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1

Novel strontium-selective extraction chromatographic resin  

SciTech Connect

The effect of nitric acid concentration on the selectivity of a novel extraction chromatographic resin consisting of an octanol solution of 4,4`(5`)-bis(t-butyl-cyclohexano)-18-crown-6 sorbed on an inert polymeric support for strontium over a number of alkali, alkaline earth, and other metal cations was evaluated. The effect of macro quantities of selected elements on strontium retention by the resin was also examined. The resin is shown to exhibit excellent selectivity for strontium over nearly all of the test elements; only lead and tetravalent neptunium, polonium, and plutonium show significant affinity for the material. In addition, concentrations of calcium or sodium ion up to approx.0.1 M are shown not to diminish the sorption of strontium appreciably. Several useful radiochemical separation schemes devised on the basis of the results obtained are described. 35 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

Horwitz, E.P.; Chiarizia, R.; Dietz, M.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

1992-04-01

2

Ultrasonic extraction of resins from an historic textile.  

PubMed

Ultrasound assisted extraction was applied on the historical textile as the most appropriate sample preparation step for the identification of the resinous binder. Fragile silk banner from the 19th century was analyzed for the presence of different resins. After the ultrasonic extraction with ethyl acetate in the ultrasonic bath, resinous materials and unknown sample from the banner were separated by thin layer chromatography. The multiple developments in benzene-methanol (95:5) system as mobile phase and silica gel layer as stationary phase were applied, and afterwards the video densitometry determination of the components was performed by means of video camera HV-C20. The shellac resin was determined as an important part of the complex binder. PMID:17822938

Rezi?, I; Krsti?, D; Boki?, Lj

2007-07-25

3

A NOVEL STRONTIUM-SELECTIVE EXTRACTION CHROMATOGRAPHIC RESIN  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of nitric acid concentration on the selectivity of a novel extraction chromatographic resin consisting of an octanol solution of 4,4?(5?)-bis(t-butyl-cyclohexano)-18-crown-6 sorbed on an inert polymeric support for strontium over a number of alkali, alkaline earth, and other metal cations was evaluated. The effect of macro quantities of selected elements on strontium retention by the resin was also examined.

E. Philip Horwitz; Renato Chiarizia; Mark L. Dietz

1992-01-01

4

45Ti extraction using hydroxamate resin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As an attractive radionuclide for positron emission tomography, this study explores the extraction and reactivity of 45Ti produced via the 45Sc(p,n)45Ti reaction on a GE PETtrace. Using a small hydroxamate column, we have demonstrated an overall recovery of >50% of 45Ti in ~1 mL of 1M oxalic acid. Conditions for reacting with desferal were also explored, with effective specific activities up to 38 GBq/?mol obtained.

Gagnon, K.; Severin, G. W.; Barnhart, T. E.; Engle, J. W.; Valdovinos, H. F.; Nickles, R. J.

2012-12-01

5

TRPO Impregnated Levextrel Resin: Synthesis and Extraction Behavior of Zr (IV) and Nd (III) Ions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel kind of Levextrel resin with trialkylphosphine oxide (TRPO) extractant impregnated in the styrene-divinylbenzene copolymerization was synthesized. The extraction behavior of the resin toward Zr (IV) and Nd (III) ions was investigated by batch and column operations. The influence factors such as suspension system, porogen content, stirring rate and temperature were systematically examined. The TRPO impregnated Levextrel resin showed

Wen Zhang; Gang Ye; Jing Chen

2012-01-01

6

Fatty and resinic acids extractions from crude tall oil  

SciTech Connect

The separation of fatty and resinic acidic fractions from crude tall-oil soap solutions with n-heptane by the technique of dissociation extraction is discussed. The theory of the overall process is supported by a systematic study developed to cover the high selectivity demonstrated in the differential solubility and the aptness between fatty and diterpenic acids to both liquids phases. To study the main factors affecting those liquid-liquid extraction systems and the amphiphilic behavior of such molecules involved, sodium salts aqueous solutions of crude tall oil and synthetic mixtures as molecular acidic models were used.

Nogueira, J.M.F. [Univ. of Lisbon (Portugal)

1996-11-01

7

A simple ion-exchange resin procedure for extracting plant-available elements from soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simplified procedure for extracting ions from soil with ion-exchange resins is reported. The resin, placed in nylon-netting bags, were immersed in soil suspensions and shaken. Compared to the conventional procedure, where the resin beads are freely suspended in the soil-water mixture, this bag-procedure allowed quicker separation of resin from the soil suspensions. Furthermore, the severe soil grinding as done

E. Sibbesen

1977-01-01

8

Separation of radioactive strontium by extraction using chromatographic resin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

90Sr is generated in the nuclear fission process, and can constitute a long-term biological hazard because of the chemical similarity to calcium and long radioactive and biological half-lives of 28.6 and 49.3 yr, respectively. Moreover, 90Sr is one of the most important radionuclides in the low and medium radioactive wastes that arise from nuclear power plants. For these reasons, a fast and accurate analysis method has been developed which is based on strontium-selective extraction chromatography using macrocyclic polyethers (crown-ethers), specifically 4,4'(5')-bis(t-butylcyclohexano)-18-crown-6, immobilized on an inert support. The strontium-selective chromatographic resin is commercially available under the name Sr-Spec (for Strontium Specific) from Eichrom Industries. After elution of 90Sr by dilute HNO3, the concentration measurements were carried out by liquid scintillation counting. The procedure was developed on a standard solution containing 241Am, 109Cd, 57Co, 139Ce, 113Sn, 85Sr (to determine the chemical yield), 137Cs, 88Y (to quantify the 90Y separation) and 60Co. The resulting chemical yield was 88%, with all separation factors >99% (calculated as the quotient of the analyzed activities for each final eluate and the initial activities). This procedure was then applied to the analysis of 90Sr in wastes coming from Spanish nuclear power plants (ion exchange resins and evaporator concentrates), and gave separation factors >99%. The chemical yield for 90Sr range from 58 to 82%, as determined by the addition of strontium carrier and gravimetric analysis. Compared with the more conventional separation techniques the new procedure is rapid and achieves greater chemical yield and decontamination factors.

Rodríguez, M.; Suárez, J. A.; Espartero, A. G.

1996-02-01

9

Separation and extraction of antimicrobial lipopeptides produced by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens ES2 with macroporous resin  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new method for separation and extraction of antibiotic lipopeptides produced by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens ES-2 with macroporous resin was carried out in this study. Among widely used twelve macroporous resins, X-5 resin had the\\u000a highest adsorption capacity in static and dynamic tests, its non-polarity and configuration were suited for the lipopeptides\\u000a (surfactin and fengycin). Dynamic adsorption and desorption experiments were

Yu Wang; Zhaoxin Lu; Xiaomei Bie; Fengxia Lv

2010-01-01

10

Enrichment and Purification of Total Chlorogenic Acids from Tobacco Waste Extract with Macroporous Resins  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, an evaluation was conducted on the performance and separation characteristics of nine macroporous resins for the enrichment and purification of total chlorogenic acids from tobacco (Nicotiana tobaccum L.) waste extracts. Based on the results, XAD-4 offered higher adsorption and desorption capacities for total chlorogenic acids than other resins. To optimize the separation process of total chlorogenic

Zhao Hui; Wang Jun; Jia Jing; Liu Ji; Ling Xiuquan; Lu Dingqiang

2010-01-01

11

Extraction of extracellular polymers from activated sludge using a cation exchange resin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extraction of water soluble extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) from activated sludge was investigated. The extraction procedure was based upon cation exchange using a cation exchange resin (CER). Activated sludge from two different types of treatment plants responded very similarly to the extraction procedure. The EPS yield was enhanced by increasing the stirring intensity, the amounts of CER added and

Bo Frølund; Rikke Palmgren; Kristian Keiding; Per Halkjær Nielsen

1996-01-01

12

The Separation of Beryllium from Selected Elements Using the Dipex Extraction Chromatographic Resin  

Microsoft Academic Search

An extraction chromatographic resin containing the acidic chelating organophosphorus extractant, Dipex, sorbed onto an inert polymeric substrate has been evaluated for the separation of beryllium from a wide range of elements. The elements selected comprise those which can interfere with the determination of beryllium by inductively coupled plasma?atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP?AES) and matrix elements which commonly occur in environmental and

E. Philip Horwitz; Daniel R. McAlister

2005-01-01

13

Enrichment and purification of madecassoside and asiaticoside from Centella asiatica extracts with macroporous resins  

Microsoft Academic Search

In present study, the performance and separation characteristics of five macroporous resins for the enrichment and purification of asiaticoside and madecassoside from Centella asiatica extracts have been evaluated. The adsorption and desorption properties of total triterpene saponins (80% purity) on macroporous resins including HPD100, HPD300, X-5, AB-8 and D101 have been compared. According to our results, HPD100 offered higher adsorption

Guangtao Jia; Xiuyang Lu

2008-01-01

14

Extraction of high quality DNA from seized moroccan cannabis resin (hashish).  

PubMed

The extraction and purification of nucleic acids is the first step in most molecular biology analysis techniques. The objective of this work is to obtain highly purified nucleic acids derived from Cannabis sativa resin seizure in order to conduct a DNA typing method for the individualization of cannabis resin samples. To obtain highly purified nucleic acids from cannabis resin (Hashish) free from contaminants that cause inhibition of PCR reaction, we have tested two protocols: the CTAB protocol of Wagner and a CTAB protocol described by Somma (2004) adapted for difficult matrix. We obtained high quality genomic DNA from 8 cannabis resin seizures using the adapted protocol. DNA extracted by the Wagner CTAB protocol failed to give polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA) synthase coding gene. However, the extracted DNA by the second protocol permits amplification of THCA synthase coding gene using different sets of primers as assessed by PCR. We describe here for the first time the possibility of DNA extraction from (Hashish) resin derived from Cannabis sativa. This allows the use of DNA molecular tests under special forensic circumstances. PMID:24124454

El Alaoui, Moulay Abdelaziz; Melloul, Marouane; Alaoui Amine, Sanaâ; Stambouli, Hamid; El Bouri, Aziz; Soulaymani, Abdelmajid; El Fahime, Elmostafa

2013-10-04

15

Extraction of High Quality DNA from Seized Moroccan Cannabis Resin (Hashish)  

PubMed Central

The extraction and purification of nucleic acids is the first step in most molecular biology analysis techniques. The objective of this work is to obtain highly purified nucleic acids derived from Cannabis sativa resin seizure in order to conduct a DNA typing method for the individualization of cannabis resin samples. To obtain highly purified nucleic acids from cannabis resin (Hashish) free from contaminants that cause inhibition of PCR reaction, we have tested two protocols: the CTAB protocol of Wagner and a CTAB protocol described by Somma (2004) adapted for difficult matrix. We obtained high quality genomic DNA from 8 cannabis resin seizures using the adapted protocol. DNA extracted by the Wagner CTAB protocol failed to give polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA) synthase coding gene. However, the extracted DNA by the second protocol permits amplification of THCA synthase coding gene using different sets of primers as assessed by PCR. We describe here for the first time the possibility of DNA extraction from (Hashish) resin derived from Cannabis sativa. This allows the use of DNA molecular tests under special forensic circumstances.

El Alaoui, Moulay Abdelaziz; Melloul, Marouane; Alaoui Amine, Sanaa; Stambouli, Hamid; El Bouri, Aziz; Soulaymani, Abdelmajid; El Fahime, Elmostafa

2013-01-01

16

Equilibrium and kinetic data of adsorption and separation for zirconium and hafnium onto MIBK extraction resin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The equilibrium and kinetics of methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK) extraction resin for adsorption and separation of zirconium and hafnium were studied under the different conditions of acidity, initial total concentrations of zirconium and hafnium and temperature. The equilibrium data of both zirconium and hafnium are found to follow the Freundlich adsorption isotherm, and the Freundlich isotherm constants (KF) are 3.53

Zhi-gao XU; Yan-ke WU; Jian-dong ZHANG; Li ZHANG; Li-jun WANG

2010-01-01

17

Effects of Experimental Conditions on Extraction Yield of Extracellular Polymeric Substances by Cation Exchange Resin  

PubMed Central

Effects of experimental conditions on the yield of extracellular polymeric substances (EPSs) extraction by cation exchange resin (CER) were investigated using activated sludge flocs. The experimental variables included resin dose, extraction time, sample dilution, and storage time. An empirical model was proposed to describe the kinetics of extraction process. The extraction yield increases with the extraction time and CER dose until it reached the maximum amount of EPS extraction. The maximum yield of EPS was affected as well by the sample dilution, exhibiting a decreasing trend with increasing dilution factor. It was also found that the amount of EPS extracted from a raw sample depends on the storage time. Once EPS was extracted from the sample, however, the EPS keeps its original quantity under storage at 4°C. Based on the model, the maximum amount of EPS extraction and yield rate could be estimated for different conditions. Comparing the model parameters allows one to quantitatively compare the extraction efficiencies under various extracting conditions. Based on the results, we recommend the original sample should be diluted with the volume ratio of above 1?:?2 and a raw sample should be treated quickly to prevent the reduction of sample homogeneity and original integrity.

Cho, Jinwoo; Hermanowicz, Slawomir W.; Hur, Jin

2012-01-01

18

Chronic swelling from entrapment of acrylic resin in a surgical extraction site  

PubMed Central

When acrylic resin is inadvertently embedded in oral tissue, it can result in a pronounced chronic inflammatory response. This report describes a case in which temporary crown and bridge resin was forced into a surgical extraction site after the two adjacent teeth were prepared for a bridge immediately following extraction of a maxillary premolar. The patient experienced swelling at the extraction site over a ten month period despite treatment with antibiotics and anti-inflammatory drugs. After detection and removal of the foreign body, the symptoms resolved. The episode contributed to periodontal bone loss around an adjacent tooth. While morbidity of this nature is rare, this case reinforces the need to investigate persistent signs of inflammation and account for dental materials that are lost during the course of treatment.

Ho, Weiting; Lai, Pin-Chuang; Walters, John D.

2010-01-01

19

Preliminary separation and purification of rutin and quercetin from Euonymus alatus ( Thunb.) Siebold extracts by macroporous resins  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the performances of rutin and quercetin from Euonymus alatus (Thunb.) Siebold extracts on five macroporous resins with different physical and chemical properties were investigated. The results of static tests indicated that AB-8 resin was the most appropriate and its adsorption data were well fitted to the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. In order to optimize the separation process,

Zhanyi Zhao; Lulu Dong; Yanli Wu; Feng Lin

2011-01-01

20

Solid-liquid extraction of Au(III) from aqueous chloride solutions by tri- n-dodecylammonium chloride impregnated in amberlite XAD-2 resin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extraction of Au(III) from 1.0 mol dm?3 HCI solutions with the extractant tri-n-dodecylammonium chloride (TLAHCl) impregnated in a polymeric resin XAD-2 has been studied. The results of gold extraction showed that AuCl3TLAHCl and AUCl3(TLAHCI)2 were the extracted species in the resin. There was no loss of extraction resin capacity when thiourea solutions were used as stripping agent. It was

I. Villaescusa; V. Salvadó; J. de Pablo

1997-01-01

21

Effect of resinous extract from Commiphora swynnertonii (Burrt) on experimental coccidial infection in chickens.  

PubMed

A crude resinous extract from Commiphora swynnertonii was tested against an experimental coccidial infection in local chickens. A total of 80 growing chickens were randomly assigned into five groups, which received different treatments. Chickens in G1 were not infected with coccidian oocysts and therefore served as a negative control. All chickens in G2, G3, G4 and G5 were infected through oral administration of coccidian oocysts suspension at a dosed rate of 1.5 × 10(4) Eimeria spp. oocysts per bird. Starting from day 3 post-infection (p.i), chickens in different groups were treated for 7 consecutive days as follows: G1 and G2 (positive control) received 5 ml of normal saline as placebo, G3 and G4 were given the extract at 400 and 800 mg/kg bodyweight whereas G5 received anticoccidial drug. Clinical signs, bodyweights, oocysts counts and mortality rates were observed regularly. Results showed that oral administration of the resinous extract to chickens with coccidiosis significantly reduced mortality rate from 94 to 25 % and oocysts counts from 1.03 × 10(5) to 6.55 × 10(3) oocysts/g faeces (p < 0.05). Also a body condition score chart indicated less severe clinical signs of the disease in the groups which received the extract. Mean daily body weights were slightly reduced by the administration of the extract but this effect disappeared by day 7 p.i. These findings clearly indicate that resinous extract from C. swynnertonii has significant anticoccidial effect against experimental Eimeria spp. infection in chickens. A larger field trial to validate the use of the extract in chickens naturally infected with Eimeria spp. is required. PMID:23001540

Bakari, Gaymary G; Max, Robert A; Mdegela, Robinson H; Phiri, Elliot C J; Mtambo, Mkumbukwa M A

2012-09-22

22

Liquid-liquid and solid-liquid extraction of gold by trioctylmethylammonium chloride (TOMAC1) dissolved in toluene and impregnated on amberlite XAD-2 resin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extraction of Au(III) with the extractant trioctylmethylammonium chloride (TOMAC1) dissolved in toluene and the same extractant impregnated in a polymeric resin XAD-2 has been studied. The results of gold extraction with both systems were compared. They showed similar gold extraction behaviour (extracted species), although greater amounts of extractant were needed when impregnated resins were used. Liquid-liquid and solid-liquid procedures

I. Villaescusa; V. Salvadó; J. de Pablo

1996-01-01

23

Solid phase extractive preconcentration of uranium(VI) using quinoline-8-ol anchored chloromethylated polymeric resin beads.  

PubMed

A new chelating polymeric sorbent has been developed using Merrifield chloromethylated resin anchored with quinoline-8-ol (HQ). The modified polymeric resin was characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy and elemental analysis. The HQ anchored resin showed superior binding affinity for U(VI) over Th(IV) and La(III). The influence of various physicochemical parameters on the recovery of U(VI) were optimized by both static and dynamic methods. The phase exchange kinetic studies performed for U(VI) revealed that <5min was sufficient for reaching equilibrium metal ion sorption. The maximum sorption capacity of HQ anchored resin for U(VI) was found to be 120.30mgg(-1) of resin which is higher than other solid phase extraction sorbents reported so far excepting N,N-dibutyl, N'-benzoyl thiourea sorbed Amberlite XAD-16. The developed HQ anchored polymeric resin is highly selective as none of the extraneous species were found to have any deleterious effect. Solid phase extraction (SPE) studies performed using HQ anchored polymeric resin offered enrichment factor of 100 and the lowest concentration below which recoveries become non-quantitative is 5mugl(-1). The accuracy of the developed SPE method in conjunction with Arsenazo III procedure was tested by analyzing marine sediment (MESS-3) and soil (IAEA-Soil 7) reference materials. Furthermore, the above procedure has been successfully employed for the analysis of real soil and sediment samples. PMID:18970265

Praveen, R S; Metilda, P; Daniel, S; Rao, T Prasada

2005-10-31

24

Metal ion extraction with a thiol hydrophilic resin. [N,N'-methylenebis(acrylamide) cross-linked poly(N-((acryloylamino)methyl)-mercaptoacetamide) resin  

SciTech Connect

The application of 30% N,N'-methylenebis(acrylamide) cross-linked poly(N-((acryloylamino)methyl)mercaptoacetamide) resin for the concentration of metal ions from aqueous solutions has been investigated. A flow injection analysis method using a color forming reagent was developed, allowing fast cation assays. The pH dependence of the metal extraction for Na, Ca, Mn(II), Fe(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II), Ag(I), Cd(II), Hg(II), Pb(II), and UO/sub 2//sup 2 +/ was studied. Heavy metals and Cu(II) exhibit a high affinity toward the thiol functions of the resin (half extraction pH <2), with fast fixation kinetics due to the hydrophilic matrix. The maximum resin capacity depends on the metal ion, due to the formation of ML/sub 2/ or/and MLL' complexes involving thiol functions and anion ligands. The resin selectivity determined at pH 5.5 is, in increasing order, Zn(II), Cd(II), Pb(II), Cu(II), and Hg(II).

Deratani, A.; Sebille, B.

1981-10-01

25

Anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activities of the ethanolic extract of Shorea robusta Gaertn. f. resin.  

PubMed

Shorea robusta Gaertn. f. (Sal) is one of the most important traditional Indian medicinal plants. The resin of the plant has been used in the treatment of inflammation in folklore medicine. In the present study, ethanolic extract (70%) of S. robusta resin (SRE) was investigated for its anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activities. Acute inflammation was produced by carrageenan-induced hind paw edema and sub-acute by cotton pellet-induced granuloma in male Wistar rats. The antipyretic activity of SRE was studied using Brewer's yeast-induced pyrexia in rats. The rats were divided into five groups with five animals in each group. Group I was treated with vehicle i.e. 1% v/v Tween-80 and served as control. Groups II to IV were treated with three different doses of SRE (30, 100 and 300 mg/kg orally). Group V was treated with standard drug etoricoxib (10 mg/kg orally). The anti-inflammatory activity of SRE was assessed by per cent reduction in edema volume of carrageenan-induced hind paw edema and by per cent decrease in granuloma formation in cotton pellet-induced granuloma test. SRE (100 and 300 mg/kg) produced a significant reduction in edema volume and decrease in granulation tissue formation in rats. Significant reduction in pyrexia was observed at all the dose levels of SRE i.e. 30, 100 and 300 mg/kg. The results of the present study demonstrated anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activities of S. robusta resin and supported its traditional therapeutic use in painful inflammatory conditions and fever. PMID:23350282

Wani, T A; Chandrashekara, H H; Kumar, D; Prasad, R; Sardar, K K; Kumar, D; Tandan, S K

2012-12-01

26

Characterization of the effects of post-extraction treatments on human dentin-resin interface by micro-Raman spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Raman microprobe spectroscopy was used to investigate the effects of post-extraction treatments of human dentin on the penetration of the 4-methacryloxyethyl trimellitic acid (4- MET)/methyl methacrylate (MMA)/tri-n-butyl borane (TBB) dentin adhesive. Human molar teeth, extracted and stored in distilled water or 70% ethanol solution for 7 or 28 days, were treated with the resin. Spatially resolved Raman microspectroscopy was used to measure penetration. The band intensity ratio 1612 cm-1 (resin): 962 cm-1 (dentin) was used as a diagnostic. Diffusion of the resin into dentin increased with the length of storage period. The results indicate that the effects of postextraction treatments on teeth must be considered when laboratory measurements of bonding strengths are employed to predict the clinical performance of dental cements. In addition, it is demonstrated that Raman microprobe spectroscopy is a feasible analytical tool to evaluate the effects of postextraction treatments on teeth.

Leung, Yiuchong; Morris, Michael D.

1997-01-01

27

Preliminary separation and purification of resveratrol from extract of peanut (Arachis hypogaea) sprouts by macroporous adsorption resins.  

PubMed

In the present study, the separation and purification characteristics of resveratrol from extract of peanut sprouts (PSE) on 11 macroporous adsorption resins were investigated. The results showed that ADS-5 offered better adsorption and desorption capacity for resveratrol than other tested resins. From the static experiments with ADS-5 resin, we found that the experimental data fitted best to the pseudo-second-order kinetics model and Langmuir isotherm model, and the adsorption was a spontaneous and endothermic process. The separation and purification parameters of resveratrol from PSE were optimised by dynamic adsorption/desorption experiments with the column packed with ADS-5 resin. Under the optimal conditions, after one run treatment with ADS-5 resin, the content of resveratrol in the product was increased 17.9-fold from 1.32% to 23.60%, with a recovery yield of 88.33%. The results demonstrated that ADS-5 resin was a promising basis for large-scale preliminary separation and purification of resveratrol from PSE. PMID:24128441

Xiong, Qingping; Zhang, Qianghua; Zhang, Danyan; Shi, Yingying; Jiang, Changxing; Shi, Xiaojuan

2013-08-09

28

Separation and purification of flavonoid from Taxus remainder extracts free of taxoids using polystyrene and polyamide resin.  

PubMed

An efficient separation process of flavonoid from Taxus wallichiana var. mairei remainder extracts free of taxoids was developed in this study. AB-8 macroporous resin and polyamide resin offered the fine adsorption capacity, and its adsorption rate at 30°C fitted well to the Langmuir and Freundich isotherms. Resin dynamic adsorption and desorption experiments were conducted to optimize the separation process of total flavonoids from T. wallichiana var. mairei remainder extracts free of taxoids. The optimum parameters for adsorption by AB-8 resin were as follows: (1) the concentration of flavonoids in a sample solution of 5.61 mg/mL with a processing volume of 2 bed volume (BV) (60 mL); (2) for desorption, ethanol-water (80:20, v/v), with 6 BV as an eluent at a flow rate of 2 BV/h. After a one-run treatment with AB-8 resin, the content of flavonoids was increased 5.10-fold from 4.05 to 20.65%. The optimum parameters for adsorption by polyamide resin were as follows: processing volume of 2 BV (30 mL); for desorption, ethanol-water (70:30, v/v), with 8 BV as an eluent at a flow rate of 2 BV/h. After one-run treatment with polyamide resin, the content of total flavonoids increased from 20.65 to 65.21%. The method will provide a potential approach for large-scale separation and purification of flavonoid for its wide pharmaceutical use. PMID:23936912

Ruan, Xiao; Zhan, Li-mei; Gao, Xing-xing; Yan, Liu-ye; Zhang, Huan; Zhu, Zhi-yong; Wang, Qiang; Jiang, De-an

2013-06-01

29

Phosphorus in runoff assessed by anion exchange resin extraction and an algal assay.  

PubMed

Eutrophication of surface waters can be accelerated by agricultural inputs of phosphorus (P), provided that P is in a form that can be utilized by aquatic algae. We studied anion exchange resin (AER) extraction and a dual culture algal assay (DCAA) for the determination of potentially algal-available P in water samples without sediment preconcentration. Our material consisted of agricultural and forest runoff and wastewaters. The results obtained by the two methods were essentially equal when the samples contained only small amounts of particulate phosphorus (PP) in relation to dissolved molybdate-reactive phosphorus (DRP). However, in turbid agricultural runoff, P extracted with AER averaged 72% (n = 17) of the P yield of the 3-wk DCAA (R2 = 0.94). When the runoff samples were diluted for the AER extraction in the same manner as for the DCAA, the AER-P yield increased to 85% (n = 5) of DCAA-P. The minimum detectable value was greater for the AER test (41 microg L(-1) AER-extractable P) than for the DCAA (7 microg L(-1) DCAA-P). At concentrations greater than about 50 microg L(-1) AER-P or DCAA-P, the accuracy of the methods was satisfactory, with the coefficient of variation in replicated analyses being less than 10% for the AER test and less than 20% for the DCAA. Other anions competing for the exchange sites of the AER decreased P recovery by 15 to 20% when their equivalent concentration exceeded about 4 mmol, L(-1), and this effect was relatively constant over a large concentration range. We consider that AER extraction is a suitable low-cost method to estimate the algal availability of P in runoff samples. PMID:12708688

Uusitalo, Risto; Ekholm, Petri

30

Characterization of the effects of post-extraction treatments on human dentin-resin interface by micro-Raman spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Raman microprobe spectroscopy was used to investigate the effects of post-extraction treatments of human dentin on the penetration of the 4-methacryloxyethyl trimellitic acid (4- MET)\\/methyl methacrylate (MMA)\\/tri-n-butyl borane (TBB) dentin adhesive. Human molar teeth, extracted and stored in distilled water or 70% ethanol solution for 7 or 28 days, were treated with the resin. Spatially resolved Raman microspectroscopy was used

Yiuchong Leung; Michael D. Morris

1997-01-01

31

Preparative Separation of Glabridin from Glycyrrhiza glabra L. Extracts with Macroporous Resins  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, the performance and adsorption characteristics of five macroporous resins for the separation of glabridin from Glycyrrhiza glabra L. have been evaluated. The adsorption and desorption properties of glabridin on macroporous resins including HPD100, HPD300, HPD800, NKA and H103 were compared. HPD100 resin offered the best adsorption and desorption capacities based on the research results. Both Langmuir

Yan Xu; Qipeng Yuan; Xiaodan Hou; Yanping Lin

2009-01-01

32

New chemically modified polymeric resin for solid-phase extraction of pesticides and phenolic compounds from water  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new chemically modified polymeric resin, with an o-carboxybenzoyl moiety, is developed to be used in the on-line solid-phase extraction (SPE) of some pesticides and phenolic compounds from aqueous samples, in order to obtain better breakthrough volumes than other commercial sorbents. The chemical introduction of this moiety improves the efficiency of SPE by providing better surface contact with aqueous samples.

N Masqué; M Galià; R. M Marcé; F Borrull

1998-01-01

33

Determination of oil reservoir radiotracer (S14CN-) in a single step using a plastic scintillator extractive resin.  

PubMed

The analysis of radiotracers is important in the study of oil reservoir dynamics. One of the most widely used radiotracer is S(14)CN(-). Prior to activity measurements by Liquid Scintillation (LS), routine determinations require the pretreatment steps of purification and concentration of the samples using anion exchange columns. The final elution media produces samples with high salt concentration that may lead to problems with phase separation during the LS measurement. Plastic Scintillation (PS) is an alternative technique that provides a solid surface that can be used as a platform for the immobilisation of selective extractants to obtain a PS resin. The proposed procedure unifies chemical separation and sample measurement preparation in a single step, serving to reduce the number of reagents needed and manpower required for the analysis while also avoiding mixed waste production by LS. The objective of this study is to develop a PS resin for the determination of (14)C-labelled thiocyanate radiotracer in water samples. For this purpose, the immobilisation procedure was optimised, including optimisation of the proportion of PS microspheres:extractant and the use of a control blank to monitor the PS resin immobilisation process. The breakthrough volume was studied and the detection and quantification limits for 100 mL of sample were determined to be 0.08 Bq L(-1) and 0.31 Bq L(-1), respectively. The established procedure was applied to active samples from oil reservoirs and errors lower than 5% in the sample determinations were obtained. PMID:22769002

Bagán, H; Tarancón, A; Stavsetra, L; Rauret, G; García, J F

2012-05-31

34

Direct measurement of elastic modulus of Nb3Sn using extracted filaments from superconducting composite wire and resin impregnation method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Young’s modulus of Nb3Sn filaments in Nb3Sn/Cu superconducting composite wire was investigated in detail. Nb3Sn filaments were first extracted from composite wire. Nitric acid and hydrofluoric acid were used to remove copper stabilizer, Nb3Sn/Nb barrier and bronze. Then, Nb3Sn filaments were impregnated with epoxy resin to form simple filament bundle composite rods. A large difference in Young’s moduli of filaments and epoxy resin enhance the accuracy of the measurement of Nb3Sn filament modulus. The ratio of Nb3Sn to Nb in filaments and the number of filaments in the fiber bundle composite rods were used in the final calculation of the Young’s modulus of Nb3Sn. The obtained modulus of 127 GPa was the lower bound of the already reported values.

Hojo, M.; Matsuoka, T.; Hashimoto, M.; Tanaka, M.; Sugano, M.; Ochiai, S.; Miyashita, K.

2006-10-01

35

Selective extraction of Th(IV) over U(VI) and other co-existing ions using eosin B-impregnated Amberlite IRA410 resin beads  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new chelating polymeric sorbent as an extractant impregnated resin (EIR) has been developed using eosin B and Amberlite\\u000a IRA-410 resin. The impregnation process was characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy. The eosin B-impregnated resin showed superior\\u000a binding affinity for Th(IV) over U(VI) and many co-existing ions. The influence of various physicochemical parameters on the\\u000a recovery of Th(IV) were optimized by both

Mohammad Saeid Hosseini; Ahmad Hosseini-Bandegharaei

2010-01-01

36

A novel extractant-impregnated resin containing carminic acid for selective separation and pre-concentration of uranium(VI) and thorium(IV)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present work proposes the use of a novel extractant-impregnated resin (EIR) as an adsorbent in trace separation and pre-concentration of U(VI) and Th(IV) ions. The new EIR was prepared by impregnating carminic acid onto Amberlite XAD-16 resin beads. The morphology of new EIR was studied by BET surface area measurements and SEM micrographs. A column packed with CA\\/XAD-16 was

Ahmad Hosseini-Bandegharaei; Mohammad Saeid Hosseini; Yousef Jalalabadi; Mehdi Nedaie; Masoud Sarwghadi; Akram Taherian; Esmat Hosseini

2011-01-01

37

Solid phase extraction of some precious metals from hydrochloric acid to polystyrene-divinylbenzene porous resin impregnated with polyoxyethylene-type nonionic surfactant.  

PubMed

The solid phase extraction of gold(III), platinum(II), and palladium(II) to surfactant-impregnated polystyrene-divinylbenzene porous resin (XAD-4) was studied. The extracting media could be prepared just by mixing the resin in aqueous surfactant solutions. XAD-4 impregnated with a nonionic surfactant, polyethylene glycol monooleyl ether, was useful for extracting gold(III) from hydrochloric acid. The extractions of platinum(II) and palladium(II) were improved in the use of XAD-4 impregnated with a nitrogen-containing nonionic surfactant, polyethylene glycol stearyl amine. On the other hand, base metals such as copper(II), cobalt(II), nickel(II) and zinc(II), were hardly extracted. PMID:16259992

Saitoh, Tohru; Suzuki, Syuntaro; Hiraide, Masataka

2005-11-02

38

A modified method for extraction and purification of prostaglandins with resin XAD-2.  

PubMed

Non-ionic resins such as XAD-2 have been widely used as part of routine procedures in the gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric determinations of prostaglandins from aqueous solutions. However, there are reports that XAD-2 cannot be used in connection with radioimmunoassay (RIA), because the column constantly leaks a polymer which almost completely inhibits the antigen-antibody binding. It seems, however, possible to overcome these difficulties by modifying the procedure. The present method can be used with RIA and in combination with further chromatographic purifications for GC-MS determinations. PMID:6588392

Seppälä, E; Pora, O; Metsä-Ketelä, T

1984-05-01

39

New chemically modified polymeric resin for solid-phase extraction of pesticides and phenolic compounds from water.  

PubMed

A new chemically modified polymeric resin, with an o-carboxybenzoyl moiety, is developed to be used in the on-line solid-phase extraction (SPE) of some pesticides and phenolic compounds from aqueous samples, in order to obtain better breakthrough volumes than other commercial sorbents. The chemical introduction of this moiety improves the efficiency of SPE by providing better surface contact with aqueous samples. This synthesized sorbent enables higher volumes of sample to be concentrated for determining polar compounds. When analyzing real samples, tap and river waters, different quantities of sulphite were added to decrease the initial band due to fulvic and humic acids. The matrix peaks decreased and there were no losses in the studied compounds observed when 500 and 1000 microliters of 10% Na2SO3 solution for every 100 ml of sample were added to tap and river water, respectively. PMID:9604330

Masqué, N; Galià, M; Marcé, R M; Borrull, F

1998-04-17

40

Phosphonic acid based exchange resins  

DOEpatents

An ion exchange resin for extracting metal ions from a liquid waste stream. An ion exchange resin is prepared by copolymerizing a vinylidene diphosphonic acid with styrene, acrylonitrile and divinylbenzene.

Horwitz, E. Philip (Naperville, IL); Alexandratos, Spiro D. (Knoxville, TN); Gatrone, Ralph C. (Naperville, IL); Chiarizia, Ronato (Oak Park, IL)

1995-01-01

41

Experiments on decolourization with 122 resin for extraction of gibberellins from solid medium under different conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extracting liquid of gibberellins (Gibberella fujikuroi) from solid medium for was decolorized separately with 75%, 95% alcohol, and distilled water in static adsorption and vibrating\\u000a way for different durations. The results showed that the content of GA3 in efflux extracted with alcohol is 10% higher than that with distilled water. With the increase of the durations of extraction,\\u000a the

Wu Hong-sheng; Fan Jia-qing; Shi Guang-hui; Zhao Nan-hai

2004-01-01

42

Method for recovering and using lignin in adhesive resins by extracting demethylated lignin  

DOEpatents

Lignin, or a lignin derived material, which has been significantly demethylated (e.g., the demethylated lignin found in the raffinate produced as a by-product of dimethyl sulfide production which can be carried out using the spent liquor from wood pulping operations) can be isolated by a process wherein an organic solvent is added to a lignin-containing aqueous solution. The organic solvent is typically a polar, and at least a partially water-immiscible substance such as, for example, ethyl acetate. The resulting lignin-containing aqueous solution/organic solvent mixture is acidified to produce a water layer which is discarded and an organic solvent layer which contains the demethylated lignin. Upon its recovery, the demethylated lignin is dissolved in an alkaline solution to which an aldehyde source is added to produce a resol-type resin. The aldehyde source may be formaldehyde in solution, paraformaldehyde, hexamethylenetetramine, or other aldehydes including acetaldehyde, furfural, and their derivatives.

Schroeder, Herbert A. (Ft. Collins, CO)

1991-01-01

43

Characterization and Application of Superlig 620 Solid Phase Extraction Resin for Automated Process Monitoring of 90Sr  

SciTech Connect

Characterization of SuperLig® 620 solid phase extraction resin was performed in order to develop an automated on-line process monitor for 90Sr. The main focus was on strontium separation from barium, with the goal of developing an automated separation process for 90Sr in high-level wastes. High-level waste contains significant 137Cs activity, of which 137mBa is of great concern as an interference to the quantification of strontium. In addition barium, yttrium and plutonium were studied as potential interferences to strontium uptake and detection. A number of complexants were studied in a series of batch Kd experiments, as SuperLig® 620 was not previously known to elute strontium in typical mineral acids. The optimal separation was found using a 2M nitric acid load solution with a strontium elution step of ~0.49M ammonium citrate and a barium elution step of ~1.8M ammonium citrate. 90Sr quantification of Hanford high-level tank waste was performed on a sequential injection analysis microfluidics system coupled to a flow-cell detector. The results of the on-line procedure are compared to standard radiochemical techniques in this paper.

Devol, Timothy A.; Clements, John P.; Farawila, Anne F.; O'Hara, Matthew J.; Egorov, Oleg; Grate, Jay W.

2009-11-30

44

Extractive fermentation for enhanced production of thailandepsin A from Burkholderia thailandensis E264 using polyaromatic adsorbent resin Diaion HP-20.  

PubMed

Thailandepsin A is natural product of Burkholderia thailandensis E264 with potent histone deacetylase inhibitory activities and promising anticancer activities. The titer of thailandepsin A is very low (less than 10 mg/l) from limited empirical fermentation. To facilitate preclinical evaluations and potentially clinical development of thailandepsin A, systematic optimization and extractive fermentation of thailandepsin A from B. thailandensis E264 culture in flasks were investigated in this pilot study. The main fermentation parameters--28°C, pH 7.0, inoculum ratio 1% (v/v), incubation duration 60 h, medium volume 26%, shaking speed 170 rpm, and chloroform as extracting solvent--were determined by single factor experiments. Polyaromatic adsorbent resin Diaion HP-20, when added at a concentration of 4% (w/v), was most effective to reduce feedback inhibition of thailandepsin A and to significantly increase the titer of target product. Central composite design was used to further optimize the fermentation medium for B. thailandensis E264. The optimized medium contains glucose 17.89 g/l, tryptone 34.98 g/l, potassium phosphate 24.84 g/l, and sodium citrate 0.01 g/l, which resulted in a large increase of the titer of thailandepsin A to 236.7 mg/l. Finally kinetic models based on the modified logistic and Luedeking-Piret equations were developed, delivering a good description of temporal variations of biomass, product, and substrate in the fermentation process, which could be used as references for developing large-scale fermentation. PMID:22246221

Liu, Bing; Hui, Junyuan; Cheng, Yi-Qiang; Zhang, Xuehong

2012-01-14

45

Gas chromatographic determination of organic acids from fruit juices by combined resin mediated methylation and extraction in supercritical carbon dioxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

A procedure in which anionic analytes, trapped on ion exchange resin, are simultaneously methylated and released using methyl iodide in either supercritical carbon dioxide or acetonitrile has been extended to polyfunctional organic acids. The combined SFE methylation of fruit juice acids trapped onto ion exchange resin proceeds in good yield producing the methyl esters of fumaric, succinic, malic, tartaric, isocitric

Timothy J. Barden; Marguerite Y. Croft; E. John Murby; Robert J. Wells

1997-01-01

46

Selective Removal of Zinc from an Electroless Nickel Plating Bath by Solvent Impregnated Resin Using 2-Ethylhexylphosphonic Acid Mono2-Ethylhexyl Ester as the Extractant  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solvent impregnated resin (SIR) containing 2-ethylhexylphosphonic acid mono-2-ethylhexyl ester (EHPNA) as the extractant was tested for zinc removal from aqueous solutions, including the real electroless nickel plating bath employed for an aluminum alloy substrate, in order to extend the bath life. The SIR effectively and selectively adsorbed zinc over nickel without any pH adjustment from the plating bath, although

Chaitanya Raj Adhikari; Hideaki Kumano; Mikiya Tanaka

2011-01-01

47

Solvent (ionic liquid) impregnated resin-based extraction coupled with dynamic ultrasonic desorption for separation and concentration of four herbicides in environmental water.  

PubMed

A new method was developed for the determination of monolinuron, propazine, linuron, and prebane in environmental water samples. The solvent (ionic liquid) impregnated resin (IL-SIR)-based extraction coupled with dynamic ultrasonic desorption (DUSD) was applied to the separation and concentration of the analytes. The high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was applied to the determination of the analytes. The ionic liquid [C(6)MIM][PF(6)] was immobilized on Diaion HP20 resin by immersing the resin in ethanol solution containing [C(6)MIM][PF(6)]. The effect of extraction parameters, including pH value of sample solution, salt concentration in sample and extraction time, and elution conditions, including the concentration of ethanol in elution solvent, the flow rate of elution solvent and the ultrasonic power, were examined and optimized. The limits of detection and quantification for the analytes were in the range of 0.15-0.29 ?g L(-1) and 0.51-0.98 ?g L(-1), respectively. Some environmental water samples were analyzed and the analytical results were satisfactory. PMID:21238727

Ren, Ruibing; Wang, Ying; Zhang, Rui; Gao, Shiqian; Zhang, Hanqi; Yu, Aimin

2010-11-18

48

Separation of 7-xylosyl-10-deacetyl paclitaxel and 10-deacetylbaccatin III from the remainder extracts free of paclitaxel using macroporous resins.  

PubMed

The separation and enrichment of 10-deacetylbaccatin III (10-DAB III) and 7-xylosyl-10-deacetyl paclitaxel were studied on seven macroporous resins with special structures. The performance of 7-xylosyl-10-deacetyl paclitaxel and 10-DAB III on macroporous resins including AB-8, ADS-17, ADS-21, ADS-31, ADS-8, H1020 and NKA-II was compared according to their adsorption and desorption properties. AB-8 provided a much higher adsorption capacity for 7-xylosyl-10-deacetyl paclitaxel and 10-DAB III than other resins, and its adsorption data fitted well to the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm. According to the adsorption and desorption capacities and the adsorption isotherms, AB-8 demonstrated a remarkable capability for the preparative separation of 7-xylosyl-10-deacetyl paclitaxel and 10-DAB III from the remainder extracts free of paclitaxel. In order to optimize parameters of separation, dynamic adsorption and desorption experiments were carried out on the columns packed with AB-8 resin. The optimal conditions were: the processing volume 15 BV; concentrations of 7-xylosyl-10-deacetyl paclitaxel and 10-DAB III in feed solution 0.0657 mg/mL and 0.1494 mg/mL; flow rate 1 mL/min; temperature 35 degrees C. The gradient elution program was as follows: 30% ethanol for 3 BV, then 80% of ethanol for 6 BV, flow rate 1 mL/min. After the AB-8 resin treatment, the contents of 7-xylosyl-10-deacetyl paclitaxel and 10-DAB III in the product had increased from 0.053% and 0.2% to 3.34% and 1.69%, which were 62.43-fold and 8.54-fold of those in the untreated extracts, respectively, and the recoveries of 7-xylosyl-10-deacetyl paclitaxel and 10-DAB III were 85.85% and 52.78%. The performance achieved good separation and higher recovery of 7-xylosyl-10-deacetyl paclitaxel and 10-DAB III from remainder extracts free of paclitaxel by using AB-8 resin. It is a fast and effective method for the separation and enrichment of 7-xylosyl-10-deacetyl paclitaxel and 10-DAB III. PMID:18054030

Fu, Yujie; Zu, Yuangang; Li, Shuangming; Sun, Rui; Efferth, Thomas; Liu, Wei; Jiang, Shougang; Luo, Hao; Wang, Ying

2007-11-17

49

Process for purification of monoclonal antibody expressed in transgenic Lemna plant extract using dextran-coated charcoal and hexamer peptide affinity resin.  

PubMed

The production of therapeutic proteins using transgenic plants offers several advantages, including low production cost, absence of human pathogens, presence of glycosylation mechanisms, and the ability to fold complex therapeutic proteins into their proper conformation. However, impurities such as phenolic compounds and pigments encountered during purification are quite different from those faced during purification from mammalian cell culture supernatants. This paper deals with the development of a pretreatment and affinity separation process for the purification of a monoclonal antibody from transgenic Lemna plant extract. A pretreatment step is described using dextran-coated charcoal for the removal of pigments and phenolic compounds without reducing the antibody concentration. Then, the peptide affinity ligand HWRGWV coupled to a commercial polymethacrylate resin is used for the capture and purification of MAb from the pretreated plant extract. The final yield and purity of the MAb obtained were 90% and 96% respectively. The performance of the hexamer peptide resin after the pretreatment step was found to be similar to that obtained with a commercial Protein A resin. PMID:22981461

Naik, Amith D; Menegatti, Stefano; Reese, Hannah R; Gurgel, Patrick V; Carbonell, Ruben G

2012-08-19

50

Phosphonic acid based ion exchange resins  

DOEpatents

An ion exchange resin for extracting metal ions from a liquid waste stream. An ion exchange resin is prepared by copolymerizing a vinylidene diphosphonic acid with styrene, acrylonitrile and divinylbenzene.

Horwitz, E. Philip (Naperville, IL); Alexandratos, Spiro D. (Knoxville, TN); Gatrone, Ralph C. (Naperville, IL); Chiarizia, Ronato (Oak Park, IL)

1996-01-01

51

Phosphonic acid based ion exchange resins  

DOEpatents

An ion exchange resin for extracting metal ions from a liquid waste stream. An ion exchange resin is prepared by copolymerizing a vinylidene disphosphonic acid with styrene, acrylonitrile and divinylbenzene.

Horwitz, E. Philip (Naperville, IL); Alexandratos, Spiro D. (Knoxville, TN); Gatrone, Ralph C. (Naperville, IL); Chiarizia, Ronato (Oak Park, IL)

1994-01-01

52

21 CFR 177.1580 - Polycarbonate resins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...c)(2) of this section. (1) Specification. Polycarbonate resins can be identified by their characteristic infrared spectrum. (2) Extractives limitations. The polycarbonate resins to be tested shall be ground or cut...

2009-04-01

53

21 CFR 177.1580 - Polycarbonate resins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...c)(2) of this section. (1) Specification. Polycarbonate resins can be identified by their characteristic infrared spectrum. (2) Extractives limitations. The polycarbonate resins to be tested shall be ground or cut...

2010-01-01

54

21 CFR 177.1580 - Polycarbonate resins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...paragraph (c)(2) of this section. (1) Specification. Polycarbonate resins can be identified by their characteristic infrared spectrum. (2) Extractives limitations. The polycarbonate resins to be tested shall be ground or cut into small...

2013-04-01

55

Final report on the safety assessment of capsicum annuum extract, capsicum annuum fruit extract, capsicum annuum resin, capsicum annuum fruit powder, capsicum frutescens fruit, capsicum frutescens fruit extract, capsicum frutescens resin, and capsaicin.  

PubMed

Capsicum-derived ingredients function as skin-conditioning agents--miscellaneous, external analgesics, flavoring agents, or fragrance components in cosmetics. These ingredients are used in 19 cosmetic products at concentrations as high as 5%. Cosmetic-grade material may be extracted using hexane, ethanol, or vegetable oil and contain the full range of phytocompounds that are found in the Capsicum annuum or Capsicum frutescens plant (aka red chiles), including Capsaicin. Aflatoxin and N-nitroso compounds (N-nitrosodimethylamine and N-nitrosopyrrolidine) have been detected as contaminants. The ultraviolet (UV) absorption spectrum for Capsicum Annuum Fruit Extract indicates a small peak at approximately 275 nm, and a gradual increase in absorbance, beginning at approximately 400 nm. Capsicum and paprika are generally recognized as safe by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for use in food. Hexane, chloroform, and ethyl acetate extracts of Capsicum Frutescens Fruit at 200 mg/kg resulted in death of all mice. In a short-term inhalation toxicity study using rats, no difference was found between vehicle control and a 7% Capsicum Oleoresin solution. In a 4-week feeding study, red chilli (Capsicum annuum) in the diet at concentrations up to 10% was relatively nontoxic in groups of male mice. In an 8-week feeding study using rats, intestinal exfoliation, cytoplasmic fatty vacuolation and centrilobular necrosis of hepatocytes, and aggregation of lymphocytes in the portal areas were seen at 10% Capsicum Frutescens Fruit, but not 2%. Rats fed 0.5 g/kg day-1 crude Capsicum Fruit Extract for 60 days exhibited no significant gross pathology at necropsy, but slight hyperemia of the liver and reddening of the gastric mucosa were observed. Weanling rats fed basal diets supplemented with whole red pepper at concentrations up to 5.0% for up to 8 weeks had no pathology of the large intestines, livers, and kidneys, but destruction of the taste buds and keratinization and erosion of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract were noted in groups fed 0.5% to 5.0% red pepper. The results of 9-and 12-month extension of this study showed normal large intestines and kidneys. In rabbits fed Capsicum Annuum Powder at 5 mg/kg day-1 in the diet daily for 12 months damage to the liver and spleen was noted. A rabbit skin irritation test of Capsicum Annuum Fruit Extract at concentrations ranging from 0.1% to 1.0% produced no irritation, but Capsicum Frutescens Fruit Extract induced concentration-dependent (at 25 to 500 microg/ml) cytotoxicity in a human buccal mucosa fibroblast cell line. An ethanol extract of red chili was mutagenic in Salmonella typhimurium TA98, but not in TA100, or in Escherichia coli. Other genotoxicity assays gave a similar pattern of mixed results. Adenocarcinoma of the abdomen was observed in 7/20 mice fed 100 mg red chilies per day for 12 months; no tumors were seen in control animals. Neoplastic changes in the liver and intestinal tumors were observed in rats fed red chili powder at 80 mg/kg day-1 for 30 days, intestinal and colon tumors were seen in rats fed red chili powder and 1,2-dimethyl hydrazine, but no tumors were observed in controls. In another study in rats, however, red chile pepper in the diet at the same dose decreased the number of tumors seen with 1,2-dimethylhydrazine. Other feeding studies evaluated the effect of red chili peppers on the incidence of stomach tumors produced by N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine, finding that red pepper had a promoting effect. Capsicum Frutescens Fruit Extract promoted the carcinogenic effect of methyl(acetoxymethyl)nitrosamine (carcinogen) or benzene hexachloride (hepatocarcinogen) in inbred male and female Balb/c mice dosed orally (tongue application). Clinical findings include symptoms of cough, sneezing, and runny nose in chili factory workers. Human respiratory responses to Capsicum Oleoresin spray include burning of the throat, wheezing, dry cough, shortness of breath, gagging, gasping, inability to breathe or speak, and, rarely, cyanosis, apnea, and respiratory arrest. A trade n

2007-01-01

56

Extraction of metal ions sorbed on Mn(IV) oxides and CaCO 3 using ion exchange resins  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of ion exchange resins to promote release of metal ions (Cu, Ph, Cd or Zn) presorbed on different structural forms of Mn(IV) oxide or CaCO3 has been investigated using exchangers possessing different types of functional groups and charged in either the H+ or Na+ form. The exchanger uptake reflected the degree of soluble salt or labile complex displaced

J. Slavek; W. F. Pickering

1989-01-01

57

Gas chromatographic determination of organic acids from fruit juices by combined resin mediated methylation and extraction in supercritical carbon dioxide.  

PubMed

A procedure in which anionic analytes, trapped on ion exchange resin, are simultaneously methylated and released using methyl iodide in either supercritical carbon dioxide or acetonitrile has been extended to polyfunctional organic acids. The combined SFE methylation of fruit juice acids trapped onto ion exchange resin proceeds in good yield producing the methyl esters of fumaric, succinic, malic, tartaric, isocitric and citric acids which are readily separated by GC. Using this procedure low concentrations of one acid can be detected and quantitated in the presence of very high concentrations of another. This new method detects tartaric acid at levels of 10 ppm in juices containing 10,000 ppm citric acid. Quantitation was performed either by using GC-FID with triethyl citrate or diethyl tartrate as internal standards or with the element specific calibration capability of the GC-AED. A simple new technique for the determination of citric/isocitric acid ratio is now available. Also, in contrast to HPLC methods, the identity of an analyte is readily confirmed by GC-MS. PMID:9409006

Barden, T J; Croft, M Y; Murby, E J; Wells, R J

1997-10-17

58

21 CFR 177.2410 - Phenolic resins in molded articles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...purpose of this section, the phenolic resins are those produced...employed in the production of the phenolic resins or added thereto to...extractives limitations: (1) Total extractives not to exceed...molded articles containing the phenolic resins shall be...

2010-01-01

59

21 CFR 177.2410 - Phenolic resins in molded articles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...purpose of this section, the phenolic resins are those produced...employed in the production of the phenolic resins or added thereto to...extractives limitations: (1) Total extractives not to exceed...molded articles containing the phenolic resins shall be...

2009-04-01

60

Extraction and Separation of Zirconium(IV) and Hafnium(IV) from Chloride Media Using Magnetic Resin with Phosphoric Acid Functionality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glycidyl methacrylate\\/divinylbenzene (GMA\\/DVB) resin modified by embedded magnetite was prepared. The resin was immobilized with phosphoric acid functionality and used to recover Zr(IV) and Hf(IV) from aqueous solutions using batch and column techniques. The resin obtained was investigated by means of infrared (IR), x-ray diffraction (XRD), and environmental scanning electron microscope ESEM. The measurements showed that the particles of Fe3O4

A. M. Donia; A. A. Atia; A. M. Daher; E. A. Elshehy

2011-01-01

61

Solidphase extraction and preconcentration of cadmium(II) in aqueous solution with Cd(II)-imprinted resin (poly-Cd(II)-DAAB-VP) packed columns  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel chelating resin (poly-Cd(II)-DAAB-VP) was prepared by metal ion imprinted polymer (MIIP) technique. The resin was obtained by one pot reaction of Cd(II)-diazoaminobenzene-vinylpyridine with cross-linker ethyleneglycoldimethacrylate (EGDMA). Comparing with non-imprinted resin, the poly-Cd(II)-DAAB-VP has higher adsorption capacity and selectivity for Cd(II). The distribution ratio (D) values for the Cd(II)-imprinted resin show increase for Cd(II) with respect to both D

Yongwen Liu; Xijun Chang; Sui Wang; Yong Guo; Bingjun Din; Shuangming Meng

2004-01-01

62

Simple and versatile operational fractionation of Fe and Zn in dietary products by solid phase extraction on ion exchange resins  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple and versatile protocol, based on use of solid phase extraction on strong ion exchangers and off-line detection by flame atomic absorption spectrometry, was devised to fractionate iron and zinc in common dietary food and beverages products, i.e., bee honeys, fruit juices and tea infusions. In the procedure proposed, cation exchanger Dowex 50Wx4 and anion exchanger Dowex 1x4 were

P. Pohl; B. Prusisz

2007-01-01

63

RESIN ATTRITION  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABS>Uranium metal is produced by the bomb reduction of UFâ with Mg. ; The slag from this reduction contains appreciable quantities of U, either in the ; metallic or the tetrafluoride form, in addition to the MgFâ. A process for ; recovering low enrichmeat U from this slag has gone into operation. A study of ; the causes of resin

G. R. Seiler; P. R. Ammann; A. B. Newey

1958-01-01

64

Resin Chemistry  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a During the ensuing years since the last phenolic resins book was published, many new and remarkable developments have occurred\\u000a in the realm of phenolic chemistry and are given in this chapter.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a A critical examination of the first step or addition step (methylolation) in the preparation of resoles is described and how\\u000a it can be controlled and compared with the typical

Louis Pilato

2010-01-01

65

Separation of 7-xylosyl-10-deacetyl paclitaxel and 10-deacetylbaccatin III from the remainder extracts free of paclitaxel using macroporous resins  

Microsoft Academic Search

The separation and enrichment of 10-deacetylbaccatin III (10-DAB III) and 7-xylosyl-10-deacetyl paclitaxel were studied on seven macroporous resins with special structures. The performance of 7-xylosyl-10-deacetyl paclitaxel and 10-DAB III on macroporous resins including AB-8, ADS-17, ADS-21, ADS-31, ADS-8, H1020 and NKA-II was compared according to their adsorption and desorption properties. AB-8 provided a much higher adsorption capacity for 7-xylosyl-10-deacetyl paclitaxel

Yujie Fu; Yuangang Zu; Shuangming Li; Rui Sun; Thomas Efferth; Wei Liu; Shougang Jiang; Hao Luo; Ying Wang

2008-01-01

66

Detection and Identification of Simple Phenolics in Pistacia lentiscus Resin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Identification and quantification of a series of phenolic compounds in Pistacia lentiscus resin, commonly known as Chios mastic gum, has been achieved based on high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) fractionation of polar extract of the resin prior to dual?column gas chromatography?mass spectrometry (GC?MS) analysis. Polyphenols were extracted from the resin with methanol\\/water and the extract was fractionated by HPLC. Identification

A. C. Kaliora; A. Mylona; A. Chiou; D. G. Petsios; N. K. Andrikopoulos

2005-01-01

67

Intensification of Gold Sorption by Anion Exchange Resins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gold extraction technology based on anion exchange resins with mixed basicity, commonly used in former soviet countries, includes a complicated and expensive process of resin regeneration and gold stripping by thiocarbamide solution. Satisfactory sorption properties of weak base anion exchange resin at pH 6–8 and low cost of metal stripping by sodium hydroxide solution have aroused considerable interest in these

V. V. AMBAROV; N. O. NIZHEGORODTSEVS

1995-01-01

68

RESIN METABOLISM IN THE SAPWOOD OF PINUS RADIATA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon-14 produced in nuclear explosions was used as a tracer to examine ; resin metabolism in Pinus radiata. Annual rings of trees were ground and the ; resin extracted. The C¹²: C¹³ and C¹⁴ ratio of each sample was ; determined. Results indicate that all the resin activity is considerably lower ; than that of the atmosphere at the time

A. T. Wilson; J. M. Gumbley; D. J. Spedding

1963-01-01

69

Scintillating 99Tc Selective Ion Exchange Resins  

SciTech Connect

Scintillating technetium (99Tc) selective ion exchange resins have been developed and evaluated for equilibrium capacities and detection efficiencies. These resins can be utilized for the in-situ concentration and detection of low levels of pertechnetate anions (99TcO4-) in natural waters. Three different polystyrene type resin support materials were impregnated with varying amounts of tricaprylmethylammonium chloride (Aliquat 336) extractant, several different scintillating fluors and wavelength shifters. The prepared resins were contacted batch-wise to equilibrium over a wide range of 99TcO4- concentrations in natural water. The measured capacities were used to develop Langmuir adsorption isotherms for each resin. 99Tc detection efficiencies were determined and up to 71.4 ± 2.6% was achieved with some resins. The results demonstrate that a low level detection limit for 99TcO4- in natural waters can be realized.

Mitchell Greenhalgh; Richard D. Tillotson

2012-07-01

70

Examination of styrene-divinylbenzene ion-exchange resins, used in contact with food, for potential migrants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nature of extractable substances from five types of styrene-divinylbenzene ion-exchange resins used in the preparation of foodstuffs was investigated. Strong acid cation resins, strong and weak base anion resins, and an active carbon replacement resin were examined. These resins are used for a variety of purposes including water softening, decalcification of sugar syrups, demineralization, removal of nitrate ions from

J. A. Sidwell; B. G. Willoughby

2006-01-01

71

Continuous metal removal technique for resist resins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modern resists require very pure raw materials to insure highest quality images. Many methods have been developed to reduce metals in resins used to make photoresists. Extractive washing techniques and ion exchange methods have been the predominant methods used to reduce metal levels for these critical raw materials. This has been especially important for the novolak resins because of the generally poor quality of the starting materials used to make them and by the nature of the resin isolation steps traditionally used. Both of the commonly used cleaning methods are time consuming and are predominantly batch processes. Based upon techniques developed to efficiently fractionate resins, we have developed a technique for the rapid, continuous reduction of metal contaminants in film forming resin solutions by an extractive method using a double inlet liquid/liquid centrifuge.

Wanat, Stan F.; McKenzie, Douglas S.; Rahman, M. D.

2001-08-01

72

Phenolic Resin Syntactic Foams.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Syntactic foams were prepared from blends of six phenolic resins and carbon microbubbles. The compressive strength of the phenolic resin foams is equivalent to the strength of foams made from a polyimide resin. Ammonia evolved during the cure diffuses rap...

H. M. McIlroy

1980-01-01

73

Application of enzymes, sodium tripolyphosphate and cation exchange resin for the release of extracellular polymeric substances from sewage sludge. Characterization of the extracted polysaccharides/glycoconjugates by a panel of lectins.  

PubMed

The study describes extraction of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) from sewage sludge by applying enzymes and enzymes combined with sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP). Additionally, a systematic study of two non-enzymatic extraction agents is described. The assessment of the released products is made by colorimetrical methods and polysaccharides/glycoconjugates identification by the interaction with four immobilized lectins. Bio-sludge from Helsingborg (Sweden) and Damhusåen (Denmark) were used as two case studies for testing enzymatic extractability and thereby to make useful prediction of sludge bio-digestibility. From Helsingborg sludge the enzymes extracted about 40% more of EPS than from Damhusåen. The polysaccharides/glycoconjugates in both sludges maintained the same level, and showed substantial different interaction motifs with lectins panel. Damhusåen enzymatic extracted EPS had an enhanced amount of suspended material that was post-hydrolysed by the use of polygalacturonase and lysozyme resulting in pectin like polymers and petiptidoglycans. Petiptidoglycan is a marker from bacterial cell debris. STPP and cation exchange resin (CER) released different quantities of EPS. The CER released polysaccharides/glycoconjugates had higher molecular weight and stronger affinity towards Concanavalin A than the one released by the action of STPP. Independent of the extraction conditions, STPP released elevated amounts of polyvalent cations and humic substances in contrast to the very low amounts of released by CER. PMID:17543410

Wawrzynczyk, J; Szewczyk, E; Norrlöw, O; Dey, E Szwajcer

2007-04-24

74

Examination of styrene-divinylbenzene ion-exchange resins, used in contact with food, for potential migrants.  

PubMed

The nature of extractable substances from five types of styrene-divinylbenzene ion-exchange resins used in the preparation of foodstuffs was investigated. Strong acid cation resins, strong and weak base anion resins, and an active carbon replacement resin were examined. These resins are used for a variety of purposes including water softening, decalcification of sugar syrups, demineralization, removal of nitrate ions from water and decolourization. Analysis was carried out using electrospray LC-MS- and GC-MS-based methodologies. Extractable substances from new resins were identified as mainly being by-products of the resin manufacturing process. Levels of extractable substances decreased with washing. PMID:16751150

Sidwell, J A; Willoughby, B G

2006-07-01

75

Flow-injection flame atomic absorption spectrometric determination of trace amounts of cadmium in solid and semisolid milk products coupling a continuous ultrasound-assisted extraction system with the online preconcentration on a chelating aminomethylphosphoric acid resin.  

PubMed

A new sensitive and low-cost method that combines continuous acid extraction, online preconcentration, and flame atomic absorption spectrometry for cadmium determination at microg levels in solid and semisolid milk products is described. A continuous ultrasound-assisted extraction system is used to carry out the dynamic acid extraction step. The acid extract is preconcentrated online on a minicolumn packed with a chelating resin (Chelite P, with aminomethylphosphoric acid groups), and the retained cadmium is eluted with hydrochloric acid and continuously monitored by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. An experimental design (Plackett-Burman 2-6*3/16) is used to optimize the continuous extraction and the preconcentration step. The method allowed a total sampling frequency of 28 samples/h. A good precision of the whole procedure (3.0% relative standard deviation) for a cheese sample containing 0.103 +/- 0.004 microg/g Cd (dry mass), a high enrichment factor (20.5), and detection and quantification limits of 0.014 and 0.067 microg/g, respectively, for a 60 mg of sample were obtained with this methodology. The method was successfully applied to the determination of trace amounts of cadmium in solid and semisolid milk products, such as cheese and yogurt samples. PMID:16512246

Cancela, Sheila; Yebra, M Carmen

76

Process research of macroporous resin chromotography for separation of N-( p-coumaroyl)serotonin and N-feruloylserotonin from Chinese safflower seed extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

N-(p-Coumaroyl)serotonin (CS) and N-feruloylserotonin (FS) are two bioactive serotonin derivatives in safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) seeds with many biological effects. In the present study, the sorption and desorption characteristics of six widely used macroporous resins, coded D312, 860021, DM131, HZ801, AB-8 and XDA-1, respectively, is critically evaluated and compared for enrichment and preparative separation of CS and FS. Static adsorption

Qingzhe Jin; Jinhuan Yue; Liang Shan; Guanjun Tao; Xingguo Wang; Aiyong Qiu

2008-01-01

77

One step U-Pu-Cs-Ln-steel separation using TRU preconditioned extraction resins from Eichrom for application on transmutation targets  

Microsoft Academic Search

A one step Cs, lanthanides (Ln), Pu and U separation using TRU resin (Eichrom), for subsequent isotopic analyses, is presented\\u000a for samples of transmutation targets containing a predominant matrix of steel elements. Cs, Ln, Pu and U are successively\\u000a eluted using minor volumes (3, 4M HCl, 0.075M oxalic acid in 1M HCl media and 0.1M ammonium hydrogen oxalate in 0.02M

S. Quidelleur; M. Granet; I. Laszak; H. Isnard; E. Pons-Branchu; R. Brennetot; C. Caussignac

2009-01-01

78

Cytotoxicity of resin-based restorative materials on human pulp cell cultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. The objective of this study was to determine the cytocompatibility of 5 different extracts of resin-based restorative materials (2 resin-modified glass ionomer cements, 1 compomer, and 2 composite resins) on human pulp cells. Study Design. Set specimens from 2 resin-modified glass-ionomer cements (Fuju II LC and Fuji IX), 1 compomer (Dyract), and 2 composite resins (Tetric and Superfil) were

Fu-Mei Huang; Yu-Chao Chang

2002-01-01

79

Determination of trace amounts of lead, arsenic, nickel and cobalt in high-purity iron oxide pigment by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry after iron matrix removal with extractant-contained resin.  

PubMed

Inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) was applied to the determination of lead, arsenic, nickel and cobalt in high-purity iron oxide pigment. Samples were dissolved with hydrochloric acid and hydrogen peroxide. The digest was passed through a column, which was packed with a polymer resin containing a neutral organophosphorus extractant, tri-n-butylphosphate. Iron was sorbed selectively on the resin and the analytes of interest passed through the column, allowing the effective separation of them from the iron matrix. Conditions of separation were optimized. The detection limits (3sigma) in solution were 10, 40, 7 and 5 microg L(-1), and in pigment were 0.2, 0.8, 0.14 and 0.1 mg kg(-1) for lead, arsenic, cobalt and nickel, respectively. The recoveries ranged from 95% to 107% when sample digests were spiked with 5 microg of the analytes of interest, and relative standard deviations (n=6) were 1.5-17.6% for the determination of the spiked samples. The method was successfully applied to the determination of trace amounts of these elements in high-purity iron oxide pigment samples. PMID:17386605

Xu, Yuyu; Zhou, Jianfeng; Wang, Guoxin; Zhou, Jinfan; Tao, Guanhong

2006-11-11

80

Phenolic resin syntactic foams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Syntactic foams were prepared from blends of six phenolic resins and carbon microbubbles. The compressive strength of the phenolic resin foams is equivalent to the strength of foams made from a polyimide resin. Ammonia evolved during the cure diffuses rapidly and is not bound by the foam.

McIlroy

1980-01-01

81

Polyester Resin Hazards  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polyester resins are being increasingly used in industry. These resins require the addition of catalysts and accelerators. The handling of polyester resin system materials may give rise to skin irritations, allergic reactions, and burns. The burns are probably due to styrene and organic peroxides. Atmospheric pollution from styrene and explosion and fire risks from organic peroxides must be prevented. Where

L. B. Bourne; F. J. M. Milner

1963-01-01

82

Luminescence study of conversion of resins to asphaltenes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objects of this investigation were resins and asphaltenes from a West Siberian crude. The resins were extracted from a straight pyrolysis tar with petroleum ether, after removing the aromatic hydrocarbons with butanol. The asphaltenes remained in the precipitate. As model systems, the authors took solutions of these substances in toluene. Owing to the high sensitivity of the luminescence spectrometric

R. Z. Syunyaev

1985-01-01

83

Micro-tensile bond testing of resin cements to dentin and an indirect resin composite  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: Micro-tensile bond strength (?TBS) evaluation and fractographic analysis were used to compare four resin cement systems (AC: All-Bond 2\\/Choice; RX: Single Bond\\/RelyX ARC; SB: Super-Bond C&B; and PF: Panavia F) in indirect composite\\/dentin adhesive joints.Methods: Flat dentin surfaces were created on extracted human third molars. The resin cements were used according to the manufacturers' instructions for bonding silanized composite

Yiu-Fai Mak; Shirley C. N Lai; Gary S. P Cheung; Alex W. K Chan; Franklin R Tay; David H Pashley

2002-01-01

84

Polyester Resin Hazards  

PubMed Central

Polyester resins are being increasingly used in industry. These resins require the addition of catalysts and accelerators. The handling of polyester resin system materials may give rise to skin irritations, allergic reactions, and burns. The burns are probably due to styrene and organic peroxides. Atmospheric pollution from styrene and explosion and fire risks from organic peroxides must be prevented. Where dimethylaniline is used scrupulous cleanliness and no-touch technique must be enforced. Handling precautions are suggested. Images

Bourne, L. B.; Milner, F. J. M.

1963-01-01

85

Branched polymeric media: boron-chelating resins from hyperbranched polyethylenimine.  

PubMed

Extraction of boron from aqueous solutions using selective resins is important in a variety of applications including desalination, ultrapure water production, and nuclear power generation. Today's commercial boron-selective resins are exclusively prepared by functionalization of styrene-divinylbenzene (STY-DVB) beads with N-methylglucamine to produce resins with boron-chelating groups. However, such boron-selective resins have a limited binding capacity with a maximum free base content of 0.7 eq/L, which corresponds to a sorption capacity of 1.16 ± 0.03 mMol/g in aqueous solutions with equilibrium boron concentration of ?70 mM. In this article, we describe the synthesis and characterization of a new resin that can selectively extract boron from aqueous solutions. We show that branched polyethylenimine (PEI) beads obtained from an inverse suspension process can be reacted with glucono-1,5-D-lactone to afford a resin consisting of spherical beads with high density of boron-chelating groups. This resin has a sorption capacity of 1.93 ± 0.04 mMol/g in aqueous solution with equilibrium boron concentration of ?70 mM, which is 66% percent larger than that of standard commercial STY-DVB resins. Our new boron-selective resin also shows excellent regeneration efficiency using a standard acid wash with a 1.0 M HCl solution followed by neutralization with a 0.1 M NaOH solution. PMID:22827255

Mishra, Himanshu; Yu, Changjun; Chen, Dennis P; Goddard, William A; Dalleska, Nathan F; Hoffmann, Michael R; Diallo, Mamadou S

2012-08-10

86

21 CFR 177.2490 - Polyphenylene sulfide resins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...above. (d) Polyphenylene sulfide resin coatings may be used in contact with food at temperatures not to exceed the boiling point of water; provided that the finished cured coating, when extracted at reflux temperatures for 8 hours...

2013-04-01

87

Delayed cure bismaleimide resins  

DOEpatents

Prior art polybismaleimides begin to polymerize at or just above the melting point of the monomer. This patent describes new bismaleimide resins which have an increased pot life and provide longer time periods in which the monomer remains fluid. The resins can be polymerized into molded articles with a high uniformity of properties. (DLC)

Not Available

1982-08-12

88

Biocompatibility of composite resins  

PubMed Central

Dental materials that are used in dentistry should be harmless to oral tissues, so they should not contain any leachable toxic and diffusible substances that can cause some side effects. Reports about probable biologic hazards, in relation to dental resins, have increased interest to this topic in dentists. The present paper reviews the articles published about biocompatibility of resin-restorative materials specially resin composites and monomers which are mainly based on Bis-GMA and concerns about their degradation and substances which may be segregated into oral cavity.

Mousavinasab, Sayed Mostafa

2011-01-01

89

Innovative manufacture techniques of Chinese medicine with ultrasound and porous resin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ultrasound could be used to extract medicine materials from traditional Chinese herbs. And the macro-porous resin purification is an obvious biomaterial technology. The characteristics of ultrasound propagation in the mixture of biomaterials and liquor are researched for Chinese medicine extraction. And how to combine ultrasonic technique with macro-porous resin purification is discussed in the paper. To overcome some shortages of

Baoqiang Wang; Xiaobo Li; Ping Ran

2008-01-01

90

Dilatometry on Thermoset Resins.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A simple capillary and bulb mercury dilatometer designed for making specific volume measurements on thermoset resin systems during the curing reaction and as a function of temperature is described. The design, calibration, operation, data treatment and er...

A. W. Snow J. P. Armistead

1991-01-01

91

Thermally Stable Laminating Resins.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Improved thermally stable laminating resins were developed based on the addition-type pyrolytic polymerization. Detailed monomer and polymer synthesis and characterization studies identified formulations which facilitate press molding processing and autoc...

E. A. Burns R. J. Jones R. W. Vaughan

1972-01-01

92

Refining of fossil resin flotation concentrate from western coal. Sixth quarter final report, April 1, 1994--June 30, 1994.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Research conducted in the sixth quarter of this project is reported. Experiments this quarter dealt with the effects of extraction temperature and extraction time on the quality of extracted resin products. The utilization of recycled solvents for this pr...

G. F. Jensen J. D. Miller

1994-01-01

93

The use of ultraviolet LED illumination for composite resin removal: an in vitro study.  

PubMed

It may be difficult to recognize composite resin restorations that are correctly shade-matched and well-placed by visual and tactile inspection alone--which can make the replacement of an existing resin restoration challenging. Many composite resins fluoresce under UV light, which can help dentists to detect resin material. This article explores a technique that utilizes a UV LED to cause composite resin to fluoresce. A UV/visible light spectrofluorometer was used to measure fluorescence excitation and emission maxima of 14 composite resin brands. Control samples of dentin and enamel were measured in a similar manner. Subsequently, each brand of composite resin was placed in extracted teeth and relative fluorescence was assessed. The composite resins were then removed and each tooth was inspected using UV light to detect remaining resin. Results from this study indicated that the optimal excitation wavelength was 385-395 nm, while 460 nm was determined to be the mean emission maxima. This study revealed three types of resin: highly fluorescent, moderately fluorescent, and weakly fluorescent. In each instance, the UV light revealed the presence of resin after all resin was believed to have been removed. Based on the results of this study, the use of UV illumination can be a useful technique for determining if composite resin has been removed completely. PMID:20829156

Bush, Mary A; Hermanson, Arnold S; Yetto, Robert J; Wieczkowski, Gerard

94

Method for removing contaminants from plastic resin  

DOEpatents

A resin recycling method that produces essentially contaminant-free synthetic resin material in an environmentally safe and economical manner. The method includes receiving the resin in container form. The containers are then ground into resin particles. The particles are exposed to a solvent, the solvent contacting the resin particles and substantially removing contaminants on the resin particles. After separating the particles and the resin, a solvent removing agent is used to remove any residual solvent remaining on the resin particles after separation.

Bohnert, George W. (Harrisonville, MO); Hand, Thomas E. (Lee' s Summit, MO); DeLaurentiis, Gary M. (Jamestown, CA)

2008-12-09

95

Production of petroleum polymer resins  

Microsoft Academic Search

In other countries, petroleum polymer resins are being used successfully in large volumes. In the U.S. in 1982, for example, 128,000 tonnes of petroleum polymer resins were produced [2], much of which was used in the paint and varnish industry. In commercial production in the USSR are a dark-colored styrene-lndene resin and light-colored petroleum polymer resins of two types --

Yu. V. Dumskii; M. E. Belyakov; A. K. Suroto; G. F. Cherednikova; L. B. Grin'ko

1988-01-01

96

Approaches Toward Synthesizing Novel Extractant Systems: Polymeric Bifunctional Extractants with Synergistic Possibilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The synthesis of a monoarylphosphinic acid-diarylphosphine oxide extractant system supported on macroporous polystyrene beads is reported. The bifunctional resin was used in separate zinc and copper(I1) ion extraction studies. Results wth both metals show an excellent extent of extraction under low loading conditions and solution pH of 1–2; at equivalent meta1:resin concentrations, the resin absorbs 50% of the metalin solution.

S. D. Alexandratos; W. J. McDowell

1983-01-01

97

Powdered resin for condensate polishing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Powdered resin systems have a lot to offer in the deionization of low TDS waters, as can be seen in the wide use of this process for the treatment of condensate in the electric power industry. I believe that as new ion-exchange resins are developed, we will see the powdered ion-exchange resin process adopted in other industries. At this time,

Richard Hetherington

1997-01-01

98

Epoxy resin sand consolidation rejuvenation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A process is described for increasing the strength and stability of an epoxy resin-consolidated permeable mass of grains that has been weakened by a resin- degradative aqueous liquid. The mud acids, which comprise aqueous solutions of acidic materials that contain (or form) hydrofluoric acid, are particularly strong resin-degradative aqueous liquids. A consolidated permeable mass of grains that contains an epoxy

T. W. Jr. Hamby; W. T. Jr. Strickland

1972-01-01

99

CTBN Modified Epoxy Resin.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An encapsulating resin for electronic components is evaluated for critical parameters. The encapsulant studied is a CTBN/Epoxy/DEA system. Several curatives were evaluated for use with the system, as were the effect of an antioxidant. Compared with a more...

K. E. Creed

1975-01-01

100

Resin composite contours.  

PubMed

When placing posterior composite resin restorations, clinicians often struggle to achieve good contacts. Frequently contacts that are successful are only confined to the occlusal aspect of the proximal wall. A clinical technique is discussed which achieves the correct contour as well as tight contacts. The technique is also minimally invasive and highly aesthetic. PMID:20448605

Sidelsky, H

2010-05-01

101

Optimization of luteolin separation from pigeonpea [ Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.] leaves by macroporous resins  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, the performance and separation characteristics of eight macroporous resins for the separation of luteolin (LU) from pigeonpea leaves extracts have been evaluated. The adsorption and desorption properties of LU on macroporous resins including AB-8, NKA-9, NKA-2, D3520, D101, H1020, H103 and AL-2 have been compared. AL-2 resin offers the best adsorption and desorption capacity for LU

Yujie Fu; Yuangang Zu; Wei Liu; Thomas Efferth; Naijing Zhang; Xiaona Liu; Yu Kong

2006-01-01

102

Leaching of concrete admixtures containing thiocyanate and resin acids.  

PubMed

There is an increasing concern about the emission of pollutants during the construction and lifetime of buildings. The leaching of concrete admixtures containing thiocyanate and resin acids was studied using standard leaching tests and chemical analysis. Ecotoxicological risk was assessed for each admixture. Thiocyanate leaching from concrete, with a chlorine-free accelerating admixture, was determined by ion chromatography. Of the total amount of thiocyanate added, 6-8% was emitted within 30 d. The thiocyanate diffusion curve indicates a fast dissolution process from the surface layer, followed by a slower continuous diffusion process. Thiocyanate exhibits both acute and chronic toxicity, which makes it of immediate environmental concern. Resin acid leaching from concrete test specimens containing an admixture of air-entraining agents with tall oil was determined by solid-phase extraction, methylation, and GC/MS. Of added resin acids, 10% was emitted over 143 d. The leaching curves for the resin acids indicate a continuous diffusion that is proportional to the square root of time and follows Fick's first law of diffusion. The chemical composition of the resin acids in the leachate demonstrates degradation and rearrangement of the resin acids during diffusion. Resin acids emitted from concrete are of environmental concern because they are persistent and have the ability to bioaccumulate in aquatic organisms. PMID:11349293

Andersson, A C; Stromvall, A M

2001-02-15

103

Effect of bulk insertion, prepolymerized resin composite balls, and beta-quartz inserts on microleakage of Class V resin composite restorations.  

PubMed

Polymerization shrinkage of resin composite at the margin can seriously decrease the longevity of the restoration. Three direct restorative techniques were evaluated for their effects on microleakage. Sixty Class V cavities were prepared in extracted human maxillary molar teeth. The cavities were restored with resin composite placed in one bulk increment, resin composite and a beta-quartz insert, or resin composite and a prepolymerized resin composite ball insert. After they were thermocycled and placed in 0.5% basic fuchsin for 24 hours, the specimens were sectioned and examined for microleakage. The restorations with a prepolymerized ball of resin composite exhibited significantly more microleakage than did restorations with a beta-quartz insert or restorations inserted in bulk. PMID:8941843

Applequist, E A; Meiers, J C

1996-04-01

104

EP-toxicity testing of mercury removal resin grout  

SciTech Connect

To determine which category a waste will fit into, the EPA requires a classification test. The test, EP-toxicity, consists of a physical integrity test followed by an extraction. For the case of the mercury removal resin grout, the mercury concentration in the extract cannot exceed 0.2 mg/L if the waste is to be classified as ``solid waste.`` Otherwise, the waste is classified as ``hazardous.`` Simulated process solutions were used to load the mercury removal resin. The resin was solidified with the addition of cement and water using a formulation based on grout formulations typically used to solidify power reactor ion exchange resins. Envirodyne Engineers of St. Louis, Missouri, an EPA sanctioned laboratory, performed the EP-toxicity test for the two samples. One sample was a blank which was made with unloaded resin. For the formulation tested, the EP-toxicity test results showed that the mercury removal resin grout does not fit into the ``hazardous waste`` category.

Mersman, K.E.

1984-07-18

105

Differentiation between Resins Boswellia carterii and Boswellia frereana (Frankincense) of Somali Origin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemical composition of a methanolic extract of the resins of Boswellia frereana and B. carterii were examined by GC and GC\\/MS. Although only a limited number of constituents were identified, it is possible to use the data presented to differentiate between resins of each species.

Giuseppe Chiavari; Guido C. Galletti; Roberta Piccaglia; Mohamed Ahmed Mohamud

1991-01-01

106

Adhesive permeability affects coupling of resin cements that utilise self-etching primers to dentine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. To examine the effects of an experimental bonding technique that reduces the permeability of the adhesive layer on the coupling of resin cements to dentine.Methods. Extracted human third molars had their mid to deep dentin surface exposed flat by transversally sectioning the crowns. Resin composite overlays were constructed and cemented to the surfaces using either Panavia F (Kuraray) or

R. M. Carvalho; T. A. Pegoraro; F. R. Tay; L. F. Pegoraro; N. R. F. A. Silva; D. H. Pashley

2004-01-01

107

Bond strengths and remnant adhesive resin on debonding for orthodontic bonding techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bond strengths and remnant adhesive resin on the tooth surface after debonding for three bonding techniques used to attach foil mesh orthodontic brackets to 315 freshly extracted bovine incisor teeth were compared in an in vitro study. Each method of bonding used 105 teeth in groups of 15, bonded with seven different (bis-GMA type) two-paste chemically cured resins. The direct

Pramod K. Sinha; Ram S. Nanda; Manville G. Duncanson; Michael J. Hosier

1995-01-01

108

Resin composite restorative materials.  

PubMed

This paper surveys the most important developments in resin-based dental composites and focuses on the deficits (e.g. polymerization shrinkage) and strengths of the materials and their clinical implications. Moreover, differences between composite categories, such as hybrid, nanohybrid, microfilled, packable, ormocer-based, silorane-based, polyacid-modified composites (compomers) and flowable composites are highlighted, especially in view of their mechanical behaviour. In addition to the classical dimethacrylate-based composites, special attention is given to alternative monomers, such as siloranes, ormocers or high-molecular-weight dimethacrylate monomers (e.g. dimer acid-based dimethacrylates and tricyclodecane (TCD)-urethane), analysing their advantages, behaviour and abilities. Finally, the paper attempts to establish the needs and wishes of clinicians for further development of resin-based composites. PMID:21564116

Ilie, N; Hickel, R

2011-06-01

109

System for removing contaminants from plastic resin  

DOEpatents

A resin recycling system that produces essentially contaminant-free synthetic resin material in an environmentally safe and economical manner. The system includes receiving the resin in container form. A grinder grinds the containers into resin particles. The particles are exposed to a solvent in one or more solvent wash vessels, the solvent contacting the resin particles and substantially removing contaminants on the resin particles. A separator is used to separate the resin particles and the solvent. The resin particles are then placed in solvent removing element where they are exposed to a solvent removing agent which removes any residual solvent remaining on the resin particles after separation.

Bohnert, George W. (Harrisonville, MO); Hand, Thomas E. (Lee' s Summit, MO); DeLaurentiis, Gary M. (Jamestown, CA)

2010-11-23

110

Gross alpha determination in drinking water using a highly specific resin and LSC.  

PubMed

Some results of experiments concerning a new highly specific resin for the extraction of alpha-emitting nuclides from drinking water samples are presented. The product used during these experiments is a new extraction chromatographic resin which consists of a combination of several reagents and extractants supported on inert polymeric substrates, called "Resin" hereafter. It shows strong affinity for Actinides in the tri-, tetra- and hexavalent oxidation state, as well as for radium, even in presence of large amounts of calcium. Gross-alpha activities were determined using alpha-/beta-discrimination liquid scintillation counting (alpha-/beta-LSC) by direct measurement of the dried resin after extraction. Counting conditions were optimised accordingly. A method for the determination of alpha-emitting nuclides in drinking water was developed and tested using intercomparison and spiked drinking water samples. PMID:15177368

Happel, S; Letessier, P; Ensinger, W; Eikenberg, J H; Thakkar, A H; Horwitz, E P

111

AFM of biological material embedded in epoxy resin  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a simple method to extract morphological details from the block face of epoxy embedded biopolymers by AFM. It is shown that topographical contrast and the identification of small structural details critically depend on the procedure of sample preparation before embedding (chemical fixation or high-pressure freezing and freeze-substitution) and on the hardness of the embedding epoxy resin. Ethanol treatment

Nadezda Matsko; Martin Mueller

2004-01-01

112

Indirect resin composites  

PubMed Central

Aesthetic dentistry continues to evolve through innovations in bonding agents, restorative materials, and conservative preparation techniques. The use of direct composite restoration in posterior teeth is limited to relatively small cavities due to polymerization stresses. Indirect composites offer an esthetic alternative to ceramics for posterior teeth. This review article focuses on the material aspect of the newer generation of composites. This review was based on a PubMed database search which we limited to peer-reviewed articles in English that were published between 1990 and 2010 in dental journals. The key words used were ‘indirect resin composites,’ composite inlays,’ and ‘fiber-reinforced composites.’

Nandini, Suresh

2010-01-01

113

Absorption of beta-adrenoceptor antagonists to Amberlite resin.  

PubMed

The adsorption of beta-adrenoceptor blockers and the partial beta-adrenoceptor agonist prenalterol was studied in an in vitro haemoperfusion (HP) model. Metoprolol, alprenolol, propranolol and prenalterol adsorb well from the blood to the resin with extraction ratios nearing 1.0. Extraction ratio for practolol was 0.68 and for atenolol 0.49. Protein binding has little effect on the degree of adsorption, which is more dependent on water solubility. PMID:6133547

Heath, A; Gabrielsson, M; Redgårdh, C G

1983-04-01

114

ELUTION OF URANIUM FROM RESIN  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is described for eluting uranium from anion exchange resins so ; as to decrease vanadium and iron contamination and permit recycle of the major ; portion of the eluats after recovery of the uranium. Diminution of vanadium and ; iron contamination of the major portion of the uranium is accomplished by ; treating the anion exchange resin, which

1959-01-01

115

Mechanical Retention of Resin Veneers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Mechanical retention of resin veneers is provided for by a number of means, including the use of retentive beads. Studies have been reported in which resin-gold bonds were evaluated using beads, but no known effort had been made to determine the number be...

J. W. O'Hara W. G. Richardson R. J. Leupold G. B. Pelleu

1974-01-01

116

Water Damage in Polyester Resins  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nature of cracks, produced in three cured polyester resins during exposure to water has been studied by the combined techniques of optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and electron probe X-ray microanalysis. There are many cracks totally enclosed within the resin and it is shown that these must be attributed to pockets of high pressure produced at impurity inclusions by

K. H. G. Ashbee; F. C. Frank; R. C. Wyatt

1967-01-01

117

Phosphorous-Containing Imide Resins.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Flame-resistant reinforced bodies are disclosed which are composed of reinforcing fibers, filaments or fabrics in a cured body of bis- and tris-imide resins. These resins are derived from tris(m-aminophenyl) phosphine oxides by reaction with maleic anhydr...

I. K. Varma G. M. Fohlen J. A. Parker

1983-01-01

118

Cobalt dicarbollide containing polymer resins for cesium and strontium uptake  

SciTech Connect

Cobalt(III) dicarbollide [(C{sub 2}B{sub 9}H{sub 11}){sub 2}Co]{sup {minus}} (CB{sub 2}) is being investigated for Cs and Sr extraction from nuclear waste. Because organic solvents should be avoided, bonding of CB{sub 2} to resins were investigated. CB{sub 2} was successfully covalently bonded to polystyrene and polybenzimidazole resins. Tetrahydrofuran was the most efficient solvent for grafting. Analysis is being performed, and separation coefficients are also being determined. 3 figs, 8 refs.

Steckle, W.P. Jr.; Duke, J.R. Jr.; Jorgensen, B.S.

1994-04-01

119

Grafted methylenediphosphonate ion exchange resins  

DOEpatents

An ion exchange resin is disclosed that is comprised of an insoluble copolymer onto which are grafted pendent groups that provide 1.0 to about 10 mmol/g dry weight phosphorus. The pendent groups have the formula as shown in the patent wherein R is hydrogen, a cation or mixtures thereof; and R{sup 1} is hydrogen or an C{sub 1}-C{sub 2} alkyl group. The resin also contains zero to about 5 mmol/g dry weight of pendent aromatic sulfonate groups. Processes for making and using an ion exchange resin are also disclosed.

Trochimcznk, A.W.; Gatrone, R.C.; Alexandratos, S.; Horwitz, E.P.

1997-04-08

120

THE APPLICATION OF LIQUID ION-EXCHANGE RESINS IN ANALYSIS. PART II. THE REACTIONS OF ZIRCONIUM, TITANIUM AND VANADIUM IN SULPHURIC ACID MEDIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

S> With the advent of liquid ion-exchange resins which are insoluble in ; water but soluble in organic solvents, it is now possible to remove ions from ; solutions by solvent extraction techniques using ion exchange. In Part I, the ; results were given of an investigation into the degree of extraction obtained ; with a liquid anion-exchange resin in

1962-01-01

121

Synthesis of Improved Polyester Resins.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Eighteen aromatic unsaturated polyester prepolymers prepared by a modified interfacial condensation technique were investigated for their solubility in vinyl monomers and ability to provide high char yield forming unsaturated polyester resins. The best re...

A. H. McLeod C. B. Delano

1979-01-01

122

Resole resin products derived from fractionated organic and aqueous condensates made by fast-pyrolysis of biomass materials  

DOEpatents

A process for preparing phenol-formaldehyde resole resins by fractionating organic and aqueous condensates made by fast-pyrolysis of biomass materials while using a carrier gas to move feed into a reactor to produce phenolic-containing/neutrals in which portions of the phenol normally contained in said resins are replaced by a phenolic/neutral fractions extract obtained by fractionation.

Chum, Helena L. (8448 Allison Ct., Arvada, CO 80005); Black, Stuart K. (4976 Raleigh St., Denver, CO 80212); Diebold, James P. (57 N. Yank Way, Lakewood, CO 80228); Kreibich, Roland E. (4201 S. 344th, Auburn, WA 98001)

1993-01-01

123

Resin composition having lubricating properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a resin composition having lubricating properties, which comprises; (i) 100 parts by weight of a synthetic resin, (ii) from 0.5 to 20.0 parts by weight of an organopolysiloxane, and (iii) from 0.5 to 20.0 parts by weight of a fluorine-containing elastomer or from 0.05 to 7.0 parts by weight of an alkoxysilane, wherein at least one of

M. Morozumi; M. Egami

1988-01-01

124

Method for permanently storing radioactive ion exchanger resins  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is claimed for forming a hardened product containing a radioactive ion exchanger resin in a condition for permanent, noncontaminating storage, by the steps of: providing, before fixing, a mass of such ion exchanger resin saturated in water, the resin being at least one resin selected from the group consisting of spherical resins and powdered resins; mixing the resin

S. Kunze; G. Eden; R. Koster

1984-01-01

125

Maleimide Functionalized Siloxane Resins  

SciTech Connect

Polyorganosiloxanes are a commercially important class of compounds. They exhibit many important properties, including very low glass transition temperatures, making them useful over a wide temperature range. In practice, the polysiloxane polymer is often mixed with a filler material to help improve its mechanical properties. An alternative method for increasing polymer mechanical strength is through the incorporation of certain substituents on the polymer backbone. Hard substituents such as carbonates and imides generally result in improved mechanical properties of polysiloxanes. In this paper, we present the preparation of novel polysiloxane resins modified with hard maleimide substituents. Protected ethoxysilyl-substituted propyl-maleimides were prepared. The maleimide substituent was protected with a furanyl group and the monomer polymerized under aqueous acidic conditions. At elevated temperatures (>120 C), the polymer undergoes retro Diels-Alder reaction with release of foran (Equation 1). The deprotected polymer can then be selectively crosslinked by a forward Diels-Alder reaction (in the presence of a co-reactant having two or more dime functionalities).

Loy, D.A.; Shaltout, R.M.

1999-04-01

126

Dual ambroxal and chlorpheniramine resinate as an alternative carrier in concurrent resinate administration.  

PubMed

Two classical resinates, ambroxal (AMX) resinate and chlorpheniramine (CPM) resinate, and a novel formulation of dual AMX and CPM resinate were prepared by the batch method. The dissolution behavior of the drug from the classical resinates, a mixture of two classical resinates, and the dual-drug resinate in simulated gastric fluid (SGF) and simulated intestinal fluid (SIF) was examined and compared. The equilibrium of drug on to the resin and the re-exchange of the drug on to the resinate were also investigated. The drug release pattern from the resinate followed the particle diffusion process. The type of dissolution medium affected the amount of drug released from the resinate. The amount of drug released from the dual AMX and CPM resinate was not significantly different from that from the classical AMX resinate or CPM resinate (p < 0.05), but was considerably higher than that from the concurrent administration of two classical resinates (p > 0.05). These results indicated that the concurrent administration of the resinates affected drug release from the resinate, and the dual-drug resinate can be used as an alternative carrier for an ion-exchange delivery system. PMID:12685813

Akkaramongkolporn, P; Ngawhirunpat, T

2003-03-01

127

Liquid chromatographic extraction medium  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus for extracting strontium and technetium values from biological, industrial and environmental sample solutions using a chromatographic column is described. An extractant medium for the column is prepared by generating a solution of a diluent containing a Crown ether and dispersing the solution on a resin substrate material. The sample solution is highly acidic and is introduced directed to the chromatographic column and strontium or technetium is eluted using deionized water.

Horwitz, E. Philip (Naperville, IL); Dietz, Mark L. (Evanston, IL)

1994-01-01

128

DNA Extraction from Activated Sludges  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   To optimize the cell lysis step for DNA extraction from activated sludge samples, two floc dispersion methods (sonication\\u000a versus stirring with a cation exchange resin), and three cell lysis treatments (lysozyme?+?SDS, sonication in a water bath,\\u000a and thermal shock) were tested. For dispersion, stirring with cation exchange resin was more efficient than sonication. The\\u000a cell lysis procedures were applied

Muriel Bourrain; Wafa Achouak; Vincent Urbain; Thierry Heulin

1999-01-01

129

Solvent impregnated resin for isolation of U(VI) from industrial wastes  

SciTech Connect

A solid-phase extraction method based upon impregnation of Cyanex 302 (bis(2,4,4- trimethylpentyl)mono-thio-phosphinic acid) on Amberlite XAD-2 resin is proposed for isolation of U(VI) from uranmicrolite ore tailing samples and industrial effluent samples. U(VI) was sorbed from nitric acid media on the solvent-impregnated resin (SIR) and was recovered completely with 1.0 M HCl. Based upon sorption behavior of U(VI) with Cyanex 302, it was quantitatively sorbed on the SIR in a dynamic method, while the other metal ions were not sorbed by the modified resin. The preparation of impregnated resin is simple, based upon physical interaction of the extractant and solid support, has good sorption capacity for U(VI), and is also reliable for detection of traces of U(VI). (authors)

Karve, M.; Rajgor, R.V. [Department of Chemistry, University of Mumbai, Vidyanagari, Mumbai-400098 (India)

2008-07-01

130

Treatment of a Vertical Root Fracture Using Dual-Curing Resin Cement: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Introduction. Vertical root fracture (VRF) is one of the most frustrating complications of root canal treatment. The prognosis of the root with VRF is poor therefore tooth extraction and root amputation are usually the only treatment options. However, bonding of the fracture line with adhesive resin cement during the intentional replantation procedure was recently suggested as an alternative to tooth extraction. Methods. A vertically fractured left maxillary incisor was carefully extracted, fracture line was treated with adhesive resin cement, a retrograde cavity was produced and filled with calcium-enriched mixture (CEM) cement, and tooth was replanted. Results. After 12 months the tooth was asymptomatic. The size of periapical radiolucency was noticeably reduced and there was no clinical sign of ankylosis. Conclusion. Using adhesive resin cement to bond the fracture lines extraorally in roots with VRF and intentional replantation of the reconstructed teeth could be considered as an alternative to tooth extraction, especially for anterior teeth.

Moradi Majd, Nima; Akhtari, Farshid; Araghi, Solmaz; Homayouni, Hamed

2012-01-01

131

Detection and classification of composite resins in incinerated teeth for forensic purposes.  

PubMed

The great demand for esthetic restorations has resulted in placement of large numbers of composite resin fillings. The popularity of these materials is reflected in the quantity and variety of resin brands currently on the market. The ability to distinguish resin brands can aid in positive identification of burn victims, assuming that appropriate dental records exist. Scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDS) was used to characterize the structure and composition of 10 modern resins. The structure of each resin was unique to manufacturer, and elemental analysis allowed separation into distinct groups. These 10 resins were also placed in extracted teeth and incinerated at 900 degrees C for 30 min, simulating near cremation conditions. The resins were identifiable by SEM/EDS after incineration, and the elemental composition remained almost unchanged. The data produced are immediately useful for resin identification in forensics, and comparative analysis can be readily performed using standard equipment. This work represents the initial stage of database generation. PMID:16696713

Bush, Mary A; Bush, Peter J; Miller, Raymond G

2006-05-01

132

Flowsheet feasibility studies using ABEC resins for removal of pertechnetate from nuclear wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A flowsheet for the extraction and immobilization of ⁹⁹TcOâ⁻ from radioactive wastes has been developed. The three-stage flowsheet comprises selective sorption of ⁹⁹TcOâ⁻ by ABEC resins, secondary concentration of ⁹⁹TcOâ⁻ from HâO by a nonselective silica-based anion-exchange resin, and encapsulation and immobilization of the radionuclide-loaded anion-exchange resin in hydrous titanium oxide microspheres. Each process has been independently tested, and the

Andrew H. Bond; Michael J. Gula; James T. Harvey; Jonathan M. Duffey; E. Philip Horwitz; Scott T. Griffin; Robin D. Rogers; Jack L. Collins

1999-01-01

133

21 CFR 177.1440 - 4,4â²-Isopropylidenediphenol-epichlorohydrin resins minimum molecular weight 10,000.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION...SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: POLYMERS...substances required in the production of the resins...extracted with distilled water at 70 °C for...

2013-04-01

134

MultiDsk: A Ubiquitin-Specific Affinity Resin  

PubMed Central

Ubiquitylation is a highly diverse and complex post-translational modification for the regulation of protein function and stability. Studies of ubiquitylation have, however, been hampered by its rapid reversal in cell extracts, for example through the action of de-ubiquitylating enzymes (DUBs). Here we describe a novel ubiquitin-binding protein reagent, MultiDsk, composed of an array of five UBA domains from the yeast ubiquitin-binding protein Dsk2, fused to GST. MultiDsk binds ubiquitylated substrates with unprecedented avidity, and can be used as both an affinity resin to study protein ubiquitylation, and to effectively protect ubiquitylated proteins from the action of DUBs and the proteasome in crude cell extracts. We use the resin to show that the Def1 protein becomes ubiquitylated in response to DNA damage, and to isolate ubiquitylated forms of RNA polymerase II.

Wilson, Marcus D.; Saponaro, Marco; Leidl, Mathias A.; Svejstrup, Jesper Q.

2012-01-01

135

Improved gas chromatographic analysis of fatty and resin acid mixtures with special reference to tall oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

and Summary  A gas liquid chromatography system for the analysis of complex mixtures of fatty and resin acids has been developed. On 30–40\\u000a m long, 0.3 mm ID glass capillary columns coated with 1,4-butanediol succinate (BDS) and attaining over 90,000 effective theoretical\\u000a plates, all main fatty and resin acids in wood extractives and various tall oil products can be separated and

B. Holmbom

1977-01-01

136

Removal of various components from fixing rinse water by anion-exchange resins  

Microsoft Academic Search

The subject of the investigation has been the possibility of anion extraction from fixing process rinse waters contaminated by Br?, S2O32?, SO42?, SO32?, CH3COO? and silver thiosulfate complex anions using Amberlite IRA-93 RF, Purolite A-845, Purolite A-500 and AB-17-8 anion-exchange resins. Weak base Cl? forms of both Amberlite IRA-93 RF and Purolite A-845 resins remove silver complexes and SO32? anions

J. Matulionyt?; T. Vengris; R. Ragauskas; A. Padarauskas

2007-01-01

137

The quick determination method of resin content in larch wood  

Microsoft Academic Search

The resin content in larch wood is usually determined by the traditional Benzene-Alcohol Extract Method (BAEM). In order to\\u000a meet the requirement of production practice, the authors present two simple quick determination methods, IR lamp method and\\u000a hydrogen peroxide solution method. Compared with the results of traditional method, the results of new methods are nearly\\u000a the same as former, therefore,

Lu Wenda; Xu Xiuwen; Zhao Dejun; Tan Haiyan

1992-01-01

138

Recovery of uranium from phosphoric acid solutions using chelating ion-exchange resins  

SciTech Connect

In fertilizer manufacture, calcium phosphate in phosphate rock is rendered soluble by sulfuric acid attack. The phosphoric acid obtained in this way usually contains 26%--28% P{sub 2}O{sub 5}. Several novel processes have been developed for the recovery of uranium from wet-process phosphoric acid. Experimental measurements have been made on the batch extraction of uranium from phosphoric acid solutions using various chelating ion-exchange resins (RSPO, Diaion-CRP200, Diphonix, Purolite S940, Duolite ES467, and Lewatit OC 1060) and a solvent containing ion-exchange resins (Actinide-CU). The kinetic performance of ion-exchange resins was compared, and the effect of Fe(II) and Ca(II) ions on the sorption and elution performance has also been examined. The results showed that the resin Actinide-CU containing a diphosphonate extractant was very effective for removing uranium from phosphoric acid solution. However, the elution performance of this resin with both acid and carbonate eluants was poor. It is concluded that the chelating resins Diphonix, Duolite ES467, Lewatit OC 1060, and Purolite S940 give reasonable sorption of uranium in the presence of Fe(II) ions in batch sorption trials. The desorption of uranium has been performed quantitatively using carbonate eluants. Purolite S940 was used in small-scale column extractions of uranium from phosphoric acid solutions, and promising loading/elution profiles were obtained.

Kabay, N.; Demircioglu, M.; Yayh, S.; Guenay, E.; Yueksel, M.; Saglam, M. [Ege Univ., Bornova (Turkey). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Streat, M. [Loughborough Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

1998-05-01

139

Rapid Column Extraction Methods for Urine  

SciTech Connect

A new fecal analysis method that dissolves plutonium oxide was developed at the Westinghouse Savannah River Site. Diphonix Resin (Eichrom Industries), is used to pre-concentrate the actinides from digested fecal samples. A rapid microwave digestion technique is used to remove the actinides from the Diphonix Resin, which effectively extracts plutonium and americium from acidic solutions containing hydrofluoric acid. After resin digestion, the plutonium and americium are recovered in a small volume of nitric acid that is loaded onto small extraction chromatography columns, TEVA Resin and TRU Resin (Eichrom Industries). The method enables complete dissolution of plutonium oxide and provides high recovery of plutonium and americium with good removal of thorium isotopes such as thorium-228.

Maxwell, S.L. III

2000-06-09

140

21 CFR 175.270 - Poly(vinyl fluoride) resins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...fluoride) resins consist of basic resins produced by the polymerization of...The poly(vinyl fluoride) basic resins have an intrinsic viscosity...technical grade. (2) Solution. Powdered resin and solvent are heated at...

2010-01-01

141

76 FR 4936 - Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy AGENCY: United States International Trade...resin (``granular PTFE resin'') from Italy...duty orders on granular PTFE resin from Italy and Japan (75 FR 67082-67083 and...

2011-01-27

142

Epoxy Resins in Electron Microscopy  

PubMed Central

A method of embedding biological specimens in araldite 502 (Ciba) has been developed for materials available in the United States. Araldite-embedded tissues are suitable for electron microscopy, but the cutting qualities of the resin necessitates more than routine attention during microtomy. The rather high viscosity of araldite 502 also seems to be an unnecessary handicap. The less viscous epoxy epon 812 (Shell) produces specimens with improved cutting qualities, and has several features—low shrinkage and absence of specimen damage during cure, minimal compression of sections, relative absence of electron beam-induced section damage, etc.—which recommends it as a routine embedding material. The hardness of the cured resin can be easily adjusted by several methods to suit the materials embedded in it. Several problems and advantages of working with sections of epoxy resins are also discussed.

Finck, Henry

1960-01-01

143

Biomonitoring of urine mutagenicity with the Ames test: improvement of the extraction\\/concentration method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comparative extraction efficiency of the pre-packed Bakerbond®-spe-SDB-1 resin and of Amberlite®-AD2 (XAD-2) resin, for the preparation of urine extracts in biomonitoring studies. Urine extracts were prepared in parallel with the Bakerbond® column and with the classical XAD-2 resin from urines (1) spiked with mutagenic chemicals, (2) collected from patients after chemotherapy, and (3) from smokers. Mutagenic activities were evaluated on

Véronique Andre; Pierre Lebailly; Edwige Deslandes; Michel Henry-Amar; Pascal Gauduchon

2002-01-01

144

21 CFR 177.1500 - Nylon resins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...polymerization of Nylon 66 salts and epsilon -caprolactam. (5) Nylon 11 resins are manufactured...by the polymerization of epsilon- caprolactam. (7) Nylon 66T resins are manufactured...to 1 ratio by weight of epsilon -caprolactam and omega -laurolactam....

2009-04-01

145

21 CFR 177.1500 - Nylon resins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...polymerization of Nylon 66 salts and epsilon -caprolactam. (5) Nylon 11 resins are manufactured...by the polymerization of epsilon- caprolactam. (7) Nylon 66T resins are manufactured...to 1 ratio by weight of epsilon -caprolactam and omega -laurolactam....

2010-01-01

146

21 CFR 177.1585 - Polyestercarbonate resins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Specifications. Polyestercarbonate resins identified in paragraph (a) of this section can be identified by their characteristic infrared spectrum. The resins shall comply with either or both of the following specifications: (i) The solution...

2009-04-01

147

21 CFR 177.1585 - Polyestercarbonate resins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Specifications. Polyestercarbonate resins identified in paragraph (a) of this section can be identified by their characteristic infrared spectrum. The resins shall comply with either or both of the following specifications: (i) The solution...

2010-01-01

148

21 CFR 177.1585 - Polyestercarbonate resins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Specifications. Polyestercarbonate resins identified in paragraph (a) of this section can be identified by their characteristic infrared spectrum. The resins shall comply with either or both of the following specifications: (i) The solution intrinsic...

2013-04-01

149

21 CFR 872.3140 - Resin applicator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3140 Resin applicator. (a) Identification. A resin applicator is a brushlike device...

2013-04-01

150

Method for loading resin beds  

DOEpatents

An improved method of preparing nuclear reactor fuel by carbonizing a uranium loaded cation exchange resin provided by contacting a H.sup.+ loaded resin with a uranyl nitrate solution deficient in nitrate, comprises providing the nitrate deficient solution by a method comprising the steps of reacting in a reaction zone maintained between about 145.degree.-200.degree. C, a first aqueous component comprising a uranyl nitrate solution having a boiling point of at least 145.degree. C with a second aqueous component to provide a gaseous phase containing HNO.sub.3 and a reaction product comprising an aqueous uranyl nitrate solution deficient in nitrate.

Notz, Karl J. (Oak Ridge, TN); Rainey, Robert H. (Knoxville, TN); Greene, Charles W. (Knoxville, TN); Shockley, William E. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1978-01-01

151

Condensate-polisher resin-leakage quantification and resin-transport studies. [PWR  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of this program were to: (1) determine the extent of resin leakage from current generation condensate polisher systems, both deep bed and powdered resin design, during cut-in, steady-state and flow transient operation, (2) analyze moisture separator drains and other secondary system samples for resin fragments and (3) document the level of organics in the secondary system. Resin leakage

C. C. Stauffer; P. L. Doss

1983-01-01

152

Selective flotation of fossil resin from Western coal. Final report, July 1, 1990--May 25, 1992  

SciTech Connect

The proof-of-concept test program was designed to clarify a number of concerns that have been raised by coal companies who own the valuable resin resource. First, from laboratory bench-scale flotation experiments, a froth product from cleaner flotation containing more than 80% hexane-extractable resin at higher than 80% recovery can be produced. Pilot-plant testing was initiated to demonstrate the selective flotation of fossil resin and to establish a better confidence level in the new technology. Second, pilot-plant testing was designed to evaluate the effect and impact of random variation in slurry solids concentration and feed grade on this new selective fossil resin flotation technology. The flotation performance obtained under these industrial conditions is more realistic for process evaluation. Third, more accurate operating cost data was to be obtained for economic analysis. Fourth, sufficient quantities of the fossil resin concentrate were to be produced from the test program for evaluation by potential industrial users. Fifth, and finally, optimum levels for the operating variables were to be established. Such information was required for eventual scale-up and design of a fossil resin flotation plant. The pilot-plant proof-of-concept testing of selective resinate flotation has demonstrated that: (1) technically, the new flotation technologies discovered at the University of Utah and then improved upon by Advanced Processing Technologies, Inc. provide a highly efficient means to selectively recover fossil resin from coal. The proof-of-concept continuous flotation circuit (about 0.1 tph) resulted in fossil resin recovery with the same separation efficiency as was obtained from laboratory bench-scale testing (more than 80% recovery at about 80% concentrate grade); and (2) economically, the selective flotation process has been shown to be sufficiently profitable to justify the development of a fossil resin industry based on this new flotation process.

Jensen, G.F.; Miller, J.D.

1992-05-25

153

Evaluation of TEGDMA leaching from four resin cements by HPLC  

PubMed Central

Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the elution of TEGDMA from dual cured resin cements, used for bonding of ceramic restoration by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Methods: Forty freshly extracted caries and restoration free molar teeth used in this study. Standardized Class I preparations were prepared in all teeth. Ceramic inlays were cemented with one of the dual cured resin cements (Variolink II, Rely X ARC, Rely X Unicem and Resilute). After cementation, specimens were stored in 75% ethanol solution. HPLC was used to analyze the amounts of TEGDMA in different time intervals. Two-way ANOVA and Tukey HSD tests were used to evaluate the results (P<.05). Results: The amount of TEGDMA eluted from Resilute was the highest and the amount of TEG-DMA eluted from Rely X Unicem was the lowest (P<.05). The total amount of monomers was the highest after 21 days (P<.05). Conclusion: In the case of resin cements, elution of TEGDMA was the highest in Resilute and lowest in Rely X Unicem. The amount of TEGDMA eluted from resin cements was influenced by the time.

Altintas, Subutay Han; Usumez, Aslihan

2012-01-01

154

Fluid Resin Technic of Processing Denture Bases.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The fluid resin technic of processing acrylic resin denture bases was recently adopted for use in the dental module of the Air Transportable Hospital. The new technic, described in detail in this review, utilizes a pourable auto-curing acrylic resin for t...

C. D. Miller G. L. Hall

1968-01-01

155

Hydrogen Peroxide as a Resin Cure Accelerator  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reaction of hydrogen peroxide with conventional resin adhesives was sufficiently exothermic for the heat to accelerate and improve resin cure in the hotpress. As a consequence, pressing times for medium density fibreboard, particleboard, and plywood could be reduced by up to 30% and, in some cases, better resin cure permitted a reduction in binder level. Differences in the interaction

K. M. Chapman; D. J. Jenkin

1986-01-01

156

Method for removing contaminants from plastic resin  

DOEpatents

A method for removing contaminants from synthetic resin material containers using a first organic solvent system and a second carbon dioxide system. The organic solvent is utilized for removing the contaminants from the synthetic resin material and the carbon dioxide is used to separate any residual organic solvent from the synthetic resin material.

Bohnert, George W. (Harrisonville, MO); Hand, Thomas E. (Lee' s Summit, MO); DeLaurentiis, Gary M. (Jamestown, CA)

2008-12-30

157

Method of removing contaminants from plastic resins  

DOEpatents

A method for removing contaminants from synthetic resin material containers using a first organic solvent system and a second carbon dioxide system. The organic solvent is utilized for removing the contaminants from the synthetic resin material and the carbon dioxide is used to separate any residual organic solvent from the synthetic resin material.

Bohnert, George W. (Harrisonville, MO); Hand, Thomas E. (Lee' s Summit, MO); DeLaurentiis, Gary M. (Jamestown, CA)

2008-11-18

158

Method of removing contaminants from plastic resins  

DOEpatents

A method for removing contaminants from synthetic resin material containers using a first organic solvent system and a second carbon dioxide system. The organic solvent is utilized for removing the contaminants from the synthetic resin material and the carbon dioxide is used to separate any residual organic solvent from the synthetic resin material.

Bohnert,George W. (Harrisonville, MO); Hand,Thomas E. (Lee' s Summit, MO); Delaurentiis,Gary M. (Jamestown, CA)

2007-08-07

159

Method development for epoxy resin analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epoxy resin based negative photo resists are showing interesting properties which are useful for a series of applications\\u000a in electronic industries (Mark et al. in Encyclopedia of polymer science and engineering, Wiley, New York, 1986; Potter in Epoxide resins, Springer, New York, 1970; May and Tanka in Epoxy resin chemistry and technology, Marcel Dekker, New York, 1973; Bauer in Epoxy

Sawa Nordt; Harald Pasch; Wolfgang Radke

2010-01-01

160

Powdered epoxy resin test methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author describes several test methods which may be used to evaluate powdered epoxy resins for their potential use as integral insulation on fractional horsepower motor iron. These are the edge coverage test method, the hot plate gel time test method, the glass pellet flow test method, and the steel panel impact test method. These test methods may be of

N. Hanssen

1991-01-01

161

Imide Modified Epoxy Matrix Resins.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The results of a program designed to develop tough imide modified epoxy resins cured by bisimide amine (BIA) hardeners are described. State-of-the-art epoxides MY720 and DER383 were used, and four bismide amines were evaluated. These were the BIA's derive...

D. A. Scola

1984-01-01

162

Solventless Amine Epoxy Resin System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A solventless amine-epoxy resin system is made up of (1) a binary aromatic amine mixture of 2,6-diaminopyridine and meta-phenylene diamine in a weight ratio of from about 1:4 to about 4:1; and (2) an epoxy mixture of (a) the diglycidyl ether of bisphenol ...

E. J. Rhyn K. R. Foote G. S. Handler J. P. Diebold

1977-01-01

163

Chelate Polymers of Phenolic Resin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chelate polymers of the resin poly[3,5-(l-carboxy-2-hydroxy phenylene)ethyiene] with such bivalent ions as copper, nickel, cobalt, zinc, manganese, and trivalent iron have been synthesized. They have been analyzed, and some of their properties have been determined. On the basis of these, a polymeric structure is assigned to the polychelates.

M. N. Patel; J. B. Patel

1983-01-01

164

Influence of cement thickness on resin-zirconia microtensile bond strength  

PubMed Central

PURPOSE The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of resin cement thickness on the microtensile bond strength between zirconium-oxide ceramic and resin cement. MATERIALS AND METHODS Thirty-two freshly extracted molars were transversely sectioned at the deep dentin level and bonded to air-abraded zirconium oxide ceramic disks. The specimens were divided into 8 groups based on the experimental conditions (cement type: Rely X UniCem or Panavia F 2.0, cement thickness: 40 or 160 µm, storage: thermocycled or not). They were cut into microbeams and stored in 37? distilled water for 24 h. Microbeams of non-thermocycled specimens were submitted to a microtensile test, whereas those of thermocycled groups were thermally cycled for 18,000 times immediately before the microtensile test. Three-way ANOVA and Sheffe's post hoc tests were used for statistical analysis (?=95%). RESULTS All failures occurred at the resin-zirconia interface. Thermocycled groups showed lower microtensile bond strength than non-thermocycled groups (P<.001). Differences in cement thickness did not influence the resin-zirconia microtensile bond strength given the same resin cement or storage conditions (P>.05). The number of adhesive failures increased after thermocycling in all experimental conditions. No cohesive failure was observed in any experimental group. CONCLUSION When resin cements of adhesive monomers are applied over air-abraded zirconia restorations, the degree of fit does not influence the resin-zirconia microtensile bond strength.

Lee, Tae-Hoon; Ahn, Jin-Soo; Shim, June-Sung; Han, Chong-Hyun

2011-01-01

165

The use of a hydrophobic resin as a product reservoir in steroid transformations.  

PubMed

Particles of the hydrophobic resin polydimethylsiloxane were found to preferentially accumulate steriods on the basis of their hydrophobicity. Thus, the resin selectively sorped the steroid products resulting from the transformation of diosgenin by Nocardia rhodochrous, with the result that higher yields of the later biotransformation product, 1-dehydrodiosgenone, and lower yields of the first product, diosgenone, were obtained than in the absence of resin. Furthermore, steroids accumulated by the resin were available for further biotransformation, so that a two-step reaction forming androstenes from a crude extract of furostanol glycosides (obtained from fenugreek seed) could be carried out. The first step involves deglycosylation and is catalyzed by Fusarium solani. In the presence of resin the water-insoluble diosgenin product becomes sorped to the resin and can be easily transferred to a second fermentation in which diosgenone, 1-dehydrodiosgenone, and androstenes were formed by Mycobacterium phlei. These compounds were completely accumulated by the resin at the end of the fermentation. This procedure is logistically more convenient than the conventional chemical process and illustrates the potential of biotechnological processes in which simultaneous reaction, product isolation, and product purification occur. PMID:18553742

Saunders, R P; Hardman, R; Cheetham, P S

1985-06-01

166

Fractionation and utilization of gossypol resin  

SciTech Connect

Gossypol resin is formed as a secondary waste product during distillation of fatty acides isolated from cottonseed oil soap stocks; it is insoluble in water but soluble in products of petroleum distillation. For fractionation, gossypol resin was saponified with caustic soda or caustic potash. Using this method, the resin was separated into unsaponifiable (21-24%) and saponifiable (76-79%) parts. Details of the individual fractions of gossypol resin are presented. The unsaponifiable fraction contains hydrocarbons, alcohols, beta-sito-sterol, beta-amyrin, and vitamin E. The fatty acid fraction of the resin is a mixture of fatty acids and lactones.

Tursunov, A.K.; Dzhailov, A.T.; Fatkhullaev, E.; Sadykov, A.A.

1985-10-01

167

Penetration of etched enamel and dentin cavity surfaces by bonding agent/composite resin.  

PubMed

Mechanical and adhesive advantage of resin bonding agents depend upon the ability to penetrate microspaces created with acid-etchants and close adaptation to cavity surfaces. As a replicating material, these resins may reveal morphologic characteristics of the cavity surfaces not seen by direct scanning electron microscope (SEM) investigation. The purpose of this study was to describe, with the SEM, the resin replications of acid-etched cavity walls of Class V cavity preparations in the labial and lingual surfaces of extracted premolar teeth. Cavities were prepared in the gingival third of these surfaces in 26 freshly extracted human premolar teeth using fissure burs in water-cooled, high-speed handpieces. The cavosurface margins were bevelled. The preparations were washed in tap water, dried, etched for 20 seconds with 35% phosphoric acid, coated with light-cured bonding agent and filled with light-cured composite resin in two applications. The teeth were dissolved in acid and the cavity walls of the composite examined in the SEM. Features observed included: (a) Type II resin penetration of interrod regions, (b) resin penetration of the lamellae to the dentino-enamel junction (DEJ), (c) a 10-20 microns step in surface contour at the DEJ, with penetration of terminal tubule branches, (d) insular regions of deep dentin tubule penetration and (e) 100-300 microns deep, 10-30 microns incremental microlamellar penetrations into the enamel at the DEJ corresponding to enamel tufts. PMID:2083476

Brady, J M; Clarke-Martin, J A

168

Rapid determination of alpha emitters using Actinide resin.  

PubMed

The European Commission has recently published the recommended radiological protection criteria for the clearance of building and building rubble from the dismantling of nuclear installations. Radionuclide specific clearance levels for actinides are very low (between 0.1 and 1 Bq g(-1)). The prevalence of natural radionuclides in rubble materials makes the verification of these levels by direct alpha counting impossible. The capability of Actinide resin (Eichrom Industries, Inc.) for extracting plutonium and americium from rubble samples has been tested in this work. Besides a strong affinity for actinides in the tri, tetra and hexavalent oxidation states, this extraction chromatographic resin presents an easy recovery of absorbed radionuclides. The retention capability was evaluated on rubble samples spiked with certified radionuclide standards (239Pu and 241Am). Samples were leached with nitric acid, passed through a chromatographic column containing the resin and the elution fraction was measured by LSC. Actinide retention varies from 60% to 80%. Based on these results, a rapid method for the verification of clearance levels for actinides in rubble samples is proposed. PMID:15177360

Navarro, N; Rodriguez, L; Alvarez, A; Sancho, C

169

The root canal bonding of chemical-cured total-etch resin cements.  

PubMed

Discovering a durable restorative method to reconstruct and reinforce pulpless teeth is a vital key to help prevent root fractures. Complete and firm adhesion of resin cement in root canal dentin using a post is critical to achieve it. The null hypothesis in the present study was that the bond strength of dual-cured and chemical-cured adhesive resin cements to root canal dentin is not affected by their vertical locations in the root canal. In the experiments, extracted human incisors restored with fiber-reinforced posts and adhesive resin cements were subjected to microtensile bond strength testing. Then, the failure modes and the dentin-bonding interfaces were observed. Self-etch and self-adhesive dual-cured resin cements showed frequent pretesting failure despite using a silane coupling agent. Chemical-cured total-etch adhesive material showed stable bonding performances throughout the entire post space and thus has an advantage in post-core restorations. PMID:18436039

Hayashi, Mikako; Okamura, Kenji; Wu, Hongxia; Takahashi, Yutaka; Koytchev, Evgeni V; Imazato, Satoshi; Ebisu, Shigeyuki

2008-03-24

170

Characterization of phenolic resins with thermogravimetry-mass spectrometry  

SciTech Connect

As part of an advanced material research program, thermogravimetry-mass spectrometry (TG-MS) analysis of a phenolic resin was carried out recently for the study of the curing of the prepolymer, solvent extraction, and carbonization of the polymer at high temperature in inert atmosphere. These steps are critical to the quality of the produced advanced material. In addition to TG-MS, several other complementary techniques were also employed for the analysis of the phenolic resin prepolymer and its curing and thermal degradation products. These techniques include pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, direct insertion probe-mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. 7 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

Chang, Cherng; Tackett, J.R.

1990-01-01

171

Pharmaceutical Applications of Ion-Exchange Resins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The historical uses of ion-exchange resins and a summary of the basic chemical principles involved in the ion-exchange process are discussed. Specific applications of ion-exchange resins are provided. The utility of these agents to stabilize drugs are evaluated. Commonly occurring chemical and physical incompatibilities are reviewed. Ion-exchange resins have found applicability as inactive pharmaceutical constituents, particularly as disintegrants (inactive tablet ingredient whose function is to rapidly disrupt the tablet matrix on contact with gastric fluid). One of the more elegant approaches to improving palatability of ionizable drugs is the use of ion-exchange resins as taste-masking agents. The selection, optimization of drug:resin ratio and particle size, together with a review of scaleup of typical manufacturing processes for taste-masked products are provided. Ion-exchange resins have been extensively utilized in oral sustained-release products. The selection, optimization of drug:resin ratio and particle size, together with a summary of commonly occurring commercial sustained-release products are discussed. Ion-exchange resins have also been used in topical products for local application to the skin, including those where drug flux is controlled by a differential electrical current (ionotophoretic delivery). General applicability of ion-exchange resins, including ophthalmic delivery, nasal delivery, use as drugs in their own right (e.g., colestyramine, formerly referred to as cholestyramine), as well as measuring gastrointestinal transit times, are discussed. Finally, pharmaceutical monographs for ion-exchange resins are reviewed.

Elder, David P.

2005-04-01

172

ELUTION OF URANIUM FROM RESIN  

DOEpatents

A method is described for eluting uranium from anion exchange resins so as to decrease vanadium and iron contamination and permit recycle of the major portion of the eluats after recovery of the uranium. Diminution of vanadium and iron contamination of the major portion of the uranium is accomplished by treating the anion exchange resin, which is saturated with uranium complex by adsorption from a sulfuric acid leach liquor from an ore bearing uranium, vanadium and iron, with one column volume of eluant prepared by passing chlorine into ammonium hydroxide until the chloride content is about 1 N and the pH is about 1. The resin is then eluted with 8 to 9 column volumes of 0.9 N ammonium chloride--0.1 N hydrochloric acid solution. The eluants are collected separately and treated with ammonia to precipitate ammonium diuranate which is filtered therefrom. The uranium salt from the first eluant is contaminated with the major portion of ths vanadium and iron and is reworked, while the uranium recovered from the second eluant is relatively free of the undesirable vanadium and irons. The filtrate from the first eluant portion is discarded. The filtrate from the second eluant portion may be recycled after adding hydrochloric acid to increase the chloride ion concentration and adjust the pH to about 1.

McLEan, D.C.

1959-03-10

173

Presence of dichloromethane on cleaned XAD-2 resin: A potential problem and solutions  

SciTech Connect

Preparation of XAD-2 resin for indoor air sampling with commonly used cleaning methods, such as Soxhlet extraction with dichloromethane (DCM) followed by vacuum drying and nitrogen purging, can lead to elevated DCM levels (>100 ppb) in the sampled indoor air, which result from DCM remaining in the resin after cleaning. Since DCM is a suspect human carcinogen, indoor human exposure to DCM should be minimized. Several procedures to remove residual DCM after Soxhlet extraction were evaluated. Removal by fluidizing the XAD-2 resin bed in a drying column with a nitrogen stream at 40C was best. The effectiveness of this procedure was demonstrated in parallel air sampling with a syringe sampler and with a prototype quiet sampler equipped with a quartz fiber filter and an XAD-2 cartridge in series. Sampling was conducted in an office and in residences. With the modified procedures, indoor DCM levels were at typical indoor values (<10 ppb).

Chuang, J.C.; Holdren, M.W.; Wilson, N.K.

1990-01-01

174

The presence of dichloromethane on cleaned XAD-2 resin: A potential problem and solutions  

SciTech Connect

Preparation of XAD-2 resin for indoor air sampling with commonly used cleaning methods, such as Soxhlet extraction with dichloromethane (DCM) followed by vacuum drying and nitrogen purging, can lead to elevated DCM levels (> 100 ppb) in the sampled indoor air, which result from DCM remaining in the resin after cleaning. Since DCM is a suspect human carcinogen, indoor human exposure to DCM should be minimized. Several procedures to remove residual DCM after Soxhlet extraction were evaluated. Removal by fluidizing the XAD-2 resin bed in a drying column with a nitrogen stream at 40{degree}C was best. The effectiveness of this procedure was demonstrated in parallel air sampling with a syringe sampler and with a prototype quiet sampler equipped with a quartz fiber filter and an XAD-2 cartridge in series. Sampling was conducted in an office and in residence. With the modified procedures, indoor DCM levels were at typical indoor values. (< 10 ppb).

Chuang, J.C.; Holdren, M.W. (Battelle Columbus Div., OH (USA)); Wilson, N.K. (Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (USA))

1990-06-01

175

Tactile learning in resin foraging honeybees  

Microsoft Academic Search

Honeybees harvest and use plant resins in a mixture called propolis to seal cracks and smooth surfaces in the nest architecture.\\u000a Resins in the nest may be important in maintaining a healthy colony due to their antimicrobial properties. This study had\\u000a two main objectives: (1) Provide initial insight on the learning capabilities of resin foraging honeybees; (2) analyze the\\u000a sensitivity

Michael Simone-Finstrom; Joel Gardner; Marla Spivak

2010-01-01

176

Pharmaceutical Applications of Ion-Exchange Resins  

Microsoft Academic Search

The historical uses of ion-exchange resins and a summary of the basic chemical principles involved in the ion-exchange process are discussed. Specific applications of ion-exchange resins are provided. The utility of these agents to stabilize drugs are evaluated. Commonly occurring chemical and physical incompatibilities are reviewed. Ion-exchange resins have found applicability as inactive pharmaceutical constituents, particularly as disintegrants (inactive tablet

David P. Elder

2005-01-01

177

Light- and electronmicroscopic study of infiltration of resin into initial caries lesions--a new methodological approach.  

PubMed

It was the purpose of this pilot study to investigate resin infiltration into various types of initial subsurface caries lesions using a combined microscopic technique with polarized light microscopy and fluorescence microscopy and subsequent scanning microscopy with EDX-element analysis. Six extracted premolars with initial caries lesions were used. Five were infiltrated with resin after imbibition of the subsurface carious pore volume of enamel with sodium fluorescein solution. After light curing the unbound dye was removed by washing out in water. Serial sections were cut through the lesions and investigated with polarized light microscopy, fluorescence microscopy and simultaneously with both microscopic techniques. The same sections were then studied with scanning electron microscopy and EDX-element analysis to prove the infiltration of the resin into the lesions. The results showed, that the combination technique adds further morphologic information to infiltration behaviour of the resin. The individual volume of early acute lesions versus chronic lesions involving dentin, and the fluorescein bound by resin was well documented in serial sections. The EDX calcium and phosphorus signals correlate negatively with the lesion extension, and the carbon signal correlates positively, thus labelling the resin infiltration. It could be demonstrated that resin infiltration is dependent from the pore volume of the lesion. It can be concluded that the combined polarized light microscopy with fluorescence microscopy is an advantageous tool for studying infiltration of resin into hard tissues. PMID:21919904

Arnold, W H; Gaengler, P

2011-09-15

178

RAPID MEASUREMENTS OF NEPTUNIUM OXIDATION STATES USING CHROMATOGRAPHIC RESINS  

SciTech Connect

The Savannah River Site's (SRS) H-Canyon facility uses ceric ammonium nitrate (CAN) to separate impure neptunium (Np) from a high sulfate feed stream. The material is processed using a two-pass solvent extraction purification which relies on CAN to oxidize neptunium to Np(VI) during the first pass prior to extraction. Spectrophotometric oxidation-state analyses normally used to validate successful oxidation to Np(VI) prior to extraction were compromised by this feed stream matrix. Therefore, a rapid chromatographic method to validate successful Np oxidation was developed using Eichrom Industries TRU and TEVA{reg_sign} resins. The method was validated and subsequently transferred to existing operations in the process analytical laboratories.

Diprete, D; C Diprete, C; Mira Malek, M; Eddie Kyser, E

2009-03-24

179

Novel silica-based ion exchange resin  

SciTech Connect

Eichrom`s highly successful Diphonixo resin resembles a conventional ion exchange resin in its use of sulfonic acid ligands on a styrene- divinylbenzene matrix. Diphonix resin exhibits rapid exchange kinetics that allow economical operation of ion exchange systems. Unlike conventional resins, Diphonix resin contains chelating ligands that are diphosphonic acid groups that recognize and remove the targeted metals and reject the more common elements such as sodium, calcium and magnesium. This latter property makes Diphonix ideal for many industrial scale applications, including those involving waste treatment. For treatment of low-level, transuranic (TRU) and high- level radioactive wastes, Diphonix`s polystyrene backbone hinders its application due to radiolytic stability of the carbon-hydrogen bonds and lack of compatibility with expected vitrification schemes. Polystyrene-based Diphonix is approximately 60% carbon- hydrogen. In response to an identified need within the Department of Energy for a resin with the positive attributes of Diphonix that also exhibits greater radiolytic stability and final waste form compatibility, Eichrom has successfully developed a new, silica-based resin version of Diphonix. Target application for this new resin is for use in environmental restoration and waste management situations involving the processing of low-level, transuranic and high-level radioactive wastes. The resin can also be used for processing liquid mixed waste (waste that contains low level radioactivity and hazardous constituents) including mixed wastes contaminated with organic compounds. Silica-based Diphonix is only 10% carbon-hydrogen, with the bulk of the matrix silica.

NONE

1997-11-01

180

Novolak resin analogs for resist applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Novolak resins, used to make typical g or i-line resists, are commonly made by condensing phenolic monomers with aldehydes. In the strictest definition of novolaks the aldehyde of choice is always formaldehyde. Under the acid catalyzed conditions generally used to make novolak the resins the carbocations formed by the protonation of the aldehydic carbonyl react with the phenolic reactant(s) to form the resins with elimination of water. Other aldehydes or low molecular weight ketones have been used on occasion to make useful analog for resist applications. Competing aldol condensations may interfere with isolation of pure polymeric resins especially in the case of ketones. Unique novolak resin analogs have been made by condensing `masked' bifunctional electrophiles with phenolic reactants under acidic conditions similar to standard novolak resin techniques. These resins were used as replacements for novolak resins and showed increased image contrast and thermal resistance. They were also used as photoactive compound backbones. Low molecular weight resins made with polyhydroxy aromatic phenolic monomers were especially useful as speed enhancing additives in thick film applications.

Wanat, Stanley F.; Jensen, Kathryn H.; Lu, Ping-Hung; McKenzie, Douglas S.

1998-06-01

181

Sand control with resin and explosive  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a method for treating a well having perforated casing to prevent solids movement through the perforations and into the wellbore. It comprises positioning a quantity of liquid resin solution such that the solution occupies the interval of the casing having perforations; positioning an explosive in proximity with the liquid resin solution; detonating the explosive; displacing the liquid resin solution remaining in the wellbore after step (c) through the perforations with a displacing fluid; and injecting a chemical solution through the perforations to cause the resin to polymerize to form a consolidated permeable matrix.

Dees, J.M.; Begnaud, W.J.; Sahr, N.L.

1992-09-08

182

Microbiological Study of Water-Softener Resins  

PubMed Central

Microbial identification using effluents backflushed from exhausted urban and rural tank resins and cleaned resins containing the sulfonated copolymer of styrene and divinylbenzene (SDB) were completed, along with microbial assessment of the concentrated stock salt brine. Forty-four different bacterial and fungal genera were identified. Extensive biochemical and animal virulence tests completed on one of the six bacterial salt brine isolates indicated a pathogenic staphylococcal strain. The retention of Staphylococcus aureus, a Flavobacterium sp, and Escherichia coli B bacteriophage was demonstrated both by using the nonexhausted sodium-regenerated resin and by using the same resin exchanged with different mono-, di-, and trivalent cations. Effluent counts completed after bacterial seepage through the resins indicated the Pb++ exchanged resin removed 55% of the bacteria; Na+, Fe++, and Al+++ removed 31 to 36% and Ca++ and Cu++ removed about 10 to 15%. Seventy per cent or more of the bacteriophage was removed by Fe++, Cu++, and Al+++, whereas the Ca++ and Na++ cations removed 25 to 31%. Over a 77-day period, nonsterile tap water was passed through bacterial seeded and uninoculated SDB (Na) resin columns. Effluent and resin elution counts demonstrated the growth and survival of 2 different bacteria per column. Increased bacterial retention, survival, and multiplication occurred concomitantly with accumulation of organic and inorganic materials and the Ca++ and Mg++ cations from the tap water. Furthermore, microbial elution from resin particles taken from column depths of 1, 8, and 16 cm indicated a bacterial diminution with increasing depths.

Stamm, John M.; Engelhard, Warren E.; Parsons, James E.

1969-01-01

183

In-vitro pulp chamber temperature rise during composite resin polymerization with various light-curing sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: The purpose of this in vitro study was to measure the pulp chamber temperature increase induced during composite resin polymerization with various visible light-curing units.Methods: A Class II cavity was prepared in an extracted molar tooth, leaving a dentin layer 1mm thick between pulp chamber and proximal cavity wall. A 2mm composite resin layer was applied to the proximal

M. Hannig; B. Bott

1999-01-01

184

Energy deposition and fragments production resulting from gamma-ray or ion beam irradiation of an ion exchange resin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extraction efficiency of ion exchange resins aimed at the reprocessing of nuclear effluents is strongly dependent on gamma-ray induced modifications of their chemical structure. A poly(4-vinylpyridine) resin, or P4VP, has been subjected to gamma irradiation using a 137Cs source (E? = 662 keV) and we have attempted to characterize its structural modifications using TOF-SIMS techniques based on low (keV)

B. Nsouli; M. Draye; H. Allali; M. Lemaire; J.-P. Thomas

1996-01-01

185

DNA Changes in Tissues Entrapped in Plant Resins (the Precursors of Amber)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There have been many reports characterizing DNA from amber, which is a fossil version of plant resin. Here we report an investigation of the effects of plant resin (from Pseudotsuga menziesii) and drying conditions on the preservation of DNA in biological tissues. We examined the degree of degradation of the DNA by agarose gel electrophoresis of extracted DNA, by polymerase chain reaction, and by DNA sequencing. The plant resin alone appeared to cause little or no damage to DNA. Tissue immersed in plant resin that dried rapidly (exposed to sunlight) contained DNA with little apparent damage. Tissue immersed in the resin that was dried slowly (in shade without sunlight) contained DNA with some degradation (3.5% nucleotide changes). The tissue that was immersed in the resin that was constantly hydrated (by immersion in water) yielded DNA that was severely damaged (50-62% nucleotide changes). Transversions outnumbered transitions in these samples by a ratio of 1.4 : 1. A piece of Baltic amber immersed in water for 5days appeared to be impervious to the water. Thus amber inclusions that initially dried rapidly have the potential to yield undamaged DNA. Those that dried slowly may contain damaged DNA and may be unsuitable for phylogenetic and other studies.

Rogers, S. O.; Langenegger, K.; Holdenrieder, O.

186

Adsorption properties and preparative separation of phenylethanoid glycosides from Cistanche deserticola by use of macroporous resins.  

PubMed

A simple and efficient chromatographic method for large-scale preparative separation of phenylethanoid glycosides (mainly contain echinacoside and acteoside) from Cistanche deserticola was developed. The adsorption properties of eight macroporous resins were evaluated. Three selected resins were further screened depending on the adsorption kinetics curves, in which HPD300 resin showed the best separation efficiency. The adsorption isotherm data on HPD300 resin were fitted to the Freundlich equation in certain concentration range. The dynamic adsorption and desorption experiments were carried out on columns packed with HPD300 resin to optimize the separation process. The breakthrough curves showed that acteoside had a higher affinity to the resin than echinacoside. The contents of echinacoside and acteoside in the product increased from 1.79% and 1.43% in the crude extracts to 16.66% and 15.17%, with recovery yields of 80.41% and 90.17%, respectively. The purity of total phenylethanoid glycosides in the product was 76.58%. PMID:24022055

Liu, Boyan; Ouyang, Jie; Yuan, Xiaofan; Wang, Liwei; Zhao, Bing

2013-08-18

187

Resin Composite Restorations: Effect of Energy Density on Properties and Marginal Integrity.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Resin composite (Z250, 3M, St Paul, MN) was bonded in bulk with various degrees of cure into Class 2 preparations in extracted human molar teeth. Two control groups consisted of a highly-cured incrementally-placed group and a non-fatigued low- cure group....

K. S. Vandewalle

2002-01-01

188

Caries inhibition by a resin-modified and a conventional glass ionomer cement, in vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare inhibition, in vitro, of a resin-modified and a conventional glass ionomer cement.Methods: Standardized Class V cavities were prepared in extracted human molar teeth and restored with Fuji II LC (n = 14) or Chemfil II (n = 14) according to manufacturers' guidelines. The teeth were submerged in an acid gel (lactic

S. M. Dunne; J. S. Goolnik; B. J. Millar; R. P. Seddon

1996-01-01

189

Retention of metal ceramic crowns cemented with resin cements: Effects of preparation taper and height  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the effect of varying crown preparation taper and height on the retention of metal ceramic crowns cemented with resin cements. In part 1, 32 extracted molars were divided into four groups. All groups received complete-veneer crown preparations, two with a 12-degree wall angle and two with a 35-degree wall angle. Crowns were cemented with zinc phosphate and

Omar M El-Mowafy; Aaron H Fenton; Nicola Forrester; Miroslava Milenkovic

1996-01-01

190

Solvent-impregnated resins (SIRs) – Methods of preparation and their applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interest in the development of solvent-impregnated resins (SIRs) and their applications for the separation of metal ions and organic compounds from water in the form of a hybrid polymeric adsorbent material has intensified over the past thirty years. SIRs are particulate adsorbers that possess a combination of the advantageous features of both liquid–liquid extraction and ion exchange and this renders

Nalan Kabay; Jose Luis Cortina; Andrzej Trochimczuk; Michael Streat

2010-01-01

191

Sealing properties of different resin-based root canal sealers.  

PubMed

In this study, a comparison of the sealing properties of three different resin-based sealers, AH26, Diaket, and EndoREZ with those of the root canal sealer zinc oxide-eugenol-based U/P Root Canal Sealer was performed. Eighty extracted single-rooted human mandibular first premolar teeth were used. The coronal part of each tooth was removed at the apical 17-mm of roots. The root canals were prepared to a size 7 with ProFile 0.06 taper Series 29 rotary instruments in a crown-down manner before lateral condensation of gutta-percha with the tested sealers (n = 20). A fluid filtration method was used for quantitative evaluation of apical leakage. Statistical analysis revealed that there were no significant differences between the resin-based sealers groups (AH26, Diaket, and EndoREZ) (p > 0.05). U/P Root Canal Sealer, zinc oxide-eugenol-based sealer, leaked significantly more than other tested groups (p < 0.05). Under the limitations of this study, resin-based root canal sealers were found more effective in sealing root canals than the zinc oxide-eugenol-based sealer. PMID:16206202

Adanir, Necdet; Cobankara, Funda Kont; Belli, Sema

2006-04-01

192

21 CFR 176.110 - Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-04-01 false Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins. 176.110 Section 176.110 Food...Paperboard § 176.110 Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins. Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins may be safely used as components...

2013-04-01

193

21 CFR 173.40 - Molecular sieve resins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...40 Molecular sieve resins. Molecular sieve resins may be safely used...prescribed conditions: (a) The molecular sieve resins consist of purified dextran having an average molecular weight of 40,000,...

2010-01-01

194

21 CFR 173.40 - Molecular sieve resins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...40 Molecular sieve resins. Molecular sieve resins may be safely used...prescribed conditions: (a) The molecular sieve resins consist of purified dextran having an average molecular weight of 40,000,...

2009-04-01

195

75 FR 67105 - Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy and Japan  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy and Japan AGENCY: United States International...granular polytetrafluoroethylene resin from Italy and Japan...granular polytetrafluoroethylene resin from Italy and Japan would be likely to lead to...

2010-11-01

196

40 CFR 721.3135 - Phosphorous modified epoxy resin (generic).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 2009-07-01 false Phosphorous modified epoxy resin (generic...Chemical Substances § 721.3135 Phosphorous modified epoxy resin (generic...substance identified generically as a phosphorous modified epoxy resin (PMNs...

2009-07-01

197

40 CFR 721.3135 - Phosphorous modified epoxy resin (generic).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Phosphorous modified epoxy resin (generic...Chemical Substances § 721.3135 Phosphorous modified epoxy resin (generic...substance identified generically as a phosphorous modified epoxy resin (PMNs...

2010-07-01

198

40 CFR 721.2752 - Epoxy resin containing phosphorus (generic).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Epoxy resin containing phosphorus (generic). 721.2752 Section...721.2752 Epoxy resin containing phosphorus (generic). (a) Chemical substance...generically as an epoxy resin containing phosphorus (PMN P-00-912) is subject...

2013-07-01

199

Isolation of lactoperoxidase using different cation exchange resins by batch and column procedures.  

PubMed

Lactoperoxidase (LP) was isolated from whey protein by cation-exchange using Carboxymethyl resin (CM-25C) and Sulphopropyl Toyopearl resin (SP-650C). Both batch and column procedures were employed and the adsorption capacities and extraction efficiencies were compared. The resin bed volume to whey volume ratios were 0.96:1.0 for CM-25C and 0.64:1.0 for SP-650 indicating higher adsorption capacity of SP-650 compared with CM-25C. The effluent LP activity depended on both the enzyme activity in the whey and the amount of whey loaded on the column within the saturation limits of the resin. The percentage recovery was high below the saturation point and fell off rapidly with over-saturation. While effective recovery was achieved with column extraction procedures, the recovery was poor in batch procedures. The whey-resin contact time had little impact on the enzyme adsorption. SDS PAGE and HPLC analyses were also carried out, the purity was examined and the proteins characterised in terms of molecular weights. Reversed phase HPLC provided clear distinction of the LP and lactoferrin (LF) peaks. The enzyme purity was higher in column effluents compared with batch effluents, judged on the basis of the clarity of the gel bands and the resolved peaks in HPLC chromatograms. PMID:20576170

Fweja, Leonard Wt; Lewis, Michael J; Grandison, Alistair S

2010-08-01

200

Temperature rise during adhesive and resin composite polymerization with various light curing sources.  

PubMed

This study evaluated the temperature rise in two different adhesive (Clearfil SE Bond [CSEB] and EBS-Multi [EBSM]) and composite systems (Clearfil AP-X [CAPX,] Pertac II [PII]) by the same manufacturer when illuminated by four different light sources: Light-emitting diode (LED), Plasma arc curing (PAC), high intensity quartz tungsten halogen (HQTH) and quartz tungsten halogen (QTH). Forty dentin disks were prepared from extracted premolars. These dentin disks were placed in apparatus developed to measure temperature rise. Temperature rise during photopolymerization of adhesive resin and resin composite was then measured. The mean values of temperature increases for adhesive and resin composites did not differ significantly (p=0.769). The highest temperature rise was observed during photopolymerization of EBSM with PAC (5.16 degrees C) and HQTH (4.28 degrees C), respectively. Temperature rise values produced by QTH (1.27 degrees C - 2.83 degrees C for adhesive resin; 1.86 degrees C - 2.85 degrees C for resin composite) for both adhesive and resin composites were significantly lower than those induced by PAC and HQTH (p<0.05). However, these values were significantly higher than those produced by LED (1.16 degrees C - 2.08 degrees C for adhesive resin; 1.13 degrees C - 2.59 degrees C for resin composite). Light sources with high energy output (PAC and HQTH) caused significantly higher temperature rise than sources with low energy output (QTH and LED). However, in this study, no temperature rises beneath 1-mm dentin disk exceed the critical 5.6 degrees C value for pulpal health. PMID:15195734

Ozturk, Bora; Ozturk, A Nilgun; Usumez, Aslihan; Usumez, Serdar; Ozer, Füsun

201

Input to Resin Column Structural Analysis if Autocatalytic Resin Reaction Occurs in HB-Line Phase II  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solutions of plutonium in nitric acid are purified and concentrated using anion resin prior to precipitation. There have been instances of resin column explosions caused by autocatalytic reactions of anion resins in nitric acid within the DOE complex

Hallman

2001-01-01

202

In Vitro Mutagenicity Testing. I. Kermide 601 Resin, Sylgard 184 Encapsulating Resin, and Sylgard 184 Curing Agent.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Five compounds, Kerimide 601 resin, Sylgard 184 encapsulating resin, Sylgard 184 curing agent, benzo(a)pyrene, and acridine orange were tested for in vitro mutagenicity using the Ames Salmonella assay system. Kerimide 601 resin, Sylgard 184 encapsulating ...

S. Y. Wang D. M. Smith

1978-01-01

203

21 CFR 173.25 - Ion-exchange resins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...dimethylamine and oxidized with hydrogen peroxide whereby the resin contains not...calcium, carbonate, chloride, hydrogen, hydroxyl, magnesium...cation-exchange resins in the hydrogen form identified in...

2013-04-01

204

Dentine sealing provided by smear layer/smear plugs vs. adhesive resins/resin tags.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of five experimental resins, which ranged from hydrophobic to hydrophilic blends, to seal acid-etched dentine saturated with water or ethanol. The experimental resins (R1, R2, R3, R4, and R5) were evaluated as neat bonding agents (100% resin) or as solutions solvated with absolute ethanol (70% resin/30% ethanol). Fluid conductance was measured at 20 cm H(2)O hydrostatic pressure after sound dentine surfaces were: (i) covered with a smear layer; (ii) acid-etched; or (iii) bonded with neat or solvated resins, which were applied to acid-etched dentine saturated with water or ethanol. In general, the fluid conductance of resin-bonded dentine was significantly higher than that of smear layer-covered dentine. However, when the most hydrophobic neat resins (R1 and R2) were applied to acid-etched dentine saturated with ethanol, the fluid conductance was as low as that produced by smear layers. The fluid conductance of resin-bonded dentine saturated with ethanol was significantly lower than for resin bonded to water-saturated dentine, except for resin R4. Application of more hydrophobic resins may provide better sealing of acid-etched dentine if the substrate is saturated with ethanol instead of with water. PMID:17697173

Carrilho, Marcela R; Tay, Franklin R; Sword, Jeremy; Donnelly, Adam M; Agee, Kelli A; Nishitani, Yoshihiro; Sadek, Fernanda T; Carvalho, Ricardo M; Pashley, David H

2007-08-01

205

Novel silica-based ion exchange resin  

SciTech Connect

Shortcomings of chelating resins have been addressed by a new class of ion exchange resins called dual mechanism bifunctional polymers (DMBPs). DMBPs use hydrophilic cation exchange ligands with rapid uptake kinetics and use chelating ligands for selectivity for one or more metals; result is a resin that quickly recognizes and removes targeted metals from waste, remediation, and process streams. Eichrom`s Diphonix {reg_sign} resin is the first DMBP to be widely released as a commercial product; it is polystyrene based. Objective of this work is to synthesize commercial quantities of a silica-based ion exchange resin with the same or better metal ion selectivity, metal uptake kinetics, and acid stability as Diphonix. Feasibility was determined, however the process needs to be optimized. Studies at Eichrom and ANL of the performance of Diphonix resin over a broad range of HNO3 and HCl conditions and inorganic salt loadings are discussed together with the proposed method of incorporating similar characteristics into a silica-based resin. The new, silica-based resin functionalized with diphosphonic acid ligands can be used in environmental restoration and waste management situations involving processing of low-level, transuranic, and high-level radioactive wastes; it can also be used for processing liquid mixed waste including wastes contaminated with organic compounds.

Gula, M.; Harvey, J.

1996-12-31

206

Ceramic Whisker Reinforcement of Dental Resin Composites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resin composites currently available are not suitable for use as large stress-bearing posterior restorations involving cusps due to their tendencies toward excessive fracture and wear. The glass fillers in composites provide only limited reinforcement because of the brittleness and low strength of glass. The aim of the present study was to reinforce dental resins with ceramic single-crystalline whiskers of elongated

H. H. K. Xu; T. A. Martin; J. M. Antonucci; EC Eichmiller

1999-01-01

207

Novel process of isolating novolac resin fractions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Typical phenol/formaldehyde resin syntheses generate a broad distribution of molecular weight fragments with a wide polydispersity. A process was developed to isolate novolak resin fractions of narrow polydispersity from phenol- formaldehyde condensation products in ethyl lactate without any high temperature distillation. The characterization and the performance of these fractions in i-line photoresist composition are discussed.

Rahman, M. Dalil; Lu, Ping-Hung; Cook, Michelle M.

1997-07-01

208

Prophylaxis with resin in wood ants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Animals may use plant compounds to defend themselves against parasites. Wood ants, Formica paralugub- ris, incorporate pieces of solidified conifer resin into their nests. This behaviour inhibits the growth of bac- teria and fungi in nest material and protects the ants against some detrimental microorganisms. Here, we studied the resin-collecting behaviour of ants under field and laboratory conditions. First, we

Gregoire Castella; Michel Chapuisat; Philippe Christe

2008-01-01

209

Epoxy resin composition having improved wetting properties  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

An improved epoxy resin composition comprising an epoxy resin suitable for adhesive, potting or laminating use mixed with from about 0.1% to about less than 3% of an oxazolidine ester represented by the formula: ##EQU1## where R is an alkyl or alkenyl group of from 5 to 21 carbon atoms.

Sausaman; David K. (Terre Haute, IN)

1976-04-20

210

Fluoroaliphatic Cyanate Resins for Low Dielectric Applications.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The present invention is a cyanate resin monomer having the formula: NCO-CH2-(CF2)n-CH2-OCN where n is an even integer from 6 to 10, inclusive. Another aspect of the invention is an essentially pure cyanate resin monomer having the formula: NCO-CH2-(CF2)n...

A. W. Snow L. J. Buckley

1996-01-01

211

Hydraulic fracturing using reinforced resin pellets  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method of fracturing subterranean formations surrounding oil wells, gas wells, and similar boreholes is presented. The method employs a propping agent which permits the fractures to be propped in a partial monolayer pattern. It has been found that fractures with surprisingly high conductivities can be obtained by use of propping agents composed of reinforced synthetic resins. Synthetic resins without

1972-01-01

212

Fluorinated diamond bonded in fluorocarbon resin  

DOEpatents

By fluorinating diamond grit, the grit may be readily bonded into a fluorocarbon resin matrix. The matrix is formed by simple hot pressing techniques. Diamond grinding wheels may advantageously be manufactured using such a matrix. Teflon fluorocarbon resins are particularly well suited for using in forming the matrix.

Taylor, Gene W. (Los Alamos, NM)

1982-01-01

213

Adsorption of pesticides on resins.  

PubMed

The objective of this work was to assess the capability of organic hydrophobic polymeric resins Amberlite XAD-4 and XAD-7 to remove the pesticides alachlor and amitrole from water. The pesticides adsorption on the two different adsorbents was measured by batch equilibrium technique and isotherm types and parameters were estimated. Two theoretical models were applied based on a Freundlich and a Langmuir isotherms. The effect of pesticides chemical composition and structure as well as the nature of solid surface on the efficiency of adsorption was evaluated. The influence of pH also was studied. In low pH solutions adsorption of amitrole was higher upon the nonionic aliphatic acrylic ester copolymer XAD-7 in comparison to the nonionic, crosslinked macroreticular copolymer of styrene divinylbenzene XAD-4. In neutral and intermediate pH solutions the polar acrylic ester copolymer XAD-7 was more effective to the retention of alachlor. The acrylic ester copolymer showed at pH 3 the lower effectiveness in alachlor removal from water. The data of the adsorption isotherms of pesticides upon the examined polymeric resins seemed to conform to both the Freundlich and the Langmuir isotherm models. PMID:12617554

Kyriakopoulos, Grigorios; Hourdakis, Adamadia; Doulia, Danae

2003-03-01

214

Solidification of ion exchange resin wastes  

SciTech Connect

Solidification media investigated included portland type I, portland type III and high alumina cements, a proprietary gypsum-based polymer modified cement, and a vinyl ester-styrene thermosetting plastic. Samples formulated with hydraulic cement were analyzed to investigate the effects of resin type, resin loading, waste-to-cement ratio, and water-to-cement ratio. The solidification of cation resin wastes with portland cement was characterized by excessive swelling and cracking of waste forms, both after curing and during immersion testing. Mixed bed resin waste formulations were limited by their cation component. Additives to improve the mechanical properties of portland cement-ion exchange resin waste forms were evaluated. High alumina cement formulations dislayed a resistance to deterioration of mechanical integrity during immersion testing, thus providing a significant advantage over portland cements for the solidification of resin wastes. Properties of cement-ion exchange resin waste forms were examined. An experiment was conducted to study the leachability of /sup 137/Cs, /sup 85/Sr, and /sup 60/Co from resins modified in portland type III and high alumina cements. The cumulative /sup 137/Cs fraction release was at least an order of magnitude greater than that of either /sup 85/Sr or /sup 60/Co. Release rates of /sup 137/Cs in high alumina cement were greater than those in portland III cement by a factor of two.Compressive strength and leach testing were conducted for resin wastes solidified with polymer-modified gypsum based cement. /sup 137/Cs, /sup 85/Sr, and /sup 60/Co fraction releases were about one, two and three orders of magnitude higher, respectively, than in equivalent portland type III cement formulations. As much as 28.6 wt % dry ion exchange resin was successfully solidified using vinyl ester-styrene compared with a maximum of 25 wt % in both portland and gypsum-based cement.

Not Available

1982-08-01

215

The nature and fate of natural resins in the geosphere - VIII - NMR and Py-GC-MS characterization of soluble labdanoid polymers isolated from holocene class I resins.  

SciTech Connect

Soluble polylabdanoids isolated by sequential solvent extraction have been characterized by liquid-state {sup 13}C- and {sup 1}H NMR and {sup 13}C-{sup 1}H HMQC (heteronuclear correlation) NMR spectroscopy in addition to solid-state NMR and Py-GC-MS techniques. Two Holocene resins originating from Santander, Colombia and Mombasa, Kenya were analyzed. Soluble polymers were isolated by extraction with a 1:1 (v/v) methylene chloride-methanol mixture following sequential extractions with methylene chloride and methanol. The molecular weight of polymer extracts was shown by GPC analyses to exceed that of non-polymeric occluded terpenoids. Py-GC-MS, solid-state {sup 13}C CP/MAS and {sup 13}C cross-polarization/depolarization NMR spectroscopy results indicated that chemical compositions of soluble polymers isolated from immature resins are highly representative of the structure of corresponding insoluble polymers, i.e. polylabdatrienes. These data provide evidence for cross-linking or cyclization of side-chain olefinic carbons during or shortly after polymerization. Generally, the characterization of soluble resin polymers by liquid-state NMR spectroscopy has proven to be an excellent means for investigating the maturation mechanism of polylabdanoid resinites, and has potential for furthering the application of Class I resinites as geothermal indicators.

Clifford, D. J.; Hatcher, P. G.; Botto, R. E.; Muntean, J. V.; Michaels, B.; Anderson, K. B.; Chemistry; Pennsylvania State Univ.; Amoco Oil Co.

1997-01-01

216

Selective extraction of benzoic acid from landfill leachate by solid-phase extraction and ion-exchange chromatography  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work a simple method was described for selective extraction of benzoic acid from landfill leachate samples. The samples were submitted to solid-phase extraction (SPE) with XAD-4 resin as the stationary phase and ion-exchange chromatography (IEC) using the ion-exchange resin Amberlyst A-27. The instrumental analysis was performed by gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection (GC–MSD). Benzoic acid was isolated,

Irajá do Nascimento Filho; Patricia Schossler; Lisiane Santos Freitas; Maria Inês S Melecchi; Maria Goreti Rodrigues Vale; Elina Bastos Caramão

2004-01-01

217

Use of EIChroM`s TRU resin in the determination of americium, plutonium and uranium in air filter and water samples  

SciTech Connect

TRU Resin, an extraction chromatographic material (octyl (phenyl)-N,Ndiisobutylcarbamoyl-methylphosphene oxide (CMPO) dissolved in tributyl phosphate (TBP)) manufactured by EIChroM Industries, was tested for its actinide sorption and desorption characteristics. A study was initiated to demonstrate the effectiveness of extracting plutonium, americium and uranium from water and air filter samples from the Environmental Measurements Laboratory`s Quality Assessment Program (QAP), and the effectiveness of subsequent desorption of one chemical species at a time in order to prepare each of them for a spectrometry. Crossover of plutonium into the americium fraction with the TRU Resin was observed and could not be eliminated while using TRU Resin only. However, prior extraction of plutonium using an anion exchange resin can overcome this problem. A method for the determination of americium is proposed which combines the extraction of plutonium onto Bio-Rad AG 1-X8 anion exchange resin with the extraction of americium using the TRU Resin. This method was tested on three triplicate sets of QAP air filters and two triplicate sets of QAP water samples. The recoveries ranged from 70 to 90 percent, and the results were identical to those obtained by the existing methods. The time required to perform the analysis for americium was shortened from 5 weeks to 1 week.

Berne, A.

1995-12-01

218

Tc-99 Ion Exchange Resin Testing  

SciTech Connect

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory was contracted by CHPRC to evaluate the release of 99Tc from spent resin used to treat water from well 299-W15-765 and stored for several years. The key questions to be answered are: 1) does 99Tc readily release from the spent ion exchange resin after being in storage for several years; 2) if hot water stripping is used to remove the co-contaminant carbon tetrachloride, will 99Tc that has been sequestered by the resin be released; and 3) can spent resin be encapsulated into a cementitious waste form; if so, how much 99Tc would be released from the weathering of the monolith waste form? The results from the long term stability leach test results confirm that the resin is not releasing a significant amount of the sequestered 99Tc, evident by the less than 0.02% of the total 99Tc loaded being identified in the solution. Furthermore, it is possible that the measured 99Tc concentration is the result of 99Tc contained in the pore spaces of the resin. In addition to these results, analyses conducted to examine the impact of hot water on the release of 99Tc suggest that only a small percentage of the total is being released. This suggest that hot water stripping to remove carbon tetrachloride will not have a significant affect on the resin’s ability to hold-on to sequestered 99Tc. Finally, encapsulation of spent resin in a cementitious material may be a viable disposal option, but additional tests are needed to examine the extent of physical degradation caused by moisture loss and the effect this degradation process can have on the release of 99Tc.

Valenta, Michelle M.; Parker, Kent E.; Pierce, Eric M.

2010-08-01

219

SEM and elemental analysis of composite resins  

SciTech Connect

Twenty-four chemically cured, 21 light-cured anterior, three light-cured anterior/posterior, and 18 light-cured posterior composite resins were examined using scanning electron microscopy, and the elemental composition of their filler particles was analyzed with an energy dispersive electron probe microanalyzer. According to the results obtained, the composite resins were divided into five groups (traditional, microfilled type, submicrofilled type, hybrid type, and semihybrid), with two additional hypothetical categories (microfilled and hybrid). Characteristics of each type were described with clinical indications for selective guidance of respective composite resins for clinical use.

Hosoda, H.; Yamada, T.; Inokoshi, S. (Tokyo Medical and Dental Univ., (Japan))

1990-12-01

220

Physicochemical characterisation of TMP resin and related model mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

A set of model resin mixtures were prepared to simulate Norway spruce thermomechanical pulp (TMP) resin at different conditions, such as in winter or summer, or after lipase and\\/or steryl esterase treatments. The resin samples were analysed on their viscosity, tackiness, wettability and surface energy; properties which may be related to the deposition tendency of wood resin. During production of

Menghua Qin; Tea Hannuksela; Bjarne Holmbom

2003-01-01

221

Incineration of ion-exchange resins in a fluidized bed  

Microsoft Academic Search

Incineration of ion-exchange resins in a fluidized bed was studied on the pilot plant scale. Granular resins were incinerated mostly in the dry form, while powdered resins were incinerated in an ethanol-water mixture. Incineration converts the organic resin into inert oxide material, which can be immobilized for instance with cement. The weight of the ash was 1 to 20% and

M. Valkiainen; M. Nykyri

1982-01-01

222

Reuse system for powdered ion-exchange resins  

Microsoft Academic Search

A reuse system has been developed for powdered ion-exchange resins generated from nuclear power plants in order to reduce their waste volume. The system consists of: 1. crud removal from resins; 2. decomposition of flocks (flocculated resins); 3. resin separation into cation and anion types; 4. regeneration of each type. The most important points in this system are items 2

K. Funabashi; T. Fukasawa; F. Kawamura; H. Yusa; M. Kikuchi; N. Sasaki; T. Yamadera

1986-01-01

223

Identification of selective ion-exchange resin for fluoride sorption  

Microsoft Academic Search

The defluoridation capacity (DC) of a chelating resin, namely Indion FR 10 (IND), and Ceralite IRA 400 (CER), an anion-exchange resin, were compared under various equilibrating conditions for the identification of selective sorbent. The results showed that chelating resin is more selective than an anion-exchange resin for fluoride removal. The fluoride sorption was reasonably explained using Freundlich and Langmuir isotherms.

S. Meenakshi; Natrayasamy Viswanathan

2007-01-01

224

ON THE CHEMICAL CONSTITUTION OF A LIGNITIC RESIN (thesis)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sink-float procedure, employing a mixture of nheptane and CClâ ; as tbe separation medium, is a satisfactory means of separating the resins from ; the coal in a pure form. These resins are primarily resin acids and esters. The ; resin acids are composed of two major fractions, amber and a form of oxidized ; abietic acid. The oxidized

Tietjen

1958-01-01

225

Retention of orthodontic brackets bonded with resin-modified GIC versus composite resin adhesives--a quantitative systematic review of clinical trials.  

PubMed

The aim of this systematic review was to establish whether the clinical debonding (failure) rates of orthodontic brackets bonded either with resin-modified glass ionomer (RM-GIC) or with composite resin adhesive are the same. Five databases were searched for articles up to 18 November 2010. Inclusion criteria were titles/abstracts relevant to the review question and two or more arm clinical trial. Exclusion criteria were the following: no computable data recorded and subjects of both groups not followed up in the same way. From the accepted trials, datasets were analysed concerning clinical precision and internal validity. Eleven trials were accepted. From these, 15 dichotomous datasets were extracted. Relative risk with 95% confidence interval of nine datasets showed no statistically significant differences in outcome between the treatment and control group after 6 months-1.32 years. Five showed a statistically significant difference (p < 0.05), favouring resin composite bonding after 12 and 18 months. One favoured RM-GIC after 10 months. Meta-analysis found no difference in the failure rate between the two treatment groups after 12 months (RR, 1.11; 95% CI, 0.87-1.42; p = 0.40) and found in favour of composite resin adhesive after >14 months (RR, 2.25; 95% CI, 1.60-3.17; p < 0.00001). All trials had poor internal validity due to selection and detection/performance bias risk. The current evidence suggests no difference between the types of materials after 12 months but favours composite resin adhesives after a >14-month period. However, its risk of selection and detection/performance bias are high, and all results need to be regarded with caution. Further high quality randomised control trials addressing this topic are needed. The clinical relevance of this study is that RM-GIC may have the same clinical debonding (failure) rate as composite resin adhesives after 1 year when used for bonding of orthodontic brackets. PMID:22006128

Mickenautsch, Steffen; Yengopal, Veerasamy; Banerjee, Avijit

2011-10-18

226

Condensate-polisher resin-leakage quantification and resin-transport studies. [PWR  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this program were to: (1) determine the extent of resin leakage from current generation condensate polisher systems, both deep bed and powdered resin design, during cut-in, steady-state and flow transient operation, (2) analyze moisture separator drains and other secondary system samples for resin fragments and (3) document the level of organics in the secondary system. Resin leakage samples were obtained from nine-power stations that have either recirculating steam generators or once through steam generators. Secondary system samples were obtained from steam generator feedwater, recirculating steam generator blowdown and moisture separator drains. Analysis included ultraviolet light examination, SEM/EDX, resin quantification and infrared analysis. Data obtained from the various plants were compared and factors affecting resin leakage were summarized.

Stauffer, C.C.; Doss, P.L.

1983-04-01

227

Rapid Actinide Column Extraction Methods for Bioassay Samples  

SciTech Connect

A new, rapid separation method to assay actinides in urine samples has been developed at the Westinghouse Savannah River Site (SRS). The new method separates plutonium, neptunium, uranium, americium and strontium-90 with high chemical recovery and excellent thorium removal. The method uses calcium phosphate precipitation and stacked TEVA Resin(R) and TRU Resin(R) cartridges to separate and purify the actinides. Plutonium and neptunium are separated on TEVA Resin(R), while uranium and americium are simultaneously retained and separated on TRU Resin(R). Plutonium-236 tracer can be used to allow simultaneous separation and measurement of both plutonium and neptunium using TEVA Resin(R). Strontium-90 can also be separated on Sr Resin(R) by evaporating and redissolving load and rinse solutions collected from the TEVA/TRU column and separating strontium on Sr-Resin(R). Fast flow rates are achieved by using small particle size resin cartridges and a vacuum box separation system that will separate 24 samples at a time. This unique approach can be used with urine samples because iron is not present at significant levels in urine and plutonium reduction is accomplished without adding iron (II) to the sample. The advantage of this approach is that actinides can be loaded onto two separate resins in a single load step with simultaneous extraction and assay of neptunium and plutonium with high chemical recovery and excellent removal of matrix interferences.

Maxwell, S.L.

2003-01-14

228

Removal of Trace Contaminants from Water Using New Chelating Resins  

Microsoft Academic Search

The modification of cross?linked polyacrylamide (CPAAm) and incorporation of methyl thiourea (MeTU) or phenyl thiourea (PhTU) group were utilized in the preparation of two new chelating resins CPAAm?EDA?MeTU (resin I) and CPAAM?EDA?PhTU (resin II), [EDA=ethylenediamine]. The prepared resins were characterized by elemental analysis and IR spectroscopy. The sorption behaviors of Cd(II), Pb(II), and Zn(II) ions on the prepared resins were

Mohammed A. Sharaf; Said A. Sayed; Ahmed A. Younis; A. B. Farag; Hassan A. Arida

2007-01-01

229

Interlaminar Fracture Toughness in Resin Matrix Composites.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This annual report summarizes the objectives, accomplishments and proposed new directions of research on mode II interlaminar fracture in resin matrix composites. A mode II interlaminar fracture specimen, test and analysis method for interpreting results ...

L. W. Rehfield E. A. Armanios A. D. Reddy

1984-01-01

230

Analysis of Commercial Unsaturated Polyester Repair Resins.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The basic rheological, thermal, and mechanical properties of commercially available repair putties have been determined in this study, as has the composition of these products. These products contain 33% to 40% unsaturated polyester resin, 10% to 20% styr...

C. Greer I. McAninch J. M. Sands K. Andrews S. Bingham

2009-01-01

231

Passifloricins, polyketides ?-pyrones from Passiflora foetida resin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three polyketides ?-pyrones, named passifloricins, were isolated from Passiflora foetida resin; their structures and relative configurations were assigned through 2D NMR spectroscopic analyses. These types of compounds were not detected in other passion flowers.

Fernando Echeverri; Victor Arango; Winston Quiñones; Fernando Torres; Gustavo Escobar; Yoni Rosero; Rosendo Archbold

2001-01-01

232

Method of Obtaining Phenol-Furfural Resins.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Invention relates to improvement of method of obtaining phenol-furfural resins, utilized in different branches of national economy as cationites (for purification of waste water from ions of calcium, magnesium, etc., sorption of different metals). Method ...

A. Y. Yuldashev D. R. Tursunova N. U. Rizayev Y. Z. Rakhman-Zade

1990-01-01

233

A Study of Soil Stabilization with Resins.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An investigation was conducted to determine the availability of new quick-curing resinous materials capable of stabilizing sand and silty clay soils by improving their strength characteristics. The investigation was aimed at overcoming the degrading effec...

H. A. Sultan J. D. Kriegh R. L. Sogge

1971-01-01

234

Mechanical Properties of Degraded PMR-15 Resin.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Thermo-oxidative aging produces a nonuniform degradation state in PMR-15 resin. A surface layer, usually attributed to oxidative degradation, forms. This surface layer has different properties from the inner material. A set of material tests was designed ...

L. C. Tsuji

2000-01-01

235

Feasibility of vitrifying EPICOR II organic resins  

SciTech Connect

Two laboratory-scale runs have recently been completed to test the feasibility of a single-step incineration/vitrification process for Three Mile Island EPICOR II resins. The process utilizes vitrification equipment, specifically a 15-cm-dia in-can melter, and a specially designed feed technique. Two process tests, each conducted with 1.2 kg of EPICOR II resins loaded with nonradioactive cesium and strontium, showed excellent operational characteristics. Less than 0.8 wt% of the resins were entrained with the gaseous effluents in the second test. Cesium and strontium losses were controlled to 0.71 wt% and less. In addition, all the carbonaceous resins were converted completely to CO/sub 2/ with no detectable CO. Future activities are being directed to longer-term tests in laboratory-scale equipment to determine attainable volume reduction, process rates, and material conformance to processing conditions.

Buelt, J.L.

1981-11-01

236

21 CFR 177.1655 - Polysulfone resins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION...SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: POLYMERS...substances required in the production of such basic resins...solventsâdistilled water, 50 percent...

2013-04-01

237

21 CFR 177.1556 - Polyaryletherketone resins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION...SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: POLYMERS...substances required in the production of such basic resins...solvents: Distilled water, 50 percent...

2013-04-01

238

Radiation testing of organic ion exchange resins  

SciTech Connect

A number of ion exchange materials are being evaluated as part of the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) Pretreatment Project for the removal of {sup 137}Cs from aqueous tank wastes. Two of these materials are organic resins; a phenol-formaldehyde resin (Duolite CS-100) produced by Rohm and Haas Co. (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania) and a resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) resin produced by Boulder Scientific Co. (Mead, Colorado). One of the key parameters in the assessment of the organic based ion exchange materials is its useful lifetime in the radioactive and chemical environment that will be encountered during waste processing. The focus of the work presented in this report is the radiation stability of the CS-100 and the RF resins. The scope of the testing included one test with a sample of the CS-100 resin and testing of two batches of the RF resin (BSC-187 and BSC-210). Samples of the exchangers were irradiated with a {sup 60}Co source to a total absorbed dose of 10{sup 9} R over a period of 5 months in a static (no flow) and a flowing configuration with neutralized current acid waste (NCAW) simulant as a feed. Based on a maximum concentration of {sup 137}Cs on the resin that would result from processing NCAW, this dose represents an operational period of at least 150 days for the RF resin and at least 1260 days for the CS-100 resin. Gas generation in the static experiment was continuously monitored and G values (molecules of gas per 100 eV) were determined for each species. Resin samples were obtained periodically and the equilibrium behavior of the resins was assessed by determining the distribution coefficients (K{sub d}s). Structural information was also obtained by {sup 13}C cross polarization magic angle (CPMAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometry and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy so that changes to the chemical structure could be correlated with changes in K{sub d}.

Carlson, C.D.; Bray, L.A.; Bryan, S.A. [and others

1995-09-01

239

Adsorption/desorption characteristics and separation of anthocyanins from muscadine (Vitis rotundifolia) juice pomace by use of macroporous adsorbent resins.  

PubMed

In this study, the adsorption/desorption characteristics of anthocyanins on five Amberlite resins (FPX-66, XAD-7HP, XAD-16N, XAD-1180, and XAD-761) were evaluated. FPX-66 and XAD-16N showed the highest adsorption and desorption capacities and ratios for anthocyanins from muscadine pomace extract, while XAD-7HP had the lowest adsorption and desorption capacities and ratios. On the basis of static adsorption and desorption tests, three resins (FPX-66, XAD-16N, and XAD-1180) were selected for adsorption kinetics and isotherms. The adsorption mechanism was better explained by the pseudo-first-order kinetics for FPX-66 and XAD-16N; however, for XAD-1180, pseudo-second-order kinetics was the most suitable model. The experimental data fitted best to Langmuir isotherm model for all three resins. Dynamic testing was done on a column packed with FPX-66 resin and breakthrough volume was reached at 17 bed volumes of muscadine pomace water extract during adsorption. Three bed volumes of aqueous ethanol (70%) resulted in complete desorption. Resin adsorption resulted in a concentrated pomace extract that contained 13% (w/w) anthocyanins with no detectable sugars. PMID:23368425

Sandhu, Amandeep K; Gu, Liwei

2013-02-11

240

Resin Glycosides from the Morning Glory Family  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Resin glycosides are part of a very extensive family of secondary metabolites known as glycolipids or lipo-oligosaccharides\\u000a and are constituents of complex resins (glycoresins) (1) unique to the morning glory family, Convolvulaceae (2). These active\\u000a principles are responsible for the drastic purgative action of all the important Convolvulaceous species used in traditional\\u000a medicine throughout the world since ancient times. Several

Rogelio Pereda-Miranda; Daniel Rosas-Ramírez; Jhon Castañeda-Gómez

2010-01-01

241

Phenol Formaldehyde Resin Modification with Lignin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lignin (poly?phenylpropane units) was precipitated from waste black liquor produced by paper manufacture from rice straw. The use of this lignin as partial substitution of phenol in phenol formaldehyde resin is investigated. The effect of different variables [e.g., lignin concentration, ratio of formaldehyde to phenol lignin (phenol + lignin), temperature, and polymerization time on the properties of the produced resin is studied].

2003-01-01

242

Nano composite from coal modified novolac resin  

SciTech Connect

Coal-modified novolac/clay nanocomposites were synthesized using clay as reinforcing materials. It was found that coal-modified novolac resin based silica nano-composites showed improved tensile strength compared to that of neat novolac resin. The structure of the nanocomposites was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies have also been undertaken to see the morphology of the nanocomposites prepared. The results obtained are being reported.

Ahmaruzzaman, M.; Sharma, D.K. [Industrial Technology Institute, Delhi (India)

2007-07-01

243

Cesium-specific phenolic ion exchange resin  

DOEpatents

A phenolic, cesium-specific, cation exchange resin is prepared by neutralizing resorcinol with potassium hydroxide, condensing/polymerizing the resulting intermediate with formaldehyde, heat-curing the resulting polymer to effect cross-linking and grinding it to desired particle size for use. This resin will selectively and efficiently adsorb cesium ions in the presence of a high concentration of sodium ions with a low carbon to cesium ratio. 2 figs.

Bibler, J.P.; Wallace, R.M.

1995-08-15

244

Adsorbed resin phase spectrophotometric determination of nickel  

Microsoft Academic Search

?-Cyclodextrin polymer (?-CDP) adsorbed resin phase spectrophotometry with 1-(2-pyridylazo)-2-naphthol (PAN) has been developed for the determination of nickel at the ?g level in human hair and Auricularia auricula (a kind of edible fungi). Iron, manganese, copper, zinc, chromium and cobalt which form colored species with PAN in the resin phase, can be completely masked with the masking solution composed of

Rong Li; Zi-Tao Jiang; Lu-Yuan Mao; Han-Xi Shen

1998-01-01

245

[Resin-bonded fixed partial dentures].  

PubMed

A resin-bonded fixed partial denture is a prosthetic construction which can replace I or several teeth in an occlusal system and which comprises a pontic element which is adhesively attached to 1 or more abutment teeth. To compensate for the limited shear strength of the adhesive layer, the Jixed partial denture is occlusally supported by the abutment(s). A direct resin-bonded fixed partial denture is made of composite, reinforced or not by a frame of flexible metal or fiber material. For an indirect resin-bonded fixed partial denture, a metal, fibre-reinforced composite or ceramic substructure is fabricated in a dental laboratory. The basic principle of a resin-bonded fixed partial denture is minimal invasiveness. However, a restoration in an abutment tooth requires a certain occlusal space which is realized by tooth preparation. Resistance preparations may be performed to improve the longevity of resin-bonded fixed partial dentures. Both financially and biologically, a resin-bonded bridge is a cost-effective prosthetic construction. The longevity is limited, but when the construction fails the negative consequences for the abutments are generally limited, which leaves open several types of other treatments. PMID:23495569

Kreulen, C M; Creugers, N H J

2013-02-01

246

Cleanup of TMI-2 demineralizer resins  

SciTech Connect

Radiocesium is being removed from Demineralizers A and B (DA and DB by a process that was developed from laboratory tests on small samples of resin from the demineralizers. The process was designed to elute the radiocesium from the demineralizer resins and then to resorb it onto the zeolite ion exchangers contained in the Submerged Demineralizer System (SDS). The process was also required to limit the maximum cesium activities in the resin eluates (SDS feeds) so that the radiation field surrounding the pipelines would not be excessive. The process consists of 17 stages of batch elution. In the initial stage, the resin is contacted with 0.18 M boric acid. Subsequent stages subject the resin to increasing concentrations of sodium in NaH/sub 2/BO/sub 3/-H/sub 3/BO/sub 3/ solution (total B = 0.35 M) and then 1 M sodium hydroxide in the final stages. Results on the performance of the process in the cleanup of the demineralizers at TMI-2 are compared to those obtained from laboratory tests with small samples of the DA and DB resins. To date, 15 stages of batch elution have been completed on the demineralizers at TMI-2 which resulted in the removal of about 750 Ci of radiocesium from DA and about 3300 Ci from DB.

Bond, W.D.; King, L.J.; Knauer, J.B.; Hofstetter, K.J.; Thompson, J.D.

1985-01-01

247

Ion Exchange Temperature Testing with SRF Resin  

SciTech Connect

Ion exchange using the Spherical Resorcinol-Formaldehyde (SRF) resin has been selected by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of River Protection for use in the Pretreatment Facility of the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) and for potential application in an at-tank deployment for removing 137Cs. Recent proposed changes to the WTP ion exchange process baseline indicate that higher temperatures (50°C) to alleviate post-filtration precipitation issues prior to reaching the ion exchange columns may be required. Therefore, it is important to understand the behavior of SRF resin performance under the conditions expected with the new equipment and process changes. This research examined the impact of elevated temperature on resin loading and resin degradation during extended solution flow using elevated temperature (45°, 50°, 55°, 60°, 65°, 75°C). Testing for extended times at elevated temperatures showed that the resin does degrade and loading capacity is reduced at and above 45°C. Above 60°C the resin appears to not load at all.

Russell, Renee L.; Rinehart, Donald E.; Brown, Garrett N.; Peterson, Reid A.

2012-03-01

248

Strong evidence for the effectiveness of resin based sealants.  

PubMed

Data sourcesCochrane Oral Health Group's Trials Register, CENTRAL, Medline via OVID, EMBASE via OVID; SCISEARCH, CAplus, INSPEC, NTIS and PASCAL via STN Easy and DARE, NHS EED, HTA (all to September/ November 2012) and ClinicalTrials.gov (to July 2012). There were no restrictions on language or date of publication.Study selectionRandomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials of at least 12 months duration comparing no sealant with sealant, or different types of sealants, for preventing caries of occlusal or approximal surfaces of premolar or molar teeth in children and adolescents under 20 years of age.Data extraction and synthesisScreening of search results, data extraction and assessment of trial quality (using GRADE methods) were by two reviewers independently.ResultsThere were 34 trials of children aged five to 16 years, with 12 trials (2575 participants) comparing sealants with no sealant, 21 trials (3202 participants) comparing one sealant with another and one trial (752 participants) comparing two types of sealant with no sealant.Resin sealants compared with no sealants prevented caries in the first permanent molars of children five to 10 years old (six trials at low risk of bias with two years follow up), (odds ratio (OR) 0.12, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.07 to 0.19). At 48 to 54 months follow-up, the caries preventive effect was maintained (OR 0.21, 95% CI 0.16 to 0.28) although there were only four trials (two were at low and two at high risk of bias).No conclusions could be drawn as to whether glass ionomer sealants compared with no sealants prevented caries at 2 year follow-up. The mean difference in DFS was -0.18, 95% CI -0.39 to 0.03.The relative effectiveness of one type of sealant compared to a different type of sealant was inconclusive as there was great variation in comparisons, outcomes, times of outcomes and background fluoride levels in the 21 studies. There was insufficient evidence for the relative superiority of glass ionomer and resin sealants (very low event rate in many of the 15 trials). There were inconsistent results for resin-modified glass ionomer sealants compared with resin sealants. No difference in caries increments were found in the two small trials of polyacid-modified resin sealants compared with resin sealants.ConclusionsSealants compared with no sealants, on the occlusal surfaces of permanent molars in children and adolescents, are effective at reducing caries up to 48 months. There is less evidence for longer term follow-up and little for the relative effectiveness of sealing in less high caries risk children. No conclusions could be drawn on the relative effectiveness of different types of sealants. PMID:24071670

Deery, Chris

2013-09-01

249

Effects of two methods of moisture control on marginal microleakage between resin composite and etched enamel: a clinical study.  

PubMed

Visible light-polymerized resin composite tabs were bonded to the flattened, acid-etched surface of teeth that were scheduled for extraction. Half of the teeth (group I) were isolated with cotton rolls in conjunction with a saliva ejector. The remaining teeth (group II) were isolated using a rubber dam. Both methods of isolation were used for each patient so that to some extent all patients served as their own controls. Following extraction, all samples were thermocycled 500 times alternating between 6 degrees C and 60 degrees C, after which they were immersed in 5% methylene blue for 4 hours. Each tooth was then mounted in acrylic resin and sectioned on a hard tissue microtome. Microleakage was assessed using a light microscope at x 20 magnification. The use of rubber dam isolation resulted in less microleakage at the enamel resin interface. PMID:8297458

Knight, G T; Berry, T G; Barghi, N; Burns, T R

250

Aging and yellowing of triterpenoid resin varnishes – Influence of aging conditions and resin composition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aging of natural triterpenoid resins used as varnishes on paintings is still insufficiently understood. Although progress has been made, questions concerning the aging pathways in light vs. darkness, or the correlation of oxidation with yellowing, remain open. The influence of aging conditions, primarily the amount of light, but also resin composition, on the aging process were investigated. The aging

Patrick Dietemann; Catherine Higgitt; Moritz Kälin; Michael J. Edelmann; Richard Knochenmuss; Renato Zenobi

2009-01-01

251

Switch to an advanced ion exchange resin cuts boiler costs  

SciTech Connect

This article discusses how a field study demonstrated how that one refinery could save $384,000/yr by changing boiler feedwater ion exchange resin. Constant deterioration of ion exchange resin, used to demineralize boiler feedwater, prompted Star Enterprise to conduct a side-by-side evaluation of two resins. The study compared the macroporous weak base anion (WBA) resin that the refinery had used for years with a new WBA resin that features a uniform particle size. The results of this field trial, which was conducted over an 18-month period, showed that the uniform particle size resin had a higher resistance to organic fouling and produced an average of 28 percent more treated water per cycle than the old resin. Replacement and regeneration costs with the new resin resulted in a $48,000 annual savings per bed of resin.

Kratzer, W.R.; Coker, S.D.

1994-10-01

252

[Classification and several mechanical properties of core composite resins].  

PubMed

According to the classification proposed by Hosoda, six core resins could be divided into two categories on the basis of the elemental composition and size distribution of filler particles by SEM observation and EDX analysis. Furthermore, several mechanical properties of the resins were determined. The following facts were found: Bell Feel Core, Clearfil Core, Clearfil PhotoCore, Core Max, and Core Max II resins were classified as a semihybrid resin, and Microrest Core resin as a hybrid type resin. The elements detected in the resins by the EDX were Si, Zr, Al, Ba and La. The mechanical properties of the resins were shown to be highly stable at one day or one week after curing. The mechanical properties of the resins suggest that the subsequent crown preparation and impression taking should be postponed until the next appointment. PMID:2135512

Yamada, T; Hosoda, H; Tsurugai, T

1990-03-01

253

Resin flow monitoring in vacuum-assisted resin transfer molding using optical fiber distributed sensor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, we implemented resin flow monitoring by using an optical fiber sensor during vacuum assisted resin transfer molding (VaRTM).We employed optical frequency domain reflectometry (OFDR) and fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor for distributed sensing. Especially, long gauge FBGs (about 100mm) which are 10 times longer than an ordinary FBG were employed for more effective distributed sensing. A long gauge FBG was embedded in GFRP laminates, and other two ones were located out of laminate for wavelength reference and temperature compensation, respectively. During VaRTM, the embedded FBG could measure how the preform affected the sensor with vacuum pressure and resin was flowed into the preform. In this study, we intended to detect the gradient of compressive strain between impregnated part and umimpregnated one within long gauge FBG. If resin is infused to preform, compressive strain which is generated on FBG is released by volume of resin. We could get the wavelength shift due to the change of compressive strain along gauge length of FBG by using short-time Fourier transformation for signal acquired from FBG. Therefore, we could know the resin flow front with the gradient of compressive strain of FBG. In this study, we used silicon oil which has same viscosity with resin substitute for resin in order to reuse FBG. In order to monitor resin flow, the silicon oil was infused from one edge of preform, the silicon oil was flowed from right to left. Then, we made dry spot within gauge length by infusing silicon oil to both sides of preform to prove the ability of dry spot monitoring with FBG. We could monitor resin flow condition and dry spot formation successfully using by FBG based on OFDR.

Eum, Soohyun; Kageyama, Kazuro; Murayama, Hideaki; Ohsawa, Isamu; Uzawa, Kiyoshi; Kanai, Makoto; Igawa, Hirotaka

2007-04-01

254

Chemical characterization of the ambient organic aerosol soluble in water: 1. Isolation of hydrophobic and hydrophilic fractions with a XAD-8 resin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Group separation of the aqueous extract of fine particles bearing water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) provides unique insights into the sources of organic carbon (OC). XAD-8 resin coupled with a Total Organic Carbon analyzer allows for direct quantification. We term the fraction of WSOC not retained by a XAD-8 resin column at pH 2 as hydrophilic WSOC (WSOCxp); this includes saccharides,

Amy P. Sullivan; Rodney J. Weber

2006-01-01

255

Anion-exchange resin-based desulfurization process  

SciTech Connect

The University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI) has a Department of Energy grant to further develop the Institute's anion-exchange resin-based flue gas, desulfurization concept. The developmental program proposed includes screening of commercially available resins to select three candidate resins for further study. These three resins will undergo a series of experiments designed to test the resins' performance under different process conditions (including the use of spent MHD seed material). The best of these resins will be used in optimizing the regeneration step and in testing the effects of performance enhancers. The process schematic developed from the results will be used to estimate the related economics.

Sheth, A.C.; Strevel, S.D.

1991-01-01

256

Enzymatic hydrolysis and physical characterization of commercial celluloses and cellulose-based ion-exchange powdered mixed resins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Commercial celluloses (BH20, Epicote, FC+) and their cellulose-containing powdered mixed resins (PMR) were evaluated using enzymatic and physical methods. Samples were hydrolyzed with purified Trichoderma viride cellulase extract and measured for released reducing sugar using the dinitrosalicylic acid method. Physical characterization was performed with gross specific surface areas (GSSA) and relative crystalline indices (RCI). In addition, FC+ was exposed to

S. D. Clarkin; L. S. Clesceri

2002-01-01

257

Sealing ability of mineral trioxide aggregate, glass ionomer cement and composite resin when repairing large furcal perforations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To evaluate the sealing ability of different repair materials and the pathway of bacterial penetration after closure of large pulp chamber floor perforations. Materials and methods Perforations were made in the furcation area of extracted human molars and sealed with either mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA), glass ionomer cement or resin composite. The bacterial leakage method was used with Enterococcus

M. Kleivmyr; E. Bruzell; D. Ørstavik; G. Lodiene

2011-01-01

258

Summary of: Sealing ability of mineral trioxide aggregate, glass ionomer cement and composite resin when repairing large furcal perforations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To evaluate the sealing ability of different repair materials and the pathway of bacterial penetration after closure of large pulp chamber floor perforations.Materials and methods Perforations were made in the furcation area of extracted human molars and sealed with either mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA), glass ionomer cement or resin composite. The bacterial leakage method was used with Enterococcus faecalis

Asgeir Bårdsen

2011-01-01

259

??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? D2EHPA SEPARATION OF URANIUM FROM TRISODIUM PHOSPHATE SOLUTION BY D2EHPA IMPREGNATED RESINS ????????? ???????????1, ??????? ??????????1 ??? ????? ????????????1  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the monazite ore breakdown by alkali process to separate nuclear elements and rare earth elements composed in this phosphate ore, trisodium phosphate byproduct from the digestion process may contain uranium up to 300 ppm. Therefore, it is necessary to purify this trisodium phosphate. This study has used di(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid (D2EHPA) impregnated resins to extract uranium from the trisodium

Uthaiwan Injarean; Pipat Pichestapong; Wannee Srinuttrakul

260

Diffusion of residual monomer in polymer resins.  

PubMed Central

A simplified mathematical model which made use of Fick's laws of diffusion written in spherical coordinates was developed to describe the rate of diffusion of residual monomers from polymer resins. The properties of the monomer-polymer system which influenced the amount of monomer remaining in the polymer as a function of time were the diffusivity and solubility of the monomer in the polymer, and the particle size of the polymer resin. This model was used to analyze literature data on the diffusion of residual vinyl chloride monomer in polyvinyl chloride resins made by the suspension process. It was concluded that particle size of the resin was a significant parameter which should be taken advantage of in process equipment designed to remove residual monomer from PVC resins. The diffusivity of the monomer in the polymer was a function of the solubility of the monomer in the polymer. Monomer solubility can be determined from Henry's law. It was suggested that this model could be adapted to describe diffusion of monomers from any monomer-polymer system, and would be a useful approach to modeling the transport of nonreactive chemical additives from plastics.

Piver, W T

1976-01-01

261

Interaction of resin-modified glass-ionomer cements with moist dentine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. The objective of this study was to report on a novel phenomenon that occurs when resin-modified glass-ionomer cements (RMGICs) are bonded to moist human dentine.Methods. Dentine surfaces from extracted third molars were abraded with 180-grit SiC paper. Ten teeth were prepared for each of the two RMGICs tested (Fuji II LC, GC Corp. and Photac-Fil Quick, 3M ESPE). RMGIC

C. K. Y Yiu; F. R Tay; N. M King; D. H Pashley; R. M Carvalho; M. R. O Carrilho

2004-01-01

262

The influence of biodegradation on resins and asphaltenes in the Liaohe Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Asphaltenes are traditionally considered to be recalcitrant to microbial alteration. Resins and asphaltenes of seven biodegraded oils extracted from reservoir cores of two columns (Es3 and Es1) of the Lengdong oilfield in the Liaohe Basin, NE China, were studied to test this hypothesis. Elemental (C, H, N, O, S) and isotopic compositions (?13C and ?15N) were measured, FT-IR was used

Yuhong Liao; Ansong Geng; Haiping Huang

2009-01-01

263

In vitro caries inhibition by polyacid-modified composite resins (‘compomers’)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare the in-vitro caries inhibition of two polyacid-modified composite resins (PMCRs).Methods: Three standardized class V cavities were prepared in eight extracted human molar teeth. Two of these cavities in each tooth were restored with Compoglass and Dyract according to manufacturers' guidelines. A conventional glass-ionomer cement restoration (Chemfil II) was placed in the

B. J. Millar; F. Abider; J. W. Nicholson

1998-01-01

264

Preconcentration of plutonium and americium using the Actinide-CU TM Resin for human tissue analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for the preconcentration of Am and Pu from human tissue solutions (liver, lung, bone etc) using the Actinide-CU Resin\\u000a (ElChroM Industries) has been developed for their alpha-spectrometric determination. With near 100% recoveries were obtained\\u000a by preconcentration, subsequent decomposition methods for eluent were developed. Good agreement for Pu and Am determination\\u000a with the USTUR anion-exchange\\/solvent extraction method was demonstrated

H. Qu; D. Stuit; S. E. Glover; S. F. Love; R. H. Filby

1998-01-01

265

Antioxidant power of Iranian propolis extract  

Microsoft Academic Search

Propolis is a resinous natural hive product derived from plant exudates collected by honey bees. Due to biological and pharmacological activities, it has been extensively used in folk medicine. The present study was designed to measure the antioxidant power of ethanolic extracts of propolis samples from different parts of Iran with “ferric reducing ability of plasma” (FRAP) assay and compare

Shiva Mohammadzadeh; Mohammad Sharriatpanahi; Manoochehr Hamedi; Yaghoub Amanzadeh; Seyed Esmaeil Sadat Ebrahimi; Seyed Nasser Ostad

2007-01-01

266

AFM of biological material embedded in epoxy resin.  

PubMed

We present a simple method to extract morphological details from the block face of epoxy embedded biopolymers by AFM. It is shown that topographical contrast and the identification of small structural details critically depend on the procedure of sample preparation before embedding (chemical fixation or high-pressure freezing and freeze-substitution) and on the hardness of the embedding epoxy resin. Ethanol treatment of the block face of the sample after microtomy elutes non-cross-linked polymer chains and makes the smallest details of the embedded biomaterial amenable to detection. AFM (height and phase contrast) examination of the block face of accordingly prepared cells of Caenorhabditis elegans provides data that are comparable to TEM. PMID:15099575

Matsko, Nadezda; Mueller, Martin

2004-06-01

267

40 CFR 414.40 - Applicability; description of the thermoplastic resins subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Nitrate *Ethylene-Methacrylic Acid Copolymers *Ethylene-Vinyl Acetate Copolymers *Fatty Acid Resins *Fluorocarbon Polymers Nylon 11 Resin *Nylon 6-66 Copolymers *Nylon 6âNylon 11 Blends Nylon 6 Resin Nylon 612 Resin Nylon 66...

2012-07-01

268

76 FR 12939 - Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy: Final Results of Expedited Sunset Review of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy: Final Results of Expedited Sunset Review...polytetrafluoroethylene resin (``PTFE resin'') from Italy. The Department has conducted an expedited...antidumping duty order on PTFE resin from Italy pursuant to section 751(c) of the...

2011-03-09

269

76 FR 42114 - Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy: Continuation of Antidumping Duty Order  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy: Continuation of Antidumping Duty Order...polytetrafluoroethylene resin (``PTFE resin'') from Italy would likely lead to a continuation or...antidumping duty order on PTFE resin from Italy, pursuant to section 751(c)(2)...

2011-07-18

270

Acetyl11-keto-ß-boswellic acid, a constituent of a herbal medicine from Boswellia serrata resin, attenuates experimental ileitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The gum resin extract from Boswellia serrata (H15), an herbal product, was recently shown to have positive therapeutic effects in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, the mechanisms and constituents responsible for these effects are poorly understood. This study examined the effect of the Boswellia extract and its single constituent acetyl-11-keto-#-boswellic acid (AKBA) on leukocyte-endothelial cell interactions in an experimental model

Christian F. Krieglstein; Christoph Anthoni; Emile J. M. Rijcken; Mike Laukötter; Hans-Ulrich Spiegel; Sven E. Boden; Stephan Schweizer; Hasan Safayhi; Norbert Senninger; Guido Schürmann

2001-01-01

271

Posterior composite resin restorations: operative innovations.  

PubMed

The adhesive revolution is alleviating reservations regarding posterior composite resin restorations, established by past experience with outdated materials and techniques. Improved materials, instrumentation, and placement techniques have enhanced the performance of current formulations of posterior composite resins over their predecessors. However, it is a clinician's operative skill that ultimately determines the quality of a restorative option. The learning objective of this article is to share the author's experience in attaining adhesive excellence with posterior tooth-colored restorations as well as aesthetic anatomic form, minimal postoperative sensitivity, and a bond which can weather the true test of success-durability. Optimal applications, dental dam requirement, importance of the first increment of composite resin, restitution of occlusal morphology, and the clinical application are discussed. PMID:9242131

Liebenberg, W H

1996-10-01

272

Corrosion of resin-bonded orthodontic brackets.  

PubMed

The objective was to identify the nature and origin of indelible black and green stains found in enamel after the removal of bonded orthodontic brackets. Several brackets were examined by scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive x-ray analysis. Irrespective of the type of bracket or resin, morphologic evidence of corrosion activity was found. Brackets were pitted, and in some cases large amounts of metal were missing. Cracks were found in the resin which led to sites of destruction in which structures resembling microorganisms were also found. X-ray analysis showed the presence of chromium, nickel, iron, and chlorine in significant amounts in the bonding, discolored resin. It was concluded that the cracks were favoring crevice corrosion. In the presence of organisms and a lowered pH, together with a chloride environment and an oxygen gradient, conditions conducive to corrosion are established. PMID:6758601

Gwinnett, A J

1982-06-01

273

Steroid extraction process from urine sources  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A process in which urine is optionally filtered to remove solid extraneous matter and optionally treated so as to reduce the phenolic content of the urine to give and the resulting fluid is then subjected to a solid extraction of the major concentration steroids content therefrom by a first suitable resin (to yield a first resin laden with major concentration steroids and a minor concentration steroid laden first liquid remainder). The minor concentration steroid liquid remainder is subjected to a solid extraction of the minor concentration steroid content therefrom by a second suitable resin (to yield a second resin laden with minor concentration steroids and a second liquid remainder). The first and second resins laden with their respective steroids are then eluted and the eluates are collected separately and optionally subjected to further purification and chromatographic separations, with each resulting separate collection being analyzed for the steroid content thereof. The separate analyzed materials are dried and stored for recombination in an appropriate manner to meet a desired profile. The ultimate product has very nearly the same steroid components and concentrations from batch to batch.

2013-01-08

274

COPPER AND COBALT EXTRACTION FROM SULPHATE SOLUTION USING NATURAL CLINOPTILOLITE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Copper and cobalt are generally electro-won from their aqueous sulphate solutions. After optimised leaching of their ores, concentrates or calcine bearing minerals, the leachate is clarified and suitably purified prior to the electrolytic extraction of the metal of pursuit (Pearcy, 2006). Solvent extraction (SX) using appropriate organic solvents and ion exchange (IX) with relevant resins are known purification processes used

Antoine F. Mulaba-Bafubiandi; D. Nyembe; B. Mamba

275

Steam-Explosion Lignins: Fractionation, Composition, Structure and Extractives  

Microsoft Academic Search

The acetone-soluble lignins of steam-exploded Pinus radiata and Eucalyptus regnans wood were fractionated by sequential extraction with the solvents hexane, diethyl ether, chloroform and acetone. For a given wood and SE process, the fractions showed differences in composition and in the structures of the lignin fragments present. Resin and fatty acid extractives make a significant contribution to the composition of

Jacqueline A. Hemmingson

1987-01-01

276

Taste masking of Etoricoxib by using ion-exchange resin.  

PubMed

The present study was carried out in order to mask the bitter taste of the Etoricoxib by complexation with cation-exchange resin, Indion 204. The drug resin complexes (DRC) were prepared by batch process and efficient drug loading was obtained by using inactivated form of resin in the drug-resin ratio 1:3.3 with 30 min swelling time of resin in 25 mL of water with 5 min stirring time. Drug-resin complexes were characterized for dissolution studies and spectral studies. Drug release from drug-resin complex in salivary pH was insufficient to impart bitter taste. Volunteers rated the drug resin complex as tasteless and agreeable. PMID:19845450

Patra, Sradhanjali; Samantaray, Rakesh; Pattnaik, Saswat; Barik, B B

277

Analytical Vacuum-Assisted Resin Transfer Molding (VARTM) Flow Model.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A closed form solution for the flow of resin in the vacuum-assisted resin transfer molding (VARTM) process is used extensively for affordable manufacturing of large composite structures. During VARTM processing, a highly permeable distribution medium is i...

B. K. Fink K. Hsiao R. Mathur J. W. Gillespie S. G. Advani

2000-01-01

278

21 CFR 175.270 - Poly(vinyl fluoride) resins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...federal_register/code_of_federal_regulations/ibr_locations.html. (1) Solvent. N,N- Dimethylacetamide, technical grade. (2) Solution. Powdered resin and solvent are heated at 120 °C until the resin is...

2009-04-01

279

Commercial Ion Exchange Resin Vitrification in Borosilicate Glass.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Bench-scale studies were performed to determine the feasibility of vitrification treatment of six resins representative of those used in the commercial nuclear industry. Each resin was successfully immobilized using the same proprietary borosilicate glass...

C. A. Cicero-Herman P. Workman K. Poole D. Erich J. Harden

1998-01-01

280

Significant Properties of Epoxy Resins as Matrices in Graphite Composites.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of the work being reported was to determine experimentally what properties of the matrix resins most significantly affected the mechanical properties of the unidirectional graphite fiber/epoxy resin composites evaluated. Five different epoxy...

W. Mahieu J. C. Weidner R. J. Kuhbander

1971-01-01

281

21 CFR 872.3300 - Hydrophilic resin coating for dentures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3300 Hydrophilic resin coating for dentures. (a) Identification. A hydrophilic resin...

2013-04-01

282

21 CFR 872.3820 - Root canal filling resin.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3820 Root canal filling resin. (a) Identification. A root canal filling resin is a...

2013-04-01

283

21 CFR 177.2420 - Polyester resins, cross-linked.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Asbestos Glass fiber Polyester fiber produced by the... (c) The cross-linked polyester resins, with or...In accordance with good manufacturing practice, finished articles containing the cross-linked polyester resins shall be...

2009-04-01

284

21 CFR 177.2420 - Polyester resins, cross-linked.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Asbestos Glass fiber Polyester fiber produced by the... (c) The cross-linked polyester resins, with or...In accordance with good manufacturing practice, finished articles containing the cross-linked polyester resins shall be...

2010-01-01

285

Flammability Characteristics of Some Epoxy Resins and Composites.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The flammability characteristics of a number of epoxy resin formulations and glass fiber-reinforced epoxy resin composites have been evaluated by thermal analysis, limiting oxygen index/temperature index, flash ignition, and smoke density measurement tech...

D. P. Macaione R. P. Dowling P. R. Bergquist

1983-01-01

286

Micromorphological changes in resin-dentin bonds after 1 year of water storage.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the degradation of resin-dentin bonds after 1 year of water storage. Resin-dentin-bonded specimens were prepared with the use of an adhesive resin system (One-Step: Bisco). Half of the experimental specimens were sectioned perpendicular to the adhesive interface to produce a beam (adhesive area: 0.9 mm(2)) before being stored in distilled water at 37 degrees C for 1 year. The remaining half of the bonded specimens were sectioned into beams of similar dimensions after 1 year of water storage. Additional bonded specimens that had been stored in water for 24 h before sectioning into beams were used as controls. The beams in the two experimental groups and the control group were subjected to microtensile bond testing. Fractography was performed on all fractured beams with the use of FE-SEM. There were significant (p <.05) differences in bond strength among the control specimens (55.9 +/- 12.9 MPa), specimens that had been sectioned into beams after water storage (68.9 +/- 18.6 MPa), and specimens that had been sectioned into beams before water storage (28.1 +/- 9.3 MPa). Fractography revealed that the resin material was gradually extracted from the periphery to the center portion of the beam. This probably accounted for the decrease in bond strength after 1 year of water storage. PMID:12115762

Hashimoto, Masanori; Ohno, Hiroki; Sano, Hidehiko; Tay, Franklin R; Kaga, Masayuki; Kudou, Yoshiyuki; Oguchi, Haruhisa; Araki, Yoshima; Kubota, Minoru

2002-01-01

287

21 CFR 177.2355 - Mineral reinforced nylon resins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Mineral reinforced nylon resins. 177.2355 Section 177.2355 Food...Repeated Use § 177.2355 Mineral reinforced nylon resins. Mineral reinforced nylon resins identified in paragraph (a) of...

2009-04-01

288

21 CFR 177.2355 - Mineral reinforced nylon resins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2009-04-01 true Mineral reinforced nylon resins. 177.2355 Section 177.2355 Food...Repeated Use § 177.2355 Mineral reinforced nylon resins. Mineral reinforced nylon resins identified in paragraph (a) of...

2010-01-01

289

21 CFR 872.3770 - Temporary crown and bridge resin.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Temporary crown and bridge resin. 872.3770 Section 872.3770...Devices § 872.3770 Temporary crown and bridge resin. (a) Identification. A temporary crown and bridge resin is a device composed of a...

2013-04-01

290

Color stability of restorative resins under accelerated aging.  

PubMed

The color stability of seven commercial composite resins, an unfilled resin, and three glazes was studied under conditions of accelerated aging by reflection spectrophotometry and visually with Munsell color tabs. After aging for 900 hours, most of the resins had lower values of luminous reflectance and excitation purity and higher values of dominant wavelength and contrast ratio compared to values at baseline. PMID:281342

Powers, J M; Dennison, J B; Koran, A

291

49 CFR 173.165 - Polyester resin kits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Polyester resin kits. 173.165 Section...Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.165 Polyester resin kits. (a) Except for transportation by aircraft, polyester resin kits consisting of a base...

2012-10-01

292

Mathematical Analysis of Resin Flow through Fibrous Porous Media  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resin flow through fiber preforms was analyzed mathematically. Closed form solutions for fiber volume fraction distribution and pressure field during resin infusion into fiber preforms were suggested, and a new effective permeability was defined. The effect of preform compressibility on the fiber volume fraction and pressure distributions in resin-saturated region was investigated analytically. The findings show that the compaction behavior

Young Seok Song

2006-01-01

293

Tensile Properties of Resin-infiltrated Demineralized Human Dentin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of adhesive resins to restore the physical properties of demineralized dentin has not been well-documented. The unfilled resins that are used for adhesion have relatively low moduli of elasticity and limited ability to increase dentin stiffness, although they may increase the ultimate tensile strength of dentin. This study tested the hypothesis that resin infiltration of demineralized dentin can

H. Sano; T. Takatsu; B. Ciucchi; C. M. Russell; D. H. Pashley

1995-01-01

294

Epoxy resin developments for large superconducting magnets impregnation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The future detectors ATLAS and CMS of the Large Hadron Collider at CERN will use two huge superconducting magnets. Both are now under design, and their electrical insulation could be realized using epoxy resin and a wet impregnation technique. Because of their large dimensions, and the indirect cooling of the superconductor, the strengths of the resin and of the resin\\/conductor

J. M Rey; B Gallet; F Kircher; J. C Lottin

1998-01-01

295

21 CFR 173.25 - Ion-exchange resins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Drugs 3 2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Ion-exchange resins. 173.25 Section 173.25...Polymer Adjuvants for Food Treatment § 173.25 Ion-exchange resins. Ion-exchange resins may be safely used in the...

2009-04-01

296

Thermokinetic behavior of powdered phenol-formaldehyde (PPF) resins  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted to investigate thermokinetic behavior of powdered phenol-formaldehyde (PPF) resins used for the production of wood-based panel products. Both fusion diameter and stroke cure time of the PPF resins were measured to characterize flow properties and reactivity of PPF resins. In addition, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was also used to obtain apparent glass transition temperature (Tg) and

Byung-Dae Park; Xiang-Ming Wang

2005-01-01

297

Stability and demulsification of emulsions stabilized by asphaltenes or resins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental data are presented to show the influence of asphaltenes and resins on the stability and demulsification of emulsions. It was found that emulsion stability was related to the concentrations of the asphaltene and resin in the crude oil, and the state of dispersion of the asphaltenes and resins (molecular vs colloidal) was critical to the strength or rigidity of

Lixin Xia; Shiwei Lu; Guoying Cao

2004-01-01

298

21 CFR 173.25 - Ion-exchange resins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 3 2010-01-01 2009-04-01 true Ion-exchange resins. 173.25 Section 173.25 Food...Polymer Adjuvants for Food Treatment § 173.25 Ion-exchange resins. Ion-exchange resins may be safely used in the treatment...

2010-01-01

299

Novel Uncured Epoxy Resin\\/CaCO3 Nanocomposites  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we synthesized epoxy resin\\/CaCO3 nanocomposites through in-situ and inclusion polymerization, and the nanoparticles were well dispersed in the resin matrix observed by SEM. The effects of the nanoparticles on the properties of epoxy resin are discussed.

Haojie Yu; Li Wang; Quan Shi; Zhenrong Zhao; Guohua Jiang

2006-01-01

300

Engineering Plastics from Lignin. IX. Phenolic Resin Synthesis and Characterization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance of phenol-formaldehyde (PF) resins, formulated with lignin derivatives previously synthesized as phenolic resin prepolymers, was evaluated by thermal analysis of the curing process, and by a hard maple shear block test. At 54 and 60% phenol replacement levels, respectively, kraft (KL) and steam explosion lignin (SEL)-based resoles exhibited cure behavior very similar to a standard PF resin. Acid

Peter C. Muller; Stephen S. Kelley; Wolfgang G. Glasser

1984-01-01

301

Shear and tensile bond testing for resin cement evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. The aim of this study was to compare the tensile and shear bond strengths of one experimental and four commercially available resin cements following the ISO document TR 110405 for bond measurement.Methods. Tensile and shear bond tests were performed using bovine enamel and dentin as the tooth substrate with each of the resin cements. Resin composite rods were cemented

Yuichi Kitasako; Michael F. Burrow; Toru Nikaido; Naoko Harada; Shigehisa Inokoshi; Toshimoto Yamada; Toshio Takatsu

1995-01-01

302

Urea–formaldehyde (UF) adhesive resins for wood  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urea–formaldehyde (UF) resins are the most important type of adhesive resins for the production of wood based panels. They convince by their high reactivity and good performance in the production and by their low price, however they lack in water resistance of the hardened resin owing to the reversibility of the aminomethylene link and hence the susceptibility to hydrolysis. This

M. Dunky

1998-01-01

303

Flavylium chromophores as species markers for dragon's blood resins from Dracaena and Daemonorops trees.  

PubMed

A simple and rapid liquid chromatographic method with diode-array UV-vis spectrophotometric detection has been developed for the authentication of dragon's blood resins from Dracaena and Daemonorops trees. Using this method it was discovered that the flavylium chromophores, which contribute to the red colour of these resins, differ among the species and could be used as markers to differentiate among species. A study of parameters, such as time of extraction, proportion of MeOH and pH, was undertaken to optimise the extraction of the flavyliums. This method was then used to make extracts from samples of dragon's blood resin obtained from material of known provenance. From the samples analysed 7,6-dihydroxy-5-methoxyflavylium (dracorhodin), 7,4'-dihydroxy-5-methoxyflavylium (dracoflavylium) and 7,4'-dihydroxyflavylium were selected as species markers for Daemonorops spp., Dracaena draco and Dracaena cinnabari, respectively. The chromatograms from these samples were used to build an HPLC-DAD database. The ability to discriminate among species of dragon's blood using the single marker compounds was compared with a principal components analysis of the chromatograms in the HPLC-DAD database. The results from the HPLC-DAD method based on the presence of these flavylium markers was unequivocal. The HPLC-DAD method was subsequently applied to 37 samples of dragon blood resins from the historical samples in the Economic Botany Collection, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. The method identified anomalies in how samples in this collection had been labelled. It is clear that the method can be used to evaluate the provenance of samples used in different areas of cultural heritage. It also could be used to monitor the trade of endangered species of dragon's blood and the species being used in complex formulations of traditional Chinese medicine. PMID:18817913

Sousa, Micaela M; Melo, Maria J; Parola, A Jorge; Seixas de Melo, J Sérgio; Catarino, Fernando; Pina, Fernando; Cook, Frances E M; Simmonds, Monique S J; Lopes, João A

2008-09-07

304

Separation and Analysis of Actinides by Extraction Chromotography Coupled with Alpha Liquid Scintillation Spectrometry.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This work describes the development and testing of a new method for the separation and analysis of most actinides of interest in environmental samples. It combines simplified extraction chromatography using highly selective absorption resins to partition ...

J. R. Cadieux S. H. Reboul

1995-01-01

305

Effect of polysulfonate resins and direct compression fillers on multiple-unit sustained-release dextromethorphan resinate tablets  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this work was to investigate the effect of different polysulfonate resins and direct compression fillers on\\u000a physical properties of multiple-unit sustained-release dextromethorphan (DMP) tablets. DMP resinates were formed by a complexation\\u000a of DMP and strong cation exchange resins, Dowex 50 W and Amberlite IRP69. The tablets consisted of the DMP resinates and direct\\u000a compression fillers, such as

Thaned Pongjanyakul; Aroonsri Priprem; Padungkwan Chitropas; Satit Puttipipatkhachorn

2005-01-01

306

The Physical Mechanisms Responsible for the Weathering of Epoxy Resins and GFR Epoxy Resins.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Experiments are described where the cylindrically symmetric fields associated with the fibre/resin interface are explored by examination in the optical microscope. The patterns of birefringence show how the difference of the principal stresses vary with d...

C. Alexandre T. W. Turner K. H. G. Ashbee

1979-01-01

307

Thermal Stability of Ion-Exchange Resins.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The action of heat, radiation and oxidants on carbon chain polymers, such as ion-exchange resins, often cause irreversible chemical changes in macro molecules. These changes can be e g the rupture of the carbon-carbon single or double bond, and/or the deg...

J. P. Aittola J. Chyssler H. Ringberg

1982-01-01

308

Immobilization of glyoxylic acid on Wang resin  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report herein the simple preparation of immobilized glyoxylic acid, where the acid function is either linked through an amide or an ester bond to Wang resin. These compounds represent interesting aldehyde inputs for the generation of new libraries of small molecules.

Nathalie Schlienger; Martin R Bryce; Thomas K Hansen

2000-01-01

309

Basic Studies on Recycling of ABS Resin  

Microsoft Academic Search

With recent development of the petrochemical industry, plastic products have made our society more convenient. However, the disposal of these convenience products has become a serious threat to the environment. Therefore, research on recycling plastic wastes is necessary now more than ever. This paper is a basic study of recycling technology for ABS (acryionitile-butadienestyrene) resin. We tried to show the

Jin Kuk Kim; Chang K. Kang

1995-01-01

310

Pharmaceutical Applications of Ion-Exchange Resins  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The historical uses of ion-exchanged resins and a summary of the basic chemical principles involved in the ion-exchanged process are discussed. Specific applications of ion-exchange are provided that include drug stabilization, pharmaceutical excipients, taste-masking agents, oral sustained-release products, topical products for local application…

Elder, David

2005-01-01

311

Modification of Unsaturated Polyester Resin Using Elastomers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unsaturated polyester resin is widely used in the fiber reinforced plastic industry It suffers from lack of toughness, which makes it susceptible to breakage in the absence of reinforcement. This problem can be solved, at least partly, by the incorporation of elastomers. In this study a simple technique of dissolving various masticated elastomers in styrene and subsequent solution blending with

C. Mary Lubi; K. Ravi; Abdeen Ahammed; Eby Thomas Thachil

2000-01-01

312

Ternary resin-bound Dynamic Combinatorial Chemistry.  

PubMed

The ability to carry out simultaneous orthogonal exchange chemistries has opened new opportunities for increasing the numerical and structural diversity accessible to Dynamic Combinatorial Chemistry. We present proof-of-concept experiments demonstrating this concept is transferrable to resin-bound DCC, facilitating the generation and analysis of libraries with greater structural diversity. PMID:22240966

Gromova, Anna V; Ciszewski, Joseph M; Miller, Benjamin L

2012-01-13

313

Resin transfer molding speeds composite making  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fabrication resin transfer molding (RTM) composite parts for different industrial applications is discussed. These applications include composite aerospace parts, sports car components, and high performance sporting equipment. It is pointed out that RTM parts are lighter than metals and can be formulated to have superior durability. But like all composite parts, they are expensive and are made in limited runs.

Valenti, Michael

1992-11-01

314

The Reactions of Polyamides with Epoxy Resins.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

It was found that the interaction of epoxy resins based on bis-phenol A with polyamides in various solvents leads to the formation of a soluble block copolymer. In the absence of a solvent, a block copolymer of a three-dimensional structure is formed. The...

M. M. Tarnorutskii S. R. Rafikov B. A. Zhubanov T. N. Koryanova

1968-01-01

315

Antimicrobial activity of resin acid derivatives  

Microsoft Academic Search

The wide potential of resin acids as bioactive agents gave rise to a growing effort in the search for new applications of the natural forms and their derivatives. In some of these compounds, the antimicrobial activity is associated to the presence in the molecules of functional groups such as the hydroxyl, aldehyde, and ketone or to their cis or trans

Sonia Savluchinske-Feio; Maria João Marcelo Curto; Bárbara Gigante; J. Carlos Roseiro

2006-01-01

316

Application of curable resin-coated proppants  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports on a laboratory investigation of the interactions between fracturing fluids and resin-coated proppants (RCP's) which revealed (among other conclusions) that RCP's are incompatible with oxidizing breakers. Areas covered included RCP effect on fluid rheology, fluid relationship to RCP strength, theoretical study of required RCP strengths to prevent flowback, and experimental measurement to establish minimum strength.

Norman, L.R.; Terracina, J.M.; McCabe, M.A.; Nguyen, P.D. (Halliburton Services, Duncan, OK (United States))

1992-11-01

317

Unrestricted linear dimensional changes of two hard chairside reline resins and one heat-curing acrylic resin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The selection and use of hard chairside reline resins must be made with regard to dimensional stability, which will influence the accuracy of fit of the denture base. This study compared the dimensional change of two hard chairside reline resins (Duraliner II and Kooliner) and one heat-curing denture base resin (Lucitone 550). A stainless steel mold with reference dimensions (AB,

Ana Lucia Machado Cucci; Eunice Teresinha Giampaolo; Paulo Leonardi; Carlos Eduardo Vergani

1996-01-01

318

Effect of Resin System Parameters on Resin Transfer Molding of Vinyl Ester Based Composites—A Statistically Designed Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the area of composites has advanced significantly over the past three decades, there is still a lack of understanding as to the coupling between materials and processing variables, especially as related to the use of resin systems in emerging processes such as resin transfer molding (RTM). As materials are tailored through the use of additives to resin systems, intricate

Vistasp M. Karbhari; Gaurav Chhabra

1995-01-01

319

21 CFR 175.380 - Xylene-formaldehyde resins condensed with 4,4â²-isopropylidenediphenol-epichlorohydrin epoxy resins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-04-01 false Xylene-formaldehyde resins condensed with 4,4â...of Coatings § 175.380 Xylene-formaldehyde resins condensed with 4,4â²-isopropylidenediphenol-epichlorohydrin...produced by the condensation of xylene-formaldehyde resin and...

2013-04-01

320

Decomposition of Rare Earth Loaded Resin Particles  

SciTech Connect

The Fuel Cycle R and D (FCR and D) program within the Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE) is evaluating nuclear fuel cycle options, including once-through, modified open, and fully closed cycles. Each of these scenarios may utilize quite different fuel management schemes and variation in fuel types may include high thermal conductivity UO{sub 2}, thoria-based, TRISO, metal, advanced ceramic (nitride, carbide, composite, etc.), and minor actinide (MA) bearing fuels and targets. Researchers from the US, Europe, and japan are investigating methods of fabricating high-specific activity spherical particles for fuel and target applications. The capital, operating, and maintenance costs of such a fuel fabrication facility can be significant, thus fuel synthesis and fabrication processes that minimize waste and process losses, and require less footprint are desired. Investigations have been performed at the Institute for Transuranium Elements (ITU) and the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) studying the impact of americium and curium on the fuel fabrication process. proof of concept was demonstrated for fabrication of MA-bearing spherical particles, however additional development will be needed for engineering scale-up. Researchers at the Paul Scherer Institute (PSI) and the Japan Atomic Energy Association (JAEA) have collaborated on research with ceramic-metallic (CERMET) fuels using spherical particles as the ceramic component dispersed in the metal matrix. Recent work at the CEA evaluates the burning of MA in the blanket region of sodium fast reactors. There is also interest in burning MA in Canada Deuterium Uranium (CANDU) reactors. The fabrication of uranium-MA oxide pellets for a fast reactor blanket or MA-bearing fuel for CANDU reactors may benefit from a low-loss dedicated footprint for producing MA-spherical particles. One method for producing MA-bearing spherical particles is loading the actinide metal on a cation exchange resin. The AG-50W resin is made of sulfonic acid functional groups attached to a styrene divinylbenzene copolymer lattice (long chained hydrocarbon). The metal cation binds to the sulfur group, then during thermal decomposition in air the hydrocarbons will form gaseous species leaving behind a spherical metal-oxide particle. Process development for resin applications with radioactive materials is typically performed using surrogates. For americium and curium, a trivalent metal like neodymium can be used. Thermal decomposition of Nd-loaded resin in air has been studied by Hale. Process conditions were established for resin decomposition and the formation of Nd{sub 2}O{sub 3} particles. The intermediate product compounds were described using x-ray diffraction (XRD) and wet chemistry. Leskela and Niinisto studied the decomposition of rare earth (RE) elements and found results consistent with Hale. Picart et al. demonstrated the viability of using a resin loading process for the fabrication of uranium-actinide mixed oxide microspheres for transmutation of minor actinides in a fast reactor. For effective transmutation of actinides, it will be desirable to extend the in-reactor burnup and minimize the number of recycles of used actinide materials. Longer burn times increases the chance of Fuel Clad Chemical or Mechanical Interaction (FCCI, FCMI). Sulfur is suspected of contributing to Irradiation Assisted Stress Corrosion Cracking (IASCC) thus it is necessary to maximize the removal of sulfur during decomposition of the resin. The present effort extends the previous work by quantifying the removal of sulfur during the decomposition process. Neodymium was selected as a surrogate for trivalent actinide metal cations. As described above Nd was dissolved in nitric acid solution then contacted with the AG-50W resin column. After washing the column, the Nd-resin particles are removed and dried. The Nd-resin, seen in Figure 1 prior to decomposition, is ready to be converted to Nd oxide microspheres.

Voit, Stewart L [ORNL; Rawn, Claudia J [ORNL

2010-09-01

321

Synthesis/characterization of a new chelating resin and on-line solid phase extraction for the determination of Ag(I) and Pd(II) from water, cream, anode slime and converter samples by flow injection flame atomic absorption spectrometry.  

PubMed

On-line preconcentration procedures for the determination of Ag(I) and Pd(II) by flame atomic absorption spectrometry have been described. A new chelating resin, poly (N,N'-dipropionitrilemethacrylamide-co-divinylbenzene-co-2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propane sulfonic acid) was synthesized and used as a new adsorbent material. The resin was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and elemental analysis. Ag(I) was adsorbed on the chelating resin at pH 5.0 and eluted with 1.0 mol L(-1) HNO3. Pd(II) was retained at pH 9.5 and eluted with 1.5 mol L(-1) HCl. The experimental parameters (pH, type and concentration of eluent, flow rates of sample and eluent solutions, elution time and the effect of interfering ions) for both Ag(I) and Pd(II) were investigated in detail. The detection limit for Ag(I) was 2.4 ?g L(-1) and the relative standard deviation was 2.9% for 0.2 ?g mL(-1) Ag(I). The detection limit for Pd(II) was 1.7 ?g L(-1) and the relative standard deviation was 2.8% for 0.3 ?g mL(-1) Pd(II). Accuracy was confirmed by analyzing a certified reference material (TMDA-70), recovery studies on real samples and comparison with electrothermal atomic absorption analysis. The proposed methods were successfully applied to the on-line determination of Ag(I) in bottled water, pharmaceutical cream and anode slime samples and Pd(II) in bottled water and catalytic converter samples. PMID:23598028

Çetin, Tülin; Tokalio?lu, Serife; Ülgen, Ahmet; Sahan, Serkan; Özentürk, Ismail; Soykan, Cengiz

2012-10-23

322

Evaluation of the apical sealing ability and adaptation to the dentin of two resin-based Sealers: An in vitro study  

PubMed Central

Aim: To quantitatively evaluate the apical sealing ability and adaptation of two resin-based sealers to dentin. Materials and Methods: Fifty freshly extracted mandibular first premolars were taken and sectioned at the cemento-enamel junction. Thirty teeth were subjected to a leakage study by the resin infiltration method with two groups of 10 teeth each. Group I teeth were obturated with methacrylate resin-based sealer (EnoRez) and Group II teeth were obturated with epoxy resin-based sealer (AH Plus). The remaining 10 teeth were used as controls (positive and negative of five teeth each). Twenty teeth were divided into two groups and obturated as in the leakage study and subjected to a scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) analysis for adaptation and resin depth penetration. Results: Both the sealers produced apical leakage to a certain extent. The adaptation and resin sealer penetration in the coronal and middle thirds was better than in the apical third of the root canal under SEM observation. The hybridized resin sealer tags in the coronal and middle thirds of Group I were much longer than that shown by Group II. Conclusion: We conclude that the physical integrity of the sealer matrix may also be important in providing resistance to leakage.

Kumar, Narasimiah Suresh; Palanivelu, Ajitha; Narayanan, L Lakshmi

2013-01-01

323

Synthesis and Characterizations of Melamine-Based Epoxy Resins  

PubMed Central

A new, easy and cost-effective synthetic procedure for the preparation of thermosetting melamine-based epoxy resins is reported. By this innovative synthetic method, different kinds of resins can be obtained just by mixing the reagents in the presence of a catalyst without solvent and with mild curing conditions. Two types of resins were synthesized using melamine and a glycidyl derivative (resins I) or by adding a silane derivative (resin II). The resins were characterized by means of chemical-physical and thermal techniques. Experimental results show that all the prepared resins have a good thermal stability, but differ for their mechanical properties: resin I exhibits remarkable stiffness with a storage modulus value up to 830 MPa at room temperature, while lower storage moduli were found for resin II, indicating that the presence of silane groups could enhance the flexibility of these materials. The resins show a pot life higher than 30 min, which makes these resins good candidates for practical applications. The functionalization with silane terminations can be exploited in the formulation of hybrid organic-inorganic composite materials.

Ricciotti, Laura; Roviello, Giuseppina; Tarallo, Oreste; Borbone, Fabio; Ferone, Claudio; Colangelo, Francesco; Catauro, Michelina; Cioffi, Raffaele

2013-01-01

324

Method for permanently storing radioactive ion exchanger resins  

SciTech Connect

A method is claimed for forming a hardened product containing a radioactive ion exchanger resin in a condition for permanent, noncontaminating storage, by the steps of: providing, before fixing, a mass of such ion exchanger resin saturated in water, the resin being at least one resin selected from the group consisting of spherical resins and powdered resins; mixing the resin mass, with stirring, with a blast furnace cement having a composition which causes it to exhibit slow initial hardening, high sulfate resistance and low hydration heat and with a quantity of additional water equal in weight to 20% to 40% of the weight of the blast furnace cement; and allowing the resulting mixture to harden at room temperature.

Kunze, S.; Eden, G.; Koster, R.

1984-11-20

325

Commercial Ion Exchange Resin Vitrification in Borosilicate Glass  

SciTech Connect

Bench-scale studies were performed to determine the feasibility of vitrification treatment of six resins representative of those used in the commercial nuclear industry. Each resin was successfully immobilized using the same proprietary borosilicate glass formulation. Waste loadings varied from 38 to 70 g of resin/100 g of glass produced depending on the particular resin, with volume reductions of 28 percent to 68 percent. The bench-scale results were used to perform a melter demonstration with one of the resins at the Clemson Environmental Technologies Laboratory (CETL). The resin used was a weakly acidic meth acrylic cation exchange resin. The vitrification process utilized represented a approximately 64 percent volume reduction. Glass characterization, radionuclide retention, offgas analyses, and system compatibility results will be discussed in this paper.

Cicero-Herman, C.A.; Workman, P. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Poole, K.; Erich, D.; Harden, J. [Clemson Environmental Technologies Laboratory, Anderson, SC (United States)

1998-05-01

326

Assessment of the Water-Extractable Genotoxic Potential of Soil Samples from Contaminated Sites  

Microsoft Academic Search

A screening method for the evaluation of the water-extractable genotoxic potential of soil is proposed. Due to the low sensitivity of genotoxicity test systems, PAD-1 resin was used as solid phase to concentrate less hydrophilic compounds from aqueous soil extracts. Concentrated and nonconcentrated aqueous soil extracts from 19 soil samples were evaluated using three genotoxicity assays: the umu test according

Heike Ehrlichmann; Wolfgang Dott; Adolf Eisentraeger

2000-01-01

327

Microleakage of class V resin composite restorations after conventional and Er:YAG laser preparation.  

PubMed

This in vitro study compared the microleakage of Class V resin composite restorations at bevelled enamel/composite and dentin/composite interfaces following Er:YAG laser (pre-treatment modalities: laser-etching and/or acid-etching) or conventional preparation and acid-etch, in association with two resin composite formulations and their three-step adhesive system. Class V cavities with conventional bevel produced on the lingual and buccal surfaces of eighty extracted caries- and restoration-free human teeth, were assigned to eight groups: cavities were or Er:YAG-lased and acid-etched (groups 1 and 5); or Er:YAG-lased, laser-etched and acid-etched (groups 2 and 6); or Er:YAG-lased and only laser-etched (groups 3 and 7); or cut by dental drill at high-speed and acid-etched (groups 4 and 8). The specimens were restored with Optibond FL+Herculite XRV (groups 1, 2, 3 and 4) or with Scotchbond MP+Z 100 (groups 5, 6, 7 and 8), stored in distilled water at 37 degrees C for 24 h, thermocycled 1500 times between 5 and 55 degrees C, placed in a 2% aqueous solution of methylene blue for 24 h at 37 degrees C, embedded in resin and sectioned. Microleakage was assessed according to the depth of dye penetration along the restoration. There were statistically significant differences between occlusal and cervical regions for all groups (P<0.01) except for groups 3 and 7. Pair-wise comparison of groups showed that acid-etch is advocated when using resin composite in Er:YAG-lased Class V cavities; the seal at enamel margins in Er:YAG-lased and laser-etched cavities depended on the resin composite formulation and corresponding adhesive (P<0.05). PMID:16102081

Delme, K I M; Deman, P J; De Moor, R J G

2005-09-01

328

Uranium Adsorption on Ion-Exchange Resins - Batch Testing  

SciTech Connect

The uranium adsorption performance of five resins (Dowex 1, Dowex 21K 16-30 [fresh], Dowex 21K 16-30 [regenerated], Purofine PFA600/4740, and ResinTech SIR-1200) were tested using unspiked, nitrate-spiked, and nitrate-spiked/pH adjusted source water from well 299-W19-36. These batch tests were conducted in support of a resin selection process in which the best resin to use for uranium treatment in the 200-West Area groundwater pump-and-treat system will be identified. The results from these tests are as follows: • The data from the high-nitrate (1331 mg/L) tests indicated that Dowex 1, Dowex 21K 16-30 (fresh), Purofine PFA600/4740, and ResinTech SIR-1200 all adsorbed uranium similarly well with Kd values ranging from ~15,000 to 95,000 ml/g. All four resins would be considered suitable for use in the treatment system based on uranium adsorption characteristics. • Lowering the pH of the high nitrate test conditions from 8.2 to 7.5 did not significantly change the uranium adsorption isotherms for the four tested resins. The Kd values for these four resins under high nitrate (1338 mg/L), lower pH (7.5) ranged from ~15,000 to 80,000 ml/g. • Higher nitrate concentrations greatly reduced the uranium adsorption on all four resins. Tests conducted with unspiked (no amendments; nitrate at 337 mg/L and pH at 8.2) source water yielded Kd values for Dowex 1, Dowex 21K 16-30 (fresh), Purofine PFA600/4740, and ResinTech SIR-1200 resins ranging from ~800,000 to >3,000,000 ml/g. These values are about two orders of magnitude higher than the Kd values noted from tests conducted using amended source water. • Compared to the fresh resin, the regenerated Dowex 21K 16-30 resin exhibited significantly lower uranium-adsorption performance under all test conditions. The calculated Kd values for the regenerated resin were typically an order of magnitude lower than the values calculated for the fresh resin. • Additional testing using laboratory columns is recommended to better resolve differences between the adsorption abilities of the resins and to develop estimates of uranium loading on the resins. By determining the quantity of uranium that each resin can adsorb and the time required to reach various levels of loading, resin lifetime in the treatment system can be estimated.

Mattigod, Shas V.; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Cordova, Elsa A.; Smith, Ronald M.

2010-12-01

329

40 CFR Table 7 to Subpart Wwww of... - Options Allowing Use of the Same Resin Across Different Operations That Use the Same Resin Type  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Options Allowing Use of the Same Resin Across Different Operations That Use the Same Resin Type 7 Table 7 to Subpart...Air Pollutants: Reinforced Plastic Composites Production Pt...Options Allowing Use of the Same Resin Across Different...

2010-07-01

330

40 CFR Table 7 to Subpart Wwww of... - Options Allowing Use of the Same Resin Across Different Operations That Use the Same Resin Type  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Options Allowing Use of the Same Resin Across Different Operations That Use the Same Resin Type 7 Table 7 to Subpart...Air Pollutants: Reinforced Plastic Composites Production Pt...Options Allowing Use of the Same Resin Across Different...

2009-07-01

331

Influence of handpiece maintenance sprays on resin bonding to dentin  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the influence of maintenance spray on resin bonding to dentin. Materials and methods The crown of extracted, caries-free human molars was transversally sectioned with a model trimmer to prepare the dentin surfaces from mid-coronal sound dentin, and then uniformly abraded with #600 silicon carbide paper. The dentin surfaces were randomly divided into three groups: oil-free spray group where maintenance cleaner for air bearing handpieces was sprayed onto the dentin surface for 1 s and rinsed with water spray for 30 s; oil-containing spray group where maintenance cleaner for micro motor handpieces was sprayed onto the dentin surface for 1 s and rinsed with water spray for 30 s; and control group where the surface was rinsed with water spray for 30 s and then air-dried. These surfaces were then bonded with Clearfil SE Bond (Kuraray Medical), and resin composite (Clearfil AP-X, Kuraray Medical) build-up crowns were incrementally constructed on the bonded surfaces. After storage for 24 h in 37°C water, the bonded teeth were sectioned into hour-glass shaped slices (0.7-mm thick) perpendicular to the bonded surfaces. The specimens were then subjected to microtensile bond strength (?TBS) testing at a crosshead speed of 1.0 mm/min. Data were analyzed with one-way ANOVA and the Tukey-Kramer test. Results Maintenance spray-contaminated specimens (oil-free and oil-containing spray groups) showed significantly lower ?TBS than control specimens (P < 0.05). However, there was no significant difference between the spray-contaminated groups (P > 0.05). Conclusion Maintenance spray significantly reduces the bond strength of Clearfil SE Bond to dentin.

Sugawara, Toyotarou; Kameyama, Atsushi; Haruyama, Akiko; Oishi, Takumi; Kukidome, Nobuyuki; Takase, Yasuaki; Tsunoda, Masatake

2010-01-01

332

Immediate and delayed micro-tensile bond strength of different luting resin cements to different regional dentin.  

PubMed

We sought to evaluate immediate and delayed micro-tensile bond strength of Panavia F2.0 and Multilink Sprint resin cement to superficial, deep and cervical dentin. Thirty-six freshly extracted non-carious human molars were sectioned in the mesiodistal direction to expose three different dentin regions including superficial dentin (1 mm below the dentine-enamel junction), deep dentin (1 mm above the highest pulp horn) and cervical dentin (0.5 mm above the cemento-enamel junction and 0.5 mm below the dentine-enamel junction). Resin cements were applied on dentin surfaces and composite blocks were luted under constant seating pressure. Each group was divided into three subgroups according to time intervals. Specimens were sectioned to obtain sticks of 1 mm(2) in diameter and subjected to microtensile bond strength testing at a cross head speed of 1 mm/min. Both resin cements showed higher micro-tensile bond strength to superficial dentin than that to deep or cervical dentin (P < 0.001). Micro-tensile bond strengths of Panavia F2.0 were higher than those of Multilink Sprint at different dentin regions (P < 0.001). Immediate micro-tensile bond strengths were higher than those of delayed micro-tensile bond strengths for both resin cements (P < 0.001). It was concluded that resin cements with different chemical formulations and applications yield significantly different micro-tensile bond strengths to different dentin regions. PMID:23554806

Ali, Abdelraheem Mohamed; Hamouda, Ibrahim Mohamed; Ghazy, Mohamed Hamed; Abo-Madina, Manal Mohamed

2012-12-06

333

Effect of Resin Coating and Chlorhexidine on Microleakage of Two Resin Cements after Storage  

PubMed Central

Objective: Evaluating the effect of resin coating and chlorhexidine on microleakage of two resin cements after water storage. Materials and Methods: Standardized class V cavities were prepared on facial and lingual surfaces of one hundred twenty intact human molars with gingival margins placed 1 mm below the cemento-enamel junction. Indirect composite inlays were fabricated and the specimens were randomly assigned into 6 groups. In Groups 1 to 4, inlays were cemented with Panavia F2.0 cement. G1: according to the manufacturer’s instruction. G2: with light cured resin on the ED primer. G3: chlorhexidine application before priming. G4: with chlorhexidine application before priming and light cured resin on primer. G5: inlays were cemented with Nexus 2 resin cement. G6: chlorhexidine application after etching. Each group was divided into two subgroups based on the 24-hour and 6-month water storage time. After preparation for microleakage test, the teeth were sectioned and evaluated at both margins under a 20× stereomicroscope. Dye penetration was scored using 0–3 criteria. The data was analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis and complementary Dunn tests. Results: There was significantly less leakage in G2 and G4 than the Panavia F2.0 control group at gingival margins after 6 months (P<0.05). There was no significant differences in leakage between G1 and G3 at both margins after 24 hours and 6 months storage. After 6 months, G6 revealed significantly less leakage than G5 at gingival margins (P=0.033). In general, gingival margins showed more leakage than occlusal margins. Conclusion: Additionally, resin coating in self-etch (Panavia F2.0) and chlorhexidine application in etch-rinse (Nexus) resin cement reduced microleakage at gingival margins after storage.

Shafie, F.; Doozandeh, M.; Alavi, A.

2010-01-01

334

Gas chromatographic determination of pollutants in the chlorination and caustic extraction stage effluent from the bleaching of a bamboo pulp  

Microsoft Academic Search

The gas chromatographic detection and quantitative determination of various chlorophenolics as well as resin and fatty acids have been carried out in the chlorination and caustic extraction stage effluents generated in the laboratory by bleaching a bamboo pulp. A number of chlorinated phenols, catechols, guaiacols, syringaldehydes and resin acids as well as non-chlorinated saturated and unsaturated fatty acids together with

C Sharma; S Mahanty; S Kumar; N. J Rao

1997-01-01

335

Comparison of bond strength of three adhesives: composite resin, hybrid GIC, and glass-filled GIC.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to compare 3 orthodontic adhesives in the areas of shear-peel bond strength, location of adhesive failure, and extent of enamel cracking before bonding and after debonding of orthodontic brackets. The adhesives included a composite resin control (Transbond XT; 3M/Unitek, St Paul, Minn), a resin-modified glass ionomer cement (Fuji Ortho LC; GC America Corp, Alsip, Ill), and a polyacid-modified composite resin under dry and saliva-contaminated conditions (Assure; Reliance Orthodontic Products Inc, Itasca, Ill). Metal brackets were bonded to the buccal surfaces of 160 (4 groups of 40) human premolars. The bonded teeth were stored in deionized water at 37 degrees C for 30 days and thermocycled for 24 hours before debonding with a Universal Instron (Instron Corp, Canton, Mass) testing machine. The extent of cracking in the buccal surfaces was evaluated under 16x magnification before bonding and after debonding. Although the bond strength of the composite resin control (20.19 MPa) was significantly greater (P <.05) than that of the adhesives in the other groups, clinically acceptable shear-peel bond strengths were found for all adhesives (Fuji Ortho LC = 13.57 MPa, Assure-dry = 10.74 MPa, Assure-wet = 10.99 MPa). The bond strength for the Assure adhesive was not significantly affected by saliva contamination. The sample of extracted premolars used in this study displayed a greater frequency of buccal surface enamel cracking (46.7%) than that reported in the literature for in vivo premolars (7.8%-10.2%), which was possibly due to the extraction process. The frequency of enamel cracking in a subset of this sample (n = 34) increased from 46.4% at prebonding to 62.4% at postdebonding as a result of the forces of debonding. PMID:11174538

Rix, D; Foley, T F; Mamandras, A

2001-01-01

336

Fatigue properties of acrylic denture base resins.  

PubMed

Observations were made of fractured surfaces caused by flexural and tensile fatigue tests made in polymethyl methacrylate denture base resins (PMMA). In addition, the changes in dynamic viscoelastic and tensile properties of the materials along with fatigue propagation were investigated. In the tensile and flexural fatigue tests, both the fractured surfaces, which had striations on their surfaces and cracks near the fractured section, closely resembled each other in appearance. On the other hand, all of the tensile properties, such as elastic modulus, toughness and tensile strength, decreased with the increase of the number of stress cycles in the fatigue test. The storage modulus (E') of the material decreased gradually along with fatigue propagation over the whole range of temperatures tested. The loss modulus (E") and mechanical loss tangent (tan delta) increased slightly. The fatigue limit of four commercial denture base resins varied widely from one product to another. PMID:2490598

Fujii, K

1989-12-01

337

Ceramic whisker reinforcement of dental resin composites.  

PubMed

Resin composites currently available are not suitable for use as large stress-bearing posterior restorations involving cusps due to their tendencies toward excessive fracture and wear. The glass fillers in composites provide only limited reinforcement because of the brittleness and low strength of glass. The aim of the present study was to reinforce dental resins with ceramic single-crystalline whiskers of elongated shapes that possess extremely high strength. A novel method was developed that consisted of fusing silicate glass particles onto the surfaces of individual whiskers for a two-fold benefit: (1) to facilitate silanization regardless of whisker composition; and (2) to enhance whisker retention in the matrix by providing rougher whisker surfaces. Silicon nitride whiskers, with an average diameter of 0.4 microm and length of 5 microm, were coated by the fusion of silica particles 0.04 microm in size to the whisker surface at temperatures ranging from 650 degrees C to 1000 degrees C. The coated whiskers were silanized and manually blended with resins by spatulation. Flexural, fracture toughness, and indentation tests were carried out for evaluation of the properties of the whisker-reinforced composites in comparison with conventional composites. A two-fold increase in strength and toughness was achieved in the whisker-reinforced composite, together with a substantially enhanced resistance to contact damage and microcracking. The highest flexural strength (195+/-8 MPa) and fracture toughness (2.1+/-0.3 MPa x m(1/2)) occurred in a composite reinforced with a whisker-silica mixture at whisker:silica mass ratio of 2:1 fused at 800 degrees C. To conclude, the strength, toughness, and contact damage resistance of dental resin composites can be substantially improved by reinforcement with fillers of ceramic whiskers fused with silica glass particles. PMID:10029470

Xu, H H; Martin, T A; Antonucci, J M; Eichmiller, F C

1999-02-01

338

Shrinkage stresses in glass\\/resin composites  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple model has been used to calculate the residual stresses in polyester-resin\\/glass fibre composites that arise when the material is cooled from the post-curing temperature. An elementary elasticity solution for shrink-fit stresses gives a value of the order of 24 MNm-2 for interfacial pressures in a single fibre model, and it appears that this stress is between 10 and

B. Harris

1978-01-01

339

Comparison of chromatographic ion-exchange resins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Strong and weak cation-exchangers were compared for a number of chromatographic parameters, i.e. pH dependence, efficiency, binding strength, particle size distribution, static and dynamic capacity, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) pictures. Chromatographic resins investigated were Fractogel EMD SO3? (M), Fractogel EMD SE Hicap (M), Fractogel EMD COO? (M), MacroPrep 25S, MacroPrep High S, MacroPrep CM, CM HyperZ, and Matrex Cellufine

Arne Staby; Jan H. Jacobsen; Ronni G. Hansen; Ulla K. Bruus; Inge Holm Jensen

2006-01-01

340

Ion Exchange Resins Transforming Drug Delivery Systems.  

PubMed

Ion-exchange resins are light, porous, three-dimensional high molecular weight cross -linked matrix of hydrocarbon chains carrying positively or negatively charged sites that can attract an ion of opposite charge from the surrounding medium. There is stoichiometric exchange of mobile ions between the solid and the solution called as Ion-exchange which does not lead to any radical change in the properties and structure of the solid. Depending upon the type of Ionexchanged it can be either Cation-exchange or Anion-exchange. They are prepared in the form of granules, beads or sheets. As drug delivery systems they have received considerable attention after the 1950s due to their inertness, freedom from side effects, high drug loading capacity, ease of sterilization and the fact that their structure can be easily altered to achieve the desired drug release characteristics. Their use is revolutionizing all traditional delivery systems namely- oral, nasal, ophthalmic and parenteral. Ion- exchange resins have been used for the development of novel drug delivery systems (NDDSs), to modify the characteristics of the dosage form and various other biomedical applications. The present article deals with the varied applications of ion-exchange resins for taste making, as resinates (simple and microencapsulated or coated), Pennkinetic systems, in selective recovery of pharmaceuticals, in pH and ionic strength responsive systems, in gastro-retentive systems, in hollow fiber systems, as sigmoidal release systems, as site specific delivery systems and as inotophoretically assisted transdermal drug delivery systems. They also have an immense importance when used as disintegrants/ superdisintegrants in formulation of orodispersible tablets, powder processing aids and in the dissolution and stabilization of drugs. PMID:20497105

Gupta, Shweta; Benien, Parul; Sahoo, P K

2010-05-24

341

Ion Exchange Resins Transforming Drug Delivery Systems.  

PubMed

Ion-exchange resins are light, porous, three-dimensional high molecular weight cross -linked matrix of hydrocarbon chains carrying positively or negatively charged sites that can attract an ion of opposite charge from the surrounding medium. There is stoichiometric exchange of mobile ions between the solid and the solution called as Ion-exchange which does not lead to any radical change in the properties and structure of the solid. Depending upon the type of Ion-exchanged it can be either Cation-exchange or Anion-exchange. They are prepared in the form of granules, beads or sheets. As drug delivery systems they have received considerable attention after the 1950s due to their inertness, freedom from side effects, high drug loading capacity, ease of sterilization and the fact that their structure can be easily altered to achieve the desired drug release characteristics. Their use is revolutionizing all traditional delivery systems namely- oral, nasal, ophthalmic and parenteral. Ion- exchange resins have been used for the development of novel drug delivery systems (NDDSs), to modify the characteristics of the dosage form and various other biomedical applications. The present article deals with the varied applications of ion-exchange resins for taste making, as resinates (simple and microencapsulated or coated), Pennkinetic systems, in selective recovery of pharmaceuticals, in pH and ionic strength responsive systems, in gastro-retentive systems, in hollow fiber systems, as sigmoidal release systems, as site specific delivery systems and as inotophoretically assisted transdermal drug delivery systems. They also have an immense importance when used as disintegrants / superdisintegrants in formulation of orodispersible tablets, powder processing aids and in the dissolution and stabilization of drugs. PMID:20158479

Gupta, Shweta; Parul; Sahoo, P K

2010-02-17

342

Nanoimprinting using release-agent-coated resins  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fluorinated self-assembled monolayer (F-SAM) is mainly used as the antisticking layer. To prevent the F-SAM coated on the nanoimprint lithography (NIL) mold from deteriorating, we propose a new form of nanoimprinting using a release-agent-coated resin. The results from measuring the surface free energy and observations by scanning probe microscopy (SPM) confirmed that the surface free energy, frictional force, and

Makoto Okada; Masayuki Iwasa; Ken-ichiro Nakamatsu; Kazuhiro Kanda; Yuichi Haruyama; Shinji Matsui

2009-01-01

343

Potential contribution of exposed resin to ecosystem emissions of monoterpenes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Conifers, especially pines, produce and store under pressure monoterpene-laden resin in canals located throughout the plant. When the plants are damaged and resin canals punctured, the resin is exuded and the monoterpenes are released into the atmosphere, a process that has been shown to influence ecosystem-level monoterpene emissions. Less attention has been paid to the small amounts of resin that are exuded from branches, expanding needles, developing pollen cones, and terminal buds in the absence of any damage. The goal of this study was to provide the first estimate of the potential of this naturally-exposed resin to influence emissions of monoterpenes from ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) ecosystems. When resin is first exuded as small spherical beads from undamaged tissues it emits monoterpenes to the atmosphere at a rate that is four orders of magnitude greater than needle tissue with an equivalent exposed surface area and the emissions from exuded beads decline exponentially as the resin dries. We made measurements of resin beads on the branches of ponderosa pine trees in the middle of the growing season and found, on average, 0.15 cm2 of exposed resin bead surface area and 1250 cm2 of total needle surface area per branch tip. If the resin emerged over the course of 10 days, resin emissions would make up 10% of the ecosystem emissions each day. Since we only accounted for exposed resin at a single point in time, this is probably an underestimate of how much total resin is exuded from undamaged pine tissues over the course of a growing season. Our observations, however, reveal the importance of this previously unrecognized source of monoterpenes emitted from pine forests and its potential to influence regional atmospheric chemistry dynamics.

Eller, Allyson S. D.; Harley, Peter; Monson, Russell K.

2013-10-01

344

Robotic recovery of highly radioactive resin.  

PubMed

As the ALARA coordinator at Waterford 3 Nuclear Steam Electric Station, I have seen radiological challenges in many forms. Some are handled as routine with little effort, while others can severely challenge even the finest Health Physics staff. One such event occurred on 26 December 1997, during a routine recirculation of the Spent Resin Tank, when contents of an unknown origin spilled from the tank. Technicians performing initial actions to contain the spill monitored radiation levels of 5-20 rem h21 (50-200 mSv) at waist level. Based on photographs and visual accounts it was estimated that approximately 30-40 ft3 (0.57-1.12 m3) of resin had spilled into the pump room. A sample of the resin indicated that dose rates at the floor would exceed 100 rem h21 (1 Sv h21). It was clear, given the volume of material spilled and dose rates in the room, that robots would be required for any type of recovery effort. This presented another problem in that Waterford 3 did not own a robot, and we had no experience in this area. PMID:9930832

Miller, D C

1999-02-01

345

Composite fabrication via resin transfer molding technology  

SciTech Connect

The IMPReS (Integrated Modeling and Processing of Resin-based Structures) Program was funded in FY95 to consolidate, evaluate and enhance Sandia`s capabilities in the design and fabrication of composite structures. A key driver of this and related programs was the need for more agile product development processes and for model based design and fabrication tools across all of Sandia`s material technologies. A team of polymer, composite and modeling personnel was assembled to benchmark Sandia`s existing expertise in this area relative to industrial and academic programs and to initiate the tasks required to meet Sandia`s future needs. RTM (Resin Transfer Molding) was selected as the focus composite fabrication technology due to its versatility and growing use in industry. Modeling efforts focused on the prediction of composite mechanical properties and failure/damage mechanisms and also on the uncured resin flow processes typical of RTM. Appropriate molds and test composites were fabricated and model validation studies begun. This report summarizes and archives the modeling and fabrication studies carried out under IMPReS and evaluates the status of composite technology within Sandia. It should provide a complete and convenient baseline for future composite technology efforts within Sandia.

Jamison, G.M.; Domeier, L.A.

1996-04-01

346

CHARACTERIZATION OF CYCLED SPHERICAL RESORCINOL-FORMALDEHYDE ION EXCHANGE RESIN  

SciTech Connect

This report presents characterization data for two spherical resorcinol-formaldehyde (sRF) resin beds that had processed cesium in non-radioactive and radioactive cycles. All column cycle operations for the resin beds including loading, displacements, elution, regeneration, breakthroughs, and solution analyses are reported in Nash and Duignan, 2009a. That report covered four ion exchange (IX) campaigns using the two {approx}11 mL beds in columns in a lead-lag arrangement. The first two campaigns used Savannah River Site (SRS) Tank 2F nonradioactive simulant while the latter two were fed with actual dissolved salt in the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) Shielded Cells. Both radioactive cycles ran to cesium breakthrough of the lead column. The resin beds saw in excess of 400 bed volumes of feed in each cycle. Resin disposal plans in tank farm processing depend on characterizations of resin used with actual tank feed. Following a final 30 bed volume (BV) elution with nitric acid, the resin beds were found to contain detectable chromium, barium, boron, aluminum, iron, sodium, sulfur, plutonium, cesium, and mercury. Resin affinity for plutonium is important in criticality safety considerations. Cesium-137 was found to be less than 10E+7 dpm/g of resin, similar to past work with sRF resin. Sulfur levels are reasonably consistent with other work and are expected to represent sulfur chemistry used in the resin manufacture. There were low but detectable levels of technetium, americium, and curium. Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) work on the used (eluted) resin samples showed significant contents of mercury, barium, and chromium. One resin sample exceeded the TCLP level for mercury while the other metals were below TCLP levels. TCLP organics measurements indicated measurable benzene in one case, though the source was unknown. Results of this work were compared with other work on similar sRF resin characterizations in this report. This is the first work to quantify mercury on sRF resin. Resin mercury content is important in plans for the disposition of used sRF resin. Mercury speciation in high level waste (HLW) is unknown. It may be partly organic, one example being methyl mercury cation. Further study of the resin's affinity for mercury is recommended.

Nash, C.; Duignan, M.

2010-02-23

347

Solvent impregnated resins for the recovery of gold from Gold(I)Thiourea solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solvent Impregnated Resins (SIRs) are high surface area, macroporous, polymeric resins which have been physically impregnated with an organic solvent. In this research, three resins have been impregnated with Di-2-ethylhexyl phosphoric acid, a solvent which has shown selectivity to gold. The ability of the resins to recover gold (1) thiourea perchlorate from solution has been investigated. The resins have been

Fiona Fitzpatrick

1997-01-01

348

Machine for applying a two component resin to a roadway surface  

DOEpatents

A portable machine for spraying two component resins onto a roadway, the machine having a pneumatic control system, including apparatus for purging the machine of mixed resin with air and then removing remaining resin with solvent. Interlocks prevent contamination of solvent and resin, and mixed resin can be purged in the event of a power failure.

Huszagh, Donald W. (Bayport, NY)

1985-01-01

349

Post-filling flow in vacuum assisted resin transfer molding processes: Theoretical analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

For rigid mold filling processes such as resin transfer molding, the resin flow stops when the preform is fully saturated with the resin. However, in vacuum assisted resin transfer molding process (VARTM), due to preform deformation the resin flow continues after the filling stage is complete as it does take a finite time for the pressure field to become uniform

Pavel Simacek; Dirk Heider; John W. Gillespie Jr.; Suresh Advani

2009-01-01

350

Inorganic resins for clinical use of .sup.213Bi generators  

DOEpatents

Applicant's invention is a radionuclide generator resin material for radiochemical separation of daughter radionuclides, particularly .sup.213Bi, from a solution of parental radionuclides, the resin material capable of providing clinical quantities of .sup.213Bi of at least 20-mCi, wherein the resin material comprises a silica-based structure having at least one bifunctional ligand covalently attached to the surface of the silica-based structure. The bifunctional ligand comprises a chemical group having desirable surface functionality to enable the covalent attachment of the bifunctional ligand thereon the surface of the structure and the bifunctional ligand further comprises a second chemical group capable of binding and holding the parental radionuclides on the resin material while allowing the daughter radionuclides to elute off the resin material. The bifunctional ligand has a carbon chain with a limited number of carbons to maintain radiation stability of the resin material.

DePaoli, David W. (Knoxville, TN); Hu, Michael Z. (Knoxville, TN); Mirzadeh, Saed (Knoxville, TN); Clavier, John W. (Elizabethton, TN)

2011-03-29

351

Reuse system for powdered ion-exchange resins  

SciTech Connect

A reuse system has been developed for powdered ion-exchange resins generated from nuclear power plants in order to reduce their waste volume. The system consists of: 1. crud removal from resins; 2. decomposition of flocks (flocculated resins); 3. resin separation into cation and anion types; 4. regeneration of each type. The most important points in this system are items 2 and 3, because generally resins flocculate too tightly to separate easily. By combined usage of a strong electrolyte (15 wt% NaOH solution) and a dual-basket-type centrifuge, spent powdered resins can be separated with an efficiency of 95% and regenerated for another use. The waste volume can be reduced to one-half after four reuse cycles, with a decrease in the ion-exchange capacity of only 5%.

Funabashi, K.; Fukasawa, T.; Kawamura, F.; Yusa, H.; Kikuchi, M.; Sasaki, N.; Yamadera, T.

1986-05-01

352

Solidification of ion exchange resin wastes in hydraulic cement  

SciTech Connect

Work has been conducted to investigate the solidification of ion exchange resin wastes with portland cements. These efforts have been directed toward the development of acceptable formulations for the solidification of ion exchange resin wastes and the characterization of the resultant waste forms. This paper describes formulation development work and defines acceptable formulations in terms of ternary phase compositional diagrams. The effects of cement type, resin type, resin loading, waste/cement ratio and water/cement ratio are described. The leachability of unsolidified and solidified resin waste forms and its relationship to full-scale waste form behavior is discussed. Gamma irradiation was found to improve waste form integrity, apparently as a result of increased resin crosslinking. Modifications to improve waste form integrity are described. 3 tables.

Neilson, R.M. Jr.; Kalb, P.; Fuhrmann, M.; Colombo, P.

1982-01-01

353

Micromechanical properties of veneer luting resins after curing through ceramics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to assess the performance of light-cured luting resin after curing under the ceramic restoration\\u000a in comparison to dual-cured luting resin, by evaluating the micromechanical properties. Two hundred seventy thin luting composite\\u000a films of ca. 170 ?m in thickness were prepared by using two light-cured luting resins (Variolink Veneer, Ivoclar Vivadent;\\u000a RelyX Veneer, 3M ESPE) and

Elif Öztürk; Reinhard Hickel; ?ükran Bolay; Nicoleta Ilie

354

Hydrolyzable polyester resins, varnishes and coating compositions containing the same  

DOEpatents

Preparation of hydrolyzable polyester resin comprising reacting polycarboxylic acid and polyhydric alcohol components, which is characterized by using, as at least part of said polyhydric alcohol component, a metallic salt of hydroxy carboxylic acid of the formula defined and effecting the polycondensation at a temperature which is no more than the decomposition temperature of said metallic salt. The polyester resins are useful as resinous vehicle of varnishes and antifouling paints.

Yamamori, Naoki (Minoo, JP); Yokoi, Junji (Nara, JP); Yoshikawa, Motoyoshi (Nara, JP)

1984-01-01

355

Performance of Chelating Resins Containing Calixpyrroles in Sorption of Anions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Characteristics and sorptive properties of three series of chelating resins having incorporated calixpyrrole ligands within their structures is reported. Two sets of resins were obtained by immobilization of calix[4]pyrrole or calix[4]pyrrole[2]thiophene on the beads of crosslinked (vinylbenzyl chloride)\\/divinylbenzene copolymer. The third series was synthesized by condensation of calix[4]pyrrole with formaldehyde. All resins displayed sorptive properties towards halide anions and cyanides

Andrzej Ka??dkowski; Andrzej W. Trochimczuk

2006-01-01

356

Improved Well Stimulation With Resin-Coated Proppants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resin-coated proppants improve well stimulation results by preventing flowback, or fracture evacuation, near the wellbore, a phenomenon that effectively ''decouples'' the wellbore and the productive formation. In addition, the deformable coating protects the resin-coated proppants from crushing and helps resist embedment in softer formations. The tough coating is chemically inert in crude oils, brines, and most acids. The resin-coated materials

A. R. Sinclair; J. W. Graham; C. P. Sinclair

1983-01-01

357

Natural fiber composites with plant oil-based resin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vacuum-assisted resin transfer molding or resin vacuum infusion process was used to make composite panels out of plant oil-based resin [acrylated epoxidized soybean oil (AESO)] and natural fiber mats made of flax, cellulose, pulp and hemp. The composites formed by room temperature cure with natural fiber reinforcement of about 10–50 wt% increased the flexural modulus to a range between 1.5

A O'Donnell; M. A Dweib; R. P Wool

2004-01-01

358

Fiber Reinforced Polyester Resins Polymerized by Microwave Source  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polyester resin based composite materials are widely used in the manufacture of fiberglass boats. Production time of fiberglass\\u000a laminate components could be strongly reduced by using an intense energy source as well as microwaves. In this work a polyester\\u000a resin was used with 2% by weight of catalyst and reinforced with chopped or woven glass fabric. Pure resin and composite

A. M. Visco; L. Calabrese; P. Cianciafara; L. Bonaccorsi; E. Proverbio

2007-01-01

359

Sand-Consolidation Resins - Their Stability in Hot Brine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four commercial in-situ sand-consolidation resin systems and one resin-sandpack system were tested for durability in hot (160°F (71.1°C)) flowing brine for up to 28 months, and in as much as 30 million PV brine. Brine was selected as the test fluid since it is considered to be more damaging than oil to the stability of resin consolidated sand. Two epoxy

Roger Rensvold

1983-01-01

360

Frequency Responses of Ag Nanoparticles in Polyurethane Resin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The frequency properties of Ag nanoparticles in polyurethane have been investigated. The Ag nanoparticles prepared by phase transfer method were added to polyurethane resin and hardened with polyisocyanate. From the experimental results, the frequency responses of the hydride resin arise with the little addition of Ag nanoparticles. The electric permittivity and magnetic permeability of the resin cut?off at about 9.0×10 Hz.

Chen Hsu

2006-01-01

361

Reversibly collapsible macroporous poly(styrene-divinylbenzene) resins  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of poly(styrene–divinylbenzene) (poly(PS–DVB)) resins have been prepared by suspension polymerisation of styrene–DVB mixtures with DVB contents of 1–12mol%. In each case 2-ethyl-hexan-1-ol was used as a porogen. Those resins prepared with <10mol% DVB collapsed to clear glassy particles on drying from dichloromethane or toluene. However, on drying these resins from acetone, methanol and scCO2 some opacity was retained.

S. M. Howdle; K. Jerábek; V. Leocorbo; P. C. Marr; D. C. Sherrington

2000-01-01

362

[IR studies on the chloride polypropylene/alkyd resin blends].  

PubMed

The miscibility of CPP with alkyd resin in the specified mixing ratios has been studied by FTIR spectra. The results obtained indicate that the bands of hydroxyl groups noticeably shifted in the FTIR spectra of the blends in contrast with the infrared spectrum of alkyd resin, and the blends were miscible when the weight fraction of alkyd resin in the blends of CPP and alkyd resin was less than 0.5, and immiscible when greater than 0.5, which were proved by the glossiness of their films. PMID:12953558

Fan, Zhong-lei; Liu, Da-zhuang; Zhao, Gen-suo

2003-06-01

363

Acrylic resin injection method for blood vessel investigations.  

PubMed

The injection of acrylic resin into vessels is an excellent method for macroscopically and microscopically observing their three-dimensional features. Conventional methods can be enhanced by removal of the polymerization inhibitor (hydroquinone) without requiring distillation, a consistent viscosity of polymerized resin, and a constant injection pressure and speed. As microvascular corrosion cast specimens are influenced by viscosity, pressure, and speed changes, injection into different specimens yields varying results. We devised a method to reduce those problems. Sodium hydroxide was used to remove hydroquinone from commercial methylmethacrylate. The solid polymer and the liquid monomer were mixed using a 1 : 9 ratio (low-viscosity acrylic resin, 9.07 ± 0.52 mPa•s) or a 3:7 ratio (high-viscosity resin, 1036.33 ± 144.02 mPa•s). To polymerize the acrylic resin for injection, a polymerization promoter (1.0% benzoyl peroxide) was mixed with a polymerization initiator (0.5%, N, N-dimethylaniline). The acrylic resins were injected using a precise syringe pump, with a 5-mL/min injection speed and 11.17 ± 1.60 mPa injection pressure (low-viscosity resin) and a 1-mL/min injection speed and 58.50 ± 5.75 mPa injection pressure (high-viscosity resin). Using the aforementioned conditions, scanning electron microscopy indicated that sufficient resin could be injected into the capillaries of the microvascular corrosion cast specimens. PMID:24107720

Suwa, Fumihiko; Uemura, Mamoru; Takemura, Akimichi; Toda, Isumi; Fang, Yi-Ru; Xu, Yuan Jin; Zhang, Zhi Yuan

2013-01-01

364

21 CFR 175.300 - Resinous and polymeric coatings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Styrene. Vinyl toluene. (xv) Vinyl resinous substance, as the basic polymers: Polyvinyl acetate. Polyvinyl alcohol. Polyvinyl butyral. Polyvinyl chloride. Polyvinyl formal. Polyvinylidene chloride....

2009-04-01

365

21 CFR 175.300 - Resinous and polymeric coatings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Styrene. Vinyl toluene. (xv) Vinyl resinous substance, as the basic polymers: Polyvinyl acetate. Polyvinyl alcohol. Polyvinyl butyral. Polyvinyl chloride. Polyvinyl formal. Polyvinylidene chloride....

2010-01-01

366

21 CFR 175.300 - Resinous and polymeric coatings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Styrene. Vinyl toluene. (xv) Vinyl resinous substance, as the basic polymers: Polyvinyl acetate. Polyvinyl alcohol. Polyvinyl butyral. Polyvinyl chloride. Polyvinyl formal. Polyvinylidene chloride....

2013-04-01

367

The cytotoxic effects of denture base resin sealants.  

PubMed

Previous studies have shown that light-polymerized denture base resins have a cytotoxic effect on oral epithelial cells. The purpose of this in vitro study was to examine the effects of two denture base resin sealants when used on three light-polymerized denture base resins. Sample disks were examined for their effect on protein synthesis. Results indicate that one sealant protected the cells against toxic effects of the materials (P < .05), while one sealant enhanced toxicity up to 88% above that attributed to the resin alone. PMID:1307016

Lefebvre, C A; Schuster, G S; Richardson, D W; Barron, D J

368

Synthesis, characterization and analytical application of a hydroxamic acid resin.  

PubMed

A chelating ion-exchange resin with hydroxamic acid functional groups was synthesized from styrene-maleic acid co-polymer cross-linked with divinylbenzene. A resin prepared from equimolar amounts of styrene and maleic anhydride with 0.75 mole% divinylbenzene gives the best sorption characteristics. The selectivity of the resin for metal ions is copper(II) > cobalt(II) > zinc(II) > nickel(II) > manganese(II) > chromium(III) > iron(III) > vanadium(V). Copper(II), chromium(III) and iron(III) in chromium plating baths can be separated by use of the resin and determined spectrophotometrically. PMID:18964984

Mendez, R; Pillai, V N

1990-06-01

369

Sorption of organics from aqueous solution onto polymeric resins  

SciTech Connect

The uptake of phenol, toluene, chlorobenzene, and benzoic acid by several polymeric resins and activated carbon was investigated experimentally. Presentation of the sorption data in terms of the number of sorbed monolayers and fractional pore volume filled indicated that, for the polymeric resins, solute uptake cannot be viewed as only a surface adsorption phenomenon. It is suggested that the aqueous phase uptake of phenol, toluene, chlorobenzene, and benzoic acid by the polymeric resins is attributable, in part, to solute absorption. The present study also suggests that solute uptake is affected by the swelling of some of the polymeric resins in water.

Gusler, G.M.; Browne, T.E.; Cohen, Y. (Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

1993-11-01

370

Separation and purification of neohesperidin from the albedo of Citrus reticulata cv. Suavissima by combination of macroporous resin and high-speed counter-current chromatography.  

PubMed

In this article, a simple and efficient protocol for rapid preparation and separation of neohesperidin from the albedo of Citrus reticulata cv. Suavissima was established by the combination of macroporous resin column chromatography and high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC). Six types of resin were investigated by adsorption and desorption tests, and D101 macroporous resin was selected for the first cleaning-up procedure, in which 55% aqueous ethanol was used to elute neohesperidin. After treatment with D101 resin, the neohesperidin purity increased 11.83-fold from 4.92% in the crude extract to 58.22% in the resin-refined sample, with a recovery of 68.97%. The resin-refined sample was directly subjected to HSCCC purification with a two-phase solvent system composed of ethyl acetate-n-butanol-water (4:1:5, v/v), and 23.6 mg neohesperidin with 97.47% purity was obtained from 60 mg sample in only one run. The recovery of neohesperidin in HSCCC separation procedure was 65.85%. The chemical structure of the purified neohesperidin was identified by both HPLC and LC-MS. The established purification process will be helpful for further characterization and utilization of Citrus neohesperidin. PMID:22102373

Zhang, Jiukai; Zhu, Xiaoyan; Luo, Fenglei; Sun, Chongde; Huang, Jianzhen; Li, Xian; Chen, Kunsong

2011-11-21

371

Shear bond strength between light polymerized hard reline resin and denture base resin subjected to long term water immersion  

PubMed Central

Statement of the problem The effect of long-term water immersion on the shear bond strength between denture base resin and Triad visible-light-polymerized (VLP) direct hard reline resin is not known. Purpose The aim of this study was to investigate the bonding characteristics of Triad VLP direct hard reline resin to heat-polymerized denture base resin subjected to long-term water immersion. Material and methods Ninety circular disks, 15 mm in diameter and 3 mm thick, of denture base resin were polymerized from a gypsum mold. Sixty specimens were subjected to water immersion and 30 were stored at ambient room temperature for 4 months. Thirty water-immersed specimens were dried with gauze (group 1), while the other 30 water-immersed specimens were dried with a hair dryer (group 2). The dry specimens (n = 30) represented the control group (group 3). All specimens were air abraded and painted with bonding agent before packing Triad VLP direct hard-reline resin. Specimens in each group were subjected to thermal cycling for 50,000 cycles between 4 °C and 60 °C water baths with 1-min dwell time at each temperature. The bond strength at which the bond failed under stress was recorded using a universal testing machine. One-way ANOVA and Tukey post hoc comparison were applied to find significant differences between groups (? = 0.05). Results Significant differences in mean shear bond strength among the specimens existed because of variable water content in the denture base resin (P < 0.05). Group 3 (dry) was higher than group 2 (desiccated), and the lowest was group 1 (saturated). Conclusion The shear bond strength of Triad VLP direct hard reline resin to denture base resin depended on the water content in the denture base resin. The dry denture base resin demonstrated superior bond strength compared with the desiccated and water-saturated denture base resins.

Al Rifaiy, Mohammad Q.

2011-01-01

372

Chemical and thermal properties of lignins from oil palm biomass as a substitute for phenol in a phenol formaldehyde resin production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lignins were extracted from oil palm empty fruit bunch after kraft and soda pulping process. The aim of this study was to characterise the chemical and thermal properties of these lignins as well as determine their suitability for partial incorporation into phenol formaldehyde resin. The analytical methods used were CHN analyser, FTIR spectroscopy, UV spectroscopy, TGA, DSC, GPC, 1H NMR

Mohamad Nasir Mohamad Ibrahim; Norhidaya Zakaria; Coswald Stephen Sipaut; Othman Sulaiman; Rokiah Hashim

2011-01-01

373

Retention Loss of Resin Based Fissure Sealants - a Valid Predictor for Clinical Outcome?  

PubMed Central

Purpose: The null-hypothesis that retention loss of resin fissure sealants predicts caries manifestation no more accurately than random values was tested. Methods: Systematic reviews were checked and electronic databases searched for clinical trials. Trials reporting on the retention of resin sealants and caries occurrence in permanent molar teeth, with minimum 24-month follow-up period, were included. Extracted data: number of sealed teeth, number of teeth without completely retained sealants, number of sealed teeth with caries. The number of teeth with complete sealant retention and absence of carious lesions/cavities was calculated; the predictive outcomes: true/false positive; false/true negative were established. Random values were generated as control-data. Diagnostic Odds ratios (DOR) were computed and tested for statistical difference. Summary Receiver Operating Characteristic curves were plotted. Results: 95 trials were found. Median DOR values were 1.21 and 0.28 for test- and control data, respectively. Wilcoxon test (z = 0.56; p = 0.58) and Sign test (z = 1.38; p = 0.17) results were statistically non-significant. The null-hypothesis was not rejected. Conclusions: Predictions based on the retention loss of resin sealants, regarding caries manifestation, was no more accurate than random guesses. Sealant retention loss appears not to be a valid predictor for clinical outcome.

Mickenautsch, Steffen; Yengopal, Veerasamy

2013-01-01

374

Assessment of cadmium in aquatic sediment using dialysis samplers with ion-exchange-resin collection  

SciTech Connect

Simultaneously extracted metals (SEM) and acid volatile sulfide (AVS) show the potential for toxicity on the basis of their ratio. Accordingly, the authors spiked cadmium in a range for which Cd/AVS ratios were from 0.2 to 10 in the sediment with its weight about 8 kg in each batch. Dialysis samplers with a cation ion-exchange resin (Dowex 50W-X4) collection were used in a laboratory for the determination of free cadmium concentrations in pore water of the collected sediment. When equilibrium was reached among cadmium in pore water, sediment, and ion-exchange resin, cadmium exchanged onto resin phase was regenerated with 1 N hydrochloric acid (OPTIMA grade) and determined using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer (Zeeman 5000) with a graphite furnace accessory. Cadmium determined using the dialysis sampler is considered as free cadmium which is related to the metal bioavailability toward aquatic biota. The developed methodology provides a new technique for assessment of free metal in aquatic sediment systems.

Shi, B. [Kimberly-Clark Corp., Neenah, WI (United States). Environmental Technology; Allen, H.E. [Univ. of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering; Desnoyers, C. [ERM Program Management Co., Exton, PA (United States)

1998-05-01

375

Simulated fatigue resistance of composite resin versus porcelain CAD\\/CAM overlay restorations on endodontically treated molars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To assess the influence of material selection (porcelain versus composite resin) for overlay-type restoration of endodontically treated molars and its effect on the in vitro fatigue resistance and failure mode. Method and Materials: A standardized tooth prepara- tion was applied to 30 extracted molars, including root canal treatment, 3-mm coverage of all cusps, a mesial box 1.5 mm below

Pascal Magne; Alena Knezevic

376

The use of ion-exchange resins for the recovery of valuable species from slurries of sparingly soluble solids  

Microsoft Academic Search

An example of an industrial process which recovers valuable species by shifting the solid\\/liquid dissociation equilibrium condition is the extraction of rare earths from low-grade kaolinite ore by percolation leaching. Valuable species can be recovered from such sparingly soluble solids which slightly dissociate to give traces of the valuable ions in solution, using ion-exchange resins in a slurry mixture. A

P. G. R. De Villiers; J. S. J. Van Deventer; L. Lorenzen

1997-01-01

377

Sorption of Cr(VI) from aqueous solution by Amberlite XAD-7 resin impregnated with Aliquat 336  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work investigates the removal of chromium (VI) from aqueous solution using solvent impregnated resins (SIR). SIR have been formed by impregnating Amberlite XAD-7 with Aliquat 336 as the extractant and acetone as the solvent by a wet impregnation technique. SIR of three different concentrations, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 g Aliquat 336\\/g Amberlite XAD-7 have been prepared in two different

B Saha; R. J Gill; D. G Bailey; N Kabay; M Arda

2004-01-01

378

Carbonic sorbents obtaining out of molding powders based on thermosetting resin with the usage of super-high frequency energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Development of pulp countercurrent processes of the noble metals extraction requires a great quantity of high-strength active carbonic sorbent. Produced during last years the carbonic sorbents based on phenol-formaldehyde resin (PFR) and their derivatives with the reasonable indexes of strength and sorbent activity are very expensive and as a result they don't gain a wide ground. To reduce the expenses

N. P. Konovalov; P. N. Konovalov

2002-01-01

379

Synthesis and application of a functionalized resin for flow injection\\/F AAS copper determination in waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports the development of a new strategy for low-level determination of copper in water samples by using a flow-injection system coupled to solid-phase extraction (SPE) using flame atomic absorption spectrometry (F AAS) as detector. In order to preconcentrate copper from samples, a minicolumn packed with a styrene-divinylbenzene resin functionalized with (S)-2-[hydroxy-bis-(4-vinyl-phenyl)-methyl]-pyrrolidine-1-carboxylic acid ethyl ester was used and the

Ricardo J. Cassella; Otto I. B. Magalhães; Marcos Tadeu Couto; Edson Luiz S. Lima; Marcia Angélica F. S. Neves; Fernanda Margarida B. Coutinho

2005-01-01

380

In vitro mutagenicity testing. I. Kermide 601 resin, Sylgard 184 encapsulating resin, and Sylgard 184 curing agent. [Ames Salmonella assay system used  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five compounds, Kerimide 601 resin, Sylgard 184 encapsulating resin, Sylgard 184 curing agent, benzo(a)pyrene, and acridine orange were tested for in vitro mutagenicity using the Ames Salmonella assay system. Kerimide 601 resin, Sylgard 184 encapsulating resin, and Sylgard 184 curing agent were not mutagenic under the described experimental conditions, while benzo(a)pyrene and acridine orange were both mutagenic.

S. Y. Wang; D. M. Smith

1978-01-01

381

HIGH ASPECT RATIO ION EXCHANGE RESIN BED - HYDRAULIC RESULTS FOR SPERICAL RESIN BEADS  

SciTech Connect

A principal role of the DOE Savannah River Site is to safely dispose of a large volume of liquid nuclear waste held in many storage tanks. An in-tank ion exchange unit is being considered for cesium removal to accelerate waste processing. This unit is planned to have a relatively high bed height to diameter ratio (10:1). Complicating the design is the need to cool the ion exchange media; therefore, the ion exchange column will have a central cooling core making the flow path annular. To separate cesium from waste the media being considered is made of resorcinol formaldehyde resin deposited on spherical plastic beads and is a substitute for a previously tested resin made of crystalline silicotitanate. This spherical media not only has an advantage of being mechanically robust, but, unlike its predecessor, it is also reusable, that is, loaded cesium can be removed through elution and regeneration. Resin regeneration leads to more efficient operation and less spent resin waste, but its hydraulic performance in the planned ion exchange column was unknown. Moreover, the recycling process of this spherical resorcinol formaldehyde causes its volume to significantly shrink and swell. To determine the spherical media's hydraulic demand a linearly scaled column was designed and tested. The waste simulant used was prototypic of the wastes' viscosity and density. This paper discusses the hydraulic performance of the media that will be used to assist in the design of a full-scale unit.

Duignan, M; Charles Nash, C; Timothy Punch, T

2007-09-27

382

An improved two-resin method for the cleavage of tertiary amines from REM resin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of polymer-bound guanidine 6b or polymer-bound phosphazene 6c significantly improve the yield of the Hofmann elimination step in the preparation of tertiary amines using REM resin, providing products with superior purities and free from contamination with trialkylammonium salts.

Carolina Alhambra; Julia Castro; Jose Luis Chiara; Esther Fernández; Alfonso Fernández-Mayoralas; José M Fiandor; Silvestre Garc??a-Ochoa; Mar??a D Mart??n-Ortega

2001-01-01

383

Kinetics of sorption of sulfur dioxide by anion-exchange resins  

SciTech Connect

The important role of sulfur dioxide as an environmental pollutant stimulated the development of studies of the sorption of this gas by different adsorbents, including anion-exchange resins. The results of a study of the kinetics of sorption of sulfur dioxide by styrene-divinyl benzene anion-exchangers with other types of functional amino groups, primary, secondary, and quaternary, which have elevated absorptivity with respect to SO/sub 2/ in extraction of SO/sub 2/ from gas-air mixtures, are reported in the present article.

Kats, B.M.; Malinovskii, E.K.; Al'tshul', V.Ya.

1986-12-20

384

77 FR 16508 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group IV Polymers and Resins...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group IV Polymers and Resins; Pesticide Active Ingredient...Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group IV Polymers and Resins; National Emission Standards...Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group IV Polymers and Resins; Pesticide Active...

2012-03-21

385

77 FR 1267 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group IV Polymers and Resins...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group IV Polymers and Resins; Pesticide Active Ingredient...Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group IV Polymers and Resins; Pesticide Active Ingredient...Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group IV Polymers and Resins; NESHAP for Pesticide...

2012-01-09

386

76 FR 22565 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group I Polymers and Resins...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group I Polymers and Resins; Marine Tank Vessel Loading...Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group I Polymers and Resins; Marine Tank Vessel Loading...National Emissions Standards for Group I Polymers and Resins (Butyl Rubber...

2011-04-21

387

21 CFR 175.260 - Partial phosphoric acid esters of polyester resins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...true Partial phosphoric acid esters of polyester resins. 175.260 Section 175.260...260 Partial phosphoric acid esters of polyester resins. Partial phosphoric acid esters of polyester resins identified in this section...

2010-01-01

388

21 CFR 175.260 - Partial phosphoric acid esters of polyester resins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Partial phosphoric acid esters of polyester resins. 175.260 Section 175.260...260 Partial phosphoric acid esters of polyester resins. Partial phosphoric acid esters of polyester resins identified in this section...

2009-04-01

389

21 CFR 175.260 - Partial phosphoric acid esters of polyester resins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Partial phosphoric acid esters of polyester resins. 175.260 Section 175.260...260 Partial phosphoric acid esters of polyester resins. Partial phosphoric acid esters of polyester resins identified in this section...

2013-04-01

390

21 CFR 177.2460 - Poly(2,6-dimethyl-1,4-phenylene) oxide resins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...6-dimethyl-1,4-phenylene) oxide basic resins meet the following: (1) Specifications...0.01 percent tert- butylcatechol. (ii) Resin sample: Powdered resin obtained from production prior to molding or...

2010-01-01

391

21 CFR 177.2460 - Poly(2,6-dimethyl-1,4-phenylene) oxide resins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...6-dimethyl-1,4-phenylene) oxide basic resins meet the following: (1) Specifications...0.01 percent tert- butylcatechol. (ii) Resin sample: Powdered resin obtained from production prior to molding or...

2009-04-01

392

76 FR 28455 - Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy; Scheduling of an Expedited Five-Year Review...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy; Scheduling of an Expedited Five-Year...Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy AGENCY: United States International Trade...granular polytetrafluoroethylene resin from Italy would be likely to lead to...

2011-05-17

393

76 FR 27663 - Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy; Scheduling of an Expedited Five-Year Review...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy; Scheduling of an Expedited Five-Year...Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy AGENCY: United States International Trade...granular polytetrafluoroethylene resin from Italy would be likely to lead to...

2011-05-12

394

40 CFR 414.50 - Applicability; description of the thermosetting resins subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...description of the thermosetting resins subcategory. 414.50...STANDARDS ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Thermosetting Resins § 414.50 Applicability...description of the thermosetting resins subcategory. The...

2010-07-01

395

40 CFR 414.50 - Applicability; description of the thermosetting resins subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...description of the thermosetting resins subcategory. 414.50...STANDARDS ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Thermosetting Resins § 414.50 Applicability...description of the thermosetting resins subcategory. The...

2009-07-01

396

Materials Characterization of High-Temperature Epoxy Resins: SC-79 and SC-15/SC-79 Blend.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The relatively low glass transition temperature (Tg) of the Army's SC-15 epoxy resin system necessitates study into suitable alternative resins capable of better low- and high-temperature performance. This work investigates two of those alternative resins...

I. M. McAninch J. J. La Scala M. L. Wang

2011-01-01

397

21 CFR 177.2460 - Poly(2,6-dimethyl-1,4-phenylene) oxide resins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...oxide resins consist of basic resins produced by the oxidative coupling of 2,6-xylenol such that the finished basic resins meet...to: http://www.archives.gov/federal_register/code_of_federal_regulations/ibr_locations.html....

2013-04-01

398

In-vitro Investigations on Suitability of Light-cured Resins for Interocclusal Splints  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:  It was the aim of the present study to investigate the material properties of different resins and their suitability for the fabrication of occlusal and intermaxillary splints.Material and Method:  We subjected auto-polymerized resins (Palapress, Orthocryl, Steady-ResinM) and light-polymerized resins (Acrylight, Primosplint, TriadTranSheetColorless and Pink) to investigation. The TargisPower light oven was used to polymerize the light-cured resins. After the auto-polymerized resins

Gholamreza Danesh; Carsten Lippold; Thomas Ziebura; Klaus-Jürgen Reinhardt; Edgar Schäfer; Ulrike Ehmer

2006-01-01

399

Synthesis of Functional Resins from Poly(Chloromethyl thiirane) and Their Sorption Properties for Noble Metal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three new kinds of functional resins bearing polythioether backbone and primary amino group (CA), or dithiocarbamate (CDTC) or Shiff base (CSB) in side chain, were synthesized from poly(chloromethyl thiirane). The sorption capacities of CA resins for noble metals were 5–8 mmol Au(III)\\/g resin and 7–9 mmol Ag\\/g resin. CDTC resins could absorb 9–11 mmol Ag per gram resin, but little

W. LI; Z. SHEN; Y. ZHANG

1998-01-01

400

Use of EIChroM`s TRU resin in the determination of americium, plutonium and uranium in air filter and water samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

TRU Resin, an extraction chromatographic material (octyl (phenyl)-N,Ndiisobutylcarbamoyl-methylphosphene oxide (CMPO) dissolved in tributyl phosphate (TBP)) manufactured by EIChroM Industries, was tested for its actinide sorption and desorption characteristics. A study was initiated to demonstrate the effectiveness of extracting plutonium, americium and uranium from water and air filter samples from the Environmental Measurements Laboratory`s Quality Assessment Program (QAP), and the effectiveness

1995-01-01

401

The influence of resin infiltration system on enamel microhardness and surface roughness: An in vitro study  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the effect of a resin infiltrant on the surface microhardness and roughness of healthy enamel and, as a subsidiary aim, to compare it with a fissure sealant. Materials and methods Twenty freshly extracted premolars were used. Sound enamel surfaces were treated with a resin infiltrant (Icon) or fissure sealant (Seal-Rite). The average roughness (Ra, ?m) of the specimens was measured with a profilometer (Surtronic 10 Tylor Hobson). Surface hardness was determined by utilizing Vicker’s surface hardness (VHN) with a Micromet II Microhardness tester. Each specimen acted as its own control. Data were analyzed with 2-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), and mean values were compared with independent t-test. All analyses were performed with the SPSS program version 16 (USA). Differences with a P-value of ?0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results Comparison of enamel surfaces before and after application of resin infiltrant revealed no significant differences in surface hardness; however, enamel surfaces treated by infiltrant showed significantly higher VHN (244.0 ± 79.8) values than those treated with fissure sealant (37.5 ± 14.2). Surface roughness did not differ before and after application of either material to sound enamel. Enamel surfaces treated with fissure sealant (5.3 ± 1.4) were significantly smoother than those treated with infiltrant (6.9 ± 2.0). Conclusion Within the limitations of the study, the results showed that enamels treated with the resin infiltrant showed approximately the same microhardness and surface roughness as sound enamel, indicating that this material might be suitable for the treatment of enamel subsurface lesions.

Taher, Nadia Malek; Alkhamis, Haifa Abdulrahman; Dowaidi, Sarah Mesha'l

2011-01-01

402

The effects of maturity and dehydration shrinkage on resin-modified glass-ionomer restorations.  

PubMed

The dimensional change, including hygroscopic change, of adhesive dental materials is a clinically important topic, since excessive changes could cause debonding from tooth structure. The water balance of glass-ionomer cements arises mainly from their sensitivity to the environment; depending on the surroundings, they can gain or lose water, either of which can be potentially damaging. These effects become less noticeable as the cement ages. The effects of maturity of the newer resin-modified glass-ionomer materials and their responses to changes in moisture are unknown. Using confocal microscopy, we examined the effects of dehydration stress on the glass-ionomer/tooth interface in specimens of various degrees of maturity. Wedge-shaped cervical cavities in extracted teeth were restored with one of three resin-modified glass-ionomer restorative materials. The control specimens were restored with a conventional glass ionomer. The samples were left to mature, then sectioned and examined at 1 day, 1 wk, 1 mo, 3 mos, 6 mos, and 1 yr. After being sectioned, each specimen was examined immediately with a confocal microscope with water-immersion objectives so that the subsurface interfacial characteristics could be studied. The specimen was then allowed to dehydrate under the microscope, with further examinations at 15, 30, and 60 min. Generally, gap formation at the interface occurred within 15 min of dehydration. All materials showed a different pattern of gap change with maturity, probably due to the different setting mechanisms involved. All of them were susceptible to dehydration shrinkage up to 3 mos of maturity. At 6 mos and 1 yr, Fuji II and Fuji II LC showed insensitivity to dehydration. Vitremer and Photac-Fil showed less sensitivity to dehydration at 1 yr than at 6 mos. The results of this study of the maturing polymerized resin-modified cements have potential clinical implications in the handling of these materials; the addition of resin has not significantly reduced the glass ionomer's susceptibility to dehydration problems. PMID:9240386

Sidhu, S K; Sherriff, M; Watson, T F

1997-08-01

403

Effects of Nd: YAG laser irradiation on the adaptation of composite resins to root dentin.  

PubMed

One of the most important goals of the restoration of endodontically treated teeth with a composite resin post system is to achieve good adaptation of the composite material to dentin walls to prevent microleakage apically and coronally. In post core systems, to avoid microleakage between the dentin wall and resin material, laser irradiation may seem to be an alternative therapy for increasing adaptation quality. The aim of this study was to investigate the adaptation of a packable composite resin to lased root canal dentin when it was used as post material. Forty-five freshly extracted human teeth were selected and post spaces were prepared. The teeth were divided into three groups. In group 1 the dentin of the post spaces were etched with 35% phosphoric acid, in group 2 the dentin surfaces were irradiated with an Nd: YAG laser, and in group 3 the dentin surfaces were initially treated with the laser and then etched. The teeth of all groups were obturated with a bonding agent and composite. The groups were divided into two subgroups: a group for the scanning electron microscope (SEM) study and a group for the microleakage study. The lased group showed poor adaptation and more microleakage was detected (p<0.05; variance analysis). The laser beam and acid-etching showed no advantage compared to the acid-etching alone (p>0.05). The Nd: YAG laser irradiation adversely affects adhesion to dentin for using composite resin as a post material and does not constitute an alternative to acid-etching. PMID:16299613

Görgül, Güliz; Kivanç, Bagdagül H; Maden, Murat; Ulusoy, Ozgur Ilke Atasoy; Tinaz, A Cemal

2005-11-15

404

40 CFR 414.40 - Applicability; description of the thermoplastic resins subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Polyvinyl Acetate *Polyvinyl AcetateâPVC Copolymers *Polyvinyl Acetate Copolymers *Polyvinyl Acetate Resins Polyvinyl Alcohol Resin Polyvinyl Chloride Polyvinyl Chloride, Chlorinated *Polyvinyl Ether-Maleic Anhydride...

2010-07-01

405

40 CFR 414.40 - Applicability; description of the thermoplastic resins subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Polyvinyl Acetate *Polyvinyl AcetateâPVC Copolymers *Polyvinyl Acetate Copolymers *Polyvinyl Acetate Resins Polyvinyl Alcohol Resin Polyvinyl Chloride Polyvinyl Chloride, Chlorinated *Polyvinyl Ether-Maleic Anhydride...

2009-07-01

406

Modeling of process-induced residual stresses and resin flow behavior in resin transfer molded composites with woven fiber mats  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research focuses on modeling Resin Transfer Molding process for manufacture of composite parts with woven fiber mats. Models are developed to determine cure dependent stiffness matrices for composites manufactured with two types of woven fiber mats. Five-harness carbon and eight-harness fiberglass mats with EPON 826 resin composites are considered. The models presented here take into account important material/process parameters with emphasis on; (1) The effects of cure-dependent resin mechanical properties, (2) Fiber undulation due to the weave of the fiber fill and warp bundles, and (3) Resin interaction with the fiber bundles at a microscopic scale. Cure-dependent mechanical properties were then used in numerical models to determine residual stresses and deformation in the composite parts. The complete cure cycle was modeled in these analyses. Also the cool down stage after the composite cure was analyzed. The effect of 5% resin shrinkage on residual stresses and deformations was also investigated. In the second part of the study, Finite Element models were developed to simulate mold filling in RTM processes. Resin flow in the fiber mats was modeled as flow through porous media. Physical models were also developed to investigate resin flow behavior into molds of rectangular and irregular shapes. Silicone fluids of 50 and 100 centistoke viscosities as well as EPON 826 epoxy resin were used in the mold filling experiments. The reinforcements consisted of several layers of woven fiberglass and carbon fiber mats. The effects of injection pressure, fluid viscosity, type of reinforcement, and mold geometry on mold filling times were investigated. Fiber mat permeabilities were determined experimentally for both types of reinforcements. Comparison of experimental and numerical resin front positions indicated the importance of edge effects in resin flow behavior in small cavities. The resin front positions agreed well for the rectangular mold geometry.

Golestanian, Hossein

407

Separation and preconcentration of actinides by extraction chromatography using a supported liquid anion exchanger: application to the characterization of high-level nuclear waste solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel extraction chromatographic resin comprised of a quaternary amine-based liquid anion exchanger sorbed on an inert polymeric substrate for the sorption of actinides from nitric and hydrochloric acids is described. The resin is shown to exhibit preferential retention of tetravalent actinides over a wide range of acidities. The application of this material to the separation and preconcentration of selected

E. Philip Horwitz; Mark L. Dietz; Renato Chiarizia; Herbert Diamond; Sherrod L. Maxwell; Matthew R. Nelson

1995-01-01

408

Rapid procedure for plutonium and uranium determination in soils using a borate fusion followed by ion-exchange and extraction chromatography  

Microsoft Academic Search

A rapid and highly precise method, which uses a borate fusion, of U and Pu determination in soils, sediments and other materials is described. The chemical separation steps are optimised by using an anion resin column stacked on an extraction chromatography column (Eichrom Industries UTEVA resin). The whole procedure was streamlined to measure 700 soil samples in 10 weeks as

Ian Croudace; Phillip Warwick; Rex Taylor; Stephen Dee

1998-01-01

409

Stereolithography 1993: epoxy resins, improved accuracy, and investment casting  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the past few years there has been much emphasis on the development of stereolithography resins with improved part building characteristics as well as enhanced physical and mechanical properties. A detailed presentation of the results achieved by all four companies would be well beyond the scope of this paper. However, a discussion of a new epoxy resin currently undergoing extensive

Paul Jacobs

1994-01-01

410

Molecular properties and evaluation of indion 234-ondansetron resinates.  

PubMed

Ondansetron is a serotonin 5HT3 antagonist; anti-emetic drug. Bitter taste of the ondansetron is a major problem in ensuring patient compliance. The study was designed to formulate tasteless complexes of ondansetron with ion exchange resin and evaluate molecular properties of drug complex. The drug-loading process was carried out using various resins and was optimized using different drug:resin ratio and pH. Resinates were characterized by infrared spectroscopy, thermal analysis, and X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD). Indion 234 gave the best loading efficiency at drug resin ratio of 1:1.5. pH had no effect on drug loading. XRPD studies revealed that drug is in amorphous state in complex. The Infrared studies revealed complexation of secondary amine group of drug with carboxylic functional group of resin. Taste evaluation by using semiquantitative method found resonates as tasteless and agreeable. The release of drug from resinates in simulated gastric fluid was complete in 30 min. Thus, ion exchange resinates offer an effective tool for masking of bitterness and improve drug release. PMID:21042479

Shah, S; Pandya, S; Bhalekar, Mr

2010-07-01

411

An approach to model resin flow through swelling porous media ...  

Treesearch

Description: Theoretical model for the 1-D flow of a resin-like liquid in the natural fiber fiber mats of resin transfer molding (RTM) mold is proposed. ... front location is proposed after employing an altered form of continuity equation (which takes ...

412

Environmental effects on the dimensions of SL5195 resin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of humidity, temperature and temperature ramping rate on the dimensional changes of the photo-cured stereolithography (SL) resin SL5195 was investigated. It was found that moisture absorption by the SL resin is a very slow process at ambient temperatures. Varying relative humidity (RH) between 20 and 90 per cent in the environment only produced slight changes in the sample

Xing Yang Liu; Jiaren Jiang

2003-01-01

413

Melamine resin microcapsules containing fragrant oil: synthesis and characterization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Melamine resin microcapsules with long self-life containing fragrant Migrin oil were prepared by in situ polymerization from Migrin oil as core material, melamine and formaline as wall materials, sodium lauryl sulphate as emulsifier and poly(vinyl alcohol) as protective colloid. Melamine resin microcapsules were characterized on structure, a mean particle size and size distribution, morphologies, thermal properties and release behavior.

K Hong

1999-01-01

414

Impregnation of softwood cell walls with melamine-formaldehyde resin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Melamine-formaldehyde (MF) resin impregnation has shown considerable potential to improve a number of wood properties, such as surface hardness and weathering resistance. In this study, selected factors influencing the uptake of MF resin into the cell wall of softwood were studied. Using UV-microspectroscopy, it could be shown that water soluble MF diffused well into the secondary cell wall and the

W. Gindl; F. Zargar-Yaghubi; R. Wimmer

2003-01-01

415

Poliflexsol polyester resin: It's properties and applications to conservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Poliflexsol is a light curable, glass fibre reinforced polyester resin supplied in sheet form. Since sheets of Poliflexsol are contained between two nylon films, the resin is clean and easy to handle. Its high flexibility allows it to be shaped as required and this has led to its application as a support material. The purpose of this paper is to

Yvonne Shashoua; Barbara Wills

1994-01-01

416

Hydrocarbon solvent recovery in the presence of resin contaminants  

Microsoft Academic Search

A system was developed to recover acetone from an air stream in which epoxy resin particles were suspended. This recovery problem is encountered in the manufacture of fiber glass reinforced plastic pipe. It is representative of numerous other industrial situations which require the recovery of hydrocarbon solvents from a gaseous stream containing resin particles in order to eliminate atmospheric pollution.

Turpin

1984-01-01

417

Fatigue Crack Propagation in Resin-Fiber Composites.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An exploratory study of fatigue crack propagation in both boron and glass fiber reinforced epoxy resins was begun. An attempt was made to relate the concepts of fracture mechanics to the fatigue process. Under the test conditions employed, the epoxy resin...

R. W. Hertzberg J. A. Manson H. Nordberg

1969-01-01

418

Anion-exchange resin-based desulfurization process  

SciTech Connect

Under the current grant, the University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI) will carry out the bench scale evaluation and further development of the anion-exchange resin-based desulfurization concept to desulfurize alkali metal sulfates. This concept has been developed and patented by UTSI under US Patent No. 4,917,874. The developmental program proposed under this DOE grant includes screening of commercially available resins to select three candidate resins for further study. These three resins will undergo a series of experiments designed to test the resins' performance under different process conditions (including the use of spent MHD seed material). The best of these resins will be used in optimizing the regeneration step and in testing the effects of performance enhancers. The process schematic developed from the results will be used to estimate the related economics. During this reporting period, October 1, 1991 to September 30, 1992, analysis of batch mode screening experiments was completed to select three candidate resins for process variables study in the fixed-bed set-up. This setup was modified and the experiments were carded out to evaluate effects of major process variables. The analysis of fixed-bed experiments is going on and we have also started simple batch mode experiments to identify desirable conditions for resin regeneration step. We have also started simple process engineering type calculations to determine the trade-off between the solution concentration and the resulting evaporation/concentration load.

Sheth, A.C.; Strevel, S.D.; Dharmapurikar, R.

1992-01-01

419

Fluorochemical resin complexes for use solvent repellent hand creams  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fluorochemical (FC)-resin complex has been developed for use in protective hand creams. Hand creams incorporating this new technology effectively repel solvents and resist their penetration into the skin. The in vitro studies conducted to determine the efficacy of the formulated FC-resin complex include solvent penetration through treated filter paper, solvent repellency on treated pigskin, and penetration of radio tagged

NATHANIEL P. LANGFORD

1978-01-01

420

Solidphase synthesis of aryl ethers on high loading dendrimer resin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resin-bound dendrimers have the potential to increase bead loading by at least one order of magnitude. In this letter we report the solid-phase synthesis of a library of aryl ethers using high-loading dendrimer beads, and compare the synthetic efficiency with that of TentaGel (Polystyrene-PEG) resin.

Andrea Basso; Brian Evans; Neil Pegg; Mark Bradley

2000-01-01

421

Biocompatibility of visible light-polymerized denture base resins.  

PubMed

The biocompatibility of three commercial formulations of visible light-polymerized denture base resins was studied to determine its effects on the RNA and DNA synthesis of oral epithelial cells in vitro. Isotope incorporation into RNA or DNA was measured after 24 hours of incubation with isotope and 48 hours of exposure to resin. The resins were shown to significantly inhibit the synthesis of both nucleotides as compared to a heat-processed resin control. Increasing the polymerization time can mitigate the toxicity of some of the resins. The air barrier coatings used to prevent oxygen inhibition of polymerization increased the toxic effects of two resins and decreased that of one of the materials. These investigations suggest that visible light-polymerized denture resins may impair the replication of oral epithelial cells. DNA synthesis is more sensitive to the toxic effects of the materials, which may relate to the ability to cause mucosal pathology. The cytotoxic effects may relate to the presence of unpolymerized resin constituents or polymerization by-products. PMID:7507674

Barron, D J; Schuster, G S; Caughman, G B; Lefebvre, C A

422

Risks Involved in Curing Vinylester Resins Using Microwave Irradiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preliminary studies have been carried out to cure vinylester particle reinforced resins in microwaves to reduce shrinkage of the composites. The results were encouraging. With an exposure time of 35 to 40 s and a power level of 180 W, the shrinkage of 50- and 200-ml composite samples, flyash particulate–reinforced vinylester resin, approached 0%. Despite the success, there are risks

H. Ku

2002-01-01

423

Stress Transfer in Single Fiber\\/ Resin Tensile Tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microscale (25 mm gauge length) “dogbone” resin specimens with single carbon fibers embedded through the length of the specimen have been studied as a method for determining the fiber-resin interphase strength. The specimens are pulled in tension until the fiber fragments to a critical length, lc. Evidence is presented here, based primarily on the relaxation of stress birefringence around the

W. D. Bascom; R. M. Jensen

1986-01-01

424

Retrospective study of orthodontic bonding without liquid resin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to evaluate the retention of fixed orthodontic appliances bonded without liquid resin with the use of a retrospective study design. Patients from each of 2 consultant orthodontists in the same specialty clinic were chosen under strict selection criteria. In the test group (n = 37), composite material (Phase II) without liquid resin was used

Alexander T. H. Tang; Lars Björkman; Lars Isaksson; Karl-Fredrik Lindbäck; Anna Andlin-Sobocki; Jan Ekstrand

2000-01-01

425

Study on UV Curable Resins for Optical Fibers,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

UV curable resins for optical fiber coating materials have been investigated in order to attain higher drawing rate and reduced cost. The paper reports the studies with regard to the curability of UV resins, the relations between their properties and atte...

H. Kuzushita M. Nagai T. Zushi T. Watanabe H. Tanaka

1987-01-01

426

Ultraviolet light and ultraviolet light-activated composite resins  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a comparison of the UV light--activated composite resins, Estilux was polymerized to a significantly greater depth than the other composite resins. In general, Lee-fill polymerized the least. When comparing the UV light sources, the Lee light and the Duralux light did not significantly differ from each other, but both polymerized the materials tested to a significantly greater depth than

G. A. Murray; J. L. Yates; S. M. Newman

1981-01-01

427

Optical Emission Behavior and Radiation Resistance of Epoxy Resins.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

To make clear a mechanism of radiation resistance of epoxy resin systems, a role of energy trapping site induced in bisphenol A type epoxy resins cured with 4 kinds of aromatic amines (PHI/sub N/) was studied in comparison with the case of aliphatic amine...

S. Kawanishi A. Udagawa M. Hagiwara

1987-01-01

428

Diphonix® Resin: A Review of Its Properties and Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recently developed Diphonix® resin is a new multifunctional chelating ion exchange resin containing geminally substituted diphosphonic acid ligands chemically bonded to a styrene-based polymeric matrix. Diphonix can be regarded as a dual mechanism polymer, with a sulfonic acid cation exchange group allowing for rapid access, mostly non-specific, of ions into the polymeric network, and the diphosphonic acid group responsible

R. Chiariza; E. P. Horwitz; S. D. Alexandrators; M. J. Gula

1997-01-01

429

Sand control in wells with gas generator and resin  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a method of treating a wellbore having formation perforations for controlling sand and other fine materials. It comprises positioning a quantity of fluid resin material in alignment with the formation perforations of the wellbore; positioning a gas generator in proximity with the fluid resin material; actuating the gas generator to increase wellbore pressure in a substantially instantaneous manner to a pressure substantially in excess of well pressure to force the fluid resin material from the wellbore into the formation perforations; and subsequently polymerizing the resin material to form a consolidated, porous, permeable matrix which retains the sand and other fine materials while permitting the flow of production fluid into the wellbore. This paper also describes a method of treating a wellbore having formation perforations for controlling sand and other fine materials. It comprises positioning a coiled tubing, having a valve and gas generator attached thereto, so that the valve is positioned in a predetermined location relative to the bottom formation perforation; injecting a predetermined amount of fluid resin material through the coiled tubing and valve into the wellbore; raising the gas generator to a position across the formation perforations and in proximity with the fluid resin material; actuating the gas generator to force the fluid resin material into the formation perforations; and thereafter polymerizing the previously fluid resin material to form a consolidated, porous, permeable matrix which retains the sand and other fine materials while permitting the flow of production fluid into the wellbore.

Dees, J.M.

1992-04-07

430

Characterization of EA9396 Epoxy Resin for Composite Repair Applications.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A program was completed to develop material property data for an epoxy resin system for aircraft repair applications. The epoxy resin was developed by Hysol and is designated EA9396. An extensive array of mechanical property data was generated for both gl...

R. Askins

1991-01-01

431

Selective flotation of fossil resin from Western coal  

SciTech Connect

Technical activities for the fourth quarter involved efforts by both the University of Utah and Advanced Processing Technologies, Inc. Laboratory research at the University of Utah was primarily concerned with surface chemistry/resin characterization, which has emphasized Fourier transform infrared analysis in the past quarter. APT's major activities included proof-of-concept plant testing of the fossil resin flotation circuit. (VC)

Jensen, G.F.; Miller, J.D.

1991-10-15

432

Thermal expansion of phenolic resin and phenolic-fibre composites  

Microsoft Academic Search

A large number of thermal expansion measurements in the temperature range 20 to 300‡C are presented for the Monsanto phenolic resin SC-1008 as a function of heating rate, position in cured block, curing treatment and repeated heating cycles. Thermal expansion measurements in those directions where the resin dominates are also reported up to 400‡C for composite systems consisting of the

J. T. Mottram; B. Geary; R. Taylor

1992-01-01

433

Fluoride and chlorhexidine release from filled resins.  

PubMed

Resin-based materials that release either fluoride or chlorhexidine have been formulated for inhibiting caries activity. It is not known if the two agents, when incorporated into one material, would interact and affect their release potential. We hypothesized that the ratio of fluoride to chlorhexidine incorporated into a resin, and the pH of the storage medium, will affect their releases from the material. The material investigated contained 23 wt% of filler, and the ratios of calcium fluoride to chlorhexidine diacetate were 8/2, 5/5, and 2/8. The release was conducted in pH 4, 5, and 6 acetate buffers. The results showed that release of either agent increased as the pH of the medium decreased. The presence of fluoride salt substantially reduced the chlorhexidine release, while the presence of a specific quantity of chlorhexidine significantly increased fluoride release. This interaction can be utilized to optimize the release of either agent for therapeutic purposes. PMID:20581354

Shen, C; Zhang, N-Z; Anusavice, K J

2010-06-25

434

Polymerization shrinkage of dental composite resins.  

PubMed

Aesthetic materials have always been a priority for the restoration of anterior teeth; increasingly, they have also gained prominence in the restoration of posterior teeth. This has been due to their advantages as an alternative to amalgam. Their drawbacks however, can include poor marginal adaptation, postoperative sensitivity and cuspal movement. These are particularly associated with the polymerization shrinkage accompanying the placement of composite resins. Consequently, a variety of methods have been used for determining the polymerization shrinkage. These range from dilatometer methods, specific gravity methods and deflecting disc systems to optical methods. In this work a unique method for the qualitative analysis of polymerization shrinkage was undertaken. This method utilized a miniature transducer and provided details of the shrinkage from within the material. The results indicated movement of material towards the initiating light, followed by a return movement away from it. The study was expanded to incorporate clinical aspects, whereby the composite resin was in direct contact with dental tissue, as in a restoration. Tests were performed with surface-treated cavity moulds, as in restoration placement, and without surface treatment. Results indicated that the shrinkage was highly dependent upon the region under investigation, as well as on the state of the surface. PMID:11521760

Ensaff, H; O'Doherty, D M; Jacobsen, P H

2001-01-01

435

Candida albicans adhesion to composite resin materials.  

PubMed

The adhesion of Candida albicans to dental restorative materials in the human oral cavity may promote the occurrence of oral candidosis. This study aimed to compare the susceptibility of 14 commonly used composite resin materials (two compomers, one ormocer, one novel silorane, and ten conventional hybrid composites) to adhere Candida albicans. Differences in the amount of adhering fungi should be related to surface roughness, hydrophobicity, and the type of matrix. Cylindrical specimens of each material were made according to the manufacturers' instructions. Surface roughness R (a) was assessed by perthometer measurements and the degree of hydrophobicity by computerized contact angle analysis. Specimens were incubated with a reference strain of C. albicans (DMSZ 1386), and adhering fungi were quantified by using a bioluminometric assay in combination with an automated plate reader. Statistical differences were analyzed by the Kruskal-Wallis test and Mann-Whitney U test. Spearman's rank correlation coefficients were calculated to assess correlations. Median R (a) of the tested composite resin materials ranged between 0.04 and 0.23 microm, median contact angles between 69.2 degrees and 86.9 degrees . The two compomers and the ormocer showed lower luminescence intensities indicating less adhesion of fungi than all tested conventional hybrid composites. No conclusive correlation was found between surface roughness, hydrophobicity, and the amount of adhering C. albicans. PMID:18810508

Bürgers, Ralf; Schneider-Brachert, Wulf; Rosentritt, Martin; Handel, Gerhard; Hahnel, Sebastian

2008-09-23

436

Resin Glycosides from the Morning Glory Family  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Resin glycosides are part of a very extensive family of secondary metabolites known as glycolipids or lipo-oligosaccharides and are constituents of complex resins (glycoresins) (1) unique to the morning glory family, Convolvulaceae (2). These active principles are responsible for the drastic purgative action of all the important Convolvulaceous species used in traditional medicine throughout the world since ancient times. Several commercial purgative crude drugs can be prepared from the roots of different species of Mexican morning glories. Their incorporation as therapeutic agents in Europe is an outstanding example of the assimilation of botanical drugs from the Americas as substitutes for traditional Old World remedies (3). Even though phytochemical investigations on the constituents of these drugs were initiated during the second half of the nineteenth century, the structure of their active ingredients still remains poorly known for some examples of these purgative roots. During the last two decades, the higher resolution capabilities of modern analytical isolation techniques used in conjunction with powerful spectroscopic methods have facilitated the elucidation of the active principles of these relevant herbal products.

Pereda-Miranda, Rogelio; Rosas-Ramírez, Daniel; Castañeda-Gómez, Jhon

437

Perfluorotriethylene glycol dimethacrylate modified composite resins for improved dental restoratives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The studies described in this dissertation focus on improvement of water resistance and durability of current dental composite resins. The physical, thermal and mechanical properties of the diluent fluorinated monomer, perfluorotriethylene glycol methacrylate (FTEGDMA), FTEGDMA-containing neat resin and its formulated composite resins were evaluated and compared with the conventional visible light-cured (VLC) dental composite resins. Further, the biocompatibility of this monomer and its cured resins were investigated and compared with their conventional counterparts. The results showed that the FTEGDMA-containing neat resin and its composite systems showed more water resistance and longer durability, compared to the conventional Bisphenol A glycol dimethacrylate/triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (BisGMA/TEGDMA) system. The preliminary in vitro biocompatibility test showed that FTEGDMA favored cell growth, compared to the conventional dental resins. The first study investigated basic physical properties of the diluent FTEGDMA monomer. The results showed that the FTEGDMA exhibited lower viscosity, lower refractive index, and a smaller contact angle, which were all beneficial to lowering the water sorption and increasing hydrophobicity. The second study evaluated some physical, thermal, and mechanical properties of the FTEGDMA based neat resins, including polymerization shrinkage, contact angle, water sorption, glass-transitions, dynamic modulus, thermal expansion, compressive strength, and diametral tensile strength. The results showed that the FTEGDMA diluent exhibited significant less water sorption and lower polymerization shrinkage and the BisEMA also contributed towards reducing water sorption. The third study investigated the effects of the FTEGDMA on the mechanical properties of the composite resins including flexural strength (FS), diametral tensile strength (DTS) and wear resistance (WR). In addition, the fracture surface topography of the tested materials was examined and compared. The results showed that the composite resin with FTEGDMA did not affect the CS, FS and WR but showed increased DTS under dry conditions. The fourth study explored and investigated the biocompatibility of this fluorinated monomer containing resin, as compared with the conventional BisGMA/TEGDMA resins and blank controls, using cell culture techniques. The human gingival fibroblasts were used for evaluation of these resins. The results revealed that the fluorinated monomer significantly favored the cell growth of the human gingival fibroblasts, compared to both the control and the TEGDMA containing resins. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

Wang, Guigui

438

Bond strength of resin cements to zirconia conditioned with primers.  

PubMed

New ceramic primers, which reportedly enhance bonding of resin cements to zirconia, have been marketed recently. The purpose of this study was to compare the shear bond strength of 3 resin cements to zirconia conditioned with 4 ceramic primers. Zirconia blocks were conditioned with 4 different primers (Z-Prime Plus, MonoBond Plus, CLEARFIL CERAMIC PRIMER, and AZ Primer) or no primer (control). The zirconia blocks were placed in a jig, and 1 of 3 resin cements (Multilink Automix, RelyX Unicem, Panavia F 2.0) were mixed, injected into a mold, and light cured. The specimens were tested in shear on a universal testing machine after 24 hours of storage in distilled water. The shear bond strength of the resin cements to zirconia varied based on the type of primer. Z-Prime Plus provided the highest shear bond strength to zirconia, and was significantly greater than the control (no primer) with all 3 resin cements. PMID:24064168

Kobes, Kurtis G; Vandewalle, Kraig S

439

Polymerization shrinkage of index and pattern acrylic resins.  

PubMed

Inadequate dimensional stability caused by polymerization shrinkage has been reported concerning the various applications of acrylic resins. The objective of the study was to evaluate dimensional changes of two self-curing acrylic resins marketed as pattern and index material. Early volumetric changes were measured with a dilatometer and late linear changes were recorded with an inductive transducer. After 24 hours the volumetric shrinkage was 7.9% for Duralay resin and 6.5% for Palavit G resin; 80% of the change appears before 17 minutes at room temperature. Shrinkage was significantly increased when the proportion of powder in the mix was diminished. Results suggest that these resins should be used with some method to compensate for the shrinkage, when used as index material. However, the dimensional change might provide significant advantages for intracoronal castings. PMID:2079675

Mojon, P; Oberholzer, J P; Meyer, J M; Belser, U C

1990-12-01

440

Relationships between denture base resin cytotoxicity and cell lipid metabolism.  

PubMed

Substances that elute from denture base resins may inhibit cell growth and disrupt various metabolic processes. This study investigated the effects on cell lipid metabolism of eluates from several denture base resins. Cultured oral epithelial cells were exposed in vitro to eluates of discs made from several denture base resins. Lipid metabolism of the cells was measured using isotopic labeling with 14C-acetate. Results demonstrated that the metabolism of several lipid classes found mainly in the cell membrane was altered by the resin eluates. Eluate from one resin caused the appearance of two previously unrecognized classes of lipids. The alterations of the cell lipids and the presence of the previously unrecognized lipids may be the basis for some clinically evident cytotoxic and allergic reactions. PMID:8595119

Schuster, G S; Lefebvre, C A; Dirksen, T R; Knoernschild, K L; Caughman, G B

441

Clinical performance of Class II restorations in which resin composite is laminated over resin-modified glass-ionomer.  

PubMed

This study evaluated the one-year functioning of resin-composite/resin-modified glass-ionomer open-laminate restorations when used for restoring Class II cavities. It also investigated the effect of the thickness of the resin composite layer on the performance of such restorations. The test restorations were made of Vitremer glass ionomer, Scotchbond Multipurpose Plus and Z100 resin composite, and the control restorations were made of Z100 with Scotchbond Multipurpose Plus. Forty pairs of restorations were placed in 40 patients aged 16 years and over. The thickness of the resin composite layer was measured both clinically and in the laboratory using a reflex microscope. The completed restorations were assessed in vivo and in vitro at baseline, six-month and one-year recalls using a modified Ryge system. The reflex microscope measurements showed that the majority of restorations had a resin composite layer of more than 1.5 mm in thickness, as intended. At one year, 37 pairs of restorations were examined. Apart from a few minor problems, all performed satisfactorily. Thus, it appears that the resin composite/resin modified glass ionomer open laminate is a suitable technique for restoring Class II cavities. PMID:11203844

Aboush, Y E; Torabzadeh, H

442

Method for liquid chromatographic extraction of strontium from acid solutions  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus for extracting strontium and technetium values from biological, industrial and environmental sample solutions using a chromatographic column is described. An extractant medium for the column is prepared by generating a solution of a diluent containing a Crown ether and dispersing the solution on a resin substrate material. The sample solution is highly acidic and is introduced directed to the chromatographic column and strontium or technetium is eluted using deionized water.

Horwitz, E. Philip (Naperville, IL); Dietz, Mark L. (Evanston, IL)

1992-01-01

443

New methods and materials for solid phase extraction and high performance liquid chromatography  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes methods for solid phase extraction and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The following are described: Effects of Resin Sulfonation on the Retention of Polar Organic Compounds in Solid Phase Extraction; Ion-Chromatographic Separation of Alkali Metals In Non-Aqueous Solvents; Cation-Exchange Chromatography in Non-Aqueous Solvents; and Silicalite As a Stationary Phase For HPLC.

Dumont, P.J.

1996-04-23

444

Losses of oil components with extracts in refining of distillates and deasphaltate with N-methylpyrrolidone  

Microsoft Academic Search

For determining the losses of oil components and the efficiency of operation of extractors in refining of distillates with N-methylpyrrolidone, an efficient, selective extractant of polyaromatic hydrocarbons and resins [ 1 ], it is important to know the distribution of the hydrocarbons comprising the distillates (360 - 420 and 420 - 490~ and deasphaltate (>490~ between raffinates and mixed extracts.

A. M. Lavrinenko; L. E. Ozerova

1999-01-01

445

In Vitro and In Vivo Activities of Chios Mastic Gum Extracts and Constituents against Helicobacter pylori  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extracts and pure major constituents of Chios mastic gum (resin of Pistacia lentiscus var. chia) were tested for their activities against Helicobacter pylori. A total mastic extract without polymer (TMEWP) was prepared after removal of the contained insoluble polymer in order to ameliorate solubility and enhance in vivo activity. Administration of TMEWP to H. pylori SS1-infected mice over the

Sotirios Paraschos; Prokopios Magiatis; Sofia Mitakou; Kalliopi Petraki; Antonios Kalliaropoulos; Petros Maragkoudakis; Andreas Mentis; Dionyssios Sgouras; Alexios-Leandros Skaltsounis

2007-01-01

446

New Anion-Exchange Resins for Improved Separations of Nuclear Materials  

SciTech Connect

Improved separations of nuclear materials will have a significant impact upon a broad range of DOE activities. DOE-EM Focus Areas and Crosscutting Programs have identified improved methods for the extraction and recovery of radioactive metal ions from process, waste, and environmental waters as critical needs for the coming years. We propose to develop multifunctional anion-exchange resins that facilitate anion uptake by carefully controlling the structure of the anion receptor site. Our new ion-exchange resins interface the field of ion-specific chelating ligands with robust, commercial ion-exchange technology to provide materials which exhibit superior selectivity and kinetics of sorption and desorption. The following Focus Areas and Crosscutting Programs have described needs that would be favorably impacted by the new material: Efficient Separations and Processing - radionuclide removal from aqueous phases; Plutonium - Pu, Am or total alpha removal to meet regulatory requirement s before discharge to the environment; Plumes - U and Tc in groundwater, U, Pu, Am, and Tc in soils; Mixed Waste - radionuclide partitioning; High-Level Tank Waste - actinide and Tc removal from supernatants and/or sludges. The basic scientific issues which need to be addressed are actinide complex speciation along with modeling of metal complex/functional site interactions in order to determine optimal binding-site characteristics. Synthesis of multifunctionalized extractants and ion-exchange materials that implement key features of the optimized binding site, and testing of these materials, will provide feedback to the modeling and design activities. Resin materials which actively facilitate the uptake of actinide complexes from solution should display both improved selectivity and kinetic properties. The long-range implications of this research, however, go far beyond the nuclear complex. This new methodology of ''facilitated uptake'' could revolutionize ion-exchange technology, allowing this robust, inexpensive procedure to attain unprecedented levels of ion affinity and selectivity.

Bartsch, Richard A.; Barr, Mary E.

2001-04-30

447

Identification of resinous materials on 16th and 17th century reverse-glass objects by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Objects of hinterglasmalerei, reverse-glass paintings, are painted on the back side of glass panels. Obviously, the paint layers are applied in reverse order, starting with the uppermost layer. The finished hinterglas painting is viewed through the glass, thus revealing an impressive gloss and depth of colour. The binding media of two precious objects of hinterglasmalerei from the 16th and 17th century have been identified as almost exclusively resinous. Identification was performed by a special optimised analysis procedure, which is discussed in this paper: solvent extracts are analysed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, both with and without derivatisation or hydrolysis. In an additional step, oxalic acid is added to the methanol extracts prior to injection. This attenuates the peaks of the non-acidic compounds, whereas the acids elute with good resolution. The non-acidic compounds are emphasised after injection of the underivatised extracts. This approach minimises compositional changes caused by the sample preparation and derivatisation steps. Chromatograms of aged samples with a very complex composition are simplified, which allows a more reliable and straightforward identification of significant markers for various materials. The binding media of the hinterglas objects were thus shown to consist of mixtures of different natural resins, larch turpentine, heat-treated Pinaceae resin or mastic. Typical compounds of dragon's blood, a natural red resin, were also detectable in red glazes by the applied analysis routine. Identification of the binding media provides valuable information that can be used in the development of an adequate conservation treatment.

Baumer, Ursula; Dietemann, Patrick; Koller, Johann

2009-07-01

448

One-step purification of metallothionein extracted from two different sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a one-step purification of hepatic metallothionein from the Amazon fish Colossoma macropomum injected with cadmium and from the copper-loaded metallothionein from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, performed by affinity chromatography through metal-chelating columns. Yeast metallothionein was purified from Cu2+-loaded resin and eluted by a continuous EDTA gradient whereas hepatic metallothionein extracted from fishes was purified by Ni2+-loaded resin and

Rubens T. Honda; Roziete Mendes Araújo; Bruno Brasil Horta; Adalberto L. Val; Marilene Demasi

2005-01-01

449

Separation and Preconcentration of Cesium from Acidic Media by Extraction Chromatography  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel extraction chromatographic resin for the separation and preconcentration of cesium from acidic nitrate media comprising an inert polymeric substrate impregnated with 1,3?calix[4]bis?o?benzo?crown?6 (“BC6B”) in a chlorinated diluent is described. Cesium is shown to be both strongly and selectively retained by the resin at low (<1 M) acid concentrations and readily eluted from it using 6 M HNO3. Only potassium ion

Mark L. Dietz; Dale D. Ensor; Ben Harmon; Stefan Seekamp

2006-01-01

450

[Visible light cured resin. Chronological change in mechanical properties of matrix resin immersed in MeOH].  

PubMed

Monomer composition was examined to improve durability of matrix resin of visible light cured composite resin. As a monomer, five kinds of cyclophosphazene monomers, two kinds of commercial monomers and a mixture of commercial monomers were prepared to the visible light cured resins. The mechanical properties of these set products were examined with time after immersion in MeOH, an aging accelerating solvent. Compressive strength of the resins using cyclophosphazene monomers tended to decrease with time, but it increased in accordance with the increase of the number of polymerization group. Compressive strength of the resins using commercial monomers tended to decrease, but that using the BMPEPP monomer tended to increase with time. Yield point of the resins with the cyclophosphazene monomer 4 PN-(EMA)8 tended to increase with the time but that of the resins with other cases monomers decreased. The yield point of all three resins made using commercial monomers tended to decrease with time, but the rate of decrease was small for BMPEPP monomer. Compressive elastic modulus of the resins using cyclophosphazene monomers tended to increase with time when the number of polymerization group was 6-8, while it decreased when the number was 4-5. When commercial monomers were used, it tended to decrease with time, but the rate of decrease was small for the BMPEPP monomer. Transverse strength of the resins using cyclophosphazene monomers showed a tendency to decrease with time. When a commercial monomer was used, cracks appeared in the Bis-GMA+Tri-EDMA monomer after 7 days, and with the other two monomers, the transverse strength tended to decrease with time, though the rate of decrease was small for the BMPEPP monomer. Transverse elastic modulus tended to decrease with time, but the rate of decrease was small for the BMPEPP monomer. PMID:2135531

Ishibe, N

1990-05-01

451

Composition of asphaltenes and resins of west Siberian petroleums  

SciTech Connect

ESR and X-ray diffraction analysis was used to examine asphaltene and resin samples of West Siberia. Experiments were carried out to simulate the effect of catagenesis on resin and asphaltene composition. Processes of thermocatalytic transformations of crude oil in the deposit were found to have no marked effect on asphaltene and resin composition. Transformation of the organic input at sedimentation was assumed to be the main factor determining the qualitative and quantitative composition of crude oil resins and asphaltenes of West Siberia. Petroleums formed from organic matter, accumulating under reducing conditions, contain more asphaltenes and resins, they include much tetravalent vanadium and the asphaltenes have abundant paramagnetic centres. Petroleums formed from oxidized organic matter contain very little asphaltene low concentrations of paramagnetic centers, and little tetravalent vanadium. Resins of these petroleums are rich in oxygen. High levels of asphalt-resin matter in petroleums is related to the presence in the initial organic progenitors of polyunsaturated fatty acids and various nitrogen- and sulfur-containing compounds.

Goncharov, I.V.; Babicheva, T.A.; Bodak, A.N.; Nemirovskaya, G.B.; Mashigorov, A.A.

1985-01-01

452

Depth distribution and chemical form of iron in low cross-linked crud-removing resin beds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Deep beds of low cross-linked ion-exchange resins have been tested as a means of corrosion-product removal from condensate water in boiling-water nuclear reactor (BWR) at Clinton Power Station, Illinois Power Company. The phase composition of iron deposits in two cores extracted at different times from the same used resin bed, and in particulate filters of influent and effluent water sampled prior to core extraction, were examined using Mössbauer spectroscopy. Deposits were predominantly magnetite, hematite, goethite and lepidocrocite. Although the distribution of iron showed a pronounced maximum near the top 10-20cm of the bed with up to 15mg Fe/cm3, the percentage of different phases remained constant along the entire core length. Only a minor fraction of colloidal iron, consisting of ultrafine (~3nm) colloidal particles of amorphous ferric oxyhydroxide (ferrihydrite), was observed. These findings are significant, because the iron trapped on resins is commonly believed to represent soluble Fe2+ species. Our results indicate that the primary mechanism of iron removal is by mechanical filtration of water-suspended particulates. Thus, the use of a deep bed condensate polisher as a filter produces an iron coating that inhibits cation exchanger performance; that particulate iron should be removed on a prefilter.

Sawicki, J. A.; Sefranek, P. J.; Fisher, S.

1998-06-01

453

Cryogenic compressive properties of basic epoxy resin systems  

SciTech Connect

The compressive properties of short cylindrical samples of many different epoxy resin systems have been measured at ambient temperature and at 77/sup 0/K. These are pure resin systems of known chemistry, without the inorganic fillers or fibrous reinforcements needed in final cryogenic systems. Of course, chemically incorporated modifiers such as flexibilizing resins have been included. This data should make possible inferences about cryogenic properties from molecular structures and provide specific data useful to formulators and end users. Measurements on some other plastics such as PTFE, Polyimides, and UHMWPE have been made for comparison purposes.

Markley, F.W.; Hoffman, J.A.; Muniz, D.P.

1985-09-01

454

Tetric: advanced techniques for a universal direct resin system.  

PubMed

No other restorative methodology has been as intensively and critically investigated as that of tooth-colored restorative options. As the biologic and physiochemical shortcomings of earlier adhesive and restorative resins systems have been identified and corrected, newer materials have been formulated, and new techniques utilized. The use of dental dam, attainment of proximal contacts, and the importance of the first layer of composite resin are often overlooked. This article presents various solutions in the quest for adhesive and aesthetic excellence in anterior and posterior applications using Tetric* (Ivoclar Vivadent, Amherst, NY), a microhybrid that meets the optimal criteria for direct composite resin restorations. PMID:9227158

Liebenberg, W H

1996-01-01

455

Epoxy resin compositions, processes utilizing same and articles made therefrom  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

Disclosed are epoxy resin compositions which include an alkali metal containing cure accelerator. The alkali metal containing cure accelerators are preferably alkali metal hydroxides, alkoxides, carboxylates, or alkali metal salts. Articles prepared from the resin compositions of the invention exhibit enhanced thermal properties, and similar non-thermal properties, when compared to articles prepared from compositions including other accelerators such as imidazoles. The resin compositions of the invention may be used for any purpose, but are particularly suited to be utilized in the manufacture of laminates for printed circuit boards and non-electrical structural applications.

2009-09-22

456

Photochemical formation of palladium patterns on surface-modified polyimide resin  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simplified method for forming a palladium circuit pattern on polyimide resin substrate was proposed. The carboxyl group, as a cation exchange group, was formed on the polyimide resin surface by a potassium hydroxide treatment. Palladium(II) ion was then adsorbed onto the surface modified polyimide resin by ion exchange. Ultraviolet irradiation of this palladium(II) ion absorbed resin with sodium formate

M. Seita; H. Nawafune; T. Nishioka; S. Mizumoto; T. Kanai

2002-01-01

457

Selective Elution of Mercury, Silver, and Gold from Strong-Base Anion-Exchange Resins.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Bureau of Mines investigated methods for selectively eluting mercury (Hg), silver (Ag), and gold (Au) from strong-base anion-exchange resins, including Rohm and Haas resins IRA-430 and 900 and Dow Chemical resins 21K, SMA-1, and SBR. Resins were typic...

W. L. Staker R. G. Sandberg

1987-01-01

458

Friction and wear of friction materials containing two different phenolic resins reinforced with aramid pulp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Friction and wear characteristics of automotive friction materials containing two different phenolic resins (a straight novolac resin and a modified novolac resin) were investigated using a pad-on-disk type friction tester. Six different friction materials with different relative amounts of the phenolic resins and aramid pulp were manufactured and tested. Two different test modes were employed to examine the friction characteristics

Seong Jin Kim; Ho Jang

2000-01-01

459

The use of a stent-resin–bonded splint combination to stabilize a free gingival autograft  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes the use of a resin-bonded retainer in combination with an acrylic resin stent to stabilize a free gingival graft. This retainer also prevents migration of muscle attachment after surgery to deepen a section of the vestibule where the oral mucosa closely approached the gingival margin. The acrylic resin stent is attached to the resin-bonded retainer by means

Ayla Arikan; S. Begüm Turker

1999-01-01

460

Improvement of the heat resistance of epoxy casting resin for insulating spacers  

Microsoft Academic Search

New research has succeeded in producing more compact insulating spacers for gas insulated switchgear (GIS) by increasing the heat resistance (from 105°C to 115°C) of casting resin and by increasing the heat resistance of the interface bond between metal and resin. The newly developed resin is composed, like conventional types, of epoxy resin blended with alumina filler. In the new

I. Ichikawa; K. Goto; M. Takei; T. Nakano; Y. Kanazashi

1998-01-01

461

PYROLYSIS OF FOUNDRY SAND RESINS: A DETERMINATION OF ORGANIC PRODUCTS BY MASS SPECTROMETRY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Py-GC-MS) was used to identify the major organic products produced by pyrolysis of three foundry sand resins: 1) Novolac and 2) phenolic urethane (PU) [both phenol-formaldehyde based resins], and 3) furan (furfuryl alcohol based resin). These resins a...

462

Properties of wheat straw particleboards bonded with different types of resin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wheat straw particleboard bonded with a urea–formaldehyde (UF) resin, usually employed in the manufacture of wood-based particleboards, or with a resin based on epoxidised oil was manufactured using a compression molding machine. The effects of resin type on internal bond strength, flexural modulus, and thickness swelling were examined. The properties of boards using UF resins were poor. Internal bond strength

Nicolas Boquillon; Ge’rard Elbez; Uwe SchÖnfeld

2004-01-01

463

Intermediate velocity bullet impact response of laminated glass fiber reinforced hybrid (HEP) resin carbon nano composite  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, five different types of six layered GFRP laminates were prepared from three types of resin systems and compared for their intermediate velocity bullet impact response. The first panel was made of epoxy resin, second one is of hybrid resin (a blend of 60% epoxy and 40% polyester) and the remaining three panels were made of hybrid resin

P. S. Venkatanarayanan; A. Joseph Stanley

464

Influence of calcium hydroxide dressing and acid etching on the push-out bond strengths of three luting resins to root canal dentin.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVES: This study aims to investigate the effects of calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) dressing in root canals and the effects of subsequent acid etching on the adhesion of luting resins to root canals. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Root specimens were prepared from extracted human permanent molars. Specimen canals were (1) filled with etch-and-rinse (Nexus® third generation (NX3)) and two self-adhesive (RelyX Unicem, Maxcem Elite) luting resins, respectively; (2) dressed with Ca(OH)2 before Ca(OH)2 removal and luting resin filling; (3) dressed with Ca(OH)2 before Ca(OH)2 removal and post-cementation; or (4) treated as described in item (2) except that the canals were further etched with phosphoric acid before luting resin filling. Push-out bond strengths were measured and analyzed using one-way analysis of variance, and Fisher's multiple comparison tests provided a follow-up comparison among these four canal treatments. Attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to analyze the specimen surfaces. RESULTS: Ca(OH)2 dressing adversely affected the bond strengths to canal dentin of the three luting resins tested. Acid etching did not increase the bond strengths. Infrared analysis revealed that Ca(OH)2 dressing caused no structural changes on the dentin surface. XPS and SEM analyses revealed Ca(OH)2 remnants as the ultimate chemical cause leading to the decrease in bond strength. CONCLUSIONS: The bond strength of luting resin to dentin was affected by Ca(OH)2 dressing. Acid etching treatment could not increase the bond strength. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Adhesion of the fiber post to the root canal wall may be compromised after Ca(OH)2 dressing. An effective method for complete removal of Ca(OH)2 dressing or increase of bond strength for luting resin needs to be developed. PMID:23686133

Lee, Bor-Shiunn; Lin, Yu-Chen; Chen, Sing-Fu; Chen, Shu-Yu; Chang, Che-Chen

2013-05-18

465

Push-out bond strengths of fiber-reinforced composite posts with various resin cements according to the root level  

PubMed Central

PURPOSE The aim of this study was to determine whether the push-out bond strengths between the radicular dentin and fiber reinforced-composite (FRC) posts with various resin cements decreased or not, according to the coronal, middle or apical level of the root. MATERIALS AND METHODS FRC posts were cemented with one of five resin cement groups (RelyX Unicem: Uni, Contax with activator & LuxaCore-Dual: LuA, Contax & LuxaCore-Dual: Lu, Panavia F 2.0: PA, Super-Bond C&B: SB) into extracted human mandibular premolars. The roots were sliced into discs at the coronal, middle and apical levels. Push-out bond strength tests were performed with a universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min, and the failure aspect was analyzed. RESULTS There were no significant differences (P>.05) in the bond strengths of the different resin cements at the coronal level, but there were significant differences in the bond strengths at the middle and apical levels (P<.05). Only the Uni and LuA cements did not show any significant decrease in their bond strengths at all the root levels (P>.05); all other groups had a significant decrease in bond strength at the middle or apical level (P<.05). The failure aspect was dominantly cohesive at the coronal level of all resin cements (P<.05), whereas it was dominantly adhesive at the apical level. CONCLUSION All resin cement groups showed decreases in bond strengths at the middle or apical level except LuA and Uni.

Chang, Hoon-Sang; Noh, Young-Sin; Lee, Yoon; Min, Kyung-San

2013-01-01

466

Effect of using a resin coating on KrF chemically amplified positive resists  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We tried several resins to protect chemically amplified positive resists from contaminants such as ammonia and amines. Polymethyl silsesquioxane (PMSS), a hydrophobic resin, significantly reduced the severity of T-tops and improved delay-time stability. Polyolefinic resin (POR) was the most effective hydrophobic resin and improved the performance of all chemically amplified resists we tried. The pattern profiles were not significantly affected by the protective resin thickness; resin films from 400 angstroms to 9500 angstroms were equally effective. We also used resin coatings to identify when resists are contaminated. We found that contamination begins just after exposure and continues to the end of postexposure bake (PEB).

Oikawa, Akira; Santoh, Nobuaki; Miyata, Shuichi; Hatakenaka, Yasunori; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Nakagawa, Kenji

1993-09-01

467

Combined GC/MS analytical procedure for the characterization of glycerolipid, waxy, resinous, and proteinaceous materials in a unique paint microsample.  

PubMed

A novel GC/MS analytical procedure for the identification of lipids, waxes, proteins, and resinous materials in the same microsample from painted works of art has been optimized. It is based on a sample multistep chemical pretreatment (solvent extractions and microwave-assisted chemolysis) that is able to separate the various organic components into different fractions, which are suitably treated and derivatized before analysis. In particular, the procedure allows the complete saponification of wax esters and the completeness of the Cannizzaro type reaction of shellac acids in conditions that are suitable also for glycerides saponification. The method was tested on reference materials for the identification of proteinaceous binders (egg, collagen, casein) on the basis of the quantitative determination of the amino acid profile and the identification of glycerolipids (linseed oil, poppy seed oil, walnut oil, and egg), plant resins (Pinaceae resins, sandarac, mastic, and dammar), animal resins (shellac), tars or pitches, and natural waxes (beeswax, carnauba wax) on the basis of the determination of fatty acid, alcohol, and hydrocarbon profiles and of significant terpenic molecular markers. The procedure was applied to the characterization of three old paint microsamples. Animal glue, egg, linseed oil, beeswax, Pinaceae resin, dammar, and shellac were the identified materials found in mixtures and recognized as original and/or restoration substances. PMID:16808458

Andreotti, Alessia; Bonaduce, Ilaria; Colombini, Maria Perla; Gautier, Gwénaëlle; Modugno, Francesca; Ribechini, Erika

2006-07-01

468

21 CFR 177.1330 - Ionomeric resins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...no more than 15 weight percent of polymer units derived from methacrylic acid, and no more than 20 weight percent of polymer units derived from isobutyl acrylate...the extraction cell described in the Journal of the Association of Official...

2010-01-01

469

21 CFR 177.1330 - Ionomeric resins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...no more than 15 weight percent of polymer units derived from methacrylic acid, and no more than 20 weight percent of polymer units derived from isobutyl acrylate...the extraction cell described in the Journal of the Association of Official...

2009-04-01

470

21 CFR 177.1650 - Polysulfide polymer-polyepoxy resins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...dichloropropyl) formal Cross-linking agent. Butyl alcohol Solvent. Carbon black (channel process) Chlorinated paraffins Cross-linking agent. Epoxidized linseed oil Epoxidized soybean oil Epoxy resins (as listed in §...

2013-04-01

471

21 CFR 177.2415 - Poly(aryletherketone) resins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...polystyrene standards, and a minimum mid-point glass transition temperature of 142 °C, as determined by differential scanning calorimetry. (b) Optional adjuvant substances. The basic resins identified in paragraph (a) may contain optional...

2013-04-01

472

Development of affinity resins for isolation of angiotensin receptors.  

PubMed Central

The development of affinity resins for the isolation of angiotensin II receptors from adrenal fasciculata cells is described. The approach is based on the avidin-biotin interaction. The advantages of the technique are delineated.

Finn, F. M.; Hofmann, K.

1985-01-01

473

21 CFR 177.2420 - Polyester resins, cross-linked.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...TBHQ Di-tert- butyl hydroquinone Hydroquinone 2. Accelerators: Total not to exceed 1.5 percent. Benzyl trimethyl...of the polyester resin. 4. Solvents for inhibitors, accelerators, and catalysts: Butyl benzyl phthalate...

2013-04-01

474

Moisture Diffusion Parameter Characteristics for Epoxy Composites and Neat Resins.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The moisture absorption characteristics of two graphite/epoxy composites and their corresponding cured neat resins were studied in high humidity and water immersion environments at elevated temperatures. Moisture absorption parameters, such as equilibrium...

E. R. Long

1979-01-01

475

Synthetic Resin Adsorbents in Treatment of Industrial Waste Streams.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The use of synthetic polymeric adsorbents for removal of organic pollutants from industrial waste streams is a viable alternative to more common treatment methods such as carbon adsorption. However, resin technology is not widely practiced due to the diff...

L. S. Benner

1983-01-01

476

Process Optimization of Bismaleimide (BMI) Resin Infused Carbon Fiber Composite.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Bismaleimide (BMI) resins are an attractive new addition to world-wide composite applications. This type of thermosetting polyimide provides several unique characteristics such as excellent physical property retention at elevated temperatures and in wet e...

A. J. Caraccio B. J. Taylor J. W. Ehrlich J. W. Sampson L. N. C. Tate M. C. Wright S. B. Cox

2013-01-01

477

Properties of Synthetic Resinous In situ Flooring Materials.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In recent years, synthetic resinous in situ flooring materials (in the following called flooring materials) have come into frequent use as flooring material for industrial facilities, but standards have not yet been established, and performance test metho...

M. Nakayama

1984-01-01

478

Securing Containerized Hazardous Wastes with Polyethylene Resin and Fiberglass Encapsulates.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study investigates the fabrication and use of polyethylene resin and fiberglass to encapsulate and secure containerized hazardous wastes. Laboratory-scale encapsulates of composite structure were made from powdered, high-density polyethylene (HDPE) a...

H. R. Lubowitz R. W. Telles

1981-01-01

479

Passifloricins, polyketides alpha-pyrones from Passiflora foetida resin.  

PubMed

Three polyketides alpha-pyrones, named passifloricins, were isolated from Passiflora foetida resin; their structures and relative configurations were assigned through 2D NMR spectroscopic analyses. These types of compounds were not detected in other passion flowers. PMID:11324922

Echeverri, F; Arango, V; Quiñones, W; Torres, F; Escobar, G; Rosero, Y; Archbold, R

2001-04-01

480

Cyanate Ester Composite Resins Derived from Renewable Polyphenol Sources.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Cyanate ester resins were synthesized from a series of renewable phenols including; vanillin, creosol, resorcylic acid, resveratrol, and nordihydroguarietic acid. These phenols can be derived from plant sources and even waste biomass, allowing for high pe...

A. G. Guenthner B. G. Harvey M. Davis M. E. Wright S. Compel

2011-01-01

481

Engineering Control Technology Assessment for the Plastics and Resins Industry.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A control technology assessment for the plastics and resins industry was made by conducting in-depth surveys of 15 polymerization and compounding processes. The processes selected provide a representative coverage of the industry relative to the number of...

J. H. Bochinski

1978-01-01

482

CHARACTERIZATION OF SORBENT RESINS FOR USE IN ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLING  

EPA Science Inventory

The report describes the use of chromatographic techniques to characterize resins which are used to trap vapors in environmental sampling schemes. It describes two such techniques (frontal and elution analysis) which have been applied to characterize sorbent cartridges packed wit...

483

Degradation, fatigue and failure of resin dental composite materials  

PubMed Central

The intent of this article is to review the numerous factors that affect the mechanical properties of particle or fiber filler containing, indirect dental resin composite materials. The focus will be on degradation due to aging in different media, mainly water and water and ethanol, cyclic loading, and mixed mode loading on the flexure strength and fracture toughness. Next several selected papers will be examined in detail with respect to mixed and cyclic loading and then an examination of 3D tomography using multiaxial compression specimens. The main cause of failure, for most dental resin composites, is the breakdown of the resin matrix and or the interface between the filler and the resin matrix. In clinical studies, it appears that failure in the first 5 years is a restoration issue (technique or material selection) and after that time period from secondary decay.

Drummond, James L.

2008-01-01

484

Binding Studies on Resins Imprinted with (S)-naproxen.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Resins were prepared in a free-radical polymerization of 4- vinylpyridine and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate in the presence of (S)-(+)-6- methoxy-alpha-methyl-2- naphtaleneacetic acid ((S)-naproxen). Initially (S)- naproxen, the imprinted molecule templa...

R. A. Orwoll Y. Hu

2002-01-01

485

Effects of Resin Hydrophilicity on Dentin Bond Strength  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to determine if hydrophobic resins can be coaxed into dentin wet with ethanol instead of water. The test hypothesis was that dentin wet with ethanol would produce higher bond strengths for hydrophobic resins than would dentin wet with water. This study examined the microtensile bond strength of 5 experimental adhesives (50 wt% ethanol/50% comonomers) of various degrees of hydrophilicity to acid-etched dentin that was left moist with water, moist with ethanol, or air-dried. Following composite buildups, hourglass-shaped slabs were prepared from the bonded teeth for microtensile testing. For all 3 types of dentin surfaces, higher bond strengths were achieved with increased resin hydrophilicity. The lowest bond strengths were obtained on dried dentin, while the highest bond strengths were achieved when dentin was bonded moist with ethanol. Wet-bonding with ethanol achieved higher bond strengths with hydrophobic resins than were possible with water-saturated matrices.

Nishitani, Y.; Yoshiyama, M.; Donnelly, A.M.; Agee, K.A.; Sword, J.; Tay, F.R.; Pashley, D.H.

2008-01-01

486

21 CFR 872.3310 - Coating material for resin fillings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872...applied to the surface of a restorative resin dental filling to attain a smooth,...

2013-04-01

487