set theory provides a framework for theoretical physics. Four speculations about the relevance of set theoretical modeling for physics are presented: the role of transcendental set theory (i) in chaos theory, (ii) for paradoxical decompositions of solid three-dimensional objects, (iii) in the theory of effective computability (Church-Turing thesis) related to the possible {open_quotes}solution of supertasks,{close_quotes} and (iv) for weak solutions. Several approaches to set theory and their advantages and disadvantages for physical applications are discussed: Cantorian {open_quotes}naive{close_quotes} (i.e., nonaxiomatic) set theory, contructivism, and operationalism. In the author`s opinion, an attitude, of {open_quotes}suspended attention{close_quotes} (a term borrowed from psychoanalysis) seems most promising for progress. Physical and set theoretical entities must be operationalized wherever possible. At the same time, physicists should be open to {open_quotes}bizarre{close_quotes} or {open_quotes}mindboggling{close_quotes} new formalisms, which need not be operationalizable or testable at the time of their creation, but which may successfully lead to novel fields of phenomenology and technology.

  5. Enhancement of computer program SPECTRAN to provide optional synthesis of 1/12 octave-band and critical-band spectra from 1/3 octave-band spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Young-Soo; Liebich, R.E.

    1997-07-01

    This paper describes greatly enhanced version of the computer program SPECTRAN, which was initially presented in Paper No. 96-RA104.01, at the A&WMA 89th Annual Meeting in June 1996. The program has had three basic upgrades since that time. The first is provision of an option to use either batch-mode input from previously prepared data files or a {open_quotes}user-friendly{close_quotes} interactive input routine. The latter is primarily for first-time users and those having only one, or very few, spectra to process. The second improvement is the synthesis of 1/12 octave-band spectra from 1/3 octave-band spectra, with {open_quotes}tone correction,{close_quotes} in a manner similar to that used in the original version of the program. The third fundamental improvement is addition of a unique new capability to synthesize classic {open_quotes}critical-band{close_quotes} spectra from 1/3 octave-band input spectra. Critical-band spectra are also termed {open_quotes}equivalent-rectangular-bandwidth (ERB){close_quotes} and {open_quotes}equal-contribution-to-speech (ECS){close_quotes} spectra.

  6. Do disk drives dream of buffer cache hits?

    SciTech Connect

    Holt, A.

    1994-12-31

    G.E. Moore, in his book Principia Ethica, examines the popular view of ethics that deals with {open_quotes}what we ought to do{close_quotes} as well as using ethics to cover the general inquiry: {open_quotes}what is good?{close_quotes} This paper utilises Moore`s view of Ethics to examine computer systems performance. Moore asserts that {open_quotes}good{close_quotes} in itself is indefinable. It is argued in this report that, although we describe computer systems as good (or bad) a computer system cannot be good in itself, rather a means to good! In terms of {open_quotes}what we ought to do{close_quotes} this paper looks at what actions (would) bring about good computer system performance according to computer science and engineering literature. In particular we look at duties, responsibilities and {open_quotes}to do what is right{close_quotes} in terms of system administration, design and usage. We further argue that in order to first make ethical observations with respect computer system performance and then apply them, requires technical knowledge which is typically limited to industry specialists and experts.

  7. Products, processes and technology in the elementary school curriculum

    SciTech Connect

    Goldberg, V.; Williams, S.

    1994-12-31

    This project is designed to improve science education at the elementary school level by facilitating collaborative efforts among teachers, science coordinators, principals, and representatives of local industries. The project is funded by the National Science Foundation and six Boston-area companies. In conjunction with these companies, we developed six sample modules which provide students with concrete examples of products, processes, and technologies that demonstrate scientific principles found in the elementary school science curriculum. These sample modules include {open_quotes}Treating Vascular Disease{close_quotes} with Boston Scientific Corporation, {open_quotes}Decision-Making Processes{close_quotes} with Clearpoint Corporation, {open_quotes}Patterns in Miniature{close_quotes} with Digital Equipment Corporation, {open_quotes}Inventing the Pen{close_quotes} with the Gillette Company, and {open_quotes}Fiber Optics Communication{close_quotes} with Peter Fuller Oldsmobile, Inc. One hundred participants worked with these sample modules during summer workshops and then, using them as guides, developed their own modules with businesses and industries in their communities.

  8. How to swallow an elephant

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, K.B.

    1995-03-01

    There is an old East Indian fable of a young man who went to see a wise man. The young man had a question - {open_quotes}How can I become rich and powerful?{close_quotes} The wise man paused for a moment then asked a question in return - {open_quotes}How can you swallow an elephant?{close_quotes} The young man was astounded, {open_quotes}There is no way a man can swallow an elephant!{close_quotes} {open_quotes}Yes, there is,{close_quotes} replied the wise man, {open_quotes}You just have to do it one bite at a time.{close_quotes} Many large problems can only be handled the same way that an elephant is swallowed, one bite at a time. Global warming and other environmental problems are obviously of elephant-swallowing scale. Some have set a goal for our society of reducing atmospheric greenhouse gases, particularly carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), by 20%. The cost to accomplish this has been estimated to be about five trillion dollars! As big as this elephant is, I suspect that its size is understated, if all the factors involved are included. The proponents of the plan tell us that it is well worth the cost to save the world. Therein lies another elephant-style problem.

  9. Punishing the mine safety ostrich -- a primer on personal liabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Biddle, T.M.; Robertson, J.F.

    1995-12-31

    Mine personnel, from firebosses to company presidents, who ignore or flaunt safety, face increasing peril of personal civil and criminal liability under the Mine Act and various federal criminal statutes. This article surveys the many ways none safety {open_quotes}ostriches{close_quotes} can be punished. The most common source for personal liability comes from {section} 110(c) of the Federal Mine Safety and Health Act of 1977 {open_quotes}Mine Act{close_quotes} or {open_quotes}Act{close_quotes}). Section 110(c) allows the Department of Labor`s Mine Safety and Health Administration ({open_quotes}MSHA{close_quotes} to seek both civil and criminal charges against corporate directors, officers and agents for {open_quotes}knowingly{close_quotes} authorizing, ordering or carrying out a violation of a mandatory safety or health standard or Mine Act provision. Similar charges may be brought against those individuals for failure to comply with an order of withdrawal or with an order incorporated in a final decision under the Act (except an order to pay civil penalties or an order in a discrimination case).

  10. Engineering change in global climate

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, S.H.

    1996-12-31

    {open_quotes}With increased public focus on global warming and in the wake of the intense heat waves, drought, fires, and super-hurricanes that occurred in 1988 and 1989, interest in geoengineering has surged,{close_quotes} says Stephen H. Schneider, professor of biological science at Stanford University in Stanford, California. One scheme set forth in a National Research Council report proposes using 16-inch naval guns to fire aerosol shells into the stratosphere in hopes of offsetting {open_quotes}the radiative effects of increasing carbon dioxide,{close_quotes} Schneider says. Schneider, however, would prefer that we {open_quotes}seek measures that can cure our global {open_quote}addiction{close_quote} to polluting practices.{close_quotes} Rather than playing God, he says we should {open_quotes}stick to being human and pursue problem - solving methods currently within our grasp.{close_quotes} Such strategies include efforts to promote energy efficiency and reduce our reliance on automobiles.

  11. Segregation analysis of Alzheimer pedigrees: Rare Mendelian dominant mutation(s) explain a minority of early-onset cases

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez, M.; Campion, D.; Babron, M.C.; Darpoux, F.C.

    1996-02-16

    Segregation analysis of Alzheimer disease (AD) in 92 families ascertained through early-onset ({le}age 60 years) AD (EOAD) probands has been carried out, allowing for a mixture in AD inheritance among probands. The goal was to quantify the proportion of probands that could be explained by autosomal inheritance of a rare disease allele {open_quotes}a{close_quotes} at a Mendelian dominant gene (MDG). Our data provide strong evidence for a mixture of two distributions; AD transmission is fully explained by MDG inheritance in <20% of probands. Male and female age-of-onset distributions are significantly different for {open_quotes}AA{close_quote} but not for {open_quotes}aA{close_quote} subjects. For {open_quotes}aA{close_quote} subjects the estimated penetrance value was close to 1 by age 60. For {open_quotes}AA{close_quotes} subjects, it reaches, by age 90, 10% (males) and 30% (females). We show a clear cutoff in the posterior probability of being an MDG case. 10 refs., 1 tab.

  12. Refinery suppliers face tough times

    SciTech Connect

    Rotman, D.; Walsh, K.

    1997-03-12

    Despite a handful of bright spots in hydroprocessing and petrochemical sectors, economic woes plague much of the refinery and petrochemical catalysts business, as suppliers are feeling the impact of mature markets and refiners` ongoing cost cutting. Industry experts say the doldrums could spur further restructuring in the catalyst business, with suppliers scrambling for market share and jockeying for position in growing sectors. Expect further consolidation over the next several years, says Pierre Bonnifay, president of IFP Enterprises (New York). {open_quotes}There are still too many players for the mature [refinery catalyst] markets.{close_quotes} Others agree. {open_quotes}Only about seven [or] eight major suppliers will survive,{close_quotes} says Robert Allsmiller, v.p./refinery and petrochemical catalysts at United Catalysts Inc. (UCI; Louisville, KY). {open_quotes}Who they [will be] is still up in the air.{close_quotes}

  13. Managing competition requires managing opportunities

    SciTech Connect

    Gay, R.J.; Pappathopoulos, W.C.T.

    1995-12-31

    At every turn in the electric utility marketplace, we near predictions of change and competition. Considering what has happened with other highly regulated industries like the airlines, natural gas and telephone, we would be foolish to ignore these predictions. Utility management must be careful not to let the {open_quotes}If it ain`t broke, don`t fix it{close_quotes} syndrome drown out the voice of opportunity. Change always presents problems, but change also offers its share of potential opportunities for those willing to search for them. Utility management must identify these opportunities, and develop a long term strategic plan to convert these opportunities into successful business activities. Historically, utility managers looking for efficiencies focused on the utility side of the meter, but lately they are learning that there are savings opportunities on both sides of the meter. However, finding opportunities requires moving from {open_quotes}selling{close_quotes} to {open_quotes}marketing{close_quotes}.

  14. Application of break preclusion concept in German nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Roos, E.; Maier, V.; Nagel, G.

    1997-04-01

    The break preclusion concept is based on {open_quotes}KTA rules{close_quotes}, {open_quotes}RSK guidelines{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}Rahmenspeziflkation Basissicherheit{close_quotes}. These fundamental rules containing for example requirements on material, design, calculation, manufacturing and testing procedures are explained and the technical realisation is shown by means of examples. The proof of the quality of these piping systems can be executed by means of fracture mechanics calculations by showing that in every case the leakage monitoring system already detect cracks which are clearly smaller than the critical crack. Thus the leak before break behavior and the break preclusion concept is implicitly affirmed. In order to further diminish conservativities in the fracture mechanics procedures, specific research projects are executed which are explained in this contribution.

  15. Use of sulfur hexafluoride and perfluorocarbon tracers in plutonium storage containers for leak detection

    SciTech Connect

    Kung, J.K.

    1998-05-01

    This study involves an investigation of the feasibility of a tracer-based leak detection system for long-term interim plutonium storage. In particular, a protocol has been developed based on the use of inert tracers with varying concentrations in order to {open_quotes}fingerprint{close_quotes} or {open_quotes}tag{close_quotes} specific containers. A particular combination of tracers at specific ratios could be injected into the free volume of each container, allowing for the detection of leaks as well as determination of the location of leaking containers. Based on plutonium storage considerations, sulfur hexafluoride and four perfluorocarbon tracers were selected and should allow a wide range of viable fingerprinting combinations. A {open_quotes}high-low{close_quotes} protocol which uses two distinct chromatographic peak areas or concentration levels, is recommended. Combinations of air exchange rates, detection durations, and detectability limits are examined in order to predict minimum tracer concentrations required for injection in storage containers.

  16. Sistersville, West Virginia: 1893 oil capital of the world

    SciTech Connect

    Johns, P.J.; Woodfork, L.D.; Patchen, D.G.; Avary, K.L.

    1996-09-01

    By the early 1890`s, production had peaked and was declining in the Pennsylvania oil fields. Drilling activity shifted south into West Virginia. The Sistersville oil field, discovered in 1891, became the {open_quotes}oil capital of the world{close_quotes} in 1893. For a brief period of time, Sistersville, West Virginia experienced its {open_quotes}moment of fame{close_quotes} with all of the attendant growth, excitement, glamour, prosperity, turmoil, rowdiness, disillusionment and eventual decline typical of {open_quotes}oil booms.{close_quotes} The geology of the Sistersville pool as well as aspects of the history and culture of the town during the boom are portrayed on the poster by maps, photographs and narrative. The history and heritage of that bygone era are also celebrated annually at the Sistersville Oil and Gas Festival and memorialized in The Oil and Gas Museum. Parkersburg, WV.

  17. Field investigation of heat transfer in hydraulic fractures and the effect of heat transfer on fracturing fluid design

    SciTech Connect

    Craig, D.P.; Brown, T.D.; Ely, J.W.

    1996-12-31

    Fracturing fluid temperature is a key variable in the design of hydraulic fracturing treatments and the formulation of fracturing fluids. Heat transfer in a hydraulic fracture dictates the fluid formulation and the concentration of chemical {open_quotes}breakers{close_quotes} used to degrade the fluid and maximize proppant pack conductivity. This paper contains the results of an investigation of heat transfer in hydraulic fractures, and documents the recording of bottomhole temperature during Piceance Basin Mesaverde fracturing treatments and during immediate flow back ({open_quotes}forced closure{close_quotes}). Bottomhole temperature was measured with a gauge set in a perforated interval, and the data shows minimal {open_quotes}cool down{close_quotes} of fracturing fluids, i.e., flow back temperatures increased rapidly to near bottomhole static temperature. Computer simulations are also presented and a fracturing fluid design methodology is suggested which balances fluid rheological requirements with degradation requirements, for maximizing proppant pack conductivity.

  18. Superfluid [sup 3]He-B in a realistic thin film. Gap and critical current

    SciTech Connect

    Buchholtz, L.J. )

    1993-07-01

    The author examines [sup 3]He-B confined to a thin film on a rough substrate with a freestanding upper surface by using quasiclassical techniques. First, the dependence of the gap on surface roughness, film width, and boundary condition formulation is examined in detail for the current-free state. The evaluation is conducted using both the [open quotes]Randomly Rippled Wall[close quotes] and the [open quotes]Thin Dirty Layer[close quotes] surface models in order to compare them. Second, the current bearing state for a submicron film resting on a rough substrate is calculated using the [open quotes]Thin Dirty Layer[close quotes] surface model. Several unusual and previously unreported features appear in both cases. Numerical estimates of the critical current densities are in favorable agreement with corresponding experiments.

  19. Fragment Mass Distribution of Platelike Objects

    SciTech Connect

    Kadono, T.

    1997-02-01

    The fragment mass distributions of platelike objects are investigated by conducting two types of experiments. The first is a {open_quotes}sandwich{close_quote}{close_quote} experiment in which thin glass and plaster plates are inserted between two larger stainless steel plates and an iron projectile is dropped onto the target plate at normal incidence. The second is a {open_quotes}lateral impact{close_quote}{close_quote} experiment in which a hypervelocity nylon projectile collides at the side of the plaster plates. There is a discrepancy in the power-law exponent of fragment mass distribution between the sandwich experiment and the lateral impact experiment. A model that agrees with the experimental results is proposed. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  20. The small-strain moduli of tetrafunctional networks of vinyl-terminated polydimethylsiloxane chains

    SciTech Connect

    Sharaf, M.A.; Alshamsi, A.S.; Mark, J.E.

    1993-12-31

    Model polydimethylsiloxane networks were prepared by crosslinking vinyl terminated chains with employing hydrosilylation reactions at low temperature. At low temperatures, significant side reactions were found be absent, thereby leading to networks with well defined stoichiometries. These networks were study with regard to their stress-strain isotherms in elongation. The results can be best explained on premises of the more recent molecular theory of Flory and Erman, within limits set by inaccuracies in the determination of the sol fraction and so the structural parameters of the network. Also, the nonquivalence of the {open_quotes}effective{close_quotes} number of chains {nu}{sub eff} relevant to theory and the commonly used {open_quotes}active{close_quotes} relevant to theory and the commonly used {open_quotes}active{close_quotes} number of chains {nu}{sub a} is emphasized.

  1. The Solar Flare Myth in solar-terrestrial physics

    SciTech Connect

    Gosling, J.T.

    1993-07-01

    Early observations of associations between solar flares and large non- recurrent geomagnetic storms, large {open_quote}solar{close_quote} energetic particle events, and transient shock wave disturbances in the solar wind led to a paradigm of cause and effect that gave flares a central position in the chain of events leading from solar activity to major transient disturbances in the near-earth space environment. However, research in the last two decades shows that this emphasis on flares is misplaced. In this paper the author outlines briefly the rationale for a different paradigm of cause and effect in solar- terrestrial physics that removes solar flares from their central position as the {open_quote}cause{close_quote} of major disturbances in the near-earth space environment. Instead, this central role of {open_quote}cause{close_quote} is played by events now known as coronal mass ejections, or CMEs.

  2. Challenge problems for artificial intelligence

    SciTech Connect

    Selman, B.; Brooks, R.A.; Dean, T.

    1996-12-31

    AI textbooks and papers of ten discuss the big questions, such as {open_quotes}how to reason with uncertainty{close_quotes}, {open_quotes}how to reason efficiently{close_quotes}, or {open_quotes}how to improve performance through learning.{close_quotes} It is more difficult, however, to find descriptions of concrete problems or challenges that are still ambitious and interesting, yet not so open-ended. The goal of this panel is to formulate a set of such challenge problems for the field. Each panelist was asked to formulate one or more challenges. The emphasis is on problems for which there is a good chance that they will be resolved within the next five to ten years.

  3. Compilation for critically constrained knowledge bases

    SciTech Connect

    Schrag, R.

    1996-12-31

    We show that many {open_quotes}critically constrained{close_quotes} Random 3SAT knowledge bases (KBs) can be compiled into disjunctive normal form easily by using a variant of the {open_quotes}Davis-Putnam{close_quotes} proof procedure. From these compiled KBs we can answer all queries about entailment of conjunctive normal formulas, also easily - compared to a {open_quotes}brute-force{close_quotes} approach to approximate knowledge compilation into unit clauses for the same KBs. We exploit this fact to develop an aggressive hybrid approach which attempts to compile a KB exactly until a given resource limit is reached, then falls back to approximate compilation into unit clauses. The resulting approach handles all of the critically constrained Random 3SAT KBs with average savings of an order of magnitude over the brute-force approach.

  4. HUNTER-GATHERER: Three search techniques integrated for natural language semantics

    SciTech Connect

    Beale, S.; Nirenburg, S.; Mahesh, K.

    1996-12-31

    This work integrates three related Al search techniques - constraint satisfaction, branch-and-bound and solution synthesis - and applies the result to semantic processing in natural language (NL). We summarize the approach as {open_quote}Hunter-Gatherer:{close_quotes} (1) branch-and-bound and constraint satisfaction allow us to {open_quote}hunt down{close_quotes} non-optimal and impossible solutions and prune them from the search space. (2) solution synthesis methods then {open_quote}gather{close_quotes} all optimal solutions avoiding exponential complexity. Each of the three techniques is briefly described, as well as their extensions and combinations used in our system. We focus on the combination of solution synthesis and branch-and-bound methods which has enabled near-linear-time processing in our applications. Finally, we illustrate how the use of our technique in a large-scale MT project allowed a drastic reduction in search space.

  5. Development of a regulatory baseline for Rocky Flats

    SciTech Connect

    Madore, C.M.; David Garcia, J.D.

    1994-12-31

    During FY93, RFP established a regulatory baseline, which provided the framework for identifying issues and assessing the site`s compliance with applicable requirements. This paper discusses the development of the standalone document that resulted from this effort, entitled {open_quotes}Regulatory Requirements & Program Drivers{close_quotes}. The term {open_quotes}regulatory requirement{close_quotes} refers to federal and state laws, regulatory agreements, and consent orders that are legally binding (e.g., the Clean Air Act [CAA], the Interagency Agreement [IAG], and the Mixed Residue Settlement Agreement and Compliance Order on Consent). The term {open_quotes}program drivers{close_quotes} refers to requirements that RFP follows conformance with best management practices (e.g., Department of Energy [DOE] Orders and Defense Nuclear Safety Board recommendations). Together, the applicable regulatory requirements and program drivers determine how operations are conducted at RFP.

  6. BASF confirms plans for world-scale cracker on the Gulf Coast

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, A.

    1997-01-29

    BASF Corp. has confirmed plans that it will build a world-scale cracker on the Gulf Coast. The company has completed preliminary work, and {open_quotes}the results of our project analysis have been extremely encouraging,{close_quotes} says chemicals president Carl A. Jennings. {open_quotes}We`ll proceed with high priority to have the cracker ready for startup in second-half 2000.{close_quotes} The company says it will select a location for the project by mid-1977. In addition to considering its sites at Geismar, LA; Freeport, TX; and Altamira, Mexico, BASF says that {open_quotes}cooperative arrangements{close_quotes} are being looked at. That could include locating the project at a different site, adjacent to a feedstock source, according to Jennings. He says the project could also include joint venture partners.

  7. Advanced secondary recovery demonstration for the Sooner unit. Quarterly technical report, October 1, 1995--December 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Sippel, M.A.; Cammon, T.J.

    1995-12-31

    The Sooner {open_quotes}D{close_quotes} Sand Unit is located about 100 miles northeast from Denver. The Cretaceous {open_quotes}D{close_quotes} Sand has good primary recovery but disappointing waterflood performance. The nearest ten waterflood projects in the area of the Sooner Unit produced only an average of 2 percent incremental oil from waterflooding after an average primary recovery of 16 percent OOIP. Poor waterflood recovery is attributed to reservoir heterogeneity, poor reservoir management practices and lack of infill drilling. Three-dimensional (3-D) seismic had not been used in the D-J Basin for exploration or development of {open_quotes}D{close_quotes} Sand reservoirs prior to this project.

  8. Measurements and analysis of the equivalent circuit of the GEC RF Reference Cell. [GEC (Gaseous Electronics Conference); RF (radio-frequency)

    SciTech Connect

    Verdeyen, J.T. . Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering)

    1992-09-01

    The equivalent circuit of the GEC RF Reference Cell is determined by the use of a vector impedance meter and reported here. The measurement procedure and data reduction techniques are discussed and typical data are presented from which the component values are determined. Once the circuit is established, one can use it to define the ABCD parameters of the Cell which relate the terminal measurements to those at the plasma. A significant and as yet unresolved question is emphasized: namely, [open quotes]what is the path for the rf current [close quotes] An experimental procedure for answering this question is suggested, but there does not appear to be a simple [open quotes]plasma[close quotes] reason for the answer. To obtain such an answer is a challenge to the experimenters and modelers. While the emphasis is on the GEC RF Reference Cell, the procedure, data reduction techniques, and [open quotes]the question[close quotes] are pertinent to all reactors.

  9. Use of SSH on a compartmented mode workstation

    SciTech Connect

    Tolliver, J.S.; Dillow, D.

    1997-08-01

    SSH stands for {open_quotes}Secure Shell.{close_quotes} It is now a user shell like csh or ksh. Instead it is a widely-used means to accomplish secure, encrypted communication among cooperating nodes. It is a secure replacement for the {open_quotes}r-commands{close_quotes}, rlogin, and rcp. SSH is free for noncommercial use and builds and runs on most any Unix platform. A Compartmented Mode Workstation (CMW) is an example of a secure or {open_quotes}trusted{close_quotes} operating system. The use of SSH on a CMW introduces security problems unless the SSH source code is modified to take advantage of the security features of the CMW. This paper describes the port and use of SSH on one particular brand of CMW.

  10. Measurement accuracy, bit-strings, Manthey`s quaternions, and RRQM

    SciTech Connect

    Noyes, H.P.

    1995-02-01

    The author continues the discussion started last year. By now three potentially divergent research programs have surfaced in ANPA: (1) the Bastin-Kilmister understanding of the combinatorial hierarchy (Clive`s {open_quotes}Menshevik{close_quotes} position); (2) the author`s bit-string {open_quotes}Theory of Everything{close_quotes} (which Clive has dubbed {open_quotes}Bolshevik{close_quotes}); (3) Manthey`s cycle hierarchy based on co-occurrence and mutual exclusion that Clive helped him map onto quaternions (as an yet unnamed heresy?). Unless a common objective can be found, these three points of view will continue to diverge. The authors suggests the reconstruction of relativistic quantum mechanism (RRQM) as a reasonable, and attainable, goal that might aid convergence rather than divergence.

  11. Hypermedia systems: An introduction

    SciTech Connect

    Lennon, J.; Maurer, H.

    1995-03-01

    For the support of mega-quantities of documents there are now emerging radically new communication and general information systems. In this paper we suggest that although many {open_quotes}first generation{close_quotes} systems currently being used have major drawbacks, the {open_quotes}second generation systems{close_quotes} that are appearing address these problems. We also suggest that since few people appreciate the ramifications of new high-resolution graphics technology, the term {open_quotes}multimedia{close_quotes} is frequently used with too narrow a meaning. It can be argued that hypermedia systems can revolutionize all work, leisure, and lifelong learning. This paper considers, under each of these headings, the implications of the new technology. One thing is certain: the impact will be tremendous and irresistible. Before long, organizations will not be able to afford not to use hypermedia.

  12. Restructuring targets global electrical grid

    SciTech Connect

    Kahn, E.

    1997-12-31

    In the United Kingdom, restructuring has failed to produce substantial savings for the private customer. {open_quotes}The reality is that most of the benefits produced by the new competitive system have accrued to producers, not consumers,{close_quotes} says Edward Kahn, vice-president for National Economic Research Associates Inc., in San Francisco. But structural and historical differences are too great to allow the United States to adopt another country`s strategies. For instance, Kahn notes, {open_quotes}Outside the United States, utilities typically are publicly owned; inside the United States, utilities historically have been privately owned and heavily regulated{close_quotes}. In Australia, which most nearly compares with the United States in terms of geography and distribution of power lines, competitive practices have allowed utilities to cut employment rolls. {open_quotes}That`s one of the most effective ways to cut costs in a competitive environment,{close_quotes} Kahn says.

  13. Is there a free rotation about the carbon-carbon triple bond?

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, L.R.

    1997-12-31

    To teach college students the concept of a {pi}-bond, many professors like to use the examples of ethylene and acetylene molecules. Free rotation, restricted rotation, breaking or forming a {pi}-bond are frequently asked questions about the molecules. The cylindrical shape of the {pi} election cloud of acetylene is introduce in most chemistry text books. Some teachers may ask a similar question about the triple bond of acetylene molecule after the question of {open_quotes}Is there a free rotation along the C-C double bond?{close_quotes} being answered {open_quotes}no{close_quotes}. However, the correct answer for the acetylene should be {open_quotes}YES{close_quotes}. The reason for the free rotation about the carbon-carbon triple bond will be discussed experimentally and computationally.

  14. Structural analysis of a superconducting central solenoid for the Tokamak Physics Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    O`Connor, T.G.; Heim, J.R.

    1993-09-15

    The Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX) concept design uses superconducting coils to accomplish magnetic confinement. The central solenoid (CS) magnet is divided vertically into 8 equal segments which are powered independently. The eddy current heating from the pulsed operation is too high for a case type construction; therefore, a {open_quotes}no case{close_quotes} design has been chosen. This {open_quotes}no case{close_quotes} design uses the conductor conduit as the primary structure and the electrical insulation as a structural adhesive. This electrical insulation is the {open_quotes}weak link{close_quotes} in the coil winding pack structure and needs to be modeled in detail. A global finite element model with smeared winding pack properties was used to study the CS magnet structural behavior. The structural analysis results and peak stresses will be presented.

  15. Whatever happened to the 60 Hertz power?

    SciTech Connect

    Waggoner, R.M.

    1996-05-01

    We have all become used to 60 Hertz electrical power - in fact that is what we have expected at the electrical outlet ever since the DC days of George Westinghouse and others in the early part of the 20th Century, We knew that 60 Hertz was generated and transmitted by the power supplier, and we knew that our load devices, when {open_quotes}plugged-in{close_quotes} would accept that frequency when we turned on the switch. The surprise for most of us is that this happy {open_quotes}marriage{close_quotes} of 60 Hertz supply and 60 Hertz load just does not exist much anymore and the prospect for the future is an ever increasing {open_quotes}multiple-frequency{close_quotes} demand by the new sensitive loads. These multiple frequencies, in addition to 60 Hertz, are what we call Harmonics; and, their presence introduces both current and voltage interactions which can disturb our power systems.

  16. Progress toward a genotype/phenotype correlation in galactosemia

    SciTech Connect

    Reichardt, J.K.V.; Lin, Hsien-Chin; Ng, Won G.

    1994-09-01

    Galactosemia is secondary to deficiency of the enzyme galactose-1-phosphate uridyl transferase (GALT). If untreated this condition results in severe neonatal symptoms and can be fatal. Most symptoms disappear upon the institution of a galactose-restricted diet. Therefore, most states in the US and many developed countries have implemented newborn screening programs for galactosemia. We have characterized thus far twelve disease-causing point mutations, four protein polymorphisms, one silent nucleotide substitution and a RFLP (restriction fragment length polymorphism) in over 200 patients. The most common galactosemia mutation, Q188R, is present on about 64% of Caucasian galactosemia alleles in the US. This mutation is present on 67% of {open_quotes}classic{close_quotes} Caucasian alleles with severe neonatal symptoms and undetectable crythrocytic GALT activity. Thus, Q188R almost defines the {open_quotes}classic{close_quotes} phenotype in Caucasian galactosemia patients. This mutation, however, is present on only 16% of the milder {open_quotes}variant{close_quotes} alleles and never in the homozygous state. Variant patients have up to 10% residual GALT activity in their red cells. Therefore, one or more as of yet uncharacterized mutations other than Q188R must be present in {open_quotes}variant{close_quotes} patients. The Q188R mutations is very rare in other ethnic and racial groups. Thus, Galactosemia is panethnic but the mutational basis of this disease differs among human populations. The frequency of Q188R is intermediate in Hispanic-American patients, probably reflecting the Spanish contribution to the gene pool in this population. We conclude that the Q188R mutation encodes the severe {open_quotes}classic{close_quotes}galactosemia phenotype in Caucasians and that other mutations produce the {open_quotes}variant{close_quotes} galactosemia phenotype.

  17. Specification and acceptance in nondestructive testing

    SciTech Connect

    Perdijon, J. )

    1993-07-01

    Nondestructive testing is often defined as the detection of defects in materials by using techniques that do not damage the product tested. For the user, a supply without defects is a reliable one, i.e., able to perform a required function under stated conditions for a stated period of time. For the quality manager, a supply without defects is one complying with specifications. This is why the vocabulary of quality control has opted for the following definition: [open quotes]Defect: the nonfulfillment of specified requirements for a characteristic of an item[close quotes]. In this case too, the author has to define the state of a characteristic and shall prefer to employ the word [open quotes]nonconformity[close quotes]. The specifier cannot only consider supplies in their totality, but must also look for the reasons for any failures. The performance of a supply may be reduced by the presence of variations in the physical, chemical, or structural properties of the material. Finally, the nondestructive testing inspector measures the variations of a physical quantity that are related to the presence of discontinuities. After completing the supply inspection and according to the type of data processing, the NDT inspector in fact measures the peak height on a diagram or the spotted area on an image. The defect is thus, as for the specifier, an item and shall employ the word [open quotes]signal[close quotes]. It is clear that, in the definition of NDT given at the beginning, the word [open quotes]defect[close quotes] must be taken in the sense of [open quotes]discontinuity[close quotes]. This is why the author shall prefer to define NDT as the verification of the homogeneity of a supply without its being damaged; by [open quotes]homogeneity[close quotes] it is meant that there is no significant difference with respect to samples taken from the supply.

  18. Toxicity evaluation and hazard review for Rigid Foam

    SciTech Connect

    Archuleta, M.M.; Stocum, W.E.

    1994-02-01

    Rigid Foam is a chemical delay foam used to completely encapsulate an object or to block access to an area. Prior studies have indicated that the final foam product is essentially non-toxic. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and summarize the current chemical and toxicological data available on the components of Rigid Foam and to update the information available on the toxicity of the final Rigid Foam product. Since the possibility exists for a partial deployment of Rigid Foam where only one of the components is released, this study also examined the toxicity of its chemical constituents. Rigid Foam is composed of an {open_quotes}A{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}B{close_quotes} Component. The {open_quotes}A{close_quotes} component is primarily a polymeric isocyanate and the {open_quotes}B{close_quotes} component is a mixture of polyols. In addition to the primary constituents, dichlorodifluoromethane and trichlorofluoromethane are present as blowing agents along with catalysts and silicone surfactants necessary for foaming. The pre-deployed {open_quotes}A{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}B{close_quotes} components are stored in separate vessels and are brought together in static mixing nozzles for dispersal. The results of this evaluation indicate that a completely deployed Rigid Foam under normal conditions is essentially non-toxic as determined previously. However, in the event of a partial deployment or deployment of an individual component directly at an unprotected individual, the degree of hazard is increased due to the toxic and corrosive nature of the individual constituents. The health hazard would depend on the properties of the material to which the person was exposed.

  19. Right-to-know reporting: Who has access to reported information and how will it be used?

    SciTech Connect

    Blanchard, S.E.

    1995-06-01

    Considered {open_quotes}paper tigers{close_quotes} by many during their first few years of existence, state and federal right-to-know and hazard communication laws are not only increasingly the subject of enforcement activity, they are eliciting information which will result in increased enforcement of other environmental laws. The growth in popularity of {open_quotes}regulation by information{close_quotes} programs like TRI reflects a fundamental transition in the nature of environmental regulation. For years, source reduction has been a stated top priority for the major federal regulatory programs, but regulators have made little progress toward achieving this goal. Frustrated after years of managing {open_quotes}end-of- the-pipe{close_quotes} programs without any headway toward source reduction, regulators have gravitated toward {open_quotes}right-to-know{close_quotes} regulatory schemes requiring disclosure of the regulated facility`s use of materials and patterns of waste management. Recognizing that {open_quotes}knowledge is power,{close_quotes} regulators cite a number of advantages in adopting such strategies. First, the public availability of reported data provides a strong incentive for companies to eliminate the need to report. Second, compilation of such data invites analysis and comparisons. Data can be evaluated by regulatory program, by environmental media, by industry, by geographic region, and even by individual facility. Third, right-to-know programs conserve scarce regulatory resources by inviting state and local governments, as well as citizen groups, to enforce environmental law. This new decentralized {open_quotes}holistic{close_quotes} approach to regulation, linking information reported under right-to-know laws to pollution prevention requirements and cross-media or facility-wide enforcement initiatives, makes careful attention to this area of law essential.

  20. Climbing the walls

    SciTech Connect

    Duey, R.

    1997-07-01

    {open_quotes}Integrated solutions{close_quotes} has become such a buzzword in the business world that it`s beginning to lose its semantic impact. But when the business is oil and gas and the integrated solutions revolve around information technology, the impact is very great indeed. A recent Cambridge Energy Research Associates study called the use of information technology within the petroleum industry a {open_quotes}quiet revolution.{close_quotes} The technology has been {open_quotes}a powerful, enabling factor in the survival and rebirth{close_quotes} of the industry since the price collapse of 1986, the report states, adding, {open_quotes}It will be even more important to the industry`s future, shaping business strategy and competitive advantage-- and company structure.{close_quotes} Like many other industries, oil and gas companies are moving away from hierarchical structures, relying on asset teams and other interdisciplinary approaches to maximize profits in an era of downsizing, volatile prices and stiff competition. {open_quotes}I think in the past the energy industry had a commodity mindset,{close_quotes} says Robert Shaw, senior vice president and head of the worldwide sector for Oracle Energy. {open_quotes}The industry was fairly controlled, stable and regulated, and there was a feeling that there wasn`t much to do except find oil, own reserves, refine as much as they can, run the pipe full, dispose of as much as they can and hopefully make a lot of money{close_quotes}.

  1. Icosahedral quasicrystal decoration models. I. Geometrical principles

    SciTech Connect

    Mihalkovic, M. |; Zhu, W.; Henley, C.L.; Oxborrow, M. |

    1996-04-01

    It is proposed that quasicrystal structure determination should include the calculation of cohesive energies using realistic potentials. A class of atomic decoration models for {ital i}-AlMn is then presented, adopting the {open_quote}{open_quote}canonical-cell{close_quote}{close_quote} tiling geometry, with {open_quote}{open_quote}Mackay icosahedron{close_quote}{close_quote} clusters placed on all its nodes. The remaining atomic positions are based, as far as possible, on the known structure of {alpha}-AlMnSi. These models guarantee good local packing of the atoms, whose displacements away from {open_quote}{open_quote}ideal{close_quote}{close_quote} positions are specified by only a moderate number of parameters. Certain atomic sites are uncertain as regards their occupancy and/or chemistry; variations of the decoration rules on these sites must be compared, in order to discover the correct one. Our models are well adapted to be relaxed under an effective Hamiltonian to optimize the cohesive energy; we show how the energies found in such relaxations can be used to extract an effective tile-tile Hamiltonian, as would be needed for future studies of phason elasticity and the development of long-range order. In addition, we clarify concepts needed for decoration models in general (in particular, the ways in which elaborate, more realistic decorations may be evolved from simpler ones). We also show that these decoration models are closely related, but not identical, to quasiperiodic structures defined using six-dimensional formalism. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  2. National council on radiation protection and measurements (NCRP) program on nonionizing electromagnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Tenforde, T.S.

    1996-06-01

    The NCRP has undertaken several major report activities related to the possible human health effects of nonionizing electromagnetic fields. These activities are coordinated by Scientific Committee 89, with the charter to consider the following aspects of human exposure to electromagnetic fields: (a) dosimetry and exposure assessment, (b) mechanisms of interaction with biological systems, (c) biological responses and human health effects, (d) recommendations on acceptable exposure levels in occupational, medical, and public environments, and (e) procedures for mitigation of exposure in public and occupational settings. Committee 89 initiated its work in 1992, at which time there were three active subcommittees under its auspices: (1) Committee 89-1, chaired by D. Mahlum, on {open_quotes}Static Magnetic Fields,{close_quotes} (2) Committee 89-2 on {open_quotes}Practical Guidance on the Evaluation of Human Exposures to Radiofrequency Fields,{close_quotes} and (3) Committee 89-3, on {open_quotes}Extremely-Low Frequency Electric and magnetic Fields.{close_quotes} The report of Committee 89-2 was approved by NCRP and published as Report No. 119. The report of Committee 89-1 has been approved by NCRP and is in the final stages of editing prior Lo publication. The Committee 89-3 report is currently undergoing peer review. Two new NCRP report activities undertaken in 1995 are those of Committee 89-4, chaired by O.P. Gandhi, on {open_quotes}Modulated Radicifrequency Fields,{close_quotes} and Committee 89-5, chaired by J. C. Lin, on {open_quotes}Biological Effects and Exposure Criteria for Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields.{close_quotes} In addition, Committee 89 is involved in the final preparation for publication of the proceedings of the 1994 NCRP Annual Meeting on {open_quotes}Extremely-Low-Frequency Electromagnetic Fields: Issues in Biological Effects and Public Health.{close_quotes} Current activities and future directions of Committee 89 will be discussed.

  3. Recent decisions of the Federal Mine Safety and Health Review Commission related to personal and corporate liability

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrara, L.J.

    1995-12-31

    In virtually identical language in both the 1969 Coal Act and the 1977 Mine Act, Congress provided for the imposition of civil penalties on the agents of corporate mine operators for {open_quotes}knowingly{close_quotes} violating mandatory health or safety standards. These personal penalties were a key ingredient of Congress` purpose to {open_quotes}place the responsibility for compliance with the Act and the regulations, as well as the liability for violations on those who control or supervise the operation of coal mines as well as on those who operate them.{close_quotes} Some in Congress recognized, as a practical matter, the {open_quotes}awkward situation{close_quotes} of the corporate agent, {open_quotes}positioned somewhere between{close_quotes} these stringent statutes and his boss, the corporate operator; some also felt that the agent should not {open_quotes}bear the brunt of corporate violations.{close_quotes}. Few in industry or government would doubt the general proposition that a personal civil penalty is strong medicine. Now, some 25 and 18 years, respectively, after passage of the 1969 Coal Act and 1977 Mine Act, especially with legislative reform proposals swirling about in Congress, the mining community is at an appropriate juncture to ask how well this medicine has been administered and how well the patient has responded. It is not within this paper`s scope to offer a broad answer to that question. Rather, this paper more narrowly examines an important part of the larger question: how has the independent administrative agency established under the 1977 Mine Act to handle litigation arising under that statute, the Federal Mine Safety and Health Review Commission ({open_quotes}Commission{close_quotes}), interpreted and applied section 110(c) of the Act.

  4. Fault seal analysis: Methodology and case studies

    SciTech Connect

    Badley, M.E.; Freeman, B.; Needham, D.T.

    1996-12-31

    Fault seal can arise from reservoir/non-reservoir juxtaposition or by development of fault rock of high entry-pressure. The methodology for evaluating these possibilities uses detailed seismic mapping and well analysis. A {open_quote}first-order{close_quote} seal analysis involves identifying reservoir juxtaposition areas over the fault surface, using the mapped horizons and a refined reservoir stratigraphy defined by isochores at the fault surface. The {open_quote}second-order{close_quote} phase of the analysis assesses whether the sand-sand contacts are likely to support a pressure difference. We define two lithology-dependent attributes {open_quote}Gouge Ratio{close_quote} and {open_quote}Smear Factor{close_quote}. Gouge Ratio is an estimate of the proportion of fine-grained material entrained into the fault gouge from the wall rocks. Smear Factor methods estimate the profile thickness of a ductile shale drawn along the fault zone during faulting. Both of these parameters vary over the fault surface implying that faults cannot simply be designated {open_quote}sealing{close_quote} or {open_quote}non-sealing{close_quote}. An important step in using these parameters is to calibrate them in areas where across-fault pressure differences are explicitly known from wells on both sides of a fault. Our calibration for a number of datasets shows remarkably consistent results despite their diverse settings (e.g. Brent Province, Niger Delta, Columbus Basin). For example, a Shale Gouge Ratio of c. 20% (volume of shale in the slipped interval) is a typical threshold between minimal across-fault pressure difference and significant seal.

  5. Fault seal analysis: Methodology and case studies

    SciTech Connect

    Badley, M.E.; Freeman, B.; Needham, D.T. )

    1996-01-01

    Fault seal can arise from reservoir/non-reservoir juxtaposition or by development of fault rock of high entry-pressure. The methodology for evaluating these possibilities uses detailed seismic mapping and well analysis. A [open quote]first-order[close quote] seal analysis involves identifying reservoir juxtaposition areas over the fault surface, using the mapped horizons and a refined reservoir stratigraphy defined by isochores at the fault surface. The [open quote]second-order[close quote] phase of the analysis assesses whether the sand-sand contacts are likely to support a pressure difference. We define two lithology-dependent attributes [open quote]Gouge Ratio[close quote] and [open quote]Smear Factor[close quote]. Gouge Ratio is an estimate of the proportion of fine-grained material entrained into the fault gouge from the wall rocks. Smear Factor methods estimate the profile thickness of a ductile shale drawn along the fault zone during faulting. Both of these parameters vary over the fault surface implying that faults cannot simply be designated [open quote]sealing[close quote] or [open quote]non-sealing[close quote]. An important step in using these parameters is to calibrate them in areas where across-fault pressure differences are explicitly known from wells on both sides of a fault. Our calibration for a number of datasets shows remarkably consistent results despite their diverse settings (e.g. Brent Province, Niger Delta, Columbus Basin). For example, a Shale Gouge Ratio of c. 20% (volume of shale in the slipped interval) is a typical threshold between minimal across-fault pressure difference and significant seal.

  6. A geometrical method towards first integrals for dynamical systems

    SciTech Connect

    Labrunie, S.; Conte, R.

    1996-12-01

    We develop a method, based on Darboux{close_quote}s and Liouville{close_quote}s works, to find first integrals and/or invariant manifolds for a physically relevant class of dynamical systems, without making any assumption on these elements{close_quote} forms. We apply it to three dynamical systems: Lotka{endash}Volterra, Lorenz and Rikitake. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  7. Dynamics of melting argon clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Tanner, G.M.; Bhattacharya, A.; Nayak, S.K.; Mahanti, S.D.

    1997-01-01

    With increasing total energy, small atomic clusters show a {ital smooth} transition from a rigid solidlike to a floppy liquidlike {open_quotes}phase.{close_quotes} In certain clusters, depending on their structure and stability, this transition takes place over a finite energy range where both these {open_quotes}phases{close_quotes} coexist in a dynamical sense, whereas in others the transition does not involve a coexistence region and has been called {open_quotes}slushlike.{close_quotes} Previous studies in Ar{sub 13}, which belongs to the first kind, have established the energy variation of maximal Lyapunov exponent (MLE) and the dynamic structure factor (DSF) as {open_quotes}dynamical indicators{close_quotes} of this transition. To understand the general features of these dynamic indicators better, we investigated the dynamic properties of two clusters Ar{sub 19} and Ar{sub 17}. The former is a magic number cluster whose behavior is expected to be similar to Ar{sub 13}, whereas the latter which does not show a coexistence region belongs to the second kind. Ar{sub 19} shows a behavior similar to Ar{sub 13}. In Ar{sub 17}, we find that above the transition but close to it, the DSF still shows features exhibiting the interplay of a {open_quotes}hot solid{close_quotes}and a {open_quotes}cold liquid{close_quotes} as observed in the coexistence region of Ar{sub 13} and Ar{sub 19}. Unlike the bond length fluctuation which exhibits a rapid increase near the transition, the behavior of MLE is rather smooth and it does not serve as a good dynamical indicator of the transition in the Ar{sub 17} system. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  8. CIMFUELS: NPRA computer conference continues to grow

    SciTech Connect

    Latour, P.R.

    1997-01-01

    Process computer control has been a bedrock topic of NPRA computer conferences for many years. Traditionally this has included basic and advanced dynamic control, multivariable control (CMVPC), on-line optimization (CLRTO), scheduling, on-line integration and performance measures. These are the five active function of CIMFUELS that make money. Lately some have excluded scheduling and integration from {open_quotes}process control{close_quotes} but as they go closed loop, they become basic functions of {open_quotes}process control.{close_quotes} These new techniques to determine the financial performance of computer systems technology are discussed.

  9. Magnetic Dichroism in the Angular Distribution of Atomic Oxygen {bold 2}{ital p} Photoelectrons

    SciTech Connect

    Plotzke, O.; Pruemper, G.; Zimmermann, B.; Becker, U.; Kleinpoppen, H.

    1996-09-01

    A substantial difference in the angular distributions of 2{ital p} photoelectrons from polarized oxygen atoms was found for two antiparallel atomic polarizations. This magnetic dichroism was studied as a function of photon energy from 25 to 52eV. Our method extends traditional photoelectron angular distribution measurements of open shell atoms to {open_quote}{open_quote}complete{close_quote}{close_quote} experiments in similar to spin-resolved measurements. The observed dichroism allows a determination of the dipole matrix elements for the {epsilon}{ital s} and {epsilon}{ital d} photoelectrons and their phase difference including the sign. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  10. Counter guarantee options

    SciTech Connect

    Gunguli, B.

    1995-07-01

    In November 1994, the Government of India announced a set of guidelines which independent power producers (IPPs) would have to follow if they were to receive counter guarantees for their power projects. It simultaneously announced that no further counter guarantees would be given apart from the first eight projects (See {open_quotes}India`s Fast-Track Projects{close_quotes}) where they had already been promised. {open_quotes}No other project, beyond the first eight, will be given a counter guarantee under any circumstance,{close_quotes} says P. Abraham, special secretary in the Ministry of Power.

  11. Curing of freshly pasted plates (hydroset)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    The method of plate curing that is popularly followed is known as the [open quotes]hydroset[close quotes] process. This consists of taking the freshly pasted plates from the end of the posting oven and controlling the rate of drying over a period of some two to ten days, after which time the plate active material should contain at least 98% lead oxide and lead sulfate and less than 1% moisture. The plates are [open quotes]set-up[close quotes] and rigid enough so that they can be handled or processed by machine with minimum loss. Equipment requirements and processing details are discussed.

  12. Clean coal activities in Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Komoto, Mitsuaki

    1994-12-31

    Asia-Pacific coal use is expected to rapidly increase in the future, and the global environmental problems associated with coal utilization are of increasing concern. Japan, in addition to its commitment to the domestic development of the technology necessary for the cleaner use of coal (clean coal technology), actively promotes clean coal technologies internationally including {open_quotes}Desulphurization Technology-Related Model Projects{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}Joint Demonstration Projects Relating to Coal Production and Utilization Technologies.{close_quotes}

  13. Technical and economic evaluation of selected compact drill rigs for drilling 10,000 foot geothermal production wells

    SciTech Connect

    Huttrer, G.W.

    1997-11-01

    This report summarizes the investigation and evaluation of several {open_quotes}compact{close_quotes} drill rigs which could be used for drilling geothermal production wells. Use of these smaller rigs would save money by reducing mobilization costs, fuel consumption, crew sizes, and environmental impact. Advantages and disadvantages of currently-manufactured rigs are identified, and desirable characteristics for the {open_quotes}ideal{close_quotes} compact rig are defined. The report includes a detailed cost estimate of a specific rig, and an evaluation of the cost/benefit ratio of using this rig. Industry contacts for further information are given.

  14. High temperature fracture and fatigue of ceramics. Annual technical progress report No. 6, August 15, 1994--August 14, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, B.

    1996-04-01

    This report covers work done in the first year of our new contract {open_quotes}High Temperature Fracture and Fatigue of Ceramics,{close_quotes} which commenced in August, 1995 as a follow-on from our prior contract {open_quotes}Mechanisms of Mechanical Fatigue in Ceramics.{close_quotes} Our activities have consisted mainly of studies of the failure of fibrous ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) at high temperature; with a little fundamental work on the role of stress redistribution in the statistics of fracture and cracking in the presence of viscous fluids.

  15. Tank 241-S-102 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report

    SciTech Connect

    Huckaby, J.L.

    1995-05-31

    Tank 241-S-102 headspace gas and vapor samples were collected and analyzed to help determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank. The drivers and objectives of waste tank headspace sampling and analysis are discussed in {open_quotes}Program Plan for the Resolution of Tank Vapor Issues.{close_quotes} Tank 241-S-102 was vapor sampled in accordance with {open_quotes}Data Quality Objectives for Generic In-Tank Health and Safety Issue Resolution. {close_quotes}

  16. Tank 241-BY-103 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report

    SciTech Connect

    Huckaby, J.L.

    1995-05-05

    Tank 241-BY-103 headspace gas and vapor samples were collected and analyzed to help determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank. The drivers and objectives of waste tank headspace sampling and analysis are discussed in {open_quotes}Program Plan for the Resolution of Tank Vapor Issues.{close_quotes} Tank 241-BY-103 was vapor sampled in accordance with {open_quotes}Data Quality Objectives for Generic In-Tank Health and Safety Issue Resolution.{close_quotes}

  17. Tank 241-U-111 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report

    SciTech Connect

    Huckaby, J.L.

    1995-05-31

    Tank 241-U-111 headspace gas and vapor samples were collected and analyzed to help determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank. The drivers and objectives of waste tank headspace sampling and analysis are discussed in {open_quotes}Program Plan for the Resolution of Tank Vapor Issues.{close_quotes} Tank 241-U-111 was vapor sampled in accordance with {open_quotes}Data Quality Objectives for Generic In-Tank Health and Safety Issue Resolution.{close_quotes}

  18. Tank 241-U-107 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report

    SciTech Connect

    Huckaby, J.L.

    1995-05-31

    Tank 241-U-107 headspace gas and vapor samples were collected and analyzed to help determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank. The drivers and objectives of waste tank headspace sampling and analysis are discussed in {open_quotes}Program Plan for the Resolution of Tank Vapor Issues.{close_quotes} Tank 241-U-107 was vapor sampled in accordance with {open_quotes}Data Quality Objectives for Generic In-Tank Health and Safety Issue Resolution.{close_quotes}

  19. Bose-Einstein source of intermittency in hadronic interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Wibig, T.

    1996-04-01

    The multiparticle Bose-Einstein correlations are the source of {open_quote}{open_quote}intermittency{close_quote}{close_quote} in high energy hadronic collisions. The power-law-like increase of factorial moments with decreasing bin size is obtained by a complete event weighing technique with a Gaussian approximation of space-time particle emitting source shape. The value of the source size parameter is found to be higher than the common one fitted with the help of the standard Hanbury Brown{endash}Twiss procedure. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  20. Stability of 2{radical} (2) {times}2{radical} (2) oxygen ordered superstructures in YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 6+x}

    SciTech Connect

    Aligia, A.A.; Koval, S.; Migoni, R.

    1998-01-01

    We have compared the ground-state energy of several observed or proposed {open_quotes}2{radical} (2) {times}2{radical} (2) oxygen ordered superstructures{close_quotes} [{open_quotes}herringbone{close_quotes} structures (HS{close_quote}s)], with those of {open_quotes}chain superstructures{close_quotes} (CS{close_quote}s) (in which the O atoms of the basal plane are ordered in chains), for different compositions x in YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 6+x}. The model Hamiltonian contains (i) the Madelung energy, (ii) a term linear in the difference between Cu and O hole occupancies which controls charge transfer, and (iii) covalency effects based on known results for t-J models in one and two dimensions. The optimum distribution of charge is determined, minimizing the total energy, and depends on two parameters which are determined from known results for x=1 and x=0.5. We obtain that on the O lean side, only CS{close_quote}s are stable, while for x=7/8, a HS with regularly spaced O vacancies added to the x=1 structure is more stable than the corresponding CS for the same x. We find that the detailed positions of the atoms in the structure and long-range Coulomb interactions are crucial for the electronic structure, the mechanism of charge transfer, the stability of the different phases, and the possibility of phase separation. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

  1. Wholesale bakeries: A small-business guide. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-09-01

    Commercial baking is thought to be one of the world`s oldest industries, with evidence of commercial bakeries dating back to the Egyptians. In the late 19th century, technological innovations such as the development of {open_quotes}tame{close_quotes} yeast and the mechanization of bread kneading enabled mass production of baked goods. As a result, larger {open_quotes}wholesale{close_quotes} baking facilities began to replace smaller local bakeries. Today, there are over 3000 wholesale bakeries across the United States. This report is intended to provide information on the bakery business from the perspective of processes, issues, and challenges faced, including energy consumption of electrically driven equipment.

  2. Programmed cell death for defense against anomaly and tumor formation

    SciTech Connect

    Kondo, Sohei; Norimura, Toshiyuki; Nomura, Taisei

    1995-12-31

    Cell death after exposure to low-level radiation is often considered evidence that radiation is poisonous, however small the dose. Evidence has been accumulating to support the notion that cell death after low-level exposure to radiation results from activation of suicidal genes {open_quote}programmed cell death{close_quote} or {open_quote}apoptosis{close_quote} - for the health of the whole body. This paper gives experimental evidence that embryos of fruit flies and mouse fetuses have potent defense mechanisms against teratogenic or tumorigenic injury caused by radiation and carcinogens, which function through programmed cell death.

  3. Transition-metal complexes with sulfur ligands. 82. H{sub 2}S, S{sub 2}, and CS{sub 2} molecules as ligands in sulfur-rich [Ru(PPh{sub 3})`S{sub 4}] complexes (`S{sub 4}{sup 2-} = 1,2-Bis[(2-mercaptophenyl)thio]ethane(2-))

    SciTech Connect

    Sellmann, D.; Lechner, P.; Knoch, F.; Moll, M.

    1992-01-29

    Red (Ru(PPh{sub 3}){open_quote}S{sub 4}{close_quote}){sub x} ({open_quote}S{sub 4}{close_quote}{sup 2} = 1,2-bis((2-mercaptophenyl)thio)ethane(2-) reacts in liquid H{sub 2}S at -70 C to give (Ru(SH{sub 2})(PPh{sub 3}){open_quote}S{sub 4}{close_quote}) (1) which recrystallizes from H{sub 2}S-saturated THF as 1-THF in yellow-orange single crystals. 1-THF is the first of the rare and often very unstable H{sub 2}S complexes that could be characterized by X-ray crystallography and shows how H{sub 2}S in complexes with sulfur-dominated coordination spheres is stabilized by hydrogen bonds. 1 and 1-THF are rapidly oxidized by O{sub 2} to yield deep turquoise-blue (({mu}-S{sub 2})(Ru(PPh{sub 3}{open_quote}S{sub 4}{close_quote}){sub 2}) (2) which has a trans {eta}{sup 1}-{eta}{sup 1}-S{sub 2} bridge and exists in two diastereomeric forms as proved by X-ray structure determination of 2{center_dot}CH{sub 2}Cl{sub 2} and 2{center_dot}CS{sub 2}. Crystals of 2{center_dot}CH{sub 2}Cl{sub 2} are triclinic. The RuSSRu core in 2 is a chromophore and is described as delocalized 4c-6e {pi} system. A high degree of sulfur coordination at the Ru centers is assumed to be responsible for the unusual electronic properties of 2 compared with other {mu}-S{sub 2} complexes. Addition of CS{sub 2} to (Ru(PPh{sub 3}) {open_quote}S{sub 4}{close_quote}) fragments leads to formation of binuclear deep red ((Ru(PPh{sub 3}))({mu}-{open_quote}S{sub 4}{close_quote}CS{sub 2})(Ru(PPh{sub 3}){open_quote}S{sub 4}{close_quote})) (3; {open_quote}S{sub 4}{close_quote}CS{sub 2}{sup 2{minus}} = 2-))2-((2-mercaptophenyl)-thio)phenyl trithiocarbonate (2-)) that exists in two diastereomeric pairs of enantiomers. One pair was characterized by X-ray crystallography of 3{center_dot}CS{sub 2} that contains a bridging thioxanthate ligand in an unprecedented bonding mode. Crystals of 3{center_dot}CS{sub 2} are monoclinic, space group P1.

  4. New ligands for the asymmetric dihydroxylation

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, H.; King, S.B.; Richardson, P.

    1995-12-31

    The asymmetric dibydroxylation of olefins in the presence of cinchona alkaloid derivatives (the AD reaction) has proven to be a reliable method in organic syntheses. For most olefins, the enantioselectivities using the {open_quotes}standard{close_quotes} phathalazine ligands are excellent; however, facial selectivity is still moderate for some olefins. 2,3-Diphenyl pyrazinopyridazine (DPP) and anthraquinone (AQN) as spacers for the {open_quotes}pseudo enantiomeric{close_quotes} alkaloids dihydroquinidine (DHQD) or dihydroquinine (DHQ) give superior enantioselectivities for almost all olefins.

  5. Mixed constraint satisfaction: A framework for decision problems under incomplete knowledge

    SciTech Connect

    Fargier, H.; Lang, J.; Schiex, T.

    1996-12-31

    Constraint satisfaction is a powerful tool for representing and solving decision problems with complete knowledge about the world. We extend the CSP framework so as to represent decision problems under incomplete knowledge. The basis of the extension consists in a distinction between controllable and uncontrollable variables - hence the terminology {open_quotes}mixed CSP{close_quotes} - and a {open_quotes}solution{close_quotes} gives actually a conditional decision. We study the complexity of deciding the consistency of a mixed CSP. As the problem is generally intractable, we propose an algorithm for finding an approximate solution.

  6. Splitting a default theory

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, H.

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents mathematical results that can sometimes be used to simplify the task of reasoning about a default theory, by {open_quotes}splitting it into parts.{close_quotes} These so-called Splitting Theorems for default logic are related in spirit to {open_quotes}partial evaluation{close_quotes} in logic programming, in which results obtained from one part of a program are used to simplify the remainder of the program. In this paper we focus primarily on the statement and proof of the Splitting Theorems for default logic. We illustrate the usefulness of the results by applying them to an example default theory for commonsense reasoning about action.

  7. Flute vortices in a plasma with hot particles

    SciTech Connect

    Andrushchenko, Zh.N.; Pavlenko, V.P.; Cheremnykh, O.K.

    1992-01-01

    Flute perturbations in a plasma with {open_quotes}hot{close_quotes} are considered. Steady-state solutions are found which describe localized vortex structures. Two types of vortex solutions are considered: a dipolar vortex and a combination of a dipolar and a monopolar vortex. It is shown that the presence of {open_quotes}hot{close_quotes} particles has an effect on the region in which the vortex solutions exist in velocity space, which can give rise to a change in the particle flux leaving the plasma due to eddy convection. It is shown that the perturbed density profile in flute vortices must be nonmonotonic. 10 refs.

  8. Readiness assessment plan for the Radioactive Mixed Waste Land Disposal Facility (Trench 31)

    SciTech Connect

    Irons, L.G.

    1994-11-22

    This document provides the Readiness Assessment Plan (RAP) for the Project W-025 (Radioactive Mixed Waste Land Disposal Facility) Readiness Assessment (RA). The RAP documents prerequisites to be met by the operating organization prior to the RA. The RAP is to be implemented by the RA Team identified in the RAP. The RA Team is to verify the facility`s compliance with criteria identified in the RAP. The criteria are based upon the {open_quotes}Core Requirements{close_quotes} listed in DOE Order 5480.31, {open_quotes}Startup and Restart of Nuclear Facilities{close_quotes}.

  9. Filled skutterudite antimonides: Validation of the electron-crystal phonon-glass approach to new thermoelectric materials

    SciTech Connect

    Mandrus, D.; Sales, B.C.; Keppens, V.

    1997-04-01

    After a brief review of the transport and thermoelectric properties of filled skutterudite antimonides, the authors present resonant ultrasound, specific heat, and inelastic neutron scattering results that establish the existence of two low-energy vibrational modes in the filled skutterudite LaFe{sub 3}CoSb{sub 12}. It is likely that at least one of these modes represents the localized, incoherent vibrations of the La ion in an oversized atomic {open_quotes}cage{close_quotes}. These results support the usefulness of weakly bound, {open_quotes}rattling{close_quotes} ions for the improvement of thermoelectric performance.

  10. Outlook: Federal aid called vital. [High Speed Rail Transportation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-16

    When high speed rail (HSR) proponents survey the future of their emerging industry, they invariably pepper their forecasts with [open quotes]ifs,[close quotes] most keyed to financing. In a typical comment, Jim Betts says his agency is [open quotes]waiting for a realistic and plausible funding capability[close quotes] before starting work on the 3-C's Cleveland-Cincinnati line. Betts wants federal funding to go beyond loan guarantees or greater access to tax-exempt bonds. He favors a generous direct-subsidy formula - similar to the one that financed the Interstates - in which the federal government matched every dollar from the states with nine of its own.

  11. DOE TMD transportation training module 14 transportation of explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Griffith, R.L. Jr.

    1994-07-01

    The Department of Energy Transportation Management Division has developed training module 14, entitled {open_quotes}Transportation of Explosives{close_quotes} to compliment the basic {open_quotes}core ten{close_quotes} training modules of the Hazardous Materials Modular Training Program. The purpose of this training module is to increase awareness of the Department of Transportation (DOT) requirements concerning the packaging and transportation of explosives. Topics covered in module 14 include the classification of explosives, approval and registration of explosives, packaging requirements, hazard communication requirements, separation and segregation compatibility requirements, loading and unloading operations, as well as safety measures required in the event of a vehicle accident involving explosives.

  12. Lessons learned{emdash}DC-X

    SciTech Connect

    Steinmeyer, D.A.

    1996-03-01

    The DC-X was conceived and developed specifically to lay the ground work, for developing a data base of {open_quote}{open_quote}lessons learned{close_quote}{close_quote}, for significantly lowering the cost of space operations. Program content and execution as well as technical solutions were addressed. Additionally, methods and solutions used in the past (50s and 60s) were exercised to expose to a new generation the possibilities of what we now call rapid prototyping. (The first Thor was launched less than a year from contract start. The operational countdown achieved 3 years later was less than 15 minutes.) {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  13. Coal: More than silver linings

    SciTech Connect

    Doerell, P.E.

    1995-03-01

    While last year`s coal survey was subtitled {open_quotes}Less than lackluster{close_quotes} because of overproduction and depressed prices, the end of 1994 showed a definitely brighter picture. An indication was the recent attendance and the mood at the CoalTrans `94 Conference in Hamburg, the trade`s biggest meeting. This atmosphere was described by many of the 1,300 delegates as {open_quotes}bullish{close_quotes}, with coal traders and consumers actually chasing suppliers-a rare occurrence in recent years. The reason for optimism is, of course, the end of the worldwide recession, resulting in increasing coal demand which stabilizes prices.

  14. Radionuclide air emission report for the Hanford Site Calendar Year 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Diediker, L.P.; Curn, B.L.; Rhoads, K.; Damberg, E.G.; Soldat, J.K.; Jette, S.J.

    1994-08-01

    This report documents radionuclide air emissions from the Hanford Site in 1993 and the resulting effective dose equivalent to any member of the public. The report has been prepared and will be submitted in accordance with reporting requirements in the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, Protection of the Environment, Part 61, {open_quotes}National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants,{close_quotes} Subpart H, {open_quotes}National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities.{close_quotes}

  15. Studies in combustion dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Koszykowski, M.L.

    1993-12-01

    The goal of this program is to develop a fundamental understanding and a quantitative predictive capability in combustion modeling. A large part of the understanding of the chemistry of combustion processes comes from {open_quotes}chemical kinetic modeling.{close_quotes} However, successful modeling is not an isolated activity. It necessarily involves the integration of methods and results from several diverse disciplines and activities including theoretical chemistry, elementary reaction kinetics, fluid mechanics and computational science. Recently the authors have developed and utilized new tools for parallel processing to implement the first numerical model of a turbulent diffusion flame including a {open_quotes}full{close_quotes} chemical mechanism.

  16. Climate change: Clinton affirms binding emissions reduction policy

    SciTech Connect

    Fairley, P.

    1996-12-04

    In Australia last month President Clinton called for an international agreement to negotiate {open_quotes}legally binding commitments to fight climate change.{close_quotes} His comments affirmed the line the Administration adopted in July and lent prominence to the effort to bring about a treaty by December 1997. Environmentalists welcomed Clinton`s comments, but industry response is divided. The Global Climate Coalition (Washington), of which CMA is a member, has tried to slow negotiations by questioning the scientific consensus on climate change and suggesting {open_quotes}serious damage to the American economy{close_quotes} could result from emissions reduction.

  17. Induction-accelerator heavy-ion fusion: Status and beam physics issues

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, A.

    1996-01-26

    Inertial confinement fusion driven by beams of heavy ions is an attractive route to controlled fusion. In the U.S., induction accelerators are being developed as {open_quotes}drivers{close_quotes} for this process. This paper is divided into two main sections. In the first section, the concept of induction-accelerator driven heavy-ion fusion is briefly reviewed, and the U.S. program of experiments and theoretical investigations is described. In the second, a {open_quotes}taxonomy{close_quotes} of space-charge-dominated beam physics issues is presented, accompanied by a brief discussion of each area.

  18. Phase instability in ZrO{sub 2}{endash}NiAl functionally graded materials

    SciTech Connect

    He, Y.; Subramanian, V.; Lannutti, J.J.

    1997-10-01

    Sedimentation in organic solvents was followed by hot-pressing to produce 2 mole{percent} yttria stabilized zirconia-NiAl functionally graded materials (FGM{close_quote}s). These FGM{close_quote}s were better able to accommodate high levels of residual stress than alumina-NiAl FGM{close_quote}s; this is possibly due to enhanced tetragonal phase retention. However, we found that the zirconia layer in these FGM{close_quote}s subsequently experiences room temperature transformation of t-ZrO{sub 2} to m-ZrO{sub 2}. {copyright} {ital 1997 Materials Research Society.}

  19. Coupled spin-boson systems far from equilibrium

    SciTech Connect

    Salkola, M.I.; Bishop, A.R.; Kenkre, V.M.; Raghavan, S.

    1996-11-01

    Nonequilibrium quantum dynamics of a system comprising a (pseudo) spin-1/2 object coupled to a boson degree of freedom is studied. It is shown that the time evolution of the system is described by a set of elementary scattering processes. Through these processes the system approaches an equilibrium in which the spin is in a mixed state that on average maximizes its entropy. However, the irregular behavior of the system is unrelated to {open_quote}{open_quote}quantum chaos{close_quote}{close_quote} as the Hamiltonian is integrable. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  20. New FORTRAN computer programs to acquire and process isotopic mass spectrometric data: Operator`s manual

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.H.; McKown, H.S.

    1993-09-01

    This TM is one of a pair that describes ORNL-developed software for acquisition and processing of isotope ratio mass spectral data. This TM is directed at the laboratory analyst. No technical knowledge of the programs and programming is required. It describes how to create and edit files, how to acquire and process data, and how to set up files to obtain the desired results. The aim of this TM is to serve as a utilitarian instruction manual, a {open_quotes}how to{close_quotes} approach rather than a {open_quotes}why?{close_quotes}

  1. American National Standards and the DOE - A cooperative effort to promote nuclear criticality safety

    SciTech Connect

    Rothleder, B.M.

    1996-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) new criticality safety order, DOE Order 420.1 ({open_quotes}Facility Safety,{close_quotes} October 13, 1995), Sec. 4.3 ({open_quotes}Nuclear Criticality Safety{close_quotes}), invokes, as an integral part, 12 appropriate American National Standards Institute/American Nuclear Society (ANSI/ANS) Series-8 standards for nuclear criticality safety, but with modifications. (The order that 420.1/4.3 replaced also invoked some ANSI/ANS Series-8 standards.) These modifications include DOE operation-specific exceptions to the standards and elaborations on some of the wording in the standards.

  2. Tank 241-TX-118 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report

    SciTech Connect

    Huckaby, J.L.

    1995-05-31

    Tank 241-TX-118 headspace gas and vapor samples were collected and analyzed to help determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank. The drivers and objectives of waste tank headspace sampling and analysis are discussed in {open_quotes}Program Plan for the Resolution of Tank Vapor Issues.{close_quotes} Tank 241-TX-118 was vapor sampled in accordance with {open_quotes}Data Quality Objectives for Generic In-Tank Health and Safety Issue Resolution.{close_quotes}

  3. Encapsulation of palladium crystallites in carbon and the formation of wormlike nanostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Y. )

    1994-01-12

    This note reports the successful inclusion of cubic palladium crystals inside giant carbon clusters and the formation of novel wormlike carbon nanostructures (nanoworms). The head of the [open quotes]worm[close quotes] typically 20-50 nm in diameter, consists of palladium encapsulated in carbon, and the body of the [open quotes]worm[close quotes] several hundred nanometers in length, consists of many sections of carbon tubes with cone-shaped internal voids. The technique used to generate carbon-encapsulated palladium is the electric arc method. 17 refs., 3 figs.

  4. Bound states in Galilean-invariant quantum field theory

    SciTech Connect

    Corley, S.R.; Greenberg, O.W.

    1997-02-01

    We consider the nonrelativistic quantum mechanics of a model of two spinless fermions interacting via a two-body potential. We introduce quantum fields associated with the two particles as well as the expansion of these fields in asymptotic {open_quotes}in{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}out{close_quotes} fields, including such fields for bound states, in principle. We limit our explicit discussion to a two-body bound state. In this context we discuss the implications of the Galilean invariance of the model and, in particular, show how to include bound states in a strictly Galilean-invariant quantum field theory. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  5. Tank 241-C-112 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Huckaby, J.L.

    1995-05-31

    Tank 241-C-112 headspace gas and vapor samples were collected and analyzed to help determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank. The drivers and objectives of waste tank headspace sampling and analysis are discussed in {open_quotes}Program Plan for the Resolution of Tank Vapor Issues.{close_quotes} Tank 241-C-112 was vapor sampled in accordance with {open_quotes}Data Quality Objectives for Generic In-Tank Health and Safety Issue Resolution.{close_quotes}

  6. Filled skutterudite antimonides: Validation of the electron-crystal phonon-glass approach to new thermoelectric materials

    SciTech Connect

    Mandrus, D.; Dai, P.; Keppens, V.

    1997-04-01

    After a brief review of the transport and thermoelectric properties of filled skutterudite antimonides, we present resonant ultrasound, specific heat, and inelastic neutron scattering results that establish the existence of two low-energy vibrational modes in the filled skutterudite LaFe{sub 3}CoSb{sub 12}. It is likely that at least one of these modes represents the localized, incoherent vibrations of the La ion in an oversized atomic {open_quotes}cage.{close_quotes} These results support the usefulness of weakly bound, {open_quotes}rattling{close_quotes} ions for the improvement of thermoelectric performance.

  7. Derivative expansions of renormaliztion group effective potentials for {phi}{sup 4} field theories

    SciTech Connect

    Shepard, J.R.; McNeil, J.A.

    1995-10-01

    We approximate an exact Renormalization Group (RG) equation for the flow of the effective action of {phi}{sup 4} field theories by including next-to-leading order (NLO) terms in a derivative expansion. This level of approximation allows us to treat effects of wavefunction renormalization which are beyond the scope of the leading order (LO) formulation. We compare calculations based on a {open_quote}latticized {close_quotes} version of our RG equation in 3 Euclidean dimensions directly with Monte Carlo (MC) results and find excellent overall agreement as well as substantial improvement over LO calculations. We solve the continuum form of our equation to find the Wilson fixed point and determine the critical exponent {eta} (0.046). We also find the critical exponents {nu} (0.666) and {omega} (0.735). These latter two are in much improved agreement with {open_quote}world`s best{close_quotes} values com- pared to those obtained at LO (where no prediction for {eta} is possible). We also find that the {open_quote}universal potential{close_quote} determined via MC methods by Tsypin can be understood quantitatively using our NLO RG equations. Careful analysis shows that ambiguities which plague {open_quote}smooth cutoff{close_quotes} formulations do not arise with our RG equations.

  8. 7 CFR 1427.1202 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... daily price quotations are available for the LFQ for the foreign growth, quoted C/F Far East, the price... are available for the LFQ for foreign growths, quoted C/F Far East, the price quotation for cotton for... which only one daily price quotation is available for the growth, the lowest average for the...

  9. Effect of post-pattern annealing on the grain structure and reliability of Al-based interconnects

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, S.H.; Kim, C.; Morris, J.W. Jr.; Genin, F.Y.

    1996-06-01

    The possibility is addressed of improving the electromigration resistance of Al and Al{endash}Cu thin-film conductors with {open_quote}{open_quote}quasi-bamboo{close_quote}{close_quote} structures by post-pattern anneals that decrease the maximum polygranular segment length. Pure Al, Al{endash}2Cu, and Al{endash}2Cu{endash}1Si lines were patterned and annealed at temperatures high enough to stimulate grain growth. Appropriate anneals led to predominantly bamboo structures with short polygranular segments. These grain structures had a high median time to failure with a relatively low deviation of the time to failure. Metallographic analyses showed that polygranular segment length was a dominant factor in determining the failure site. Post-pattern annealing promotes a preferential shortening of the relatively long polygranular segments that cause early failures. However, even after annealing, failure occurred at the longest residual polygranular segments, even when these were significantly shorter than the {open_quote}{open_quote}Blech length{close_quote}{close_quote} under the test conditions. Statistical analysis of the failure of alloy lines revealed a simple exponential relation between the failure time and the longest polygranular segment length within a line, which is functionally identical to that previously found for lines tested in the as-patterned condition.

  10. Improving the Federal/State response to potential patterns of market failure in electricity, gas, and telecommunications

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, D.N.

    1996-11-01

    Taking seriously the overall panel question, {open_quotes}Will Light Regulation Promote the Public Interest in Market-Driven Utility Industries?,{close_quotes} the answer depends on (1) the reality of the last phrase, {open_quotes}market-driven utility industries,{close_quotes} and (2) timing. My answer is, {open_quotes}Possibly, but it is by no means certain.{close_quotes} This article centers on what needs to happen in various consumer protection activities to enhance the chances of a satisfactory outcome as we {open_quotes}let down our guard{close_quotes} from more traditional public utility regulation. The topics that I will briefly treat are (1) the worsened information asymmetry, (2) where substitute help might be found for consumer protection, (3) the reemergence of the diversification phenomenon, (4) the opportunities/problems of a dual system of regulation (federal/state) in the current context, and (5) the needed theoretical contributions that I hope our economics profession can make in advancing our knowledge of how oligopolistic markets really work.

  11. 75 FR 77034 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-10

    ... Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change To Clarify Market Maker Quote Management Procedures December 6, 2010... change to clarify market maker quote management procedures. The text of the proposed rule change is below...-quarter the applicable percentage necessary to trigger an individual stock trading pause as described...

  12. 77 FR 47472 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-08

    ... FR 37086 (``Notice''). The Commission notes that on August 2, 2012, the Exchange submitted Amendment...\\ According to the Exchange, the automated quote management functionality (``AQ'') offered by these rules is... present automated quote management functionality provided to market makers under Rules 4613(a)(2)(F)...

  13. The analysis of normative requirements to materials of PWR components, basing on LBB concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Anikovsky, V.V.; Karzov, G.P.; Timofeev, B.T.

    1997-04-01

    The paper discusses the advisability of the correction of Norms to solve in terms of material science the Problem: how the normative requirements to materials must be changed in terms of the concept {open_quotes}leak before break{close_quotes} (LBB).

  14. 78 FR 33010 - Airworthiness Directives; Saab AB, Saab Aerosystems Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-03

    ... Aircraft Maintenance Manual (AMM), which quotes an elevator position of 4 degrees trailing edge down for... rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); 3. Will not... by a report that the elevator position quoted in an aircraft maintenance manual is incorrect for...

  15. Stability of natural gas in the deep subsurface

    SciTech Connect

    Barker, C.

    1996-07-01

    Natural gas is becoming increasingly important as a fuel because of its widespread occurrence and because it has a less significant environmental impact than oil. Many of the known gas accumulations were discovered by accident during exploration for oil, but with increasing demand for gas, successful exploration will require a clearer understanding of the factors that control gas distribution and gas composition. Natural gas is generated by three main processes. In oxygen-deficient, sulfate-free, shallow (few thousand feet) environments bacteria generate biogenic gas that is essentially pure methane with no higher hydrocarbons ({open_quotes}dry gas{close_quotes}). Gas is also formed from organic matter ({open_quotes}kerogen{close_quotes}), either as the initial product from the thermal breakdown of Type III, woody kerogens, or as the final hydrocarbon product from all kerogen types. In addition, gas can be formed by the thermal cracking of crude oil in the deep subsurface. The generation of gas from kerogen requires higher temperatures than the generation of oil. Also, the cracking of oil to gas requires high temperatures, so that there is a general trend from oil to gas with increasing depth. This produces a well-defined {open_quotes}floor for oil{close_quotes}, below which crude oil is not thermally stable. The possibility of a {open_quotes}floor for gas{close_quotes} is less well documented and understanding the limits on natural gas occurrence was one of the main objectives of this research.

  16. Uncertainties in risk assessment at USDOE facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, L.D.; Holtzman, S.; Meinhold, A.F.; Morris, S.C.; Rowe, M.D.

    1994-01-01

    The United States Department of Energy (USDOE) has embarked on an ambitious program to remediate environmental contamination at its facilities. Decisions concerning cleanup goals, choices among cleanup technologies, and funding prioritization should be largely risk-based. Risk assessments will be used more extensively by the USDOE in the future. USDOE needs to develop and refine risk assessment methods and fund research to reduce major sources of uncertainty in risk assessments at USDOE facilities. The terms{open_quote} risk assessment{close_quote} and{open_quote} risk management{close_quote} are frequently confused. The National Research Council (1983) and the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA, 1991a) described risk assessment as a scientific process that contributes to risk management. Risk assessment is the process of collecting, analyzing and integrating data and information to identify hazards, assess exposures and dose responses, and characterize risks. Risk characterization must include a clear presentation of {open_quotes}... the most significant data and uncertainties...{close_quotes} in an assessment. Significant data and uncertainties are {open_quotes}...those that define and explain the main risk conclusions{close_quotes}. Risk management integrates risk assessment information with other considerations, such as risk perceptions, socioeconomic and political factors, and statutes, to make and justify decisions. Risk assessments, as scientific processes, should be made independently of the other aspects of risk management (USEPA, 1991a), but current methods for assessing health risks are based on conservative regulatory principles, causing unnecessary public concern and misallocation of funds for remediation.

  17. 77 FR 4068 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ OMX PHLX LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-26

    ... Member Fees'' and also add four subsections: (1) A. Options Trading Floor Fees; (2) B. Port Fees; (3) C...\\ Streaming Quote Trader (``SQT'') Fees, Remote Streaming Quote Trader (``RSQT'') Fees, Options Trading Floor... for SQT Fees and a subsection C for RSQT Fees. All other fees, including the Options Trading...

  18. Operational mode analysis of the maps NTP system

    SciTech Connect

    Linet, F.L.; Bernard, S.; Carruge, D.; Poitevin, Y.; Raepsaet, X.

    1996-03-01

    Within the framework of the french NTP program MAPS, the analysis of the (start-up/shut-down) transient sequences whose negative impact on the specific impulsion Isp is important, requires the evaluation of the hydrogen system performance and consequently the development of a simulation computer program. This work induces a preliminary evaluation of the hydrogen system performance under nominal operating conditions. A first approach of the transient operating mode has been simultaneously performed; more specifically the evolution of the core during a shut-down sequence has been studied in order to improve the residual power evacuation and optimize necessary hydrogen amounts for cooling. Furthermore the {open_quote}{open_quote}SIMAPS{close_quote}{close_quote} computer program based on the 3D thermohydraulic code {open_quote}{open_quote}FLICA 4{close_quote}{close_quote} is being developed to analyze transient process and its benchmarking under nominal conditions is under way. Its summary presentation is given in conclusion. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  19. 7 CFR 1427.25 - Determination of the prevailing world market price and the adjusted world price for upland cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    .../32-inch) cotton, CFR (cost and freight) Far East, the prevailing world market price for upland cotton... lowest-priced growths of the growths quoted for M 13/32-inch cotton, CFR Far East. (2) During the period... growths quoted for M 13/32-inch cotton, CFR Far East, the prevailing world market price for upland...

  20. 7 CFR 1427.25 - Determination of the prevailing world market price and the adjusted world price for upland cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    .../32-inch) cotton, CFR (cost and freight) Far East, the prevailing world market price for upland cotton... lowest-priced growths of the growths quoted for M 13/32-inch cotton, CFR Far East. (2) During the period... growths quoted for M 13/32-inch cotton, CFR Far East, the prevailing world market price for upland...

  1. 7 CFR 1427.25 - Determination of the prevailing world market price and the adjusted world price for upland cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    .../32-inch) cotton, CFR (cost and freight) Far East, the prevailing world market price for upland cotton... lowest-priced growths of the growths quoted for M 13/32-inch cotton, CFR Far East. (2) During the period... growths quoted for M 13/32-inch cotton, CFR Far East, the prevailing world market price for upland...

  2. 7 CFR 1427.25 - Determination of the prevailing world market price and the adjusted world price for upland cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    .../32-inch) cotton, CFR (cost and freight) Far East, the prevailing world market price for upland cotton... lowest-priced growths of the growths quoted for M 13/32-inch cotton, CFR Far East. (2) During the period... growths quoted for M 13/32-inch cotton, CFR Far East, the prevailing world market price for upland...

  3. 7 CFR 1427.25 - Determination of the prevailing world market price and the adjusted world price for upland cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    .../32-inch) cotton, CFR (cost and freight) Far East, the prevailing world market price for upland cotton... lowest-priced growths of the growths quoted for M 13/32-inch cotton, CFR Far East. (2) During the period... growths quoted for M 13/32-inch cotton, CFR Far East, the prevailing world market price for upland...

  4. Innovative rates: Using market forces to become more competitive and achieve DSM goals

    SciTech Connect

    Slaboszewicz, C.

    1994-12-31

    Electric and gas utilities are perhaps the last remaining industries to describe their charges to customers as {open_quotes}rates{close_quotes} rather than {open_quotes}prices.{close_quotes} Tellingly, their customers are more often known as {open_quotes}ratepayers.{close_quotes} As competition becomes a reality, the successful utilities will be those companies who change quickly, not just to respond to their customers` needs, but also to take advantage of market economics. For this is becoming a brave new world where profits will be determined by efficiency and service rather than regulatory fiat. Innovative rates - {open_quotes}creative pricing{close_quotes} in most industries - have tremendous power to help utilities become more competitive by improving efficiency. Successful utilities will use these rates to sell more kilowatthours per kilowatt of generating capacity, spend less on fuel per kilowatthour generated, even reduce employee costs per customer. Studies of time-of-use, interruptible, curtailable, and real-time utility prices have shown consistent and reliable benefits, resting on a foundation of market economics going back to the 18th century. This paper reviews a few of those studies, focusing on the simplest type of innovative rate - time-of-use - with the greatest potential impact. It also reviews how market forces, and the resulting effect on pricing, led to an efficiency increase of 30% for U.S. airlines in only a decade. Similarly dramatic effects can be expected for gas and electric utilities.

  5. Exclusive and inclusive b {yields} ulv studies using neutrino reconstruction techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Gibbons, L.; Roberts, E.; Thorndike, E.

    1995-04-01

    Because of the excellent hermeticity of the CLEO II detector at the Cornell Electron Storage Ring (CESR), the measured missing energy and momentum provide useful information about the neutrino momentum in semileptonic B decays. The authors present new analyses of exclusive and inclusive b {yields} ulv decays based on {open_quotes}neutrino reconstruction{close_quotes} techniques.

  6. 78 FR 73577 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-06

    ... managing risk and the manner in which they enter orders and quotes, allowing them to quote more... employ their risk management tools using a percentage-based trigger, while the Exchange cannot employ... personal identifying information from submissions. You should submit only information that you wish to...

  7. Final report for LDRD project learning efficient hypermedia navigation

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Pang; Laguna, G.

    1997-08-01

    This report documents the work performed under the Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) grant {open_quotes}Learning Efficient Hypermedia Navigation.{close_quotes} The bulk of the work is contained in the software developed for the WWW and a copy of the software demonstrating its use has been submitted to the LDRD office.

  8. Quantum nonlinear resonance and quantum chaos in Aharonov-Bohm oscillations in mesoscopic semiconductor rings

    SciTech Connect

    Berman, G.P.; Bulgakov, E.N.; Campbell, D.K.; Krive, I.V.

    1997-10-01

    We consider Aharonov-Bohm oscillations in a mesoscopic semiconductor ring threaded by both a constant magnetic flux and a time-dependent, resonant magnetic field with one or two frequencies. Working in the ballistic regime, we establish that the theory of {open_quotes}quantum nonlinear resonance{close_quotes} applies, and thus that this system represents a possible solid-state realization of {open_quotes}quantum nonlinear resonance{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}quantum chaos.{close_quotes} In particular, we investigate the behavior of the time-averaged electron energy at zero temperature in the regimes of (i) an isolated quantum nonlinear resonance and (ii) the transition to quantum chaos, when two quantum nonlinear resonances overlap. The time-averaged energy exhibits sharp resonant behavior as a function of the applied constant magnetic flux, and has a staircase dependence on the amplitude of the external time-dependent field. In the chaotic regime, the resonant behavior exhibits complex structure as a function of flux and frequency. We compare and contrast the quantum chaos expected in these mesoscopic {open_quotes}solid-state atoms{close_quotes} with that observed in Rydberg atoms in microwave fields, and discuss the prospects for experimental observation of the effects we predict. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  9. 78 FR 4914 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ OMX PHLX LLC; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change To Amend...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ OMX PHLX LLC; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change To Amend Performance Evaluations With Respect to Quote Submissions of Streaming Quote Traders and Remote...

  10. High performance systems

    SciTech Connect

    Vigil, M.B.

    1995-03-01

    This document provides a written compilation of the presentations and viewgraphs from the 1994 Conference on High Speed Computing given at the High Speed Computing Conference, {open_quotes}High Performance Systems,{close_quotes} held at Gleneden Beach, Oregon, on April 18 through 21, 1994.

  11. Implementation of ISO guide 25 in a medical dosimetry secondary standards calibration laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    DeWerd, L.A.

    1995-12-31

    Currently, there is a great deal of discussion among industry and government agencies about ISO 9000 accreditation. U.S. manufacturers with ISO 9000 accreditation are regarded more favorably by European countries. The principles behind the ISO 9000 accreditation are based on the Total Quality Management (TQM) principles that are being implemented in many U.S. industries. This paper will deal only with the calibration issue. There is a difference in the areas covered by ISO 9000 and ISO Guide 25 documents. ISO 9000, in particular ISO 9001 - ISO 9003, cover the {open_quotes}calibration{close_quotes} of inspection, measuring and test equipment. This equipment is basically used for {open_quotes}factory calibrations{close_quotes} to determine that equipment is performing within manufacturer specifications. ISO Guide 25 is specifically for {open_quotes}calibration and testing laboratories,{close_quotes} generally laboratories that have painstaking procedures to reduce uncertainties and establish high accuracy of the transfer of calibration. The experience of the University of Wisconsin Accredited Dosimetry Calibration Laboratory in conforming to ISO Guide 25 will be outlined. The entire laboratory staff must become familiar with the process and an individual with direct authority must become the one to maintain the quality of equipment and calibrations in the role of {open_quotes}quality-assurance manager.{close_quotes}

  12. PRAL/DISTRACT: A platform for distributed active objects applications

    SciTech Connect

    Roux, P.; Fouquier, G.; Bras, D.

    1995-12-31

    The object-oriented approach is now widely used in the world of sequential programming and is very promising for concurrent programming. Object-oriented models generally provide concurrency by allowing asynchronous message passing. Each object can be seen as an autonomous entity, called {open_quotes}active object{close_quotes}, with its own computing resources. The purpose of this paper is to describe a language, PRAL, based on the notion of active object, and its implementation. PRAL is a compiled language whose target code is a C++ extension, called {open_quotes}DISTRACT{close_quotes}. It permits the distribution of active objects on several logical sites, which can be on different workstations, by using the notion of execution kernel, that is the computing resource giving autonomy to the active objects. Several execution kernels can be chosen among SUN`s {open_quotes}lightweight process{close_quotes}, Solaris {open_quotes}threads{close_quotes}, Motif or XView notifier. All these capabilities make PRAL/DISTRACT very efficient and interesting when developing distributed object oriented applications.

  13. Reply to Reichardt

    SciTech Connect

    Elsas, L.J. II

    1995-10-01

    We thank Dr. Reichardt for carefully scrutinizing table 2 in Elsas et al. for attribution of mutations. He is concerned about the S135L mutation, which we attributed to Reichardt and Woo instead of Reichardt et al. In Reichardt et al., he describes the S135L as a {open_quotes}polymorphism{close_quotes} that {open_quotes}encodes almost normal activity{close_quotes}. Typographical errors did inadvertently attribute the R333G and K334R mutations to Reichardt rather than to Leslie et al. and the L195P to Leslie et al. rather than to Reichardt et al.. In this dynamic field, it is sometimes difficult to acknowledge description of a given {open_quotes}mutation.{close_quotes} For example, although N314D was identified in 1991, it was first recognized as associated with the Duarte biochemical phenotype in 1992, and its prevalence was defined in 1994. Lin et al. confirmed its association with the Duarte phenotype and found four N314D alleles in 95 biochemically defined G-alleles. Lin et al. found no {open_quotes}additional nucleotide substitutions in the entire [galactose-l-phosphate uridyl transferase] GALT region.{close_quotes} The article by Elsas et al. suggests that he missed non-Q188R G-alleles associated with the generally prevalent N314D allele (5.9% in the general population). 8 refs.

  14. 78 FR 70615 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Miami International Securities Exchange LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-26

    ... Exchange Act Release No. 70137 (August 8, 2013), 78 FR 49586 (August 14, 2013) (SR-MIAX-2013-39). The... to connect additional Limited Service Ports to independent servers that host their eQuote and purge... using the same server for all of their Market Maker quoting activity. By using the Limited Service...

  15. Stranded on the road to electricity competition

    SciTech Connect

    Maloney, M.T.; McCormick, R.E.; Sauer, R.D.

    1997-12-31

    If competition is given free rein, the law of supply and demand will drive down the cost of producing power. In the best-case scenario, consumers may see as much as a 40-percent reduction in the price of electricity in the long run, say Michael T. Maloney, Robert E. McCormick, and Raymond D. Sauer, professors of economics at Clemson University in Clemson, South Carolina. A regulatory monopoly is doomed to failure, the authors say, because under that system {open_quotes}the more a firm spends, the more money it is allowed to make for its shareholders.{close_quotes} In addition, the authors discount the notion that government should bail out utilities for their capital investments-or stranded costs-during a transition period. {open_quotes}Efficient firms that invest prudently are rewarded with lower costs of capital in competitive markets, and this will remain so for competitive producers of electricity,{close_quotes} the authors say. {open_quotes}Any utility that is allowed to recover some or all of its stranded costs by regulatory fiat in the transition to competition will receive an economic windfall that will not cause it to change its behavior.{close_quotes} In fact, stranded costs are primarily the result of the experiment with nuclear energy. {open_quotes}Consumers are still paying for the cost overruns,{close_quotes} the authors say.

  16. 78 FR 57669 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-19

    ... Proposed Rule Change Proposing To Modify the Manner in Which It Calculates Volume, Liquidity and Quoting... proposes to modify the manner in which it calculates volume, liquidity and quoting thresholds applicable to... statements concerning the purpose of, and basis for, the proposed rule change and discussed any comments...

  17. 76 FR 20034 - Louisiana All Snax, Inc.; Dismissal of Proceeding

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-11

    ... (quoting David L. Wood, M.D., 72 FR 54936, 54937 (2007) (quoting Ronald J. Riegel, D.V.M., 63 FR 67132... moot. See, e.g., Riegel, 63 FR at 67133. Order Pursuant to the authority vested in me by 21 U.S.C. 823... Enforcement Administration Louisiana All Snax, Inc.; Dismissal of Proceeding On January 21, 2010, the...

  18. Uncovering the Math Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Marilyn

    2014-01-01

    Teachers often express to Marulyn Burns their worry about the need to "cover the curriculum." In response, she draws on one of her favorite quotes: "You don't want to cover a subject; you want to uncover it." This quote is from "The Having of Wonderful Ideas and Other Essays on Teaching and Learning" by Eleanor…

  19. 78 FR 12092 - John V. Scalera; Decision and Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-21

    ... safety. Id. `` hese factors are * * * considered in the disjunctive.'' Robert A. Leslie, 68 FR 15227.... Medicine Shoppe-Jonesborough, 73 FR 364, 387 (2008) (quoting Samuel S. Jackson, 72 FR 23848, 23853 (2007) (quoting Leo R. Miller, 53 FR 21931, 21932 (1988))). ``Moreover, because `past performance is the...

  20. Extractive concentration and individual determination of chlorophenols in waste waters

    SciTech Connect

    Korenman, Y.I.; Niftaliev, S.I.

    1995-08-01

    Extraction-photometric and extraction gas-chromatographic methods for the individual determination of mono- and polychlorophenols, concentrated by hydrophilic and hydrophobic extractants, are described. Conditions for the photometric and chromatographic separation of chlorophenols are specified. An {open_quotes}added-found{close_quotes} technique is used to check the methods; the results obtained have been processed statistically.

  1. 78 FR 68113 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change, as...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-13

    ... Electronic Complex Orders in the Consolidated Book,\\6\\ unless individual orders or quotes in the Consolidated Book can execute against incoming Electronic Complex Orders, subject to specified conditions, in which... automatically execute against individual quotes or orders in the Consolidated Book, provided that the...

  2. Present status and prospects of nuclear power development in China

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao Ren-kai

    1994-12-31

    With the expansion of China`s {open_quotes}Reform and Opening to outside world{close_quotes} policy, the national economy growth was increased very rapidly. For continuous, stable and fast development of national economy, the safe, clean and economic nuclear energy will be developed with brilliant prospects in China.

  3. Feedback stabilization of the resistive shell mode in a tokamak fusion reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Fitzpatrick, R.

    1997-07-01

    Stabilization of the {open_quotes}resistive shell mode{close_quotes} is vital to the success of the {open_quotes}advanced tokamak{close_quotes} concept. The most promising reactor relevant approach is to apply external feedback using, for instance, the previously proposed {open_quotes}fake rotating shell{close_quotes} scheme [R. Fitzpatrick and T. H. Jensen, Phys. Plasmas {bold 3}, 2641 (1996)]. This scheme, like other simple feedback schemes, only works if the feedback controlled conductors are located inside the {open_quotes}critical radius{close_quotes} at which a perfectly conducting shell is just able to stabilize the ideal external kink mode. In general, this is not possible in a reactor, since engineering constraints demand that any feedback controlled conductors be placed {ital outside} the neutron shielding blanket (i.e., relatively far from the edge of the plasma). It is demonstrated that the fake rotating shell feedback scheme can be modified so that it works even when the feedback controlled conductors are located well beyond the critical radius. The gain, bandwidth, current, and total power requirements of such a feedback system for a reactor sized plasma are estimated to be less than 100, a few Hz, a fews tens of kA, and a few MW, respectively. These requirements could easily be met using existing technology. It is concluded that feedback stabilization of the resistive shell mode is possible in a tokamak fusion reactor. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  4. Russia`s nuke complex: A case for downsizing

    SciTech Connect

    Bukharin, O.

    1995-07-01

    Nuclear weapons stored in former Soviet republics, uncontrolled export of bomb-grade nuclear materials, and recruitment of ex-Soviet nuclear physicists by Third-World nations remain today`s top proliferation risks, reports Oleg Bukharin, a visiting researcher at Princeton University`s Center for Energy and Environment Studies. To address these risks, Russia {open_quotes}must shift its weapons production and development to weapons dismantlement, management of weapons materials, and maintenance of a much smaller...arsenal,{close_quotes} Bukharin writes. The goal of such conversion, he says, {open_quotes}is a nuclear complex that is environmentally safe...and compatible with nonproliferation objectives.{close_quotes} Reconfiguration of Russia`s weapons complex also must provide for redeployment of the hundreds of thousands of scientists, engineers, and technicians who have supported the federation`s nuclear weapons program, Bukharin insists. {open_quotes}A truly durable strategy to prevent the dispersion of Russian weapons expertise must [involve] these weapons experts in non-weapons research,{close_quotes} says Bukharin. Furthermore, Bukharin writes, the Russian conversion program must prevent nuclear materials from falling into the wrong hands. {open_quotes}Widespread corruption, crime, and emerging black markets increase the risk of diversion of weapons-grade uranium or plutonium,{close_quotes} he says.

  5. On-line characterization of peroxidation intermediates of NAD{sup +} by CE-ESI-MS

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Zhongxi; Udseth, H.R.; Smith, R.D.

    1995-12-31

    Equine liver alcohol dehydrogenase (LADH) is one of the NAD-dependent enzymes with various physiological functions. LADH also exhibits several alternative catalytic activities. Among them, the most unusual one is the LADH-catalyzed degradation of NAD+ in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. A two-step reaction mechanism has been proposed for this enzymatic peroxidation. In the first (fast) step, NAD+ catalyzed by LADH is converted to a (so far) unidentified intermediate: {open_quotes}compound I{close_quotes}. The following slower step is enzyme independent and consists of at least two distinct processes; one of them leads to another unknown substance: {open_quotes}compound Y{close_quotes} which is the product of further reaction of {open_quotes}compound I{close_quotes} with excess H{sub 2}O{sub 2}; another process converts {open_quotes}compound I{close_quotes} to adenosine(5{prime})- diphospho(5)-{Beta}-D-ribose-NHCH=C(CHO)CONH{sub 2} (NADX) if catalase is added to destroy excess H{sub 2}O{sub 2} soon after the end of the faster enzymatic step. One of the advantages of capillary electrophoresis (CE) is its fast operation cycle, which could be utilized to monitor relatively slow reaction processes. Capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry (CE-MS) has the capability of high resolution separations coupled with highly sensitive and selective detection providing crucial molecular weight and structural information.

  6. Erratum: Letter to the Editor: Exclusion of primary congenital glaucoma (buphthalmos) from two candidate regions of chromosome arm 6p and chromosome 11

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-01

    This {open_quotes}Letter to the Editor{close_quotes} is the reprint of a corrected table from a previous paper about the exclusion of primary congenital glaucoma from two candidate regions of chromosome arm 6p and chromosome 11.

  7. What`s in a name? Chromosome 22q abnormalities and the DiGeorge, velocardiofacial and conotruncal anomalies face syndromes

    SciTech Connect

    Wulfsberg, E.A.; Leana-Cox, J.; Neri, G.

    1996-11-11

    The recent advances in our understanding of the phenotype associated with deletion of the DiGeorge Chromosome Region (DGCR) at 22q11.2 are in many ways analogous to the fable about the blind men and the elephant. Originally described as three distinct phenotypes (DiGeorge (DG) syndrome, velocardiofacial (VCF) syndrome, and the conotruncal anomalies face (CTAF) syndrome), it is now clear that there is only a single broad and variable phenotype associated with deletion of the DGCR. As in the fable, distinguished clinicians approached this phenotypic {open_quotes}elephant{close_quotes} from different perspectives and provided three separate, although overlapping descriptions. Our analogy to this fable is not to imply some {open_quotes}blindness{close_quotes} on the part of these clinicians, but rather to point out the well-known difficulty in delineating the indistinct phenotypic boundaries of a syndrome until a genetic or biochemical marker for the condition is available. The recent availability of a fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) probe to detect deletion of the DGCR now allows delineation of the broad phenotype of our {open_quotes}elephant{close_quotes} which spans from lethal DG phenotypes through the intermediate VCF and CTAF phenotypes to the newly recognized {open_quotes}mild{close_quotes} phenotype consisting of only developmental delays and subtle facial abnormalities. 33 refs.

  8. Tertiary tectonic in the Tehuantepec Isthmus, Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez, F.A.

    1993-02-01

    A microplate model in the basement was proposed according to photointerpretation of satellite imagery and supported with microtectonic studies in the Tehuantepec's Isthmus. The microplate is located in the northwestern part of the [open quotes]Sierra de Chiapas,[close quotes] and structurally has lineaments that correspond with sinestral wrench faults oriented northeast-southwest and dextral faults oriented northwest-southeast. In the front of the microplate, these faults are joined in an arc form. The microplate began its movement forward to the north in the middle Tertiary. This movement originated in a regional compressional stress that was younger to the north. The stress changed the orientation of the anticline axis from northwest-southeast to west-east. In its western limit, the stress produces a sinestral shear stress that built a rotational deformation in the [open quotes]Sierra Atravesada,[close quotes] and represents a superimposed tectonic block over an ancient (laramide) orogeny. This system has also produced other secondary transtensional effects oriented northwest-southeast, represented along the [open quotes]Depression Central del Istmo.[close quotes] The microplate has formed a tensional system opening the [open quotes]Superior, Inferior, and Mar Muerto[close quotes] lagoons. The microplate is strongly related with the relief, seismic activity, and the tectonics of the salt of the Tehuantepec's Isthmus.

  9. Comparison of several Russian populations by vital statistics and frequency of genes causing hereditary pathology

    SciTech Connect

    El`chinova, G.I.; Mamedova, R.A.; Brusintseva, O.V.; Ginter, E.K.

    1994-11-01

    Distances computed from vital statistics using the Euclid formula and thus termed {open_quotes}vital{close_quotes} are proposed for use in population studies. An example of use of these statistics for comparison of four large geographically separated Russian populations is given. 9 refs., 1 tab.

  10. Engineering analyses of large precision cathode strip chambers for GEM

    SciTech Connect

    Horvath, J.A.; Belser, F.C.; Pratuch, S.M.; Wuest, C.R.; Mitselmakher, G.; Gordeev, A.; Johnson, C.V.; Polychronakos, V.A.; Golutvin, I.A.

    1993-10-21

    Structural analyses of large precision cathode strip chambers performed up to the date of this publication are documented. Mechanical property data for typical chamber materials are included. This information, originally intended to be an appendix to the {open_quotes}CSC Structural Design Bible,{close_quotes} is presented as a guide for future designers of large chambers.

  11. Risk management on international power projects

    SciTech Connect

    Howell, G.E.

    1995-06-01

    All human endeavor involves risk. The success or failure of any venture depends on how we manage it. More specifically, design and construction of large, complex international power generation projects involves multiple disciplines and project interfaces that can pose particular problems in bringing projects to completion on time, within budget and with the required quality and functionality. Each of the adjectives {open_quotes}large,{close_quotes} {open_quotes}complex,{close_quotes} {open_quotes}international{close_quotes} and {close_quotes}power generation{close_quotes} adds its own unique set of risks. Occurrence of one such risk can make the project vulnerable to other risks. These can subsequently cascade into consequences that threaten the viability of the project and even of its sponsors. This review of Risk Management illustrates different perspectives of risk and the need for proper management, and some tools for doing just that. Risk affects the full range of disciplines involved in the identification, design, development, finance, construction, operation and maintenance of a project. The management of risk consequently demands input from those same disciplines. Those charged with the development and operation of a risk management must have first-hand knowledge of the range and diversity of hazards that may beset an international cogeneration project. They must also be skilled in risk management techniques to avoid or mitigate their impact.

  12. 75 FR 18929 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change by New York Stock Exchange LLC Amending Rule 70 in Order To Update Functionality Relating to the Entry of D-Quotes and Pegging E-Quotes April...

  13. 76 FR 20034 - Calvin Ramsey, M.D.; Revocation of Registration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-11

    ..., M.D., 66 FR 18305 (2001); Vincent J. Scolaro, 67 FR 42060 (2002)). Neither of these case support... a registration issued to a practitioner who lacks .' '' Id. at 3 (quoting Roy Chi Lung, 74 FR 20346.... (quoting Roger A. Rodriguez, 70 FR 33206, 33207 (2005)), ``and even where there is a judicial challenge...

  14. 78 FR 62694 - Hoi Y. Kam, M.D.; Decision and Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-22

    ..., 73 FR 364, 387 (2008) (quoting Samuel S. Jackson, 72 FR 23848, 23853 (2007) (quoting Leo R. Miller, 53 FR 21931, 21932 (1988))). ``Moreover, because `past performance is the best predictor of future... disjunctive.'' Robert A. Leslie, 68 FR 15227, 15230 (2003). I may rely on any one or a combination of...

  15. 76 FR 52032 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-19

    ... of Proposed Rule Change To Offer a Bulk-Quoting Interface August 15, 2011. Pursuant to Section 19(b.... Purpose The Exchange currently offers an order-based market making interface for the BATS Options trading... proposes to introduce a bulk-quoting interface for market makers in order to offer an additional...

  16. 76 FR 13688 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; C2 Options Exchange, Incorporated; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-14

    ... the Exchange may determine on a class-by-class basis which electronic allocation algorithm \\6\\ would... with the allocation algorithm in effect for the option class), then to limit orders and quotes at the opening price (with multiple orders and quotes ranked in accordance with the allocation algorithm...

  17. 77 FR 23531 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ OMX PHLX LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-19

    ... Exchange Act Release No. 58828 (October 21, 2008), 73 FR 63749 (October 27, 2008) (SR-CBOE-2008-107). \\4\\ See Securities Exchange Act Release No. 60854 (October 21, 2009) 74 FR 55613 (October 28, 2009) (SR... apply to Streaming Quote Traders (``SQTs''), \\5\\ Remote Streaming Quote Traders (``RSQTs'') \\6\\...

  18. 78 FR 24280 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ OMX PHLX LLC; Order Approving a Proposed Rule Change, as...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-24

    ... (January 18, 2013), 78 FR 5518. \\2\\ In Partial Amendment No. 1, the Exchange provided clarification for the... Modified by Amendment No. 1, To Amend Exchange Rules 507 and 1014 To Establish Remote Streaming Quote... Exchange Rules 507 and 1014 to establish Remote Streaming Quote Trader Organizations. The proposed...

  19. 75 FR 10535 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-08

    ...), 75 FR 479 (January 5, 2010) (SR-NYSEAmex-2009-81). The Exchange notes that similar changes are... other e-Quotes \\7\\ containing pegging instructions eligible to participate in the closing transaction in... Equities Rule 70, Supplementary Material .25. \\7\\ See definition of e-Quotes NYSE Amex Equities Rule...

  20. 76 FR 24523 - Sun & Lake Pharmacy, Inc.; D/B/A the Medicine Shoppe; Revocation of Registration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-02

    ... (quoting Medic-Aid Pharmacy, 55 FR 30043, 30044 (1990)); see also Frank's Corner Pharmacy, 60 FR 17574... (quoting Bob's Pharmacy & Diabetic Supplies, 74 FR 19599, 19601 (2009); United Prescriptions Servs., Inc., 72 FR 50397, 50408 (2007)). Moreover, the ALJ also cited Agency precedent that, under the CSA,...

  1. Clinical and molecular studies in full trisomy 22: Further delineation of the phenotype and review of the literature. Reply to Dr. Robinson and Dr. Kalousek

    SciTech Connect

    Bacino, C.A.; Graham, J.M. Jr.

    1996-03-01

    This {open_quotes}Letter to the Editor{close_quotes} responds to the comments by Dr. Robinson and Dr. Kalousek regarding the implications of meiotic versus somatic chromosomal aberrations. The survival time of the patient may depend on the detection of mosicism; the discussion of the existence of full trisomy 22 remains controversial. 2 refs.

  2. S. 3168: A Bill to amend the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 to improve control of acid mine drainage, and for other purposes. Introduced in the Senate of the United States, August 11, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    This Act may be cited as the [open quotes]Acid Mine Drainage Abatement Act of 192[close quotes]. The purpose of this bill is to amend the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 to improve control of acid mine drainage, and for other purposes. The proposed amendments are listed.

  3. Reclaiming minelands with organics

    SciTech Connect

    Steuteville, R.

    1992-09-01

    Vast areas of land in the United States lie stripped of soil and productivity due to surface mining. A wealth of organic materials is produced that could help restore these sites to green pastures. Many reclamation experts have been successful in switching from chemical fertilizing techniques to the use of sludge and compost. Ohio is scarred with 180,000 to 200,000 acres of abandoned surface mines, more than most states. The mines are concentrated in the Appalachian sections, near West Virginia and Pennsylvania. [open quotes]Some townships and countries are so bad that you would think you are on the surface of the moon,[close quotes] says Jeff MacDonald, administrator of Ohio's abandoned mineland reclamation program. [open quotes]My goal is to turn an inhospitable, nonviable ecosystem into a viable one.[close quotes] MacDonald believes that chemical fertilization, still predominant nationwide, does not do as good a job as sludge or compost in restoring an ecosystem. [open quotes]If you want to reclaim a site once, get the best success ratio and the best longevity, I'd say organic material is essential,[close quotes] he says. Organic matter adds microbes and long lasting nutrients - important because plants must establish themselves for five to seven years to stop acid runoff. [open quotes]At that point, the site is no longer a threat to the environment,[close quotes] he adds.

  4. 76 FR 16821 - Gregory F. Saric, M.D.; Decision and Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-25

    ... similar to that of Respondent's.'' Exceptions at 1 (citing Stuart A. Bergman, M.D., 70 FR 33193 (2005... Health Servs., 72 FR 42126 (2007) (quoting Bourne Pharmacy, Inc., 72 FR 18273, 18274 (2007) (quoting 21 U... * * * controlled substances under the laws of the State in which he practices.''); Bourne Pharmacy, 72 FR at...

  5. 78 FR 15791 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ OMX BX, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-12

    ... entitlement allows a Subscriber to see all individual NASDAQ OMX BX Equities System participant orders and quotes displayed in the system, the aggregate size of such orders and quotes at each price level, and the trade data for executions that occur within the NASDAQ OMX BX Equities System. Proposed BX Rule 7026...

  6. 75 FR 25019 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-06

    ... Change by NYSE Arca, Inc. To Make a Technical Adjustment to Its Rules To Allow Sub-Penny Quoting of... Organization's Statement of the Terms of Substance of the Proposed Rule Change The Exchange proposes to make a... Exchange proposes to make a technical adjustment its rules to allow sub-penny quoting of Investment...

  7. A quantitative method for measuring the quality of history matches

    SciTech Connect

    Shaw, T.S.; Knapp, R.M.

    1997-08-01

    History matching can be an efficient tool for reservoir characterization. A {open_quotes}good{close_quotes} history matching job can generate reliable reservoir parameters. However, reservoir engineers are often frustrated when they try to select a {open_quotes}better{close_quotes} match from a series of history matching runs. Without a quantitative measurement, it is always difficult to tell the difference between a {open_quotes}good{close_quotes} and a {open_quotes}better{close_quotes} matches. For this reason, we need a quantitative method for testing the quality of matches. This paper presents a method for such a purpose. The method uses three statistical indices to (1) test shape conformity, (2) examine bias errors, and (3) measure magnitude of deviation. The shape conformity test insures that the shape of a simulated curve matches that of a historical curve. Examining bias errors assures that model reservoir parameters have been calibrated to that of a real reservoir. Measuring the magnitude of deviation assures that the difference between the model and the real reservoir parameters is minimized. The method was first tested on a hypothetical model and then applied to published field studies. The results showed that the method can efficiently measure the quality of matches. It also showed that the method can serve as a diagnostic tool for calibrating reservoir parameters during history matching.

  8. Timeline for emergency response to a nuclear criticality accident

    SciTech Connect

    Tayloe, R.W. Jr.

    1997-12-01

    In the development of the draft American National Standards Institute/American Nuclear Society (ANSI/ANS) Standard 8.23, {open_quotes}Nuclear Criticality Emergency Planning and Response,{close_quotes} the writing group found it useful to develop a timeline of the sequence of the major activities. This paper describes that timeline.

  9. Atomic and molecular physics at LURE

    SciTech Connect

    Morin, P.

    1994-08-01

    A short overview of the present research activity at LURE is given, in the field of atomic and molecular physics. Three selected examples are discussed in more detail and the {open_quotes}SOLEIL{close_quotes} project of a new French synchrotron facility is presented.

  10. Groups concerned about Congress and criticism

    SciTech Connect

    Lucas, A.

    1994-12-07

    Environmental groups are concerned about the impact a Republican-dominated Congress will have on their activities. The Republican agenda would {open_quotes}severely undercut public health and environmental protection, {close_quotes} says the Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC; Washington).

  11. New vision solar system mission study. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Mondt, J.F.; Zubrin, R.M.

    1996-03-01

    The vision for the future of the planetary exploration program includes the capability to deliver {open_quotes}constellations{close_quotes} or {open_quotes}fleets{close_quotes} of microspacecraft to a planetary destination. These fleets will act in a coordinated manner to gather science data from a variety of locations on or around the target body, thus providing detailed, global coverage without requiring development of a single large, complex and costly spacecraft. Such constellations of spacecraft, coupled with advanced information processing and visualization techniques and high-rate communications, could provide the basis for development of a {open_quotes}virtual{close_quotes} {open_quotes}presence{close_quotes} in the solar system. A goal could be the near real-time delivery of planetary images and video to a wide variety of users in the general public and the science community. This will be a major step in making the solar system accessible to the public and will help make solar system exploration a part of the human experience on Earth.

  12. Case studies on developing local industry by using hot spring water and geothermal energy

    SciTech Connect

    Sasaki, Akira; Umetsu, Yoshio; Narita, Eiichi

    1997-12-31

    We have investigated the new ways to develop local industries by using hot spring water, geothermal water and geothermal energy from the Matsukawa Geothermal Power Plant in Iwate Prefecture, which is the first geothermal power plant established in Japan. The new dyeing technique, called {open_quotes}Geothermal Dyeing{close_quotes} was invented in which hydrogen sulfide in the water exhibited decoloration effect. By this technique we succeeded to make beautiful color patterns on fabrics. We also invented the new way to make the light wight wood, called {open_quotes}Geo-thermal Wood{close_quotes} by using hot spring water or geothermal water. Since polysaccharides in the wood material were hydrolyzed and taken out during the treatment in the hot spring water, the wood that became lighter is weight and more porous state. On the bases of these results, we have produced {open_quotes}Wooded Soap{close_quotes} on a commercial scale which is the soap, synthesized in the pore of the treated wood in round slice. {open_quotes}Collapsible Wood Cabin{close_quotes} was also produced for enjoyable outdoor life by using the modified properties of Geothermal Wood.

  13. Steroselective synthesis with and without organometallics

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosez, L.

    1995-12-31

    Cycloaddition and cyclocondensation reactions are of great synthetic importance for the formation of monocyclic and polycyclic carbocycles and heterocycles. Also they make a maximum use of the atomic content of the starting material and show therefore a maximum {open_quotes}atomic efficiency{close_quotes}.

  14. Flexible ultrasonic pipe inspection apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Jenkins, C.F.; Howard, B.D.

    1994-01-01

    Pipe crawlers, pipe inspection {open_quotes}rabbits{close_quotes} and similar vehicles are widely used for inspecting the interior surfaces of piping systems, storage tanks and process vessels for damaged or flawed structural features. This paper describes the design of a flexible, modular ultrasonic pipe inspection apparatus.

  15. Image accuracy and representational enhancement through low-level, multi-sensor integration techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, J.E.

    1994-09-01

    Multi-Sensor Integration (MSI) is the combining of data and information from more than one source in order to generate a more reliable and consistent representation of the environment. The need for MSI derives largely from basic ambiguities inherent in our current sensor imaging technologies. These ambiguities exist as long as the mapping from reality to image is not 1-to-1. That is, if different {open_quotes}realities{close_quotes} lead to identical images, a single image cannot reveal the particular reality which was the truth. MSI techniques attempt to resolve some of these ambiguities by appropriately coupling complementary images to eliminate possible inverse mappings. What constitutes the best MSI technique is dependent on the given application domain, available sensors, and task requirements. MSI techniques can be divided into three categories based on the relative information content of the original images with that of the desired representation: (1) {open_quotes}detail enhancement,{close_quotes} wherein the relative information content of the original images is less rich than the desired representation; (2) {open_quotes}data enhancement,{close_quotes} wherein the MSI techniques are concerned with improving the accuracy of the data rather than either increasing or decreasing the level of detail; and (3) {open_quotes}conceptual enhancement,{close_quotes} wherein the image contains more detail than is desired, making it difficult to easily recognize objects of interest. In conceptual enhancement one must group pixels corresponding to the same conceptual object and thereby reduce the level of extraneous detail.

  16. 76 FR 65305 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Order Granting Approval of Proposed Rule Change...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-20

    ... (August 26, 2011), 76 FR 54516 (``Notice''). II. Description of the Proposed Rule Change The Exchange... Adding Commentary .01 to Rule 6.37B Concerning Market Maker Continuous Quoting Obligations and Adjusted... from the continuous quote requirements for Long-Term Equity Option Series (``LEAPS'') that is...

  17. 76 FR 65310 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Amex LLC; Order Granting Approval of Proposed Rule Change...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-20

    ... (August 26, 2011), 76 FR 54518 (``Notice''). II. Description of the Proposed Rule Change The Exchange... Adding Commentary .01 to Rule 925.1NY Concerning Market Maker Continuous Quoting Obligations and Adjusted... from the continuous quote requirements for Long-Term Equity Option Series (``LEAPS'') that is...

  18. 78 FR 13389 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; C2 Options Exchange, Incorporated; Notice of Filing of a Proposed...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-27

    ... Rule Change, as Modified by Amendment No. 1 Thereto, Relating to Market-Maker Continuous Quoting... relating to Market-Maker continuous quoting obligations. The text of the proposed rule change is available... certain obligations on Market-Makers and DPMs, respectively, including obligations to provide...

  19. 77 FR 49846 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Chicago Board Options Exchange, Incorporated; Notice of Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-17

    ... continuous electronic quotes. \\3\\ Securities Exchange Act Release No. 34-67410 (July 11, 2012), 77 FR 42040...-Makers' Continuous Quoting Obligations August 13, 2012. Pursuant to Section 19(b)(1) of the Securities... Change The Exchange proposes to delay the implementation date of changes to Market-Makers'...

  20. 40 CFR 33.501 - What are the recordkeeping requirements of this part?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements of this part, including documentation of its, and its prime contractors', good faith efforts and... of MBE/WBE and non-MBE/WBE prime and subcontractors. The list must include all firms that bid or quote on prime contracts, or bid or quote subcontracts on EPA assisted projects, including both...