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1

Modified resins for solid-phase extraction  

DOEpatents

A process of treating aqueous solutions to remove organic solute contaminants by contacting an aqueous solution containing polar organic solute contaminants with a functionalized polystyrene-divinyl benzene adsorbent resin, with the functionalization of said resin being accomplished by organic hydrophilic groups such as hydroxymethyl, acetyl and cyanomethyl.

Fritz, James S. (Ames, IA); Sun, Jeffrey J. (Ames, IA)

1991-12-10

2

Modified resins for solid-phase extraction  

DOEpatents

A process of treating aqueous solutions to remove organic solute contaminants by contacting an aqueous solution containing polar organic solute contaminants with a functionalized polystyrene-divinyl benzene adsorbent resin, with the functionalization of said resin being accomplished by organic hydrophilic groups such as hydroxymethyl, acetyl and cyanomethyl.

Fritz, James S. (Ames, IA) [Ames, IA; Sun, Jeffrey J. (Ames, IA) [Ames, IA

1993-07-27

3

A NOVEL STRONTIUM-SELECTIVE EXTRACTION CHROMATOGRAPHIC RESIN  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of nitric acid concentration on the selectivity of a novel extraction chromatographic resin consisting of an octanol solution of 4,4?(5?)-bis(t-butyl-cyclohexano)-18-crown-6 sorbed on an inert polymeric support for strontium over a number of alkali, alkaline earth, and other metal cations was evaluated. The effect of macro quantities of selected elements on strontium retention by the resin was also examined.

E. Philip Horwitz; Renato Chiarizia; Mark L. Dietz

1992-01-01

4

A simplified resin membrane technique for extracting phosphorus from soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simplified procedure for determining the amount of phosphate (P) extracted from soils by ion exchange resin membranes is reported. Strips of anion (HCO3- form) and cation (Na+ form) exchange membrane were shaken with suspensions of soil in deionised water for 16–17 hours. After shaking, the strips were thoroughly rinsed in deionised water before the phosphate retained on the anion

S. Saggar; M. J. Hedley; R. E. White

1990-01-01

5

45Ti extraction using hydroxamate resin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As an attractive radionuclide for positron emission tomography, this study explores the extraction and reactivity of 45Ti produced via the 45Sc(p,n)45Ti reaction on a GE PETtrace. Using a small hydroxamate column, we have demonstrated an overall recovery of >50% of 45Ti in ~1 mL of 1M oxalic acid. Conditions for reacting with desferal were also explored, with effective specific activities up to 38 GBq/?mol obtained.

Gagnon, K.; Severin, G. W.; Barnhart, T. E.; Engle, J. W.; Valdovinos, H. F.; Nickles, R. J.

2012-12-01

6

TRPO Impregnated Levextrel Resin: Synthesis and Extraction Behavior of Zr (IV) and Nd (III) Ions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel kind of Levextrel resin with trialkylphosphine oxide (TRPO) extractant impregnated in the styrene-divinylbenzene copolymerization was synthesized. The extraction behavior of the resin toward Zr (IV) and Nd (III) ions was investigated by batch and column operations. The influence factors such as suspension system, porogen content, stirring rate and temperature were systematically examined. The TRPO impregnated Levextrel resin showed

Wen Zhang; Gang Ye; Jing Chen

2012-01-01

7

Fatty and resinic acids extractions from crude tall oil  

SciTech Connect

The separation of fatty and resinic acidic fractions from crude tall-oil soap solutions with n-heptane by the technique of dissociation extraction is discussed. The theory of the overall process is supported by a systematic study developed to cover the high selectivity demonstrated in the differential solubility and the aptness between fatty and diterpenic acids to both liquids phases. To study the main factors affecting those liquid-liquid extraction systems and the amphiphilic behavior of such molecules involved, sodium salts aqueous solutions of crude tall oil and synthetic mixtures as molecular acidic models were used.

Nogueira, J.M.F. [Univ. of Lisbon (Portugal)

1996-11-01

8

Cloud point extraction of ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol from cannabis resin.  

PubMed

A cloud point extraction coupled with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC/UV) method was developed for the determination of ?(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in micellar phase. The nonionic surfactant "Dowfax 20B102" was used to extract and pre-concentrate THC from cannabis resin, prior to its determination with a HPLC-UV system (diode array detector) with isocratic elution. The parameters and variables affecting the extraction were investigated. Under optimum conditions (1 wt.% Dowfax 20B102, 1 wt.% Na2SO4, T = 318 K, t = 30 min), this method yielded a quite satisfactory recovery rate (~81 %). The limit of detection was 0.04 ?g mL(-1), and the relative standard deviation was less than 2 %. Compared with conventional solid-liquid extraction, this new method avoids the use of volatile organic solvents, therefore is environmentally safer. PMID:23354583

Ameur, S; Haddou, B; Derriche, Z; Canselier, J P; Gourdon, C

2013-04-01

9

Extractive lactic acid fermentation using ion-exchange resin.  

PubMed

Lactic acid fermentation is an end-product-inhibited reaction. The restriction imposed by lactic acid on its fermentation can be avoided by extractive fermentation techniques. Studies were performed by attaching an ion-exchange resin packed column with a 2-L fermentor for separation of lactic acid. The fermentation, in a conventional batch mode, resulted in a lactic acid yield of 0.828 g . g(-1) and a lactic acid productivity of 0.313 g . L(-1) . h(-1). However, these could be further enhanced to 0.929 g . g(-1) and 1.665 g . L(-1) . h(-1) by extractive fermentation techniques. The effect of temperature on extractive fermentation was remarkable and has been included in this work. PMID:18600989

Srivastava, A; Roychoudhury, P K; Sahai, V

1992-03-15

10

A simple ion-exchange resin procedure for extracting plant-available elements from soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simplified procedure for extracting ions from soil with ion-exchange resins is reported. The resin, placed in nylon-netting bags, were immersed in soil suspensions and shaken. Compared to the conventional procedure, where the resin beads are freely suspended in the soil-water mixture, this bag-procedure allowed quicker separation of resin from the soil suspensions. Furthermore, the severe soil grinding as done

E. Sibbesen

1977-01-01

11

In vitro color change of three dental veneering resins in tea, coffee and tamarind extracts  

PubMed Central

Objective To study the in vitro color changes of three dental resin veneering materials when immersed in tea, coffee and tamarind extracts. Materials and Methods The color changes of heat polymerized tooth colored acrylic resin (Stellondetrey, B, F14, DPI Dental products of India Ltd, Mumbai), auto polymerized tooth colored acrylic resin (DPI, B, QV5, DPI Dental products of India Ltd, Mumbai) and light polymerized resin composite (Herculite XRV, Enamel A2, part no. 22860, lot no. 910437, Kerr Corporation, West Collins Avenue, Orange, CA, USA) when immersed in water extracts of tea (Tata Tea Ltd. Bangalore, India), coffee (Tata Coffee Ltd. Coorg, India) and tamarind were evaluated using computer vision systems. The color images were recorded in R (red), G (green) and B (blue) form and converted into H (hue), S (saturation) and V (value). Results Significant color change occurred for auto polymerized tooth colored acrylic resin in tamarind extract, for heat polymerized tooth colored acrylic resin in tea extract and for light polymerized resin composite in coffee extract. Auto polymerized tooth colored acrylic resin samples showed an overall higher color change. However, for all the material samples coffee extract produced more color change. Conclusion These results suggest that the color stability of the resins is influenced by the presence of secondary metabolites such as tartaric acid, tannins, caffeine, saponins and phenols in tamarind, tea and coffee extracts.

Subramanya, J.K.; Muttagi, S.

2011-01-01

12

Synthesis of trithiocarbonate and dithiocarbamate containing resins and their application in metal ion extraction  

SciTech Connect

Two chelating resins, containing trithiocarbonate and dithiocarbamate groups, respectively, were synthesized efficiently from a commercially available cross-linked chloromethylated polystyrene. The pH dependence of the metal extraction for Pb(II), Cu(II), Ni(II) and Co(II) was studied. Both resins exhibited high affinity toward Pb(II) and Cu(II). The sorptive capacity of trithiocarbonate and dithiocarbamate resin with respect to Cu(II) was 3.5 and 4.4 mg/g of dry resin at pH 6. The application of the resins for selective adsorption and the concentration of metal ions from aqueous solutions has been investigated.

Wing Hong Chan; Lee, A.W.M.; Wai Kin Choi; Wong, J.C.S.; Kwok Keung Fung (Hong Kong Baptist College, Kowloon (Hong Kong))

1990-01-01

13

Enrichment and Purification of Total Chlorogenic Acids from Tobacco Waste Extract with Macroporous Resins  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, an evaluation was conducted on the performance and separation characteristics of nine macroporous resins for the enrichment and purification of total chlorogenic acids from tobacco (Nicotiana tobaccum L.) waste extracts. Based on the results, XAD-4 offered higher adsorption and desorption capacities for total chlorogenic acids than other resins. To optimize the separation process of total chlorogenic

Zhao Hui; Wang Jun; Jia Jing; Liu Ji; Ling Xiuquan; Lu Dingqiang

2010-01-01

14

A NEW EXTRACTION CHROMATOGRAPHY RESIN CONTAINING KLÄUI LIGANDS FOR APPLICATION IN ACTINIDE SEPARATIONS  

SciTech Connect

An extraction chromatography resin containing the anionic ligand (?5-pentamethylcyclopentadienyl)tris-(diethylphosphito-P)cobalt(III), (L) has been prepared. The resin consists of 1 wt% L on Amberlite® XAD-7. This resin strongly sorbs Am(III) and Pu(IV). The sorption of these ions decreases with increasing nitric acid concentration, but this effect is more pronounced for Am(III). This allows for convenient separation of Am(III) from Pu(IV) by simple adjustments in the nitric acid concentration. The tripodal geometry of L disfavors the complexation of uranyl ion, so sorption of U(VI) by the L-containing resin is weak.

Lumetta, Gregg J.; Wester, Dennis W.; McNamara, Bruce K.; Hubler, Timothy L.; Latesky, Stanley L.; Martyr, Cuthbert C.; Richards, Kia N.

2004-11-01

15

Gross alpha determination in salt rich water samples using an extraction chromatographic resin and LSC  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of an extraction chromatographic resin to the determination of the gross alpha activity of drinking water\\u000a samples with volumes greater than 100 ml and of salt rich aqueous samples, like mineral, waste or sea waters was tested. Alpha-emitters\\u000a are extracted from the water sample onto the resin, the gross alpha activity is then determined by direct measurement of

S. Happel; M. Beyermann; P. Letessier; A. Bombard; A. H. Thakkar; E. P. Horwitz

2008-01-01

16

Bark extractives-based phenol–formaldehyde resins from beetle-infested lodgepole pine  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, phenol–formaldehyde (PF) resins derived from the bark extractives were synthesized and characterized. Bark of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl.) infested by mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) was first extracted with 1% NaOH. The bark extractives with and without acid-neutralization were then dried to the solid state. The neutralized and non-neutralized extractives were used to partially replace

Yong Zhao; Ning Yan; Martin W. Feng

2012-01-01

17

The use of extraction chromatography resins to concentrate actinides and strontium from soil for radiochromatographic analyses  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analytical technique utilizing selective extractant resins to concentrate strontium and actinides from soil followed by separation with radiochromatography was evaluated. The technique was tested using uncontaminated soil samples spiked with a radionuclide tracer solution that were either microwave-aided acid digested or leached with a strong acid. Extraction of the strontium and actinides from the acidified solution was accomplished using

J. E. Roane; T. A. DeVol; J. D. Leyba; R. A. Fjeld

2003-01-01

18

Preparative separation and purification of lycopene from tomato skins extracts by macroporous adsorption resins  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to separate and purify lycopene from tomato skins extracts (lycopene oleoresin) with macroporous adsorption resins (MARs), the adsorption properties of twenty-four kinds of MARs were evaluated. The results showed that LX-68 had higher separation efficiency than other resins. Based on the static experiments with LX-68, it was found that the experimental data fitted best to the pseudo-second-order kinetics

Yongfeng Liu; Junxi Liu; Xiaofen Chen; Yewei Liu; Duolong Di

2010-01-01

19

Extraction of high quality DNA from seized Moroccan cannabis resin (Hashish).  

PubMed

The extraction and purification of nucleic acids is the first step in most molecular biology analysis techniques. The objective of this work is to obtain highly purified nucleic acids derived from Cannabis sativa resin seizure in order to conduct a DNA typing method for the individualization of cannabis resin samples. To obtain highly purified nucleic acids from cannabis resin (Hashish) free from contaminants that cause inhibition of PCR reaction, we have tested two protocols: the CTAB protocol of Wagner and a CTAB protocol described by Somma (2004) adapted for difficult matrix. We obtained high quality genomic DNA from 8 cannabis resin seizures using the adapted protocol. DNA extracted by the Wagner CTAB protocol failed to give polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA) synthase coding gene. However, the extracted DNA by the second protocol permits amplification of THCA synthase coding gene using different sets of primers as assessed by PCR. We describe here for the first time the possibility of DNA extraction from (Hashish) resin derived from Cannabis sativa. This allows the use of DNA molecular tests under special forensic circumstances. PMID:24124454

El Alaoui, Moulay Abdelaziz; Melloul, Marouane; Alaoui Amine, Sanaâ; Stambouli, Hamid; El Bouri, Aziz; Soulaymani, Abdelmajid; El Fahime, Elmostafa

2013-01-01

20

Evaluation of extractants and chelating resins in polishing actinide-contaminated waste streams  

SciTech Connect

At the Los Alamos National Laboratory Plutonium Facility, anion exchange is used for recovering plutonium from nitric acid solutions. Although this approach recovers >99%, the trace amounts of plutonium and other actinides remaining in the effluent require additional processing. We are doing research to develop a secondary unit operation that can directly polish the effluent so that actinide levels are reduced to below the maximum allowed for facility discharge. We selected solvent extraction, the only unit operation that can meet the stringent process requirements imposed; several carbonyl and phosphoryl extractants were evaluated and their performance characterized. We also investigated various engineering approaches for solvent extraction; the most promising was a chelating resin loaded with extractant. Our research now focuses on the synthesis of malonamides, and our goal is to bond these extractants to a resin matrix. 7 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

Schreiber, S.B.; Dunn, S.L.; Yarbro, S.L.

1991-06-01

21

Influence of hydrofluoric acid on extraction of thorium using a commercially available extraction chromatographic resin.  

PubMed

The dependence of Th recovery on hydrofluoric acid (HF) concentration in nitric acid (HNO(3)) solutions (1-5 mol/dm(3)) containing 1x10(-6) mol/dm(3) of Th and various concentrations of HF and the elution behavior were studied using a commercially available UTEVA (for uranium and tetravalent actinide) resin column. Thorium recovery decreased with an increase in HF concentration in the sample solutions. The concentration of HF at which Th recovery started to decrease was approximately 1x10(-4) mol/dm(3) in 1 mol/dm(3) HNO(3) solution, approximately 1x10(-3) mol/dm(3) in 3 mol/dm(3) HNO(3) solution, and approximately 1x10(-2) mol/dm(3) in 5 mol/dm(3) HNO(3) solution. When Al(NO(3))(3) (0.2 mol/dm(3)) or Fe(NO(3))(3) (0.6 mol/dm(3)) was added as a masking agent for F(-) to the Th solution containing 1x10(-1) mol/dm(3) HF and 1 mol/dm(3) HNO(3), Th recovery improved from 1.4+/-0.3% to 95+/-5% or 93+/-3%. Effective extraction of Th using UTEVA resin was achieved by selecting the concentration of HNO(3) and/or adding masking agents such as Al(NO(3))(3) according to the concentration of HF in the sample solution. PMID:19327779

Shimada-Fujiwara, Asako; Hoshi, Akiko; Kameo, Yutaka; Nakashima, Mikio

2009-05-01

22

Effects of Experimental Conditions on Extraction Yield of Extracellular Polymeric Substances by Cation Exchange Resin  

PubMed Central

Effects of experimental conditions on the yield of extracellular polymeric substances (EPSs) extraction by cation exchange resin (CER) were investigated using activated sludge flocs. The experimental variables included resin dose, extraction time, sample dilution, and storage time. An empirical model was proposed to describe the kinetics of extraction process. The extraction yield increases with the extraction time and CER dose until it reached the maximum amount of EPS extraction. The maximum yield of EPS was affected as well by the sample dilution, exhibiting a decreasing trend with increasing dilution factor. It was also found that the amount of EPS extracted from a raw sample depends on the storage time. Once EPS was extracted from the sample, however, the EPS keeps its original quantity under storage at 4°C. Based on the model, the maximum amount of EPS extraction and yield rate could be estimated for different conditions. Comparing the model parameters allows one to quantitatively compare the extraction efficiencies under various extracting conditions. Based on the results, we recommend the original sample should be diluted with the volume ratio of above 1?:?2 and a raw sample should be treated quickly to prevent the reduction of sample homogeneity and original integrity.

Cho, Jinwoo; Hermanowicz, Slawomir W.; Hur, Jin

2012-01-01

23

Extraction of phosphorus, potassium, calcium, and magnesium from soils by an ion?exchange resin procedure  

Microsoft Academic Search

A procedure for the simultaneous extraction of phosphorus, potassium, calcium and magnesium from soils, by an ion?exchange resin procedure applicable to large?scale advisory soil testing, is described. The important steps are the disaggregation of soil by shaking in water during 15 minutes with a glass marble, the transference of the elements from the soil to a sodium bicarbonate treated mixture

B. van Raij; J. A. Quaggio; N. M. da Silva

1986-01-01

24

Genetic toxicology of dental composite resin extracts in somatic cells in vivo.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to assess the potential genetic toxicity associated to nine aqueous extracts from dental composite resins (Charisma, Fill Magic, Fill Magic Flow, Durafill, TPH Spectrum, Concept, Natural Look, Filtek Z250 and Filtek P60) and one random extract. Homologous mitotic recombination, point and chromosomal mutation effects were determined in somatic proliferative cells of Drosophila melanogaster exposed to aqueous extracts of the clinically used composites. Reproducible increases in clone mutant spot frequencies induced by diluted extract of Fill Magic Flow were observed. These increments were exclusively associated to the induction of homologous recombination - a genetic phenomenon involved in the loss of heterozygosis. The other eight composite resins and the random extract had no statistically significant effect on total spot frequencies - suggesting that they are non-genotoxic in the somatic mutation and recombination test assay, which agrees with the applications they have in dentistry. These findings - supported by numerous studies showing a positive correlation between carcinogenicity in man and genotoxicity in the Drosophila wing spot test - point to the potential risks some composite resins pose to the health of patients and dentistry personnel. PMID:20210791

Arossi, Guilherme Anziliero; Dihl, Rafael Rodrigues; Lehmann, Mauricio; Reguly, Maria Luiza; de Andrade, Heloísa Helena Rodrigues

2010-07-01

25

Determination of weight distribution ratios of Pa(V) and Np(V) with some extraction chromatography resins and the AG1-X8 resin.  

PubMed

Literature data on distribution ratios (Dw) of Np(V) and Pa(V) for the AG1-X8 resin are scarce whereas those related on resin capacity factors (k') values for TEVA, TRU and U/TEVA resins are absent. Therefore, batch extraction experiments for Pa(V) and Np(V) from HCl and HNO3 media were realized, at tracer scale, with AG1-X8 and EIChroM resins (TEVA, TRU and U/TEVA). Based on the new Dw and k' values obtained in this study, a new protocol for Pa/Np separation has been developed leading to a better separation factor of 10(5) and a chemical yield of 97±3% and 99±1% for Pa and Np, respectively. A separation of (231)Pa from uranium matrix was successfully tested. PMID:23680558

Mendes, M; Aupiais, J; Jutier, C; Pointurier, F

2013-05-30

26

Effect of resinous extract from Commiphora swynnertonii (Burrt) on experimental coccidial infection in chickens.  

PubMed

A crude resinous extract from Commiphora swynnertonii was tested against an experimental coccidial infection in local chickens. A total of 80 growing chickens were randomly assigned into five groups, which received different treatments. Chickens in G1 were not infected with coccidian oocysts and therefore served as a negative control. All chickens in G2, G3, G4 and G5 were infected through oral administration of coccidian oocysts suspension at a dosed rate of 1.5 × 10(4) Eimeria spp. oocysts per bird. Starting from day 3 post-infection (p.i), chickens in different groups were treated for 7 consecutive days as follows: G1 and G2 (positive control) received 5 ml of normal saline as placebo, G3 and G4 were given the extract at 400 and 800 mg/kg bodyweight whereas G5 received anticoccidial drug. Clinical signs, bodyweights, oocysts counts and mortality rates were observed regularly. Results showed that oral administration of the resinous extract to chickens with coccidiosis significantly reduced mortality rate from 94 to 25 % and oocysts counts from 1.03 × 10(5) to 6.55 × 10(3) oocysts/g faeces (p < 0.05). Also a body condition score chart indicated less severe clinical signs of the disease in the groups which received the extract. Mean daily body weights were slightly reduced by the administration of the extract but this effect disappeared by day 7 p.i. These findings clearly indicate that resinous extract from C. swynnertonii has significant anticoccidial effect against experimental Eimeria spp. infection in chickens. A larger field trial to validate the use of the extract in chickens naturally infected with Eimeria spp. is required. PMID:23001540

Bakari, Gaymary G; Max, Robert A; Mdegela, Robinson H; Phiri, Elliot C J; Mtambo, Mkumbukwa M A

2013-02-01

27

Biochemical changes of Culex pipiens larvae treated with oil and oleo-resin extracts of Myrrh Commiphora molmol.  

PubMed

The mosquitocidal plant extracts of the Myrrh, Commiphora molmol namely; oil and oleo-resin, were proved to demonstrate larvicidal activity against Culex pipiens larvae. Oleo-resin was found to induce significant higher toxic action than oil. Solvent (cremophore EL) did not perform any toxic activity. The Impact of both oleo-resin and oil extracts on the protein profile of the treated larvae was evaluated in order to explain their mode of action. Electrophoretic analysis of total proteins, lipoproteins and glycoproteins revealed inhibitory action of the used plant extracts on the protein contents. Larvicidal activity of the oleo-resin and oil was explained as to be related to the loss of certain enzymes inhibited by these extracts which affect the metabolic processes. PMID:11478451

Massoud, A M; Labib, I M; Rady, M

2001-08-01

28

Chemically modified polymeric resins for solid-phase extraction and group separation prior to analysis by liquid or gas chromatography.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Polystyrene divinylbenzene was modified by acetyl, sulfonic acid, and quaternary ammonium groups. A resin functionalized with an acetyl group was impregnated in a PTFE membrane and used to extract and concentrate phenolic compounds from aqueous samples. T...

L. W. Schmidt

1993-01-01

29

Improved resins and novel materials and methods for solid phase extraction and high performance liquid chromatography  

SciTech Connect

Solid-phase extraction (SPE) has grown to be one of the most widely used methods for isolation and preconcentration of a vast range of compounds from aqueous solutions. By modifying polymeric SPE resins with chelating functional groups, the selective uptake of metals was accomplished. The resin, along with adsorbed metals, was vaporized in the ICP and detection of the metals was then possible using either mass or emission spectroscopy. Drug analyses in biological fluids have received heightened attention as drug testing is on the increase both in sports and in the work environment. By using a direct-injection technique, biological fluids can be injected directly into the liquid chromatographic system with no pretreatment. A new surfactant, a sulfonated form of Brij-30 (Brij-S) is shown to prevent the uptake of serum proteins on commercial HPLC columns by forming a thin coating on the silica C18 surface. Excellent separations of eight or more drugs with a wide range of retention times were obtained. The separations had sharper peaks and lower retention times than similar separations performed with the surfactant sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS). Quantitative recovery of a number of drugs with limits of detection near 1 ppm with a 5 {micro}l injection volume were obtained. Finally, a method for solid-phase extraction in a syringe is introduced. The system greatly reduced the volume of solvent required to elute adsorbed analytes from the SPE bed while providing a semi-automated setup. SPE in a syringe consists of a very small bed of resin-loaded membrane packed into a GC or HPLC syringe. After extraction, elution was performed with just a few {micro}l of solvent. This small elution volume allowed injection of the eluent directly from the syringe into the chromatographic system, eliminating the handling problems associated with such small volumes.

Freeze, R.

1997-10-08

30

Chemically modified polymeric resins for solid-phase extraction and group separation prior to analysis by liquid or gas chromatography  

SciTech Connect

Polystyrene divinylbenzene was modified by acetyl, sulfonic acid, and quaternary ammonium groups. A resin functionalized with an acetyl group was impregnated in a PTFE membrane and used to extract and concentrate phenolic compounds from aqueous samples. The acetyl group created a surface easily wetted, making it an efficient adsorbent for polar compounds in water. The membrane stabilized the resin bed. Partially sulfonated high surface area resins are used to extract and group separate an aqueous mixture of neutral and basic organics; the bases are adsorbed electrostatically to the sulfonic acid groups, while the neutraons are adsorbed hydrophobically. A two-step elution is then used to separate the two fractions. A partially functionalized anion exchange resin is used to separate organic acids and phenols from neutrals in a similar way. Carboxylic acids are analyzed by HPLC and phenols by GC.

Schmidt, L.W.

1993-07-01

31

A novel malonamide grafted polystyrene-divinyl benzene resin for extraction, pre-concentration and separation of actinides.  

PubMed

A new chelating polymeric extraction chromatographic resin was prepared by chemical anchoring of N,N'-dimethyl-N,N'-dibutyl malonamide (DMDBMA) with chloromethylated Merrifield resin((R)). The grafted resin exhibited stronger binding for hexavalent and tetravalent actinides such as U(VI), Th(IV) and Pu(IV) over trivalent actinides, viz. Am(III) and Pu(III). Batch studies on solid phase extraction performed over a wide range of acid solution (0.01-6M HNO(3)) revealed that ternary mixer of uranium, americium and plutonium or thorium, americium and plutonium could be separated from each other at 1M HNO(3). Desorption of U(VI), Pu(IV) and Am(III) from the loaded resin was efficiently carried out using 0.1M alpha-HIBA, 0.25M oxalic acid and 0.01M EDTA, respectively. Quantitative pre-concentration of actinide ions such as Th(IV) and U(VI) was possible from 3M HNO(3) solution. The practical utility of the grafted resin was evaluated by uranium sorption measurements in several successive cycles. The sorption efficiency of the resin with respect to uranyl ion remained unchanged even after 30 days of continuous use. The surface morphology of the resin was monitored with the help of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) technique. PMID:18541366

Ansari, S A; Mohapatra, P K; Manchanda, V K

2009-01-30

32

Actinide Binding by Kläui Ligands: REDOX Speciation and Sorption on an Extraction Chromatography Resin  

SciTech Connect

The sorption of Eu(III) and actinide ions in various oxidation states from nitric acid solutions by an extraction chromatography resin containing 1 wt% of the Kläui ligand Cp*Co[P(O)(OR)2]3– [Cp* = pentamethylcyclopentadienyl, R = –CH2 CH2CH3] on Amberlite® XAD-7HP was examined. At 0.3 M HNO3 and a metal-to-ligand ratio of 0.07, the relative affinity of the resin for the ions investigated followed the order: tetravalent >> hexavalent > trivalent > pentavalent; however, the relative affinity for the trivalent and hexavalent ions can be reversed, depending on the extent of ligand loading and the nitric acid concentration. The sorption of the tetravalent ions was exceptionally strong in the entire range of nitric acid concentration examined (0.2 to 8 M HNO3). Resin samples loaded with various actinide ions were examined spectrophotometrically. No Np(V) and Pu(III) species were identified on the resin; rather, reduction-oxidation (REDOX) reactions occurred during equilibration, resulting in their complete conversion to M(IV) species bound by the Kläui ligand. Similarly, the sorption behavior of Pu(VI) and Np(VI) was complicated by their reduction to M(IV) upon sorption. The observed REDOX processes were apparently driven by the extremely high affinity of the Kläui ligand for the tetravalent ions. The acid-base properties of the methyl derivative of the Kläui ligand were investigated in aqueous solution, and its pKa was found to be highly dependent upon the solution ionic strength. The binding constants of this ligand with various actinide ions measured in a mixed methanol/carbon tetrachloride solvent exhibited qualitative agreement with the sorption selectivity trends.

Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Sinkov, Sergey I.; Lumetta, Gregg J.

2008-12-01

33

Hypercrosslinked strong anion-exchange resin for extraction of acidic pharmaceuticals from environmental water.  

PubMed

Two novel high-specific surface area polymeric sorbents (HXLPP-SAXa and HXLPP-SAXb) were synthesised and evaluated as solid-phase extraction sorbents. The novel sorbents under study are based on hypercrosslinked polymer microspheres and designed specifically to offer ion-exchange properties; the specific polymers of interest in the current work have been chemically modified in such a way as to impart a tuneable level of strong anion-exchange character onto the sorbents. The novel sorbents were applied as strong anion-exchange sorbents in solid-phase extraction studies, with the goal being to selectively extract a group of acidic compounds from complex environmental samples in an efficient manner. Out of two HXLPP-SAX resins evaluated in this study, it was found that the sorbent with the lower ion-exchange capacity (HXLPP-SAXa) gave rise to the best overall performance characteristics and, indeed, was found to compare favourably to the solid-phase extraction performance of commercial strong anion-exchange sorbents. When the HXLPP-SAXa sorbent was applied to the solid-phase extraction of environmental water samples, the result showed quantitative and selective extraction of low levels of acidic pharmaceuticals from 500 mL of river water and 100 mL of effluent wastewater. PMID:22907847

Bratkowska, Dominika; Davies, Arlene; Fontanals, Núria; Cormack, Peter A G; Borrull, Francesc; Sherrington, David C; Marcé, Rosa M

2012-10-01

34

Extraction of Cu(II) from sulfuric acid by macrocycle-synergized cation exchange. Comparing a novel impregnated resin with its solvent-extraction analog  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel extractive resin employing the tetradentate macrocyclic ionophore tetrathia-14-crown-4 (TT14C4) has been demonstrated via impregnation of strong-acid poly(styrene-divinylbenzene) cation-exchange beads. Following uptake of several weight percent TT14C4, the sulfonic acid resin exhibits a 10-100-fold enhancement in the cation-exchange extraction of Cu(II) as expressed by the Cu(II) distribution coefficient (D[sub Cu]). Since extraction of Cu(II) by unfunctionalized poly(styrene-divinylbenzene) impregnated with

Bruce A. Moyer; G. N. Case; Spiro D. Alexandratos; A. Amanda. Kriger

1993-01-01

35

Analgesic activity of the ethanolic extract of Shorea robusta resin in experimental animals  

PubMed Central

Aim: Shorea robusta (Sal), an important traditional Indian medicinal plant used in various ailments and rituals and the indigenous use of the resin of this plant as a medicament for treatment of various inflammatory conditions is well documented in literature. In the present study, ethanolic extract of S. robusta resin (SRE) was evaluated for its analgesic activity by making use of different central and peripheral pain models. Materials and Methods: The analgesic activity of SRE was assessed by employing different pain models such as, i) hot plate and tail flick tests for central analgesia, ii) acetic acid- induced writhing (peripheral analgesic model), iii) formalin-induced hind paw licking (both central and peripheral model), iv) carrageenan-induced hyperalgesia (peripheral analgesic model) and v) post-surgical pain (peripheral analgesic model). Results: The extract produced significant central and peripheral analgesic effects, as is evident from increase in reaction time in hot plate and tail flick tests, inhibition in writhing counts in acetic acid-induced writhing test, inhibition of licking time in formalin-induced hind paw licking, increased pain threshold in paw withdrawal latency in carrageenan-induced hyperalgesia and increased paw withdrawal threshold in post-surgical pain. Conclusion: The results of the present study demonstrate marked antinociceptive effects of SRE.

Wani, Tariq Ahmad; Kumar, Dhirendra; Prasad, Raju; Verma, Pawan Kumar; Sardar, Kaustuk K.; Tandan, Surendra Kumar; Kumar, Dinesh

2012-01-01

36

Properties of resorcinol–tannin–formaldehyde copolymer resins prepared from the bark extracts of Taiwan acacia and China fir  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resorcinol–tannin–formaldehyde copolymer resins (RTF) were prepared by using the bark extracts of Taiwan acacia (Acacia confusa) and China fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) to substitute part of the resorcinol. From the results, the content of reactive phenolic materials in Taiwan acacia and China fir bark extracts were 51.6% and 46.5%, respectively. Aromatic compounds were the main components in the bark extracts showed

Wen-Jau Lee; Wei-Chuan Lan

2006-01-01

37

Comparison of methods for nutrient measurement in calcareous soils: Ion-exchange resin bag, capsule, membrane, and chemical extractions  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Four methods for measuring quantities of 12 plant-available nutrients were compared using three sandy soils in a series of three experiments. Three of the methods use different ion-exchange resin forms-bags, capsules, and membranes-and the fourth was conventional chemical extraction. The first experiment compared nutrient extraction data from a medium of sand saturated with a nutrient solution. The second and third experiments used Nakai and Sheppard series soils from Canyonlands National Park, which are relatively high in soil carbonates. The second experiment compared nutrient extraction data provided by the four methods from soils equilibrated at two temperatures, "warm" and "cold." The third experiment extracted nutrients from the same soils in a field equilibration. Our results show that the four extraction techniques are not comparable. This conclusion is due to differences among the methods in the net quantities of nutrients extracted from equivalent soil volumes, in the proportional representation of nutrients within similar soils and treatments, in the measurement of nutrients that were added in known quantities, and even in the order of nutrients ranked by net abundance. We attribute the disparities in nutrient measurement among the different resin forms to interacting effects of the inherent differences in resin exchange capacity, differences among nutrients in their resin affinities, and possibly the relatively short equilibration time for laboratory trials. One constraint for measuring carbonate-related nutrients in high-carbonate soils is the conventional ammonium acetate extraction method, which we suspect of dissolving fine CaCO3 particles that are more abundant in Nakai series soils, resulting in erroneously high Ca2+ estimates. For study of plant-available nutrients, it is important to identify the nutrients of foremost interest and understand differences in their resin sorption dynamics to determine the most appropriate extraction method.

Sherrod, S. K.; Belnap, J.; Miller, M. E.

2002-01-01

38

Preparation of magnetic strong cation exchange resin for the extraction of melamine from egg samples followed by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the work, magnetic strong cation exchange (MSCX) resins were prepared using hydrophobic Fe3O4 magnetite as the magnetically susceptible component, styrene and divinylbenzene as polymeric matrix components, acetyl sulfonate as the sulfonation agent. The resins were successfully applied to the extraction of melamine (MEL) from egg samples. The extraction procedure was carried out in a single step by blending and

Yang Xu; Ligang Chen; Hui Wang; Xiaopan Zhang; Qinglei Zeng; Haoyan Xu; Lei Sun; Qi Zhao; Lan Ding

2010-01-01

39

Characterization of the effects of post-extraction treatments on human dentin-resin interface by micro-Raman spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Raman microprobe spectroscopy was used to investigate the effects of post-extraction treatments of human dentin on the penetration of the 4-methacryloxyethyl trimellitic acid (4- MET)/methyl methacrylate (MMA)/tri-n-butyl borane (TBB) dentin adhesive. Human molar teeth, extracted and stored in distilled water or 70% ethanol solution for 7 or 28 days, were treated with the resin. Spatially resolved Raman microspectroscopy was used to measure penetration. The band intensity ratio 1612 cm-1 (resin): 962 cm-1 (dentin) was used as a diagnostic. Diffusion of the resin into dentin increased with the length of storage period. The results indicate that the effects of postextraction treatments on teeth must be considered when laboratory measurements of bonding strengths are employed to predict the clinical performance of dental cements. In addition, it is demonstrated that Raman microprobe spectroscopy is a feasible analytical tool to evaluate the effects of postextraction treatments on teeth.

Leung, Yiuchong; Morris, Michael D.

1997-01-01

40

Chemically modified polymeric resin used as sorbent in a solid-phase extraction process to determine phenolic compounds in water  

Microsoft Academic Search

A chemically modified polymeric resin with an acetyl group is developed for use in a solid-phase extraction process. The breakthrough volumes and selectivity of several phenolic compounds were studied and compared with the ones obtained for several commercial sorbents such as PLRP-s, Amberchrom, Envi-Chrom P and LiChrolut EN. The study was carried out by coupling an on-line solid-phase extraction system

N. Masqué; M. Galià; R. M. Marcé; F. Borrull

1997-01-01

41

Two novel extraction chromatography resins containing multiple diglycolamide-functionalized ligands: preparation, characterization and actinide uptake properties.  

PubMed

Two extraction chromatography resins were prepared for the first time by impregnating multiple diglycolamide-functionalized ligands such as diglycolamide-calix[4]arene (C4DGA) and tripodal diglycolamide (T-DGA) on Chromosorb-W, an inert solid support, for the removal of hazardous actinides like Am(III) from radioactive waste solutions at 3M nitric acid. The resins were characterized by SEM, thermal and surface area (BET) analyses. The sorption of Am(III) on the two resins followed pseudo-second order sorption rate kinetics and was exothermic in nature. The sorption of trivalent f-elements proceeded through a chemisorption monolayer phenomenon as analyzed by using several isotherm models. The negative free energy change (?G) values of -34.46 and -28.45kJ/mol for T-DGA and C4DGA, respectively, indicate a chemical interaction between the metal ions and the ligands on the surface of the resins. Distribution coefficient measurements of various metal ions showed a selective sorption of trivalent f-elements over hexavalent uranyl ions and other fission product elements. Column studies on breakthrough indicated 0.76 and 0.37mg/g as the breakthrough capacities of the T-DGA and the C4DGA resins, respectively. It was possible to quantitatively elute the loaded metal ion using EDTA solutions. PMID:24581870

Ansari, Seraj A; Mohapatra, Prasanta K; Iqbal, Mudassir; Huskens, Jurriaan; Verboom, Willem

2014-03-21

42

Preparative Separation of Glabridin from Glycyrrhiza glabra L. Extracts with Macroporous Resins  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, the performance and adsorption characteristics of five macroporous resins for the separation of glabridin from Glycyrrhiza glabra L. have been evaluated. The adsorption and desorption properties of glabridin on macroporous resins including HPD100, HPD300, HPD800, NKA and H103 were compared. HPD100 resin offered the best adsorption and desorption capacities based on the research results. Both Langmuir

Yan Xu; Qipeng Yuan; Xiaodan Hou; Yanping Lin

2009-01-01

43

Inadequacy, Impurity and Infidelity; Modifying the Modified Brendel Alpha-Cellulose Extraction Method for Resinous Woods in Stable Isotope Dendroclimatology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stable isotope dendroclimatology is a burgeoning field in palaeoclimate science due to its unique potential to contribute (sub)annually resolved climate records, over millennial timescales, to the terrestrial palaeoclimate record. Until recently the time intensive methods precluded long-term climate reconstructions. Advances in continuous-flow mass spectrometry and isolation methods for ?-cellulose (ideal for palaeoclimate studies as, unlike other wood components, it retains its initial isotopic composition) have made long-term, calendar dated palaeoclimate reconstructions a viable proposition. The Modified Brendel (mBrendel) ?-cellulose extraction method is a fast, cost-effective way of preparing whole-wood samples for stable oxygen and carbon isotope analysis. However, resinous woods often yield incompletely processed ?-cellulose using the standard mBrendel approach. As climate signals may be recorded by small (<1%) isotopic shifts it is important to investigate if incomplete processing affects the accuracy and precision of tree-ring isotopic records. In an effort to address this methodological issue, we investigated three highly resinous woods: kauri (Agathis australis), ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) and huon pine (Lagarastrobus franklinii). Samples of each species were treated with 16 iterations of the mBrendel, varying reaction temperature, time and reagent volumes. Products were investigated using microscopic and bulk transmission Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy (FITR) to reveal variations in the level of processing; poorly-digested fibres display a peak at 1520cm-1 suggesting residual lignin and a peak at ~1600cm-1 in some samples suggests retained resin. Despite the different levels of purity, replicate analyses of samples processed by high temperature digestion yielded consistent ?18O within and between experiments. All ?-cellulose samples were 5-7% enriched compared to the whole-wood, suggesting that even incomplete processing at high temperature can provide acceptable ?18O analytical external precision. For kauri, short, lower temperature extractions produced ?-cellulose with ?18O consistently ~1% lower than longer, higher temperature kauri experiments. These findings suggest that temperature and time are significant variables that influence the analytical precision of ?-cellulose stable isotope analysis and that resinous hardwoods (e.g. kauri) may require longer and/or hotter digestions than softwoods. The effects of mBrendel variants on the carbon isotope ratio precision of ?-cellulose extracts will also be presented. Our findings indicate that the standard mBrendel ?-cellulose extraction method may not fully remove lignins and resins depending on the type of wood being analysed. Residual impurities can decrease analytical precision and accuracy. Fortunately, FTIR analysis prior to isotopic analysis is a relatively fast and cost effective way to determine ?-cellulose extract purity, ultimately improving the data quality, accuracy and utility of tree-ring based stable isotopic climate records.

Brookman, T. H.; Whittaker, T. E.; King, P. L.; Horton, T. W.

2011-12-01

44

Determination of oil reservoir radiotracer (S14CN-) in a single step using a plastic scintillator extractive resin.  

PubMed

The analysis of radiotracers is important in the study of oil reservoir dynamics. One of the most widely used radiotracer is S(14)CN(-). Prior to activity measurements by Liquid Scintillation (LS), routine determinations require the pretreatment steps of purification and concentration of the samples using anion exchange columns. The final elution media produces samples with high salt concentration that may lead to problems with phase separation during the LS measurement. Plastic Scintillation (PS) is an alternative technique that provides a solid surface that can be used as a platform for the immobilisation of selective extractants to obtain a PS resin. The proposed procedure unifies chemical separation and sample measurement preparation in a single step, serving to reduce the number of reagents needed and manpower required for the analysis while also avoiding mixed waste production by LS. The objective of this study is to develop a PS resin for the determination of (14)C-labelled thiocyanate radiotracer in water samples. For this purpose, the immobilisation procedure was optimised, including optimisation of the proportion of PS microspheres:extractant and the use of a control blank to monitor the PS resin immobilisation process. The breakthrough volume was studied and the detection and quantification limits for 100 mL of sample were determined to be 0.08 Bq L(-1) and 0.31 Bq L(-1), respectively. The established procedure was applied to active samples from oil reservoirs and errors lower than 5% in the sample determinations were obtained. PMID:22769002

Bagán, H; Tarancón, A; Stavsetra, L; Rauret, G; García, J F

2012-07-29

45

Preliminary extraction of tannins by 1-butyl-3-methylimidazole bromide and its subsequent removal from Galla chinensis extract using macroporous resins.  

PubMed

In recent years, ionic liquids have become increasingly attractive as 'green solvents' used in the extraction of bioactive compounds from natural plant. However, the separation of ionic liquid from the target compounds was difficult, due to their low vapour pressure and high stabilities. In our study, ionic liquid-based ultrasonic and microwave-assisted extraction was used to obtain the crude tannins, then the macroporous resin adsorption technology was further employed to purify the tannins and remove the ionic liquid from crude extract. The results showed that XDA-6 had higher separation efficiency than other tested resins, and the equilibrium experimental data were well fitted to Langmuir isotherms. Dynamic adsorption and desorption were performed on XDA-6 packed in glass columns to optimise the separation process. The optimum conditions as follows: the ratio of column height to diameter bed was 1:8, flow rate 1 BV/h (bed volume per hour), 85% ethanol was used as eluant while the elution volume was 2 BV. Under the optimised conditions, the adsorption and desoption rate of tannins in XDA-6 were 94.81 and 91.63%, respectively. The content of tannins was increased from 70.24% in Galla chinensis extract to 85.12% with a recovery of 99.06%. The result of ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC)-MS/MS analysis showed that [bmim]Br could be removed from extract. PMID:23362230

Lu, Chunxia; Luo, Xiaoling; Lu, Liliang; Li, Hongmin; Chen, Xia; Ji, Yong

2013-03-01

46

Preparation of high purity biphenyl cyclooctene lignans from Schisandra extract by ion exchange resin catalytic transformation combined with macroporous resin separation.  

PubMed

In this study, ester-bond biphenyl cyclooctene lignans were efficiently hydrolytically degraded into free biphenyl cyclooctene lignans by ion exchange resin transformation and simultaneous removal of impurities by macroporous resin. The OH-type strongly basic anion exchange resin 201×7 was the best one, and the dynamic hydrolysis efficiency was 146.7±5.0%. HPD5000 macroporous resin, which offered higher adsorption and desorption capacities and faster adsorption than other resins. The purity of free biphenyl cyclooctene lignans in the product increased from 5.14±0.24% to 79.67±0.0.67%. After dynamic catalytic transformation by 201×7 resin combined with purification of HPD5000 resin, the yield and the purity of free biphenyl cyclooctene lignans in the product were 132.1±4.7% and 80.91±3.53%, respectively. PMID:21963273

Ma, Chun-hui; Liu, Ting-ting; Yang, Lei; Zu, Yuan-gang; Yang, Feng-jian; Zhao, Chun-jian; Zhang, Lin; Zhang, Zhong-hua

2011-11-15

47

DNA extraction method using a silica-base resin type kit for the detection of genetically modified papaya.  

PubMed

Genetically modified (GM) papaya has not yet been approved for importation into, or cultivation in the European Union (EU) and Japan. A DNA extraction method using the Qiagen DNeasy Plant Mini Kit (PM method) and a method using a buffer containing cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB method) have been adopted as the official Japanese methods for detecting GM foods. However, the amounts of DNA extracted from papaya by these methods are very low. Therefore, we investigated an extraction method to obtain a high yield of DNA from raw or freeze-dried fresh papaya using the Promega Wizard DNA Clean-Up Resin System (WCR). The incubation for the extraction was carried out at 58 degrees C without proteinase K for 15 min. The extract was applied to a mini-column, then the column was washed with 80% isopropyl alcohol, and genomic DNA adsorbed on the column was eluted with TE buffer. The WCR method gave a higher yield of genomic DNA, and was simpler and faster than the PM method or CTAB method. In addition, it could be used to extract genomic DNA from fresh papaya at various stages of ripeness. Based on these results, we propose that the present method using WCR is the most practical and useful way to extract genomic DNA for the purpose of detecting GM papaya. PMID:18503240

Ohmori, Kiyomi; Tsuchiya, Hisayo; Watanabe, Takahiro; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Maitani, Tamio; Yamada, Toshiharu; Hirayama, Kuni; Satoh, Shuji

2008-04-01

48

Fast and selective extraction of nicotine from human plasma based on magnetic strong cation exchange resin followed by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the study, a fast and selective method based on magnetic separation has been developed for the extraction of nicotine from\\u000a human plasma using magnetic strong cation exchange (MSCX) resins as adsorbent. MSCX resins were prepared using hydrophobic\\u000a Fe3O4 magnetite as magnetically susceptible component, styrene and acrylic acid as polymeric matrix components, and acetyl sulfonate\\u000a as the sulfonation agent. The

Yang Xu; Changjia Wang; Xiaopan Zhang; Haiyan Chen; Qi Zhao; Weitao Song; Hui Wang; Qinglei Zeng; Lan Ding

2011-01-01

49

Phosphonic acid based exchange resins  

DOEpatents

An ion exchange resin for extracting metal ions from a liquid waste stream. An ion exchange resin is prepared by copolymerizing a vinylidene diphosphonic acid with styrene, acrylonitrile and divinylbenzene.

Horwitz, E. Philip (Naperville, IL); Alexandratos, Spiro D. (Knoxville, TN); Gatrone, Ralph C. (Naperville, IL); Chiarizia, Ronato (Oak Park, IL)

1995-01-01

50

Phosphonic acid based exchange resins  

DOEpatents

An ion exchange resin is described for extracting metal ions from a liquid waste stream. An ion exchange resin is prepared by copolymerizing a vinylidene diphosphonic acid with styrene, acrylonitrile and divinylbenzene. 10 figs.

Horwitz, E.P.; Alexandratos, S.D.; Gatrone, R.C.; Chiarizia, R.

1995-09-12

51

Method for recovering and using lignin in adhesive resins by extracting demethylated lignin  

DOEpatents

Lignin, or a lignin derived material, which has been significantly demethylated (e.g., the demethylated lignin found in the raffinate produced as a by-product of dimethyl sulfide production which can be carried out using the spent liquor from wood pulping operations) can be isolated by a process wherein an organic solvent is added to a lignin-containing aqueous solution. The organic solvent is typically a polar, and at least a partially water-immiscible substance such as, for example, ethyl acetate. The resulting lignin-containing aqueous solution/organic solvent mixture is acidified to produce a water layer which is discarded and an organic solvent layer which contains the demethylated lignin. Upon its recovery, the demethylated lignin is dissolved in an alkaline solution to which an aldehyde source is added to produce a resol-type resin. The aldehyde source may be formaldehyde in solution, paraformaldehyde, hexamethylenetetramine, or other aldehydes including acetaldehyde, furfural, and their derivatives.

Schroeder, Herbert A. (Ft. Collins, CO)

1991-01-01

52

Solid phase extractive preconcentration of trace metals using p- tert-butylcalix[4]arene-1,2-crown-4-anchored chloromethylated polymeric resin beads  

Microsoft Academic Search

5,11,17,23-Tetrakis(1,1-dimethylethyl)-25,26-dihydroxy-27,28-crown-4-calix[4]arene in the cone conformation was synthesized. This p-tert-butylcalix[4]arene-1,2-crown-4 compound was then anchored with Merrifield chloromethylated resin beads. The modified polymeric resin was characterized by 1H NMR, FT-IR and elemental analysis and used successfully for the separation and preconcentration of Cu(II), Cd(II), Co(II), Ni(II) and Zn(II) prior to their determination by FAAS. Effective extraction conditions were optimized in both batch

Serap Seyhan; Mehmet Çolak; Melek Merdivan; Nadir Demirel

2007-01-01

53

Tunable aqueous polymer-phase impregnated resins-technology-a novel approach to aqueous two-phase extraction.  

PubMed

Aqueous Two-Phase Extraction (ATPE) represents a promising unit operation for downstream processing of biotechnological products. The technique provides several advantages such as a biocompatible environment for the extraction of sensitive and biologically active compounds. However, the tendency of some aqueous two-phase systems to form intensive and stable emulsions can lead to long phase separation times causing an increased footprint for the required mixer-settler devices or the need for additional equipment such as centrifuges. In this work, a novel approach to improve ATPE for downstream processing applications called 'Tunable Aqueous Polymer-Phase Impregnated Resins' (TAPPIR(®))-Technology is presented. The technology is based on the immobilization of one aqueous phase inside the pores of a solid support. The second aqueous phase forms the bulk liquid around the impregnated solids. Due to the immobilization of one phase, phase emulsification and phase separation of ATPE are realized in a single step. In this study, a biodegradable and sustainable aqueous two-phase system consisting of aqueous polyethylene glycol/sodiumcitrate solutions was chosen. The impregnation of different macroporous glass and ceramic solids was investigated and could be proven to be stable. Additionally, the separation of the dye Patent blue V was successfully performed with the TAPPIR(®)-Technology. Thus, the "proof of principle" of this technology is presented. PMID:24462465

van Winssen, F A; Merz, J; Schembecker, G

2014-02-14

54

Antihyperglycemic, hypolipidemic and antioxidant activities of ethanolic extract of Commiphora mukul gum resin in fructose-fed male Wistar rats.  

PubMed

High fructose feeding (66 % of fructose) induces type-2 diabetes in rats, which is associated with the insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, hypertriglyceridemia and oxidative stress. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of ethanol extract of Commiphora mukul gum resin (CMEE) on blood glucose, plasma insulin, lipid profiles, reduced glutathione, lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation and enzymatic antioxidants like superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione-S-transferase in fructose-induced type-2 diabetic rats. A significant gain in body weight, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, increased lipid profiles, lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation and decreased reduced glutathione, activities of enzymatic antioxidants and insulin sensitivity (increased homeostasis assessment assay) were observed in high-fructose-induced diabetic rats. The administration of CMEE (200 mg/kg/day) daily for 60 days in high-fructose-induced diabetic rats reversed the above parameters significantly. CMEE has the ability to improve insulin sensitivity and delay the development of insulin resistance, aggravate antioxidant status in diabetic rats and may be used as an adjuvant therapy for patients with insulin resistance. PMID:22581434

Ramesh, B; Saralakumari, D

2012-12-01

55

Prevention of multiple low-dose streptozotocin (MLD-STZ) diabetes in mice by an extract from gum resin of Boswellia serrata (BE)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Type 1-diabetes is an autoimmune disease, where a chronic inflammatory process finally causes ?-cell death and insulin deficiency. Extracts from gum resin of Boswellia serrata (BE) have been shown to posses anti-inflammatory properties especially by targeting factors\\/mediators related to autoimmune diseases. Multiple low dose-streptozotocin (MLD-STZ) treatment is a method to induce diabetes in animals similar to Type 1 diabetes in

Ahmed M. Shehata; L. Quintanilla-Fend; Sabrina Bettio; C. B. Singh; H. P. T. Ammon

2011-01-01

56

Determination of copper, lead and iron in water and food samples after column solid phase extraction using 1-phenylthiosemicarbazide on Dowex Optipore L-493 resin  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel solid phase extraction procedure for determination of copper, lead and iron in natural water and food samples has been established in the presented work. 1-Phenylthiosemicarbazide (1-PTSC) as ligand and Dowex Optipore L-493 resin as adsorbent were used in a mini chromatographic column. Various analytical conditions for the quantitative recoveries of analyte ions including pH, amounts of adsorbent, eluent,

Ozden Y?ld?z; Demirhan Citak; Mustafa Tuzen; Mustafa Soylak

2011-01-01

57

Salicylic acid and derivatives anchored on poly(styrene- co-divinylbenzene) resin and membrane via a diazo bridge: Synthesis, characterisation and application to metal extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

New materials for chelating solid-phase extraction have been prepared by grafting of salicylic acid and derivatives on poly(styrene-co-divinylbenzene) based sorbents. These sorbents are either resin bead-shaped Amberlite® XAD-4 or membrane disk-shaped Empore™ SDB-XC. Grafting has been achieved via –NN– spacer. The grafted ligands are salicylic acid (SA), its dimer form methylenedisalicylic acid (MDSA) and trimer form aurintricarboxylic form (ATA) in

Sabrina Boussetta; Catherine Branger; André Margaillan; Jean-Luc Boudenne; Bruno Coulomb

2008-01-01

58

Gas chromatographic determination of organic acids from fruit juices by combined resin mediated methylation and extraction in supercritical carbon dioxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

A procedure in which anionic analytes, trapped on ion exchange resin, are simultaneously methylated and released using methyl iodide in either supercritical carbon dioxide or acetonitrile has been extended to polyfunctional organic acids. The combined SFE methylation of fruit juice acids trapped onto ion exchange resin proceeds in good yield producing the methyl esters of fumaric, succinic, malic, tartaric, isocitric

Timothy J. Barden; Marguerite Y. Croft; E. John Murby; Robert J. Wells

1997-01-01

59

Antihyperglycemic and antioxidant activities of alcoholic extract of Commiphora mukul gum resin in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.  

PubMed

Background and objectives: The present study investigated the effect of Commiphora mukul ethanol extract gum resin (CMEEt) on streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats by measuring fasting blood glucose, plasma insulin, plasma lipid profile, atherogenic index, hepatic lipid peroxidation (LPO), protein oxidation (PO) and activities of enzymatic antioxidants. Methods: Wistar albino rats were divided into 4 groups, normal control group, CM-treated control group, diabetic control group and CM-treated diabetic group. For induction of diabetes, STZ was administered at a dose of 55mg/kg body weight, meanwhile CM-treated groups were administered CMEEt at a dose of 200mg/kg body weight for 60 days. Body weight, plasma glucose and insulin levels were determined in different experimental days, after end of the experimental period the plasma lipid profile and antioxidant enzymes were determined in hepatic tissue. Results: Increase in plasma glucose, total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C), hepatic LPO and PO levels with decrease in plasma high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), insulin, hepatic reduced glutathione (GSH) content and activities of antioxidant enzymes namely, glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) were the salient features observed in diabetic rats. On the other hand, oral administration of CMEEt at a dose of 200mg/kg for 60 days resulted in the prevention of above mentioned abnormalities. Conclusion: The results suggest that CMEEt could be beneficial in the treatment of diabetes, characterized by atherogenous lipoprotein profile, aggravated antioxidant status and impaired glucose metabolism and in their prevention. PMID:21767936

Bellamkonda, Ramesh; Rasineni, Karuna; Singareddy, Sreenivasa Reddy; Kasetti, Ramesh Babu; Pasurla, Ramatholisamma; Chippada, Appa Rao; Desireddy, Saralakumari

2011-09-01

60

Chemical affinities between the solvent extractable and the bulk organic matter of fossil resin associated with an extinct podocarpaceae  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Analyses by GC-MS and GC-IR of resin associated to Dacridiumites mawsonii deposits, an extinct species of Podocarpaceae occurring on the South Island of New Zealand during the Bortonian (Middle Eocene), have revealed that dehydroabietic acid is the predominant component of the solvent soluble fraction. Accordingly, this diterpenoid has been selected as the principal component material for spectroscopic comparison with the bulk resin using IR and CP/MAS 13C NMR. ?? 1989.

Grimalt, J. O.; Simoneit, B. R. T.; Hatcher, P. G.

1989-01-01

61

Final report on the safety assessment of capsicum annuum extract, capsicum annuum fruit extract, capsicum annuum resin, capsicum annuum fruit powder, capsicum frutescens fruit, capsicum frutescens fruit extract, capsicum frutescens resin, and capsaicin.  

PubMed

Capsicum-derived ingredients function as skin-conditioning agents--miscellaneous, external analgesics, flavoring agents, or fragrance components in cosmetics. These ingredients are used in 19 cosmetic products at concentrations as high as 5%. Cosmetic-grade material may be extracted using hexane, ethanol, or vegetable oil and contain the full range of phytocompounds that are found in the Capsicum annuum or Capsicum frutescens plant (aka red chiles), including Capsaicin. Aflatoxin and N-nitroso compounds (N-nitrosodimethylamine and N-nitrosopyrrolidine) have been detected as contaminants. The ultraviolet (UV) absorption spectrum for Capsicum Annuum Fruit Extract indicates a small peak at approximately 275 nm, and a gradual increase in absorbance, beginning at approximately 400 nm. Capsicum and paprika are generally recognized as safe by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for use in food. Hexane, chloroform, and ethyl acetate extracts of Capsicum Frutescens Fruit at 200 mg/kg resulted in death of all mice. In a short-term inhalation toxicity study using rats, no difference was found between vehicle control and a 7% Capsicum Oleoresin solution. In a 4-week feeding study, red chilli (Capsicum annuum) in the diet at concentrations up to 10% was relatively nontoxic in groups of male mice. In an 8-week feeding study using rats, intestinal exfoliation, cytoplasmic fatty vacuolation and centrilobular necrosis of hepatocytes, and aggregation of lymphocytes in the portal areas were seen at 10% Capsicum Frutescens Fruit, but not 2%. Rats fed 0.5 g/kg day-1 crude Capsicum Fruit Extract for 60 days exhibited no significant gross pathology at necropsy, but slight hyperemia of the liver and reddening of the gastric mucosa were observed. Weanling rats fed basal diets supplemented with whole red pepper at concentrations up to 5.0% for up to 8 weeks had no pathology of the large intestines, livers, and kidneys, but destruction of the taste buds and keratinization and erosion of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract were noted in groups fed 0.5% to 5.0% red pepper. The results of 9-and 12-month extension of this study showed normal large intestines and kidneys. In rabbits fed Capsicum Annuum Powder at 5 mg/kg day-1 in the diet daily for 12 months damage to the liver and spleen was noted. A rabbit skin irritation test of Capsicum Annuum Fruit Extract at concentrations ranging from 0.1% to 1.0% produced no irritation, but Capsicum Frutescens Fruit Extract induced concentration-dependent (at 25 to 500 microg/ml) cytotoxicity in a human buccal mucosa fibroblast cell line. An ethanol extract of red chili was mutagenic in Salmonella typhimurium TA98, but not in TA100, or in Escherichia coli. Other genotoxicity assays gave a similar pattern of mixed results. Adenocarcinoma of the abdomen was observed in 7/20 mice fed 100 mg red chilies per day for 12 months; no tumors were seen in control animals. Neoplastic changes in the liver and intestinal tumors were observed in rats fed red chili powder at 80 mg/kg day-1 for 30 days, intestinal and colon tumors were seen in rats fed red chili powder and 1,2-dimethyl hydrazine, but no tumors were observed in controls. In another study in rats, however, red chile pepper in the diet at the same dose decreased the number of tumors seen with 1,2-dimethylhydrazine. Other feeding studies evaluated the effect of red chili peppers on the incidence of stomach tumors produced by N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine, finding that red pepper had a promoting effect. Capsicum Frutescens Fruit Extract promoted the carcinogenic effect of methyl(acetoxymethyl)nitrosamine (carcinogen) or benzene hexachloride (hepatocarcinogen) in inbred male and female Balb/c mice dosed orally (tongue application). Clinical findings include symptoms of cough, sneezing, and runny nose in chili factory workers. Human respiratory responses to Capsicum Oleoresin spray include burning of the throat, wheezing, dry cough, shortness of breath, gagging, gasping, inability to breathe or speak, and, rarely, cyanosis, apnea, and respiratory arrest. A trade n

2007-01-01

62

Phosphonic acid based ion exchange resins  

DOEpatents

An ion exchange resin is described for extracting metal ions from a liquid waste stream. An ion exchange resin is prepared by copolymerizing a vinylidene diphosphonic acid with styrene, acrylonitrile and divinylbenzene. 9 figures.

Horwitz, E.P.; Alexandratos, S.D.; Gatrone, R.C.; Chiarizia, R.

1994-01-25

63

Phosphonic acid based ion exchange resins  

DOEpatents

An ion exchange resin for extracting metal ions from a liquid waste stream. An ion exchange resin is prepared by copolymerizing a vinylidene disphosphonic acid with styrene, acrylonitrile and divinylbenzene.

Horwitz, E. Philip (Naperville, IL); Alexandratos, Spiro D. (Knoxville, TN); Gatrone, Ralph C. (Naperville, IL); Chiarizia, Ronato (Oak Park, IL)

1994-01-01

64

Phosphonic acid based ion exchange resins  

DOEpatents

An ion exchange resin for extracting metal ions from a liquid waste stream. An ion exchange resin is prepared by copolymerizing a vinylidene diphosphonic acid with styrene, acrylonitrile and divinylbenzene.

Horwitz, E. Philip (Naperville, IL); Alexandratos, Spiro D. (Knoxville, TN); Gatrone, Ralph C. (Naperville, IL); Chiarizia, Ronato (Oak Park, IL)

1996-01-01

65

Solid phase extractive preconcentration of trace metals using p-tert-butylcalix[4]arene-1,2-crown-4-anchored chloromethylated polymeric resin beads.  

PubMed

5,11,17,23-Tetrakis(1,1-dimethylethyl)-25,26-dihydroxy-27,28-crown-4-calix[4]arene in the cone conformation was synthesized. This p-tert-butylcalix[4]arene-1,2-crown-4 compound was then anchored with Merrifield chloromethylated resin beads. The modified polymeric resin was characterized by (1)H NMR, FT-IR and elemental analysis and used successfully for the separation and preconcentration of Cu(II), Cd(II), Co(II), Ni(II) and Zn(II) prior to their determination by FAAS. Effective extraction conditions were optimized in both batch and column methods. The resin exhibits good separating ability with maximum between pH 6.0-7.0 for Cu(II), pH 6.0 for Cd(II), pH 5.0 for Co(II), pH 4.0-4.5 for Ni(II), and pH 4.5 for Zn(II). The elution studies were carried out with 0.5 mol L(-1) HCl for Cu(II), Co(II) and Co(II), 1.0 mol L(-1) HCl for Cd(II) and Zn(II). The sorption capacity, preconcentration factor and distribution coefficient of each metal ion were determined. The detection limits were 1.10, 1.25, 1.83, 1.68 and 2.01 microg L(-1) for Cu(II), Cd(II), Co(II), Ni(II) and Zn(II). The influence of several ions on the resin performance was also investigated. The validity of the proposed method was checked for these metal ions in NIST standard reference material 2709 (San Joaquin Soil) and 2711 (Montana Soil). PMID:17386638

Seyhan, Serap; Colak, Mehmet; Merdivan, Melek; Demirel, Nadir

2007-02-19

66

Ionic liquid-based vacuum microwave-assisted extraction followed by macroporous resin enrichment for the separation of the three glycosides salicin, hyperin and rutin from populus bark.  

PubMed

An effective ionic liquid vacuum microwave-assisted method was developed for extraction of the thermo- and oxygen-sensitive glycosides salicin, hyperin and rutin from Populus bark due to the strong solvating effects of ionic liquids on plant cell walls. In this study, [C4mim]BF4 solution was selected as the extracting solution for extraction of the target analytes. After optimization by single factor experiments and response surface methodology, the optimum condition parameters were achieved, which included 1.0 M [C4mim]BF4, 2 h soaking time, -0.08 MPa vacuum, 20 min microwave irradiation time, 400 W microwave irradiation power and 25 mL/g liquid/solid ratio. Under the optimum conditions, higher extraction yields of salicin (35.53 mg/g), hyperin (1.32 mg/g) and rutin (2.40 mg/g) were obtained. Compared with other extraction methods, the developed method provided higher yields of the three target components after a relatively shorter extraction time (20 min). No obvious degradation of the target analytes was observed under the optimum conditions in performed stability studies and the proposed method had a high reproducibility. Meanwhile, after adsorption and desorption on macroporous D101 resin, the target analytes can be effectively separated from the [C4mim]BF4 ionic liquid extraction solution and the yields of salicin, hyperin and rutin were 89%, 82% and 84%, respectively. The recovered [C4mim]BF4 ionic liquid presented a good extraction effect on the three analytes after recycling five times. PMID:25004075

Chen, Fengli; Mo, Kailin; Liu, Zhaizhi; Yang, Fengjian; Hou, Kexin; Li, Shuangyang; Zu, Yuangang; Yang, Lei

2014-01-01

67

Gas chromatographic determination of organic acids from fruit juices by combined resin mediated methylation and extraction in supercritical carbon dioxide.  

PubMed

A procedure in which anionic analytes, trapped on ion exchange resin, are simultaneously methylated and released using methyl iodide in either supercritical carbon dioxide or acetonitrile has been extended to polyfunctional organic acids. The combined SFE methylation of fruit juice acids trapped onto ion exchange resin proceeds in good yield producing the methyl esters of fumaric, succinic, malic, tartaric, isocitric and citric acids which are readily separated by GC. Using this procedure low concentrations of one acid can be detected and quantitated in the presence of very high concentrations of another. This new method detects tartaric acid at levels of 10 ppm in juices containing 10,000 ppm citric acid. Quantitation was performed either by using GC-FID with triethyl citrate or diethyl tartrate as internal standards or with the element specific calibration capability of the GC-AED. A simple new technique for the determination of citric/isocitric acid ratio is now available. Also, in contrast to HPLC methods, the identity of an analyte is readily confirmed by GC-MS. PMID:9409006

Barden, T J; Croft, M Y; Murby, E J; Wells, R J

1997-10-17

68

Determination of copper, lead and iron in water and food samples after column solid phase extraction using 1-phenylthiosemicarbazide on Dowex Optipore L-493 resin.  

PubMed

A novel solid phase extraction procedure for determination of copper, lead and iron in natural water and food samples has been established in the presented work. 1-Phenylthiosemicarbazide (1-PTSC) as ligand and Dowex Optipore L-493 resin as adsorbent were used in a mini chromatographic column. Various analytical conditions for the quantitative recoveries of analyte ions including pH, amounts of adsorbent, eluent, sample volume, etc. were investigated. The recovery values for analyte ions were higher than 95%. The determination of copper, lead and iron was performed by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The influences of some alkali, alkali earth and transition metals on the recoveries of analyte ions were investigated. The preconcentration factor was 62.5. The limit of detections of the understudied analytes (k=3, N=21) were 0.64 ?g L(-1) for copper, 0.55 ?g L(-1) for lead and 0.82 ?g L(-1) for iron. The relative standard deviation was found to be lower than 6%. The accuracy of the method was confirmed with certified reference material (GBW 07605 Tea). The method was successively applied for the determination of copper, lead and iron in water and some food samples including cheese, bread, baby food, pekmez, honey, milk and red wine after microwave digestion. PMID:21111769

Yildiz, Ozden; Citak, Demirhan; Tuzen, Mustafa; Soylak, Mustafa

2011-02-01

69

Method of purifying neutral organophosphorus extractants  

DOEpatents

A method for removing acidic contaminants from neutral mono and bifunctional organophosphorous extractants by contacting the extractant with a macroporous cation exchange resin in the H.sup.+ state followed by contact with a macroporous anion exchange resin in the OH.sup.- state, whereupon the resins take up the acidic contaminants from the extractant, purifying the extractant and improving its extraction capability.

Horwitz, E. Philip (Naperville, IL); Gatrone, Ralph C. (Naperville, IL); Chiarizia, Renato (Rome, IT)

1988-01-01

70

21 CFR 177.1556 - Polyaryletherketone resins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: POLYMERS Substances for Use as Basic Components of Single and Repeated...food-contact article made of polyaryletherketone resin, use a separate test sample for each required extracting solvent. [61 FR...

2013-04-01

71

Continuous metal removal technique for resist resins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modern resists require very pure raw materials to insure highest quality images. Many methods have been developed to reduce metals in resins used to make photoresists. Extractive washing techniques and ion exchange methods have been the predominant methods used to reduce metal levels for these critical raw materials. This has been especially important for the novolak resins because of the generally poor quality of the starting materials used to make them and by the nature of the resin isolation steps traditionally used. Both of the commonly used cleaning methods are time consuming and are predominantly batch processes. Based upon techniques developed to efficiently fractionate resins, we have developed a technique for the rapid, continuous reduction of metal contaminants in film forming resin solutions by an extractive method using a double inlet liquid/liquid centrifuge.

Wanat, Stan F.; McKenzie, Douglas S.; Rahman, M. D.

2001-08-01

72

Determination of melamine in animal feed based on liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry analysis and dynamic microwave-assisted extraction coupled on-line with strong cation-exchange resin clean-up.  

PubMed

In this work, a new method was developed for the determination of melamine (MEL) in animal feed. The method was based on the on-line coupling of dynamic microwave-assisted extraction (DMAE) to strong cation-exchange (SCX) resin clean-up. The MEL was first extracted by 90% acidified methanol aqueous solution (v/v, pH = 3) under the action of microwave energy, and then the extract was cooled and passed through the SCX resin. Thus, the protonated MEL was retained on the resin through ion exchange interaction and the sample matrixes were washed out. Some obvious benefits were achieved, such as acceleration of analytical process, together with reduction in manual handling, risk of contamination, loss of analyte, and sample consumption. Finally, the analyte was separated by a liquid chromatograph with a SCX analytical column, and then identified and quantitatived by a tandem mass spectrometry with positive ionization mode and multiple-reaction monitoring. The DMAE parameters were optimized by the Box-Behnken design. The linearity of quantification obtained by analyzing matrix-matched standards is in the range of 50-5,000 ng g(-1). The limit of detection and limit of quantification obtained are 12.3 and 41.0 ng g(-1), respectively. The mean intra- and inter-day precisions expressed as relative standard deviations with three fortified levels (50, 250, and 500 ng g(-1)) are 5.1% and 7.3%, respectively, and the recoveries of MEL are in the range of 76.1-93.5%. The proposed method was successfully applied to determine MEL in different animal feeds obtained from the local market. MEL was detectable with the contents of 279, 136, and 742 ng g(-1) in three samples. PMID:19756536

Chen, Ligang; Zeng, Qinglei; Du, Xiaobo; Sun, Xin; Zhang, Xiaopan; Xu, Yang; Yu, Aimin; Zhang, Hanqi; Ding, Lan

2009-11-01

73

Aluminium determination in environmental samples by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry after solid phase extraction on Amberlite XAD-1180/pyrocatechol violet chelating resin.  

PubMed

A chelating resin, pyrocatechol violet (PV) immobilised on an Amberlite XAD-1180 support, was prepared and its use for the atomic absorption spectrometric determination of aluminium was investigated. The XAD-1180-PV resin was characterised by infrared spectrometry and thermal gravimetric analysis. The optimum pH value for quantitative sorption is 8-9, and desorption can be achieved by using 5.0-10.0ml of 2M HCl. The effects of diverse ions on the sorption and recovery of aluminium have been studied. The capacity of sorbent was 6.45+/-0.59mgg(-1) Al XAD-1180-PV. Recoveries for aluminium from water samples were in the range 95-105%. The accuracy of procedure was confirmed by aluminium determination in certified reference materials. The method developed was applied with varying results to the analysis of natural water, haemodialysis fluids and microwave digested red wine samples from Tokat City. PMID:18969448

Narin, Ibrahim; Tuzen, Mustafa; Soylak, Mustafa

2004-05-28

74

Antiectoparasitic activity of the gum resin, gum haggar, from the East African plant, Commiphora holtziana  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanism of ixodid tick (Acari: Ixodidae) repellency by gum haggar, a resin produced by Commiphora holtziana (Burseraceae), was investigated by evaluating activity against the cattle tick, Boophilus microplus. In an arena bioassay, a hexane extract of the resin of C. holtziana exhibited a repellent effect lasting up to 5h. The hydrocarbon fraction of the resin extract was shown to

Michael A. Birkett; Sate Al Abassi; Thomas Kröber; Keith Chamberlain; Antony M. Hooper; Patrick M. Guerin; Jan Pettersson; John A. Pickett; Robin Slade; Lester J. Wadhams

2008-01-01

75

Development of PBBI Laminating Resin.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

PBBI resin formulary studies were performed in order to increase resin toughness and to decrease resin shrinkage while maintaining improved moisture resistance over state of the art, 177 C (350 F) service epoxy resins. The most promising approach was iden...

R. W. Vaughan R. A. Buyny

1979-01-01

76

Biological Ion Exchanger Resins  

PubMed Central

The cell is presented as a biological ion exchanger resin. The similarities between ion accumulating cells and ion exchanger resins are correlated. The kinetic characteristics of biological ion exchange are shown to be amenable to analysis by a model commonly used for ion exchanger resins. The theories of ion exchange equilibria currently in use with ion exchanger resins are reviewed with their suitability for adaptation to biological ion exchange in mind. ImagesFIGURE 1

Damadian, Raymond

1971-01-01

77

Resin-Powder Dispenser  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Resin-powder dispenser used at NASA's Langley Research Center for processing of composite-material prepregs. Dispenser evenly distributes powder (resin polymer and other matrix materials in powder form) onto wet uncured prepregs. Provides versatility in distribution of solid resin in prepreg operation. Used wherever there is requirement for even, continuous distribution of small amount of powder.

Standfield, Clarence E.

1994-01-01

78

Rapid and simple method for DNA extraction from plant and algal species suitable for PCR amplification using a chelating resin Chelex 100  

Microsoft Academic Search

A DNA extraction method using Chelex 100 is widely used for bacteria, Chlamydomonas, and animal cell lines, but only rarely for plant materials due to the need for additional time-consuming and tedious steps.\\u000a We have modified the Chelex 100 protocol and successfully developed a rapid and simple method of DNA extraction for efficient\\u000a PCR-based detection of transgenes from a variety

Kwon HwangBo; Su Hyun Son; Jong Suk Lee; Sung Ran Min; Suk Min Ko; Jang R. Liu; Dongsu Choi; Won Joong Jeong

2010-01-01

79

In situ derivatisation and extraction of volatile fatty acids entrapped on anion-exchange resin from aqueous solutions and urine as a test matrix using pentafluorobenzyl bromide in supercritical carbon dioxide.  

PubMed

The simultaneous extraction and derivatisation of anion-exchange resin-trapped volatile fatty acids (C2-C5) as their pentafluorobenzyl esters has successfully been performed under CO2 supercritical fluid extraction conditions. Volatile fatty acid standards of acetic, propionic and n-butyric acids (at 20 and 100 ppm) as their ester derivatives were recovered at 78.0-101.5% (C.V. 3.5-7.5%, n=6 and 7). Likewise, acrylic acid recoveries were 57.0-61.0% (C.V. 5.5-5.6%, n=6 and 7). This methodology was applied to the quantitation of acetic, propionic, n-butyric and n-valeric acids in spiked urine as a test matrix. Initial clean-up of phosphate and sulfate in the urine was required prior to anion-exchange application and this was achieved by barium salt precipitation. Recoveries ranged from 36 to 66.5% (C.V. 5.9-14.4%, n=9 and 6). PMID:9234843

Cummins, M T; Wells, R J

1997-06-20

80

Branched polymeric media: boron-chelating resins from hyperbranched polyethylenimine.  

PubMed

Extraction of boron from aqueous solutions using selective resins is important in a variety of applications including desalination, ultrapure water production, and nuclear power generation. Today's commercial boron-selective resins are exclusively prepared by functionalization of styrene-divinylbenzene (STY-DVB) beads with N-methylglucamine to produce resins with boron-chelating groups. However, such boron-selective resins have a limited binding capacity with a maximum free base content of 0.7 eq/L, which corresponds to a sorption capacity of 1.16 ± 0.03 mMol/g in aqueous solutions with equilibrium boron concentration of ?70 mM. In this article, we describe the synthesis and characterization of a new resin that can selectively extract boron from aqueous solutions. We show that branched polyethylenimine (PEI) beads obtained from an inverse suspension process can be reacted with glucono-1,5-D-lactone to afford a resin consisting of spherical beads with high density of boron-chelating groups. This resin has a sorption capacity of 1.93 ± 0.04 mMol/g in aqueous solution with equilibrium boron concentration of ?70 mM, which is 66% percent larger than that of standard commercial STY-DVB resins. Our new boron-selective resin also shows excellent regeneration efficiency using a standard acid wash with a 1.0 M HCl solution followed by neutralization with a 0.1 M NaOH solution. PMID:22827255

Mishra, Himanshu; Yu, Changjun; Chen, Dennis P; Goddard, William A; Dalleska, Nathan F; Hoffmann, Michael R; Diallo, Mamadou S

2012-08-21

81

21 CFR 177.1500 - Nylon resins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Fahrenheit) Solubilityin boiling 4.2N HC1 Viscosity No.(mL/g) Maximum extractable fractionin...the sample and multiplying by 100. (5) Viscosity number (VN). (i) The viscosity number (VN) for Nylon 6/12 resin in a...

2013-04-01

82

Occurrence of polycadinene in fossil and recent resins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dammars produced by Dipterocarpaceae growing in Southeast Asia are partly composed of a macromolecule with a polycadinene structure. This polymer is the precursor of many specific compounds encountered in crude oils and sediment extracts from South Asia. Until recently there was no evidence for a more widespread geographical occurrence of this resinous polymer. Using different pyrolysis methods it is shown that the polymers present in a resinite from Utah, USA, and in resins contained in resin canals of Eocene fossil fruits from Germany and England are also polycadinenes. The fossil fruits were undoubtedly produced by ancient representatives of mastixioid Cornaceae, a group of plants which was widespread in the Tertiary of Europe and North America and which is not related to Dipterocarpaceae. These findings extend the known occurrence and origin of the sesquiterpenoid type resin polymer. It is to be expected that catagenetic products of these resin polymers should be present in oils, coals, and sediment extracts from areas outside Southeast Asia.

Van Aarssen, B. G. K.; de Leeuw, J. W.; Collinson, M.; Boon, J. J.; Goth, K.

1994-01-01

83

Advanced Thermoplastic Resins, Phase 1.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Eight thermoplastic polyimide resin systems were evaluated as composite matrix materials. Two resins were selected for more extensive mechanical testing and both were versions of LaRC-TPI (Langley Research Center - Thermoplastic Polyimide). One resin was ...

C. L. Hendricks S. G. Hill A. Falcone N. T. Gerken

1991-01-01

84

Selective extraction of U(VI), Th(IV), and La(III) from acidic matrix solutions and environmental samples using chemically modified Amberlite XAD-16 resin  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new grafted polymer has been developed by the chemical modification of Amberlite XAD-16 (AXAD-16) polymeric matrix with [(2-dihydroxyarsinoylphenylamino)methyl]phosphonic acid (AXAD-16-AsP). The modified polymer was characterized by a combination of 13C CPMAS and 31P solid-state NMR, Fourier transform-NIR-FIR-Raman spectroscopy, CHNPS elemental analysis, and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The distribution studies for the extraction of U(VI), Th(IV), and La(III) from acidic solutions

D. Prabhakaran; M. S. Subramanian

2004-01-01

85

Solid phase extraction of Pd(II) on a newly synthesized chelating resin prior to determination by flame atomic absorption spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new solid phase extraction method for the separation and preconcentration of Pd(II) was developed. As solid phase material,\\u000a a new chelating polymer, poly [N-(4-bromophenyl)-2-methacrylamide-co-2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propanesulfonic acid - co-divinylbenzene]\\u000a was synthesized. The parameters such as the effect of pH, eluent type, volume and concentration, flow rate of sample solution,\\u000a sample volume and effect of interfering ions for the preconcentration of Pd(II)

?erife Tokal?o?lu; Vedat Y?lmaz; ?enol Kartal; Ali Deliba?; Cengiz Soykan

2009-01-01

86

IRRADIATED PETROLEUM RESINS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for improving the properties of polymeric material produced by ; the Friedel-Crafts polymerization of light, cracked petroleum fractions is ; presented. The petroleum resins are mixed with a divinyl aromatic and irradiated ; at a dose rate of at least 0.1 equivalent Mr\\/hr until at least 1\\/2 equivalent Mr ; is absorbed. Resinous solids are obtained that have

J. E. Shewmaker; J. F. Nelson

1963-01-01

87

Incombustible resin composition  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Incombustible resin compositions composed of aromatic compounds were obtained through (1) combustion polymer material and (2) bisphenol A or halogenated bisphenol A and bisphenol A diglycidl ether or halogenated bisphenol A diglycidyl ether. The aromatic compound is an adduct of bifunctional phenols and bifunctional epoxy resins.

Akima, T.

1982-01-01

88

Delayed cure bismaleimide resins  

DOEpatents

Prior art polybismaleimides begin to polymerize at or just above the melting point of the monomer. This patent describes new bismaleimide resins which have an increased pot life and provide longer time periods in which the monomer remains fluid. The resins can be polymerized into molded articles with a high uniformity of properties. (DLC)

Not Available

1982-08-12

89

Development of resins for composites by resin transfer molding  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Designed to cover a wide range of resin technology and to meet the near-term and long-term needs of the aircraft industry, this research has three objectives: to produce resin transfer molding (RES) resins with improved processability, to produce prepreg systems with high toughness and service temperature, and to produce new resin systems. Progress on reaching the objectives is reported.

Woo, Edmund P.; Puckett, Paul M.; Maynard, Shawn J.

1991-01-01

90

Improved resin infiltration of natural caries lesions.  

PubMed

In artificial lesions, improved penetration and the caries-inhibiting properties of infiltrating resins could be observed with increasing penetration coefficients (PCs). The aim of the present study was to compare the penetration abilities of an experimental 'infiltrant' into natural lesions with those of an adhesive in vitro. Extracted human molars and premolars showing proximal white spots were cut across the lesions perpendicular to the surface. Corresponding lesion halves were etched for 120 sec with 15% hydrochloric acid gel and were subsequently treated with either an adhesive (PC: 31 cm/sec) or an infiltrant (PC: 273 cm/sec). Specimens were observed by confocal microscopy and transverse microradiography. Penetration depths of the adhesive were significantly lower compared with those of the infiltrant (p < 0.001; Wilcoxon). It can be concluded that resins with higher PCs (infiltrants) show superior ability to penetrate natural lesions compared with resins with lower PCs. PMID:19029077

Meyer-Lueckel, H; Paris, S

2008-12-01

91

Isolation of organic acids from large volumes of water by adsorption on macroporous resins  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Adsorption on synthetic macroporous resins, such as the Amberlite XAD series and Duolite A-7, is routinely used to isolate and concentrate organic acids from forge volumes of water. Samples as large as 24,500 L have been processed on site by using these resins. Two established extraction schemes using XAD-8 and Duolite A-7 resins are described. The choice of the appropriate resin and extraction scheme is dependent on the organic solutes of interest. The factors that affect resin performance, selectivity, and capacity for a particular solute are solution pH, resin surface area and pore size, and resin composition. The logistical problems of sample handling, filtration, and preservation are also discussed.

Aiken, George R.

1987-01-01

92

Biocidal quaternary ammonium resin  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Activated carbon (charcoal) and polymeric resin sorbents are widely used in the filtration and treatment of drinking water, mainly to remove dissolved organic and inorganic impurities and to improve the taste. Earlier hopes that activated carbon might "disinfect' water proved to be unfounded. The feasibility of protecting against microbial infestation in charcoal and resin beds such as those to be incorporated into total water reuse systems in spacecraft was investigated. The biocidal effect of IPCD (insoluable polymeric contact disinfectants) in combination with a representative charcoal was assessed. The ion exchange resins (IPCD) were shown to adequately protect charcoal and ion exchange beds.

Janauer, G. E.

1983-01-01

93

Impregnation of softwood cell walls with melamine-formaldehyde resin.  

PubMed

Melamine-formaldehyde (MF) resin impregnation has shown considerable potential to improve a number of wood properties, such as surface hardness and weathering resistance. In this study, selected factors influencing the uptake of MF resin into the cell wall of softwood were studied. Using UV-microspectroscopy, it could be shown that water soluble MF diffused well into the secondary cell wall and the middle lamella. Concentrations as high as 24% (v/v) were achieved after an impregnation of 20 h. High cell wall moisture content, high water content of the resin used for impregnation, and low extractive content are factors which are favourable for MF resin uptake into the cell wall. For dry cell walls, solvent exchange drying improved resin uptake to a similar extent, as was the case when cell walls were soaked in water. PMID:12507874

Gindl, W; Zargar-Yaghubi, F; Wimmer, R

2003-05-01

94

The use of ultraviolet LED illumination for composite resin removal: an in vitro study.  

PubMed

It may be difficult to recognize composite resin restorations that are correctly shade-matched and well-placed by visual and tactile inspection alone--which can make the replacement of an existing resin restoration challenging. Many composite resins fluoresce under UV light, which can help dentists to detect resin material. This article explores a technique that utilizes a UV LED to cause composite resin to fluoresce. A UV/visible light spectrofluorometer was used to measure fluorescence excitation and emission maxima of 14 composite resin brands. Control samples of dentin and enamel were measured in a similar manner. Subsequently, each brand of composite resin was placed in extracted teeth and relative fluorescence was assessed. The composite resins were then removed and each tooth was inspected using UV light to detect remaining resin. Results from this study indicated that the optimal excitation wavelength was 385-395 nm, while 460 nm was determined to be the mean emission maxima. This study revealed three types of resin: highly fluorescent, moderately fluorescent, and weakly fluorescent. In each instance, the UV light revealed the presence of resin after all resin was believed to have been removed. Based on the results of this study, the use of UV illumination can be a useful technique for determining if composite resin has been removed completely. PMID:20829156

Bush, Mary A; Hermanson, Arnold S; Yetto, Robert J; Wieczkowski, Gerard

2010-01-01

95

Dilatometry on Thermoset Resins.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A simple capillary and bulb mercury dilatometer designed for making specific volume measurements on thermoset resin systems during the curing reaction and as a function of temperature is described. The design, calibration, operation, data treatment and er...

A. W. Snow J. P. Armistead

1991-01-01

96

Thermally stable laminating resins  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Improved thermally stable laminating resins were developed based on the addition-type pyrolytic polymerization. Detailed monomer and polymer synthesis and characterization studies identified formulations which facilitate press molding processing and autoclave fabrication of glass and graphite fiber reinforced composites. A specific resin formulation, termed P10P was utilized to prepare a Courtaulds HMS reinforced simulated airfoil demonstration part by an autoclave molding process.

Jones, R. J.; Vaughan, R. W.; Burns, E. A.

1972-01-01

97

SCREENING OF E- AND Z-GUGGULSTERONES IN THE GUM-RESIN EXUDATES OF SOME COMMON PLANTS AND METHOD VALIDATION IN RAW, EXTRACTED, AND PHARMACEUTICAL FORMULATIONS OF COMMIPHORA MUKUL BY HPLC  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hypolipidemic agents, E- and Z-guggulsterones, are the biomarker compounds found in the gum-resin exudates of Commiphora mukul. Gum-Resin exudates of six common plants included Mangifera indica, Ficus religiosa, Delonix regia, Acacia nilotica, Abies balsamea, and Commiphora stocksiana and were screened against the said drug by the HPLC method. The developed method was validated for the quantification of E- and Z-guggulsterones

Syed Ghulam Musharraf; Naveed Iqbal; Muhammad Arif Ahmed; Shumiala Mazhar; Muhammad Iqbal Choudhary

2011-01-01

98

Branched polymeric media: perchlorate-selective resins from hyperbranched polyethyleneimine.  

PubMed

Perchlorate (ClO(4)(-)) is a persistent contaminant found in drinking groundwater sources in the United States. Ion exchange (IX) with selective and disposable resins based on cross-linked styrene divinylbenzene (STY-DVB) beads is currently the most commonly utilized process for removing low concentrations of ClO(4)(-) (10-100 ppb) from contaminated drinking water sources. However, due to the low exchange capacity of perchlorate-selective STY-DVB resins (?0.5-0.8 eq/L), the overall cost becomes prohibitive when treating groundwater with higher concentration of ClO(4)(-) (e.g., 100-1000 ppb). In this article, we describe a new perchlorate-selective resin with high exchange capacity. This new resin was prepared by alkylation of branched polyethyleneimine (PEI) beads obtained from an inverse suspension polymerization process. Batch and column studies show that our new PEI resin with mixed hexyl/ethyl quaternary ammonium chloride exchange sites can selectively extract trace amounts of ClO(4)(-) from a makeup groundwater (to below detection limit) in the presence of competing ions. In addition, this resin has a strong-base exchange capacity of 1.4 eq/L, which is 1.75-2.33 times larger than those of commercial perchlorate-selective STY-DVB resins. The overall results of our studies suggest that branched PEI beads provide versatile and promising building blocks for the preparation of perchlorate-selective resins with high exchange capacity. PMID:22950356

Chen, Dennis P; Yu, Changjun; Chang, Ching-Yu; Wan, Yanjian; Frechet, Jean M J; Goddard, William A; Diallo, Mamadou S

2012-10-01

99

Polymerization shrinkage of composite resins: comparison with tooth deformation.  

PubMed

Polymerization shrinkage of two posterior composite resin restorative materials was measured by dilatometry. The results were compared with a decrease in cavity width of MOD preparations in extracted premolars restored with the composite resins. A highly filled hybrid composite exhibited greater free shrinkage and cuspal deformation than a hybrid composite with a lower filler content. Deformation of the cusps was less than the unrestricted shrinkage of the composite resins. Hydrated teeth exhibited less deformation than dehydrated teeth because of polymerization shrinkage. Greater cuspal deformations were measured with the microscopic technique than with interferometry because of differences in experimental design. PMID:8120846

Suliman, A H; Boyer, D B; Lakes, R S

1994-01-01

100

40 CFR 414.50 - Applicability; description of the thermosetting resins subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Ketone-Formaldehyde Resins *Melamine Resins *Phenolic Resins *Polyacetal Resins Polyacrylamide *Polyurethane Prepolymers *Polyurethane Resins *Urea Formaldehyde Resins *Urea Resins [52 FR 42568, Nov. 5, 1987, as amended...

2013-07-01

101

Resin Infiltration of Natural Caries Lesions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infiltration of non-cavitated caries lesions with light-curing resins could lead to an arrest of lesion progression. The aim of this study was to evaluate the penetration of a conventional adhesive into natural enamel caries after pre-treatment with two different etching gels in vitro. Extracted human molars and premolars showing proximal white-spot lesions were cut across the lesions perpendicular to the

H. Meyer-Lueckel; A. M. Kielbassa

2007-01-01

102

Phenoxy Resins Containing Pendent Ethynyl Groups and Cured Resins Therefrom.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Phenoxy resins containing pendent ethynyl groups, the process for preparing the same, and the cured resin products obtained therefrom, are discussed. Upon the application of heat, the ethynyl groups react to provide branching and crosslinking. The cure te...

P. M. Hergenrother

1984-01-01

103

Absolute stereostructures of polypodane-type triterpenes, myrrhanol A and myrrhanone A, from guggul-gum resin (the resin of Balsamodendron mukul).  

PubMed

Two new polypodane-type triterpenes, myrrhanol A and myrrhanone A, were isolated from the 50% aqueous methanolic extract of guggul-gum resin [the resin of Balsamodendron (=Commiphora) mukul HOOK]. The structures of the new constituents, including their absolute configurations, were determined on the basis of chemical and physicochemical evidence. PMID:15467235

Matsuda, Hisashi; Morikawa, Toshio; Ando, Shin; Oominami, Hideo; Murakami, Toshiyuki; Kimura, Ikuko; Yoshikawa, Masayuki

2004-10-01

104

Determination of Human-Health Pharmaceuticals in Filtered Water by Chemically Modified Styrene-Divinylbenzene Resin-Based Solid-Phase Extraction and High-Performance Liquid Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 1999, the Methods Research and Development Program of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Laboratory began the process of developing a method designed to identify and quantify human-health pharmaceuticals in four filtered water-sample types: reagent water, ground water, surface water minimally affected by human contributions, and surface water that contains a substantial fraction of treated wastewater. Compounds derived from human pharmaceutical and personal-care product use, which enter the environment through wastewater discharge, are a newly emerging area of concern; this method was intended to fulfill the need for a highly sensitive and highly selective means to identify and quantify 14 commonly used human pharmaceuticals in filtered-water samples. The concentrations of 12 pharmaceuticals are reported without qualification; the concentrations of two pharmaceuticals are reported as estimates because long-term reagent-spike sample recoveries fall below acceptance criteria for reporting concentrations without qualification. The method uses a chemically modified styrene-divinylbenzene resin-based solid-phase extraction (SPE) cartridge for analyte isolation and concentration. For analyte detection and quantitation, an instrumental method was developed that used a high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS) system to separate the pharmaceuticals of interest from each other and coextracted material. Immediately following separation, the pharmaceuticals are ionized by electrospray ionization operated in the positive mode, and the positive ions produced are detected, identified, and quantified using a quadrupole mass spectrometer. In this method, 1-liter water samples are first filtered, either in the field or in the laboratory, using a 0.7-micrometer (um) nominal pore size glass-fiber filter to remove suspended solids. The filtered samples then are passed through cleaned and conditioned SPE cartridges at a rate of about 15 milliliters per minute. Excess water is eliminated from the cartridge sorbent bed by passing air through the cartridges, and the analytes retained on the SPE bed are eluted from the cartridge sequentially, first with methanol, followed by acidified methanol, and combined in collection tubes. This sample extract then is reduced from about 10 milliliters (mL) to about 0.1 mL (or 100 microliters) under a stream of purified nitrogen gas with the collection tubes in a heated (40 degrees C) water bath. The reduced extracts then are fortified with an internal standard solution (when using internal standard quantitation), brought to a final volume of 1 mL with an aqueous ammonium formate buffer solution, and filtered through a 0.2-um Teflon syringe filter as they are transferred into vials for instrumental analysis. Instrumental analysis by the HPLC/MS procedure permits determination of individual pharmaceutical concentrations from 0.005 to 1.0 microgram per liter, based on the lowest and the highest calibration standards routinely used. The reporting levels for this method are compound dependent, and have been experimentally determined based on the precision of quantitation of compounds from eight fortified organic-free water samples in single-operator experiments. The method detection limits and interim reporting levels for the compounds determined by this method were calculated from recoveries of the pharmaceuticals from reagent-water samples amended at 0.05 microgram per liter, and ranged between 0.0069 and 0.0142 microgram per liter, and 0.015 and 0.10 microgram per liter, respectively. Concentrations for 12 compounds are reported without qualification, and for two compounds are reported as qualified estimates. After initial development, the method was applied to more than 1,800 surface-, ground-, and wastewater samples from 2002 to 2005 and documented in a number of published studies. This research application of the method provided the opportunity to collect a l

Furlong, Edward T.; Werner, Stephen L.; Anderson, Bruce D.; Cahill, Jeffery D.

2008-01-01

105

High-performance bismaleimide resin for resin film infusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel high-performance resin system, suitable for resin film infusion (RFI) process, has been developed. It was prepared from N,N?-diphenylbismaleimide, o,o?-diallylbisphenol A, and polyethylsulfone. The resin and its composite, reinforced by a glass fiber cloth, were prepared and characterized in detail. The results showed that the prepared resin film is stable at room temperature, the infusion temperature is 120°C, and

Guozheng Liang; Dong Wang

2002-01-01

106

Method for regenerating ion exchange resin.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This invention is comprised of a method for regenerating ion exchange resin consisting of a mixed resin containing granular cation exchange resin and anion exchange resin contaminated during condensation treatment in steam power generating plants, charact...

M. Ogihara, K. Ichikawa, T. Idemizu

1991-01-01

107

Method for removing contaminants from plastic resin  

DOEpatents

A resin recycling method that produces essentially contaminant-free synthetic resin material in an environmentally safe and economical manner. The method includes receiving the resin in container form. The containers are then ground into resin particles. The particles are exposed to a solvent, the solvent contacting the resin particles and substantially removing contaminants on the resin particles. After separating the particles and the resin, a solvent removing agent is used to remove any residual solvent remaining on the resin particles after separation.

Bohnert, George W. (Harrisonville, MO); Hand, Thomas E. (Lee's Summit, MO); DeLaurentiis, Gary M. (Jamestown, CA)

2008-12-09

108

Graphite Fiber Reinforced Thermoplastic Resins.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Mechanical properties of neat resin samples and graphite fiber reinforced samples of thermoplastic resins were characterized with particular emphasis directed to the effects of environmental exposure (humidity, temperature and ultraviolet radiation). Tens...

R. C. Novak

1975-01-01

109

Production of petroleum polymer resins  

Microsoft Academic Search

In other countries, petroleum polymer resins are being used successfully in large volumes. In the U.S. in 1982, for example, 128,000 tonnes of petroleum polymer resins were produced [2], much of which was used in the paint and varnish industry. In commercial production in the USSR are a dark-colored styrene-lndene resin and light-colored petroleum polymer resins of two types --

Yu. V. Dumskii; M. E. Belyakov; A. K. Suroto; G. F. Cherednikova; L. B. Grin'ko

1988-01-01

110

Removal of chromium(III) by cation exchange resin, Indion 790 for tannery waste treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extraction of chromium(III) from a model solution and from a tannery waste solution was studied by ion exchange using Indion 790 resin which is a macro-porous strongly acidic cation exchange resin of sulfonated polystyrene group. The resin was found to be selective for the sorption of chromium(III) in the pH range 0.5–3.5 from a model solution containing 500ppm Cr(III). Beyond

S. K. Sahu; P. Meshram; B. D. Pandey; V. Kumar; T. R. Mankhand

2009-01-01

111

Synthesis of new phosphonate ester resins for adsorption of gold from alkaline cyanide solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resin ion-exchange technology is a possible alternative to well-established gold recovery processes of carbon adsorption and\\u000a zinc-dust cementation. The search for a suitable resin for gold recovery from alkaline cyanide solution continues at several\\u000a research centers. Recent discoveries involving alkyl phosphorus esters for selective gold solvent extraction from alkaline\\u000a cyanide solution suggest that similar chemistry on a resin substrate might

M. Akser; R. Y. Wan; J. D. Miller; D. R. Quillen; S. D. Alexandratos

1987-01-01

112

Analysis of Photo-initiators in Visible-light-cured Dental Composite Resins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seven commercial visible-light-cured (VL) dental composite resins were analytically studied for identification of the photo-initiator consisting of photo-sensitizer and reducing agent. Gas-liquid chromatography (GC) was used for the determination of the dilute components extracted from the composite resin. Mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) was used for confirmation of the qualitative data obtained by GC.The results showed that all composite resins examined included

M. Taira; H. Urabe; T. Hirose; K. Wakasa; M. Yamaki

1988-01-01

113

Retentive Force of FRC Posts Inserted with Core Build-up Composites and Resin Cements  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to determine the retentive forces of fiber-reinforced composite (FRC) posts luted with different core build-up composite resins, and resin cements. Extracted single-rooted teeth were restored using FRC posts luted with the core build-up composites Build-It, Culmat, Flow White, Luxacore, Multi-Core Flow, Rebilda DC and luted with the resin cements Calibra, Cement-It, Multilink, and RelyX

P. Schmage; F. Yalcin Cakir; I. Nergiz; S. Selcuk; P. Pfeiffer

2011-01-01

114

Resin impregnation process for producing a resin-fiber composite  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Process for vacuum impregnation of a dry fiber reinforcement with a curable resin to produce a resin-fiber composite, by drawing a vacuum to permit flow of curable liquid resin into and through a fiber reinforcement to impregnate same and curing the resin-impregnated fiber reinforcement at a sufficient temperature and pressure to effect final curing. Both vacuum and positive pressure, e.g. autoclave pressure, are applied to the dry fiber reinforcement prior to application of heat and prior to any resin flow to compact the dry fiber reinforcement, and produce a resin-fiber composite of reduced weight, thickness and resin content, and improved mechanical properties. Preferably both a vacuum and positive pressure, e.g. autoclave pressure, are also applied during final curing.

Palmer, Raymond J. (Inventor); Moore, William E. (Inventor)

1994-01-01

115

21 CFR 169.175 - Vanilla extract.  

...vanilla extract or concentrated vanilla flavoring or vanilla flavoring concentrated to the semisolid form called vanilla oleo-resin. Vanilla extract may contain one or more of the following optional ingredients: (1) Glycerin. (2) Propylene...

2014-04-01

116

Development of Polyimide Resins.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Polyimides are well-known to be attractive matrix resins for fiber-reinforced composites due to their superior thermal stability. However, their poor fabricability and high cost have been preventing them from being widely used. This paper reports three ap...

Y. Aito

1984-01-01

117

Nontoxic Resins Advance Aerospace Manufacturing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The 2008 NASA Commercial Invention of the Year, PETI-330, is a polyimide matrix resin that performs well at high temperatures and is easily processed into composites in a simple, short curing cycle. Invented by scientists at Langley Research Center, PETI-330 is now licensed to Ube Industries, based in Japan with its American headquarters in New York. In addition to being durable and lightweight, the resin is also nontoxic, which makes it safe for workers to handle. PETI-330 was created specifically for heat-resistant composites formed with resin transfer molding and resin infusion, which formerly could only be used with low temperature resin systems.

2009-01-01

118

Antimicrobial activity of the resins obtained from the roots and stems of Cedrus libani and Abies cilicica.  

PubMed

The antimicrobial activity of the ethanol extract of resins obtained from the roots and stems of Cedrus libani and Abies cilicica was investigated using a disc diffusion method. Results revealed that crude extracts of the resins of both plants are highly effective against tested microorganisms by preventing their growth to a greater extent. PMID:11962214

Kizil, Murat; Kizil, Göksel; Yavuz, Murat; Aytekin, Cetin

2002-01-01

119

Flame Retardant Epoxy Resins  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As part of a program to develop fire resistant exterior composite structures for future subsonic commercial aircraft, flame retardant epoxy resins are under investigation. Epoxies and their curing agents (aromatic diamines) containing phosphorus were synthesized and used to prepare epoxy formulations. Phosphorus was incorporated within the backbone of the epoxy resin and not used as an additive. The resulting cured epoxies were characterized by thermogravimetric analysis, propane torch test, elemental analysis and microscale combustion calorimetry. Several formulations showed excellent flame retardation with phosphorous contents as low as 1.5% by weight. The fracture toughness of plaques of several cured formulations was determined on single-edge notched bend specimens. The chemistry and properties of these new epoxy formulations are discussed.

Thompson, C. M.; Smith, J. G., Jr.; Connell, J. W.; Hergenrother, P. M.; Lyon, R. E.

2004-01-01

120

Resin composite restorative materials.  

PubMed

This paper surveys the most important developments in resin-based dental composites and focuses on the deficits (e.g. polymerization shrinkage) and strengths of the materials and their clinical implications. Moreover, differences between composite categories, such as hybrid, nanohybrid, microfilled, packable, ormocer-based, silorane-based, polyacid-modified composites (compomers) and flowable composites are highlighted, especially in view of their mechanical behaviour. In addition to the classical dimethacrylate-based composites, special attention is given to alternative monomers, such as siloranes, ormocers or high-molecular-weight dimethacrylate monomers (e.g. dimer acid-based dimethacrylates and tricyclodecane (TCD)-urethane), analysing their advantages, behaviour and abilities. Finally, the paper attempts to establish the needs and wishes of clinicians for further development of resin-based composites. PMID:21564116

Ilie, N; Hickel, R

2011-06-01

121

Evaluation of Selective Ion Exchange Resins for Removal of Mercury from the H-Area Water Treatment Unit  

SciTech Connect

This study investigated the ability of seven ion exchange (IX) resins, some of which were mercury specific, to remove mercury in H-Area WTU waters from three sources (Reverse Osmosis (RO) Feed, RO Permeate from Train A, and a mercury ''hot spot'' extraction well HEX 18). Seven ion exchange resins, including ResinTech CG8 and Dowex 21K (the cation and anion exchange resins currently used at the H-Area WTU) were screened against five alternative ion exchange materials plus an experimental blank. Mercury decontamination factors (DFs), mercury breakthrough, and post-test contaminant concentrations of IX resins were determined for each IX material tested.

Serkiz, S.M.

2000-09-05

122

Application of the shrinking core model to the kinetics of extraction of gold(I), silver(I) and nickel(II) cyanide complexes by novel anion exchange resins  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes an investigation of the kinetics of loading of gold(I), silver(I), and nickel(II) cyanide complexes onto two novel anion exchange resins with high selectivity for the linear dicyanoaurate(I) and dicyanoargentate(I) complexes. The kinetic data fit well to a shrinking core theoretical model, and indicate that in all three complexes, the loading is controlled by the rate of diffusion

Greg W Dicinoski; Lawrence R Gahan; Peter J Lawson; John A Rideout

2000-01-01

123

System for removing contaminants from plastic resin  

DOEpatents

A resin recycling system that produces essentially contaminant-free synthetic resin material in an environmentally safe and economical manner. The system includes receiving the resin in container form. A grinder grinds the containers into resin particles. The particles are exposed to a solvent in one or more solvent wash vessels, the solvent contacting the resin particles and substantially removing contaminants on the resin particles. A separator is used to separate the resin particles and the solvent. The resin particles are then placed in solvent removing element where they are exposed to a solvent removing agent which removes any residual solvent remaining on the resin particles after separation.

Bohnert, George W. (Harrisonville, MO); Hand, Thomas E. (Lee's Summit, MO); DeLaurentiis, Gary M. (Jamestown, CA)

2010-11-23

124

Antibacterial activities of some constituents from oleo-gum-resin of Commiphora mukul.  

PubMed

The essential oil, chloroform extract and seven sesquiterpenoids compounds newly isolated from the oleo-gum-resin of Commiphora mukul showed a wide range of inhibiting activity against both Gram (+) and Gram (-) bacteria. PMID:15030926

Saeed, M Asif; Sabir, A W

2004-03-01

125

Presence of Dichloromethane on Cleaned XAD-2 Resin: A Potential Problem and Solutions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Preparation of XAD-2 resin for indoor air sampling with commonly used cleaning methods, such as Soxhlet extraction with dichloromethane (DCM) followed by vacuum drying and nitrogen purging, can lead to elevated DCM levels (>100 ppb) in the sampled indoor ...

J. C. Chuang M. W. Holdren N. K. Wilson

1990-01-01

126

Antibacterial activities of some constituents from oleo-gum-resin of Commiphora mukul  

Microsoft Academic Search

The essential oil, chloroform extract and seven sesquiterpenoids compounds newly isolated from the oleo-gum-resin of Commiphora mukul showed a wide range of inhibiting activity against both Gram (+) and Gram (?) bacteria.

M. Asif Saeed; A. W. Sabir

2004-01-01

127

Advanced thermoplastic resins, phase 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Eight thermoplastic polyimide resin systems were evaluated as composite matrix materials. Two resins were selected for more extensive mechanical testing and both were versions of LaRC-TPI (Langley Research Center - Thermoplastic Polyimide). One resin was made with LaRC-TPI and contained 2 weight percent of a di(amic acid) dopant as a melt flow aid. The second system was a 1:1 slurry of semicrystalline LaRC-TPI powder in a polyimidesulfone resin diglyme solution. The LaRC-TPI powder melts during processing and increases the melt flow of the resin. Testing included dynamic mechanical analysis, tension and compression testing, and compression-after-impact testing. The test results demonstrated that the LaRC-TPI resins have very good properties compared to other thermoplastics, and that they are promising matrix materials for advanced composite structures.

Hendricks, C. L.; Hill, S. G.; Falcone, A.; Gerken, N. T.

1991-01-01

128

Dry PMR-15 Resin Powders  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Shelf lives of PMR-15 polymides lengthened. Procedure involves quenching of monomer reactions by vacuum drying of PRM-15 resin solutions at 70 to 90 degree F immediately after preparation of solutions. Absence of solvent eliminates formation of higher esters and reduces formation of imides to negligible level. Provides fully-formulated dry PMR-15 resin powder readily dissolvable in solvent at room temperature immediately before use. Resins used in variety of aerospace, aeronautical, and commercial applications.

Vannucci, Raymond D.; Roberts, Gary D.

1988-01-01

129

Vitrification of ion exchange resins  

DOEpatents

The present invention relates to vitrification of ion exchange resins that have become loaded with hazardous or radioactive wastes, in a way that produces a homogenous and durable waste form and reduces the disposal volume of the resin. The methods of the present invention involve directly adding borosilicate glass formers and an oxidizer to the ion exchange resin and heating the mixture at sufficient temperature to produce homogeneous glass.

Cicero-Herman, Connie A. (Aiken, SC); Workman, Rhonda Jackson (North Augusta, SC)

2001-01-01

130

Evaluating resin-enamel bonds by microshear and microtensile bond strength tests: effects of composite resin  

PubMed Central

Objectives The aims of this study were to evaluate the effect of resin composite (Filtek Z250 and Filtek Flow Z350) and adhesive system [(Solobond Plus, Futurabond NR (VOCO) and Adper Single Bond (3M ESPE)] on the microtensile (µTBS) and microshear bond strength (µSBS) tests on enamel, and to correlate the bond strength means between them. Material and methods Thirty-six extracted human molars were sectioned to obtain two tooth halves: one for µTBS and the other one for µSBS. Adhesive systems and resin composites were applied to the enamel ground surfaces and light-cured. After storage (37ºC/24 h) specimens were stressed (0.5 mm/ min). Fracture modes were analyzed under scanning electron microscopy. The data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (?=0.05). Results The correlation between tests was estimated with Pearson's product-moment correlation statistics (? =0.05). For both tests only the main factor resin composite was statistically significant (p<0.05). The correlation test detected a positive (r=0.91) and significant (p=0.01) correlation between the tests. Conclusions The results were more influenced by the resin type than by the adhesives. Both microbond tests seem to be positive and linearly correlated and can therefore lead to similar conclusions.

de ANDRADE, Andrea Mello; MOURA, Sandra Kiss; REIS, Alessandra; LOGUERCIO, Alessandro Dourado; GARCIA, Eugenio Jose; GRANDE, Rosa Helena Miranda

2010-01-01

131

Characterization of phenolic resins with thermogravimetry-mass spectrometry.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

As part of an advanced material research program, thermogravimetry-mass spectrometry (TG-MS) analysis of a phenolic resin was carried out recently for the study of the curing of the prepolymer, solvent extraction, and carbonization of the polymer at high ...

C. Chang J. R. Tackett

1990-01-01

132

High Density Biocomposite from Natural Fibers and Tannin Resin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Successful experiments on high, medium and low density natural fiber reinforced composites made from tannin\\/hexamine resin and flax–hemp fibers have recently been carried out. This study focused on the high density composites. In this work composite panels have been made of three different tannin extracts: mimosa, sulfited mimosa and quebracho, each with their own properties. The panels were tested for

A. Nicollin; R. Kueny; L. Toniazzo; A. Pizzi

2012-01-01

133

Phosphorus-containing bisimide resins  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The production of fire-resistant resins particularly useful for making laminates with inorganic fibers such as graphite fibers is discussed. The resins are by (1) condensation of an ethylenically unsaturated cyclic anhydride with a bis(diaminophenyl) phosphine oxide, and (2) by addition polymerization of the bisimide so obtained. Up to about 50%, on a molar basis, of benzophenonetetracarboxylic acid anhydride can be substituted for some of the cyclic anhydride to alter the properties of the products. Graphite cloth laminates made with these resins show 800 C char yields greater than 70% by weight in nitrogen. Limiting oxygen indexes of more than 100% are determined for these resins.

Varma, I. K.; Fohlen, G. M.; Parker, J. A. (inventors)

1981-01-01

134

21 CFR 177.1380 - Fluorocarbon resins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Fluorocarbon resins. 177.1380 Section 177.1380 Food and Drugs...Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1380 Fluorocarbon resins. Fluorocarbon resins may be safely used as articles or components...

2011-04-01

135

21 CFR 177.1595 - Polyetherimide resin.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Polyetherimide resin. 177.1595 Section 177.1595 Food and Drugs...Contact Surfaces § 177.1595 Polyetherimide resin. The polyetherimide resin identified in this section may be safely...

2012-04-01

136

21 CFR 177.1595 - Polyetherimide resin.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Polyetherimide resin. 177.1595 Section 177.1595 Food and Drugs...Contact Surfaces § 177.1595 Polyetherimide resin. The polyetherimide resin identified in this section may be safely...

2011-04-01

137

21 CFR 178.3930 - Terpene resins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Terpene resins. 178.3930 Section 178.3930 Food and Drugs...Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3930 Terpene resins. The terpene resins identified in paragraph (a) of this...

2011-04-01

138

21 CFR 177.1585 - Polyestercarbonate resins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2009-04-01 true Polyestercarbonate resins. 177.1585 Section 177.1585 Food and...Contact Surfaces § 177.1585 Polyestercarbonate resins. Polyestercarbonate resins may be safely used as articles or...

2010-01-01

139

21 CFR 178.3930 - Terpene resins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Terpene resins. 178.3930 Section 178.3930 Food and Drugs...Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3930 Terpene resins. The terpene resins identified in paragraph (a) of this...

2012-04-01

140

21 CFR 177.1680 - Polyurethane resins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Polyurethane resins. 177.1680 Section 177.1680 Food and...Contact Surfaces § 177.1680 Polyurethane resins. The polyurethane resins identified in paragraph (a) of this...

2011-04-01

141

40 CFR 721.9495 - Acrylosilane resins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-07-01 false Acrylosilane resins. 721.9495 Section 721.9495 ...Substances § 721.9495 Acrylosilane resins. (a) Chemical substance and significant...chemical substances identified as acrylosilane resins (PMNs P-95-1024/1040) are...

2012-07-01

142

21 CFR 872.3140 - Resin applicator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Resin applicator. 872.3140 Section 872.3140...DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3140 Resin applicator. (a) Identification. A resin applicator is a brushlike device intended...

2012-04-01

143

21 CFR 872.3140 - Resin applicator.  

... 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Resin applicator. 872.3140 Section 872.3140...DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3140 Resin applicator. (a) Identification. A resin applicator is a brushlike device intended...

2014-04-01

144

21 CFR 177.1585 - Polyestercarbonate resins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Polyestercarbonate resins. 177.1585 Section 177.1585 Food and...Contact Surfaces § 177.1585 Polyestercarbonate resins. Polyestercarbonate resins may be safely used as articles or...

2011-04-01

145

21 CFR 872.3140 - Resin applicator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Resin applicator. 872.3140 Section 872.3140...DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3140 Resin applicator. (a) Identification. A resin applicator is a brushlike device intended...

2011-04-01

146

40 CFR 721.9495 - Acrylosilane resins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-07-01 false Acrylosilane resins. 721.9495 Section 721.9495 ...Substances § 721.9495 Acrylosilane resins. (a) Chemical substance and significant...chemical substances identified as acrylosilane resins (PMNs P-95-1024/1040) are...

2010-07-01

147

21 CFR 177.1560 - Polyarylsulfone resins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2009-04-01 true Polyarylsulfone resins. 177.1560 Section 177.1560 Food and Drugs...Contact Surfaces § 177.1560 Polyarylsulfone resins. Polyarylsulfone resins (CAS Reg. No. 79293-56-4) may be...

2010-01-01

148

21 CFR 177.1380 - Fluorocarbon resins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2009-04-01 true Fluorocarbon resins. 177.1380 Section 177.1380 Food and Drugs...Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1380 Fluorocarbon resins. Fluorocarbon resins may be safely used as articles or components...

2010-01-01

149

21 CFR 177.1680 - Polyurethane resins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Polyurethane resins. 177.1680 Section 177.1680 Food and...Contact Surfaces § 177.1680 Polyurethane resins. The polyurethane resins identified in paragraph (a) of this...

2012-04-01

150

21 CFR 177.1560 - Polyarylsulfone resins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Polyarylsulfone resins. 177.1560 Section 177.1560 Food and Drugs...Contact Surfaces § 177.1560 Polyarylsulfone resins. Polyarylsulfone resins (CAS Reg. No. 79293-56-4) may be...

2011-04-01

151

21 CFR 872.3140 - Resin applicator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Resin applicator. 872.3140 Section 872.3140...DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3140 Resin applicator. (a) Identification. A resin applicator is a brushlike device intended...

2010-04-01

152

40 CFR 721.9495 - Acrylosilane resins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-07-01 false Acrylosilane resins. 721.9495 Section 721.9495 ...Substances § 721.9495 Acrylosilane resins. (a) Chemical substance and significant...chemical substances identified as acrylosilane resins (PMNs P-95-1024/1040) are...

2011-07-01

153

40 CFR 721.9495 - Acrylosilane resins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 false Acrylosilane resins. 721.9495 Section 721.9495 ...Substances § 721.9495 Acrylosilane resins. (a) Chemical substance and significant...chemical substances identified as acrylosilane resins (PMNs P-95-1024/1040) are...

2013-07-01

154

21 CFR 177.2440 - Polyethersulfone resins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Polyethersulfone resins. 177.2440 Section 177.2440 Food and...Repeated Use § 177.2440 Polyethersulfone resins. Polyethersulfone resins identified in paragraph (a) of this...

2011-04-01

155

21 CFR 177.1560 - Polyarylsulfone resins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Polyarylsulfone resins. 177.1560 Section 177.1560 Food and Drugs...Contact Surfaces § 177.1560 Polyarylsulfone resins. Polyarylsulfone resins (CAS Reg. No. 79293-56-4) may be...

2012-04-01

156

21 CFR 177.1585 - Polyestercarbonate resins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Polyestercarbonate resins. 177.1585 Section 177.1585 Food and...Contact Surfaces § 177.1585 Polyestercarbonate resins. Polyestercarbonate resins may be safely used as articles or...

2012-04-01

157

21 CFR 177.1595 - Polyetherimide resin.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2009-04-01 true Polyetherimide resin. 177.1595 Section 177.1595 Food and Drugs...Contact Surfaces § 177.1595 Polyetherimide resin. The polyetherimide resin identified in this section may be safely...

2010-01-01

158

21 CFR 177.2440 - Polyethersulfone resins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Polyethersulfone resins. 177.2440 Section 177.2440 Food and...Repeated Use § 177.2440 Polyethersulfone resins. Polyethersulfone resins identified in paragraph (a) of this...

2012-04-01

159

21 CFR 177.1380 - Fluorocarbon resins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Fluorocarbon resins. 177.1380 Section 177.1380 Food and Drugs...Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1380 Fluorocarbon resins. Fluorocarbon resins may be safely used as articles or components...

2012-04-01

160

Novel silica-based ion exchange resin.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Eichrom's highly successful Diphonixo resin resembles a conventional ion exchange resin in its use of sulfonic acid ligands on a styrene- divinylbenzene matrix. Diphonix resin exhibits rapid exchange kinetics that allow economical operation of ion exchang...

1997-01-01

161

Indirect resin composites  

PubMed Central

Aesthetic dentistry continues to evolve through innovations in bonding agents, restorative materials, and conservative preparation techniques. The use of direct composite restoration in posterior teeth is limited to relatively small cavities due to polymerization stresses. Indirect composites offer an esthetic alternative to ceramics for posterior teeth. This review article focuses on the material aspect of the newer generation of composites. This review was based on a PubMed database search which we limited to peer-reviewed articles in English that were published between 1990 and 2010 in dental journals. The key words used were ‘indirect resin composites,’ composite inlays,’ and ‘fiber-reinforced composites.’

Nandini, Suresh

2010-01-01

162

Imide Modified Epoxy Matrix Resins.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Results of a program designed to develop tough imide modified epoxy (IME) resins cured by bisimide amine (BIA) hardeners are presented. State of the art epoxy resin, MY720, was used. Three aromatic bisimide amines and one aromatic aliphatic BIA were evalu...

D. A. Scola

1982-01-01

163

Imide modified epoxy matrix resins  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

High char yield epoxy using novel bisimide amines (BIA's) as curing agents with a state of the art epoxy resin was developed. Stoichiometric quantities of the epoxy resin and the BIA's were studied to determine the cure cycle required for preparation of resin specimens. The bisimide cured epoxies were designated IME's (imide modified epoxy). The physical, thermal and mechanical properties of these novel resins were determined. The levels of moisture absorption exhibited by the bisimide amine cured expoxies (IME's) were considerably lower than the state of the art epoxies. The strain-to-failure of the control resin system was improved 25% by replacement of DDS with 6F-DDS. Each BIA containing resin exhibited twice the char yield of the control resin MY 720/DDS. Graphite fiber reinforced control (C) and IME resins were fabricated and characterized. Two of the composite systems showed superior properties compared to the other Celion 6000/IME composite systems and state of the art graphite epoxy systems. The two systems exhibited excellent wet shear and flexural strengths and moduli at 300 and 350 F.

Scola, D. A.; Pater, R. H.

1981-01-01

164

Refining of fossil resin flotation concentrate from western coal. Final report  

SciTech Connect

During the past several years, significant research efforts have been made to develop process technology for the selective flotation of fossil resin from western coals. As a result of these efforts, several new flotation technologies have been developed. Operation of a proof-of-concept continuous flotation circuit showed the selective flotation process to be sufficiently profitable to justify the development of a fossil resin industry. However, little attention has been given to the refining of the fossil resin flotation concentrate although solvent refining is a critical step for the fossil resin to become a marketable product. In view of this situation, DOE funded this two-year project to evaluate the following aspects of the fossil resin refining technology: 1) Characterization of the fossil resin flotation concentrate and its refined products; 2) Kinetics of fossil resin extraction; 3) Effects of operating variables on solvent extraction; 4) Extraction solvents; 5) Proof-of-concept continuous refining tests; and 6) Technical and economic analysis. The results from this research effort have led to the following conclusions: Hexane- or heptane-refined fossil resin has a light-yellow color, a melting point of 140 - 142{degrees}C, a density of 1.034 gram/cm, and good solubility in nonpolar solvents. Among the four solvents evaluated (hexane, heptane, toluene and ethyl acetate), hexane is the most appropriate solvent based on overall technical and economic considerations. Batch extraction tests and kinetic studies suggest that the main interaction between the resin and the solvent is expected to be the forces associated with solvation phenomena. Temperature has the most significant effect on extraction rate. With hexane as the solvent, a recovery of 90% cam be achieved at 50{degrees}C and 10% solids concentration with moderate agitation for 1 hour.

Jensen, G.F.; Miller, J.D.

1995-02-16

165

Synthesis and application of a new functionalized resin for use in an on-line, solid phase extraction system for the determination of trace elements in waters and reference cereal materials by flame atomic absorption spectrometry.  

PubMed

The synthesis and characterization of the resin Amberlite XAD-4 functionalized with 2,6-pyridinedicarboxaldehyde and its application in an on-line system for the preconcentration of cadmium, cobalt, copper, lead and manganese prior to determination using flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) is proposed. Metal ions retained on the modified resin were eluted using 1.0 mol L(-1) HNO3 solution and aspirated directly to the nebulizer-burner system of a FAAS instrument using a flow injection system. Detection limits (3?) were determined to be 0.13 ?g L(-1) for Cd, 0.29 ?g L(-1) for Cu, 0.23 ?g L(-1) for Mn, 0.58 ?g L(-1) for Co and 2.19 ?g L(-1) for Pb using a 10 mL of water sample loading volume. The limits of detection would be 100 times higher with units of ?g kg(-1) for the solid samples in which their dilution ratios as (volume/weight) were 100. Enrichment factors ranged from 23.6 to 28.9 (for Co and Mn, respectively). The proposed method was successfully applied to determination of the analytes in natural water samples and certified reference materials. PMID:23790831

Karada?, Cennet; Turhan, Onur; Kara, Derya

2013-11-15

166

Extraction of mercury(II) with sulfurized jojoba oil  

SciTech Connect

Sulfurized jojoba oil containing 12% by weight S has been tested as an extractant for Hg(II) from aqueous solutions. This paper reports on experiments performed with the extractant dissolved in a solvent (liquid--liquid extraction) or adsorbed in an appropriate resin matrix (solid--liquid extraction). The extraction characteristics of both systems have been measured and show that sulfurized jojoba oil exhibits very good possibilities as an extractant. The performance of several resins treated with sulfurized jojoba oil for adsorbing mercury(II) was studied. The morphology of the different resins was examined by using scanning electron microscopy. The sulfurized oil is attached to the resin sites through the sulfur atoms; it is estimated that there are about 2 mol of S active sites per kilogram of resin.

Wisniak, J.; Schorr, G.; Zacovsky, D.; Belfer, S. (Ben-Gurion Univ. of the Negev, Beersheba (Israel). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

1990-09-01

167

K Basin sludge/resin bead separation test report  

SciTech Connect

The K Basin sludge is an accumulation of fuel element corrosion products, organic and inorganic ion exchange materials, canister gasket materials, iron and aluminum corrosion products, sand, dirt and minor amounts of other organic material. The sludge will be collected and treated for storage and eventual disposal. This process will remove the large solid materials by a 1/4 inch screen. The screened material will be subjected to nitric acid in a chemical treatment process. The organic ion exchange resin beads produce undesirable chemical reactions with the nitric acid. The resin beads must be removed from the bulk material and treated by another process. An effective bead separation method must extract 95% of the resin bead mass without entraining more than 5% of the other sludge component mass. The test plan I-INF-2729, ``Organic Ion Exchange Resin Separation Methods Evaluation,`` proposed the evaluation of air lift, hydro cyclone, agitated slurry and elutriation resin bead separation methods. This follows the testing strategy outlined in section 4.1 of BNF-2574, ``Testing Strategy to Support the Development of K Basins Sludge Treatment Process``. Engineering study BNF-3128, ``Separation of Organic Ion Exchange Resins from Sludge,`` Rev. 0, focused the evaluation tests on a method that removed the fine sludge particles by a sieve and then extracted the beads by means of a elutriation column. Ninety-nine percent of the resin beads are larger than 125 microns and 98.5 percent are 300 microns and larger. Particles smaller than 125 microns make up the largest portion of sludge in the K Basins. Eliminating a large part of the sludge`s non-bead component will reduce the quantity that is lifted with the resin beads in the elutriation column. Resin bead particle size distribution measurements are given in Appendix A The Engineering Testing Laboratory conducted measurements of a elutriation column`s ability to extract resin beads from a sieved, non-radioactive sludge simulant. A elutriation column uses a constant velocity upward flow stream to segregate materials. In simplistic terms, the dense particles fall to the column`s bottom while the flow lifts less dense particles to the column`s top. A particle can be streamlined or have a high drag profile; this factor also influences the lift or fall of a particle exposed to the column flow. The sludge components that lift or fall are determined by the fluid velocity. The column flow velocity needed to lift the bulk of the resin beads will also lift other, non-bead, sludge components. Resin bead treatment and disposal are complicated by large quantities of non-bead material. Tests are necessary to determine a column flow velocity that will collect the bulk of the resin beads and the amount of non-bead sludge components that are also collected.

Squier, D.M.

1998-08-25

168

Chromatography resin support  

DOEpatents

An apparatus and method of using an improved chromatography resin support is disclosed. The chromatography support platform is provided by a stainless steel hollow cylinder adapted for being inserted into a chromatography column. An exterior wall of the stainless steel cylinder defines a groove for carrying therein an "O"-ring. The upper surface of the stainless steel column is covered by a fine stainless steel mesh welded to the edges of the stainless steel cylinder. When placed upon a receiving ledge defined within a chromatography column, the "O"-ring provides a fluid tight seal with the inner edge wall of the chromatography cylinder. The stainless steel mesh supports the chromatography matrix and provides a back flushable support which is economical and simple to construct.

Dobos, James G. (North Augusta, SC)

2002-01-01

169

Liquid chromatographic extraction medium  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus are disclosed for extracting strontium and technetium values from biological, industrial and environmental sample solutions using a chromatographic column. An extractant medium for the column is prepared by generating a solution of a diluent containing a Crown ether and dispersing the solution on a resin substrate material. The sample solution is highly acidic and is introduced directed to the chromatographic column and strontium or technetium is eluted using deionized water. 1 fig.

Horwitz, E.P.; Dietz, M.L.

1994-09-13

170

Liquid chromatographic extraction medium  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus for extracting strontium and technetium values from biological, industrial and environmental sample solutions using a chromatographic column is described. An extractant medium for the column is prepared by generating a solution of a diluent containing a Crown ether and dispersing the solution on a resin substrate material. The sample solution is highly acidic and is introduced directed to the chromatographic column and strontium or technetium is eluted using deionized water.

Horwitz, E. Philip (Naperville, IL); Dietz, Mark L. (Evanston, IL)

1994-01-01

171

Flammability screening tests of resins  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Selected flammability characteristics of glass cloth laminates of thermosetting resins are evaluated. A protocol for the evaluation of the flammability hazards presented by glass cloth laminates of thermosetting resins and the usefulness of that protocol with two laminates are presented. The glass laminates of an epoxy resin, M-751 are evaluated for: (1) determination of smoke generation from the laminates; (2) analysis of products of oxidative degradation of the laminates; (3) determination of minimum oxygen necessary to maintain flaming oxidation; (4) evaluation of toxicological hazards.

Arhart, R. W.; Farrar, D. G.; Hughes, B. M.

1979-01-01

172

Resin/graphite fiber composites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

High temperature resin matrices suitable for use in advanced graphite fiber composites for jet engine applications were evaluated. A series of planned, sequential screening experiments with resin systems in composite form were performed to reduce the number of candidates to a single A-type polyimide resin that repetitively produced void-free, high strength and modulus composites acceptable for use in the 550 F range for 1000 hours. An optimized processing procedure was established for this system. Extensive mechanical property studies characterized this single system, at room temperature, 500 F, 550 F and 600 F, for various exposure times.

Cavano, P. J.; Jones, R. J.; Vaughan, R. W.

1972-01-01

173

Grafted methylenediphosphonate ion exchange resins  

DOEpatents

An ion exchange resin is disclosed that is comprised of an insoluble copolymer onto which are grafted pendent groups that provide 1.0 to about 10 mmol/g dry weight phosphorous. The pendent groups have the formula ##STR1## wherein R is hydrogen, a cation or mixtures thereof; and R.sup.1 is hydrogen or an C.sub.1 -C.sub.2 alkyl group. The resin also contains zero to about 5 mmol/g dry weight of pendent aromatic sulfonate groups. Processes for making and using an ion exchange-resin are also disclosed.

Trochimcznk, Andrzej W. (Knoxville, TN); Gatrone, Ralph C. (Plymouth, PA); Alexandratos, Spiro (Knoxville, TN); Horwitz, E. Philip (Naperville, IL)

1998-01-27

174

Grafted methylenediphosphonate ion exchange resins  

DOEpatents

An ion exchange resin is disclosed that is comprised of an insoluble copolymer onto which are grafted pendent groups that provide 1.0 to about 10 mmol/g dry weight phosphorus. The pendent groups have the formula as shown in the patent wherein R is hydrogen, a cation or mixtures thereof; and R{sup 1} is hydrogen or an C{sub 1}-C{sub 2} alkyl group. The resin also contains zero to about 5 mmol/g dry weight of pendent aromatic sulfonate groups. Processes for making and using an ion exchange resin are also disclosed.

Trochimcznk, A.W.; Gatrone, R.C.; Alexandratos, S.; Horwitz, E.P.

1997-04-08

175

Grafted methylenediphosphonate ion exchange resins  

DOEpatents

An ion exchange resin is disclosed that is comprised of an insoluble copolymer onto which are grafted pendent groups that provide 1.0 to about 10 mmol/g dry weight phosphorous. The pendent groups have the formula ##STR1## wherein R is hydrogen, a cation or mixtures thereof; and R.sup.1 is hydrogen or an C.sub.1 -C.sub.2 alkyl group. The resin also contains zero to about 5 mmol/g dry weight of pendent aromatic sulfonate groups. Processes for making and using an ion exchange resin are also disclosed.

Trochimcznk, Andrzej W. (Knoxbille, TN); Gatrone, Ralph C. (Plymouth, PA); Alexandratos, Spiro (Knoxville, TN); Horwitz, E. Philip (Naperville, IL)

1997-01-01

176

Comparison of four DNA extraction methods for forensic application  

Microsoft Academic Search

Challenging biological samples found in crime scenes are often brought to our lab. Several factors, such as degradation and the presence of inhibitors, can difficult the analysis of these samples. Chelating resin, silica membranes, silica-coated magnetic beads and paramagnetic resin were DNA extraction techniques used in this study. Our aim was to find out the DNA extraction method more suitable

V. Bogas; F. Balsa; M. Carvalho; M. J. Anjos; M. F. Pinheiro; F. Corte-Real

177

Resole resin products derived from fractionated organic and aqueous condensates made by fast-pyrolysis of biomass materials  

DOEpatents

A process for preparing phenol-formaldehyde resole resins by fractionating organic and aqueous condensates made by fast-pyrolysis of biomass materials while using a carrier gas to move feed into a reactor to produce phenolic-containing/neutrals in which portions of the phenol normally contained in said resins are replaced by a phenolic/neutral fractions extract obtained by fractionation.

Chum, H.L.; Black, S.K.; Diebold, J.P.; Kreibich, R.E.

1993-08-10

178

AN ANALYSIS OF THE CHARACTERISTICS OF ANION EXCHANGE RESINS SUITABLE FOR THE URANIUM RECOVERY FROM ACID LEACH LIQUORS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A brief outline of the ion exchange process for U extraction is ; presented with special reference to the aspects of interest in resin evaluation. ; The various properties of the resin which play an important role in the ion ; exchange operation are discussed in some detail. (W.L.H.);

R. E. Robinson; R. G. Velthuis; E. T. Pinkney

1959-01-01

179

Epoxy hydantoins as matrix resins  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Tensile strength and fracture toughness of castings of the hydantoin resins cured with methylenedianiline are significantly higher than MY 720 control castings. Water absorption of an ethyl, amyl hydantoin formulation is 2.1 percent at equilibrium and Tg's are about 160 C, approximately 15 deg below the final cure temperature. Two series of urethane and ester-extended hydantoin epoxy resins were synthesized to determine the effect of crosslink density and functional groups on properties. Castings cured with methylenedianiline or with hexahydrophthalic anhydride were made from these compounds and evaluated. The glass transition temperatures, tensile strengths and moduli, and fracture toughness values were all much lower than that of the simple hydantoin epoxy resins. Using a methylene bishydantoin epoxy with a more rigid structure gave brittle, low-energy fractures, while a more flexible, ethoxy-extended hydantoin epoxy resin gave a very low Tg.

Weiss, J.

1983-01-01

180

Commiphora molmol extracts as plant molluscicide against Lymnaea natalensis.  

PubMed

Two extracts from the herbal plant, Commiphora molmol showed a high molluscicidal effect against Lymnaea natalensis. The oil extract was more potent than the oleo-resin. A concentration of 10 ppm of the oil extract killed 100% of L. natalensis after 5th day, but the oleo-resin extract killed 100% of them at a concentration 20 ppm after 5th day. PMID:17985579

Massoud, Ahmad M; El-Shazly, Atef M; Nagaty, Ibrahim Maged; Morsy, Tosson A

2007-08-01

181

Regenerating Water-Sterilizing Resins  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Iodine-dispensing resin can be regenerated after iodine content has been depleted, without being removed from water system. Resin is used to make water potable by killing bacteria, fungi, and viruses. Regeneration technique may be come basis of water purifier for very long space missions. Enough crystalline iodine for multiple regenerations during mission can be stored in one small cartridge. Cartridge could be inserted in waterline as necessary on signal from iodine monitor or timer.

Colombo, G. V.; Putnam, D. F.

1982-01-01

182

Resin glycosides from Porana duclouxii.  

PubMed

A new intact resin glycoside (3) and two glycosidic acids (1 and 2), all having a common trisaccharide moiety and (11S)-hydroxytetradecanoic acid or (3S,11S)-dihydroxytetradecanoic acid as the aglycone, were obtained from the roots of Porana duclouxii. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic analyses and chemical correlations. These compounds represent the first examples of resin glycosides from the genus Porana. PMID:24320876

Ding, Wen-Bing; Zhang, Dai-Gui; Liu, Chun-Jie; Li, Guan-Hua; Li, You-Zhi

2014-01-01

183

21 CFR 178.3610 - ?-Methylstyrene-vinyltoluene resins, hydrogenated.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... α-Methylstyrene-vinyltoluene resins, hydrogenated. 178.3610 Section... ?-Methylstyrene-vinyltoluene resins, hydrogenated. Hydrogenated ?-methylstyrene-vinyltoluene copolymer resins having a molar ratio of 1...

2010-01-01

184

21 CFR 178.3610 - ?-Methylstyrene-vinyltoluene resins, hydrogenated.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... α-Methylstyrene-vinyltoluene resins, hydrogenated. 178.3610 Section... ?-Methylstyrene-vinyltoluene resins, hydrogenated. Hydrogenated ?-methylstyrene-vinyltoluene copolymer resins having a molar ratio of 1...

2012-04-01

185

21 CFR 178.3610 - ?-Methylstyrene-vinyltoluene resins, hydrogenated.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... α-Methylstyrene-vinyltoluene resins, hydrogenated. 178.3610 Section... ?-Methylstyrene-vinyltoluene resins, hydrogenated. Hydrogenated ?-methylstyrene-vinyltoluene copolymer resins having a molar ratio of 1...

2011-04-01

186

Rapid Column Extraction Methods for Urine  

SciTech Connect

A new fecal analysis method that dissolves plutonium oxide was developed at the Westinghouse Savannah River Site. Diphonix Resin (Eichrom Industries), is used to pre-concentrate the actinides from digested fecal samples. A rapid microwave digestion technique is used to remove the actinides from the Diphonix Resin, which effectively extracts plutonium and americium from acidic solutions containing hydrofluoric acid. After resin digestion, the plutonium and americium are recovered in a small volume of nitric acid that is loaded onto small extraction chromatography columns, TEVA Resin and TRU Resin (Eichrom Industries). The method enables complete dissolution of plutonium oxide and provides high recovery of plutonium and americium with good removal of thorium isotopes such as thorium-228.

Maxwell, S.L. III

2000-06-09

187

Treatment of a vertical root fracture using dual-curing resin cement: a case report.  

PubMed

Introduction. Vertical root fracture (VRF) is one of the most frustrating complications of root canal treatment. The prognosis of the root with VRF is poor therefore tooth extraction and root amputation are usually the only treatment options. However, bonding of the fracture line with adhesive resin cement during the intentional replantation procedure was recently suggested as an alternative to tooth extraction. Methods. A vertically fractured left maxillary incisor was carefully extracted, fracture line was treated with adhesive resin cement, a retrograde cavity was produced and filled with calcium-enriched mixture (CEM) cement, and tooth was replanted. Results. After 12 months the tooth was asymptomatic. The size of periapical radiolucency was noticeably reduced and there was no clinical sign of ankylosis. Conclusion. Using adhesive resin cement to bond the fracture lines extraorally in roots with VRF and intentional replantation of the reconstructed teeth could be considered as an alternative to tooth extraction, especially for anterior teeth. PMID:23316397

Moradi Majd, Nima; Akhtari, Farshid; Araghi, Solmaz; Homayouni, Hamed

2012-01-01

188

Treatment of a Vertical Root Fracture Using Dual-Curing Resin Cement: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Introduction. Vertical root fracture (VRF) is one of the most frustrating complications of root canal treatment. The prognosis of the root with VRF is poor therefore tooth extraction and root amputation are usually the only treatment options. However, bonding of the fracture line with adhesive resin cement during the intentional replantation procedure was recently suggested as an alternative to tooth extraction. Methods. A vertically fractured left maxillary incisor was carefully extracted, fracture line was treated with adhesive resin cement, a retrograde cavity was produced and filled with calcium-enriched mixture (CEM) cement, and tooth was replanted. Results. After 12 months the tooth was asymptomatic. The size of periapical radiolucency was noticeably reduced and there was no clinical sign of ankylosis. Conclusion. Using adhesive resin cement to bond the fracture lines extraorally in roots with VRF and intentional replantation of the reconstructed teeth could be considered as an alternative to tooth extraction, especially for anterior teeth.

Moradi Majd, Nima; Akhtari, Farshid; Araghi, Solmaz; Homayouni, Hamed

2012-01-01

189

Direct analysis of oligomeric tackifying resins in rubber compounds by automatic thermal desorption gas chromatography/mass spectrometry  

PubMed

Two analytical methods, automatic thermal desorption gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (ATD-GC/MS) and pyrolysis gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS), were applied as direct methods for the analysis of oligomeric tackifying resins in a vulcanized rubber. The ATD-GC/MS method, based on discontinuous volatile extraction, was found to be an effective means for direct analysis of the oligomeric tackifying resins contained in a vulcanized rubber. The oligomeric tackifying resins, such as t-octylphenolformaldehyde (TOPF) resin, rosin-modified terpene resin, and cashew resin, could be directly analyzed in vulcanized rubber by ATD-GC/MS. Much simpler total ion chromatograms were obtained by ATD-GC/MS than by flash pyrolysis with a Curie-point pyrolyzer, permitting much easier interpretation. Ions at m/z 206, 135, and 107 were fingerprints in the characteristic mass spectra obtained by ATD-GC/MS for TOPF resin in the vulcanized rubber. 1H-Indene, styrene, and isolongifolene were observed as their characteristic mass spectra in the pyrolyzate of the rosin-modified terpene resin. From the cashew resin, phenol, 3-methylphenol, and 4-(1,1,3, 3-tetramethylbutyl)phenol were obtained as the characteristic pyrolyzates by discontinuous thermal extraction via ATD-GC/MS. Copyright 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:10589102

Kim

1999-01-01

190

Separation and Purification of Two Flavone Glucuronides from Erigeron multiradiatus (Lindl.) Benth with Macroporous Resins  

PubMed Central

Scutellarein-7-O-?-D-glucuronide (SG) and apigenin-7-O-?-D-glucuronide (AG) are two major bioactive constituents with known pharmacological effects in Erigeron multiradiatus. In this study, a simple method for preparative separation of the two flavone glucuronides was established with macroporous resins. The performance and adsorption characteristics of eight macroporous resins including AB-8, HPD100, HPD450, HPD600, D100, D101, D141, and D160 have been evaluated. The results confirmed that D141 resin offered the best adsorption and desorption capacities and the highest desorption ratio for the two glucuronides among the tested resins. Sorption isotherms were constructed for D141 resin under optimal ethanol conditions and fitted well to the Freundlich and Langmuir models (R2 > 0.95). Dynamic adsorption and desorption tests was performed on column packed with D141 resin. After one-run treatment with D141 resin, the two-constituent content in the final product was increased from 2.14% and 1.34% in the crude extract of Erigeron multiradiatus to 24.63% and 18.42% in the final products with the recoveries of 82.5% and 85.4%, respectively. The preparative separation of SG and AG can be easily and effectively achieved via adsorption and desorption on D141 resin, and the method developed can be referenced for large-scale separation and purification of flavone glucuronides from herbal raw materials.

Zhang, Zhi-feng; Liu, Yuan; Luo, Pei; Zhang, Hao

2009-01-01

191

Effects of mechanical properties of adhesive resins on bond strength to dentin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the micro-tensile bond strength to dentin and mechanical properties of the cured adhesive resins.Methods: Coronal dentin surfaces of extracted human teeth were treated with four commercial self-etching priming systems (Clearfil SE Bond; UniFil Bond; Tokuso Mac-Bond II; and Imperva Fluoro Bond) and bonded with a resin composite. After

A Takahashi; Y Sato; S Uno; P. N. R Pereira; H Sano

2002-01-01

192

Repeated use of ion-exchange resin membranes in calcareous soils  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This study compared the consistency of nutrient extraction among repeated cycles of ion-exchange resin membrane use. Two sandy calcareous soils and different equilibration temperatures were tested. No single nutrient retained consistent values from cycle to cycle in all treatments, although both soil source and temperature conferred some influence. It was concluded that the most conservative use of resin membranes is single-use.

Sherrod, S. K.; Belnap, J.; Miller, M. E.

2003-01-01

193

Low Melt Viscosity Resins for Resin Transfer Molding  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In recent years, resin transfer molding (RTM) has become one of the methods of choice for high performance composites. Its cost effectiveness and ease of fabrication are major advantages of RTM. RTM process usually requires resins with very low melt viscosity (less than 10 Poise). The optimum RTM resins also need to display high thennal-oxidative stability, high glass transition temperature (T(sub g)), and good toughness. The traditional PMR-type polyimides (e.g. PMR-15) do not fit this requirement, because the viscosities are too high and the nadic endcap cures too fast. High T(sub g), low-melt viscosity resins are highly desirable for aerospace applications and NASA s Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) program. The objective of this work is to prepare low-melt viscosity polyimide resins for RTM or resin film infusion (RFI) processes. The approach involves the synthesis of phenylethynyl-terminated imide oligomers. These materials have been designed to minimize their melt viscosity so that they can be readily processed. During the cure, the oligomers undergo both chain extension and crosslinking via the thermal polymerization of the phenylethynyl groups. The Phenylethynyl endcap is preferred over the nadic group due to its high curing temperature, which provides broader processing windows. This work involved the synthesis and polymerization of oligomers containing zig-zag backbones and twisted biphenyl structures. Some A-B type precursors which possessed both nitro and anhydride functionality, or both nitro and amine functionality, were also synthesized in order to obtain the well defined oligomers. The resulting zig-zag structured oligomers were then end-capped with 4-phenylethynylphthalic anhydride (PEPA) for further cure. The properties of these novel imide oligomers are evaluated.

Harris, Frank W.

2002-01-01

194

Dammarane triterpenes of Commiphora confusa resin.  

PubMed

Fractionation of a steam distilled residue of Commiphora confusa resin has yielded four novel dammarane triterpenes characterised as (20S)-3beta-acetoxy-12beta,16beta-trihydroxydammar-24-ene, (20S)-12beta,16beta-trihydroxydammar-24-ene-3beta-O-beta-glucopyranoside, (20S)-3beta-acetoxy-12beta,16beta,25-tetrahydroxydammar-23-ene, and (20S)-3beta,12beta,16beta,25-pentahydroxydammar-23-ene. The known compounds beta-amyrin, 3beta-amyrinacetate, 2-methoxyfuranodienone, 2-acetoxyfuranodienone, (20R)-3beta-acetoxy-16beta-dihydroxydammar-24-ene, (20R)-3beta,16beta-trihydroxydammar-24-ene, 3beta-acetoxy-16beta-hydroxydammar-24-ene, 3beta-hydroxydammar-24-ene, 3beta-acetoxydammar-24-ene, and beta-sistosterol were also isolated from the same extract. The structures of the compounds were determined using spectroscopic, physical, and chemical methods. PMID:12736444

Manguro, Lawrence Onyango Arot; Ugi, Ivar; Lemmen, Peter

2003-05-01

195

Characterization of PMR Polyimide Resin and Prepreg.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Procedures for the chemical characterization of PMR-15 resin solutions and graphite-reinforced prepregs were developed, and a chemical data base was established. In addition, a basic understanding of PMR-15 resin chemistry was gained; this was translated ...

C. H. Sheppard P. H. Lindenmeyer

1984-01-01

196

21 CFR 177.1585 - Polyestercarbonate resins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...following specifications: (i) The solution intrinsic viscosity of the polyestercarbonate resins shall be a minimum of 0...per gram, as determined by a method entitled âIntrinsic Viscosity (IV) of Lexan ® Polyestercarbonate Resin by...

2013-04-01

197

Microparticle and Fiber Reinforcement of Epoxy Resins.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Microparticle and fiber materials have been investigated as reinforcing agents for a diglycidyl ether of bisphenol a type of epoxy resin. These materials were limited to low concentrations in order to insure retention of the resin binder properties, such ...

A. G. Sands E. J. Kohn R. C. Clark

1966-01-01

198

Soluble high molecular weight polyimide resins  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

High molecular weight polyimide resins have greater than 20 percent /by weight/ solubility in polar organic solvents. They permit fabrication into films, fibers, coatings, reinforced composite, and adhesive product forms. Characterization properties for one typical polyimide resin are given.

Jones, R. J.; Lubowitz, H. R.

1970-01-01

199

Hyperbranched Polymers for Resin Transfer Molding.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this proposal study new low viscosity thermoset additives - hyperbranched polymers (HBPs) - as processing aids and toughening additives for high performance resin transfer molding (RTM) resins. The proposed research project will culminate w...

P. T. Mather

2005-01-01

200

Rapid Curing Epoxy Resins Derived from Resorcinol.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Epoxy resins that can be cured rapidly at room temperature are highly desirable from the production standpoint. A new epoxy resin, diglycidyl ether of 4-methylol resorcinol was synthesized. In the molecule, the hydroxyl from the methylol substituent is pr...

J. J. Schmid W. McCarvill

1974-01-01

201

21 CFR 177.1655 - Polysulfone resins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...POLYMERS Substances for Use as Basic Components of Single and Repeated...25154-01-2) consisting of basic resins produced when the disodium salt of 4,4?-isopropylidenediphenol...dimethylformamide. (b) The basic polysulfone resins...

2012-04-01

202

21 CFR 177.1655 - Polysulfone resins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...POLYMERS Substances for Use as Basic Components of Single and Repeated...25154-01-2) consisting of basic resins produced when the disodium salt of 4,4?-isopropylidenediphenol...dimethylformamide. (b) The basic polysulfone resins...

2011-04-01

203

Selective flotation of fossil resin from Western coal. Final report, July 1, 1990--May 25, 1992  

SciTech Connect

The proof-of-concept test program was designed to clarify a number of concerns that have been raised by coal companies who own the valuable resin resource. First, from laboratory bench-scale flotation experiments, a froth product from cleaner flotation containing more than 80% hexane-extractable resin at higher than 80% recovery can be produced. Pilot-plant testing was initiated to demonstrate the selective flotation of fossil resin and to establish a better confidence level in the new technology. Second, pilot-plant testing was designed to evaluate the effect and impact of random variation in slurry solids concentration and feed grade on this new selective fossil resin flotation technology. The flotation performance obtained under these industrial conditions is more realistic for process evaluation. Third, more accurate operating cost data was to be obtained for economic analysis. Fourth, sufficient quantities of the fossil resin concentrate were to be produced from the test program for evaluation by potential industrial users. Fifth, and finally, optimum levels for the operating variables were to be established. Such information was required for eventual scale-up and design of a fossil resin flotation plant. The pilot-plant proof-of-concept testing of selective resinate flotation has demonstrated that: (1) technically, the new flotation technologies discovered at the University of Utah and then improved upon by Advanced Processing Technologies, Inc. provide a highly efficient means to selectively recover fossil resin from coal. The proof-of-concept continuous flotation circuit (about 0.1 tph) resulted in fossil resin recovery with the same separation efficiency as was obtained from laboratory bench-scale testing (more than 80% recovery at about 80% concentrate grade); and (2) economically, the selective flotation process has been shown to be sufficiently profitable to justify the development of a fossil resin industry based on this new flotation process.

Jensen, G.F.; Miller, J.D.

1992-05-25

204

Resins with Identical Specifications are not Identical. Identifying a Useful Solid-Phase Resin  

PubMed Central

The quality of the most commonly used support for solid phase syntheses, polystyrene resin cross linked with 1% of divinylbenzene, differs considerably even among different lots of resin from the same source. Determination of the swelling capacity of resins before carrying out solid-phase synthesis represents a very simple means of nondestructive pre-synthetic resin characterization.

Bouillon, Isabelle; Soural, Miroslav; Miller, Marvin J.; Krchnak, Viktor

2009-01-01

205

Solventless LARC-160 Polyimide Matrix Resin.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The addition polyimide, LARC-160, which was originally synthesized from low cost liquid monomers as a laminating resin in ethanol, was prepared as a solventless, high viscosity, neat liquid resin. The resin was processed by hot-melt coating techniques int...

T. L. St Clair R. A. Jewell

1978-01-01

206

Catalysis with Metal Cation-Exchanged Resins  

Microsoft Academic Search

There have been a paucity of reports dealing with catalytic reactions involving metal or metal cations incorporated into ion-exchange resins. It is the objective of this review to summarize these reactions and to discuss in detail one such resin, a perfluorinated Exchange polymer, PFIEP. here survey two resin types, polystyrene sulfonic acid (PSSA) and PFIEP or Nafion [11. Acid catalysis

F. J. Waller

1986-01-01

207

21 CFR 177.1556 - Polyaryletherketone resins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 true Polyaryletherketone resins. 177.1556 Section 177.1556 ...Surfaces § 177.1556 Polyaryletherketone resins. The poly(oxy-1,4-phenylenecarbonyl-1...4-phenylenecarbonyl-1,4-phenylene) resins (CAS Reg. No. 55088-54-5 and...

2010-01-01

208

21 CFR 172.280 - Terpene resin.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Terpene resin. 172.280 Section 172.280 Food and Drugs...and Related Substances § 172.280 Terpene resin. The food additive terpene resin may be safely used in accordance with the...

2012-04-01

209

21 CFR 172.280 - Terpene resin.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Terpene resin. 172.280 Section 172.280 Food and Drugs...and Related Substances § 172.280 Terpene resin. The food additive terpene resin may be safely used in accordance with the...

2011-04-01

210

21 CFR 177.1555 - Polyarylate resins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Polyarylate resins. 177.1555 Section 177.1555 Food and Drugs...Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1555 Polyarylate resins. Polyarylate resins (CAS Reg. No. 51706-10-6) may be...

2011-04-01

211

21 CFR 177.1556 - Polyaryletherketone resins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 false Polyaryletherketone resins. 177.1556 Section 177.1556 ...Surfaces § 177.1556 Polyaryletherketone resins. The poly(oxy-1,4-phenylenecarbonyl-1...4-phenylenecarbonyl-1,4-phenylene) resins (CAS Reg. No. 55088-54-5 and...

2012-04-01

212

21 CFR 177.1555 - Polyarylate resins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Polyarylate resins. 177.1555 Section 177.1555 Food and Drugs...Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1555 Polyarylate resins. Polyarylate resins (CAS Reg. No. 51706-10-6) may be...

2012-04-01

213

21 CFR 177.1556 - Polyaryletherketone resins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Polyaryletherketone resins. 177.1556 Section 177.1556 ...Surfaces § 177.1556 Polyaryletherketone resins. The poly(oxy-1,4-phenylenecarbonyl-1...4-phenylenecarbonyl-1,4-phenylene) resins (CAS Reg. No. 55088-54-5 and...

2011-04-01

214

Method of removing contaminants from plastic resins  

DOEpatents

A method for removing contaminants from synthetic resin material containers using a first organic solvent system and a second carbon dioxide system. The organic solvent is utilized for removing the contaminants from the synthetic resin material and the carbon dioxide is used to separate any residual organic solvent from the synthetic resin material.

Bohnert, George W. (Harrisonville, MO); Hand, Thomas E. (Lee's Summit, MO); DeLaurentiis, Gary M. (Jamestown, CA)

2008-11-18

215

Method for removing contaminants from plastic resin  

DOEpatents

A method for removing contaminants from synthetic resin material containers using a first organic solvent system and a second carbon dioxide system. The organic solvent is utilized for removing the contaminants from the synthetic resin material and the carbon dioxide is used to separate any residual organic solvent from the synthetic resin material.

Bohnert, George W. (Harrisonville, MO); Hand, Thomas E. (Lee's Summit, MO); DeLaurentiis, Gary M. (Jamestown, CA)

2008-12-30

216

Method of removing contaminants from plastic resins  

DOEpatents

A method for removing contaminants from synthetic resin material containers using a first organic solvent system and a second carbon dioxide system. The organic solvent is utilized for removing the contaminants from the synthetic resin material and the carbon dioxide is used to separate any residual organic solvent from the synthetic resin material.

Bohnert,George W. (Harrisonville, MO); Hand,Thomas E. (Lee's Summit, MO); Delaurentiis,Gary M. (Jamestown, CA)

2007-08-07

217

Preparation of nano alumina via resin synthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of type of precursor on the characteristics of alumina powders prepared via urea formaldehyde resin formation is demonstrated through the introduction of three different Al3+ precursors. An Al ester (aluminum acetate), and two inorganic salts aluminum sulphate and aluminum phosphate hydrate, were added during resin formation. The resins and the powders after burning out of the organic part

D. M. Ibrahim; Y. M. Abu-Ayana

2009-01-01

218

21 CFR 177.1500 - Nylon resins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...5 0.5 5.1 Nylon 11 resins for use in articles intended...25 .3 5.2 Nylon 11 resins for use only: 1.04...with food b. In side-seam cements for articles intended for...this chapter 6.1 Nylon 6 resins 1.15±.015...

2009-04-01

219

21 CFR 177.1500 - Nylon resins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...5 0.5 5.1 Nylon 11 resins for use in articles intended...25 .3 5.2 Nylon 11 resins for use only: 1.04...with food b. In side-seam cements for articles intended for...this chapter 6.1 Nylon 6 resins 1.15±.015...

2010-01-01

220

Evaluation and application of anion exchange resins to measure groundwater uranium flux at a former uranium mill site.  

PubMed

Laboratory tests and a field validation experiment were performed to evaluate anion exchange resins for uranium sorption and desorption in order to develop a uranium passive flux meter (PFM). The mass of uranium sorbed to the resin and corresponding masses of alcohol tracers eluted over the duration of groundwater installation are then used to determine the groundwater and uranium contaminant fluxes. Laboratory based batch experiments were performed using Purolite A500, Dowex 21K and 21K XLT, Lewatit S6328 A resins and silver impregnated activated carbon to examine uranium sorption and extraction for each material. The Dowex resins had the highest uranium sorption, followed by Lewatit, Purolite and the activated carbon. Recoveries from all ion exchange resins were in the range of 94-99% for aqueous uranium in the environmentally relevant concentration range studied (0.01-200 ppb). Due to the lower price and well-characterized tracer capacity, Lewatit S6328 A was used for field-testing of PFMs at the DOE UMTRA site in Rifle, CO. The effect on the flux measurements of extractant (nitric acid)/resin ratio, and uranium loading were investigated. Higher cumulative uranium fluxes (as seen with concentrations>1 ug U/gram resin) yielded more homogeneous resin samples versus lower cumulative fluxes (<1 ug U/gram resin), which caused the PFM to have areas of localized concentration of uranium. Resin homogenization and larger volume extractions yield reproducible results for all levels of uranium fluxes. Although PFM design can be improved to measure flux and groundwater flow direction, the current methodology can be applied to uranium transport studies. PMID:21798572

Stucker, Valerie; Ranville, James; Newman, Mark; Peacock, Aaron; Cho, Jaehyun; Hatfield, Kirk

2011-10-15

221

Synthesis of improved phenolic resins  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Twenty seven addition cured phenolic resin compositions were prepared and tested for their ability to give char residues comparable to state-of-the-art phenolic resins. Cyanate, epoxy, allyl, acrylate, methacrylate and ethynyl derivatized phenolic oligomers were investigated. The novolac-cyanate and propargyl-novolac resins provided anaerobic char yields at 800 C of 58 percent. A 59 percent char yield was obtained from modified epoxy novolacs. A phosphonitrilic derivative was found to be effective as an additive for increasing char yields. The novolac-cyanate, epoxy-novolac and methacrylate-epoxy-novolac systems were investigated as composite matrices with Thornel 300 graphite fiber. All three resins showed good potential as composite matrices. The free radical cured methacrylate-epoxy-novolac graphite composite provided short beam shear strengths at room temperature of 93.3 MPa (13.5 ksi). The novolac-cyanate graphite composite produced a short beam shear strength of 74 MPa (10.7 ksi) and flexural strength of 1302 MPa (189 ksi) at 177 C. Air heat aging of the novolac-cyanate and epoxy novolac based composites for 12 weeks at 204 C showed good property retention.

Delano, C. B.; Mcleod, A. H.

1979-01-01

222

Analysis of photo-initiators in visible-light-cured dental composite resins.  

PubMed

Seven commercial visible-light-cured (VL) dental composite resins were analytically studied for identification of the photo-initiator consisting of photo-sensitizer and reducing agent. Gas-liquid chromatography (GC) was used for the determination of the dilute components extracted from the composite resin. Mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) was used for confirmation of the qualitative data obtained by GC. The results showed that all composite resins examined included camphorquinone (CQ) as a photo-sensitizer. The concentration of CQ in the resin phase, however, ranged from 0.17 to 1.03% w/w. The composite resin with hybrid-sized filler tended to have a higher concentration of CQ than did the micro-filled composite resin. As for the reducing agent, two out of seven brands contained dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA), and one included dimethyl-p-toluidine (DMPTI). The mixing ratio between CQ and the amine in these three composite resins also varied. Another four brands did not contain either DMAEMA or DMPTI, and would utilize different reducing agents. PMID:11039039

Taira, M; Urabe, H; Hirose, T; Wakasa, K; Yamaki, M

1988-01-01

223

Influence of cement thickness on resin-zirconia microtensile bond strength  

PubMed Central

PURPOSE The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of resin cement thickness on the microtensile bond strength between zirconium-oxide ceramic and resin cement. MATERIALS AND METHODS Thirty-two freshly extracted molars were transversely sectioned at the deep dentin level and bonded to air-abraded zirconium oxide ceramic disks. The specimens were divided into 8 groups based on the experimental conditions (cement type: Rely X UniCem or Panavia F 2.0, cement thickness: 40 or 160 µm, storage: thermocycled or not). They were cut into microbeams and stored in 37? distilled water for 24 h. Microbeams of non-thermocycled specimens were submitted to a microtensile test, whereas those of thermocycled groups were thermally cycled for 18,000 times immediately before the microtensile test. Three-way ANOVA and Sheffe's post hoc tests were used for statistical analysis (?=95%). RESULTS All failures occurred at the resin-zirconia interface. Thermocycled groups showed lower microtensile bond strength than non-thermocycled groups (P<.001). Differences in cement thickness did not influence the resin-zirconia microtensile bond strength given the same resin cement or storage conditions (P>.05). The number of adhesive failures increased after thermocycling in all experimental conditions. No cohesive failure was observed in any experimental group. CONCLUSION When resin cements of adhesive monomers are applied over air-abraded zirconia restorations, the degree of fit does not influence the resin-zirconia microtensile bond strength.

Lee, Tae-Hoon; Ahn, Jin-Soo; Shim, June-Sung; Han, Chong-Hyun

2011-01-01

224

Vinylstyrylpyridine-modified bismaleimide composite resins  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Vinylstilbazole (vinylstyrylpyridine) and vinylpolystyrylpyridine was prepared for the purpose of modifying bismaleimide composite resins. Cure studies of resin systems were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry. The vinylstyrylpyridine-modified bismaleimide composite resins were found to have lower cure and gel temperatures, and shorter cure times than the corresponding unmodified composite resins. The resin systems were reinforced with commercially available satin-weave carbon cloth fabricated by hot melt (or solvent) techniques. Thermal stability, flammability, moisture absorption, and mechanical properties of the composites (such as flexural strength, modulus, tensile and short beam shear strength) were determined. Composite laminates showed substantial improvements in both processability and mechanical properties compared to the bismaleimide control systems.

Hsu, M.-T. S.; Chen, T. S.; Parker, J. A.; Heimbuch, A. H.

1984-01-01

225

Contemporary denture base resins: Part 2.  

PubMed

Provision of partial and complete dentures constructed from resin is commonplace and a satisfactory outcome requires the consideration of the properties of the resin, the oral tissues and prosthodontic principles. This second of a two-part series examines the advantages and disadvantages of flexible nylon denture base resins, which have found popularity for the provision of partial dentures. Adverse effects of denture base resins are examined and the benefits and shortcomings of softliners are explored. Chairside adjustment and polishing, and denture hygiene are also discussed. Clinical Relevance: Knowledge of contemporary denture base resin systems will help to achieve optimal outcomes in removable prosthodontics. PMID:22675889

Rickman, Luke J; Padipatvuthikul, Pavinee; Satterthwaite, Julian D

2012-04-01

226

A Method for Characterizing PMR-15 Resin  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Quantitative analysis technique based on reverse-phase, highperformance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and paired-ion chromatography (PIC) developed for PMR-15 resins. In reverse-phase HPLC experiment, polar solvent containing material to be analyzed passed through column packed with nonpolar substrate. Composition of PMR-15 Resin of 50 weight percent changes as resin ages at room temperature. Verification of proper resin formulation and analysis of changes in resin composition during storage important to manufacturers of PMR-15 polymer matrix composite parts. Technique especially suitable for commercial use by manufacturers of high-performance composite components.

Roberts, G. D.; Lauver, R. W.

1986-01-01

227

Foam, Foam-resin composite and method of making a foam-resin composite  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This invention relates to a foam, a foam-resin composite and a method of making foam-resin composites. The foam set forth in this invention comprises a urethane modified polyisocyanurate derived from an aromatic amino polyol and a polyether polyol. In addition to the polyisocyanurate foam, the composite of this invention further contains a resin layer, wherein the resin may be epoxy, bismaleimide, or phenolic resin. Such resins generally require cure or post-cure temperatures of at least 350.degree. F.

Cranston, John A. (Inventor); MacArthur, Doug E. (Inventor)

1995-01-01

228

Resin registration for interocclusal records.  

PubMed

An ideal material for registering interocclusal records should (1) have reproductive accuracy, (2) be easy to handle, (3) offer no resistance to closure during the registration, (4) be rigid when set, and (5) have a fair degree of hardness when set. The acrylic resin, Duralay, has these qualities. Techniques for utilizing Duralay to register interocclusal records for unilateral restorations, bilateral restorations, full-arch restorations, as well as fixed and removable restorations in the same arch have been demonstrated. PMID:319224

Skurnik, H

1977-02-01

229

Phosphorus-containing imide resins  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Flame-resistant reinforced bodies are disclosed which are composed of reinforcing fibers, filaments or fabrics in a cured body of bis- and tris-imide resins derived from tris(m-aminophenyl) phosphine oxides by reaction with maleic anhydride or its derivatives, or of addition polymers of such imides, including a variant in which a mono-imide is condensed with a dianhydride and the product is treated with a further quantity of maleic anhydride.

Varma, I. K.; Fohlen, G. M.; Parker, J. A. (inventors)

1984-01-01

230

Sulfur geochemistry of hydrothermal waters in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, USA. III. An anion-exchange resin technique for sampling and preservation of sulfoxyanions in natural waters  

PubMed Central

A sampling protocol for the retention, extraction, and analysis of sulfoxyanions in hydrothermal waters has been developed in the laboratory and tested at Yellowstone National Park and Green Lake, NY. Initial laboratory testing of the anion-exchange resin Bio-Rad™ AG1-X8 indicated that the resin was well suited for the sampling, preservation, and extraction of sulfate and thiosulfate. Synthetic solutions containing sulfate and thiosulfate were passed through AG1-X8 resin columns and eluted with 1 and 3 M KCl, respectively. Recovery ranged from 89 to 100%. Comparison of results for water samples collected from five pools in Yellowstone National Park between on-site 1C analysis (U.S. Geological Survey mobile lab) and IC analysis of resin-stored sample at SUNY-Stony Brook indicates 96 to 100% agreement for three pools (Cinder, Cistern, and an unnamed pool near Cistern) and 76 and 63% agreement for two pools (Sulfur Dust and Frying Pan). Attempts to extract polythionates from the AG1-X8 resin were made using HCl solutions, but were unsuccessful. Bio-Rad™ AG2-X8, an anion-exchange resin with weaker binding sites than the AG1-X8 resin, is better suited for polythionate extraction. Sulfate and thiosulfate extraction with this resin has been accomplished with KCl solutions of 0.1 and 0.5 M, respectively. Trithionate and tetrathionate can be extracted with 4 M KCl. Higher polythionates can be extracted with 9 M hydrochloric acid. Polythionate concentrations can then be determined directly using ion chromatographic methods, and laboratory results indicate recovery of up to 90% for synthetic polythionate solutions using AG2-X8 resin columns.

Druschel, Greg K; Schoonen, Martin AA; Nordstrom, D Kirk; Ball, James W; Xu, Yong; Cohn, Corey A

2003-01-01

231

New methods and materials for solid phase extraction and high performance liquid chromatography.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper describes methods for solid phase extraction and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The following are described: Effects of Resin Sulfonation on the Retention of Polar Organic Compounds in Solid Phase Extraction; Ion-Chromatographic...

P. J. Dumont

1996-01-01

232

Wear rates of resin composites.  

PubMed

SUMMARY A laboratory study was conducted to examine the wear of resin composite materials using a generalized wear simulation model. Ten specimens each of five resin composites (Esthet•X [EX], Filtek Supreme Plus [SP], Filtek Z250 [Z2], Tetric EvoCeram [EC], and Z100 Restorative [Z1]) were subjected to wear challenges of 100,000, 400,000, 800,000, and 1,200,000 cycles. The materials were placed in cylinder-shaped stainless-steel fixtures, and wear was generated using a flat stainless-steel antagonist in a slurry of polymethylmethacrylate beads. Wear (mean facet depth [?m] and volume loss [mm(3)]) was determined using a noncontact profilometer (Proscan 2000) with Proscan and ProForm software. Statistical analysis of the laboratory data using analysis of variance and Tukey's post hoc test showed a significant difference (p<0.05) for mean wear facet depth and volume loss for both the number of cycles and resin composite material. Linear regression analysis was used to develop predictive wear rates and volume loss rates. Linear wear was demonstrated with correlation coefficients (R(2)) ranging from 0.914 to 0.995. Mean wear values (mean facet depth [?m]) and standard deviations (SD) for 1200K cycles were as follows: Z1 13.9 (2.0), Z2 26.7 (2.7), SP 30.1 (4.1), EC 31.8 (2.3), and EX 67.5 (8.2). Volume loss (mm(3)) and SDs for 1200K cycles were as follows: Z1 0.248 (0.036), Z2 0.477 (0.044), SP 0.541 (0.072), EC 0.584 (0.037), and EX 1.162 (0.139). The wear rate (?m) and volume loss rate (mm(3)) per 100,000 cycles for the five resin composites were as follows: wear rate Z1 0.58, EC 1.27, Z2 1.49, SP 1.62, and EX 4.35, and volume loss rate Z1 0.009, EC 0.024, Z2 0.028, SP 0.029, and EX 0.075. The generalized wear model appears to be an excellent method for measuring relative wear of resin composite materials. PMID:22856679

Barkmeier, W W; Erickson, R I; Latta, M A; Wilwerding, T M

2013-01-01

233

Decomposition of ion exchange resins by pyrolysis  

SciTech Connect

Pyrolysis of spent ion exchange resins is one of the most effective methods for reducing radioactive waster volume and for making the final waste form more stable. Fundamental experiments were performed to clarify the pyrolysis characteristics of anion and cation exchange resins. Residual elemental analyses and off-gas analyses showed that the decomposition ratio of cation resins was only 50 wt% at 600/sup 0/C, while that of anion resins was 90 wt% at 400/sup 0/C. Infrared spectroscopy for cation resins attributed its low decomposition ratio to formation of a highly heat-resistant polymer (sulfur bridged) during pyrolysis. Measurements of residual hygroscopicity and cement package strength indicated that the optimum pyrolysis temperatures for preventing resins swelling and package expansion were between 300 and 500/sup 0/C.

Matsuda, M.; Funabashi, K.; Nishi, T.; Yusa, H.; Kikuchi, M.

1986-11-01

234

Development of tough, moisture resistant laminating resins  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Tough, moisture resistant laminating resins for employment with graphite fibers were developed. The new laminating resins exhibited cost, handleability and processing characteristics equivalent to 394K (250 F) curing epoxies. The laminating resins were based on bisphenol A dicyanate and monofunctional cyanates with hydrophobic substituents. These resins sorb only small quantities of moisture at equilibrium (0.5% or less) with minimal glass transition temperature depression and represent an improvement over epoxies which sorb around 2% moisture at equilibrium. Toughening was accomplished by the precipitation of small diameter particles of butadiene nitrile rubber throughout the resin matrix. The rubber domains act as microcrack termini and energy dissipation sites, allowing increased stress accommodation prior to catastrophic failure. A unique blend of amine terminated butadiene nitrile elastomer (MW 2,000) and a high nitrile content butadiene nitrile rubber yielded the desired resin morphology.

Brand, R. A.; Harrison, E. S.

1982-01-01

235

RAPID MEASUREMENTS OF NEPTUNIUM OXIDATION STATES USING CHROMATOGRAPHIC RESINS  

SciTech Connect

The Savannah River Site's (SRS) H-Canyon facility uses ceric ammonium nitrate (CAN) to separate impure neptunium (Np) from a high sulfate feed stream. The material is processed using a two-pass solvent extraction purification which relies on CAN to oxidize neptunium to Np(VI) during the first pass prior to extraction. Spectrophotometric oxidation-state analyses normally used to validate successful oxidation to Np(VI) prior to extraction were compromised by this feed stream matrix. Therefore, a rapid chromatographic method to validate successful Np oxidation was developed using Eichrom Industries TRU and TEVA{reg_sign} resins. The method was validated and subsequently transferred to existing operations in the process analytical laboratories.

Diprete, D; C Diprete, C; Mira Malek, M; Eddie Kyser, E

2009-03-24

236

Correlation between hybrid layer thickness, resin tag length and microtensile bond strength of a self-etching adhesive system.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the correlation between the hybrid layer thickness, resin tag length and resin bond strength of a self-etching adhesive system to sound dentin tissue "in vivo". After performing restorative procedures and tooth extractions, ten specimens were sectioned in a mesiodistal direction. One dental section was used for light microscope analysis, in which both the resin tag length and hybrid layer thickness were measured, while the other section was analyzed using a microtensile test (0.5 mm/min). The fractured surface of the latter section was characterized using a stereoscopic magnifying glass (40x magnifcation). The results were subject to statistical analysis using the Pearson Correlation Test (a = 0.05). The hybrid layer thickness, resin tag length and resin bond strength mean values were 2.19 microm (0.34), 4.34 microm (0.28) and 9.73 MPa (5,55), respectively. In addition, correlation tests between the resin tag length and the resin bond strength (r=0.014) and also between the hybrid layer thickness and bond strength (r=0.43), showed no statistically significant correlation. The microtensile bond strength of Adper Prompt L Pop self-etching adhesive system does not depend on hybrid layer thickness or resin tag length. PMID:23230647

Rahal, Vanessa; de Oliveira, Fernanda G; Briso, André L F; dos Santos, Paulo H; Sundefeld, Maria L M M; Sundfeld, Renato H

2012-01-01

237

The use of ion-exchange resin in monitoring the calcium, magnesium, sodium and potassium contents of rainwater  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ion-exchange resin has been used in conjunction with bulk rainfall collecting funnels to extract cations from rainwater for subsequent analysis. Laboratory tests of the apparatus with solutions of known composition and adequate regeneration demonstrated satisfactory performance. Field trials showed that results for exchange-resin collectors differed from the results for simple bulk rainfall collectors. The ion-exchange method appears to provide a viable alternative for precipitation monitoring, especially in remote situations where installations can only be serviced infrequently.

Crabtree, R. W.; Trudgill, S. T.

1981-10-01

238

Sorption Behavior of In(III) Ions onto Cation-Exchange Carboxylic Resin in Aqueous Solutions: Batch and Column Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Indium and its compounds have numerous industrial applications in the manufacture of liquid crystal displays and semiconductors. They are considered hazardous substances. This article reports the research into the recovery of In(III) from aqueous solution by sorption. Cation-exchange carboxylic resin (D155 resin) was used as a sorbent for indium(III) ions extraction in this research. The factors of parameters, such as

Chunhua Xiong; Xiaoxiang Han; Caiping Yao

2010-01-01

239

Evaluation of gel filtration resins for the removal of PCR-inhibitory substances from soils and sediments  

Microsoft Academic Search

A variety of gel filtration resins (Sephadex G200 and G150; Sepharose 6B, 4B and 2B; Bio-Gel P100, P200; and Toyopearl HW 55, HW 65, and HW 75) were evaluated for their efficacy in removing PCR-inhibitory substances from feedlot soil DNA crude extracts using gravity-flow disposable columns. Sepharose resins demonstrated the best properties for DNA purification when compared to other gel

Daniel N. Miller

2001-01-01

240

Pharmaceutical Applications of Ion-Exchange Resins  

Microsoft Academic Search

The historical uses of ion-exchange resins and a summary of the basic chemical principles involved in the ion-exchange process are discussed. Specific applications of ion-exchange resins are provided. The utility of these agents to stabilize drugs are evaluated. Commonly occurring chemical and physical incompatibilities are reviewed. Ion-exchange resins have found applicability as inactive pharmaceutical constituents, particularly as disintegrants (inactive tablet

David P. Elder

2005-01-01

241

RADIATION STABILITY OF ION EXCHANGE RESINS  

Microsoft Academic Search

the structure of the micromolecular framework, the chemical nature, the ; exchange group, the type of crosslinkage and the radiation medium. Both in DVB-; styrene copolymers and in phenol-formaldehyde resins the C--R bond (KF-1 and RF ; resins) was more resistant towards ionizing radiation than the C--S bond (KU-2, ; KU-1 resins). By changing the structure of the crosslinking component

E. D. Kiseleva; K. V. Chmutov; V. N. Krupnova

1962-01-01

242

Radiation testing of organic ion exchange resins  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of ion exchange materials are being evaluated as part of the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) Pretreatment Project for the removal of ¹³⁷Cs from aqueous tank wastes. Two of these materials are organic resins; a phenol-formaldehyde resin (Duolite CS-100) produced by Rohm and Haas Co. (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania) and a resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) resin produced by

C. D. Carlson; L. A. Bray; S. A. Bryan

1995-01-01

243

Porous Ceramic Spheres from Ion Exchange Resin  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A commercial cation ion exchange resin, cross-linked polystyrene, has been successfully used as a template to fabricate 20 to 50 micron porous ceramic spheres. Ion exchange resins have dual template capabilities. Pore architecture of the ceramic spheres can be altered by changing the template pattern. Templating can be achieved by utilizing the internal porous structure or the external surface of the resin beads. Synthesis methods and chemical/physical characteristics of the ceramic spheres will be reported.

Dynys, Fred

2005-01-01

244

Solid phase synthesis of tertiary amines on amide REM resins: Grignard and metal hydride compatible resins.  

PubMed

Four new amide REM resins (AM REM 2-5) are described, and their use is illustrated for the synthesis of tertiary amines 6-9 and 13-16. Amide REM resins 4 and 5, which have a phenyl ring attached to the amide nitrogen, are found to give superior product yields and purities, and the resins are stable to a wider range of reagents and conditions compared to REM resin 1. PMID:11029176

Plater, M J; Murdoch, A M; Morphy, J R; Rankovic, Z; Rees, D C

2000-01-01

245

An investigation of the utilisation of African locustbean seed oil in the preparation of alkyd resins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preparation of alkyd resins using phthalic anhydride and glycerol modified with African locustbean seed oil was investigated. The oil was solvent extracted with petroleum spirit (60–80°C). The oil content of the seed ranged from 15 to 20%. Three grades of alkyds formulated to contain 27% (I), 50% (II) and 60% (III) oil were prepared using a recipe containing various amounts

A. I. Aigbodion; F. E. Okieimen

2001-01-01

246

New AnionExchange Resins for Improved Separations of Nuclear Materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Improved separations of nuclear materials will have a significant impact upon a broad range of DOE activities. DOE-EM Focus Areas and Crosscutting Programs have identified improved methods for the extraction and recovery of radioactive metal ions from process, waste, and environmental waters as critical needs for the coming years. We propose to develop multifunctional anion-exchange resins that facilitate anion uptake

Richard A. Bartsch; Mary E. Barr

2001-01-01

247

Characterization of PMR polyimide resin and prepreg  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Procedures for the chemical characterization of PMR-15 resin solutions and graphite-reinforced prepregs were developed, and a chemical data base was established. In addition, a basic understanding of PMR-15 resin chemistry was gained; this was translated into effective processing procedures for the production of high quality graphite composites. During the program the PMR monomers and selected model compounds representative of postulated PMR-15 solution chemistry were acquired and characterized. Based on these data, a baseline PMR-15 resin was formulated and evaluated for processing characteristics and composite properties. Commercially available PMR-15 resins were then obtained and chemically characterized. Composite panels were fabricated and evaluated.

Lindenmeyer, P. H.; Sheppard, C. H.

1984-01-01

248

Novel silica-based ion exchange resin  

SciTech Connect

Eichrom`s highly successful Diphonixo resin resembles a conventional ion exchange resin in its use of sulfonic acid ligands on a styrene- divinylbenzene matrix. Diphonix resin exhibits rapid exchange kinetics that allow economical operation of ion exchange systems. Unlike conventional resins, Diphonix resin contains chelating ligands that are diphosphonic acid groups that recognize and remove the targeted metals and reject the more common elements such as sodium, calcium and magnesium. This latter property makes Diphonix ideal for many industrial scale applications, including those involving waste treatment. For treatment of low-level, transuranic (TRU) and high- level radioactive wastes, Diphonix`s polystyrene backbone hinders its application due to radiolytic stability of the carbon-hydrogen bonds and lack of compatibility with expected vitrification schemes. Polystyrene-based Diphonix is approximately 60% carbon- hydrogen. In response to an identified need within the Department of Energy for a resin with the positive attributes of Diphonix that also exhibits greater radiolytic stability and final waste form compatibility, Eichrom has successfully developed a new, silica-based resin version of Diphonix. Target application for this new resin is for use in environmental restoration and waste management situations involving the processing of low-level, transuranic and high-level radioactive wastes. The resin can also be used for processing liquid mixed waste (waste that contains low level radioactivity and hazardous constituents) including mixed wastes contaminated with organic compounds. Silica-based Diphonix is only 10% carbon-hydrogen, with the bulk of the matrix silica.

NONE

1997-11-01

249

Microbiological study of water-softener resins.  

PubMed

Microbial identification using effluents backflushed from exhausted urban and rural tank resins and cleaned resins containing the sulfonated copolymer of styrene and divinylbenzene (SDB) were completed, along with microbial assessment of the concentrated stock salt brine. Forty-four different bacterial and fungal genera were identified. Extensive biochemical and animal virulence tests completed on one of the six bacterial salt brine isolates indicated a pathogenic staphylococcal strain. The retention of Staphylococcus aureus, a Flavobacterium sp, and Escherichia coli B bacteriophage was demonstrated both by using the nonexhausted sodium-regenerated resin and by using the same resin exchanged with different mono-, di-, and trivalent cations. Effluent counts completed after bacterial seepage through the resins indicated the Pb(++) exchanged resin removed 55% of the bacteria; Na(+), Fe(++), and Al(+++) removed 31 to 36% and Ca(++) and Cu(++) removed about 10 to 15%. Seventy per cent or more of the bacteriophage was removed by Fe(++), Cu(++), and Al(+++), whereas the Ca(++) and Na(++) cations removed 25 to 31%. Over a 77-day period, nonsterile tap water was passed through bacterial seeded and uninoculated SDB (Na) resin columns. Effluent and resin elution counts demonstrated the growth and survival of 2 different bacteria per column. Increased bacterial retention, survival, and multiplication occurred concomitantly with accumulation of organic and inorganic materials and the Ca(++) and Mg(++) cations from the tap water. Furthermore, microbial elution from resin particles taken from column depths of 1, 8, and 16 cm indicated a bacterial diminution with increasing depths. PMID:5373675

Stamm, J M; Engelhard, W E; Parsons, J E

1969-09-01

250

Microbiological Study of Water-Softener Resins  

PubMed Central

Microbial identification using effluents backflushed from exhausted urban and rural tank resins and cleaned resins containing the sulfonated copolymer of styrene and divinylbenzene (SDB) were completed, along with microbial assessment of the concentrated stock salt brine. Forty-four different bacterial and fungal genera were identified. Extensive biochemical and animal virulence tests completed on one of the six bacterial salt brine isolates indicated a pathogenic staphylococcal strain. The retention of Staphylococcus aureus, a Flavobacterium sp, and Escherichia coli B bacteriophage was demonstrated both by using the nonexhausted sodium-regenerated resin and by using the same resin exchanged with different mono-, di-, and trivalent cations. Effluent counts completed after bacterial seepage through the resins indicated the Pb++ exchanged resin removed 55% of the bacteria; Na+, Fe++, and Al+++ removed 31 to 36% and Ca++ and Cu++ removed about 10 to 15%. Seventy per cent or more of the bacteriophage was removed by Fe++, Cu++, and Al+++, whereas the Ca++ and Na++ cations removed 25 to 31%. Over a 77-day period, nonsterile tap water was passed through bacterial seeded and uninoculated SDB (Na) resin columns. Effluent and resin elution counts demonstrated the growth and survival of 2 different bacteria per column. Increased bacterial retention, survival, and multiplication occurred concomitantly with accumulation of organic and inorganic materials and the Ca++ and Mg++ cations from the tap water. Furthermore, microbial elution from resin particles taken from column depths of 1, 8, and 16 cm indicated a bacterial diminution with increasing depths.

Stamm, John M.; Engelhard, Warren E.; Parsons, James E.

1969-01-01

251

Graphite composites with advanced resin matrices  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effect of processing variables on the flammability and mechanical properties for state-of-the-art and advanced resin matrices for graphite composites were studied. Resin matrices which were evaluated included state-of-the-art epoxy, phenolic-novolac, phenolic-xylok, two types of bismaleimides, benzyl, polyethersulfone, and poly(p-phenylene sulfone). Comparable flammability and thermochemical data on graphite-reinforced laminates prepared with these resin matrices are presented, and the relationship of some of these properties to the anaerobic char yield of the resins is described.

Kourtides, D. A.

1980-01-01

252

Flexible heat resistant neutron shielding resin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A flexible heat resistant neutron shielding material has been developed, which consists of polymer resin with 1 wt% boron. The neutron shielding performance of the developed resin, examined by the 252Cf neutron source, is almost the same as that of the polyethylene. The outgas of H 2, H 2O, CO and CO 2 from the resin have been measured at ˜250 °C environment. The resin will be applied around the port of the vacuum vessel as an additional shielding material and reduce the neutron streaming from a superconducting tokamak device such as JT-60SA.

Sukegawa, Atsuhiko M.; Anayama, Yoshimasa; Okuno, Koichi; Sakurai, Shinji; Kaminaga, Atsushi

2011-10-01

253

Sulfur geochemistry of hydrothermal waters in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, USA. III. An anion-exchange resin technique for sampling and preservation of sulfoxyanions in natural waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

: A sampling protocol for the retention, extraction, and analysis of sulfoxyanions in hydrothermal waters has been developed in the laboratory and tested at Yellowstone National Park and Green Lake, NY. Initial laboratory testing of the anion-exchange resin Bio-Rad™ AG1-X8 indicated that the resin was well suited for the sampling, preservation, and extraction of sulfate and thiosulfate. Synthetic solutions containing

Greg K. Druschel; Martin A. A. Schoonen; D. Kirk Nordstrom; James W. Ball; Yong Xuc; Corey A. Cohnc

2003-01-01

254

Microleakage in class V gingiva-shaded composite resin restorations  

PubMed Central

Summary The purpose of this study was to evaluate the microleakage in Class V cavities restored with a new gingiva-shaded microhybrid composite resin and with a conventional microhybrid composite resin using three different dentin bonding systems (DBS). Class V cavities were prepared in sixty freshly extracted human teeth with the incisal margin in enamel and the apical margin in dentin/cementum. Restored specimens, after thermocycling, were placed in 2% methylene blue solution for 24 hours. Longitudinal sections were obtained and studied with a stereomicroscope for assessment of the microleakage according to degree of dye penetration (scale 0–3). Data were analyzed with Kruskal-Wallis test and with Mann-Whitney U-test. In this study there was no leakage in enamel: all the cavities showed no dye penetration at the incisal margins (located in enamel). None of the DBS used eliminated microleakage in apical margins (located in dentin or cementum): three-step total-etch and single-step self-etch were more effective in reducing microleakage in dentin margins when compared with two-step total-etch. This in vitro study concluded that microleakage in Class V cavities restored with the composite resins tested is similar.

Poggio, Claudio; Chiesa, Marco; Dagna, Alberto; Colombo, Marco; Scribante, Andrea

2012-01-01

255

Synthesis of new phosphonate ester resins for adsorption of gold from alkaline cyanide solution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Resin ion-exchange technology is a possible alternative to well-established gold recovery processes of carbon adsorption and zinc-dust cementation. The search for a suitable resin for gold recovery from alkaline cyanide solution continues at several research centers. Recent discoveries involving alkyl phosphorus esters for selective gold solvent extraction from alkaline cyanide solution suggest that similar chemistry on a resin substrate might likewise be effective. In this regard, polystyrene-supported phosphonate ester-based resins were synthesized from the poly(styrene/divinylbenzene) copolymers. Gold adsorption/desorption characteristics were established for these resins with respect to functional group chemistry, pH, ionic strength, and temperature. Gold loading was found to be promoted at increased ionic strength with fair selectivity over various cyanoanions. Stripping was possible at higher temperatures and/or low ionic strength of the strip solution. Solvation extraction of an alkali cation/aurocyanide anion ion pair seems to explain the adsorption/desorption phenomena which are discussed in terms of the variables studied.

Akser, M.; Wan, R. Y.; Miller, J. D.; Quillen, D. R.; Alexandratos, S. D.

1987-12-01

256

Polymer Supported Calix[4]arene Schiff Bases: A Novel Chelating Resin for Hg and Dichromate Anions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes the synthesis and characterization of two new calix[4]arene Schiff bases and their polymeric resins. The extraction properties of these “proton switchable extractants” with alkali, transition, post transition metal cations and for dichromate anions are reported. The two new calix[4]arene based Schiff bases (5 and 6) have been synthesized from 5,17?diformyl?25,27?dipropoxy?26,28?dihydroxycalix[4]arene (4) by treatment with 3?amino?methylpyridine and 1,8?diaminooctane

Aysegül Karakücük; Erdal Kocabas; Abdulkadir Sirit; Shahabuddin Memon; Mustafa Yilmaz; D. Max Roundhill

2005-01-01

257

Imide modified epoxy matrix resins  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results of a program designed to develop tough imide modified epoxy (IME) resins cured by bisimide amine (BIA) hardeners are presented. State of the art epoxy resin, MY720, was used. Three aromatic bisimide amines and one aromatic aliphatic BIA were evaluated. BIA's derived from 6F anhydride (3,3 prime 4,4 prime-(hexafluoro isopropyl idene) bis (phthalic anhydride) and diamines, 3,3 prime-diam nodiphenyl sulfone (3,3 prime-DDS), 4,4 prime-diamino diphenyl sulfone (4,4 prime-DDS), 1.12-dodecane diamine (1,12-DDA) were used. BIA's were abbreviated 6F-3,3 prime-DDS, 6F-4,4 prime-DDS, 6F-3,3 prime-DDS-4,4 prime DDS, and 6F-3,3 prime-DDS-1,12-DDA corresponding to 6F anhydride and diamines mentioned. Epoxy resin and BIA's (MY720/6F-3,3 prime-DDS, MY720/6F-3,3 prime-DDS-4,4 prime-DDS, MY720/6F-3,3 prime-DDS-1,12-DDA and a 50:50 mixture of a BIA and parent diamine, MY720/6F-3,3 prime-DDS/3,3 prime-DDS, MY720/6F-3,3 prime-DDS-4,4 prime-DDS/3,3 prime-DDS, MY720/6F-3,3 prime-DDS-1,12-DDA/3,3 prime-DDS were studied to determine effect of structure and composition. Effect of the addition of two commercial epoxies, glyamine 200 and glyamine 100 on the properties of several formulations was evaluated. Bisimide amine cured epoxies were designated IME's (imide modified epoxy). Physical, thermal and mechanical properties of these resins were determined. Moisture absorption in boiling water exhibited by several of the IME's was considerably lower than the state of the art epoxies (from 3.2% for the control and state of the art to 2.0 wt% moisture absorption). Char yields are increased from 20% for control and state of the art epoxies to 40% for IME resins. Relative toughness characteristics of IME resins were measured by 10 deg off axis tensile tests of Celion 6000/IME composites. Results show that IME's containing 6F-3,3 prime-DDS or 6F-3,3 prime-DDS-1,12-DDA improved the "toughness" characteristics of composites by about 35% (tensile strength), about 35% (intralaminar shear strength), and about 78% (shear strain to failure) relative to the control composite.

Scola, D. A.

1982-01-01

258

21 CFR 177.2410 - Phenolic resins in molded articles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Phenolic resins in molded articles. 177.2410 Section 177.2410...Substances for Use Only as Components of Articles Intended for Repeated Use § 177.2410 Phenolic resins in molded articles. Phenolic resins identified...

2013-04-01

259

40 CFR 721.5908 - Modified phenolic resin (generic).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Modified phenolic resin (generic). 721.5908 Section 721...Substances § 721.5908 Modified phenolic resin (generic). (a) Chemical substance...identified generically as modified phenolic resin (PMN P-01-561) is subject to...

2010-07-01

260

21 CFR 872.3690 - Tooth shade resin material.  

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Tooth shade resin material. 872.3690 Section 872.3690...Prosthetic Devices § 872.3690 Tooth shade resin material. (a) Identification. Tooth shade resin material is a device composed of...

2014-04-01

261

21 CFR 872.3200 - Resin tooth bonding agent.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Resin tooth bonding agent. 872.3200 Section...DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3200 Resin tooth bonding agent. (a) Identification. A resin tooth bonding agent is a device...

2011-04-01

262

21 CFR 177.2430 - Polyether resins, chlorinated.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2009-04-01 true Polyether resins, chlorinated. 177.2430 Section 177...for Repeated Use § 177.2430 Polyether resins, chlorinated. Chlorinated polyether resins may be safely used as articles or...

2010-01-01

263

21 CFR 872.3300 - Hydrophilic resin coating for dentures.  

... 2014-04-01 false Hydrophilic resin coating for dentures. 872.3300 ...Prosthetic Devices § 872.3300 Hydrophilic resin coating for dentures. (a) Identification. A hydrophilic resin coating for dentures is a device...

2014-04-01

264

21 CFR 177.2410 - Phenolic resins in molded articles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Phenolic resins in molded articles. 177.2410 Section 177...Intended for Repeated Use § 177.2410 Phenolic resins in molded articles. Phenolic resins identified in this section may be...

2012-04-01

265

21 CFR 872.3310 - Coating material for resin fillings.  

...2014-04-01 false Coating material for resin fillings. 872.3310 Section 872...Devices § 872.3310 Coating material for resin fillings. (a) Identification. A coating material for resin fillings is a device intended to be...

2014-04-01

266

21 CFR 872.3670 - Resin impression tray material.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Resin impression tray material. 872.3670...DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3670 Resin impression tray material. (a) Identification. Resin impression tray material is a device...

2013-04-01

267

21 CFR 872.3310 - Coating material for resin fillings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Coating material for resin fillings. 872.3310 Section 872...Devices § 872.3310 Coating material for resin fillings. (a) Identification. A coating material for resin fillings is a device intended to be...

2010-04-01

268

21 CFR 573.120 - Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 false Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin. 573.120 Section 573.120 Food and Drugs...Listing § 573.120 Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin. Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin (hydrolized polyacrylamide), only for...

2012-04-01

269

21 CFR 872.3770 - Temporary crown and bridge resin.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Temporary crown and bridge resin. 872.3770 Section 872.3770 Food...872.3770 Temporary crown and bridge resin. (a) Identification. A temporary crown and bridge resin is a device composed of a...

2010-04-01

270

40 CFR 721.2673 - Aromatic epoxide resin (generic).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Aromatic epoxide resin (generic). 721.2673 Section 721...Substances § 721.2673 Aromatic epoxide resin (generic). (a) Chemical substance...identified generically as aromatic epoxide resin (PMN P-99-1399) is subject to...

2013-07-01

271

21 CFR 181.32 - Acrylonitrile copolymers and resins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Acrylonitrile copolymers and resins. 181.32 Section 181.32 Food and... § 181.32 Acrylonitrile copolymers and resins. (a) Acrylonitrile copolymers and resins listed in this section, containing...

2011-04-01

272

21 CFR 872.3310 - Coating material for resin fillings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Coating material for resin fillings. 872.3310 Section 872...Devices § 872.3310 Coating material for resin fillings. (a) Identification. A coating material for resin fillings is a device intended to be...

2013-04-01

273

40 CFR 721.2755 - Cycloaliphatic epoxy resin (generic).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Cycloaliphatic epoxy resin (generic). 721.2755 Section 721...Substances § 721.2755 Cycloaliphatic epoxy resin (generic). (a) Chemical substance...identified generically as cycloaliphatic epoxy resin (PMN P-98-105) is subject to...

2011-07-01

274

21 CFR 872.3690 - Tooth shade resin material.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Tooth shade resin material. 872.3690 Section 872.3690...Prosthetic Devices § 872.3690 Tooth shade resin material. (a) Identification. Tooth shade resin material is a device composed of...

2011-04-01

275

21 CFR 872.3770 - Temporary crown and bridge resin.  

...2014-04-01 false Temporary crown and bridge resin. 872.3770 Section 872.3770 Food...872.3770 Temporary crown and bridge resin. (a) Identification. A temporary crown and bridge resin is a device composed of a...

2014-04-01

276

21 CFR 872.3310 - Coating material for resin fillings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 false Coating material for resin fillings. 872.3310 Section 872...Devices § 872.3310 Coating material for resin fillings. (a) Identification. A coating material for resin fillings is a device intended to be...

2012-04-01

277

40 CFR 721.2755 - Cycloaliphatic epoxy resin (generic).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Cycloaliphatic epoxy resin (generic). 721.2755 Section 721...Substances § 721.2755 Cycloaliphatic epoxy resin (generic). (a) Chemical substance...identified generically as cycloaliphatic epoxy resin (PMN P-98-105) is subject to...

2012-07-01

278

21 CFR 173.10 - Modified polyacrylamide resin.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 true Modified polyacrylamide resin. 173.10 Section 173.10 Food and Drugs...Treatment § 173.10 Modified polyacrylamide resin. Modified polyacrylamide resin may be safely used in food in accordance...

2010-01-01

279

21 CFR 181.32 - Acrylonitrile copolymers and resins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 false Acrylonitrile copolymers and resins. 181.32 Section 181.32 Food and... § 181.32 Acrylonitrile copolymers and resins. (a) Acrylonitrile copolymers and resins listed in this section, containing...

2012-04-01

280

21 CFR 177.2510 - Polyvinylidene fluoride resins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 false Polyvinylidene fluoride resins. 177.2510 Section 177.2510 Food and...Repeated Use § 177.2510 Polyvinylidene fluoride resins. Polyvinylidene fluoride resins may be safely used as articles or...

2012-04-01

281

21 CFR 872.3770 - Temporary crown and bridge resin.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 false Temporary crown and bridge resin. 872.3770 Section 872.3770 Food...872.3770 Temporary crown and bridge resin. (a) Identification. A temporary crown and bridge resin is a device composed of a...

2012-04-01

282

21 CFR 177.2355 - Mineral reinforced nylon resins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 false Mineral reinforced nylon resins. 177.2355 Section 177.2355 Food and...Use § 177.2355 Mineral reinforced nylon resins. Mineral reinforced nylon resins identified in paragraph (a) of this...

2012-04-01

283

21 CFR 177.2430 - Polyether resins, chlorinated.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Polyether resins, chlorinated. 177.2430 Section 177...for Repeated Use § 177.2430 Polyether resins, chlorinated. Chlorinated polyether resins may be safely used as articles or...

2011-04-01

284

21 CFR 177.1600 - Polyethylene resins, carboxyl modified.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-04-01 false Polyethylene resins, carboxyl modified. 177.1600 Section...Surfaces § 177.1600 Polyethylene resins, carboxyl modified. Carboxyl-modified polyethylene resins may be safely used as the...

2011-04-01

285

21 CFR 872.3820 - Root canal filling resin.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Root canal filling resin. 872.3820 Section 872.3820 Food...Devices § 872.3820 Root canal filling resin. (a) Identification. A root canal filling resin is a device composed of material,...

2010-04-01

286

21 CFR 872.3670 - Resin impression tray material.  

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Resin impression tray material. 872.3670...DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3670 Resin impression tray material. (a) Identification. Resin impression tray material is a device...

2014-04-01

287

40 CFR 721.5908 - Modified phenolic resin (generic).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Modified phenolic resin (generic). 721.5908 Section 721...Substances § 721.5908 Modified phenolic resin (generic). (a) Chemical substance...identified generically as modified phenolic resin (PMN P-01-561) is subject to...

2011-07-01

288

21 CFR 177.2355 - Mineral reinforced nylon resins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Mineral reinforced nylon resins. 177.2355 Section 177.2355 Food and...Use § 177.2355 Mineral reinforced nylon resins. Mineral reinforced nylon resins identified in paragraph (a) of this...

2011-04-01

289

21 CFR 177.2510 - Polyvinylidene fluoride resins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 true Polyvinylidene fluoride resins. 177.2510 Section 177.2510 Food and...Repeated Use § 177.2510 Polyvinylidene fluoride resins. Polyvinylidene fluoride resins may be safely used as articles or...

2010-01-01

290

21 CFR 872.3670 - Resin impression tray material.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Resin impression tray material. 872.3670...DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3670 Resin impression tray material. (a) Identification. Resin impression tray material is a device...

2010-04-01

291

40 CFR 721.2752 - Epoxy resin containing phosphorus (generic).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Epoxy resin containing phosphorus (generic). 721...Chemical Substances § 721.2752 Epoxy resin containing phosphorus (generic). ...substance identified generically as an epoxy resin containing phosphorus (PMN...

2012-07-01

292

21 CFR 872.3200 - Resin tooth bonding agent.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Resin tooth bonding agent. 872.3200 Section...DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3200 Resin tooth bonding agent. (a) Identification. A resin tooth bonding agent is a device...

2013-04-01

293

21 CFR 173.10 - Modified polyacrylamide resin.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 false Modified polyacrylamide resin. 173.10 Section 173.10 Food and Drugs...Treatment § 173.10 Modified polyacrylamide resin. Modified polyacrylamide resin may be safely used in food in accordance...

2012-04-01

294

21 CFR 872.3820 - Root canal filling resin.  

...2014-04-01 false Root canal filling resin. 872.3820 Section 872.3820 Food...Devices § 872.3820 Root canal filling resin. (a) Identification. A root canal filling resin is a device composed of material,...

2014-04-01

295

21 CFR 872.3200 - Resin tooth bonding agent.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Resin tooth bonding agent. 872.3200 Section...DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3200 Resin tooth bonding agent. (a) Identification. A resin tooth bonding agent is a device...

2010-04-01

296

21 CFR 173.10 - Modified polyacrylamide resin.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Modified polyacrylamide resin. 173.10 Section 173.10 Food and Drugs...Treatment § 173.10 Modified polyacrylamide resin. Modified polyacrylamide resin may be safely used in food in accordance...

2011-04-01

297

21 CFR 872.3690 - Tooth shade resin material.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Tooth shade resin material. 872.3690 Section 872.3690...Prosthetic Devices § 872.3690 Tooth shade resin material. (a) Identification. Tooth shade resin material is a device composed of...

2013-04-01

298

21 CFR 872.3310 - Coating material for resin fillings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Coating material for resin fillings. 872.3310 Section 872...Devices § 872.3310 Coating material for resin fillings. (a) Identification. A coating material for resin fillings is a device intended to be...

2011-04-01

299

21 CFR 177.2430 - Polyether resins, chlori-nated.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Polyether resins, chlori-nated. 177.2430 Section...for Repeated Use § 177.2430 Polyether resins, chlori-nated. Chlorinated polyether resins may be safely used as articles or...

2012-04-01

300

40 CFR 721.3135 - Phosphorous modified epoxy resin (generic).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Phosphorous modified epoxy resin (generic). 721.3135 Section 721...721.3135 Phosphorous modified epoxy resin (generic). (a) Chemical substance...generically as a phosphorous modified epoxy resin (PMNs P-00-992 and...

2012-07-01

301

21 CFR 177.1600 - Polyethylene resins, carboxyl modified.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-04-01 false Polyethylene resins, carboxyl modified. 177.1600 Section...Surfaces § 177.1600 Polyethylene resins, carboxyl modified. Carboxyl-modified polyethylene resins may be safely used as the...

2012-04-01

302

21 CFR 177.2490 - Polyphenylene sulfide resins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 false Polyphenylene sulfide resins. 177.2490 Section 177.2490 Food and...Repeated Use § 177.2490 Polyphenylene sulfide resins. Polyphenylene sulfide resins (poly(1,4-phenylene sulfide)...

2012-04-01

303

21 CFR 177.2410 - Phenolic resins in molded articles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Phenolic resins in molded articles. 177.2410 Section 177...Intended for Repeated Use § 177.2410 Phenolic resins in molded articles. Phenolic resins identified in this section may be...

2011-04-01

304

21 CFR 872.3820 - Root canal filling resin.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Root canal filling resin. 872.3820 Section 872.3820 Food...Devices § 872.3820 Root canal filling resin. (a) Identification. A root canal filling resin is a device composed of material,...

2011-04-01

305

21 CFR 872.3300 - Hydrophilic resin coating for dentures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-04-01 false Hydrophilic resin coating for dentures. 872.3300 ...Prosthetic Devices § 872.3300 Hydrophilic resin coating for dentures. (a) Identification. A hydrophilic resin coating for dentures is a device...

2012-04-01

306

21 CFR 177.2510 - Polyvinylidene fluoride resins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Polyvinylidene fluoride resins. 177.2510 Section 177.2510 Food and...Repeated Use § 177.2510 Polyvinylidene fluoride resins. Polyvinylidene fluoride resins may be safely used as articles or...

2011-04-01

307

40 CFR 721.5908 - Modified phenolic resin (generic).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Modified phenolic resin (generic). 721.5908 Section 721...Substances § 721.5908 Modified phenolic resin (generic). (a) Chemical substance...identified generically as modified phenolic resin (PMN P-01-561) is subject to...

2012-07-01

308

40 CFR 721.3135 - Phosphorous modified epoxy resin (generic).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Phosphorous modified epoxy resin (generic). 721.3135 Section 721...721.3135 Phosphorous modified epoxy resin (generic). (a) Chemical substance...generically as a phosphorous modified epoxy resin (PMNs P-00-992 and...

2011-07-01

309

21 CFR 872.3770 - Temporary crown and bridge resin.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Temporary crown and bridge resin. 872.3770 Section 872.3770 Food...872.3770 Temporary crown and bridge resin. (a) Identification. A temporary crown and bridge resin is a device composed of a...

2011-04-01

310

21 CFR 172.215 - Coumarone-indene resin.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-04-01 false Coumarone-indene resin. 172.215 Section 172.215 Food and...Substances § 172.215 Coumarone-indene resin. The food additive coumarone-indene resin may be safely used on grapefruit,...

2012-04-01

311

21 CFR 872.3200 - Resin tooth bonding agent.  

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Resin tooth bonding agent. 872.3200 Section...DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3200 Resin tooth bonding agent. (a) Identification. A resin tooth bonding agent is a device...

2014-04-01

312

21 CFR 177.2500 - Polyphenylene sulfone resins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Polyphenylene sulfone resins. 177.2500 Section 177.2500 Food and...Repeated Use § 177.2500 Polyphenylene sulfone resins. The polyphenylene sulfone resins (CAS Reg. No. 31833-61-1)...

2013-04-01

313

21 CFR 177.2410 - Phenolic resins in molded articles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2009-04-01 true Phenolic resins in molded articles. 177.2410 Section 177...Intended for Repeated Use § 177.2410 Phenolic resins in molded articles. Phenolic resins identified in this section may be...

2010-01-01

314

21 CFR 872.3300 - Hydrophilic resin coating for dentures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-04-01 false Hydrophilic resin coating for dentures. 872.3300 ...Prosthetic Devices § 872.3300 Hydrophilic resin coating for dentures. (a) Identification. A hydrophilic resin coating for dentures is a device...

2010-04-01

315

76 FR 39896 - Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Review)] Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy Determination On the basis of...order on granular polytetrafluoroethylene resin from Italy would be likely to lead to continuation...entitled Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin from Italy: Investigation No....

2011-07-07

316

40 CFR 721.5908 - Modified phenolic resin (generic).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Modified phenolic resin (generic). 721.5908 Section 721...Substances § 721.5908 Modified phenolic resin (generic). (a) Chemical substance...identified generically as modified phenolic resin (PMN P-01-561) is subject to...

2013-07-01

317

21 CFR 177.2490 - Polyphenylene sulfide resins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2009-04-01 true Polyphenylene sulfide resins. 177.2490 Section 177.2490 Food and...Repeated Use § 177.2490 Polyphenylene sulfide resins. Polyphenylene sulfide resins (poly(1,4-phenylene sulfide)...

2010-01-01

318

21 CFR 177.2490 - Polyphenylene sulfide resins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Polyphenylene sulfide resins. 177.2490 Section 177.2490 Food and...Repeated Use § 177.2490 Polyphenylene sulfide resins. Polyphenylene sulfide resins (poly(1,4-phenylene sulfide)...

2011-04-01

319

21 CFR 177.2500 - Polyphenylene sulfone resins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 false Polyphenylene sulfone resins. 177.2500 Section 177.2500 Food and...Repeated Use § 177.2500 Polyphenylene sulfone resins. The polyphenylene sulfone resins (CAS Reg. No. 31833-61-1)...

2012-04-01

320

40 CFR 721.2752 - Epoxy resin containing phosphorus (generic).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Epoxy resin containing phosphorus (generic). 721...Chemical Substances § 721.2752 Epoxy resin containing phosphorus (generic). ...substance identified generically as an epoxy resin containing phosphorus (PMN...

2011-07-01

321

40 CFR 721.2673 - Aromatic epoxide resin (generic).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Aromatic epoxide resin (generic). 721.2673 Section 721...Substances § 721.2673 Aromatic epoxide resin (generic). (a) Chemical substance...identified generically as aromatic epoxide resin (PMN P-99-1399) is subject to...

2011-07-01

322

21 CFR 172.215 - Coumarone-indene resin.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-04-01 false Coumarone-indene resin. 172.215 Section 172.215 Food and...Substances § 172.215 Coumarone-indene resin. The food additive coumarone-indene resin may be safely used on grapefruit,...

2011-04-01

323

21 CFR 872.3670 - Resin impression tray material.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Resin impression tray material. 872.3670...DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3670 Resin impression tray material. (a) Identification. Resin impression tray material is a device...

2012-04-01

324

21 CFR 872.3690 - Tooth shade resin material.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tooth shade resin material. 872.3690 Section 872.3690...Prosthetic Devices § 872.3690 Tooth shade resin material. (a) Identification. Tooth shade resin material is a device composed of...

2010-04-01

325

21 CFR 573.120 - Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin. 573.120 Section 573.120 Food and Drugs...Listing § 573.120 Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin. Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin (hydrolized polyacrylamide), only for...

2010-04-01

326

21 CFR 173.10 - Modified polyacrylamide resin.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Modified polyacrylamide resin. 173.10 Section 173.10 Food and Drugs...Treatment § 173.10 Modified polyacrylamide resin. Modified polyacrylamide resin may be safely used in food in accordance...

2013-04-01

327

21 CFR 872.3820 - Root canal filling resin.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 false Root canal filling resin. 872.3820 Section 872.3820 Food...Devices § 872.3820 Root canal filling resin. (a) Identification. A root canal filling resin is a device composed of material,...

2012-04-01

328

21 CFR 573.120 - Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin. 573.120 Section 573.120 Food and Drugs...Listing § 573.120 Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin. Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin (hydrolized polyacrylamide), only for...

2011-04-01

329

21 CFR 872.3670 - Resin impression tray material.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Resin impression tray material. 872.3670...DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3670 Resin impression tray material. (a) Identification. Resin impression tray material is a device...

2011-04-01

330

21 CFR 177.2500 - Polyphenylene sulfone resins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Polyphenylene sulfone resins. 177.2500 Section 177.2500 Food and...Repeated Use § 177.2500 Polyphenylene sulfone resins. The polyphenylene sulfone resins (CAS Reg. No. 31833-61-1)...

2011-04-01

331

40 CFR 721.2673 - Aromatic epoxide resin (generic).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Aromatic epoxide resin (generic). 721.2673 Section 721...Substances § 721.2673 Aromatic epoxide resin (generic). (a) Chemical substance...identified generically as aromatic epoxide resin (PMN P-99-1399) is subject to...

2012-07-01

332

21 CFR 872.3300 - Hydrophilic resin coating for dentures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-04-01 false Hydrophilic resin coating for dentures. 872.3300 ...Prosthetic Devices § 872.3300 Hydrophilic resin coating for dentures. (a) Identification. A hydrophilic resin coating for dentures is a device...

2011-04-01

333

21 CFR 872.3200 - Resin tooth bonding agent.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Resin tooth bonding agent. 872.3200 Section 872...Prosthetic Devices § 872.3200 Resin tooth bonding agent. (a) Identification. A resin tooth bonding agent is a device material,...

2012-04-01

334

21 CFR 872.3690 - Tooth shade resin material.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Tooth shade resin material. 872.3690 Section...DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3690 Tooth shade resin material. (a) Identification. Tooth shade resin material is a device...

2012-04-01

335

21 CFR 520.1242d - Levamisole resinate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Levamisole resinate. 520.1242d Section 520...FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1242d Levamisole resinate. (a) Specifications. The drug is levamisole adsorbed on a resin, in a...

2010-04-01

336

21 CFR 520.1242d - Levamisole resinate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Levamisole resinate. 520.1242d Section 520...FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1242d Levamisole resinate. (a) Specifications. The drug is levamisole adsorbed on a resin, in a...

2009-04-01

337

40 CFR 721.2752 - Epoxy resin containing phosphorus (generic).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Epoxy resin containing phosphorus (generic). 721.2752 Section...721.2752 Epoxy resin containing phosphorus (generic). (a) Chemical substance...generically as an epoxy resin containing phosphorus (PMN P-00-912) is subject...

2013-07-01

338

21 CFR 872.3200 - Resin tooth bonding agent.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Resin tooth bonding agent. 872.3200 Section 872...Prosthetic Devices § 872.3200 Resin tooth bonding agent. (a) Identification. A resin tooth bonding agent is a device material,...

2009-04-01

339

Bark Extracts and Their Use in Different Bonding Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Spruce bark extracts have proved to be a possible resource for replacing phenolic resin in different gluing systems. The quality of our spruce (Picea abies) bark extract is not so good. Stiasny number is low, between 50 - 60 varying even in extractions of...

L. Suomi-Lindberg

1986-01-01

340

Polyimide Resins Resist Extreme Temperatures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Spacecraft and aerospace engines share a common threat: high temperature. The temperatures experienced during atmospheric reentry can reach over 2,000 F, and the temperatures in rocket engines can reach well over 5,000 F. To combat the high temperatures in aerospace applications, Dr. Ruth Pater of Langley Research Center developed RP-46, a polyimide resin capable of withstanding the most brutal temperatures. The composite material can push the service temperature to the limits of organic materials. Designed as an environmentally friendly alternative to other high-temperature resins, the RP-46 polyimide resin system was awarded a 1992 "R&D 100" award, named a "2001 NASA Technology of the Year," and later, due to its success as a spinoff technology, "2004 NASA Commercial Invention of the Year." The technology s commercial success also led to its winning the Langley s "Paul F. Holloway Technology Transfer Award" as well as "Richard T. Whitcom Aerospace Technology Transfer Award" both for 2004. RP-46 is relatively inexpensive and it can be readily processed for use as an adhesive, composite, resin molding, coating, foam, or film. Its composite materials can be used in temperatures ranging from minus 150 F to 2,300 F. No other organic materials are known to be capable of such wide range and extreme high-temperature applications. In addition to answering the call for environmentally conscious high-temperature materials, RP-46 provides a slew of additional advantages: It is extremely lightweight (less than half the weight of aluminum), chemical and moisture resistant, strong, and flexible. Pater also developed a similar technology, RP-50, using many of the same methods she used with RP-46, and very similar in composition to RP-46 in terms of its thermal capacity and chemical construction, but it has different applications, as this material is a coating as opposed to a buildable composite. A NASA license for use of this material outside of the Space Agency as well as additional government-funded testing proved that RP-46 is even more exceptional than originally thought.

2009-01-01

341

Phosphorus-containing imide resins  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cured polymers of bis and tris-imides derived from tris(m-aminophenyl) phosphine oxides by reaction with maleic anhydride or its derivatives, and addition polymers of such imides, including a variant in which a monoimide is condensed with a dianhydride and the product is treated with a further quantity of maleic anhydride prior to curing are disclosed and claimed. Such polymers are flame resistant. Also disclosed are an improved method of producing tris(m-aminophenyl) phosphine oxides from the nitro analogues by reduction with hydrazine hydrate using palladized charcoal or Raney nickel as the catalyst and fiber reinforced cured resin composites.

Varma, I. K.; Fohlen, G. M.; Parker, J. A. (inventors)

1985-01-01

342

Dentine sealing provided by smear layer/smear plugs vs. adhesive resins/resin tags.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of five experimental resins, which ranged from hydrophobic to hydrophilic blends, to seal acid-etched dentine saturated with water or ethanol. The experimental resins (R1, R2, R3, R4, and R5) were evaluated as neat bonding agents (100% resin) or as solutions solvated with absolute ethanol (70% resin/30% ethanol). Fluid conductance was measured at 20 cm H(2)O hydrostatic pressure after sound dentine surfaces were: (i) covered with a smear layer; (ii) acid-etched; or (iii) bonded with neat or solvated resins, which were applied to acid-etched dentine saturated with water or ethanol. In general, the fluid conductance of resin-bonded dentine was significantly higher than that of smear layer-covered dentine. However, when the most hydrophobic neat resins (R1 and R2) were applied to acid-etched dentine saturated with ethanol, the fluid conductance was as low as that produced by smear layers. The fluid conductance of resin-bonded dentine saturated with ethanol was significantly lower than for resin bonded to water-saturated dentine, except for resin R4. Application of more hydrophobic resins may provide better sealing of acid-etched dentine if the substrate is saturated with ethanol instead of with water. PMID:17697173

Carrilho, Marcela R; Tay, Franklin R; Sword, Jeremy; Donnelly, Adam M; Agee, Kelli A; Nishitani, Yoshihiro; Sadek, Fernanda T; Carvalho, Ricardo M; Pashley, David H

2007-08-01

343

Extraction platform evaluations: A comparison of Automate Express™, EZ1® Advanced XL, and Maxwell® 16 Bench-top DNA extraction systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The DNA extraction performance of three low-throughput extraction systems was evaluated. The instruments and respective chemistries all use a similar extraction methodology that involves binding DNA to a coated magnetic resin in the presence of chaotropic salt, washing of the resin to remove undesirable compounds, and elution of DNA from the particles in a low-salt solution. The AutoMate Express™ (Life

Carey P. Davis; Jonathan L. King; Bruce Budowle; Arthur J. Eisenberg; Meredith A. Turnbough

344

Process of Resin Treating a Cotton Batting.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The fibrous batts are used in the furniture and automotive industries for upholstery, mattresses and automotive cushioning. The web of opened textile fibers of cotton are treated before final forming with a resin. The resin is made of dimethylol ethyl car...

N. B. Knoepfler H. K. Gardner H. L. E. Vix

1965-01-01

345

Novel silica-based ion exchange resin  

SciTech Connect

Shortcomings of chelating resins have been addressed by a new class of ion exchange resins called dual mechanism bifunctional polymers (DMBPs). DMBPs use hydrophilic cation exchange ligands with rapid uptake kinetics and use chelating ligands for selectivity for one or more metals; result is a resin that quickly recognizes and removes targeted metals from waste, remediation, and process streams. Eichrom`s Diphonix {reg_sign} resin is the first DMBP to be widely released as a commercial product; it is polystyrene based. Objective of this work is to synthesize commercial quantities of a silica-based ion exchange resin with the same or better metal ion selectivity, metal uptake kinetics, and acid stability as Diphonix. Feasibility was determined, however the process needs to be optimized. Studies at Eichrom and ANL of the performance of Diphonix resin over a broad range of HNO3 and HCl conditions and inorganic salt loadings are discussed together with the proposed method of incorporating similar characteristics into a silica-based resin. The new, silica-based resin functionalized with diphosphonic acid ligands can be used in environmental restoration and waste management situations involving processing of low-level, transuranic, and high-level radioactive wastes; it can also be used for processing liquid mixed waste including wastes contaminated with organic compounds.

Gula, M.; Harvey, J.

1996-12-31

346

21 CFR 177.1550 - Perfluorocarbon resins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...characteristic infrared spectra. (2) Melt-viscosity. (i) The per-fluoro-carbon resins...1) of this section shall have a melt viscosity of not less than 104 poises at 380...ibr_locations.html. The melt viscosity of the perfluorocarbon resins...

2013-04-01

347

THERMOMECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF TOUGHENED PHENOLIC RESOL RESIN  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in thermal and mechanical properties of polyvinylbutyral (PVB) modified phenolic resole resin were studied. The DSC and TGA studies show that an increase in PVB content results in a reduced thermal stability at temperatures above 360 °C, but causes little change in thermal properties at temperatures below 300 °C. The izod impact strength of cast moulded resin is maximum

I. N Ismail; Z. A. M. Ishak; M. F. Jaafar; S. Omar; M. F. Zainal Abidin; H. F Ahmad Marzuki

348

Some experiences with epoxy resin grouting compounds.  

PubMed

Epoxy resin systems are used in tiling and grouting in the construction industry. Because of the nature of the application, skin contact is the primary hazard. The most prevalent reaction was reddening of the forearms, followed by whole body reddening and loss of appetite, these latter two being associated with smoking while applying the resin. PMID:7415974

Hosein, H R

1980-07-01

349

Treatment of Spent Ion-Exchange Resins.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

PMMA was studied with the aim to evaluate its usefulness as an incorporation medium for the final containment of spent ion-exchange resins. The study of the effect of water content (ranging from 25 to 100%) of the incorporated resin into PMMA on the compr...

N. K. Ghattas N. E. Ikladious S. B. Eskander

1981-01-01

350

Silicone modified resins for graphite fiber laminates  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Six silicone modified resins were selected for evaluation in unidirectional filament wound graphite laminates. Neat samples of these resins had 1,000 C char residues of 6-63%. The highest flexural values measured for the laminates were a strength of 1,220 MPa and a modulus of 105 GPa. The highest interlaminar shear strength was 72 MPa.

Frost, L. W.; Bower, G. M.

1980-01-01

351

Resin/graphite fiber composites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Techniques were developed that provided thermo-oxidatively stable A-type polyimide/graphite fiber composites using the approach of in situ polymerization of monomeric reactants directly on reinforcing fibers, rather than employing separately prepared prepolymer varnish. This was accomplished by simply mixing methylene dianiline and two ester-acids and applying this solution to the fibers for subsequent molding. Five different formulated molecular weight resins were examined, and an optimized die molding procedure established for the 1500 formulated molecular weight system. Extensive ultrasonic inspection of composites was successfully utilized as a technique for monitoring laminate quality. Composite mechanical property studies were conducted with this polyimide resin at room temperature and after various time exposures in a thermo-oxidative environment at 561 K (550 F), 589 K (600 F) and 617 K (650 F). It was determined that such composites have a long term life in the temperature range of 561 K to 589 K. The final phase involved the fabrication and evaluation of a series of demonstration airfoil specimens.

Cavano, P. J.

1974-01-01

352

Release and toxicity of dental resin composite  

PubMed Central

Dental resin composite that are tooth-colored materials have been considered as possible substitutes to mercury-containing silver amalgam filling. Despite the fact that dental resin composites have improved their physico-chemical properties, the concern for its intrinsic toxicity remains high. Some components of restorative composite resins are released in the oral environment initially during polymerization reaction and later due to degradation of the material. In vitro and in vivo studies have clearly identified that these components of restorative composite resins are toxic. But there is a large gap between the results published by research laboratories and clinical reports. The objective of this manuscript was to review the literature on release phenomenon as well as in vitro and in vivo toxicity of dental resin composite. Interpretation made from the recent data was also outlined.

Gupta, Saurabh K.; Saxena, Payal; Pant, Vandana A.; Pant, Aditya B.

2012-01-01

353

Physical Properties of Synthetic Resin Materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A study was made to determine the physical properties of synthetic resins having paper, canvas, and linen reinforcements, and of laminated wood impregnated with a resin varnish. The results show that commercial resins have moduli of elasticity that are too low for structural considerations. Nevertheless, there do exist plastics that have favorable mechanical properties and, with further development, it should be possible to produce resin products that compare favorably with the light-metal alloys. The results obtained from tests on Compound 1840, resin-impregnated wood, show that this material can stand on its own merit by virtue of a compressive strength four times that of the natural wood. This increase in compressive strength was accomplished with an increase of density to a value slightly below three times the normal value and corrected one of the most serious defects of the natural product.

Fishbein, Meyer

1939-01-01

354

Release and toxicity of dental resin composite.  

PubMed

Dental resin composite that are tooth-colored materials have been considered as possible substitutes to mercury-containing silver amalgam filling. Despite the fact that dental resin composites have improved their physico-chemical properties, the concern for its intrinsic toxicity remains high. Some components of restorative composite resins are released in the oral environment initially during polymerization reaction and later due to degradation of the material. In vitro and in vivo studies have clearly identified that these components of restorative composite resins are toxic. But there is a large gap between the results published by research laboratories and clinical reports. The objective of this manuscript was to review the literature on release phenomenon as well as in vitro and in vivo toxicity of dental resin composite. Interpretation made from the recent data was also outlined. PMID:23293458

Gupta, Saurabh K; Saxena, Payal; Pant, Vandana A; Pant, Aditya B

2012-09-01

355

Solidification of ion exchange resin wastes  

SciTech Connect

Solidification media investigated included portland type I, portland type III and high alumina cements, a proprietary gypsum-based polymer modified cement, and a vinyl ester-styrene thermosetting plastic. Samples formulated with hydraulic cement were analyzed to investigate the effects of resin type, resin loading, waste-to-cement ratio, and water-to-cement ratio. The solidification of cation resin wastes with portland cement was characterized by excessive swelling and cracking of waste forms, both after curing and during immersion testing. Mixed bed resin waste formulations were limited by their cation component. Additives to improve the mechanical properties of portland cement-ion exchange resin waste forms were evaluated. High alumina cement formulations dislayed a resistance to deterioration of mechanical integrity during immersion testing, thus providing a significant advantage over portland cements for the solidification of resin wastes. Properties of cement-ion exchange resin waste forms were examined. An experiment was conducted to study the leachability of /sup 137/Cs, /sup 85/Sr, and /sup 60/Co from resins modified in portland type III and high alumina cements. The cumulative /sup 137/Cs fraction release was at least an order of magnitude greater than that of either /sup 85/Sr or /sup 60/Co. Release rates of /sup 137/Cs in high alumina cement were greater than those in portland III cement by a factor of two.Compressive strength and leach testing were conducted for resin wastes solidified with polymer-modified gypsum based cement. /sup 137/Cs, /sup 85/Sr, and /sup 60/Co fraction releases were about one, two and three orders of magnitude higher, respectively, than in equivalent portland type III cement formulations. As much as 28.6 wt % dry ion exchange resin was successfully solidified using vinyl ester-styrene compared with a maximum of 25 wt % in both portland and gypsum-based cement.

Not Available

1982-08-01

356

Use of EIChroM`s TRU resin in the determination of americium, plutonium and uranium in air filter and water samples  

SciTech Connect

TRU Resin, an extraction chromatographic material (octyl (phenyl)-N,Ndiisobutylcarbamoyl-methylphosphene oxide (CMPO) dissolved in tributyl phosphate (TBP)) manufactured by EIChroM Industries, was tested for its actinide sorption and desorption characteristics. A study was initiated to demonstrate the effectiveness of extracting plutonium, americium and uranium from water and air filter samples from the Environmental Measurements Laboratory`s Quality Assessment Program (QAP), and the effectiveness of subsequent desorption of one chemical species at a time in order to prepare each of them for a spectrometry. Crossover of plutonium into the americium fraction with the TRU Resin was observed and could not be eliminated while using TRU Resin only. However, prior extraction of plutonium using an anion exchange resin can overcome this problem. A method for the determination of americium is proposed which combines the extraction of plutonium onto Bio-Rad AG 1-X8 anion exchange resin with the extraction of americium using the TRU Resin. This method was tested on three triplicate sets of QAP air filters and two triplicate sets of QAP water samples. The recoveries ranged from 70 to 90 percent, and the results were identical to those obtained by the existing methods. The time required to perform the analysis for americium was shortened from 5 weeks to 1 week.

Berne, A.

1995-12-01

357

Comparison of bracket debonding force between two conventional resin adhesives and a resin-reinforced glass ionomer cement: an in vitro and in vivo study.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to compare the debonding force of orthodontic brackets bonded with two conventional resin adhesives (Resilience L3 and Light Bond) and a resin-reinforced glass ionomer cement (Fuji Ortho LC). For the in vitro part of the study, 80 extracted premolars were randomly divided into four groups. In groups A and B, brackets were bonded to unetched enamel using Fuji Ortho LC cement in wet and dry conditions, respectively. In groups C and D, brackets were bonded to etched enamel using Resilience L3 and Light Bond, respectively. Debonding force was determined using a servohydraulic testing machine at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min. Data was analyzed using the ANOVA and Tukey-Kramer multiple comparison test at p<0.05. A significant difference was found in debonding force between unetched Fuji Ortho LC and the two conventional resins. There was no significant difference between the two conventional resins or between unetched resin-reinforced glass ionomer in the wet and dry conditions. For the in vivo part of the study, 30 patients were randomly assigned to one of the three bonding material groups. Bracket survival rates and distributions were obtained by following these patients for 1.2 years. Data was analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier product-limit estimates of survivorship function. Bond failure interface was determined using a modified adhesive remnant index (ARI). These results showed no significant difference between survival rates and distributions among the three bonding materials with respect to the type of malocclusion, type of orthodontic treatment, or location of bracket. There were significant differences between survival distributions of males and females in the unetched Fuji Ortho LC group and among type of teeth in the conventional resin groups. The predominant mode of bracket failure for the unetched Fuji Ortho LC cement was at the enamel-adhesive interface, and for conventional resins, the enamel-adhesive interface and the bracket-adhesive interface. These results suggest that resin-reinforced glass ionomer cement can withstand occlusal and orthodontic forces despite having a bond strength lower than that of conventional resin adhesives. PMID:10515145

Shammaa, I; Ngan, P; Kim, H; Kao, E; Gladwin, M; Gunel, E; Brown, C

1999-10-01

358

Phytochemical and anti-staphylococcal biofilm assessment of Dracaena draco L. Spp. draco resin  

PubMed Central

Background: Dracaena draco L. ssp. draco is known as the “dragon's blood tree” and it is endemic from the Canary Islands and Morocco. Objective: Carry out phytochemical investigation of acetonic extracts of red resin obtained from the trunk of D. draco, to obtain to the isolation of the most abundant resin constituents, belonging to the class of flavonoids: flavans, along with homoisoflavans and homoisoflavanones. Materials and Methods: The structures of the isolated compounds were established by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and mass spectrometry data and comparison with literature data. The acetonic extract was evaluated for its anti-staphylococcal properties against two reference strains. Results: The acetonic extracts resulted inactive at the maximum tested concentration of 1000 ?g/ml against free living forms of tested staphylococci, but they showed a very interesting activity in the prevention of a biofilm formation at a concentration equal to 200 ?g/ml against S. aureus ATCC 25923.

Stefano, V. Di; Pitonzo, R.; Schillaci, D.

2014-01-01

359

Absolute stereostructures of polypodane- and octanordammarane-type triterpenes with nitric oxide production inhibitory activity from guggul-gum resins.  

PubMed

The methanolic extract from guggul-gum resin, the resin of Balsamodendron mukul, was found to inhibit nitric oxide production in lipopolysaccharide-activated mouse peritoneal macrophages (IC(50) = 13 microg/mL). From the methanolic extract, three new polypodane-type triterpenes, myrrhanol B and myrrhanones B and A acetate, and a new octanordammarane-type triterpene, epimansumbinol, were isolated together with 17 known compounds including progesterone and the related steroids. The absolute stereostructures of new triterpenes were elucidated on the basis of chemical and physicochemical evidence. The several constituents showed inhibitory effects on nitric oxide production and induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase. PMID:15142562

Matsuda, Hisashi; Morikawa, Toshio; Ando, Shin; Oominami, Hideo; Murakami, Toshiyuki; Kimura, Ikuko; Yoshikawa, Masayuki

2004-06-01

360

Acidic resin-catalysed conversion of fructose into furan derivatives in low boiling point solvents.  

PubMed

Conversion of fructose into furan derivatives 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) and 5-methoxymethylfurfural (MMF) is performed in tetrahydrofuran (THF) and methanol-organic solvent systems, catalysed by an acidic resin Amberlyst-15. The melted fructose can be converted into HMF on the surface of the solid resin catalyst in the presence of THF as an extracting phase, which is a good solvent for HMF and other by-products. The solid resin catalyst can be reused eleven times without losing its catalytic ability, with an average HMF yield of approximately 50%. Upon the addition of methanol, the generated HMF can further react with methanol to form MMF, and the total yield of HMF and MMF could be promoted to 65%. GC-MS analysis confirms the formation of a small amount of methyl levulinate in methanolorganic solvent system. PMID:21741626

Zhu, Hong; Cao, Quan; Li, Chunhu; Mu, Xindong

2011-09-27

361

Literature search on the use of resins for treatment of radioactive wastes  

SciTech Connect

Over 100 commercial providers with mixed-waste treatability capabilities exist in the US. The maturity level of these technologies varies from a bench scale to a pilot or a commercial scale. The techniques include deactivation, chemical oxidation, recovery of metals, stabilization, vitrification, incineration, biodegradation, and chemical extraction. This report focuses on the use of resins to remove actinides and heavy metals from aqueous waste streams. Only the literature that described resins with high removing efficiency are presented here. The majority of the literature reviewed are proceedings and national or international reports ordered through the Berkeley Lab Library. Some of the reports that the authors requested have not yet arrived. Only a few papers were found in the open literature (journals or magazines). Although this report does not include all existing references, it provides an accurate assessment of efficient resins to be considered for waste minimization procedures. 70 refs.

AlMahamid, I.; Smith, B.M.

1997-10-01

362

Cavity design and dimensions of tunnel preparations versus composite resin Class-II preparations.  

PubMed

Fourteen pairs of extracted contralateral premolars with small, artificial, standardized, approximal 'caries lesions' were placed in 14 plaster jaws. Fourteen dentists made a mesial tunnel preparation and a distal composite resin preparation on one tooth and vice versa on the contralateral tooth. Less tooth substance was removed in the tunnel preparations than in the class-II preparations, but this difference was not statistically significant when the resin class-II preparations were made without occlusal retention. Twenty-five per cent of the tunnel preparations had residual 'caries', as opposed to 7% in the class-II composite preparations. Tunnel preparations with larger occlusal openings had less residual 'caries'. The morphology of the class-II resin preparations varied considerably, indicating a lack of precise descriptions in the dental literature. PMID:7484102

Strand, G V; Tveit, A B; Eide, G E

1995-08-01

363

Nanoindentation Study of Resin Impregnated Sandstone and Early-Age Cement Paste Specimens  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanoindentation testing requires well prepared samples with a good surface finish. Achieving a good surface finish is difficult for heterogeneous materials, particularly those with weak and fragile structures/phases, which are easily damaged or lost during preparation. The loss of weak structures can be drastically reduced by impregnating the sample with a resin before cutting and polishing. This technique is commonly used in SEM microscopy but has not been used for nanoindentation-testing before. This paper reports an investigation to extract micro-mechanical properties of different phases in resin impregnated sandstone and 1-day hydrated cement samples. The results appeared to show that it is feasible to use resin impregnated specimens for nanoindentation study of both materials.

Zhu, W.; Fonteyn, M. T. J.; Hughes, J.; Pearce, C.

364

Double edged effect of gum-resin of ferula assa-foetida on lifespan of neurons  

PubMed Central

Objective(s): Based on knowledge from traditional herbal medicine, Ferula assa-foetida (asafoetida) has several therapeutic applications but there is less knowledge about its effect on neurons. Materials and Methods: In order to evaluate neuronal differentiation, neuronal like cells were stained against neuronal specific markers ?-Tubulin III and MAP2. After establishment of neuronal differentiation in cultured cells, aqueous extract of gum-resin of asafoetida were applied on culture medium of neurons with different concentrations then survival rate of neurons were evaluated by cell counting and methyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) tests. Results: The results showed that asafoetida gum resin particularly with 0.01 and 1 µg/ml concentrations could improve survival rate of neurons, while10 µgr/ml treated group was toxic. Conclusion: Results of this study indicated that gum resin of asafoetida in low doses has neuroprotective effect on neurons and improves survival rate of them, however in higher concentrations it is toxic for neurons.

Homayouni Moghadam, Farshad; Vakili Zarch, Behzad; Shafiei, Mohammad

2013-01-01

365

Mineralogy of fossil resins in Northern Eurasia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The investigation is focused on identification and origin of fossil resins from the Cretaceous, Tertiary, and Quaternary sediments of Northern Eurasia on the basis of detailed study of their physical and chemical characteristics: morphology; size; mass; density; optical, mechanical, and thermal properties; chemical composition; etc. The composition of amorphous organic minerals with polymeric structure, fossil resins included, is studied with IR spectrometry, the EPR method, derivatography at low heating rates, XRD, chemical analysis, emission spectrometry, etc. The results of investigation summarized for the Baltic-Dnieper, North Siberian, and Far East amber-bearing provinces show some similarity of fossil resins in combination with specific features inherent to each province. Resins from the Baltic-Dnieper province should be termed as amber (succinite). Their variety is the most characteristic of Northern and Eastern Europe. Amber-like fossil resins from the North Siberian and Far East provinces are irrelevant to succinite. They usually occur as brittle resins, namely, retinite and gedanite, without jewelry value. Viscous fossil resin rumänite with an expected high economic value occurs in the Far East, on the shore of Sakhalin Island.

Bogdasarov, M. A.

2007-12-01

366

Bead Settling During Cation and Anion Resin Separation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The production of ultrapure water by ion exchange requires thorough mixing of cationic and anionic resins. In many cases the resins are regenerated; requiring bead-type separation prior to chemical treatment with the respective acid or base. Resin separation is predictable based upon backwash conditions, resin properties and system geometry. An important factor in an accurate model is the drag coefficient

Bharathwaj Gopalakrishnan; Gary L. Foutch; Drew Fleck; Hasith Suriyapperuma

2012-01-01

367

Improved microbial-check-valve resins  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Improved microbial-check-valve resins have been tested for their microbicidal effectiveness and long-term stability. Resins give more-stable iodine concentrations than previous preparations and do not impart objectionable odor or taste to treated water. Microbial check valve is small cylindrical device, packed with iodide-saturated resin, that is installed in water line where contamination by micro-organisms is to be prevented. Prototype microbial check valve was tested for stability and performance under harsh environmental conditions. Effectiveness was 100 percent at 35 deg, 70 deg, and 160 deg F (2 deg, 21 deg, and 71 deg C).

Colombo, G. V.; Putnam, D. F.

1980-01-01

368

Properties of a nanodielectric cryogenic resin  

SciTech Connect

Physical properties of a nanodielectric composed of in situ synthesized titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) nanoparticles ({le} 5 nm in diameter) and a cryogenic resin are reported. The dielectric losses were reduced by a factor of 2 in the nanocomposite, indicating that the presence of small TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles restricted the mobility of the polymer chains. Dielectric breakdown data of the nanodielectric was distributed over a narrower range than that of the unfilled resin. The nanodielectric had 1.56 times higher 1% breakdown probability than the resin, yielding 0.64 times thinner insulation thickness for the same voltage level, which is beneficial in high voltage engineering.

Polyzos, Georgios [ORNL; Tuncer, Enis [ORNL; Sauers, Isidor [ORNL; More, Karren Leslie [ORNL

2010-01-01

369

Quaternization of poly(4-vinyl pyridine) beads with 2-chloroacetamide for selective mercury extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crosslinked poly(4-vinyl pyridine) resin ‘Reillex® 425’ has been quaternized almost quantitatively with 2-chloroacetamide in DMF solvent. The quaternized resin with 4.03 mmol g?1 quaternization density is an efficient sorbent for selective mercury extraction from aqueous solutions. About 4 mmol g?1 mercury loading capacity of the resin implies that mercury sorption takes place mostly by formation of monoamido–mercury structures. Only negligible

Hayal Bulbul Sonmez; Niyazi Bicak

2002-01-01

370

Effect of light-curing units on microleakage under dental composite resins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this study was to determine the effect of two light-curing units (QTH and LED) on microleakage of Class II composite resin restorations with dentin cavosurface margins. Twenty extracted mandibular first premolars, free of caries and fractures were prepared two vertical “slot” cavities in the occluso-mesial and -destal surfaces (2 mm buccal-lingually, 2 mm proximal-axially and cervical limit in enamel) and divided into 4 equal groups ( n = 8): GI and GII: packable posterior composite light-activated with LED and QTH, respectively; GIII and GIV: micro-hybrid composite resin light-activated with LED and QTH, respectively. The composite resins were applied following the manufacturer’s instructions. After 24 h of water storage specimens were subjected to thermocycling for a total of 500 cycles at 5 and 55°C and the teeth were then sealed with impermeable material. Teeth were immersed in 0.5% Basic fuchsin during 24 h at room temperature, and zero to three levels of penetration score were attributed. The Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests showed significant statistically similar ( P > 0.05) from GI to GII and GIII to GIV, which the GII (2.750) had the highest mean scores and the GIII and GIV (0.875) had lowest mean scores. The use of different light-curing units has no influence on marginal integrity of Class II composite resin restorations and the proprieties of composite resins are important to reduce the microleakage.

Queiroz, R. S.; Bandéca, M. C.; Calixto, L. R.; Saade, E. G.; Nadalin, M. R.; Andrade, M. F.; Porto-Neto, S. T.

2009-09-01

371

Microleakage of resin-modified glass ionomer restorations with selective enamel etching.  

PubMed

SUMMARY Aim : Bonding of resin-modified glass ionomers to enamel is an important quality, especially when saliva contamination is inevitable. This study evaluated if microleakage of a resin-modified glass ionomer improves with selective enamel etching, with or without saliva contamination. Methods : Class V cavities with the occlusal margin in enamel and the gingival margin on the root were prepared in extracted human permanent teeth and filled with a resin-modified glass ionomer using an acidic primer according to the manufacturer's recommendation or with an additional selective enamel etching step. Preparations were contaminated with saliva before primer application or before restoration placement (n=10). Restored teeth were thermocycled between 5°C and 55°C for 1000 cycles, stained with basic fuchsin, and sectioned. Microleakage distance was measured and analyzed with analysis of variance followed by Duncan post hoc test at a significance level of 0.05. Results : Enamel microleakage was highest when saliva contamination occurred before the placement of resin-modified glass ionomer. Microleakage distances were significantly reduced in the selective etching groups regardless of saliva contamination. However, selective etching of enamel increased microleakage in cementum. The increase in cementum leakage was significantly higher when saliva contamination occurred before restoration placement. Conclusion : Selective etching reduces enamel microleakage of a resin-modified glass ionomer even with saliva contamination, but it may increase microleakage at the cementum. The severity of microleakage is affected by the timing of saliva contamination. PMID:24967989

Ludlow, Sw; Farmer, Sn; Donaldson, Me; Tantbirojn, D; Versluis, A

2014-01-01

372

Long-term nanomechanical properties of biomodified dentin-resin interface components  

PubMed Central

Failures of dental composite restorative procedures are largely attributed to the degradation of dentin-resin interface components. The biomodification of dentin using bioactive agents may improve the quality and durability of the dentin-resin bonds. The aim of this study was to nanomechanically assess the reduced modulus of elasticity (Er) and nanohardness (H) of major components of the dentin-resin interface (hybrid layer, adhesive layer and underlying dentin) biomodified by collagen cross-linkers at 24hrs, 3 and 6 month following restorative procedure. Demineralized dentin surfaces were biomodified with 5% glutaraldehyde (GD) or 6.5% grape seed extract (GSE) prior to placement of adhesive systems and composite resin. Nano measurements of the interface components in a fluid cell showed that both agents increased the Er and H of underlying dentin after 3 months and 6 months when compared to a control. The mechanical properties of the adhesive layer and hybrid layer decreased overtime. The biomodification of the dentin-resin interface structures using GD and GSE can increase the mechanical properties of the interface overtime and may contribute to the long-term quality of adhesive restorations.

Dos Santos, Paulo Henrique; Karol, Sachin; Bedran-Russo, Ana Karina

2011-01-01

373

Durability of isocyanate resin adhesives for wood I: Thermal properties of isocyanate resin cured with water  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thermal properties of isocyanate (IC) resin cured with water were studied using dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) and\\u000a Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The thermal properties of cured phenol formaldehyde (PF) resin were also studied\\u000a for comparison purposes. The DMA specimens were prepared using a unique technique. The relation between the mechanical and\\u000a chemical changes of the resin during DMA was

Kenji Umemura; Akihiro Takahashi; Shuichi Kawai

1998-01-01

374

Adsorption/desorption characteristics and separation of anthocyanins from muscadine (Vitis rotundifolia) juice pomace by use of macroporous adsorbent resins.  

PubMed

In this study, the adsorption/desorption characteristics of anthocyanins on five Amberlite resins (FPX-66, XAD-7HP, XAD-16N, XAD-1180, and XAD-761) were evaluated. FPX-66 and XAD-16N showed the highest adsorption and desorption capacities and ratios for anthocyanins from muscadine pomace extract, while XAD-7HP had the lowest adsorption and desorption capacities and ratios. On the basis of static adsorption and desorption tests, three resins (FPX-66, XAD-16N, and XAD-1180) were selected for adsorption kinetics and isotherms. The adsorption mechanism was better explained by the pseudo-first-order kinetics for FPX-66 and XAD-16N; however, for XAD-1180, pseudo-second-order kinetics was the most suitable model. The experimental data fitted best to Langmuir isotherm model for all three resins. Dynamic testing was done on a column packed with FPX-66 resin and breakthrough volume was reached at 17 bed volumes of muscadine pomace water extract during adsorption. Three bed volumes of aqueous ethanol (70%) resulted in complete desorption. Resin adsorption resulted in a concentrated pomace extract that contained 13% (w/w) anthocyanins with no detectable sugars. PMID:23368425

Sandhu, Amandeep K; Gu, Liwei

2013-02-20

375

21 CFR 175.380 - Xylene-formaldehyde resins condensed with 4,4â²-isopropylidenediphenol-epichlorohydrin epoxy resins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...isopropylidenediphenol-epichlorohydrin epoxy resins. The resins identified in...articles intended for use in contact with...conditions. (a) The resins are produced by...condensation of xylene-formaldehyde resin and 4,4...or trimethylol phenol and capryl...

2010-01-01

376

Phenoxy resins containing pendent ethynyl groups and cured resins obtained therefrom  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Phenoxy resins containing pendent ethynyl groups, the process for preparing the same, and the cured resin products obtained therefrom are disclosed. Upon the application of heat, the ethynyl groups react to provide branching and crosslinking with the cure temperature being lowered by using a catalyst if desired but not required. The cured phenoxy resins containing pendent ethynyl groups have improved solvent resistance and higher use temperature than linear uncrosslinked phenoxy resins and are applicable for use as coatings, films, adhesives, composited matrices and molding compounds.

Hergenrother, P. M. (inventor)

1985-01-01

377

Method for regenerating magnetic polyamine-epichlorohydrin resin  

DOEpatents

Magnetic polymer resins capable of efficient removal of actinides and heavy metals from contaminated water are disclosed together with methods for making, using, and regenerating them. The resins comprise polyamine-epichlorohydrin resin beads with ferrites attached to the surfaces of the beads. Markedly improved water decontamination is demonstrated using these magnetic polymer resins of the invention in the presence of a magnetic field, as compared with water decontamination methods employing ordinary ion exchange resins or ferrites taken separately. 9 figs.

Kochen, R.L.; Navratil, J.D.

1997-07-29

378

Method for regenerating magnetic polyamine-epichlorohydrin resin  

DOEpatents

Magnetic polymer resins capable of efficient removal of actinides and heavy metals from contaminated water are disclosed together with methods for making, using, and regenerating them. The resins comprise polyamine-epichlorohydrin resin beads with ferrites attached to the surfaces of the beads. Markedly improved water decontamination is demonstrated using these magnetic polymer resins of the invention in the presence of a magnetic field, as compared with water decontamination methods employing ordinary ion exchange resins or ferrites taken separately.

Kochen, Robert L. (Boulder, CO); Navratil, James D. (Simi Valley, CA)

1997-07-29

379

Synthesis of improved phenolic and polyester resins  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thirty-seven cured phenolic resin compositions were prepared and tested for their ability to provide improved char residues and moisture resistance over state of the art epoxy resin composite matrices. Cyanate, epoxy novolac and vinyl ester resins were investigated. Char promoter additives were found to increase the anaerobic char yield at 800 C of epoxy novolacs and vinyl esters. Moisture resistant cyanate and vinyl ester compositions were investigated as composite matrices with Thornel 300 graphite fiber. A cyanate composite matrix provided state of the art composite mechanical properties before and after humidity exposure and an anaerobic char yield of 46 percent at 800 C. The outstanding moisture resistance of the matrix was not completely realized in the composite. Vinyl ester resins showed promise as candidates for improved composite matrix systems.

Delano, C. B.

1980-01-01

380

21 CFR 178.3930 - Terpene resins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...hydrocarbons obtainable from sulfate turpentine and meeting the following specifications: Drop-softening point of 118°-138 °C; iodine value less than 20. (b) Terpene resins consisting of polymers of beta-pinene and meeting the following...

2010-01-01

381

Some physicomechanical properties of polyformaldehyde (acetal resins)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method of testing polyformaldehyde (acetyl resin) film has been developed. Comparative tests have been carried out on the homopolymer and trioxane-dioxolan copolymer. Certain physicomechanical characteristics of these polymers have been obtained.

Yu. B. Kalmykov; G. P. Troshin

1967-01-01

382

21 CFR 177.1555 - Polyarylate resins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Identity. Polyarylate resins (1, 3-benzenedicarboxylic acid, diphenyl ester, polymer with diphenyl 1,4-benzenedicarboxylate and 4-4â²-(1-methylethylidine) bis(phenol)) are formed by melt polycondensation of...

2009-04-01

383

21 CFR 177.1555 - Polyarylate resins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Identity. Polyarylate resins (1, 3-benzenedicarboxylic acid, diphenyl ester, polymer with diphenyl 1,4-benzenedicarboxylate and 4-4â²-(1-methylethylidine) bis(phenol)) are formed by melt polycondensation of...

2010-01-01

384

Mechanical Properties of Degraded PMR-15 Resin.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Thermo-oxidative aging produces a nonuniform degradation state in PMR-15 resin. A surface layer, usually attributed to oxidative degradation, forms. This surface layer has different properties from the inner material. A set of material tests was designed ...

L. C. Tsuji

2000-01-01

385

An update on resin-bonded bridges.  

PubMed

Since the introduction of the 'Rochette' bridge in the 1970s the resin-bonded bridge has undergone a number of developments to become a commonly used technique for replacement of a missing tooth, especially in a minimally restored dentition. One of the major advantages of the resin-bonded bridge is that it requires less tooth preparation than conventional bridgework, with some authorities advising no preparation at all. Some reports have suggested poor long-term success rates, however, if used in appropriate clinical situations, this treatment modality can be extremely successful. The aim of this paper is to review the literature relating to resin-bonded bridges and suggest recommendations for clinicalpractice concerning the provision of resin-bonded bridges. PMID:18468318

Barber, M W; Preston, A J

2008-03-01

386

Improved high-temperature resistant matrix resins  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A study was performed with the objective of developing matrix resins that exhibit improved thermo-oxidative stability over state-of-the-art high temperature resins for use at temperatures up to 644 K (700 F) and air pressures up to 0.7 MPa (100 psia). The work was based upon a TRW discovered family of polyimides currently licensed to and marketed by Ethyl Corporation as EYMYD(R) resins. The approach investigated to provide improved thermo-oxidative properties was to use halogenated derivatives of the diamine, 2, 2-bis (4-(4-aminophenoxy)phenyl) hexafluoropropane (4-BDAF). Polyimide neat resins and Celion(R) 12,000 composites prepared from fluorine substituted 4-BDAF demonstrated unexpectedly lower glass transition temperatures (Tg) and thermo-oxidative stabilities than the baseline 4-BDAF/PMDA polymer.

Green, H. E.; Chang, G. E.; Wright, W. F.; Ueda, K.; Orell, M. K.

1989-01-01

387

Dressing of Resin Bonded Diamond Grinding Wheels.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The effect of a driven rotary steel dressing device on the subsequent performance of a resin bonded diamond grinding wheel, used to grind silicon nitride ceramics, is described. The influence of increasing dressing parameters such as speed ratio and dress...

J. A. Scott T. M. A. Maksoud J. E. Morgan

1991-01-01

388

21 CFR 177.1500 - Nylon resins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...POLYMERS Substances for Use as Basic Components of Single and Repeated...equal-weight mixtures of nylon 66 salts and nylon 610 salts. (4) Nylon 6/66 resins...and polymerization of Nylon 66 salts and epsilon...

2011-04-01

389

21 CFR 177.1500 - Nylon resins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...POLYMERS Substances for Use as Basic Components of Single and Repeated...equal-weight mixtures of nylon 66 salts and nylon 610 salts. (4) Nylon 6/66 resins...and polymerization of Nylon 66 salts and epsilon...

2012-04-01

390

Silicone modified resins for graphite fiber laminates  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of silicon modified resins for graphite fiber laminates which will prevent the dispersal of graphite fibers when the composites are burned is discussed. Eighty-five silicone modified resins were synthesized and evaluated including unsaturated polyesters, thermosetting methacrylates, epoxies, polyimides, and phenolics. Neat resins were judged in terms of Si content, homogeneity, hardness, Char formation, and thermal stability. Char formation was estimated by thermogravimetry to 1,000 C in air and in N2. Thermal stability was evaluated by isothermal weight loss measurements for 200 hrs in air at three temperatures. Four silicone modified epoxies were selected for evaluation in unidirectional filament wound graphite laminates. Neat samples of these resins had 1,000 C char residues of 25 to 50%. The highest flexural values measured for the laminates were a strength of 140 kpsi and a modulus of 10 Mpsi. The highest interlaminar shear strength was 5.3 kpsi.

Frost, L. W.; Bower, G. M.

1979-01-01

391

Radiation testing of organic ion exchange resins  

SciTech Connect

A number of ion exchange materials are being evaluated as part of the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) Pretreatment Project for the removal of {sup 137}Cs from aqueous tank wastes. Two of these materials are organic resins; a phenol-formaldehyde resin (Duolite CS-100) produced by Rohm and Haas Co. (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania) and a resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) resin produced by Boulder Scientific Co. (Mead, Colorado). One of the key parameters in the assessment of the organic based ion exchange materials is its useful lifetime in the radioactive and chemical environment that will be encountered during waste processing. The focus of the work presented in this report is the radiation stability of the CS-100 and the RF resins. The scope of the testing included one test with a sample of the CS-100 resin and testing of two batches of the RF resin (BSC-187 and BSC-210). Samples of the exchangers were irradiated with a {sup 60}Co source to a total absorbed dose of 10{sup 9} R over a period of 5 months in a static (no flow) and a flowing configuration with neutralized current acid waste (NCAW) simulant as a feed. Based on a maximum concentration of {sup 137}Cs on the resin that would result from processing NCAW, this dose represents an operational period of at least 150 days for the RF resin and at least 1260 days for the CS-100 resin. Gas generation in the static experiment was continuously monitored and G values (molecules of gas per 100 eV) were determined for each species. Resin samples were obtained periodically and the equilibrium behavior of the resins was assessed by determining the distribution coefficients (K{sub d}s). Structural information was also obtained by {sup 13}C cross polarization magic angle (CPMAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometry and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy so that changes to the chemical structure could be correlated with changes in K{sub d}.

Carlson, C.D.; Bray, L.A.; Bryan, S.A. [and others

1995-09-01

392

Antiectoparasitic activity of the gum resin, gum haggar, from the East African plant, Commiphora holtziana.  

PubMed

The mechanism of ixodid tick (Acari: Ixodidae) repellency by gum haggar, a resin produced by Commiphora holtziana (Burseraceae), was investigated by evaluating activity against the cattle tick, Boophilus microplus. In an arena bioassay, a hexane extract of the resin of C. holtziana exhibited a repellent effect lasting up to 5h. The hydrocarbon fraction of the resin extract was shown to account for the repellent activity, and was analysed by coupled gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Major sesquiterpene hydrocarbons were tentatively identified as germacrene-D, delta-elemene and beta-bourbonene. The identity and stereochemistry of the former compound was confirmed as the (+)-isomer by peak enhancement using enantioselective GC, whereas the latter 2 compounds, which are most likely degradation products of germacrene-type precursors, were identified through isolation by preparative gas chromatography followed by microprobe-NMR spectroscopy. GC comparison of gum haggar with another resin, C. myrrha, which was inactive in the tick bioassay, showed that the latter contained much lower levels of these hydrocarbons. To assess the suitability of the gum haggar resin as a general acarine repellent, further tests were made on a major acarine pest of European and US animal husbandry systems, the red poultry mite, Dermanyssus gallinae (Acari: Dermanyssidae). Gum haggar extract, and the isolated hydrocarbon fraction, showed strong repellent effects in an olfactometer assay, and again gum myrrh showed no effect. These findings provide a scientific basis for the observed anti-tick properties of gum haggar, and demonstrate the potential for its development as a general acarine repellent for use in animal husbandry systems. PMID:18402993

Birkett, Michael A; Abassi, Sate Al; Kröber, Thomas; Chamberlain, Keith; Hooper, Antony M; Guerin, Patrick M; Pettersson, Jan; Pickett, John A; Slade, Robin; Wadhams, Lester J

2008-05-01

393

Heavy metal ions removal by chelating resin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Preparation of chelating resin to be used in the removal of heavy metal ions from solutions. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Chelating resin based on poly (glycidyl-methacrylate-co-N, N-methylene-bis-acrylamide) containing ethylenediamine was synthesised and used in removal of heavy metals from solutions. Findings – The optimal pH values for adsorption of different metal ions occur in the range 4.0-10.0 depending on the

N. M. Abd El-Moniem; M. R. El-Sourougy; D. A. F. Shaaban

2005-01-01

394

Cesium-specific phenolic ion exchange resin  

DOEpatents

A phenolic, cesium-specific, cation exchange resin is prepared by neutralizing resorcinol with potassium hydroxide, condensing/polymerizing the resulting intermediate with formaldehyde, heat-curing the resulting polymer to effect cross-linking and grinding it to desired particle size for use. This resin will selectively and efficiently adsorb cesium ions in the presence of a high concentration of sodium ions with a low carbon to cesium ratio.

Bibler, Jane P. (Aiken, SC); Wallace, Richard M. (Aiken, SC)

1995-01-01

395

Nano composite from coal modified novolac resin  

SciTech Connect

Coal-modified novolac/clay nanocomposites were synthesized using clay as reinforcing materials. It was found that coal-modified novolac resin based silica nano-composites showed improved tensile strength compared to that of neat novolac resin. The structure of the nanocomposites was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies have also been undertaken to see the morphology of the nanocomposites prepared. The results obtained are being reported.

Ahmaruzzaman, M.; Sharma, D.K. [Industrial Technology Institute, Delhi (India)

2007-07-01

396

Phenol Formaldehyde Resin Modification with Lignin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lignin (poly?phenylpropane units) was precipitated from waste black liquor produced by paper manufacture from rice straw. The use of this lignin as partial substitution of phenol in phenol formaldehyde resin is investigated. The effect of different variables [e.g., lignin concentration, ratio of formaldehyde to phenol lignin (phenol + lignin), temperature, and polymerization time on the properties of the produced resin is studied].

2003-01-01

397

Cesium-specific phenolic ion exchange resin  

DOEpatents

A phenolic, cesium-specific, cation exchange resin is prepared by neutralizing resorcinol with potassium hydroxide, condensing/polymerizing the resulting intermediate with formaldehyde, heat-curing the resulting polymer to effect cross-linking and grinding it to desired particle size for use. This resin will selectively and efficiently adsorb cesium ions in the presence of a high concentration of sodium ions with a low carbon to cesium ratio. 2 figs.

Bibler, J.P.; Wallace, R.M.

1995-08-15

398

Clinical applications of preheated hybrid resin composite.  

PubMed

This clinical article describes and discusses the use of preheated nanohybrid resin composite for the placement of direct restorations and luting of porcelain laminate veneers. Two clinical cases are presented. Preheating hybrid composite decreases its viscosity and film thickness offering the clinician improved handling. Preheating also facilitates the use of nanohybrid composite as a veneer luting material with relatively low polymerisation shrinkage and coefficient of thermal expansion compared to currently available resin luting cements. PMID:21779058

Rickman, L J; Padipatvuthikul, P; Chee, B

2011-07-01

399

Removal of resin acids and sterols from pulp mill effluents by activated sludge treatment.  

PubMed

The wastewater treatment plant of an elemental chlorine free bleaching kraft pulp mill located in eastern Finland was sampled in order to study the fate of wood extractives and the toxicity to luminescence bacteria (Vibrio fischeri) in different parts of the plant. Resin acids and sterols were analyzed from water, particles and sludge samples during three different runs. Waters before biotreatment and primary sludge were found to be toxic; but in the activated sludge treatment toxicity was removed. During wastewater treatment, concentrations of wood extractives were reduced over 97%. In activated sludge treatment, over 94% of the resin acids and over 41% of the sterols were degraded or transformed to other compounds. Furthermore, in general, less than 5% of the resin acids and over 31% of the sterols were removed in biosludge to the sludge thickener. Most of the extractives were discharged attached to particles. Although some disturbing factors increased the load of wood extractives during samplings, these factors did not affect the operational efficiency of the secondary treatment system. PMID:12767285

Kostamo, A; Kukkonen, J V K

2003-07-01

400

[Resin-bonded fixed partial dentures].  

PubMed

A resin-bonded fixed partial denture is a prosthetic construction which can replace I or several teeth in an occlusal system and which comprises a pontic element which is adhesively attached to 1 or more abutment teeth. To compensate for the limited shear strength of the adhesive layer, the Jixed partial denture is occlusally supported by the abutment(s). A direct resin-bonded fixed partial denture is made of composite, reinforced or not by a frame of flexible metal or fiber material. For an indirect resin-bonded fixed partial denture, a metal, fibre-reinforced composite or ceramic substructure is fabricated in a dental laboratory. The basic principle of a resin-bonded fixed partial denture is minimal invasiveness. However, a restoration in an abutment tooth requires a certain occlusal space which is realized by tooth preparation. Resistance preparations may be performed to improve the longevity of resin-bonded fixed partial dentures. Both financially and biologically, a resin-bonded bridge is a cost-effective prosthetic construction. The longevity is limited, but when the construction fails the negative consequences for the abutments are generally limited, which leaves open several types of other treatments. PMID:23495569

Kreulen, C M; Creugers, N H J

2013-02-01

401

Ion Exchange Temperature Testing with SRF Resin  

SciTech Connect

Ion exchange using the Spherical Resorcinol-Formaldehyde (SRF) resin has been selected by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of River Protection for use in the Pretreatment Facility of the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) and for potential application in an at-tank deployment for removing 137Cs. Recent proposed changes to the WTP ion exchange process baseline indicate that higher temperatures (50°C) to alleviate post-filtration precipitation issues prior to reaching the ion exchange columns may be required. Therefore, it is important to understand the behavior of SRF resin performance under the conditions expected with the new equipment and process changes. This research examined the impact of elevated temperature on resin loading and resin degradation during extended solution flow using elevated temperature (45°, 50°, 55°, 60°, 65°, 75°C). Testing for extended times at elevated temperatures showed that the resin does degrade and loading capacity is reduced at and above 45°C. Above 60°C the resin appears to not load at all.

Russell, Renee L.; Rinehart, Donald E.; Brown, Garrett N.; Peterson, Reid A.

2012-03-01

402

Resin characterization by electro-acoustic measurements.  

PubMed

The electro-acoustic effects, namely the ion vibration potential (IVP) and the colloidal vibration current (CVI), colloidal vibration potential (CVP) first described by P. Debye [P. Debye, J. Chem. Phys. 1 (1933) 13], are a result of charge separation of bound or free ions at different degrees by ultrasonic waves. Today commercial instruments are available to investigate liquid homogeneous and heterogeneous systems. In the present paper the application of this technique for the characterization of salts, protein solutions and resins for biochromatography is shown and valuable information about resins can be derived in a short time. Various resins were investigated with the following results: (1) the CVI magnitude is dependent of several parameters (such as particle size distribution, volume fraction, density difference); (2) the CVI is influenced by the surface modification of the resins. Polymeric modifications decrease the value of CVI. The CVI is generally lower for high capacity resins; (3) the measurement of the electro-acoustic effects can be used to detect small changes in resins. The CVI is dependent of the amount of adsorbed protein in "native" and denatured state. PMID:17194462

Müller, Egbert; Mann, Christian

2007-03-01

403

Effects of two methods of moisture control on marginal microleakage between resin composite and etched enamel: a clinical study.  

PubMed

Visible light-polymerized resin composite tabs were bonded to the flattened, acid-etched surface of teeth that were scheduled for extraction. Half of the teeth (group I) were isolated with cotton rolls in conjunction with a saliva ejector. The remaining teeth (group II) were isolated using a rubber dam. Both methods of isolation were used for each patient so that to some extent all patients served as their own controls. Following extraction, all samples were thermocycled 500 times alternating between 6 degrees C and 60 degrees C, after which they were immersed in 5% methylene blue for 4 hours. Each tooth was then mounted in acrylic resin and sectioned on a hard tissue microtome. Microleakage was assessed using a light microscope at x 20 magnification. The use of rubber dam isolation resulted in less microleakage at the enamel resin interface. PMID:8297458

Knight, G T; Berry, T G; Barghi, N; Burns, T R

1993-01-01

404

Selective recovery of Cr and Cu in leachate from chromated copper arsenate treated wood using chelating and acidic ion exchange resins.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to selectively remove chromium and copper from CCA-treated wood acid leachates (initial concentrations of 447-651 mg As l(-1), 374-453 mg Cu l(-1) and 335-622 mg Cr l(-1)) using ion exchange resins and precipitation techniques. Batch experiments revealed that the chelating resin Dowex M4195 had a high copper selectivity in the presence of chromium while the Amberlite IR120 resin had a high chromium sorption capacity. Combining M4195 and IR120 resins in four successive columns, made with Plexiglas tube, led to 96% copper extraction and 68% chromium extraction. NH(4)OH (4M) efficiently eluted copper from the chelating resin while H(2)SO(4) (10%v/v) was used for IR120 resin elution. Copper and chromium recovery by elution reached 94% and 81%, respectively. Successive sorption and elution steps using M4195 and IR120 ion exchange resins presented similar metal removal capacities over the five cycles. No resin deterioration was observed but the results suggested arsenic bulk diffusion into the M4195 resin. Successive treatments of CCA-treated wood leachate with M4195 and IR120 allowed for copper and chromium removal while arsenic could be extracted by coagulation treatment with ferric chloride and precipitation with Ca(OH)(2) at pH 5.7. This final process led to 99.9% arsenic removal. The final effluent contained less than 1 mg l(-1) of arsenic, chromium and copper. PMID:19446391

Janin, Amélie; Blais, Jean-François; Mercier, Guy; Drogui, Patrick

2009-09-30

405

Imide modified epoxy matrix resins  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of a program designed to develop tough imide modified epoxy resins cured by bisimide amine (BIA) hardeners are described. State-of-the-art epoxides MY720 and DER383 were used, and four bismide amines were evaluated. These were the BIA's derived from the 6F anhydride (4,4'-(hexafluoroisopropylidene) bis(phthalic anhydride) and the diamines 3,3'-diaminodiphynyl sulfone, 4,4'-oxygianiline, 4,4'-methylene dianiline, and 1,12-dodecane diamine. A key intermediate, designated 6F anhydride, is required for the synthesis of the bisimide amines. Reaction parameters to synthesize a precursor to the 6F anhydride (6FHC) in high yields were investigated. The catalyst trifluoromethane sulfonic acid was studied. Although small scale runs yielded the 6FHC in 50 percent yield, efforts to ranslate these results to a larger scale synthesis gave the 6FHC in only 9 percent yield. Results show that the concept of using bisimide amine as curing agents to improve the toughness properties of epoxies is valid.

Scola, D. A.

1984-01-01

406

40 CFR 414.40 - Applicability; description of the thermoplastic resins subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Thermoplastic Resins § 414.40...Polybutadiene *Polybutenes Polybutenyl Succinic Anhydride *Polycarbonates *Polyester Resins *Polyester Resins,...

2009-07-01

407

40 CFR 414.40 - Applicability; description of the thermoplastic resins subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Thermoplastic Resins § 414.40...Polybutadiene *Polybutenes Polybutenyl Succinic Anhydride *Polycarbonates *Polyester Resins *Polyester Resins,...

2010-07-01

408

Effect of elevated temperatures on the strength of cured resins and resin-based materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurement of the loss of weight and ultimate compressive strength of phenol-formaldehyde resins under the influence of elevated temperatures has shown that during thermal degradation there is an abrupt transition from a first to a second and third structural stage with steadily increasing stabilization of the strength properties. Apart from the dependence on the heat treatment conditions, all the resins

E. B. Trostyanskaya; V. U. Novikov; Yu. N. Kazanskii

1966-01-01

409

High-performance liquid chromatographic method for fingerprinting and quantitative determination of E- and Z-guggulsterones in Commiphora mukul resin and its products  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high-performance liquid chromatographic method has been developed and validated for the fingerprinting (profiling) and quantitative determination of E- and Z-guggulsterones, the hypolipidemic agents in the gum-resin exudate of Commiphora mukul, currently marketed worldwide as hypocholesterolemic. The method involves extraction of the guggul-resin from either the raw exudate or compounded tablets (or capsules) with ethyl acetate, concentration of the combined

Bohos Mesrob; Crystal Nesbitt; Renuka Misra; Ramesh C. Pandey

1998-01-01

410

??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? D2EHPA SEPARATION OF URANIUM FROM TRISODIUM PHOSPHATE SOLUTION BY D2EHPA IMPREGNATED RESINS ????????? ???????????1, ??????? ??????????1 ??? ????? ????????????1  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the monazite ore breakdown by alkali process to separate nuclear elements and rare earth elements composed in this phosphate ore, trisodium phosphate byproduct from the digestion process may contain uranium up to 300 ppm. Therefore, it is necessary to purify this trisodium phosphate. This study has used di(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid (D2EHPA) impregnated resins to extract uranium from the trisodium

Uthaiwan Injarean; Pipat Pichestapong; Wannee Srinuttrakul

411

Sealing ability of mineral trioxide aggregate, glass ionomer cement and composite resin when repairing large furcal perforations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To evaluate the sealing ability of different repair materials and the pathway of bacterial penetration after closure of large pulp chamber floor perforations. Materials and methods Perforations were made in the furcation area of extracted human molars and sealed with either mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA), glass ionomer cement or resin composite. The bacterial leakage method was used with Enterococcus

M. Kleivmyr; E. Bruzell; D. Ørstavik; G. Lodiene

2011-01-01

412

Classification of natural resins by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry using chemometric analysis.  

PubMed

Twenty-six resins from six botanical sources belonging to the class Magnoliopsida were compared based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry data. The extracts were analysed by GC after silylation and by reversed phase LC combined with atmospheric pressure photoionisation (APPI) mass spectrometry. The chromatograms were re-organized in data matrices, where each sample was represented by a single column comprising 2755 observations (intensity, time, m/z) in GC-MS and 360 observations in LC-MS. A simple comparison of resin fingerprints was attempted by organizing data according to a three dimensional bubble chart (retention time against m/z where each point was a bubble which size represented the ion intensity) where it is possible to easily superimpose the fingerprints. Thus the common and different species can be easily observed enabling to classify the resins. Hierarchical cluster analysis based on characteristics of GC-MS and LC-MS profiles affords a complete description of the classes of the resins and shows that 26 resins are divided into five main clusters Commiphora mukul, Daniella oliveri, Gardenia gummifera, Canarium madagascariensis, Boswellia dalzielii and Boswellia serrata, respectively. In conclusion, the proposed method has been applied to three other resinous samples from the Burseraceae family to evaluate their alteration state. PMID:22885042

Rhourrhi-Frih, B; West, C; Pasquier, L; André, P; Chaimbault, P; Lafosse, M

2012-09-21

413

Effect of gutta-percha solvents on the bond strength of two resin-based sealers to root canal dentin.  

PubMed

Abstract Objective. To evaluate the effect of two gutta percha solvents on the bond strength of two resin-based sealers to root canal dentin. Materials and methods. Root canals of extracted single rooted human mandibular premolars (n = 60) were decoronated and instrumented with a rotary NiTi system to an apical size of 40 and randomly divided into three groups (n = 20) based on the chemical treatment: Group I, saline (control); group II, Xylene and group III, Endosolv E. All groups were divided into two sub-groups (n = 10) based on the root filling material: sub-group A, epoxy resin sealer (AH Plus); sub-group B, methacrylate resin sealer (Epiphany). Roots were then sectioned and push-out tests were performed. The data was analysed using two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and a multiple comparison test (p = 0.05). Results. There was a significant difference in bond strength of both sealers between the control and test groups (p < 0.05). The bond strength of the epoxy resin sealer (sub-group A) in group II was significantly lower than in group III (p < 0.05). However, there was no significant difference between groups II and III for the methacrylate resin sealer (sub-group b) (p > 0.05). Conclusions. Gutta Percha solvents had an adverse effect on bond strengths of resin sealers to root canal dentin. This was dependent on the chemistry of the solvent and the sealer. PMID:24255957

Nasim, Iffat; Neelakantan, Prasanna; Subbarao, C V

2014-07-01

414

Adhesion of conventional and simplified resin-based luting cements to superficial and deep dentin  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluated the bond strengths of conventional (chemically and dual-polymerized) and simplified resin-based luting\\u000a cements with their corresponding adhesives to superficial dentin (SD) and deep dentin (DD). Recently extracted third molars\\u000a (N?=?70, n?=?10 per group) were obtained and prepared for testing procedures. After using their corresponding etchants, primers, and\\/or\\u000a adhesive systems, the conventional and simplified cements (Variolink II [group

Mutlu Özcan; Ayse Mese

415

Thermal rearrangement of novolak resins used in microlithography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Changes in phenolic-formaldehyde resin properties are described in terms of thermal exposure. At high temperature, resin molecular weight, dissolution properties and chemical composition change depending on the presence or absence of monomers. Without monomer in the resin melt at 220 degree(s)C, resin molecular weight increases with a corresponding decrease in dissolution rate. In the presence of monomer, molecular weight generally decreases. Dissolution rate may fluctuate depending on the monomer mixture. Three,five- Xylenol and 2,3,5-trimethylphenol co-monomers induced the most extreme changes in resin properties with thermal treatment. Resin degradation-recombination processes suggest a classical Friedel-Craft rearrangement mechanism.

Hardy, Ricky; Zampini, Anthony; Monaghan, Michael J.; O'Leary, Michael J.; Cardin, William J.; Eugster, Timothy J.

1995-06-01

416

Diffusion of residual monomer in polymer resins.  

PubMed Central

A simplified mathematical model which made use of Fick's laws of diffusion written in spherical coordinates was developed to describe the rate of diffusion of residual monomers from polymer resins. The properties of the monomer-polymer system which influenced the amount of monomer remaining in the polymer as a function of time were the diffusivity and solubility of the monomer in the polymer, and the particle size of the polymer resin. This model was used to analyze literature data on the diffusion of residual vinyl chloride monomer in polyvinyl chloride resins made by the suspension process. It was concluded that particle size of the resin was a significant parameter which should be taken advantage of in process equipment designed to remove residual monomer from PVC resins. The diffusivity of the monomer in the polymer was a function of the solubility of the monomer in the polymer. Monomer solubility can be determined from Henry's law. It was suggested that this model could be adapted to describe diffusion of monomers from any monomer-polymer system, and would be a useful approach to modeling the transport of nonreactive chemical additives from plastics.

Piver, W T

1976-01-01

417

Polymerization characteristics of EMA-based resin.  

PubMed

To explore the feasibility of a new relining material, polymerization characteristics such as peak temperature, setting time, residual monomer, and postpolymerization were examined in ethyl methacrylate (EMA) resins composed of EMA and 4 kinds of EMA/methyl methacrylate (MMA) copolymers with high and low molecular weights and initiated by benzoyl peroxide/N,N-dimethyl-p-toluidine system and compared with those of MMA/PMMA resins. Peak temperature (53.8-71.0 degrees C) and residual monomer (2.56-3.52% after 1 h and 1.57-2.31% after 24 h) of the EMA resins were significantly lower than those of the MMA resins (88.9-93.4 degrees C and 4.61-5.85% after 1 h and 4.09-4.84% after 24 h, respectively). The composition of the copolymers had a significant effect on peak temperature and setting time but no significant effect on residual monomer and postpolymerization. The molecular weight of the copolymers affected peak temperature, setting time and residual monomer significantly. This study suggested that EMA resins are worthy of further evaluation as a relining material. PMID:15164919

Saito, Yuji

2004-03-01

418

Development of a heterogeneous laminating resin system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The factors which effect the impact resistance of laminating resin systems and yet retain equivalent performance with the conventional 450 K curing epoxy matrix systems in other areas were studied. Formulation work was conducted on two systems, an all-epoxy and an epoxy/bismaleimide, to gain fundamental information on the effect formulation changes have upon neat resin and composite properties. The all-epoxy work involved formulations with various amounts and combinations of eight different epoxy resins, four different hardeners, fifteen different toughening agents, a filler, and a catalyst. The epoxy/bismaleimide effort improved formulations with various amounts and combinations of nine different resins, four different hardeners, eight different toughening agents, four different catalysts, and a filler. When a formulation appeared to offer the proper combination of properties required for a laminating resin Celion 3K-70P fabric was prepregged. Initial screening tests on composites primarily involved Gardner type impact and measurement of short beam shear strengths under dry and hot/wet conditions.

Biermann, T. F.; Hopper, L. C.

1985-01-01

419

Monomethacrylate co-monomers for dental resins.  

PubMed

Polymerisation shrinkage is widely recognised as a major drawback of resin based dental restoratives. Bis-GMA is often employed as the principal dimethacrylate monomer. Due to its high viscosity, Bis-GMA is normally mixed with large proportions of low viscosity glycol dimethacrylates. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the polymerisation shrinkage of Bis-GMA-based resins would be lower if alternative monomethacrylate co-monomers were used in place of conventional dimethacrylate co-monomers as viscosity modifiers. Conventional resins used were ethyleneglycol dimethacrylate and triethyleneglycol dimethacrylate; the alternative monofunctional co-monomers were tetrahydrofurfuryl methacrylate, hydroxypropyl methacrylate and isobornyl methacrylate. Model resins containing 54% mol/mol of co-monomer in Bis-GMA and 1% w/w of benzoyl peroxide as initiator were heat-cured at 70 degrees C for 8 h. Polymerisation shrinkage, degree of conversion and concentration of remaining methacrylate groups were calculated from density changes obtained gravimetrically. Other properties evaluated were Young's modulus, water uptake and viscosity of the monomer mixtures. The Bis-GMA-based resins exhibited lower shrinkage when mixed using the monomethacrylates rather than with conventional glycol dimethacrylates. Among the alternative co-monomers, tetrahydrofurfuryl methacrylate conferred the best balance of all measured properties. PMID:9672104

Labella, R; Davy, K W; Lambrechts, P; Van Meerbeek, B; Vanherle, G

1998-06-01

420

Cubé resin insecticide: identification and biological activity of 29 rotenoid constituents.  

PubMed

Cubé resin, the root extract from Lonchocarpus utilis and urucu, is an important insecticide, acaricide, and piscicide. The four major active ingredients are rotenone, deguelin, rotenolone, and tephrosin, totaling 77 wt %. As a commercial pesticide, the minor constituents are also of chemical interest and toxicological relevance. This study identifies 25 minor rotenoids in cubé resin "brittle" of which 12 are new compounds, the most unusual being 7'-chloro-5'-hydroxy-4',5'-dihydrodeguelin (the first chlororotenoid from a plant extract) and four isomers of 4',5'-dihydro-4', 5'-dihydroxytephrosin. Several of the minor rotenoids may be decomposition products from free radical processes during sample preparation, extraction with trichloroethylene, and processing the resin. Assays of the 29 rotenoids as inhibitors of NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase activity (primary target for toxicity) and phorbol ester-induced ornithine decarboxylase activity (indicator of cancer chemopreventive action) and for cytotoxicity establish similar structure-activity relationships in each system and the importance of the overall molecular conformation and the E-ring substituents. PMID:10552508

Fang, N; Casida, J E

1999-05-01

421

Studies on the Separation of Coal Extract from Solid Residue in Liquefied Coal.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Coal liquefaction residues from the SYNTHOIL (Pittsburgh Seam) and H-Coal (Illinois No. 6) processes were fractionated by solvent extraction into oils and resins, asphaltenes, preasphaltenes, and mineral solids for adsorption, filtration, surface tension,...

D. E. Briggs D. B. McAlpine C. D. Bedford

1977-01-01

422

76 FR 42114 - Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy: Continuation of Antidumping Duty Order  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy: Continuation of Antidumping Duty...polytetrafluoroethylene resin (``PTFE resin'') from Italy would likely lead to a continuation...antidumping duty order on PTFE resin from Italy, pursuant to section...

2011-07-18

423

40 CFR 63.5728 - What standards must I meet for closed molding resin operations?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...standards must I meet for closed molding resin operations? 63.5728 Section 63...Manufacturing Standards for Closed Molding Resin Operations § 63.5728 What standards must I meet for closed molding resin operations? (a) If a resin...

2010-07-01

424

40 CFR 63.5728 - What standards must I meet for closed molding resin operations?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...standards must I meet for closed molding resin operations? 63.5728 Section 63...Manufacturing Standards for Closed Molding Resin Operations § 63.5728 What standards must I meet for closed molding resin operations? (a) If a resin...

2012-07-01

425

40 CFR 63.5728 - What standards must I meet for closed molding resin operations?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...standards must I meet for closed molding resin operations? 63.5728 Section 63...Manufacturing Standards for Closed Molding Resin Operations § 63.5728 What standards must I meet for closed molding resin operations? (a) If a resin...

2011-07-01

426

Study of Mechanical and Physicochemical Properties of Cementated Spent Ion-Exchange-Resins.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

As first part of a study on the possibilities, to immobilize spent ion exchange resins, for final disposal, the dependence of compressive strength from the composition of cement - resin mixtures was detected. Powdered resins, bead resins and ashes from th...

P. Patek

1981-01-01

427

Improved high temperature resistant matrix resins  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective was to develop organic matrix resins suitable for service at temperatures up to 644 K (700 F) and at air pressures up to 0.4 MPa (60 psia) for time durations of a minimum of 100 hours. Matrix resins capable of withstanding these extreme oxidative environmental conditions would lead to increased use of polymer matrix composites in aircraft engines and provide significant weight and cost savings. Six linear condensation, aromatic/heterocyclic polymers containing fluorinated and/or diphenyl linkages were synthesized. The thermo-oxidative stability of the resins was determined at 644 K and compressed air pressures up to 0.4 MPa. Two formulations, both containing perfluoroisopropylidene linkages in the polymer backbone structure, exhibited potential for 644 K service to meet the program objectives. Two other formulations could not be fabricated into compression molded zero defect specimens.

Chang, G. E.; Powell, S. H.; Jones, R. J.

1983-01-01

428

Occupational epoxy resin allergic contact dermatitis.  

PubMed

Sixteen cases of occupational contact dermatitis to epoxy resins were seen over a 5-year period. All were men. Six cases worked in the construction industry, two worked as painters, two as engineers, two as car windscreen repairers, and one each worked in a timber yard, a car yard, on a farm and as a cane-furniture salesman. Most presented with rashes on their faces (56%), hands (50%) or arms (37%). Two patients were allergic to the reactive diluent phenyl glycidyl ether, and one was allergic to the epoxy hardener isophorone diamine. The rest were allergic to the epoxy resin itself. Outcome in this series was poor because most continued to be exposed to epoxy resins in their workplace environment. PMID:11105365

Rademaker, M

2000-11-01

429

The creep of laminated synthetic resin plastics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The long-time loading strength of a number of laminated synthetic resin plastics was ascertained and the effect of molding pressure and resin content determined. The best value was observed with a 30 to 40 percent resin content. The long-time loading strength also increases with increasing molding pressure up to 250 kg/cm(exp 2); a further rise in pressure affords no further substantial improvement. The creep strength is defined as the load which in the hundredth hour of loading produces a rate of elongation of 5 X 10(exp -4) percent per hour. The creep strength values of different materials were determined and tabulated. The effect of humidity during long-term tests is pointed out.

Perkuhn, H

1941-01-01

430

Morphological Changes in Ultraviolet-Nanoimprinted Resin Patterns Caused by Ultraviolet-Curable Resins Absorbing Pentafluoropropane  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this article, we revealed the maximum values of pentafluoropropane (PFP) absorbed by acrylate-type monomers and UV-curable resins causing radical photopolymerization and measured the viscosities in a state saturated with PFP. We described the influences of PFP condensable gas effectively used in UV nanoimprinting on the morphologies of resin patterns fabricated by UV nanoimprinting. The weights of the resins and monomers were increased by exposure to a PFP atmosphere, while the viscosities were reduced markedly. The absorption of PFP depended on the chemical structures of the monomers. The solubility parameter calculated by the Hoy method clearly suggested that the monomer with a solubility parameter of 20 (J cm-3)1/2 absorbed the most PFP. The UV-curable resin composed of the monomer absorbing a large amount of PFP resulted in morphological changes in nanoimprinted resin patterns where the height was lowered and the outermost surface became rough. The UV-curable resins having hydroxyl groups play an important role in preserving the size fidelity of UV-nanoimprinted resin patterns.

Kaneko, Shu; Kobayashi, Kei; Tsukidate, Yoshitaka; Hiroshima, Hiroshi; Matsui, Shinji; Nakagawa, Masaru

2012-06-01

431

21 CFR 177.2420 - Polyester resins, cross-linked.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...exceed 0.2 percent of the polyester resin. 4. Solvents for... Asbestos Glass fiber Polyester fiber produced by the condensation...glycol 6000 Silicon dioxide Wax, petroleum Complying with... (c) The cross-linked polyester resins, with or...

2010-01-01

432

21 CFR 177.2420 - Polyester resins, cross-linked.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...exceed 0.2 percent of the polyester resin. 4. Solvents for... Asbestos Glass fiber Polyester fiber produced by the condensation...glycol 6000 Silicon dioxide Wax, petroleum Complying with... (c) The cross-linked polyester resins, with or...

2009-04-01

433

Performance Properties of Graphite Reinforced Composites with Advanced Resin Matrices  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This article looks at the effect of different resin matrices on thermal and mechanical properties of graphite composites, and relates the thermal and flammability properties to the anaerobic char yield of the resins. The processing parameters of graphite composites utilizing graphite fabric and epoxy or other advanced resins as matrices are presented. Thermoset resin matrices studied were: aminecured polyfunctional glycidyl aminetype epoxy (baseline), phenolicnovolac resin based on condensation of dihydroxymethyl-xylene and phenol cured with hexamine, two types of polydismaleimide resins, phenolic resin, and benzyl resin. The thermoplastic matrices studied were polyethersulfone and polyphenylenesulfone. Properties evaluated in the study included anaerobic char yield, limiting oxygen index, smoke evolution, moisture absorption, and mechanical properties at elevated temperatures including tensile, compressive, and short-beam shear strengths. Generally, it was determined that graphite composites with the highest char yield exhibited optimum fire-resistant properties.

Kourtides, Demetrius A.

1980-01-01

434

Standard tests for toughened resin composites, revised edition  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Several toughened resin systems are evaluated to achieve commonality for certain kinds of tests used to characterize toughened resin composites. Specifications for five tests were standardized; these test standards are described.

1983-01-01

435

21 CFR 573.120 - Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...120 Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin. Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin (hydrolized polyacrylamide...copolymerization of acrylamide and acrylic acid with the greater part of the...Viscometer or equivalent using a number 6 spindle at 20...

2013-04-01

436

Electrically Conductive Resinous Bond and Method of Manufacture.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A method of bonding elements together with a bond of high strength and good electrical conductivity which comprises: applying an unfilled polyimide resin between surfaces of the elements to be bonded, heat treating said unfilled polyimide resin in stages ...

T. M. Snowden B. J. Wells

1985-01-01

437

Performance Properties of Graphite Reinforced Composites with Advanced Resin Matrices.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This article looks at the effect of different resin matrices on thermal and mechanical properties of graphite composites, and relates the thermal and flammability properties to the anaerobic char yield of the resins. The processing parameters of graphite ...

D. A. Kourtides

1980-01-01

438

Clinical aspects of resin-bonded bridges.  

PubMed

Resin-bonded bridges have emerged as an attractive, minimally invasive prosthodontic option for the restoration of edentulous spaces. Although success rates, determined by retrospective studies, vary greatly, resin-bonded bridges now have success rates approaching those of their cemented counterparts; success is dependent, however, upon appropriate design and careful technique. The metal framework must be rigid and of sufficient surface area to afford secure adhesion to the underlying teeth. Tooth preparation should be restricted to enhancing the bonding area, and it is important that prostheses are designed to maintain axial loading, and guidance upon metal. PMID:12642953

Stokes, Alastair

2002-12-01

439

Benzonorbornadiene end caps for PMR resins  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Several ortho-disubstituted benzonorbornadiene derivatives are described. These molecules contain acid, ester, or anhydride functionality permitting their use as end caps in PMR (polymerization of monomer reactants) polyimide systems. The replacement of the currently used norbornenyl end caps with benzonorbornadienyl end caps affords resins of increased aromatic content. It also allows evaluation of some mechanistic aspects of PMR cross-linking. Initial testing of N-phenylimide model compounds and of actual resin formulations using the benzonorbornadienyl end cap reveals that they undergo efficient thermal crosslinking to give oligomers with physical properties and thermal stability comparable to commercial norbornene-end-capped PMR systems.

Panigot, Michael J.; Waters, John F.; Varde, Uday; Sutter, James K.; Sukenik, Chaim N.

1992-01-01

440

PMR Resin Compositions For High Temperatures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Report describes experiments to identify polymer matrix resins suitable for making graphite-fiber laminates used at 700 degree F (371 degree C) in such applications as aircraft engines to achieve higher thrust-to-weight ratios. Two particular high-molecular-weight formulations of PMR (polymerization of monomer reactants) resins most promising. PMR compositions of higher FMW exhibit enhanced thermo-oxidative stability. Formation of high-quality laminates with these compositions requires use of curing pressures higher than those suitable for compositions of lower FMW.

Vannucci, Raymond D.

1989-01-01

441

Electronic structure and optical properties of resin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We used the density of functional theory (DFT) to study the electronic structure and density of states of resin by ab initio calculation. The results show the band gap of resin is 1.7 eV. The covalent bond is combined C/O atoms with H atoms. The O 2p orbital is the biggest effect near the Fermi level. The results of optical properties show the reflectivity is low, and the refractive index is 1.7 in visible light range. The highest absorption coefficient peak is in 490 nm and the value is 75,000.

Rao, Zhi-Fan; Zhou, Rong-Feng

2013-03-01

442

New phosphorus-containing bisimide resins  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Phosphorus-based flame retardants have been effectively used in a wide variety of polymeric materials. Such additives, however, may either influence the decomposition reaction in polymers or lack durability due to a tendency to be leached out by solvents. Attention is given to the synthesis, characterization, thermal stability and degradation mechanisms of bisimide resins, and an evaluation is conducted of the flammability and mechanical properties of graphite cloth-reinforced laminates fabricated from one of the six phosphorus-containing bisimide resins considered.

Varma, I. K.; Fohlen, G. M.; Hsu, M.-T.; Parker, J. A.

1984-01-01

443

Resin transfer molding of textile composites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design and manufacture of textile composite panels, tubes, and angle sections that were provided to NASA for testing and evaluation are documented. The textile preform designs and requirements were established by NASA in collaboration with Boeing and several vendors of textile reinforcements. The following four types of preform architectures were used: stitched uniweave, 2D-braids, 3D-braids, and interlock weaves. The preforms consisted primarily of Hercules AS4 carbon fiber; Shell RSL-1895 resin was introduced using a resin transfer molding process. All the finished parts were inspected using ultrasonics.

Falcone, Anthony; Dursch, Harry; Nelson, Karl; Avery, William

1993-01-01

444

Technical assessment for quality control of resins  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Survey visits to companies involved in the manufacture and use of graphite-epoxy prepregs were conducted to assess the factors which may contribute to variability in the mechanical properties of graphite-epoxy composites. In particular, the purpose was to assess the contributions of the epoxy resins to variability. Companies represented three segments of the composites industry - aircraft manufacturers, prepreg manufacturers, and epoxy resin manufacturers. Several important sources of performance variability were identified from among the complete spectrum of potential sources which ranged from raw materials to composite test data interpretation.

Gosnell, R. B.

1977-01-01

445

Differential Curing In Fiber/Resin Laminates  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Modified layup schedule counteracts tendency toward delamination. Improved manufacturing process resembles conventional process, except prepregs partially cured laid on mold in sequence in degree of partial cure decreases from mold side to bag side. Degree of partial cure of each layer at time of layup selected by controlling storage and partial-curing temperatures of prepreg according to Arrhenius equation for rate of gel of resin as function of temperature and time from moment of mixing. Differential advancement of cure in layers made large enough to offset effect of advance bag-side heating in oven or autoclave. Technique helps prevent entrapment of volatile materials during manufacturing of fiber/resin laminates.

Webster, Charles N.

1989-01-01

446

Influence of novel additive on BMI resin and BMI resin matrix composite  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to achieve high performance BMI matrix composite manufactured by vacuum bag cure only technique, a novel additive\\u000a WD-01 was selected to modify BMI-B resin based on modified polyetherketone (PEK-C) toughened 4,4?-bismaleimidodiphenyl methane\\u000a (MBMI)\\/O,O?-diallybisphenol A (DABPA) system, and the properties of WD-01 modified BMI resin (BMI-WD) and resin matrix composite\\u000a were investigated here. Results indicated that the cure shrinkage

B. Y. Zhang; M. Li; X. B. Chen

2007-01-01

447

Etching conditions for resin-modified glass ionomer cement for orthodontic brackets.  

PubMed

This study reports the tensile bond strength of orthodontic eyelets (RMO, Inc, Denver, Colo) bonded to human extracted teeth with a resin-modified glass ionomer cement (RMGIC) (Fuji Ortho LC, GC America, Alsip, Ill) and various acid etchants (Etch-37 and All-Etch, Bisco, Schaumburg, Ill; Ultra Etch, 3M Unitek, St Paul, Minn) for enamel preparation before bonding. The enamel etch conditions were as follows: 37% phosphoric acid with silica; 37% phosphoric acid, silica-free; 10% phosphoric acid, silica-free; 10% polyacrylic acid; and unetched enamel. Bond strength was measured by pulling in tension on the eyelet with a 0.018-in steel wire perpendicular to the enamel surface with a testing machine (Instron model 1125, Canton, Mass) at a speed of 2 mm/min. A light-cured resin cement (Transbond XT, 3M Unitek, Monrovia, Calif) applied to enamel etched with 37% phosphoric acid containing silica served as a control. Each group included 30 specimens. The Weibull distribution (m) was used for statistical analysis with a 90% CI. The different etchants used with RMGIC did not affect tensile bond strength. The resin cement group had the highest tensile strength. Significantly lower bond strengths were observed when glass ionomer cement was used to bond orthodontic attachments to nonetched teeth. However, unlike resin cement, RMGIC can bond effectively to etched teeth in a moist environment without an additional bonding agent. PMID:12045770

Valente, Rudolfo M; De Rijk, Waldemar G; Drummond, James L; Evans, Carla A

2002-05-01

448

Preparation of Cation-Exchange Resin from Lignin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lignin precipitated from black liquor of soda pulping of bagasse was used to prepare cation-exchange resin. The effects of sulfuric acid treatment and concentration of phenol and formaldehyde on the properties of the prepared cation-exchange resin were investigated. It was found that sulfonated resinified phenolized lignin gave a resin with an ion-exchange capacity higher than that of resin, which resulted

S. Kamel

2005-01-01

449

Co-condensation of adsorbents from Baltic shale resin  

SciTech Connect

Primary procedures of shale processing are directed to the production of shale resin for use as a fuel. Economic analysis has revealed that the use of shale resins and phenols as raw material for synthesis can significantly improve profitability of shale processing. The chemistry of shale phenols is well advanced but the chemical transformations of shale resin are as yet imperfectly understood. This article deals with such transformations; specifically with the preparation of adsorbents and ion exchangers from shale resin and asphaltite.

Pokonova, Y.V. (Leningrad Technological Inst., Leningrad (SU))

1991-01-01

450

Investigating highly crosslinked macroporous resins for solid-phase synthesis.  

PubMed

The washing efficiencies of a chromophore and the reaction rates of a classical esterification reaction are improved with macroporous resins (MRs) relative to a classical Merrifield resin. Furthermore, Wacker-oxidation of a MR bound alkene yielded the expected methylketone product whereas an alkene bound to a low-crosslinked Merrifield resin gave no product, a function of the relative permeability of each of these resins to the aqueous solvent conditions employed. PMID:9873542

Hori, M; Gravert, D J; Wentworth, P; Janda, K D

1998-09-01

451

Assessment of the Water-Extractable Genotoxic Potential of Soil Samples from Contaminated Sites  

Microsoft Academic Search

A screening method for the evaluation of the water-extractable genotoxic potential of soil is proposed. Due to the low sensitivity of genotoxicity test systems, PAD-1 resin was used as solid phase to concentrate less hydrophilic compounds from aqueous soil extracts. Concentrated and nonconcentrated aqueous soil extracts from 19 soil samples were evaluated using three genotoxicity assays: the umu test according

Heike Ehrlichmann; Wolfgang Dott; Adolf Eisentraeger

2000-01-01

452

Flavylium chromophores as species markers for dragon's blood resins from Dracaena and Daemonorops trees.  

PubMed

A simple and rapid liquid chromatographic method with diode-array UV-vis spectrophotometric detection has been developed for the authentication of dragon's blood resins from Dracaena and Daemonorops trees. Using this method it was discovered that the flavylium chromophores, which contribute to the red colour of these resins, differ among the species and could be used as markers to differentiate among species. A study of parameters, such as time of extraction, proportion of MeOH and pH, was undertaken to optimise the extraction of the flavyliums. This method was then used to make extracts from samples of dragon's blood resin obtained from material of known provenance. From the samples analysed 7,6-dihydroxy-5-methoxyflavylium (dracorhodin), 7,4'-dihydroxy-5-methoxyflavylium (dracoflavylium) and 7,4'-dihydroxyflavylium were selected as species markers for Daemonorops spp., Dracaena draco and Dracaena cinnabari, respectively. The chromatograms from these samples were used to build an HPLC-DAD database. The ability to discriminate among species of dragon's blood using the single marker compounds was compared with a principal components analysis of the chromatograms in the HPLC-DAD database. The results from the HPLC-DAD method based on the presence of these flavylium markers was unequivocal. The HPLC-DAD method was subsequently applied to 37 samples of dragon blood resins from the historical samples in the Economic Botany Collection, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. The method identified anomalies in how samples in this collection had been labelled. It is clear that the method can be used to evaluate the provenance of samples used in different areas of cultural heritage. It also could be used to monitor the trade of endangered species of dragon's blood and the species being used in complex formulations of traditional Chinese medicine. PMID:18817913

Sousa, Micaela M; Melo, Maria J; Parola, A Jorge; Seixas de Melo, J Sérgio; Catarino, Fernando; Pina, Fernando; Cook, Frances E M; Simmonds, Monique S J; Lopes, João A

2008-10-31

453

NITRATE CONVERSION OF HB-LINE REILLEXTM HPQ RESIN  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reillex{trademark} HPQ ion exchange resin is used by HB Line to remove plutonium from aqueous streams. Reillex{trademark} HPQ resin currently available from Vertellus Specialties LLC is a chloride ionic form, which can cause stress corrosion cracking in stainless steels. Therefore, HB Line Engineering requested that Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) convert resin from chloride form to nitrate form in the

J. Steimke; M. Williams; T. Steeper; R. Leishear

2012-01-01

454

Effects of nanoparticles on hygrothermal property of epoxy resin composites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polymer composites are widely used in aerospace field, especially carbon fiber reinforced epoxy resin composites, because of the outstanding performance, became the most popular polymer matrix composites. However, the hygrothermal property of epoxy resin, as the matrix of the structure composite, is crucial to the whole composites. In this paper, the main focus is to modify the epoxy resin with

Xinying Lv; Rongguo Wang; Wenbo Liu

2009-01-01

455

21 CFR 176.110 - Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins. 176.110 Section...Components of Paper and Paperboard § 176.110 Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins. Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins may be safely...

2009-04-01

456

21 CFR 173.5 - Acrylate-acrylamide resins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2009-04-01 true Acrylate-acrylamide resins. 173.5 Section 173.5 Food...for Food Treatment § 173.5 Acrylate-acrylamide resins. Acrylate-acrylamide resins may be safely used in food under...

2010-01-01

457

21 CFR 173.5 - Acrylate-acrylamide resins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Acrylate-acrylamide resins. 173.5 Section 173.5 Food...for Food Treatment § 173.5 Acrylate-acrylamide resins. Acrylate-acrylamide resins may be safely used in food under...

2009-04-01

458

21 CFR 176.110 - Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-01-01 2009-04-01 true Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins. 176.110 Section...Components of Paper and Paperboard § 176.110 Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins. Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins may be safely...

2010-01-01

459

21 CFR 175.270 - Poly(vinyl fluoride) resins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 true Poly(vinyl fluoride) resins. 175.270 Section 175.270 Food and Drugs...Coatings § 175.270 Poly(vinyl fluoride) resins. Poly(vinyl fluoride) resins identified in this section may be safely...

2010-01-01

460

40 CFR 721.5762 - Aromatic aldehyde phenolic resin (generic).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Aromatic aldehyde phenolic resin (generic). 721.5762 Section 721...721.5762 Aromatic aldehyde phenolic resin (generic). (a) Chemical substance...generically as aromatic aldehyde phenolic resin (PMN P-01-573) is subject to...

2011-07-01

461

21 CFR 175.270 - Poly(vinyl fluoride) resins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 false Poly(vinyl fluoride) resins. 175.270 Section 175.270 Food and Drugs...Coatings § 175.270 Poly(vinyl fluoride) resins. Poly(vinyl fluoride) resins identified in this section may be safely...

2012-04-01

462

40 CFR 721.4380 - Modified hydrocarbon resin.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Modified hydrocarbon resin. 721.4380 Section 721.4380 ...Substances § 721.4380 Modified hydrocarbon resin. (a) Chemical substance and significant...identified generically as a modified hydrocarbon resin (P-91-1418) is subject to...

2012-07-01

463

40 CFR 721.9499 - Modified silicone resin.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Modified silicone resin. 721.9499 Section 721.9499 ...Substances § 721.9499 Modified silicone resin. (a) Chemical substance and significant...identified generically as a modified silicone resin (PMN P-96-1649) is subject to...

2013-07-01

464

40 CFR 721.4380 - Modified hydrocarbon resin.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Modified hydrocarbon resin. 721.4380 Section 721.4380 ...Substances § 721.4380 Modified hydrocarbon resin. (a) Chemical substance and significant...identified generically as a modified hydrocarbon resin (P-91-1418) is subject to...

2011-07-01

465

21 CFR 177.2450 - Polyamide-imide resins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Polyamide-imide resins. 177.2450 Section 177.2450 Food and...Repeated Use § 177.2450 Polyamide-imide resins. Polyamide-imide resins identified in paragraph (a) of this...

2011-04-01

466

21 CFR 177.2450 - Polyamide-imide resins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Polyamide-imide resins. 177.2450 Section 177.2450 Food and...Repeated Use § 177.2450 Polyamide-imide resins. Polyamide-imide resins identified in paragraph (a) of this...

2012-04-01

467

21 CFR 177.2420 - Polyester resins, cross-linked.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Polyester resins, cross-linked. 177.2420 Section...for Repeated Use § 177.2420 Polyester resins, cross-linked. Cross-linked polyester resins may be safely used as articles or...

2011-04-01

468

40 CFR 721.5905 - Modified phenolic resin (generic).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Modified phenolic resin (generic). 721.5905 Section 721...Substances § 721.5905 Modified phenolic resin (generic). (a) Chemical substance...identified generically as a modified phenolic resin (PMN P-01-441) is subject to...

2010-07-01

469

40 CFR 721.5762 - Aromatic aldehyde phenolic resin (generic).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Aromatic aldehyde phenolic resin (generic). 721.5762 Section 721...721.5762 Aromatic aldehyde phenolic resin (generic). (a) Chemical substance...generically as aromatic aldehyde phenolic resin (PMN P-01-573) is subject to...

2013-07-01

470

40 CFR 721.4380 - Modified hydrocarbon resin.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Modified hydrocarbon resin. 721.4380 Section 721.4380 ...Substances § 721.4380 Modified hydrocarbon resin. (a) Chemical substance and significant...identified generically as a modified hydrocarbon resin (P-91-1418) is subject to...

2010-07-01

471

21 CFR 176.110 - Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins. 176.110 Section 176.110 Food and...Paperboard § 176.110 Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins. Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins may be safely used as components of...

2013-04-01

472

21 CFR 176.110 - Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins. 176.110 Section 176.110 Food and...Paperboard § 176.110 Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins. Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins may be safely used as components of...

2011-04-01

473

40 CFR 721.5905 - Modified phenolic resin (generic).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Modified phenolic resin (generic). 721.5905 Section 721...Substances § 721.5905 Modified phenolic resin (generic). (a) Chemical substance...identified generically as a modified phenolic resin (PMN P-01-441) is subject to...

2013-07-01

474

40 CFR 721.9499 - Modified silicone resin.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Modified silicone resin. 721.9499 Section 721.9499 ...Substances § 721.9499 Modified silicone resin. (a) Chemical substance and significant...identified generically as a modified silicone resin (PMN P-96-1649) is subject to...

2011-07-01

475

40 CFR 721.5905 - Modified phenolic resin (generic).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Modified phenolic resin (generic). 721.5905 Section 721...Substances § 721.5905 Modified phenolic resin (generic). (a) Chemical substance...identified generically as a modified phenolic resin (PMN P-01-441) is subject to...

2012-07-01

476

40 CFR 721.5762 - Aromatic aldehyde phenolic resin (generic).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Aromatic aldehyde phenolic resin (generic). 721.5762 Section 721...721.5762 Aromatic aldehyde phenolic resin (generic). (a) Chemical substance...generically as aromatic aldehyde phenolic resin (PMN P-01-573) is subject to...

2012-07-01

477

21 CFR 175.270 - Poly(vinyl fluoride) resins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Poly(vinyl fluoride) resins. 175.270 Section 175.270 Food and Drugs...Coatings § 175.270 Poly(vinyl fluoride) resins. Poly(vinyl fluoride) resins identified in this section may be safely...

2011-04-01

478

21 CFR 173.40 - Molecular sieve resins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Molecular sieve resins. 173.40 Section 173.40 Food and Drugs...for Food Treatment § 173.40 Molecular sieve resins. Molecular sieve resins may be safely used in the processing of food...

2011-04-01

479

40 CFR 721.9499 - Modified silicone resin.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Modified silicone resin. 721.9499 Section 721.9499 ...Substances § 721.9499 Modified silicone resin. (a) Chemical substance and significant...identified generically as a modified silicone resin (PMN P-96-1649) is subject to...

2012-07-01

480

21 CFR 177.2420 - Polyester resins, cross-linked.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Polyester resins, cross-linked. 177.2420 Section...for Repeated Use § 177.2420 Polyester resins, cross-linked. Cross-linked polyester resins may be safely used as articles or...

2012-04-01

481

40 CFR 721.10307 - Acrylate resin (generic).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Acrylate resin (generic). 721.10307 Section 721...Chemical Substances § 721.10307 Acrylate resin (generic). (a) Chemical substance...substance identified generically as acrylate resin (PMN P-01-343) is subject to...

2013-07-01

482

40 CFR 721.5762 - Aromatic aldehyde phenolic resin (generic).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Aromatic aldehyde phenolic resin (generic). 721.5762 Section 721...721.5762 Aromatic aldehyde phenolic resin (generic). (a) Chemical substance...generically as aromatic aldehyde phenolic resin (PMN P-01-573) is subject to...

2010-07-01

483

21 CFR 173.40 - Molecular sieve resins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Molecular sieve resins. 173.40 Section 173.40 Food and Drugs...for Food Treatment § 173.40 Molecular sieve resins. Molecular sieve resins may be safely used in the processing of food...

2012-04-01

484

40 CFR 721.5905 - Modified phenolic resin (generic).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Modified phenolic resin (generic). 721.5905 Section 721...Substances § 721.5905 Modified phenolic resin (generic). (a) Chemical substance...identified generically as a modified phenolic resin (PMN P-01-441) is subject to...

2011-07-01

485

40 CFR 721.10307 - Acrylate resin (generic).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Acrylate resin (generic). 721.10307 Section 721...Chemical Substances § 721.10307 Acrylate resin (generic). (a) Chemical substance...substance identified generically as acrylate resin (PMN P-01-343) is subject to...

2012-07-01

486

21 CFR 176.110 - Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 false Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins. 176.110 Section 176.110 Food and...Paperboard § 176.110 Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins. Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins may be safely used as components of...

2012-04-01

487

21 CFR 872.3770 - Temporary crown and bridge resin.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Temporary crown and bridge resin. 872.3770 Section 872.3770...Devices § 872.3770 Temporary crown and bridge resin. (a) Identification. A temporary crown and bridge resin is a device composed of a...

2013-04-01

488

Adsorption of Gallium with N503 Levextrel Resin.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The adsorptivity of N503 (N, N-di(sec-octyl)acetamide) levextrel resin to gallium in the HCl medium was studied. The absorption rate and absorption isotherm of the resin to gallium were measured. The results show that the absorption of the resin to galliu...

J. R. Chen J. Hu C. Peng

1995-01-01

489

21 CFR 177.2355 - Mineral reinforced nylon resins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Mineral reinforced nylon resins. 177.2355 Section 177.2355 Food...Repeated Use § 177.2355 Mineral reinforced nylon resins. Mineral reinforced nylon resins identified in paragraph (a) of...

2009-04-01

490

21 CFR 177.2355 - Mineral reinforced nylon resins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2009-04-01 true Mineral reinforced nylon resins. 177.2355 Section 177.2355 Food...Repeated Use § 177.2355 Mineral reinforced nylon resins. Mineral reinforced nylon resins identified in paragraph (a) of...

2010-01-01

491

40 CFR 721.2673 - Aromatic epoxide resin (generic).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aromatic epoxide resin (generic). 721.2673 Section...Chemical Substances § 721.2673 Aromatic epoxide resin (generic). (a) Chemical...substance identified generically as aromatic epoxide resin (PMN P-99-1399) is...

2010-07-01

492

Tensile Properties of Resin-infiltrated Demineralized Human Dentin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of adhesive resins to restore the physical properties of demineralized dentin has not been well-documented. The unfilled resins that are used for adhesion have relatively low moduli of elasticity and limited ability to increase dentin stiffness, although they may increase the ultimate tensile strength of dentin. This study tested the hypothesis that resin infiltration of demineralized dentin can

H. Sano; T. Takatsu; B. Ciucchi; C. M. Russell; D. H. Pashley

1995-01-01

493

21 CFR 173.40 - Molecular sieve resins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...3 2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Molecular sieve resins. 173.40 Section 173.40...Polymer Adjuvants for Food Treatment § 173.40 Molecular sieve resins. Molecular sieve resins may be safely used in the...

2009-04-01

494

21 CFR 173.40 - Molecular sieve resins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 3 2010-01-01 2009-04-01 true Molecular sieve resins. 173.40 Section 173.40...Polymer Adjuvants for Food Treatment § 173.40 Molecular sieve resins. Molecular sieve resins may be safely used in the...

2010-01-01

495

40 CFR 721.9499 - Modified silicone resin.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Modified silicone resin. 721.9499 Section 721...Substances § 721.9499 Modified silicone resin. (a) Chemical substance and...substance identified generically as a modified silicone resin (PMN P-96-1649) is...

2010-07-01

496

Subfractionation, characterization and photooxidation of crude oil resins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resins of five crude oils were obtained using SARA fractionation. The maltenic fraction of Blend Arabian Light, was further separated into six polar fractions. These fractions which are the constituents of the resins were analysed by FTIR spectroscopy. They appeared to be more oxidized, more aliphatic and less aromatic than asphaltenes. Photooxidation of resins showed that they are easily oxidizable

A Boukir; E Aries; M Guiliano; L Asia; P Doumenq; G Mille

2001-01-01

497

Low-melt Viscosity Polyimide Resins for Resin Transfer Molding (RTM) II  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A series of polyimide resins with low-melt viscosities in the range of 10-30 poise and high glass transition temperatures (Tg s) of 330-370 C were developed for resin transfer molding (RTM) applications. These polyimide resins were formulated from 2,3,3 ,4 -biphenyltetracarboxylic dianhydride (a-BPDA) with 4-phenylethynylphthalic anhydride endcaps along with either 3,4 - oxyaniline (3,4 -ODA), 3,4 -methylenedianiline, (3,4 -MDA) or 3,3 -methylenedianiline (3,3 -MDA). These polyimides had pot lives of 30-60 minutes at 260-280 C, enabling the successful fabrication of T650-35 carbon fiber reinforced composites via RTM process. The viscosity profiles of the polyimide resins and the mechanical properties of the polyimide carbon fiber composites will be discussed.

Chuang, Kathy C.; Criss, Jim M.; Mintz, Eric A.; Scheiman, Daniel A.; Nguyen, Baochau N.; McCorkle, Linda S.

2007-01-01

498

Development of Flexible Epoxy Resins and Coatings.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Coatings with excellent low temperature flexibility were made by blending 20 parts polyether diepoxide DER 732 and 80 parts aromatic epoxy resin Epon 1001 and curing with polyether diamine POPDA 400. Also coatings with good flexibility at -45F, high adhes...

S. V. Urs S. A. Puglia

1968-01-01

499

A perspective on resins for aqueous coatings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aqueous binder resins are becoming increasingly diversified and encompass classical latexes, latex-like polyurethane dispersions, and various aqueous dispersion polymers. Unlike classical and urethane latexes, the dispersion polymers are synthesized in non-aqueous media, have low molecular weights and are dispersed into water by mechanical means. The preparation of classical latexes from unsaturated monomers is scientifically well understood. Modem classical latex technology

John L Gardon

1997-01-01

500

Resin composition and articles molded therefrom  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A resin composition having a high refractive index and low dispersion characteristics including a carbonate residue, a phosphonic acid residue and a dihydric phenol residue, wherein the mol fractions of the phosphonic acid residue and the carbonate residue satisfy wherein (a) represents the number of moles of the phosphonic acid residues, and (b) represents the number of moles of the carbonate residues.

2004-06-15