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1

Water watch  

SciTech Connect

This issue of [open quotes]Water Watch[close quotes] focuses on soil moisture and fall streamflow, particularly in the Western US. The information is based on reports and data provided by the National Weather Service Office of Hydrology, the US Dept. of Agriculture, the Bureau of Reclamation, the Soil Conservation Service, the California Dept. of Water Resources, and the US Geological Survey. Ninety-day outlooks are through October 1992. For purposes of reporting, the US is divided into six regions. The data can be used to observe how weather conditions affected hydro generation in July.

Not Available

1992-10-01

2

Water watch  

SciTech Connect

This issue of [open quotes]Water Watch[close quotes] focuses on soil moisture conditions across the country as of the first of April. In addition, the department describes streamflow conditions across the US forecast for April through July. The information presented is based on data from the US Geological Survey, the National Weather Service, and the Soil Conservation Service. For purposes of providing this information, the US is divided into six regions. The Hydropower Generation Report can be used to observe how weather conditions affected hydro generation in March.

Not Available

1991-06-01

3

Water watch. [streamflow conditions in US and hydropower generation  

SciTech Connect

This issue of [open quotes]Water Watch[close quotes] describes streamflow conditions across the US for January and February. In addition, the department focuses on the availability of water from April through July along rivers in the US. The information presented is based on data from the US Geological Survey, the National Weather Service, and the Soil Conservation Service. Handar has then collected and analyzed these data. For purposes of providing this information, the US is divided into six regions as indicated on the accompanying figure and table. The data presented in the Hydropower Generation Report can be used to observe how past streamflow conditions affected hydro generation.

Not Available

1991-04-01

4

Advertising Quotes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Look no further than Advertising Quotes to find words of wisdom, humor, and importance about the world of advertising. This database, from the University of Texas Department of Advertising, is arranged in alphabetical order by subject and includes topics such as Envy, Emotion, Media Support, and Morality and Ethics. All quotes are cited.

1995-01-01

5

Water watch  

SciTech Connect

This issue of [open quotes]Water Watch[close quotes] focuses on soil moisture and fall streamflow. A map depicts soil moisture conditions in the US through early October. The analysis is based on reports and data provided by the National Weather Service Office of Hydrology, the US Department of Agriculture, the Bureau of Reclamation, the Soil Conservation Service, the California Department of Water Resources, and the US Geological Survey. Ninety-day outlooks are through November 1992. For purposed of reporting, the US is divided into six regions as indicated on a figure and in a table. The data presented in the table, the Hydropower Generation Report, can be used to observe how weather conditions affected hydro generation in September.

Gruber, N. (C.T. Male Associates, P.C., Syracuse, NY (United States))

1992-12-01

6

Water watch  

SciTech Connect

This issue of [open quotes]Water Watch[close quotes] focuses on summer streamflow. In addition, a summary of streamflow, soil moisture, and water supply conditions through the end of May is presented. In addition, short-term streamflow forecasts are given. Forecasts are based on the National Weather Service US Climate Analysis Center's 90-day outlook. Temperature and precipitation probability estimates given in the outlook are based primarily on the average of monthly forecasts since 1974 and seasonal forecasts since 1959 at 100 US weather reporting stations. Regional analyses are based on reports and data provided by the National Weather Service Office of Hydrology and River Forecast Centers, the US Department of Agriculture, the Bureau of Reclamation, the Soil Conservation Service, the California Department of Water Resources, and the US Geological Survey. For purposes of reporting, the US is divided into six regions. The data presented can be used to observe how weather conditions affect hydro generation in April.

Gruber, N.

1993-06-01

7

Water watch  

SciTech Connect

The Hydropower Generation Report provides generation figures for the largest hydropower producers in each of six regions in the US. The report compares, for each month, the amount of hydroelectricity generated (in thousands of megawatt-hours) by each producers in the last two years to the ten-year average for that month. This database is used to figure long-term generation averages and percent of averages. The producers regularly provide current generation data to update the database. This issue of [open quotes]Water Watch[close quotes] focuses on winter snow conditions across the US as of mid-January. In addition, the department provides an outlook of spring flood potential. The information presented is based on data from the US Geological Survey, the National Weather Service, and the Soil Conservation Service.

Not Available

1991-02-01

8

Bodily Quoting in Dance Correction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Building on research into reported speech and enactments, this study explores a new aspect of quoting by looking at how dance teachers ascribe body movements to students. Whether words or movements are quoted depends on the activity the participants are engaged in and what they aim to accomplish. Within corrective teaching sequences at dance classes bodily quotes serve to contrast

Leelo Keevallik

2010-01-01

9

Russia's [open quotes]red-brown[close quotes] hawks  

SciTech Connect

Since the beginning of the [open quotes]Gorbachev years,[close quotes] there has been a remarkable democratization in Russia, but there has also been a sharpening of internal contradictions. These years have led to a coalition of [open quotes]red-brown[close quotes] groups -- the most reactionary elements of society -- Stalinists, extremely aggressive members of the military-industrial complex, self-styled [open quotes]protectors of the Russian Empire,[close quotes] national patriotic unions, and groups with their own storm troops. These have also been years of economic decline and the withering of research in the fundamental sciences. This article describes the anger of Soviet nuclear specialists at vanishing funds and prestige. The desire of the neo-fascist groups for arms and power is addressed. The development of these groups is reviewed. Implications of political unrest for nuclear proliferation and the future of Russian nuclear specialists are discussed. Possibilities for government reorganization are proposed. 8 refs.

Goldanskii, V.I. (Semenov Inst. of Chemical Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation))

1993-06-01

10

Watch the fine lines between {open_quote}employee{close_quote} and {open_quote}independent contractor{close_quote}  

SciTech Connect

At what point does an independent contractor become an employee? The Internal Revenue Service has stepped up enforcement of its definition of {open_quotes}employee{close_quotes} vs. {open_quotes}independent contractor.{close_quotes} This could mean trouble for some businesses. Misclassified workers can cost a company the form of penalties, interest and back taxes. According the author James Bovard, writing in Insight magazine, the IRS is {open_quotes}waging a campaign to slash the number of self-employed Americans and punish the companies that pay them for their work.{close_quotes} This scrutiny of employment status has affected all types of companies and individuals, from high tech and health care to the movie industry and the clergy. This crackdown by the IRS has meant a surge in the number of employment audits being conducted. As a result, businesses of all sizes are rushing to examine their relationships with independent contractors.

Nardozzi, J.H. [Gray, Gray & Gray, Boston, MA (United States)

1995-10-01

11

Options for human {open_quote}{open_quote}return to the moon{close_quote}{close_quote} using tomorrow{close_quote}s SSTO, ISRU, and LOX-augmented NTR technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The feasibility of conducting human missions to the Moon is examined assuming the use of three {open_quote}{open_quote}high leverage{close_quote}{close_quote} technologies: (1) a single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) launch vehicle, (2) {open_quote}{open_quote}{ital in}-{ital situ}{close_quote}{close_quote} {ital resource} {ital utilization} (ISRU)specifically {open_quote}{open_quote}lunar-derived{close_quote}{close_quote} liquid oxygen (LUNOX), and (3) LOX-augmented nuclear thermal rocket (LANTR) propulsion. Lunar transportation system elements consisting of a LANTR-powered lunar transfer vehicle (LTV) and a

Borowski

1996-01-01

12

The Kent State {open_quote}{open_quote}2{pi}{close_quote}{close_quote} neutron polarimeter  

SciTech Connect

We designed, tested and calibrated a medium-energy neutron polarimeter of a new design, which we call the {open_quote}{open_quote}2{pi}{close_quote}{close_quote} polarimeter because of its symmetric coverage of all 2{pi} of azimuth for double-scattered neutrons. During calibration tests at the IUCF we observed an over all neutron time-of-flight resolution of 360 ps. The measured analyzing power is typically 39{percent} for neutrons of both 130 and 165 MeV for optimum software cuts. The efficiency is typically 0.3{percent}. {copyright} {ital 1995 American Institute of Physics.}

Watson, J.W.; Du, Q.; Anderson, B.D.; Baldwin, A.R. [Department of Physics, Kent State University, Kent, Ohio 44242 (United States); Foster, C.C. [Indiana University Cyclotron Facility, Bloomington, Indiana 47405 (United States); Garcia, L.A.; Hu, X. [Department of Physics, Kent State University, Kent, Ohio 44242 (United States); Kurmanov, R. [Omsk Railway Engineering Institute, 644046 Omsk (Russia); Lamm, D.L.; Madey, R. [Department of Physics, Kent State University, Kent, Ohio 44242 (United States); Pella, P.J. [Department of Physics, Gettysburg College, Gettysburg, Pennsylvania 17325 (United States); Stephenson, E.J. [Indiana University Cyclotron Facility, Bloomington, Indiana 47405 (United States); Wang, Y. [Department of Physics, Kent State University, Kent, Ohio 44242 (United States)]|[Indiana University Cyclotron Facility, Bloomington, Indiana 47405 (United States); Wetmore, B.; Zhang, W. [Department of Physics, Kent State University, Kent, Ohio 44242 (United States)

1995-09-01

13

Relation between {open_quotes}failure{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}damage{close_quotes}. Quarterly report, April--June 1970  

SciTech Connect

Results of this investigation show that the {open_quotes}damage point{close_quotes} derived from an interrupted tensile test does not correspond to the {open_quotes}failure point{close_quotes} obtained from a creep test. It may correspond to the first transition point in constant-stress creep tests. The {open_quotes}damage point{close_quotes} is obtained from repeated tensile stress cycles of ever-increasing intensity; when the stress-strain curve no longer follows parallel paths, the {open_quotes}damage point{close_quotes} has been reached.

Wilson, A.L.

1997-09-01

14

From here to a {open_quote}{open_quote}rangeless{close_quote}{close_quote} range, a roadmap  

SciTech Connect

This paper examines the issues involved in replacing the current Range infrastructure used for launching missiles and space launch vehicles with a {open_quote}{open_quote}Range{close_quote}{close_quote} structure consisting of the Global Positioning System and vehicle onboard instrumentation. The issues involved in such a changeover ultimately involve safety and the proper discharge of safety responsibilities delegated to the Range Commander by DOD 5200.11. A changeover of such magnitude cannot be accomplished without a long and involved process of building confidence in the reliability and efficacy of any system that is intended to replace an existing Range system. Therefore, a plan must be developed to phase in new systems in such a way that confidence is built up in their operational effectiveness in some structured way. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

Alves, D.F. Jr. [Alpha Instrumentation and Information Management, 896 Blake St., Santa Maria, California 93455 (United States); Keith, E.L. [Microcosm, Inc., 2601 Airport Drive, Suite 230, Torrance, California 90505 (United States)

1996-03-01

15

Relation between {open_quotes}failure{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}damage{close_quotes}. Quarterly report, April--June 1970  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results of this investigation show that the {open_quotes}damage point{close_quotes} derived from an interrupted tensile test does not correspond to the {open_quotes}failure point{close_quotes} obtained from a creep test. It may correspond to the first transition point in constant-stress creep tests. The {open_quotes}damage point{close_quotes} is obtained from repeated tensile stress cycles of ever-increasing intensity; when the stress-strain curve no longer follows parallel

1997-01-01

16

Text, Talk, and Journalistic Quoting Practices.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Explores journalistic quoting practices as an interface between written and oral modes of communication, or between text and talk. Examines both prescriptive and performative dimensions of journalistic quoting across the media. States that when quoting, journalists creatively mix and meld text and talk. Suggests that the cogency of news

Zelizer, Barbie

1995-01-01

17

Taming a {open_quotes}difficult{close_quotes} hydro plant  

SciTech Connect

The dynamics of an individual project can unexpectedly challenge accepted engineering approaches. Engineers on the Jostedal project in Norway overcame {open_quotes}the impossible{close_quotes} by employing the non-traditional. Jostedal Power Station in western Norway was commissioned in late 1989. The 288-MW project has a five-jet, vertical Pelton turbine and maximum head of 1,186 meters. The intake consists of a 35-kilometer-long low-pressure tunnel from the main project reservoir. In addition to the main reservoir system, the waterway has 19 inlets from streams and rivers along its run. Some of the inlets have their own headrace tunnels; the remainder enter the main tunnel by short shafts. The main waterway empties into a 781-meter-long inclined penstock connected to the Jostedal powerhouse.

Luraas, H. [Kvaerner Energy, Oslo (Norway)

1994-12-31

18

Composition of primary cosmic rays beyond the {open_quote}{open_quote}knee{close_quote}{close_quote} from emulsion chamber observations  

SciTech Connect

We show that the simplest assumptions for the dynamics of particle production allow us to understand the fluxes of hadrons and photons at mountain altitudes as well as the structure of individual events. The analysis requires a heavy nuclear component of primary cosmic rays above the {open_quote}{open_quote}knee{close_quote}{close_quote} in the spectrum with an average mass number {l_angle}{ital A}{r_angle}=7.3{plus_minus}0.9. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

Costa, C.G.; Halzen, F. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Bellandi, J. [Instituto de Fisica Gleb Wataghin, UNICAMP, Campinas, Sao Paulo 13083-970 (Brazil); Salles, C. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)

1996-11-01

19

Polarization independence of microwave {open_quote}{open_quote}ionization{close_quote}{close_quote} thresholds of excited hydrogen atoms near the principal resonance  

SciTech Connect

We study experimentally and theoretically how the polarization of a 9.904 GHz field affects threshold amplitudes for many-photon {open_quote}{open_quote}ionization{close_quote}{close_quote} of {ital n}{sub 0}=70,...,98 H atoms. That peak-field thresholds for circular polarization are {ital lower} than for linear polarization (with those for elliptical polarization intermediate) in the main resonance zone is a consequence of a time-scale separation in the 3D dynamics there. When an amplitude scaling relationship given by the theory is used, the experimental data confirm that, near onset, the scaled ionization thresholds are approximately independent of polarization. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

Bellermann, M.R.; Koch, P.M.; Mariani, D.R.; Richards, D. [Department of Physics, State University of New York, Stony Brook, New York 11794-3800 (United States)]|[Schlumberger-Doll Research, Ridgefield, Connecticut 06877 (United States)]|[Mathematics Faculty, Open University, Milton Keynes, MK7 6AA (United Kingdom)

1996-02-01

20

Comment on {open_quote}{open_quote}Why quantum mechanics cannot be formulated as a Markov process{close_quote}{close_quote}  

SciTech Connect

In the paper with the above-noted title, D. T. Gillespie [Phys. Rev. A {bold 49}, 1607 (1994)] claims that the theory of Markov stochastic processes cannot provide an adequate mathematical framework for quantum mechanics. In conjunction with the specific quantum dynamics considered there, we give a general analysis of the associated dichotomic jump processes. If we assume that Gillespie{close_quote}s {open_quote}{open_quote}measurement probabilities{close_quote}{close_quote} {ital are} the transition probabilities of a stochastic process, then the process must have an invariant (time independent) probability measure. Alternatively, if we demand the probability measure of the process follow the quantally implemented (via the Born statistical postulate) evolution, then we arrive at the jump process which {ital can} be interpreted as a Markov process if restricted to a suitable duration time. However, there is no corresponding Markov process consistent with the {ital Z}{sub 2} event space assumption, if we require its existence for all times {ital t}{element_of}{bold R}{sub +}. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

Garbaczewski, P.; Olkiewicz, R. [Institute of Theoretical Physics, University of Wrocl/aw, PL-50 204 Wrocl/aw (Poland)

1996-08-01

21

Great Quotes To Inspire Great Teachers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This book provides a collection of quotes designed to offer support and inspiration to teachers as they face the daily emotional, spiritual, intellectual, and physical challenges of their professional and personal lives. The book's 26 sections focus on: the art of teaching; adversity; behavior; character; children; collaboration and teamwork;

benShea, Noah

22

Gulf of Mexico-{open_quote}Silicon Valley{close_quote} to offshore oil & gas industry  

SciTech Connect

To think that it was only four years ago when the Gulf of Mexico was sadly being dismissed as a mature, drilled up basin. How wrong this perception was. Today, the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) stands out as an offshore technology showcase, where every bit of genuine high technology used to produce energy from the ocean is now being employed. In fact, what cynics described as the {open_quotes}Dead Sea{close_quotes} only four years ago has suddenly risen from the ashes of 1992 to become an offshore {open_quotes}Silicon Valley{close_quotes}. How just-in-time drilling, deep water and subsalt development, technology and royalty relief enable the GOM to become the backbone of America`s energy supply are discussed. How just-in-time drilling, deep water and subsalt development, technology, and royalty relief enable the GOM to become the backbone of America`s energy supply are discussed.

Simmons, M.R. [Simmons & Co. International, Houston, TX (United States)

1996-08-01

23

On the {open_quotes}caviton{close_quotes} signal, scattered by artificial ionospheric turbulence  

SciTech Connect

The results of experimental investigations of the {open_quotes}cavitron{close_quotes} signal (CS), scattered by artificial ionospheric turbulence are presented at the vertical sounding by short radiopulses. The dependences of the amplitude and the appearance time of CS on the power of the heating transmitter, the frequency of the probing one, and the virtual height of scattering are considered. The periodic generation of CS was observed with periods of changing from fractions of a second up to several seconds.

Terina, G.I. [Radiophysical Research Institute, Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation)

1994-12-01

24

{open_quotes}Heavy light bullets{close_quotes} in electron-positron plasma  

SciTech Connect

The nonlinear propagation of circularly polarized electromagnetic waves with relativistically strong amplitudes in an unmagnetized hot electron-positron plasma with a small fraction of ions is investigated. The possibility of finding localized solutions in such a plasma is explored. It is shown that these plasmas support the propagation of {open_quotes}heavy light bullets{close_quotes}; nondiffracting and nondispersive electromagnetic (EM) pulses with large density bunching.

Berezhiani, V.I. [International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste (Italy); Mahajan, S.M. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Institute for Fusion Studies

1995-03-01

25

On the {open_quotes}caviton{close_quotes} signal, scattered by artificial ionospheric turbulence  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of experimental investigations of the {open_quotes}cavitron{close_quotes} signal (CS), scattered by artificial ionospheric turbulence are presented at the vertical sounding by short radiopulses. The dependences of the amplitude and the appearance time of CS on the power of the heating transmitter, the frequency of the probing one, and the virtual height of scattering are considered. The periodic generation of

Terina

1994-01-01

26

Mode spacing {open_quotes}anomaly{close_quotes} in InGaN blue lasers  

SciTech Connect

An important experimental observation in InGaN laser diodes (LDs), which is not yet fully understood, is that the measured mode spacing of the lasing spectra could be one order of magnitude larger than that {open_quotes}calculated{close_quotes} from the known cavity length. The aim of this letter is to shed light on the nature of the mode spacing {open_quotes}anomaly{close_quotes} in InGaN LDs. We have derived a formula which accurately determines the mode spacing in InGaN LDs. Our analysis has shown that the discrepancy between the {open_quotes}expected{close_quotes} and observed mode spacing is due to the effect of carrier-induced reduction of the refractive index under lasing conditions and this discrepancy decreases and naturally disappears as the threshold carrier density required for lasing decreases. Since the carrier-induced reduction of the refractive index is expected only from an electron{endash}hole plasma state, our results naturally imply that electron{endash}hole plasma recombination provides the optical gain in InGaN LDs, like in all other conventional III{endash}V semiconductor lasers. The implications of our results on the design of nitride optoelectronic devices are also discussed. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

Jiang, H.X.; Lin, J.Y. [Department of Physics, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas 66506-2601 (United States)

1999-02-01

27

Greenland ice core {open_quotes}signal{close_quotes} characteristics: An expanded view of climate change  

SciTech Connect

The last millenium of Earth history is of particular interest because it documents the environmental complexities of both natural variability and anthropogenic activity. The authors have analyzed the major ions contained in the Greenland Ice Sheet Project 2 (GISP 2) ice core from the present to {approximately}674 A.D. to yield an environmental reconstruction for this period that includes a description of nitrogen and sulfur cycling, volcanic emissions, sea salt and terrestrial influences. They have adapted and extended mathematical procedures for extracting sporadic (e.g., volcanic) events, secular trends, and periodicities found in the data sets. Finally, by not assuming that periodic components (signals) were {open_quotes}stationary{close_quotes} and by utilizing evolutionary spectral analysis, they were able to reveal periodic processes in the climate system which change in frequency, {open_quotes}turn on,{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}turn off{close_quotes} with other climate transitions such as that between the little ice age and the medieval warm period. 42 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

Mayewski, P.A.; Meeker, L.D.; Morrison, M.C.; Twickler, M.S.; Whitlow, S.I.; Ferland, K.K. [Univ. of New Hampshire, Durham, NH (United States); Meese, D.A. [Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory, Hanover, NH (United States); Legrand, M.R. [Laboratoire de Glaciologie et Geophysique de Environnement, St.-Martin-D`Heres (France); Steffensen, J.P. [Univ. of Copenhagen (Denmark)

1993-07-20

28

Microstructural origin of current localization and {open_quotes}puncture{close_quote}{close_quote} failure in varistor ceramics  

SciTech Connect

The effect of microstructural disorder, such as variations in grain size and in the height of the electrostatic potential at grain boundaries, on current flow in varistors has been simulated by computing the currents in a network of grain boundaries each of which can be described by nonlinear electrical characteristics. Microstructural disorder causes current localization, which is analyzed in terms of two parameters, the infinite moment and the second moment of the current distribution. These parameters enable quantitative comparison of different microstructures. By incorporating the effect of Joule heating the temperature increases due to current localization can be simulated and the effect of short electrical pulses of different energies investigated. On the basis of the simulations a mechanism for current localization, due to microstructural variations, leading to thermal runaway and {open_quotes}puncture{close_quote}{close_quote} failure by melting is proposed. The results suggest that electrode protrusions and large grains at the electrodes are likely sources for failure, and that some degree of microstructural disorder is required to resist thermal runaway for all but the most energetic pulses. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

Vojta, A.; Clarke, D.R. [Materials Department, College of Engineering, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106-5050 (United States)

1997-01-01

29

Comment on [open quotes]Nonlocality, counterfactuals, and quantum mechanics[close quotes  

SciTech Connect

A recent proof [H. P. Stapp, Am. J. Phys. [bold 65], 300 (1997)], formulated in the symbolic language of modal logic, claims to show that contemporary quantum theory, viewed as a set of rules that allow us to calculate statistical predictions among certain kinds of observations, cannot be imbedded in any rational framework that conforms to the principles that (1) the experimenters[close quote] choices of which experiments they will perform can be considered to be free choices, (2) outcomes of measurements are unique, and (3) the free choices just mentioned have no backward-in-time effects of any kind. This claim is similar to Bell[close quote]s theorem, but much stronger, because no reality assumption alien to quantum philosophy is used. The paper being commented on [W. Unruh, Phys. Rev. A [bold 59], 126 (1999)] argues that some such reality assumption has been [open quotes]smuggled[close quotes] in. That argument is examined here and shown, I believe, to be defective. [copyright] [ital 1999] [ital The American Physical Society

Stapp, H.P. (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California at Berkely, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States))

1999-09-01

30

Depostional systems, provenance, and sequence stratigraphy, Carter and [open quotes]Millerella[close quotes] sandstones of northeast Mississippi  

SciTech Connect

The subsurface [open quotes]Millerella[close quotes] and Carter sandstones (middle Chesterian) of the Black Warrior basin represent the highest units of the thick Muldon clastics deltaic facies tract. Lowstand marine conditions during Carter deposition allowed for southeastwardly progradation of five distinct deltaic lobe complexes onto the stable northern shelf of the basin. With each of these lobes, both an [open quotes]A[close quotes] (upper) and a [open quotes]B[close quotes] (lower) reservoir unit can be identified. The [open quotes]B[close quotes] sandstone produces from delta-front sheet sands, channel-mouth bars, and possible bar fingers of river-dominated deltas. The more prolific [open quotes]A[close quotes] subdivision contains reservoirs in upper delta-plain point bars, crevasse splays, and distributary channel fills. The most easterly of the lobes, preserved in the Bean's Ferry field of Itawamba County, comprises an amalgamated valley-fill facies that removed a maximum of 250 ft (76 m) of lower Bangor platform carbonates. In contrast, the [open quotes]Millerella[close quotes] sandstone is a series of unconnected pods that formed as marine-reworked sand bodies during a eustatic rise in sea level. The average detrital sand grain composition for four cores taken in Monroe County is 94.7% monocrystalline quartz, 2.9% polycrystalline quartz, 1.6% albite feldspar, 0.1% low-rank metamorphic rock fragments, 0.5 chert, and 0.2% muscovite. These data indicate that neither the Ozark uplift nor the Ouachita orogen could have acted as the principal source area for the Carter and [open quotes]Millerella[close quotes] sandstones. More likely, the sedimentary-igneous terrains along the northern margin of the Illinois basin served this function. A major eustatic lowstand brought this mineralogically mature sediment across the Illinois basin through incised valleys to the northern self of the Black Warrior basin.

Cleaves, A.W. II (Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater, OK (United States))

1993-09-01

31

Evidence for {open_quotes}loose spins{close_quotes} in epitaxial Al/Fe/Al  

SciTech Connect

Polarization-dependent Fe K-edge x-ray absorption fine structure measurements of an Al/Fe/Al(001) trilayer reveal a small tetragonal distortion of the Fe sites with c=2.863 {Angstrom} (normal to the film plane) and a=2.874 {Angstrom} (in the film plane). This tetragonal distortion is consistent with the formation of Fe{sub 1{minus}x}Al{sub x} alloys in the vicinity of the roughened Fe{endash}Al trilayer interfaces, and agrees with grazing incidence x-ray reflectivity and magnetometry measurements of the trilayer. The deduced alloyed/roughened interfacial regions are the likely source of Fe {open_quotes}loose spins{close_quotes} as recently suggested by Slonczewki{close_quote}s biquadratic coupling model for the epitaxial Fe/Al/Fe system. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

Gutierrez, C.J.; Selestino, R. [Department of Physics, Southwest Texas State University, San Marcos, Texas 78666 (United States); Mayanovic, R.A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Southwest Missouri State University, Springfield, Missouri 65804 (United States); Prinz, G.A. [Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States)

1997-04-01

32

Some bounds in classes of {open_quotes}aging{close_quotes} distributions  

SciTech Connect

Reliability of technical systems is closely linked with {open_quotes}aging{close_quotes} properties of the components. So-called monotone systems whose components have certain aging characteristics are of considerable importance in this field of research. Efficient bounds of reliability, mean time to failure, and other parameters can be obtained for such systems. The bounds in literature were obtained under the least restrictive assumptions on aging. In this paper, we generalize some results of literature to the case of even more general aging principles, specifically, when the system components are HNBUE, HNWUE, NBAFR, NWAFR in terms of their reliability properties. We start with a definition of these properties.

Kotlyar, V.Yu.

1995-03-01

33

Direct Observation and Calipering of the {open_quotes}Webbing{close_quotes} Fermi Surface of Yttrium  

SciTech Connect

The first measurement of both the size and shape of the region of the Fermi surface of yttrium known as the {open_quotes}webbing{close_quotes} is reported. This particular Fermi surface feature is of considerable interest because it is very similar to that found in a number of the heavier rare earth metals, where it is believed to play a vital role in driving the exotic magnetic structures found therein. In this positron study, two-dimensional angular correlation measurements combined with three-dimensional reconstruction provide a direct image of this part of the yttrium Fermi surface. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

Dugdale, S.B.; Fretwell, H.M.; Alam, M.A. [H.H.Wills Physics Laboratory, University of Bristol,Tyndall Avenue, Bristol, BS8 1TL (United Kingdom); Kontrym-Sznajd, G. [Polish Academy of Sciences, W. Trzebiatowski Intsitute of Low Temperature and Structure Research, 50-950 Wroclaw 2, P.O.Box 937 (Poland); West, R.N.; Badrzadeh, S. [Department of Physics, University of Texas at Arlington, P.O.Box 19059, Arlington, Texas 76019 (United States)

1997-08-01

34

A {open_quotes}New{close_quotes} regime for nuclear weapons and materials  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, I discuss the principal ideas that I covered in my presentation on December 8, 1993, at the Future of Foreign Nuclear Materials Symposium held by the Naval Postgraduate School in Monterey, California. I was asked to discuss issues related to military inventories of plutonium, and I took this opportunity to describe a possible declaratory regime that could encompass military as well as civilian inventories of plutonium. The {open_quote}new{close_quotes} in the title does not imply that the regime discussed here is an original idea. Rather, the regime will be {open_quotes}new,{close_quotes} when it is adopted. The regime proposed here and in other works is one in which all stocks of nuclear weapons and materials are declared. Originally, declarations were proposed as a traditional arms control measure. Here, declarations are proposed to support the prevention of misuse of nuclear weapons and materials, including support for the nonproliferation regime. In the following, I discuss: (1) Worldwide inventories of nuclear weapons and materials, including the fact that military plutonium must be viewed as part of that worldwide inventory. (2) Life cycles of nuclear weapons and materials, including the various stages from the creation of nuclear materials for weapons through deployment and retirement of weapons to the final disposition of the materials. (3) Mechanisms for making declarations. (4) Risks and benefits to be derived from declarations. (5) Possibilities for supporting evidence or verification.

Sutcliffe, W.G.

1994-02-15

35

{open_quotes}Accelerators and Beams,{close_quotes} multimedia computer-based training in accelerator physics  

Microsoft Academic Search

We are developing a set of computer-based tutorials on accelerators and charged-particle beams under an SBIR grant from the DOE. These self-paced, interactive tutorials, available for Macintosh and Windows platforms, use multimedia techniques to enhance the user{close_quote}s rate of learning and length of retention of the material. They integrate interactive {open_quotes}On-Screen Laboratories,{close_quotes} hypertext, line drawings, photographs, two- and three-dimensional animations,

R. R. Silbar; A. A. Browman; W. C. Mead; R. A. Williams

1999-01-01

36

Causes of {open_quotes}undercut{close_quotes} development in coke-oven brickwork  

SciTech Connect

By no means the least important fault that can develop in coke-oven refractories, and which lowers the productivity and shortens the life of coke-oven batteries is the development of so-called {open_quotes}undercuts,{close_quotes} whereby longitudinal fissures of variable depth and length appear in the first one or two rows of bricks form the floor. On the other hand, large-scale undercutting only develops in individual batteries, and many coking plant workers employed in the servicing and upkeep of the coke ovens are unfamiliar with the problem. No convincing explanation has yet been forthcoming, and consequently no effective measures have been laid down for its prevention. The first large-scale outbreak of undercutting in this country occurred in 1956-1957, in No. 1-4 batteries (side heating) at the Kuznetsk and Magnitogorsk II & SW-plants. 2 refs., 3 tabs.

Krivoshein, V.T.

1992-12-31

37

The dolomitized{open_quotes}O{close_quotes} Limestone in the Barinas basin: A hydrocarbon reservoir in carbonate rocks  

SciTech Connect

The {open_quotes}O{close_quotes} Limestone Member, top of Escandalosa Formation of a Lower to Upper Cretaceous age, is an interval of about 70 feet thick. It represents a coastal facies of caitonate platform; dominated by carbonates of calcarenitic lithologies intercalated with some sandy, glauconitic, calcareous bodies and thin bioturbated shaly intervals. Detailed studies carried out in five cores yield to a new approach and subdivision within this interval based on diagnostic erosive surfaces that may be interpreted as sequence boundaries. Based on sedimentology, trace fossil assemblages and diagenetic events, the milieu of sedimentation varies from foreshore to offshore. Porous dolomite levels occur within the {open_quotes}O{close_quotes} Limestone. This porosity is of intergranular, moldic and vuggy types. Some microfractures are also observed. Subaerial karstification is an alternative hypothesis that can explain the origin of the localized dolomitized vuggy reservoirs. The following sequence of events is suggested: (1) Sedimentation followed by bioturbation, then lithification with a probable replacement of aragonite by calcite, (2) Early dolomitization undergoing the {open_quotes}mixing{close_quote} or {open_quotes}Dorag {close_quotes} Model, (3) Dedolomitization and dissolution generating a moldic porosity enhanced the vuggy forms. This stage may have been influenced by karst processes, (4) Burial diagenesis accompanied by stylolitization and fracturation with pressure-solution effects, and (5) Some levels increase their porosity because of partial dolomitization; in others the vuggy porosity is totally infilled with sparry calcite.

Aquino, R. [Corpoven, S.A. Puerto La Cruz (Venezuela); Boujana, M. [Estudios Geologicos Afrolatin, C.A., Caracas (Venezuela)

1996-08-01

38

Salvaging dipmeters using an oil field {open_quotes}Dinosaur{close_quotes}  

SciTech Connect

Although state-of-the-art methods such as 3-D seismic and formation imaging tools are widely used, the advantages of the old standard dipmeter should not be dismissed. Seismic dip is subject to velocity errors, and formation imagers cannot be run in all borehole conditions. The dipmeter offers a relatively low cost, highly effective alternative for defining geologic features. The 60{double_prime}= 100{prime} scale playback of the raw dipmeter data may be an oil field {open_quotes}dinosaur,{close_quotes} but it is also the key to assessing the reliability of a dipmeter. This playback should be used to determine CORRELATION QUALITY, critical to the accuracy of any dipmeter. Computer computation of the raw dipmeter data does not always yield reliable dip information, particularly when dipmeters are run under adverse hole conditions or in complex geology. This data can be often salvaged by optical correlation of the 60{close_quote} playback - the process of manually correlating raw dipmeter resistivity curves to determine the attitude of bedding planes in the subsurface. Problems such as tool noise, tool pulls, and poor pad contact compromise data quality. These problems can be recognized and compensated for using optical correlation. Finally, at the 60{double_prime} scale many formation textures and structural characteristics visible on the formation imaging logs are also discernible on the standard dipmeter traces. We will offer many Gulf Coast examples and some hands-on demonstrations using the 60{double_prime} data, and show improved tadpole plots which result from optical correlation.

Breimayer, A.R.P.; Puzio, L.B. [Terradip, Houston, TX (United States)

1996-09-01

39

{open_quotes}Unspecific{close_quotes} X-linked mental retardation: Clinical, genetic and molecular studies  

SciTech Connect

Previous linkage studies have assigned a gene for non-syndromic X-linked mental retardation (XMR) to at least 8 different regions on the X-chromosome. The fragile X-syndrome (FRAXA) does not account for more than 40% of all cases; in most XMR families early diagnosis and prevention is not possible. As part of a systematic study into {open_quotes}unspecific{close_quotes} XMR involving more than 30 non-FRAXA families, linkage studies have enabled us to map the respective genes in 4 families to the Xp11.4-q12 interval with peak lod scores around the ALAS2 locus. In three other families, the gene defect could be assigned to the KAL-DMD, DXS424-FRAXAC2 and DSX52-Xqter intervals, respectively. In one of these families, small stature due to growth hormone deficiency was observed as a distinctive clinical feature. Molecular cloning of the breakpoint in a mentally retarded girl with a balanced t(Xq13;13q) translocation has enabled us to isolate an X-chromosomal gene which is disrupted in this patient and is highly expressed in brain. YAC cloning strategies are being employed to clone another XMR gene, which has been identified previously in the vicinity of the CHM locus and genes involved in mentally retarded patients with two different inversions, inv(X)(q21p11) and inv(X)(p21q24), respectively.

Ropers, H.H.; Maacel, S. van der; Knoers, N. [University Hospital, Nijmegen (Netherlands)] [and others

1994-09-01

40

Myth-building: The [open quotes]Islamic[close quotes] bomb  

SciTech Connect

The [open quotes]Islamic Bomb[close quotes] is roughly understood to be a nuclear weapon aquired for broad ideological reasons--a weapon that supposedly belongs to the Muslim [ital ummah] or community and, as such, is the ultimate expression of Islamic solidarity. Concern about the Islamic bomb is at the heart of the intense effort to prevent the spread of nuclear weapons to Muslim countries. The official justification is a general one: proliferation must be curbed globally. But unofficially, the Islamic bomb gets special attention. The reasons behind this special attention are described in this article. The reasons include fear of terrorism, of a [ital jihad] willing to indiscriminately use nuclear weapons in hope of a reward in the Hereafter, and of the transfer of nuclear arms from nuclear to non-nuclear Muslim countries in times of crisis. Possibilities for controlling the proliferation of nuclear weapons in Muslim countries are addressed. Reasons are cited as to why various Muslim countries wish to acquire nuclear weapons.

Hoodbhoy, P. (Quadi-e-Azam Univ., Islamabad (Pakistan))

1993-06-01

41

ABB launches the [open quotes]advanced cycle system[close quotes] gas turbine family  

SciTech Connect

ABB Power Generation has presented a new family of large industrial Advanced Cycle System (ACS) gas turbines that incorporate a very interesting sequential combustion system. This technology increases combustion turbine cycle efficiencies without increasing peak-cycle temperatures. ABB's new GT24 and GT26 gas turbines - designed for 60 Hz and 50 Hz power generation applications, respectively - have introductory ISO ratings of 165 and 240 MW and simple-cycle efficiencies of 37.5 and 37.8%. The combined-cycle efficiencies are in the range of 58.0 to 58.5%. Particularly noteworthy are the low emissions from the new machines. The manufacturer guarantees NO[sub x] emissions of less than 25 vppm dry (15% O[sub 2]) on natural gas fuel, and less than 42 vppm with steam of water injection on liquid fuel. At the same time, CO emissions are guaranteed to be less than 20 vppm. These outstanding results were obtained by combining combustion system (SCS) technology with the company's well-proven dry, low-NO[sub x] EV burners and a new self-lighting [open quotes]No NO[sub x][close quotes] burner. 5 figs., 1 tab.

Chellini, R.

1993-12-01

42

Mechanisms influencing {open_quotes}hot-wire{close_quotes} deposition of hydrogenated amorphous silicon  

SciTech Connect

Intrinsic hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) has been deposited using a hot tungsten filament in pure silane to drive the deposition chemistry{emdash}the {open_quotes}hot-wire{close_quotes} deposition method. The electronic and infrared properties of the film have been measured as a function of deposition parameters, leading to three principal conclusions. First, to obtain a high quality material, the Si atoms evaporated from the filament (distance L from the substrate) must react with silane (density n{sub s}) before reaching the substrate; this requires n{sub s}L greater than a critical value. Second, radical-radical reactions cause deterioration of film properties at high values of G(n{sub s}L),{sup 3} where G is the film growth rate; this requires G(n{sub s}L){sup 3} less than a critical value. Finally, the film quality is a function of G, and as G is increased the substrate temperature must be correspondingly increased to obtain high film quality. By optimizing these parameters, we have produced films with excellent electronic properties (e.g., ambipolar diffusion length {gt}200 nm) at {gt}5 nm/s deposition rate. Based on these insights, formulas are also given for optimizing film properties in multiple-filament geometries and in diluted silane. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

Molenbroek, E.C.; Mahan, A.H. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado 80401 (United States); Gallagher, A. [JILA, University of Colorado and National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, Colorado 80309-0440 (United States)

1997-08-01

43

Another look at US passenger vehicle use and the {open_quotes}rebound{close_quotes} effect from improved fuel efficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, Greene (1992) analyzed vehicle miles travelled for U.S. passenger vehicles over 1966-89 to econometrically estimate the {open_quotes}rebound{close_quotes} effect in fuel consumption resulting from improved fuel efficiency. He found that a static AR(1) model could not be rejected, implying that the rebound effect is small (13%) with no significant long-run adjustments, regardless of the assumed functional form (linear or loglinear).

1993-01-01

44

Back-action in the measurement of [open quotes]macroscopic quantum superpositions[close quotes] in microwave cavities  

SciTech Connect

The authors analyze the back-action of nonlinear atomic homodyning measurements on steady-state [open quotes]macroscopic superpositions[close quotes] that can be generated in high-Q microwave cavities. They show that a full characterization of the state requires measurements such that the macroscopic superposition is irreversibly destroyed, that is, it cannot be reconstructed by using the scheme that was used to generate it in the first place. 31 refs., 6 figs.

Zaugg, T.; Wilkens, M.; Meystre, P. (Univ. of Arizona, Tucson (United States))

1993-06-01

45

Identifying [open quotes]worst case[close quotes] persistence factors for carbon monoxide modeling near intersections in Orlando, Florida  

Microsoft Academic Search

At-grade intersections of busy roadways are places where carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations tend to accumulate. Modeling the 8-hour [open quotes]worst-case[close quotes] CO concentration (C8WC) often is done by multiplying a worst-case 1-hour CO concentration (C1WC) by a total persistence factor (TPF). The TPF reflects the fact that both emissions and meteorology vary (and result in lower CO concentrations) over an

C. D. Cooper; L. C. Malone; P. S. Liu

1992-01-01

46

Ghost decoupling in the {close_quote}t Hooft spectrum for mesons  

SciTech Connect

We show that the replacement of the {open_quote}{open_quote}instantaneous{close_quote}{close_quote} {close_quote}t Hooft potential with the causal form suggested by equal time canonical quantization in the light-cone gauge, which entails the occurrence of negative probability states, does not change the bound state spectrum when the difference is treated as a single insertion in the kernel. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

Bassetto, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica ``G.Galilei,`` Via Marzolo 8 -- 35131 Padova, Italy and INFN Sezione di Padova (Italy); Griguolo, L. [Center for Theoretical Physics, Laboratory of Nuclear Science, MIT, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

1996-06-01

47

Quotable Quotes on the Value of Language Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Quotations about the importance of and need for foreign language teaching and learning by well-known U. S. politicians, college and university presidents, religious leaders, and government officials are presented. Those quoted include: (1) J. M. Leslie; (2) E. Nyquist; (3) J. M. Hester; (4) C. B. Saunders; (5) L. White, Jr.; (6) H. Humphrey; (7)

Language Association Bulletin, 1974

1974-01-01

48

Procuring Commodities: Request for Quote or Reverse Auctions?1  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine the relative performances of reverse auctions and request for quotes in a simple commodity environment. Enterprises embarking on a reverse auction initiative often start with their commodity purchases. We conduct laboratory experiments and find that this is a poor starting point. Both the mean and variance of prices when sourcing through reverse auctions. With respect to the general

Jason Shachat

49

The {open_quotes}Command and Control{close_quotes} philosophy of the Communist party of China  

SciTech Connect

China`s central political authorities have constructed a system which is designed to enable them to exert their personal influence and control over each level of every organization in the country -- both civil and military. The Communist Party of China (CPC) is represented at all levels of each and every organization, including the People`s Liberation Army (PLA). These Party entities are intended to both provide oversight and to ensure that Party policies, directives and orders are obeyed. This penchant for political control, which may have its roots in China`s imperial past, appears to have been reinforced by the early developmental path chosen by the Party`s leadership. Current attempts aimed at maintaining political control of its resources, especially the military, are embodied in the formal system of {open_quotes}Political Work.{close_quotes} In the PLA, this system of political control results in the involvement of political organs in day-to-day military matters to an extent unheard of in the West. Further work is needed in order to understand, more fully, both the system of {open_quotes}Political Work{close_quotes} and its contributions to the overall military (and civil) command and control philosophic of the Communist Party of China.

Kominiak, G.J.; Eisenberger, J.C.; Menaul, K.L. [and others

1996-01-01

50

How do quotes and prices evolve around isolated informed trades?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article investigates the order imbalance and price behavior of trades and quotes around isolated informed trades intraday.\\u000a Different patterns of order flows around informed trades are documented because of the originating stock exchange, the type\\u000a of informed trader, the size of the order, and the type of the firm whose shares are traded. The informed trader acts contrarian\\u000a to

A. Can Inci; H. Nejat Seyhun

2012-01-01

51

Mutation {open_quotes}hot spots{close_quotes} in the iduronate-sulfatase gene, and evidence for a pseudogene  

SciTech Connect

Mucopolysaccharidosis type II (Hunter syndrome), iduronate-sulfatase (IDS) deficiency, is an X-linked disorder. Analysis of genomic DNA and cDNA from a total of 60 patients was performed in our laboratory during the last two years. In each case the gene defect was identified, resulting in 41 different mutations, including nonsense, missense, and splice site-point mutations, deletions of various sizes, and a 14 bp duplication. While in only 20% of the patients the whole IDS gene is deleted or largely altered, in about 80% of the cases small deletions (up to 17 bp) and point mutations were found. Of the 9 IDS gene exons, exons III, VIII, and IX harbor 78% of all point mutations, whereas 35% of these latter were found in exon III. Obviously, codon 374 in exon VIII is another mutation {open_quotes}hot spot{close_quotes} as the same point mutation has been found in 7 unrelated patients. Two further {open_quotes}hot spots{close_quotes} are at codons 443 and 468 in exon IX with five different mutations each. Remarkably, all mutations in exon III were found to be heterozygous in the genomic DNA but not in the IDS cDNA of the patients. Of the more than 200 unaffected male controls studied by us, two are heterozygotes for two different point mutations in exon III. Contamination of the samples can be excluded and we hypothesize the existence of a pseudogene that consists of at least exon III. As three patients with submicroscopic deletion and Hunter syndrome show no IDS hybridization signal in Southern analysis, we speculate that the putative pseudogene is in the neighborhood of the functional gene.

Rathmann, M.; Bunge, S.; Gal, A. [Med. Univ., Luebeck (Germany)] [and others

1994-09-01

52

Exploration concepts in the new {open_quotes}Sub-Salt{close_quotes} play, off- and onshore Gulf Coast region  

SciTech Connect

The new on-and offshore {open_quotes}Sub-Salt{close_quotes} Play in the Gulf Coast Region is for Tertiary and Mesozoic sandstones (? and carbonates) in structural and stratigraphic traps lying beneath secondary salt layers or beneath regional detachment zones. Interpretation problems caused by irregular-shaped bodies of high-velocity salt are now overcome by sophisticated data acquisition and processing processes. Pre-drilling sand prediction is a next interpretation target. Remaining is the problem of regional hydrocarbon distribution - not all traps with reservoirs rocks contain oil or gas. The answer is sought in complete coverage of the prospective area by high-detail seismic 3-D surveys. An additional or even alternate solution lies in pre-drilling hydrocarbon migration analysis. Here, regional structure at levels near potential migration pathways is required; subsequently, detailed per-drilling seismic evaluation of the most prospective area follows. Comparative petroleum-geology in other producing areas world-wide indicates that such deep regional structure maps indeed give reliable and highly practical answers. The data needed in the Gulf Coast region (deep seismic, gravity and magnetic) are now available.

Pratsch, C.J.

1995-09-01

53

Another look at US passenger vehicle use and the {open_quotes}rebound{close_quotes} effect from improved fuel efficiency  

SciTech Connect

Recently, Greene (1992) analyzed vehicle miles travelled for U.S. passenger vehicles over 1966-89 to econometrically estimate the {open_quotes}rebound{close_quotes} effect in fuel consumption resulting from improved fuel efficiency. He found that a static AR(1) model could not be rejected, implying that the rebound effect is small (13%) with no significant long-run adjustments, regardless of the assumed functional form (linear or loglinear). Another look at the data from a different model selection approach shows that while a loglinear AR(1) model is acceptable, the linear version is not. Using either form, a lagged dependent variable model cannot be rejected on statistical grounds yet has insignificant GNP effects, yielding similarly small short-run rebound effects but significant long-run rebound effects of about 30%. Thus, the evidence from these competing models for a significant long-run adjustment process is mixed, so that its presence cannot be completely ruled out. 13 refs., 2 tabs.

Jones, C.T. [Murray State Univ., KY (United States)

1993-12-31

54

The making of a successful seminar: Pacific Northwest Laboratory`s {open_quotes}Quest for Quality{close_quotes}  

SciTech Connect

Five contractors located on or near the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State support technical communications staffs, all trying to meet the needs of one primary customer the U.S. Department of Energy. Historically, these staffs have maintained different processes and standards with regard to document production, and little interaction or information-sharing has occurred. To begin remedying that situation, the communications staff of Pacific Northwest Laboratory, a multiprogram national laboratory located in Richland, Wash., planned and hosted a one-day {open_quotes}Quest for Quality{close_quotes} seminar. The seminar was the first of its kind to comprise technical communications professionals from all the local DOE prime contractors, including technical editors and writers, publications assistants, text processors, and document production staff. The goals of the seminar were to identify ways to improve the quality of Hanford`s communication products and processes, to strengthen ties among technical communications staffs, and to open the lines of communication for future collaborative efforts. An eight-person committee selected topics, arranged facilities, recruited speakers, coordinated activities, hosted the seminar, and prepared proceedings.

Lumetta, C.C.; Downs, S.L.; Parnell, K.A.; Allen, R.E.

1994-10-01

55

Continuous-type (Basin-Centered) gas accumulation in the Lower Silurian {open_quotes}Clinton{close_quotes} sands, Medina Group, and Tuscarora Sandstone in the Appalachian Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following earlier interpretations investigations at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) suggest that natural gas trapped in the Lower Silurian {open_quotes}Clinton{close_quotes} sands, Medina Group, and Tuscarora Sandstone of the Appalachian basin constitute a regionally extensive continuous-type (basin-centered) gas accumulation. Based on the USGS 1995 National Assessment of United States oil and gas resources, this accumulation contains, at a mean value, several

R. T. Ryder; J. R. Sanfilipo; R. D. Hettinger; C. W. Keighin; B. E. Law; V. F. Nuccio; W. J. Jr. Perry; C. J. Wandrey

1996-01-01

56

Mitochondrial DNA control region sequence variation suggests an independent origin of an {open_quotes}Asian-specific{close_quotes} 9-bp deletion in Africans  

Microsoft Academic Search

The intergenic noncoding region between the cytochrome oxidase II and lysyl tRNA genes of human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is associated with two tandemly arranged copies of a 9-bp sequence. A deletion of one of these repeats has been found at varying frequencies in populations of Asian descent, and is commonly referred to as an {open_quotes}Asian-specific{close_quotes} marker. We report here that

H. Soodyall; A. Redd; Vigilant

1994-01-01

57

{open_quotes}Spectator{close_quotes} modes in resonance-driven reactions: Three-dimensional quantum calculations of HOCO resonances  

SciTech Connect

We have performed three-degree-of-freedom quantum calculations of HOCO resonances by using a complex potential method. The coordinates we consider are the OH internuclear distance, the CO internuclear distance, and the distance between the centers of mass of the OH and CO fragments. The reduced dimensionality potential has been constructed by adding the nonreactive {open_quotes}spectator{close_quotes} CO coordinate to the previous two-degree-of-freedom potential of Schatz and Dyck [G. C. Schatz and J. Dyck, Chem. Phys. Lett. {bold 188}, 11 (1992)] using a Shepard-type interpolation procedure. The positions and lifetimes of more than two hundred resonances are calculated and approximate quantum numbers are assigned. The results are compared with previous two-degree-of-freedom calculations where the CO-stretch mode has not been considered. The appearance of a new group of narrow resonances with a significant CO stretch contribution is reported. The results are tested against the vibrational shifting approximation in which the spectator CO mode is treated adiabatically. The latter is shown to be insufficient for quantitative predictions of resonance positions and widths, however averaged positions and widths are reasonably well described. The rotational shifting approximation is tested by performing the adiabatic rotation calculations of resonances for J=1, K=0 and J=1, K=1 cases, where J is the total angular momentum and K is the body-fixed projection quantum number of a symmetric top. Rotational shifting is shown to work better for K=0 case than for K=1 case. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

Dzegilenko, F.N.; Bowman, J.M. [Department of Chemistry and Cherry L. Emerson Center for Scientific Computation, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia 30322 (United States)

1998-01-01

58

Variations in sour gas concentrations in the NSB [open quote]A[close quote] field, offshore north Sumatra  

SciTech Connect

Sour gas concentrations in DST samples from the NSB [open quote]A[close quote] field show wide variations. This can be observed in tests from different wells, different tests from the same well and different samples from the same test. H[sub 2]S measurements show the most obvious variations, from less than 0.5% to greater than 5%. CO[sub 2] measurements also vary beyond normal sampling or analytical errors. Geological considerations suggest that these variations are not controlled by subsurface reservoir properties. DST rate and volume data suggest that variations in sour gas concentrations are controlled by the production of formation water. Minimum sour gas concentrations occur in DST samples with water production rates which match those predicted for water vapor condensation. Elevated SW gas concentrations occur in DST's in which produced water either exceeds or falls short of water vapor condensation predictions. In the case of excess water production, the source of the elevated sour gas concentrations is clear. Formation water in equilibrium with a gas phase containing the minimum sour gas concentration, 28% CO[sub 2] and 0.5% HA would contain a dissolved gas with 80% CO[sub 2] and 10% H[sub 2]S. Exsolution of this dissolved gas during DST operations would result in substantial increases in sour gas concentrations. In tests with water deficits, it is probable that liquids are being trapped in the subsurface, but this cannot be proved. These observations have been extended to a database on sour gas concentrations in north Sumatra and have had a substantial impact on assessments of the exploration and resource potential of this area.

Reaves, C.M. (Mobil Exploration and Producing Technical Center, Dallas, TX (United States))

1996-01-01

59

Characterization of a [open quotes]kissing[close quotes] hairpin complex derived from the human immunodeficiency virus genome  

SciTech Connect

Base-pair formation between hairpin loops-a [open quotes]kissing[close quotes] complex-is an RNA-folding motif that links two elements of RNA secondary structure. It is also a unique protein recognition site involved in regulation of ColE1 plasmid DNA replication. The trans-activation response element (TAR), a hairpin and bulge at the 5[prime] end of the untranslated leader region of the human immunodeficiency virus 1 mRNA, enhances the transcription of the virus and is necessary for viral replication. Gel electrophoresis and absorbance melting curves indicate that a synthesized RNA hairpin (Tar*-16) with a loop sequence complementary to the TAR loop sequence (CUGGGA) associates specifically with a 16-nucleotide TAR hairpin (Tar-16) to form a stable complex. RNase T1 probing indicates that the three guanines in the Tar-16 loop become inaccessible in the complex. NMR imino proton spectra reveal that 5 base pairs are formed between the two hairpin loops (Tar-16 and Tar*-16); only the adenine at the 3[prime] terminus of the TAR loop does not form a base pair with the 5[prime]-terminal uracil of the complementary loop. A 14-nucleotide hairpin [CCUA-(UCCCAG)UAGG] with a loop sequence complementary to the TAR loop is conserved within the gag gene of human immunodeficiency virus 1. A synthesized RNA hairpin corresponding to this conserved sequence also binds to the Tar-16 hairpin with high affinity. It is possible that the same RNA loop-loop interaction occurs during the viral life cycle. 40 refs., 7 figs.

Chang, Kung-Yao; Tinoco, Ignacio Jr. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States))

1994-08-30

60

Targeted horizontal drilling at the Sooner {open_quotes}D{close_quotes} Sand Unit, DJ Basin, Colorado: A case history  

SciTech Connect

Reservoir compartmentalization has a detrimental affect on waterflood recovery of oil from the fluvial and delta-front facies of the {open_quotes}D{close_quotes} Sand reservoir at the Sooner Unit in Weld county, Colorado. Reservoir characterization studies of the reservoir include 3-D seismic, detailed geological correlation and engineering evaluations. 3-D seismic data clearly collaborate the internal geometry of sediment thickness within the unit area and indicate several lineaments across the depositional grain. Static and transient reservoir pressure data also demonstrate a high degree of compartmentalization. The purpose of the reservoir characterization studies were to target and select infill drilling locations to optimally improve reservoir sweep by waterflooding. Management decided to attempt horizontal re-completions in existing injection wells to improve sweep, connect reservoir compartments and utilize the existing surface-facility infrastructure. Horizontal re-completions in this reservoir appeared to be a match of technology with the reservoir problem. A reservoir area with high oil-in-place per acre, but with negligible secondary response, was selected for a horizontal re-completion attempt with an adjacent injection well. Horizontal drilling results indicate that a barrier was penetrated at a horizontal reach of 250 ft. The location of the barrier was consistent with seismic and pressure transient data. Unfortunately, the shale above the reservoir sandstone collapsed despite careful attention to drilling mud properties and hydraulics. The horizontal completion efforts were aborted after several attempts. Current plans are to drill vertical injection wells at infill locations identified as the targets of the horizontal re-completion program.

Sippel, M.A.; Singdahlsen, S. [Interactive Earth Sciences Corp., Denver, CO (United States)

1995-06-01

61

Spread and Quote-Update Frequency of the Limit-Order Driven Sergei Maslov Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We perform numerical simulations of the limit-order driven Sergei Maslov (SM) model and investigate the probability distribution and autocorrelation function of the bid-ask spread S and the quote-update frequency U. For the probability distribution, the model successfully reproduces the power law decay of the spread and the exponential decay of the quote-update frequency. For the autocorrelation function, both the spread and the quote-update frequency of the model decay by a power law, which is consistent with the empirical study. We obtain the power law exponent 0.54 for the spread, which is in good agreement with the real financial market.

Qiu, Tian; Chen, Guang

2007-08-01

62

Sequence stratigraphic re-interpretation of [open quotes]stray[close quotes] sandstones in the Cretaceous Mancos Shale, Book Cliffs, Utah: Implications for exploration models  

SciTech Connect

The Mancos Shale, Book Cliffs, eastern Utah, represents the open marine mudstones of the Cretaceous Western Interior Seaway and contains a number of detached sandstone bodies ([open quotes]Mancos B[close quotes]) which are located 30-150 km down depositional dip from contemporaneous highstand shoreline deposits in the Blackhawk Formation. Examination of these [open quotes]stray[close quotes] sandstones reveals that they do not represent deep water deposition, as previously supposed, but instead comprise three shallow marine facies associations; (1) tidally-influenced fluvial channel fills, (2) fluvially-dominated delta front successions and (3) low-energy shorelines. Tidally-influenced fluvial channel fills are commonly stacked into multistorey bodies at discrete stratigraphic levels, thereby defining incised valley fill (IVF) networks. Fluvially-dominated deltas are eroded into by, and lie at the down-dip terminations of, IVFs and are therefore interpreted as falling stage and lowstand shorelines. Low-energy shorelines are inferred to lie along strike from these deltas. The above shallow marine deposits have been mapped at five discrete stratigraphic horizons, which can be either traced or projected up-dip to previously-documented IVFs in the Blackhawk Formation. Their paleocurrents imply that falling stage and lowstand shoreline trends were sub-parallel to mapped highstand shorelines, although there is evidence for a perpendicular lowstand shoreline trend in the east of the study area. This facies and sequence stratigraphic re-interpretation enables predictive exploration modelling of subsurface [open quotes]Mancos B[close quotes] gas reservoir sandstones.

Hampson, G.J.; Howell, J.A.; Flint, S.S. (Univ. of Liverpool (United Kingdom))

1996-01-01

63

Mitochondrial DNA control region sequence variation suggests an independent origin of an {open_quotes}Asian-specific{close_quotes} 9-bp deletion in Africans  

SciTech Connect

The intergenic noncoding region between the cytochrome oxidase II and lysyl tRNA genes of human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is associated with two tandemly arranged copies of a 9-bp sequence. A deletion of one of these repeats has been found at varying frequencies in populations of Asian descent, and is commonly referred to as an {open_quotes}Asian-specific{close_quotes} marker. We report here that the 9-bp deletion is also found at a frequency of 10.2% (66/649) in some indigenous African populations, with frequencies of 28.6% (20/70) in Pygmies, 26.6% (12/45) in Malawians and 15.4% (31/199) in southeastern Bantu-speaking populations. The deletion was not found in 123 Khoisan individuals nor in 209 western Bantu-speaking individuals, with the exception of 3 individuals from one group that was admixed with Pygmies. Sequence analysis of the two hypervariable segments of the mtDNA control region reveals that the types associated with the African 9-bp deletion are different from those found in Asian-derived populations with the deletion. Phylogenetic analysis separates the {open_quotes}African{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}Asian{close_quotes} 9-bp deletion types into two different clusters which are statistically supported. Mismatch distributions based on the number of differences between pairs of mtDNA types are consistent with this separation. These findings strongly support the view that the 9-bp deletion originated independently in Africa and in Asia.

Soodyall, H.; Redd, A.; Vigilant [Pennsylvania State Univ., Univeristy Park, PA (United States)] [and others

1994-09-01

64

Induction of transcription of {open_quotes}Immediate early genes{close_quotes} by low-dose ionizing radiation  

SciTech Connect

The induction of transition of specific genes after exposure to ionizing radiation has previously been reported after lethal doses of radiation (2-50 Gy). Little attention has been focused on expression of {open_quotes}immediate early genes{close_quotes} after low doses of ionizing radiation, where cell viability remains high. This dose range (0.25-2.0 Gy) is above the diagnostic dose level but at or below the doses typical for a single exposure in fractionated radiotherapy treatment of cancer. In this study, it was observed that doses in the range of 0.25-2.0 Gy induced different amounts of the mRNAs of the proto-oncogenes c-fos, c-jun, c-myc and c-Ha-ras at a given dose and time in Epstein-Barr virus-transformed human lymphoblastoid 244B cells. A maximum response was seen after a dose of 0.5 Gy for all but c-fos, which showed a maximum response after exposure to 0.25 Gy. Time-course studies demonstrated that the induction was transient, reaching a maximum at 1 h and declining to the constitutive level at 4 h after irradiation. Using second-messenger specific inhibitors, the signaling pathways involved in the induction of these proto-oncogenes was also investigated. The results showed that all four of the proto-oncogenes induced after 0.5 Gy shared a common pathway of tyrosine kinase activation. Other signaling pathways included protein kinase C, reactive oxygen intermediates and calcium-dependent kinases; these were found to be differentially involved in the induction of transcription of the individual proto-oncogenes. In summary, this study suggests that low-dose ionizing radiation (0.25-2.0 Gy) can modulate expression of immediate early genes. Secondly, the activation of immediate early genes after low-dose exposure involves multiple second-messenger signaling pathways. Third, the magnitude of involvement of the different signaling pathways after low-dose radiation is different for each proto-oncogene expressed. 43 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

Prasad, A.V.; Mohan, N.; Chandrasekar, B.; Meltz, M.L. [Univ. of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, TX (United States)

1995-09-01

65

Problem on the United States Continental Shelf - measuring the environmental {open_quotes}effectiveness{close_quotes} of the Outer Continental Shelf Act (OCSA)  

SciTech Connect

This article reviews the interplay of environmental standard with oil and gas leasing on the Outer Continental Shelf (OSC) in order to determine if the marine environment is really protected by the interplay of domestic legislation. The 1982 LOS treaty leaves environmental protection to State (domestic) regulation. There is no customary law regarding this type of domestic shelf regulation. The main problem is measuring the {open_quotes}effectiveness{close_quotes} of our domestic shelf legislation. For example, do we simply review effectiveness in terms of controlling operational damage or in terms of environmental injury caused by catastrophic accidents?

Dubner, B.H. [Thomas M. Cooley Law School, Lansing, MI (United States)

1994-12-31

66

{open_quotes}Anomalous peak effect{close_quotes} - is it indicative of a generalized Fulde-Ferrell-Larkin-Ovchinnikov state?  

SciTech Connect

Dilatometric and magnetic studies on single crystals of the high-{kappa} superconductors UPd{sub 2}Al{sub 3} and CeRu{sub 2} reveal a spontaneous increase of the volume-pinning force at high magnetic fields of more than one order of magnitude. This {open_quotes}anomalous peak effect{close_quotes} was claimed to be a signature of a new staggered high-field superconducting order parameter. We will review the recent developments and discuss alternative explanations.

Modler, R.

1996-10-01

67

Security analysts and 'bad news’: a note on 9\\/11  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous stock market studies over the last two decades have provided evidence of anomalous price behaviour that is consistent with over-reaction to information. Security analysts’ forecasts of corporate earnings are often seen as a potential driver for prices and so have also been investigated for evidence of over-reaction. While excessive volatility in analysts’ forecasts is reported in DeBondt and Thaler

Simon Hussain

2006-01-01

68

Why Did NASDAQ Market Makers Stop Avoiding Odd-Eighth Quotes?  

Microsoft Academic Search

On May 26 and 27, 1994, several national newspapers reported the findings of W. Christie and P. Schultz (1994) who cannot reject the hypothesis that marketmakers of active NASDAQ stocks implicitly colluded to maintain spreads of at least $0.25 by avoiding odd-eighth quotes. On May 27, dealers in Amgen, Cisco Systems, and Microsoft sharply increased their use of odd-eighth quotes,

WILLIAM G. CHRISTIE; JEFFREY H. HARRIS; PAUL H. SCHULTZ

1994-01-01

69

{open_quotes}Horizontal{close_quotes} gene transfer from a transgenic potato line to a bacterial pathogen (Erwinia chrysanthemi) occurs - if at all - at an extremely low frequency  

SciTech Connect

The frequency of possible {open_quotes}horizontal{close_quotes} gene transfer between a plant and a tightly associated bacterial pathogen was studied in a model system consisting of transgenic Solanum tuberosum, containing a {beta}-lactamase gene linked to a pBR322 origin of replication, and Erwinia chrysanthemi. This experimental system offers optimal conditions for the detection of possible horizontal gene transfer events, even when they occur at very low frequency. Horizontal gene transfer was not detected under conditions mimicking a {open_quotes}natural{close_quotes} infection. The gradual, stepwise alteration of artificial, positive control conditions to idealized natural conditions, however, allowed the characterization of factors that affected gene transfer, and revealed a gradual decrease of the gene transfer frequency from 6.3 x 10{sup -2} under optimal control conditions to a calculated 2.0 x 10{sub -17} under idealized natural conditions. These data, in combination with other published studies, argue that horizontal gene transfer is so rare as to be essentially irrelevant to any realistic assessment of the risk involved in release experiments involving transgenic plants. 22 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

Schlueter, K.; Fuetterer, J.; Potrykus, I. [Institute of Plant Sciences, Zuerich (Switzerland)

1995-10-01

70

Sequence-stratigraphic elements and geochemical variability within a {open_quotes}condensed section{close_quotes}: Eagle Ford Group, east-central Texas  

SciTech Connect

The Cenomanian-Turonian Eagle Ford Group, the likely source for the East Texas field, crops out along a broad belt in central and northeastern Texas. Detailed analysis of Eagle Ford outcrops in central Texas reveals considerable variability at several different scales. A lower section is interpreted to represent transgressive, in-part {open_quotes}condensed{close_quotes} deposits, whereas the overlying section is interpreted as a highstand deposit. This sequence-stratigraphic framework is suggested by stratigraphic and geochemical evidence. The lower portion of the measured Eagle Ford Group outcrops contains dark shales with a blocky character. These shales exhibit minor bioturbation and are well laminated. A few bentonites are evident in this portion of the section but are not as significant as in the overlying unit. Above this interval, the Eagle Ford changes character dramatically, exhibiting a series of interbedded carbonate flags and recessive shales and numerous bentonites. Several bentonite layers appear to be continuous regionally, and compositional analyses suggest that they may be useful in stratigraphic correlation. Detailed organic geochemical analyses clearly differentiate the upper and lower Eagle Ford. The shales in the lower transgressive unit are organically enriched, exhibit higher generation potentials, and are more oil prone than shales in the overlying regressive interval. Even within the oil-prone intervals, there is considerable variation in geochemical attributes. This work raises concerns about uncritically equating {open_quotes}condensed sections{close_quotes} with source rock potential.

Liro, L.M.; Dawson, W.C.; Katz, B.J. [Texaco EPTD, Houston, TX (United States)] [and others

1994-09-01

71

Mitochondrial D-loop {open_quotes}signatures{close_quotes} produced by low-stringency single specific primer PCR constitute a simple comparative human identity test  

SciTech Connect

We have developed a technique called {open_quotes}LSSP-PCR{close_quotes} (low-stringency single specific primer PCR) that detects single or multiple mutations in DNA. A purified DNA fragment is submitted to PCR by using a single primer specific for one of the extremities of the fragment, under conditions of very low stringency. The primer hybridizes specifically to its complementary extremity and nonspecifically to multiple sites within the fragment, in a sequence-dependent manner. A complex set of reaction products is thus created that, when separated by electrophoresis, constitutes a unique {open_quotes}gene signature.{close_quotes} We here report the application of LSSP-PCR to the detection of sequence variation in the control (D-loop) region of human mtDNA, which is known to differ significantly between unrelated individuals. We prepared human DNA samples from blood and amplified a 1,024-bp portion of the mtDNA control region, using primers L15996 and H408. The amplified mtDNA fragments were then reamplified under LSSP-PCR conditions by using L15996 or H408 as drivers to produce complex signatures that always differed between unrelated individuals and yet were highly reproducible. In contrast, all mother-child pairs tested were identical, as expected from the matrilineal inheritance of mtDNA. Thus, the use of LSSP-PCR to produce D-loop signatures constitutes a powerful new technique for mtDNA-based comparative identity testing. 18 refs., 7 figs.

Barreto, G.; Vago, A.R.; Pena, S.D.J. [and others

1996-03-01

72

Comment on [open quotes]Weathering, plants, and the long-term carbon cycle[close quotes] by Robert A. Berner  

SciTech Connect

Berner (1992) has asserted that Jackson and Keller (1970a) misinterpreted the conspicuous reddish crust which forms on young lava flows in areas of rock surface colonised by the lichen Stereocaulon vulcani (but not in adjacent areas of bare rock) in regions of high rain fall on the Island of Hawaii. Jackson (1968) and Jackson and Keller (1970a,b) concluded from the results of a thorough interdisiplinary investigation employing a wide spectrum of techniques and information that his reddish coating, is an intensely leached weathering crust formed in situ, and that biochemical activities of the lichen or its associated microflora not only accelerate the chemical weathering of the rock by orders of magnitude but also determine the specific mineralogical and chemical properties of the weathering products. Berner, however, maintained that the reddish crust is in reality a deposit of [open quotes]wind-blown soil dust[close quotes] entrapped by a sticky organic substance secreted by the lichen. Berner fixed his attention on just one aspect of the many-sided body of interrelated data on which the conclusions of Jackson and Keller are founded-the observation that the weathering crust is much thicker on lichen-covered rock surfaces than on lichen-free [open quotes]control[close quotes] areas of the same rock. The totality of published evidence overwhelmingly supports the conclusions of Jackson and Keller an demonstrates that Berner's rival hypothesis is untenable.

Jackson, T.A. (National Water Research Inst., Burlington, Ontario (Canada))

1993-05-01

73

{open_quotes}Inverted hut{close_quotes} structure of Si{endash}Ge nanocrystals studied by extended x-ray absorption fine structure method  

SciTech Connect

Local structure around Ge in Si/Ge superlattices containing the {open_quotes}inverted hut{close_quotes} nanocrystals has been investigated by using the extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) technique. In contrast to the usual nanometer-sized Ge {open_quotes}hut clusters{close_quotes} commonly grown on top of Si layers using the conventional Stranski{endash}Krastanow self-organized growth mode, SiGe-alloy nanocrystals can be formed beneath the Ge wetting layer and grown into the Si layer in Si/Ge superlattices prepared in a low-temperature molecular beam epitaxy growth mode, and exhibit inverted hut nanocrystal structures regularly spaced along the Si/Ge interface. The EXAFS results obtained with varying Ge wetting layer thickness provide a direct evidence that intermixing of Ge and Si atoms takes place in a zone of about 1{endash}3 monolayers on each side of the Si/Ge interface. The intermixing of constituent atoms allows a mechanism other than the usual formation of misfit dislocations to release the strain energy resulted from lattice mismatch between Si and Ge at the interface. {copyright} 2001 American Institute of Physics.

Soo, Y. L.; Kioseoglou, G.; Huang, S.; Kim, S.; Kao, Y. H.; Peng, Y. H.; Cheng, H. H.

2001-06-04

74

Review of the NAS/NRC report: {open_quotes}Groundwater at Yucca Mountain: How high can it rise?{close_quotes}. Special report No. 1  

SciTech Connect

There are three basic and serious problems that produce disagreement with the conclusions and recommendations of the Academy report entitled {open_quotes}Groundwater at Yucca Mountain: How high can it rise?{close_quotes}. These are: First, the report ignores a considerable body of critical data relating to the ages and nature of hydrothermal alterations at the site; second, many of the strong conclusions expressed in the report are not reasonably supported by the evidence presented and, in some cases, are inconsistent with data and results available to the committee but which are not cited or used by them; and finally, there are statements describing field relationships and data that are not consistent with the facts or are made in such a way as to be misleading.

Archambeau, C.B.

1992-12-01

75

Translocation 4p;21q identified by FISH in a case previously described as {open_quotes}presumptive monosomy 21{close_quotes}  

SciTech Connect

Recently, Lopez-Pajares et al. (1993) reported identification of a translocation between the short arm of a chromosome 5 and the long arm of a chromosome 21 in a patient who was thought to be monosomy 21. This study is the first application of a chromosome 21 painting probe, pBS-21, and fluorescent in situ chromosome hybridization (FISH) to revise an earlier diagnosis of monosomy 21. We have now restudied skin fibroblast cultures, GM00137B, that are still available from another patient previously described as {open_quotes}presumptive monosomy 21{close_quotes} and have found that this case also has a translocation involving chromosomes 21 and 4. The authors urge that all previous cases of what appeared to be monosomy 21 should be re-examined with FISH to confirm or revise the original diagnosis so that genetic counseling of the family may be updated. 3 refs., 3 figs.

Yao, Xiu-Lan; Jenkins, E.C. [New York State Institute for Basic Research in Developmental Disabilities, Staten Island, NY (United States)

1994-10-01

76

EVALUATION OF THE APPLICATION OF THE CONTRIBUTORY PENSION SCHEME ON EMPLOYEE RETIREMENT BENEFITS OF QUOTED FIRMS IN NIGERIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper seeks to evaluate whether or not the application of the Contributory Pension Scheme has an impact on employee retirement benefits of quoted firms in Nigeria. In line with this objective, a hypothesis was formulated. The population of the study is the one hundred and eighty-two (182) firms quoted on the first-tier market of the Nigeria Stock Exchange and

Kehinde Oluwatoyin; Christian Ikechukwu

2009-01-01

77

Forecasting the frequency of changes in quoted foreign exchange prices with the autoregressive conditional duration model  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper applies the Autorecressive Conditional Duration model to Foreign Exchange quotes arriving on Reuters screens. The Autoregressive Conditional Duration model, developed in Engle and Russell (1995) [Engle, R., Russell, J., 1995. Autoregressive conditional duration; a new model for irregularly spaced time series data, University of California, San Diego, unpublished manuscript.], is a new statistical model for the analysis of

Robert F. Engle; Jeffrey R. Russell

1997-01-01

78

[open quotes]2-Step[close quotes] log analysis of the Spellacy reservoir in the giant Midway-Sunset Field, Kern County, California  

SciTech Connect

A technique is presented for simple, effective log analysis of (Miocene) [open quotes]Spellacy[close quotes] sands and conglomerates of the Santa Margarita Formation at Midway-Sunset Field in Kern County, California. Results are shown graphically on the log display and are quantified for mapping. Requirements are digital wireline data -- in this simple case, just resistivity and porosities - and flexible log analysis software such as QLA2[trademark]. The first step of this technique discriminates between reservoir-quality and non-reservoir-quality intervals yielding three color-coded categories. A narrow color-filled column is added to the well log display to graphically communicate the vertical distribution of reservoir-quality and barrier intervals. The second step performs a fluid analysis on the reservoir-quality category (intervals) yielding three more color-coded categories. The results of the fluid analysis are graphically displayed in a second narrow color-filled column on the well log. Analysis results are captured from a tabular report for mapping. Quantifiable products include (1) thicknesses: original net pay, current net pay, reservoir quality, total sand, total porosity, phi-H, etc.; (2) averages: original net pay porosity; current net pay porosity, current net pay saturation, current net pay bulk volume oil, etc.; and (3) ratios: thickness of reservoir quality to total sand and thickness of current net pay to total interval.

Sturm, D.H. (Santa Fe Energy Resources, Bakersfield, CA (United States))

1996-01-01

79

Volume II solicitation package for solicitation no. 522887-5422 {open_quotes}site electrical replacements & substation{close_quotes} subproject: 69 KV substation  

SciTech Connect

This solicitation is for the U.S. Department of Energy under Prime Contract No. DE-AC04-88-DP43495 with EG&G Mound Applied Technologies. Ohio Sales or Use taxes are not to be included in the proposal price. Applicable taxes due or owing to the State of Ohio will be paid by the buyer under Direct Payment Permit No. 98-002230. Refer to Form ML-2487, General Provisions, Article 24, {open_quotes}Federal, State & Local Taxes{close_quotes}. Sellers are advised that purchases of building and construction materials for incorporation into a structure or improvement to a real property which is accepted for ownership by the United States or one of its agencies are exempt from Ohio Sales and Use taxes. Unnecessarily elaborate brochures or other presentations beyond those sufficient to present a complete and effective response to this solicitation are not desired and may be construed as an indication of the seller`s lack of cost consciousness. Elaborate art work, expensive paper and binding, and expensive visual and other presentation aids are neither necessary nor wanted.

NONE

1991-05-03

80

Depositional environment and distribution of Late Cretaceous [open quotes]source rocks[close quotes] from Costa Rica to West Africa  

SciTech Connect

Late Cretaceous [open quotes]source rocks[close quotes] from Costa Rica, western and eastern Venezuela, and Trinidad were studied using organic and inorganic geochemistry, biostratigraphy, and sedimentology in order to determine their depositional environments. Bulk mineralogy and major element geochemistry for 304 samples were combined with Rock Eval data and extract biomaker analysis to infer the types and distributions of the various Late Cretaceous productivity systems represented in the dataset. When data from this study are combined with published and proprietary data from offshore West Africa, Guyana/Suriname, and the central Caribbean, they show that these Late Cretaceous units can be correlated by their biogeochemical characteristics to establish their temporal and spatial relationships. Paleogeographic maps constructed for the early to late Cenomanian, Turonian, Coniacian to middle Santonian, and late Santonian to latest Campanian show that upwelling and excessive fluvial runoff were probably the dominant sources of nutrient supply to the coastal productivity systems. The late Santonian to Maastrichtian rocks examined in this study indicate that organic material was poorly preserved after deposition, even though biologic productivity remained constant or changed only slightly. A rapid influx of oxygenated bottom water may have occurred following the opening of a deep water connection between the North and South Atlantic oceans, and/or separation of India from Africa and the establishment of an Antarctic oceanic connection. This study suggests that the most important factors that controlled source rock quality in northern South America were productivity, preservation, degree of clastic dilution, and subsurface diagenesis.

Erlich, R.N.; Sofer, Z. (Amoco Overseas Exploration Company, Houston, TX (United States)); Pratt, L.M. (Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States)); Palmer, S.E. (Amoco Research Company, Tulsa, OK (United States))

1993-02-01

81

{open_quotes}Feature{close_quotes} mapping of the HLA-C linked DNA region: Construction by sequencing from nested deletions  

SciTech Connect

The HLA complex located on chromosome 6p spans {approximately}4 Mb and is gene dense. To enable systematic analysis of less well-characterized portions of HLA, we are defining significant {open_quotes}features{close_quotes} of these DNA regions: locations of putative genes (prediction of exons by GRAIL analysis) and Alu elements, regions with homology to the database, and regions of evolutionarily conserved DNA sequence. Initially, we cloned a 35 kb DNA segment adjacent to HLA-C into a transposon {gamma}{delta}-based cosmid vector designed for generating nested deletions in vivo. Over 70 informative nested deletions were obtained and sequenced by fluorescent-automated technology. Islands of DNA sequences were obtained and used to construct a feature map of the 35 kb HLA segment. Our data (i) defined the organization of the previously identified keratinocyte-specific S gene, (ii) generated the DNA sequence of two evolutionarily conserved DNA segments, and (iii) located otherwise undefined putative exons and Alu elements. The construction of such feature maps of large DNA segments using the nested deletion-sequencing approach provides an efficient means to identify DNA segments meriting systematic and detailed analysis.

Krishnan, B.R. [Washington Univ. School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States); Chaplin, D.D. [Washington Univ. School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States)]|[HHMI, St. Louis, MO (United States)

1994-09-01

82

Linkage disequilibrium in the insulin gene region: Size variation at the 5{prime} flanking polymorphism and bimodality among {open_quotes}Class I{close_quotes} alleles  

SciTech Connect

The 5{prime} flanking polymorphism (5{prime}FP), a hypervariable region at the 5{prime} end of the insulin gene, has {open_quotes}class 1{close_quotes} alleles (650-900 bp long) that are in positive linkage disequilibrium with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM). The authors report that precise sizing of the 5{prime}FP yields a bimodal frequency distribution of class 1 allele lengths. Class 1 alleles belonging to the lower component (650-750 bp) of the bimodal distribution were somewhat more highly associated with IDDM than were alleles from the upper component (760-900 bp), but the difference was not statistically significant. They also examined 5{prime}FP length variation in relation to allelic variation at nearby polymorphisms. At biallelic RFLPs on both sides of the 5{prime}FP, they found that one allele exhibits near-total association with the upper component of the 5FP class 1 distribution. Such associations represent a little-known but potentially wide-spread form of linkage disequilibrium. In this type of disequilibrium, a flanking allele has near-complete association with a single mode of VNTR alleles whose lengths represent consecutive numbers of tandem repeats (CNTR). Such extreme disequilibrium between a CNTR mode and flanking alleles may originate and persist because length mutations at some VNTR loci usually add or delete only one or two repeat units. 22 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs.

McGinnis, R.E.; Spielman, R.S. [Univ. of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

1994-09-01

83

An EOF study of the Earth{close_quote}s ozone field  

SciTech Connect

In a previous paper we discussed the spectral properties of the Earth{close_quote}s ozone layer, obtained using Empirical Orthogonal Function decomposition of the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) database. Here we present other aspects of the analysis, including the EOF method adapted for incomplete datasets, analysis of spatial structure and temporal variation of first several eigenfunctions, and an extended study of small-scale properties of ozone concentration fields. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

Manin, D.; Everson, R.; Sirovich, L. [The Rockefeller University, New York City, New York 10021 (United States)

1996-06-01

84

Are Market Makers Uninformed and Passive? Signing Trades in The Absence of Quotes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We develop a new likelihood-based approach to sign trades in the absence of quotes. It is equally efficient as existing MCMC methods, but more than 10 times faster. It can deal with the occurrence of multiple trades at the same time, and noisily observed trade times. We apply this method to a high-frequency dataset of the 30Y U.S. treasury futures

Michel van der Wel; Albert J. Menkveld; Asani Sarkar

2009-01-01

85

A characteristic time scale of tick quotes on foreign currency markets  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates that a characteristic time scale on an exchange rate market (USD\\/JPY) is examined for the period of\\u000a 1998 to 2000. Calculating power spectrum densities for the number of tick quotes per minute and averaging them over the year\\u000a yield that the mean power spectrum density has a peak at high frequencies. Consequently it means that there exist

Aki-Hiro Sato

2005-01-01

86

The formation and behavior of {open_quotes}vapor lock{close_quotes} pressure seals and associated hydrocarbon accumulations in geologically young basins  

SciTech Connect

This paper demonstrates a mechanism for the formation of geopressure and hydrocarbon accumulations in geologically young basins (e,g., Gulf of Mexico). Gas exsolving from solution in response to changes in temperature create a relative permeability barrier that restricts vertical fluid flow locally. Continued gas dissolution in source rock, transport and subsequent exsolution at shallower depths maintain the {open_quotes}vapor lock{close_quotes} seal. Any sands that are found within the pressure seal fill preferentially with the nonwetting gas and oil. Further migration of the trapped hydrocarbons is restricted by the capillary entry pressures of the surrounding shales; thus, capillary entry effects enhance the sealing nature of the pressure barrier. Numerical simulations demonstrate the viability of this model for the formation of geopressured reservoirs in young basins, and show that two distinct pressure seals can form under certain conditions. The model incorporates salient features from the Gulf of Mexico, including spatially-variable heat flux, methane and CO{sub 2} generation and transport, and a low-permeability shale as the continuous rock fabric. Steady state isotherms exhibit significant relief due to the variable heat flux, and gas exsolves from solution along two distinct isotherms. The gas forms a relative permeability barrier that restricts vertical fluid flow. As the gas saturation exceeds a critical saturation, any sands found within the pressure seals fill with the non-wetting hydrocarbons. Gas is trapped within the sands by capillary entry pressures of the surrounding shales, improving the sealing nature of the pressure barrier. Sensitivity studies show that specific seat geometry is sensitive to the variability in heat flow, gas content of the aqueous phase, and relative permeability and capillary pressure characteristics of both the sand and shale; however, one or more vapor lock seals form under a variety of conditions.

Benzing, W.M.; Shook, G.M. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

1996-09-01

87

Depositional facies and porosity development at Coon Creek Field (Newman [open quotes]Big Lime[close quotes]), Leslie County, Kentucky  

SciTech Connect

Coon Creek field is a significant petroleum reservoir in the [open quotes]Big Lime[close quotes], Middle to Upper Mississippian Newman equivalent, in southeastern Kentucky. Initial production from select wells has exceeded 600 bbl of oil/day at drilling depths averaging 915 m (3300 ft). Facies patterns, dolomitization, porosity, and structure in this carbonate reservoir have been delineated by geophysical logs, subsurface mapping, and examination of cores and cuttings. The reservoir is set within a localized paleotopographic low on the unconformable surface of the underlying siliciclastic Borden Group; the Borden surface can express rapid relief of over a 10% grade within less than 300 m. Transgression across the exposed Borden surface resulted in the deposition of a complex system of carbonates lithofacies. Crinoidal dolostones, representing shallow subtidal skeletal bars and banks, form the basal Big Lime (1.5-6 m thick). They are overlain by a typical facies (30 m thick) of bryozoan grainstones/packstones, crinoid grainstones, and mixed skeletal wakestones/mudstones. The rybryozoanacies are characterized by unfragmented fenestrates cemented by radiaxial-fibrous calcite. Stratigraphic distributions indicate the bryozoan facies were broad buildups with crinoidal flank and cap deposits and muddy skeletal off-mount facies, similar to deeper water Waulsortian mounds in other basins. Pellet and ooid grainstones represent moderate- to high-energy subtidal shoal deposits that covered the mound complex. Hydrocarbon production is restricted in the field to the crinoid-bryozoan facies complex within the basal 30 m. Reservoir porosity and permeability have been enhanced by selective dolomitization of grainstones and fracturing related to postdepositional reactivation of basement faults.

Moshier, S.O. (Wheaton College, IL (United States)); Stamper, M.E. (Equitable Resources Exploration, Kingsport, TN (United States))

1994-08-01

88

Improved clearance of radiolabeled biotinylated monoclonal antibody following the infusion of avidin as a {open_quotes}chase{close_quotes} without decreased accumulation in the target tumor  

SciTech Connect

The techniques of radioimmunoimaging and radioimmunotherapy suffer from prolonged high background radioactivity because intravenously injected antibodies remain in the circulation and in the organs far longer than necessary for effective binding to the target. To decrease background and increase radionuclide excretion without decreasing the dose of radioactivity delivered to the target tumor, we used radiolabeled biotinylated antibodies followed by a {open_quotes}chase{close_quotes} avidin injection. A mouse monoclonal antibody, OST7 (lgG1), which reacts with human osteosarcoma, was biotinylated and labeled with {sup 125}I, {sup 131}I or {sup 22m}Tc. Radiolabeled biotinylated OST7 (10 {mu}g) was administered intravenously into nude mice bearing human osteosarcomas and 30 {mu}g of avidin was injected intravenously 6 or 24 hr later. Following avidin injection in mice pretreated with radiolabeled biotinylated antibodies, radioactivity was promptly cleared from the blood and deposited in the liver and spleen, after which radioiodine was rapidly detached from the antibody and excreted in the urine. The tumor-to-blood ratios at 6 and 24 hr after the injection of {sup 125}I-labeled biotinylated OST7 increased compared with the values before the avidin chase without any loss of tumor radioactivity. Furthermore, the tumor -to-background radioactivity ratio was improved and better images were obtained more rapidly after the injection of radiolabeled biotiny-lated antibodies than with conventional immunoscintigraphy. This method may find application in clinical radio-immunoimaging, especially using short half-life radionuclides such as {sup 39m}Tc and {sup 123}I. 24 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

Kobayashi, Hisataka; Sakahara, Harumi; Hosono, Makoto [Kyoto Univ., Maebashi (Japan)] [and others

1994-10-01

89

Simple One-Dimensional Model of Heat Conduction which Obeys Fourier{close_quote}s Law  

SciTech Connect

We present the computer simulation results of a chain of hard-point particles with alternating masses interacting on its extremes with two thermal baths at different temperatures. We found that the system obeys Fourier{close_quote}s law at the thermodynamic limit. This result is against the actual belief that one-dimensional systems with momentum conservative dynamics and nonzero pressure have infinite thermal conductivity. It seems that thermal resistivity occurs in our system due to a cooperative behavior in which light particles tend to absorb much more energy than the heavier ones.

Garrido, P. L.; Hurtado, P. I.; Nadrowski, B.

2001-06-11

90

Inverse scattering from arbitrary two-dimensional objects in stratified environments via a Green{close_quote}s operator  

SciTech Connect

An important problem in geophysics, medical imaging, and nondestructive imaging today is the construction of a practical, accurate, and efficient means of imaging geophysical anomalies, tumours, or material defects in layered media. This paper discusses such a method. The use of a {open_quotes}stratified Green{close_quote}s function{close_quotes} for the solution of the forward problem is detailed. This forward problem is then incorporated into an efficient and accurate inversion algorithm based on optimization. The method is nonperturbative, unlike diffraction tomography, which relies on linearization to make the problem tractable. In the inversion, a pair of Lippmann{endash}Schwinger-like integral equations are solved simultaneously via the Galerkin procedure for the unknown total internal fields and speed distribution. The computational burden is high, but made manageable by utilizing BiConjugate gradients, fast fourier transforms, and {open_quotes}sinc{close_quotes} basis functions to speed up the solution of the forward problem. The size and contrasts for which the method converges are substantially beyond the Born or Rytov approximations, and other methods heretofore reported in the literature. The convolutional character of the layered Green`s function, and thus numerical efficiency, is preserved by careful construction based on known reflection coefficients. {copyright} {ital 1997 Acoustical Society of America.}

Wiskin, J.W.; Borup, D.T.; Johnson, S.A. [Department of Bioengineering, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112 (United States)

1997-08-01

91

Another bogus isomer: Sic transit [open quotes]green Mo[sub 2]Cl[sub 4](PMePh[sub 2])[sub 4][close quotes]. The X-ray crystal structure determination of MoOCl[sub 3](OPMePh[sub 2])[sub 2][center dot]C[sub 6]H[sub 6  

SciTech Connect

The recent debunking of one example (and by implication others) of so-called [open quotes]bond-stretch[close quotes] or [open quotes]distortional[close quotes] isomers involving M[double bond]O bonds has caused reconsideration of another case of alleged isomerism, namely the blue and green [open quotes]isomers[close quotes] of Mo[sub 2]Cl[sub 4](PMePh[sub 2])[sub 4] reported by Carmona-Guzman and Wilkinson and apparently supported by some more recent observations. The authors now report simple observations that reveal the true nature of the [open quotes]green isomer.[close quotes] These results are based on more careful examinations of [sup 1]H NMR spectra of the green material synthesized under slightly different conditions and a single-crystal diffraction study on material that crystallized out of a benzene solution of the green material. As a result of these studies, it is concluded that the [open quotes]green isomer[close quotes] is simply the blue Mo[sub 2]Cl[sub 4](PMePh[sub 2])[sub 4] species contaminated with MoOCl[sub 3](OPMePh[sub 2])[sub 2], MoOCl[sub 2](PMePh[sub 2])[sub 3], and possibly trans-[MoCl[sub 4](PMePh[sub 2])[sub 2

Cotton, F.A. (Texas A M Univ., College Station (United States)); Kohli, M.; Luck, R.L. (American Univ., Washington, DC (United States)); Silverton, J.V. (National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States))

1993-04-28

92

Innovations in the design of mechanical components for a beamline{emdash}The SRI{close_quote}95 Workshop 2 Summary  

SciTech Connect

The Synchrotron Radiation Instrumentation 1995 Conference (SRI{close_quote}95) was hosted by the Advanced Photon Source (APS) at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). Of the many workshops within the conference, the SRI{close_quote}95 Workshop 2 was {open_quote}{open_quote}Innovations in the Design of Mechanical Components of a Beamline.{close_quote}{close_quote} The workshop was well attended with over 140 registrants. The following topics were discussed. Industry{close_quote}s perspective on the status and future was provided by Huber Diffraktionstechnik GMBH on goniometers/diffractometers, Oxford Instruments on advanced manufacturing technique of high heat load components, such as the APS photon shutter, and Kohzu Seiki Co. Ltd. on the specialties of monochromators provided to the third-generation synchrotrons. This was followed by a description of the engineering of a dual function monochromator design for water-cooled diamond or cryogenically cooled silicon monochromators by CMC CAT/APS. Another category was the nagging problem of sensitivity of the photon beam position monitors (XBPM) to bending magnet radiation ({open_quote}{open_quote}BM contamination{close_quote}{close_quote}) and the undulator magnet gap changes. Problem descriptions and suggested solutions were provided by both the Advanced Light Source (ALS) and the APS. Other innovative ideas were the cooling schemes (enhanced cooling of beamline components using metallic porous meshes including cryo-cooled applications); Glidcop photon shutter design using microchannels at the ALS; and window/filter design, manufacture and operational experiences at CHESS and PETRA/HASYLAB. Additional discussions were held on designing for micromotions and precision in the optical support systems and smart user filter schemes. This is a summary of the presentations at the Workshop. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

Kuzay, T.; Warwick, T. [Experimental Facilities Division, Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)]|[Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

1996-09-01

93

46 CFR Exhibit No. 1 to Subpart Q... - Application for Refund or Waiver of Freight Charges Due to Tariff or Quoting Error  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Charges Due to Tariff or Quoting Error No. Exhibit No. 1 to...Charges Due to Tariff or Quoting Error Federal Maritime Commission...shipments. (c) Weight or measurement, container size, and number...application, i.e., the error, failure to publish,...

2011-10-01

94

46 CFR Exhibit No. 1 to Subpart Q... - Application for Refund or Waiver of Freight Charges Due to Tariff or Quoting Error  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Charges Due to Tariff or Quoting Error No. Exhibit No. 1 to...Charges Due to Tariff or Quoting Error Federal Maritime Commission...shipments. (c) Weight or measurement, container size, and number...application, i.e., the error, failure to publish,...

2012-10-01

95

Characterization of the acidic and basic properties of [alpha]LiAlO[sub 2], [gamma]LiAlO[sub 2], and calcined [open quotes]HAlO[sub 2][close quotes] using isopropyl alcohol  

SciTech Connect

Characterization of both the acidic and basic sites of [alpha]LiAlO[sub 2], [gamma]LiAlO[sub 2], and calcined [open quotes]HAlO[sub 2][close quotes] was carried out with the isopropyl alcohol probe reaction. All three materials catalyzed the formation of both propylene and acetone. The formation of propylene is indicative of acidic-basic pair sites, while the presence of acetone is indicative of basic sites. In addition to the formation of both propylene and acetone, base-catalyzed acetone aldol condensation products were formed on both [alpha]LiAlO[sub 2], and calcined [open quotes]HAlO[sub 2][close quotes]. Both materials produced a C6DIENE (2-methyl-1,3-pentadiene or 4-methyl-1,3-pentadiene) aldol condensation product, while [alpha]M2PONE (4-methyl-2-pentanone) and 4M2POL (4-methyl-2-pentanol). The reaction pathways that describe the formation of the various C6 products were used to infer the nature of the basic sites on the materials. Additional information obtained from TPD and FTIR of chemisorbed CO[sub 2] demonstrate that the basic sites on [alpha]LiAlO[sub 2] are similar in strength and number to MgO. 35 refs., 9 figs., 6 tabs.

Tomczak, D.C.; Allen, J.L.; Poeppelmeier, K.R. (Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States))

1994-03-01

96

Frequency analysis of tick quotes on foreign currency markets and the double-threshold agent model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Power spectrum densities for the number of tick quotes per minute (market activity) on three currency markets (USD/JPY, EUR/USD, and JPY/EUR) are analyzed for periods from January 2000 to December 2000. We find some peaks on the power spectrum densities at a few minutes. We develop the double-threshold agent model and confirm that the corresponding periodicity can be observed for the activity of this model even though market participants perceive common weaker periodic information than threshold for decision-making of them. This model is numerically performed and theoretically investigated by utilizing the mean-field approximation. We propose a hypothesis that the periodicities found on the power spectrum densities can be observed due to nonlinearity and diversity of market participants.

Sato, Aki-Hiro

2006-09-01

97

Overview of ICF program at Centre D{close_quote}Etudes de Limeil-Valenton  

SciTech Connect

The major objectives of the CEA-DAM laser program is to determine the various requirements to achieve thermonuclear fusion in laboratory. We report here recent results obtained at Centre d{close_quote}Etudes de Limeil-Valenton on high density X-Ray implosions, radiative transfer processes, hydrodynamic instabilities and laser-plasma interaction involved in cavity physics. Ignition and a moderate gain appears to be achievable with a laser energy of about 1.5{minus}2 MJ delivered at {lambda}=0, 35 {mu}m with a shaped pulse (duration{approximately}16 ns). The construction of such a laser is realizable and a conceptual design is under preparation. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

Cel-V Laser Team

1996-05-01

98

Hypothesis: {open_quotes}Rogue cell{close_quotes}-type chromosomal damage in lymphocytes is associated with infection with the JC human polyoma virus and has implications for oncopenesis  

SciTech Connect

The hemagglutination inhibition antibody titers against the JC and BK polyoma viruses (JCV and BKV, respectively) are significantly elevated in individuals exhibiting {open_quotes}rogue{close_quotes} cells among their cultured lymphocytes. However, the elevation is so much greater with respect to JCV that the BKV elevation could readily be explained by cross reactivity to the capsid protein of these two closely related viruses. The JCV exhibits highly sequence homology with the simian papovavirus, simian virus 40 (SV40), and inoculation of human fetal brain cells with JCV produces polyploidy and chromosomal damage very similar to that produced by SV40. We suggest, by analogy with the effects of SV40, that these changes are due to the action of the viral large tumor antigen, a pluripotent DNA binding protein that acts in both transcription and replication. The implications of these findings for oncogenesis are briefly discussed. 45 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

Neel, J.V.; Glover, T.; Burgess, A. [Univ. of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)] [and others

1996-04-02

99

Imaging of neuroendocrine tumors in 300 patients following injection of I-123 mIBG or 1-131 mIBG prepared from a {open_quotes}cold kit{close_quotes}  

SciTech Connect

During the past 6 years, we have performed approximately 300 scans for neuroendocrine tumors in an extremely varied patient base, with 65% of patients receiving I-123 mIBG and 35%, I-131 mIBG. Imaging was performed at 24-72 hr, depending upon the isotope used. The most common clinical indication was for pheochromocytoma (>90%), followed by neuroblastoma, paraganglioma, medullary carcinoma of the thyroid, and carcinoid tumors. Radiolabeling was performed by a modification of Mock`s procedure. The radioiodide was added to a very stable {open_quotes}cold kit{close_quotes} developed in-house. The kit contains 1 ml of water for injection, 2 mg of mIBG hemisulfate, and 12 mg of ammonium sulfate. After 2 heating cycles, a yield >85% and a radiochemical purity {>=}96% were routinely obtained. Overall preparation time, including determination of radiochemical purity, is approximately 2.5 hr. The only equipment required is a thermostatically controlled block heater. Biodistribution of our I-131 product was indistinguishable from that distributed by the Nuclear Pharmacy at the University of Michigan, as was the radiochemical purity; the diagnostic efficacy matched that reported in the literature. The image quality obtained using I-123 mIBG was definitely superior, due to both the much higher count rate and the ideal imaging energy of I-123. On one occasion, the I-131 scan was equivocal, whereas the I-123 scan in the same patient was clearly positive. Retrospectively, for studies performed with I-123 mIBG using the {open_quotes}cold kit{close_quotes} method, the specificity and sensitivity both exceed 90%, correlating well with multiple studies reported in the literature. The preparation of I-123 mIBG in-house using this technique is recommended.

Karesh, S.M.; Henkin, R.E. [Loyola Univ Medical Center, Maywood, IL (United States)

1994-05-01

100

3D architecture modeling of reservoir compartments in a Shingled Turbidite Reservoir using high-resolution seismic data and sparse well control, example from Mars [open quotes]Pink[close quotes] reservoir, Mississippi Canyon Area, Gulf of Mexico  

SciTech Connect

Economics of most deep-water development projects require large reservoir volumes to be drained with relatively few wells. The presence of reservoir compartments must therefore be detected and planned for in a pre-development stage. We have used 3-D seismic data to constrain large-scale, deterministic reservoir bodies in a 3-D architecture model of Pliocene-turbidite sands of the [open quotes]E[close quotes] or [open quotes]Pink[close quotes] reservoir, Prospect Mars, Mississippi Canyon Areas 763 and 807, Gulf of Mexico. Reservoir compartmentalization is influenced by stratigraphic shingling, which in turn is caused by low accommodation space predentin the upper portion of a ponded seismic sequence within a salt withdrawal mini-basin. The accumulation is limited by updip onlap onto a condensed section marl, and by lateral truncation by a large scale submarine erosion surface. Compartments were suggested by RFT pressure variations and by geochemical analysis of RFT fluid samples. A geological interpretation derived from high-resolution 3-D seismic and three wells was linked to 3-D architecture models through seismic inversion, resulting in a reservoir all available data. Distinguishing subtle stratigraphical shingles from faults was accomplished by detailed, loop-level mapping, and was important to characterize the different types of reservoir compartments. Seismic inversion was used to detune the seismic amplitude, adjust sandbody thickness, and update the rock properties. Recent development wells confirm the architectural style identified. This modeling project illustrates how high-quality seismic data and architecture models can be combined in a pre-development phase of a prospect, in order to optimize well placement.

Chapin, M.A.; Mahaffie, M.J.; Tiller, G.M. (Shell Exploration and Production Technology Co., Houston, TX (United States))

1996-01-01

101

Analysis of the inadvertent reentry of the Cassini Spacecraft{close_quote}s Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators  

SciTech Connect

A rigorous multi-discipline approach has been developed to compute the aero/thermal/structural response of the Cassini Spacecraft{close_quote}s G{underscore}eneral P{underscore}urpose H{underscore}eat S{underscore}ource (GPHS) modules in the unlikely event of accidental reentry of the spacecraft during its Earth gravity-assist maneuver. A new r{underscore}eacting, a{underscore}blating, c{underscore}hemical e{underscore}quilibrium/nonequilibrium with r{underscore}adiation (RACER) full Navier-Stokes code is applied, along with an in-depth, transient-heating code, a nonlinear structural analysis code, and a six-degree-of-freedom flight-dynamics code. Attention is focused on the GPHS modules that would breakaway from the R{underscore}adioisotope T{underscore}hermoelectric G{underscore}enerators (RTGs) at high altitude. In addition, detailed analyses are performed to determine the survival/failure of the Graphite Impact Shells that would be released if the GPHS fails. The reentry velocity of the GPHS module (20 km/sec) is higher than any previously analyzed Earth reentry trajectory. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

Tobery, E.W. [Lockheed Martin Astronautics, King of Prussia, Pennsylvania 19406 (United States); Bhutta, B.A. [AeroTechnologies, Inc, Yorktown, Virginia 23692 (United States)] [Analysis of the inadvertent reentry of the Cassini Spacecrafts Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators

1999-01-01

102

Extended two-particle Green{close_quote}s functions and optical potentials for two particle scattering by by many-body targets  

SciTech Connect

An extension of the fermionic particle-particle propagator is presented that possesses similar algebraic properties to the single-particle Green{close_quote}s function. In particular, this extended two-particle Green{close_quote}s function satisfies Dyson{close_quote}s equation and its self energy has the same analytic structure as the self energy of the single-particle Green{close_quote}s function. For the case of a system interacting with one-particle potentials only, the two-particle self energy takes on a particularly simple form, just like the common self energy does. The new two-particle self energy also serves as a well behaved optical potential for the elastic scattering of a two-particle projectile by a many-body target. Due to its analytic structure, the two-particle self energy avoids divergences that appear with effective potentials derived by other means. Copyright {copyright} 1996 Academic Press, Inc.

Brand, J.; Cederbaum, L.S. [Theoretische Chemie, Universitaet Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 253, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany)

1996-12-01

103

Characteristic time scales of tick quotes on foreign currency markets: an empirical study and agent-based model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Power spectrum densities for the number of tick quotes per minute (market activity) on three currency markets (USD/JPY, EUR/USD, and JPY/EUR) for periods from January 1999 to December 2000 are analyzed. We find some peaks on the power spectrum densities at a few minutes. We develop the double-threshold agent model and confirm that stochastic resonance occurs for the market activity of this model. We propose a hypothesis that the periodicities found on the power spectrum densities can be observed due to stochastic resonance.

Sato, A.-H.

2006-03-01

104

Recursive analytical formula for the Green{close_quote}s function of a Hamiltonian having a sum of one-dimensional arbitrary delta-function potentials  

SciTech Connect

The Green{close_quote}s functions of one-dimensional Hamiltonians containing, respectively, one and two delta-function potentials are derived by analytically summing over the corresponding Lippmann-Schwinger series. A generalization of this procedure leads to an explicit recursive formula for the Green{close_quote}s function G{sup (n+1)} corresponding to a Hamiltonian containing a sum of n+1 delta-function potentials of arbitrary positions and strengths in terms of G{sup (n)} and the additional n+1 delta-function potential parameters.

Besprosvany, J.

2001-06-15

105

Self-Interaction Free Relativistic Local Spin Density Approximation: Equivalent of Hund{close_quote}s Rules in {ital {gamma}} -Ce  

SciTech Connect

In this Letter we present an {ital ab initio,} density functional theory, justification for the validity of Hund{close_quote}s type of rules in the solid state with localized electrons. We demonstrate that an orbital dependent functional, such as the self-interaction-corrected local spin density, is capable of fully describing the localized nature of the f state, so that all three Hund{close_quote}s rules are fulfilled. We argue this on the basis of linear-muffin-tin-orbital calculations in the atomic-sphere approximation for the {gamma} phase of Ce. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

Beiden, S.V.; Gehring, G.A. [Physics Department, University of Sheffield, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Temmerman, W.M.; Szotek, Z. [Daresbury Laboratory, Warrington, WA4 4AD, Cheshire (United Kingdom)

1997-11-01

106

Mutation in and lack of expression of tyrosinase-related protein-1 (TRP-1) in melanocytes from an individual with brown oculocutaneous albinism: A new subtype of albinism classified as {open_quotes}OCA3{close_quotes}  

SciTech Connect

Most types of human oculocutaneous albinism (OCA) result from mutations in the gene for tyrosinase (OCA1) or the P protein (OCA2), although other types of OCA have been described but have not been mapped to specific loci. Melanocytes were cultured from an African-American with OCA, who exhibited the phenotype of Brown OCA, and his normal fraternal twin. Melanocytes cultured from the patient with OCA and the normal twin appeared brown versus black, respectively. Melanocytes from both the patient with OCA and the normal twin demonstrated equal amounts of NP-40-soluble melanin; however, melanocytes from the patient with OCA contained only 7% of the amount of insoluble melanin found from the normal twin. Tyrosinase-related protein-1 (TRP-1) was not detected in the OCA melanocytes by use of various anti-TRP-1 probes. Furthermore, transcripts for TRP-1 were absent in cultured OCA melanocytes. The affected twin was homozygous for a single-bp deletion in exon 6, removing an A in codon 368 and leading to a premature stop at codon 384. Tyrosine hydroxylase activity of the OCA melanocytes was comparable to controls when assayed in cell lysates but was only 30% of controls when assayed in intact cells. We conclude that this mutation of the human TRP-1 gene affects its interaction with tyrosinase, resulting in dysregulation of tyrosinase activity, promotes the synthesis of brown versus black melanin, and is responsible for a third genetic type of OCA in humans, which we classify as {open_quotes}OCA3.{close_quotes} 69 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

Boissy, R.E.; Zhao, H.; Austin, L.M.; Boissy, Y.L.; Zhao, Y. [Univ. of Cincinnati College of Medicine, OH (United States)] [and others

1996-06-01

107

[open quotes]Cryptic[close quotes] repeating triplets of purines and pyrimidines (cRRY(i)) are frequent and polymorphic: Analysis of coding cRRY(i) in the proopiomelanocortin (POMC) and TATA-binding protein (TBP) genes  

SciTech Connect

Triplets of the form of purine, purine, pyrimidine (RRY(i)) are enhanced in frequency in the genomes of primates, rodents, and bacteria. Some RRY(i) are [open quotes]cryptic[close quotes] repeats (cRRY(i)) in which no one tandem run of a trinucleotide predominates. A search of human GenBank sequence revealed that the sequences of cRRY(i) are highly nonrandom. Three randomly chosen human cRRY(i) were sequenced in search of polymorphic alleles. Multiple polymorphic alleles were found in cRRY(i) in the coding regions of the genes for proopiomelanocortin (POMC) and TATA-binding protein (TBP). The highly polymorphic TBP cRRY(i) was characterized in detail. Direct sequencing of 157 unrelated human alleles demonstrated the presence of 20 different alleles which resulted in 29--40 consecutive glutamines in the amino-terminal region of TBP. These alleles are differently distributed among the races. PCR was used to screen 1,846 additional alleles in order to characterize more fully the range of variation in the population. Three additional alleles were discovered, but there was no example of a substantial sequence amplification as is seen in the repeat sequences associated with X-linked spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy, myotonic dystrophy, or the fragile-X syndrome. The structure of the TBP cRRY(i) is conserved in the five monkey species examined. In the chimpanzee, examination of four individuals revealed that the cRRY(i) was highly polymorphic, but the pattern of polymorphism differed from that in humans. The TBP cRRY(i) displays both similarities with and differences from the previously described RRY(i) in the coding sequence of the androgen receptor. The data suggest how simple tandem repeats could evolve from cryptic repeats. 18 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs.

Gostout, B.; Qiang Liu; Sommer, S.S. (Mayo Clinic/Foundation, Rochester, MN (United States))

1993-06-01

108

IMPORT "CLEARANCE"; LEVEL METHODOLOGIES  

EPA Science Inventory

All materials contain some levels of radioactivity, both natural and man-made. As detection devices installed at borders and ports become more sensitive, materials, which might otherwise be considered "clean", could therefore become suspect. The purpose of this activity is to p...

109

Measurements of the Argonne Wakefield Accelerator{close_quote}s low charge, 4 MeV RF photocathode witness beam  

SciTech Connect

The Argonne Wakefield Accelerator{close_quote}s (AWA) witness RF photocathode gun produced its first electron beam in April of 1996. We have characterized the charge, energy, emittance and bunch length of the witness beam over the last several months. The emittance was measured by both a quad scan that fitted for space charge using an in house developed Mathematica routine and a pepper pot technique. The bunch length was measured by imaging Cherenkov light from a quartz plate to a Hamamatsu streak camera with 2 psec resolution. A beam energy of 3.9 MeV was measured with a 6 inch round pole spectrometer while a beam charge was measured with both an ICT and a Faraday Cup. Although the gun will normally be run at 100 pC it has produced charges from 10 pC to 4 nC. All results of the measurements to date are presented here. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

Power, J. [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Ave, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Chojnacki, E. [Nuclear Science, Cornell, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States); Conde, M.; Gai, W.; Konecny, R.; Schoessow, P.; Simpson, J. [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Ave, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States)

1997-03-01

110

Substitution of [open quotes]CO[sub 3][close quotes] groups for copper in YBCO: The oxycarbonates Y[sub n]Ba[sub 2n]Cu[sub 3n[minus]1]Co[sub 3]O[sub 7n[minus]3  

SciTech Connect

The substitution of carbonate groups for copper in the oxide YBa[sub 2]Cu[sub 3]O[sub 7] has been studied by HREM. Two new phases, members of the series Y[sub n]Ba[sub 2n]Cu[sub 3n[minus]1]CO[sub 3]O[sub 7n[minus]3] have been evidenced for n = 2 and 3, respectively. The corresponding superstructures [open quotes]2a[sub 123] [times] b[sub 123] [times] 2c[sub 123][close quotes] and [open quotes]3a[sub 123] [times] b[sub 123] [times] 2c[sub 123][close quotes] correspond to the ordered substitution of one row of CO[sub 3] groups for one row of CuO[sub 4] groups out of two and three, respectively. The existence of 90[degrees]-oriented domains and of chemical twinning is also shown and the role of CO[sub 3] groups at the domain boundaries discussed. 7 refs., 5 figs.

Boullay, Ph.; Domenges, B.; Hervieu, M.; Raveau, B. (Universite de Caen (France))

1993-11-01

111

Quotes on Caring  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this article, school librarians from Henrico County Public Schools in Virginia [the AASL 2011 National School Library Programs of the Year (NSLPY) Award recipient] share some of their experiences caring for students in their libraries.|

Knowledge Quest, 2012

2012-01-01

112

{open_quotes}Lure{close_quotes} North Korea  

SciTech Connect

The author discusses the frustrations of the international community in dealing with North Korea after negotiation of the Nuclear Non-proliferation treaty. In the past, the international community has not been well prepared to deal with the North Korean obstinacy. It has repeatedly misjudged North Korean goals, South Korean Interests, and Japanese reactions. A new approach is proposed for the long run, that avoids coercion or appeasement. Economic incentives are suggested as the means to bring about changes in North Korean attitudes that will ultimately foster the desire for maintaining economic stability and well being rather than warlike independence. China and the former Soviet Union are not considered supportive of a warlike posture in North Korean but are making economic overtures to South Korea themselves. If the economic approach proves successful, it will enhance the chances of Korean unification by peaceful means and under democratic rule because time is on the side of democracy. In the long run nonproliferation will be achieved through unification.

Park, M.Y.M.

1994-12-31

113

Strategic {open_quote}deception{close_quote} initiative  

SciTech Connect

Veteran observers of the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) were only mildly surprised by reports in late August by Tim Weiner in The New York Times and R. Jeffrey Smith in The Washington Post that the Homing Overlay Experiment (HOE) tests of 10 years ago involved deception. According to the reports, the fourth and final test, conducted June 10, 1984, and said at the time by officials to be a major success, has been rigged in several ways in a systematic program designed to fool the Kremlin. The news reports charge that it fooled Congress as well. The Pentagon claimed that the test was the world`s first successful direct-impact intercept of a mock Soviet reentry vehicle (RV).

Pike, J.

1993-11-01

114

VIDEO: EMAP - "AMERICA'S ECOLOGICAL REPORT CARD"  

EPA Science Inventory

The EMAP program is part of ORD's response to SAB's recommendation and the EPA's call for "managing for results." MAP's goal is to monitor the condition of the nation's ecological resources. MAP data will enable us to evaluate the success of current policies and programs and iden...

115

Notes & Quotes on Adult Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document is a review of literature on adult learning, assembled in a computer-printout format. It brings together brief statements made by authors on the various major aspects of individual and social (associational) learning, as well as information on planning and evaluation. The document also contains a glossary of adult education terms and

Dobson, John R. A.

116

Reply to {open_quote}{open_quote}Comment on {open_quote}Why quantum mechanics cannot be formulated as a Markov process{close_quote}{close_quote}{close_quote}  

SciTech Connect

In reply to the preceding Comment on an article by D. T. Gillespie [Phys. Rev. A {bold 49}, 1607 (1994)], it is emphasized that the most plausible interpretation of the singly conditioned probability function implies that the evolution of the two-state quantum system being considered {ital cannot} be characterized as a Markov process on those states over {ital any} time interval. And it is pointed out that an alternative interpretation that is offered in the Comment appears to be in conflict with quantum mechanics.

Gillespie, D.T. [Research and Technology Division, Naval Air Warfare Center, China Lake, California 93555 (United States)

1996-08-01

117

Ecosystem behavior at Bermuda Station [open quotes]S[close quotes] and ocean weather station [open quotes]India[close quotes]: A general circulation model and observational analysis  

SciTech Connect

One important theme of modern biological oceanography has been the attempt to develop models of how the marine ecosystem responds to variations in the physical forcing functions such as solar radiation and the wind field. The authors have addressed the problem by embedding simple ecosystem models into a seasonally forced three-dimensional general circulation model of the North Atlantic ocean. In this paper first, some of the underlying biological assumptions of the ecosystem model are presented, followed by an analysis of how well the model predicts the seasonal cycle of the biological variables at Bermuda Station s' and Ocean Weather Station India. The model gives a good overall fit to the observations but does not faithfully model the whole seasonal ecosystem model. 57 refs., 25 figs., 5 tabs.

Fasham, M.J.R. (Natural Environment Research Council, Southampton (United Kingdom)); Sarmiento, J.L.; Slater, R.D. (Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)); Ducklow, H.W. (Univ. of Maryland Center for Environmental and Estuarine Sciences, Cambridge, MD (United States)); Williams, R. (Plymouth Marine Lab. (United Kingdom))

1993-06-01

118

"PUTTING THE RIGHT PARKS IN THE RIGHT PLACES" BOOK REVIEW OF "MAKING PARKS WORK:STRATEGIES FOR PRESERVING TOPICAL NATURE"  

EPA Science Inventory

Tropical ecosystems typically have high amounts of species diversity and endemism relative to those in more temperate climates, and most of the tropics lie almost completely within the borders of developing countries. To address this, Terborgh et al. convened a conference that br...

119

Children's Rights: A Quote from Toyohiko Kagawa.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Toyohiko Kagawa, a Japanese Christian minister nominated for the Nobel Peace prize in 1955, had important contributions to the establishment of children's rights and protection in Japan. This paper reviews Kagawa's personal and educational experiences, his work in the labor movement, his missionary work in Manchuria and China, and his

Ishigaki, Emiko Hannah

120

Notable Quotes from the Eastman Conference.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

At a conference held at the Eastman School of Music, seven speakers talked about the future of music education in America. Speakers emphasized the importance of excellence in education and performance and the need to integrate the arts into the broader society. (CS)

Music Educators Journal, 1983

1983-01-01

121

You Can Quote Me on That  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article presents several punctuation activities that help students practice dialogue-writing skills. Teachers can help their students become intrepid reporters by providing them with story ideas or by inviting them to develop their own "scoops." In addition, comic strips can also be used for dialogue-writing practice.|

Chanko, Pamela

2005-01-01

122

Comment on {open_quotes}Covariant duality symmetric actions{close_quotes}  

SciTech Connect

We demonstrate that an action proposed by Khoudeir and Pantoja [Phys. Rev. D {bold 53}, 5974 (1996)] for endowing Maxwell theory with manifest electric-magnetic duality symmetry contains, in addition to the Maxwell field, additional propagating vector degrees of freedom. Hence it cannot be considered as a duality symmetric action for a {ital single} Abelian gauge field. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

Pasti, P.; Sorokin, D.; Tonin, M. [Universita Degli Studi Di Padova, Dipartimento Di Fisica Galileo Galilei ed INFN, Sezione Di Padova, Via F. Marzolo, 8, 35131 Padova (Italy)

1997-08-01

123

{open_quotes}Leapfrog thermodynamics{close_quotes} among binary magnetic phases competing for stability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Relative to SmCo plus SmCo, SmCo is stable below 700 K and above 1000 K. Contrary to previous thinking, this is thermodynamically consistent. The free energies of formation of these phases seem to be marginal when estimated from data reported for the analogous compounds of other lanthanons. Above its Curie point at 713 K, SmCo is stabilized by its gain

1995-01-01

124

The {open_quotes}special employer{close_quotes} issue for nuclear utilities  

SciTech Connect

Legal aspects of the Rudenjak versus Jersey Central Power and Light Company lawsuit are summarized in the article. Rudenjak, while working for an independent contractor at the Oyster Creek Nuclear Power Plant, received a 3.335 Rem dose of whole-body radiation over a 4-month period in 1980. In 1988, Rudenjak died of acute leukemia and his widow sued the power company. The utility filed a motion to dismiss based on the statutory employer defense, which was granted by the court; excepts of the court`s decision are included in the article. A similar suit in California is also described; the implication is that legal precedent has been established in California and New Jersey to prevent employees of independent contractors from suing utilities.

Jose, D.E. [Pepper, Hamilton and Sheetz, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

1992-01-01

125

Implications of a {open_quotes}cross-rolled{close_quotes} yield surface approximation on deep drawing  

SciTech Connect

During deep-drawing, two issues manifest themselves that are due to normal and planar anisotropy in the sheet. These are a dependence of the Limiting Draw Ratio (LDR) on the average thinning ratio (R-value), and a dependence of ear formation and thinning around the circumference on the variation of R-value in the plane of the sheet. The quadratic (1948 Hill) yield surface has been applied to these issues and it has been demonstrated that there are numerous higher exponent yield criteria that may more closely duplicate experimental trends. These predict varying degrees of R-value dependencies of uniaxial yields and strength ratios in multiaxial loading paths. The result of this is that there are sometimes subtle and sometimes substantial differences in the predictions of the various yield surfaces on deep drawing regarding LDR and earing. Additional differences arise due to the way the shear term (45-degree yield) and the 0-degree vs. 90-degree strengths are treated in each criterion. These dependencies (in-plane strengths generated by the yield surfaces) are shown to affect the results of both LDR and earing during cupping. In particular, the 1979 Hosford and 1989 Barlat (Tricomponent) criteria, although identical for the normal anisotropy (planar isotropy) case, are strikingly different for cases where there are differences at 45 degrees and 90 degrees from the rolling direction.

Logan, R.W.

1996-03-01

126

Leak-detection device is {open_quotes}all ears{close_quotes}  

SciTech Connect

Ultrasonic detection devices for locating air or liquid leaks are described. Standard packages consist of a hand-held detection instrument, high-impedance headphones, a localization sound probe, an ultrasound transmitter, and a precision contact probe. The ultrasonic vibrations are converted into either an audible frequency or a digital readout. The use of ultrasonic devices in leak testing single-wall underground storage tanks is detailed.

Malm, H.; Halpern, F.

1996-04-01

127

Evidence found for a possible [open quote]aggression gene[close quote  

SciTech Connect

Researchers in the Netherlands are on the track of a genetic mutation in a large Dutch family that may cause periodic outbursts of aggression in its possessors. Han G. Brunner and his colleagues at Univ. Hospital in Nijmegen report evidence suggesting that a mutation in the gene for monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) may underlie the aggressive and sometimes violent behavior displayed by certain males in this family. A linkage between MAOA gene defect and behavioral problems would make biological sense because the enzyme encoded by the gene helps break down several neurotransmitters that might, if their concentrations build up abnormally, cause a person to respond excessively-and at times even violently-to stress. If this original report is borne out by further work, it would be the first time that a specific gene defect has been found to predispose its bearers to aggressive behavior. Using markers for the X chromosome, Brunner and his colleagues identified the MAO gene region as the likely site for the diseased gene.

Morell, V.

1993-06-18

128

Evaluating suspect sites {open_quotes}to clean or not to clean?{close_quotes}  

SciTech Connect

Within many large government reservations are many sites that are potentially contaminated from various uses such as experiments, material storage, or material processes. There also exist many smaller areas that, by proximity to contaminated sites, or due to work contracts, are likely to be contaminated. The party responsible for such sites must evaluate if remediation is required, based on current guidelines and future uses. The Departments of Defense and Energy have many sites and properties that are suspected of being contaminated or associated with operations that could cause contamination. In some cases the contaminants may have been adequately cleaned up, then decayed away, biodegraded, or dispersed to a nondetectable level. The decision to remove these sites from any further consideration of remediation or control must be based on historical data, potential contaminants, current analytical data, future uses, and the cost associated with managing the sites. This paper deals with the methodology for evaluating small sites and gives some case studies.

Murray, M.E.; Coleman, R.L.; Tiner, P.F.

1996-04-01

129

Gulf of Mexico{open_quote}Silicon Valley{close_quote} to offshore oil & gas industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

To think that it was only four years ago when the Gulf of Mexico was sadly being dismissed as a mature, drilled up basin. How wrong this perception was. Today, the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) stands out as an offshore technology showcase, where every bit of genuine high technology used to produce energy from the ocean is now being employed.

1996-01-01

130

Special-purpose interactive programming shell for the {open_quotes}POLE{close_quotes} system  

SciTech Connect

The development of the theory of R-functions has stimulated the emergence of efficient numerical-analytical methods for a wide class of problems associated with physico-mechanical fields. R-functions are the basis for computer-aided level source language, which is sufficiently close to an ordinary mathematical language. Despite the powerful capabilities of the POLE family systems and the extensive support for the analysis of computation results, these systems are still not widely used in practice, as they assume a user with special mathematical qualifications. It is therefore necessary to develop special-purpose systems that do not require the user to be proficient in mathematical physics, the theory of R-functions, variational methods, etc. In other words, we need systems that are oriented toward technical-profile engineers specializing in design and calculations. In this article, we propose some principles for the construction of a special-purpose interactive programming system POLE-PLAST capable of solving problems in the mechanics of deformable solids of complex shape. As the specific application domain for the description of the system we have chosen problems that deal with bending, stability, and vibration of elements of thin-walled constructions modeled by thin plates.

Rvachev, V.L.; Kurpa, L.I.

1995-09-01

131

Permian {open_quotes}Wolfcamp{close_quotes} limestone reservoirs: Powell Ranch field, Eastern Midland Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deep-water carbonate channel reservoirs form important oil reservoirs along the toe of the Eastern Shelf of the Permian basin in west Texas. In northwestern Glasscock County, these `Wolfcamp` reservoirs are Leonardian (Early Permian) in age and define high-energy channels incised into surrounding carbonate detritus and basinal shale. Porous grain-flow material filling these channels, along with encasing detritus, was derived from

1996-01-01

132

Permian {open_quotes}Wolfcamp{close_quotes} limestone reservoirs: Powell Ranch field, Eastern Midland Basin  

SciTech Connect

Deep-water carbonate channel reservoirs form important oil reservoirs along the toe of the Eastern Shelf of the Permian basin in west Texas. In northwestern Glasscock County, these `Wolfcamp` reservoirs are Leonardian (Early Permian) in age and define high-energy channels incised into surrounding carbonate detritus and basinal shale. Porous grain-flow material filling these channels, along with encasing detritus, was derived from the shallow shelf located six miles to the east. Reservoirs are in packstone and grainstone facies and have significant interparticle and moldic porosity. Relevant exploration began in the 1960s, but expanded slowly thereafter due to lack of success caused by complex patterns of channel occurrence. Results of a three-dimensional (3-D) seismic survey conducted in 1990 have greatly enhanced the identification and mapping of productive channels in the Powell Ranch field complex. Wells in this complex are capable of flowing 400-1200 bbl of oil per day, and have reserves ranging from 0.2 to 1.3 MBO. The new 3-D data have improved the relevant geologic model and dramatically increased rates of drilling success. Application of such data to this setting offers a potential model for other parts of the Permian basin.

Montgomery, S.L. [Petroleum Consultant, Seattle, WA (United States)

1996-09-01

133

PULMONARY EXPOSURE OF MICE TO "ENGINEERED"; PSEUDOMONADS INFLUENCES INTESTINAL MICROBIOTA POPULATIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

The use of engineered microorganisms has prompted research on potential impacts of these agents on human health and the environment. n this study, a mouse model is used to evaluate indirect effects (e.g. alteration of the intestinal microbiota) of pulmonary exposure to representa...

134

{open_quotes}Lattice-free{close_quotes} simulations of topological defect formation  

SciTech Connect

We examine simulations of the formation of domain walls, cosmic strings, and monopoles on a cubic lattice, in which the topological defects are assumed to lie at the zeros of a piecewise constant 1, 2, or 3 component Gaussian random field, respectively. We derive analytic expressions for the corresponding topological defect densities in the continuum limit and show that they fail to agree with simulation results, even when the fields are smoothed on small scales to eliminate lattice effects. We demonstrate that this discrepancy, which is related to a classic geometric fallacy, is due to the anisotropy of the cubic lattice, which cannot be eliminated by smoothing. This problem can be resolved by linearly interpolating the field values on the lattice, which gives results in good agreement with the continuum predictions. We use this procedure to obtain a lattice-free estimate (for Gaussian smoothing) of the fraction of the total length of string in the form of infinite strings: f{sub {infinity}}=0.716{plus_minus}0.015. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

Scherrer, R.J. [NASA/Fermilab Astrophysics Center, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, P.O. Box 500, Batavia, Illinois 60510 (United States)]|[Department of Physics and Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States); Vilenkin, A. [Institute of Cosmology, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Tufts University, Medford, Massachusetts 02155 (United States)

1998-11-01

135

The union of concerned scientists {open_quotes}walk their talk{close_quotes}  

SciTech Connect

The Union of Concerned Scientists (UCS) builds its new office space to be a showcase of energy-efficient and employee-friendly daylighting design. UCS encourages responsible stewardship of the global environment and the use of life-sustaining resources. The goals for the new offices were energy efficiency, reneable energy technologies, similar or reduced costs, improved aesthetics. Topics include envelope redesign, energy systems, daylighting, electric lighting, total costs, experience to date.

Aitken, D.W.; Ris, H.

1997-03-01

136

{open_quotes}Radon{close_quotes} - the system of Soviet designed regional waste management facilities  

SciTech Connect

The Soviet Union established a system of specialized regional facilities to dispose of radioactive waste generated by sources other than the nuclear fuel cycle. The system had 16 facilities in Russia, 5 in Ukraine, one in each of the other CIS states, and one in each of the Baltic Republics. These facilities are still being used. The major generators of radioactive waste they process these are research and industrial organizations, medical and agricultural institution and other activities not related to nuclear power. Waste handled by these facilities is mainly beta- and gamma-emitting nuclides with half lives of less than 30 years. The long-lived and alpha-emitting isotopic content is insignificant. Most of the radwaste has low and medium radioactivity levels. The facilities also handle spent radiation sources, which are highly radioactive and contain 95-98 percent of the activity of all the radwaste buried at these facilities.

Horak, W.C.; Reisman, A.; Purvis, E.E. III

1997-07-01

137

Status of solarex{close_quote}{close_quote}s cast polysilicon PVMaT program  

SciTech Connect

Solarex has undertaken a process and product development program under the NREL sponsored Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology (PVMaT) Program. The two major objectives of this program are to reduce the manufacturing cost for polycrystalline silicon PV modules to less than {dollar_sign}1.20/watt and to increase the manufacturing capacity by a factor of three. To meet these objectives program efforts are underway to: (1) to increase the polycrystalline wafer size to 15 cm by 15 cm, (2) to use wire saws to cut wafers on 400 {mu}m centers, (3) to increase cell efficiencies to 15{percent}, (4) to improve the automated assembly of modules, (5) to develop a frameless module with a low cost backsheet and electrical termination system and (6) to develop the equipment necessary for automated handling of thin 15 cm by 15 cm wafers and cells. This paper will discuss the efforts during the first one and a half years of the program. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

Wohlgemuth, J.H. [Solarex, A Business Unit of Amoco/Enron Solar, Frederick, Maryland (United States)

1996-01-01

138

ALKYLATION OF ISOBUTANE WITH 2-BUTENE WITH IONIC LIQUID AS A "CLEAN"; CATALYST  

EPA Science Inventory

Alkylation of isobutane with 2-butene with Ionic liquid as a "clean" catalyst Kyesang Yoo, 1 Vasudevan V. Namboodiri,2 Panagiotis G. Smirniotis,*1 and Rajender S. Varma*2 1 Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221-0171, USA. E...

139

The beta {open_quotes}fishhook{close_quotes} well; a different approach to infill redevelopment  

SciTech Connect

Beta Field is located in OCS waters, offshore from Orange County, California. Beta was discovered in the mid-1970`s and developed in the early 1980`s. The productive portion of the field is a complexly faulted monocline consisting of Delmontian deep-water sands and shales trapped updip against the Palos Verdes Fault. The 1000 feet oil bearing package is subdivided into seven different sand members (A through F). All development drilling on SWEPI acreage has taken place from two platforms located at opposite ends of the field approximately 7600 feet apart. Primary development targets were designed so that the highest quality sand (the D Sand) was optimally developed and evenly spaced. Directional drilling at high angles has caused an under-drained `gap` in several of the shallow pay-bearing horizons above the D Sand. The Shallow sands in the gap between the development patterns were the targets of this well (OCS-P 0301 C-57). The operational need for an updip, higher GOR, penetration required a creative directional plan. After initially drilling westerly at hole angles up to 70 degrees, C-57 then made a 170 degree right-handed turn to the east in order to then penetrate the objective section for over 3000 measured feet. This fishhook orientation resulted in a five fold increase in exposed pay and a penetration near four degrees of parallel with bedding. This near-horizontal well established an initial production rate comparable with typical wells at Beta with on 24 percent of the total stratigraphic interval made available for completion.

Milton, J.D. [Shell Western E& P Inc., Bakersfield, CA (United States)

1995-04-01

140

The beta {open_quotes}fishhook{close_quotes} well; a different approach to infill redevelopment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Beta Field is located in OCS waters, offshore from Orange County, California. Beta was discovered in the mid-1970`s and developed in the early 1980`s. The productive portion of the field is a complexly faulted monocline consisting of Delmontian deep-water sands and shales trapped updip against the Palos Verdes Fault. The 1000 feet oil bearing package is subdivided into seven different

Milton

1995-01-01

141

[open quote]Appropriate[close quote] technologies for marine pollution control  

SciTech Connect

In developing an appropriate technology, or deciding if an existing one is appropriate, producers and users of marine pollution control technology must first agree on the definition of pollution. To many marine ecologists, pollution is not just an excess of material, but rather a damaging excess. Removing all visible oil off a shoreline, while commendable and aesthetically comforting, may result in injury to the surviving resources we were trying to protect; however, to those who question the ability of science to protect them or their resources, then the word pollution may indeed mean any excess. Technology producers and technology users need to understand whether they are solving a real problem or, simply preventing an excess input. Each of these levels has its own societal and economic costs and is accompanied by its own set of collateral impacts that must be accommodated elsewhere on land, sea or air. Shoreline cleaning, bioremediation, waste water treatment and environmental monitoring and assessment are examined in terms of their appropriateness for marine pollution control and recommendations are given.

Mearns, A.J. (National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration, Seattle, WA (United States))

1993-10-01

142

{open_quotes}Plug and play{close_quotes} systems for quantum cryptography  

SciTech Connect

We present a time-multiplexed interferometer based on Faraday mirrors, and apply it to quantum key distribution. The interfering pulses follow exactly the same spatial path, ensuring very high stability and self balancing. The use of Faraday mirrors compensates automatically any birefringence effects and polarization dependent losses in the transmitting fiber. First experimental results show a fringe visibility of 0.9984 for a 23-km-long interferometer, based on installed telecom fibers. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

Muller, A.; Herzog, T.; Huttner, B.; Tittel, W.; Zbinden, H.; Gisin, N. [Group of Applied Physics, University of Geneva, CH 1211 Geneva 4 (Switzerland)

1997-02-01

143

Belarus is a {open_quotes}touchstone{close_quotes} for public acceptance of nuclear power energy  

SciTech Connect

The economy of the Republic of Belarus which became an Independent state at the end of 1991, is in strained circumstances because of the shortage of its own energetic resources, and the deficit of generating electric capacities, The real way out of an energetic crisis is the development of own nuclear power as it is in Central and Eastern Europe. Besides, Belarus has suffered most of all other states as a result of the Chernobyl accident, located out of its borders. About a quarter of its population and lands are on the territory contaminated with radionuclides. That`s why the formation of public opinion is a key problem when deciding the problem of NPP construction in Belarus. Undoubtedly, the decision of this problem will exert influence on the prestige of nuclear power in the whole world.

Mikhalevich, A.A. [Institute of Power Engineering Problems, Minsk (Belarus)

1994-12-31

144

LETTER TO EDITOR REGARDING "ARSENIC CHALLENGES FOR WATER UTILITIES"  

EPA Science Inventory

The two part series on "Arsenic Challenges for Water Utilities" have provided useful information for the many small water utilities faced with arsenic problems. Part II states that treatment options fall into six major categories and then proceeds to provide a short summary on e...

145

CLOTHES AS A SOURCE OF PARTICLES CONTRIBUTING TO THE "PERSONAL CLOUD"  

EPA Science Inventory

Previous studies such as EPA's PTEAM Study have documented increased personal exposures to particles compared to either indoor or outdoor concentrations--a finding that bas been characterized as a "personal cloud." The sources of the personal cloud are unknown, but co...

146

Offshore environmental risks, perceptions, and {open_quotes}corrective{close_quotes} legislation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The offshore petroleum industry in the United States has been subject to intense scrutiny ever since the first barge left the dock. Various interest groups have pointed out every possible negative event that could occur in marine petroleum operations, apparently employing the theory that if a circumstance can be imagined, it will likely happen. And, if the event happens, its

1994-01-01

147

Offshore environmental risks, perceptions, and {open_quotes}corrective{close_quotes} legislation  

SciTech Connect

The offshore petroleum industry in the United States has been subject to intense scrutiny ever since the first barge left the dock. Various interest groups have pointed out every possible negative event that could occur in marine petroleum operations, apparently employing the theory that if a circumstance can be imagined, it will likely happen. And, if the event happens, its impact on the environment will probably be ruinous. Congress has responded to these concerns, frequently in inappropriate and punitive ways. Over the past 40 yr of federal legislation, Congress` attitude has moved from one of aiding offshore exploration and development to one of seeming to stifle it. This paper will look at the potential for environmental endangerment in the outer continental shelf, the causes for the public`s disproportionate concern, the progression of legislation to address these concerns, its effect on the offshore industry and, finally, what geologists can do to help ameliorate what has become an almost untenable exploration environment.

Marsh, R.G. [Consultant, Seabrook, TX (United States)

1994-09-01

148

Guidelines for granting industrial {open_quotes}distress{close_quotes} rate discounts  

SciTech Connect

Increasingly seen are electric utilities offering discounted rates to targeted customers or classes to offset rising competition. These offers often come from utilities with surplus generating capacity and high industrial rates. With excess capacity, marginal costs fall below rates, allowing the utility to profit by offering discounts for incremental sales. Today, utilities in twenty states offer discounts; with this number likely to increase as regulation evolves towards price caps and flexible pricing. Rate discounts usually fall into three categories: load retention, economic development, or cogeneration deferral. Load retention discounts are often given to industries who are in economic distress, but this distress is often difficult for the utility to determine. Given are several strategic alternatives for utility discounts; including weighing the electric intensity of the industry, the length of the discount, revenue guarantees, and revenue sharing.

Carlson, R.L. [Goodman Group, Ltd., Boston, MA (United States); Sipe, D.J.

1995-01-15

149

Taking a bottom-to-sky [open quotes]slice[close quotes] of the Arctic Ocean  

SciTech Connect

This article discusses a Canadian-USA scientific expedition to study the Amerasian basin, comprising 2/3 of the Arctic Ocean, the world's least studied. Since the oceans remote location makes it particularly sensitive to indications of global climate change, a baseline of data is critical. Among the areas researched and discussed in this article are the following: the warm water layers in the intermediate space of the Arctic ocean; the albedo of the ocean; cloud cover; air pollution; plants and animals; cores of ocean bottom sediments. 2 figs.

Travis, J.

1994-12-23

150

When is a power plant [open quotes]placed in service[close quotes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A controversy has arisen in recent years between the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) and utilities over the debate an electric generating plant is considered placed in service for federal income tax purposes. Auditing agents of the IRS have tried to change rules that the Service first stated in 1976 by delaying the in-service date for electric generating plants. Since 1976,

1993-01-01

151

The {open_quotes}obligation to serve{close_quotes} and a competitive electric industry  

SciTech Connect

This report presents an assessment of what the ``obligation to serve`` might look like in a competitive electric industry. Broadly, this research has three objectives: to define the ``duty to serve`` of a competitive electric industry; to identify those companies to whom that duty applies; and to explain how that duty protects residual classes.

Colton, R.D. [Fisher, Sheehan and Colton (United States)

1997-11-01

152

Comment on: {open_quotes}Interference effects between independent gamma rays{close_quotes}  

SciTech Connect

In a recent letter, E. Ikonen proposed a Hanbury Brown and Twiss (HBT) intensity interferometry experiment to demonstrate interference effects between independent gamma rays. Ikonen suggests that in order to obtain a measurable correlation signal with gamma or x-radiation, it would be necessary to use a highly monochromatic beam such as that produced by a monochromator based on the Mossbauer effect, operating on a high brilliance beamline at a synchrotron storage ring. In this comment, the authors point out that, although this is a possible approach, it is unnecessary to utilize the extremely narrow bandwidth afforded by nuclear resonant monochromatization to demonstrate the HBT effect with x-rays. Furthermore, they do not agree that the proposed experiment would provide evidence of interference between independent quanta in the x-ray region, or that the results of such an experiment depend on quantum phenomena which are fundamentally different than those which apply to conventional (amplitude) interferometry.

McNulty, I.; Gluskin, E. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Howells, M.R. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

1992-07-17

153

A {open_quotes}New{close_quotes} regime for nuclear weapons and materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, I discuss the principal ideas that I covered in my presentation on December 8, 1993, at the Future of Foreign Nuclear Materials Symposium held by the Naval Postgraduate School in Monterey, California. I was asked to discuss issues related to military inventories of plutonium, and I took this opportunity to describe a possible declaratory regime that could

Sutcliffe

1994-01-01

154

Profiles in Change: Names, Notes and Quotes for Alaskan Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication tells the stories of contemporary Alaskan women who have contributed to the state's economic, social, and political development, and who may serve as role models for younger women in need of inspiration. It also attempts to illustrate the relationship between personal empowerment and societal change. The book contains 12 lengthy

Brelsford, Ginna

155

COMMENTS ON "AN APPROACH FOR MODELING NONCANCER DOSE RESPONSES WITH AN EMPHASIS ON UNCERTAINTY" AND "A PROBABILISTIC FRAMEWORK FOR THE REFERENCE DOSE (PROBABILISTIC R&D)." (R825173)  

EPA Science Inventory

The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

156

THE SIGNIFICANCE OF "STAGNATION CURVES" FOR LEAD AND COPPER, AND WATER QUALITY FACTORS AFFECTING THEM  

EPA Science Inventory

"Stagnation curves" are the response of metal levels, particularly lead and copper, to time under conditions of no water flow. Research on lead pipe in the early 1980's in the United States, Germany, and in the United Kingdom suggested that they were characterized by rapid incre...

157

Comments on {open_quotes}interpretations of quantum mechanics, joint measurement of incompatible observables, and counterfactual definiteness{close_quotes}  

SciTech Connect

Some seeming logical deficiencies in a recent paper are described. The author responds to the arguments of the work by de Muynck, De Baere, and Martens (MDM), who argue it is widely accepted today that some sort of nonlocal effect is needed to resolve the problems raised by the works of Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen (EPR) and John Bell. In MBM a variety of arguments are set forth that aim to invalidate the existing purported proofs of nonlocality and to provide, moreover, a local solution to the problems uncovered by EPR and Bell. Much of the argumentation in MBM is based on the idea of introducing `nonideal` measurements, which, according to MBM, allow one to construct joint probability distributions for incompatible observables. The existence of a bona fide joint probability distribution for the incompatible observables occurring in the EPRB experiments would entail that Bell`s inequalities can be satisfied, and hence that the mathematical basis for the nonlocal effects would disappear. This relult would apparently allow one to eliminate the need for nonlocal effects by considering experiments of this new kind.

Stapp, H.P. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

1994-12-01

158

Reply to the comments on [open quotes]Weathering, plants, and the long-term carbon cycle[close quotes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some lichens can and do promote the weathering of their substrates. The authors' sole interest for purposes of carbon-cycle modeling is the degree of that enhancement for calcium and magnesium silicates relative to both abiotic chemical weathering due to water-rock interaction and the weathering that occurs beneath higher plants. The work by Jackson and Keller (1970) had offered the most

M. F. Cochran; R. A. Berner

1993-01-01

159

O'Leary on energy mix: [open quotes]Its's diversity, stupid[close quotes]. [energy efficiency policy of DOE  

Microsoft Academic Search

With energy efficiency improvements stalled in recent years after showing significant improvement following the last oil embargo, Department of Energy (DOE) Secretary Hazel R. O'Leary told delegates to the National Energy Summit that she intends to give efficiency a jolt. O'Leary said she would stimulate niche markets for natural gas and suggested that clean-coal technology will play an important role

Burkhart

1993-01-01

160

AGROBACTERIUM AND PLANT TRANSFORMATION: THE BIOLOGY BEHIND THE "GENE-JOCKEYING"; TOOL. (R829479C001)  

EPA Science Inventory

The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

161

North Korea and the [open quotes]worst-case[close quotes] scare-nario. [North Korean plutonium supply  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article addresses the question of the quantity of plutonium held by North Korea. The amount of plutonium which could have been produced in its 5-mW electric, 20-30 mW thermal, gas-cooled, graphite moderated reactor at Yongbyon is discussed. An analysis of the CIA estimate of the supply of plutonium is provided. An estimation based on information supplied to the International

Albright

2009-01-01

162

APPLICATION OF A "VITURAL FIELD REFERENCE DATABASE" TO ASSESS LAND-COVER MAP ACCURACIES  

EPA Science Inventory

An accuracy assessment was performed for the Neuse River Basin, NC land-cover/use (LCLU) mapping results using a "Virtual Field Reference Database (VFRDB)". The VFRDB was developed using field measurement and digital imagery (camera) data collected at 1,409 sites over a perio...

163

Giant fields of the late 80s associated with type [open quotes]A[close quotes] subduction in South America  

SciTech Connect

About 10 billion bbl of recoverable oil have been found in these three fields for which the petroleum generating subsystem is very similar. The potential source rocks are the organic sediments associated with the major downlap surface of the post-Pangea continental encroachment sedimentary cycle, i.e., MFS 91, 5 Ma (La Luna formation). However, the concentrating physico-chemical petroleum subsystem is quite different. The El Furrial/Musipan field is associated with a Tertiary foredeep basin overlying a generating Atlantic type passive margin. On the other hand, Cusiana and Ceuta fields are associated with a Tertiary foredeep basin developed over a generating back-arc basin. The different stacking of sedimentary basins controls the migration/entrapment petroleum subsystem. In El Furrial/Musipan, decollement surfaces and their associated thrusts are predominant whereas, in Ceuta and Cusiana the majority of compressional structures are created by tectonic inversions. These tectonic settings create different petroleum systems: (a) supercharged with low impedance and lateral drainage in El Furrial/Musipan, (b) normally charged with high impedance and vertically drained in Ceuta and Cusiana area. Each case requires appropriated exploration approaches.

Duval, B.; Cramez, C. (Total, Paris (France)); Figuera, J. (Moraven, Caracas (Venezuela)); Lander, R. (Corpoven, Puerto La Cruz (Venezuela)); Hernandez, G. (Lagoven, Caracas (Venezuela))

1993-02-01

164

Autosomal dominant {open_quotes}Opitz{close_quotes} GBBB syndrome due to a 22q11.2 deletion  

SciTech Connect

The classification of Opitz GBBB syndrome has been associated with the deletion of the DiGeorge chromosome region on human chromosome 22q11.2. The broad phenotype involved in this deletion syndrome has been referred to as the DiGeorge/velocardiofacial syndrome. The clinical description of the patient will influence the diagnosis of the syndrome. More cooperation between the clinicians and the molecular researchers is necessary in order to locate the gene(s) for these disorders. 11 refs.

McDonald-McGinn, D.M.; Emanuel, B.S.; Zackai, E.H. [Univ. of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

1996-08-23

165

PERKINSUS-"CIDAL"; ACTIVITY OF OYSTER HEMOCYTES USING A TETRAZOLIUM DYE REDUCTION ASSAY: OPTIMIZATION AND APPLICATIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

A bactericidal assay developed to assess the ability of oyster (Crassostrea virginica) hemocytes to kill the human pathogen Vibrio parahaemolyticus was optimized to estimate killing of the oyster parasite Perkinsus marinus. Assay variables, temperature, hemocyte:parasite ratio, i...

166

VIBRIO CHOLERAE 01 CAN ASSUME A "RUGOSE"; SURVIVAL FORM THAT RESISTS KILLING BY CHLORINE, YET RETAINS VIRULENCE  

EPA Science Inventory

V. cholerae 01 are able to shift between smooth and "wrinkled" or "rugose" colonial morphologies. ultures of smooth V. cholerae strains were inactivated in less than 40 and 20 seconds by concentrations of 0.5 mg/L and 1.0 mg/L free chlorine, respectively. n contrast, cultures of ...

167

China`s new {open_quotes}old thinking{close_quotes}: The concept of limited deterrence  

SciTech Connect

In the last five to ten years, Chinese military strategists have developed a concept of limited deterrence that is now used to describe what China`s nuclear forces ought to be able to do. Limited deterrence rests on a limited war-fighting capability aimed at communicating China`s ability to inflict costly damage on the adversary at every rung on the escalation ladder and thus denying the adversary victory in a nuclear war. It is this capability, Chinese strategists argue, that will deter such a war in the first place. Limited deterrence therefore requires the development of a greater number of tactical, theater, and strategic nuclear weapons that are accurate enough to hit counterforce targets, are mobile, can be used in the earliest stages of a nuclear crisis, and in a world of THAAD are capable of penetrating ballistic missile defense systems. These forces would thus require effective space-based early warning, and some configuration of BMD capabilities. Given that China does not now have such capabilities, the straight-line prediction would be that over the next decade or so, we should expect to see a discernible effort to shift the forces away from a minimum strike-back assured destruction posture, which China now has, toward limited war-fighting. This may or may not entail a dramatic short-run increase in the absolute numbers of warheads and delivery systems: the pace will depend in part on whether the United States proceeds with TMD deployment. The speed of change in China`s nuclear capabilities will also depend in part on whether the implementation of START II leads to a steep relative increase in the size of the Chinese arsenal and reduces the relative number of counterforce targets. The primary constraints on any such efforts are exogenous, namely, budgetary and arms control constraints. It is an open question whether endogenous constraints-a shift in doctrine toward minimum deterrence-might be encouraged. 120 refs.

Johnston, A.I.

1995-12-31

168

Molecular genetics of the glaucomas: Mapping of the first five {open_quotes}GLC{close_quotes} loci  

SciTech Connect

Glaucoma encompasses a complex of ocular-disease entities characterized by an optic neuropathy in which degeneration of retinal ganglion cells leads to a characteristic excavation of the head of the optic nerve. Such damage causes progressive narrowing of the visual fields and, when uncontrolled, blindness. Affected people often have ocular hypertension defined as intraocular pressures consistently >21 mm Hg in both eyes. Although ocular hypertension is no longer an obligatory diagnostic criterion for glaucoma, it is still recognized as one of the most important risk factors. A diagnosis of glaucoma is made after observation of the characteristic atrophy of the optic nerve, which is associated with typical visual field defects. In 1992, the World Health Organization estimated that, in the global population, 5.2 million people were blind as a result of glaucoma, making it the third leading cause of blindness worldwide. The most common form is adult-onset primary open-angle glaucoma, which represents {ge}50% of all cases of glaucoma. Among Caucasians, this form of the disorder affects {approximately}2% of the population >45 years old. In African Americans, prevalence of adult-onset open-angle glaucoma is three to four times higher than that observed in White Americans. More than 15 million North Americans may have some form of glaucoma, but at least half of them may not be aware of it. 43 refs., 1 tab.

Raymond, V.

1997-02-01

169

Laboratory {open_quotes}proof of principle{close_quotes} investigation for the acoustically enhanced remediation technology  

SciTech Connect

This document describes a three phase program of Weiss Associates which investigates the systematics of using acoustic excitation fields (AEFs) to enhance the in-situ remediation of contaminated soil and ground water under both saturated and unsaturated conditions. The focus in this particular paper is a laboratory proof of principle investigation. The field deployment and engineering viability of acoustically enhanced remediation technology is also examined.

Iovenitti, J.L.; Spencer, J.W.; Hill, D.G. [and others

1995-12-01

170

Snapshot Distances to Type Ia Supernovae: All in {open_quotes}One{close_quotes} Night`s Work  

SciTech Connect

We present an empirical method that measures the distance to a Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) with a precision of {approximately}10{percent} from a single night`s data. This method measures the supernova`s age and luminosity/light-curve parameter from a spectrum and the extinction and distance from an apparent magnitude and color. We are able to verify the precision of this method from error propagation calculations, Monte Carlo simulations of well-sampled SNe Ia, and the Hubble diagram of sparsely observed supernovae. With the reduction in telescope time needed, this method is 3{endash}4 times more efficient for measuring cosmological parameters than conventional light-curve{endash}based distance estimates. {copyright} {ital {copyright} 1998.} {ital The American Astronomical Society}

Riess, A.G. [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States); Nugent, P. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Filippenko, A.V. [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States)]|[Center for Particle Astrophysics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Kirshner, R.P. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Perlmutter, S. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)]|[Center for Particle Astrophysics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

1998-09-01

171

Incidence and origin of [open quotes]Null[close quotes] alleles in the (AC)n microsatellite markers  

SciTech Connect

Twenty-three (AC)n repeat markers from chromosome 16 were typed in the parents of the 40 CEPH (Centre d'Etude du Polymorphisme Humain) families. Where parents were informative, the entire families were then typed. There were seven markers in which null alleles were demonstrated, as recognized by the apparent noninheritance, by a sib, of a parental allele. Four of these markers showed a null allele in a single sibship, while in the other three at least 30% of the CEPH sibships were shown to have a null allele segregating. One null allele was sequenced and shown to be the result of an 8-bp deletion occurring within the priming sequence for PCR amplification of the (AC)n repeats. In gene mapping or in application to diagnosis, the presence of a segregating null allele will not corrupt the linkage data but could result in loss of information. In isolated instances a segregating null allele may be interpreted as nonpaternity. The presence of a null allele may generate misleading data when individuals are haplotyped to determine the presence of linkage disequilibrium with a disease gene. 10 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

Callen, D.F.,; Thompson, A.D.; Shen, Y.; Phillips, H.A.; Richards, R.I.; Mulley, J.C.; Sutherland, G.R. (Women's and Children's Hospital, North Adelaide (Australia))

1993-05-01

172

Mechanism of chromosome exchange formation in human fibroblasts: Insights from [open quotes]chromosome painting[close quotes  

SciTech Connect

The authors have used the techniques of premature chromosome condensation (PCC) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with a library for human chromosome 4 to analyze the rate of rejoining of chromosome breaks and development of exchange aberrations in AG1522 human fibroblasts. AG1522 cells were irradiated in plateau phase with 10 Gy and fused with mitotic HeLa cells either immediately after irradiation or at intervals up to eight days later. The slides were then hybridized with the chromosome 4 library and unrejoined breaks and exchange events (visualized as bicolor chromosomes) scored in these cells. At the earliest time point after irradiation, the number of exchange events in the irradiated cells was low, but increased with kinetics similar to that of the joining of the breaks. Furthermore, when those cells which had exchange events for their distribution were analyzed , almost all of the cells initially contained one exchange event (1 bicolor chromosome). As time progressed, the number of cells containing exchanges with two exchange events per cell increased as the number with one exchange event per cell decreased. Extrapolation of the number of exchange events to zero time (with an estimate of 20 min for the fusion and condensation times) gave a value consistent with zero exchanges at zero time after irradiation. In a separate experiment, the authors also scored AG1522 cells at the first metaphase after a dose of 6 Gy and were able to show that as many as 50% of the complete exchanges were non-reciprocal in nature, that is, the two broken ends of a single break in chromosome 4 joined to two different chromosomes. These data support the classical breakage-and-reunion model rather than the Revell Exchange Theory of exchange formation. 20 refs., 5 figs.

Brown, J.M.; Evans, J.W.; Kovacs, M.S. (Stanford Univ., CA (United States))

1993-01-01

173

A new instrument for measuring cloud condensation nuclei: Cloud condensation nucleus [open quotes]remover[close quotes  

SciTech Connect

This communiqu[acute e] describes a new and novel instrument for measuring concentrations of natural cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) from the free atmosphere. It simultaneously provides the size spectrum of nucleated particles, a useful parameter for gaining insight into the composition of the CCN. The supersaturation spectrum N(S), where [ital N] is the number concentration of droplets nucleated at supersaturation [ital S], is readily obtained. This parameter is one of the keys to evaluating aerosol influence on cloud microphysics and on the possible modulations of cloud albedo. Laboratory evaluations show that the instrument has good measurement accuracy and precision, even at low CCN concentrations found in the clean troposphere. The instrument is rugged and reliable. [copyright] 1998 American Geophysical Union

Ji, Q.; Shaw, G.E.; Cantrell, W. (Geophysical Institute, University of Alaska, Fairbanks (United States))

1998-11-01

174

A new instrument for measuring cloud condensation nuclei: Cloud condensation nucleus {open_quotes}remover{close_quotes}  

SciTech Connect

This communiqu{acute e} describes a new and novel instrument for measuring concentrations of natural cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) from the free atmosphere. It simultaneously provides the size spectrum of nucleated particles, a useful parameter for gaining insight into the composition of the CCN. The supersaturation spectrum N(S), where {ital N} is the number concentration of droplets nucleated at supersaturation {ital S}, is readily obtained. This parameter is one of the keys to evaluating aerosol influence on cloud microphysics and on the possible modulations of cloud albedo. Laboratory evaluations show that the instrument has good measurement accuracy and precision, even at low CCN concentrations found in the clean troposphere. The instrument is rugged and reliable. {copyright} 1998 American Geophysical Union

Ji, Q.; Shaw, G.E.; Cantrell, W. [Geophysical Institute, University of Alaska, Fairbanks (United States)

1998-11-01

175

Automated quality control procedure for the {open_quotes}water equivalent of snow on the ground{close_quotes} measurement  

SciTech Connect

Snow water equivalent (SWE) has been measured daily by the United States National Weather Service since 1952, whenever snow depth is 2 in. (5 cm) or greater. These data are used to develop design snow loads for building, for hydrological forecasting, and as an indicator of climate change. To data they have not been subjected comprehensively to quality control. An automated quality control procedure for these data is developed here, which checks daily SWE values for common data entry errors, values beyond reasonable limits, and consistency with daily precipitation and estimated melt. Potential effects of drifting in high winds and of the intrinsic microscale variability of SWE are also considered. An SWE measurement is declared suspicious if a sufficient discrepancy is found with respect to the expected SWE data from the northeastern United States are also summarized. 26 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

Schmidlin, T.W. [Kent State Univ., OH (United States); Wilks, D.S.; McKay, M. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States)] [and others

1995-01-01

176

{open_quotes}Secure Bus{close_quotes} disturbance-free power at the utility substation level  

SciTech Connect

Over the last 18 months Public Service Company of New Mexico (PNM), El Camino Real Engineering, Inc. (CRE), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) have worked on the development of disturbance-free power at the medium voltage substation level. The work resulted in the Secure Bus concept, a system in which a medium voltage bus in a substation is immune to power outages and voltage sags on the utility source. The Secure Bus voltage is also immune to voltage sags resulting from faults on any distribution feeder connected to the bus. The Secure Bus concept originated from work conducted to improve power quality for large high-tech manufacturing facilities, in particular for large semiconductor manufacturing plants. For the demands on quality power of a modern facility conventional equipment is not adequate for protecting the end user. For example, the operation of conventional vacuum breakers during short circuit conditions on a feeder circuit, requiring 3 to 5 cycles for breaker opening, does not allow for fast enough current interruption to avoid a voltage dip on the main bus. A sever voltage sag could result in a shut down of sensitive equipment being supplied by the other feeder circuits, which are connected to the main bus. The circumvent the problem, a fast breaker was introduced which interrupts the short circuit before the current causes a significant voltage disturbance. To make the bus immune also to power disturbances caused by power outages, energy storage is introduced to provide the necessary energy back-up in case the primary source is not available.

Boenig, H.J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Jones, W.H. [El Camino Real Engineering, Inc., Corrales, NM (United States)

1996-12-01

177

FERC`s {open_quotes}MegaNOPR{close_quotes} - changes ahead for the natural gas industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

On July 31, 1991 the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) issued a notice of proposed rulemaking (NOPR) that would fundamentally change the current scheme of transportation and sales of natural gas by interstate pipelines. FERC`s proposal will result in disparate impacts on the various segments of the natural gas industry. These impacts and the major policy issues sought for implementation

Stosser

1992-01-01

178

Graphic-object information system {open_quotes}research base for reactor materials science{close_quotes}  

SciTech Connect

An information system developed for reactor materials research is described. The information system incorporates an expert system, MATREKS, and a heirarchial data base. The data base contains information from 20 Russian research reactors. The information system structure, data base structure, search methods, system output modes, and technical facilities and software required are briefly discussed. 6 refs., 2 figs.

Markina, N.V.; Lebedeva, E.E.; Arkhangel`skii, N.V.; Semenov, S.B.; Moiseev, A.L.

1994-11-01

179

Analytical solutions of the equations of nonisentropic magnetogasdynamic flows in {open_quotes}smoothly varying{close_quotes} channels  

SciTech Connect

Time-independent axisymmetric magnetogasdynamic flows together with their azimuthal self-magnetic field are considered in channels which vary slowly as a function of axial distance. Analytical solutions for nonisentropic flows are obtained. The configurations of the critical (acoustic) surfaces are investigated. Expressions are found in particular cases for the acceleration, thrust enhancement, and power of the streams. Sufficient conditions are found for the absence of current vortices, and the magnitudes of the outflow currents are estimated. The example of flows in a weak magnetic field is used to show the relation between the electric current profile and the channel geometry. 16 refs., 3 figs.

Gorshenin, K.P.

1993-06-01

180

Development of NZP ceramic based {open_quotes}cast-in-place{close_quotes} diesel engine port liners  

SciTech Connect

BSX (Ba{sub 1+x}Zr{sub 4}P{sub 6-2x}Si{sub 2x}O{sub 24}) and CSX (Ca{sub l-x}Sr{sub x}Zr{sub 4}P{sub 6}O{sub 24}) type NZP ceramics were fabricated and characterized for: (i) thermal properties viz., thermal conductivity, thermal expansion, thermal stability and thermal shock resistance; (ii) mechanical properties viz., flexure strength and elastic modulus; and (iii) microstructures. Results of these tests and analysis indicated that the BS-25 (x=0.25 in BSX) and CS-50 (x=0.50 in CSX) ceramics had the most desirable properties for casting metal with ceramic in place. Finite element analysis (FEA) of metal casting (with ceramic in place) was conducted to analyze thermomechanical stresses generated and determine material property requirements. Actual metal casting trials were also conducted to verify the results of finite element analysis. In initial trials, the ceramic cracked because of the large thermal expansion mismatch (hoop) stresses (predicted by FEA also). A process for introduction of a compliant layer between the metal and ceramic to alleviate such destructive stresses was developed. The compliant layer was successful in preventing cracking of either the ceramic or the metal. In addition to these achievements, pressure slip casting and gel-casting processes for fabrication of NZP components; and acoustic emission and ultrasonics-based NDE techniques for detection of microcracks and internal flaws, respectively, were successfully developed.

Nagaswaran, R.; Limaye, S.Y.

1996-02-01

181

COMMENT ON "PERCHLORATE IDENTIFICATION IN FERTILIZERS" AND THE SUBSEQUENT ADDITION/CORRECTION [LETTER TO EDITOR  

EPA Science Inventory

Perchlorate contamination has been reported in several fertilizer materials and not just in mined Chile saltpeter, where it is a welo-known natural impurity. To survey fertilizers for perchlorate, two analytical techniques have been applied to 45 products that span agricultural, ...

182

Reply to the comments on [open quotes]Weathering, plants, and the long-term carbon cycle[close quotes  

SciTech Connect

Some lichens can and do promote the weathering of their substrates. The authors' sole interest for purposes of carbon-cycle modeling is the degree of that enhancement for calcium and magnesium silicates relative to both abiotic chemical weathering due to water-rock interaction and the weathering that occurs beneath higher plants. The work by Jackson and Keller (1970) had offered the most dramatic quantitative, empirical evidence for weathering-rate enhancement by a primitive terrestrial organism; thus, reassessment of their conclusions is of considerable importance. In analyzing their samples, the authors used the technique of back-scattered electron imaging. Their results showed that the ferrihydrite-rich gels created by Stereocaulon vulcani were formed from wind-supplied dust, volcanic ash, and detrital rock fragments, not the lichen's immediate substrate.

Cochran, M.F.; Berner, R.A. (Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States))

1993-05-01

183

Development of NZP ceramic based {open_quotes}cast-in-place{close_quotes} diesel engine port liners  

Microsoft Academic Search

BSX (Ba{sub 1+x}ZrP{sub 6-2x}Si{sub 2x}O) and CSX (Ca{sub l-x}SrZrPO) type NZP ceramics were fabricated and characterized for: (i) thermal properties viz., thermal conductivity, thermal expansion, thermal stability and thermal shock resistance; (ii) mechanical properties viz., flexure strength and elastic modulus; and (iii) microstructures. Results of these tests and analysis indicated that the BS-25 (x=0.25 in BSX) and CS-50 (x=0.50 in

R. Nagaswaran; S. Y. Limaye

1996-01-01

184

{open_quote}Nintendo Rig{close_quote} lets two men do work of three on traditional servicing rig  

SciTech Connect

New well servicing rig saves costs and increases safety by using a robot derrickman. The rigs is called the Nintendo Rig, taking the name from the joystick that controls the robot on the racking board 25 feet above the ground. An automated tong/slip package permanently mounted on the front of the rig handles pipe and rods on the ground.

Rintoul, B.

1996-01-01

185

2,2",4,4"-TETRABROMODIPHENYL (PBDE 47) ALTERS THYROID FUNCTION IN THE RAT.  

EPA Science Inventory

Two commercial PBDE mixtures, DE-71 and DE-79, cause dose-dependent depletion of serum T4 via induction of UGTs and increased CYP1A1 activity. This work characterized the effect of a major congener, PBDE-47, in DE-71 for effects on hepatic enzymes and thyroid hormones. Female 27...

186

AN "INJURY-TIME INTEGRAL" MODEL FOR RELATING ACUTE TO CHRONIC INJURY TO PHOSGENE  

EPA Science Inventory

ABSTRACT The present study compares acute and subchronic episodic exposures to phosgene to test the applicability of the "concentration x time" (C x T) product as a measure of exposure dose, and to relate acute toxicity and adaptive responses to chronic toxicity. Rats (m...

187

PREFACE TO: "PHARMACEUTICALS AND PERSONAL CARE PRODUCTS IN THE ENVIRONMENT: SCIENTIFIC AND REGULATORY ISSUES"  

EPA Science Inventory

Often overlooked in our daily lives are the inescapable, intimate, and immediate connections between our personal activities and the environment in which we live. This is especially true with regard to the use and disposal of consumer chemicals. A significant aspect of our global...

188

On-going and proposed research with highest-charge-state ions extracted from an {open_quotes}electron beam ion trap{close_quotes} (EBIT)  

SciTech Connect

High-charge-state thorium (up to 80+) and uranium (up to 70+) ions have been extracted from an electron-beam ion trap (EBIT). The ions were produced after injecting low-charge-state thorium and uranium ions from a metallic vapor vacuum arc ion source into the trap. The extracted ions from EBIT provide microsecond-wide ion-beam pulses of about 10{sup 4} ions per second. The production and loss rates are discussed on the basis of modeling calculations and are compared to the measured extracted ion rates. Results from studies of ion/surface interactions using highest charge state ions show in general an increase of secondary reaction products (electrons, photons, and sputter ions). These first results are discussed and future experimental efforts are outlined. We have developed and are in the process of installing a new device to trap and cool highly charged ions to study collective effects, such as Coulomb crystallization, in a regime never explored before. The device (RETRAP) is a cryogenic Penning trap which allows the storage of ions at thermal and subthermal energies as a strongly coupled non-neutral plasma. In the first experiments we will use highly charged ions produced and extracted from EBIT. Once the ions are injected into RETRAP, they will be cooled to low temperatures (<41{degrees} K) to observe Coulomb crystallization of the ions. We will investigate a number of cooling schemes, including resistive cooling and sympathetic laser cooling, as well as processes that affect confinement times. Successful demonstration of operating RETRAP in a proof-of-principle experiment, along with the development of new ion detection technologies, will provide unprecedented opportunities for novel experiments in the fields of atomic, plasma, condensed matter and nuclear physics.

Schneider, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, CA (United States)

1993-05-01

189

Reply to comments on [open quotes]Detection of climatic change in the western North American Arctic using a synoptic climatological approach[close quotes  

SciTech Connect

It has been suggested that previous results indicating an increase in surface temperatures over the past 40 years within the coldest air masses at four stations in the western North American Arctic may be attributed to the shorter residence time of these air masses through the time period. if true, this contradicts the original contention that these are masses have undergone physical character changes, possibly attributed to anthropogenic sources, during the period. A reevaluation of the data at two of these stations indicates that a long-term warming is, in fact, taking place even when residence time is kept constant. Thus, it is suggested that changes in the physical character of these very cold air masses are due to factors other than residence time. 4 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

Kalkstein, L.S.; Dunne, P.C.; Ye, H. (Univ. of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States))

1993-07-01

190

You won`t find these leaks with a blower door: The latest in {open_quotes}leaking electricity{close_quotes} in homes  

SciTech Connect

Leaking electricity is the energy consumed by appliances when they are switched off or not performing their principal functions. Field measurements in Florida, California, and Japan show that leaking electricity represents 50 to 100 Watts in typical homes, corresponding to about 5 GW of total electricity demand in the United States. There are three strategies to reduce leaking electricity: eliminate leakage entirely, eliminate constant leakage and replace with intermittent charge plus storage, and improve efficiency of conversion. These options are constrained by the low value of energy savings-less than $5 per saved Watt. Some technical and lifestyle solutions are proposed. 13 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

Rainer, L. [Davis Energy Group, CA (United States); Greenberg, S.; Meier, A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)

1996-08-01

191

Augmented Computer Exercise for Inspection Training (ACE-IT) - an interactive training tool for {open_quotes}challenge inspections{close_quotes} under the chemical weapons convention  

SciTech Connect

The on-site inspection provisions in many current and proposed arms control agreements require extensive preparation and training on the part of both the Inspection Teams and the Inspected Parties. Current training techniques include lectures, table-top inspections, and practice inspections. The Augmented Computer Exercise for Inspection Training (ACE-IT), an interactive computer training tool, increases the utility of table-top inspections. Under the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) challenge inspections are short-notice inspections that may occur anywhere, anytime, and with no right of refusal. The time interval between notice of intent to inspect a facility and the arrival of inspectors at the facility may be as short as 72 hours. Therefore, advance training is important. ACE-IT is used for training both the Inspection Team (inspector) and the Inspected Party (host) to conduct a hypothetical challenge inspection under the CWC. An exercise moderator controls the exercise. The training covers all of the events in the challenge inspection regime, from initial notification of an inspection through post-inspection activities. But the primary emphasis of the training tool is on conducting the inspection itself, and in particular, the concept of managed access. Managed access is used to assure the inspectors that the facility is in compliance with the CWC, while protecting sensitive information that is not related to the CWC.

Dobranich, P.R.

1997-08-01

192

Bureau of Mines review of Department of Energy report /open quotes/Exploratory shaft design basis study review/close quotes/: Final technical report  

SciTech Connect

The Basalt Waste Isolation Project (BWIP) is an investigative program being conducted by the US Department of Energy to determine the feasibility of locating a nuclear waste repository in the deep basalts beneath the Hanford Site in south-central Washington. As part of the site characterization phase of the program, an Exploratory Shaft Facility (ESF) will be constructed to conduct in situ testing for site characterization and feasibility. The Bureau of Mines has been solicited by DOE, through an Interagency Agreement, to review the subject report as an independent reviewer. The review of this report covers three general areas: hydrology, ventilation, and shaft sinking and excavation. The hydrology section evaluates water inflow parameters and quantities and the water inflow range. The ventilation section evaluates underground ventilation air quantities; methane inflow parameters and quantities; gassy mine cost impacts; shaft ventilation and conveyance velocity criteria; and methane release rate. The shaft sinking and excavation section evaluates the second shaft cost estimate and hoisting; underground development schedule; and underground drifting. 8 refs.

Not Available

1987-01-01

193

PERFORMANCE-ENHANCED &QUOT;TUNABLE"; CAPILLARY MICROWAVE INDUCED PLASMA MASS SPECTRONIETER FOR GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY DETECTION. (R825511C044)  

EPA Science Inventory

The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

194

SIMPLIFIED METHOD OF &QUOT;PUSH-PULL"; TEST DATA ANALYSIS FOR DETERMINING IN SITU REACTION RATE COEFFICIENTS. (R825689C021)  

EPA Science Inventory

The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

195

SINGLE-WELL, &QUOT;PUSH- PULL&QUOT; TEST FOR IN SITU DETERMINATION OF MICROBIAL METABOLIC ACTIVITIES. (R825689C021)  

EPA Science Inventory

The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

196

Application of ICP-MS radionuclide analysis to {open_quotes}real world{close_quotes} samples of Department of Energy Radioactive Waste  

SciTech Connect

Disposal of Department of Energy (DOE) radioactive waste into repositories such as the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) and the Nevada Test Site (NTS) requires characterization to ensure regulatory and transportation requirements are met. Characterization is also used to collect information regarding chemistry of the waste for processing concerns. The range of characterization typically includes radio nuclide activity, RCRA metals and organic compounds, process metals, and risk assessment. Recent addition of an inductively coupled plasma quadrupole mass spectrometer in a radioactive contaminated laboratory at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has provided cost savings, time savings, reduced personnel exposure to radiation, and in some cases, improved accuracy over the traditional techniques for radionuclides, risk assessment and metals analysis. Application of ICP-MS to ORNL waste tank characterization has also provided the opportunity to estimate never-before-measured radionuclides and metals without increased cost. Data from analyses of ORNL waste tank sludges and supernates indicate the benefit of using this technique over counting techniques and Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometry (TIMS) for analysis of fission products and U isotopics as well as the ability to estimate certain radionuclides and metals for the first time in these tanks.

Meeks, A.M.; Giaquinto, J.M.; Keller, J.M.

1997-06-01

197

Development of a \\/open quotes\\/combined environments\\/close quotes\\/ life prediction methodology applicable to ambient nuclear power plant cable aging simulations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on analogies to the Arrhenius approach for aging predictions in thermooxidative environments, we have derived a predictive methodology appropriate to combined radiation-thermal environments. It is shown how the approach manipulates data from accelerated environmental conditions to make meaningful predictions for low voltage cables under dose-rate\\/temperature conditions characteristic of ambient nuclear power plant aging. Since analyses are only possible for

K. T. Gillen; R. L. Clough

1988-01-01

198

DISCUSSION OF &QUOT;DETECTION OF CRYPTOSPORIDIUM PARVUM IN SECONDARY EFFLUENTS USING A MOST PROBABLE NUMBER-POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION ASSAY&QUOT;  

EPA Science Inventory

The emphasis of this paper is to show that most probable number-polymerase chain reaction (MPNPCR) assay can be used to detect Cryptosporidium parvum in WWTP effluents as an alternative to immunfluorescent assay (IFA). I am concerned, however, that the paper suggests that all WW...

199

DEVELOPMENT OF A COMPREHENSIVE, MULTISCALE &QUOT;ONE ATMOSPHERE&QUOT; MODELING SYSTEM: APPLICATION TO THE SOUTHERN APPALACHIAN MOUNTAINS. (R826372)  

EPA Science Inventory

A comprehensive three-dimensional Eulerian photochemical model (URM-1ATM) was developed that simulates urban and regional gas and size-resolved aerosol concentrations of pollutants in the atmosphere and both wet and dry deposition. In this study, RAMS and EMS-95 are used to ge...

200

{open_quote}Met-Net{close_quote} offshore weather systems network. Cost-effective, modular, 20-platform system with standardized components enhances working safely offshore  

SciTech Connect

All offshore oil/gas platforms carry wind, pressure, and temperature sensors of some form or other to meet statutory requirements and to assist with daily operations. Helicopter and marine operations require more detailed information and in particular a knowledge of cloud height, visibility, and wave parameters, but the sensors are expensive. This can be overcome by networking of adjacent platforms which facilitates the sharing of the more expensive sensors and exchange of data. The next step is to network adjacent fields to provide backup for planned maintenance times and in the event of sensor failure. Ultimately all data can be sent ashore to assist in real-time operations and planning as well as input for weather forecasting.

Leggett, I.M. [Shell U.K. Exploration & Production, Aberdeen, Scotland (United Kingdom); Dolan, F.E. [InstallOcean Ltd., Alton, Hampshire (United Kingdom)

1995-04-01

201

Value/impact analysis of Generic Issue 94, /open quotes/Additional Low Temperature Overpressure Protection for Light Water Reactors/close quotes/  

SciTech Connect

This document presents a value/impact analysis of the expected risk reduction and associated costs for seven regulatory alternatives which have been proposed to resolve the generic issue of low temperature overpressure (LTOP) transients. It also presents an analysis of the reduction of public risk which was accomplished by the 1979 imposition of requirements for LTOP transient protection, when LTOP had previously been designated as a generic issue. The alternatives evaluated were: no action, prohibit operations with the reactor cooling system (RCS) ''water solid'' except when it is depressurized and vented, and require all operating reactors to maintain a bubble of steam or noncondensible gas (N/sub 2/) in the pressurizer when the RCS is not vented; prohibit operation of the RCS in a water-solid condition when either train of the overpressure mitigation system (OMS) is out of service; prohibit operation with the RCS in a water-solid condition when a high pressure safety injection pump is in service; prohibit restart of a reactor coolant pump when the RCS is in a water-solid condition; require that the pressure setpoint for automatic isolation of the residual heat removal system be raised above the setpoint for residual heat removal safety relief valve opening to maintain this relief path as backup to the OMS; and require the OMS to be safety grade. The risk analysis of each alternative estimated the public risk from the operation of the 63 presently operating pressurized water reactors summed over the period from the present to end of licensing. 20 refs., 7 figs., 45 tabs.

Gore, B.F.; Vo, T.V.; Colburn, A.J.; Eschbach, E.J.; Harris, M.S.

1988-11-01

202

Corrections to the paper {open_quotes}fitting the armitage-doll model to radiation-exposed cohorts and implications for population cancer risks{close_quotes}  

SciTech Connect

A recent paper analyzed patterns of cancer in the Japanese atomic bomb survivors and three other groups exposed to radiation by fitting the so-called multistage model of Armitage and Doll. The paper concluded that the incidence of solid cancer could be described adequately by a model in which up to two stages affected by radiation were assumed but that the data for leukemia within the bomb survivors might not be so well fitted. This was in part because of a failure to account for the observed linear-quadratic dose response that has been observed in the Japanese cohort. It has recently come to our attention that there was a mistake in the fits of the model with two adjacent radiation-affected stages, whereby the quadratic coefficient in dose was being set to zero in all the fits. This paper provides corrections in the calculations for the model and discusses the results.

Little, M.P. [National Radiological Protection Board, Oxon (United Kingdom); Hawkins, M.M. [Childhood Cancer Research Group, Oxford (United Kingdom); Charles, M.W. [Berkeley Technology Centre, Glos (United Kingdom); Hildreth, N.G. [Univ. of Rochester School of Medicine, NY (United States)

1994-01-01

203

IMPORTANCE OF &QUOT;GREEN TIDES&QUOT; IN A PACIFIC NORTHWEST ESTUARY: PRODUCTION DYNAMICS OF EELGRASS (ZOSTERA MARINA), DWARF EELGRASS (Z. JAPONICA) AND ENTEROMORPHA SPP.  

EPA Science Inventory

Benthic macrophytes play a large role in the ecology and biogeochemistry of estuaries. I examine the relative contribution of macrophytes (seagrass and macroalgae) to overall productivity of a macrotidal system. Biomass data from Yaquina Bay suggests that although these seagras...

204

Report on the American Nuclear Society International Topical Meeting: {open_quotes}The safety, status, and future of non-commercial reactors and irradiation Facilities{close_quotes}  

Microsoft Academic Search

The American Nuclear Society`s International Topical Meeting, The Safety, Status, and Future of Non-Commercial Reactors and Irradiation Facilities, also known as SAFOR 90, was held in Boise, Idaho, September 30 to October 4, 1990. In 19 half-day sessions, 102 papers were presented which covered operating research reactors, production reactors, the use of reactors for training and research, probabilistic risk assessments

1991-01-01

205

Ferric complexes as catalysts for {open_quotes}Fenton{close_quotes} degradation of 2,4-D and metolachlor in soil  

SciTech Connect

Fenton-type reactions of hydrogen peroxide with Fe compounds generate bydroxyl radical (OH{center_dot}) or other reactive species and are potentially useful for degrading organic contaminants in soil. The use of simple Fe salts is limited, however. This study investigated certain pH 6-soluble Fe(III) complexes (Fe-L, where L is an organic tigand) as catalysts for degradation of herbicides 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and metolachlor (2-chloro-N-[2-ethyl 6-methylphenyl]-N-[2-methoxy-l-methylethyl]acetamide). Reactions were carried out in 1:1 aqueous suspensions of a topsoil (15.7 g kg{sup -1} organic C) at the natural pH of 5.7 with herbicides at concentrations representative of a spill (2-3 g kg{sup -1} about 0.01 mol kg{sup -1}). The two herbicides had contrasting sorption behavior in that 2,4-D was mostly in solution, whereas metotachlor was mostly sorbed. The best results were obtained using Fe-nitrilotriscetate (NTA) or Fe-hydroxyethyleniminodiacetate (HEIDA) at 0.01 mol kg-{sup -1} and [H{sub 2}O{sub 2}]{ge} 0.5 mol kg{sup -1}. The gallic acid complex was less effective. In 3 h,{sup 14}C-labeled 2,4-D was quantitatively dechlorinated and partially (15-30%) converted to {sup 14}CO{sub 2}: metolachlor was 93% transformed and 29% dechlorinated. Controls using free ligand plus peroxide or peroxide alone gave little or no reaction. Fe-L + H{sub 2}O{sub 2} was superior to the Fenton reagent itself (Fe{sup 2+} + H{sub 2}O{sub 2}). The results of this study demonstrate that relatively mild chemical oxidation can be effective for remediation of certain contaminants in soil 23 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs.

Pignatello, J.J.; Baehr, K.

1994-03-01

206

QA (Quality Assurance) role in advanced energy activities: Towards an /open quotes/orthodox/close quotes/ Quality Program: Canonizing the traditions at Fermilab  

SciTech Connect

After a brief description of the goal of Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) this paper poses and answers three questions related to Quality Assurance (QA) at the Laboratory. First, what is the difference between 'orthodox' and 'unorthodox' QA and is there a place for 'orthodox' QA at a laboratory like Fermilab. Second, are the deeper philosophical and cultural frameworks of high-energy physics acommodating or antagonistic to an 'orthodox' QA Program. Finally, faced with the task of developing an institutional QA program for Fermilab where does one begin. The paper is based on experience with the on-going development and implementation of an institutional QA Program at Fermilab. 10 refs.

Bodnarczuk, M.W.

1988-02-01

207

&QUOT;HEY, MOM, THANKS!&QUOT;: USE OF FOCUS GROUPS IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF PLACE-SPECIFIC MATERIALS FOR A COMMUNITY ENVIRONMENTAL ACTION CAMPAIGN. (R827027)  

EPA Science Inventory

The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

208

From {open_quotes}command and control{close_quotes} to risk management: The evolution of the federal natural gas pipeline safety program  

SciTech Connect

The pipeline industry essentially accepted the passage of the NGPSA in 1968 because it would provide one set of uniform regulations under the shield of federal preemption, thus relieving industry from the impossible burden of complying with inconsistent state and local requirements. The program developed, however, in response to the public`s misperception of infrequent but highly publicized accidents, rather than as a result of rational evaluation of actual pipeline safety risks. Like other federal agencies, the DOT has begun to reassess this method of regulation and today has a new vision of pipeline safety regulation. The DOT has embarked on a regulatory experiment which requires government-industry partnerships, greater public participation, and risk-based regulations. Whether or not this experiment succeeds, the DOT deserves credit for seeking new and innovative approaches to regulating the pipeline industry.

Biancardi, P.; Bogardus, L.M.

1995-12-31

209

From {open_quotes}command and control{close_quotes} to risk management: The evolution of the federal natural gas pipeline safety program  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pipeline industry essentially accepted the passage of the NGPSA in 1968 because it would provide one set of uniform regulations under the shield of federal preemption, thus relieving industry from the impossible burden of complying with inconsistent state and local requirements. The program developed, however, in response to the public`s misperception of infrequent but highly publicized accidents, rather than

P. Biancardi; L. M. Bogardus

1995-01-01

210

Bananas, allegators, and {open_quotes}hot rocks that shoot ghost bullets{close_quotes}: Sitings along the trail to an MRS  

SciTech Connect

Building new electric power facilities in a community used to be greeted warmly by that community. However, during the 20 year hiatus in power plant siting, opposition to siting just about every kind of facility has grown. The challenge to site a monitored retrievable storage (MRS) facility for the temporary storage of commercial spent nuclear fuel is monumental but not insurmountable. The safety and environmental records on commercial spent-fuel storage to date are impressive. This article gives an overall perspective on siting an MRS. Topics covered include the following: the Nuclear waste Policy Act; the Nuclear Waste Negotiator; DOE`s Feasibility Grand`s program; Looking back at past efforts; using portable information in some areas; and where the efforts go now in trying to site a MRS.

Trebules, V.; Kane, D.

1994-04-01

211

A NEW TYPE OF &QUOT;LAKE EFFECT&QUOT;? - SEICHE-DRIVEN NUTRIENT INPUT TO A COASTAL GREAT LAKE ECOSYSTEM  

EPA Science Inventory

Like tidal influx at the ocean-estuarine discontinuity, the action of seiches upon coastal ecosystems of large lakes is understudied and the complexity warrants an array of biological, chemical, and physical approaches....

212

DETERMINING THE &QUOT;MARGIN OF INCREMENTAL EXPOSURE&QUOT;: AN APPROACH TO ASSESSING NON-CANCER HEALTH EFFECTS OF DIOXINS  

EPA Science Inventory

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) guidance issued in April 1994 for performing screening level risk analyses of emissions from facilities that burn hazardous waste does not address the evaluation of non-cancer health effects from dioxin emissions. Historically, EPA has ...

213

{open_quotes}What you don`t know can`t hurt you{close_quotes}: The right to know and the Shetland Island oil spill  

SciTech Connect

This paper, an account of the Shetlands Islands oil spill (1993), examines the public health controversies surrounding the spill and the clean-up response. It critically examines the risk management policies of both the United Kingdom and the Shetland Islands Public Health Office, and suggests that the withholding of critical information contributed to increased anxiety and suspicion among the disaster victims. In an attempt to reassure the victims, the policies contributed to an increased air of uncertainty. It is further argued with the withholding of information prevents those who are at greatest risk from participating in critical decisions that may affect their health and livelihoods and asserts that a right-to-know policy is a critical first step in risk management practices.

Button, G.V. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

1995-06-01

214

Comment on William C. Metz' [open quotes]Potential Impacts of Nuclear Activities on Local Economics: Rethinking the Issue[close quotes  

SciTech Connect

This commentary examines points not presented in the paper Potential Impacts of Nuclear Activities on Local Economics: Rethinking the Issue', in particular why people don't move away from locations they see as dangerous. Reasons suggested by the author include: they do not feel they can; they feel that the fiscal and emotional costs of relocating will only place them within range of another peril; People feel that they knew less when they moved near the location that they know now about the risks. 1 ref.

Erikson, K. (Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States))

1994-10-01

215

Oil spill Cleanup: {open_quote}windows of opportunity{close_quote}: Operational decision-making integrates combination of factors to improve contingency planning, response worldwide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oil spill contingency planning and response is an extremely complex and challenging cross-disciplinary activity. It combines a wide range of activities under emergency response conditions that include the nature of the material spilled, local environmental conditions, sensitivity of impacted natural resources, and selection and effectiveness of response\\/cleanup technologies. This also emcompasses emergency mobilization, marine operations and effectiveness of operations, air

A. B. Nordvik; J. L. Simmons; M. A. Champ

1995-01-01

216

Effect of {open_quotes}bamboo{close_quotes} grain boundaries on the maximum electromigration-induced stress in microelectronic interconnect lines  

SciTech Connect

A model which describes the steady-state mechanical stresses resulting from electromigration in microelectronic interconnect lines is presented. This model is valid when sidewall and grain boundary interface diffusion are the dominant transport paths, and accounts for the two-dimensional microstructure present in such lines. By applying the model to simulated line microstructures, we find that bamboo grain boundaries may substantially increase the maximum electromigration stress. Furthermore, microstructural simulations on bounded interconnect segments show that variations in grain size may lead to a large scatter in the maximum stress, particularly as line length decreases. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

Gleixner, R.J.; Nix, W.D. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California94305-2205 (United States)

1998-04-01

217

The final LDRD report for the project entitled: {open_quotes}Enhanced analysis of complex gas mixtures by pattern recognition of microsensor array signals{close_quotes}  

SciTech Connect

Microsensors do not have the selectivity to chemical species available in large laboratory instruments. This project employed arrays of catalytically gated silicon microsensors with different catalysts to create data streams which can be analyzed by pattern recognition programs. One of the most significant accomplishments of the program was the demonstration of that mixtures of H{sub 2} with the oxidants NO{sub x} and O{sub 2} could distinguished from one another by the use of different catalytic metals on the Sandia Robust Hydrogen (SRH) sensors and the newly developed pattern recognition algorithm. This sensor system could be used to identify explosive gas mixtures and analyze exhaust streams for pollution control.

Hughes, R.C.; Osbourn, G.C.

1996-09-01

218

Summary evaluation of the video, {open_quotes}Transportation of radioactive and hazardous materials: Safety for all concerned{close_quotes}  

SciTech Connect

Outreach materials are often developed and distributed without evaluation of their effectiveness. This report provides a glimpse of the effectiveness of one of the US Department of Energy`s videos on transportation of radioactive and hazardous materials. Data from a survey developed by Modern Talking Picture Service, Inc. are summarized. This survey was sent to recipients of the video at three to six weeks after they had received and viewed the video. The response rate is unknown; hence, the results suggest the range of perspectives on the video, rather than the representativeness of those perspectives. The results are also limited by incomplete responses to the survey. Most respondents were middle school and high school teachers who resided throughout the country. Respondents used the video in nearly all school subjects. Most respondents indicated that the video was fairly good and appreciated the factual information, although some saw it as propaganda. Respondents indicated that they would like additional information on hazardous wastes, nuclear power, and transportation. The test crashes were mentioned as a highlight of the video. Recommendations for revising the video and survey are included.

Monroe, M.C.; Young, C.F.

1993-07-01

219

The use of specific binding of peptide-nucleic acid to DNA in the {open_quotes}Achilles heel{close_quotes} method  

SciTech Connect

The `Achilles heel` method (AHM) is used in the design of random-cleavage restriction endonucleases. These promising compounds can be widely used in practice, particularly for genomic DNA mapping. DNA is complexed with a site-specific DNA-binding reagent (protein or oligonucleotide) and then treated with methylase. The methylation sites overlapping with or adjacent to the DNA-binding sites of the reagent are protected from methylation. Thereafter, methylase is inactivated, the DNA-binding reagent is removed, and DNA is cleaved by the restriction endonuclease corresponding to the methylase used. As a result, DNA is cleaved only at those restriction sites that were protected by the DNA-binding reagent from methylation. Until now, proteins or oligonucleotides were used as site-specific DNA-binding reagents. Here, we report on the use of a peptide-nucleic acid (PNA) in AHM. 7 refs., 4 figs.

Krasil`nikova, M.M.; Izvol`skii, K.I.; Krupnik, O.V.; Lazurkin, Yu.S. [Institute of Molecular Genetics, Moscow (Russian Federation)

1995-09-01

220

Comments on {open_quotes}measurements of {sup 7}Be and {sup 210}Pb in rain, snow, and hail{close_quotes}  

SciTech Connect

Comments on a previous journal article reporting the first measurement of {sup 7}Be and {sup 210}Pb of a hail sample are made in this article. The comments pertain to the possible problems in the reported data and interpretations made in the original paper. The author of the comments states that since the daughter products of {sup 222}Rn and {sup 7}Be that are produced in the lower and upper atmosphere, respectively, are powerful tracers of atmospheric and meteorological processes, it is important that the right perspective is given so that a wider community can possibly use these isotopes to investigate many other meteorological and atmospheric processes. 6 refs., 2 figs.

Baskaran, M. [Texas A& M Univ., Galveston, TX (United States)

1995-09-01

221

Value\\/impact analysis of Generic Issue 94, \\/open quotes\\/Additional Low Temperature Overpressure Protection for Light Water Reactors\\/close quotes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This document presents a value\\/impact analysis of the expected risk reduction and associated costs for seven regulatory alternatives which have been proposed to resolve the generic issue of low temperature overpressure (LTOP) transients. It also presents an analysis of the reduction of public risk which was accomplished by the 1979 imposition of requirements for LTOP transient protection, when LTOP had

B. F. Gore; T. V. Vo; A. J. Colburn; E. J. Eschbach; M. S. Harris

1988-01-01

222

Inheriting workplace risks: The effect of workers` compensation {open_quotes}exclusive remedy{close_quotes} clauses on the preconception tort after Johnson Controls  

SciTech Connect

This article explores whether exclusive remedy clauses will bar a tort action by a child seeking recovery for injury caused by his or her parent`s occupational exposure to mutagenic or toxic agents before the child`s conception in the same manner that the clauses bar spouses` loss of consortium suits. Because both the child`s right to recover for injury and the spouse`s right to recover for loss of consortium depend on proof of employer negligence toward the employee, a comparison of the two rights provides a framework for analyzing the effect exclusive remedy clauses could have on the preconception tort action. Part I of this article discusses exclusive remedy clauses of workers` compensation acts and illustrates how it might be asserted as a defense to a preconception tort action. Part II traces the development of the preconception tort action and its underlying theory of liability. Part III reviews how exclusive remedy clauses have served to bar loss of consortium suits. Part IV analyzes the applicability of exclusive remedy clauses to the preconception tort action. This article concludes that, absent revision to workers` compensation statutes or judicial reliance on public policy to distinguish loss of consortium and preconception tort suits, exclusive remedy clauses probably will be held to bar recovery in preconception tort actions. 121 refs.

Stern, C.; Tierney, C.M.G. [McKenna & Cuneo, Washington, DC (United States)

1993-12-31

223

A progress report on the LDRD project entitled {open_quotes}Microelectronic silicon-based chemical sensors: Ultradetection of high value molecules{close_quotes}  

SciTech Connect

This work addresses a new kind of silicon based chemical sensor that combines the reliability and stability of silicon microelectronic field effect devices with the highly selective and sensitive immunoassay. The sensor works on the principle that thin SiN layers on lightly doped Si can detect pH changes rapidly and reversibly. The pH changes affect the surface potential, and that can be quickly determined by pulsed photovoltage measurements. To detect other species, chemically sensitive films were deposited on the SiN where the presence of the chosen analyte results in pH changes through chemical reactions. A invention of a cell sorting device based on these principles is also described. A new method of immobilizing enzymes using Sandia`s sol-gel glasses is documented and biosensors based on the silicon wafer and an amperometric technique are detailed.

Hughes, R.C.

1996-09-01

224

Mental retardation in a child with a {open_quotes}de novo{close_quotes} deletion of terminal 14q and a family history of dyslexia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A couple presented for prenatal diagnosis for advanced maternal age. A review of the family history revealed that their elder daughter was mentally retarded while their second daughter was of normal intelligence. The father and his brother were both dyslexic. The paternal grandmother had lost three pregnancies, all female. The elder daughter had been fully assessed in the past, but

E. Mak-Tam; E. Capua; A. Shugar

1994-01-01

225

Occasional {open_quotes}long-range{close_quotes} nonequilibrium body-centered-cubic structures in NiFe/Cu spin valves  

SciTech Connect

We describe conventional and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) characterization of the microstructure of sputtered NiFe/Cu giant magnetoresistance spin valves (Cu/FeMn/NiFe/Cu/NiFe) sandwiched between thick Nb contact layers. Six spin valves, sputtered at different temperatures, three with thin (3 nm) and three with thick (24 and 30 nm) NiFe layers, were studied. All of the spin-valve layers were smooth and continuous, consisting of columnar grains generally 20{endash}90 nm wide. In most cases, the grains had grown epitaxially from the bottom contact, through the entire multilayer, to the top contact layer. The columnar grains grew on the closest-packed planes (i.e., {l_brace}110{r_brace} planes for bcc Nb and {l_brace}111{r_brace} planes for fcc Cu, FeMn, and NiFe spin-valve components). This epitaxial growth yields an apparent Kurdjumov{endash}Sachs {l_brace}111{r_brace}{sub fcc}{parallel}{l_brace}110{r_brace}{sub bcc}; {l_angle}110{r_angle}{sub fcc}{parallel}{l_angle}111{r_angle}{sub bcc} orientation relationship. However, HRTEM imaging supported by fast Fourier transform analysis reveals that in some of the columnar grains the Cu, FeMn, and NiFe layers take up a nonequilibrium bcc structure. In these cases, the bcc Cu, FeMn, and NiFe layers grow on {l_brace}110{r_brace} planes and are epitaxial with the Nb contacts for the individual grain columns. While bcc Cu has been observed elsewhere, the length scale of the nonequilibrium bcc phases reported here is an order of magnitude greater than previously observed. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

Geng, H. [Department of Materials Science and Mechanics, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 (United States); Heckman, J.W. [Center for Electron Optics, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 (United States); Pratt, W.P.; Bass, J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 (United States); Espinosa, F.J.; Conradson, S.D. [Material Science and Technology Division (MST-11), Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Lederman, D. [Department of Physics, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia 25606 (United States); Crimp, M.A. [Department of Materials Science and Mechanics, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 (United States)

1999-10-01

226

TOWARD A &QUOT;REAGENT-FREE"; SYNTHESIS: TANDEM ENZYMATIC AND ELECTROCHEMICAL METHODS FOR INCREASED EFFECTIVE MASS YIELD (EMY). (R826113)  

EPA Science Inventory

The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

227

A user`s guide to GAETR: Sandia`s {open_quotes}Graphical Analysis of Event Trees{close_quotes} software  

SciTech Connect

This document is a reference guide for GAETR, Graphical Analysis of Event Trees, a software package developed at Sandia National Laboratories. GAETR may be used as a stand-alone code or as a module in the ARRAMIS{trademark} risk and reliability code suite. GAETR is designed to graphically create event trees and plot SETAC (Sandia Event Tree Analysis Code) output on IBM-compatible personal computers using the Microsoft{reg_sign} Windows{trademark} 95/NT operating environment. This manual explains the fundamentals of creating an event tree, including formatting, saving sequence information, printing, editing, and importing graphics to other software packages.

Hays, K.M.

1997-09-01

228

Evidence for an oil-bearing sedimentary basin of probable Miocene age beneath [open quotes]Silicon Valley,[close quotes] California  

SciTech Connect

Gravity anomalies, records from historical oil wells, and new organic geochemical results indicate the presence of a concealed sedimentary basin of probable Miocene age beneath a densely populated part of the Santa Clara Valley. A prominent isostatic gravity low extends about 35 km from Palo Alto to near Los Gatos and reflects an asymmetric, northwest-trending sedimentary basin comprising low-density strata that rest on higher-density rocks of the Franciscan Complex. Both gravity and well data show that the low-density rocks thin gradually to the northeast over a distance of about 10 km. The thickest basin fill (about 3 km) occurs along the basin's steep southwestern margin, which evidently is controlled by northwest-trending, southwest-dipping reverse and thrust faults of the seismically active Berrocal, Shannon, and Monte Vista fault systems. Near surface traces of these faults in Los Gatos, at least 12 wells were drilled between 1891 and 1929 to total depths as great as 840 m. No lithologic or paleontologic samples are available from the wells, but drillers logs indicate thick intervals of brown shale and sandstone resembling nearby outcrops of the Miocene Monterey Formation. Small amounts of oil and gas were encountered in several wells, but no commercial production was established. Oil from a well in Los Gatos is highly biodegraded, contains biomarkers commonly found in oils derived from the Monterey Formation, and yields a stable carbon isotopic ([delta][sup 13]C[sub PDB]) composition of -23.32[per thousand], suggesting derivation from a Miocene source. Oil in mercury ore from the nearby New Almaden mine is slightly biodegraded, thermally altered, and shows a [delta][sup 13]C PDB value of -24.70[per thousand], indicating a source different from that of the Los Gatos oil and perhaps of Miocene or Cretaceous age.

Standley, R.G.; Jachens, R.C.; Kvenvolden, K.A. (Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (United States)) (and others)

1996-01-01

229

VARIATION OF THE EXPRESSION OF ENDOGENOUS &QUOT;HOUSEKEEPING"; GENES IN B[A]P TREATED MOUSE LUNGS MEASURED BY qRT-PCR  

EPA Science Inventory

Quantitative RT-PCR is frequently used to analyze gene expression in different experimental systems. In this assay, housekeeping genes are frequently used to normalize for the variability between samples (relative quantification). We have examined the utility of using qRT-PCR and...

230

The {open_quotes}ASR{close_quotes} story where we are and how we got there: A history of Sandia National Laboratories maintenance employee safety committee  

SciTech Connect

The Area Safety Representative (ASR) Team is an employee based safety committee that was originated in the latter part of 1994. It was introduced by the Operations and Engineering Center ES&H Coordinator who had heard about an employee based safety program implemented at the EG&G Corporation. This information was the first step in creating Sandia`s Maintenance `Area Safety Representative` (ASR) Program. An advertisement went out from the ES&H Coordinator to all the Maintenance Organizations asking for individuals who would be interested in performing as a volunteer safety representative for their section. The interest was moderate but effective. The committee consisted of one volunteer from each of the working sections within the Maintenance Organization, e.e., HVAC Mechanics, Electricians, Millwrights, Plumbers, Sheetmetal Workers, High-Voltage Technicians, a Union Representative, and representatives from the Operations Group that manage sub-contracted personnel. During the past year, organizational changes have brought about the addition of representatives to include the Planners and the Custodians. The original committee members were enrolled in a 30-hour OSHA Voluntary Compliance Outreach Course. This information provided the members with a broad overview of the Safety Guidelines set forth by OSHA for themselves and their coworkers. It is to be noted that this is an employee based safety team. There are no supervisors or managers on the committee but their attendance is always welcomed at the ASR meetings.

NONE

1997-08-01

231

Comment on [open quotes]Weathering, plants, and the long-term carbon cycle[close quotes] by Robert A. Berner  

SciTech Connect

Schwartzman contends that lichens and other microbes may significantly contribute to chemical denudation of exposed rock by their combined physical and chemical activity. Lichens do not generate a thick soil but they do stabilize already existing soil (cryptogamic). Studies on chemical denudation in soil-free alpine terrains may contribute to a better understanding of the microbial role in weathering since lichens and algae are commonly found on bare rock in these settings.

Schwartzman, D. (Howard Univ., Washington, DC (United States))

1993-05-01

232

Translocation 4p;21q identified by FISH in a case previously described as {open_quotes}presumptive monosomy 21{close_quotes}  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, Lopez-Pajares et al. (1993) reported identification of a translocation between the short arm of a chromosome 5 and the long arm of a chromosome 21 in a patient who was thought to be monosomy 21. This study is the first application of a chromosome 21 painting probe, pBS-21, and fluorescent in situ chromosome hybridization (FISH) to revise an earlier

Xiu-Lan Yao; E. C. Jenkins

1994-01-01

233

Comment on {open_quotes}Unpolarized and polarized quark distributions in the large-N{sub C} limit{close_quotes}  

SciTech Connect

The recent article by Diakonov {ital et al.} [Phys. Rev. D {bold 56}, 4069 (1997)] on quark distributions in a chiral quark soliton model is critically discussed with regard to the stability of the soliton and the interpretation of the calculated quark distributions. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

Weigel, H. [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Tuebingen University, Auf der Morgenstelle 14, D-72076 Tuebingen (Germany); Gamberg, L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Oklahoma, 440 West Brooks Avenue, Norman, Oklahoma 73019--0225 (United States); Reinhardt, H. [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Tuebingen Unversity, Auf der Morgenstelle 14, D-72076 Tubingen (Germany)

1998-08-01

234

Review of recent studies from central and eastern Europe associating respiratory health effects with high levels of exposure to {open_quotes}traditional{close_quotes} air pollutants  

SciTech Connect

The serious environmental problems caused by decades of Communist mismanagement of natural resources in countries of Central and Eastern Europe have been brought to light in recent years. All environmental media, including air, water, food, and soil have been burdened with toxic chemicals. Large segments of the population have been, and are now being exposed to air pollution levels exceeding guidelines established by western countries and by international health organizations. This review focuses on epidemiologic evidence regarding health effects of poor air quality in Central and Eastern Europe. It appears that short-term high levels of air pollutants (primarily particulates and SO{sub 2}) may increase mortality in sensitive parts of the population. Associations were also seen between air pollution levels and prevalence of respiratory diseases as well as lung function disturbances in adults and children. One study indicated that urban air pollution increased the risk of lung cancer. Several investigations pointed to strong interactions between risk factors. The poor scientific standard of the studies often makes it difficult to evaluate the findings. Several steps should be taken to develop environmental epidemiology in Central and Eastern Europe, including international collaboration in research projects and training. 30 refs., 1 fig., 11 tabs.

Jedrychowski, W. [Univ. Medical School, Cracow (Poland)

1995-03-01

235

INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT &QUOT;FIELD MEASUREMENT TECHNOLOGIES FOR TOTAL PETROLEUM HYDROCARBONS IN SOIL&QUOT; DEXSIL CORPORATION PETROFLAG SYSTEM  

EPA Science Inventory

The PetroFLAGTm System developed by Dexsilo Corporation (Dexsil) was demonstrated under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation Program in June 2000 at the Navy Base Ventura County site in Port Hueneme, California. The purpose o...

236

INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT &QUOT;FIELD MEASUREMENT TECHNOLOGIES FOR TOTAL PETROLEUM HYDROCARBONS IN SOIL&QUOT; WILKS ENTERPRISE, INC. INFRACAL TOG/TPH ANALYZER  

EPA Science Inventory

The hifracal' TOG/TPH Analyzer developed by Wilks Enterprise, Inc. (Wilks), was demonstrated under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation Program in June 2000 at the Navy Base Ventura County site in Port Hueneme, California. The pu...

237

Rolling and slipping down Galileo{close_quote}s inclined plane: Rhythms of the spheres  

SciTech Connect

In ``Two New Sciences`` (TNS) Galileo presents a number of theorems and propositions for smooth solid spheres released from rest and rolling a distance {ital d} in time {ital t} down an incline of height {ital H} and length {ital L}. We collect and summarize his results in a single grand proportionality {ital P}: {ital d}{sub 1}/{ital d}{sub 2}=({ital t}{sup 2}{sub 1}/{ital t}{sup 2}{sub 2})({ital H}/{ital L}){sub 1}/({ital H}/{ital L}){sub 2}. ({ital P}) From TNS it is clear that what we call {ital P} is assumed by Galileo to hold for all inclinations including vertical free fall with {ital H}/{ital L}=1. But in TNS he describes only experiments with gentle inclinations {ital H}/{ital L}{lt}1/2. Indeed he cannot have performed the vertical free fall ({ital H}={ital L}) experiment, because we (moderns) know that as we increase {ital H}/{ital L}, {ital P} starts to break down when {ital H}/{ital L} exceeds about 0.5, because the sphere, which rolls without slipping for small {ital H}/{ital L}, starts to slip, whence {ital d} starts to exceed the predictions of {ital P}, becoming too large by a factor of 7/5 for vertical free fall at {ital H}/{ital L}=1. In 1973 Drake and in 1975 Drake and MacLachlan published their analysis of a previously unpublished experiment that Galileo performed that (without his realizing it) directly compared rolling without slipping to free fall. In the experiment, a sphere that has gained speed {ital v}{sub 1} while rolling down a gentle incline is deflected so as to be launched horizontally with speed {ital v}{sub 1} into a free fall orbit discovered by Galileo to be a parabola. The measured horizontal distance {ital X}{sub 2} traveled in this parabolic orbit (for a given vertical distance fallen to the floor) was smaller than he expected, by a factor 0.84. But that is exactly what we (moderns) expect, since we know that Galileo did not appreciate the difference between rolling without slipping, and slipping on a frictionless surface.

Crawford, F.S. [Physics Department and Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

1996-05-01

238

An Analysis of Residential Auction Sale Prices and Quoted Guide Prices  

Microsoft Academic Search

The majority of the literature concerned with residential auctions has examined whether houses sell at lower or higher prices in comparison with a private treaty negotiated sale. A number of studies have shown, both theoretically and empirically, that auctioned properties should not sell at a premium in comparison to private treaty sales. Mayer (1994) argues that as private sellers can

Simon Stevenson; James Young

239

ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT; ENVIRONMENTAL DECISION SUPPORT SOFTWARE; ENVIRONMENTAL SOFTWARE SITEPRO VERSION 2.0&QUOT;  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has created the Environmental Technology Verification Program (ETV) to facilitate the deployment of innovative or improved environmental technologies through performance verification and dissemination of information. The goal of the...

240

Blogs and Twitter in medical publications: too unreliable to quote, or a change waiting to happen?  

PubMed

With the ubiquitous connectivity offered by the Internet, social media sites (like Twitter and Facebook) and personal publishing platforms (blogs) are proliferating rapidly. In this new, evolving scenario of social media, these tools become an important medium to disseminate information at a lightning speed. However, the conventional medical publication model is less than eager to regard them as equivalent to traditional modes of information dissemination. In this article we examine the role played by social media as a critic of the medical publication system, and how it acts as a safeguard by building a platform for post-publication peer review. PMID:22272866

Chatterjee, Pranab; Biswas, Tamoghna

2011-09-27

241

Impact of Genetic Testing on Surveillance and Prevention (preliminary version - please do not quote)  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a prospect of substantial advancements in the understanding of the rela- tionship between disease and genetics at least in the medium term to long term future. In this paper we consider the implications on two aspects of behaviour - surveillance to improve the chances of early detection of disease onset and preventive actions to reduce the probability of

Lilia Filipova; Michael Hoy

242

The Africa File: Notes, Quotes, and Questions about Africa and Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document examines development efforts in Africa. While discussing issues in an African context, the document challenges students to consider a wider, global context. Africa, with its history of colonialism, its fragile soil, its expanding population, its struggle to provide people with the basic means of existence, illustrates very starkly

Gage, Susan

243

Measurements of the Solar Neutrino Flux from Super-Kamiokande{close_quote}s First 300 Days  

SciTech Connect

The first results of the solar neutrino flux measurement from Super-Kamiokande are presented. The results shown here are obtained from data taken between 31 May 1996, and 23 June 1997. Using our measurement of recoil electrons with energies above 6.5thinspthinspMeV, we infer the total flux of {sup 8}B solar neutrinos to be 2.42{plus_minus}0.06(stat){sup +0.10}{sub {minus}0.07}(syst){times}10{sup 6} thinspcm{sup {minus}2}thinsp s{sup {minus}1} . This result is consistent with the Kamiokande measurement and is 36{percent} of the flux predicted by the BP95 solar model. The flux is also measured in 1.5 month subsets and shown to be consistent with a constant rate. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society }

Fukuda, Y.; Hayakawa, T.; Ichihara, E.; Inoue, K.; Ishihara, K.; Ishino, H.; Itow, Y.; Kajita, T.; Kameda, J.; Kasuga, S.; Kobayashi, K.; Kobayashi, Y.; Koshio, Y.; Martens, K.; Miura, M.; Nakahata, M.; Nakayama, S.; Okada, A.; Oketa, M.; Okumura, K.; Ota, M.; Sakurai, N.; Shiozawa, M.; Suzuki, Y.; Takeuchi, Y.; Totsuka, Y.; Yamada, S. [Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, University of Tokyo, Tanashi, Tokyo 188-8502 (Japan); Earl, M.; Habig, A.; Hong, J.T.; Kearns, E.; Kim, S.B.; Masuzawa, M.; Messier, M.D.; Scholberg, K.; Stone, J.L.; Sulak, L.R.; Walter, C.W. [Department of Physics, Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts 02215 (United States); Goldhaber, M. [Physics Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States); Barszczak, T.; Gajewski, W.; Halverson, P.G.; Hsu, J.; Kropp, W.R.; Price, L.R.; Reines, F.; Sobel, H.W.; Vagins, M.R.; Haines, T.J.; Kielczewska, D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, Irvine, California 92697-4575 (United States); Ganezer, K.S.; Keig, W.E. [Department of Physics, California State University, Dominguez Hills, Carson, California 90747 (United States); Ellsworth, R.W. [Department of Physics, George Mason University, Fairfax, Virginia 22030 (United States); Tasaka, S. [Department of Physics, Gifu University, Gifu, Gifu 501-1193 (Japan); Flanagan, J.W.; Kibayashi, A.; Learned, J.G.; Matsuno, S.; Stenger, V.; Takemori, D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, Hawaii 96822 (United States); Ishii, T.; Kanzaki, J.; Kobayashi, T.; Nakamura, K.; Nishikawa, K.; Oyama, Y.; Sakai, A.; Sakuda, M.; Sasaki, O. [Institute of Particle and Nuclear Studies, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Echigo, S.; Kohama, M.; Suzuki, A.T. [Department of Physics, Kobe University, Kobe, Hyogo 657-8501 (Japan); Haines, T.J. [Physics Division, P-23, Los Alamos National Laboratory (United States)

1998-08-01

244

Credit Spreads, Default Correlations and CDO Tranching: New Evidence from CDS Quotes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a risk-neutral environment, credit spread has been regarded as a function of two variables - default probability and recovery rate. Once the recovery rate is determined, a spread can be employed to calculate the implied default rate of a specific credit name. Most importantly, default correlation is not considered as a factor to determine the credit spread. However, recent

Shu-Ying Lin; Gang Shyy

245

FEA analysis of diamond as IMCA{close_quote}s monochromator crystal  

Microsoft Academic Search

A great deal of effort has been make in recent years in the field of undulator high heat load optics, and currently there are several tractable options [Rev. Sci. Instrum. {bold 69}, 2792 (1994); Nucl. Instrum. Methods A {bold 266}, 517 (1988); Nucl. Instrum. Methods A {bold 239}, 555 (1993)]. Diamond crystals offer some attractive optionswater as the coolant, the

J. Chrzas; S. Cimpoes; I. N. Ivanov

1996-01-01

246

FEA analysis of diamond as IMCA{close_quote}s monochromator crystal  

SciTech Connect

A great deal of effort has been make in recent years in the field of undulator high heat load optics, and currently there are several tractable options [Rev. Sci. Instrum. {bold 69}, 2792 (1994); Nucl. Instrum. Methods A {bold 266}, 517 (1988); Nucl. Instrum. Methods A {bold 239}, 555 (1993)]. Diamond crystals offer some attractive options{endash}water as the coolant, the use of established monochromator mechanisms, simpler monochromator design as compared to the use of liquid nitrogen or gallium. The use of diamond crystals as the optical elements in a double-crystal monochromator for the IMCA-CAT and MR-CAT ID beamlines has been studied. A first crystal mounting scheme using an indium-gallium eutectic as the heat transfer medium developed in collaboration with DND-CAT and M. Hart will be presented. A FEA analysis of the IMCA-CAT ID beamline arrangement using the APS undulator A as the radiaiton source will be presented. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

Chrzas, J.; Cimpoes, S.; Ivanov, I.N. [CSRRI, Illinois Institute of Technology, 3301 S. Dearborn Street, Chicago, IL 60616 (United States)

1996-09-01

247

Julio Cortzar quotes on normal and abnormal movements: magical realism or reality?  

PubMed

Together with Mario Vargas Llosa and Gabriel Garca Mrquez, Julio Cortzar was one of the most representative authors of the Latin American magical realism genre. Within his extensive body of work, many descriptions of characters suffering physical disabilities, as well as situations suggesting such medical conditions, can be extracted. In this review, two short stories by Cortzar are presented. In the first one, the main character could easily be a man suffering from corticobasal degeneration; in the second, an old woman with symptoms suggestive of progressive supranuclear palsy is clearly depicted. Despite the fact that one of the main ingredients in Cortzar's magical realism is fiction, cases described here fit real medical conditions quite well, making it hard to believe that they represent purely fantastic descriptions rather than the product of Cortzar's inquisitive observation and the description of real patients. PMID:16685680

Merello, Marcelo

2006-08-01

248

A Penny for Your Quotes: Patent Citations and the Value of Innovations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of patents in economic research has been seriously hindered by the fact that patents vary enormously in their importance or value, and hence, simple patent counts cannot be informative about innovative output. The purpose of this article is to put forward patent counts weighted by citations as indicators of the value of innovations, thereby overcoming the limitations of

Manuel Trajtenberg

1990-01-01

249

Manufacturing technology improvements for ENTECH{close_quote}s photovoltaic concentrator module  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes recent improvements in manufacturing technology for a fourth-generation photovoltaic concentrator module. An international team has been utilized to develop and to produce the new line-focus module. The manufacturing process has been streamlined and validated through a pilot run. The favorable impact of the manufacturing technology improvements on module and system costs, and energy economics, is also presented.

M. J. ONeill; A. J. McDanal

1996-01-01

250

Quoting A.T. Still with rigor: an historical and academic review.  

PubMed

The statements of Andrew Taylor Still, MD, DO, abound within the osteopathic literature. However, Still is sometimes misquoted, and corresponding references to his quotations are occasionally incomplete or inaccurate. There are several reasons why these errors continue to occur, including confusion surrounding the copyright dates and multiple editions of his books. In addition, less reliable, secondary sources of Still's words are often used instead of primary sources. To help resolve these problems, the author proposes 3 solutions. A list of Still's known published books, including the correct copyright date of The Philosophy and Mechanical Principles of Osteopathy, is provided. The disadvantages associated with using the 2 most popular secondary sources of Still's work are described. Guidelines from the 10th edition of the AMA Manual of Style are reviewed to assist authors, educators, and students in accurately citing material from older sources, such as Still's writings. PMID:22707646

Stark, Jane Eliza

2012-06-01

251

1995 Edward teller lecture. Patience and optimism  

SciTech Connect

Remarks made in the author{close_quote}s acceptance lecture for the 1995 Edward Teller Medal are presented and expanded. Topics covered include research on nuclear-pumped lasers, the first direct e-beam-pumped laser, direct energy conversion and advanced fuel fusion, plus recent work on inertial electrostatic confinement. {open_quote}{open_quote}Patience{close_quote}{close_quote} and {open_quote}{open_quote}optimism{close_quote}{close_quote} are viewed as essential elements needed by scientists following the {open_quote}{open_quote}zig-zag{close_quote}{close_quote} path to fusion energy production. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

Miley, G.H. [Fusion Studies Laboratory University of Illinois, 100 NEL, 103 South Goodwin Avenue, Urbana, Illinois 61801-2984 (United States)

1996-05-01

252

COMPARISON AND EVALUATION OF THE SYNTHETIC BIOPOLYMER POLY-L-ASPARTIC ACID AND THE SYNTHETIC &QUOT;PLASTIC"; POLYMER POLY-ACRYLIC ACID FOR USE IN METAL ION-EXCHANGE SYSTEMS. (R826694C651)  

EPA Science Inventory

The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

253

Equation of state and electrical conductivity of {open_quotes}synthetic Uranus,{close_quotes} a mixture of water, ammonia, and isopropanol, at shock pressure up to 200 GPa (2 Mbar)  

SciTech Connect

Equation-of-state, temperature, and electrical-conductivity data were measured for a solution of water, ammonia, and isopropanol at shock pressures up to 200 GPa. The chemical composition is similar to that of the fluid mixture thought to be the major constituent of the giant planets Uranus and Neptune. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

Nellis, W.J.; Holmes, N.C.; Mitchell, A.C.; Hamilton, D.C. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, University of California, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Nicol, M. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90024 (United States)

1997-12-01

254

Computers and small satellites: How FORTE is utilizing the WWW as a {open_quotes}paperless{close_quotes} information resource and the development of a unique resource management planning tool  

SciTech Connect

The Fast-On-orbit Recording of Transient Events (FORTE) satellite is the second satellite to be developed and flown by Los Alamos National Laboratory and is scheduled to be launched August, 1997 by a Pegasus XL rocket. FORTE follows in the footsteps of the ALEXIS satellite in utilizing a very small operations crew for mission operations. Partially based upon the ALEXIS automation and World Wide Web (WWW) usage for data dissemination, FORTE began at an early stage of ground processing to use the web as a repository of information about all aspects of the satellite. Detailed descriptions of the various satellite and experiment components, cable diagrams, integration photographs as well as extensive test data have all been compiled into a single site as a means of archiving the data at a single location. In this manner, it is readily available during times of ground testing, ground station operation training as well as anomaly resolution. Small satellites usually require extensive effort to optimize operation under minimal resources. For the FORTE satellite, a unique planning tool has been developed over the past 2 years which balances the various resources of the satellite (power, memory, downlink, on board command buffer, etc.) to provide the maximum data acquisition. This paper will concentrate on a description of both the extensive web interface and the planning tool. 6 refs.

Roussel-Dupre, D.; Carter, M.; Franz, R. [and others

1997-10-01

255

{open_quote}Optimism{close_quote} is watchword in deep water U.S. Gulf. Exploration, development in OCS frontiers over 1,500 feet threaten domestic drilling depth records  

Microsoft Academic Search

An air of optimism surrounds deep water drilling and field development activity in the U.S. Gulf of Mexico. In a marketplace that is otherwise characterized by sagging mobile rig activity and worrisome natural gas prices, millions of dollars are budgeted in 1995 for new drilling programs and development of hydrocarbon fields in domestic record-setting water depths on the outer continental

1995-01-01

256

UPDATE/ADDITIONS TO CURRENT OUST PUBLICATION: &QUOT;HOW TO EVALUATE ALTERNATIVE CLEANUP TECHNOLOGIES FOR UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANK SITES: A GUIDE FOR CORRECTIVE ACTION PLAN REVIEWERS&QUOT;  

EPA Science Inventory

This guidance manual is comprised of several chapters, each of which describes in detail alternative cleanup technologies for underground storage tank sites. Each chapter provides diagrams and tables to aide in determining whether a particular technology may be applicable for cl...

257

{open_quote}Optimism{close_quote} is watchword in deep water U.S. Gulf. Exploration, development in OCS frontiers over 1,500 feet threaten domestic drilling depth records  

SciTech Connect

An air of optimism surrounds deep water drilling and field development activity in the U.S. Gulf of Mexico. In a marketplace that is otherwise characterized by sagging mobile rig activity and worrisome natural gas prices, millions of dollars are budgeted in 1995 for new drilling programs and development of hydrocarbon fields in domestic record-setting water depths on the outer continental shelf`s deep water frontier. It`s possible that exploration and development projects in water depths greater than 1,500 feet offshore Texas and Louisiana could take priority over subsalt development in the near future. Many geologists and reservoir engineers believe deep water areas of the Gulf of Mexico have the potential to rival the largest oil field in the United States-Alaska`s Prudhoe Bay field.

Pagano, S.S. [Offshore Data Services, Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

1995-04-01

258

Mutation in and lack of expression of tyrosinase-related protein-1 (TRP1) in melanocytes from an individual with brown oculocutaneous albinism: A new subtype of albinism classified as {open_quotes}OCA3{close_quotes}  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most types of human oculocutaneous albinism (OCA) result from mutations in the gene for tyrosinase (OCA1) or the P protein (OCA2), although other types of OCA have been described but have not been mapped to specific loci. Melanocytes were cultured from an African-American with OCA, who exhibited the phenotype of Brown OCA, and his normal fraternal twin. Melanocytes cultured from

R. E. Boissy; H. Zhao; L. M. Austin; Y. L. Boissy; Y. Zhao

1996-01-01

259

Reply to comment by J. -Ch. Fontes and J. N. Andrews on [open quotes]The [sup 36]Cl ages of the brines in the Magadi-Natron basin, East Africa[close quotes  

SciTech Connect

This article is a response to a criticism of the authors previous work on estimating the age of brines using chlorine-36. They defend critical points related to fallout rates, water sources of chlorine-36, age estimation techniques, and chemical mass balances for runoff, brine formation, etc. 13 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

Kaufman, A.; Magaritz, M. (Weizmann Inst. of Science, Rehovot (Israel)); Paul, M. (Hebrew Univ., Jerusalem (Israel)); Hillaire-Marcel, C. (Universite du Quebec, Montreal (Canada))

1993-04-01

260

DISCUSSION OF &QUOT;COMBINING EVIDENCE ON AIR POLLUTION AND DAILY MORTALITY FROM THE 20 LARGEST US CITIES: A HIERARCHICAL MODELLING STRATEGY&QUOT; BY DOMINICI F, SAMET JM, ZEGER SL. (R826887)  

EPA Science Inventory

The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

261

BOOK REVIEW OF &QUOT;POLLUTION PREVENTION: THE WASTE MANAGEMENT APPROACH FOR THE 21ST CENTURY&QUOT; BY R.R.DUPONT, L. THEODORE, K. GANESAN, SETAC GLOBE  

EPA Science Inventory

This book has appeal as both a text and a reference book. The book describes how source reduction and closed-loop recycling are the priority approaches, followed by waste treatment and finally disposal. The authors explain method for identifying whether pollution prevention oppor...

262

Physical characteristics of the performance and increase of the reliability of functioning of overflow dams with a {open_quotes}second limit state{close_quotes} of the rock foundation  

SciTech Connect

The main danger for the stability of high-head overflow dams having large safety factors is related to unfavorable processes in two zones of the foundation - near the upstream and downstream sides of the dam - due to fracturing of the rock foundation next to the dam by flood discharges. Fracturing of the toe of a dam, especially a gravity-arch dam, is accompanied by an increase of shear stresses in the rock under it to values exceeding the design values, and owing to fracturing of the rock below the dam foundation deformation movements of the dam toward the lower pool increase markedly, moreover, the greater amount, the more considerable the depth of fracturing below the dam foundation. As a result the tensile stresses in the rock in front of the dam increase to values exceeding the allowable, which intensifies cracking of this rock zone to a greater depth, the deeper the fracturing of the rock beyond the dam. Owing to this, the stress state of the foundation directly under the dam, accompanied by a decrease of the bearing capacity of the rock and increase of its deformation with loss of the required seepage strength, worsens.

Khlopenkov, P.R.

1994-08-01

263

Mutation detection in large genes: Use of overlapping PCR fragments for {open_quotes}double{close_quotes}screening of the APC gene and a PCR modification to concatenate multiple exons  

SciTech Connect

We report developments of earlier work which demonstrated the suitability of PCR-cloning in the 5{prime} terminus of IacZ for the detection of frameshift and nonsense mutations of in APC, the gene which predisposes carriers to adenomatous polyposis coli and, ultimately, colon cancer. A test set of clinically diagnosed APC patients and their unaffected relatives is being used to test a combination of multiplex PCR of several overlapping segments of coding sequence and a lethal negative selection against in-frame, i.e., wild type, clones. This modification will balance the strigency of the negative selection with the low-level readthrough, frameshifting and/or re-initiation of mutant clones, such that high-level {beta}-galactosidase production results in death, while a low level allows discrimination between APC mutant insertions and insert-free vector transformants. The same patient base is also serving as a test set for a PCR-based cloning technique that allows the concatenation of two exons into a single synthetic fragment by skipping over the intervening intron, bypassing the need for single exon analysis or mRNA/cDNA preparation. This technique is based on the design of primers with homology to intron sequences immediately adjacent to the exon sequences of interest, maintaining the reading frame, and adjusting for in-frame termination codons by base-substitutions. The conditions necessary for the concatenation of a large number of exons in a two-step PCR protocol are under investigation. These methods have advantages over other rapid mutation-detection systems by being (1) capable of detecting previously unidentified mutations, (2) non gel-based and (3) non-radioactive.

Tuohy, T.M.F.; Groden, J. [Univ. of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH (United States); White, R. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

1994-09-01

264

The efficacy of the table-top or {open_quote}white paper{close_quote} approach to emergency response planning of drills and exercises is examined for process improvement  

SciTech Connect

This paper examines the development of a set of procedures for the use by Radiological Assistance Program (RAP) Team, Region 6 with particular emphasis to the steps used and the feedback provided by peer review, external review, and exercise and drill critiques. This paper also presents a brief history of the RAP and recommends Total Quality Management techniques reduce the costs associated with procedure development.

Brown, D.N.; Wesley, T.H.

1995-11-01

265

{open_quotes}Vapochromic{close_quotes} compounds as environmental sensors. 2. Synthesis and near-infrared and infrared spectroscopy studies of [Pt(arylisocyanide){sub 4}][Pt(CN){sub 4}] upon exposure to volatile organic compound vapors  

SciTech Connect

The synthesis, characterization, and vis-NIR-IR vapochromic/spectroscopic studies are reported for isocyanide compounds of the form [Pt(arylisocyanide){sub 4}][Pt(CN){sub 4}] (where arylisocyanide = p-CNC{sub 6}H{sub 4}C{sub n}H{sub 2n+1}; n = 1, 6, 10, 12, 14). The dark blue, solid materials change color in the NIR (near-infrared) spectral region upon exposure to the ambient room-temperature vapor pressure of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). All the spectroscopic data suggest that the VOC penetrates the solid and interacts with the linear chain chromophore to cause the spectral shifts in the vis-NIR-IR spectral regions. The vapochromic shifts are suggested to be due to diole-dipole and/or H-bonding interactions between the Pt(CN){sub 4}{sup 2-} anion and polar VOCs. For nonpolar VOCs, lypophilic interactions between the VOC and the isocyanide ligands that cause no change in the {nu}-(CN) stretching region must cause the NIR vapochromism observed. The absence of a vapochromic response for water vapor is suggested to arise from hydrophobic blocking of the water at the solid/gas interface. 21 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

Daws, C.A.; Exstrom, C.L.; Sowa, J.R. Jr.; Mann, K.R. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

1997-01-01

266

Mitigation of atmospheric carbon emissions through increased energy efficiency versus increased non-carbon energy sources: A trade study using a simplified {open_quotes}market-free{close_quotes} exogenously driven model  

SciTech Connect

A simplified model of global, long-term energy use is described and used to make a `top-level` comparison of two generic approaches for mitigating atmospheric carbon emissions: (a) those based on increased energy efficiency; and (b) those based on increased use of reduced- or non-carbon fuels. As approximate as is the model, first-order estimates of and trade offs between increasing non-carbon generation capacities (e.g., supply-side solutions) versus energy-use efficiency (e.g., demand-side solutions) to stem atmospheric carbon accumulations can be useful in guiding more elaborate models. At the level of this analysis, both the costs of abatement and the costs of damage can be large, with the formation of benefit-to-cost ratios as a means of assessment being limited by uncertainties associated with relating given climatic responses to greenhouse warming to aggregate damage cost, as well as uncertainties associated with procedures used for multi-generation discounting of both abatement and damage costs. In view of uncertainties associated with both supply-side and demand-side approaches, as well as the estimation of greenhouse-warming responses per se, a combination of solutions seems prudent. Key findings are: (a) the relative insensitivity of the benefit-to-cost ratio adopted in this study to supply-side versus demand-side approaches to abating atmospheric carbon-dioxide emissions; (b) the extreme sensitivity of damage costs, abatement costs, and the related benefit-to-cost ratios to the combination of discounting procedure and the (time) concavity of the function used to relate global temperature rise to damage costs; and (c) no matter the discounting procedure and/or functional relationship between average temperature rise and a damage cost, a goal of increased per-capita gross world product at minimum damage suggests action now rather than delay.

Krakowski, R.A.

1997-08-24

267

Comment on {open_quotes}Local frequency analysis and the structure of classical phase space of the LiNC/LiCN molecular system{close_quotes} [J. Chem. Phys. {bold 108}, 63 (1998)  

SciTech Connect

In this Comment, we correct a misunderstanding in the title paper concerning the accuracy of the fast Fourier transform method of local frequency analysis of Martens, Davis, and Ezra. We also discuss the application of the Martens{endash}Davis{endash}Ezra method to a two degree of freedom model of OSC. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

Martens, C.C. [Department of Chemistry, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 (United States); Davis, M.J. [Chemistry Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Ezra, G.S. [Department of Chemistry, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States)

1998-10-01

268

Continued support of {open_quotes}The Natural Resources Information System (NRIS) for the State of Oklahoma{close_quotes}: Inclusion of a native american focused report. Quarterly technical progress report, July 1, 1995--September 30, 1995  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this research program is to continue developing, editing, maintaining, utilizing and making publicly available the Oil and Gas Well History file portion of the Natural Resources Information System (NRIS) for the State of Oklahoma. This grant funds that ongoing development work as a continuation of earlier grant numbers DE-FG19-88BC14233, DE-FG22-89BC14483, and DE-FG22-92BC14853. The Oklahoma Geological Survey, working with Geological Information Systems at the University of Oklahoma Sarkeys; Energy Center, has undertaken to construct this information system in response to the need for a computerized, centrally located library containing accurate, detailed information on the state`s natural resources. Particular emphasis during this phase of NRIS Well History development is being placed on oil and gas data for Osage County, which is under the authority of the Osage Tribal Council.

Mankin, C.J.; Banken, M.K.

1994-09-19

269

COMMENT ON &QUOT;MERCURY CONCENTRATIONS IN COASTAL CALIFORNIA PRECIPITATION: EVIDENCE OF LOCAL AND TRANS-PACIFIC FLUXES OF MERCURY TO NORTH AMERICA&QUOT; BY D.J. STEDING AND A.R. FLEGAL. (R829797)  

EPA Science Inventory

The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

270

Continued support of {open_quotes}The Natural Resources Information System (NRIS) for the State of Oklahoma{close_quotes}. Quarterly technical progress report, October 1, 1993--December 31, 1993  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this research program is to continue developing, editing, maintaining, utilizing and making publicly available the Oil and Gas Well History file portion of the Natural Resources Information System (NRIS) for the State of Oklahoma. This grant funds that ongoing development work as a continuation of earlier grant numbers DE-FG19-88BC14233 and DE-FG22-89BC14483. The Oklahoma Geological Survey, working with Geological Information Systems at the University of Oklahoma Sarkeys Energy Center, has undertaken to construct this information system in response to the need for a computerized, centrally located library containing accurate, detailed information on the state`s natural resources. Particular emphasis during this phase of NRIS development is being placed on computerizing information related to the energy needs of the nation, specifically oil and gas.

Mankin, C.J. [Oklahoma Geological Survey, Norman, OK (United States); Rizzuti, T.P. [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States)

1993-12-31

271

The {open_quotes}alternate{close_quotes} Keggin ion: A theoretical study of the stability factors for the {beta}-Keggin ion in comparison with the corresponding {alpha}-Keggin ion  

SciTech Connect

The syntheses and chemical properties of geometrical isomers of 12 tungstopolyoxyanions have been studied for several decades. These materials are utilized in multiple commercial catalytic processes and many experimental and theoretical initiatives have been directed at understanding and enhancing their stability. In our previous work, we have discovered that competing bonding interactions help to establish limits in stability. These effects include substitution of the metal ion in the oxide shell and coordination effects with the central tetrahedral oxyanion. We focus on the central oxyanion effect and the electronic stability of the {beta}-Keggin ion in comparison with its {alpha}-isomer. It is obvious that the {beta}-Keggin ion is less thermally stable than its {alpha}-isomer. Electronic indicators help to establish the stability limits and characterize spectral and physical properties. 28 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

Wang, S.H.; Jansen, S.A. [Temple Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States)

1994-11-01

272

Noble metal (Ru{sup III}, Pd{sup II}, Pt{sup II}) substituted {open_quotes}sandwich{close_quotes} type polyoxometalates: Preparation, characterization, and catalytic activity in oxidations of alkanes and alkenes by peroxides  

SciTech Connect

The polyoxometalates substituted with noble metals, Pd(II), Pt(II) and Ru(III), K{sub 12}([WZnPd{sup II}{sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}](ZnW{sub 9}O{sub 34}){sub 2}){center_dot}38H{sub 2}O, K{sub 12}[WZnPt{sup II}{sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}][(ZnW{sub 9}O{sub 34}){sub 2}]{center_dot}36H{sub 2}O, and Na{sub 11}[WZnRu{sup III}{sub 2}(OH)(H{sub 2}O)][(ZnW{sub 9}O{sub 34}){sub 2}]{center_dot}42H{sub 2}O, were prepared by exchange of labile zinc atoms with noble metal atoms from the isostructural starting material, N{sub 12}-[WZn{sub 3}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}][(ZnW{sub 9}O{sub 34}){sub 2}]{center_dot}46H{sub 2}O. Magnetic susceptibility studies as a function of temperature provide convincing evidence of two ruthenium (III) centers with no magnetic interaction between them. The catalytic activity of these compounds was tested for the oxidation of alkenes and alkanes using aqueous 30% hydrogen peroxide and 70% tert-butyl hydroperoxide as oxidants. The alkene oxidation proceeded in high reactivity and moderate selectivity to the epoxide product using 30% H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. Kinetic profiles as well as UV-vis and IR spectra before, during and after the reaction indicate that the catalysts are stable throughout the reaction. Formation of epoxides rather than ketonization in the reaction of terminal alkenes as well as low reactivity with iodosobenzene indicates that the reaction is tungsten centered and not noble metal centered. Oxidation of alkenes with tert-butyl hydroperoxide gave mostly allylic oxidation and/or addition of tert-butyl alcohol to the double bond. Oxidation of cyclic alkanes such as cyclohexane and adamantane was successful with tert-butyl hydroperoxide with catalytic activity 10 times higher than previously found for transition metal substituted Keggin compounds. Ratios of hydroxylation of adamantane at tertiary vs secondary positions indicates different active species in the palladium-, platinum-, and ruthenium substituted-polyoxometalates.

Neumann, R.; Khenkin, A.M. [Hebrew Univ. (Israel)

1995-11-08

273

Catalytic characterization of lithium aluminum oxides: Including a study of both the cation replacement chemistry and the structure of the [alpha]LiAlO[sub 2]/[open quotes]HAlO[sub 2][close quotes] system  

SciTech Connect

Cation replacement is a low temperature synthetic technique used to replace most of the lithium cations in [alpha]LiAlO[sub 2] with protons without significantly modifying the structure of the reactant. Lauric acid worked well as a proton source because it was capable of 90% replacement without significant dissolution of [alpha]LiAlO[sub 2]. High pressure CO[sub 2]/H[sub 2]O treatment of the cation replaced product resulted in the decomposition of the reactant to form boehmite and Li[sub 2]CO[sub 3]. The XRD characterization of a series of partially replaced samples from the [alpha]LiAlO[sub 2]/HAlO[sub 2] system was used to develop an understanding of the cation replacement mechanism. A two phase mechanism is proposed, which consists of particles with an outer shell of lithiated HAlO[sub 2] and an inner core of [alpha]LiAlO[sub 2] (for 0.0 < x < 0.90). A model for the structure of HAlO[sub 2] was developed to describe the location of the protons and the lithium cations. The 3,3-dimethyl-1-isomerization reaction did not detect any intrinsic acidity on HAlO[sub 2] and detected only small amounts on calcined HAlO[sub 2] at 350[degrees]C. Lithium free [gamma]-alumina was extremely active for 3,3-dimethyl-1-butene isomerization demonstrating that the small concentration of lithium in both HAlO[sub 2] and calcined HAlO[sub 2] is sufficient to neutralize strong acid sites. The conversion of isopropyl alcohol produces propylene on acid-base sites and acetone on basic sites. [alpha]LiAlO[sub 2], [gamma]LiAlO[sub 2], and calcined HAlO[sub 2], produced varying amounts of propylene and acetone. [alpha]LiAlO[sub 2] and calcined HAlO[sub 2] produced a C6 diene, which indicates the presence of basic sites stronger than those needed for acetone formation. [alpha]LiAlO[sub 2] was the only sample that produced 4-methyl-2-pentanone and 4-methyl-2-pentanol.

Tomczak, D.C.

1993-01-01

274

Use of an m=2, n=1 static error field correction coil, {open_quotes}The C-coil,{close_quotes} on DIII-D to avoid disruptive locked modes  

SciTech Connect

Minimizing resonant, static n = 1 error field with a phase steerable correction coil the C-coil, in DIII-D allows avoidance of disruptive locked modes. Alternatiely, increasing n = 1 error field in rapidly rotating plasmas can induce magnetic braking of rotation without locking for the study of the role of rotation on stability. Small toroidally asymmetric m = 2, n = 1 static field errors are of concern for the design of next-generation devices and for the operation of existing tokamaks. In low density ohmic plasmas for example, the torque of a small resonant error at the q = 2 surface can overcome the plasma inertial and/or viscous forces, stop the rotation and produce a large island which can cause disruption.

La Haye, R.J.; Scoville, J.T.

1995-05-01

275

US Geological Survey Committee for the Advancement of Science in the Yucca Mountain Project symposium on {open_quotes}Fractures, Hydrology, and Yucca Mountain{close_quotes}: Abstracts and summary  

SciTech Connect

The principal objective of this symposium is to review the available information on fractured/faulted terrains in terms of a coherent hydrogeologic model of ground-water fluid flow and transport, particularly as it pertains to the Yucca Mountain region. This review addresses the influence and significance of fractures on ground-water flow and the transport of conservative-species solutes within the context of the hydrogeologic setting of the Yucca Mountain area. The relations between fluid flow and fractured or faulted host rock are examined integrally from information on geologic, seismologic, hydrologic, and geomechanical properties of the system. The development of new hydrogeologic approaches that incorporate information from this integrated database are contrasted with more standard approaches toward understanding flow in fractured reservoirs. Ground-water flow in both the unsaturated zone and the saturated zone are considered. The application of various models of flow is addressed, examples include porous-media equivalent and discontinuum fracture-network models. Data and interpretations from the Yucca Mountain area are presented to establish a context for information exchange. The symposium includes discussions relevant to technical considerations for characterizing the Yucca Mountain area hydrogeology. On the basis of these discussions, CASY has compiled this document in order to formally summarize the proceedings and communicate recommendations for future directions of research and investigation.

Gomberg, J. [ed.

1991-12-31

276

How Documentary Filmmakers Overcame their Fear of Quoting and Learned to Employ Fair Use: a Tale of Scholarship in Action  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pat Aufderheide is a professor in the School of Communication at American University in Washington, D.C., and the director of the Center for Social Media there. She thanks Peter Jaszi for comments and Maura Ugarte and Michael Miller for formatting help. This article includes live links to websites (in blue text), and to video (wherever there are images). To access

PAT AUFDERHEIDE

2007-01-01

277

Modeling a one-dimensional bremsstrahlung and neutron imaging array for use on Sandia{close_quote}s Z machine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inertial confinement fusion is being studied on the Z facility at Sandia National Laboratories. Z is a large {ital z}-pinch machine which can provide 20 MA of current to {ital z}-pinch loads producing 1.8 MJ of soft x rays in less than 10 ns. Within the pinch region, decelerated electrons produce a strong source of bremsstrahlung radiation which varies from

G. A. Rochau; M. S. Derzon; D. Fehl; G. E. Rochau; S. Lazier; D. Droemer

1999-01-01

278

OFFSHORING AND THE SHIFTING SKILL COMPOSITION OF THE IT WORKFORCE DRAFT - PLEASE DO NOT QUOTE OR CIRCULATE  

Microsoft Academic Search

We use new offshoring data and new workforce micro-data with occupational classifications to investigate how an increase in the global supply of IT workers has affected the occupational composition of the US IT workforce. Our estimates s uggest that when firms open offshore captive centers for IT employment, domestic IT employment skews towards occupations requiring more \\

Prasanna Tambe; Lorin M. Hitt

279

The military expenditure in Sweden in the eighteenth century: spending breakdown and missing data (a draft - do not quote!)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper deals with Swedish military expenditure, which based on primary budget figures accounted for half of total expenditure during the period 1725-1809. Increased spending under war years resulted in growing national debt, however the wartime spending and debt services were sometimes excluded from the budget and this paper aims to shed light on the problem. Wartime spending and the

Martti Rantanen

280

The discovery of the {ital b} quark at Fermilab in 1977: The experiment coordinator{close_quote}s story  

SciTech Connect

I present the history of the discovery of the Upsilon ({Upsilon}) particle (the first member of the {ital b}-quark family to be observed) at Fermilab in 1977 by the CFS (Columbia-Fermilab-Stony Brook collaboration) E288 experiment headed by Leon Lederman. We found the first evidence of the {Upsilon} in November 1976 in an early phase of E288. The subsequent discovery in the spring of 1977 resulted from an upgraded E288{emdash}the {mu}{mu}II phase, optimized for dimuons, with about 100 times the sensitivity of the previous investigatory dimuon phase (which had been optimized for dielectrons). The events leading to the discovery, the planning of {mu}{mu}II and the running, including a misadventure (the infamous Shunt Fire of May 1977), are described. Some discussions of the aftermath, a summary, and an acknowledgment list end this brief historical note. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

Yoh, J. [Fermilab, Batavia, Illinois 60510 (United States)

1998-02-01

281

REVIEW OF BOOK &QUOT;SEARCHING FOR SUSTAINABILITY: INTERDISCIPLINARY ESSAYS IN THE PHILOSOPHY OF CONSERVATION BIOLOGY BY BRYAN G. NORTON  

EPA Science Inventory

The terms sustainability, sustainable development, biological integrity, biological diversity, ecosystem management, and ecosystem health frequently are at the core of many policy debates even though their precise meanings are the subject of universal debate. There are profound ...

282

Taking Race out of Scare Quotes: Race-Conscious Social Analysis in an Ostensibly Post-Racial World  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Academics and activists concerned with race and racism have rightly coalesced around the sociological project to refute biologistic conceptions of race. By and large, our default position as teachers, writers and researchers is that race is a social construct. However, the deconstruction of race and its claims to theoretical intelligibility has

Warmington, Paul

2009-01-01

283

Taking race out of scare quotes: race?conscious social analysis in an ostensibly post?racial world  

Microsoft Academic Search

Academics and activists concerned with race and racism have rightly coalesced around the sociological project to refute biologistic conceptions of race. By and large, our default position as teachers, writers and researchers is that race is a social construct. However, the deconstruction of race and its claims to theoretical intelligibility has also left us buckling under the weight of scare

Paul Warmington

2009-01-01

284

Frequency analysis of tick quotes on the foreign exchange market and agent-based modeling: A spectral distance approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-frequency financial data of the foreign exchange market (EUR/CHF, EUR/GBP, EUR/JPY, EUR/NOK, EUR/SEK, EUR/USD, NZD/USD, USD/CAD, USD/CHF, USD/JPY, USD/NOK, and USD/SEK) are analyzed by utilizing the Kullback Leibler divergence between two normalized spectrograms of the tick frequency and the generalized Jensen Shannon divergence among them. The temporal structure variations of the similarity between currency pairs is detected and characterized. A simple agent-based model in which N market participants exchange M currency pairs is proposed. The equation for the tick frequency is approximately derived theoretically. Based on the analysis of this model, the spectral distance of the tick frequency is associated with the similarity of the behavior (perception and decision) of the market participants in exchanging these currency pairs.

Sato, Aki-Hiro

2007-08-01

285

Child Maltreatment, Family Characteristics, and Educational Attainment: Evidence from Add Health Data (PRELIMINARY DRAFT, Do Not Quote)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the long-term impact of child maltreatment (CM) on children's human capital accumulation by estimating the effect of CM experience on the victims' subsequent high school graduation outcome. We conduct structural estimations to control for potential endogeneity of CM. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) study, we find that experiencing physical neglect

Xiangming Fang

286

Bright Lines, Risk Beliefs, and Risk Avoidance: Evidence from a Randomized Experiment in Bangladesh DRAFT: DO NOT CITE OR QUOTE  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is estimated that over 35 million Bangladeshis are drinking well water that exceeds both Bangladeshi and international health standards for arsenic. One policy response is to encourage households to avoid consuming arsenic from contaminated wells by labeling drinking water wells. In 1998, the Bangladesh government began painting wells that exceeded the Bangladeshi standard of 50 parts per billion (ppb)

Soumya Balasubramanya; Lori Snyder Bennear; Alex Pfaff; Alessandro Tarozzi; Kazi Matin Ahmed; Alexander van Geen

287

PRELIMINARY AND INCOMPLETE; PLEASE DO NOT CITE, QUOTE OR DISTRIBUTE WITHOUT AUTHOR'S PERMISISON Mandated Medical Leave in the Workplace  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many studies have addressed the effects of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) on the employment levels of individuals with disabilities. However, no analysis has been undertaken of the effects of family and medical leave mandates - which exist at both federal and state levels in the United States and require employers to provide leave from work for employees with

Christine Jolls

288

75 FR 29792 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ OMX PHLX, Inc.; Order Approving a Proposed Rule Change...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Proposed Rule Change Relating to Quote Spread Parameters and Batching of Violations...proposed rule change relating to quote spread parameters and batching of violations...electronically to be quoted with a $5 quote spread after the opening that was...

2010-05-27

289

77 FR 67037 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Chicago Board Options Exchange, Incorporated; Notice of Filing and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...delete references to the automatic quote regeneration and quote risk monitor functions...Rule 53.24(b) (Automatic Quote Regeneration) and Rule 53.24(c) (Quote Risk...date, neither the automatic quote regeneration nor the quote risk monitor...

2012-11-08

290

Metals Fact Sheet: Neodymium  

SciTech Connect

Neodymium was discovered in 1898 when it was separated from {open_quotes}dydimium,{close_quotes} a praseodymium-neodymium compound that was thought to be only one element. {open_quotes}Neodymium{close_quotes} is derived from the Greek words {open_quotes}neos{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}didymos,{close_quotes} which translates to {open_quotes}new twin.{close_quotes} This article discusses sources and applications of the element, and reviews world reserves and demands. Price trends in the commodity are also noted.

NONE

1992-11-01

291

Radioactivity measurements of metallic [sup 192]Ir sources by calorimetric methods  

SciTech Connect

The necessity of establishing the traceability of dose measurement in brachytherapy [sup 192]Ir sources is realized by physicians and researchers in the medical field. Standard sources of various shapes such as [open quotes]hairpin,[close quotes] [open quotes]single pin,[close quotes] [open quotes]thin wire,[close quotes] and [open quotes]seed[close quotes] for calibrating ionization chambers in hospitals are being demanded. Nominal activities of not only these source products but also the standard sources have been so far specified by [open quotes]apparent[close quotes] values. Determination of [open quotes]absolute[close quotes] activity by an established means such as 4pi-beta-gamma coincidence counting is not practical because quantitative dissolution of metallic iridium is very difficult. We tried to determine the [open quotes]absolute[close quotes] activity by a calorimetric method in a fully nondestructive way.

Genka, Tsuguo; Iwamoto, Seikichi; Takeuchi, Norio (Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Ibaraki-ken (Japan))

1992-01-01

292

EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE, DIET, AND LARVAL INSTAR ON THE SUSCEPTIBILITY OF AN APHID PREDATOR, #HIPPODAMIA CONVERGENS&QUOT; (COLEOPTERA:COCCINELLIDAE), TO THE WEAK BACTERIAL PATHOGEN #PSEUDOMONAS FLUORESCENS#  

EPA Science Inventory

The authors tested the effects of larval age and stress on the susceptibility of the convergent lady beetle (Hippodamia convergens) to the weakly pathogenic bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens. o test effects of larval age, the dose response to the bacterium was determined f or eac...

293

COMMENTS ON &QUOT;EFFECT OF PRENATAL EXPOSURE OF DELTAMETHRIN ON THE ONTOGENY OF XENOBIOTIC METABOLIZING CYTOCHROME P450S IN THE BRAIN AND LIVER OF OFFSPRINGS.  

EPA Science Inventory

Comments on: Effect of prenatal exposure of deltamethrin on the ontogeny of xenobiotic metabolizing cytochrome P450s in the brain and liver of offsprings [Johri et al. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 214:279-289, 2006] Johri and colleagues recently reported that maternal exposur...

294

TO &QUOT;LIMITATIONS OF ROI TESTING FOR VENTING DESIGN: DESCRIPTION OF AN ALTERNATIVE APPROACH BASED ON ATTAINMENT OF A CRITICAL PORE-GAS VELOCITY IN CONTAMINATED MEDIA  

EPA Science Inventory

In this paper, we describe the limitations of radius of influence (ROI) evaluation for venting design in more detail than has been done previously and propose an alternative method based on specification and attainment of critical pore-gas velocities in contaminated subsurface me...

295

Gas breakdown effects in the generation and transport of light ion beams for fusion  

SciTech Connect

The efficiency of delivering an ion beam to an inertial confinement fusion target depends on the ability to control the breakdown of both unintended (in the {open_quote}{open_quote}vacuum{close_quote}{close_quote} diode region) and intended (in the transport region) gas. The desorption and breakdown of anode-surface contaminants in an ion diode complicates the generation of a pure, high-brightness ion beam. Beyond the accelerator, the gas in the reactor vessel must provide excellent charge neutralization and specified current neutralization to permit the beam transport and focusing to a {lt}1 cm radius, spherical target. Two schemes, in which controlling gas breakdown is essential, are {open_quote}{open_quote}ballistic{close_quote}{close_quote} and {open_quote}{open_quote}self-pinched{close_quote}{close_quote} ion transport. Results are discussed from hybrid particle-fluid simulations of anode contaminant desorption and ion beam transport. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

Welch, D.R. [Mission Research Corporation, 1720 Randolph Road SE, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87106-4245 (United States); Cuneo, M.E.; Olson, C.L.; Mehlhorn, T.A. [Sandia National Laboratories, P.O. Box 5800, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States)

1996-05-01

296

77 FR 42040 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Chicago Board Options Exchange, Incorporated; Notice of Filing and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Proposed Rule Change Relating to Continuous Electronic Quotes July 11...market-makers must provide continuous electronic quotes. However...that despite these slight variations, upon effectiveness of the...will be required to provide continuous electronic quotes for...

2012-07-17

297

77 FR 9287 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Amex LLC.; Order Granting Approval of Proposed Rule Change...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...units quoting non-UTP Pilot Program securities, i.e., those listed on the Exchange.\\12\\ There would be one significant difference between the proposed quoting obligation for the UTP Pilot Program and the current quoting obligation...

2012-02-16

298

75 FR 20016 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change by NASDAQ OMX PHLX, Inc...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Change by NASDAQ OMX PHLX, Inc. Relating to Quote Spread Parameters and Batching of Violations April 7...differentials, which are also known as quotation or quote spread parameters; quote spread parameters establish the maximum permissible...

2010-04-16

299

75 FR 66813 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; C2 Options Exchange, Incorporated; Notice of Filing and Immediate...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...0, a quoting and order entry bandwidth allowance, up to three logins...Permit Holder status. The quoting bandwidth allowance for a Market-Maker...quotes) as well as an order entry bandwidth allowance, up to three...

2010-10-29

300

High-resolution cytogenetic mapping of the short arm of chromosome 1 with newly isolated 411 cosmid markers by fluorescence in situ hybridization: The precise order of 18 markers on 1p36.1 on prophase chromosomes and {open_quotes}stretched{close_quotes} DNAs  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high-resolution cytogenetic map of the short arm of chromosome 1 with newly isolated 411 cosmid markers was constructed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). These markers were scattered throughout chromosome 1p, but they were preferentially concentrated on R-band dominant regions such as 1p36, 1p34, 1p32, 1p22, and 1p13. Among these markers, 197 were localized on chromosome band 1p36, a

Takeshi Ariyama; Johji Inazawa; Toshihiko Abe

1995-01-01

301

Multi-keV Electron Generation in the Interaction of Intense Laser Pulses with Xe Clusters  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have observed the production of multi-keV electrons through the irradiation of Xe clusters by an intense, near infrared, femtosecond laser pulse. We find the electron kinetic energy distribution consists of two features, a {open_quote}{open_quote}warm{close_quote}{close_quote} peak of between 0.1 and 1 keV and a {open_quote}{open_quote}hot{close_quote}{close_quote} peak of energy between 2 and 3 keV. These measurements are consistent with a picture

Y. L. Shao; T. Ditmire; J. W. Tisch; E. Springate; J. P. Marangos; M. H. Hutchinson

1996-01-01

302

Virtually sequenced: The next genomic generation  

SciTech Connect

The announcement of {open_quotes}virtual genomics{close_quotes} requires evaluation of the efficiency and accuracy of computer-generated sequencing efforts. {open_quotes}Digital Northerns{close_quotes}, or Northern blot electrophoresis done in the realm of computer data, have been developed by Incyte Pharmaceuticals (Palo Alto, CA) and Human Genome Sciences (Rockville, MD). 12 refs., 2 figs.

Bains, W. [PA Consulting Group, Melbourn (United Kingdom)

1996-06-01

303

A decoupling theorem for the BPHZL-scheme  

SciTech Connect

Conditions are stated, which are sufficient for the heavy-mass-suppression of BPHZL-subtracted Feynman-integrals containing propagators of {open_quote}{open_quote}heavy fields{close_quote}{close_quote}. This result generalizes the Decoupling Theorems of Ambjo/rn, Manoukian and Landsman to cases, where massless fields (e.g., gauge fields) are present. {copyright} 1996 Academic Press, Inc.

Aschenbrenner, M. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Werner-Heisenberg-Institut, Foehringer Ring 6, D-80805 Munich (Germany)

1996-09-01

304

Mantle plumes - both deep and shallow  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This webpage summarizes a 2004 paper published in the journal Science by Montelli and others suggesting that some mantle plumes are &quot;deep&quot; (interpreted to originate from the core-mantle boundary), while others are &quot;shallow&quot; (interpreted to originate near the 670 km phase change).

Steven, Earle; College, Malaspina U.

305

Journalist Reliance on Teens and Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study considers the ethical implications of quoting children with particular emphasis on privacy and accuracy. A content analysis is used to examine how newspaper reporters quote children and teenagers. The study found that youths most likely are named when they are quoted in the newspaper. Teens who are 17 are the most likely to be quoted. Youths most frequently

Jenn Burleson Mackay

2008-01-01

306

75 FR 3773 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Chicago Board Options Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Thereto, Relating to the Elimination of the Hybrid Electronic Quoting Fee January 14, 2010...amend its Fees Schedule to eliminate the Hybrid Electronic Quoting Fee. The text of the...proposed rule change is to eliminate the Hybrid Electronic Quoting Fee (``Quoting...

2010-01-22

307

Penetrance estimates for BRCA1 and BRCA2 based on genetic testing in a Clinical Cancer Genetics service setting: Risks of breast/ovarian cancer quoted should reflect the cancer burden in the family  

PubMed Central

Background The identification of a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation in familial breast cancer kindreds allows genetic testing of at risk relatives. However, considerable controversy exists regarding the cancer risks in women who test positive for the family mutation. Methods We reviewed 385 unrelated families (223 with BRCA1 and 162 with BRCA2 mutations) ascertained through two regional cancer genetics services. We estimated the penetrance for both breast and ovarian cancer in female mutation carriers (904 proven mutation carriers 1442 females in total assumed to carry the mutation) and also assessed the effect on penetrance of mutation position and birth cohort. Results Breast cancer penetrance to 70 and to 80 years was 68% (95%CI 64.771.3%) and 79.5% (95%CI 75.583.5%) respectively for BRCA1 and 75% (95%CI 71.778.3%) and 88% (95%CI 85.391.7%) for BRCA2. Ovarian cancer risk to 70 and to 80 years was 60% (95%CI 6571%) and 65% (95%CI 7584%) for BRCA1 and 30% (95%CI 25.534.5%) and 37% (95%CI 31.542.5%) for BRCA2. These risks were borne out by a prospective study of cancer in the families and genetic testing of unaffected relatives. We also found evidence of a strong cohort effect with women born after 1940 having a cumulative risk of 22% for breast cancer by 40 years of age compared to 8% in women born before 1930 (p = 0.0005). Conclusion In high-risk families, selected in a genetics service setting, women who test positive for the familial BRCA1/BRCA2 mutation are likely to have cumulative breast cancer risks in keeping with the estimates obtained originally from large families. This is particularly true for women born after 1940.

Evans, D Gareth; Shenton, Andrew; Woodward, Emma; Lalloo, Fiona; Howell, Anthony; Maher, Eamonn R

2008-01-01

308

HAPPINESS AND CONSUMPTION IN PERU: EXPLORING BASIC NEEDS, SOCIAL COMPARISON, SOCIAL INTEGRATION AND HEDONISM (Please do not quote) Paper for the Conference Policies for Happiness, Siena 14th-17th June 2007  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the context of material poverty consumption and happiness are expected to be positively and strongly related. This is usually explained in terms of the increased possibilities to satisfy basic needs that additional spending provides. Other important aspects of consumption, such as its relative, symbolic and hedonic dimensions are not usually accounted for. These are explored in the paper through

Monica Guillen Royo

309

Penetrance estimates for BRCA1 and BRCA2 based on genetic testing in a Clinical Cancer Genetics service setting: Risks of breast\\/ovarian cancer quoted should reflect the cancer burden in the family  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The identification of a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation in familial breast cancer kindreds allows genetic testing of at risk relatives. However, considerable controversy exists regarding the cancer risks in women who test positive for the family mutation. METHODS: We reviewed 385 unrelated families (223 with BRCA1 and 162 with BRCA2 mutations) ascertained through two regional cancer genetics services. We

D Gareth Evans; Andrew Shenton; Emma Woodward; Fiona Lalloo; Anthony Howell; Eamonn R Maher

2008-01-01

310

EXPLORING THE MEANING OF CONSUMPTION THROUGH EXPENDITURE AND MOTIVES IN A PERUVIAN CORRIDOR (Please do not quote without permission) Paper for the Conference Poverty and Capital, Manchester 2-4 July 2007  

Microsoft Academic Search

Generally, it is accepted that consumption increases wellbeing by lifting people out of poverty and that it has a negative impact if it fails to place them at a higher social position. Other aspects defining consumption such as the symbolic meaning of goods, its pleasurable dimension and the role of goods and services such as basic needs satisfiers, among others,

Monica Guillen Royo

311

The oxycarbonate Y[sub 1. 6]Ca[sub 0. 4]Ba[sub 4]Cu[sub 5]CO[sub 3]O[sub 11], n = 2 member of the [open quotes]123[close quotes]-type derivatives (Y[sub 1[minus]x]Ca[sub x])[sub n]Ba[sub 2n]Cu[sub 3n[minus]1]CO[sub 3]O[sub 7n[minus]3  

SciTech Connect

The exploration of the system Y-Ba-Cu-C-O, using high resolution electron microscopy, has allowed the oxycarbonate Y[sub 1.6]Ca[sub 0.4]Ba[sub 4]Cu[sub 5]O[sub 11]CO[sub 3] to be isolated. This 123 derivative phase is characterized by the superstructure a [approx] 2a[sub 123], b [approx] b[sub 123], c [approx] 2c[sub 123]. It corresponds to the ordered replacement of one chain of CuO[sub 4] square planar groups out of two by one row of carbonate groups, involving the formation of chains of CuO[sub 5] pyramids running along b. This oxide, which is the first one derived from the pure barium superconductor Y[sub 1[minus]x]Ca[sub x]Ba[sub 2]Cu[sub 3]O[sub 7], can be described as the n = 2 member of the 123-type derivatives with the generic formulation (Y[sub 1[minus]x]Ca[sub x])[sub n]Ba[sub 2n]Cu[sub 3n[minus]1]CO[sub 3]O[sub 7n[minus]3]. 9 refs., 4 figs.

Hervieu, M.; Boullay, Ph.; Domenges, B.; Maignan, A.; Raveau, B. (Universite de Caen (France))

1993-07-01

312

Technology transfer at Department of Energy and Office of Fusion Energy  

SciTech Connect

Technology transfer is a timely topic. International and national events have come together in a way that has motivated the federal government to use the major technology resources at government labs to help strengthen the economy. Within DOE, industry business principles are being employed in support of technology transfer. The question, {open_quotes}Who is the customer?{close_quotes} is being asked more and more. A transition is occurring from {open_quotes}technology-push{close_quotes} to {open_quotes}market pull.{close_quotes}

Marton, W. [Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

1993-12-01

313

Boundary S Matrix and the Anti{endash}de Sitter Space to Conformal Field Theory Dictionary  

SciTech Connect

An S matrix analog is defined for anti{endash}de Sitter (Ads) space by constructing {open_quotes}in{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}out{close_quotes} states that asymptote to the timelike boundary. A derivation parallel to that of the Lehmann-Symanzik-Zimmermann formula shows that this {open_quotes}boundary S matrix{close_quotes} is given directly by correlation functions in the boundary conformal theory. This provides a key entry in the AdS to conformal field theory dictionary. {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital The American Physical Society }

Giddings, S.B. [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106-9530 (United States)

1999-10-01

314

Solar Flare Myth in solar-terrestrial physics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Early observations of associations between solar flares and large non- recurrent geomagnetic storms, large (open quote)solar(close quote) energetic particle events, and transient shock wave disturbances in the solar wind led to a paradigm of cause and eff...

J. T. Gosling

1993-01-01

315

Brief clinical report on a deletion 5q35.3  

SciTech Connect

This {open_quotes}Letter to the Editor{close_quotes} cites some mistakes made in a previous article by Stratton et al. (1994) describing a de novo deletion of the terminal band of chromosome 5. 1 ref.

Maruri, F. [National Reference Lab., Nashville, TN (United States)

1995-04-10

316

Clinical and molecular studies in full trisomy 22: Further delineation of the phenotype and review of the literature. Reply to Dr. Hirschhorn  

SciTech Connect

This {open_quotes}Letter to the Editor{close_quotes} responds to the criticism that certain trisomy 22 cases in the literature were not included in an earlier review by delineating the phenotype more specifically. 2 refs.

Bacino, C.A.; Graham, J.M. Jr. [UCLA School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

1996-03-01

317

Mosaicism most likely accounts for extended survival of trisomy 22  

SciTech Connect

This {open_quotes}Letter to the Editor{close_quotes} discusses the implications of meiotic versus somatic chromosomal aberrations and how this corresponds to the discussion of trisomy 22, including the survival time of the patient. 5 refs.

Robinson, W.P.; Kalousek, D.K. [Univ. of British Columbia (Canada)

1996-03-01

318

Large data series: Modeling the usual to identify the unusual  

SciTech Connect

{open_quotes}Standard{close_quotes} approaches such as regression analysis, Fourier analysis, Box-Jenkins procedure, et al., which handle a data series as a whole, are not useful for very large data sets for at least two reasons. First, even with computer hardware available today, including parallel processors and storage devices, there are no effective means for manipulating and analyzing gigabyte, or larger, data files. Second, in general it can not be assumed that a very large data set is {open_quotes}stable{close_quotes} by the usual measures, like homogeneity, stationarity, and ergodicity, that standard analysis techniques require. Both reasons dictate the necessity to use {open_quotes}local{close_quotes} data analysis methods whereby the data is segmented and ordered, where order leads to a sense of {open_quotes}neighbor,{close_quotes} and then analyzed segment by segment. The idea of local data analysis is central to the study reported here.

Downing, D.J.; Fedorov, V.V.; Lawkins, W.F.; Morris, M.D.; Ostrouchov, G.

1997-04-01

319

High energy behavior of the forward scattering parameters - an amplitude analysis update.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Utilizing the most recent experimental data, we reanalyze high energy pp and pp data, using the asymptotic amplitude analysis, under the assumption that we have reached (open quotes)asymptopia(close quotes). This analysis gives strong evidence for a log (...

M. M. Block B. Margolis A. R. White

1995-01-01

320

Letters to a Young Writer.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents words of encouragement to a young poet. Includes empathetic words and motivating ideas. Presents a letter including a quote from "Tintern Abbey" by William Wordsworth and ideas about that quote. (SG)|

Waldman, Anne; Becker, Robin

2002-01-01

321

Growth energizes lithium ion interest  

SciTech Connect

The prospects for big growth in the US for lithium ion batteries (LIBs) has sparked the interest of potential domestic suppliers. {open_quotes}The money that can be made in this market is staggering,{close_quotes} says one industry expert. {open_quotes}Everybody who is remotely related to this industry is interested.{close_quotes} The size of the market, still in its infancy, is difficult to gauge, say consultants, who estimate that leading Japanese producers are each making millions of lithium ion cells/month. {open_quotes}The market is not too measurable right now because the only production is really limited to prototypes being sampled,{close_quotes} says Ward Seitz, a consultant with SRI International (Menlo Park, CA), {open_quotes}but there is phenomenal interest.{close_quotes}

D`Amico, E.

1996-03-20

322

78 FR 7472 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Chicago Board Options Exchange, Incorporated; Notice of Filing and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...and quotes submitted before the opening, including the expected opening price (``EOP'') and expected opening size (``EOS'') given the current resting orders and quotes. The purpose of the proposed rule change is to update the text to...

2013-02-01

323

78 FR 7474 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; C2 Options Exchange, Incorporated; Notice of Filing and Immediate...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...and quotes submitted before the opening, including the expected opening price (``EOP'') and expected opening size (``EOS'') given the current resting orders and quotes. The purpose of the proposed rule change is to update the text to...

2013-02-01

324

Spin polarization and {pi}-phase state of the Josephson contact: Critical current of mesoscopic SFIFS and SFIS junctions  

SciTech Connect

On the basis of a microscopic proximity effect model, the critical current of superconductor/ferromagnet/insulator/ferromagnet/superconductor (SFIFS) and superconductor/ferromagnet/insulator/superconductor Josephson junctions have been calculated. Both metals, a superconductor (S) and a ferromagnet (F), are supposed to be in a {open_quotes}dirty{close_quotes} limit and the thickness of the F layer is assumed to be small compared to its coherence length. It is shown that critical current in the SFIFS contact can reverse its sign and a crossover to the {open_quotes}{pi}{close_quotes} state of the junction takes place even at a mesoscopic thickness of the F layer. We discuss, how by changing the SF sandwich parameters (a ferromagnetic exchange field, boundary transparency, and strength of proximity effect) the conditions for crossover from {open_quotes}0{close_quotes} to {open_quotes}{pi}{close_quotes} phase shift across the contact are changed.

Koshina, Elena; Krivoruchko, Vladimir

2001-06-01

325

O Binding Sites on Stepped Pt(111) Surfaces  

SciTech Connect

First-principles calculations show that O adatoms are attracted to step edges on Pt(111), gaining 0.2 to 0.3eV per nearest neighbor step-edge Pt atom, and that they favor {open_quote}{open_quote}fcc-like{close_quote}{close_quote} over {open_quote}{open_quote}hcp-like{close_quote}{close_quote} sites by {approximately}0.4 eV. These preferences account for the different appearances, in scanning tunneling micrographs, of O-saturated, {ital A}- and {ital B}-type island edges on Pt(111). They imply that O binds in a three-fold, fcc hollow site behind a {ital B}step, while twofold edge bridging is favored for {ital A} steps. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

Feibelman, P.J.; Esch, S.; Michely, T. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185-1413 (United States)]|[Institut fuer Grenzflaechen und Vakuumphysik, Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, D-52425, Juelich (Germany)

1996-09-01

326

78 FR 4536 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...provided to Exchange market makers under Rules 4613(a)(2...functionality to automate quote movement after quote execution must...firms that are Exchange market makers...their systems to use the Market Maker Peg Order \\6\\ or...

2013-01-22

327

Fractured reservoir discrete feature network technologies. Annual report, March 7, 1996--February 28, 1997.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes progress on the project, (open quotes)Fractured Reservoir Discrete Feature Network Technologies(close quotes) during the period March 7, 1996 to February 28, 1997. The report presents summaries of technology development for the follo...

H. H. Einstein P. R. La Pointe V. Ivanova W. S. Dershowitz

1998-01-01

328

Insurance for electric and magnetic field litigation: Are you covered  

SciTech Connect

Electrical power generating companies, power transmission companies and large generators and users of electrical power recently felt the sting of a second shock. The first shock came when lawsuits were first filed against companies in the electrical power industry claiming real or imagined damages from electrical and magnetic fields ([open quotes]EMFs[close quotes]). The new and second shock is potentially more devastating because it comes from the [open quotes]safe hands[close quotes] of the insurance industry. Standard-form comprehensive general liability ([open quotes]CGL[close quotes]) insurance policies purchased by nearly every company in the electrical power industry for generations are supposed to cover EMF bodily injury and property damage claims. Not so, say the lawyers for the most prominent insurance company selling insurance coverage to electric utilities, Associated Electric Gas Insurance Services, Ltd. ([open quotes]AEGIS[close quotes]).

Anderson, E.R.; Stewart, C.A. III

1993-04-01

329

Anisotropic transverse flow and the Hanbury-Brown{endash}Twiss correlation function  

SciTech Connect

Utilizing the Lorentz invariance of the correlation function we study the effects of anisotropic transverse flow on the Hanbury-Brown{endash}Twiss (HBT) correlation function. In particular we show that directed flow would evidence itself by nonzero {open_quote}{open_quote}side-long{close_quote}{close_quote} and {open_quote}{open_quote}side-out{close_quote}{close_quote} terms in the correlation function. We also show that the study of ratios of the correlation functions evaluated on different event subsamples and/or different Lorentz systems provides information on the source dimensions and velocity which could be less biased by corrections of different kinds. We present a fitting technique appropriate for HBT analysis which does not require binning and is especially useful for multidimensional fitting. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

Voloshin, S.A.; Cleland, W.E. [University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15260 (United States)

1996-12-01

330

Potential of PCB photochemistry at Moccasin Bend.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The TVA/EPRI Tailored Collaborative Project (open quotes)Biotransformation of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBS) in Contaminated Soils(close quotes), has as its objective biotransformation of PCB contaminated soils at utility sites (Phase I Report March 199...

M. M. Hinton M. J. Beck

1993-01-01

331

Coherence and Localization in 2D Luttinger Liquids  

SciTech Connect

Recent measurements on the resistivity of (La-Sr){sub 2}CuO{sub 4} are shown to fit within the general framework of Luttinger liquid transport theory. They exhibit a crossover from the spin-charge separated {open_quote}{open_quote}holon nondrag regime{close_quote}{close_quote} usually observed, with {rho}{sub {ital ab}}{approximately}{ital T}, to a {open_quote}{open_quote}localizing{close_quote}{close_quote} regime dominated by impurity scattering at low temperature. The proportionality of {rho}{sub {ital c}} and {rho}{sub {ital ab}} and the giant anisotropy follow directly from the theory. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

Anderson, P.W.; Ramakrishnan, T.V.; Strong, S.; Clarke, D.G. [Department of Physics, Jadwin Hall, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States)]|[Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, 560 012 (India)]|[NEC Research, 4 Independence Way, Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States)]|[TCM, Cavendish Laboratory, Madingley Road, Cambridge, CB3 0HE (England)

1996-11-01

332

A nanosecond laser flash photolysis study of intramicellar reactions in the erythrosin B/CTAB aqueous system  

SciTech Connect

{open_quotes}Fast{close_quotes} bimolecular reactions in multiply occupied micelles and {open_quotes}slow{close_quotes} reactions due to first-order deactivation processes of erythrosin B triplet formation in singly occupied micelles are studied in the erythrosin B/CTAB aqueous system by nanosecond laser flash photolysis. Increasing excitation energy and occupancy causes an increase in triplet decay and radical formation. 55 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

Flamigni, L. [Istituto F.R.A.E.-C.N.R., Bologna (Italy)

1992-04-16

333

Upton bill offers clean-up incentives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Like castor oil, the Superfund law can be difficult medicine to swallow, and no one wants to volunteer for a dose. Indeed, the law`s harsh and unbending liability scheme sometimes hinders the cleanup of contaminated property. Confronted with the choice of redeveloping an old {open_quotes}brownfield{close_quotes} urban industrial site or building at a pristine new {open_quotes}greenfield{close_quotes} location, most companies opt for

1994-01-01

334

Programmed cell death for defense against anomaly and tumor formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cell death after exposure to low-level radiation is often considered evidence that radiation is poisonous, however small the dose. Evidence has been accumulating to support the notion that cell death after low-level exposure to radiation results from activation of suicidal genes {open_quote}programmed cell death{close_quote} or {open_quote}apoptosis{close_quote} - for the health of the whole body. This paper gives experimental evidence that

Sohei Kondo; Toshiyuki Norimura; Taisei Nomura

1995-01-01

335

Historical application of a social amplification of risk model: Economic impacts of risk events at nuclear weapons facilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Public perception of risk is being cited as a documented reason to rethink a very contentious congressionally mandated process for siting interim storage and permanent disposal facilities for high-level radioactive waste. Rigorous survey research has shown that the public holds intense, negative images of {open_quotes}nuclear{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}radioactive{close_quotes} technologies, activities, and facilities. Potential host states and opponents claim that these negative

William C. Metz

1996-01-01

336

A schematic model for density dependent vector meson masses  

SciTech Connect

A schematic two-level model consisting of a {open_quotes}collective{close_quotes} bosonic state and an {open_quotes}elementary{close_quotes} meson is constructed that provides interpolation from a hadronic description (a la Rapp/Wambach) to B/R scaling for the description of properties of vector mesons in dense medium. The development is based on a close analogy to the degenerate schematic model of Brown for giant resonances in nuclei. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

Kim, Y. [Department of Physics, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea); Rapp, R.; Brown, G.E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, State University of New York, Stony Brook, New York 11794-3800 (United States)] Rho, Mannque [Service de Physique Theorique, CE Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

1999-07-01

337

Power in 21st century: Progress or gridlock?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Residential customers want price concessions, environmental groups desire investments in renewable energy, and utilities wish to protect their assets and maximize their profits. {open_quotes}Are these conflicting objectives attainable and sustainable as markets are opened to competition?{close_quotes} {open_quotes}Not in New York,{close_quotes} say Theresa A. Flaim, vice president of corporate strategic planning at Niagara Mowhawk Power Company in Syracuse, New York, and

T. A. Flaim; R. C. Hemphill

1997-01-01

338

Balancing health effects and economics in the management of radioactive materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

The public perception of the benefits offered by nuclear energy and the risks to health and safety from ionizing radiation has dramatically altered over the fifty years since the advent of nuclear fission. The {open_quotes}Atomic Age{close_quotes} is seldom mentioned anymore. The attitudinal change from the acceptance of nuclear energy as an essential component of national defense, {open_quotes}Atoms for Peace,{close_quotes} and

G. M. Sandquist; D. M. Slaughter; V. C. Rogers

1994-01-01

339

Shielding design of a treatment room for an accelerator-based epithermal neutron irradiation facility for BNCT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Protecting the facility personnel and the general public from radiation exposure is a primary safety concern of an accelerator-based epithermal neutron irradiation facility. This work makes an attempt at answering the questions {open_quotes}How much?{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}What kind?{close_quotes} of shielding will meet the occupational limits of such a facility. Shielding effectiveness is compared for ordinary and barytes concretes in combination with

Jeffrey F. Evans; Thomas E. Blue

1996-01-01

340

Arena retrofit includes ground-source heat pump  

Microsoft Academic Search

The venue for Sacramento`s first professional basketball games was the {open_quotes}old Arco Arena,{close_quotes} built in 1985 just north of the downtown area and converted to offices after a large, permanent arena was constructed. In 1994, the {open_quotes}old arena{close_quotes} was acquired by a California general partnership called Del Paso Venture. To heat and cool the 3-story, 211,000-square foot structure, Del Paso

1996-01-01

341

The pulse modulator for the mod-anode of the cluster klystron  

SciTech Connect

A high voltage pulse generator using a Zarem type modulator was developed. The Zarem type circuit doesn`t require a matched load, making it suitable to drive the mod-anode of the cluster klystron, which has a capacitive load. The principle and the experiments, as well as the analyses and the simulations of the observed phenomena, (ringing, pulse {open_quotes}skirt{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}deficiency{close_quotes}) are presented.

Zhao, Y.; Palmer, R.; Wang, H. [and others

1996-05-01

342

Scaling question answering to the web  

Microsoft Academic Search

The wealth of information on the web makes it an attractive resource for seeking quick answers to simple, factual questions such as &quote;who was the first American in space?&quote; or &quote;what is the second tallest mountain in the world?&quote; Yet today's most advanced web search services (e.g., Google and AskJeeves) make it surprisingly tedious to locate answers to such questions.

Cody Kwok; Oren Etzioni; Daniel S. Weld

2001-01-01

343

Arms control and the rule of law: National measures for enforcement and verification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much has been written about the deterrence strategies that justified the arms race. Walter Slocombe explained that {open_quotes}[t]he dominant problem of U.S. nuclear strategy is credibly using U.S. nuclear power to deter and if necessary resist nonnuclear as well as nuclear threats to America`s allies, forces, and interests overseas.{close_quotes} As a result, the {open_quotes}flexible response{close_quotes} doctrine was developed to declare

Tanzman

1997-01-01

344

The railplug: Development of a new ignitor for internal combustion engines. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

A three year investigation of a new type of ignitor for internal combustion engines has been performed using funds from the Advanced Energy Projects Program of The Basic Energy Sciences Division of the U.S. Department of Energy and with matching funding from Research Applications, Inc. This project was a spin-off of {open_quotes}Star Wars{close_quotes} defense technology, specifically the railgun. The {open_quotes}railplug{close_quotes}

R. D. Matthews; S. P. Nichols; W. F. Weldon

1994-01-01

345

The implausible current interpretations of radiobiological linear, nonthreshold functions  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this paper is to show that inappropriate coordinates are now assigned to the assumed linearly proportional {open_quotes}dose-response{close_quotes} functions for quantal quantal (i.e., either-or) responses in the elements of a cell population system exposed to low-level radiation. The result is that the present interpretation, {open_quotes}any amount of radiation, however small, can be harmful or lethal{close_quotes} is of highly questionable validity.

Bond, V.P. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

1994-12-31

346

Availability of nuclear decay data in electronic form, including beta spectra not previously published  

Microsoft Academic Search

The unabridged data used in preparing ICRP Publication 38 (1983) and a monograph of the Medical Internal Radiation Dose (MIRD) Committee are now available in electronic form. The {open_quotes}ICRP38 collection{close_quotes} contains data on the energies and intensities of radiations emitted by 825 radionuclides (those in ICRP Publication 38 plus 13 from the MIRD monograph), and the {open_quotes}MIRD collection{close_quotes} contains data

K. F. Eckerman; R. J. Westfall; J. C. Ryman; M. Cristy

1994-01-01

347

Efficient adsorption of waterborne short-lived radon decay products by glass fiber filters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glass fiber filters of a certain brand were found to be very efficient (retention > 95%) for adsorption of short-lived radon decay products during filtration of water. Carrier-free samples are obtained in a convenient geometry for efficient gross beta counting. Adsorption of {open_quotes}hot atoms{close_quotes} is not disturbed by the presence of {open_quotes}cold{close_quotes} lead ions. Approximate radioactive equilibrium between radon and

H. Von Philipsborn; H. von

1997-01-01

348

Search technique for calculating critical and subcritical configurations with MCNP  

SciTech Connect

The {open_quotes}Nuclear Criticality Safety Guide{close_quotes} includes graphs of critical and subcritical configurations of mixtures of fissile material and water for three different geometric shapes. The curves shown in these graphs were generated with MCNP using continuous-energy cross sections. Because the current version of MCNP does not have {open_quotes}search{close_quotes} capabilities, a search technique had to be developed to accomplish this task.

Rombough, C.T.; Martonak, S.H. [CTR Technical Services, Inc., Arlington, TX (United States); Pruvost, N.L. [Galaxy Computer Serv., Inc., Los Alamos, NM (United States)

1996-12-31

349

Synchrotron x-ray diffraction studies of the structural properties of electrode materials in operating battery cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hard x rays from a synchrotron source were utilized in diffraction experiments which probed the bulk of electrode materials while they were operating {ital in} {ital situ} in battery cells. Two technologically relevant electrode materials were examined; an {ital AB}-type anode in a nickelmetalhydride cell and a LiMnO cathode in a Li-ion {open_quote}{open_quote}rocking chair{close_quote}{close_quote} cell. Structural features such as lattice

T. R. Thurston; N. M. Jisrawi; S. Mukerjee; X. Q. Yang; J. McBreen; M. L. Daroux; X. K. Xing

1996-01-01

350

New vision solar system mission study. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The vision for the future of the planetary exploration program includes the capability to deliver {open_quotes}constellations{close_quotes} or {open_quotes}fleets{close_quotes} of microspacecraft to a planetary destination. These fleets will act in a coordinated manner to gather science data from a variety of locations on or around the target body, thus providing detailed, global coverage without requiring development of a single large, complex

J. F. Mondt; R. M. Zubrin

1996-01-01

351

Supertubes  

SciTech Connect

It is shown that a IIA superstring carrying D0-brane charge can be {open_quotes}blown up,{close_quotes} in a Minkowski vacuum background, to a (1/4) -supersymmetric tubular D2-brane, supported against collapse by the angular momentum generated by crossed electric and magnetic Born-Infeld fields. This {open_quotes}supertube{close_quotes} can be viewed as a world-volume realization of the sigma-model Q lump.

Mateos, David; Townsend, Paul K.

2001-07-02

352

A high energy physics perspective  

SciTech Connect

The status of the Standard model and role of symmetry in its development are reviewed. Some outstanding problems are surveyed and possible solutions in the form of additional {open_quotes}Hidden Symmetries {close_quotes} are discussed. Experimental approaches to uncover {open_quotes}New Physics{close_quotes} associated with those symmetries are described with emphasis on high energy colliders. An outlook for the future is given.

Marciano, W.J.

1997-01-13

353

Radioactivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cesium-134 and -137 in Foods, Gamma-Ray Spectrophotometric Methods. The method entitled {open_quotes}Cs-134 and Cs-137 in Foods, Gamma-Ray Spectrophotometric Method{close_quotes} has been adopted official first action, with minor revisions. Iodine 131: The method {open_quotes}Iodine-131 in Milk, Radiochemical Separation Method{close_quotes} has been accepted by the Committee on Residues and Related Topics and has been recommended to the Methods Committee for adoption first

Baratta

1997-01-01

354

Sistersville, West Virginia: 1893 oil capital of the world  

Microsoft Academic Search

By the early 1890`s, production had peaked and was declining in the Pennsylvania oil fields. Drilling activity shifted south into West Virginia. The Sistersville oil field, discovered in 1891, became the {open_quotes}oil capital of the world{close_quotes} in 1893. For a brief period of time, Sistersville, West Virginia experienced its {open_quotes}moment of fame{close_quotes} with all of the attendant growth, excitement, glamour,

P. J. Johns; L. D. Woodfork; D. G. Patchen; K. L. Avary

1996-01-01

355

75 FR 18935 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...pegging e-Quotes entered at or after 3:59:50 p.m. On days where trading closes at 1 p.m., e.g., the day after Thanksgiving, Exchange systems will reject d-Quotes or pegging e-Quotes eligible for the close entered at or after 12:59:50...

2010-04-13

356

75 FR 18929 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...pegging e-Quotes entered at or after 3:59:50 p.m. On days where trading closes at 1 p.m., e.g., the day after Thanksgiving, Exchange systems will reject d-Quotes or pegging e-Quotes eligible for the close entered at or after 12:59:50...

2010-04-13

357

Magnetic field decoupling and 3D-2D crossover in Nb/Cu multilayers  

SciTech Connect

Transport properties of Nb/Cu multilayers were measured along and across layers. It is shown that not only the temperature but also the magnetic field parallel to layers can effectively decouple layers and cause the three-to-two{endash}dimensional (3D-2D) crossover. As a consequence of the 3D-2D crossover, sharpening of the resistive transition with current along layers occurs due to the appearance of a strong intrinsic pinning in the 2D state. Evidence for the intrinsic Josephson effect in the 2D state is provided both by the periodic modulation of the dynamic resistance across layers versus the parallel magnetic field and by the multiply branched {ital I}-{ital V} curves caused by flux-flow of Josephson vortices in the stacked superconductor{endash}normal-metal{endash}superconductor junctions composing the multilayer. By measurements across layers the {open_quote}{open_quote}breaking field{close_quote}{close_quote} at which the proximity induced superconductivity in the normal layers of superconductor{endash}normal-metal (Nb/Cu) multilayers is destroyed was observed directly. A dimensionality diagram in the ({ital H}-{ital T}) plane was deduced from our data. Reasons for complication of the {open_quote}{open_quote}Fraunhofer pattern,{close_quote}{close_quote} {ital I}{sub {ital c}}({ital H}), in {open_quote}{open_quote}long{close_quote}{close_quote} multilayers are discussed. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

Krasnov, V.M. [Institute of Solid State Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, 142432 Chernogolovka (Russia)]|[Physics Department, The Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800, Lyngby (Denmark); Kovalev, A.E.; Oboznov, V.A. [Institute of Solid State Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, 142432 Chernogolovka (Russia); Pedersen, N.F. [Physics Department, The Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800, Lyngby (Denmark)

1996-12-01

358

78 FR 49586 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Miami International Securities Exchange LLC; Notice of Filing and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...the Limited Service Ports to independent servers that host their eQuote and purge functionality...Makers mitigate the risk of using the same server for all of their Market Maker quoting...place purge functionality on a different server than the Market Maker quoting...

2013-08-14

359

Fissile material smuggling: German politics, hype and reality  

SciTech Connect

The spy novel nightmare scenarios of nuclear smuggling have become reality, and much of the recent news has focused on Germany. But these events must be put in perspective, and a number of apparent {open_quotes}facts{close_quotes} must be examined more carefully. For example, while authorities in Germany have seized weapons-usable material in various incidents that have captured international attention, none of this material is from nuclear weapons or weapons production facilities. Moreover, despite the fact that the number of criminal cases has risen, the quantity of {open_quotes}loose{close_quotes} weapons-usable material is still not significant. Nor are there any indications so far that powerful criminal organizations or buyers from nuclear-ambitious {open_quotes}rogue{close_quotes} states are involved. Rather, the incidents so far involve individuals or small groups of criminals who found that their {open_quotes}buyers{close_quotes} were, more often than not, German security agents working {open_quotes}sting{close_quotes} operations to trap the smugglers and black marketeers or journalists working on a {open_quotes}big story.{close_quotes}

Mueller, H.

1994-12-01

360

76 FR 52032 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change To Offer a Bulk-Quoting Interface August 15, 2011...BATS Options'') to introduce a bulk-quoting interface for BATS Options Market...the Exchange proposes to introduce a bulk-quoting interface for market makers...

2011-08-19

361

76 FR 48925 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...of Proposed Rule Change To Introduce a Bulk-Quoting Interface August 3, 2011. Pursuant...the Commission a proposal to introduce a bulk-quoting interface for NASDAQ market makers...on NOM, NASDAQ proposes to introduce a bulk-quoting interface for market makers...

2011-08-09

362

76 FR 82009 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Amex LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...e-Quotes) to NYSE Amex Equities Rule 70 December 22, 2011. Pursuant to Section...e-Quotes) to NYSE Amex Equities Rule 70. The text of the proposed rule change is...e-Quotes) to NYSE Amex Equities Rule 70. Paragraph (i) of Supplementary...

2011-12-29

363

On the subject of exploration economic analyses and risk assessments  

SciTech Connect

Economic analyses are as crucial to the evaluation of exploratory ventures as good science. As explorationists we must understand the economic impact of our plays and prospects, since it is futile to be scientifically successful and economically bankrupt. Although collectively, as geoscientists, we recognize the importance of the economic assessments, we may vary drastically in our methodologies and in agreeing on which economic indicators to rely upon. Undiscounted vs. discounted factors, profit-to-investment ratios vs. rates of return, before vs. after tax calculations, risked vs. unrisked estimates, the [open quotes]subjective nature[close quotes] of risk assessments, and our [open quotes]choice[close quotes] of economic yardsticks illustrate examples of the dilemma. In summary, there are no accepted industry-wide standards involving risk analysis and economic appraisals. This paper presents a suggested approach for eliminating [open quotes]subjectivity[close quotes] from risk analysis by establishing internal standards to be agreed upon by all members of any given exploration team. The [open quotes]probability of success[close quotes] is defined as the product of specific parameters which may directly affect the success or failure of the exploratory venture utilizing a numerical scale and a classification system derived for this purpose. In addition, a quantitative definition of exploratory [open quotes]leads[close quotes] versus [open quotes]prospects[close quotes] is developed.

Font, R.G. (Geoscience Data Management, Dallas, TX (United States))

1996-01-01

364

78 FR 36591 - David M. Lewis, D.M.D., Dismissal of Proceeding  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...3655980, at *9 (E.D. Va. Aug. 11, 2010) (quoting Davies v. Jobs & Adverts Online, Gmbh, 94 F.Supp.2d 719, 722...service.''''' Harbinson, 2010 WL 3655980, at * 9 (quoting Davies, 94 F.Supp.2d at 722 (quoting Ziegler, 111F.3d at...

2013-06-18

365

Reflections for Busy Educators: 180 Affirmations To Help You through the School Year.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication of 180 affirmations offers teachers encouragement and strength for the beginning of each school day as well as help in the search for personal growth. A daily quote is provided, along with an affirmation based on the theme of the quote. The quotes are drawn from a wide variety of sources in philosophy and religion, ethics and

Lordahl, Jo Ann

366

AQuery: Query Language for Ordered Data, Optimization Techniques, and Experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

An order-dependent query is one whose result (interpreted as a multiset) changes if the order of the input records is changed. In a stock-quotes database, for instance, retriev- ing all quotes concerning a given stock for a given day does not depend on order, because the collection of quotes does not depend on order. By contrast, nding a stock's ve-

Alberto Lerner; Dennis Shasha

2003-01-01

367

Limitation on the amount of accessible information in a quantum channel  

SciTech Connect

We prove a new result limiting the amount of accessible information in a quantum channel. This generalizes Kholevo{close_quote}s theorem and implies it as a simple corollary. Our proof uses the strong subadditivity of the von Neumann entropy functional {ital S}({rho}) and a specific physical analysis of the measurement process. The result presented here has application in information obtained from {open_quote}{open_quote}weak{close_quote}{close_quote} measurements, such as those sometimes considered in quantum cryptography. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

Schumacher, B.; Westmoreland, M.; Wootters, W.K. [Department of Physics, Kenyon College, Gambier, Ohio 43022 (United States)]|[Theoretical Astrophysics, T-6, MS B288, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)]|[Department of Mathematics, Denison University, Granville, Ohio 43023 (United States)]|[Department of Physics, Williams College, Williamstown, Massachusetts 01267 (United States)

1996-04-01

368

ITER Building Design (D230-B), Task No. 28. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) Project requires a set of buildings, each with its own distinct function, to support ITER`s mission. The Joint Central Team (JCT) has identified all the buildings in the set and has placed them in an efficient arrangement on the site. The JCT has developed a conceptual layout of each individual building. The buildings have been categorized into two main groups: (1) {open_quotes}Level 1 Buildings{close_quotes} which are on the construction schedule critical path and (2) {open_quotes}Level 2 Buildings{close_quotes} which, while important, are not on the critical path. The buildings are further categorized according to construction material, that is, {open_quotes}reinforced concrete{close_quotes} or {open_quotes}steel-frame on concrete slab{close_quotes}. This Report responds to the Project`s request to perform the initial structural steel design for all the {open_quotes}steel-frame on concrete slab{close_quotes} buildings. Of the twelve (12) {open_quotes}steel-frame on concrete slab{close_quotes} buildings, four (4) are Level 1 and eight (8) are Level 2 Buildings. This Report is a deliverable for the ITER Task Assignment entitled {open_quotes}ITER Buildings Design (D230-B){close_quotes}, also designated as Task No. 28. ITER U.S. Home Team Industrial Consortium members, Raytheon Engineers & Constructors (RE&C) and Stone & Webster Engineering Corporation (SWEC), teamed to perform Task 28. This task commenced in May 1995. It was performed in accordance with the design criteria specified by the ITER-JCT, San Diego Joint Work Site.

NONE

1995-12-01

369

Diagnosing and curing system freeze-ups: Part II  

SciTech Connect

In our last article, we discussed determination and possible causes leading to frozen pipes in the heating system. We now turn to the matter of dealing with such freeze-ups. There are two major categories of frozen heating systems. The first and worst we can label the {open_quotes}Floridian Flew{close_quotes} type, when the usual occupants have taken off for warmer climates. The second is the {open_quotes}Howcudit {open_quote}B{close_quote} virus,{close_quotes} which occurs to normal people under an unusual Arctic Attack right while they are living there. Regarding the first, I never cease to be amazed how folks can just up and leave their house for three days to three months without making proper arrangements for monitoring the temperature of their home during their absence. There are a frightening number of humanoids out there, who either lack a minimal presence of common sense, or who are terrible gamblers. The amazing thing is that some of these folks wouldn`t even gamble a postage stamp on a magazine sweepstakes, but still will gamble the contents of their home by driving off for two weeks at Disneyland in the middle of January without ever making any provision for assuring that their house doesn`t freeze up while they are away. The {open_quotes}Howcudit {open_quote}B{close_quote}{close_quotes} type is not nearly as devasting as the {open_quotes}Floridian Flew.{close_quotes} Imagine coming home to an icy cold house after flying in from the sunny beaches of some tropical paradise. The oilburner switch is on. The thermostate is set at 60 where we left it, but the needle is buried somewhere down behind the cover, like it is cowering from guilt. {open_quotes}Oh Man! I just checked the bathroom; there is an icicle hanging from the vanity faucet and the toilet bowl is a block of ice.{close_quotes}

Frey, R. [Heating and Plumbing Service, Sparta, NJ (United States)

1996-02-01

370

Monitored plutonium aerosols at a soil cleanup site on Johnston Atoll  

SciTech Connect

Suspended plutonium in air was monitored for four periods near the operation of a stationary sorting system used to {open_quotes}mine{close_quotes} contaminated soil on Johnston Atoll. The monitoring periods were 14 October-14 November 1992, 20 October-15 November 1993, 16 August-3 November 1994, and 17 February-27 February 1995. Pairs of high volume air samplers were located at each of four locations of the process stream: the {open_quotes}spoils pile{close_quotes} that was the feedstock, the {open_quotes}plant area{close_quotes} near the hot soil gate of the sorter, the {open_quotes}clean pile{close_quotes} conveyer area where sorted clean soil was moved, and the {open_quotes}oversize soil{close_quotes} crushing area. These locations were monitored only during the working hours, while air monitoring was also done at an upwind, {open_quotes}background{close_quotes} area 24-hours per day. The median concentrations of Pu in {open_quotes}workplace{close_quotes} air (combined spoils pile, plant area, and clean pile sites) in 1992 was 397 aCi/m{sup 3} (15 {mu}Bq/m{sup 3}), but increased to median values of 23000 aCi/m{sup 3} (852 {mu}Bq/m{sup 3}) in August-November 1994 and 29800 aCi/m{sup 3} (1100 {mu}Bq/m{sup 3}) in February 1995. The highest median value at the worksites (29800 aCi/m{sup 3}) was more than 200 times lower than the regulatory level. The highest observed value was 84200 aCi/m{sup 3} at the spoils pile site, and this was more than 70 times lower than the regulatory level. The conclusion was that, in spite of the dusty environment, and the increased level of specific activity, we did not find that the soil processing posed any significant risk to workers during the observation periods 1992-1995.

Shinn, J.H.; Fry, C.O.; Johnson, J.S.

1996-01-23

371

Cold prebiotic evolution, tunneling, chirality and exobiology  

SciTech Connect

The extra-terrestrial scenario of the origin of life suggested by Svante Arrhenius (1) as the {open_quote}panspermia{close_quote} hypothesis was revived by the discovery of a low-temperature quantum limit of a chemical reaction rate caused by the molecular tunneling (2). Entropy factors play no role near absolute zero, and slow molecular tunneling can lead to the exothermic formation of quite complex molecules. Interstellar grains or particles of cometary tails could serve as possible cold seeds of life, with acetic acid, urea and products of their polycondensation as quasi-equilibrium intermediates. Very cold solid environment hinders racemization and stabilizes optical activity under conditions typical for outer space. Neither {open_quote}advantage{close_quote} factors can secure the evolutionary formation of chiral purity of initial prebiotic monomeric medium{emdash}even being temporary achieved it cannot be maintained at subsequent stages of prebiotic evolution because of counteraction of {open_quote}enantioselective pressure{close_quote}. Only bifurcational mechanism of the formation of prebiotic homochiral{emdash}monomeric and afterwards polymeric{emdash}medium and its subsequent transformation in {open_quote}homochiral chemical automata{close_quote} ({open_quote}biological big bang{close_quote}{emdash}passage from {open_quote}stochastic{close_quote} to {open_quote}algorithmic{close_quote} chemistry) is possible and can be realized. Extra-terrestrial (cold, solid phase) scenarios of the origin of life seem to be more promising from that point of view than terrestrial (warm) scenarios. Within a scheme of five main stages of prebiological evolution some problems important for further investigation are briefly discussed. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

Goldanskii, V.I. [N.N. Semenov Institute of Chemical Physics Russian Academy of Sciences UL.Kosygina 4, 117334 Moscow (Russia)

1996-07-01

372

Enhancement of computer program SPECTRAN to provide optional synthesis of 1/12 octave-band and critical-band spectra from 1/3 octave-band spectra  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes greatly enhanced version of the computer program SPECTRAN, which was initially presented in Paper No. 96-RA104.01, at the A&WMA 89th Annual Meeting in June 1996. The program has had three basic upgrades since that time. The first is provision of an option to use either batch-mode input from previously prepared data files or a {open_quotes}user-friendly{close_quotes} interactive input routine. The latter is primarily for first-time users and those having only one, or very few, spectra to process. The second improvement is the synthesis of 1/12 octave-band spectra from 1/3 octave-band spectra, with {open_quotes}tone correction,{close_quotes} in a manner similar to that used in the original version of the program. The third fundamental improvement is addition of a unique new capability to synthesize classic {open_quotes}critical-band{close_quotes} spectra from 1/3 octave-band input spectra. Critical-band spectra are also termed {open_quotes}equivalent-rectangular-bandwidth (ERB){close_quotes} and {open_quotes}equal-contribution-to-speech (ECS){close_quotes} spectra.

Chang, Young-Soo [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Liebich, R.E. [Raytheon Environmental Services Company, Cambridge, MA (United States)

1997-07-01

373

How to swallow an elephant  

SciTech Connect

There is an old East Indian fable of a young man who went to see a wise man. The young man had a question - {open_quotes}How can I become rich and powerful?{close_quotes} The wise man paused for a moment then asked a question in return - {open_quotes}How can you swallow an elephant?{close_quotes} The young man was astounded, {open_quotes}There is no way a man can swallow an elephant!{close_quotes} {open_quotes}Yes, there is,{close_quotes} replied the wise man, {open_quotes}You just have to do it one bite at a time.{close_quotes} Many large problems can only be handled the same way that an elephant is swallowed, one bite at a time. Global warming and other environmental problems are obviously of elephant-swallowing scale. Some have set a goal for our society of reducing atmospheric greenhouse gases, particularly carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), by 20%. The cost to accomplish this has been estimated to be about five trillion dollars! As big as this elephant is, I suspect that its size is understated, if all the factors involved are included. The proponents of the plan tell us that it is well worth the cost to save the world. Therein lies another elephant-style problem.

Powell, K.B.

1995-03-01

374

Climate change on the Great Lakes Basin  

SciTech Connect

This publication is a compilation of five papers presented at the Symposium of Climate Change on the Great Lakes Basin held as part of the annual meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science in Chicago in February 1992. The five papers included in the publication are: [open quotes]Great Lakes 20th Century Climate Variability: Implications for Future Scenarios [close quotes]; [open quotes]Effects of Climate Change on the Water Resources of the Great Lakes[close quotes]; [open quotes]Climate Change in the Great Lakes Basin: Impacts, Research Priorities and Policy Issues[close quotes]; [open quotes]Climate and Global Change: The Responses and Policy Issues Related to Climate Change in the Great Lakes Basin[close quotes] and; [open quotes]A Proposed US Research Program to Assess Climate Change in the Great Lakes[close quotes]. The results of these five papers provide an overview of various aspects of climatic change relative to the Great Lakes Basin.

Not Available

1992-01-01

375

Segregation analysis of Alzheimer pedigrees: Rare Mendelian dominant mutation(s) explain a minority of early-onset cases  

SciTech Connect

Segregation analysis of Alzheimer disease (AD) in 92 families ascertained through early-onset ({le}age 60 years) AD (EOAD) probands has been carried out, allowing for a mixture in AD inheritance among probands. The goal was to quantify the proportion of probands that could be explained by autosomal inheritance of a rare disease allele {open_quotes}a{close_quotes} at a Mendelian dominant gene (MDG). Our data provide strong evidence for a mixture of two distributions; AD transmission is fully explained by MDG inheritance in <20% of probands. Male and female age-of-onset distributions are significantly different for {open_quotes}AA{close_quote} but not for {open_quotes}aA{close_quote} subjects. For {open_quotes}aA{close_quote} subjects the estimated penetrance value was close to 1 by age 60. For {open_quotes}AA{close_quotes} subjects, it reaches, by age 90, 10% (males) and 30% (females). We show a clear cutoff in the posterior probability of being an MDG case. 10 refs., 1 tab.

Martinez, M.; Campion, D.; Babron, M.C.; Darpoux, F.C. [INSERM, Paris (France)] [and others

1996-02-16

376

Disappearance of extrusion instabilities in brass capillary dies  

SciTech Connect

We have extruded a linear low-density polyethylene through capillary dies fabricated from stainless steel and brass. We confirm a result first reported by Ramamurthy [Ramamurthy, A. V., {open_quotes}Wall Slip in Viscous Fluids and Influence of Materials of Construction,{close_quotes} J. Rheol. {bold 30}, 337{endash}357 (1986)]: sharkskin can be eliminated by the use of a brass die. We also find a substantially enhanced throughput from the brass die relative to the stainless-steel die at stresses in the range where sharkskin is observed with the latter. Finally, the large pressure oscillations and periodic extrudate distortions observed in the {open_quotes}slip{endash}stick{close_quotes} region with stainless steel are absent with brass, where the transition to the {open_quotes}upper branch{close_quotes} of the flow curve is more gradual. {copyright} {ital 1999 Society of Rheology.}

Ghanta, V.G.; Riise, B.L.; Denn, M.M. [Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory]|[Department of Chemical Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720-1462 (United States)

1999-03-01

377

Use of SSH on a compartmented mode workstation  

SciTech Connect

SSH stands for {open_quotes}Secure Shell.{close_quotes} It is now a user shell like csh or ksh. Instead it is a widely-used means to accomplish secure, encrypted communication among cooperating nodes. It is a secure replacement for the {open_quotes}r-commands{close_quotes}, rlogin, and rcp. SSH is free for noncommercial use and builds and runs on most any Unix platform. A Compartmented Mode Workstation (CMW) is an example of a secure or {open_quotes}trusted{close_quotes} operating system. The use of SSH on a CMW introduces security problems unless the SSH source code is modified to take advantage of the security features of the CMW. This paper describes the port and use of SSH on one particular brand of CMW.

Tolliver, J.S. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Dillow, D. [Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

1997-08-01

378

Thermophiles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This official site of Yellowstone National Park contains information on thermophiles as a part of the &quot;Nature in Yellowstone&quot; home page. Specific topics covered include the history of thermophile research in Yellowstone National Park and future research plans including the &quot;Yellowstone Thermophiles Conservation Project.&quot; The site also contains links to Yellowstone National Park's main pages and the &quot;Nature in Yellowstone&quot; homepage where users can access links to a wealth of information on Yellowstone geology and hydrothermal features, online videos of ranger talks, Yellowstone publications, and additional Yellowstone Nature-related links from non-NPS sources.

Park, Yellowstone N.; National Park Service, U. S.

379

Large order dimensional perturbation theory: A new approach  

SciTech Connect

Dimensional perturbation theory offers much insight into the dynamics of atomic and molecular systems and is a powerful calculational tool yielding very accurate energies. The exactly soluble D {yields} {infinity} limit, which retains much of the correlation present in the D = 3 solution, provides a zeroth order solution about which a perturbation theory in 1/D is developed. Large order dimensional perturbation expansions for the energy have been developed using the moment method. However, the moment method has to be individually {open_quotes}tailored{close_quotes} to {open_quotes}fit{close_quotes} the state in question, does not readily give wavefunctions and is susceptible to round off error. We will report on a new method which provides wavefunctions directly, may be used to solve for any state without {open_quotes}alteration{close_quotes} and is not as tarnished b round off error.

Dunn, M.; Watson, D.K.; Germann, T.C. [and others

1993-05-01

380

The Solar Flare Myth in solar-terrestrial physics  

SciTech Connect

Early observations of associations between solar flares and large non- recurrent geomagnetic storms, large {open_quote}solar{close_quote} energetic particle events, and transient shock wave disturbances in the solar wind led to a paradigm of cause and effect that gave flares a central position in the chain of events leading from solar activity to major transient disturbances in the near-earth space environment. However, research in the last two decades shows that this emphasis on flares is misplaced. In this paper the author outlines briefly the rationale for a different paradigm of cause and effect in solar- terrestrial physics that removes solar flares from their central position as the {open_quote}cause{close_quote} of major disturbances in the near-earth space environment. Instead, this central role of {open_quote}cause{close_quote} is played by events now known as coronal mass ejections, or CMEs.

Gosling, J.T.

1993-07-01

381

Refinery suppliers face tough times  

SciTech Connect

Despite a handful of bright spots in hydroprocessing and petrochemical sectors, economic woes plague much of the refinery and petrochemical catalysts business, as suppliers are feeling the impact of mature markets and refiners` ongoing cost cutting. Industry experts say the doldrums could spur further restructuring in the catalyst business, with suppliers scrambling for market share and jockeying for position in growing sectors. Expect further consolidation over the next several years, says Pierre Bonnifay, president of IFP Enterprises (New York). {open_quotes}There are still too many players for the mature [refinery catalyst] markets.{close_quotes} Others agree. {open_quotes}Only about seven [or] eight major suppliers will survive,{close_quotes} says Robert Allsmiller, v.p./refinery and petrochemical catalysts at United Catalysts Inc. (UCI; Louisville, KY). {open_quotes}Who they [will be] is still up in the air.{close_quotes}

Rotman, D.; Walsh, K.

1997-03-12

382

Study, outlines why outages go long, short, or on-time  

SciTech Connect

A recent report by a nuclear industry professional, based on a survey of outage managers at US nuclear power plants, declares that [open quotes]preplanned outage schedules appear to be grossly inaccurate, and the outage management planners and schedulers do not have a grasp of the requirements and/or the resources needed to complete the actual activities on schedule.[close quotes] It declares that [open quotes]the scheduled duration of a planned outage must be realistic.[close quotes] The study identifies personnel, planning and scheduling, and equipment/hardware as [open quotes]the primary reasons why refueling outages and outage activities finished ahead of, right on, or behind schedule.[close quotes

Not Available

1993-09-01

383

Climate change history stored in Greenland ice  

SciTech Connect

Core samples drilled deep inside polar ice caps may reveal important clues about the future in an era of global warming. Ice caps are {open_quotes}excellent archives that allow us to document gradual shifts in climate that have occurred over the past millennia,{close_quotes} says Bernhard Stauffer, a researcher at the University of Bern`s Physics Institute in Switzerland. Samples taken deep beneath the surface of the ice cap {open_quotes}allow scientists to reconstruct changes not only in global climate, including temperature and precipitation, but also in atmospheric composition,{close_quotes} Stauffer says. Abrupt, not gradual, temperatures increases were found to correspond to an increase in greenhouse gases. What do these findings bode for the future? {open_quotes}Our exploration of the ice cores has suggested...that global climatic variation can occur in a fraction of a human lifetime,{close_quotes} Stauffer concludes.

Stauffer, B. [Univ. of Bern (Switzerland)

1996-12-31

384

Ethanol mandate thrown out by appeals court  

SciTech Connect

In a victory for the oil industry, a federal appeals court has overturned EPA`s mandate for ethanol use in reformulated gasoline (REG), saying the agency lacks authority to require 30% of the oxygenate market be reserved for ethanol. EPA says the ruling does not prevent ethanols use in RFG - {open_quotes}It only says that EPA cannot dictate the recipe.{close_quotes} Charles DiBona, president of the American Petroleum Institute (API), says {open_quotes}API and its member companies are not opposed to the use of ethanol as an oxygenate. We oppose this illegal mandate.{close_quotes} Urvan Sternfels, president of the National Petroleum Refiners Association, says, {open_quotes}Mandating market shares for any product is unsound economic policy.{close_quotes} The two trade groups led the legal battle against the ethanol requirement.

Begley, R.

1995-05-10

385

Constitutive modeling for hypervelocity cratering  

SciTech Connect

The Hypervelocity Microparticle Impact program conducted cratering experiments on copper and aluminum targets at impact velocities up to 30 km/s (1). These data are presented with minor corrections in a form that will be useful to a variety of investigators. Hydrocode analysis of the data was performed to gain understanding of the {open_quotes}plateau{close_quotes} features in the data. Analyses using conventional strength models were not satisfactory due to the very high strain rates of these experiments (strain rates on the order of 10{sup 10}/s). Calculations using the PTW strength model rate dependence (2) gave very accurate reproduction of the experimental results, and allowed computational examination of the {open_quotes}data plateaus.{close_quotes} These results show that the {open_quotes}data plateaus{close_quotes} may be due to strain-rate effects and experimental variation in the data. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

Davidson, R.F.; Walsh, M.L. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

1996-05-01

386

Choked flow of helium II through phase separators  

SciTech Connect

{open_quotes}Phase Separation{close_quotes} means that a Helium II bath and a gas space under a lower pressure are separated from each other by a narrow channel. Liquid from the bath evaporates in the channel or at its outlet. Well-defined amounts of liquid may leave the channel ({open_quotes}Two-Bath Flow{close_quotes}) when a certain critical value of the pressure drop is exceeded. Yet another flow pattern ({open_quotes}Choked Flow{close_quotes}) is occasionally found at the transition from Phase Separation to Two-Bath Flow. It is distinguished by the liquid receding into the channel, while the mass flow remains more or less constant. This behaviour is not yet satisfactorily explained. This paper attempts to give an explanation and a numerical description of choked flow. Calculations are compared with experimental observations.

Schmidtchen, U. [Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing (BAM), Berlin (Germany)

1994-12-01

387

Sistersville, West Virginia: 1893 oil capital of the world  

SciTech Connect

By the early 1890`s, production had peaked and was declining in the Pennsylvania oil fields. Drilling activity shifted south into West Virginia. The Sistersville oil field, discovered in 1891, became the {open_quotes}oil capital of the world{close_quotes} in 1893. For a brief period of time, Sistersville, West Virginia experienced its {open_quotes}moment of fame{close_quotes} with all of the attendant growth, excitement, glamour, prosperity, turmoil, rowdiness, disillusionment and eventual decline typical of {open_quotes}oil booms.{close_quotes} The geology of the Sistersville pool as well as aspects of the history and culture of the town during the boom are portrayed on the poster by maps, photographs and narrative. The history and heritage of that bygone era are also celebrated annually at the Sistersville Oil and Gas Festival and memorialized in The Oil and Gas Museum. Parkersburg, WV.

Johns, P.J.; Woodfork, L.D.; Patchen, D.G.; Avary, K.L. [West Virginia Geological and Economic Survey, Morgantown, WV (United States)

1996-09-01

388

Namespace Logic: A Logic for a Reflective Higher-Order Calculus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In [19] it was observed that a theory like the ?-calculus, dependent on a theory of names, can be closed, through a mechanism of quoting, so that (quoted) processes provide the necessary notion of names. Here we expand on this theme by examining a construction for a Hennessy-Milner logic corresponding to an asynchronous message-passing calculus built on a notion of quoting.

Meredith, L. G.; Radestock, Matthias

389

Advanced development of non-discoloring EVA-based PV encapsulants  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this investigation was to better define the problem of field yellowing of EVA-based PV encapsulant, through laboratory study of probable chemical mechanisms and the development of stabilization strategies for protecting EVA from discoloration. EVA from fielded modules was analyzed for vinyl acetate content, unsaturation, and additive levels. These test results were then compared to results from Xenon Arc Weather-Ometer aged glass/EVA/glass laminates made in the laboratory. Variables evaluated in Weather-Ometer aged laminates included ``standard-cure`` A9918P EVA, ``fast-cure`` 15295P EVA, low iron glass superstrate containing cerium oxide, and systematic elimination or addition of specific additives. Six significant findings were revealed: 1) Improved ``standard-cure`` and ``fast-cure`` type EVA encapsulants, formulations X9903P and X15303P, respectively, showed little or no yellowing after extended Weather-Ometer exposure; 2) The use of {open_quote}{open_quote}fast-cure{close_quote}{close_quote} EVA reduced discoloration when compared with {open_quote}{open_quote}standard-cure{close_quote}{close_quote} A9918P EVA; 3) Glass superstrate containing cerium oxide resulted in a reduced rate of EVA discoloration; 4) {open_quote}{open_quote}Fast-cure{close_quote}{close_quote} EVA used with glass superstrate containing cerium oxide showed no visible yellowing after 32 weeks in the Weather-Ometer{emdash}a period estimated to be roughly equivalent to 20{endash}30 years of exposure in the Southwest; 5) Severely discolored EVA samples from the field showed no measurable loss of acetate group and little detectable unsaturation; and 6) EVA encapsulant with a Tefzel cover exhibited no yellowing after extended Weather-Ometer exposure. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

Holley, W.H.; Galica, J.P.; Argo, S.C.; Yorgensen, R.S. [Springborn Laboratories, Inc., One Springborn Center, Enfield, Connecticut 06082 (United States); Ezrin, M.; Klemchuk, P.; Lavigne, G. [University of Connecticut, Institute of Materials Science, Storrs, Connecticut 06269-3136 (United States)

1996-01-01

390

Year of Strange Events Leaves Standard Theory Unscathed  

Microsoft Academic Search

To open her talk at a recent meeting of particle physicists, JoAnne Hewett of the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) put up a slide headed: {open_quotes}1996{close_quotes}: The year the standard model cracked.{close_quotes} As the year began, after all, the field had been energized by a handful of results that couldn`t readily be explained by the well-established set of theories called

James Glanz

1996-01-01

391

Unit meets coal`s challenges: Florida project sets environmental marks while it scores a number of management points as well  

SciTech Connect

Bringing in the cleanest-burning conventional coal-fired generating unit in the country in 39 months isn`t good enough for managers on a Florida project. They are making it a model of construction partnering and safety as well. The process has contained costs on the second unit at Orlando utilities Commission`s Stanton Energy Center. The new unit will match the 460-Mw capacity of the upgraded 1987 unit. But Timothy D. Slepow, OUC`s project coordinator, says the current budget has been cut from $522 million to $480 million. Unit 1 cost $516 million. {open_quotes}This is not a duplicate of unit 1,{close_quotes} says Hal E. Smith, executive partner of Black & Veatch, Kansas City, Mo., designer and construction manager. {open_quotes}In the permitting process, there was a tremendous effort to ratchet down to now-established best available control technology.{close_quotes} Unit 1, also designed by B&V, is operating at far below permitted emission levels, says Gregory A. DeMuth, OUC`s environmental director. Sulfur dioxide discharges are less than one-quarter of what permits allow, while emissions of nitrogen oxides and particulates also are considerably below requirements. Because of that operating record, the utility tried to get a {open_quotes}bubble{close_quotes} permitting concept applied to unit 2, DeMuth says. But state and federal environmental agencies {open_quotes}said unit 2 had to stand alone,{close_quotes} and pressed for even stiffer controls, he says. The major change is a selective catalytic reduction system that injects ammonia to slash nitrogen oxides emissions. {open_quotes}This will be the first coal-fired unit in the U.S. to have full volume SCR,{close_quotes} says Smith. {open_quotes}It`s previously been seen only on gas turbines. Subsequent to our doing it, others have been permitted.{close_quotes}

Soast, A.

1995-04-17

392

Fusion power development pathways  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the national fusion program Technical Planning Activity (TPA) led by Argonne National Laboratory, it was proposed that a systematic activity be initiated called Development Pathways Analysis. This activity was defined as {open_quotes}developing and applying methodologies for assessing the cost, risk, and schedule impacts of differing approaches to fusion development.{close_quotes} The TPA report states that an {open_quotes}important objective is to

Stephen O. Dean

1993-01-01

393

636 To the burnertip  

SciTech Connect

For LDCs still dazed from last year's revolution, the prospect of totally restructuring their own business in 636 fashion may seem incredible. But the movement is real, invoking concepts like [open quotes]unbundling,[close quotes] [open quotes]comparability of service,[close quotes] and [open quotes]open access.[close quotes] And in it, marketers see their next great business opportunity. Large customers perceive a possible advantage in contracting for and managing their supplies through the entire pipeline/distributor infrastructure, particularly as an indirect means of cutting LDC margins by paying [open quotes]only for what they use.[close quotes] Producers also see the prospect of cutting LDC margins through [open quotes]competition.[close quotes] Those policymakers and economists that saw efficiency gains in turning pipelines into common carries presumably see the same potential with distributors. And some LDCs may be starting down that path. Is there a certain inevitability to this Will distributors be out of the merchant business in, say, five years Will the homeowner get a bill for transportation from PECO and a bill for gas from Enron Access Maybe. Certainly it is not inevitable. The revolution in telecommunications that gave us competition in long distance largely stopped with the baby Bells. Duly noting the California plan, electric utilities are sellers of commodities - not common carriers, as are water companies. Even the cable companies are exclusive sellers of what they carry. So the experience of other utility industries does not preordain that LDCs transport rather than sell gas. Thus, it is quite possible that the [open quotes]equilibrium[close quotes] for LDC activities pre-636 is the equilibrium post-636. That is, large end users would continue to transport gas on the LDC system while all others would continue to purchase a bundled merchant service from the LDC. But the jury will be out for the foreseeable future.

Huntoon, S.L.

1994-07-01

394

Road map unfolding on travel efficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

Americans are driving more, but the nation is paying a high price for it, say Donald D.T. Chen and Amory B. Lovins of the Rocky Mountain Institute in Snowmass, Colorado. Heavy use of the automobile [open quotes]compromises national security, trade balance, air quality, and climate stability,[close quotes] they claim. [open quotes]In the short term, making cars more efficient through technological

D. D. T. Chen; A. B. Lovins

2009-01-01

395

Probabilistic system assessment of the long-term safety of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Before disposing of transuranic radioactive waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) must evaluate compliance with long-term regulations of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, specifically, the [open quotes]Environmental Standards for the Management and Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel, High-Level and Transuranic Radioactive Wastes[close quotes] (40CFR191) and the [open quotes]Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments

Marietta

1993-01-01

396

Solar cars sprint across the outback: Dream team wins first place  

Microsoft Academic Search

The World Solar Challenge was first held in 1987. It is an international {open_quotes}green prix{close_quotes} for solar-powered cars between Darwin and Adelaide, some 3000 km (1850 miles) across Australia`s {open_quotes}Red Centre. At that time, many marveled in the fact that the winner, the GM Sunraycer, had crossed a continent at an average speed of 66.9 kph (41.5 mph) on just

M. G. Mayer; D. A. J. Rand

1997-01-01

397

Ten principles and ten commandments of radiation protection  

SciTech Connect

For decades, the phrase {open_quotes}time, distance, and shielding{close_quotes} has been presented as summarizing the {open_quotes}basics{close_quotes} of radiation protection. Indeed, for protection from external radiation sources, these three principles are probably the most important ones on which a worker can make decisions and take actions. However, these principles do not address protection against intakes of radioactive materials or {open_quotes}ontakes{close_quotes} (skin contamination), other risk-limiting measures, or other important protective measures taken by governments, public health agencies, regulators, and institutional programs (measures such as performance standards, health education, facility engineering requirements, and administrative procedures). I have identified ten principles and ten accompanying commandments of radiation protection: time, distance, dispersal, source reduction, source barrier, personal barrier, decorporation, effect mitigation, optimal technology, and limitation of other exposures. Corresponding non-technical forms of the commandments are hurry (but don`t be hasty); stay away from it; disperse it and dilute it; use as little as possible; keep it in; keep it out; get it out or off of you (after intake or skin contamination); limit the damage; choose the best technology (perhaps a non-radiation technology); and don`t compound risks (don`t smoke). Technical versions of the commandments are also provided using the verbs {open_quotes}optimize,{close_quotes} {open_quotes}maximize,{close_quotes} or {open_quotes}minimize.{close_quotes} Not all commandments can be applied at the same time, and application may be different for workers and members of the public. Advantages, disadvantages, and implementation of these principles and commandments are discussed, and numerous examples provided. The application of the principles and commandments must be based on knowledge of the radiological conditions to be managed. 4 refs., 1 tab.

Strom, D.J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

1996-03-01

398

Effect of sintering periods on the microstructure and electrical transport properties of high-{ital T}{sub {ital c}} superconducting Bi{endash}(Pb){endash}Sr{endash}Ca{endash}Cu{endash}O tapes  

SciTech Connect

The effect of sintering periods for monocore (Bi,Pb){sub 2}Sr{sub 2}Ca{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 10+{ital x}} (Bi-2223) tapes on microstructure and critical current density ({ital J}{sub {ital c}}) have been studied. The results show that long sintering periods (of duration {ge}100 h) give better grain growth, but greater misalignment. Prolonged sintering also necessitates the increase in porosity of the core due to random grain growth, increasing the chance of penetrating into the silver matrix and oxide core interface. Critical currents for long sintering periods are found to be lower in comparison with those obtained for slightly shorter sintering periods. The increase in frequency of intermediate cold uniaxial pressing between sintering periods assists grain alignment. However when the sintering period is further reduced by increasing the frequency of intermediate deformation, it is found that microcracks are unable to heal as there is not enough time for grain regrowth. The tapes made using {open_quote}{open_quote}three-to-four-sinter-period{close_quote}{close_quote} (each period {approximately}60 h) show superior electrical transport properties which are attributable to the fact that their oxide core is more dense and better aligned relative to the {open_quote}{open_quote}two-sinter-period{close_quote}{close_quote} (each period {ge}100 h) tapes and contain less cracks relative to the {open_quote}{open_quote}five-to-six-sinter-period{close_quote}{close_quote} (each period {approximately}40 h) tapes. {copyright} {ital 1996 Materials Research Society.}

Vo, N.V.; Liu, H.K.; Dou, S.X. [Center For Superconducting and Electronic Materials, University of Wollongong, Northfields Ave., Wollongong, New South Wales 2522 (Australia)

1996-05-01

399

Environmental standards provide competitive advantage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quality organizations are breaking new ground with the development of international standards for environmental management. These promise to provide the platform for chemical companies wanting to establish their environmental credibility with a global audience. [open quotes]It will be similar to auditing our customers to ISO 9000[close quote], says the environmental manager for a European chemical firm. [open quote]We will only

E. Chynoweth; E. Kirshner

1993-01-01

400

Paper title: Citizens or Consumers? The politics of EU health policy and the case of direct-to-consumer advertising for prescription drugs. To be presented at the Politics of Health Group panel at the 2009 Political Studies Association Conference (please do not cite or quote this draft without permission from the author)  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the European Union (EU) has developed there has been a growing tension between its societal engendering (citizen) and market-making (consumers) roles. In health policy this is nowhere more evident than the struggle over the pharmaceutical industry's promotion of direct-to-consumer advertising for prescription drugs (DTCA- PD). DTCA-PD is currently banned in the EU. Since 2000 the industry has been trying

Robert Geyer

401

Copyright with the author(s). The content of this material is to be considered preliminary and are not to be quoted without the author(s)'s permission. An Institutional Perspective on Health Sector Reform and the process of reframing health information systems: Case Studies from Mozambique  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global concerns about poverty, epidemics and new emergent diseases urges rich countries to improve their development assistance, aid effectiveness, investments in health systems, including the health information systems. Governments of low income countries have embarked since about a decade ago on various health sector reforms that have led to often contradictory but most often not so successful outcomes. Formally, governments

Bruno Piotti; Baltazar Chilundo; Sundeep Sahay

402

DOE TMD transportation training module 14 transportation of explosives  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy Transportation Management Division has developed training module 14, entitled {open_quotes}Transportation of Explosives{close_quotes} to compliment the basic {open_quotes}core ten{close_quotes} training modules of the Hazardous Materials Modular Training Program. The purpose of this training module is to increase awareness of the Department of Transportation (DOT) requirements concerning the packaging and transportation of explosives. Topics covered in module 14 include the classification of explosives, approval and registration of explosives, packaging requirements, hazard communication requirements, separation and segregation compatibility requirements, loading and unloading operations, as well as safety measures required in the event of a vehicle accident involving explosives.

Griffith, R.L. Jr.

1994-07-01

403

Nonperturbative formulation of relativistic two-particle states in the scalar Yukawa model  

SciTech Connect

We investigate a variational approach to the study of two-particle bound states in quantum field theory. The scalar Yukawa model, in which scalar {open_quotes}nucleons{close_quotes} interact via {open_quotes}meson{close_quotes} exchange, is considered. A variational trial state that contains one or two scalar nucleons with any number of mediating scalar mesons is used to derive integral equations for the one- and two-nucleon systems. Numerical solutions of these equations are obtained in 1+1 dimensions. Comparison is made with perturbative and nonrelativistic approximations that have been used in earlier calculations. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

Darewych, J.W.; Shapoval, D.V.; Simenog, I.V.; Sitenko, A.G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, York University, Toronto, Ontario M3J 1P3 (Canada)

1997-08-01

404

Technical and economic evaluation of selected compact drill rigs for drilling 10,000 foot geothermal production wells  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the investigation and evaluation of several {open_quotes}compact{close_quotes} drill rigs which could be used for drilling geothermal production wells. Use of these smaller rigs would save money by reducing mobilization costs, fuel consumption, crew sizes, and environmental impact. Advantages and disadvantages of currently-manufactured rigs are identified, and desirable characteristics for the {open_quotes}ideal{close_quotes} compact rig are defined. The report includes a detailed cost estimate of a specific rig, and an evaluation of the cost/benefit ratio of using this rig. Industry contacts for further information are given.

Huttrer, G.W. [Geothermal Management Company, Inc., Frisco, CO (United States)

1997-11-01

405

Encapsulation of palladium crystallites in carbon and the formation of wormlike nanostructures  

SciTech Connect

This note reports the successful inclusion of cubic palladium crystals inside giant carbon clusters and the formation of novel wormlike carbon nanostructures (nanoworms). The head of the [open quotes]worm[close quotes] typically 20-50 nm in diameter, consists of palladium encapsulated in carbon, and the body of the [open quotes]worm[close quotes] several hundred nanometers in length, consists of many sections of carbon tubes with cone-shaped internal voids. The technique used to generate carbon-encapsulated palladium is the electric arc method. 17 refs., 3 figs.

Wang, Y. (DuPont Company, Wilmington, DE (United States))

1994-01-12

406

Modeling and design of space charge lenses/aberration correctors for focused ion beam systems  

SciTech Connect

Spherical and chromatic aberrations of electrostatic lenses with negative space charge in axial area are studied. A {open_quote}{open_quote}toroidal subbeam{close_quote}{close_quote} algorithm has been developed to model the evolution of the current and charge density distributions of intense charged particle beams taking into account space charge and initial thermal velocity effects. Optimized designs are presented which prove that negative spherical and chromatic aberration coefficients can be achieved for a space charge lens using an electron gun to produce the space charge cloud. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Vacuum Society}

Tang, T. [Xian Jiaotong University, Xian, Peoples Republic of (China); Orloff, J.; Wang, L. [Institute for Plasma Research, University of Maryland at College Park, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States)

1996-01-01

407

Ferroelectric domain gratings and Barkhausen spikes in potassium lithium tantalate niobate  

SciTech Connect

The observation of Barkhausen current spikes during the recording of volume phase holograms in potassium lithium tantalate niobate is reported on. These spikes are due to the ferroelectric domain reversal induced by photorefractive space charge fields. Both {open_quotes}small{close_quotes} (1 nA) and {open_quotes}large{close_quotes} (100 nA) spikes are observed, which correspond to micro and macro domain reversal, respectively. The diffraction efficiency can change as much as 50{percent} during a single macrodomain switching. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

Tong, X.; Yariv, A.; Zhang, M. [California Institute of Technology, Caltech 128-95, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States); Agranat, A.J. [Hebrew University of Jerusalem, 91904 Jerusalem (Israel); Hofmeister, R.; Leyva, V. [Ortel Corporation, Alhambra, California 91803 (United States)

1997-04-01

408

Boundary reflection matrices for nonsimply laced affine Toda field theories  

SciTech Connect

The boundary reflection matrices for nonsimply laced affine Toda field theories defined on a half line with the Neumann boundary condition are investigated. The boundary reflection matrices for some pairs of the models are evaluated up to one loop order by perturbation theory. Then the exact boundary reflection matrices which are consistent with the one loop result are found under the assumption of {open_quote}{open_quote}duality{close_quote}{close_quote} and tested against algebraic consistency such as the boundary bootstrap equation and boundary crossing-unitarity relation. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

Kim, J.D. [Center for Natural Sciences, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 373-1 Kusongdong Yusonggu, Taejon, 305-701 (Korea)

1996-04-01

409

Rigorous results on superconducting ground states for attractive extended Hubbard models  

SciTech Connect

We show that the exact ground state for a class of extended Hubbard models including bond-charge, exchange, and pair-hopping terms, is the Yang {open_quote}{open_quote}{eta}-paired{close_quote}{close_quote} state for any nonvanishing positive value of the pair-hopping amplitude, at least when the on-site Coulomb interaction is attractive enough and the remaining physical parameters satisfy a single constraint. The ground state is thus rigorously superconducting. Our result holds on a bipartite lattice in any dimension, at any band filling, and for arbitrary electron hopping. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

Montorsi, A. [Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Illinois 61801 (United States)]|[Dipartimento di Fisica and Unita Instituto Nazionale Fisica della Materia, Politecnico di Torino, I-10129 Torino (Italy); Campbell, D.K. [Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Illinois 61801 (United States)

1996-03-01

410

Effect of enhanced UV-B radiation on pollen quantity, quality, and seed yield in Brassica rapa (Brassicaceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three experiments examined the influence of ultraviolet-B radiation (UV-B; 280-320 nm) exposure on reproduction in Brassica rapa (Brassicacaeae). Plants were grown in a greenhouse under three biologically effective UV-B levels that stimulated either an ambient stratospheric ozone level (control), 16% ({open_quotes}low enhanced{close_quotes}), or 32% ({open_quotes}high enhanced{close_quotes}) ozone depletion levels at Morgantown, WV, USA in mid-March. In the first experiment,pollen production

Sophie M. Demchik; Thomas A. Day

1996-01-01

411

Dynamic behavior of neuron-like systems as a base for efficient information processing  

SciTech Connect

In September 1993, the Institute of Applied Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences (IAP RAS), conducted a topical meeting on {open_quotes}Algorithms of Information Processing in Neuron-like Media{close_quotes} in the framework of a regular workshop on {open_quotes}Physics and Radioelectronics in Medicine and Ecology.{close_quotes} Among the topics for discussion were possible algorithms of parallel encoding and decision making in hierarchical neuron-like systems and trends in using such algorithms in new-generation computers.

Talanov, V.I.; Yakhno, V.G.

1995-02-01

412

High temperature fracture and fatigue of ceramics. Annual technical progress report No. 6, August 15, 1994--August 14, 1995  

SciTech Connect

This report covers work done in the first year of our new contract {open_quotes}High Temperature Fracture and Fatigue of Ceramics,{close_quotes} which commenced in August, 1995 as a follow-on from our prior contract {open_quotes}Mechanisms of Mechanical Fatigue in Ceramics.{close_quotes} Our activities have consisted mainly of studies of the failure of fibrous ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) at high temperature; with a little fundamental work on the role of stress redistribution in the statistics of fracture and cracking in the presence of viscous fluids.

Cox, B.

1996-04-01

413

Longitudinal dynamics and stability in beams for heavy-ion fusion  

SciTech Connect

Successful transport of induction-driven beams for heavy-ion fusion requires careful control of the longitudinal space charge. The usual control technique is the periodic application of time-varying longitudinal electric fields, called {open_quote}{open_quote}ears,{close_quote}{close_quote} that, on the average, balance the space-charge field. This technique is illustrated using a fluid/envelope code CIRCE, and the sensitivity of the method to errors in these ear fields is illustrated. The possibility that periodic ear fields also excite the longitudinal instability is examined. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

Sharp, W.M.; Callahan, D.A.; Grote, D.P. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory L-440, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)

1996-06-01

414

Programmed cell death for defense against anomaly and tumor formation  

SciTech Connect

Cell death after exposure to low-level radiation is often considered evidence that radiation is poisonous, however small the dose. Evidence has been accumulating to support the notion that cell death after low-level exposure to radiation results from activation of suicidal genes {open_quote}programmed cell death{close_quote} or {open_quote}apoptosis{close_quote} - for the health of the whole body. This paper gives experimental evidence that embryos of fruit flies and mouse fetuses have potent defense mechanisms against teratogenic or tumorigenic injury caused by radiation and carcinogens, which function through programmed cell death.

Kondo, Sohei [Kinki Univ., Higashi-Osaka (Japan); Norimura, Toshiyuki [Univ. of Occupational & Environmental Health, Kitakyusyu (Japan); Nomura, Taisei [Osaka Univ., Osaka (Japan)

1995-12-31

415

Linear response of vibrated granular systems to sudden changes in the vibration intensity  

SciTech Connect

The short-term memory effects recently observed in vibration-induced compaction of granular materials are studied. It is shown that they can be explained by means of quite plausible hypothesis about the mesoscopic description of the evolution of the system. The existence of a critical time separating regimes of {open_quotes}anomalous{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}normal{close_quotes} responses is predicted. A simple model fitting into the general framework is analyzed in the detail. The relationship between this paper and previous studies is discussed.

Brey, J. Javier; Prados, A.

2001-06-01

416

Wholesale bakeries: A small-business guide. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Commercial baking is thought to be one of the world`s oldest industries, with evidence of commercial bakeries dating back to the Egyptians. In the late 19th century, technological innovations such as the development of {open_quotes}tame{close_quotes} yeast and the mechanization of bread kneading enabled mass production of baked goods. As a result, larger {open_quotes}wholesale{close_quotes} baking facilities began to replace smaller local bakeries. Today, there are over 3000 wholesale bakeries across the United States. This report is intended to provide information on the bakery business from the perspective of processes, issues, and challenges faced, including energy consumption of electrically driven equipment.

NONE

1996-09-01

417

A field effect transistor based on the Mott transition in a molecular layer  

SciTech Connect

Here we propose and analyze the behavior of a field effect transistor (FET)-like switching device, the Mott transition field effect transistor, operating on a novel principle, the Mott metal-insulator transition. The device has FET-like characteristics with a low {open_quotes}ON{close_quotes} impedance and high {open_quotes}OFF{close_quotes} impedance. Function of the device is feasible down to nanoscale dimensions. Implementation with a class of organic charge transfer complexes is proposed. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

Zhou, C.; Newns, D.M.; Misewich, J.A.; Pattnaik, P.C. [IBM T. J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, New York 10598 (United States)

1997-02-01

418

Solution of the Bethe-Goldstone equation with an exact propagator  

SciTech Connect

The accuracy of the usual angle-averaging approximations involved in the solution of the nuclear matter Bethe-Goldstone equation is tested numerically in the case where self-energy effects are taken into account. It is found that the errors stemming from the additional angle averaging, which is needed to get rid of the {open_quote}{open_quote}energy denominator{close_quote}{close_quote} angular dependence, are much smaller than those already introduced by the Pauli operator angle averaging. These results apply to both the bound and scattering regimes. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

Sartor, R. [University of Liege, Institute of Physics B5, 4000 Liege 1 (Belgium)

1996-08-01

419

Adler function for light quarks in analytic perturbation theory  

SciTech Connect

The method of analytic perturbation theory, which avoids the problem of ghost-pole-type singularities and gives a self-consistent description of both spacelike and timelike regions, is applied to describe the {open_quotes}light{close_quotes} Adler function corresponding to the nonstrange vector channel of the inclusive decay of the {tau} lepton. The role of threshold effects is investigated. The behavior of the quark-antiquark system near threshold is described by using a new relativistic resummation factor. It is shown that the method proposed leads to good agreement with the {open_quotes}experimental{close_quotes} Adler function down to the lowest energy scale.

Milton, K. A.; Solovtsov, I. L.; Solovtsova, O. P.

2001-07-01

420

Readiness assessment plan for the Radioactive Mixed Waste Land Disposal Facility (Trench 31)  

SciTech Connect

This document provides the Readiness Assessment Plan (RAP) for the Project W-025 (Radioactive Mixed Waste Land Disposal Facility) Readiness Assessment (RA). The RAP documents prerequisites to be met by the operating organization prior to the RA. The RAP is to be implemented by the RA Team identified in the RAP. The RA Team is to verify the facility`s compliance with criteria identified in the RAP. The criteria are based upon the {open_quotes}Core Requirements{close_quotes} listed in DOE Order 5480.31, {open_quotes}Startup and Restart of Nuclear Facilities{close_quotes}.

Irons, L.G.

1994-11-22

421

Impossibility of measuring the wave function of a single quantum system  

SciTech Connect

The general impossibility of determining the state of a single quantum system is proved for arbitrary measuring schemes, including a succession of measurements. Some recently proposed methods are critically examined. A scheme for tomographic measurements on a single copy of a radiation field is devised, showing that the system state is perturbed however weak the system-apparatus interaction is, due to the need of preparing the apparatus in a highly {open_quote}{open_quote}squeezed{close_quote}{close_quote} state. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

DAriano, G.M.; Yuen, H.P. [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States)

1996-04-01

422

MTBE: Capacity boosts on hold amid demand concerns  

SciTech Connect

Uncertainty reigns in the methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) market. {open_quotes}We have no choice but to put our expansion plans on the back burner,{close_quotes} says one producer. {open_quotes}Because of government actions, there are no MTBE plants being built or expanded.{close_quotes} Spot MTBE prices have risen ti 82 cts- 83 cts/gal from 76 cts-78 cts/gal earlier this month as the demand for octane enhancement increases for the summer driving season. Some observers say EPA may relax different oxygen requirements for gasoline in different seasons. That would simplify production and supply for MTBE makers.

NONE

1995-05-03

423

Spin-dependent orientation propensities revealed in polarized-electron{endash}polarized-photon coincidence studies  

SciTech Connect

The density matrix parametrization of collisionally excited atomic ensembles is generalized to account for a projectile spin. The elements are related to the {open_quote}{open_quote}generalized Stokes parameters{close_quote}{close_quote} of Andersen and Bartschat [J. Phys. B {bold 27}, 3189 (1994)], determined in scattered- projectile{endash}polarized-photon coincidence experiments after impact excitation by spin-polarized electrons. The well-established orientation propensity rule for unpolarized electron beam experiments is {ital not} valid for spin-resolved collisions. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

Andersen, N.; Bartschat, K.; Broad, J.T. [Joint Institute for Laboratory Astrophysics, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309-0440 (United States); Hanne, G.F.; Uhrig, M. [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Muenster, Wilhelm-Klemm-Strasse 10, D-48149 Muenster (Germany)

1996-01-01

424

Lessons learned{emdash}DC-X  

SciTech Connect

The DC-X was conceived and developed specifically to lay the ground work, for developing a data base of {open_quote}{open_quote}lessons learned{close_quote}{close_quote}, for significantly lowering the cost of space operations. Program content and execution as well as technical solutions were addressed. Additionally, methods and solutions used in the past (50s and 60s) were exercised to expose to a new generation the possibilities of what we now call rapid prototyping. (The first Thor was launched less than a year from contract start. The operational countdown achieved 3 years later was less than 15 minutes.) {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

Steinmeyer, D.A. [McDonnell Douglas Aerospace, 5301 Bolsa Avenue, Huntington Beach, California 92647 (United States)

1996-03-01

425

Nuclear power failure signals end of an era  

SciTech Connect

In the United States, {open_quotes}the nuclear industry is dead, kaput, finished{close_quotes} says Michael Mariotte, executive director of the Nuclear Information and Resource Service in Washington, D.C. Why? Investors are reluctant to gamble their money on a future generation of supposedly safe, economic nuclear power plants. {open_quotes}in 1979, the `safe` Three Mile Island-2 reactor turned a several-hundred-million-dollar investment into a billion-dollar loss in a matter of hours,{close_quotes} Mariotte says. {open_quotes}In fact, investing in nuclear power at this point would be like investing in the Titanic II.{close_quotes} However, diehard proponents of nuclear energy persist in their optimism for a new nuclear age, Mariotte says. These nuclear backers see the need to replace aging plants with a new generation of safer plants. But would a new generation of reactors really be safer? {open_quotes}To date, the industry may spur some new nuclear plants, it is more likely to lead to alternative renewable sources of energy that are more economical. {open_quotes}The nuclear age has ended as a result of inefficiency and unacceptable risks...After 50 years of sustained abuse, the Earth has finally and deservedly entered the end of the nuclear age,{close_quotes} Mariotte says.

Mariotte, M. [Nuclear Information and Resource Service, Washington, DC (United States)

1996-07-01

426

American National Standards and the DOE - A cooperative effort to promote nuclear criticality safety  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) new criticality safety order, DOE Order 420.1 ({open_quotes}Facility Safety,{close_quotes} October 13, 1995), Sec. 4.3 ({open_quotes}Nuclear Criticality Safety{close_quotes}), invokes, as an integral part, 12 appropriate American National Standards Institute\\/American Nuclear Society (ANSI\\/ANS) Series-8 standards for nuclear criticality safety, but with modifications. (The order that 420.1\\/4.3 replaced also invoked some ANSI\\/ANS Series-8 standards.) These modifications include

Rothleder

1996-01-01

427

Dynamical Phases of Driven Vortex Systems  

SciTech Connect

We study numerically the motion of vortices in dirty type II superconductors. In two dimensions at strong driving currents, vortices form highly correlated {open_quote}{open_quote}static channels.{close_quote}{close_quote} The static structure factor exhibits convincing scaling behavior, demonstrating quasi-long-range translational order in the transverse direction. However, order in the longitudinal direction is only short range. We clearly establish the existence of a finite transverse critical current, suggesting strong barriers against transverse driving forces. We discuss these results in terms of recently proposed theories of the moving vortex systems. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

Moon, K.; Scalettar, R.T.; Zimanyi, G.T. [Physics Department, University of California, Davis, California 95616 (United States)

1996-09-01

428

Surface tension, hydrophobicity, and black holes: The entropic connection  

SciTech Connect

The geometric entropy arising from partitioning space in a fluid {open_quote}{open_quote}field theory{close_quote}{close_quote} is shown to be linearly proportional to the area of an excluded region. The coefficient of proportionality is related to surface tension by a thermodynamic argument. Good agreement with experimental data is obtained for a number of fluids. The calculation employs a density-matrix formalism developed previously for studying the origin of black hole entropy. This approach may lead to a practical technique for the evaluation of thermodynamic quantities with important entropic components. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

Callaway, D.J. [Department of Physics, The Rockefeller University, 1230 York Avenue, New York, New York 10021-6399 (United States)

1996-04-01

429

Improving the signal-to-noise ratio in lattice gauge theories  

SciTech Connect

Renormalization of composite fields is employed to suppress the statistical noise in lattice gauge calculations. We propose a new action which differs from the standard Wilson action by {open_quotes}irrelevant{close_quotes} operators, but suppresses the fluctuations of the plaquettes. We numerically study the Creutz ratios and find a scaling window. The SU(2) mass gap is estimated. We prove that the contributions of the {open_quotes}irrelevant{close_quotes} operators to the screening mass decrease towards the continuum limit. The results obtained from the action with noise suppression are compared with those of the standard Wilson action. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

Langfeld, K.; Reinhardt, H.; Tennert, O. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Tuebingen, D-72076 Tuebingen (Germany)

1997-12-01

430

Quantum KAM technique and Yang{endash}Mills quantum mechanics  

SciTech Connect

We study a quantum analogue of the iterative perturbation theory by Kolmogorov used in the proof of the Kolmogorov{endash}Arnold{endash}Moser (KAM) theorem. The method is based on sequent canonical transformations with a {open_quote}{open_quote}running{close_quote}{close_quote} coupling constant {lambda}, {lambda}{sup 2}, {lambda}{sup 4}, etc. The proposed scheme, as its classical predecessor, is {open_quote}{open_quote}superconvergent{close_quote}{close_quote} in the sense that after the {ital n}th step, a theory is solved to the accuracy of order {lambda}{sup 2{ital n}{minus}1}. It is shown that the Kolmogorov technique corresponds to an infinite resummation of the usual perturbative series. The corresponding expansion is convergent for the quantum anharmonic oscillator due to the fact that it turns out to be identical to the Pade series. The method is easily generalizable to many-dimensional cases. The Kolmogorov technique is further applied to a non-perturbative treatment of Yang{endash}Mills quantum mechanics. A controllable expansion for the wave function near the origin is constructed. For large fields, we build an asymptotic adiabatic expansion in inverse powers of the field. This asymptotic solution contains arbitrary constants which are not fixed by the boundary conditions at infinity. To find them, we approximately match the two expansions in an intermediate region. We also discuss some analogies between this problem and the method of QCD sum rules. Copyright {copyright} 1995 Academic Press, Inc.

Halperin, I. [Department of Physics, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000 (Israel)

1995-12-01

431

Mineral nutrition and plant responses to elevated levels of atmospheric CO(sub 2).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The atmospheric concentration of CO(sub 2), a radiatively-active ((open quotes)green-house(close quotes)) gas, is increasing. This increase is considered a post-industrial phenomenon attributable to increasing rates of fossil fuel combustion and changing ...

A. Ahluwalia

1996-01-01

432

PW71 methylation test for Prader-Willi and Angelman syndromes  

SciTech Connect

A recent workshop called {open_quotes}The Prader-Willi Syndrome International Scientific Workshop and Conference for Scientists, Professionals and Parents{close_quotes} agreed that DNA methylation is a valid diagnostic test for Prader-Willi and Angelman syndromes. This letter to the editor outlines details concerning the use of this test. 6 refs.

Dittrich, B.; Buiting, K.; Horsthemke, B. [Universitaetsklinikum Essen (Germany)

1996-01-11

433

Clinical and molecular studies in full trisomy 22: Further delineation of the phenotype and review of the literature. Reply to Dr. Robinson and Dr. Kalousek  

SciTech Connect

This {open_quotes}Letter to the Editor{close_quotes} responds to the comments by Dr. Robinson and Dr. Kalousek regarding the implications of meiotic versus somatic chromosomal aberrations. The survival time of the patient may depend on the detection of mosicism; the discussion of the existence of full trisomy 22 remains controversial. 2 refs.

Bacino, C.A.; Graham, J.M. Jr. [UCLA School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

1996-03-01

434

78 FR 57669 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Proposing To Modify the Manner in Which It Calculates Volume, Liquidity and Quoting...Exchange proposes to modify the manner in which it calculates volume, liquidity and quoting...proposed rule change and discussed any comments it received on the proposed rule change....

2013-09-19

435

S. 3168: A Bill to amend the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 to improve control of acid mine drainage, and for other purposes. Introduced in the Senate of the United States, August 11, 1992  

SciTech Connect

This Act may be cited as the [open quotes]Acid Mine Drainage Abatement Act of 192[close quotes]. The purpose of this bill is to amend the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 to improve control of acid mine drainage, and for other purposes. The proposed amendments are listed.

Not Available

1992-01-01

436

Cleanup Liability and the Constitution  

Microsoft Academic Search

It was observed in the July 1992 issue of this Journal that a plain reading of the Constitution's prohibition on [open quotes][ital ex post facto][close quotes] suggests that some environmental statutes such as the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA or Superfund) and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) conflict with Constitutional principles.

David M. Friedland; Paul E. Hagen

1992-01-01

437

River outflow of the conterminous United States, 1939-1988  

Microsoft Academic Search

[open quotes]The wolf is in our door and his breath is hot and dry.[close quotes] Bernard, an advocate of the global warming theory, states that there are many indications that global warming has already begun. In this book he discusses the environmental challenges humankind will face with a rise in global climate. He states that global temperature trends, climatic analogs,

Alexandre K. Guetter; Konstantine P. Georgakakos

1993-01-01

438

Global warning {hor_ellipsis} global warming  

SciTech Connect

This book is supposed to offer {open_quotes}a highly accessible, yet painstakingly accurate, examination{close_quotes} of the issues surrounding anthropogenic climate change. The author is an epidemiologist with limited background in the field, and the book presents a limited perspective.

Bernarde, M.A.

1993-12-31

439

Global warning {hor_ellipsis} global warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book is supposed to offer {open_quotes}a highly accessible, yet painstakingly accurate, examination{close_quotes} of the issues surrounding anthropogenic climate change. The author is an epidemiologist with limited background in the field, and the book presents a limited perspective.

Bernarde

1993-01-01

440

Managers and minerals in a monarchy: The political economy of mining in Jordan, 1970-1989  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates why developing states that profess to follow free market principles continue to intervene in their economies. The study investigates the extent to which the state in Jordan has penetrated its most potentially productive economic sector - the extractive mineral industry (phosphates, potash, fertilizers, cement, and the refining of oil). The study examined Jordan's [open quotes]Big 5[close quotes

Piro

1992-01-01

441

Induction-drive magnetohydrodynamic propulsion  

SciTech Connect

The use of magnetohydrodynamic propulsion for marine applications is reviewed with emphasis on induction-drive systems such as the [open quotes]ripple[close quotes] motor. Comparisons are made with direct-drive MHD propulsion systems. Application to pumps for hazardous fluids and liquid-metal coolants is also discussed. 13 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

Mitchell, D.L. (Mitchell Associates, Reston, VA (United States)); Gubser, D.U. (Naval Research Lab., Washington, DC (United States))

1993-08-01

442

Quantum nonlinear resonance and quantum chaos in Aharonov-Bohm oscillations in mesoscopic semiconductor rings  

SciTech Connect

We consider Aharonov-Bohm oscillations in a mesoscopic semiconductor ring threaded by both a constant magnetic flux and a time-dependent, resonant magnetic field with one or two frequencies. Working in the ballistic regime, we establish that the theory of {open_quotes}quantum nonlinear resonance{close_quotes} applies, and thus that this system represents a possible solid-state realization of {open_quotes}quantum nonlinear resonance{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}quantum chaos.{close_quotes} In particular, we investigate the behavior of the time-averaged electron energy at zero temperature in the regimes of (i) an isolated quantum nonlinear resonance and (ii) the transition to quantum chaos, when two quantum nonlinear resonances overlap. The time-averaged energy exhibits sharp resonant behavior as a function of the applied constant magnetic flux, and has a staircase dependence on the amplitude of the external time-dependent field. In the chaotic regime, the resonant behavior exhibits complex structure as a function of flux and frequency. We compare and contrast the quantum chaos expected in these mesoscopic {open_quotes}solid-state atoms{close_quotes} with that observed in Rydberg atoms in microwave fields, and discuss the prospects for experimental observation of the effects we predict. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

Berman, G.P. [Theoretical Division and Center for Nonlinear Studies, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Bulgakov, E.N. [Kirensky Institute of Physics, 660036, Krasnoyarsk (Russia); Campbell, D.K. [Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1110 West Green Street, Urbana, Illinois 61801-3080 (United States); Krive, I.V. [Institute for Low Temperature Physics and Engineering, Ukrainian Academy of Sciences, 310164, Kharkov (Ukraine)

1997-10-01

443

Core-melt source reduction system to terminate an LWR core-melt accident  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the design, safety, and licensing issues for the next generation of light water reactors (LWRs) is, [open quotes]What approach should be used to terminate a reactor core-melt accident and ensure no reactor containment failure in the unlikely event of an accident that results in core debris melting through the reactor vessel onto the concrete containment floor [close quotes

C. W. Forsberg; E. C. Beahm; G. W. Parker

1992-01-01

444

Formation of artificially-layered superconducting materials by pulsed-laser deposition.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Artificially-layered structures, consisting of (Sr,Ba,Ca)CuO(sub 2) layers in the tetragonal, (open quotes)infinite layer(close quotes) crystal structure, have been grown by pulsed-laser deposition. Superlattice chemical modulation is observed for structu...

D. P. Norton B. C. Chakoumakos J. D. Budai

1994-01-01

445

Concept for increasing the effective capacity of a unit area of a geologic repository.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

By processing spent fuel to remove the actinides, the thermal properties of the resulting high-level waste are substantially altered. In particular, the (open quotes)thermal half-life(close quotes) of the waste is reduced from centuries to about 30 years....

A. G. Croff

1995-01-01

446

78 FR 30367 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BOX Options Exchange LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...costs to the Exchange to process quotes, orders, trades...currently not charged PIP Order and Agency Order...particularly into the PIP for potential price improvement...costs to the Exchange to process quotes, orders, trades...To help the Commission process and review your...

2013-05-22

447

Photovoltaic manufacturing technology (PVMaT). Semiannual subcontract report, March 31, 1994--September 30, 1994.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The following highlights key findings from this reporting period: while (open quotes)standard cure(close quotes) A9918P ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) encapsulant, laminated between low iron glass, shows significant yellowing after 17 weeks in a xenon-arc W...

W. Holley

1995-01-01

448

News of Hurricane Andrew: The Agenda of Sources and the Sources' Agendas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Studies quotations in newspaper coverage of Hurricane Andrew, showing that individuals who were not affiliated with government or business were quoted most often. Shows that most sources were quoted as experts, with individuals represented as suffering victims, providing the news media with human interest quotations. Notes that most sources

Salwen, Michael B.

1995-01-01

449

Further patient with Angelman syndrome due to paternal disomy of chromosome 15 and a milder phenotype  

SciTech Connect

This {open_quotes}Letter to the Editor{close_quotes} decribes a patient with Angelman syndrome due to paternal uniparental disomy of chromosome 15 and a milder phenotype compared to Angelman syndrome patients with a 15q deletion. 10 refs., 1 fig.

Gillessen-Kaesbach, G.; Passarge, E.; Horsthemke, B. [Institut fuer Humangenetik, Essen (Germany)

1995-04-10

450

Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT): A radiation oncology perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) offers considerable promise in the search for the ideal cancer therapy, a therapy which selectively and maximally damages malignant cells while sparing normal tissue. This bimodal treatment modality selectivity concentrates a boron compound in malignant cells, and then [open quotes]activates[close quotes] this compound with slow neutrons resulting in a highly lethal event within the cancer

Ronald V. Dorn

1994-01-01

451

Multidimensional neural growing networks and computer intelligence  

SciTech Connect

This paper examines information-computation processes in time and in space and some aspects of computer intelligence using multidimensional matrix neural growing networks. In particular, issues of object-oriented {open_quotes}thinking{close_quotes} of computers are considered.

Yashchenko, V.A.

1995-03-01

452

On a generalization of quantum mechanics of biquaternions  

SciTech Connect

A generalization of the quantum mechanical formalism by biquaternions is proposed. By a direct example, it is evidenced that such a generalization explains in an algebraic manner the {open_quotes}wave packet reduction{close_quotes} of quantum mechanics. 8 refs.

Conte, E. [Inst. of Cybernetics, San Marino (Italy)

1993-06-01

453

Some bounds in the class of L-distributions  

SciTech Connect

The L-property is the most general {open_quotes}aging{close_quotes} property of distribution functions (d.f.s.). According to this property, the Laplace-Stieltjes transform (LST) of the corresponding d.f. F satisfies the inequality F(s){le}(1+{mu}s){sup {minus}1}, where F(s) = {integral}{sub 0} e{sup {minus}su}dF(u) and {mu} is the mean. The -property has been introduced and is widely used in reliability theory. An important component of probabilistic analysis of systems is the ability to estimate the closeness of the probability of normal operation to the exponential distribution. The {open_quotes}exponential approximation{close_quotes} error has been studied in detail for particular {open_quotes}aging{close_quotes} properties. In this article, we consider this problem for L-distributions. For d.f.s with this property we also derive other bounds that are already known for narrower classes {open_quotes}aging{close_quotes} distributions.

Kotlyar, V.Yu.

1995-09-01

454

17[alpha](H),21[beta](H)Hopane as a conserved internal marker for estimating the biodegradation of crude oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hopanes are common constituents of crude oils, and they are very resistant to biodegradation. They can therefore serve as conserved internal standards for assessing the biodegradation of the more degradable compounds in the oil. Here we address two important questions that attend such use. The first is whether the [open quotes]internal standard[close quotes] is being created during the biodegradation process

Roger C. Prince; David L. Elmendorf; James R. Lute; Chang S. Hsu; Copper E. Haith; James D. Senius; Gary J. Dechert; Gregory S. Douglas; Eric L. Butler

1994-01-01

455

Permian `Wolfcamp` limestone reservoirs: Powell ranch field, eastern Midland basin: Discussion  

SciTech Connect

The {open_quotes}E&P Notes{close_quotes} paper by S.L. Montgomery (1996) on Wolfcamp resedimented carbonates in the Permian basin concerns an exploration play with the potential for significant reserves; however, its economic importance and geological complexity, and the question of whether his model can be extended to other areas in the Permian basin warrant this discussion.

Mazzullo, S.J. [Wichita State Univ., KS (United States)

1997-10-01

456

Permian `Wolfcamp` limestone reservoirs: Powell ranch field, eastern Midland basin: Discussion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The {open_quotes}E&P Notes{close_quotes} paper by S.L. Montgomery (1996) on Wolfcamp resedimented carbonates in the Permian basin concerns an exploration play with the potential for significant reserves; however, its economic importance and geological complexity, and the question of whether his model can be extended to other areas in the Permian basin warrant this discussion.

S. J. Mazzullo

1997-01-01

457

High performance systems  

SciTech Connect

This document provides a written compilation of the presentations and viewgraphs from the 1994 Conference on High Speed Computing given at the High Speed Computing Conference, {open_quotes}High Performance Systems,{close_quotes} held at Gleneden Beach, Oregon, on April 18 through 21, 1994.

Vigil, M.B. [comp.

1995-03-01

458

Comparison of DOE and NIRMA approaches to configuration management programs  

SciTech Connect

One of the major management programs used for commercial, laboratory, and defense nuclear facilities is configuration management. The safe and efficient operation of a nuclear facility requires constant vigilance in maintaining the facility`s design basis with its as-built condition. Numerous events have occurred that can be attributed to (either directly or indirectly) the extent to which configuration management principles have been applied. The nuclear industry, as a whole, has been addressing this management philosophy with efforts taken on by its constituent professional organizations. The purpose of this paper is to compare and contrast the implementation plans for enhancing a configuration management program as outlined in the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) DOE-STD-1073-93, {open_quotes}Guide for Operational Configuration Management Program,{close_quotes} with the following guidelines developed by the Nuclear Information and Records Management Association (NIRMA): 1. PP02-1994, {open_quotes}Position Paper on Configuration Management{close_quotes} 2. PP03-1992, {open_quotes}Position Paper for Implementing a Configuration Management Enhancement Program for a Nuclear Facility{close_quotes} 3. PP04-1994 {open_quotes}Position Paper for Configuration Management Information Systems.{close_quotes}

Yang, E.Y. [Granite Group, Inc., Randolph, MA (United States); Kulzick, K.C. [KISMET Consulting, Milwaukee, WI (United States)

1995-12-31

459

Analysis, design, and implementation of PHENIX on-line computing systems software using Shlaer-Mellor object-oriented analysis and recursive design  

SciTech Connect

An early prototype of the core software for on-line computing systems for the PHENIX detector at RHIC has been developed using the Shlaer-Mellor OOA/RD method, including the automatic generation of C++ source code using a commercial translation engine and {open_quotes}architecture{close_quotes}.

Kozlowski, T. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Desmond, E.; Haggerty, J. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)] [and others

1997-02-16

460

Ozone depletion: Can global action rescue the deteriorating ozone layer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Until recently, severe depletion of the Earth's protective ozone layer - which blocks harmful solar radiation - was thought to be confined to a [open quotes]hole[close quotes] over Antarctica. But in February NASA scientists raised new concerns when they reported that the 25-mile-wide layer apparently is thinning over the Northern Hemisphere and other populated areas. Findings to be released this

1992-01-01

461

Stability of natural gas in the deep subsurface  

SciTech Connect

Natural gas is becoming increasingly important as a fuel because of its widespread occurrence and because it has a less significant environmental impact than oil. Many of the known gas accumulations were discovered by accident during exploration for oil, but with increasing demand for gas, successful exploration will require a clearer understanding of the factors that control gas distribution and gas composition. Natural gas is generated by three main processes. In oxygen-deficient, sulfate-free, shallow (few thousand feet) environments bacteria generate biogenic gas that is essentially pure methane with no higher hydrocarbons ({open_quotes}dry gas{close_quotes}). Gas is also formed from organic matter ({open_quotes}kerogen{close_quotes}), either as the initial product from the thermal breakdown of Type III, woody kerogens, or as the final hydrocarbon product from all kerogen types. In addition, gas can be formed by the thermal cracking of crude oil in the deep subsurface. The generation of gas from kerogen requires higher temperatures than the generation of oil. Also, the cracking of oil to gas requires high temperatures, so that there is a general trend from oil to gas with increasing depth. This produces a well-defined {open_quotes}floor for oil{close_quotes}, below which crude oil is not thermally stable. The possibility of a {open_quotes}floor for gas{close_quotes} is less well documented and understanding the limits on natural gas occurrence was one of the main objectives of this research.

Barker, C.

1996-07-01

462

Step by step: The SEC and registered holding companies slip past PUHCA toward telecommunications  

SciTech Connect

It is a sure bet that the electric utility industry will participate in the development of the National Information Infrastructure - the so-called {open_quotes}information superhighway{close_quotes} - to some degree. However, there appears to be no consensus on the extent to which the industry should become involved in telecommunications services in the near future.

Moeller, J.W.

1994-09-15

463

Clash in values over wilderness and oil in Alaska  

Microsoft Academic Search

The debate over whether or not to open Alaska's Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) to oil development is [open quotes]a battle between economic and wilderness values,[close quotes] contends Todd Miner, assistant professor and coordinator of Alaska Wilderness Studies at the University of Alaska in Anchorage. Established in northwest Alaska in 1960 to protect an undisturbed tract of arctic environment, ANWR

Miner

2009-01-01

464

High-accuracy INAA on real samples  

SciTech Connect

The interest in quality assurance (QA), total quality management (TQM), and laboratory accreditation is currently an active topic for discussion. Many people are talking about and writing papers and articles about how all these {open_quotes}new{close_quotes} concepts are going to really make a difference and make all of their data much better. The question is, do we expect to see a real difference in the {open_quotes}quality{close_quotes} of the data coming out of these laboratories? My concern is that many of these {open_quotes}quality systems{close_quotes} appear to be focused primarily on developing rigid methods and procedures that detail step-by-step instructions to cover {open_quotes}all{close_quotes} possibilities, thus eliminating operator error. This also largely eliminates operator judgment and, often, operator motivation. I believe that the most important part of the analytical system is the person doing the work. Further, in my experience, the quality of the analytical results can be judged very well if the person who is doing the analysis is known. This is true especially for activation analysis.

Becker, D.A.

1994-12-31

465

Implementation of ISO guide 25 in a medical dosimetry secondary standards calibration laboratory  

SciTech Connect

Currently, there is a great deal of discussion among industry and government agencies about ISO 9000 accreditation. U.S. manufacturers with ISO 9000 accreditation are regarded more favorably by European countries. The principles behind the ISO 9000 accreditation are based on the Total Quality Management (TQM) principles that are being implemented in many U.S. industries. This paper will deal only with the calibration issue. There is a difference in the areas covered by ISO 9000 and ISO Guide 25 documents. ISO 9000, in particular ISO 9001 - ISO 9003, cover the {open_quotes}calibration{close_quotes} of inspection, measuring and test equipment. This equipment is basically used for {open_quotes}factory calibrations{close_quotes} to determine that equipment is performing within manufacturer specifications. ISO Guide 25 is specifically for {open_quotes}calibration and testing laboratories,{close_quotes} generally laboratories that have painstaking procedures to reduce uncertainties and establish high accuracy of the transfer of calibration. The experience of the University of Wisconsin Accredited Dosimetry Calibration Laboratory in conforming to ISO Guide 25 will be outlined. The entire laboratory staff must become familiar with the process and an individual with direct authority must become the one to maintain the quality of equipment and calibrations in the role of {open_quotes}quality-assurance manager.{close_quotes}

DeWerd, L.A.

1995-12-31

466

Prototype development of an apparatus to locate and map sea floor petroleum seepages. First quarterly technical progress report, August 1, 1995--October 31, 1995  

SciTech Connect

This document is the first quarterly technical progress report for the project entitled {open_quotes}Prototype Development of an Apparatus to Locate and Map Sea Floor Petroleum Seepages{close_quotes}. This report describes progress in three areas: electronic design, mechanical design, and experiment/research.

NONE

1995-12-01

467

Calculating cost-training billback at WHC  

Microsoft Academic Search

Westinghouse Hanford Company, in an attempt to understand training costs and to find a make-or-buy tool for training, has constructed a Training Cost Estimator. Among the outputs of this Lotus program are projected numbers of instructor, managers, and secretarial staff, and cost per student ({open_quotes}tuition{close_quotes}).

1993-01-01

468

Invariant embedding and related methods  

SciTech Connect

The term {open_quotes}invariant embedding{close_quotes} derives from the fact that if a physical system is linear, in the sense that certain identified {open_quotes}output{close_quotes} properties (e.g., exiting fluxes) depend linearly in the mathematical sense on other {open_quotes}input{close_quotes} properties (e.g., entering fluxes), then that property is invariant to the system being embedded into a larger system (i.e., being a subsystem of such larger system). The basic idea of such {open_quotes}principles of invariance{close_quotes} go back at least to early work of Stokes, who applied them to radiative transfer (of light). The first application to nuclear radiation seems to have occurred in a 1907 paper of Schmidt. Although invariant embedding is often viewed as inherently limited to one-dimensional settings, at the level of generality described here, the well-known response matrix method (e.g., Weiss), which has been used for multidimensional radiation transport computations and recently even has been shown to be well suited to such computations on massively parallel systems, is an instance of invariant embedding. Ribarit has described an elaborate and fairly abstract calculus for (among other things) computing the input - output structures of any given (neutronic) system from those of a set of constituent subsystems.

Nelson, P.

1994-12-31

469

Decode de Code  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, users must decode a scientific quote that has been encoded by the computer. The computer will generate an "alphabet" (either random or rotated) and then substitute every letter of the real quote with the computer generated alphabet's letter. To decode the code, you must look for patterns of letters and then substitute guesses for the real letters.

470

Platform removal  

Microsoft Academic Search

At the 1958 Geneva Convention on the Continental Shelf, Article Five was approved and it read in part, [open quotes]Any installations which are abandoned or disused must be entirely removed.[close quotes] At that time, the US was the only nation producing hydrocarbons from the offshore. The production at this time was totally from platforms in less than 100 ft of

Jay B. Weidler

1993-01-01

471

New vision solar system mission study. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The vision for the future of the planetary exploration program includes the capability to deliver {open_quotes}constellations{close_quotes} or {open_quotes}fleets{close_quotes} of microspacecraft to a planetary destination. These fleets will act in a coordinated manner to gather science data from a variety of locations on or around the target body, thus providing detailed, global coverage without requiring development of a single large, complex and costly spacecraft. Such constellations of spacecraft, coupled with advanced information processing and visualization techniques and high-rate communications, could provide the basis for development of a {open_quotes}virtual{close_quotes} {open_quotes}presence{close_quotes} in the solar system. A goal could be the near real-time delivery of planetary images and video to a wide variety of users in the general public and the science community. This will be a major step in making the solar system accessible to the public and will help make solar system exploration a part of the human experience on Earth.

Mondt, J.F.; Zubrin, R.M.

1996-03-01

472

Shooting down the ABM Treaty  

SciTech Connect

The Clinton administration is on a path to undermine the Anti-Ballistic Missile (ABM) Treaty by proposing {open_quotes}clarifications{close_quotes} to the treaty that would permit the deployment of an extensive, highly capable anti-theater ballistic missile (ATBM) defense system.

Mendelsohn, J.; Rhinelander, J.B.

1994-09-01

473

Dynamic observation of vortex interaction with pinning centers by Lorentz microscopy  

SciTech Connect

Magnetic vortices in superconductors were directly and dynamically observed by using a {open_quotes}coherent{close_quotes} field-emission electron beam. Their dynamics were observed by Lorentz microscopy. The interaction of vortices with both line- and point-defects was investigated by direct observation.

Tonomura, Akira [Hitachi, Ltd., Hatoyama, Saitama (Japan)

1996-12-01

474

Analysis of HFIR pressurizer pump overspeed transients and relief valve performance.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The pressurizer pump overspeed transients at the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) fall in the category of (open quotes)increase in coolant inventory transients.(close quotes) They are among the accident transients to be performed for Chapter 15 of the HFI...

M. C. Sozer

1992-01-01

475

Unitarized pseudoscalar meson scattering amplitudes from three flavor linear sigma models  

SciTech Connect

The three flavor linear sigma model is studied as a {open_quotes}toy model{close_quotes} for understanding the role of possible light scalar mesons in the {pi}{pi}, {pi}K and {pi}{eta} scattering channels. The approach involves computing the tree level partial wave amplitude for each channel and unitarizing by a simple K-matrix prescription which does not introduce any new parameters. If the renormalizable version of the model is used there is only one free parameter. While this highly constrained version has the right general structure to explain {pi}{pi} scattering, it is {open_quotes}not quite{close_quotes} right. A reasonable fit can be made if the renormalizability (for the effective Lagrangian) is relaxed while chiral symmetry is maintained. The occurrence of a Ramsauer-Townsend mechanism for the f{sub 0}(980) region naturally emerges. The effect of unitarization is very important and leads to {open_quotes}physical{close_quotes} masses for the scalar nonet all less than about 1 GeV. The a{sub 0}(1450) and K{sub 0}{sup *}(1430) appear to be {open_quotes}outsiders{close_quotes} in this picture and to require additional fields. Comparison is made with a scattering treatment using a more general nonlinear sigma model approach. In addition some speculative remarks and a highly simplified larger toy model are devoted to the question of the quark substructure of the light scalar mesons.

Black, Deirdre; Fariborz, Amir H.; Moussa, Sherif; Nasri, Salah; Schechter, Joseph

2001-07-01

476

Ward Valley and the Federal Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act  

Microsoft Academic Search

In his State of the Union Address delivered on 23 January 1996, President Clinton said, speaking generally, {open_quotes}Passing a law - even the best possible law - is only a first step. The next step is to make it work.{close_quotes} The president is right, of course; faithful execution of any law is the key. Unfortunately, this lesson appears lost on

Pasternak

1996-01-01

477

Comparison of several Russian populations by vital statistics and frequency of genes causing hereditary pathology  

SciTech Connect

Distances computed from vital statistics using the Euclid formula and thus termed {open_quotes}vital{close_quotes} are proposed for use in population studies. An example of use of these statistics for comparison of four large geographically separated Russian populations is given. 9 refs., 1 tab.

El`chinova, G.I.; Mamedova, R.A.; Brusintseva, O.V.; Ginter, E.K. [Medical-Genetic Research Center, Moscow (Russian Federation)

1994-11-01

478

Tertiary tectonic in the Tehuantepec Isthmus, Mexico  

SciTech Connect

A microplate model in the basement was proposed according to photointerpretation of satellite imagery and supported with microtectonic studies in the Tehuantepec's Isthmus. The microplate is located in the northwestern part of the [open quotes]Sierra de Chiapas,[close quotes] and structurally has lineaments that correspond with sinestral wrench faults oriented northeast-southwest and dextral faults oriented northwest-southeast. In the front of the microplate, these faults are joined in an arc form. The microplate began its movement forward to the north in the middle Tertiary. This movement originated in a regional compressional stress that was younger to the north. The stress changed the orientation of the anticline axis from northwest-southeast to west-east. In its western limit, the stress produces a sinestral shear stress that built a rotational deformation in the [open quotes]Sierra Atravesada,[close quotes] and represents a superimposed tectonic block over an ancient (laramide) orogeny. This system has also produced other secondary transtensional effects oriented northwest-southeast, represented along the [open quotes]Depression Central del Istmo.[close quotes] The microplate has formed a tensional system opening the [open quotes]Superior, Inferior, and Mar Muerto[close quotes] lagoons. The microplate is strongly related with the relief, seismic activity, and the tectonics of the salt of the Tehuantepec's Isthmus.

Lopez, F.A.

1993-02-01

479

Utility M A: What you didn't learn in business school  

Microsoft Academic Search

One business axiom currently popular in corporate America seems to be [open quotes]do unto others before they can do unto you.[close quotes]. Thus follows the rationale for mergers and acquisitions (M A) in the utility industry. Basic among the reasons for considering a corporate takeover is the desire to control one's own fate. Other reasons, often cited in the media

1994-01-01

480

What`s in a name? Chromosome 22q abnormalities and the DiGeorge, velocardiofacial and conotruncal anomalies face syndromes  

SciTech Connect

The recent advances in our understanding of the phenotype associated with deletion of the DiGeorge Chromosome Region (DGCR) at 22q11.2 are in many ways analogous to the fable about the blind men and the elephant. Originally described as three distinct phenotypes (DiGeorge (DG) syndrome, velocardiofacial (VCF) syndrome, and the conotruncal anomalies face (CTAF) syndrome), it is now clear that there is only a single broad and variable phenotype associated with deletion of the DGCR. As in the fable, distinguished clinicians approached this phenotypic {open_quotes}elephant{close_quotes} from different perspectives and provided three separate, although overlapping descriptions. Our analogy to this fable is not to imply some {open_quotes}blindness{close_quotes} on the part of these clinicians, but rather to point out the well-known difficulty in delineating the indistinct phenotypic boundaries of a syndrome until a genetic or biochemical marker for the condition is available. The recent availability of a fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) probe to detect deletion of the DGCR now allows delineation of the broad phenotype of our {open_quotes}elephant{close_quotes} which spans from lethal DG phenotypes through the intermediate VCF and CTAF phenotypes to the newly recognized {open_quotes}mild{close_quotes} phenotype consisting of only developmental delays and subtle facial abnormalities. 33 refs.

Wulfsberg, E.A.; Leana-Cox, J. [Univ. of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); Neri, G. [Universita Cattolica, Rome (Italy)

1996-11-11