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Sample records for r-btp extraction resins

  1. Modified resins for solid-phase extraction

    DOEpatents

    Fritz, James S. (Ames, IA); Sun, Jeffrey J. (Ames, IA)

    1991-12-10

    A process of treating aqueous solutions to remove organic solute contaminants by contacting an aqueous solution containing polar organic solute contaminants with a functionalized polystyrene-divinyl benzene adsorbent resin, with the functionalization of said resin being accomplished by organic hydrophilic groups such as hydroxymethyl, acetyl and cyanomethyl.

  2. Modified resins for solid-phase extraction

    DOEpatents

    Fritz, James S. (Ames, IA); Sun, Jeffrey J. (Ames, IA)

    1993-07-27

    A process of treating aqueous solutions to remove organic solute contaminants by contacting an aqueous solution containing polar organic solute contaminants with a functionalized polystyrene-divinyl benzene adsorbent resin, with the functionalization of said resin being accomplished by organic hydrophilic groups such as hydroxymethyl, acetyl and cyanomethyl.

  3. Fermium purification using TEVA{trademark} resin extraction chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Porter, C.E.; Riley, F.D. Jr.; Vandergrift, R.D.; Felker, L.K.

    1997-01-01

    The Radiochemical Engineering Development Center at Oak Ridge National Laboratory processes irradiated targets to recover the transplutonium actinides for research and industrial users. In a typical processing campaign, dekagram quantities of curium are recovered for recycle into targets for subsequent irradiation and processing; decigram quantities of californium are recovered for fabrication into neutron sources; and milligram quantities of einsteinium and berkelium as well as picogram quantities of fermium are recovered for distribution to the research community. The transcurium actinides are separated in a series of chromatographic elutions using a cation-exchange resin and ammonium {alpha}-hydroxyisobutyrate as the eluant. The fermium fraction from these final purification runs still contains significant amounts of rare earth fission products, such as yttrium, dysprosium, and holmium. In the most recent campaign, a process using a TEVA{trademark} resin extraction chromatography column was developed and tested to determine its effectiveness in providing a fermium product free of rare earth fission products. Gamma spectroscopy indicated that dysprosium and holmium were reduced to levels less than minimum detectable limits and that only 0.07 pg of {sup 91}Y remained in the final fermium product, which contained 0.5 pg of {sup 257}Fm. An overall decontamination factor of {approximately}10{sup 3} was achieved for fission product removal.

  4. A NEW EXTRACTION CHROMATOGRAPHY RESIN CONTAINING KLÄUI LIGANDS FOR APPLICATION IN ACTINIDE SEPARATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Lumetta, Gregg J.; Wester, Dennis W.; McNamara, Bruce K.; Hubler, Timothy L.; Latesky, Stanley L.; Martyr, Cuthbert C.; Richards, Kia N.

    2004-11-01

    An extraction chromatography resin containing the anionic ligand (?5-pentamethylcyclopentadienyl)tris-(diethylphosphito-P)cobalt(III), (L) has been prepared. The resin consists of 1 wt% L on Amberlite® XAD-7. This resin strongly sorbs Am(III) and Pu(IV). The sorption of these ions decreases with increasing nitric acid concentration, but this effect is more pronounced for Am(III). This allows for convenient separation of Am(III) from Pu(IV) by simple adjustments in the nitric acid concentration. The tripodal geometry of L disfavors the complexation of uranyl ion, so sorption of U(VI) by the L-containing resin is weak.

  5. Copolymer resins made of agricultural and forest residues extracts for wood laminating adhesives

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, C.M.

    1995-11-01

    Extracts of Southern pine bark, peanut hulls, pecan nut pitch, and pecan shell flour were used to synthesize copolymer resins using resorcinol, phenol, and formaldehyde. The test joints of both southern pine and oak were laminated in room temperature. The gluability of these copolymer resins were evaluated with shear compression loading test. The effects of resorcinol level, the molar ratio of formaldehyde to phenolic, and the composition of the hardener on bonding quality were investigated. With a more than 80% wood failure after vacuum pressure treatment, several copolymer resins provided good bonding quality as a wood laminating adhesive. Different extracts required different formulations of copolymer resin and hardner to obtain the best bonding quality.

  6. Extraction of High Quality DNA from Seized Moroccan Cannabis Resin (Hashish)

    PubMed Central

    El Alaoui, Moulay Abdelaziz; Melloul, Marouane; Alaoui Amine, Sanaâ; Stambouli, Hamid; El Bouri, Aziz; Soulaymani, Abdelmajid; El Fahime, Elmostafa

    2013-01-01

    The extraction and purification of nucleic acids is the first step in most molecular biology analysis techniques. The objective of this work is to obtain highly purified nucleic acids derived from Cannabis sativa resin seizure in order to conduct a DNA typing method for the individualization of cannabis resin samples. To obtain highly purified nucleic acids from cannabis resin (Hashish) free from contaminants that cause inhibition of PCR reaction, we have tested two protocols: the CTAB protocol of Wagner and a CTAB protocol described by Somma (2004) adapted for difficult matrix. We obtained high quality genomic DNA from 8 cannabis resin seizures using the adapted protocol. DNA extracted by the Wagner CTAB protocol failed to give polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA) synthase coding gene. However, the extracted DNA by the second protocol permits amplification of THCA synthase coding gene using different sets of primers as assessed by PCR. We describe here for the first time the possibility of DNA extraction from (Hashish) resin derived from Cannabis sativa. This allows the use of DNA molecular tests under special forensic circumstances. PMID:24124454

  7. Ionic-liquid-impregnated resin for the microwave-assisted solid-liquid extraction of triazine herbicides in honey.

    PubMed

    Wu, Lijie; Song, Ying; Hu, Mingzhu; Yu, Cui; Zhang, Hanqi; Yu, Aimin; Ma, Qiang; Wang, Ziming

    2015-09-01

    Microwave-assisted ionic-liquid-impregnated resin solid-liquid extraction was developed for the extraction of triazine herbicides, including cyanazine, metribuzin, desmetryn, secbumeton, terbumeton, terbuthylazine, dimethametryn, and dipropetryn in honey samples. The ionic-liquid-impregnated resin was prepared by immobilizing 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate in the microspores of resin. The resin was used as the extraction adsorbent. The extraction and enrichment of analytes were performed in a single step. The extraction time can be shortened greatly with the help of microwave. The effects of experimental parameters including type of resin, type of ionic liquid, mass ratio of resin to ionic liquid, extraction time, amount of the impregnated resin, extraction temperature, salt concentration, and desorption conditions on the extraction efficiency, were investigated. A Box-Behnken design was applied to the selection of the experimental parameters. The recoveries were in the range of 80.1 to 103.4% and the relative standard deviations were lower than 6.8%. The present method was applied to the analysis of honey samples. PMID:26082329

  8. Determination of weight distribution ratios of Pa(V) and Np(V) with some extraction chromatography resins and the AG1-X8 resin.

    PubMed

    Mendes, M; Aupiais, J; Jutier, C; Pointurier, F

    2013-05-30

    Literature data on distribution ratios (Dw) of Np(V) and Pa(V) for the AG1-X8 resin are scarce whereas those related on resin capacity factors (k') values for TEVA, TRU and U/TEVA resins are absent. Therefore, batch extraction experiments for Pa(V) and Np(V) from HCl and HNO3 media were realized, at tracer scale, with AG1-X8 and EIChroM resins (TEVA, TRU and U/TEVA). Based on the new Dw and k' values obtained in this study, a new protocol for Pa/Np separation has been developed leading to a better separation factor of 10(5) and a chemical yield of 97±3% and 99±1% for Pa and Np, respectively. A separation of (231)Pa from uranium matrix was successfully tested. PMID:23680558

  9. Chemically modified polymeric resins for solid-phase extraction and group separation prior to analysis by liquid or gas chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, L.W.

    1993-07-01

    Polystyrene divinylbenzene was modified by acetyl, sulfonic acid, and quaternary ammonium groups. A resin functionalized with an acetyl group was impregnated in a PTFE membrane and used to extract and concentrate phenolic compounds from aqueous samples. The acetyl group created a surface easily wetted, making it an efficient adsorbent for polar compounds in water. The membrane stabilized the resin bed. Partially sulfonated high surface area resins are used to extract and group separate an aqueous mixture of neutral and basic organics; the bases are adsorbed electrostatically to the sulfonic acid groups, while the neutraons are adsorbed hydrophobically. A two-step elution is then used to separate the two fractions. A partially functionalized anion exchange resin is used to separate organic acids and phenols from neutrals in a similar way. Carboxylic acids are analyzed by HPLC and phenols by GC.

  10. Improved resins and novel materials and methods for solid phase extraction and high performance liquid chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Freeze, R.

    1997-10-08

    Solid-phase extraction (SPE) has grown to be one of the most widely used methods for isolation and preconcentration of a vast range of compounds from aqueous solutions. By modifying polymeric SPE resins with chelating functional groups, the selective uptake of metals was accomplished. The resin, along with adsorbed metals, was vaporized in the ICP and detection of the metals was then possible using either mass or emission spectroscopy. Drug analyses in biological fluids have received heightened attention as drug testing is on the increase both in sports and in the work environment. By using a direct-injection technique, biological fluids can be injected directly into the liquid chromatographic system with no pretreatment. A new surfactant, a sulfonated form of Brij-30 (Brij-S) is shown to prevent the uptake of serum proteins on commercial HPLC columns by forming a thin coating on the silica C18 surface. Excellent separations of eight or more drugs with a wide range of retention times were obtained. The separations had sharper peaks and lower retention times than similar separations performed with the surfactant sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS). Quantitative recovery of a number of drugs with limits of detection near 1 ppm with a 5 {micro}l injection volume were obtained. Finally, a method for solid-phase extraction in a syringe is introduced. The system greatly reduced the volume of solvent required to elute adsorbed analytes from the SPE bed while providing a semi-automated setup. SPE in a syringe consists of a very small bed of resin-loaded membrane packed into a GC or HPLC syringe. After extraction, elution was performed with just a few {micro}l of solvent. This small elution volume allowed injection of the eluent directly from the syringe into the chromatographic system, eliminating the handling problems associated with such small volumes.

  11. Solid phase extractive preconcentration of uranium(VI) using quinoline-8-ol anchored chloromethylated polymeric resin beads.

    PubMed

    Praveen, R S; Metilda, P; Daniel, S; Rao, T Prasada

    2005-10-31

    A new chelating polymeric sorbent has been developed using Merrifield chloromethylated resin anchored with quinoline-8-ol (HQ). The modified polymeric resin was characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy and elemental analysis. The HQ anchored resin showed superior binding affinity for U(VI) over Th(IV) and La(III). The influence of various physicochemical parameters on the recovery of U(VI) were optimized by both static and dynamic methods. The phase exchange kinetic studies performed for U(VI) revealed that <5min was sufficient for reaching equilibrium metal ion sorption. The maximum sorption capacity of HQ anchored resin for U(VI) was found to be 120.30mgg(-1) of resin which is higher than other solid phase extraction sorbents reported so far excepting N,N-dibutyl, N'-benzoyl thiourea sorbed Amberlite XAD-16. The developed HQ anchored polymeric resin is highly selective as none of the extraneous species were found to have any deleterious effect. Solid phase extraction (SPE) studies performed using HQ anchored polymeric resin offered enrichment factor of 100 and the lowest concentration below which recoveries become non-quantitative is 5mugl(-1). The accuracy of the developed SPE method in conjunction with Arsenazo III procedure was tested by analyzing marine sediment (MESS-3) and soil (IAEA-Soil 7) reference materials. Furthermore, the above procedure has been successfully employed for the analysis of real soil and sediment samples. PMID:18970265

  12. Comparison of methods for nutrient measurement in calcareous soils: Ion-exchange resin bag, capsule, membrane, and chemical extractions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sherrod, S.K.; Belnap, J.; Miller, M.E.

    2002-01-01

    Four methods for measuring quantities of 12 plant-available nutrients were compared using three sandy soils in a series of three experiments. Three of the methods use different ion-exchange resin forms-bags, capsules, and membranes-and the fourth was conventional chemical extraction. The first experiment compared nutrient extraction data from a medium of sand saturated with a nutrient solution. The second and third experiments used Nakai and Sheppard series soils from Canyonlands National Park, which are relatively high in soil carbonates. The second experiment compared nutrient extraction data provided by the four methods from soils equilibrated at two temperatures, "warm" and "cold." The third experiment extracted nutrients from the same soils in a field equilibration. Our results show that the four extraction techniques are not comparable. This conclusion is due to differences among the methods in the net quantities of nutrients extracted from equivalent soil volumes, in the proportional representation of nutrients within similar soils and treatments, in the measurement of nutrients that were added in known quantities, and even in the order of nutrients ranked by net abundance. We attribute the disparities in nutrient measurement among the different resin forms to interacting effects of the inherent differences in resin exchange capacity, differences among nutrients in their resin affinities, and possibly the relatively short equilibration time for laboratory trials. One constraint for measuring carbonate-related nutrients in high-carbonate soils is the conventional ammonium acetate extraction method, which we suspect of dissolving fine CaCO3 particles that are more abundant in Nakai series soils, resulting in erroneously high Ca2+ estimates. For study of plant-available nutrients, it is important to identify the nutrients of foremost interest and understand differences in their resin sorption dynamics to determine the most appropriate extraction method.

  13. Phosphorus in runoff assessed by anion exchange resin extraction and an algal assay.

    PubMed

    Uusitalo, Risto; Ekholm, Petri

    2003-01-01

    Eutrophication of surface waters can be accelerated by agricultural inputs of phosphorus (P), provided that P is in a form that can be utilized by aquatic algae. We studied anion exchange resin (AER) extraction and a dual culture algal assay (DCAA) for the determination of potentially algal-available P in water samples without sediment preconcentration. Our material consisted of agricultural and forest runoff and wastewaters. The results obtained by the two methods were essentially equal when the samples contained only small amounts of particulate phosphorus (PP) in relation to dissolved molybdate-reactive phosphorus (DRP). However, in turbid agricultural runoff, P extracted with AER averaged 72% (n = 17) of the P yield of the 3-wk DCAA (R2 = 0.94). When the runoff samples were diluted for the AER extraction in the same manner as for the DCAA, the AER-P yield increased to 85% (n = 5) of DCAA-P. The minimum detectable value was greater for the AER test (41 microg L(-1) AER-extractable P) than for the DCAA (7 microg L(-1) DCAA-P). At concentrations greater than about 50 microg L(-1) AER-P or DCAA-P, the accuracy of the methods was satisfactory, with the coefficient of variation in replicated analyses being less than 10% for the AER test and less than 20% for the DCAA. Other anions competing for the exchange sites of the AER decreased P recovery by 15 to 20% when their equivalent concentration exceeded about 4 mmol, L(-1), and this effect was relatively constant over a large concentration range. We consider that AER extraction is a suitable low-cost method to estimate the algal availability of P in runoff samples. PMID:12708688

  14. Separation of Technetium in Nitric Acid Solution With an Extractant Impregnated Resin

    SciTech Connect

    Jei Kwon Moon; Eil Hee Lee; Chong-Hun Jung; Byung Chul Lee

    2006-07-01

    An extractant impregnated resin (EIR) was prepared by impregnation of Aliquat 336 into Amberlite XAD-4 for separation of technetium from rhodium in nitric acid solution. The prepared EIR showed high preference for rhenium (chemical analogue of technetium) over rhodium. The adsorption isotherms for rhenium were described well by Langmuir equation in both the single and multi-component systems. Maximum adsorption capacities obtained by modelling the isotherms of rhenium were 2.01 meq g{sup -1} and 1.97 meq g{sup -1} for the single and the multi-component systems, respectively. Column tests were also performed to confirm the separation efficiency of rhenium using a jacketed glass column (diam. 11 x L 150). The EIR column showed successful separation of rhenium with the breakthrough volume of about 122 BV for the breakthrough concentration of 0.08. Also the breakthrough data were modelled successfully by assuming a homogeneous diffusion model in the particle phase. The diffusivities obtained from the modelling were in the order of 10{sup -7} cm{sup 2} min{sup -1} for a rhenium. The rhenium adsorbed on the bed could be eluted with a high purity by using a nitric acid solution. (authors)

  15. Determination of radium-228 in natural waters using extraction chromatographic resins

    SciTech Connect

    Burnett, W.C.; Cable, P.H.; Moser, R.

    1995-12-31

    We have developed a procedure for determination of {sup 228}Ra (t 1/2= 5.75 y) in natural waters using either the extraction chromatographic resins TRU-Spec{sup TM} or Ln-{center_dot}Spec{sup TM} to isolate the direct daughter, {sup 228}Ac, just before low-level counting. These separations are shown to be quantitative, simple, relatively fast, and free from most interferences. The recommended procedure effectively eliminates the need to perform the multiple precipitations and solvent extractions required by conventional techniques. The method uses a standard BaSO{sub 4} co-precipitation with {sup 133}Ba as an internal tracer to preconcentrate radium from a 1-2 L water sample. This is followed by a metathesizing process using K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} to convert the BaSO{sub 4} to the more soluble BaCO{sub 3} form. After the {sup 133}Ba yield determination, the sample (in HN0{sub 3}) is stored for {ge}30 hours to allow ingrowth of equilibrium amounts of {sup 228}Ac (t 1/2=6.14 h) from the {sup 228}Ra in the sample. This solution is then loaded onto a chromatographic column prerinsed with HN0{sub 3} followed by a rinse with sufficient HN0{sub 3} to completely flush out barium, radium, lead, and other common elements which may be contained in the sample load. Actinium is then eluted with either HCl or more concentrated HN0{sub 3} and is ready for low-level beta-particle counting after mounting by filtration or evaporation. We estimate a detection limit of {le}1.0 pCi/L in approximately 30 minutes of counting using a proportional counter with a 1.0 cpm total beta background, a {sup 133}Ba yield of 80%, and a 2-L sample volume.

  16. Inadequacy, Impurity and Infidelity; Modifying the Modified Brendel Alpha-Cellulose Extraction Method for Resinous Woods in Stable Isotope Dendroclimatology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brookman, T. H.; Whittaker, T. E.; King, P. L.; Horton, T. W.

    2011-12-01

    Stable isotope dendroclimatology is a burgeoning field in palaeoclimate science due to its unique potential to contribute (sub)annually resolved climate records, over millennial timescales, to the terrestrial palaeoclimate record. Until recently the time intensive methods precluded long-term climate reconstructions. Advances in continuous-flow mass spectrometry and isolation methods for ?-cellulose (ideal for palaeoclimate studies as, unlike other wood components, it retains its initial isotopic composition) have made long-term, calendar dated palaeoclimate reconstructions a viable proposition. The Modified Brendel (mBrendel) ?-cellulose extraction method is a fast, cost-effective way of preparing whole-wood samples for stable oxygen and carbon isotope analysis. However, resinous woods often yield incompletely processed ?-cellulose using the standard mBrendel approach. As climate signals may be recorded by small (<1%) isotopic shifts it is important to investigate if incomplete processing affects the accuracy and precision of tree-ring isotopic records. In an effort to address this methodological issue, we investigated three highly resinous woods: kauri (Agathis australis), ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) and huon pine (Lagarastrobus franklinii). Samples of each species were treated with 16 iterations of the mBrendel, varying reaction temperature, time and reagent volumes. Products were investigated using microscopic and bulk transmission Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy (FITR) to reveal variations in the level of processing; poorly-digested fibres display a peak at 1520cm-1 suggesting residual lignin and a peak at ~1600cm-1 in some samples suggests retained resin. Despite the different levels of purity, replicate analyses of samples processed by high temperature digestion yielded consistent ?18O within and between experiments. All ?-cellulose samples were 5-7% enriched compared to the whole-wood, suggesting that even incomplete processing at high temperature can provide acceptable ?18O analytical external precision. For kauri, short, lower temperature extractions produced ?-cellulose with ?18O consistently ~1% lower than longer, higher temperature kauri experiments. These findings suggest that temperature and time are significant variables that influence the analytical precision of ?-cellulose stable isotope analysis and that resinous hardwoods (e.g. kauri) may require longer and/or hotter digestions than softwoods. The effects of mBrendel variants on the carbon isotope ratio precision of ?-cellulose extracts will also be presented. Our findings indicate that the standard mBrendel ?-cellulose extraction method may not fully remove lignins and resins depending on the type of wood being analysed. Residual impurities can decrease analytical precision and accuracy. Fortunately, FTIR analysis prior to isotopic analysis is a relatively fast and cost effective way to determine ?-cellulose extract purity, ultimately improving the data quality, accuracy and utility of tree-ring based stable isotopic climate records.

  17. Determination of oil reservoir radiotracer (S14CN-) in a single step using a plastic scintillator extractive resin.

    PubMed

    Bagán, H; Tarancón, A; Stavsetra, L; Rauret, G; García, J F

    2012-07-29

    The analysis of radiotracers is important in the study of oil reservoir dynamics. One of the most widely used radiotracer is S(14)CN(-). Prior to activity measurements by Liquid Scintillation (LS), routine determinations require the pretreatment steps of purification and concentration of the samples using anion exchange columns. The final elution media produces samples with high salt concentration that may lead to problems with phase separation during the LS measurement. Plastic Scintillation (PS) is an alternative technique that provides a solid surface that can be used as a platform for the immobilisation of selective extractants to obtain a PS resin. The proposed procedure unifies chemical separation and sample measurement preparation in a single step, serving to reduce the number of reagents needed and manpower required for the analysis while also avoiding mixed waste production by LS. The objective of this study is to develop a PS resin for the determination of (14)C-labelled thiocyanate radiotracer in water samples. For this purpose, the immobilisation procedure was optimised, including optimisation of the proportion of PS microspheres:extractant and the use of a control blank to monitor the PS resin immobilisation process. The breakthrough volume was studied and the detection and quantification limits for 100 mL of sample were determined to be 0.08 Bq L(-1) and 0.31 Bq L(-1), respectively. The established procedure was applied to active samples from oil reservoirs and errors lower than 5% in the sample determinations were obtained. PMID:22769002

  18. Chelating resin immobilizing carboxymethylated polyethyleneimine for selective solid-phase extraction of trace elements: Effect of the molecular weight of polyethyleneimine and its carboxymethylation rate.

    PubMed

    Kagaya, Shigehiro; Kajiwara, Takehiro; Gemmei-Ide, Makoto; Kamichatani, Waka; Inoue, Yoshinori

    2016-01-15

    The effect of the molecular weight of polyethyleneimine (PEI), defined as a compound having two or more ethyleneamine units, and of its carboxymethylation rate (CM/N), represented by the ratio of ion-exchange capacity to the amount of N on the resin, on the selective solid-phase extraction ability of the chelating resin immobilizing carboxymethylated (CM) PEI was investigated. The chelating resins (24 types) were prepared by immobilization of diethylenetriamine, triethylenetetramine, tetraethylenepentamine, pentaethylenehexamine, PEI300 (MW=ca. 300), and PEI600 (MW=ca. 600) on methacrylate resins, followed by carboxymethylation with various amounts of sodium monochloroacetate. When resins with approximately the same CM/N ratio (0.242-0.271) were used, the recovery of Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, Ti, Zn, and alkaline earth elements increased with increasing the molecular weight of PEIs under acidic and weakly acidic conditions; however, the extraction behavior of Mo and V was only slightly affected. This was probably due to the increase in N content of the resin, resulting in an increase in carboxylic acid groups; the difference in the molecular weight of PEIs immobilized on the resin exerts an insignificant influence on the selective extraction ability. The CM/N ratio considerably affected the extraction behavior for various elements. Under acidic and neutral conditions, the recovery of Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, Ti, and Zn increased with increasing CM/N values. However, under these conditions, the recovery of alkaline earth elements was considerably low when a resin with low CM/N ratio was used. This is presumably attributed to the different stability constants of the complexes of these elements with aminocarboxylic acids and amines, and to the electrostatic repulsion between the elements and the protonated amino groups in the CM-PEI. The recovery of Mo and V decreased or varied with increasing CM/N values, suggesting that the extraction of these elements occurred mainly by the anion-exchange reaction. For the separation and preconcentration of trace elements in samples containing large amounts of alkali and alkaline earth elements, the CM-PEI600 resin with CM/N=0.131 (Cu(II) extraction capacity, 0.37mmolg(-)(1)) was found to be the most suitable because it scarcely extracts alkali and alkaline earth elements under acidic and neutral conditions. This resin proved to be convenient for separating and preconcentrating Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, V, and Zn in the certified reference materials (EnviroMAT EU-L-1 wastewater and ES-L-1 ground water) and commercially available table salt. PMID:26592617

  19. A physical entrapment method for the preparation of carbon nanotube reinforced macroporous adsorption resin with enhanced selective extraction performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ha, Wei; Song, Xin-Yue; Chen, Juan; Shi, Yan-Ping

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate a novel carbon nanotube (CNT) reinforced macroporous adsorption resin (MAR) for the first time. The CNTs were dispersed in water via sonication, and then in situ physically entrapped in the pores of MAR by capillary forces and sonication. The resulting CNT reinforced MAR (CNT-MAR) was proved by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), and subsequently applied to extract a mixture of 8 types, 14 natural products. For comparison, the extraction efficiency of original MAR without CNTs was also evaluated. After extraction, the supernatants were detected via high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results indicated that the introduction of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) into the pores of MAR can significantly improve the adsorptive selectivity of MAR for natural products. The original MAR without CNTs has almost the same adsorption capacity for selectively extracting 3 types of natural products (phenols, alkaloids and anthraquinones). However, the CNT-MAR only could selectively extract anthraquinones and the adsorption capacity for three anthraquinone natural products is 1.46-1.83 times higher than that of unmodified MAR. In order to achieve the highest extraction efficiency of CNT-MAR for anthraquinone natural products, the main extraction parameters such as the extraction time and the pH value were also optimized. The CNT-MAR demonstrated an excellent ability to extract anthraquinone natural products with high selectivity and adsorption capacity. Due to its low cost, easy preparation and use, and operational characteristics, it shows great potential for selective extraction of natural products.In this paper, we demonstrate a novel carbon nanotube (CNT) reinforced macroporous adsorption resin (MAR) for the first time. The CNTs were dispersed in water via sonication, and then in situ physically entrapped in the pores of MAR by capillary forces and sonication. The resulting CNT reinforced MAR (CNT-MAR) was proved by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), and subsequently applied to extract a mixture of 8 types, 14 natural products. For comparison, the extraction efficiency of original MAR without CNTs was also evaluated. After extraction, the supernatants were detected via high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results indicated that the introduction of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) into the pores of MAR can significantly improve the adsorptive selectivity of MAR for natural products. The original MAR without CNTs has almost the same adsorption capacity for selectively extracting 3 types of natural products (phenols, alkaloids and anthraquinones). However, the CNT-MAR only could selectively extract anthraquinones and the adsorption capacity for three anthraquinone natural products is 1.46-1.83 times higher than that of unmodified MAR. In order to achieve the highest extraction efficiency of CNT-MAR for anthraquinone natural products, the main extraction parameters such as the extraction time and the pH value were also optimized. The CNT-MAR demonstrated an excellent ability to extract anthraquinone natural products with high selectivity and adsorption capacity. Due to its low cost, easy preparation and use, and operational characteristics, it shows great potential for selective extraction of natural products. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Additional information as noted in the text. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr05454k

  20. A physical entrapment method for the preparation of carbon nanotube reinforced macroporous adsorption resin with enhanced selective extraction performance.

    PubMed

    Ha, Wei; Song, Xin-Yue; Chen, Juan; Shi, Yan-Ping

    2015-11-28

    In this paper, we demonstrate a novel carbon nanotube (CNT) reinforced macroporous adsorption resin (MAR) for the first time. The CNTs were dispersed in water via sonication, and then in situ physically entrapped in the pores of MAR by capillary forces and sonication. The resulting CNT reinforced MAR (CNT-MAR) was proved by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), and subsequently applied to extract a mixture of 8 types, 14 natural products. For comparison, the extraction efficiency of original MAR without CNTs was also evaluated. After extraction, the supernatants were detected via high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results indicated that the introduction of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) into the pores of MAR can significantly improve the adsorptive selectivity of MAR for natural products. The original MAR without CNTs has almost the same adsorption capacity for selectively extracting 3 types of natural products (phenols, alkaloids and anthraquinones). However, the CNT-MAR only could selectively extract anthraquinones and the adsorption capacity for three anthraquinone natural products is 1.46-1.83 times higher than that of unmodified MAR. In order to achieve the highest extraction efficiency of CNT-MAR for anthraquinone natural products, the main extraction parameters such as the extraction time and the pH value were also optimized. The CNT-MAR demonstrated an excellent ability to extract anthraquinone natural products with high selectivity and adsorption capacity. Due to its low cost, easy preparation and use, and operational characteristics, it shows great potential for selective extraction of natural products. PMID:26490261

  1. Preparative separation and purification of Rebaudioside A from Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni crude extracts by mixed bed of macroporous adsorption resins.

    PubMed

    Li, Jie; Chen, Zhenbin; Di, Duolong

    2012-05-01

    The separation and purification of Rebaudioside A (RA) from Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni crude extracts (Steviosides) by macroporous adsorption resin (MAR) mixed bed were systematically investigated. MAR mixed bed of HPD750-LSA40-LSA30-DS401 was selected due to its better separation degree. Based on the kinetics/thermodynamics experiment of the mixed bed, it was found that the experimental data fitted better to the pseudo-second-order model, and intra-particle diffusion was rate-limiting step. The adsorption isotherm was consistent with IV equilibrium adsorption isotherm classified by Brunauer. Furthermore, the influencing factors for the separation of RA based on HPLC were also investigated. Under the optimal conditions, the separation degree for RA (DAS) increased from 0.771 to 1.54. Moreover, the experimental results showed that the purity of the obtained product increased from 60% to 97%. PMID:26434290

  2. Phosphonic acid based exchange resins

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E. Philip (Naperville, IL); Alexandratos, Spiro D. (Knoxville, TN); Gatrone, Ralph C. (Naperville, IL); Chiarizia, Ronato (Oak Park, IL)

    1995-01-01

    An ion exchange resin for extracting metal ions from a liquid waste stream. An ion exchange resin is prepared by copolymerizing a vinylidene diphosphonic acid with styrene, acrylonitrile and divinylbenzene.

  3. Determination of polymeric aluminum in soil extracted with a modified anion-exchange resin as a solid-phase adsorbent by ICP-AES.

    PubMed

    Luo, Mingbiao; Bi, Shuping; Wang, Chenyi; Huang, Junzhong

    2004-01-01

    In the present work, a new method was established by applying solid-phase extraction (SPE) to preconcentrate and separate polymeric aluminum (Al) and using ICP-AES to determine the polymeric Al, the total monomeric Al, and the total Al in soil extracts, respectively. A modified resin was prepared with impregnated 8-hydroxyquinoline-5-sulfoxinate (HQS) on the anion-exchange resin. It has good recognition ability for Al fractions, compared to the commonly used cation ion-exchange resin, which has a better ability to adsorb cations and a weak ability to recognize detailed Al species. The optimum conditions for Al fractionation sorption, elution and separation and the interference of foreign ions were studied with the prepared resin by continuous column and batch procedures. Monomeric Al was bound to Pyrocathecol Violet (PCV) at pH 6.2, whereas the polymeric Al species did not react with PCV for at least 15 min. Because a stable complex of Al-PCV was not absorbed on the HQS modified resin, the polymeric Al could be preconcentrated on-line by the HQS-modified resin. The adsorbed polymeric Al was eluted with 3 mL of 3 mol L(-1) of HCl, and then detected by ICP-AES. The method has been applied to directly determine polymeric Al in soil extracts with high selectivity as well as a high preconcentration factor. It gives a limit of detection of 0.6 ng mL(-1) with a relative standard deviation of less than 5.7% (n = 5, 0.24 microg mL(-1) Al). PMID:14753264

  4. Characterization of Group V Dubnium Homologs on DGA Extraction Chromatography Resin from Nitric and Hydrofluoric Acid Matrices

    SciTech Connect

    Despotopulos, J D; Sudowe, R

    2012-02-21

    Studies of the chemical properties of superheavy elements (SHE) pose interesting challenges due to their short half-lives and low production rates. Chemical systems must have extremely fast kinetics, fast enough kinetics to be able to examine the chemical properties of interest before the SHE decays to another nuclide. To achieve chemistry on such time scales, the chemical system must also be easily automated. Most importantly however, a chemical system must be developed which provides suitable separation and kinetics before an on-line study of a SHE can be performed. Relativistic effects make studying the chemical properties of SHEs interesting due to the impact these effects could have on the SHEs chemical properties. Relativistic effects arise when the velocity of the s orbital electrons approach the speed of light. As this velocity increases, the Bohr radius of the inner electron orbitals decreases and there is an increase in the particles mass. This contraction results in a destabilization of the energy of the outer d and f electron orbitals (5f and 6d in the case of SHE), which can cause these to expand due to their increased shielding from the nuclear charge. Another relativistic effect is the spin-orbit splitting for p, d, and f orbitals into j = 1 {+-} 1/2 states. This can lead most interestingly to a possible increased stability of element 114, which due to large spin-orbit splitting of the 7p orbital and the relativistically stabilized 7p{sub 1/2} and 7s orbital gives rise to a closed shell ground state of 7s{sup 2}7p{sub 1/2}{sup 2}. The homologs of element 105, dubnium (Db), Ta and Nb and the pseudo-homolog Pa, are well known to hydrolyze and form both neutral and non-neutral monoatomic and polyatomic species that may cause issues with extraction from a given chemical system. Early ion-exchange and solvent-extraction studies show mixed results for the behavior of Db. Some studies show Db behaving most similar to Ta, while others show it behaving somewhere between Nb and Pa. Much more recent studies have examined the properties of Db from HNO{sub 3}/HF matrices, and suggest Db forms complexes similar to those of Pa. Very little experimental work into the behavior of element 114 has been performed. Thermochromatography experiments of three atoms of element 114 indicate that the element 114 is at least as volatile as Hg, At, and element 112. Lead was shown to deposit on gold at temperatures about 1000 C higher than the atoms of element 114. Results indicate a substantially increased stability of element 114. No liquid phase studies of element 114 or its homologs (Pb, Sn, Ge) or pseudo-homologs (Hg, Cd) have been performed. Theoretical predictions indicate that element 114 is should have a much more stable +2 oxidation state and neutral state than Pb, which would result in element 114 being less reactive and less metallic than Pb. The relativistic effects on the 7p{sub 1/2} electrons are predicted to cause a diagonal relationship to be introduced into the periodic table. Therefore, 114{sup 2+} is expected to behave as if it were somewhere between Hg{sup 2+}, Cd{sup 2+}, and Pb{sup 2+}. In this work two commercially available extraction chromatography resins are evaluated, one for the separation of Db homologs and pseudo?homologs from each other as well as from potential interfering elements such as Group IV Rf homologs and actinides, and the other for separation of element 114 homologs. One resin, Eichrom's DGA resin, contains a N,N,N',N'-tetra-n-octyldiglycolamide extractant, which separates analytes based on both size and charge characteristics of the solvated metal species, coated on an inert support. The DGA resin was examined for Db chemical systems, and shows a high degree of selectivity for tri-, tetra-, and hexavalent metal ions in multiple acid matrices with fast kinetics. The other resin, Eichrom's Pb resin, contains a di-t-butylcyclohexano 18-crown-6 extractant with isodecanol solvent, which separates analytes based on steric interactions between the cavity of the crown ether and electrostatic interac

  5. Method for recovering and using lignin in adhesive resins by extracting demethylated lignin

    DOEpatents

    Schroeder, Herbert A. (Ft. Collins, CO)

    1991-01-01

    Lignin, or a lignin derived material, which has been significantly demethylated (e.g., the demethylated lignin found in the raffinate produced as a by-product of dimethyl sulfide production which can be carried out using the spent liquor from wood pulping operations) can be isolated by a process wherein an organic solvent is added to a lignin-containing aqueous solution. The organic solvent is typically a polar, and at least a partially water-immiscible substance such as, for example, ethyl acetate. The resulting lignin-containing aqueous solution/organic solvent mixture is acidified to produce a water layer which is discarded and an organic solvent layer which contains the demethylated lignin. Upon its recovery, the demethylated lignin is dissolved in an alkaline solution to which an aldehyde source is added to produce a resol-type resin. The aldehyde source may be formaldehyde in solution, paraformaldehyde, hexamethylenetetramine, or other aldehydes including acetaldehyde, furfural, and their derivatives.

  6. Mechanistic Study of Silver Nanoparticle's Synthesis by Dragon's Blood Resin Ethanol Extract and Antiradiation Activity.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Murtaza; Iqbal, Javed; Awan, Umer; Saeed, Yasmeen; Ranran, Yuan; Liang, Yanli; Dai, Rongji; Deng, Yulin

    2015-02-01

    Biological synthesis of nanoparticles is best way to avoid exposure of hazardous materials as compared to chemical manufacturing process which is a severe threat not only to biodiversity but also to environment. In present study, we reported a novel method of finding antiradiation compounds by bioreducing mechanism of silver nanoparticles formation using 50% ethanol extract of Dragons blood, a famous Chinese herbal plant. Color change during silver nanoparticles synthesis was observed and it was confirmed by ultra violet (UV) visible spectroscopy at wave length at 430 nm after 30 min of reaction at 60 °C. Well dispersed round shaped silver nanoparticles with approximate size (4 nm to 50 nm) were measured by TEM and particle size analyser. Capping of biomolecules on Ag nanoparticles was characterized by FTIR spectra. HPLC analysis was carried out to find active compounds in the extract. Furthermore, antiradiation activity of this extract was tested by MTT assay in vitro after incubating the SH-SY5Y cells for 24 h at 37 °C. The results indicate that presence of active compounds in plant extract not only involves in bioreduction process but also shows response against radiation. The dual role of plant extract as green synthesis of nanoparticles and exhibit activity against radiation which gives a new way of fishing out active compounds from complex herbal plants. PMID:26353649

  7. A solid phase extraction using a chelate resin immobilizing carboxymethylated pentaethylenehexamine for separation and preconcentration of trace elements in water samples.

    PubMed

    Kagaya, Shigehiro; Maeba, Emiko; Inoue, Yoshinori; Kamichatani, Waka; Kajiwara, Takehiro; Yanai, Hideyuki; Saito, Mitsuru; Tohda, Koji

    2009-07-15

    A chelate resin immobilizing carboxymethylated pentaethylenehexamine (CM-PEHA resin) was prepared, and the potential for the separation and preconcentration of trace elements in water samples was evaluated through the adsorption/elution test for 62 elements. The CM-PEHA resin could quantitatively recover various elements, including Ag, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, Ti, U, and Zn, and rare earth elements over a wide pH range, and also Mn at pH above 5 and V and Mo at pH below 7. This resin could also effectively remove major elements, such as alkali and alkaline earth elements, under acidic and neutral conditions. Solid phase extraction using the CM-PEHA resin was applicable to the determination of 10 trace elements, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, V, and Zn, in certified reference materials (EnviroMAT EU-L-1 wastewater and ES-L-1 ground water) and treated wastewater and all elements except for Mn in surface seawater using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. The detection limits, defined as 3 times the standard deviation for the procedural blank using 500 mL of purified water (50-fold preconcentration, n=8), ranged from 0.003 microg L(-1) (Mn) to 0.28 microg L(-1) (Zn) as the concentration in 500 mL of solution. PMID:19559856

  8. Comparison of Apical Microleakage of Dual-Curing Resin Cements with Fluid-Filtration and Dye Extraction Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Kaya, Sadullah; Özer, Senem Yi?it; Adigüzel, Özkan; Oruço?lu, Hasan; De?er, Yalç?n; Tümen, Emin Caner; Uysal, ?brahim

    2015-01-01

    Background Endodontically treated teeth with excessive loss of tooth structure are frequently restored using fiber posts. In this in vitro study, the apical leakage of self- and dual-activated curing modes for dual-curing resins cementing a translucent fiber post was evaluated using computerized fluid filtration meter and dye extraction method. Material/Methods One hundred and four extracted human maxillary incisors with single root and canal were used. Experimental samples embedded in a closed system were divided into 4 groups (n=20) according to 2 dual-curing luting systems, with 2 different curing modes (either with self- or light-activation): (1) Panavia F 2.0 with self-cure, (2) Panavia F 2.0 with light-activation, (3) Clearfill SA with self-cure, and (4) Clearfill SA with light activation. Twenty-four teeth served as negative and positive controls. Translucent fiber posts were luted in the roots except in the control groups. Results Statistical analysis indicated no significant difference in leakage among groups (p>0.05) with 4.12×10?4 (Panavia self-cure), 4.55×10?4 (Clearfill SA self-cure), 5.17×10?4 (Panavia dual-cure), and 5.59×10?4 (Clearfill SA dual-cure) in fluid-filtration method. Absorbance values for dye-extraction method were 266 nanometer (nm) (Panavia self-cure), 268 nm (Clearfill SA self-cure), 270 nm (Panavia dual-cure), and 271 nm (Clearfill SA dual-cure), in which difference among the groups were not statistically significant (p>0.05). When comparing the leakage, assessment methods results showed no statistically significant difference between the tested evaluation techniques (p>0.05). Conclusions Light- and self-activation curing modes of Panavia F 2.0 and Clearfill SA perform similar to each other in a closed system. PMID:25824712

  9. Optimizing light collection from extractive scintillating resin in flow-cell detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meldrum, Amy Catherine

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the changes in light collection efficiency for flow cell detector as various parameters are altered to find the optimum flow cell configuration. Columns with inner diameters of 0.16 cm, 0.48 cm, 0.79 cm, and 1.11 cm were packed with synthesized nonporous, un-functionalized beads to measure their detection efficiencies for solutions containing 210Po, 14C, or 90Sr/ 90Y. The average diameter of the beads used in the experiments was 147 microm +/- 33 microm. The highest detection efficiency for 210Po was 15.3 +/- 3.9% with the 1.11 cm diameter column. The 1.11 cm diameter column also yielded the highest detection efficiency of 29.6 +/- 0.8% for 14C. When filled with a 90Sr/ 90Y solution, the 0.79 cm diameter column had the highest detection efficiency of 100 +/- 7.0%. However, for both 14C and 90Sr/90Y, the 0.48 cm, 0.79 cm, and 1.11 cm diameter columns had detection efficiencies within 1-sigma of each other. To investigate the effects of various parameters on the light collection efficiency and detection efficiency, models were built using GATE (GEANT4 Application for Tomographic Emissions) to simulate the columns. Bead diameter, column inner diameter, and source location were varied within the simulations, for beads that were arranged in a body-centered-cubic (BCC) configuration. The highest detection efficiency for 210Po was a point source located within each bead approximately 100 +/- 1.3 %, regardless of column inner diameter or bead diameter. The same was found to be true for both 14C and 90Sr/90Y, wherein the point source configuration yielded the highest detection efficiencies of 93.1 +/- 0.3% and 98.9 +/- 0.2%, respectively, which were approximately equal regardless of bead or column size. These results suggest that if a porous resin were to be synthesized such that the radionuclide of interest could be trapped within a bead, high detection efficiencies could be achieved even with a column with a small inner diameter.

  10. Curcumin and Boswellia serrata gum resin extract inhibit chikungunya and vesicular stomatitis virus infections in vitro.

    PubMed

    von Rhein, Christine; Weidner, Tatjana; Henß, Lisa; Martin, Judith; Weber, Christopher; Sliva, Katja; Schnierle, Barbara S

    2016-01-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-transmitted alphavirus that causes chikungunya fever and has infected millions of people mainly in developing countries. The associated disease is characterized by rash, high fever, and severe arthritis that can persist for years. CHIKV has adapted to Aedes albopictus, which also inhabits temperate regions including Europe and the United States of America. CHIKV has recently caused large outbreaks in Latin America. No treatment or licensed CHIKV vaccine exists. Traditional medicines are known to have anti-viral effects; therefore, we examined whether curcumin or Boswellia serrata gum resin extract have antiviral activity against CHIKV. Both compounds blocked entry of CHIKV Env-pseudotyped lentiviral vectors and inhibited CHIKV infection in vitro. In addition, vesicular stomatitis virus vector particles and viral infections were also inhibited to the same extent, indicating a broad antiviral activity. Although the bioavailability of these compounds is rather poor, they might be used as a lead structure to develop more effective antiviral drugs or might be used topically to prevent CHIKV spread in the skin after mosquito bites. PMID:26611396

  11. Characterization and Application of Superlig 620 Solid Phase Extraction Resin for Automated Process Monitoring of 90Sr

    SciTech Connect

    Devol, Timothy A.; Clements, John P.; Farawila, Anne F.; O'Hara, Matthew J.; Egorov, Oleg; Grate, Jay W.

    2009-11-30

    Characterization of SuperLig® 620 solid phase extraction resin was performed in order to develop an automated on-line process monitor for 90Sr. The main focus was on strontium separation from barium, with the goal of developing an automated separation process for 90Sr in high-level wastes. High-level waste contains significant 137Cs activity, of which 137mBa is of great concern as an interference to the quantification of strontium. In addition barium, yttrium and plutonium were studied as potential interferences to strontium uptake and detection. A number of complexants were studied in a series of batch Kd experiments, as SuperLig® 620 was not previously known to elute strontium in typical mineral acids. The optimal separation was found using a 2M nitric acid load solution with a strontium elution step of ~0.49M ammonium citrate and a barium elution step of ~1.8M ammonium citrate. 90Sr quantification of Hanford high-level tank waste was performed on a sequential injection analysis microfluidics system coupled to a flow-cell detector. The results of the on-line procedure are compared to standard radiochemical techniques in this paper.

  12. Chemical affinities between the solvent extractable and the bulk organic matter of fossil resin associated with an extinct podocarpaceae

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grimalt, J.O.; Simoneit, B.R.T.; Hatcher, P.G.

    1989-01-01

    Analyses by GC-MS and GC-IR of resin associated to Dacridiumites mawsonii deposits, an extinct species of Podocarpaceae occurring on the South Island of New Zealand during the Bortonian (Middle Eocene), have revealed that dehydroabietic acid is the predominant component of the solvent soluble fraction. Accordingly, this diterpenoid has been selected as the principal component material for spectroscopic comparison with the bulk resin using IR and CP/MAS 13C NMR. ?? 1989.

  13. Phosphonic acid based ion exchange resins

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E.P.; Alexandratos, S.D.; Gatrone, R.C.; Chiarizia, R.

    1994-01-25

    An ion exchange resin is described for extracting metal ions from a liquid waste stream. An ion exchange resin is prepared by copolymerizing a vinylidene diphosphonic acid with styrene, acrylonitrile and divinylbenzene. 9 figures.

  14. Phosphonic acid based ion exchange resins

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E. Philip (Naperville, IL); Alexandratos, Spiro D. (Knoxville, TN); Gatrone, Ralph C. (Naperville, IL); Chiarizia, Ronato (Oak Park, IL)

    1996-01-01

    An ion exchange resin for extracting metal ions from a liquid waste stream. An ion exchange resin is prepared by copolymerizing a vinylidene diphosphonic acid with styrene, acrylonitrile and divinylbenzene.

  15. Phosphonic acid based ion exchange resins

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E. Philip (Naperville, IL); Alexandratos, Spiro D. (Knoxville, TN); Gatrone, Ralph C. (Naperville, IL); Chiarizia, Ronato (Oak Park, IL)

    1994-01-01

    An ion exchange resin for extracting metal ions from a liquid waste stream. An ion exchange resin is prepared by copolymerizing a vinylidene disphosphonic acid with styrene, acrylonitrile and divinylbenzene.

  16. Single vial sample preparation of markers of nerve agents by dispersive solid-phase extraction using magnetic strong anion exchange resins.

    PubMed

    Singh, Varoon; Chinthakindi, Sridhar; Purohit, Ajay Kumar; Pardasani, Deepak; Tak, Vijay; Dubey, Devendra Kumar

    2015-05-22

    A sample preparation method involving extraction, enrichment and derivatization of acidic degradation products of nerve agents was developed using magnetic strong anion exchange resins (MSAX). The method was performed in a single vial involving magnetic dispersive solid phase extraction (MDSPE). Analytes were derivatized with N,O-bis(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide (BSTFA) in the presence of resins. MSAX were custom synthesized using Fe3O4 nanoparticles as core, 4-vinylpyridine-co-divinylbenzene as polymer shell and quaternary pyridinium function as anion-exchanger. Hydroxide ions were the counter-anions of MSAX to effectively capture the acidic alkyl alkylphosphonic acids (AAPAs) and alkylphosphonic acids (APAs). Quantitative measurements of analytes were performed in the selected ion monitoring mode of GC-MS. Full scan mode of analysis was followed for identifications. Under the optimized conditions analytes were recovered in the range of 39.7-98.8% (n=3, relative standard deviations (RSD) from 0.3 to 6.5%). Limits of detection (LODs) were in the range of 0.1-1.1ngmL(-1); and the linear dynamic range was 5-1000ngmL(-1) with r(2) of 0.9977-0.9769. Applicability of the method was tested with rain-, tap-, muddy-water and Organization for Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) Proficiency Test samples. PMID:25863924

  17. 21 CFR 173.25 - Ion-exchange resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...cubic foot per minute; or (B) Extracts of the resin will be found to contain...3-Dimethylaminopropylamine in Food Simulating Extracts of Ion Exchange Resins,” February...for the isolation and purification of protein concentrates and isolates under the...

  18. 21 CFR 173.25 - Ion-exchange resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...cubic foot per minute; or (B) Extracts of the resin will be found to contain...3-Dimethylaminopropylamine in Food Simulating Extracts of Ion Exchange Resins,” February...for the isolation and purification of protein concentrates and isolates under the...

  19. Chromium speciation in environmental samples by solid- phase extraction using lewatit ionac SR-7 resin and flame atomic absorption spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Sacmaçi, Serife; Kartal, Senol; Kumsuz, Sevim

    2014-01-01

    A new method for the speciation, preconcentration, and separation of Cr(lll) and Cr(VI) species in different matrixes was developed using SPE combined with flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Theprocedure is based on the exchange of Cr(VI) ions as CrO(4)(2-) with CI- ions on Lewatit lonac SR-7 ion-exchange resin. After the oxidation of Cr(lll) to CrO(4)(2-) ions by concentrated H202 in basic medium, the procedure was applied to the determination of total Cr. Cr(lll) was calculated as the difference between the total Cr and Cr(VI) contents. The influence of the analytical parameters including the pH of the solution, amount of resin, eluent type, sample volume, and flow rates of the sample and eluent solutions were investigated. No considerable interferences were observed from: other anions and cations investigated in the Cr speciation. The preconcentration factor was found to be 500. The LOD for Cr(VI), corresponding to three times the SD of the blank, was 0.003 ?g/L. The sorption capacity and binding equilibrium constant were calculated as 17.2 mg/g and 2.54 L/mg, respectively. The accuracy of the method was verified by analyzing certified reference materials. The proposed method was applied to the speciation of Cr species in real samples with satisfactory results. PMID:25632449

  20. Glyoxal-Urea-Formaldehyde Molecularly Imprinted Resin as Pipette Tip Solid-Phase Extraction Adsorbent for Selective Screening of Organochlorine Pesticides in Spinach.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chen; Lv, Tianwei; Yan, Hongyuan; Wu, Gaochan; Li, Haonan

    2015-11-01

    A new kind of glyoxal-urea-formaldehyde molecularly imprinted resin (GUF-MIR) was synthesized by a glyoxal-urea-formaldehyde (GUF) gel imprinting method with 4,4'-dichlorobenzhydrol as a dummy template. The obtained GUF-MIR was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and applied as a selective adsorbent of miniaturized pipet tip solid-phase extraction (PT-SPE) for the separation and extraction of three organochlorine pesticides (dicofol (DCF), dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethane (DDD), and tetradifon) in spinach samples. The proposed pretreatment procedures of spinach samples involved only 5.0 mg of GUF-MIR, 0.7 mL of MeOH-H2O (1:1, v/v) (washing solvent), and 0.6 mL of cyclohexane-ethyl acetate (9:1, v/v) (elution solvent). In comparison with other adsorbents (such as silica gel, C18, NH2-silica gel, and neutral alumina (Al2O3-N)), GUF-MIR showed higher adsorption and purification capacity for DCF, DDD, and tetradifon in aqueous solution. The average recoveries at three spiked levels ranged from 89.1% to 101.9% with relative standard deviations (RSDs) ? 7.1% (n = 3). The presented GUF-MIR-PT-SPE method combines the advantages of molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs), GUF, and PT-SPE and can be used in polar solutions with high affinity and selectivity to the analytes in complex samples. PMID:26449689

  1. Evalution of new cobalt dicarbollide resins and extractants for Cs and Sr removal from Hanford tank wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R.L.; Abney, K.D.; Hurlburt, P.K.; Melo, M.M.

    1996-10-01

    Schemes for processing Hanford tank wastes call for initial separation of the highly radioactive nuclides {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr. While cobalt dicarbollide solvent extraction has been extensively demonstrated on acidic Purex waste streams in Russia and the Czech Republic, the use of cobalt dicarbollide for treating highly alkaline tank wastes was not previously studied. Simulant studies on cobalt dicarbollide systems-solvent extraction, supported liquid membranes, and solid-sorbed materials-have shown selective uptake of cesium and/or strontium from Hanford-type wastes containing high concentrations of sodium. These studies culminated with testing of selected sorbers; for removal of Cs and Sr from actual samples of waste from Hanford tanks 101-SY and 103-SY. Performance of the cobalt dicarbollide systems is compared with other commercial and experimental absorbers.

  2. Determination of copper, lead and iron in water and food samples after column solid phase extraction using 1-phenylthiosemicarbazide on Dowex Optipore L-493 resin.

    PubMed

    Yildiz, Ozden; Citak, Demirhan; Tuzen, Mustafa; Soylak, Mustafa

    2011-02-01

    A novel solid phase extraction procedure for determination of copper, lead and iron in natural water and food samples has been established in the presented work. 1-Phenylthiosemicarbazide (1-PTSC) as ligand and Dowex Optipore L-493 resin as adsorbent were used in a mini chromatographic column. Various analytical conditions for the quantitative recoveries of analyte ions including pH, amounts of adsorbent, eluent, sample volume, etc. were investigated. The recovery values for analyte ions were higher than 95%. The determination of copper, lead and iron was performed by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The influences of some alkali, alkali earth and transition metals on the recoveries of analyte ions were investigated. The preconcentration factor was 62.5. The limit of detections of the understudied analytes (k=3, N=21) were 0.64 ?g L(-1) for copper, 0.55 ?g L(-1) for lead and 0.82 ?g L(-1) for iron. The relative standard deviation was found to be lower than 6%. The accuracy of the method was confirmed with certified reference material (GBW 07605 Tea). The method was successively applied for the determination of copper, lead and iron in water and some food samples including cheese, bread, baby food, pekmez, honey, milk and red wine after microwave digestion. PMID:21111769

  3. Method of purifying neutral organophosphorus extractants

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E. Philip (Naperville, IL); Gatrone, Ralph C. (Naperville, IL); Chiarizia, Renato (Rome, IT)

    1988-01-01

    A method for removing acidic contaminants from neutral mono and bifunctional organophosphorous extractants by contacting the extractant with a macroporous cation exchange resin in the H.sup.+ state followed by contact with a macroporous anion exchange resin in the OH.sup.- state, whereupon the resins take up the acidic contaminants from the extractant, purifying the extractant and improving its extraction capability.

  4. The Effect of Aloe Vera, Pomegranate Peel, Grape Seed Extract, Green Tea, and Sodium Ascorbate as Antioxidants on the Shear Bond Strength of Composite Resin to Home-bleached Enamel

    PubMed Central

    Sharafeddin, Farahnaz; Farshad, Farnaz

    2015-01-01

    Statement of the Problem Immediate application of bonding agent to home- bleached enamel leads to significant reduction in the shear bond strength of composite resin due to the residual oxygen. Different antioxidant agents may overcome this problem. Purpose This study aimed to assess the effect of different antioxidants on the shear bond strength of composite resin to home-bleached. Materials and Method Sixty extracted intact human incisors were embedded in cylindrical acrylic resin blocks (2.5×1.5 cm), with the coronal portion left out of the block. After bleaching the labial enamel surface with 15% carbamide peroxide, they were randomly divided into 6 groups (n=10). Before performing composite resin restoration by using a cylindrical Teflon mold (5×2 mm), each group was treated with one of the following antioxidants: 10% sodium ascorbate solution, 10% pomegranate peel solution, 10% grape seed extract, 5% green tea extract, and aloe vera leaf gel. One group was left untreated as the control. The shear bond strength of samples was tested under a universal testing machine (ZwickRoell Z020). The shear bond strength data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and post hoc Tukey tests (p< 0.05). Results No significant difference existed between the control and experimental groups. Moreover, there was no statistically significant difference between the effects of different antioxidants on the shear bond strength of bleached enamel. Conclusion Different antioxidants used in this study had the same effect on the shear bond strength of home-bleached enamel, and none of them caused a statistically significant increase in its value. PMID:26636116

  5. Extraction of inclusions from (sub)fossil resins, with description of a new species of stingless bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Meliponini) in Quaternary Colombian copal

    E-print Network

    Penney, David; Wadsworth, Caroline; Green, David I.; Kennedy, Sandra L.; Preziosi, Richard F.; Brown, Terence A.

    2013-05-09

    , the exact mode of preservation in amber is unknown, although it is commonly referred to as a kind of mummification process resulting from rapid fixation and dehydration of anything that became trapped in the original resin secretion. The process...

  6. Scintillating 99Tc Selective Ion Exchange Resins

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell Greenhalgh; Richard D. Tillotson

    2012-07-01

    Scintillating technetium (99Tc) selective ion exchange resins have been developed and evaluated for equilibrium capacities and detection efficiencies. These resins can be utilized for the in-situ concentration and detection of low levels of pertechnetate anions (99TcO4-) in natural waters. Three different polystyrene type resin support materials were impregnated with varying amounts of tricaprylmethylammonium chloride (Aliquat 336) extractant, several different scintillating fluors and wavelength shifters. The prepared resins were contacted batch-wise to equilibrium over a wide range of 99TcO4- concentrations in natural water. The measured capacities were used to develop Langmuir adsorption isotherms for each resin. 99Tc detection efficiencies were determined and up to 71.4 ± 2.6% was achieved with some resins. The results demonstrate that a low level detection limit for 99TcO4- in natural waters can be realized.

  7. Determining resin/fiber content of laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrard, G. G.; Houston, D. W.

    1979-01-01

    Article discusses procedure where hydrazine is used to extract graphite fibers from cured polyimide resin. Method does not attack graphite fibers and is faster than hot-concentrated-acid digestion process.

  8. 21 CFR 177.1585 - Polyestercarbonate resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...locations.html. (ii) A minimum weight-average molecular weight of 27,000, as determined by gel permeation chromatography using polystyrene standards. (2) Extractives limitations. The polyestercarbonate resins to be tested shall be...

  9. 21 CFR 177.1585 - Polyestercarbonate resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...locations.html. (ii) A minimum weight-average molecular weight of 27,000, as determined by gel permeation chromatography using polystyrene standards. (2) Extractives limitations. The polyestercarbonate resins to be tested shall be...

  10. Aluminium determination in environmental samples by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry after solid phase extraction on Amberlite XAD-1180/pyrocatechol violet chelating resin.

    PubMed

    Narin, Ibrahim; Tuzen, Mustafa; Soylak, Mustafa

    2004-05-28

    A chelating resin, pyrocatechol violet (PV) immobilised on an Amberlite XAD-1180 support, was prepared and its use for the atomic absorption spectrometric determination of aluminium was investigated. The XAD-1180-PV resin was characterised by infrared spectrometry and thermal gravimetric analysis. The optimum pH value for quantitative sorption is 8-9, and desorption can be achieved by using 5.0-10.0ml of 2M HCl. The effects of diverse ions on the sorption and recovery of aluminium have been studied. The capacity of sorbent was 6.45+/-0.59mgg(-1) Al XAD-1180-PV. Recoveries for aluminium from water samples were in the range 95-105%. The accuracy of procedure was confirmed by aluminium determination in certified reference materials. The method developed was applied with varying results to the analysis of natural water, haemodialysis fluids and microwave digested red wine samples from Tokat City. PMID:18969448

  11. Process for preparing phenolic formaldehyde resole resin products derived from fractionated fast-pyrolysis oils

    DOEpatents

    Chum, Helena L. (Arvada, CO); Kreibich, Roland E. (Auburn, WA)

    1992-01-01

    A process for preparing phenol-formaldehyde resole resins and adhesive compositions in which portions of the phenol normally contained in said resins are replaced by a phenol/neutral fractions extract obtained from fractionating fast-pyrolysis oils.

  12. Resin collection and social immunity in honey bees

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We determined if the use of resins, complex plant secretions with diverse antimicrobial properties, acts as a colony-level immune defense by honey bees. Colonies were enriched with extracts of Brazilian or Minnesotan propolis (a bee mixture of resins and wax) or were left as controls. We measured ge...

  13. Guayule resin detection and influence on guayule rubber

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Guayule (Parthenium argentatum) is a natural rubber (cis-1,4-polyisoprene) producing crop, native to North America. Guayule also produces organic resins, complex mixtures of terpenes, triglycerides, guayulins, triterpenoids and other components. During natural rubber extraction, guayule resins can b...

  14. Northwood Pulp Mill -Winter 1996 Resin Acids and 1994-1996 Chlorophenolic Compounds Summary Report

    E-print Network

    Estimated Daily Loading of Four Resin Acids Based on the Results of Three Laboratories 17 11 Pulp Mill#12;Northwood Pulp Mill - Winter 1996 Resin Acids and 1994-1996 Chlorophenolic Compounds Summary. METHODS 3 3.1 Effluent Samples 3 3.2 Resin Acids 4 3.2.1 Extraction Step 4 3.2.2 Derivatization Step 4 3

  15. Chelating ion exchange with macroreticular hydroxamic acid resins

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, R.J.

    1980-01-01

    The synthesis, reactions, and analytical applications of hydroxamic acids, including chelating resins with this functional group, are reviewed. A procedure for attaching N-phenyl hydroxamic acid groups to Amberlite XAD-4 is described. The extraction of 20 metal ions from 2 M hydrochloric acid by this resin is discussed. Conditions for the quantitative extraction and back-extraction of 9 ions are reported. Results are compared with work on solvent extraction with N-phenylbenzohydroxamic acid. Procedures for attaching N-methyl and N-unsubstituted hydroxamic acid groups to Amberlite XAD-4 are described. The N-phenyl, N-methyl, and N-unsubstituted hydroxamic acid resins are compared with respect to metal-ion complexation. The scope of applications for hydroxamic acid resins is investigated by studying the extraction of 19 metal ions as a function of pH. The resins are especially suitable for the extraction of zirconium(IV), titanium(IV), and uranium(IV) from strongly acidic solution. Aluminum(III) is separated from calcium and phosphate by extraction at pH 4. The use of the resins for the purification of reagents, concentration of trace constituents, and chromatographic separation is demonstrated.

  16. On-line preconcentration with a novel alkyl phosphinic acid extraction resin coupled with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for determination of trace rare earth elements in seawater.

    PubMed

    Fu, Qiang; Yang, Limin; Wang, Qiuquan

    2007-06-15

    A newly synthesized alkyl phosphinic acid resin (APAR) was used for on-line preconcentration of trace rare earth elements (REES, lanthanides including yttrium) and then determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. REEs in seawater could be on-line concentrated on the APAR packed column (4.6mm i.d.x50mm in length), and eluted from the column with 0.5mL 0.1molL(-1) nitric acid within 30s. An enrichment factor of nearly 400 was achieved for all REEs when the seawater sample volume was 200mL, while the matrix and coexisting spectrally interfering ions such as barium, tin and antimony could be simultaneously separated. The detection limits of this proposed method for REEs were in the range from 1.43pgL(-1) of holmium to 12.7pgL(-1) of lanthanum. The recoveries of REEs were higher than 97.9%, and the precision of the relative standard deviation (R.S.D., n=6) was less than 5%. The method has been applied to the determination of soluble REEs in seawater. PMID:19071752

  17. 21 CFR 177.1380 - Fluorocarbon resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...that have been ground or cut into small particles that will pass through a U.S. Standard Sieve No. 6 and that will be held on a U.S. Standard Sieve No. 10. (1) A 100-gram sample of the resin pellets, when extracted with 100...

  18. 21 CFR 177.1500 - Nylon resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...Fahrenheit) Solubilityin boiling 4.2N HC1 Viscosity No.(mL/g) Maximum extractable fractionin...the sample and multiplying by 100. (5) Viscosity number (VN). (i) The viscosity number (VN) for Nylon 6/12 resin in a...

  19. Polyester Resin Hazards

    PubMed Central

    Bourne, L. B.; Milner, F. J. M.

    1963-01-01

    Polyester resins are being increasingly used in industry. These resins require the addition of catalysts and accelerators. The handling of polyester resin system materials may give rise to skin irritations, allergic reactions, and burns. The burns are probably due to styrene and organic peroxides. Atmospheric pollution from styrene and explosion and fire risks from organic peroxides must be prevented. Where dimethylaniline is used scrupulous cleanliness and no-touch technique must be enforced. Handling precautions are suggested. Images PMID:14014495

  20. Delayed cure bismaleimide resins

    DOEpatents

    Not Available

    1982-08-12

    Prior art polybismaleimides begin to polymerize at or just above the melting point of the monomer. This patent describes new bismaleimide resins which have an increased pot life and provide longer time periods in which the monomer remains fluid. The resins can be polymerized into molded articles with a high uniformity of properties. (DLC)

  1. Incombustible resin composition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akima, T.

    1982-01-01

    Incombustible resin compositions composed of aromatic compounds were obtained through (1) combustion polymer material and (2) bisphenol A or halogenated bisphenol A and bisphenol A diglycidl ether or halogenated bisphenol A diglycidyl ether. The aromatic compound is an adduct of bifunctional phenols and bifunctional epoxy resins.

  2. Isolation of organic acids from large volumes of water by adsorption on macroporous resins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aiken, George R.

    1987-01-01

    Adsorption on synthetic macroporous resins, such as the Amberlite XAD series and Duolite A-7, is routinely used to isolate and concentrate organic acids from forge volumes of water. Samples as large as 24,500 L have been processed on site by using these resins. Two established extraction schemes using XAD-8 and Duolite A-7 resins are described. The choice of the appropriate resin and extraction scheme is dependent on the organic solutes of interest. The factors that affect resin performance, selectivity, and capacity for a particular solute are solution pH, resin surface area and pore size, and resin composition. The logistical problems of sample handling, filtration, and preservation are also discussed.

  3. Biocidal quaternary ammonium resin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janauer, G. E.

    1983-01-01

    Activated carbon (charcoal) and polymeric resin sorbents are widely used in the filtration and treatment of drinking water, mainly to remove dissolved organic and inorganic impurities and to improve the taste. Earlier hopes that activated carbon might "disinfect' water proved to be unfounded. The feasibility of protecting against microbial infestation in charcoal and resin beds such as those to be incorporated into total water reuse systems in spacecraft was investigated. The biocidal effect of IPCD (insoluable polymeric contact disinfectants) in combination with a representative charcoal was assessed. The ion exchange resins (IPCD) were shown to adequately protect charcoal and ion exchange beds.

  4. [Radiopacity of composite resins].

    PubMed

    Tamburús, J R

    1990-01-01

    The author studied the radiopacity of six composite resins, submitted to radiographic examination in standardized conditions, only with kilovoltage variations. Along with resins it was radiographed an aluminium penetrometer, to compare their optical densities. The results showed that kilovoltagem variations interfered in optical densities of the resins, being more pronounced in 50-55, 55-60 and 60-65 kilovoltages. Despite this, the relations of optical densities as compared with that of penetrometer steps kept unaltered most fo the kilovoltages used. PMID:2135338

  5. Thermally stable laminating resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, R. J.; Vaughan, R. W.; Burns, E. A.

    1972-01-01

    Improved thermally stable laminating resins were developed based on the addition-type pyrolytic polymerization. Detailed monomer and polymer synthesis and characterization studies identified formulations which facilitate press molding processing and autoclave fabrication of glass and graphite fiber reinforced composites. A specific resin formulation, termed P10P was utilized to prepare a Courtaulds HMS reinforced simulated airfoil demonstration part by an autoclave molding process.

  6. 40 CFR 414.50 - Applicability; description of the thermosetting resins subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Fumaric Acid Polyesters *Furan Resins Glyoxal-Urea Formaldehyde Textile Resin *Ketone-Formaldehyde Resins *Melamine Resins *Phenolic Resins *Polyacetal Resins Polyacrylamide *Polyurethane Prepolymers *Polyurethane Resins...

  7. 40 CFR 414.50 - Applicability; description of the thermosetting resins subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Fumaric Acid Polyesters *Furan Resins Glyoxal-Urea Formaldehyde Textile Resin *Ketone-Formaldehyde Resins *Melamine Resins *Phenolic Resins *Polyacetal Resins Polyacrylamide *Polyurethane Prepolymers *Polyurethane Resins...

  8. Resin Infiltration into Differentially Extended Experimental Carious Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Arnold, Wolfgang H; Bachstaedter, Lena; Benz, Korbinian; Naumova, Ella A

    2014-01-01

    Resin infiltration of initial caries lesions is a novel method of caries therapy. However, it has some limitations. Therefore, further experimental studies are needed to improve resin infiltration. It was the aim of this investigation to study resin infiltra-tion into different experimental carious lesions. Caries-free extracted human molars and premolars were demineralized for 3, 6, 9 and 12 days and infiltrated with resin. Prior to infiltration, the teeth were incubated with sodium fluorescein. After em-bedding, serial sections were cut through the experimental lesions, and the penetration of the resin was measured with fluo-rescence microscopy. Two infiltrated teeth from each time interval were not embedded and cut. Infiltration of the resin was then studied with EDS element analysis. The results showed that with increasing demineralization time, the lesion expansion was also increasing, and the resin infiltration was always almost complete. From these results it can be concluded that artifi-cial standardized caries-like lesions are suitable for experimental studies of resin infiltration. PMID:26019729

  9. Effects of Guayule Resin on Termite Feeding Activity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Guayule, a desert adapted plant, yields hypoallergenic rubber that is used primarily by the medical profession for rubber gloves, catheters, etc. Terpene resin, a co-product from guayule that can be extracted prior to rubber extraction, has been found to have termiticidal properties. As such, this r...

  10. Graphite fiber reinforced thermoplastic resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Novak, R. C.

    1975-01-01

    Mechanical properties of neat resin samples and graphite fiber reinforced samples of thermoplastic resins were characterized with particular emphasis directed to the effects of environmental exposure (humidity, temperature and ultraviolet radiation). Tensile, flexural, interlaminar shear, creep and impact strengths were measured for polysulfone, polyarylsulfone and a state-of-the-art epoxy resin samples. In general, the thermoplastic resins exhibited environmental degradation resistance equal to or superior to the reference epoxy resin. Demonstration of the utility and quality of a graphite/thermoplastic resin system was accomplished by successfully thermoforming a simulated compressor blade and a fan exit guide vane.

  11. Headspace solid phase microextraction for screening for the presence of resins in Egyptian archaeological samples.

    PubMed

    Hamm, Sandrine; Bleton, Jean; Tchapla, Alain

    2004-02-01

    The aim of this study was to use headspace solid phase microextraction (SPME) to reveal the presence of resin in archaeological samples, such as mummification balms, from ancient Egypt. Experiments were first performed with fresh resins of known origin. The SPME fibre readily extracted mono- and sesquiterpenes and, to a lesser extent, diterpenes. Using mass spectra and retention indices of constitutive compounds, qualitative analysis of the volatile fraction allowed us to differentiate resins or gum-resins such as myrrh, olibanum, galbanum, labdanum, mastic, and conifer resins. SPME was then successfully applied to archaeological samples from ancient Egypt in which the presence of resins was detected. Volatile components were desorbed and trapped according to the same SPME procedure as was applied to fresh resins, after a sample preparation consisting of a fine grinding. PMID:15334910

  12. Method for removing contaminants from plastic resin

    DOEpatents

    Bohnert, George W. (Harrisonville, MO); Hand, Thomas E. (Lee's Summit, MO); DeLaurentiis, Gary M. (Jamestown, CA)

    2008-12-09

    A resin recycling method that produces essentially contaminant-free synthetic resin material in an environmentally safe and economical manner. The method includes receiving the resin in container form. The containers are then ground into resin particles. The particles are exposed to a solvent, the solvent contacting the resin particles and substantially removing contaminants on the resin particles. After separating the particles and the resin, a solvent removing agent is used to remove any residual solvent remaining on the resin particles after separation.

  13. In vitro comparison of the cytotoxicity of acetal resin, heat-polymerized resin, and auto-polymerized resin as denture base materials.

    PubMed

    Ata, Secil Ozkan; Yavuzyilmaz, Hüsnü

    2009-11-01

    This in vitro study aims to evaluate three different base materials (acetal, heat-polymerized, and auto-polymerized resins) on L-929 mouse fibroblast cells over 1 h-, 1-, 3-, 5-, 7-day periods. The hypothesis was that acetal resin would show higher cytotoxic effect than heat-polymerized and auto-polymerized acrylic resins, as it seems possible that residual formaldehyde might be leaching from the material into the cell culture medium. The samples were produced according to the manufacturer's protocol. Then they were placed in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium/Ham's F12 (DMEM/F12) for 1 h, 1, 3, 5, 7 days. After the incubation periods, cytotoxicity of the extracts to cultured fibroblasts (L-929) was measured by MTT assay. The degree of cytotoxicity of each sample was determined according to the reference value represented by the cells with a control. Statistical significance was determined by one-way ANOVA. Tukey and Tamhane tests were used as a post-hoc method to determine differences among the groups. Statistically significant difference was found among test groups at all time incubation periods (p = 0.000). The auto-polymerized resin performed higher cytotoxic effect than heat-polymerized resin and it was statistically significant at 1-day period (p < 0.05). The highest cytotoxic effect of acetal resin was observed at 5-day incubation period. In conclusion, the hypothesis was verified, since acetal resin showed more cytotoxic effect on the 3rd, 5th, and 7th days than heat- and auto-polymerized resins. Cell survival rates (% of control) of acetal resin were 58, 54, and 60%, respectively. PMID:19637373

  14. Determination of Human-Health Pharmaceuticals in Filtered Water by Chemically Modified Styrene-Divinylbenzene Resin-Based Solid-Phase Extraction and High-Performance Liquid Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Furlong, Edward T.; Werner, Stephen L.; Anderson, Bruce D.; Cahill, Jeffery D.

    2008-01-01

    In 1999, the Methods Research and Development Program of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Laboratory began the process of developing a method designed to identify and quantify human-health pharmaceuticals in four filtered water-sample types: reagent water, ground water, surface water minimally affected by human contributions, and surface water that contains a substantial fraction of treated wastewater. Compounds derived from human pharmaceutical and personal-care product use, which enter the environment through wastewater discharge, are a newly emerging area of concern; this method was intended to fulfill the need for a highly sensitive and highly selective means to identify and quantify 14 commonly used human pharmaceuticals in filtered-water samples. The concentrations of 12 pharmaceuticals are reported without qualification; the concentrations of two pharmaceuticals are reported as estimates because long-term reagent-spike sample recoveries fall below acceptance criteria for reporting concentrations without qualification. The method uses a chemically modified styrene-divinylbenzene resin-based solid-phase extraction (SPE) cartridge for analyte isolation and concentration. For analyte detection and quantitation, an instrumental method was developed that used a high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS) system to separate the pharmaceuticals of interest from each other and coextracted material. Immediately following separation, the pharmaceuticals are ionized by electrospray ionization operated in the positive mode, and the positive ions produced are detected, identified, and quantified using a quadrupole mass spectrometer. In this method, 1-liter water samples are first filtered, either in the field or in the laboratory, using a 0.7-micrometer (um) nominal pore size glass-fiber filter to remove suspended solids. The filtered samples then are passed through cleaned and conditioned SPE cartridges at a rate of about 15 milliliters per minute. Excess water is eliminated from the cartridge sorbent bed by passing air through the cartridges, and the analytes retained on the SPE bed are eluted from the cartridge sequentially, first with methanol, followed by acidified methanol, and combined in collection tubes. This sample extract then is reduced from about 10 milliliters (mL) to about 0.1 mL (or 100 microliters) under a stream of purified nitrogen gas with the collection tubes in a heated (40 degrees C) water bath. The reduced extracts then are fortified with an internal standard solution (when using internal standard quantitation), brought to a final volume of 1 mL with an aqueous ammonium formate buffer solution, and filtered through a 0.2-um Teflon syringe filter as they are transferred into vials for instrumental analysis. Instrumental analysis by the HPLC/MS procedure permits determination of individual pharmaceutical concentrations from 0.005 to 1.0 microgram per liter, based on the lowest and the highest calibration standards routinely used. The reporting levels for this method are compound dependent, and have been experimentally determined based on the precision of quantitation of compounds from eight fortified organic-free water samples in single-operator experiments. The method detection limits and interim reporting levels for the compounds determined by this method were calculated from recoveries of the pharmaceuticals from reagent-water samples amended at 0.05 microgram per liter, and ranged between 0.0069 and 0.0142 microgram per liter, and 0.015 and 0.10 microgram per liter, respectively. Concentrations for 12 compounds are reported without qualification, and for two compounds are reported as qualified estimates. After initial development, the method was applied to more than 1,800 surface-, ground-, and wastewater samples from 2002 to 2005 and documented in a number of published studies. This research application of the method provided the opportunity to collect a l

  15. Glycoprotein Enrichment Resin User Manual

    E-print Network

    Lebendiker, Mario

    Glycoprotein Enrichment Resin User Manual Cat. No. 635647 PT4050-1 (PR912675) Published 14 January Laboratories, Inc. Version No. PR912675 ATakara Bio Company 2 Glycoprotein Enrichment Resin User Manual I.................................................................................................4 IV. Glycoprotein Enrichment

  16. Glutathione Resins I. List of Components

    E-print Network

    Lebendiker, Mario

    /Loading Buffer (1.4 mM NaCl; 100 mM Na2 HPO4 ; 18 mM KH2 PO4 , pH 7.5): To prepare the extraction/loading buffer: · Extraction buffer (loading): 140 mM NaCl; 10 mM Na2 HPO4 ; 1.8 mM KH2 PO4 (pH 7.5). · Elution buffer: 10 m HPO4 ; 1.8 mM KH2 PO4 (pH 7.5). · Alumina (Sigma, #A-2039) GlutathioneResinProtocol BD Biosciences

  17. Cementation of residue ion exchange resins at Rocky Flats

    SciTech Connect

    Dustin, D.F.; Beckman, T.D.; Madore, C.M.

    1998-03-03

    Ion exchange resins have been used to purify nitric acid solutions of plutonium at Rocky Flats since the 1950s. Spent ion exchange resins were retained for eventual recovery of residual plutonium, typically by incineration followed by the aqueous extraction of plutonium from the resultant ash. The elimination of incineration as a recovery process in the late 1980s and the absence of a suitable alternative process for plutonium recovery from resins led to a situation where spent ion exchange resins were simply placed into temporary storage. This report describes the method that Rocky Flats is currently using to stabilize residue ion exchange resins. The objective of the resin stabilization program is: (1) to ensure their safety during interim storage at the site, and (2) to prepare them for ultimate shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in New Mexico. Included in the discussion is a description of the safety concerns associated with ion exchange resins, alternatives considered for their stabilization, the selection of the preferred treatment method, the means of implementing the preferred option, and the progress to date.

  18. Resin impregnation process for producing a resin-fiber composite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmer, Raymond J. (Inventor); Moore, William E. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    Process for vacuum impregnation of a dry fiber reinforcement with a curable resin to produce a resin-fiber composite, by drawing a vacuum to permit flow of curable liquid resin into and through a fiber reinforcement to impregnate same and curing the resin-impregnated fiber reinforcement at a sufficient temperature and pressure to effect final curing. Both vacuum and positive pressure, e.g. autoclave pressure, are applied to the dry fiber reinforcement prior to application of heat and prior to any resin flow to compact the dry fiber reinforcement, and produce a resin-fiber composite of reduced weight, thickness and resin content, and improved mechanical properties. Preferably both a vacuum and positive pressure, e.g. autoclave pressure, are also applied during final curing.

  19. Nontoxic Resins Advance Aerospace Manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    The 2008 NASA Commercial Invention of the Year, PETI-330, is a polyimide matrix resin that performs well at high temperatures and is easily processed into composites in a simple, short curing cycle. Invented by scientists at Langley Research Center, PETI-330 is now licensed to Ube Industries, based in Japan with its American headquarters in New York. In addition to being durable and lightweight, the resin is also nontoxic, which makes it safe for workers to handle. PETI-330 was created specifically for heat-resistant composites formed with resin transfer molding and resin infusion, which formerly could only be used with low temperature resin systems.

  20. Flame Retardant Epoxy Resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, C. M.; Smith, J. G., Jr.; Connell, J. W.; Hergenrother, P. M.; Lyon, R. E.

    2004-01-01

    As part of a program to develop fire resistant exterior composite structures for future subsonic commercial aircraft, flame retardant epoxy resins are under investigation. Epoxies and their curing agents (aromatic diamines) containing phosphorus were synthesized and used to prepare epoxy formulations. Phosphorus was incorporated within the backbone of the epoxy resin and not used as an additive. The resulting cured epoxies were characterized by thermogravimetric analysis, propane torch test, elemental analysis and microscale combustion calorimetry. Several formulations showed excellent flame retardation with phosphorous contents as low as 1.5% by weight. The fracture toughness of plaques of several cured formulations was determined on single-edge notched bend specimens. The chemistry and properties of these new epoxy formulations are discussed.

  1. Resin composite restorative materials.

    PubMed

    Ilie, N; Hickel, R

    2011-06-01

    This paper surveys the most important developments in resin-based dental composites and focuses on the deficits (e.g. polymerization shrinkage) and strengths of the materials and their clinical implications. Moreover, differences between composite categories, such as hybrid, nanohybrid, microfilled, packable, ormocer-based, silorane-based, polyacid-modified composites (compomers) and flowable composites are highlighted, especially in view of their mechanical behaviour. In addition to the classical dimethacrylate-based composites, special attention is given to alternative monomers, such as siloranes, ormocers or high-molecular-weight dimethacrylate monomers (e.g. dimer acid-based dimethacrylates and tricyclodecane (TCD)-urethane), analysing their advantages, behaviour and abilities. Finally, the paper attempts to establish the needs and wishes of clinicians for further development of resin-based composites. PMID:21564116

  2. System for removing contaminants from plastic resin

    DOEpatents

    Bohnert, George W. (Harrisonville, MO); Hand, Thomas E. (Lee's Summit, MO); DeLaurentiis, Gary M. (Jamestown, CA)

    2010-11-23

    A resin recycling system that produces essentially contaminant-free synthetic resin material in an environmentally safe and economical manner. The system includes receiving the resin in container form. A grinder grinds the containers into resin particles. The particles are exposed to a solvent in one or more solvent wash vessels, the solvent contacting the resin particles and substantially removing contaminants on the resin particles. A separator is used to separate the resin particles and the solvent. The resin particles are then placed in solvent removing element where they are exposed to a solvent removing agent which removes any residual solvent remaining on the resin particles after separation.

  3. Advanced thermoplastic resins, phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, C. L.; Hill, S. G.; Falcone, A.; Gerken, N. T.

    1991-01-01

    Eight thermoplastic polyimide resin systems were evaluated as composite matrix materials. Two resins were selected for more extensive mechanical testing and both were versions of LaRC-TPI (Langley Research Center - Thermoplastic Polyimide). One resin was made with LaRC-TPI and contained 2 weight percent of a di(amic acid) dopant as a melt flow aid. The second system was a 1:1 slurry of semicrystalline LaRC-TPI powder in a polyimidesulfone resin diglyme solution. The LaRC-TPI powder melts during processing and increases the melt flow of the resin. Testing included dynamic mechanical analysis, tension and compression testing, and compression-after-impact testing. The test results demonstrated that the LaRC-TPI resins have very good properties compared to other thermoplastics, and that they are promising matrix materials for advanced composite structures.

  4. 21 CFR 177.2415 - Poly(aryletherketone) resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... of hydroquinone and 4,4?-difluorobenzophenone, and have a minimum weight-average molecular weight of... a minimum mid-point glass transition temperature of 142 °C, as determined by differential scanning... percent by weight as a residual solvent in the finished basic resin. (c) Extractive limitations....

  5. 21 CFR 177.2415 - Poly(aryletherketone) resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... of hydroquinone and 4,4?-difluorobenzophenone, and have a minimum weight-average molecular weight of... a minimum mid-point glass transition temperature of 142 °C, as determined by differential scanning... percent by weight as a residual solvent in the finished basic resin. (c) Extractive limitations....

  6. 21 CFR 177.2415 - Poly(aryletherketone) resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... of hydroquinone and 4,4?-difluorobenzophenone, and have a minimum weight-average molecular weight of... a minimum mid-point glass transition temperature of 142 °C, as determined by differential scanning... percent by weight as a residual solvent in the finished basic resin. (c) Extractive limitations....

  7. 21 CFR 177.2415 - Poly(aryletherketone) resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... of hydroquinone and 4,4?-difluorobenzophenone, and have a minimum weight-average molecular weight of... a minimum mid-point glass transition temperature of 142 °C, as determined by differential scanning... percent by weight as a residual solvent in the finished basic resin. (c) Extractive limitations....

  8. Retrofit for Plastic Resin Driers 

    E-print Network

    Joseph, B.; Thuro, G.

    1991-01-01

    RESIN DRIERS BABU JOSEPH PH.D. Supervising Engineer Southern California Edison Company, Irwindale, California GEORGE THURO Thuro, & Associates, Costa Mesa, California Plastic resins used in injection molding have to be dried to specified..., and vary depending on the resin, the mold and the molding process. Typically the drier is set for the worst possible conditions. So there are opportunities for energy savings. This study conducted by Southern California Edison Company has identified...

  9. Vitrification of ion exchange resins

    DOEpatents

    Cicero-Herman, Connie A. (Aiken, SC); Workman, Rhonda Jackson (North Augusta, SC)

    2001-01-01

    The present invention relates to vitrification of ion exchange resins that have become loaded with hazardous or radioactive wastes, in a way that produces a homogenous and durable waste form and reduces the disposal volume of the resin. The methods of the present invention involve directly adding borosilicate glass formers and an oxidizer to the ion exchange resin and heating the mixture at sufficient temperature to produce homogeneous glass.

  10. Phosphorus-containing bisimide resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Varma, I. K.; Fohlen, G. M.; Parker, J. A. (inventors)

    1981-01-01

    The production of fire-resistant resins particularly useful for making laminates with inorganic fibers such as graphite fibers is discussed. The resins are by (1) condensation of an ethylenically unsaturated cyclic anhydride with a bis(diaminophenyl) phosphine oxide, and (2) by addition polymerization of the bisimide so obtained. Up to about 50%, on a molar basis, of benzophenonetetracarboxylic acid anhydride can be substituted for some of the cyclic anhydride to alter the properties of the products. Graphite cloth laminates made with these resins show 800 C char yields greater than 70% by weight in nitrogen. Limiting oxygen indexes of more than 100% are determined for these resins.

  11. 21 CFR 872.3140 - Resin applicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3140 Resin applicator. (a) Identification. A resin applicator is a brushlike device intended for use in spreading dental resin on a tooth during application...

  12. 21 CFR 178.3930 - Terpene resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Terpene resins. 178.3930 Section 178.3930 Food...Certain Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3930 Terpene resins. The terpene resins identified in paragraph (a) of...

  13. 21 CFR 178.3930 - Terpene resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Terpene resins. 178.3930 Section 178.3930 Food...Certain Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3930 Terpene resins. The terpene resins identified in paragraph (a) of...

  14. 40 CFR 414.50 - Applicability; description of the thermosetting resins subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the products classified under SIC 28214 thermosetting resins including those resins and resin groups listed below. Product groups are indicated with an asterisk (*). *Alkyd Resins Dicyanodiamide Resin *Epoxy Resins *Fumaric Acid Polyesters *Furan Resins Glyoxal-Urea Formaldehyde Textile Resin...

  15. 40 CFR 414.50 - Applicability; description of the thermosetting resins subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the products classified under SIC 28214 thermosetting resins including those resins and resin groups listed below. Product groups are indicated with an asterisk (*). *Alkyd Resins Dicyanodiamide Resin *Epoxy Resins *Fumaric Acid Polyesters *Furan Resins Glyoxal-Urea Formaldehyde Textile Resin...

  16. Refining of fossil resin flotation concentrate from western coal. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, G.F.; Miller, J.D.

    1995-02-16

    During the past several years, significant research efforts have been made to develop process technology for the selective flotation of fossil resin from western coals. As a result of these efforts, several new flotation technologies have been developed. Operation of a proof-of-concept continuous flotation circuit showed the selective flotation process to be sufficiently profitable to justify the development of a fossil resin industry. However, little attention has been given to the refining of the fossil resin flotation concentrate although solvent refining is a critical step for the fossil resin to become a marketable product. In view of this situation, DOE funded this two-year project to evaluate the following aspects of the fossil resin refining technology: 1) Characterization of the fossil resin flotation concentrate and its refined products; 2) Kinetics of fossil resin extraction; 3) Effects of operating variables on solvent extraction; 4) Extraction solvents; 5) Proof-of-concept continuous refining tests; and 6) Technical and economic analysis. The results from this research effort have led to the following conclusions: Hexane- or heptane-refined fossil resin has a light-yellow color, a melting point of 140 - 142{degrees}C, a density of 1.034 gram/cm, and good solubility in nonpolar solvents. Among the four solvents evaluated (hexane, heptane, toluene and ethyl acetate), hexane is the most appropriate solvent based on overall technical and economic considerations. Batch extraction tests and kinetic studies suggest that the main interaction between the resin and the solvent is expected to be the forces associated with solvation phenomena. Temperature has the most significant effect on extraction rate. With hexane as the solvent, a recovery of 90% cam be achieved at 50{degrees}C and 10% solids concentration with moderate agitation for 1 hour.

  17. Indirect resin composites

    PubMed Central

    Nandini, Suresh

    2010-01-01

    Aesthetic dentistry continues to evolve through innovations in bonding agents, restorative materials, and conservative preparation techniques. The use of direct composite restoration in posterior teeth is limited to relatively small cavities due to polymerization stresses. Indirect composites offer an esthetic alternative to ceramics for posterior teeth. This review article focuses on the material aspect of the newer generation of composites. This review was based on a PubMed database search which we limited to peer-reviewed articles in English that were published between 1990 and 2010 in dental journals. The key words used were ‘indirect resin composites,’ composite inlays,’ and ‘fiber-reinforced composites.’ PMID:21217945

  18. Cobalt dicarbollide containing polymer resins for cesium and strontium uptake

    SciTech Connect

    Steckle, W.P. Jr.; Duke, J.R. Jr.; Jorgensen, B.S.

    1994-04-01

    Cobalt(III) dicarbollide [(C{sub 2}B{sub 9}H{sub 11}){sub 2}Co]{sup {minus}} (CB{sub 2}) is being investigated for Cs and Sr extraction from nuclear waste. Because organic solvents should be avoided, bonding of CB{sub 2} to resins were investigated. CB{sub 2} was successfully covalently bonded to polystyrene and polybenzimidazole resins. Tetrahydrofuran was the most efficient solvent for grafting. Analysis is being performed, and separation coefficients are also being determined. 3 figs, 8 refs.

  19. K Basin sludge/resin bead separation test report

    SciTech Connect

    Squier, D.M.

    1998-08-25

    The K Basin sludge is an accumulation of fuel element corrosion products, organic and inorganic ion exchange materials, canister gasket materials, iron and aluminum corrosion products, sand, dirt and minor amounts of other organic material. The sludge will be collected and treated for storage and eventual disposal. This process will remove the large solid materials by a 1/4 inch screen. The screened material will be subjected to nitric acid in a chemical treatment process. The organic ion exchange resin beads produce undesirable chemical reactions with the nitric acid. The resin beads must be removed from the bulk material and treated by another process. An effective bead separation method must extract 95% of the resin bead mass without entraining more than 5% of the other sludge component mass. The test plan I-INF-2729, ``Organic Ion Exchange Resin Separation Methods Evaluation,`` proposed the evaluation of air lift, hydro cyclone, agitated slurry and elutriation resin bead separation methods. This follows the testing strategy outlined in section 4.1 of BNF-2574, ``Testing Strategy to Support the Development of K Basins Sludge Treatment Process``. Engineering study BNF-3128, ``Separation of Organic Ion Exchange Resins from Sludge,`` Rev. 0, focused the evaluation tests on a method that removed the fine sludge particles by a sieve and then extracted the beads by means of a elutriation column. Ninety-nine percent of the resin beads are larger than 125 microns and 98.5 percent are 300 microns and larger. Particles smaller than 125 microns make up the largest portion of sludge in the K Basins. Eliminating a large part of the sludge`s non-bead component will reduce the quantity that is lifted with the resin beads in the elutriation column. Resin bead particle size distribution measurements are given in Appendix A The Engineering Testing Laboratory conducted measurements of a elutriation column`s ability to extract resin beads from a sieved, non-radioactive sludge simulant. A elutriation column uses a constant velocity upward flow stream to segregate materials. In simplistic terms, the dense particles fall to the column`s bottom while the flow lifts less dense particles to the column`s top. A particle can be streamlined or have a high drag profile; this factor also influences the lift or fall of a particle exposed to the column flow. The sludge components that lift or fall are determined by the fluid velocity. The column flow velocity needed to lift the bulk of the resin beads will also lift other, non-bead, sludge components. Resin bead treatment and disposal are complicated by large quantities of non-bead material. Tests are necessary to determine a column flow velocity that will collect the bulk of the resin beads and the amount of non-bead sludge components that are also collected.

  20. Resin composite repair: Quantitative microleakage evaluation of resin-resin and resin-tooth interfaces with different surface treatments

    PubMed Central

    Celik, Cigdem; Cehreli, Sevi Burcak; Arhun, Neslihan

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim was to evaluate the effect of different adhesive systems and surface treatments on the integrity of resin-resin and resin-tooth interfaces after partial removal of preexisting resin composites using quantitative image analysis for microleakage testing protocol. Materials and Methods: A total of 80 human molar teeth were restored with either of the resin composites (Filtek Z250/GrandioSO) occlusally. The teeth were thermocycled (1000×). Mesial and distal 1/3 parts of the restorations were removed out leaving only middle part. One side of the cavity was finished with course diamond bur and the other was air-abraded with 50 ?m Al2O3. They were randomly divided into four groups (n = 10) to receive: Group 1: Adper Single Bond 2; Group 2: All Bond 3; Group 3: ClearfilSE; Group 4: BeautiBond, before being repaired with the same resin composite (Filtek Z250). The specimens were re-thermocycled (1000×), sealed with nail varnish, stained with 0.5% basic fuchsin, sectioned mesiodistally and photographed digitally. The extent of dye penetration was measured by image analysis software (ImageJ) for both bur-finished and air-abraded surfaces at resin-tooth and resin-resin interfaces. The data were analyzed statistically. Results: BeautiBond exhibited the most microleakage at every site. Irrespective of adhesive and initial composite type, air-abrasion showed less microleakage except for BeautiBond. The type of initial repaired restorative material did not affect the microleakage. BeautiBond adhesive may not be preferred in resin composite repair in terms of microleakage prevention. Conclusions: Surface treatment with air-abrasion produced the lowest microleakage scores, independent of the adhesive systems and the pre-existing resin composite type. Pre-existing composite type does not affect the microleakage issue. All-in-one adhesive resin (BeautiBond) may not be preferred in resin composite repair in terms of microleakage prevention. PMID:25713491

  1. Resole resin products derived from fractionated organic and aqueous condensates made by fast-pyrolysis of biomass materials

    DOEpatents

    Chum, Helena L. (8448 Allison Ct., Arvada, CO 80005); Black, Stuart K. (4976 Raleigh St., Denver, CO 80212); Diebold, James P. (57 N. Yank Way, Lakewood, CO 80228); Kreibich, Roland E. (4201 S. 344th, Auburn, WA 98001)

    1993-01-01

    A process for preparing phenol-formaldehyde resole resins by fractionating organic and aqueous condensates made by fast-pyrolysis of biomass materials while using a carrier gas to move feed into a reactor to produce phenolic-containing/neutrals in which portions of the phenol normally contained in said resins are replaced by a phenolic/neutral fractions extract obtained by fractionation.

  2. Resole resin products derived from fractionated organic and aqueous condensates made by fast-pyrolysis of biomass materials

    DOEpatents

    Chum, H.L.; Black, S.K.; Diebold, J.P.; Kreibich, R.E.

    1993-08-10

    A process for preparing phenol-formaldehyde resole resins by fractionating organic and aqueous condensates made by fast-pyrolysis of biomass materials while using a carrier gas to move feed into a reactor to produce phenolic-containing/neutrals in which portions of the phenol normally contained in said resins are replaced by a phenolic/neutral fractions extract obtained by fractionation.

  3. Effects of 'resin-compatible' cavity varnishes on composite resin microhardness.

    PubMed

    Chan, K C; Swift, E J

    1992-06-01

    Although the use of cavity varnishes with composite resins has traditionally been discouraged, several "resin-compatible" varnishes are currently available. This in vitro study evaluated the effects of resin-compatible cavity varnishes on a hybrid composite resin. The results of the study indicate that these varnishes soften the composite resin in contact with varnished dentin. PMID:1403861

  4. Chromatography resin support

    DOEpatents

    Dobos, James G. (North Augusta, SC)

    2002-01-01

    An apparatus and method of using an improved chromatography resin support is disclosed. The chromatography support platform is provided by a stainless steel hollow cylinder adapted for being inserted into a chromatography column. An exterior wall of the stainless steel cylinder defines a groove for carrying therein an "O"-ring. The upper surface of the stainless steel column is covered by a fine stainless steel mesh welded to the edges of the stainless steel cylinder. When placed upon a receiving ledge defined within a chromatography column, the "O"-ring provides a fluid tight seal with the inner edge wall of the chromatography cylinder. The stainless steel mesh supports the chromatography matrix and provides a back flushable support which is economical and simple to construct.

  5. Liquid chromatographic extraction medium

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E.P.; Dietz, M.L.

    1994-09-13

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for extracting strontium and technetium values from biological, industrial and environmental sample solutions using a chromatographic column. An extractant medium for the column is prepared by generating a solution of a diluent containing a Crown ether and dispersing the solution on a resin substrate material. The sample solution is highly acidic and is introduced directed to the chromatographic column and strontium or technetium is eluted using deionized water. 1 fig.

  6. Liquid chromatographic extraction medium

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E. Philip (Naperville, IL); Dietz, Mark L. (Evanston, IL)

    1994-01-01

    A method and apparatus for extracting strontium and technetium values from biological, industrial and environmental sample solutions using a chromatographic column is described. An extractant medium for the column is prepared by generating a solution of a diluent containing a Crown ether and dispersing the solution on a resin substrate material. The sample solution is highly acidic and is introduced directed to the chromatographic column and strontium or technetium is eluted using deionized water.

  7. Resin/graphite fiber composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cavano, P. J.; Jones, R. J.; Vaughan, R. W.

    1972-01-01

    High temperature resin matrices suitable for use in advanced graphite fiber composites for jet engine applications were evaluated. A series of planned, sequential screening experiments with resin systems in composite form were performed to reduce the number of candidates to a single A-type polyimide resin that repetitively produced void-free, high strength and modulus composites acceptable for use in the 550 F range for 1000 hours. An optimized processing procedure was established for this system. Extensive mechanical property studies characterized this single system, at room temperature, 500 F, 550 F and 600 F, for various exposure times.

  8. Grafted methylenediphosphonate ion exchange resins

    DOEpatents

    Trochimcznk, A.W.; Gatrone, R.C.; Alexandratos, S.; Horwitz, E.P.

    1997-04-08

    An ion exchange resin is disclosed that is comprised of an insoluble copolymer onto which are grafted pendent groups that provide 1.0 to about 10 mmol/g dry weight phosphorus. The pendent groups have the formula as shown in the patent wherein R is hydrogen, a cation or mixtures thereof; and R{sup 1} is hydrogen or an C{sub 1}-C{sub 2} alkyl group. The resin also contains zero to about 5 mmol/g dry weight of pendent aromatic sulfonate groups. Processes for making and using an ion exchange resin are also disclosed.

  9. Grafted methylenediphosphonate ion exchange resins

    DOEpatents

    Trochimcznk, Andrzej W. (Knoxbille, TN); Gatrone, Ralph C. (Plymouth, PA); Alexandratos, Spiro (Knoxville, TN); Horwitz, E. Philip (Naperville, IL)

    1997-01-01

    An ion exchange resin is disclosed that is comprised of an insoluble copolymer onto which are grafted pendent groups that provide 1.0 to about 10 mmol/g dry weight phosphorous. The pendent groups have the formula ##STR1## wherein R is hydrogen, a cation or mixtures thereof; and R.sup.1 is hydrogen or an C.sub.1 -C.sub.2 alkyl group. The resin also contains zero to about 5 mmol/g dry weight of pendent aromatic sulfonate groups. Processes for making and using an ion exchange resin are also disclosed.

  10. Grafted methylenediphosphonate ion exchange resins

    DOEpatents

    Trochimcznk, Andrzej W. (Knoxville, TN); Gatrone, Ralph C. (Plymouth, PA); Alexandratos, Spiro (Knoxville, TN); Horwitz, E. Philip (Naperville, IL)

    1998-01-27

    An ion exchange resin is disclosed that is comprised of an insoluble copolymer onto which are grafted pendent groups that provide 1.0 to about 10 mmol/g dry weight phosphorous. The pendent groups have the formula ##STR1## wherein R is hydrogen, a cation or mixtures thereof; and R.sup.1 is hydrogen or an C.sub.1 -C.sub.2 alkyl group. The resin also contains zero to about 5 mmol/g dry weight of pendent aromatic sulfonate groups. Processes for making and using an ion exchange-resin are also disclosed.

  11. Flammability screening tests of resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arhart, R. W.; Farrar, D. G.; Hughes, B. M.

    1979-01-01

    Selected flammability characteristics of glass cloth laminates of thermosetting resins are evaluated. A protocol for the evaluation of the flammability hazards presented by glass cloth laminates of thermosetting resins and the usefulness of that protocol with two laminates are presented. The glass laminates of an epoxy resin, M-751 are evaluated for: (1) determination of smoke generation from the laminates; (2) analysis of products of oxidative degradation of the laminates; (3) determination of minimum oxygen necessary to maintain flaming oxidation; (4) evaluation of toxicological hazards.

  12. Epoxy hydantoins as matrix resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiss, J.

    1983-01-01

    Tensile strength and fracture toughness of castings of the hydantoin resins cured with methylenedianiline are significantly higher than MY 720 control castings. Water absorption of an ethyl, amyl hydantoin formulation is 2.1 percent at equilibrium and Tg's are about 160 C, approximately 15 deg below the final cure temperature. Two series of urethane and ester-extended hydantoin epoxy resins were synthesized to determine the effect of crosslink density and functional groups on properties. Castings cured with methylenedianiline or with hexahydrophthalic anhydride were made from these compounds and evaluated. The glass transition temperatures, tensile strengths and moduli, and fracture toughness values were all much lower than that of the simple hydantoin epoxy resins. Using a methylene bishydantoin epoxy with a more rigid structure gave brittle, low-energy fractures, while a more flexible, ethoxy-extended hydantoin epoxy resin gave a very low Tg.

  13. 40 CFR 414.50 - Applicability; description of the thermosetting resins subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Product groups are indicated with an asterisk (*). *Alkyd Resins Dicyanodiamide Resin *Epoxy Resins *Fumaric Acid Polyesters *Furan Resins Glyoxal-Urea Formaldehyde Textile Resin *Ketone-Formaldehyde Resins *Melamine Resins...

  14. 40 CFR 414.50 - Applicability; description of the thermosetting resins subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Product groups are indicated with an asterisk (*). *Alkyd Resins Dicyanodiamide Resin *Epoxy Resins *Fumaric Acid Polyesters *Furan Resins Glyoxal-Urea Formaldehyde Textile Resin *Ketone-Formaldehyde Resins *Melamine Resins...

  15. Liquid monobenzoxazine based resin system

    DOEpatents

    Tietze, Roger; Nguyen, Yen-Loan; Bryant, Mark

    2014-10-07

    The present invention provides a liquid resin system including a liquid monobenzoxazine monomer and a non-glycidyl epoxy compound, wherein the weight ratio of the monobenzoxazine monomer to the non-glycidyl epoxy compound is in a range of about 25:75 to about 60:40. The liquid resin system exhibits a low viscosity and exceptional stability over an extended period of time making its use in a variety of composite manufacturing methods highly advantageous.

  16. Solvent impregnated resin for isolation of U(VI) from industrial wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Karve, M.; Rajgor, R.V.

    2008-07-01

    A solid-phase extraction method based upon impregnation of Cyanex 302 (bis(2,4,4- trimethylpentyl)mono-thio-phosphinic acid) on Amberlite XAD-2 resin is proposed for isolation of U(VI) from uranmicrolite ore tailing samples and industrial effluent samples. U(VI) was sorbed from nitric acid media on the solvent-impregnated resin (SIR) and was recovered completely with 1.0 M HCl. Based upon sorption behavior of U(VI) with Cyanex 302, it was quantitatively sorbed on the SIR in a dynamic method, while the other metal ions were not sorbed by the modified resin. The preparation of impregnated resin is simple, based upon physical interaction of the extractant and solid support, has good sorption capacity for U(VI), and is also reliable for detection of traces of U(VI). (authors)

  17. Rapid Column Extraction Methods for Urine

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, S.L. III

    2000-06-09

    A new fecal analysis method that dissolves plutonium oxide was developed at the Westinghouse Savannah River Site. Diphonix Resin (Eichrom Industries), is used to pre-concentrate the actinides from digested fecal samples. A rapid microwave digestion technique is used to remove the actinides from the Diphonix Resin, which effectively extracts plutonium and americium from acidic solutions containing hydrofluoric acid. After resin digestion, the plutonium and americium are recovered in a small volume of nitric acid that is loaded onto small extraction chromatography columns, TEVA Resin and TRU Resin (Eichrom Industries). The method enables complete dissolution of plutonium oxide and provides high recovery of plutonium and americium with good removal of thorium isotopes such as thorium-228.

  18. Repeated use of ion-exchange resin membranes in calcareous soils

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sherrod, S.K.; Belnap, Jayne; Miller, M.E.

    2003-01-01

    This study compared the consistency of nutrient extraction among repeated cycles of ion-exchange resin membrane use. Two sandy calcareous soils and different equilibration temperatures were tested. No single nutrient retained consistent values from cycle to cycle in all treatments, although both soil source and temperature conferred some influence. It was concluded that the most conservative use of resin membranes is single-use.

  19. Maleimide Functionalized Siloxane Resins

    SciTech Connect

    Loy, D.A.; Shaltout, R.M.

    1999-04-01

    Polyorganosiloxanes are a commercially important class of compounds. They exhibit many important properties, including very low glass transition temperatures, making them useful over a wide temperature range. In practice, the polysiloxane polymer is often mixed with a filler material to help improve its mechanical properties. An alternative method for increasing polymer mechanical strength is through the incorporation of certain substituents on the polymer backbone. Hard substituents such as carbonates and imides generally result in improved mechanical properties of polysiloxanes. In this paper, we present the preparation of novel polysiloxane resins modified with hard maleimide substituents. Protected ethoxysilyl-substituted propyl-maleimides were prepared. The maleimide substituent was protected with a furanyl group and the monomer polymerized under aqueous acidic conditions. At elevated temperatures (>120 C), the polymer undergoes retro Diels-Alder reaction with release of foran (Equation 1). The deprotected polymer can then be selectively crosslinked by a forward Diels-Alder reaction (in the presence of a co-reactant having two or more dime functionalities).

  20. Low Melt Viscosity Resins for Resin Transfer Molding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, Frank W.

    2002-01-01

    In recent years, resin transfer molding (RTM) has become one of the methods of choice for high performance composites. Its cost effectiveness and ease of fabrication are major advantages of RTM. RTM process usually requires resins with very low melt viscosity (less than 10 Poise). The optimum RTM resins also need to display high thennal-oxidative stability, high glass transition temperature (T(sub g)), and good toughness. The traditional PMR-type polyimides (e.g. PMR-15) do not fit this requirement, because the viscosities are too high and the nadic endcap cures too fast. High T(sub g), low-melt viscosity resins are highly desirable for aerospace applications and NASA s Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) program. The objective of this work is to prepare low-melt viscosity polyimide resins for RTM or resin film infusion (RFI) processes. The approach involves the synthesis of phenylethynyl-terminated imide oligomers. These materials have been designed to minimize their melt viscosity so that they can be readily processed. During the cure, the oligomers undergo both chain extension and crosslinking via the thermal polymerization of the phenylethynyl groups. The Phenylethynyl endcap is preferred over the nadic group due to its high curing temperature, which provides broader processing windows. This work involved the synthesis and polymerization of oligomers containing zig-zag backbones and twisted biphenyl structures. Some A-B type precursors which possessed both nitro and anhydride functionality, or both nitro and amine functionality, were also synthesized in order to obtain the well defined oligomers. The resulting zig-zag structured oligomers were then end-capped with 4-phenylethynylphthalic anhydride (PEPA) for further cure. The properties of these novel imide oligomers are evaluated.

  1. Selective flotation of fossil resin from Western coal. Final report, July 1, 1990--May 25, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, G.F.; Miller, J.D.

    1992-05-25

    The proof-of-concept test program was designed to clarify a number of concerns that have been raised by coal companies who own the valuable resin resource. First, from laboratory bench-scale flotation experiments, a froth product from cleaner flotation containing more than 80% hexane-extractable resin at higher than 80% recovery can be produced. Pilot-plant testing was initiated to demonstrate the selective flotation of fossil resin and to establish a better confidence level in the new technology. Second, pilot-plant testing was designed to evaluate the effect and impact of random variation in slurry solids concentration and feed grade on this new selective fossil resin flotation technology. The flotation performance obtained under these industrial conditions is more realistic for process evaluation. Third, more accurate operating cost data was to be obtained for economic analysis. Fourth, sufficient quantities of the fossil resin concentrate were to be produced from the test program for evaluation by potential industrial users. Fifth, and finally, optimum levels for the operating variables were to be established. Such information was required for eventual scale-up and design of a fossil resin flotation plant. The pilot-plant proof-of-concept testing of selective resinate flotation has demonstrated that: (1) technically, the new flotation technologies discovered at the University of Utah and then improved upon by Advanced Processing Technologies, Inc. provide a highly efficient means to selectively recover fossil resin from coal. The proof-of-concept continuous flotation circuit (about 0.1 tph) resulted in fossil resin recovery with the same separation efficiency as was obtained from laboratory bench-scale testing (more than 80% recovery at about 80% concentrate grade); and (2) economically, the selective flotation process has been shown to be sufficiently profitable to justify the development of a fossil resin industry based on this new flotation process.

  2. Poisoning of resin supported catalyst

    SciTech Connect

    Hunter, D.L.; Moore, S.E.

    1987-02-10

    A method is described of enhancing performance of a combined hydroformylation/reduction reaction of an olefin liquid feed in the presence of a resin-supported transition metal complex catalyst. The method comprises: (a) preparing a resin-supported transition metal complex catalyst for use in a combined hydroformylation/reduction reaction substantially free of halides and halide salts in the metal complex catalyst; and (b) introducing an olefin liquid feed to the resin-supported catalyst for conducting a combined hydroformylation/reduction reaction, in the presence of CO and H/sub 2/. The olefin feed has a specified maximum limit of halide concentration sufficiently low to enable continued indefinite operation of the combined hydroformylation/reduction reaction process without halide poisoning.

  3. 21 CFR 872.3140 - Resin applicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3140 Resin applicator. (a) Identification. A resin applicator is a brushlike device...

  4. 21 CFR 177.1585 - Polyestercarbonate resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...following specifications: (i) The solution intrinsic viscosity of the polyestercarbonate resins shall be a minimum of 0...per gram, as determined by a method entitled “Intrinsic Viscosity (IV) of Lexan ® Polyestercarbonate Resin by a...

  5. 21 CFR 177.1585 - Polyestercarbonate resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...following specifications: (i) The solution intrinsic viscosity of the polyestercarbonate resins shall be a minimum of 0...per gram, as determined by a method entitled “Intrinsic Viscosity (IV) of Lexan ® Polyestercarbonate Resin by...

  6. 21 CFR 177.1585 - Polyestercarbonate resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...following specifications: (i) The solution intrinsic viscosity of the polyestercarbonate resins shall be a minimum of 0...per gram, as determined by a method entitled “Intrinsic Viscosity (IV) of Lexan ® Polyestercarbonate Resin by...

  7. 21 CFR 177.1655 - Polysulfone resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...the finished resin has a minimum number average molecular weight of 26,000, as determined by osmotic pressure in dimethylformamide. (b) The basic polysulfone resins identified in paragraph (a) of this section may contain optional...

  8. Evaluation of TEGDMA leaching from four resin cements by HPLC

    PubMed Central

    Altintas, Subutay Han; Usumez, Aslihan

    2012-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the elution of TEGDMA from dual cured resin cements, used for bonding of ceramic restoration by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Methods: Forty freshly extracted caries and restoration free molar teeth used in this study. Standardized Class I preparations were prepared in all teeth. Ceramic inlays were cemented with one of the dual cured resin cements (Variolink II, Rely X ARC, Rely X Unicem and Resilute). After cementation, specimens were stored in 75% ethanol solution. HPLC was used to analyze the amounts of TEGDMA in different time intervals. Two-way ANOVA and Tukey HSD tests were used to evaluate the results (P<.05). Results: The amount of TEGDMA eluted from Resilute was the highest and the amount of TEG-DMA eluted from Rely X Unicem was the lowest (P<.05). The total amount of monomers was the highest after 21 days (P<.05). Conclusion: In the case of resin cements, elution of TEGDMA was the highest in Resilute and lowest in Rely X Unicem. The amount of TEGDMA eluted from resin cements was influenced by the time. PMID:22904653

  9. Resin-infiltrated-dentine--a FE-ESEM microscopy investigation.

    PubMed

    Eick, J D; Dusevich, V M; de Wet, F A; van der Vyver, P J

    2004-09-01

    The formation of a hybrid layer is essential for bonding of dental composites to dentine. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of various etchants/conditioners and dentine bonding systems on dentine surfaces utilising a Field Emission Environmental SEM (FE-ESEM). Twenty one, freshly extracted human molar teeth were utilised. Dentine without resin application was initially observed both wet and dried in the following conditions: (1) fractured surface, (2) smear layer, and (3) smear layer removed with 37% phosphoric acid. Resin infiltration into dentine was then studied after applying Scotchbond 1, Optibond Solo, Prime & Bond NT, or Prompt L-Pop systems. Scotchbond 1, Optibond Solo, and Prime & Bond NT resins penetrated the dentine tubules and created hybrid layers; although, in some cases Prime & Bond NT only created a partially filled hybrid layer. No polymerised resin or hybrid layer was observed for Prompt L-Pop. The FE-ESEM permitted observation of specimens at near in-vivo wet conditions. PMID:15559913

  10. Method of removing contaminants from plastic resins

    DOEpatents

    Bohnert,George W. (Harrisonville, MO); Hand,Thomas E. (Lee's Summit, MO); Delaurentiis,Gary M. (Jamestown, CA)

    2007-08-07

    A method for removing contaminants from synthetic resin material containers using a first organic solvent system and a second carbon dioxide system. The organic solvent is utilized for removing the contaminants from the synthetic resin material and the carbon dioxide is used to separate any residual organic solvent from the synthetic resin material.

  11. DIRECT ADAPTIVE CONTROL OF RESIN TRANSFER MOLDING

    E-print Network

    Mamishev, Alexander

    DIRECT ADAPTIVE CONTROL OF RESIN TRANSFER MOLDING B. Minaie1,* , W. Li, J. Gou1 , Y. Chen2 , A. ABSTRACT Resin Transfer Molding (RTM) is a manufacturing process that involves injection of liquid resin into a closed mold cavity containing preset fiber mats and a subsequent curing stage. Mold filling is a crucial

  12. 21 CFR 177.1550 - Perfluorocarbon resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    .... Perfluorocarbon resins can be identified by their characteristic infrared spectra. (2) Melt-viscosity. (i) The per-fluoro-carbon resins identified in paragraph (a)(1) of this section shall have a melt viscosity of not... viscosity of the perfluorocarbon resins identified in paragraph (a)(1) of this section shall not vary...

  13. 21 CFR 177.1550 - Perfluorocarbon resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    .... Perfluorocarbon resins can be identified by their characteristic infrared spectra. (2) Melt-viscosity. (i) The per-fluoro-carbon resins identified in paragraph (a)(1) of this section shall have a melt viscosity of not... viscosity of the perfluorocarbon resins identified in paragraph (a)(1) of this section shall not vary...

  14. 21 CFR 177.1550 - Perfluorocarbon resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    .... Perfluorocarbon resins can be identified by their characteristic infrared spectra. (2) Melt-viscosity. (i) The per-fluoro-carbon resins identified in paragraph (a)(1) of this section shall have a melt viscosity of not... viscosity of the perfluorocarbon resins identified in paragraph (a)(1) of this section shall not vary...

  15. 21 CFR 177.1550 - Perfluorocarbon resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    .... Perfluorocarbon resins can be identified by their characteristic infrared spectra. (2) Melt-viscosity. (i) The per-fluoro-carbon resins identified in paragraph (a)(1) of this section shall have a melt viscosity of not... viscosity of the perfluorocarbon resins identified in paragraph (a)(1) of this section shall not vary...

  16. Method for removing contaminants from plastic resin

    DOEpatents

    Bohnert, George W. (Harrisonville, MO); Hand, Thomas E. (Lee's Summit, MO); DeLaurentiis, Gary M. (Jamestown, CA)

    2008-12-30

    A method for removing contaminants from synthetic resin material containers using a first organic solvent system and a second carbon dioxide system. The organic solvent is utilized for removing the contaminants from the synthetic resin material and the carbon dioxide is used to separate any residual organic solvent from the synthetic resin material.

  17. Method of removing contaminants from plastic resins

    DOEpatents

    Bohnert, George W. (Harrisonville, MO); Hand, Thomas E. (Lee's Summit, MO); DeLaurentiis, Gary M. (Jamestown, CA)

    2008-11-18

    A method for removing contaminants from synthetic resin material containers using a first organic solvent system and a second carbon dioxide system. The organic solvent is utilized for removing the contaminants from the synthetic resin material and the carbon dioxide is used to separate any residual organic solvent from the synthetic resin material.

  18. Comparison of Shear Bond Strength of RMGI and Composite Resin for Orthodontic Bracket Bonding

    PubMed Central

    Yassaei, Soghra; Davari, Abdolrahim; Goldani Moghadam, Mahjobeh; Kamaei, Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the shear bond strength (SBS) of resin modified glass ionomer (RMGI) and composite resin for bonding metal and ceramic brackets. Materials and Methods: Eighty-eight human premolars extracted for orthodontic purposes were divided into 4 groups (n=22). In groups 1 and 2, 22 metal and ceramic brackets were bonded using composite resin (Transbond XT), respectively. Twenty-two metal and ceramic brackets in groups 3 and 4, respectively were bonded using RMGI (Fuji Ortho LC, Japan). After photo polymerization, the teeth were stored in water and thermocycled (500 cycles between 5° and 55°). The SBS value of each sample was determined using a Universal Testing Machine. The amount of residual adhesive remaining on each tooth was evaluated under a stereomicroscope. Statistical analyses were done using two-way ANOVA. Results: RMGI bonded brackets had significantly lower SBS value compared to composite resin bonded groups. No statistically significant difference was observed between metal and ceramic brackets bonded with either the RMGI or composite resin. The comparison of the adhesive remnant index (ARI) scores between the groups indicated that the bracket failure mode was significantly different among groups (P<0.001) with more adhesive remaining on the teeth bonded with composite resin. Conclusion: RMGIs have significantly lower SBS compared to composite resin for orthodontic bonding purposes; however the provided SBS is still within the clinically acceptable range. PMID:25628663

  19. 40 CFR 414.40 - Applicability; description of the thermoplastic resins subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... *ABS-SAN Resins *Acrylate-Methacrylate Latexes *Acrylic Latex *Acrylic Resins *Cellulose Acetate....) Polyethylene Resin, Latex Polyethylene Resins *Polyethylene Resins, Compounded *Polyethylene, Chlorinated... *Polystyrene—Acrylic Latexes Polystyrene Impact Resins Polystyrene Latex Polystyrene, Expandable...

  20. 40 CFR 414.40 - Applicability; description of the thermoplastic resins subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the products classified under SIC 28213 thermoplastic resins including those resins and resin groups... *ABS-SAN Resins *Acrylate-Methacrylate Latexes *Acrylic Latex *Acrylic Resins *Cellulose Acetate Butyrates Cellulose Acetate Resin *Cellulose Acetates *Cellulose Acetates Propionates Cellulose...

  1. Synthesis of improved phenolic resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delano, C. B.; Mcleod, A. H.

    1979-01-01

    Twenty seven addition cured phenolic resin compositions were prepared and tested for their ability to give char residues comparable to state-of-the-art phenolic resins. Cyanate, epoxy, allyl, acrylate, methacrylate and ethynyl derivatized phenolic oligomers were investigated. The novolac-cyanate and propargyl-novolac resins provided anaerobic char yields at 800 C of 58 percent. A 59 percent char yield was obtained from modified epoxy novolacs. A phosphonitrilic derivative was found to be effective as an additive for increasing char yields. The novolac-cyanate, epoxy-novolac and methacrylate-epoxy-novolac systems were investigated as composite matrices with Thornel 300 graphite fiber. All three resins showed good potential as composite matrices. The free radical cured methacrylate-epoxy-novolac graphite composite provided short beam shear strengths at room temperature of 93.3 MPa (13.5 ksi). The novolac-cyanate graphite composite produced a short beam shear strength of 74 MPa (10.7 ksi) and flexural strength of 1302 MPa (189 ksi) at 177 C. Air heat aging of the novolac-cyanate and epoxy novolac based composites for 12 weeks at 204 C showed good property retention.

  2. Process for curing bismaleimide resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, John A. (inventor); OTHY S.imides alone. (inventor)

    1986-01-01

    This invention relates to vinyl pyridine group containing compounds and oligomers, their advantageous copolymerization with bismaleimide resins, and the formation of reinforced composites based on these copolymers. When vinyl pyridines including vinyl stilbazole materials and vinyl styrylpyridine oligomer materials are admixed with bismaleimides and cured to form copolymers the cure temperatures of the copolymers are substantially below the cure temperatures of the bismaleimides alone.

  3. Evaluation of extractables in processed and unprocessed polymer materials used for pharmaceutical applications.

    PubMed

    Stults, Cheryl L M; Ansell, Jennifer M; Shaw, Arthur J; Nagao, Lee M

    2015-02-01

    Polymeric materials are often used in pharmaceutical packaging, delivery systems, and manufacturing components. There is continued concern that chemical entities from polymeric components may leach into various dosage forms, particularly those that are comprised of liquids such as parenterals, injectables, ophthalmics, and inhalation products. In some cases, polymeric components are subjected to routine extractables testing as a control measure. To reduce the risk of discovering leachables during stability studies late in the development process, or components that may fail extractables release criteria, it is proposed that extractables testing on polymer resins may be useful as a screening tool. Two studies have been performed to evaluate whether the extractables profile generated from a polymer resin is representative of the extractables profile of components made from that same resin. The ELSIE Consortium pilot program examined polyvinyl chloride and polyethylene, and another study evaluated polypropylene and a copolymer of polycarbonate and acrylonitrile butadiene styrene. The test materials were comprised of polymer resin and processed resin or molded components. Volatile, semi-volatile, and nonvolatile chemical profiles were evaluated after headspace sampling and extraction with solvents of varying polarity and pH. The findings from these studies indicate that there may or may not be differences between extractables profiles obtained from resins and processed forms of the resin depending on the type of material, the compounds of interest, and extraction conditions used. Extractables testing of polymer resins is useful for material screening and in certain situations may replace routine component testing. PMID:25227309

  4. Phenoxy resins containing pendent ethynyl groups

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hergenrother, P. M.; Jensen, B. J.; Havens, S. J.

    1984-01-01

    As part of an effort on tougher/solvent resistant matrix resins for composites, research was directed towards exploring methods to improve the solvent resistance of linear amorphous thermoplastics. Ethyl reactive groups were placed on the ends of oligomers and pendent along the polymer chain and subsequently thermally reacted to provide crosslinking and thus improvement in solvent resistance. This concept is extended to another thermoplastic, a phenoxy resin. A commercially available phenoxy resin (PKHH) was systematically modified by reaction of the pendent hydroxyl groups on the phenoxy resin with various amounts of 4-ethynylbenzoyl chloride. As the pendent ethynyl group content in the phenoxy resin increased, the cured resin exhibited a higher glass transition temperature, better solvent resistance and less flexibility. The solvent resistance was further improved by correcting a low molecular weight diethynyl compound, 2,2-bis(4-ethynylbenzoyloxy-4'-phenyl)propane, with a phenoxy resin containing pendent ethynyl groups.

  5. Characterization of phenolic resins with thermogravimetry-mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Cherng; Tackett, J.R.

    1990-01-01

    As part of an advanced material research program, thermogravimetry-mass spectrometry (TG-MS) analysis of a phenolic resin was carried out recently for the study of the curing of the prepolymer, solvent extraction, and carbonization of the polymer at high temperature in inert atmosphere. These steps are critical to the quality of the produced advanced material. In addition to TG-MS, several other complementary techniques were also employed for the analysis of the phenolic resin prepolymer and its curing and thermal degradation products. These techniques include pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, direct insertion probe-mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. 7 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Accurate determination of ¹²?I concentrations and ¹²?I/¹³?Cs ratios in spent nuclear resins by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Nottoli, Emmanuelle; Bienvenu, Philippe; Labet, Alexandre; Bourlès, Didier; Arnold, Maurice; Bertaux, Maité

    2014-04-01

    Determining long-lived radionuclide concentrations in radioactive waste has fundamental implications for the long-term management of storage sites. This paper focuses on the measurement of low (129)I contents in ion exchange resins used for primary fluid purification in Pressurised Water Reactors (PWR). Iodine-129 concentrations were successfully determined using Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) following a chemical procedure which included (1) acid digestion of resin samples in HNO3/HClO4, (2) radioactive decontamination by selective iodine extraction using a new chromatographic resin (CL Resin), and (3) AgI precipitation. Measured (129)I concentrations ranged from 4 to 12 ng/g, i.e. from 0.03 to 0.08 Bq/g. The calculation of (129)I/(137)Cs activity ratios used for routine waste management produced values in agreement with the few available data for PWR resin samples. PMID:24525301

  7. Foam, Foam-resin composite and method of making a foam-resin composite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cranston, John A. (Inventor); MacArthur, Doug E. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    This invention relates to a foam, a foam-resin composite and a method of making foam-resin composites. The foam set forth in this invention comprises a urethane modified polyisocyanurate derived from an aromatic amino polyol and a polyether polyol. In addition to the polyisocyanurate foam, the composite of this invention further contains a resin layer, wherein the resin may be epoxy, bismaleimide, or phenolic resin. Such resins generally require cure or post-cure temperatures of at least 350.degree. F.

  8. Sulfur geochemistry of hydrothermal waters in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, USA. III. An anion-exchange resin technique for sampling and preservation of sulfoxyanions in natural waters

    PubMed Central

    Druschel, Greg K; Schoonen, Martin AA; Nordstrom, D Kirk; Ball, James W; Xu, Yong; Cohn, Corey A

    2003-01-01

    A sampling protocol for the retention, extraction, and analysis of sulfoxyanions in hydrothermal waters has been developed in the laboratory and tested at Yellowstone National Park and Green Lake, NY. Initial laboratory testing of the anion-exchange resin Bio-Rad™ AG1-X8 indicated that the resin was well suited for the sampling, preservation, and extraction of sulfate and thiosulfate. Synthetic solutions containing sulfate and thiosulfate were passed through AG1-X8 resin columns and eluted with 1 and 3 M KCl, respectively. Recovery ranged from 89 to 100%. Comparison of results for water samples collected from five pools in Yellowstone National Park between on-site 1C analysis (U.S. Geological Survey mobile lab) and IC analysis of resin-stored sample at SUNY-Stony Brook indicates 96 to 100% agreement for three pools (Cinder, Cistern, and an unnamed pool near Cistern) and 76 and 63% agreement for two pools (Sulfur Dust and Frying Pan). Attempts to extract polythionates from the AG1-X8 resin were made using HCl solutions, but were unsuccessful. Bio-Rad™ AG2-X8, an anion-exchange resin with weaker binding sites than the AG1-X8 resin, is better suited for polythionate extraction. Sulfate and thiosulfate extraction with this resin has been accomplished with KCl solutions of 0.1 and 0.5 M, respectively. Trithionate and tetrathionate can be extracted with 4 M KCl. Higher polythionates can be extracted with 9 M hydrochloric acid. Polythionate concentrations can then be determined directly using ion chromatographic methods, and laboratory results indicate recovery of up to 90% for synthetic polythionate solutions using AG2-X8 resin columns.

  9. Application of inverse gas chromatography in physicochemical characterization of phenolic resin adhesives.

    PubMed

    Strzemiecka, Beata; Voelkel, Adam; Hinz, Mateusz; Rogozik, Mateusz

    2014-11-14

    One of the most important stages during production of abrasive tools is their hardening. The degree of hardening is very important and influence toughness of the final product. During hardening process the cross-linking of the phenolic resins, used as a binder, occurs. Nowadays, there is no standard, accurate and simple method for the estimation of the hardening degree of abrasive tools. The procedure of the determination of hardening degree of the binder (phenolic resins) by means of inverse gas chromatography (IGC) was presented in this paper. Results obtained by use of IGC derived method was verified by Soxhlet extraction and by FTIR method. Good agreement was found for results from IGC and Soxhlet extraction whereas those from FTIR were much lower. FTIR method supplies data concerning bulk properties not the surface as in case of IGC and Soxhlet methods. These results indicate that resins are more cross-linked on the surface than inside the material. PMID:25441354

  10. High Temperature Transfer Molding Resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W. (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G., Jr. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    High temperature resins containing phenylethynyl groups that are processable by transfer molding have been prepared. These phenylethynyl containing oligomers were prepared from aromatic diamines containing phenylethynyl groups and various ratios of phthalic anhydride and 4-phenylethynlphthalic anhydride in glacial acetic acid to form a mixture of imide compounds in one step. This synthetic approach is advantageous since the products are a mixture of compounds and consequently exhibit a relatively low melting temperature. In addition, these materials exhibit low melt viscosities which are stable for several hours at 210-275 C, and since the thermal reaction of the phenylethynyl group does not occur to any appreciable extent at temperatures below 300 C, these materials have a broad processing window. Upon thermal cure at approximately 300-350 C, the phenylethynyl groups react to provide a crosslinked resin system. These new materials exhibit excellent properties and are potentially useful as adhesives, coatings, films, moldings and composite matrices.

  11. Petroleum resins and their production

    SciTech Connect

    Luvinh, Q.

    1989-04-25

    A process is described for the production of petroleum resins compatible with base polymers in hot melt formulations and having a softening point of from about 60/sup 0/C. to about 120/sup 0/C. and Gardner color of about 4 or less, comprising copolymerizing using a Friedel-Crafts catalyst. The mixture is substantially free form cyclopentadiene and dicyclopentadiene. This patent also describes a resin consisting essentially of a copolymer containing from 5 to 80 wt. % of units derived from an olefinically unsaturated aromatic compound form 5 to 80 wt. % of units derived from C/sub 5/ olefines or diolefines or C/sub 6/ olefines diolefines or a mixture of C/sub 5/ and C/sub 6/ olefines or diolefines and from 7 to 45 wt. % of units derived from a terpene.

  12. Phosphorus-containing imide resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Varma, I. K.; Fohlen, G. M.; Parker, J. A. (inventors)

    1984-01-01

    Flame-resistant reinforced bodies are disclosed which are composed of reinforcing fibers, filaments or fabrics in a cured body of bis- and tris-imide resins derived from tris(m-aminophenyl) phosphine oxides by reaction with maleic anhydride or its derivatives, or of addition polymers of such imides, including a variant in which a mono-imide is condensed with a dianhydride and the product is treated with a further quantity of maleic anhydride.

  13. A study on the compatibility between one-bottle dentin adhesives and composite resins using micro-shear bond strength

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study was performed to determine whether the combined use of one-bottle self-etch adhesives and composite resins from same manufacturers have better bond strengths than combinations of adhesive and resins from different manufacturers. Materials and Methods 25 experimental micro-shear bond test groups were made from combinations of five dentin adhesives and five composite resins with extracted human molars stored in saline for 24 hr. Testing was performed using the wire-loop method and a universal testing machine. Bond strength data was statistically analyzed using two way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey's post hoc test. Results Two way ANOVA revealed significant differences for the factors of dentin adhesives and composite resins, and significant interaction effect (p < 0.001). All combinations with Xeno V (Dentsply De Trey) and Clearfil S3 Bond (Kuraray Dental) adhesives showed no significant differences in micro-shear bond strength, but other adhesives showed significant differences depending on the composite resin (p < 0.05). Contrary to the other adhesives, Xeno V and BondForce (Tokuyama Dental) had higher bond strengths with the same manufacturer's composite resin than other manufacturer's composite resin. Conclusions Not all combinations of adhesive and composite resin by same manufacturers failed to show significantly higher bond strengths than mixed manufacturer combinations. PMID:25671210

  14. Synthesis of improved polyester resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcleod, A. H.; Delano, C. B.

    1979-01-01

    Eighteen aromatic unsaturated polyester prepolymers prepared by a modified interfacial condensation technique were investigated for their solubility in vinyl monomers and ability to provide high char yield forming unsaturated polyester resins. The best resin system contained a polyester prepolymer of phthalic, fumaric and diphenic acids reacted with 2,7-naphthalene diol and 9,9-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)fluorene. This prepolymer is very soluble in styrene, divinyl benzene, triallyl cyanurate, diallyl isophthalate and methylvinylpyridine. It provided anaerobic char yields as high as 41 percent at 800 C. The combination of good solubility and char yield represents a significant improvement over state-of-the-art unsaturated polyester resins. The majority of the other prepolymers had only low or no solubility in vinyl monomers. Graphite composites from this prepolymer with styrene were investigated. The cause for the observed low shear strengths of the composites was not determined, however 12-week aging of the composites at 82 C showed that essentially no changes in the composites had occurred.

  15. Evaluation of adhesion of reline resins to the thermoplastic denture base resin for non-metal clasp denture.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji Hye; Choe, Han Cheol; Son, Mee Kyoung

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the tensile and transverse bond strength of chairside reline resins (Tokuyama Rebase II, Mild Rebaron LC) to a thermoplastic acrylic resin (Acrytone) used for non metal clasp denture. The results were compared with those of a conventional heat polymerized acrylic resin (Paladent 20) and a thermoplastic polyamide resin (Biotone). The failure sites were examined by scanning electron microscopy to evaluate the mode of failure. As results, the bond strength of reline resins to a thermoplastic acrylic resin was similar to the value of a conventional heat polymerized acrylic resin. However, thermoplastic polyamide resin showed the lowest value. The results of this study indicated that a thermoplastic acrylic resin for non metal clasps denture allows chairside reline and repair. It was also found that the light-polymerized reline resin had better bond strength than the autopolymerizing reline resin in relining for a conventional heat polymerized acrylic resin and a thermoplastic acrylic resin. PMID:24492109

  16. New modified hydrocarbon resins; An alternative to styrenated terpene resins in hot melts

    SciTech Connect

    Carper, J.D. )

    1990-06-01

    This paper reports on the development of two hydrocarbon-based resin formulations that could be used with different thermoplastic block copolymers to formulate pressure-sensitive adhesives. Results are examined with one of these resins in formulations with styrene-isoprene-styrene (SIS) and styrene-butadiene (SB) compounds. The new modified hydrocarbon resin, with a softening point of 98{degrees} C, matches the adhesive performance of a terpene resin with a softening point of 105{degrees} C. The resin performs as well as the modified terpene in SIS-, SB-, and EVA-based adhesives. The new hydrocarbon resin is especially well suited for hot-melt adhesives. It exhibits low volatility, good color stability, and excellent melt viscosity stability. Since the new resin is based on petroleum hydrocarbon feedstocks, it should be available at moderate, stable prices. The other hydrocarbon resin, with a softening point of 85{degrees} C, produced comparable results.

  17. Development of tough, moisture resistant laminating resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brand, R. A.; Harrison, E. S.

    1982-01-01

    Tough, moisture resistant laminating resins for employment with graphite fibers were developed. The new laminating resins exhibited cost, handleability and processing characteristics equivalent to 394K (250 F) curing epoxies. The laminating resins were based on bisphenol A dicyanate and monofunctional cyanates with hydrophobic substituents. These resins sorb only small quantities of moisture at equilibrium (0.5% or less) with minimal glass transition temperature depression and represent an improvement over epoxies which sorb around 2% moisture at equilibrium. Toughening was accomplished by the precipitation of small diameter particles of butadiene nitrile rubber throughout the resin matrix. The rubber domains act as microcrack termini and energy dissipation sites, allowing increased stress accommodation prior to catastrophic failure. A unique blend of amine terminated butadiene nitrile elastomer (MW 2,000) and a high nitrile content butadiene nitrile rubber yielded the desired resin morphology.

  18. 21 CFR 177.2710 - Styrene-divinylbenzene resins, cross-linked.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...to be tested are ground or cut into small particles that will pass through a U.S. standard sieve No. 3 and that will be held on a U.S. standard sieve No. 20. (2) A 100-gram sample of the resins, when extracted with 100...

  19. PRESENCE OF DICHLOROMETHANE ON CLEANED XAD-2 RESIN: A POTENTIAL PROBLEM AND SOLUTIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Preparation of XAD-2 resin for indoor air sampling with commonly used cleaning methods, such as Soxhlet extraction with dichloromethane (DCM) followed by vacuum drying and nitrogen purging, can lead to elevated DCM levels (>100 ppb) in the sampled indoor air, which result from DC...

  20. Crypthophilic Acids A, B, and C: Resin Glycosides from Aerial Parts of Scrophularia crypthophila

    E-print Network

    Rüedi, Peter

    Crypthophilic Acids A, B, and C: Resin Glycosides from Aerial Parts of Scrophularia crypthophilaVed October 16, 2006 The water-soluble part of the methanolic extract from the aerial parts of Scrophularia, taxonomically unrelated family (Scrophulariaceae). In the flora of Turkey, the genus Scrophularia is represented

  1. Porous Ceramic Spheres from Ion Exchange Resin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dynys, Fred

    2005-01-01

    A commercial cation ion exchange resin, cross-linked polystyrene, has been successfully used as a template to fabricate 20 to 50 micron porous ceramic spheres. Ion exchange resins have dual template capabilities. Pore architecture of the ceramic spheres can be altered by changing the template pattern. Templating can be achieved by utilizing the internal porous structure or the external surface of the resin beads. Synthesis methods and chemical/physical characteristics of the ceramic spheres will be reported.

  2. 21 CFR 175.380 - Xylene-formaldehyde resins condensed with 4,4?-isopropylidenediphenol-epichlorohydrin epoxy resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...-isopropylidenediphenol-epichlorohydrin epoxy resins. 175.380 Section 175.380 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... Xylene-formaldehyde resins condensed with 4,4?-isopropylidenediphenol-epichlorohydrin epoxy resins. The...) The resins are produced by the condensation of xylene-formaldehyde resin and...

  3. Characterization of PMR polyimide resin and prepreg

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindenmeyer, P. H.; Sheppard, C. H.

    1984-01-01

    Procedures for the chemical characterization of PMR-15 resin solutions and graphite-reinforced prepregs were developed, and a chemical data base was established. In addition, a basic understanding of PMR-15 resin chemistry was gained; this was translated into effective processing procedures for the production of high quality graphite composites. During the program the PMR monomers and selected model compounds representative of postulated PMR-15 solution chemistry were acquired and characterized. Based on these data, a baseline PMR-15 resin was formulated and evaluated for processing characteristics and composite properties. Commercially available PMR-15 resins were then obtained and chemically characterized. Composite panels were fabricated and evaluated.

  4. Graphite composites with advanced resin matrices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kourtides, D. A.

    1980-01-01

    The effect of processing variables on the flammability and mechanical properties for state-of-the-art and advanced resin matrices for graphite composites were studied. Resin matrices which were evaluated included state-of-the-art epoxy, phenolic-novolac, phenolic-xylok, two types of bismaleimides, benzyl, polyethersulfone, and poly(p-phenylene sulfone). Comparable flammability and thermochemical data on graphite-reinforced laminates prepared with these resin matrices are presented, and the relationship of some of these properties to the anaerobic char yield of the resins is described.

  5. Microbiological Study of Water-Softener Resins

    PubMed Central

    Stamm, John M.; Engelhard, Warren E.; Parsons, James E.

    1969-01-01

    Microbial identification using effluents backflushed from exhausted urban and rural tank resins and cleaned resins containing the sulfonated copolymer of styrene and divinylbenzene (SDB) were completed, along with microbial assessment of the concentrated stock salt brine. Forty-four different bacterial and fungal genera were identified. Extensive biochemical and animal virulence tests completed on one of the six bacterial salt brine isolates indicated a pathogenic staphylococcal strain. The retention of Staphylococcus aureus, a Flavobacterium sp, and Escherichia coli B bacteriophage was demonstrated both by using the nonexhausted sodium-regenerated resin and by using the same resin exchanged with different mono-, di-, and trivalent cations. Effluent counts completed after bacterial seepage through the resins indicated the Pb++ exchanged resin removed 55% of the bacteria; Na+, Fe++, and Al+++ removed 31 to 36% and Ca++ and Cu++ removed about 10 to 15%. Seventy per cent or more of the bacteriophage was removed by Fe++, Cu++, and Al+++, whereas the Ca++ and Na++ cations removed 25 to 31%. Over a 77-day period, nonsterile tap water was passed through bacterial seeded and uninoculated SDB (Na) resin columns. Effluent and resin elution counts demonstrated the growth and survival of 2 different bacteria per column. Increased bacterial retention, survival, and multiplication occurred concomitantly with accumulation of organic and inorganic materials and the Ca++ and Mg++ cations from the tap water. Furthermore, microbial elution from resin particles taken from column depths of 1, 8, and 16 cm indicated a bacterial diminution with increasing depths. PMID:5373675

  6. Flexible heat resistant neutron shielding resin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukegawa, Atsuhiko M.; Anayama, Yoshimasa; Okuno, Koichi; Sakurai, Shinji; Kaminaga, Atsushi

    2011-10-01

    A flexible heat resistant neutron shielding material has been developed, which consists of polymer resin with 1 wt% boron. The neutron shielding performance of the developed resin, examined by the 252Cf neutron source, is almost the same as that of the polyethylene. The outgas of H 2, H 2O, CO and CO 2 from the resin have been measured at ˜250 °C environment. The resin will be applied around the port of the vacuum vessel as an additional shielding material and reduce the neutron streaming from a superconducting tokamak device such as JT-60SA.

  7. Novel silica-based ion exchange resin

    SciTech Connect

    1997-11-01

    Eichrom`s highly successful Diphonixo resin resembles a conventional ion exchange resin in its use of sulfonic acid ligands on a styrene- divinylbenzene matrix. Diphonix resin exhibits rapid exchange kinetics that allow economical operation of ion exchange systems. Unlike conventional resins, Diphonix resin contains chelating ligands that are diphosphonic acid groups that recognize and remove the targeted metals and reject the more common elements such as sodium, calcium and magnesium. This latter property makes Diphonix ideal for many industrial scale applications, including those involving waste treatment. For treatment of low-level, transuranic (TRU) and high- level radioactive wastes, Diphonix`s polystyrene backbone hinders its application due to radiolytic stability of the carbon-hydrogen bonds and lack of compatibility with expected vitrification schemes. Polystyrene-based Diphonix is approximately 60% carbon- hydrogen. In response to an identified need within the Department of Energy for a resin with the positive attributes of Diphonix that also exhibits greater radiolytic stability and final waste form compatibility, Eichrom has successfully developed a new, silica-based resin version of Diphonix. Target application for this new resin is for use in environmental restoration and waste management situations involving the processing of low-level, transuranic and high-level radioactive wastes. The resin can also be used for processing liquid mixed waste (waste that contains low level radioactivity and hazardous constituents) including mixed wastes contaminated with organic compounds. Silica-based Diphonix is only 10% carbon-hydrogen, with the bulk of the matrix silica.

  8. In vitro cytotoxicity of self-curing acrylic resins of different colors

    PubMed Central

    Retamoso, Luciana Borges; da Cunha, Taís de Morais Alves; Pithon, Matheus Melo; dos Santos, Rogério Lacerda; Martins, Fernanda Otaviano; Romanos, Maria Teresa Villela; Tanaka, Orlando Motohiro

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to assess the in vitro cytotoxicity of acrylic resins of different colors over time. Methods Specimens were divided into 4 groups (n = 6) according to the color of the acrylic resin (Orto Class, Clássico, Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil): Group 1: clear acrylic resin; group 2: pink acrylic resin; group 3: blue acrylic resin and group 4: green acrylic resin. All specimens were fabricated according to the mass manipulation technique and submitted to mechanical polishing protocol. The control was performed with an amalgam specimen (C+), a glass specimen (C-) and cell control (CC). Specimens were immersed in Minimum Eagle's Medium (MEM) and incubated for 24 h at 37ºC. The extracts from the experimental material were filtered and mixed with L929 fibroblast. Cytotoxicity was evaluated at 4 different times, 24, 48, 72 and 168 h. After contact, cells were incubated for 24 h and added to 100 µ of 0.01% neutral red dye. The cells were incubated for 3 h for pigment incorporation and fixed. Cells viability was determined by a spectroscopic (BioTek, Winooski, Vermont, USA) with a 492-nm wavelength ?=492 nm). Results There were no statistical differences between the experimental groups and the CC and C- groups. Conclusion Clear, pink, blue and green self-curing acrylic resins fabricated by means of the mass manipulation technique and mechanically polished are not cytotoxic. Neither the pigment added to the self-curing acrylic resin nor the factor of time influenced the cytotoxicity of the material. PMID:25279523

  9. 21 CFR 177.1600 - Polyethylene resins, carboxyl modified.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Polyethylene resins, carboxyl modified. 177...Contact Surfaces § 177.1600 Polyethylene resins, carboxyl modified. Carboxyl-modified polyethylene resins may be safely used as...

  10. 40 CFR 721.4380 - Modified hydrocarbon resin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 2012-07-01 false Modified hydrocarbon resin. 721.4380 Section 721...Substances § 721.4380 Modified hydrocarbon resin. (a) Chemical substance...identified generically as a modified hydrocarbon resin (P-91-1418) is...

  11. 40 CFR 721.4380 - Modified hydrocarbon resin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 2013-07-01 false Modified hydrocarbon resin. 721.4380 Section 721...Substances § 721.4380 Modified hydrocarbon resin. (a) Chemical substance...identified generically as a modified hydrocarbon resin (P-91-1418) is...

  12. 40 CFR 721.4380 - Modified hydrocarbon resin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 2014-07-01 false Modified hydrocarbon resin. 721.4380 Section 721...Substances § 721.4380 Modified hydrocarbon resin. (a) Chemical substance...identified generically as a modified hydrocarbon resin (P-91-1418) is...

  13. 40 CFR 721.4380 - Modified hydrocarbon resin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 2011-07-01 false Modified hydrocarbon resin. 721.4380 Section 721...Substances § 721.4380 Modified hydrocarbon resin. (a) Chemical substance...identified generically as a modified hydrocarbon resin (P-91-1418) is...

  14. 40 CFR 721.4380 - Modified hydrocarbon resin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 2010-07-01 false Modified hydrocarbon resin. 721.4380 Section 721...Substances § 721.4380 Modified hydrocarbon resin. (a) Chemical substance...identified generically as a modified hydrocarbon resin (P-91-1418) is...

  15. 21 CFR 177.2355 - Mineral reinforced nylon resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Mineral reinforced nylon resins. 177.2355 Section 177.2355 Food...Repeated Use § 177.2355 Mineral reinforced nylon resins. Mineral reinforced nylon resins identified in paragraph (a) of...

  16. 21 CFR 177.2355 - Mineral reinforced nylon resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Mineral reinforced nylon resins. 177.2355 Section 177.2355 Food...Repeated Use § 177.2355 Mineral reinforced nylon resins. Mineral reinforced nylon resins identified in paragraph (a) of...

  17. 21 CFR 177.2355 - Mineral reinforced nylon resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Mineral reinforced nylon resins. 177.2355 Section 177.2355 Food...Repeated Use § 177.2355 Mineral reinforced nylon resins. Mineral reinforced nylon resins identified in paragraph (a) of...

  18. 21 CFR 872.3820 - Root canal filling resin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Root canal filling resin. 872.3820 Section...DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3820 Root canal filling resin. (a) Identification. A root canal filling resin is a device...

  19. 21 CFR 872.3820 - Root canal filling resin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Root canal filling resin. 872.3820 Section...DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3820 Root canal filling resin. (a) Identification. A root canal filling resin is a device...

  20. 40 CFR 721.2752 - Epoxy resin containing phosphorus (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Epoxy resin containing phosphorus (generic). 721.2752 Section...721.2752 Epoxy resin containing phosphorus (generic). (a) Chemical substance...generically as an epoxy resin containing phosphorus (PMN P-00-912) is subject...

  1. 40 CFR 721.2752 - Epoxy resin containing phosphorus (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Epoxy resin containing phosphorus (generic). 721.2752 Section...721.2752 Epoxy resin containing phosphorus (generic). (a) Chemical substance...generically as an epoxy resin containing phosphorus (PMN P-00-912) is subject...

  2. 40 CFR 721.2752 - Epoxy resin containing phosphorus (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Epoxy resin containing phosphorus (generic). 721.2752 Section...721.2752 Epoxy resin containing phosphorus (generic). (a) Chemical substance...generically as an epoxy resin containing phosphorus (PMN P-00-912) is subject...

  3. 40 CFR 721.2752 - Epoxy resin containing phosphorus (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Epoxy resin containing phosphorus (generic). 721.2752 Section...721.2752 Epoxy resin containing phosphorus (generic). (a) Chemical substance...generically as an epoxy resin containing phosphorus (PMN P-00-912) is subject...

  4. 40 CFR 721.2752 - Epoxy resin containing phosphorus (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Epoxy resin containing phosphorus (generic). 721.2752 Section...721.2752 Epoxy resin containing phosphorus (generic). (a) Chemical substance...generically as an epoxy resin containing phosphorus (PMN P-00-912) is subject...

  5. 21 CFR 177.2355 - Mineral reinforced nylon resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Mineral reinforced nylon resins. 177.2355 Section...Articles Intended for Repeated Use § 177.2355 Mineral reinforced nylon resins. Mineral reinforced nylon resins identified in...

  6. 21 CFR 177.2510 - Polyvinylidene fluoride resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Polyvinylidene fluoride resins. 177.2510 Section 177.2510...Repeated Use § 177.2510 Polyvinylidene fluoride resins. Polyvinylidene fluoride resins may be safely used as articles...

  7. Separation of Lanthanide Ions with Kläui Ligand Resin

    SciTech Connect

    Granger, Trinity D.; Henry, Victoria A.; Latesky, Stanley

    2007-07-01

    Separation and pre-concentration of the desired analyte is often a critical step in many radioanalytical methods. Current procedures for separating and concentrating analytes for detection are complex, and can be both expensive and time consuming. Therefore, the purpose of this research is to develop an alternative method of separating lanthanide ions through the use of an extraction chromatography resin containing a Klaui ligand salt. This research is a continuation of a concerted effort to develop new methods of detecting small concentrations of radionuclides and lanthanides using Klaui ligands. The Klaui ligands, C5Me5Co(OP(OR)2)3- (R=Me, Et, n-Pr) (LOR-), have unique affinity for lanthanide and actinide ions in the presence of competing metal ions. The use of 1 wt% NaLOR (R=Et or n-Pr) adsorbed onto resin support has been shown to extract lanthanide ions from aqueous nitric acid solutions of different concentrations. In order to further evaluate the utility of these materials in radiochemical separation, the selectivity of the resins for the different lanthanide ions was examined by measuring the distribution coefficients (Kd) for a series of lanthanides over a range of solution conditions. Based on prior research with actinide ions, it was hypothesized that the lanthanide ions would bond strongly with the Klaui ligands. The success of this research is important, because it will assist in expanding and improving current automated radiochemical methods, which will decrease the cost of developing and implementing radiochemical methods. To date, Kd values have been determined for Eu+3, Nd+3 and Pr+3 under varying nitric acid (HNO3) concentration, using a resin consisting of 1.0 wt% NaLOPr on Amberlite XAD-7HP. The dependence of the Kd values for Eu+3 has also been examined as a function of the ligand-to-europium ratio and the nitrate concentration. Decreasing Kd values were obtained upon increasing the nitric acid concentration, indicating protonation of the ligand, which competes with binding of the lanthanide ions. As expected, increasing the Klaui ligand-to-europium ratio results in increasing Kd, but no conclusions could be made from these data regarding stoichiometry of the complex formed on the resin. No dependence of the Kd on the nitrate concentration was observed, supporting the notion that the HNO3 dependence is dominated by the presence of the acidic hydronium ion (as opposed to the nitrate ion). Future work will involve the determination of the Kd values for the remainder of the lanthanide series to further assess the potential of the Klaui ligand for intra-group lanthanide separations.

  8. Imide modified epoxy matrix resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scola, D. A.

    1982-01-01

    Results of a program designed to develop tough imide modified epoxy (IME) resins cured by bisimide amine (BIA) hardeners are presented. State of the art epoxy resin, MY720, was used. Three aromatic bisimide amines and one aromatic aliphatic BIA were evaluated. BIA's derived from 6F anhydride (3,3 prime 4,4 prime-(hexafluoro isopropyl idene) bis (phthalic anhydride) and diamines, 3,3 prime-diam nodiphenyl sulfone (3,3 prime-DDS), 4,4 prime-diamino diphenyl sulfone (4,4 prime-DDS), 1.12-dodecane diamine (1,12-DDA) were used. BIA's were abbreviated 6F-3,3 prime-DDS, 6F-4,4 prime-DDS, 6F-3,3 prime-DDS-4,4 prime DDS, and 6F-3,3 prime-DDS-1,12-DDA corresponding to 6F anhydride and diamines mentioned. Epoxy resin and BIA's (MY720/6F-3,3 prime-DDS, MY720/6F-3,3 prime-DDS-4,4 prime-DDS, MY720/6F-3,3 prime-DDS-1,12-DDA and a 50:50 mixture of a BIA and parent diamine, MY720/6F-3,3 prime-DDS/3,3 prime-DDS, MY720/6F-3,3 prime-DDS-4,4 prime-DDS/3,3 prime-DDS, MY720/6F-3,3 prime-DDS-1,12-DDA/3,3 prime-DDS were studied to determine effect of structure and composition. Effect of the addition of two commercial epoxies, glyamine 200 and glyamine 100 on the properties of several formulations was evaluated. Bisimide amine cured epoxies were designated IME's (imide modified epoxy). Physical, thermal and mechanical properties of these resins were determined. Moisture absorption in boiling water exhibited by several of the IME's was considerably lower than the state of the art epoxies (from 3.2% for the control and state of the art to 2.0 wt% moisture absorption). Char yields are increased from 20% for control and state of the art epoxies to 40% for IME resins. Relative toughness characteristics of IME resins were measured by 10 deg off axis tensile tests of Celion 6000/IME composites. Results show that IME's containing 6F-3,3 prime-DDS or 6F-3,3 prime-DDS-1,12-DDA improved the "toughness" characteristics of composites by about 35% (tensile strength), about 35% (intralaminar shear strength), and about 78% (shear strain to failure) relative to the control composite.

  9. Effect of resin rheology on macro- and micro-flows in resin transfer molding

    SciTech Connect

    Chih-Hsin Shih; Lee, L.J.; Koelling, K.

    1996-12-31

    Resin transfer molding (RTM) is a relatively new and high potential process for near net shape composite manufacturing because of its short cycle time, low labor requirements and low equipment cost. The major material variables in the RTM process are the resin rheology and the fiber reinforcement structure. The presence of low profile additives or fillers tends to change the resin mixture from a Newtonian fluid to a Non-Newtonian fluid. Different fiber architectures may result in different flow patterns that will influence the mold filling and curing processes. This paper will discuss how the resin rheology and fiber structure effect the resin transfer molding process.

  10. Phosphorus-containing imide resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Varma, I. K.; Fohlen, G. M.; Parker, J. A. (inventors)

    1985-01-01

    Cured polymers of bis and tris-imides derived from tris(m-aminophenyl) phosphine oxides by reaction with maleic anhydride or its derivatives, and addition polymers of such imides, including a variant in which a monoimide is condensed with a dianhydride and the product is treated with a further quantity of maleic anhydride prior to curing are disclosed and claimed. Such polymers are flame resistant. Also disclosed are an improved method of producing tris(m-aminophenyl) phosphine oxides from the nitro analogues by reduction with hydrazine hydrate using palladized charcoal or Raney nickel as the catalyst and fiber reinforced cured resin composites.

  11. Polyimide Resins Resist Extreme Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    Spacecraft and aerospace engines share a common threat: high temperature. The temperatures experienced during atmospheric reentry can reach over 2,000 F, and the temperatures in rocket engines can reach well over 5,000 F. To combat the high temperatures in aerospace applications, Dr. Ruth Pater of Langley Research Center developed RP-46, a polyimide resin capable of withstanding the most brutal temperatures. The composite material can push the service temperature to the limits of organic materials. Designed as an environmentally friendly alternative to other high-temperature resins, the RP-46 polyimide resin system was awarded a 1992 "R&D 100" award, named a "2001 NASA Technology of the Year," and later, due to its success as a spinoff technology, "2004 NASA Commercial Invention of the Year." The technology s commercial success also led to its winning the Langley s "Paul F. Holloway Technology Transfer Award" as well as "Richard T. Whitcom Aerospace Technology Transfer Award" both for 2004. RP-46 is relatively inexpensive and it can be readily processed for use as an adhesive, composite, resin molding, coating, foam, or film. Its composite materials can be used in temperatures ranging from minus 150 F to 2,300 F. No other organic materials are known to be capable of such wide range and extreme high-temperature applications. In addition to answering the call for environmentally conscious high-temperature materials, RP-46 provides a slew of additional advantages: It is extremely lightweight (less than half the weight of aluminum), chemical and moisture resistant, strong, and flexible. Pater also developed a similar technology, RP-50, using many of the same methods she used with RP-46, and very similar in composition to RP-46 in terms of its thermal capacity and chemical construction, but it has different applications, as this material is a coating as opposed to a buildable composite. A NASA license for use of this material outside of the Space Agency as well as additional government-funded testing proved that RP-46 is even more exceptional than originally thought.

  12. 21 CFR 177.2500 - Polyphenylene sulfone resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... consist of basic resin produced by reacting polyphenylene sulfide with peracetic acid such that the... optional adjuvant substances required in the production of such basic resins. These optional...

  13. 21 CFR 177.2500 - Polyphenylene sulfone resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... consist of basic resin produced by reacting polyphenylene sulfide with peracetic acid such that the... optional adjuvant substances required in the production of such basic resins. These optional...

  14. 21 CFR 177.2500 - Polyphenylene sulfone resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... consist of basic resin produced by reacting polyphenylene sulfide with peracetic acid such that the... optional adjuvant substances required in the production of such basic resins. These optional...

  15. 21 CFR 177.2500 - Polyphenylene sulfone resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... consist of basic resin produced by reacting polyphenylene sulfide with peracetic acid such that the... optional adjuvant substances required in the production of such basic resins. These optional...

  16. Silicone modified resins for graphite fiber laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frost, L. W.; Bower, G. M.

    1980-01-01

    Six silicone modified resins were selected for evaluation in unidirectional filament wound graphite laminates. Neat samples of these resins had 1,000 C char residues of 6-63%. The highest flexural values measured for the laminates were a strength of 1,220 MPa and a modulus of 105 GPa. The highest interlaminar shear strength was 72 MPa.

  17. Fluorinated diamond bonded in fluorocarbon resin

    DOEpatents

    Taylor, Gene W. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1982-01-01

    By fluorinating diamond grit, the grit may be readily bonded into a fluorocarbon resin matrix. The matrix is formed by simple hot pressing techniques. Diamond grinding wheels may advantageously be manufactured using such a matrix. Teflon fluorocarbon resins are particularly well suited for using in forming the matrix.

  18. 21 CFR 177.1550 - Perfluorocarbon resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... resins can be identified by their characteristic infrared spectra. (2) Melt-viscosity. (i) The per-fluoro-carbon resins identified in paragraph (a)(1) of this section shall have a melt viscosity of not less than.../federal_register/code_of_federal_regulations/ibr_locations.html. The melt viscosity of the...

  19. VOLUMETRIC POLYMERIZATION SHRINKAGE OF CONTEMPORARY COMPOSITE RESINS

    PubMed Central

    Nagem, Halim; Nagem, Haline Drumond; Francisconi, Paulo Afonso Silveira; Franco, Eduardo Batista; Mondelli, Rafael Francisco Lia; Coutinho, Kennedy Queiroz

    2007-01-01

    The polymerization shrinkage of composite resins may affect negatively the clinical outcome of the restoration. Extensive research has been carried out to develop new formulations of composite resins in order to provide good handling characteristics and some dimensional stability during polymerization. The purpose of this study was to analyze, in vitro, the magnitude of the volumetric polymerization shrinkage of 7 contemporary composite resins (Definite, Suprafill, SureFil, Filtek Z250, Fill Magic, Alert, and Solitaire) to determine whether there are differences among these materials. The tests were conducted with precision of 0.1 mg. The volumetric shrinkage was measured by hydrostatic weighing before and after polymerization and calculated by known mathematical equations. One-way ANOVA (á=0.05) was used to determine statistically significant differences in volumetric shrinkage among the tested composite resins. Suprafill (1.87±0.01) and Definite (1.89±0.01) shrank significantly less than the other composite resins. SureFil (2.01±0.06), Filtek Z250 (1.99±0.03), and Fill Magic (2.02±0.02) presented intermediate levels of polymerization shrinkage. Alert and Solitaire presented the highest degree of polymerization shrinkage. Knowing the polymerization shrinkage rates of the commercially available composite resins, the dentist would be able to choose between using composite resins with lower polymerization shrinkage rates or adopting technical or operational procedures to minimize the adverse effects deriving from resin contraction during light-activation. PMID:19089177

  20. Physical Properties of Synthetic Resin Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fishbein, Meyer

    1939-01-01

    A study was made to determine the physical properties of synthetic resins having paper, canvas, and linen reinforcements, and of laminated wood impregnated with a resin varnish. The results show that commercial resins have moduli of elasticity that are too low for structural considerations. Nevertheless, there do exist plastics that have favorable mechanical properties and, with further development, it should be possible to produce resin products that compare favorably with the light-metal alloys. The results obtained from tests on Compound 1840, resin-impregnated wood, show that this material can stand on its own merit by virtue of a compressive strength four times that of the natural wood. This increase in compressive strength was accomplished with an increase of density to a value slightly below three times the normal value and corrected one of the most serious defects of the natural product.

  1. Resin/graphite fiber composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cavano, P. J.

    1974-01-01

    Techniques were developed that provided thermo-oxidatively stable A-type polyimide/graphite fiber composites using the approach of in situ polymerization of monomeric reactants directly on reinforcing fibers, rather than employing separately prepared prepolymer varnish. This was accomplished by simply mixing methylene dianiline and two ester-acids and applying this solution to the fibers for subsequent molding. Five different formulated molecular weight resins were examined, and an optimized die molding procedure established for the 1500 formulated molecular weight system. Extensive ultrasonic inspection of composites was successfully utilized as a technique for monitoring laminate quality. Composite mechanical property studies were conducted with this polyimide resin at room temperature and after various time exposures in a thermo-oxidative environment at 561 K (550 F), 589 K (600 F) and 617 K (650 F). It was determined that such composites have a long term life in the temperature range of 561 K to 589 K. The final phase involved the fabrication and evaluation of a series of demonstration airfoil specimens.

  2. Allison Lab Protocol: Resin Bags, 1/2008, Steve Allison Making, deploying, and extracting resin bags

    E-print Network

    German, Donovan P.

    people use nylon stocking material, but I've heard that other fabrics are easier to work with. I recommend nylon/lycra swimsuit liner material, available at fabric stores. It's thicker than stocking to form a loop. Also, tie a 14 inch piece of tough nylon thread to the loop. You can color code the zip

  3. Solidification of ion exchange resin wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-08-01

    Solidification media investigated included portland type I, portland type III and high alumina cements, a proprietary gypsum-based polymer modified cement, and a vinyl ester-styrene thermosetting plastic. Samples formulated with hydraulic cement were analyzed to investigate the effects of resin type, resin loading, waste-to-cement ratio, and water-to-cement ratio. The solidification of cation resin wastes with portland cement was characterized by excessive swelling and cracking of waste forms, both after curing and during immersion testing. Mixed bed resin waste formulations were limited by their cation component. Additives to improve the mechanical properties of portland cement-ion exchange resin waste forms were evaluated. High alumina cement formulations dislayed a resistance to deterioration of mechanical integrity during immersion testing, thus providing a significant advantage over portland cements for the solidification of resin wastes. Properties of cement-ion exchange resin waste forms were examined. An experiment was conducted to study the leachability of /sup 137/Cs, /sup 85/Sr, and /sup 60/Co from resins modified in portland type III and high alumina cements. The cumulative /sup 137/Cs fraction release was at least an order of magnitude greater than that of either /sup 85/Sr or /sup 60/Co. Release rates of /sup 137/Cs in high alumina cement were greater than those in portland III cement by a factor of two.Compressive strength and leach testing were conducted for resin wastes solidified with polymer-modified gypsum based cement. /sup 137/Cs, /sup 85/Sr, and /sup 60/Co fraction releases were about one, two and three orders of magnitude higher, respectively, than in equivalent portland type III cement formulations. As much as 28.6 wt % dry ion exchange resin was successfully solidified using vinyl ester-styrene compared with a maximum of 25 wt % in both portland and gypsum-based cement.

  4. Assessing the effects of adsorptive polymeric resin additions on fungal secondary metabolite chemical diversity

    PubMed Central

    González-Menéndez, Víctor; Asensio, Francisco; Moreno, Catalina; de Pedro, Nuria; Monteiro, Maria Candida; de la Cruz, Mercedes; Vicente, Francisca; Bills, Gerald F.; Reyes, Fernando; Genilloud, Olga; Tormo, José R.

    2014-01-01

    Adsorptive polymeric resins have been occasionally described to enhance the production of specific secondary metabolites (SMs) of interest. Methods that induce the expression of new chemical entities in fungal fermentations may lead to the discovery of new bioactive molecules and should be addressed as possible tools for the creation of new microbial chemical libraries for drug lead discovery. Herein, we apply both biological activity and chemical evaluations to assess the use of adsorptive resins as tools for the differential expression of SMs in fungal strain sets. Data automation approaches were applied to ultra high performance liquid chromatography analysis of extracts to evaluate the general influence in generating new chemical entities or in changing the production of specific SMs by fungi grown in the presence of resins and different base media. PMID:25379340

  5. 21 CFR 176.110 - Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins. 176.110 Section... Paper and Paperboard § 176.110 Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins. Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins may be...) Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins are produced by the polymerization of acrylamide with partial hydrolysis or...

  6. Tc-99 Ion Exchange Resin Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Valenta, Michelle M.; Parker, Kent E.; Pierce, Eric M.

    2010-08-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory was contracted by CHPRC to evaluate the release of 99Tc from spent resin used to treat water from well 299-W15-765 and stored for several years. The key questions to be answered are: 1) does 99Tc readily release from the spent ion exchange resin after being in storage for several years; 2) if hot water stripping is used to remove the co-contaminant carbon tetrachloride, will 99Tc that has been sequestered by the resin be released; and 3) can spent resin be encapsulated into a cementitious waste form; if so, how much 99Tc would be released from the weathering of the monolith waste form? The results from the long term stability leach test results confirm that the resin is not releasing a significant amount of the sequestered 99Tc, evident by the less than 0.02% of the total 99Tc loaded being identified in the solution. Furthermore, it is possible that the measured 99Tc concentration is the result of 99Tc contained in the pore spaces of the resin. In addition to these results, analyses conducted to examine the impact of hot water on the release of 99Tc suggest that only a small percentage of the total is being released. This suggest that hot water stripping to remove carbon tetrachloride will not have a significant affect on the resin’s ability to hold-on to sequestered 99Tc. Finally, encapsulation of spent resin in a cementitious material may be a viable disposal option, but additional tests are needed to examine the extent of physical degradation caused by moisture loss and the effect this degradation process can have on the release of 99Tc.

  7. Factorial experimental design for recovering heavy metals from sludge with ion-exchange resin.

    PubMed

    Lee, I Hsien; Kuan, Yu-Chung; Chern, Jia-Ming

    2006-12-01

    Wastewaters containing heavy metals are usually treated by chemical precipitation method in Taiwan. This method can remove heavy metals form wastewaters efficiently, but the resultant heavy metal sludge is classified as hazardous solid waste and becomes another environmental problem. If we can remove heavy metals from sludge, it becomes non-hazardous waste and the treatment cost can be greatly reduced. This study aims at using ion-exchange resin to remove heavy metals such as copper, zinc, cadmium, and chromium from sludge generated by a PCB manufacturing plant. Factorial experimental design methodology was used to study the heavy metal removal efficiency. The total metal concentrations in the sludge, resin, and solution phases were measured respectively after 30 min reaction with varying leaching agents (citric acid and nitric acid); ion-exchange resins (Amberlite IRC-718 and IR-120), and temperatures (50 and 70 degrees C). The experimental results and statistical analysis show that a stronger leaching acid and a higher temperature both favor lower heavy metal residues in the sludge. Two-factors and even three-factor interaction effects on the heavy metal sorption in the resin phase are not negligible. The ion-exchange resin plays an important role in the sludge extraction or metal recovery. Empirical regression models were also obtained and used to predict the heavy metal profiles with satisfactory results. PMID:16843592

  8. SEM and elemental analysis of composite resins

    SciTech Connect

    Hosoda, H.; Yamada, T.; Inokoshi, S. )

    1990-12-01

    Twenty-four chemically cured, 21 light-cured anterior, three light-cured anterior/posterior, and 18 light-cured posterior composite resins were examined using scanning electron microscopy, and the elemental composition of their filler particles was analyzed with an energy dispersive electron probe microanalyzer. According to the results obtained, the composite resins were divided into five groups (traditional, microfilled type, submicrofilled type, hybrid type, and semihybrid), with two additional hypothetical categories (microfilled and hybrid). Characteristics of each type were described with clinical indications for selective guidance of respective composite resins for clinical use.

  9. Method for selective plugging using resin emulsions

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, R.H.

    1982-10-05

    Methods and compositions are provided for selectively plugging the water-rich strata of subterranean formations, including injection into the formation of a water-insoluble, oil-soluble resin emulsion. A series of chemical reactions is initiated insitu such that the emulsion demulsifies, resulting in the coalescence of resin droplets. The coalesced water-insoluble, oil-soluble resin droplets are effective to selectively plug the water-rich strata over a relatively long distance and over a relatively long period of time.

  10. Improved microbial-check-valve resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colombo, G. V.; Putnam, D. F.

    1980-01-01

    Improved microbial-check-valve resins have been tested for their microbicidal effectiveness and long-term stability. Resins give more-stable iodine concentrations than previous preparations and do not impart objectionable odor or taste to treated water. Microbial check valve is small cylindrical device, packed with iodide-saturated resin, that is installed in water line where contamination by micro-organisms is to be prevented. Prototype microbial check valve was tested for stability and performance under harsh environmental conditions. Effectiveness was 100 percent at 35 deg, 70 deg, and 160 deg F (2 deg, 21 deg, and 71 deg C).

  11. Cobalt Ions Improve the Strength of Epoxy Resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoakley, D. M.; St. Clair, A. K.

    1986-01-01

    Technique developed for improving mechanical strength of epoxy resins by adding cobalt ions in form of tris(acetylacetonato)cobalt (III) complex. Solid cast disks prepared from cobalt ion-containing epoxy resins tested for flexural strength and stiffness. Incorporation of cobalt ions into epoxies increased flexural strength of resins by 10 to 95 percent. Suitable resins for this technique include any liquid or solid TGMDA resins. Improved epoxy formulation proves useful as composite matrix resin, adhesive, or casting resin for applications on commercial and advanced aircraft.

  12. Microleakage at the resin-alloy interface of chemically retained composite resins for cast restorations.

    PubMed

    Strygler, H; Nicholls, J I; Townsend, J D

    1991-06-01

    New retentive mechanisms between veneering resins and casting alloys are claimed to have a chemical bond that results in a high bond strength combined with low microleakage between the veneering resin and cast restoration. This study compared the microleakage of four chemical bonding mechanisms when three veneering resins were bonded to two dental casting alloys. Resin-veneered alloy disks were immersed in red India ink and kept at 37 degrees C for 72 hours. The disks were then bench dried for 24 hours. The resin veneer was sectioned into eight sectors in an engineering milling machine and these resin sectors were removed to display the microleakage pattern. It was concluded that (1) no microleakage was found in two combinations, and (2) the highest microleakage was with Sr-Isosit-N/Panavia EX/Firmilay combinations. PMID:1712849

  13. Hydraulic Permeability of Resorcinol-Formaldehyde Resin

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, Paul Allen

    2010-01-01

    An ion exchange process using spherical resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) resin is the baseline process for removing cesium from the dissolved salt solution in the high-level waste tanks at the Hanford Site, using large scale columns as part of the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP). The RF resin is also being evaluated for use in the proposed small column ion exchange (SCIX) system, which is an alternative treatment option at Hanford and at the Savannah River Site (SRS). A recirculating test loop with a small ion exchange column was used to measure the effect of oxygen uptake and radiation exposure on the permeability of a packed bed of the RF resin. The lab-scale column was designed to be prototypic of the proposed Hanford columns at the WTP. Although the test equipment was designed to model the Hanford ion exchange columns, the data on changes in the hydraulic permeability of the resin will also be valuable for determining potential pressure drops through the proposed SCIX system. The superficial fluid velocity in the lab-scale test (3.4-5.7 cm/s) was much higher than is planned for the full-scale Hanford columns to generate the maximum pressure drop expected in those columns (9.7 psig). The frictional drag from this high velocity produced forces on the resin in the lab-scale tests that matched the design basis of the full-scale Hanford column. Any changes in the resin caused by the radiation exposure and oxygen uptake were monitored by measuring the pressure drop through the lab-scale column and the physical properties of the resin. Three hydraulic test runs were completed, the first using fresh RF resin at 25 C, the second using irradiated resin at 25 C, and the third using irradiated resin at 45 C. A Hanford AP-101 simulant solution was recirculated through a test column containing 500 mL of Na-form RF resin. Known amounts of oxygen were introduced into the primary recirculation loop by saturating measured volumes of the simulant solution with oxygen and reintroducing the oxygenated simulant into the feed tank. The dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration of the recirculating simulant was monitored, and the amount of oxygen that reacted with the resin was determined from the change in the DO concentration of the recirculating simulant solution. Prior to hydraulic testing the resin for runs 2 and 3 was covered with the simulant solution and irradiated in a spent fuel element at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR). Both batches of resin were irradiated to a total gamma dose of 177 Mrad, but the resin for run 2 reached a maximum temperature during irradiation of 51 C, while the resin for run 3 reached a temperature of 38 C. The different temperatures were the result of the operating status of HFIR at the time of the irradiation and were not part of the test plan; however, the results clearly show the impact of the higher-temperature exposure during irradiation. The flow rate and pressure drop data from the test loop runs show that irradiating the RF resin reduces both the void fraction and the permeability of the resin bed. The mechanism for the reduction in permeability is not clear because irradiation increases the particle size of the resin beads and makes them deform less under pressure. Microscopic examination of the resin beads shows that they are all smooth regular spheres and that irradiation or oxygen uptake did not change the shape of the beads. The resin reacts rapidly with DO in the simulant solution, and the reaction with oxygen reduces the permeability of a bed of new resin by about 10% but has less impact on the permeability of irradiated resin. Irradiation increases the toughness of the resin beads, probably by initiating cross-linking reactions in them. Oxygen uptake reduces the crush strength of both new and irradiated resin; however, the pressures that caused the beads to crush are much higher than would be expected during the operation of an ion exchange column. There was no visible evidence of broken beads in any of the resin samples taken from the test loop. Reaction with oxygen red

  14. Method for regenerating magnetic polyamine-epichlorohydrin resin

    DOEpatents

    Kochen, Robert L. (Boulder, CO); Navratil, James D. (Simi Valley, CA)

    1997-07-29

    Magnetic polymer resins capable of efficient removal of actinides and heavy metals from contaminated water are disclosed together with methods for making, using, and regenerating them. The resins comprise polyamine-epichlorohydrin resin beads with ferrites attached to the surfaces of the beads. Markedly improved water decontamination is demonstrated using these magnetic polymer resins of the invention in the presence of a magnetic field, as compared with water decontamination methods employing ordinary ion exchange resins or ferrites taken separately.

  15. Method for regenerating magnetic polyamine-epichlorohydrin resin

    DOEpatents

    Kochen, R.L.; Navratil, J.D.

    1997-07-29

    Magnetic polymer resins capable of efficient removal of actinides and heavy metals from contaminated water are disclosed together with methods for making, using, and regenerating them. The resins comprise polyamine-epichlorohydrin resin beads with ferrites attached to the surfaces of the beads. Markedly improved water decontamination is demonstrated using these magnetic polymer resins of the invention in the presence of a magnetic field, as compared with water decontamination methods employing ordinary ion exchange resins or ferrites taken separately. 9 figs.

  16. Resin Flow Analysis in the Injection Cycle of a Resin Transfer Molded Radome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golestanian, Hossein; Poursina, Mehrdad

    2007-04-01

    Resin flow analysis in the injection cycle of an RTM process was investigated. Fiberglass and carbon fiber mats were used as reinforcements with EPON 826 epoxy resin. Numerical models were developed in ANSYS finite element software to simulate resin flow behavior into a mold of conical shape. Resin flow into the woven fiber mats is modeled as flow through porous media. The injection time for fiberglass/epoxy composite is found to be 4407 seconds. Required injection time for the carbon/epoxy composite is 27022 seconds. Higher injection time for carbon/epoxy part is due to lower permeability value of the carbon fibers compared to glass fiber mat.

  17. Phenoxy resins containing pendent ethynyl groups and cured resins obtained therefrom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hergenrother, P. M. (inventor)

    1985-01-01

    Phenoxy resins containing pendent ethynyl groups, the process for preparing the same, and the cured resin products obtained therefrom are disclosed. Upon the application of heat, the ethynyl groups react to provide branching and crosslinking with the cure temperature being lowered by using a catalyst if desired but not required. The cured phenoxy resins containing pendent ethynyl groups have improved solvent resistance and higher use temperature than linear uncrosslinked phenoxy resins and are applicable for use as coatings, films, adhesives, composited matrices and molding compounds.

  18. Feature extraction Feature extraction

    E-print Network

    Giger, Christine

    Feature extraction #12;Feature extraction ! · Image interpretation: extract information from images · but the desired information may not be explicit in the raw observed pixel intensities · Transform image to make (hyperspectral sensors) Meteosat thermal IR channel hyperspectral "image cube" #12;Raw intensities ! · Pros

  19. Feature extraction Feature extraction

    E-print Network

    Giger, Christine

    Feature extraction #12;Feature extraction · Image interpretation: extract information from images · but the desired information may not be explicit in the raw observed pixel intensities · Transform image to make (hyperspectral sensors) Meteosat thermal IR channel hyperspectral "image cube" #12;Raw intensities · Pros

  20. Separation and purification of amygdalin from thinned bayberry kernels by macroporous adsorption resins.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tao; Lu, Shengmin; Xia, Qile; Fang, Zhongxiang; Johnson, Stuart

    2015-01-15

    To utilize the low-value thinned bayberry (Myrica rubra Sieb. et Zucc) kernels (TBKs) waste, an efficient method using macroporous adsorption resins (MARs) for separation and purification of amygdalin from TBKs crude extracts was developed. An aqueous crude sample was prepared from a methanol TBK extract, followed by resin separation. A series of MARs were initially screened for adsorption/desorption of amygdalin in the extract, and D101 was selected for characterization and method development. The static adsorption data of amygdalin on D101 was best fitted to the pseudo-second-order kinetics model. The solute affinity toward D101 at 30 °C was described and the equilibrium experimental data were well-fitted to Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. Through one cycle of dynamic adsorption/desorption, the purity of amygdalin in the extract, determined by HPLC, increased about 17-fold from 4.8% to 82.0%, with 77.9% recovery. The results suggested that D101 resin effectively separate amygdalin from TBKs. PMID:25438243

  1. 21 CFR 178.3930 - Terpene resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...hydrocarbons obtainable from sulfate turpentine and meeting the following specifications: Drop-softening point of 118°-138 °C; iodine value less than 20. (b) Terpene resins consisting of polymers of beta-pinene and meeting the following...

  2. 21 CFR 178.3930 - Terpene resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...hydrocarbons obtainable from sulfate turpentine and meeting the following specifications: Drop-softening point of 118°-138 °C; iodine value less than 20. (b) Terpene resins consisting of polymers of beta-pinene and meeting the following...

  3. 21 CFR 178.3930 - Terpene resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... components of polypropylene film intended for use in contact with food, and the terpene resins identified in paragraph (b) of this section may be safely used as components of polyolefin film intended for use...

  4. Silicone modified resins for graphite fiber laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frost, L. W.; Bower, G. M.

    1979-01-01

    The development of silicon modified resins for graphite fiber laminates which will prevent the dispersal of graphite fibers when the composites are burned is discussed. Eighty-five silicone modified resins were synthesized and evaluated including unsaturated polyesters, thermosetting methacrylates, epoxies, polyimides, and phenolics. Neat resins were judged in terms of Si content, homogeneity, hardness, Char formation, and thermal stability. Char formation was estimated by thermogravimetry to 1,000 C in air and in N2. Thermal stability was evaluated by isothermal weight loss measurements for 200 hrs in air at three temperatures. Four silicone modified epoxies were selected for evaluation in unidirectional filament wound graphite laminates. Neat samples of these resins had 1,000 C char residues of 25 to 50%. The highest flexural values measured for the laminates were a strength of 140 kpsi and a modulus of 10 Mpsi. The highest interlaminar shear strength was 5.3 kpsi.

  5. Synthesis of improved phenolic and polyester resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delano, C. B.

    1980-01-01

    Thirty-seven cured phenolic resin compositions were prepared and tested for their ability to provide improved char residues and moisture resistance over state of the art epoxy resin composite matrices. Cyanate, epoxy novolac and vinyl ester resins were investigated. Char promoter additives were found to increase the anaerobic char yield at 800 C of epoxy novolacs and vinyl esters. Moisture resistant cyanate and vinyl ester compositions were investigated as composite matrices with Thornel 300 graphite fiber. A cyanate composite matrix provided state of the art composite mechanical properties before and after humidity exposure and an anaerobic char yield of 46 percent at 800 C. The outstanding moisture resistance of the matrix was not completely realized in the composite. Vinyl ester resins showed promise as candidates for improved composite matrix systems.

  6. Improved high-temperature resistant matrix resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, H. E.; Chang, G. E.; Wright, W. F.; Ueda, K.; Orell, M. K.

    1989-01-01

    A study was performed with the objective of developing matrix resins that exhibit improved thermo-oxidative stability over state-of-the-art high temperature resins for use at temperatures up to 644 K (700 F) and air pressures up to 0.7 MPa (100 psia). The work was based upon a TRW discovered family of polyimides currently licensed to and marketed by Ethyl Corporation as EYMYD(R) resins. The approach investigated to provide improved thermo-oxidative properties was to use halogenated derivatives of the diamine, 2, 2-bis (4-(4-aminophenoxy)phenyl) hexafluoropropane (4-BDAF). Polyimide neat resins and Celion(R) 12,000 composites prepared from fluorine substituted 4-BDAF demonstrated unexpectedly lower glass transition temperatures (Tg) and thermo-oxidative stabilities than the baseline 4-BDAF/PMDA polymer.

  7. 21 CFR 178.3930 - Terpene resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...Terpene resins consisting of polymers of beta-pinene and meeting the following specifications: Acid value less than 1; saponification number less than 1; color less than 4 on the Gardner scale as measured in 50 percent mineral spirits...

  8. Cesium-specific phenolic ion exchange resin

    DOEpatents

    Bibler, Jane P. (Aiken, SC); Wallace, Richard M. (Aiken, SC)

    1995-01-01

    A phenolic, cesium-specific, cation exchange resin is prepared by neutralizing resorcinol with potassium hydroxide, condensing/polymerizing the resulting intermediate with formaldehyde, heat-curing the resulting polymer to effect cross-linking and grinding it to desired particle size for use. This resin will selectively and efficiently adsorb cesium ions in the presence of a high concentration of sodium ions with a low carbon to cesium ratio.

  9. Cesium-specific phenolic ion exchange resin

    DOEpatents

    Bibler, J.P.; Wallace, R.M.

    1995-08-15

    A phenolic, cesium-specific, cation exchange resin is prepared by neutralizing resorcinol with potassium hydroxide, condensing/polymerizing the resulting intermediate with formaldehyde, heat-curing the resulting polymer to effect cross-linking and grinding it to desired particle size for use. This resin will selectively and efficiently adsorb cesium ions in the presence of a high concentration of sodium ions with a low carbon to cesium ratio. 2 figs.

  10. 21 CFR 177.1500 - Nylon resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    .... Nylon 6/69 resins for use only as specified in 21 CFR 177.1395 of this chapter 1.09±0.02 270-277 >140..., see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Nylon resins. 177.1500 Section 177.1500 Food...

  11. 21 CFR 177.1500 - Nylon resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    .... Nylon 6/69 resins for use only as specified in 21 CFR 177.1395 of this chapter 1.09±0.02 270-277 >140..., see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Nylon resins. 177.1500 Section 177.1500 Food...

  12. 21 CFR 177.1500 - Nylon resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    .... Nylon 6/69 resins for use only as specified in 21 CFR 177.1395 of this chapter 1.09±0.02 270-277 >140..., see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Nylon resins. 177.1500 Section 177.1500 Food...

  13. 21 CFR 177.1500 - Nylon resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    .... Nylon 6/69 resins for use only as specified in 21 CFR 177.1395 of this chapter 1.09±0.02 270-277 >140..., see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Nylon resins. 177.1500 Section 177.1500 Food...

  14. Clinical applications of preheated hybrid resin composite.

    PubMed

    Rickman, L J; Padipatvuthikul, P; Chee, B

    2011-07-01

    This clinical article describes and discusses the use of preheated nanohybrid resin composite for the placement of direct restorations and luting of porcelain laminate veneers. Two clinical cases are presented. Preheating hybrid composite decreases its viscosity and film thickness offering the clinician improved handling. Preheating also facilitates the use of nanohybrid composite as a veneer luting material with relatively low polymerisation shrinkage and coefficient of thermal expansion compared to currently available resin luting cements. PMID:21779058

  15. 40 CFR 414.40 - Applicability; description of the thermoplastic resins subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Resins, Compounded *Polyethylene, Chlorinated *Polyimides *Polypropylene Resins Polystyrene (Crystal) Polystyrene (Crystal) Modified *Polystyrene—Copolymers *Polystyrene—Acrylic Latexes Polystyrene Impact Resins...

  16. 40 CFR 414.40 - Applicability; description of the thermoplastic resins subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Resins, Compounded *Polyethylene, Chlorinated *Polyimides *Polypropylene Resins Polystyrene (Crystal) Polystyrene (Crystal) Modified *Polystyrene—Copolymers *Polystyrene—Acrylic Latexes Polystyrene Impact Resins...

  17. 40 CFR 414.40 - Applicability; description of the thermoplastic resins subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Resins, Compounded *Polyethylene, Chlorinated *Polyimides *Polypropylene Resins Polystyrene (Crystal) Polystyrene (Crystal) Modified *Polystyrene—Copolymers *Polystyrene—Acrylic Latexes Polystyrene Impact Resins...

  18. 40 CFR 414.40 - Applicability; description of the thermoplastic resins subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Resins, Compounded *Polyethylene, Chlorinated *Polyimides *Polypropylene Resins Polystyrene (Crystal) Polystyrene (Crystal) Modified *Polystyrene—Copolymers *Polystyrene—Acrylic Latexes Polystyrene Impact Resins...

  19. 40 CFR 414.40 - Applicability; description of the thermoplastic resins subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Resins, Compounded *Polyethylene, Chlorinated *Polyimides *Polypropylene Resins Polystyrene (Crystal) Polystyrene (Crystal) Modified *Polystyrene—Copolymers *Polystyrene—Acrylic Latexes Polystyrene Impact Resins...

  20. The influences of N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) on the cytotoxicity and mechanical properties of Poly-methylmethacrylate (PMMA)-based dental resin

    PubMed Central

    Jiao, Yang; Ma, Sai; Li, Jing; Shan, Lequn; Yang, Yanwei; Li, Meng

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. This study aimed to investigate the influences of N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) on cytotoxicity and mechanical properties of Poly-methylmethacrylate (PMMA) dental resins. Methods. Experimental PMMA resin was prepared by incorporating various concentrations of NAC (0, 0.15, 0.3, 0.6 and 0.9 wt.%). MTT assay was performed to investigate viability of human dental pulp cells after exposure to extract of PMMA resin with or without NAC. Cell adhesion on resin specimens was examined with scanning electron microscopy. Degree of conversion was studied with Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). Flexural strength, microhardness and surface roughness was evaluated using a universal testing machine, microhardness tester and optical profilometer, respectively. Results. Incorporation of NAC into PMMA resin significantly reduced its cytotoxicity and enhanced cell adhesion on its surface. NAC induced negative influences on the mechanical and physical properties of PMMA resin in a dose-dependent manner. The degree of conversion for all experimental PMMA resins reached as high as 72% after 24 h of polymerization. All the tested properties were maintained when the concentration of incorporated NAC was 0.15 wt.%. Conclusion. The addition of 0.15 wt.% NAC remarkably improved biocompatibility of PMMA resin without exerting significant negative influence on its mechanical and physical properties. PMID:25922788

  1. Effect of resin cement, aging process and root level on the bond strength of the resin-fiber posts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almuhim, Khalid Salman

    Background. Little is known about the long-term clinical bonding effectiveness of the Fiber-reinforced composite (FRC) posts cemented with self-etch adhesive systems. Bond stability and longevity of the cemented post are adversely affected by physical and chemical factors over time, such as expansion and contraction stresses caused by thermal changes and occlusal load. This clinical condition can be simulated in vitro by thermocyclic loading; and bonding effectiveness can be evaluated by applying the micropush out test. Therefore, more in vitro studies are needed to evaluate the bond strength of the fiber posts cemented with different resin cement systems after simulating the artificial aging induced by thermocycling. The aim of this study was to compare the microtensile bond strength of two different resin cement systems (total etch, and self-etch resin cement system) used for cementation of fiber reinforced composite posts in three different aging periods using thermocycling. Methods. Following IRB approval, sixty freshly extracted bicuspid single rooted natural teeth were endodontically treated, and the post-spaces were prepared to receive a fiber-post cemented with either a total etch resin cement (Rely-X Ultimate) or with a self-etch resin cement (Rely-X Unicem). No thermocycling, 20,000 and 40,000 cycles was used to age the specimens. Teeth were randomly allocated into six different groups: G1 - Control: Rely-X Ultimate cement with no thermocycling. G2: Rely-X Ultimate cement with 20,000 thermocycling. G3: Rely-X Ultimate cement with 40,000 thermocycling. G4: Rely-X Unicem cement. G5: Rely-X Unicem cement. G6: Rely-X Unicem cement. Microtensile bond strength determined using a micropush out test on a universal testing machine (MTS). Additionally, the failure mode of each specimen was observed under a stereomicroscope (Olympus) at 40x magnification. Finally, one representative sample was randomly selected from each of the five failure modes for scanning electron microscope (SEM) examination of the surface morphology in order to obtain SEM images of the failure patterns at 29--70x magnifications. Statistical analysis: Nested general linear and generalized linear model was created to look for statistical significance. Level of significance was set at P < 0.05. Results. No significant differences were found on the bond strength between the two types of resin cement systems (total etch and self-etch). Regarding the thermocycling effect, the bond strengths of the group of 40,000 cycles was significantly lower than the 20,000 cycle group. In addition, the bond strengths of the specimens collected from the coronal third of the root were significantly lower than the specimens from the apical third. A Fisher's Exact test was applied to evaluate the failure mode differences, and showed statistically significant differences between the groups. Conclusions . The bond strength to the root canal dentin did not vary with the type of resin cement systems (total-etch vs self-etch). The microtensile bond strength values of FRC posts were significantly affected by increasing the thermocycling, and were significantly different among the different longitudinal levels of the root canal.

  2. Anomalous effects in the character of the carbonyl absorption (ca. 1700 cm/sup -1/) in the infrared spectra of petroleum resins and asphaltenes

    SciTech Connect

    Speight, J.G.; Moschopedis, S.E.

    1981-09-01

    The presence of the carbonyl functional groups in asphaltenes and resins were detected by ir spectroscopy following saponification. By following the spectra through a reaction sequence, the bituminous extracts from fresh oil sands showed the presence of esters and carboxylic acids. The extracts from a hot water process showed either carboxylic acids or esters. 1 figure, 2 tables.

  3. Imide modified epoxy matrix resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scola, D. A.

    1984-01-01

    The results of a program designed to develop tough imide modified epoxy resins cured by bisimide amine (BIA) hardeners are described. State-of-the-art epoxides MY720 and DER383 were used, and four bismide amines were evaluated. These were the BIA's derived from the 6F anhydride (4,4'-(hexafluoroisopropylidene) bis(phthalic anhydride) and the diamines 3,3'-diaminodiphynyl sulfone, 4,4'-oxygianiline, 4,4'-methylene dianiline, and 1,12-dodecane diamine. A key intermediate, designated 6F anhydride, is required for the synthesis of the bisimide amines. Reaction parameters to synthesize a precursor to the 6F anhydride (6FHC) in high yields were investigated. The catalyst trifluoromethane sulfonic acid was studied. Although small scale runs yielded the 6FHC in 50 percent yield, efforts to ranslate these results to a larger scale synthesis gave the 6FHC in only 9 percent yield. Results show that the concept of using bisimide amine as curing agents to improve the toughness properties of epoxies is valid.

  4. Preparation and cured properties of novel cycloaliphatic epoxy resins

    SciTech Connect

    Tokizawa, Makoto; Okada, Hiroyoshi; Wakabayashi, Nobukatsu; Kimura, Tomiaki . Research Center)

    1993-10-20

    Preparation and characterization of novel cycloaliphatic epoxy resins, which are derived from octadienyl compounds, were studied. From a model peracetic acid epoxidation reaction using 2,7-octadienyl acetate-1, the structure of the liquid resins is estimated to be mainly terminal epoxides and some amount of inner epoxide depending on the epoxide content. The epoxy resins offer lower toxicity and lower vapor pressure. The reactivity of the resin with acid anhydrides is moderate but faster than that of traditional cyclohexane epoxide-type resins and slower than that of the glycidyl ester-type resins. This reactivity was also examined using model compounds. The heat deflection temperature of the hexahydro-phthalic anhydride-cured resins is shown to be directly proportional to the number of epoxy groups in the molecules. The flexural strength of the cured resins is nearly equivalent to that of the commercial resins, although the flexural elongation of the resins is larger than that of the rigid cyclohexane epoxide-type resins. The thermal stability of the cured resins is compared to typical rigid cycloaliphatic resins; furthermore, high water resistance of the cured resins is suggested to be attributed to the hydrophobic character of the C[sub 8] chain by cross-linking.

  5. Effect of simulated resin-bonded fixed partial denture clinical conditions on resin cement mechanical properties.

    PubMed

    Walker, M P; Spencer, P; Eick, J D

    2003-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine changes in flexural properties of resin cement under simulated resin-bonded fixed partial denture (RBFPD) clinical conditions using aqueous ageing and cyclic loading. Panavia F flexural modulus and strength were measured by static loading to failure after 48-h and 60-day aqueous ageing at 37 degrees C with and without simulated cyclic occlusal loading. Panavia F sorption and solubility were also measured. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to characterize the morphology of the fractured surfaces. A two-factor anova (P resin matrix fracture occurred in static-aqueous specimens; while in the aqueous-cycled specimens, resin matrix fracture occurred in addition to an increasing proportion of filler/resin interface fracture. Collectively, these outcomes suggest that initial degradation under simulated resin cement clinical function may be related to breakdown of the filler/resin interface bond, which could contribute to in vivo RBFPD resin cement cohesive failure. PMID:12880409

  6. Haemostatic agents on the shear bond strength of self-adhesive resin

    PubMed Central

    Anil, Akansha; Sekhar, Anand; Ginjupalli, Kishor

    2015-01-01

    Background Dentin surface contaminated with haemostatic agents can interfere with the bonding of self-adhesive resin cement. Therefore the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of various haemostatic agents such as Aluminium chloride, Ferric sulphate and Tannic acid on the shear bond strength of self-adhesive resin luting agent. Material and Methods The buccal surfaces of extracted premolars were flattened to expose the dentine. The teeth were then randomly divided into four groups. In Group I Aluminium Chloride was applied on the flattened dentinal surface, in Group II Ferric Sulphate was applied to exposed dentin surface, in Group III tannic acid was applied on to the dentinal surface, and the control group, i.e. Group IV was rinsed with saline. After the surface treatment, all the teeth were air dried. Then a predetermined dimension of RelyX™ U200 self-adhesive resin cement was bonded to the pretreated dentin surfaces. The samples were then stored under 370C in distilled water for 24 hours under 100 % humidity. Following this each sample was tested for shear bond strength with an Instron testing machine at a crosshead speed of 1mm/min. Results There was significant difference in the shear bond strength of control and tannic acid contaminated group (p<0.05), whereas there was no significant differences between the shear bond strength between control and aluminium chloride and ferric sulphate groups (p>0.05). Conclusions The usage of haemostatic agent can negatively affect the bond strength of self-adhesive resin cement (Rely X) on to the dentin surface. As per the study Tannic acid significantly weakened the bond between the self-adhesive resin and dentin. Key words:Aluminium chloride, Ferric sulphate, haemostatic agent, self-adhesive resin cement, shear bond strength, Tannic acid. PMID:26330930

  7. Development of a heterogeneous laminating resin system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biermann, T. F.; Hopper, L. C.

    1985-01-01

    The factors which effect the impact resistance of laminating resin systems and yet retain equivalent performance with the conventional 450 K curing epoxy matrix systems in other areas were studied. Formulation work was conducted on two systems, an all-epoxy and an epoxy/bismaleimide, to gain fundamental information on the effect formulation changes have upon neat resin and composite properties. The all-epoxy work involved formulations with various amounts and combinations of eight different epoxy resins, four different hardeners, fifteen different toughening agents, a filler, and a catalyst. The epoxy/bismaleimide effort improved formulations with various amounts and combinations of nine different resins, four different hardeners, eight different toughening agents, four different catalysts, and a filler. When a formulation appeared to offer the proper combination of properties required for a laminating resin Celion 3K-70P fabric was prepregged. Initial screening tests on composites primarily involved Gardner type impact and measurement of short beam shear strengths under dry and hot/wet conditions.

  8. 21 CFR 177.1330 - Ionomeric resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...extractions) when extracted by the equilibrium method cited in paragraph (e)(2...extractions) when extracted by the equilibrium method cited in paragraph (e)(2...F (49 °C). 1 Hours (ii) Equilibrium test. For intended use involving...

  9. 21 CFR 177.1330 - Ionomeric resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...extractions) when extracted by the equilibrium method cited in paragraph (e)(2...extractions) when extracted by the equilibrium method cited in paragraph (e)(2...F (49 °C). 1 Hours (ii) Equilibrium test. For intended use involving...

  10. 21 CFR 177.1330 - Ionomeric resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...extractions) when extracted by the equilibrium method cited in paragraph (e)(2...extractions) when extracted by the equilibrium method cited in paragraph (e)(2...F (49 °C). 1 Hours (ii) Equilibrium test. For intended use involving...

  11. 21 CFR 177.1330 - Ionomeric resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...extractions) when extracted by the equilibrium method cited in paragraph (e)(2...extractions) when extracted by the equilibrium method cited in paragraph (e)(2...F (49 °C). 1 Hours (ii) Equilibrium test. For intended use involving...

  12. Ponderosa pine resin defenses and growth: metrics matter.

    PubMed

    Hood, Sharon; Sala, Anna

    2015-11-01

    Bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) cause widespread tree mortality in coniferous forests worldwide. Constitutive and induced host defenses are important factors in an individual tree's ability to survive an attack and in bottom-up regulation of bark beetle population dynamics, yet quantifying defense levels is often difficult. For example, in Pinus spp., resin flow is important for resistance to bark beetles but is extremely variable among individuals and within a season. While resin is produced and stored in resin ducts, the specific resin duct metrics that best correlate with resin flow remain unclear. The ability and timing of some pine species to produce induced resin is also not well understood. We investigated (i) the relationships between ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Lawson & C. Lawson) resin flow and axial resin duct characteristics, tree growth and physiological variables, and (ii) if mechanical wounding induces ponderosa pine resin flow and resin ducts in the absence of bark beetles. Resin flow increased later in the growing season under moderate water stress and was highest in faster growing trees. The best predictors of resin flow were nonstandardized measures of resin ducts, resin duct size and total resin duct area, both of which increased with tree growth. However, while faster growing trees tended to produce more resin, models of resin flow using only tree growth were not statistically significant. Further, the standardized measures of resin ducts, density and duct area relative to xylem area, decreased with tree growth rate, indicating that slower growing trees invested more in resin duct defenses per unit area of radial growth, despite a tendency to produce less resin overall. We also found that mechanical wounding induced ponderosa pine defenses, but this response was slow. Resin flow increased after 28 days, and resin duct production did not increase until the following year. These slow induced responses may allow unsuccessfully attacked or wounded trees to resist future bark beetle attacks. Forest management that encourages healthy, vigorously growing trees will also favor larger resin ducts, thereby conferring increased constitutive resistance to bark beetle attacks. PMID:26433021

  13. Separation and determination of arsenic species in water by selective exchange and hybrid resins.

    PubMed

    Ben Issa, Nureddin; Rajakovi?-Ognjanovi?, Vladana N; Marinkovi?, Aleksandar D; Rajakovi?, Ljubinka V

    2011-11-01

    A simple and efficient method for separation and determination of inorganic arsenic (iAs) and organic arsenic (oAs) in drinking, natural and wastewater was developed. If arsenic is present in water prevailing forms are inorganic acids of As(III) and As(V). oAs can be found in traces as monomethylarsenic acid, MMA(V), and dimethylarsenic acid, DMAs(V). Three types of resins: a strong base anion exchange (SBAE) and two hybrid (HY) resins: HY-Fe and HY-AgCl, based on the activity of hydrated iron oxides and a silver chloride were investigated. It was found that the sorption processes (ion exchange, adsorption and chemisorptions) of arsenic species on SBAE (ion exchange) and HY resins depend on pH values of water. The quantitative separation of molecular and ionic forms of iAs and oAs was achieved by SBAE and pH adjustment, the molecular form of As(III) that exists in the water at pH <8.0 was not bonded with SBAE, which was convenient for direct determination of As(III) concentration in the effluent. HY-Fe resin retained all arsenic species except DMAs(V), which makes possible direct measurements of this specie in the effluent. HY-AgCl resin retained all iAs which was convenient for direct determination of oAs species concentration in the effluent. The selective bonding of arsenic species on three types of resins makes possible the development of the procedure for measuring and calculation of all arsenic species in water. In order to determine capacity of resins the preliminary investigations were performed in batch system and fixed bed flow system. Resin capacities were calculated according to breakthrough points in a fixed bed flow system which is the first step in designing of solid phase extraction (SPE) module for arsenic speciation separation and determination. Arsenic adsorption behavior in the presence of impurities showed tolerance with the respect to potential interference of anionic compounds commonly found in natural water. Proposed method was established performing standard procedures: with external standard, certified reference material and standard addition method. Two analytical techniques: the inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and atomic absorption spectroscopy-hydride generation (AAS-GH) were comparatively applied for the determination of arsenic in all arsenic species in water. ICP-MS detection limit was 0.2 ?g L(-1) and relative standard deviation (RSD) of all arsenic species investigated was between 3.5 and 5.1%. PMID:21995928

  14. Studies on cesium uptake by phenolic resins

    SciTech Connect

    Samanta, S.K.; Ramaswamy, M.; Misra, B.M. )

    1992-02-01

    The selective removal of cesium by phenolic ion-exchange resins from highly salted alkaline radioactive solutions was studied. The resins were synthesized by alkaline polycondensation of phenol, resorcinol, catechol, and resorcinol-catechol mixture with formaldehyde and characterized for their moisture regain, ion-exchange (H{sup +} {yields} Na{sup +}) capacity, and distribution coefficient (K{sub D}) for cesium. The effects of open and sealed curing of the polymers on their properties were studied. The effect of Na{sup +}, NaOH, and Cs{sup +} concentration on the uptake of cesium by resorcinol-formaldehyde resin was investigated, in particular. The chemical, thermal, and radiation stabilities of the polymers were also studied.

  15. Airway responsiveness in workers processing polyester resins.

    PubMed

    Zuskin, E; Saric, M; Bouhuys, A

    1979-12-01

    In 22 employees of a button-manufacturing plant, exposure to polyester resins over an eight-hour work shift resulted in an acute reduction of flow rates on maximum expiratory flow volume (MEFV) curves at MEF50% and MEF25%. In the workers studied, preshift administration of 80 mg of propranolol potentiated, while 1 mg of subcutaneously injected atropine significantly inhibited, the bronchoconstricting effect of the resins, indicating that the autonomic nervous system plays an important role in determining airway smooth muscle response to polyester resins. Although a high prevalence of acute symptoms (cough, shortness of breath, throat and eye irritation) over the work shift was recorded in exposed workers, no high prevalence of chronic respiratory symptoms was found. No definite evidence of chronic airway obstruction was recorded in exposed workers. PMID:536858

  16. Corrosion of resin-bonded orthodontic brackets.

    PubMed

    Gwinnett, A J

    1982-06-01

    The objective was to identify the nature and origin of indelible black and green stains found in enamel after the removal of bonded orthodontic brackets. Several brackets were examined by scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive x-ray analysis. Irrespective of the type of bracket or resin, morphologic evidence of corrosion activity was found. Brackets were pitted, and in some cases large amounts of metal were missing. Cracks were found in the resin which led to sites of destruction in which structures resembling microorganisms were also found. X-ray analysis showed the presence of chromium, nickel, iron, and chlorine in significant amounts in the bonding, discolored resin. It was concluded that the cracks were favoring crevice corrosion. In the presence of organisms and a lowered pH, together with a chloride environment and an oxygen gradient, conditions conducive to corrosion are established. PMID:6758601

  17. Improved high temperature resistant matrix resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, G. E.; Powell, S. H.; Jones, R. J.

    1983-01-01

    The objective was to develop organic matrix resins suitable for service at temperatures up to 644 K (700 F) and at air pressures up to 0.4 MPa (60 psia) for time durations of a minimum of 100 hours. Matrix resins capable of withstanding these extreme oxidative environmental conditions would lead to increased use of polymer matrix composites in aircraft engines and provide significant weight and cost savings. Six linear condensation, aromatic/heterocyclic polymers containing fluorinated and/or diphenyl linkages were synthesized. The thermo-oxidative stability of the resins was determined at 644 K and compressed air pressures up to 0.4 MPa. Two formulations, both containing perfluoroisopropylidene linkages in the polymer backbone structure, exhibited potential for 644 K service to meet the program objectives. Two other formulations could not be fabricated into compression molded zero defect specimens.

  18. 21 CFR 177.1650 - Polysulfide polymer-polyepoxy resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... soybean oil Epoxy resins (as listed in § 175.300(b)(3)(viii)(a) of this chapter). Ethylene glycol... sample of the finished resin in the form in which it contacts food, when subjected to ASTM method...

  19. 21 CFR 872.3300 - Hydrophilic resin coating for dentures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3300 Hydrophilic resin coating for dentures. (a) Identification. A hydrophilic resin...

  20. 21 CFR 872.3820 - Root canal filling resin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3820 Root canal filling resin. (a) Identification. A root canal filling resin is a...

  1. 21 CFR 872.3820 - Root canal filling resin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3820 Root canal filling resin. (a) Identification. A root canal filling resin is a...

  2. 21 CFR 872.3200 - Resin tooth bonding agent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3200 Resin tooth bonding agent. (a) Identification. A resin tooth bonding agent is a...

  3. 21 CFR 872.3300 - Hydrophilic resin coating for dentures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3300 Hydrophilic resin coating for dentures. (a) Identification. A hydrophilic resin...

  4. 21 CFR 872.3820 - Root canal filling resin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3820 Root canal filling resin. (a) Identification. A root canal filling resin is a...

  5. 21 CFR 177.2500 - Polyphenylene sulfone resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... polyphenylene sulfide with peracetic acid such that the finished resins meet the specifications set forth in... production of such basic resins. These optional adjuvant substances may include substances permitted for...

  6. Resin additive improves performance of high-temperature hydrocarbon lubricants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, R. L.; Loomis, W. R.

    1971-01-01

    Paraffinic resins, in high temperature applications, improve strength of thin lubricant film in Hertzian contacts even though they do not increase bulk oil viscosity. Use of resin circumvents corrosivity and high volatility problems inherent with many chemical additives.

  7. Performance Properties of Graphite Reinforced Composites with Advanced Resin Matrices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kourtides, Demetrius A.

    1980-01-01

    This article looks at the effect of different resin matrices on thermal and mechanical properties of graphite composites, and relates the thermal and flammability properties to the anaerobic char yield of the resins. The processing parameters of graphite composites utilizing graphite fabric and epoxy or other advanced resins as matrices are presented. Thermoset resin matrices studied were: aminecured polyfunctional glycidyl aminetype epoxy (baseline), phenolicnovolac resin based on condensation of dihydroxymethyl-xylene and phenol cured with hexamine, two types of polydismaleimide resins, phenolic resin, and benzyl resin. The thermoplastic matrices studied were polyethersulfone and polyphenylenesulfone. Properties evaluated in the study included anaerobic char yield, limiting oxygen index, smoke evolution, moisture absorption, and mechanical properties at elevated temperatures including tensile, compressive, and short-beam shear strengths. Generally, it was determined that graphite composites with the highest char yield exhibited optimum fire-resistant properties.

  8. 21 CFR 177.1650 - Polysulfide polymer-polyepoxy resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 2013-04-01 false Polysulfide polymer-polyepoxy resins. 177.1650 Section...CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: POLYMERS Substances for Use as Basic Components...Surfaces § 177.1650 Polysulfide polymer-polyepoxy resins....

  9. 21 CFR 177.1650 - Polysulfide polymer-polyepoxy resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 2012-04-01 false Polysulfide polymer-polyepoxy resins. 177.1650 Section...CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: POLYMERS Substances for Use as Basic Components...Surfaces § 177.1650 Polysulfide polymer-polyepoxy resins....

  10. 21 CFR 177.1650 - Polysulfide polymer-polyepoxy resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 2014-04-01 false Polysulfide polymer-polyepoxy resins. 177.1650 Section...CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: POLYMERS Substances for Use as Basic Components...Surfaces § 177.1650 Polysulfide polymer-polyepoxy resins....

  11. Additive effects on the toughening of unsaturated polyester resins

    SciTech Connect

    Suspene, L.; Yang, Y.S.; Pascault, J.P.

    1993-12-31

    An elastomer additive, carboxy-terminated acrylonitrile-butadiene copolymer, was used for toughening in the free radical cross-linking copolymerization of unsaturated polyester (UP) resins. For molded parts, Charpy impact behavior was generally enhanced and the number of catastrophic failures was reduced. The miscibility and interfacial properties of additive and resin blends play important roles in the toughening process. Phase-diagram studies showed that the elastomer additive is immiscible with the UP resin and is phase-separated from the resin matrix during curing. This phase-separation phenomenon is similar to that in the low-profile mechanism of UP resins. Additive-resin system miscibility greatly influences curing morphology. Microvoids occurred in the additive phase of cured resin because of shrinkage stress. The intrinsic inhomogeneity of the polyester network and the existence of microvoids in the final product limit the toughening effect of additives on unsaturated polyester resins. 49 refs., 13 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. 21 CFR 173.40 - Molecular sieve resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...resin (expressed in terms of water regain), and a particle size...thoroughly washed with potable water prior to their first use in...resins are used as the gel filtration media in the final purification of partially delactosed...

  13. 21 CFR 872.3770 - Temporary crown and bridge resin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...3770 Temporary crown and bridge resin. (a) Identification. A temporary crown and bridge resin is a device composed of a material, such as polymethylmethacrylate...prosthesis, such as a crown or bridge, for use until a...

  14. 21 CFR 872.3770 - Temporary crown and bridge resin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...3770 Temporary crown and bridge resin. (a) Identification. A temporary crown and bridge resin is a device composed of a material, such as polymethylmethacrylate...prosthesis, such as a crown or bridge, for use until a...

  15. REDFORD CORE MAKING MACHINE. RESIN IMPREGNATED SAND IS BLOWN INTO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    REDFORD CORE MAKING MACHINE. RESIN IMPREGNATED SAND IS BLOWN INTO THE HEATED CORE BOX THAT SETS THE RESIN CREATING THE HARDENED CORE SHOWN HERE. - Southern Ductile Casting Company, Core Making, 2217 Carolina Avenue, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

  16. 21 CFR 177.2490 - Polyphenylene sulfide resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Polyphenylene sulfide resins consist of basic resins produced by the reaction of equimolar parts of p- dichlorobenzene and sodium sulfide...following specifications as determined by methods titled “Oxygen Flask Combustion-Gravimetric Method for Determination...

  17. ACC Resin Statistics Annual Summary PRODUCTION, SALES & CAPTIVE USE

    E-print Network

    Laughlin, Robert B.

    .1 (1) Except Phenolic resins, which are reported on a gross weight basis. (2) Sales & Captive Use dataACC Resin Statistics Annual Summary PRODUCTION, SALES & CAPTIVE USE (millions of pounds, dry weight

  18. Standard tests for toughened resin composites, revised edition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Several toughened resin systems are evaluated to achieve commonality for certain kinds of tests used to characterize toughened resin composites. Specifications for five tests were standardized; these test standards are described.

  19. 21 CFR 176.110 - Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...provisions of this section. (a) Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins are produced by the polymerization of acrylamide with partial hydrolysis or by the copolymerization of acrylamide and acrylic acid. (b) The acrylamide-acrylic acid resins contain less...

  20. 21 CFR 176.110 - Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...provisions of this section. (a) Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins are produced by the polymerization of acrylamide with partial hydrolysis or by the copolymerization of acrylamide and acrylic acid. (b) The acrylamide-acrylic acid resins contain less...

  1. 21 CFR 176.110 - Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...provisions of this section. (a) Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins are produced by the polymerization of acrylamide with partial hydrolysis or by the copolymerization of acrylamide and acrylic acid. (b) The acrylamide-acrylic acid resins contain less...

  2. 21 CFR 176.110 - Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...provisions of this section. (a) Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins are produced by the polymerization of acrylamide with partial hydrolysis or by the copolymerization of acrylamide and acrylic acid. (b) The acrylamide-acrylic acid resins contain less...

  3. 21 CFR 176.110 - Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...provisions of this section. (a) Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins are produced by the polymerization of acrylamide with partial hydrolysis or by the copolymerization of acrylamide and acrylic acid. (b) The acrylamide-acrylic acid resins contain less...

  4. Biphenyl liquid crystalline epoxy resin as a low-shrinkage resin-based dental restorative nanocomposite.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Sheng-Hao; Chen, Rung-Shu; Chang, Yuan-Ling; Chen, Min-Huey; Cheng, Kuo-Chung; Su, Wei-Fang

    2012-11-01

    Low-shrinkage resin-based photocurable liquid crystalline epoxy nanocomposite has been investigated with regard to its application as a dental restoration material. The nanocomposite consists of an organic matrix and an inorganic reinforcing filler. The organic matrix is made of liquid crystalline biphenyl epoxy resin (BP), an epoxy resin consisting of cyclohexylmethyl-3,4-epoxycyclohexanecarboxylate (ECH), the photoinitiator 4-octylphenyl phenyliodonium hexafluoroantimonate and the photosensitizer champhorquinone. The inorganic filler is silica nanoparticles (?70-100 nm). The nanoparticles were modified by an epoxy silane of ?-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane to be compatible with the organic matrix and to chemically bond with the organic matrix after photo curing. By incorporating the BP liquid crystalline (LC) epoxy resin into conventional ECH epoxy resin, the nanocomposite has improved hardness, flexural modulus, water absorption and coefficient of thermal expansion. Although the incorporation of silica filler may dilute the reinforcing effect of crystalline BP, a high silica filler content (?42 vol.%) was found to increase the physical and chemical properties of the nanocomposite due to the formation of unique microstructures. The microstructure of nanoparticle embedded layers was observed in the nanocomposite using scanning and transmission electron microscopy. This unique microstructure indicates that the crystalline BP and nanoparticles support each other and result in outstanding mechanical properties. The crystalline BP in the LC epoxy resin-based nanocomposite was partially melted during exothermic photopolymerization, and the resin expanded via an order-to-disorder transition. Thus, the post-gelation shrinkage of the LC epoxy resin-based nanocomposite is greatly reduced, ?50.6% less than in commercialized methacrylate resin-based composites. This LC epoxy nanocomposite demonstrates good physical and chemical properties and good biocompatibility, comparable to commercialized composites. The results indicate that this novel LC nanocomposite is worthy of development and has potential for further applications in clinical dentistry. PMID:22842038

  5. Etching conditions for resin-modified glass ionomer cement for orthodontic brackets.

    PubMed

    Valente, Rudolfo M; De Rijk, Waldemar G; Drummond, James L; Evans, Carla A

    2002-05-01

    This study reports the tensile bond strength of orthodontic eyelets (RMO, Inc, Denver, Colo) bonded to human extracted teeth with a resin-modified glass ionomer cement (RMGIC) (Fuji Ortho LC, GC America, Alsip, Ill) and various acid etchants (Etch-37 and All-Etch, Bisco, Schaumburg, Ill; Ultra Etch, 3M Unitek, St Paul, Minn) for enamel preparation before bonding. The enamel etch conditions were as follows: 37% phosphoric acid with silica; 37% phosphoric acid, silica-free; 10% phosphoric acid, silica-free; 10% polyacrylic acid; and unetched enamel. Bond strength was measured by pulling in tension on the eyelet with a 0.018-in steel wire perpendicular to the enamel surface with a testing machine (Instron model 1125, Canton, Mass) at a speed of 2 mm/min. A light-cured resin cement (Transbond XT, 3M Unitek, Monrovia, Calif) applied to enamel etched with 37% phosphoric acid containing silica served as a control. Each group included 30 specimens. The Weibull distribution (m) was used for statistical analysis with a 90% CI. The different etchants used with RMGIC did not affect tensile bond strength. The resin cement group had the highest tensile strength. Significantly lower bond strengths were observed when glass ionomer cement was used to bond orthodontic attachments to nonetched teeth. However, unlike resin cement, RMGIC can bond effectively to etched teeth in a moist environment without an additional bonding agent. PMID:12045770

  6. Extraction of cesium from an alkaline leaching solution of spent catalysts using an ion-exchange column

    SciTech Connect

    Dumont, N.; Favre-Reguillon, A.; Dunjic, B.; Lemaire, M.

    1996-04-01

    The selective extraction of cesium from an alkaline leaching solution of spent catalysts using phenolic resins was studied. The resins were synthesized by alkaline polycondensation of formaldehyde by phenol, resorcinol, catechol, and phloroglucinol. Their ionoselectivities for five alkali metals were evaluated with a solid-liquid extraction, and their ion-exchange capacities were compared. The resin with the best selectivity for cesium was tested with a real solution at different pH values. An on-column extraction is proposed to obtain cesium with high purity.

  7. Technical assessment for quality control of resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gosnell, R. B.

    1977-01-01

    Survey visits to companies involved in the manufacture and use of graphite-epoxy prepregs were conducted to assess the factors which may contribute to variability in the mechanical properties of graphite-epoxy composites. In particular, the purpose was to assess the contributions of the epoxy resins to variability. Companies represented three segments of the composites industry - aircraft manufacturers, prepreg manufacturers, and epoxy resin manufacturers. Several important sources of performance variability were identified from among the complete spectrum of potential sources which ranged from raw materials to composite test data interpretation.

  8. Resin transfer molding of textile composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Falcone, Anthony; Dursch, Harry; Nelson, Karl; Avery, William

    1993-01-01

    The design and manufacture of textile composite panels, tubes, and angle sections that were provided to NASA for testing and evaluation are documented. The textile preform designs and requirements were established by NASA in collaboration with Boeing and several vendors of textile reinforcements. The following four types of preform architectures were used: stitched uniweave, 2D-braids, 3D-braids, and interlock weaves. The preforms consisted primarily of Hercules AS4 carbon fiber; Shell RSL-1895 resin was introduced using a resin transfer molding process. All the finished parts were inspected using ultrasonics.

  9. Thermal analysis of bismaleimide matrix resins

    SciTech Connect

    Spieker, D.A.

    1990-07-01

    Commercial bismaleimide (BMI) resins for composite applications have mechanical properties with values between those of high temperature epoxies and fully aromatic polyimides. The former have the disadvantage of poor hot-wet strength and the latter have the disadvantages of being difficult to process and costly. Current commercial BMI formulations offer good properties retention under hot/wet conditions, comparative ease of processing, and moderate cost. We have used thermal analysis extensively to study commercial BMI materials. This paper will survey the results to TGA, TMA, and DMA analyses which were performed to characterize the thermal behavior of cured BMI resins. 3 refs., 6 figs.

  10. Characterization of the resin transfer moulding process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kendall, K. N.; Rudd, C. D.; Owen, M. J.; Middleton, V.

    1992-12-01

    Complete process characterization is required to enable high volume manufacture of composite components by resin transfer moulding (RTM). A review of processing literature indicates adequate understanding of the thermal cycle but limited understanding of the pressure cycle. Experimental results are presented to characterize both the thermal and pressure cycles during RTM, verifying published findings in instances and developing them in others. A phase of post-impregnation cavity pressure is identified which is considered to be caused by thermal expansion of liquid resin adjacent to the gate. Results are presented to demonstrate that this pressure phase can be more significant than impregnation pressure when considering mould design.

  11. New phosphorus-containing bisimide resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Varma, I. K.; Fohlen, G. M.; Hsu, M.-T.; Parker, J. A.

    1984-01-01

    Phosphorus-based flame retardants have been effectively used in a wide variety of polymeric materials. Such additives, however, may either influence the decomposition reaction in polymers or lack durability due to a tendency to be leached out by solvents. Attention is given to the synthesis, characterization, thermal stability and degradation mechanisms of bisimide resins, and an evaluation is conducted of the flammability and mechanical properties of graphite cloth-reinforced laminates fabricated from one of the six phosphorus-containing bisimide resins considered.

  12. Electronic structure and optical properties of resin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Zhi-Fan; Zhou, Rong-Feng

    2013-03-01

    We used the density of functional theory (DFT) to study the electronic structure and density of states of resin by ab initio calculation. The results show the band gap of resin is 1.7 eV. The covalent bond is combined C/O atoms with H atoms. The O 2p orbital is the biggest effect near the Fermi level. The results of optical properties show the reflectivity is low, and the refractive index is 1.7 in visible light range. The highest absorption coefficient peak is in 490 nm and the value is 75,000.

  13. Occupational dermatitis to epoxydic and phenolic resins.

    PubMed

    Geraut, Christian; Tripodi, Dominique; Brunet-Courtois, Béatrice; Leray, Fabrice; Geraut, Laurent

    2009-01-01

    Contact dermatitis to epoxydic and phenolic resins are the most frequent contact dermatoses due to plastics, in particular in the form of airborne dermatitis. The chemical formulas of the various components of these resins and their additives are complex and the patch tests available in the trade are insufficient and often arrive at a late stage in the progress of industry, in particular in advanced technologies like aeronautical engineering, shipbuilding or the new floor and wall coverings in buildings. This article is a review of the actions to be taken with these allergies, as well as with regards to their diagnosis, prevention and medico-legal compensation. PMID:19349256

  14. 40 CFR 721.4380 - Modified hydrocarbon resin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Modified hydrocarbon resin. 721.4380... Substances § 721.4380 Modified hydrocarbon resin. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a modified hydrocarbon resin (P-91-1418)...

  15. 40 CFR 721.4380 - Modified hydrocarbon resin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Modified hydrocarbon resin. 721.4380... Substances § 721.4380 Modified hydrocarbon resin. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a modified hydrocarbon resin (P-91-1418)...

  16. 40 CFR 721.4380 - Modified hydrocarbon resin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Modified hydrocarbon resin. 721.4380... Substances § 721.4380 Modified hydrocarbon resin. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a modified hydrocarbon resin (P-91-1418)...

  17. 40 CFR 721.4380 - Modified hydrocarbon resin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Modified hydrocarbon resin. 721.4380... Substances § 721.4380 Modified hydrocarbon resin. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a modified hydrocarbon resin (P-91-1418)...

  18. 40 CFR 721.4380 - Modified hydrocarbon resin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Modified hydrocarbon resin. 721.4380... Substances § 721.4380 Modified hydrocarbon resin. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a modified hydrocarbon resin (P-91-1418)...

  19. 40 CFR 721.3135 - Phosphorous modified epoxy resin (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Phosphorous modified epoxy resin... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3135 Phosphorous modified epoxy resin (generic). (a) Chemical substance... phosphorous modified epoxy resin (PMNs P-00-992 and P-01-471) is subject to reporting under this section...

  20. 40 CFR 721.2755 - Cycloaliphatic epoxy resin (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cycloaliphatic epoxy resin (generic... Substances § 721.2755 Cycloaliphatic epoxy resin (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as cycloaliphatic epoxy resin...

  1. 40 CFR 721.2752 - Epoxy resin containing phosphorus (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Epoxy resin containing phosphorus... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2752 Epoxy resin containing phosphorus (generic). (a) Chemical substance... epoxy resin containing phosphorus (PMN P-00-912) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  2. 40 CFR 721.3135 - Phosphorous modified epoxy resin (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Phosphorous modified epoxy resin... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3135 Phosphorous modified epoxy resin (generic). (a) Chemical substance... phosphorous modified epoxy resin (PMNs P-00-992 and P-01-471) is subject to reporting under this section...

  3. 40 CFR 721.2755 - Cycloaliphatic epoxy resin (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Cycloaliphatic epoxy resin (generic... Substances § 721.2755 Cycloaliphatic epoxy resin (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as cycloaliphatic epoxy resin...

  4. 49 CFR 173.165 - Polyester resin kits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Polyester resin kits. 173.165 Section...Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.165 Polyester resin kits. (a) Except for transportation by aircraft, polyester resin kits consisting of a base...

  5. 21 CFR 176.110 - Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins. 176.110 Section... Substances for Use Only as Components of Paper and Paperboard § 176.110 Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins. Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins may be safely used as components of articles intended for use in...

  6. 21 CFR 573.120 - Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin. 573.120 Section 573... Food Additive Listing § 573.120 Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin. Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin... acrylamide with partial hydrolysis, or by copolymerization of acrylamide and acrylic acid with the...

  7. 21 CFR 573.120 - Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin. 573.120 Section 573... Food Additive Listing § 573.120 Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin. Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin... acrylamide with partial hydrolysis, or by copolymerization of acrylamide and acrylic acid with the...

  8. 21 CFR 573.120 - Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin. 573.120 Section 573... Food Additive Listing § 573.120 Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin. Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin... acrylamide with partial hydrolysis, or by copolymerization of acrylamide and acrylic acid with the...

  9. 21 CFR 176.110 - Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins. 176.110 Section 176... Substances for Use Only as Components of Paper and Paperboard § 176.110 Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins. Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins may be safely used as components of articles intended for use in...

  10. 21 CFR 176.110 - Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins. 176.110 Section... Substances for Use Only as Components of Paper and Paperboard § 176.110 Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins. Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins may be safely used as components of articles intended for use in...

  11. 21 CFR 573.120 - Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin. 573.120 Section 573... Food Additive Listing § 573.120 Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin. Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin... acrylamide with partial hydrolysis, or by copolymerization of acrylamide and acrylic acid with the...

  12. 21 CFR 177.2510 - Polyvinylidene fluoride resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Polyvinylidene fluoride resins. 177.2510 Section... as Components of Articles Intended for Repeated Use § 177.2510 Polyvinylidene fluoride resins. Polyvinylidene fluoride resins may be safely used as articles or components of articles intended for repeated...

  13. 21 CFR 177.2510 - Polyvinylidene fluoride resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Polyvinylidene fluoride resins. 177.2510 Section... as Components of Articles Intended for Repeated Use § 177.2510 Polyvinylidene fluoride resins. Polyvinylidene fluoride resins may be safely used as articles or components of articles intended for repeated...

  14. 40 CFR 721.5905 - Modified phenolic resin (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Modified phenolic resin (generic). 721... Substances § 721.5905 Modified phenolic resin (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a modified phenolic resin...

  15. 40 CFR 721.5762 - Aromatic aldehyde phenolic resin (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aromatic aldehyde phenolic resin... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5762 Aromatic aldehyde phenolic resin (generic). (a) Chemical substance... aromatic aldehyde phenolic resin (PMN P-01-573) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  16. 21 CFR 177.2410 - Phenolic resins in molded articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Phenolic resins in molded articles. 177.2410... as Components of Articles Intended for Repeated Use § 177.2410 Phenolic resins in molded articles. Phenolic resins identified in this section may be safely used as the food-contact surface of...

  17. 40 CFR 721.5908 - Modified phenolic resin (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Modified phenolic resin (generic). 721... Substances § 721.5908 Modified phenolic resin (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as modified phenolic resin (PMN...

  18. Bismaleimide resins for flame resistant honeycomb sandwich panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    A 60 kg batch of Resin M751 was produced in pilot plant scale. The resin was delivered to the prepreg company as an NMP solution. 100 kg of glass-fabric prepregs were fabricated. Prepreg characteristics and curing cycles for laminate fabrication were provided. A new batch of Resin M756 (Code M756 - 2) was synthesized.

  19. 21 CFR 872.3200 - Resin tooth bonding agent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Resin tooth bonding agent. 872.3200 Section 872.3200...Prosthetic Devices § 872.3200 Resin tooth bonding agent. (a) Identification. A resin tooth bonding agent is a device material, such...

  20. 21 CFR 872.3200 - Resin tooth bonding agent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Resin tooth bonding agent. 872.3200 Section 872.3200...Prosthetic Devices § 872.3200 Resin tooth bonding agent. (a) Identification. A resin tooth bonding agent is a device material, such...

  1. 21 CFR 177.2355 - Mineral reinforced nylon resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Mineral reinforced nylon resins. 177.2355 Section... as Components of Articles Intended for Repeated Use § 177.2355 Mineral reinforced nylon resins. Mineral reinforced nylon resins identified in paragraph (a) of this section may be safely used as...

  2. 21 CFR 573.120 - Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin. 573.120 Section 573... Food Additive Listing § 573.120 Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin. Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin... acrylamide with partial hydrolysis, or by copolymerization of acrylamide and acrylic acid with the...

  3. 21 CFR 177.2410 - Phenolic resins in molded articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Phenolic resins in molded articles. 177.2410... (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: POLYMERS Substances for Use Only as Components of Articles Intended for Repeated Use § 177.2410 Phenolic resins in molded articles. Phenolic resins identified in this section...

  4. Reusable chelating resins concentrate metal ions from highly dilute solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauman, A. J.; Weetal, H. H.; Weliky, N.

    1966-01-01

    Column chromatographic method uses new metal chelating resins for recovering heavy-metal ions from highly dilute solutions. The absorbed heavy-metal cations may be removed from the chelating resins by acid or base washes. The resins are reusable after the washes are completed.

  5. Effects of resin addition on holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vita, F.; Lucchetta, D. E.; Castagna, R.; Criante, L.; Simoni, F.

    2009-02-01

    The effects of epoxy resin addition to a standard acrylate-based holographic polymer dispersed liquid-crystal mixture are investigated. Different resin concentrations are used and we show how the presence of the resin results in transmission gratings characterized by negligible scattering, polarization independent behaviour and lower switching voltages. These experimental results are explained by means of morphological scanning electron microscopy analyses.

  6. 76 FR 39896 - Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-07

    ... Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in... antidumping duty order on granular polytetrafluoroethylene resin from Italy would be likely to lead to... Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin from Italy: Investigation No. 731-TA-385 (Third Review). By order...

  7. 75 FR 67105 - Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy and Japan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-01

    ... granular polytetrafluoroethylene resin from Italy (53 FR 33163). Following first five-year reviews by... duty orders on imports of granular polytetrafluoroethylene resin from Italy and Japan (65 FR 6147... polytetrafluoroethylene resin from Italy and Japan (70 FR 76026). The ] Commission is now conducting third reviews...

  8. 49 CFR 173.165 - Polyester resin kits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Polyester resin kits. 173.165 Section 173.165...Other Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.165 Polyester resin kits. (a) Polyester resin kits consisting of a base material...

  9. 49 CFR 173.165 - Polyester resin kits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Polyester resin kits. 173.165 Section...Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.165 Polyester resin kits. (a) Except for transportation by aircraft, polyester resin kits consisting of a base...

  10. 49 CFR 173.165 - Polyester resin kits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Polyester resin kits. 173.165 Section 173.165...Other Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.165 Polyester resin kits. (a) Polyester resin kits consisting of a base material...

  11. 21 CFR 872.3770 - Temporary crown and bridge resin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Temporary crown and bridge resin. 872.3770 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3770 Temporary crown and bridge resin. (a) Identification. A temporary crown and bridge resin is a device composed of a material, such...

  12. 21 CFR 872.3770 - Temporary crown and bridge resin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Temporary crown and bridge resin. 872.3770 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3770 Temporary crown and bridge resin. (a) Identification. A temporary crown and bridge resin is a device composed of a material, such...

  13. 21 CFR 872.3770 - Temporary crown and bridge resin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Temporary crown and bridge resin. 872.3770 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3770 Temporary crown and bridge resin. (a) Identification. A temporary crown and bridge resin is a device composed of a material, such...

  14. 21 CFR 872.3770 - Temporary crown and bridge resin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Temporary crown and bridge resin. 872.3770 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3770 Temporary crown and bridge resin. (a) Identification. A temporary crown and bridge resin is a device composed of a material, such...

  15. 21 CFR 872.3770 - Temporary crown and bridge resin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Temporary crown and bridge resin. 872.3770 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3770 Temporary crown and bridge resin. (a) Identification. A temporary crown and bridge resin is a device composed of a material, such...

  16. 21 CFR 872.3670 - Resin impression tray material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Identification. Resin impression tray material is a device intended for...device consists of a resin material, such as methyl methacrylate...the fabrication of crowns, bridges, or full dentures. A preliminary...The resin impression tray material is applied to this...

  17. 21 CFR 872.3670 - Resin impression tray material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...Identification. Resin impression tray material is a device intended for...device consists of a resin material, such as methyl methacrylate...the fabrication of crowns, bridges, or full dentures. A preliminary...The resin impression tray material is applied to this...

  18. 40 CFR 721.2752 - Epoxy resin containing phosphorus (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Epoxy resin containing phosphorus... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2752 Epoxy resin containing phosphorus (generic). (a) Chemical substance... epoxy resin containing phosphorus (PMN P-00-912) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  19. 40 CFR 721.5905 - Modified phenolic resin (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Modified phenolic resin (generic). 721... Substances § 721.5905 Modified phenolic resin (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a modified phenolic resin...

  20. 40 CFR 721.5905 - Modified phenolic resin (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Modified phenolic resin (generic). 721... Substances § 721.5905 Modified phenolic resin (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a modified phenolic resin...

  1. 40 CFR 721.5905 - Modified phenolic resin (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Modified phenolic resin (generic). 721... Substances § 721.5905 Modified phenolic resin (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a modified phenolic resin...

  2. 40 CFR 721.5908 - Modified phenolic resin (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Modified phenolic resin (generic). 721... Substances § 721.5908 Modified phenolic resin (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as modified phenolic resin (PMN...

  3. 40 CFR 721.5908 - Modified phenolic resin (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Modified phenolic resin (generic). 721... Substances § 721.5908 Modified phenolic resin (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as modified phenolic resin (PMN...

  4. 40 CFR 721.5908 - Modified phenolic resin (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Modified phenolic resin (generic). 721... Substances § 721.5908 Modified phenolic resin (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as modified phenolic resin (PMN...

  5. 40 CFR 721.5908 - Modified phenolic resin (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Modified phenolic resin (generic). 721... Substances § 721.5908 Modified phenolic resin (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as modified phenolic resin (PMN...

  6. 40 CFR 721.5905 - Modified phenolic resin (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Modified phenolic resin (generic). 721... Substances § 721.5905 Modified phenolic resin (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a modified phenolic resin...

  7. 40 CFR 721.5762 - Aromatic aldehyde phenolic resin (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Aromatic aldehyde phenolic resin... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5762 Aromatic aldehyde phenolic resin (generic). (a) Chemical substance... aromatic aldehyde phenolic resin (PMN P-01-573) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  8. 40 CFR 721.5762 - Aromatic aldehyde phenolic resin (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Aromatic aldehyde phenolic resin... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5762 Aromatic aldehyde phenolic resin (generic). (a) Chemical substance... aromatic aldehyde phenolic resin (PMN P-01-573) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  9. 40 CFR 721.5762 - Aromatic aldehyde phenolic resin (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Aromatic aldehyde phenolic resin... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5762 Aromatic aldehyde phenolic resin (generic). (a) Chemical substance... aromatic aldehyde phenolic resin (PMN P-01-573) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  10. 40 CFR 721.5762 - Aromatic aldehyde phenolic resin (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Aromatic aldehyde phenolic resin... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5762 Aromatic aldehyde phenolic resin (generic). (a) Chemical substance... aromatic aldehyde phenolic resin (PMN P-01-573) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  11. Low-melt Viscosity Polyimide Resins for Resin Transfer Molding (RTM) II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chuang, Kathy C.; Criss, Jim M.; Mintz, Eric A.; Scheiman, Daniel A.; Nguyen, Baochau N.; McCorkle, Linda S.

    2007-01-01

    A series of polyimide resins with low-melt viscosities in the range of 10-30 poise and high glass transition temperatures (Tg s) of 330-370 C were developed for resin transfer molding (RTM) applications. These polyimide resins were formulated from 2,3,3 ,4 -biphenyltetracarboxylic dianhydride (a-BPDA) with 4-phenylethynylphthalic anhydride endcaps along with either 3,4 - oxyaniline (3,4 -ODA), 3,4 -methylenedianiline, (3,4 -MDA) or 3,3 -methylenedianiline (3,3 -MDA). These polyimides had pot lives of 30-60 minutes at 260-280 C, enabling the successful fabrication of T650-35 carbon fiber reinforced composites via RTM process. The viscosity profiles of the polyimide resins and the mechanical properties of the polyimide carbon fiber composites will be discussed.

  12. Synthesis/characterization of a new chelating resin and on-line solid phase extraction for the determination of Ag(I) and Pd(II) from water, cream, anode slime and converter samples by flow injection flame atomic absorption spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Çetin, Tülin; Tokalio?lu, Serife; Ülgen, Ahmet; Sahan, Serkan; Özentürk, Ismail; Soykan, Cengiz

    2013-02-15

    On-line preconcentration procedures for the determination of Ag(I) and Pd(II) by flame atomic absorption spectrometry have been described. A new chelating resin, poly (N,N'-dipropionitrilemethacrylamide-co-divinylbenzene-co-2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propane sulfonic acid) was synthesized and used as a new adsorbent material. The resin was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and elemental analysis. Ag(I) was adsorbed on the chelating resin at pH 5.0 and eluted with 1.0 mol L(-1) HNO3. Pd(II) was retained at pH 9.5 and eluted with 1.5 mol L(-1) HCl. The experimental parameters (pH, type and concentration of eluent, flow rates of sample and eluent solutions, elution time and the effect of interfering ions) for both Ag(I) and Pd(II) were investigated in detail. The detection limit for Ag(I) was 2.4 ?g L(-1) and the relative standard deviation was 2.9% for 0.2 ?g mL(-1) Ag(I). The detection limit for Pd(II) was 1.7 ?g L(-1) and the relative standard deviation was 2.8% for 0.3 ?g mL(-1) Pd(II). Accuracy was confirmed by analyzing a certified reference material (TMDA-70), recovery studies on real samples and comparison with electrothermal atomic absorption analysis. The proposed methods were successfully applied to the on-line determination of Ag(I) in bottled water, pharmaceutical cream and anode slime samples and Pd(II) in bottled water and catalytic converter samples. PMID:23598028

  13. Computational Modeling of theComputational Modeling of the Vacuum Assisted Resin Transfer MoldingVacuum Assisted Resin Transfer Molding

    E-print Network

    Grujicic, Mica

    Computational Modeling of theComputational Modeling of the Vacuum Assisted Resin Transfer MoldingVacuum Assisted Resin Transfer Molding (VARTM) Process(VARTM) Process April 2004April 2004 DepartmentMS Thesis Advisor: Dr. Grujicic #12;What is VARTM?What is VARTM? Vacuum Assisted Resin Transfer Molding

  14. Effect of resin thickness on the microhardness and optical properties of bulk-fill resin composites

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eun-Ha; Jung, Kyoung-Hwa; Son, Sung-Ae; Hur, Bock; Kwon, Yong-Hoon

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study evaluated the effects of the resin thickness on the microhardness and optical properties of bulk-fill resin composites. Methods Four bulk-fill (Venus Bulk Fill, Heraeus Kulzer; SDR, Dentsply Caulk; Tetric N-Ceram Bulk Fill, Ivoclar vivadent; SonicFill, Kerr) and two regular resin composites (Charisma flow, Heraeus Kulzer; Tetric N-Ceram, Ivoclar vivadent) were used. Sixty acrylic cylindrical molds were prepared for each thickness (2, 3 and 4 mm). The molds were divided into six groups for resin composites. The microhardness was measured on the top and bottom surfaces, and the colors were measured using Commission Internationale d'Eclairage (CIE) L*a*b* system. Color differences according to the thickness and translucency parameters and the correlations between the microhardness and translucency parameter were analyzed. The microhardness and color differences were analyzed by ANOVA and Scheffe's post hoc test, and a student t-test, respectively. The level of significance was set to ? = 0.05. Results The microhardness decreased with increasing resin thickness. The bulk-fill resin composites showed a bottom/top hardness ratio of almost 80% or more in 4 mm thick specimens. The highest translucency parameter was observed in Venus Bulk Fill. All resin composites used in this study except for Venus Bulk Fill showed linear correlations between the microhardness and translucency parameter according to the thickness. Conclusions Within the limitations of this study, the bulk-fill resin composites used in this study can be placed and cured properly in the 4 mm bulk. PMID:25984474

  15. Resin Powder Slurry Process for Composite Fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mike, R. A.

    1986-01-01

    Potentially useful process for fabrication of fiber-reinforced resinmatrix composites is powder slurry technique. Applicability of technique demonstrated using powdered resin made from thermoplastic polyimide LaRC/ TPI (thermoplastic polyimide). Use of process circumvents need for such high-cost organic solvents as N-methylpyrrolidinone and diglyme (diglycol methyl ether). Two basic slurries for LaRC/TPI powder investigated.

  16. REMOVING RADIUM-226 ION EXCHANGE RESINS

    E-print Network

    1 1 REMOVING RADIUM-226 FROM ION EXCHANGE RESINS USED IN DRINKING WATER TREATMENT James McMahon Dr) SEPTEMBER 22, 2007 2 Presentation Outline · Radionuclide/Radium-226 Regulations · Radium-226 Treatment for Radionuclides · 1962 US Public Health Services DWS ­ 3 pCi/L Radium 226 · 1977 USEPA National Interim Prim. DWS

  17. 21 CFR 172.280 - Terpene resin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Terpene resin. 172.280 Section 172.280 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Coatings, Films and Related Substances §...

  18. 21 CFR 177.1580 - Polycarbonate resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Polycarbonate resins. 177.1580 Section 177.1580 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: POLYMERS Substances for Use as...

  19. Epoxy resins produce improved plastic scintillators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markley, F. W.

    1967-01-01

    Plastic scintillator produced by the substitution of epoxy resins for the commonly used polystyrene is easy to cast, stable at room temperature, and has the desirable properties of a thermoset or cross-linked system. Such scintillators can be immersed directly in strong solvents, an advantage in many chemical and biological experiments.

  20. 21 CFR 177.1655 - Polysulfone resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Polysulfone resins. 177.1655 Section 177.1655 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: POLYMERS Substances for Use as Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food...

  1. [Modification of resin using reactive polymeric nanoparticles].

    PubMed

    Szalóki, Melinda; Bukovinszki, Katalin; Uveges, Andrea; Hegedus, Csaba; Borbély, János

    2007-12-01

    Volumetric shrinkage during polymerization has always caused problems since polymer based composites are used as dental filling materials. This value has been reduced to 2-4 volume % with the improvement of dental filling materials and of suitable filling technique. The purpose of our study was to synthesize reactive polymeric nanoparticles which can be applied to modify the polymerization shrinkage of dental resin. It means that certain part of a commercial dental resin would be substituted with reactive polymeric nanoparticles as organic filler. According to our hypothesis the volume contraction would significantly be reduced by applying the modified resin with organic filler. Nanoparticles were prepared by free radical copolymerization from mono-, di- and trifunctional monomers in emulsion and organic solution. In emulsion their size distribution is narrow, but it is quite variable in solutions. The size, size distribution and reactivity of nanoparticles were examined, and these properties can be influenced by the mol ratio and concentration of the monomers. It was shown that the nanoparticles could be swollen by the matrix material and these build a unique structure that can be photo-polymerized. During polymerization the shrinkage of the copolymer can be considered zero, consequently the total contraction originates from the shrinkage of the matrix. In the modified resin the reactive groups of monomers and the pendant double bounds of nanoparticles were connected by covalent bond. PMID:18361204

  2. Fiber reinforced thermoplastic resin matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Robert J. (Inventor); Chang, Glenn E. C. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    Polyimide polymer composites having a combination of enhanced thermal and mechanical properties even when subjected to service temperatures as high as 700.degree. F. are described. They comprise (a) from 10 to 50 parts by weight of a thermoplastic polyimide resin prepared from 2,2-bis[4-(4-aminophenoxy)phenyl]hexafluoropropane and (b) from 90 to 50 parts by weight of continuous reinforcing fibers, the total of (a) and (b) being 100 parts by weight. Composites based on polyimide resin formed from 2,2-bis[4-(4-aminophenoxy)phenyl]hexafluoropropane and pyromellitic dianhydride and continuous carbon fibers retained at least about 50% of their room temperature shear strength after exposure to 700.degree. F. for a period of 16 hours in flowing air. Preferably, the thermoplastic polyimide resin is formed in situ in the composite material by thermal imidization of a corresponding amide-acid polymer prepared from 2,2-bis[4-(4-aminophenoxy)phenyl]hexafluoropropane. It is also preferred to initially size the continuous reinforcing fibers with up to about one percent by weight of an amide-acid polymer prepared from 2,2-bis[4-(4-aminophenoxy)phenyl]hexafluoropropane. In this way imidization at a suitable elevated temperature results in the in-situ formation of a substantially homogeneous thermoplastic matrix of the polyimide resin tightly and intimately bonded to the continuous fibers. The resultant composites tend to have optimum thermo-mechanical properties.

  3. Studies on chemoviscosity modeling for thermosetting resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bai, J. M.; Hou, T. H.; Tiwari, S. N.

    1987-01-01

    A new analytical model for simulating chemoviscosity of thermosetting resins has been formulated. The model is developed by modifying the well-established Williams-Landel-Ferry (WLF) theory in polymer rheology for thermoplastic materials. By introducing a relationship between the glass transition temperature Tg(t) and the degree of cure alpha(t) of the resin system under cure, the WLF theory can be modified to account for the factor of reaction time. Temperature dependent functions of the modified WLF theory constants C sub 1 (t) and C sub 2 (t) were determined from the isothermal cure data. Theoretical predictions of the model for the resin under dynamic heating cure cycles were shown to compare favorably with the experimental data. This work represents progress toward establishing a chemoviscosity model which is capable of not only describing viscosity profiles accurately under various cure cycles, but also correlating viscosity data to the changes of physical properties associated with the structural transformation of the thermosetting resin systems during cure.

  4. 21 CFR 177.1500 - Nylon resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... CFR 177.1395 of this chapter 1.09±0.02 270-277 >140 using the method described in § 177.1500(c)(5)(ii... CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume and at www...: Nylon resins Specific gravity Melting point(degrees Fahrenheit) Solubilityin boiling 4.2N HC1...

  5. 21 CFR 177.1585 - Polyestercarbonate resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., 1985, which is incorporated by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies... is incorporated by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies are... intrinsic viscosity of the polyestercarbonate resins shall be a minimum of 0.44 deciliter per gram,...

  6. 21 CFR 177.1580 - Polycarbonate resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Polycarbonate resins. 177.1580 Section 177.1580 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: POLYMERS Substances for Use as...

  7. 21 CFR 177.1580 - Polycarbonate resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Polycarbonate resins. 177.1580 Section 177.1580 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: POLYMERS Substances for Use as Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food...

  8. 21 CFR 177.1580 - Polycarbonate resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Polycarbonate resins. 177.1580 Section 177.1580 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: POLYMERS Substances for Use as Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use...

  9. 21 CFR 177.1580 - Polycarbonate resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Polycarbonate resins. 177.1580 Section 177.1580 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: POLYMERS Substances for Use as...

  10. Pharmaceutical Applications of Ion-Exchange Resins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elder, David

    2005-01-01

    The historical uses of ion-exchanged resins and a summary of the basic chemical principles involved in the ion-exchanged process are discussed. Specific applications of ion-exchange are provided that include drug stabilization, pharmaceutical excipients, taste-masking agents, oral sustained-release products, topical products for local application…

  11. 21 CFR 177.1556 - Polyaryletherketone resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... water, 50 percent (by volume) ethyl alcohol in distilled water, 3 percent acetic acid (by weight) in... benzophenone and terephthaloyl dichloride in such a way that the finished resins have a minimum weight average molecular weight of 20,000 grams per mole, as determined by light scattering measurements in sulfuric...

  12. 21 CFR 177.1556 - Polyaryletherketone resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... water, 50 percent (by volume) ethyl alcohol in distilled water, 3 percent acetic acid (by weight) in... benzophenone and terephthaloyl dichloride in such a way that the finished resins have a minimum weight average molecular weight of 20,000 grams per mole, as determined by light scattering measurements in sulfuric...

  13. 21 CFR 177.1556 - Polyaryletherketone resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... water, 50 percent (by volume) ethyl alcohol in distilled water, 3 percent acetic acid (by weight) in... benzophenone and terephthaloyl dichloride in such a way that the finished resins have a minimum weight average molecular weight of 20,000 grams per mole, as determined by light scattering measurements in sulfuric...

  14. 21 CFR 177.1556 - Polyaryletherketone resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... water, 50 percent (by volume) ethyl alcohol in distilled water, 3 percent acetic acid (by weight) in... benzophenone and terephthaloyl dichloride in such a way that the finished resins have a minimum weight average molecular weight of 20,000 grams per mole, as determined by light scattering measurements in sulfuric...

  15. 21 CFR 177.1556 - Polyaryletherketone resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... temperature for 2 hours with the following solvents: Distilled water, 50 percent (by volume) ethyl alcohol in distilled water, 3 percent acetic acid (by weight) in distilled water, and n-heptane. (d) In testing the... such a way that the finished resins have a minimum weight average molecular weight of 20,000 grams...

  16. Crack propagation directions in unfilled resins.

    PubMed

    Baran, G; Sadeghipour, K; Jayaraman, S; Silage, D; Paul, D; Boberick, K

    1998-11-01

    Posterior composite restorative materials undergo accelerated wear in the occlusal contact area, primarily through a fatigue mechanism. To facilitate the timely development of new and improved materials, a predictive wear model is desirable. The objective of this study was to develop a finite element model enabling investigators to predict crack propagation directions in resins used as the matrix material in composites, and to verify these predictions by observing cracks formed during the pin-on-disc wear of a 60:40 BISGMA:TEGDMA resin and an EBPADMA resin. Laser confocal scanning microscopy was used to measure crack locations. Finite element studies were done by means of ABAQUS software, modeling a cylinder sliding on a material with pre-existing surface-breaking cracks. Variables included modulus, cylinder/material friction coefficient, crack face friction, and yield behavior. Experimental results were surprising, since most crack directions were opposite previously published observations. The majority of surface cracks, though initially orthogonal to the surface, changed direction to run 20 to 30 degrees from the horizontal in the direction of indenter movement. Finite element modeling established the importance of subsurface shear stresses, since calculations provided evidence that cracks propagate in the direction of maximum K(II)(theta), in the same direction as the motion of the indenter, and at an angle of approximately 20 degrees. These findings provide the foundation for a predictive model of sliding wear in unfilled glassy resins. PMID:9823724

  17. A UV resonance Raman (UVRR) spectroscopic study on the extractable compounds of Scots pine ( Pinus sylvestris) wood . Part I: Lipophilic compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nuopponen, M.; Willför, S.; Jääskeläinen, A.-S.; Sundberg, A.; Vuorinen, T.

    2004-11-01

    The wood resin in Scots pine ( Pinus sylvestris) stemwood and branch wood were studied using UV resonance Raman (UVRR) spectroscopy. UVRR spectra of the sapwood and heartwood hexane extracts, solid wood samples and model compounds (six resin acids, three fatty acids, a fatty acid ester, sitosterol and sitosterol acetate) were collected using excitation wavelengths of 229, 244 and 257 nm. In addition, visible Raman spectra of the fatty and resin acids were recorded. Resin compositions of heartwood and sapwood hexane extracts were determined using gas chromatography. Raman signals of both conjugated and isolated double bonds of all the model compounds were resonance enhanced by UV excitation. The oleophilic structures showed strong bands in the region of 1660-1630 cm -1. Distinct structures were enhanced depending on the excitation wavelength. The UVRR spectra of the hexane extracts showed characteristic bands for resin and fatty acids. It was possible to identify certain resin acids from the spectra. UV Raman spectra collected from the solid wood samples containing wood resin showed a band at ˜1650 cm -1 due to unsaturated resin components. The Raman signals from extractives in the resin rich branch wood sample gave even more strongly enhanced signals than the aromatic lignin.

  18. A UV resonance Raman (UVRR) spectroscopic study on the extractable compounds of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) wood. Part I: lipophilic compounds.

    PubMed

    Nuopponen, M; Willför, S; Jääskeläinen, A-S; Sundberg, A; Vuorinen, T

    2004-11-01

    The wood resin in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) stemwood and branch wood were studied using UV resonance Raman (UVRR) spectroscopy. UVRR spectra of the sapwood and heartwood hexane extracts, solid wood samples and model compounds (six resin acids, three fatty acids, a fatty acid ester, sitosterol and sitosterol acetate) were collected using excitation wavelengths of 229, 244 and 257 nm. In addition, visible Raman spectra of the fatty and resin acids were recorded. Resin compositions of heartwood and sapwood hexane extracts were determined using gas chromatography. Raman signals of both conjugated and isolated double bonds of all the model compounds were resonance enhanced by UV excitation. The oleophilic structures showed strong bands in the region of 1660-1630 cm(-1). Distinct structures were enhanced depending on the excitation wavelength. The UVRR spectra of the hexane extracts showed characteristic bands for resin and fatty acids. It was possible to identify certain resin acids from the spectra. UV Raman spectra collected from the solid wood samples containing wood resin showed a band at approximately 1650 cm(-1) due to unsaturated resin components. The Raman signals from extractives in the resin rich branch wood sample gave even more strongly enhanced signals than the aromatic lignin. PMID:15477130

  19. Resin film infusion mold tooling and molding method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burgess, Roger (Inventor); Grossheim, Brian (Inventor); Mouradian, Karbis (Inventor); Thrash, Patrick J. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A mold apparatus and method for resin film infusion molding including an outer mold tool having a facing sheet adapted to support a resin film and preform assembly. The facing sheet includes attachment features extending therefrom. An inner mold tool is positioned on the facing sheet to enclose the resin film and preform assembly for resin film infusion molding. The inner mold tool includes a plurality of mandrels positioned for engagement with the resin film and preform assembly. Each mandrel includes a slot formed therein. A plurality of locating bars cooperate with the slots and with the attachment features for locating the mandrels longitudinally on the outer mold tool.

  20. Stability Of A Carbon-Dioxide-Removing Resin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wydeven, Theodore; Wood, Peter

    1990-01-01

    Report describes experiments determing long-term chemical stability of IRA-45, commerical ion-exchange resin candidate for use in removing CO2 from atmosphere of Space Station. In proposed system, cabin air passes through resin, and acidic CO2 absorbed by weakly-basic hydrated diethylenetriamine bonded to porous resin substrate. When resin absorbs all CO2, disconnects from airstream and heated with steam to desorb CO2. Resin reuseable. Removed by post-treating process air with phosphoric acid on charcoal. Other chemicals removed by trace-contaminant-control subsystem of Space Station.

  1. NITRATE CONVERSION OF HB-LINE REILLEXTM HPQ RESIN

    SciTech Connect

    Steimke, J.; Williams, M.; Steeper, T.; Leishear, R.

    2012-05-29

    Reillex{trademark} HPQ ion exchange resin is used by HB Line to remove plutonium from aqueous streams. Reillex{trademark} HPQ resin currently available from Vertellus Specialties LLC is a chloride ionic form, which can cause stress corrosion cracking in stainless steels. Therefore, HB Line Engineering requested that Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) convert resin from chloride form to nitrate form in the Engineering Development Laboratory (EDL). To perform this task, SRNL treated two batches of resin in 2012. The first batch of resin from Reilly Industries Batch 80302MA was initially treated at SRNL in 2001 to remove chloride. This batch of resin, nominally 30 liters, has been stored wet in carboys since that time until being retreated in 2012. The second batch of resin from Batch 23408 consisted of 50 kg of new resin purchased from Vertellus Specialties in 2012. Both batches were treated in a column designed to convert resin using downflow of 1.0 M sodium nitrate solution through the resin bed followed by rinsing with deionized water. Both batches were analyzed for chloride concentration, before and after treatment, using Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA). The resin specification [Werling, 2003] states the total chlorine and chloride concentration shall be less than 250 ppm. The resin condition for measuring this concentration is not specified; however, in service the resin would always be fully wet. Measurements in SRNL showed that changing from oven dry resin to fully wet resin, with liquid in the particle interstices but no supernatant, increases the total weight by a factor of at least three. Therefore, concentration of chlorine or chloride expressed as parts per million (ppm) decreases by a factor of three. Therefore, SRNL recommends measuring chlorine concentration on an oven dry basis, then dividing by three to estimate chloride concentration in the fully wet condition. Chloride concentration in the first batch (No.80302MA) was nearly the same before the current treatment (759 ppm dry) and after treatment (745 ppm dry or {approx}248 ppm wet). Treatment of the second batch of resin (No.23408) was very successful. Chloride concentration decreased from 120,000 ppm dry to an average of 44 ppm dry or {approx}15ppm wet, which easily passes the 250 ppm wet criterion. Per guidance from HB Line Engineering, SRNL blended Batch 80302 resin with Batch P9059 resin which had been treated previously by ResinTech to remove chloride. The chloride concentrations for the two drums of Batch P9059 were 248 ppm dry ({approx}83 ppm wet) {+-}22.8% and 583 ppm dry ({approx}194 ppm wet) {+-} 11.8%. The blended resin was packaged in five gallon buckets.

  2. ANALYSIS OF VENTING OF A RESIN SLURRY

    SciTech Connect

    Laurinat, J.; Hensel, S.

    2012-03-27

    A resin slurry venting analysis was conducted to address safety issues associated with overpressurization of ion exchange columns used in the Purex process at the Savannah River Site (SRS). If flow to these columns were inadvertently interrupted, an exothermic runaway reaction could occur between the ion exchange resin and the nitric acid used in the feed stream. The nitric acid-resin reaction generates significant quantities of noncondensable gases, which would pressurize the column. To prevent the column from rupturing during such events, rupture disks are installed on the column vent lines. The venting analysis models accelerating rate calorimeter (ARC) tests and data from tests that were performed in a vented test vessel with a rupture disk. The tests showed that the pressure inside the test vessel continued to increase after the rupture disk opened, though at a slower rate than prior to the rupture. Calculated maximum discharge rates for the resin venting tests exceeded the measured rates of gas generation, so the vent size was sufficient to relieve the pressure in the test vessel if the vent flow rate was constant. The increase in the vessel pressure is modeled as a transient phenomenon associated with expansion of the resin slurry/gas mixture upon rupture of the disk. It is postulated that the maximum pressure at the end of this expansion is limited by energy minimization to approximately 1.5 times the rupture disk burst pressure. The magnitude of this pressure increase is consistent with the measured pressure transients. The results of this analysis demonstrate the need to allow for a margin between the design pressure and the rupture disk burst pressure in similar applications.

  3. Utilization of Methacrylates and Polymer Matrices for the Synthesis of Ion Specific Resins

    SciTech Connect

    Czerwinski, Kenneth

    2013-10-29

    Disposal, storage, and/or transmutation of actinides such as americium (Am) will require the development of specific separation schemes. Existing efforts focus on solvent extraction systems for achieving suitable separation of actinide from lanthanides. However, previous work has shown the feasibility of ion-imprinting polymer-based resins for use in ion-exchange-type separations with metal ion recognition. Phenolic-based resins have been shown to function well for Am-Eu separations, but these resins exhibited slow kinetics and difficulties in the imprinting process. This project addresses the need for new and innovative methods for the selective separation of actinides through novel ion-imprinted resins. The project team will explore incorporation of metals into extended frameworks, including the possibility of 3D polymerized matrices that can serve as a solid-state template for specific resin preparation. For example, an anhydrous trivalent f-element chain can be formed directly from a metal carbonate, and methacrylic acid from water. From these simple coordination complexes, molecules of discrete size or shape can be formed via the utilization of coordinating ligands or by use of an anionic multi-ligand system incorporating methacrylate. Additionally, alkyl methyl methacrylates have been used successfully to create template nanospaces, which underscores their potential utility as 3D polymerized matrices. This evidence provides a unique route for the preparation of a specific metal ion template for the basis of ion-exchange separations. Such separations may prove to be excellent discriminators of metal ions, even between f-elements.

  4. Shear bond strength of computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing feldspathic and nano resin ceramics blocks cemented with three different generations of resin cement

    PubMed Central

    Ab-Ghani, Zuryati; Jaafar, Wahyuni; Foo, Siew Fon; Ariffin, Zaihan; Mohamad, Dasmawati

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the shear bond strength between the dentin substrate and computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing feldspathic ceramic and nano resin ceramics blocks cemented with resin cement. Materials and Methods: Sixty cuboidal blocks (5 mm × 5 mm × 5 mm) were fabricated in equal numbers from feldspathic ceramic CEREC® Blocs PC and nano resin ceramic Lava™ Ultimate, and randomly divided into six groups (n = 10). Each block was cemented to the dentin of 60 extracted human premolar using Variolink® II/Syntac Classic (multi-steps etch-and-rinse adhesive bonding), NX3 Nexus® (two-steps etch-and-rinse adhesive bonding) and RelyX™ U200 self-adhesive cement. All specimens were thermocycled, and shear bond strength testing was done using the universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 1.0 mm/min. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA. Results: Combination of CEREC® Blocs PC and Variolink® II showed the highest mean shear bond strength (8.71 Mpa), while the lowest of 2.06 Mpa were observed in Lava™ Ultimate and RelyX™ U200. There was no significant difference in the mean shear bond strength between different blocks. Conclusion: Variolink® II cement using multi-steps etch-and-rinse adhesive bonding provided a higher shear bond strength than the self-adhesive cement RelyX U200. The shear bond strength was not affected by the type of blocks used. PMID:26430296

  5. Synthesis and Characterizations of Melamine-Based Epoxy Resins

    PubMed Central

    Ricciotti, Laura; Roviello, Giuseppina; Tarallo, Oreste; Borbone, Fabio; Ferone, Claudio; Colangelo, Francesco; Catauro, Michelina; Cioffi, Raffaele

    2013-01-01

    A new, easy and cost-effective synthetic procedure for the preparation of thermosetting melamine-based epoxy resins is reported. By this innovative synthetic method, different kinds of resins can be obtained just by mixing the reagents in the presence of a catalyst without solvent and with mild curing conditions. Two types of resins were synthesized using melamine and a glycidyl derivative (resins I) or by adding a silane derivative (resin II). The resins were characterized by means of chemical-physical and thermal techniques. Experimental results show that all the prepared resins have a good thermal stability, but differ for their mechanical properties: resin I exhibits remarkable stiffness with a storage modulus value up to 830 MPa at room temperature, while lower storage moduli were found for resin II, indicating that the presence of silane groups could enhance the flexibility of these materials. The resins show a pot life higher than 30 min, which makes these resins good candidates for practical applications. The functionalization with silane terminations can be exploited in the formulation of hybrid organic-inorganic composite materials. PMID:24013372

  6. Electrically conductive resinous bond and method of manufacture

    DOEpatents

    Snowden, T.M. Jr.; Wells, B.J.

    1985-01-01

    A method of bonding elements together with a bond of high strength and good electrical conductivity which comprises: applying an unfilled polyimide resin between surfaces of the elements to be bonded, heat treating said unfilled polyimide resin in stages between a temperature range of about 40 to 365/sup 0/C to form a strong adhesive bond between said elements, applying a metal-filled polyimide resin overcoat between said elements so as to provide electrical connection therebetween, and heat treating said metal-filled polyimide resin with substantially the same temperature profile as the unfilled polyimide resin. The present invention is also concerned with an adhesive, resilient, substantially void free bonding combination for providing a high strength, electrically conductive adhesive attachment between electrically conductive elements which comprises a major amount of an unfilled polyimide resin and a minor amount of a metal-filled polyimide resin.

  7. Commercial Ion Exchange Resin Vitrification in Borosilicate Glass

    SciTech Connect

    Cicero-Herman, C.A.; Workman, P.; Poole, K.; Erich, D.; Harden, J.

    1998-05-01

    Bench-scale studies were performed to determine the feasibility of vitrification treatment of six resins representative of those used in the commercial nuclear industry. Each resin was successfully immobilized using the same proprietary borosilicate glass formulation. Waste loadings varied from 38 to 70 g of resin/100 g of glass produced depending on the particular resin, with volume reductions of 28 percent to 68 percent. The bench-scale results were used to perform a melter demonstration with one of the resins at the Clemson Environmental Technologies Laboratory (CETL). The resin used was a weakly acidic meth acrylic cation exchange resin. The vitrification process utilized represented a approximately 64 percent volume reduction. Glass characterization, radionuclide retention, offgas analyses, and system compatibility results will be discussed in this paper.

  8. Saliva contamination and resin bonding of etched metal retainers.

    PubMed

    Cassidy, A J; Storie, D Q

    1987-01-01

    This study was performed to determine how preapplication of unfilled resin and subsequent saliva contamination would affect the shear strength of the etched-metal resin-bonded retainer. There was no significant difference in the shear strength of the metal-resin bond among experimental groups when the metal retainer was bonded in the routine manner, when unfilled resin was applied and allowed to polymerize before bonding of filled resin, or when saliva contamination occurred before the addition of filled resin. Preapplication of unfilled resin to etched metal retainers may serve as a means of protecting the etched metal surface for routine try-in of "Maryland bridges" before final cementation. PMID:3543309

  9. Affinity purification of the voltage-sensitive sodium channel from electroplax with resins selective for sialic acid

    SciTech Connect

    James, W.M.; Emerick, M.C.; Agnew, W.S. )

    1989-07-11

    The voltage-sensitive sodium channel present in the eel (Electrophorus electricus) has an unusually high content of sialic acid, including {alpha}-(2{yields}8)-linked polysialic acid, not found in other electroplax membrane glycopeptides. Lectins from Limax flavus (LFA) and wheat germ (WGA) proved the most effective of 11 lectin resins tried. The most selective resin was prepared from IgM antibodies against Neisseria meningitidis {alpha}-(2{yields}8)-polysialic acid which were affinity purified and coupled to Sepharose 4B. The sodium channel was found to bind to WGA, LFA, and IgM resins and was readily eluted with the appropriate soluble carbohydrates. Experiments with LFA and IgM resins demonstrated binding and unbinding rates and displacement kinetics, which suggest highly specific binding at multiple sites on the sodium channel protein. In preparative-scale purification of protein previously fractionated by anion-exchange chromatography, without stabilizing TTX, high yields were reproducibly obtained. Further, when detergent extracts were prepared from electroplax membranes fractionated by low-speed sedimentation, a single step over the IgM resin provided a 70-fold purification, yielding specific activities of 3,200 pmol of ({sup 3}H)TTX-binding sites/mg of protein and a single polypeptide of {approximately}285,000 Da on SDS-acrylamide gels. No small peptides were observed after this 5-h isolation. The authors describe a cation-dependent stabilization with millimolar levels of monovalent and micromolar levels of divalent species.

  10. Complexation of labile aluminium species by chelating resins Iontosorb--a new method for Al environmental risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Matús, Peter; Kubová, Jana

    2005-09-01

    The utilization of chelating ion-exchange by the method based on binding strength and kinetic discrimination for aluminium fractionation was studied. Two chelating cellulose resins, Iontosorb Oxin (IO) and Iontosorb Salicyl (IS), were used for the determination of quickly reacting labile aluminium species. The possibilities of aluminium fractionation on these chelating resins were investigated by a solid phase extraction technique. The study of the pH (2.5-6.0) influence on the Al complexation by both resins indicates that at low pH the IS has lower sorption capacity but better adsorptive kinetic properties than IO. The optimal resin complexation time for reactive Al species was experimentally found after aluminium sorption study at pH 4.0 in synthetic solutions containing some inorganic and organic ligands, which simulate the composition of analysed acid soil and water samples. The negative influence of sulphate and iron on the Al complexation by IS resin was found and investigated. The flame atomic absorption spectrometry was used for the aluminium quantification. PMID:16043222

  11. Evaluation of the biocompatibility of resin-based root canal sealers in rat periapical tissue.

    PubMed

    Mutoh, Noriko; Satoh, Takenori; Watabe, Hirotaka; Tani-Ishii, Nobuyuki

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated the biocompatibility of resin-based root canal sealers (RCSs) in the periapical tissues of rats. Wistar rats underwent tooth replantation for reproducing the response of periapical tissue with RCSs. The resin-based Epipany SE, AH Plus Jet, the eugenol-based sealer (Canals) and a control group were employed. The upper right first molar was extracted and applied with RCSs on apices, and then the tooth was repositioned. Histological evaluation demonstrated that mild inflammation occurred in the periapical tissue with Epiphany and AH Plus Jet sealers on day 7, whereas Canals induced severe-to-moderate inflammation. The statistical analyses demonstrated that the significant differences were observed between Canals and the other groups on day 7 regarding inflammatory response. On day 14, the lesions induced by all sealers were healed and replaced predominantly by fibrous connective tissue. Our results suggest that Epiphany SE and AH Plus Jet are good biocompatible materials. PMID:23719002

  12. Uranium Adsorption on Ion-Exchange Resins - Batch Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Mattigod, Shas V.; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Cordova, Elsa A.; Smith, Ronald M.

    2010-12-01

    The uranium adsorption performance of five resins (Dowex 1, Dowex 21K 16-30 [fresh], Dowex 21K 16-30 [regenerated], Purofine PFA600/4740, and ResinTech SIR-1200) were tested using unspiked, nitrate-spiked, and nitrate-spiked/pH adjusted source water from well 299-W19-36. These batch tests were conducted in support of a resin selection process in which the best resin to use for uranium treatment in the 200-West Area groundwater pump-and-treat system will be identified. The results from these tests are as follows: • The data from the high-nitrate (1331 mg/L) tests indicated that Dowex 1, Dowex 21K 16-30 (fresh), Purofine PFA600/4740, and ResinTech SIR-1200 all adsorbed uranium similarly well with Kd values ranging from ~15,000 to 95,000 ml/g. All four resins would be considered suitable for use in the treatment system based on uranium adsorption characteristics. • Lowering the pH of the high nitrate test conditions from 8.2 to 7.5 did not significantly change the uranium adsorption isotherms for the four tested resins. The Kd values for these four resins under high nitrate (1338 mg/L), lower pH (7.5) ranged from ~15,000 to 80,000 ml/g. • Higher nitrate concentrations greatly reduced the uranium adsorption on all four resins. Tests conducted with unspiked (no amendments; nitrate at 337 mg/L and pH at 8.2) source water yielded Kd values for Dowex 1, Dowex 21K 16-30 (fresh), Purofine PFA600/4740, and ResinTech SIR-1200 resins ranging from ~800,000 to >3,000,000 ml/g. These values are about two orders of magnitude higher than the Kd values noted from tests conducted using amended source water. • Compared to the fresh resin, the regenerated Dowex 21K 16-30 resin exhibited significantly lower uranium-adsorption performance under all test conditions. The calculated Kd values for the regenerated resin were typically an order of magnitude lower than the values calculated for the fresh resin. • Additional testing using laboratory columns is recommended to better resolve differences between the adsorption abilities of the resins and to develop estimates of uranium loading on the resins. By determining the quantity of uranium that each resin can adsorb and the time required to reach various levels of loading, resin lifetime in the treatment system can be estimated.

  13. Influence of handpiece maintenance sprays on resin bonding to dentin

    PubMed Central

    Sugawara, Toyotarou; Kameyama, Atsushi; Haruyama, Akiko; Oishi, Takumi; Kukidome, Nobuyuki; Takase, Yasuaki; Tsunoda, Masatake

    2010-01-01

    Objective To investigate the influence of maintenance spray on resin bonding to dentin. Materials and methods The crown of extracted, caries-free human molars was transversally sectioned with a model trimmer to prepare the dentin surfaces from mid-coronal sound dentin, and then uniformly abraded with #600 silicon carbide paper. The dentin surfaces were randomly divided into three groups: oil-free spray group where maintenance cleaner for air bearing handpieces was sprayed onto the dentin surface for 1 s and rinsed with water spray for 30 s; oil-containing spray group where maintenance cleaner for micro motor handpieces was sprayed onto the dentin surface for 1 s and rinsed with water spray for 30 s; and control group where the surface was rinsed with water spray for 30 s and then air-dried. These surfaces were then bonded with Clearfil SE Bond (Kuraray Medical), and resin composite (Clearfil AP-X, Kuraray Medical) build-up crowns were incrementally constructed on the bonded surfaces. After storage for 24 h in 37°C water, the bonded teeth were sectioned into hour-glass shaped slices (0.7-mm thick) perpendicular to the bonded surfaces. The specimens were then subjected to microtensile bond strength (?TBS) testing at a crosshead speed of 1.0 mm/min. Data were analyzed with one-way ANOVA and the Tukey-Kramer test. Results Maintenance spray-contaminated specimens (oil-free and oil-containing spray groups) showed significantly lower ?TBS than control specimens (P < 0.05). However, there was no significant difference between the spray-contaminated groups (P > 0.05). Conclusion Maintenance spray significantly reduces the bond strength of Clearfil SE Bond to dentin. PMID:23662078

  14. Object extraction Object extraction

    E-print Network

    Giger, Christine

    ("house", "lake") · usually solved jointly as detection: identify all objects of a certain class · object methods · for well-defined corners ­ least-squares matching pixel ­ human (stereoscopic) >0.3 pixel ­ least-squares matching pixel ­ human (stereoscopic) >0.3 pixel #12;Semi-automatic extraction

  15. Comparison of bond strength of three adhesives: composite resin, hybrid GIC, and glass-filled GIC.

    PubMed

    Rix, D; Foley, T F; Mamandras, A

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare 3 orthodontic adhesives in the areas of shear-peel bond strength, location of adhesive failure, and extent of enamel cracking before bonding and after debonding of orthodontic brackets. The adhesives included a composite resin control (Transbond XT; 3M/Unitek, St Paul, Minn), a resin-modified glass ionomer cement (Fuji Ortho LC; GC America Corp, Alsip, Ill), and a polyacid-modified composite resin under dry and saliva-contaminated conditions (Assure; Reliance Orthodontic Products Inc, Itasca, Ill). Metal brackets were bonded to the buccal surfaces of 160 (4 groups of 40) human premolars. The bonded teeth were stored in deionized water at 37 degrees C for 30 days and thermocycled for 24 hours before debonding with a Universal Instron (Instron Corp, Canton, Mass) testing machine. The extent of cracking in the buccal surfaces was evaluated under 16x magnification before bonding and after debonding. Although the bond strength of the composite resin control (20.19 MPa) was significantly greater (P <.05) than that of the adhesives in the other groups, clinically acceptable shear-peel bond strengths were found for all adhesives (Fuji Ortho LC = 13.57 MPa, Assure-dry = 10.74 MPa, Assure-wet = 10.99 MPa). The bond strength for the Assure adhesive was not significantly affected by saliva contamination. The sample of extracted premolars used in this study displayed a greater frequency of buccal surface enamel cracking (46.7%) than that reported in the literature for in vivo premolars (7.8%-10.2%), which was possibly due to the extraction process. The frequency of enamel cracking in a subset of this sample (n = 34) increased from 46.4% at prebonding to 62.4% at postdebonding as a result of the forces of debonding. PMID:11174538

  16. Composites with improved fiber-resin interfacial adhesion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cizmecioglu, Muzaffer (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    The adhesion of fiber reinforcement such as high modulus graphite to a matrix resin such as polycarbonate is greatly enhanced by applying a very thin layer, suitably from 50 Angstroms to below 1000 Angstroms, to the surface of the fiber such as by immersing the fiber in a dilute solution of the matrix resin in a volatile solvent followed by draining to remove excess solution and air drying to remove the solvent. The thin layer wets the fiber surface. The very dilute solution of matrix resin is able to impregnate multifilament fibers and the solution evenly flows onto the surface of the fibers. A thin uniform layer is formed on the surface of the fiber after removal of the solvent. The matrix resin coated fiber is completely wetted by the matrix resin during formation of the composite. Increased adhesion of the resin to the fibers is observed at fracture. At least 65 percent of the surface of the graphite fiber is covered with polycarbonate resin at fracture whereas uncoated fibers have very little matrix resin adhering to their surfaces at fracture and epoxy sized graphite fibers exhibit only slightly higher coverage with matrix resin at fracture. Flexural modulus of the composite containing matrix resin coated fibers is increased by 50 percent and flexural strength by 37 percent as compared to composites made with unsized fibers.

  17. Anion-exchange resin-based desulfurization process. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sheth, A C; Dharmapurikar, R; Strevel, S D

    1994-01-01

    The following investigations were performed: (1) batch mode screening of eleven(11) commercially available resins and selection of three candidate resins for further evaluation in a fixed-bed setup. (2) Process variables study using three candidate resins in the fixed-bed setup and selection of the ``best`` resin for process economics development. (3) Exhaustion efficiency and solution concentration were found to be inversely related necessitating a trade-off between the resin cost versus the cost of evaporation/concentration of ensuing effluents. (4) Higher concentration of the HCO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} form of active sites over less active CO{sub 3}{sup 2{minus}} form of sites in the resin was believed to be the main reason for the observed increase in the equilibrium capacity of the resin at an elevated static CO{sub 2}-pressure. This Increase in capacity was found to level off around 80--120 psig range. The increase in CO{sub 2}-pressure, however, did not appear to affect the overall ion-exchange kinetics. (5) In the fixed-bed mode, the solution concentration was found to affect the equilibrium capacity of candidate resins. Their relationship was well satisfied by the Langmuir type non-linear equilibrium isotherm. Alternatively, the effect of solution concentration on overall ion-exchange kinetics varied from resin to resin. (6) Product inhibition effect on the resin was observed as an initial increase followed by a significant decrease in the resin`s equilibrium capacity for SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} as the HCO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}/SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} molar ratio in the solution was increased from 0 to 1.0. This ratio, however, did not affect the overall ion-exchange kinetics.

  18. Ethynylated aromatics as high temperature matrix resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurwitz, F. I.

    1987-01-01

    Difunctional and trifunctional arylacetylenes were used as monomers to form thermoset matrix resin composites. Composites can be hot-pressed at 180 C to react 80 percent of the acetylene groups. Crosslinking is completed by postcuring at 350 C. The postcured resins are thermally stable to nominally 460 C in air. As a result of their high crosslink density, the matrix exhibits brittle failure when uniaxial composites are tested in tension. Failure of both uniaixial tensile and flexural specimens occurs in shear at the fiber-matrix interface. Tensile fracture stresses for 0-deg composites fabricated with 60 v/o Celion 6K graphite fiber were 827 MPa. The strain to failure was 0.5 percent. Composites fabricated with 8 harness satin Celion cloth (Fiberite 1133) and tested in tension also failed in shear at tensile stresses of 413 MPa.

  19. Flammability of Epoxy Resins Containing Phosphorus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hergenrother, P. M.; Thompson, C. M.; Smith, J. G.; Connell, J. W.; Hinkley, J. A.

    2005-01-01

    As part of a program to develop fire-resistant exterior composite structures for future subsonic commercial and general aviation aircraft, flame-retardant epoxy resins are under investigation. Epoxies and their curing agents (aromatic diamines) containing phosphorus were synthesized and used to prepare epoxy formulations. Phosphorus was incorporated within the backbone of the epoxy resin and not used as an additive. The resulting cured neat epoxy formulations were characterized by thermogravimetric analysis, propane torch test, elemental analysis, microscale combustion calorimetry, and fire calorimetry. Several formulations showed excellent flame retardation with phosphorous contents as low as 1.5% by weight. The fracture toughness and compressive strength of several cured formulations showed no detrimental effect due to phosphorus content. The chemistry and properties of these new epoxy formulations are discussed.

  20. Ethynylated aromatics as high temperature matrix resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurwitz, Frances I.

    1986-01-01

    Difunctional and trifunctional arylacetylenes were used as monomers to form thermoset matrix resin composites. Composites can be hot pressed at 180 C to react 80 percent of the acetylene groups. Crosslinking is completed by postcuring at 350 C. The postcured resins are thermally stable to nominally 460 C in air. As a result of their high crosslink density, the matrix exhibits brittle failure when unaxial composites are tested in tension. Failure of both uniaxial tensile and flexural specimens occurs in shear at the fiber matrix interface. Tensile fracture stresses for 0 deg composites fabricated with 60 v/o Celion 6K graphite fiber were 827 MPa. The strain to failure was 0.5 percent. Composites fabricated with 8 harness satin Celion cloth (Fiberite 1133) and tested in tension also failed in shear at tensile stresses of 413 MPa.

  1. Loading and unloading resin from MPPF rapid ion-exchange columns

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, W.C.

    1981-10-01

    A process was developed which permits changing the resin in the Multipurpose Processing Facility Rapid Ion Exchange columns, without replacing the entire column assembly. The columns remain on the rack during the resin removal and replacement. The resin displacement process consists of a resin unloading and a resin loading step. During resin removal, the spent resin is hydraulically displaced from the columns to a resin collection tank, and then transferred to the evaporator for dissolution. Fresh resin is loaded into the empty column by hydraulic displacement or a combination of vacuum loading followed by hydraulic displacement. In the hydraulic displacement loading process, the amount of fresh resin needed to load the columns is transferred to a resin displacement tank where the resin is hydraulically displaced to the appropriate column. In the vacuum loading process, part of the resin feed is loaded directly into the column by applying a negative pressure to the column.

  2. Chemoviscosity modeling for thermosetting resin systems, 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hou, T. H.; Huang, Joan Y. Z.

    1989-01-01

    An experimental study on the changes of chemorheological properties has been conducted and analyzed on commercial Hercules 3501-6 resin system cured under several isothermal conditions between 375 and 435 K. For the cure temperatures equal to or greater than 385 K, the storage modulus curing curves, G prime (t), exhibited abrupt changes in slope which occurred at various times depending on the curing temperatures and were attributed to the onset of gelation reactions. The crossover points between G prime (t) and G double prime (t) curves were observed for curing temperatures equal to or greater than 400 K. The gelation and the crossover points obtained from the chemorheological measurements, therefore, defined two characteristic resin states during cure. Approximately the same value for the degree of cure was reached by the advancement of the reaction at each of these states. The temperature dependency of the viscosities for the characteristic resin states and the rate constants of increase in moduli at different stages of curing were analyzed. Various G prime (t) and G double prime (t) isothermal curing curves were also shown to be capable of being superimposed on one another by the principle of time-temperature superposition. The resultant shift factors a sub t(t) and a Eta(T) were shown to follow the Arrhenius type relationship. Values of the activation energy suggested that the reaction kinetics, instead of the diffusion mechanism, was the limiting step in the overall resin advancement for the cure at temperatures equal to or greater than 385 K.

  3. Processable polyimide adhesive and matrix composite resin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pratt, J. Richard (inventor); St.clair, Terry L. (inventor); Progar, Donald J. (inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A high temperature polyimide composition prepared by reacting 4,4'-isophthaloyldiphthalic anhydride with metaphenylenediamine is employed to prepare matrix resins, adhesives, films, coatings, moldings, and laminates, especially those showing enhanced flow with retention of mechanical and adhesive properties. It can be used in the aerospace industry, for example, in joining metals to metals or metals to composite structures. One area of application is in the manufacture of lighter and stronger aircraft and spacecraft structures.

  4. Toward homogeneous nanostructured polyaniline/resin blends.

    PubMed

    Jafarzadeh, Shadi; Thormann, Esben; Rönnevall, Ted; Adhikari, Arindam; Sundell, Per-Erik; Pan, Jinshan; Claesson, Per M

    2011-05-01

    The high interest in applications of conducting polymers, especially polyaniline (PANI), makes it important to overcome limitations for effective usage due to poor processability and solubility. One promising approach is to make blends of PANI in polymeric resins. However, in this approach other problems related to the difficulty of achieving a homogeneous PANI dispersion arise. The present article is focused on this general problem, and we discuss how the synthesis method, choice of dopant and solvent as well as interfacial energies influence the dispersibility. For this purpose, different synthesis methods and dopants have been employed to prepare nanostructures of polyaniline. Dynamic light scattering analysis of dispersions of the synthesized particles in several solvents was employed in order to understand how the choice of solvent affects PANI aggregation. Further information on this subject was achieved by scanning electron microscopy studies of PANI powders dried from various solutions. On the basis of these results, acetone was found to be a suitable dispersion medium for PANI. The polymer matrix used to make the blends in this work is a UV-curing solvent-free resin. Therefore, there is no low molecular weight liquid in the system to facilitate the mixing process and promote formation of homogeneous dispersions. Thus, a good compatibility of the components becomes crucial. For this reason, surface tension and contact angle measurements were utilized for characterizing the surface energy of the PANI particles and the polyester acrylate (PEA) resin, and also for calculating the interfacial energy between these two components that revealed good compatibility within the PANI/PEA blend. A novel technique, based on centrifugal sedimentation analysis, was employed in order to determine the PANI particle size in PEA resin, and high dispersion stability of the PANI/PEA blends was suggested by evaluation of the sedimentation data. PMID:21480657

  5. Morphological characterization of furfuraldehyde resins adsorbents

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez, R.; Monteiro, S.N.; D`Almeida, J.R.

    1996-12-31

    Sugar cane is one of the most traditional plantation cultivated crops in large areas in Brazil. The State University of the North of Rio de Janeiro, UENF, is currently engaged in a program aimed to exploit the potentialities of sugar cane industry as a self sustained non-polluting enterprise. One of the projects being carried out at the UENF is the transformation of sugar cane bagasse in precursor materials for the industry of furan derivatives such as the furfuraldehyde resins obtained by acid catalysis. The possibility of employing acid catalyzed furfuraldehyde resins as selective adsorbents has arisen during a comprehensive study of physical-chemical adsorption properties of these materials. The morphology of these resins depend on the synthesis method. Scanning Electron Microscopic studies of these materials which were synthesized, in bulk (FH-M) and solution (FH-D), showed differences in surface density and particle size. Using mercury porosimeter techniques and BET adsorption methods, it was found different pore size distributions and a decrement in surface area when solvent was employed in the synthesis process. By thermogravimetric analysis it was found similar weight losses (6%) of water adsorption and a small differences in thermal stabilities.

  6. Composite fabrication via resin transfer molding technology

    SciTech Connect

    Jamison, G.M.; Domeier, L.A.

    1996-04-01

    The IMPReS (Integrated Modeling and Processing of Resin-based Structures) Program was funded in FY95 to consolidate, evaluate and enhance Sandia`s capabilities in the design and fabrication of composite structures. A key driver of this and related programs was the need for more agile product development processes and for model based design and fabrication tools across all of Sandia`s material technologies. A team of polymer, composite and modeling personnel was assembled to benchmark Sandia`s existing expertise in this area relative to industrial and academic programs and to initiate the tasks required to meet Sandia`s future needs. RTM (Resin Transfer Molding) was selected as the focus composite fabrication technology due to its versatility and growing use in industry. Modeling efforts focused on the prediction of composite mechanical properties and failure/damage mechanisms and also on the uncured resin flow processes typical of RTM. Appropriate molds and test composites were fabricated and model validation studies begun. This report summarizes and archives the modeling and fabrication studies carried out under IMPReS and evaluates the status of composite technology within Sandia. It should provide a complete and convenient baseline for future composite technology efforts within Sandia.

  7. Machine for applying a two component resin to a roadway surface

    DOEpatents

    Huszagh, D.W.

    1984-01-01

    A portable machine for spraying two component resins onto a roadway, the machine having a pneumatic control system, including means for purging the machine of mixed resin with air and then removing remaining resin with solvent. Interlocks prevent contamination of solvent and resin, and mixed resin can be purged in the event of a power failure.

  8. Correlations of norbornenyl crosslinked polyimide resin structures with resin thermo-oxidative stability, resin glass transition temperature and composite initial mechanical properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alston, William B.

    1988-01-01

    PMR (polymerization of monomeric reactants) methodology was used to prepare 70 different polyimide oligomeric resins and 30 different unidirectional graphite fiber/polyimide composites. Monomeric composition as well as chain length between sites of crosslinks were varied to examine their effects on resin thermo-oxidative stability and glass transition temperature (Tg) of the cured/postcured resins. A linear correlation of decreasing 316 C resin weight loss/surface area versus (1) decreasing aliphatic content, or (2) increasing benzylic/aliphatic content stoichiometry ratio over a wide range of resin compositions was observed. An almost linear correlation of Tg versus molecular distance between the crosslinks was also observed. An attempt was made to correlate Tg with initial composite mechanical properties (flexural strength and interlaminar shear strength). However, the scatter in mechanical strength data prevented obtaining a clear correlation. Instead, only a range of composite mechanical properties was obtained at 25, 288, and 316 C. Perhaps more importantly, what did become apparent during the correlation study was (1) the PMR methodology could be used to prepare composites from resins containing a wide variety of monomer modifications, (2) that these composites almost invariably provided satisfactory initial mechanical properties as long as the resins formulated exhibited satisfactory processing flow, and (3) that PMR resins exhibited predictable rates of 316 C weight loss/surface area based on their benzylic/aliphatic stoichiometery ratio.

  9. CHARACTERIZATION OF CYCLED SPHERICAL RESORCINOL-FORMALDEHYDE ION EXCHANGE RESIN

    SciTech Connect

    Nash, C.; Duignan, M.

    2010-02-23

    This report presents characterization data for two spherical resorcinol-formaldehyde (sRF) resin beds that had processed cesium in non-radioactive and radioactive cycles. All column cycle operations for the resin beds including loading, displacements, elution, regeneration, breakthroughs, and solution analyses are reported in Nash and Duignan, 2009a. That report covered four ion exchange (IX) campaigns using the two {approx}11 mL beds in columns in a lead-lag arrangement. The first two campaigns used Savannah River Site (SRS) Tank 2F nonradioactive simulant while the latter two were fed with actual dissolved salt in the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) Shielded Cells. Both radioactive cycles ran to cesium breakthrough of the lead column. The resin beds saw in excess of 400 bed volumes of feed in each cycle. Resin disposal plans in tank farm processing depend on characterizations of resin used with actual tank feed. Following a final 30 bed volume (BV) elution with nitric acid, the resin beds were found to contain detectable chromium, barium, boron, aluminum, iron, sodium, sulfur, plutonium, cesium, and mercury. Resin affinity for plutonium is important in criticality safety considerations. Cesium-137 was found to be less than 10E+7 dpm/g of resin, similar to past work with sRF resin. Sulfur levels are reasonably consistent with other work and are expected to represent sulfur chemistry used in the resin manufacture. There were low but detectable levels of technetium, americium, and curium. Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) work on the used (eluted) resin samples showed significant contents of mercury, barium, and chromium. One resin sample exceeded the TCLP level for mercury while the other metals were below TCLP levels. TCLP organics measurements indicated measurable benzene in one case, though the source was unknown. Results of this work were compared with other work on similar sRF resin characterizations in this report. This is the first work to quantify mercury on sRF resin. Resin mercury content is important in plans for the disposition of used sRF resin. Mercury speciation in high level waste (HLW) is unknown. It may be partly organic, one example being methyl mercury cation. Further study of the resin's affinity for mercury is recommended.

  10. Effects of layering technique on the shade of resin overlays and the microhardness of dual cure resin cement.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hoon-Sang; Hong, Sung-Ok

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the color of layered resin overlays and to test the early microhardness of dual cure resin cement (DCRC) light cured through the layered resin overlays. Resin overlays of 1.5 mm thickness were fabricated with the A3 shade of Z350 (Group 1L), the A3B and A3E shades of Supreme XT (Group 2L), and the A3, E3, and T1 shades of Sinfony (Group 3L) using one, two, and three layers, respectively (n=7). Each layer of the resin overlays was set in equal thickness. The color of the resin overlays was measured with a colorimeter and compared with an A3 shade resin denture tooth. DCRC was light cured through the resin overlays, and the early microhardness of the DCRC was measured. The ?E value between the denture tooth and the resin overlays and the Vickers hardness number (VHN) of the DCRC were analyzed with one-way ANOVA and Tukey's HSD test. The color differences were 8.9±0.5, 5.3±1.0, and 7.3±0.5 and the VHNs were 19.4±1.1, 21.1±0.9, and 29.3±0.6 for Groups 1L, 2L, and 3L, respectively. Therefore, to match the designated tooth color of resin inlays and to increase the early microhardness of DCRC, layered resin inlays are more appropriate than single-dentin-layer resin inlays. However, the translucent layer should be used cautiously because the color difference of resin inlays with a translucent layer was affected more than those without a translucent layer. PMID:24918368

  11. Bismaleimide resins for flame resistant honeycomb sandwich panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stenzenberger, H. D.

    1978-01-01

    Bismaleimide resins are prime candidates for nonflammable aircraft interior panels. Three resin types with different structures and processing characteristics were formulated. Resin M 751 was used to fabricate 100 kg of glass fabric prepregs which were used for the preparation of face sheets for honeycomb sandwich panels. Prepreg characteristics and curing cycles for laminate fabrication are provided. In order to advance beyond the current solvent resin technology for fibre and fabric impregnation, a hot melt solvent-less resin system was prepared and characterized. Preliminary tests were performed to develop a wet bonding process for the fabrication of advanced sandwich honeycomb panels by use of polybismaleimide glass fabric face sheets and polybismaleimide Nomex honeycomb core. B-stage material was used for both the core and the face sheet, providing flatwise tensile properties equivalent to those obtained by the state-of-the-art 3-step process which includes an epoxy adhesive resin.

  12. Inorganic resins for clinical use of .sup.213Bi generators

    DOEpatents

    DePaoli, David W. (Knoxville, TN); Hu, Michael Z. (Knoxville, TN); Mirzadeh, Saed (Knoxville, TN); Clavier, John W. (Elizabethton, TN)

    2011-03-29

    Applicant's invention is a radionuclide generator resin material for radiochemical separation of daughter radionuclides, particularly .sup.213Bi, from a solution of parental radionuclides, the resin material capable of providing clinical quantities of .sup.213Bi of at least 20-mCi, wherein the resin material comprises a silica-based structure having at least one bifunctional ligand covalently attached to the surface of the silica-based structure. The bifunctional ligand comprises a chemical group having desirable surface functionality to enable the covalent attachment of the bifunctional ligand thereon the surface of the structure and the bifunctional ligand further comprises a second chemical group capable of binding and holding the parental radionuclides on the resin material while allowing the daughter radionuclides to elute off the resin material. The bifunctional ligand has a carbon chain with a limited number of carbons to maintain radiation stability of the resin material.

  13. Health Problems of Epoxy Resins and Amine-curing Agents

    PubMed Central

    Bourne, L. B.; Milner, F. J. M.; Alberman, K. B.

    1959-01-01

    Epoxy resins were first introduced about 10 years ago. Toxic effects, particularly dermatitis, have been frequently described. An investigation into the possible causes of pathological sequelae following the use of epoxy resin/amine mixtures has been undertaken. The cause of most cases of dermatitis and sensitization appears to be uncombined amine which is present in recent mixtures and persists in hardened resin for long periods. The results of experiments with two of the most commonly used resin/amine mixtures confirm this. Cold-cured resins are more dangerous and remain so even when hardened. A simple theory is suggested for the mechanism of the reaction between epoxy resins, amines, and biological systems. This theory leads logically to the handling precautions outlined. Images PMID:13651551

  14. Do resin cements influence the cuspal deflection of teeth restored with composite resin inlays?

    PubMed

    da Rosa, Helen C V; Marcondes, Maurem L; de Souza, Niélli C; Weber, João B B; Spohr, Ana M

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of different resin cements on the cuspal deflection of endodontically treated teeth restored with composite resin inlays. Sixty upper premolars were randomly divided into five groups (n=12): 1 - sound teeth; 2 - cavity; 3 - Rely X ARC; 4 - RelyX Unicem; 5 - SeT. The teeth from groups 2, 3, 4 and 5 received a MOD preparation and endodontic treatment. Impressions were made with vinyl polysiloxane and poured using type IV die stone in groups 3, 4 and 5. Inlays with composite resin were built over each cast and luted with the resin cements. A 200 N load was applied on the occlusal surface, and cuspal deflection was measured using a micrometer. After 24 h, cuspal deflection was measured again using a 300 N load. The Student t-test showed that there was no statistically significant difference between the 200 N and 300 N occlusal loads only for the sound teeth group (p = 0.389) and the RelyX ARC group (p = 0.188). ANOVA and Tukey'test showed that the sound teeth had the lowest mean cuspal deflection, differing statistically from the other groups (p<0.05). The highest cuspal deflections were obtained in the SeT group and the cavity group, with no statistical difference between them. Intermediate values were obtained in RelyX ARC group and RelyX Unicem group, which differed statistically. The self-adhesive resin cements RelyX Unicem and SeT showed less capacity to maintain the stiffness of the tooth/restoration complex than the conventional resin cement RelyX ARC. PMID:25950160

  15. Chromium Ions Improve Moisure Resistance of Epoxy Resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    St. Clair, A. K.; St. Clair, T. L.; Stoakley, D. M.; Singh, J. J.; Sprinkle, D. R.

    1986-01-01

    Broad spectrum of thermosetting epoxy resins used on commercial and military aircraft, primarily as composite matrices and adhesives. In new technique, chromium-ion containing epoxy with improved resistance to moisture produced where chromium ions believed to prevent absorption of water molecules by coordinating themselves to hydroxyl groups on epoxy chain. Anticipated that improved epoxy formulation useful as composite matrix resin, adhesive, or casting resin for applications on commercial and advanced aircraft. Improvement made without sacrifice in mechanical properties of polymer.

  16. Hydrolyzable polyester resins, varnishes and coating compositions containing the same

    DOEpatents

    Yamamori, Naoki (Minoo, JP); Yokoi, Junji (Nara, JP); Yoshikawa, Motoyoshi (Nara, JP)

    1984-01-01

    Preparation of hydrolyzable polyester resin comprising reacting polycarboxylic acid and polyhydric alcohol components, which is characterized by using, as at least part of said polyhydric alcohol component, a metallic salt of hydroxy carboxylic acid of the formula defined and effecting the polycondensation at a temperature which is no more than the decomposition temperature of said metallic salt. The polyester resins are useful as resinous vehicle of varnishes and antifouling paints.

  17. High performance mixed bisimide resins and composites based thereon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, J. A.; ations.

    1986-01-01

    Mixtures of bismaleimide/biscitraconirnide resins produces materials which have better handling, processing or mechanical and thermal properties, particularly in graphite composites, than materials made with the individual resins. The mechanical strength of cured graphite composites prepared from a 1:1 copolymer of such bisimide resins is excellent at both ambient and elevated temperatures. The copolymer mixture provides improved composites which are lighter than metals and replace metals in many aerospace applications.

  18. 21 CFR 172.215 - Coumarone-indene resin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... grapefruit, lemons, limes, oranges, tangelos, and tangerines in accordance with the following prescribed..., lemons, limes, oranges, tangelos, and tangerines whereby the maximum amount of the resin remaining on...

  19. High fracture toughness and high modules silicone resins

    E-print Network

    Li, Zhongtao, 1971-

    2000-01-01

    Rigid silicone resins, generally referred to as polyalkylsilsesquioxanes, are an important class of hybrid thermosetting polymers with both inorganic and organic characteristics. They have superior thermal stability, heat ...

  20. Synthesis and Thermal Degradation Studies of Melamine Formaldehyde Resins

    PubMed Central

    Ullah, Sami; Bustam, M. A.; Nadeem, M.; Tan, W. L.; Shariff, A. M.

    2014-01-01

    Melamine formaldehyde (MF) resins have been synthesized at different reaction temperature and pH values. Different molar ratios of melamine and formaldehyde were used to synthesize the corresponding resins. The prepared resin samples were characterized by using molecular weight determination viscometry and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The maximum percentage of solid content (69.7%) was obtained at pH 8.5 and 75°C temperature. The molecular weight of MF resin was increased with an increase of melamine monomer concentration. The highest residual weight 14.125?wt.% was obtained with sample 10. PMID:25436237

  1. 21 CFR 181.32 - Acrylonitrile copolymers and resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... from the Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (HFS-200), Food and Drug Administration, 5100...-contact article containing acrylonitrile copolymers or resins that yield acrylonitrile monomer in...

  2. Acetylene-chromene terminated resins as high temperature thermosets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Godschalx, J. P.; Inbasekaran, M. N.; Bartos, B. R.; Scheck, D. M.; Laman, S. A.

    1990-01-01

    A novel phase transfer catalyzed process for the preparation of propargyl ethers has been developed. The propargyl ethers serve as precursors to a new class of thermosetting resins called acetylene-chromene terminated (ACT) resins. Heat treatment of a solution of propargyl ethers with various catalysts, followed by removal of solvent leads to the ACT resins via partial conversion of the propargyl ether groups to chromenes. This process reduces the energy content of the resin systems and reduces the amount of shrinkage found during cure. Due to the presence of the solvent the process is safe and gives rise to low viscosity products suitable for resin transfer molding and filament winding type applications. Due to the high glass transition temperature, high modulus, and low moisture uptake the cured resins display better than 232 C/wet performance. The thermal stability of the ACT resins in air at 204 C is superior to that of conventional bismaleimide resins. The resins also display excellent electrical properties.

  3. A tool for increasing the lifetime of chromatography resins.

    PubMed

    Grönberg, Anna; Eriksson, Malin; Ersoy, Maria; Johansson, Hans J

    2011-01-01

    There is a steadily increasing demand for speed, cost efficiency, and process understanding within biopharmaceutical process development. To match this, a high-throughput method for screening of cleaning-in-place (CIP) conditions for chromatography resins has been developed. The methodology includes fouling of MabSelect SuRe chromatography resin in 96-well filter plates, cleaning of the fouled resin by incubation in different CIP agents, and finally, analysis of the residual impurities on the resin after cleaning. This article describes the improvements that transformed the method from low throughput and significant manual interference to a totally automated method with high throughput and good reproducibility. PMID:21304272

  4. 21 CFR 173.5 - Acrylate-acrylamide resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... of acrylamide with partial hydrolysis, or by copolymerization of acrylamide and acrylic acid, with... resin is produced by the polymerization and subsequent hydrolysis of acrylonitrile in a sodium...

  5. Effect of repair resin type and surface treatment on the repair strength of polyamide denture base resin.

    PubMed

    Gundogdu, Mustafa; Yanikoglu, Nuran; Bayindir, Funda; Ciftci, Hilal

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effects of different repair resins and surface treatments on the repair strength of a polyamide denture base material. Polyamide resin specimens were prepared and divided into nine groups according to the surface treatments and repair materials. The flexural strengths were measured with a 3-point bending test. Data were analyzed with a 2-way analysis of variance, and the post-hoc Tukey test (?=0.05). The effects of the surface treatments on the surface of the polyamide resin were examined using scanning electron microscopy. The repair resins and surface treatments significantly affected the repair strength of the polyamide denture base material (p<0.05); however, no significant differences were observed interaction between the factors (p>0.05). The flexural strength of the specimens repaired with the polyamide resin was significantly higher than that of those repaired with the heat-polymerized and autopolymerizing acrylic resins. PMID:26235713

  6. Assessment of cadmium in aquatic sediment using dialysis samplers with ion-exchange-resin collection

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, B.; Allen, H.E.; Desnoyers, C.

    1998-05-01

    Simultaneously extracted metals (SEM) and acid volatile sulfide (AVS) show the potential for toxicity on the basis of their ratio. Accordingly, the authors spiked cadmium in a range for which Cd/AVS ratios were from 0.2 to 10 in the sediment with its weight about 8 kg in each batch. Dialysis samplers with a cation ion-exchange resin (Dowex 50W-X4) collection were used in a laboratory for the determination of free cadmium concentrations in pore water of the collected sediment. When equilibrium was reached among cadmium in pore water, sediment, and ion-exchange resin, cadmium exchanged onto resin phase was regenerated with 1 N hydrochloric acid (OPTIMA grade) and determined using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer (Zeeman 5000) with a graphite furnace accessory. Cadmium determined using the dialysis sampler is considered as free cadmium which is related to the metal bioavailability toward aquatic biota. The developed methodology provides a new technique for assessment of free metal in aquatic sediment systems.

  7. Retention Loss of Resin Based Fissure Sealants - a Valid Predictor for Clinical Outcome?

    PubMed Central

    Mickenautsch, Steffen; Yengopal, Veerasamy

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The null-hypothesis that retention loss of resin fissure sealants predicts caries manifestation no more accurately than random values was tested. Methods: Systematic reviews were checked and electronic databases searched for clinical trials. Trials reporting on the retention of resin sealants and caries occurrence in permanent molar teeth, with minimum 24-month follow-up period, were included. Extracted data: number of sealed teeth, number of teeth without completely retained sealants, number of sealed teeth with caries. The number of teeth with complete sealant retention and absence of carious lesions/cavities was calculated; the predictive outcomes: true/false positive; false/true negative were established. Random values were generated as control-data. Diagnostic Odds ratios (DOR) were computed and tested for statistical difference. Summary Receiver Operating Characteristic curves were plotted. Results: 95 trials were found. Median DOR values were 1.21 and 0.28 for test- and control data, respectively. Wilcoxon test (z = 0.56; p = 0.58) and Sign test (z = 1.38; p = 0.17) results were statistically non-significant. The null-hypothesis was not rejected. Conclusions: Predictions based on the retention loss of resin sealants, regarding caries manifestation, was no more accurate than random guesses. Sealant retention loss appears not to be a valid predictor for clinical outcome. PMID:24078856

  8. Rotenone and rotenoids in cubè resins, formulations, and residues on olives.

    PubMed

    Cabizza, Maddalena; Angioni, Alberto; Melis, Marinella; Cabras, Marco; Tuberoso, Carlo V; Cabras, Paolo

    2004-01-28

    Rotenone and rotenoids (deguelin, beta-rotenolone (12a beta-hydroxyrotenone), tephrosin (12a beta-hydroxydeguelin), 12a alpha-hydroxyrotenone, and dehydrorotenone) were determined in cubè resins and formulations. Cubè resins from Lonchocarpus contain large quantities of deguelin (ca. 21.2%) and smaller quantities of tephrosin (ca. 3.5%) and beta-rotenolone (ca. 3.0%). The composition of commercial formulations may present very different rotenoid contents depending on the extracts used to prepare them. Because these rotenoids also present insecticide activity, the efficacy of these formulations may be very different. The storage stability and photodegradation of some rotenone formulations were studied. Rotenone and rotenoids are very sensitive to solar radiation, which degrades them rapidly, with half-lives in the order of a few tens of minutes. Some formulations show greater disappearance rates than that of cubè resin, indicating that not much attention has been paid to protecting the active ingredients from photodegradation in the formulation. A study on the residues on olives was also carried out to assess not only the rotenone content, but also that of the main rotenoids. At harvest, the residues of deguelin, tephrosin, and beta-rotenolone were 0.10, 0.06, and 0.10 mg/kg, respectively, very similar to rotenone (0.08 mg/kg), and though a few data indicate similar acute toxicity values for deguelin, only rotenone is taken into consideration in the legal determination of the residue. PMID:14733510

  9. Bonding exterior grade structural panels with copolymer resins of biomass residue components, phenol, and formaldehyde

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, C.M.

    1993-12-31

    Components of various forest and agricultural residue biomass-including the polyphenolic compounds-were converted into aqueous solution and/or suspension by extraction and digestion. Some biomass components reacted vigorously under alkaline catalysis with formaldehyde and initially showed a high degree of exothermic reaction; however, other components did not react as vigorously under these conditions, indicating that different biomass materials require different methods to obtain optimum reactivity for the copolymerization with phenol. Our primary goal is to develop adhesives capable of producing acceptable bond quality, as determined by the wood products industries` standards, under a reasonable range of gluing conditions. Copolymer resins of phenol, formaldehyde, and biomass components were synthesized and evaluated for gluability of bonding exterior grade structural replaced with chemicals derived from peanut hulls, pecan shell flour, pecan pith, southern pine bark, and pine needle required shorter press times. These resins also tolerated a broader range of gluing conditions. In summary, it appears that the technology of the fast curing copolymer resins of biomass components as adhesives for wood products has been developed and is ready to be transferred to industrial practice.

  10. Enrichment and purification of marine polyphenol phlorotannins using macroporous adsorption resins.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jiyoung; Yoon, Minseok; Yang, Hyejin; Jo, Jinho; Han, Daeseok; Jeon, You-Jin; Cho, Suengmok

    2014-11-01

    Phlorotannins are one of the most important bioactive polyphenols; however, their purification using chromatographic methods has not been explored. Here, we studied purification of phlorotannins from the crude phlorotannin extract (CPhE) of the brown seaweed Ecklonia cava using macroporous adsorption resins. For purification of phlorotannins, four resins (HP-20, SP-850, XAD-7HP, and XAD-2) were screened. Among them, HP-20 resin showed the highest adsorption and desorption capacities. In static adsorption tests, the adsorption capacity of HP-20 increased with increasing temperature (25-45°C). Optimal conditions for the dynamic experiments can be summarized as follows: total phlorotannin content (TPhC) in loading solution: 1.5mg PGE/mL, processing volume: 4 BV, flow rate: 1 mL/min, temperature: 45°C, desorption solvent: 40% ethanol solution. After purification, TPhC (452 mg PGE/g) and arsenic (180 ?g/g) of CPhE increased and decreased to 905 mg PGE/g and 48 ?g/g, respectively. Recovery rate of phlorotannins from CPhE was 92%. PMID:24874368

  11. Determination of elastic modulus of the components at dentin-resin interface using the ultrasonic device.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Tamayo; Miyazaki, Masashi; Inage, Hirohiko; Kurokawa, Hiroyasu

    2004-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the elastic moduli of the components at resin-dentin interface with the use of an ultrasonic device. Dentin plates were obtained from freshly extracted bovine incisors with a shape in rectangular form. Resin composites and bonding agents were polymerized and trimmed in the same shape as the dentin specimens. The ultrasonic equipment employed in this study was comprised of a Pulser-Receiver, transducers, and an oscilloscope. Each elastic modulus was determined by measuring the longitudinal and shear wave sound velocities. The mean elastic modulus of mineralized dentin was 17.4 GPa, while that of demineralized dentin was 1.4 GPa. When the demineralized dentin was immersed in bonding agents, the elastic modulus changed to 3.7-4.7 GPa, and these values were significantly higher than those of demineralized dentin. A gradient in elastic modulus was detected as the analysis shifted from the dentin side to the resin composite. PMID:15510866

  12. Determination of alkylbenzenesulfonate surfactants in groundwater using macroreticular resins and carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thurman, E.M.; Willoughby, T.; Barber, L.B., Jr.; Thorn, K.A.

    1987-01-01

    Alkylbenzenesulfonate surfactants were determined in groundwater at concentrations as low as 0.3 mg/L. The method uses XAD-8 resin for concentration, followed by elution with methanol, separation of anionic and nonionic surfactants by anion exchange, quantitation by titration, and identification by 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry. Laboratory standards and field samples containing straight-chain and branched-chain alkylbenzenesulfonates, sodium dodecyl sulfate, and alkylbenzene ethoxylates were studied. The XAD-8 extraction of surfactants from groundwater was completed in the field, which simplified sample preservation and reduced the cost of transporting samples.

  13. EVALUATION OF HAND LAY-UP AND RESIN TRANSFER MOLDING IN COMPOSITE WIND TURBINE BLADE MANUFACTURING

    E-print Network

    EVALUATION OF HAND LAY-UP AND RESIN TRANSFER MOLDING IN COMPOSITE WIND TURBINE BLADE MANUFACTURING The Potential of Resin Transfer Molding................................................................5..........................................................................................................10 Resin Transfer Molding Technology

  14. 21 CFR 175.260 - Partial phosphoric acid esters of polyester resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...false Partial phosphoric acid esters of polyester resins. 175.260 Section 175.260...260 Partial phosphoric acid esters of polyester resins. Partial phosphoric acid esters of polyester resins identified in this section...

  15. 21 CFR 175.260 - Partial phosphoric acid esters of polyester resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...true Partial phosphoric acid esters of polyester resins. 175.260 Section 175.260...260 Partial phosphoric acid esters of polyester resins. Partial phosphoric acid esters of polyester resins identified in this section...

  16. 49 CFR 173.173 - Paint, paint-related material, adhesives, ink and resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...Paint, paint-related material, adhesives, ink and resins. 173.173 Section 173...paint-related material, adhesives, ink and resins. (a) When the § 172...paint-related material, adhesives, ink and resins must be packaged as...

  17. 49 CFR 173.173 - Paint, paint-related material, adhesives, ink and resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...Paint, paint-related material, adhesives, ink and resins. 173.173 Section 173...paint-related material, adhesives, ink and resins. (a) When the § 172...paint-related material, adhesives, ink and resins must be packaged as...

  18. 49 CFR 173.173 - Paint, paint-related material, adhesives, ink and resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...Paint, paint-related material, adhesives, ink and resins. 173.173 Section 173...paint-related material, adhesives, ink and resins. (a) When the § 172...paint-related material, adhesives, ink and resins must be packaged as...

  19. 49 CFR 173.173 - Paint, paint-related material, adhesives, ink and resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...Paint, paint-related material, adhesives, ink and resins. 173.173 Section 173...paint-related material, adhesives, ink and resins. (a) When the § 172...paint-related material, adhesives, ink and resins must be packaged as...

  20. 21 CFR 175.260 - Partial phosphoric acid esters of polyester resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... resins are prepared by the reaction of trimellitic anhydride with 2,2-dimethyl-1,3-propanediol followed by reaction of the resin thus produced with phosphoric acid anhydride to produce a resin having...

  1. 21 CFR 177.1900 - Urea-formaldehyde resins in molded articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...true Urea-formaldehyde resins in molded...177.1900 Food and Drugs ...Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces...1900 Urea-formaldehyde resins in molded...articles. Urea-formaldehyde resins may be safely used as the food-contact...

  2. 77 FR 16508 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group IV Polymers and Resins...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-21

    ...Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group IV Polymers and Resins; Pesticide Active Ingredient...Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group IV Polymers and Resins; National Emission Standards...Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group IV Polymers and Resins; Pesticide Active...

  3. 77 FR 1267 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group IV Polymers and Resins...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-09

    ...Emissions: Group IV Polymers and Resins; Pesticide Active Ingredient Production; and Polyether...Emissions: Group IV Polymers and Resins; Pesticide Active Ingredient Production; and Polyether...Group IV Polymers and Resins; NESHAP for Pesticide Active Ingredient Production; and...

  4. 21 CFR 175.260 - Partial phosphoric acid esters of polyester resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...false Partial phosphoric acid esters of polyester resins. 175.260 Section 175.260...260 Partial phosphoric acid esters of polyester resins. Partial phosphoric acid esters of polyester resins identified in this section...

  5. 21 CFR 175.260 - Partial phosphoric acid esters of polyester resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...false Partial phosphoric acid esters of polyester resins. 175.260 Section 175.260...260 Partial phosphoric acid esters of polyester resins. Partial phosphoric acid esters of polyester resins identified in this section...

  6. 21 CFR 175.260 - Partial phosphoric acid esters of polyester resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...false Partial phosphoric acid esters of polyester resins. 175.260 Section 175.260...260 Partial phosphoric acid esters of polyester resins. Partial phosphoric acid esters of polyester resins identified in this section...

  7. 49 CFR 173.173 - Paint, paint-related material, adhesives, ink and resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...Paint, paint-related material, adhesives, ink and resins. 173.173 Section 173...paint-related material, adhesives, ink and resins. (a) When the § 172...paint-related material, adhesives, ink and resins must be packaged as...

  8. [Study on technique of extraction and purifying chlorogenic acid in Eucommia ulmoides Oliver leaves].

    PubMed

    Liu, Junhai; Qiu, Aiyong

    2004-12-01

    Ethanol was used as solvent to extract chlorogenic acid from leaves of Eucommia ulmoides Oliver leaves. The optimum conditions are obtained by response surface analytical method. Optimized conditions for the extraction of chlorogenic acid were obtained: ethanol 51.7%, extraction temperature 55.8 degrees C, ratio of material to liquor 1:12.8, extraction time 2 h. The static adsorption tests are conducted among six kinds of macroporous resins to select NKA-II resin as a optimum resin to adsorb the chlorogenic acid in Eucommia ulmoides Oliver leaves. The optimum adsortion-elution conditions are as follow: adsorption flow rate is 2 ml/min, crude liquid flew twice through the adsorption column,the optimum adsorbent is 40% ethanol. PMID:15807249

  9. New methods and materials for solid phase extraction and high performance liquid chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Dumont, P.J.

    1996-04-23

    This paper describes methods for solid phase extraction and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The following are described: Effects of Resin Sulfonation on the Retention of Polar Organic Compounds in Solid Phase Extraction; Ion-Chromatographic Separation of Alkali Metals In Non-Aqueous Solvents; Cation-Exchange Chromatography in Non-Aqueous Solvents; and Silicalite As a Stationary Phase For HPLC.

  10. Method for liquid chromatographic extraction of strontium from acid solutions

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E. Philip (Naperville, IL); Dietz, Mark L. (Evanston, IL)

    1992-01-01

    A method and apparatus for extracting strontium and technetium values from biological, industrial and environmental sample solutions using a chromatographic column is described. An extractant medium for the column is prepared by generating a solution of a diluent containing a Crown ether and dispersing the solution on a resin substrate material. The sample solution is highly acidic and is introduced directed to the chromatographic column and strontium or technetium is eluted using deionized water.

  11. Effect of Axial Groove and Resin Luting Cements on the Retention of Complete Cast Metal Crowns

    PubMed Central

    Rajkumar, K.; Bhat, Aruna M.; Krishna, Prasad D; Hegde, Chetan; Shetty, Manoj; Shetty, N. Sridhar

    2009-01-01

    Background: The design of the tooth preparation and the cementing medium are important consid-erations in the retention of crowns and fixed partial dentures. The purpose of this invitro study was to determine the effect of axial groove on the retention of complete cast metal crowns using two resin luting cements. Methods: Forty freshly extracted intact human molar teeth were prepared in their long axis to receive complete cast metal crowns. The specimens were randomly divided into two groups (one control and one study group). An axial groove of uniform size and shape was made on the prepared teeth under the study group. Axial surface area of prepared teeth specimens was measured. Complete cast metal crowns were fabricated for each specimen. Specimens of each group were divided into subgroups of 10 samples and were cemented with two resin luting cements, RelyX Unicem® and Calibra®, re-spectively. The cemented crowns were loaded in tension using a Universal Instron testing machine. The maximal tensile strength was recorded. Data were compared using the Mann-Whitney U test (?=0.05). Results: No significant differences in the tensile stress values were noted between the control (mean: 5.76±0.392 MPa) and study (mean: 5.93±0.751 MPa) groups cemented with RelyX Unicem. No significant differences in the tensile stress values were noted between the control (mean: 4.92±0.641 MPa) and study (mean: 5.15 ±0.478 MPa) groups cemented with Calibra. However, significant dif-ference in the tensile stress values was found between the two resin cements in the control and study groups. Conclusion: Axial groove placed in tooth preparations for resin bonded complete cast metal crowns had no statistically significant effect on retention. The use of (RelyX Unicem®) yielded greater retention values when compared to Calibra®. PMID:21528028

  12. Marginal leakage and microhardness evaluation of low-shrinkage resin-based restorative materials.

    PubMed

    Hooshmand, Tabassom; Tabari, Negin; Keshvad, Alireza

    2013-01-01

    This study sought to compare the marginal leakage and microhardness of low-shrinkage resin-based dental restorative materials containing ormocer- and silorane-based composites to that of conventional methacrylate-based systems. A total of 50 noncarious extracted human teeth were collected after debridement and standard Class V cavities were prepared. Teeth were randomly assigned to five groups (n = 10) and restored with 5 types of resin-based restorative material composites: hybrid, microhybrid, nanohybrid, ormocer-based, and silorane-based. After thermocycling, all teeth were placed in a silver nitrate solution, sectioned longitudinally in a buccolingual direction, and observed under a stereomicroscope to determine the degree of dye penetration. Data were analyzed using a non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis test (P < 0.05). For the microhardness test, five specimens were made for each restorative material, using Teflon molds with disk-shaped specimen wells. Specimens were photocured and placed in distilled water (at 37°C) for 24 hours. Vickers Hardness Number (VHN) measurements were performed using a microhardness tester. Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and Bonferroni post hoc tests. In terms of microhardness, there was no statistically significant difference among the resin-based restorative materials (P > 0.05). The degree of microleakage at the gingival margins was lowest for the silorane composite, followed by microhybrid and nanohybrid. The silorane composite was significantly lower than that of the ormocer and hybrid composites (P < 0.05). Based on the results of this study, it was concluded that the silorane-based composite material could provide a marginal seal comparable to that provided by microhybrid or nanohybrid resin composites. PMID:23302363

  13. Ion Exchange Temperature Testing with SRF Resin - 12088

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, R.L.; Rinehart, D.E.; Brown, G.N.; Peterson, R.A.

    2012-07-01

    Ion exchange using the Spherical Resorcinol-Formaldehyde (SRF) resin has been selected by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of River Protection for use in the Pretreatment Facility of the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) and for potential application in an at-tank deployment for removing Cs-137. Recent proposed changes to the WTP ion exchange process baseline indicate that higher temperatures (50 deg. C) to alleviate post-filtration precipitation issues prior to reaching the ion exchange columns may be required. Therefore, it is important to understand the behavior of SRF resin performance under the conditions expected with the new equipment and process changes. This research examined the impact of elevated temperature on resin loading and resin degradation during extended solution flow at elevated temperature (45 deg., 50 deg., 55 deg., 60 deg., 65 deg., 75 deg. C). Testing for extended times at elevated temperatures showed that the resin does degrade and loading capacity is reduced at and above 45 deg. C. Above 60 deg. C the resin appears to not load at all. It was observed that the resin disintegrated at 75 deg. C until not much was left and partially disintegrated at 65 deg. C, which caused the column to plug in both tests after ?336 hours. The results indicate that WTP will lose resin loading capacity if the ion exchange process is performed above 25 deg. C, and the resin will disintegrate above 65 deg. C. Therefore, WTP will have a restricted operating range of temperatures to perform the ion exchange process with this resin. PNNL and WTP are currently evaluating the operating limits of the resin in further detail. Aging in 0.5 M HNO{sub 3} also caused the resin to lose capacity above 25 deg. C and to completely dissolve at 55 deg. C. Again, WTP will have a restricted operating range of temperatures when eluting the resin with nitric acid in order to maintain resin loading capacity and avoid disintegration of the resin. (authors)

  14. Reactive Additives for Phenylethynyl-Containing Resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W.; Smith, Joseph G., Jr.; Hergenrother, Paul M.; Rommel, Monica L.

    2005-01-01

    Phenylethynyl-containing reactive additive (PERA) compounds and mixtures have been found to be useful for improving the processability of oligomers, polymers, co-oligomers, and copolymers that contain phenylethynyl groups. The additives can be incorporated in different forms: A solution of an amide acid or an imide of a PERA can be added to a solution of phenylethynyl-containing oligomer, polymer, co-oligomer, or copolymer; or An imide powder of a PERA can be mixed with a dry powder of a phenylethynyl-containing oligomer, polymer, co-oligomer, or copolymer. The effect of a given PERA on the processability and other properties of the resin system depends on whether the PERA is used in the amide acid or an imide form. With proper formulation, the PERA reduces the melt viscosity of the resin and thereby reduces the processing pressures needed to form the adhesive bonds, consolidate filled or unfilled moldings, or fabricate fiber-reinforced composite laminates. During thermal cure, a PERA reacts with itself as well as with the phenylethynyl-containing host resin and thereby becomes chemically incorporated into the resin system. The effects of the PERA on mechanical properties, relative to those of the host resin, depend on the amount of PERA used. Typically, the incorporation of the PERA results in (1) increases in the glass-transition temperature (Tg), modulus of elasticity, and parameters that characterize behavior under compression, and (2) greater retention of the aforementioned mechanical properties at elevated temperatures without (3) significant reduction of toughness or damage tolerance. Of the formulations tested thus far, the ones found to yield the best overall results were those for which the host resin was the amide acid form of a phenylethynyl-terminated imide (PETI) co-oligomer having a molecular weight of 5,000 g/mole [hence, designated PETI-5] and a PERA denoted as PERA-1. PETI-5 was made from 3,3',4'4'-biphenyltetracarboxylic dianhydride, 3,4'-oxydianiline (3,4'-ODA), 1,3-bis(3-aminophenoxy) benzene (1,3-APB), and 4-phenylethynylphthalic anhydride (PEPA). PERA-1 was made from 3,5-diamino- 4.-phenylethynylbenzophenon and equimolar amounts of phthalic anhydride and PEPA. To make PERA-1 in the imide form, the aforementioned ingredients were processed by refluxing in glacial acetic acid. To make the amide form of PERA-1, the ingredients were reacted in N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone (NMP) under nitrogen at a temperature of 23 C (see figure). On the basis of the processability and other properties, a blend comprising 20 weight percent of PERA-1 and 80 weight percent PETI-5 was selected for further evaluation. Relative to neat PETI-5, the blend exhibited an increase in Tg; improved processability; and comparable values of shear strength in adhesion to titanium panels, open-hole compressive properties, compression properties after impact, and resistance to microcracking.

  15. HIGH ASPECT RATIO ION EXCHANGE RESIN BED - HYDRAULIC RESULTS FOR SPERICAL RESIN BEADS

    SciTech Connect

    Duignan, M; Charles Nash, C; Timothy Punch, T

    2007-09-27

    A principal role of the DOE Savannah River Site is to safely dispose of a large volume of liquid nuclear waste held in many storage tanks. An in-tank ion exchange unit is being considered for cesium removal to accelerate waste processing. This unit is planned to have a relatively high bed height to diameter ratio (10:1). Complicating the design is the need to cool the ion exchange media; therefore, the ion exchange column will have a central cooling core making the flow path annular. To separate cesium from waste the media being considered is made of resorcinol formaldehyde resin deposited on spherical plastic beads and is a substitute for a previously tested resin made of crystalline silicotitanate. This spherical media not only has an advantage of being mechanically robust, but, unlike its predecessor, it is also reusable, that is, loaded cesium can be removed through elution and regeneration. Resin regeneration leads to more efficient operation and less spent resin waste, but its hydraulic performance in the planned ion exchange column was unknown. Moreover, the recycling process of this spherical resorcinol formaldehyde causes its volume to significantly shrink and swell. To determine the spherical media's hydraulic demand a linearly scaled column was designed and tested. The waste simulant used was prototypic of the wastes' viscosity and density. This paper discusses the hydraulic performance of the media that will be used to assist in the design of a full-scale unit.

  16. Microshear bond strength of composite resins to enamel and porcelain substrates utilizing unfilled versus filled resins

    PubMed Central

    Najafi-Abrandabadi, Ahmad; Najafi-Abrandabadi, Siamak; Ghasemi, Amir; Kotick, Philip G.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Failures such as marginal discoloration and composite chipping are still the problems of tooth-colored restorations on the substrate of enamel and porcelain, which some of these problems are consequently as a result of failures in the bonding layer. Using filled resin has been recently introduced to increase the bond strength of this layer. The aim of this study was to compare the microshear bond strength (?-SBS) of composite resins to enamel incubated in periods of 24 h and 9 months and porcelain with unfilled resin and flowable composites (filled resin). Materials and Methods: In this in vitro study, two groups of 75 enamel samples with different storage times (24 h and 9 months) and a group of 75 porcelain samples were used. They were divided into 5 experimental groups of 15 samples in each. Composite cylinders in tygon tubes were bonded on the surface of acid-etched enamel and pretreated porcelain. Wave, Wave MV, Wave HV, Grandioflow and Margin Bond were used as bonding agents. The ?-SBS was measured at the speed of 1.0 mm/min. The bond strengths were analyzed with one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) test followed by Tukey test. P < 0.05 was selected as the level of statistical significance in this study. Results: The results showed that for enamel (24 h), the ?-SBS of the Wave MV and Wave HV groups were significantly lower than the Margin Bond group. Tukey test indicated the absence of a significant difference between the ?-SBS of the Wave group and the Margin Bond group. However, the ?-SBS of the Grandioflow group was significantly higher than the one for the Margin Bond as a bonding agent. In enamel (9 months), there was a significant difference between the Grandioflow and Margin Bond groups. Regarding bonding to the porcelain the one-way ANOVA test did not show a significant difference among the groups. Conclusion: This study revealed that flowable composites (filled resins) can be used instead of unfilled resins in bonding composite resins to enamel and porcelain substrates. PMID:25540657

  17. Two pentasaccharide resin glycosides from Argyreia acuta.

    PubMed

    Yin, Yong-Qin; Pan, Jie-Tao; Yu, Bang-Wei; Cui, Hong-Hua; Yan, You-Shao; Chen, Yan-Fen

    2016-01-01

    Two new compounds of acutacosides 1 and 2, pentasaccharide resin glycosides were isolated from the aerial parts of Argyreia acuta. The core of the two compounds was operculinic acid A, and they were esterfied at the same position, just one substituent group was linked at C-2 of Rha. The absolute configuration of the aglycone in the two compounds was established by Mosher's method, which was (11S)-hydroxyhexadecanoic acid (jalapinolic acid). Their structures were established by a combination of spectroscopic and chemical methods. PMID:25925631

  18. Organic ion exchange resin separation methods evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Witwer, K.S.

    1998-05-27

    This document describes testing to find effective methods to separate Organic Ion Exchange Resin (OIER) from a sludge simulant. This task supports a comprehensive strategy for treatment and processing of K-Basin sludge. The simulant to be used resembles sludge that has accumulated in the 105KE and 105KW Basins in the 1OOK area of the Hanford Site. The sludge is an accumulation of fuel element corrosion products, organic and inorganic ion exchange materials, canister gasket materials, iron and aluminum corrosion products, sand, dirt, and other minor amounts of organic matter.

  19. Resin catalysts and method of preparation

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Jr., Lawrence A. (P.O. Box 34687, Houston, TX 77243)

    1986-01-01

    Heat stabilized catalyst compositions are prepared from nuclear sulfonic acid, for example, macroporous crosslinked polyvinyl aromatic compounds containing sulfonic acid groups are neutralized with a metal of Al, Fe, Zn, Cu, Ni, ions or mixtures and alkali, alkaline earth metals or ammonium ions by contacting the resin containing the sulfonic acid with aqueous solutions of the metals salts and alkali, alkaline earth metal or ammonium salts. The catalysts have at least 50% of the sulfonic acid groups neutralized with metal ions and the balance of the sulfonic acid groups neutralized with alkali, alkaline earth ions or ammonium ions.

  20. Resin catalysts and method of preparation

    DOEpatents

    Smith, L.A. Jr.

    1986-12-16

    Heat stabilized catalyst compositions are prepared from nuclear sulfonic acid, for example, macroporous crosslinked polyvinyl aromatic compounds containing sulfonic acid groups are neutralized with a metal of Al, Fe, Zn, Cu, Ni, ions or mixtures and alkali, alkaline earth metals or ammonium ions by contacting the resin containing the sulfonic acid with aqueous solutions of the metals salts and alkali, alkaline earth metal or ammonium salts. The catalysts have at least 50% of the sulfonic acid groups neutralized with metal ions and the balance of the sulfonic acid groups neutralized with alkali, alkaline earth ions or ammonium ions.

  1. Isothermal aging effects on PMR-15 resin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowles, Kenneth J.; Jayne, Douglas; Leonhardt, Todd A.

    1993-01-01

    Specimens of PMR-15 polyimide neat resin were aged in air at temperatures of 288, 316, and 343 C. Weight losses and dimensional changes were monitored during the course of the exposure time. Physical changes were also observed by optical and electron microscopy. It was found that polyimide polymer degradation occurred within a thin surface layer that developed and grew during thermal aging. The cores of the polymer specimens were protected from oxidative degradation, and they were relatively unchanged by the thermal treatment. Surface cracking was observed at 343 C and was probably due to an interaction between voids and stresses that developed in the surface layer.

  2. Isothermal aging effects on PMR-15 resin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowles, Kenneth J.; Jayne, Douglas; Leonhardt, Todd A.

    1992-01-01

    Specimens of PMR-15 polyimide neat resin were aged in air at temperatures of 288, 316, and 343 C. Weight losses and dimensional changes were monitored during the course of the exposure time. Physical changes were also observed by optical and electron microscopy. It was found that polyimide polymer degradation occurred within a thin surface layer that developed and grew during thermal aging. The cores of the polymer specimens were protected from oxidative degradation, and they were relatively unchanged by the thermal treatment. Surface cracking was observed at 343 C and was probably due to an interaction between voids and stresses that developed in the surface layer.

  3. Nanotube Alignment And Dispersion In Epoxy Resin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ewels, C. P.; Désarmot, G.; Foutel-Richard, A.; Martin, F.

    2003-10-01

    To date theoretically predicted enhancements of Youngs' Modulus, failure strength, and other mechanical properties of nanotube-composite materials have not been experimentally realised. We discuss the reasons for this and using short fibre composite theory suggest that nanotube straightness is a crucial factor. We examine single walled nanotube — epoxy resin (LY556) composites using microindentation, 3-point bending, electrical resistivity and various microscopy techniques. We test extrusion as a method for aligning the nanotubes, and the use of gum arabic for tube dispersion, straightening and separation.

  4. Comparison of ion-exchange resin counterions in the nutrient measurement of calcareous soils: Implications for correlative studies of plant-soil relationships

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sherrod, S.K.; Belnap, J.; Miller, M.E.

    2003-01-01

    For more than 40 years, ion-exchange resins have been used to characterize nutrient bioavailability in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. To date, however, no standardized methodology has been developed, particularly with respect to the counterions that initially occupy resin exchange sites. To determine whether different resin counterions yield different measures of soil nutrients and rank soils differently with respect to their measured nutrient bioavailability, we compared nutrient measurements by three common counterion combinations (HCl, HOH, and NaHCO3). Five sandy calcareous soils were chosen to represent a range of soil characteristics at Canyonlands National Park, Utah, and resin capsules charged with the different counterions equilibrated in saturated pastes of these soils for one week. Data were converted to proportions of total ions of corresponding charge for ANOVA. Results from the different methods were not comparable with respect to any nutrient. Of eleven nutrients measured, all but iron (Fe2+), manganese (Mn2+), and zinc (Zn2+) differed significantly (p ??? 0.05) as a function of soil x counterion interactions; Fe2+ and Zn2+ varied as functions of counterion alone. Of the counterion combinations, HCl-resins yielded the most net ion exchange with all measured nutrients except Na+, NH4+, and HPO42-, the three of which desorbed in the greatest quantities from HOH-resins. Conventional chemical extractions using ammonium acetate generally yielded high proportional values of Ca2+, K+, and Na+. Further, among-soil rankings of nutrient bioavailability varied widely among methods. This study highlights the fact that various ion-exchange resin techniques for measuring soil nutrients may have differential effects on the soil-resin environment and yield data that should not be compared nor considered interchangeable. The most appropriate methods for characterizing soil-nutrient bioavailability depends on soil characteristics and likely on the physiological uptake mechanisms of plants or functional groups of interest. The effects of different extraction techniques on nutrient measures should be understood before selecting an extraction method. For example, in the calcareous soils used for this experiment, nutrient extraction methods that alter soil carbonates through dissolution or precipitation could compromise the accurate measurement of plant-available nutrients. The implications of this study emphasize the universal importance of understanding the differential effects of alternate methods on soil chemistry.

  5. Comparison of ion-exchange resin counterions in the nutrient measurement of calcareous soils: implications for correlative studies of plant-soil relationships

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sherrod, S.K.; Belnap, Jayne; Miller, M.E.

    2003-01-01

    For more than 40 years, ion-exchange resins have been used to characterize nutrient bioavailability in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. To date, however, no standardized methodology has been developed, particularly with respect to the counterions that initially occupy resin exchange sites. To determine whether different resin counterions yield different measures of soil nutrients and rank soils differently with respect to their measured nutrient bioavailability, we compared nutrient measurements by three common counterion combinations (HCl, HOH, and NaHCO3). Five sandy calcareous soils were chosen to represent a range of soil characteristics at Canyonlands National Park, Utah, and resin capsules charged with the different counterions equilibrated in saturated pastes of these soils for one week. Data were converted to proportions of total ions of corresponding charge for ANOVA. Results from the different methods were not comparable with respect to any nutrient. Of eleven nutrients measured, all but iron (Fe2+), manganese (Mn2+), and zinc (Zn2+) differed significantly (pa??0.05) as a function of soilcounterion interactions; Fe2+ and Zn2+ varied as functions of counterion alone. Of the counterion combinations, HCl-resins yielded the most net ion exchange with all measured nutrients except Na+, and the three of which desorbed in the greatest quantities from HOH-resins. Conventional chemical extractions using ammonium acetate generally yielded high proportional values of Ca2+, K+, and Na+. Further, among-soil rankings of nutrient bioavailability varied widely among methods. This study highlights the fact that various ion-exchange resin techniques for measuring soil nutrients may have differential effects on the soil-resin environment and yield data that should not be compared nor considered interchangeable. The most appropriate methods for characterizing soil-nutrient bioavailability depends on soil characteristics and likely on the physiological uptake mechanisms of plants or functional groups of interest. The effects of different extraction techniques on nutrient measures should be understood before selecting an extraction method. For example, in the calcareous soils used for this experiment, nutrient extraction methods that alter soil carbonates through dissolution or precipitation could compromise the accurate measurement of plant-available nutrients. The implications of this study emphasize the universal importance of understanding the differential effects of alternate methods on soil chemistry.

  6. Organic geochemistry of resins from modern Agathis australis and Eocene resins from New Zealand: Diagenetic and taxonomic implications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lyons, P.C.; Mastalerz, Maria; Orem, W.H.

    2009-01-01

    A maturation series of resins and fossil resins from New Zealand, ranging in age from Modern to Eocene and ranging from uncoalified to high volatile C bituminous coal, were analyzed by elemental, pyrolysis-gas chromatography (Py-GC), Fourier Transform infrared (FTir), and solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (13C NMR) techniques. For comparison, four resin samples from the Latrobe Valley, Australia, were analyzed. All of the resins and fossil resins of this study show very high H/C atomic ratios, and are characterized by dominant peaks in the 10-60??ppm range of solid-state 13C NMR spectra and prominent bands in the aliphatic stretching region (2800-3000??cm- 1) of FTir spectra, all indicating a highly aliphatic molecular structure. The 13C NMR and FTir data indicate a diterpenoid structure for these resins. There is an abrupt loss of oxygen that occurs at the Lignite A/Subbituminous C stage, which is attributed to a dramatic loss of carboxyl (COOH) from the diterpenoid molecule. This is a new finding in the diagenesis of resins. This important loss in oxygenated functional groups is attributed to a maturation change. Also, there is a progressive loss of exomethylene (CH2) groups with increasing degree of maturation, as shown by both 13C NMR and FTir data. This change has been noted by previous investigators. Exomethylene is absent in the fossil resins from the Eocene high volatile C bituminous coals. This progressive loss is characteristic of Class I resinites. FTir data indicate that the oxygenated functional groups are strong in all the resin samples except the fossil resin from high volatile C bituminous coal. This important change in oxygenated functional groups is attributed to maturation changes. The 13C NMR and FTir data indicate there are minor changes in the Agathis australis resin from the living tree and soil, which suggests that alteration of A. australis resins begins shortly after deposition in the soil for as little as 1000??years. The Morwell and Yallourn fossil resins from brown coal (lignite B) Australia do not have some of the FTir characteristics of the New Zealand resins, which most likely indicates they have a different plant source because different degrees of oxidation and weathering and changes due to fires (i.e., charring) can be ruled out. Our results have implications for studies of the maturation, provenance, and botanical sources of fossil resins and resinites in Eocene and Miocene coals and sediments of New Zealand and Australia. ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Evaluation of penetration depth of a commercially available resin infiltrate into artificially created enamel lesions: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Subramaniam, Priya; Girish Babu, K L; Lakhotia, Disha

    2014-01-01

    Background: Early enamel lesions have a potential to re-mineralize and prevent caries progress. Aim: The aim of the following study is to determine the depth of penetration of low viscosity resin into artificially created enamel lesions. Materials and Methods: A sample of 20 sound premolars, indicated for orthodontic extraction, formed the study group. The teeth were coated with a nail varnish, leaving a window of 4 mm × 4 mm, on buccal surfaces of sound, intact enamel. Each tooth was subsequently immersed in demineralizing solution for 4 days to produce artificial enamel lesions. The demineralized area was then infiltrated with low viscosity resin (Icon Infiltrant, DMG, Hamburg, Germany) as per the manufacturer's instructions. All the restored teeth were then immersed in methylene blue dye for 24 h at 37°C. Teeth were then sectioned longitudinally through the lesion into two halves. The sections were observed under stereomicroscope at ×80 magnification and depth of penetration of the material was measured quantitatively using Motic software. Results: The maximum depth of penetration of the resin material was 6.06 ± 3.31 ?m. Conclusions: Resin infiltration technique appears to be effective in sealing enamel lesions and has great potential for arresting white spot lesions. PMID:24778511

  8. A comparison of shear bond strength of ceramic and resin denture teeth on different acrylic resin bases.

    PubMed

    Corsalini, Massimo; Di Venere, Daniela; Pettini, Francesco; Stefanachi, Gianluca; Catapano, Santo; Boccaccio, Antonio; Lamberti, Luciano; Pappalettere, Carmine; Carossa, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the shear bond strength of different resin bases and artificial teeth made of ceramic or acrylic resin materials and whether tooth-base interface may be treated with aluminium oxide sandblasting. Experimental measurements were carried on 80 specimens consisting of a cylinder of acrylic resin into which a single tooth is inserted. An ad hoc metallic frame was realized to measure the shear bond strength at the tooth-base interface. A complete factorial plan was designed and a three-way ANalysis Of VAriance (ANOVA) was carried out to investigate if shear bond strength is affected by the following factors: (i) tooth material (ceramic or resin); (ii) base material (self-curing or thermal-curing resin); (iii) presence or absence of aluminium oxide sandblasting treatment at the tooth-base interface. Tukey post hoc test was also conducted to evaluate any statistically significant difference between shear strength values measured for the dif-ferently prepared samples. It was found from ANOVA that the above mentioned factors all affect shear strength. Furthermore, post hoc analysis indi-cated that there are statistically significant differences (p-value=0.000) between measured shear strength values for: (i) teeth made of ceramic material vs. teeth made of acrylic resin material; (ii) bases made of self-curing resin vs. thermal-curing resin; (iii) specimens treated with aluminium oxide sandblasting vs. untreated specimens. Shear strength values measured for acryl-ic resin teeth were on average 70% higher than those measured for ceramic teeth. The shear bond strength was maximized by preparing samples with thermal-curing resin bases and resin teeth submitted to aluminium oxide sandblasting. PMID:25614770

  9. A Comparison of Shear Bond Strength of Ceramic and Resin Denture Teeth on Different Acrylic Resin Bases

    PubMed Central

    Corsalini, Massimo; Venere, Daniela Di; Pettini, Francesco; Stefanachi, Gianluca; Catapano, Santo; Boccaccio, Antonio; Lamberti, Luciano; Pappalettere, Carmine; Carossa, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the shear bond strength of different resin bases and artificial teeth made of ceramic or acrylic resin materials and whether tooth-base interface may be treated with aluminium oxide sandblasting. Experimental measurements were carried on 80 specimens consisting of a cylinder of acrylic resin into which a single tooth is inserted. An ad hoc metallic frame was realized to measure the shear bond strength at the tooth-base interface. A complete factorial plan was designed and a three-way ANalysis Of VAriance (ANOVA) was carried out to investigate if shear bond strength is affected by the following factors: (i) tooth material (ceramic or resin); (ii) base material (self-curing or thermal-curing resin); (iii) presence or absence of aluminium oxide sandblasting treatment at the tooth-base interface. Tukey post hoc test was also conducted to evaluate any statistically significant difference between shear strength values measured for the dif-ferently prepared samples. It was found from ANOVA that the above mentioned factors all affect shear strength. Furthermore, post hoc analysis indi-cated that there are statistically significant differences (p-value=0.000) between measured shear strength values for: (i) teeth made of ceramic material vs. teeth made of acrylic resin material; (ii) bases made of self-curing resin vs. thermal-curing resin; (iii) specimens treated with aluminium oxide sandblasting vs. untreated specimens. Shear strength values measured for acryl-ic resin teeth were on average 70% higher than those measured for ceramic teeth. The shear bond strength was maximized by preparing samples with thermal-curing resin bases and resin teeth submitted to aluminium oxide sandblasting. PMID:25614770

  10. 21 CFR 872.3200 - Resin tooth bonding agent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Resin tooth bonding agent. 872.3200 Section 872.3200 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3200 Resin tooth bonding agent. (a)...

  11. 21 CFR 177.2355 - Mineral reinforced nylon resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...the weight of the calcium silicate. (b) The mineral reinforced nylon resins may contain up to 0.2 percent by weight of titanium dioxide as an optional adjuvant substance. (c) The mineral reinforced nylon resins with or without the optional...

  12. Characterization of DGEBA (diglycidyl ethers bisphenol-A) epoxy resins

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, F.N.; Spieker, D.A.

    1987-04-01

    High-resolution gel permeation chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography can be applied to commercially available DGEBA epoxy resins to elucidate small but significant differences in the oligomer and impurity compositions of these resins. The GPC profiles can be used to type or identify the various commercial grades of these DGEBA resins. Lot-to-lot consistency and aging characteristics can also be determined using GPC and HPLC. Quantitation of the various oligomers and impurities such as the ..cap alpha..-glycol, isomer, and chlorohydrin species is possible. Using 20% isoconversion predictive cure thermal analysis data, the relative resin reactivity of several liquid, low-molecular DGEBA resins has been measured. These data show that the higher viscosity, higher oligomer content resins, which have higher hydroxyl content, reacted faster with amine cure agents than the lower viscosity, higher purity - and consequently lower hydroxyl content - resins. Thus, a combination of liquid chromatography (GPC or HPLC) and DSC kinetics can be used to establish a correlation or equivalency beween the commercially available low-molecular-weight DGEBA epoxy resins.

  13. SECURING CONTAINERIZED HAZARDOUS WASTES WITH POLYETHYLENE RESIN AND FIBERGLASS ENCAPSULATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study investigates the fabrication and use of polyethylene resin and fiberglass to encapsulate and secure containerized hazardous wastes. Laboratory-scale encapsulates of composite structure were made from powdered, high-density polyethylene (HDPE) and epoxy-resin-wetted fib...

  14. 21 CFR 177.1650 - Polysulfide polymer-polyepoxy resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Polysulfide polymer-polyepoxy resins. 177.1650... (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: POLYMERS Substances for Use as Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1650 Polysulfide polymer-polyepoxy resins. Polysulfide...

  15. 76 FR 8774 - Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Japan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-15

    ..., 2010, because ``the domestic parties did not participate in this review.'' (76 FR 3614). Accordingly... Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Japan AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission... resin from Japan would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material injury. On January...

  16. Light scattering studies of DGEBA-anhydride epoxy resin heterogeneity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, G. C.; Champion, J. V.; Liddell, P.; Dandridge, A.

    1980-04-01

    Rayleigh scattering. Brillouin spectroscopy and infrared spectroscopy of an unreacted and reacting diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A-phthalic anhydride epoxy resin system has been undertaken to assess bulk heterogeneity and its reconciliation with 50-200 nm surface heterogeneity. Molecular aggregates exist in the unreacted resin providing a possible inhomogeneous reaction mechanism with implications for bulk properties.

  17. ISOLATION OF ORGANIC WATER POLLUTANTS BY XAD RESINS AND CARBON

    EPA Science Inventory

    The recovery efficiencies of XAD resins -2, -4, -7, and -8 and of resin mixtures were measured using distilled water samples containing 13 organic pollutants. An equal-weight mixture of XAD-4 and XAD-8 was most efficient. XAD-2 and XAD-4/8 were further tested and found effective ...

  18. 21 CFR 177.2410 - Phenolic resins in molded articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Phenolic resins in molded articles. 177.2410... as Components of Articles Intended for Repeated Use § 177.2410 Phenolic resins in molded articles... articles intended for repeated use in contact with nonacid food (pH above 5.0), in accordance with...

  19. 21 CFR 177.2410 - Phenolic resins in molded articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Phenolic resins in molded articles. 177.2410... as Components of Articles Intended for Repeated Use § 177.2410 Phenolic resins in molded articles... articles intended for repeated use in contact with nonacid food (pH above 5.0), in accordance with...

  20. Method and solvent composition for regenerating an ion exchange resin

    DOEpatents

    Even, William R. (Livermore, CA); Irvin, David J. (Livermore, CA); Irvin, Jennifer A. (Livermore, CA); Tarver, Edward E. (Livermore, CA); Brown, Gilbert M. (Knoxville, TN); Wang, James C. F. (Livermore, CA)

    2002-01-01

    A method and composition for removing perchlorate from a highly selective ion exchange resin is disclosed. The disclosed approach comprises treating the resin in a solution of super critical or liquid carbon dioxide and one or more quaternary ammonium chloride surfactant compounds.

  1. Predictable success with resin bonded fixed partial dentures.

    PubMed

    Hansen, P A

    2001-01-01

    The conservative nature of the resin bonded fixed partial denture is the reason it is used. The ability to replace a missing tooth while avoiding aggressive preparation of the abutment teeth is a desirable concept. The use of conservative preparation forms will aid in the long term predictable success of the resin bonded fixed partial denture. PMID:11494945

  2. 21 CFR 173.40 - Molecular sieve resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... gram of dry resin (expressed in terms of water regain), and a particle size of 10 to 300 microns. (b) The molecular sieve resins are thoroughly washed with potable water prior to their first use in... purification of partially delactosed whey. The gel bed shall be maintained in a sanitary manner in...

  3. 21 CFR 173.40 - Molecular sieve resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... gram of dry resin (expressed in terms of water regain), and a particle size of 10 to 300 microns. (b) The molecular sieve resins are thoroughly washed with potable water prior to their first use in... purification of partially delactosed whey. The gel bed shall be maintained in a sanitary manner in...

  4. Pentacyclic triterpenes from Manilkara bidentata resin. Isolation, identification and biological properties.

    PubMed

    Rhourri-Frih, Boutayna; Renimel, Isabelle; Chaimbault, Patrick; André, Patrice; Herbette, Gaëtan; Lafosse, Michel

    2013-07-01

    Three pentacyclic triterpenes were isolated for the first time from resinous plant Manilkara bidentata. Ultrasound-assisted extraction with ethanol was chosen after a comparison of various extraction methods. Analysis of the extract was performed by HPLC with evaporative light scattering detection and semi-preparative HPLC has enabled us to isolate two urs-12-enes (3?-O-acetyl-?-amyrin and 3?-O-trans cinnamyl-?-amyrin) and a lupane-type derivative (3?-O-trans cinnamyl lupeol). Structures were elucidated on the basis of HRESIMS, atmospheric pressure photoionization MS, and homo- and heteronuclear correlation NMR experiments. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities were determined on Manilkara extract and isolated fractions. We have also investigated their action on collagen and fibronectin synthesis, two very important proteins of the extracellular matrix. Thus, Manilkara extract was able to decrease IL-1? and IL-8 pro-inflammatory cytokines. These activities exhibit the potential use of Manilkara extract as an anti-inflammatory and anti-aging ingredient for pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. PMID:23664853

  5. Chemical signatures of fossilized resins and recent plant exudates.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Joseph B; Santiago-Blay, Jorge A; Anderson, Ken B

    2008-01-01

    Amber is one of the few gemstones based on an organic structure. Found over most of the world, it is the fossil form of sticky plant exudates called resins. Investigation of amber by modern analytical techniques provides structural information and insight into the identity of the ancient plants that produced the source resin. Mass spectrometric analysis of materials separated by gas chromatography has identified specific compounds that are the basis of a reliable classification of the different types of amber. NMR spectroscopy of bulk, solid amber provides a complementary classification. NMR spectroscopy also can be used to characterize modern resins as well as other types of plant exudates such as gums, gum resins, and kinos, which strongly resemble resins in appearance but have very different molecular constitutions. PMID:18925589

  6. Resin Glycosides from the Morning Glory Family

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereda-Miranda, Rogelio; Rosas-Ramírez, Daniel; Castañeda-Gómez, Jhon

    Resin glycosides are part of a very extensive family of secondary metabolites known as glycolipids or lipo-oligosaccharides and are constituents of complex resins (glycoresins) (1) unique to the morning glory family, Convolvulaceae (2). These active principles are responsible for the drastic purgative action of all the important Convolvulaceous species used in traditional medicine throughout the world since ancient times. Several commercial purgative crude drugs can be prepared from the roots of different species of Mexican morning glories. Their incorporation as therapeutic agents in Europe is an outstanding example of the assimilation of botanical drugs from the Americas as substitutes for traditional Old World remedies (3). Even though phytochemical investigations on the constituents of these drugs were initiated during the second half of the nineteenth century, the structure of their active ingredients still remains poorly known for some examples of these purgative roots. During the last two decades, the higher resolution capabilities of modern analytical isolation techniques used in conjunction with powerful spectroscopic methods have facilitated the elucidation of the active principles of these relevant herbal products.

  7. Radionuclide Leaching from Organic Ion Exchange Resin

    SciTech Connect

    Delegard, C.H.; Rinehart, D.E.

    1999-04-02

    Laboratory tests were performed to examine the efficacy of leach treatments for decontaminating organic ion exchange resins (OIER), which have been found in a number of samples retrieved from K East Basin sludge. Based on process records, the OIER found in the K Basins is a mixed-bet strong acid/strong base material marketed as Purolite{trademark} NRW-037. Radionuclides sorbed or associated with the OIER can restrict its disposal to the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF). The need for testing to support development of a treatment process for K Basin sludge has been described in Section 4.2 of ''Testing Strategy to Support the Development of K Basins Sludge Treatment Process'' (Flament 1998). To help understand the effects of anticipated OIER elutriation and washing, tests were performed with well-rinsed OIER material from K East Basin floor sludge (sample H-08 BEAD G) and with well-rinsed OIER having approximately 5% added K East canister composite sludge (sample KECOMP). The rinsed resin-bearing material also contained the inorganic ion exchanger Zeolon-900{trademark}, a zeolite primarily composed of the mineral mordenite. The zeolite was estimated to comprise 27 weight percent of the dry H-08 BEAD G material.

  8. New Anion-Exchange Resins for Improved Separations of Nuclear Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Bartsch, Richard A.; Barr, Mary E.

    2001-04-30

    Improved separations of nuclear materials will have a significant impact upon a broad range of DOE activities. DOE-EM Focus Areas and Crosscutting Programs have identified improved methods for the extraction and recovery of radioactive metal ions from process, waste, and environmental waters as critical needs for the coming years. We propose to develop multifunctional anion-exchange resins that facilitate anion uptake by carefully controlling the structure of the anion receptor site. Our new ion-exchange resins interface the field of ion-specific chelating ligands with robust, commercial ion-exchange technology to provide materials which exhibit superior selectivity and kinetics of sorption and desorption. The following Focus Areas and Crosscutting Programs have described needs that would be favorably impacted by the new material: Efficient Separations and Processing - radionuclide removal from aqueous phases; Plutonium - Pu, Am or total alpha removal to meet regulatory requirement s before discharge to the environment; Plumes - U and Tc in groundwater, U, Pu, Am, and Tc in soils; Mixed Waste - radionuclide partitioning; High-Level Tank Waste - actinide and Tc removal from supernatants and/or sludges. The basic scientific issues which need to be addressed are actinide complex speciation along with modeling of metal complex/functional site interactions in order to determine optimal binding-site characteristics. Synthesis of multifunctionalized extractants and ion-exchange materials that implement key features of the optimized binding site, and testing of these materials, will provide feedback to the modeling and design activities. Resin materials which actively facilitate the uptake of actinide complexes from solution should display both improved selectivity and kinetic properties. The long-range implications of this research, however, go far beyond the nuclear complex. This new methodology of ''facilitated uptake'' could revolutionize ion-exchange technology, allowing this robust, inexpensive procedure to attain unprecedented levels of ion affinity and selectivity.

  9. 21 CFR 175.380 - Xylene-formaldehyde resins condensed with 4,4?-isopropylidenediphenol-epichlorohydrin epoxy resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Xylene-formaldehyde resins condensed with 4,4â²-isopropylidenediphenol-epichlorohydrin epoxy resins. 175.380 Section 175.380 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: ADHESIVES...

  10. 21 CFR 175.380 - Xylene-formaldehyde resins condensed with 4,4?-isopropylidenediphenol-epichlorohydrin epoxy resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Xylene-formaldehyde resins condensed with 4,4â²-isopropylidenediphenol-epichlorohydrin epoxy resins. 175.380 Section 175.380 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: ADHESIVES AND COMPONENTS...

  11. Optical properties of paint-on resins for shade modification of crown and bridge resins--light transmittance characteristics--.

    PubMed

    Arikawa, Hiroyuki; Kanie, Takahito; Fujii, Koichi; Homma, Tetsuya; Takahashi, Hideo; Ban, Seiji

    2003-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the light transmittance characteristics of the paint-on resins for shade modification. Three shades of paint-on resin, one crown and bridge resin, and human enamel were used. Specimens with four different thicknesses (75-150 microm) were prepared. The light transmittances including its wavelength distribution and diffusion characteristics were measured. The color values and the color differences among thicknesses of specimens were also determined. The light transmittance values of the paint-on resins ranged from 60.3% to 88.3% at 100 microm thickness, which were lower or nearly equal in comparison with the crown and bridge resin and enamel. Although differences in the wavelength distribution of transmittance among materials were found at lower wavelengths, all materials showed similar diffusion characteristics. The thin layer of paint-on resin effectively changed the color of restorative resin. The paint-on resin may be an effective material for the modification of the color appearance matching required. PMID:14620994

  12. 21 CFR 175.380 - Xylene-formaldehyde resins condensed with 4,4?-isopropylidenediphenol-epichlorohydrin epoxy resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01... true Xylene-formaldehyde resins condensed...Section 175.380 Food and Drugs FOOD...use in contact with food, in accordance with...condensation of xylene-formaldehyde resin and...

  13. Comparative in vitro evaluation of internal adaptation of resin-modified glass ionomer, flowable composite and bonding agent applied as a liner under composite restoration: A scanning electron microscope study

    PubMed Central

    Soubhagya, M; Goud, K Mallikarjun; Deepak, B S; Thakur, Sophia; Nandini, T N; Arun, J

    2015-01-01

    Background: The use of resin-modified glass Ionomer cement in sandwich technique is widely practiced with the advent of various newer generation of composites the bond between resin-modified glass Ionomer and these resins should be validated. This study is done to evaluate the interfacial microgaps between different types of liners and dentin, liners and composite (Filtek p60 [FLp60]) using scanning electron microscope (SEM). Materials and Methods: Standardized Class V preparations were performed in buccal/lingual surfaces of 30 caries, crack and defect-free extracted human third molars. The prepared teeth were divided into three groups. Group I: Single bond (SB), Group II: SB + synergy flow, Group III: SB + vitrebond. They were restored with composite resin FLp60, according to the manufacturer instructions. The SB + vitrebond, cross-sectioned through the canter of the restoration. The specimens were fixed, dehydrated, polished, and processed for SEM. The internal adaptation of the materials to the axial wall was analyzed under SEM with ×1000 magnification. Results: The data obtained were analyzed with nonparametric tests (Kruskal–Wallis, P < 0.05). flowable composite or resin-modified glass ionomer applied in conjunction with adhesive resulted in statistically wider microgaps than occurred when the dentin was only hybridized prior to the restoration. Conclusion: Hybridization of dentin only provides superior sealing of the dentin-restoration interface than does flowable resin or resin-modified glass ionomer. PMID:25954067

  14. Development of a Sustainable Procedure for the Recovery of Hydroxytyrosol from Table Olive Processing Wastewater Using Adsorption Resin Technology and Centrifugal Partition Chromatography.

    PubMed

    Xynos, Nikos; Abatis, Dennis; Argyropoulou, Aikaterini; Polychronopoulos, Panagiotis; Aligiannis, Nektarios; Skaltsounis, Alexios-Leandros

    2015-11-01

    The present endeavor aims to establish a novel procedure, applicable to the extraction and isolation of hydroxytyrosol from table olive processing wastewater. A two-step chromatographic separation is presented using non-ionic absorbent resin for the recovery of its phenolic content, followed by purification of hydroxytyrosol with centrifugal partition chromatography. Two table olive processing wastewaters, obtained from Kalamon and Amfissis olive varieties, were used. In the extracts obtained after resin treatment, the hydroxytyrosol content was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode-array detection to be 4.05?% and 10.10?%, respectively. The extract from Amfissis table olive processing wastewater was further processed with preparative centrifugal partition chromatography for the purification of hydroxytyrosol. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis revealed that the isolated compound was >?95?% purity. PMID:26460673

  15. Eichrom`s ABEC{trademark} resins: Alkaline radioactive waste treatment, radiopharmaceutical, and potential hydrometallurgical applications

    SciTech Connect

    Bond, A.H.; Gula, M.J.; Chang, F.; Rogers, R.D.

    1997-12-31

    Eichrom`s ABEC{trademark} resins selectivity extract certain anions from high ionic strength acidic, neutral, or strongly alkaline media, and solute stripping can be accomplished by eluting with water. ABEC resins are stable to pH extreme and radiolysis and operate in high ionic strength and/or alkaline solutions where anion-exchange is often ineffective. Potential applications of the ABEC materials include heavy metal and ReO{sub 4}{sup -} separations in hydrometallurgy and purification of perrhenate iodide, and iodate in radiopharmaceutical production. Separation of {sup 99m}TcO{sub 4}{sup -} from its {sup 99}MoO{sub 4}{sup 2-} parent and stripping with water or physiological saline solution have been demonstrated for radiopharmaceutical applications. Removal of {sup 99}TcO{sub 4}{sup -} and {sup 129}I{sup -} from alkaline tank wastes has also been successfully demonstrated. The authors will discuss the scale-up studies, process-scale testing, and market development of this new extraction material.

  16. Evaluation of tensile retention of Y-TZP crowns cemented on resin composite cores: effect of the cement and Y-TZP surface conditioning.

    PubMed

    Rippe, M P; Amaral, R; Oliveira, F S; Cesar, P F; Scotti, R; Valandro, L F; Bottino, M A

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of the cement type (adhesive resin, self-adhesive, glass ionomer, and zinc phosphate) on the retention of crowns made of yttria-stabilized polycrystalline tetragonal zirconia (Y-TZP). Therefore, 108 freshly extracted molars were embedded in acrylic resin, perpendicular to their long axis, and prepared for full crowns: the crown preparations were removed and reconstructed using composite resin plus fiber posts with dimensions identical to the prepared dentin. The preparations were impressed using addition silicone, and Y-TZP copings were produced, which presented a special setup for the tensile testing. Cementation was performed with two adhesive resin cements (Multilink Automix, Ivoclar-Vivadent; RelyX ARC, 3M ESPE, St Paul, MN, USA), one self-adhesive resin cement (RelyX U100, 3M ESPE), one glass ionomer based cement (RelyX Luting, 3M ESPE), and one zinc phosphate cement (Cimento de Zinco, SS White, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil). For the resin cement groups, the inner surfaces of the crowns were subjected to three surface treatments: cleaning with isopropyl alcohol, tribochemical silica coating, or application of a thin low-fusing glass porcelain layer plus silanization. After 24 hours, all groups were subjected to thermocycling (6000 cycles) and included in a special device for tensile testing in a universal testing machine to test the retention of the infrastructure. After testing, the failure modes of all samples were analyzed under a stereomicroscope. The Kruskal-Wallis test showed that the surface treatment and cement type (?=0.05) affected the tensile retention results. The Multilink cement presented the highest tensile retention values, but that result was not statistically different from RelyX ARC. The surface treatment was statistically relevant only for the Multilink cement. The cement choice was shown to be more important than the crown surface treatment for cementation of a Y-TZP crown to a composite resin substrate. PMID:25162722

  17. Radium separation through complexation by aqueous crown ethers and ion exchange or solvent extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Chiarizia, R.; Dietz, M.L.; Horwitz, E.P.; Burnett, W.C.

    1997-11-01

    The effect of three water-soluble, unsubstituted crown ethers (15-crown-5 (15C5), 18-crown-6 (18C6) and 21-crown-7 (21C7)) on the uptake of Ca, Sr, Ba and Ra cations by a sulfonic acid cation exchange resin, and on the extraction of the same cations by xylene solutions of dinonylnaphthalenesulfonic acid (HDNNS) from aqueous hydrochloric acid solutions has been investigated. The crown ethers enhance the sorption of the larger cations by the ion exchange resin, thereby improving the resin selectivity over calcium, a result of a synergistic interaction between the crown ether and the ionic functional groups of the resin. Similarly, the extraction of the larger alkaline earth cations into xylene by HDNNS is strongly synergized by the presence of the crown ethers in the aqueous phase. Promising results for intra-Group IIa cation separations have been obtained using each of the three crown ethers as the aqueous ligands and the sulfonic acid cation exchange resin. Even greater separation factors for the radium-calcium couple have been measured with the crown-ethers and HDNNS solutions in the solvent extraction mode. The application of the uptake and extraction results to the development of radium separation schemes is discussed and a possible flowchart for the determination of {sup 226}Ra/{sup 228}Ra in natural waters is presented.

  18. VALIDATION FOR THE PERMANGANATE DIGESTION OF REILLEX HPQ ANION RESIN

    SciTech Connect

    Kyser, E.

    2009-09-23

    The flowsheet for the digestion of Reillex{trademark} HPQ was validated both under the traditional alkaline conditions and under strongly acidic conditions. Due to difficulty in performing a pH adjustment in the large tank where this flowsheet must be performed, the recommended digestion conditions were changed from pH 8-10 to 8 M HNO{sub 3}. Thus, no pH adjustment of the solution is required prior to performing the permanganate addition and digestion and the need to sample the digestion tank to confirm appropriate pH range for digestion may be avoided. Neutralization of the acidic digestion solution will be performed after completion of the resin digestion cycle. The amount of permanganate required for this type of resin (Reillex{trademark} HPQ) was increased from 1 kg/L resin to 4 kg/L resin to reduce the amount of residual resin solids to a minimal amount (<5%). The length of digestion time at 70 C remains unchanged at 15 hours. These parameters are not optimized but are expected to be adequate for the conditions. The flowsheet generates a significant amount of fine manganese dioxide (MnO{sub 2}) solids (1.71 kg/L resin) and involves the generation of a significant liquid volume due to the low solubility of permanganate. However, since only two batches of resin (40 L each) are expected to be digested, the total waste generated is limited.

  19. MODELING RESULTS FROM CESIUM ION EXCHANGE PROCESSING WITH SPHERICAL RESINS

    SciTech Connect

    Nash, C.; Hang, T.; Aleman, S.

    2011-01-03

    Ion exchange modeling was conducted at the Savannah River National Laboratory to compare the performance of two organic resins in support of Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX). In-tank ion exchange (IX) columns are being considered for cesium removal at Hanford and the Savannah River Site (SRS). The spherical forms of resorcinol formaldehyde ion exchange resin (sRF) as well as a hypothetical spherical SuperLig{reg_sign} 644 (SL644) are evaluated for decontamination of dissolved saltcake wastes (supernates). Both SuperLig{reg_sign} and resorcinol formaldehyde resin beds can exhibit hydraulic problems in their granular (nonspherical) forms. SRS waste is generally lower in potassium and organic components than Hanford waste. Using VERSE-LC Version 7.8 along with the cesium Freundlich/Langmuir isotherms to simulate the waste decontamination in ion exchange columns, spherical SL644 was found to reduce column cycling by 50% for high-potassium supernates, but sRF performed equally well for the lowest-potassium feeds. Reduced cycling results in reduction of nitric acid (resin elution) and sodium addition (resin regeneration), therefore, significantly reducing life-cycle operational costs. These findings motivate the development of a spherical form of SL644. This work demonstrates the versatility of the ion exchange modeling to study the effects of resin characteristics on processing cycles, rates, and cold chemical consumption. The value of a resin with increased selectivity for cesium over potassium can be assessed for further development.

  20. Phosphorus-containing imide resins - Modification by elastomers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Varma, I. K.; Fohlen, G. M.; Parker, J. A.; Varma, D. S.

    1984-01-01

    The syntheses and general features of addition-type maleimide resins based on bis(m-aminophenyl)phosphine oxide and tris(m-aminophenyl)phosphine oxide have been reported previously. These resins have been used to fabricate graphite cloth laminates having excellent flame resistance. These composites did not burn even in pure oxygen. However, these resins were somewhat brittle. This paper reports the modification of these phosphorus-containing resins by an amine-terminated butadiene-acrylonitrile copolymer (ATBN) and a perfluoroalkylene diaromatic amine elastomer (3F). An approximately two-fold increase in short beam shear strength and flexural strength was observed at 7 percent ATBN concentration. The tensile, flexural, and shear strengths were reduced when 18 percent ATBN was used. Anaerobic char yields of the resins at 800 C and the limiting oxygen indexes of the laminates decreased with increasing ATBN concentration. The perfluorodiamine (3F) was used with both imide resins at 6.4 percent concentration. The shear strength was doubled in the case of the bisimide with no loss of flammability characteristics. The modified trisimide laminate also had improved properties over the unmodified one. The dynamic mechanical analysis of a four-ply laminate indicated a glass transition temperature above 300 C. Scanning electron micrographs of the ATBN modified imide resins were also recorded.