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1

Modified resins for solid-phase extraction  

DOEpatents

A process of treating aqueous solutions to remove organic solute contaminants by contacting an aqueous solution containing polar organic solute contaminants with a functionalized polystyrene-divinyl benzene adsorbent resin, with the functionalization of said resin being accomplished by organic hydrophilic groups such as hydroxymethyl, acetyl and cyanomethyl.

Fritz, James S. (Ames, IA); Sun, Jeffrey J. (Ames, IA)

1991-12-10

2

Modified resins for solid-phase extraction  

DOEpatents

A process of treating aqueous solutions to remove organic solute contaminants by contacting an aqueous solution containing polar organic solute contaminants with a functionalized polystyrene-divinyl benzene adsorbent resin, with the functionalization of said resin being accomplished by organic hydrophilic groups such as hydroxymethyl, acetyl and cyanomethyl.

Fritz, James S. (Ames, IA); Sun, Jeffrey J. (Ames, IA)

1993-07-27

3

Ultrasonic extraction of resins from an historic textile.  

PubMed

Ultrasound assisted extraction was applied on the historical textile as the most appropriate sample preparation step for the identification of the resinous binder. Fragile silk banner from the 19th century was analyzed for the presence of different resins. After the ultrasonic extraction with ethyl acetate in the ultrasonic bath, resinous materials and unknown sample from the banner were separated by thin layer chromatography. The multiple developments in benzene-methanol (95:5) system as mobile phase and silica gel layer as stationary phase were applied, and afterwards the video densitometry determination of the components was performed by means of video camera HV-C20. The shellac resin was determined as an important part of the complex binder. PMID:17822938

Rezi?, I; Krsti?, D; Boki?, Lj

2008-01-01

4

Fatty and resinic acids extractions from crude tall oil  

SciTech Connect

The separation of fatty and resinic acidic fractions from crude tall-oil soap solutions with n-heptane by the technique of dissociation extraction is discussed. The theory of the overall process is supported by a systematic study developed to cover the high selectivity demonstrated in the differential solubility and the aptness between fatty and diterpenic acids to both liquids phases. To study the main factors affecting those liquid-liquid extraction systems and the amphiphilic behavior of such molecules involved, sodium salts aqueous solutions of crude tall oil and synthetic mixtures as molecular acidic models were used.

Nogueira, J.M.F. [Univ. of Lisbon (Portugal)

1996-11-01

5

An investigation of the anion-exchange resin method for soil phosphate extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The anion-exchange resin method for soil-phosphate extraction was investigated on 4 different soils under varying experimental\\u000a conditions. The variables were: (a) the type of anion-exchange resin, (b) the anionic form of the resin, (c) the ratio between\\u000a the amounts of resin, soil, and water, and (d) the time of shaking.\\u000a \\u000a The amount of P extracted was dependent on the anionic

Erik Sibbesen

1978-01-01

6

Cloud point extraction of ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol from cannabis resin.  

PubMed

A cloud point extraction coupled with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC/UV) method was developed for the determination of ?(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in micellar phase. The nonionic surfactant "Dowfax 20B102" was used to extract and pre-concentrate THC from cannabis resin, prior to its determination with a HPLC-UV system (diode array detector) with isocratic elution. The parameters and variables affecting the extraction were investigated. Under optimum conditions (1 wt.% Dowfax 20B102, 1 wt.% Na2SO4, T = 318 K, t = 30 min), this method yielded a quite satisfactory recovery rate (~81 %). The limit of detection was 0.04 ?g mL(-1), and the relative standard deviation was less than 2 %. Compared with conventional solid-liquid extraction, this new method avoids the use of volatile organic solvents, therefore is environmentally safer. PMID:23354583

Ameur, S; Haddou, B; Derriche, Z; Canselier, J P; Gourdon, C

2013-04-01

7

Extraction and separation of In(III), Ga(III) and Zn(II) from sulfate solution using extraction resin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The separation of In(III), Ga(III) and Zn(II) from sulfate solution has been studied using an extraction resin containing 2-ethylhexyl phosphoric acid mono(2-ethylhexyl) ester (P507 extraction resin). The effect of pH on the extraction of each metal was determined. Extraction isotherms were then constructed at selected pH. Results show that In(III) is first extracted from aqueous solutions at pH 2.0 using

J. S. Liu; H. Chen; X. Y. Chen; Z. L. Guo; Y. C. Hu; C. P. Liu; Y. Z. Sun

2006-01-01

8

(Invited Review Paper) Preparation, Properties and Sorption Behavior of Impregnated Resins Containing Acidic Organophosphorus Extractants  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the preparation methods and physical properties of solvent-impregnated resin (SIR) containing acidic organophosphorus extractants are reviewed. The sorption phenomena of these resins, including batch equilibrium, kinetics, and column operation, are also described. The widely-used extractant di(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid and Amberlite XAD macroporous resins for the recovery and selective separation of Cu(II) and Zn(II) ions is studied. In addition,

RUEY-SHIN JUANG

9

Extraction of extracellular polymers from activated sludge using a cation exchange resin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extraction of water soluble extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) from activated sludge was investigated. The extraction procedure was based upon cation exchange using a cation exchange resin (CER). Activated sludge from two different types of treatment plants responded very similarly to the extraction procedure. The EPS yield was enhanced by increasing the stirring intensity, the amounts of CER added and

Bo Frølund; Rikke Palmgren; Kristian Keiding; Per Halkjær Nielsen

1996-01-01

10

Bark extractives-based phenol–formaldehyde resins from beetle-infested lodgepole pine  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, phenol–formaldehyde (PF) resins derived from the bark extractives were synthesized and characterized. Bark of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl.) infested by mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) was first extracted with 1% NaOH. The bark extractives with and without acid-neutralization were then dried to the solid state. The neutralized and non-neutralized extractives were used to partially replace

Yong Zhao; Ning Yan; Martin W. Feng

2012-01-01

11

Copolymer resins made of agricultural and forest residues extracts for wood laminating adhesives  

SciTech Connect

Extracts of Southern pine bark, peanut hulls, pecan nut pitch, and pecan shell flour were used to synthesize copolymer resins using resorcinol, phenol, and formaldehyde. The test joints of both southern pine and oak were laminated in room temperature. The gluability of these copolymer resins were evaluated with shear compression loading test. The effects of resorcinol level, the molar ratio of formaldehyde to phenolic, and the composition of the hardener on bonding quality were investigated. With a more than 80% wood failure after vacuum pressure treatment, several copolymer resins provided good bonding quality as a wood laminating adhesive. Different extracts required different formulations of copolymer resin and hardner to obtain the best bonding quality.

Chen, C.M. [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States)

1995-11-01

12

Solid phase extraction of copper(II) by fixed bed procedure on cation exchange complexing resins.  

PubMed

The efficiency of the metal ion recovery by solid phase extraction (SPE) in complexing resins columns is predicted by a simple model based on two parameters reflecting the sorption equilibria and kinetics of the metal ion on the considered resin. The parameter related to the adsorption equilibria was evaluated by the Gibbs-Donnan model, and that related to the kinetics by assuming that the ion exchange is the adsorption rate determining step. The predicted parameters make it possible to evaluate the breakthrough volume of the considered metal ion, Cu(II), from different kinds of complexing resins, and at different conditions, such as acidity and ionic composition. PMID:20036367

Pesavento, Maria; Sturini, Michela; D'Agostino, Girolamo; Biesuz, Raffaela

2010-02-19

13

Evaluation of extractants and chelating resins in polishing actinide-contaminated waste streams  

SciTech Connect

At the Los Alamos National Laboratory Plutonium Facility, anion exchange is used for recovering plutonium from nitric acid solutions. Although this approach recovers >99%, the trace amounts of plutonium and other actinides remaining in the effluent require additional processing. We are doing research to develop a secondary unit operation that can directly polish the effluent so that actinide levels are reduced to below the maximum allowed for facility discharge. We selected solvent extraction, the only unit operation that can meet the stringent process requirements imposed; several carbonyl and phosphoryl extractants were evaluated and their performance characterized. We also investigated various engineering approaches for solvent extraction; the most promising was a chelating resin loaded with extractant. Our research now focuses on the synthesis of malonamides, and our goal is to bond these extractants to a resin matrix. 7 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

Schreiber, S.B.; Dunn, S.L.; Yarbro, S.L.

1991-06-01

14

Extraction of phosphorus, potassium, calcium, and magnesium from soils by an ion?exchange resin procedure  

Microsoft Academic Search

A procedure for the simultaneous extraction of phosphorus, potassium, calcium and magnesium from soils, by an ion?exchange resin procedure applicable to large?scale advisory soil testing, is described. The important steps are the disaggregation of soil by shaking in water during 15 minutes with a glass marble, the transference of the elements from the soil to a sodium bicarbonate treated mixture

B. van Raij; J. A. Quaggio; N. M. da Silva

1986-01-01

15

Determination of weight distribution ratios of Pa(V) and Np(V) with some extraction chromatography resins and the AG1-X8 resin.  

PubMed

Literature data on distribution ratios (Dw) of Np(V) and Pa(V) for the AG1-X8 resin are scarce whereas those related on resin capacity factors (k') values for TEVA, TRU and U/TEVA resins are absent. Therefore, batch extraction experiments for Pa(V) and Np(V) from HCl and HNO3 media were realized, at tracer scale, with AG1-X8 and EIChroM resins (TEVA, TRU and U/TEVA). Based on the new Dw and k' values obtained in this study, a new protocol for Pa/Np separation has been developed leading to a better separation factor of 10(5) and a chemical yield of 97±3% and 99±1% for Pa and Np, respectively. A separation of (231)Pa from uranium matrix was successfully tested. PMID:23680558

Mendes, M; Aupiais, J; Jutier, C; Pointurier, F

2013-05-30

16

Effect of resinous extract from Commiphora swynnertonii (Burrt) on experimental coccidial infection in chickens.  

PubMed

A crude resinous extract from Commiphora swynnertonii was tested against an experimental coccidial infection in local chickens. A total of 80 growing chickens were randomly assigned into five groups, which received different treatments. Chickens in G1 were not infected with coccidian oocysts and therefore served as a negative control. All chickens in G2, G3, G4 and G5 were infected through oral administration of coccidian oocysts suspension at a dosed rate of 1.5 × 10(4) Eimeria spp. oocysts per bird. Starting from day 3 post-infection (p.i), chickens in different groups were treated for 7 consecutive days as follows: G1 and G2 (positive control) received 5 ml of normal saline as placebo, G3 and G4 were given the extract at 400 and 800 mg/kg bodyweight whereas G5 received anticoccidial drug. Clinical signs, bodyweights, oocysts counts and mortality rates were observed regularly. Results showed that oral administration of the resinous extract to chickens with coccidiosis significantly reduced mortality rate from 94 to 25 % and oocysts counts from 1.03 × 10(5) to 6.55 × 10(3) oocysts/g faeces (p < 0.05). Also a body condition score chart indicated less severe clinical signs of the disease in the groups which received the extract. Mean daily body weights were slightly reduced by the administration of the extract but this effect disappeared by day 7 p.i. These findings clearly indicate that resinous extract from C. swynnertonii has significant anticoccidial effect against experimental Eimeria spp. infection in chickens. A larger field trial to validate the use of the extract in chickens naturally infected with Eimeria spp. is required. PMID:23001540

Bakari, Gaymary G; Max, Robert A; Mdegela, Robinson H; Phiri, Elliot C J; Mtambo, Mkumbukwa M A

2013-02-01

17

Identification of organic extractables from commercial resin-modified glass-ionomers using HPLC-MS.  

PubMed

Elution of organic compounds from resin-based dental fillings during their application in the human mouth environment may have a potential impact on the human health. Ethanol, water and other solvents very often present in the human mouth have the ability to penetrate dental fillings placed in the human tooth. Penetration of liquids into the tooth may lead to the liberation of unreacted dental filling ingredients or their degradation products. Determination of these compounds is necessary for better knowledge from possible harmful effects caused by dental fillings. The aim of this study was the isolation and identification of compounds released from resin-modified glass-ionomer cements (RMGICs), resin-based dental materials applied in dentistry. Compounds were extracted from fillings by using four solvents (40% ethanol, water, 1% acetic acid and artificial saliva). Liquid samples containing eluted compounds were then extracted, evaporated and analyzed by using of HPLC-MS (high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry) and HPLC-DAD (high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection) techniques. Almost thirty components (monomers and additives) of RMGICs were identified. The main identified extractables were: Bis-GMA (bisphenol A glycidyl dimethacrylate), Bis-EMA (ethoxylated bisphenol A dimethacrylate), UDMA (urethane dimethacrylate), TEGDMA (triethylene glycol dimethacrylate), HEMA (2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) as monomers and diphenyliodonium chloride, camphorquinone (initiators), BHA (inhibitor), 4-(dimethylamino) ethyl benzoate (co-initiator) as additives. PMID:16826288

Rogalewicz, Rafal; Batko, Kalina; Voelkel, Adam

2006-07-01

18

Improved resins and novel materials and methods for solid phase extraction and high performance liquid chromatography  

SciTech Connect

Solid-phase extraction (SPE) has grown to be one of the most widely used methods for isolation and preconcentration of a vast range of compounds from aqueous solutions. By modifying polymeric SPE resins with chelating functional groups, the selective uptake of metals was accomplished. The resin, along with adsorbed metals, was vaporized in the ICP and detection of the metals was then possible using either mass or emission spectroscopy. Drug analyses in biological fluids have received heightened attention as drug testing is on the increase both in sports and in the work environment. By using a direct-injection technique, biological fluids can be injected directly into the liquid chromatographic system with no pretreatment. A new surfactant, a sulfonated form of Brij-30 (Brij-S) is shown to prevent the uptake of serum proteins on commercial HPLC columns by forming a thin coating on the silica C18 surface. Excellent separations of eight or more drugs with a wide range of retention times were obtained. The separations had sharper peaks and lower retention times than similar separations performed with the surfactant sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS). Quantitative recovery of a number of drugs with limits of detection near 1 ppm with a 5 {micro}l injection volume were obtained. Finally, a method for solid-phase extraction in a syringe is introduced. The system greatly reduced the volume of solvent required to elute adsorbed analytes from the SPE bed while providing a semi-automated setup. SPE in a syringe consists of a very small bed of resin-loaded membrane packed into a GC or HPLC syringe. After extraction, elution was performed with just a few {micro}l of solvent. This small elution volume allowed injection of the eluent directly from the syringe into the chromatographic system, eliminating the handling problems associated with such small volumes.

Freeze, R.

1997-10-08

19

Chemically modified polymeric resins for solid-phase extraction and group separation prior to analysis by liquid or gas chromatography  

SciTech Connect

Polystyrene divinylbenzene was modified by acetyl, sulfonic acid, and quaternary ammonium groups. A resin functionalized with an acetyl group was impregnated in a PTFE membrane and used to extract and concentrate phenolic compounds from aqueous samples. The acetyl group created a surface easily wetted, making it an efficient adsorbent for polar compounds in water. The membrane stabilized the resin bed. Partially sulfonated high surface area resins are used to extract and group separate an aqueous mixture of neutral and basic organics; the bases are adsorbed electrostatically to the sulfonic acid groups, while the neutraons are adsorbed hydrophobically. A two-step elution is then used to separate the two fractions. A partially functionalized anion exchange resin is used to separate organic acids and phenols from neutrals in a similar way. Carboxylic acids are analyzed by HPLC and phenols by GC.

Schmidt, L.W.

1993-07-01

20

Separation of thorium and uranium from silicate rock samples using two commercial extraction chromatographic resins.  

PubMed

A new chemical separation technique to isolate Th and U from silicate rocks was established by using two kinds of commercial extraction chromatographic resins. In the first column procedure, with U/TEVA·spec resin, almost all elements except Th and U were eluted by 4 M HNO(3). Th was then separated by using 5 M HCl, and U was finally isolated by successive addition of 0.1 M HNO(3). A significant amount of Zr still remained in the Th fraction, which was then further purified in the second column stage using TEVA·spec resin. In the second procedure, Zr was eluted first by using 2 M HNO(3), and then Th was collected by 0.1 M HNO(3). Both the Th and U fractions obtained by these procedures were sufficiently pure for thermal ionization mass spectrometric (TIMS) analysis. Recovery yields of Th and U exceeded 90%, and total blanks were <19 pg for Th and <10 pg for U. Our method has advantages over previous methods in terms of matrix effects, tailing problems, and degree of isolation. Since Th and U are effectively separated without suffering any matrix interference from coexisting cations and anions, this technique can be used not only for the analysis of igneous rock samples but also for the analysis of soils, marine sediments, carbonates, phosphates and seawater, groundwater, and surface water. PMID:21662935

Yokoyama, T; Makishima, A; Nakamura, E

1999-01-01

21

Trends in Resin and KCl-extractable Soil Nitrogen Across Landscape Gradients in Taylor Valley, Antarctica  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous descriptions of soils in the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica, have focused on the dominance of abiotic controls rather\\u000a than on nutrient cycling. Although free-living N2-fixing and nitrifying microorganisms have been isolated in Antarctic soils, little is known about in situ nitrogen (N) cycling.\\u000a We measured KCl-extractable NH4\\u000a + and NO3\\u000a –, as well as anion resin exchangeable NO3\\u000a –,

John E. Barrett; Ross A. Virginia; Diana H. Wall

2002-01-01

22

Actinide Binding by Kläui Ligands: REDOX Speciation and Sorption on an Extraction Chromatography Resin  

SciTech Connect

The sorption of Eu(III) and actinide ions in various oxidation states from nitric acid solutions by an extraction chromatography resin containing 1 wt% of the Kläui ligand Cp*Co[P(O)(OR)2]3– [Cp* = pentamethylcyclopentadienyl, R = –CH2 CH2CH3] on Amberlite® XAD-7HP was examined. At 0.3 M HNO3 and a metal-to-ligand ratio of 0.07, the relative affinity of the resin for the ions investigated followed the order: tetravalent >> hexavalent > trivalent > pentavalent; however, the relative affinity for the trivalent and hexavalent ions can be reversed, depending on the extent of ligand loading and the nitric acid concentration. The sorption of the tetravalent ions was exceptionally strong in the entire range of nitric acid concentration examined (0.2 to 8 M HNO3). Resin samples loaded with various actinide ions were examined spectrophotometrically. No Np(V) and Pu(III) species were identified on the resin; rather, reduction-oxidation (REDOX) reactions occurred during equilibration, resulting in their complete conversion to M(IV) species bound by the Kläui ligand. Similarly, the sorption behavior of Pu(VI) and Np(VI) was complicated by their reduction to M(IV) upon sorption. The observed REDOX processes were apparently driven by the extremely high affinity of the Kläui ligand for the tetravalent ions. The acid-base properties of the methyl derivative of the Kläui ligand were investigated in aqueous solution, and its pKa was found to be highly dependent upon the solution ionic strength. The binding constants of this ligand with various actinide ions measured in a mixed methanol/carbon tetrachloride solvent exhibited qualitative agreement with the sorption selectivity trends.

Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Sinkov, Sergey I.; Lumetta, Gregg J.

2008-12-01

23

CHARACTERIZATION AND EVALUATION OF LEVEXTREL EXTRACTION CHROMATOGRAPHIC RESINS FOR TRACE METAL SEPARATION SCHEMES IN AUTOMATIC WATER QUALITY CONTROL SYSTEMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the results of the selective removal of Zn(II) from Cu(II), Cd(II), Ni(II) and Pb(II) using ‘Extraction Chromatographic Resins’ Lewatit TP80T84, which contains dK2,4,4-trimethylpentyl)pbosphinic acid as active component. The extraction and selectivity patterns of the resin were obtained from the metal distribution coefficients as a fiinction of pH. Experimental data of Pb(II), Ni(II) and other natural water occurring

J. L. Cortina; E. Castillo; M. Granados; M. D. Prat

1999-01-01

24

Comparison of methods for nutrient measurement in calcareous soils: Ion-exchange resin bag, capsule, membrane, and chemical extractions  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Four methods for measuring quantities of 12 plant-available nutrients were compared using three sandy soils in a series of three experiments. Three of the methods use different ion-exchange resin forms-bags, capsules, and membranes-and the fourth was conventional chemical extraction. The first experiment compared nutrient extraction data from a medium of sand saturated with a nutrient solution. The second and third experiments used Nakai and Sheppard series soils from Canyonlands National Park, which are relatively high in soil carbonates. The second experiment compared nutrient extraction data provided by the four methods from soils equilibrated at two temperatures, "warm" and "cold." The third experiment extracted nutrients from the same soils in a field equilibration. Our results show that the four extraction techniques are not comparable. This conclusion is due to differences among the methods in the net quantities of nutrients extracted from equivalent soil volumes, in the proportional representation of nutrients within similar soils and treatments, in the measurement of nutrients that were added in known quantities, and even in the order of nutrients ranked by net abundance. We attribute the disparities in nutrient measurement among the different resin forms to interacting effects of the inherent differences in resin exchange capacity, differences among nutrients in their resin affinities, and possibly the relatively short equilibration time for laboratory trials. One constraint for measuring carbonate-related nutrients in high-carbonate soils is the conventional ammonium acetate extraction method, which we suspect of dissolving fine CaCO3 particles that are more abundant in Nakai series soils, resulting in erroneously high Ca2+ estimates. For study of plant-available nutrients, it is important to identify the nutrients of foremost interest and understand differences in their resin sorption dynamics to determine the most appropriate extraction method.

Sherrod, S.K.; Belnap, J.; Miller, M.E.

2002-01-01

25

Two solid-phase recycling method for basic ionic liquid [C4mim]Ac by macroporous resin and ion exchange resin from Schisandra chinensis fruits extract.  

PubMed

In this study, two solid-phase recycling method for basic ionic liquid (IL) 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([C4mim]Ac) were studied through a digestion extraction system of extracting biphenyl cyclooctene lignans from Schisandra chinensis. The RP-HPLC detection method for [C4mim]Ac was established in order to investigate the recovery efficiency of IL. The recycling method of [C4mim]Ac is divided into two steps, the first step was the separation of lignans from the IL solution containing HPD 5000 macroporous resin, the recovery efficiency and purity of [C4mim]Ac achieved were 97.8% and 67.7%, respectively. This method cannot only separate the lignans from [C4mim]Ac solution, also improve the purity of lignans, the absorption rate of lignans in [C4mim]Ac solution was found to be higher (69.2%) than that in ethanol solution (57.7%). The second step was the purification of [C4mim]Ac by the SK1B strong acid ion exchange resin, an [C4mim]Ac recovery efficiency of 55.9% and the purity higher than 90% were achieved. Additionally, [C4mim]Ac as solvent extraction of lignans from S. chinensis was optimized, the hydrolysis temperature was 90°C and the hydrolysis time was 2h. PMID:25463641

Ma, Chun-hui; Zu, Yuan-gang; Yang, Lei; Li, Jian

2015-01-22

26

Separation and purification of both tea seed polysaccharide and saponin from camellia cake extract using macroporous resin.  

PubMed

A novel method to separate and purify tea seed polysaccharide and tea seed saponin from camellia cake extract by macroporous resin was developed. Among four kinds of resins (AB-8, NKA-9, XDA-6, and D4020) tested, AB-8 macroporous resin possessed optimal separating capacity for the two substances and thus was selected for the separation, in which deionized water was used to elute tea seed polysaccharide, 0.25% NaOH solution to remove the undesired pigments, and 90% ethanol to elute tea seed saponin. Further dynamic adsorption/desorption experiments on AB-8 resin-based column chromatography were conducted to obtain the optimal parameters. Under optimal dynamic adsorption and desorption conditions, 18.7 and 11.8% yield of tea seed polysaccharide and tea seed saponin were obtained with purities of 89.2 and 96.0%, respectively. The developed method provides a potential approach for the large-scale production of tea seed polysaccharide and tea seed saponin from camellia cake. PMID:25491912

Yang, Pengjie; Zhou, Mingda; Zhou, Chengyun; Wang, Qian; Zhang, Fangfang; Chen, Jian

2015-02-01

27

Inadequacy, Impurity and Infidelity; Modifying the Modified Brendel Alpha-Cellulose Extraction Method for Resinous Woods in Stable Isotope Dendroclimatology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stable isotope dendroclimatology is a burgeoning field in palaeoclimate science due to its unique potential to contribute (sub)annually resolved climate records, over millennial timescales, to the terrestrial palaeoclimate record. Until recently the time intensive methods precluded long-term climate reconstructions. Advances in continuous-flow mass spectrometry and isolation methods for ?-cellulose (ideal for palaeoclimate studies as, unlike other wood components, it retains its initial isotopic composition) have made long-term, calendar dated palaeoclimate reconstructions a viable proposition. The Modified Brendel (mBrendel) ?-cellulose extraction method is a fast, cost-effective way of preparing whole-wood samples for stable oxygen and carbon isotope analysis. However, resinous woods often yield incompletely processed ?-cellulose using the standard mBrendel approach. As climate signals may be recorded by small (<1%) isotopic shifts it is important to investigate if incomplete processing affects the accuracy and precision of tree-ring isotopic records. In an effort to address this methodological issue, we investigated three highly resinous woods: kauri (Agathis australis), ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) and huon pine (Lagarastrobus franklinii). Samples of each species were treated with 16 iterations of the mBrendel, varying reaction temperature, time and reagent volumes. Products were investigated using microscopic and bulk transmission Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy (FITR) to reveal variations in the level of processing; poorly-digested fibres display a peak at 1520cm-1 suggesting residual lignin and a peak at ~1600cm-1 in some samples suggests retained resin. Despite the different levels of purity, replicate analyses of samples processed by high temperature digestion yielded consistent ?18O within and between experiments. All ?-cellulose samples were 5-7% enriched compared to the whole-wood, suggesting that even incomplete processing at high temperature can provide acceptable ?18O analytical external precision. For kauri, short, lower temperature extractions produced ?-cellulose with ?18O consistently ~1% lower than longer, higher temperature kauri experiments. These findings suggest that temperature and time are significant variables that influence the analytical precision of ?-cellulose stable isotope analysis and that resinous hardwoods (e.g. kauri) may require longer and/or hotter digestions than softwoods. The effects of mBrendel variants on the carbon isotope ratio precision of ?-cellulose extracts will also be presented. Our findings indicate that the standard mBrendel ?-cellulose extraction method may not fully remove lignins and resins depending on the type of wood being analysed. Residual impurities can decrease analytical precision and accuracy. Fortunately, FTIR analysis prior to isotopic analysis is a relatively fast and cost effective way to determine ?-cellulose extract purity, ultimately improving the data quality, accuracy and utility of tree-ring based stable isotopic climate records.

Brookman, T. H.; Whittaker, T. E.; King, P. L.; Horton, T. W.

2011-12-01

28

Preparation of high purity biphenyl cyclooctene lignans from Schisandra extract by ion exchange resin catalytic transformation combined with macroporous resin separation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, ester-bond biphenyl cyclooctene lignans were efficiently hydrolytically degraded into free biphenyl cyclooctene lignans by ion exchange resin transformation and simultaneous removal of impurities by macroporous resin. The OH-type strongly basic anion exchange resin 201×7 was the best one, and the dynamic hydrolysis efficiency was 146.7±5.0%. HPD5000 macroporous resin, which offered higher adsorption and desorption capacities and faster

Chun-hui Ma; Ting-ting Liu; Lei Yang; Yuan-gang Zu; Feng-jian Yang; Chun-jian Zhao; Lin Zhang; Zhong-hua Zhang

2011-01-01

29

Extraction of anthocyanins from black bean canning wastewater with macroporous resins.  

PubMed

This study investigated purification of anthocyanins from black bean canning wastewater by column chromatography with 5 types of macroporous resins (Diaion Hp20, Sepabeads Sp70, Sepabeads Sp207, Sepabeads Sp700, and Sepabeads Sp710). By-product of canned black beans was partially purified by filtration, in anticipation of higher performance during column chromatography. Equilibrium adsorption isotherms were measured and analyzed using Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. Both Langmuir (all R² ? 0.98) and Freundlich (all R² ? 0.97) models can describe the adsorption process of anthocyanins from black bean canning wastewater using the tested resins. The adsorption and desorption behaviors of anthocyanins were studied using a dynamic method on the 5 types of resins, and Sp700 presented the highest adsorption capacity (39 ± 4 mg/g; P < 0.05) as well as desorption capacity (19 ± 2%; P < 0.05), indicating that of the resins examined, Sp700 is a better candidate for purification of anthocyanins from black bean canning wastewater. PMID:24472095

Wang, Xiaoxi; Hansen, Conly; Allen, Karin

2014-02-01

30

Novel polysiloxane resin functionalized with dicyclohexano-18-crown-6 (DCH18C6): Synthesis, characterization and extraction of Sr(II) in high acidity HNO3 medium.  

PubMed

A novel kind of polysiloxane resin functionalized with dicyclohexano-18-crown-6 (DCH18C6) was synthesized through a post-modification approach. The DCH18C6 moieties bearing amino groups were firstly prepared, followed by covalent grafting to a silica precursor P-(CH(2))(3)-Cl (Where P represents a 3-dimentional polymerized silica matrix) based on nucleophilic substitution reaction. (29)Si and (13)C solid-state NMR, FT-IR, XPS, TGA, ESEM and elemental analysis were employed to systematically characterize the structure, thermal property and surface morphology of the functionalized resin. The results indicated that the DCH18C6 ligands were successfully bonded to the polysiloxane resin with a satisfactory grafting degree (33.6wt.%). Due to the robust organosilica framework and the covalent immobilization of the ligands, the functionalized resin had excellent thermal stability and acid resistance. Batch experiments showed that the resin could effectively separate Sr(II) in high acidity mediums. The distribution coefficient (K(d)) of 43.6cm(3)/g could be achieved in 5.0mol/L HNO(3) solution. The influences of contact time and acidity of HNO(3) on the resin's extraction performance were examined. The reusability and the selectivity to Sr(II) over interference ions were investigated. The DCH18C6-functionalized resin might be potentially applied for the radiostrontium removal in the high level liquid waste (HLLW). PMID:22609393

Ye, Gang; Bai, Feifei; Wei, Jichao; Wang, Jianchen; Chen, Jing

2012-07-30

31

Solid phase extraction of some precious metals from hydrochloric acid to polystyrene-divinylbenzene porous resin impregnated with polyoxyethylene-type nonionic surfactant.  

PubMed

The solid phase extraction of gold(III), platinum(II), and palladium(II) to surfactant-impregnated polystyrene-divinylbenzene porous resin (XAD-4) was studied. The extracting media could be prepared just by mixing the resin in aqueous surfactant solutions. XAD-4 impregnated with a nonionic surfactant, polyethylene glycol monooleyl ether, was useful for extracting gold(III) from hydrochloric acid. The extractions of platinum(II) and palladium(II) were improved in the use of XAD-4 impregnated with a nitrogen-containing nonionic surfactant, polyethylene glycol stearyl amine. On the other hand, base metals such as copper(II), cobalt(II), nickel(II) and zinc(II), were hardly extracted. PMID:16259992

Saitoh, Tohru; Suzuki, Syuntaro; Hiraide, Masataka

2005-12-01

32

Phosphonic acid based exchange resins  

DOEpatents

An ion exchange resin is described for extracting metal ions from a liquid waste stream. An ion exchange resin is prepared by copolymerizing a vinylidene diphosphonic acid with styrene, acrylonitrile and divinylbenzene. 10 figs.

Horwitz, E.P.; Alexandratos, S.D.; Gatrone, R.C.; Chiarizia, R.

1995-09-12

33

Phosphonic acid based exchange resins  

DOEpatents

An ion exchange resin for extracting metal ions from a liquid waste stream. An ion exchange resin is prepared by copolymerizing a vinylidene diphosphonic acid with styrene, acrylonitrile and divinylbenzene.

Horwitz, E. Philip (Naperville, IL); Alexandratos, Spiro D. (Knoxville, TN); Gatrone, Ralph C. (Naperville, IL); Chiarizia, Ronato (Oak Park, IL)

1995-01-01

34

Effect of Extraction Media and Storage Time on the Elution of Monomers from Four Contemporary Resin Composite Materials  

PubMed Central

Introduction: The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of different extraction media, including culture media, as well as storage times on the elution of monomers from modern dental composites. Materials and Methods: Four contemporary composite materials were tested: (a) Clearfil Majesty Esthetic (Kuraray), (b) Esthet X (DENTSPLY), (c) Filtek Silorane (3M ESPE), and (d) Admira (Voco). Forty-eight specimens were made. The specimens were stored in 1 ml of (a) artificial saliva, (b) Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium (DMEM), (c) DMEM plus 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS), and (d) ethanol 75%. The specimens were analyzed after 24 hours and after 1 week of storage. HPLC Liquid Chromatography was performed to analyze the extracted solutions. The statistical package SPSS 18 was used for the statistical analysis of the results. Results: All the materials tested released monomers that were consistent with the base composition of their resin matrix. Bisphenol-A (BPA) was detected in Clearfil Esthetic and EsthetX when ethanol 75% was used for storage. TEGDMA was released at a faster rate compared to the other monomers with most of the monomer eluted in the first 24 hours. The effect of storage solution and storage time on the elution of the same monomers varied between materials. Conclusions: There was a significant effect of time, storage solution, and material on the elution of the detectable unbound monomers. Unbound monomers were detected in culture media, which may lead to false-negative results in cytotoxicity tests of resin composite materials. BPA was detected in two of the tested materials. PMID:24748741

Tsitrou, Effrosyni; Kelogrigoris, Stavros; Koulaouzidou, Elisabeth; Antoniades-Halvatjoglou, Maria; Koliniotou-Koumpia, Eugenia; van Noort, Richard

2014-01-01

35

Characterization of Group V Dubnium Homologs on DGA Extraction Chromatography Resin from Nitric and Hydrofluoric Acid Matrices  

SciTech Connect

Studies of the chemical properties of superheavy elements (SHE) pose interesting challenges due to their short half-lives and low production rates. Chemical systems must have extremely fast kinetics, fast enough kinetics to be able to examine the chemical properties of interest before the SHE decays to another nuclide. To achieve chemistry on such time scales, the chemical system must also be easily automated. Most importantly however, a chemical system must be developed which provides suitable separation and kinetics before an on-line study of a SHE can be performed. Relativistic effects make studying the chemical properties of SHEs interesting due to the impact these effects could have on the SHEs chemical properties. Relativistic effects arise when the velocity of the s orbital electrons approach the speed of light. As this velocity increases, the Bohr radius of the inner electron orbitals decreases and there is an increase in the particles mass. This contraction results in a destabilization of the energy of the outer d and f electron orbitals (5f and 6d in the case of SHE), which can cause these to expand due to their increased shielding from the nuclear charge. Another relativistic effect is the spin-orbit splitting for p, d, and f orbitals into j = 1 {+-} 1/2 states. This can lead most interestingly to a possible increased stability of element 114, which due to large spin-orbit splitting of the 7p orbital and the relativistically stabilized 7p{sub 1/2} and 7s orbital gives rise to a closed shell ground state of 7s{sup 2}7p{sub 1/2}{sup 2}. The homologs of element 105, dubnium (Db), Ta and Nb and the pseudo-homolog Pa, are well known to hydrolyze and form both neutral and non-neutral monoatomic and polyatomic species that may cause issues with extraction from a given chemical system. Early ion-exchange and solvent-extraction studies show mixed results for the behavior of Db. Some studies show Db behaving most similar to Ta, while others show it behaving somewhere between Nb and Pa. Much more recent studies have examined the properties of Db from HNO{sub 3}/HF matrices, and suggest Db forms complexes similar to those of Pa. Very little experimental work into the behavior of element 114 has been performed. Thermochromatography experiments of three atoms of element 114 indicate that the element 114 is at least as volatile as Hg, At, and element 112. Lead was shown to deposit on gold at temperatures about 1000 C higher than the atoms of element 114. Results indicate a substantially increased stability of element 114. No liquid phase studies of element 114 or its homologs (Pb, Sn, Ge) or pseudo-homologs (Hg, Cd) have been performed. Theoretical predictions indicate that element 114 is should have a much more stable +2 oxidation state and neutral state than Pb, which would result in element 114 being less reactive and less metallic than Pb. The relativistic effects on the 7p{sub 1/2} electrons are predicted to cause a diagonal relationship to be introduced into the periodic table. Therefore, 114{sup 2+} is expected to behave as if it were somewhere between Hg{sup 2+}, Cd{sup 2+}, and Pb{sup 2+}. In this work two commercially available extraction chromatography resins are evaluated, one for the separation of Db homologs and pseudo?homologs from each other as well as from potential interfering elements such as Group IV Rf homologs and actinides, and the other for separation of element 114 homologs. One resin, Eichrom's DGA resin, contains a N,N,N',N'-tetra-n-octyldiglycolamide extractant, which separates analytes based on both size and charge characteristics of the solvated metal species, coated on an inert support. The DGA resin was examined for Db chemical systems, and shows a high degree of selectivity for tri-, tetra-, and hexavalent metal ions in multiple acid matrices with fast kinetics. The other resin, Eichrom's Pb resin, contains a di-t-butylcyclohexano 18-crown-6 extractant with isodecanol solvent, which separates analytes based on steric interactions between the cavity of the crown ether and electrostatic interac

Despotopulos, J D; Sudowe, R

2012-02-21

36

Separation of cyclotron-produced (44)Sc from a natural calcium target using a dipentyl pentylphosphonate functionalized extraction resin.  

PubMed

Significant interest in (44)Sc as a radioactive synthon to label small molecules for positron emission tomography (PET) imaging has been recently observed. Despite the efforts of several research groups, the ideal (44)Sc production and separation method remains elusive. Herein, we propose a novel separation method to obtain (44)Sc from the proton irradiation of calcium targets based on extraction chromatography, which promises to greatly simplify current production methodologies. Using the commercially available Uranium and Tetravalent Actinides (UTEVA) extraction resin we were able to rapidly (<20min) recover >80% of the activity generated at end of bombardment (EoB) in small ~1M HCl fractions (400?L). The chemical purity of the (44)Sc eluates was evaluated through chelation with DOTA and DTPA, and by trace metal analysis using microwave induced plasma atomic emission spectrometry. The distribution coefficients (Kd) of Sc(III) and Ca(II) in UTEVA were determined in HCl medium in a range of concentrations from zero to 12.1M. The (44)Sc obtained with our method proved to be suitable for the direct labeling of small biomolecules for PET imaging, with excellent specific activities and radiochemical purity. PMID:25464172

Valdovinos, H F; Hernandez, R; Barnhart, T E; Graves, S; Cai, W; Nickles, R J

2014-10-01

37

A solid phase extraction using a chelate resin immobilizing carboxymethylated pentaethylenehexamine for separation and preconcentration of trace elements in water samples.  

PubMed

A chelate resin immobilizing carboxymethylated pentaethylenehexamine (CM-PEHA resin) was prepared, and the potential for the separation and preconcentration of trace elements in water samples was evaluated through the adsorption/elution test for 62 elements. The CM-PEHA resin could quantitatively recover various elements, including Ag, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, Ti, U, and Zn, and rare earth elements over a wide pH range, and also Mn at pH above 5 and V and Mo at pH below 7. This resin could also effectively remove major elements, such as alkali and alkaline earth elements, under acidic and neutral conditions. Solid phase extraction using the CM-PEHA resin was applicable to the determination of 10 trace elements, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, V, and Zn, in certified reference materials (EnviroMAT EU-L-1 wastewater and ES-L-1 ground water) and treated wastewater and all elements except for Mn in surface seawater using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. The detection limits, defined as 3 times the standard deviation for the procedural blank using 500 mL of purified water (50-fold preconcentration, n=8), ranged from 0.003 microg L(-1) (Mn) to 0.28 microg L(-1) (Zn) as the concentration in 500 mL of solution. PMID:19559856

Kagaya, Shigehiro; Maeba, Emiko; Inoue, Yoshinori; Kamichatani, Waka; Kajiwara, Takehiro; Yanai, Hideyuki; Saito, Mitsuru; Tohda, Koji

2009-07-15

38

Comparison of apical microleakage of dual-curing resin cements with fluid-filtration and dye extraction techniques.  

PubMed

Background Endodontically treated teeth with excessive loss of tooth structure are frequently restored using fiber posts. In this in vitro study, the apical leakage of self- and dual-activated curing modes for dual-curing resins cementing a translucent fiber post was evaluated using computerized fluid filtration meter and dye extraction method. Material and Methods One hundred and four extracted human maxillary incisors with single root and canal were used. Experimental samples embedded in a closed system were divided into 4 groups (n=20) according to 2 dual-curing luting systems, with 2 different curing modes (either with self- or light-activation): (1) Panavia F 2.0 with self-cure, (2) Panavia F 2.0 with light-activation, (3) Clearfill SA with self-cure, and (4) Clearfill SA with light activation. Twenty-four teeth served as negative and positive controls. Translucent fiber posts were luted in the roots except in the control groups. Results Statistical analysis indicated no significant difference in leakage among groups (p>0.05) with 4.12×10^-4 (Panavia self-cure), 4.55×10^-4 (Clearfill SA self-cure), 5.17×10^-4 (Panavia dual-cure), and 5.59×10^-4 (Clearfill SA dual-cure) in fluid-filtration method. Absorbance values for dye-extraction method were 266 nanometer (nm) (Panavia self-cure), 268 nm (Clearfill SA self-cure), 270 nm (Panavia dual-cure), and 271 nm (Clearfill SA dual-cure), in which difference among the groups were not statistically significant (p>0.05). When comparing the leakage, assessment methods results showed no statistically significant difference between the tested evaluation techniques (p>0.05). Conclusions Light- and self-activation curing modes of Panavia F 2.0 and Clearfill SA perform similar to each other in a closed system. PMID:25824712

Kaya, Sadullah; Yi?it Özer, Senem; Adigüzel, Özkan; Oruço?lu, Hasan; De?er, Yalç?n; Tümen, Emin Caner; Uysal, ?brahim

2015-01-01

39

Comparison of Apical Microleakage of Dual-Curing Resin Cements with Fluid-Filtration and Dye Extraction Techniques  

PubMed Central

Background Endodontically treated teeth with excessive loss of tooth structure are frequently restored using fiber posts. In this in vitro study, the apical leakage of self- and dual-activated curing modes for dual-curing resins cementing a translucent fiber post was evaluated using computerized fluid filtration meter and dye extraction method. Material/Methods One hundred and four extracted human maxillary incisors with single root and canal were used. Experimental samples embedded in a closed system were divided into 4 groups (n=20) according to 2 dual-curing luting systems, with 2 different curing modes (either with self- or light-activation): (1) Panavia F 2.0 with self-cure, (2) Panavia F 2.0 with light-activation, (3) Clearfill SA with self-cure, and (4) Clearfill SA with light activation. Twenty-four teeth served as negative and positive controls. Translucent fiber posts were luted in the roots except in the control groups. Results Statistical analysis indicated no significant difference in leakage among groups (p>0.05) with 4.12×10?4 (Panavia self-cure), 4.55×10?4 (Clearfill SA self-cure), 5.17×10?4 (Panavia dual-cure), and 5.59×10?4 (Clearfill SA dual-cure) in fluid-filtration method. Absorbance values for dye-extraction method were 266 nanometer (nm) (Panavia self-cure), 268 nm (Clearfill SA self-cure), 270 nm (Panavia dual-cure), and 271 nm (Clearfill SA dual-cure), in which difference among the groups were not statistically significant (p>0.05). When comparing the leakage, assessment methods results showed no statistically significant difference between the tested evaluation techniques (p>0.05). Conclusions Light- and self-activation curing modes of Panavia F 2.0 and Clearfill SA perform similar to each other in a closed system. PMID:25824712

Kaya, Sadullah; Özer, Senem Yi?it; Adigüzel, Özkan; Oruço?lu, Hasan; De?er, Yalç?n; Tümen, Emin Caner; Uysal, ?brahim

2015-01-01

40

Antihyperglycemic, hypolipidemic and antioxidant activities of ethanolic extract of Commiphora mukul gum resin in fructose-fed male Wistar rats.  

PubMed

High fructose feeding (66 % of fructose) induces type-2 diabetes in rats, which is associated with the insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, hypertriglyceridemia and oxidative stress. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of ethanol extract of Commiphora mukul gum resin (CMEE) on blood glucose, plasma insulin, lipid profiles, reduced glutathione, lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation and enzymatic antioxidants like superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione-S-transferase in fructose-induced type-2 diabetic rats. A significant gain in body weight, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, increased lipid profiles, lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation and decreased reduced glutathione, activities of enzymatic antioxidants and insulin sensitivity (increased homeostasis assessment assay) were observed in high-fructose-induced diabetic rats. The administration of CMEE (200 mg/kg/day) daily for 60 days in high-fructose-induced diabetic rats reversed the above parameters significantly. CMEE has the ability to improve insulin sensitivity and delay the development of insulin resistance, aggravate antioxidant status in diabetic rats and may be used as an adjuvant therapy for patients with insulin resistance. PMID:22581434

Ramesh, B; Saralakumari, D

2012-12-01

41

Salicylic acid and derivatives anchored on poly(styrene- co-divinylbenzene) resin and membrane via a diazo bridge: Synthesis, characterisation and application to metal extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

New materials for chelating solid-phase extraction have been prepared by grafting of salicylic acid and derivatives on poly(styrene-co-divinylbenzene) based sorbents. These sorbents are either resin bead-shaped Amberlite® XAD-4 or membrane disk-shaped Empore™ SDB-XC. Grafting has been achieved via –NN– spacer. The grafted ligands are salicylic acid (SA), its dimer form methylenedisalicylic acid (MDSA) and trimer form aurintricarboxylic form (ATA) in

Sabrina Boussetta; Catherine Branger; André Margaillan; Jean-Luc Boudenne; Bruno Coulomb

2008-01-01

42

Phosphonic acid based ion exchange resins  

DOEpatents

An ion exchange resin for extracting metal ions from a liquid waste stream. An ion exchange resin is prepared by copolymerizing a vinylidene diphosphonic acid with styrene, acrylonitrile and divinylbenzene.

Horwitz, E. Philip (Naperville, IL); Alexandratos, Spiro D. (Knoxville, TN); Gatrone, Ralph C. (Naperville, IL); Chiarizia, Ronato (Oak Park, IL)

1996-01-01

43

Phosphonic acid based ion exchange resins  

DOEpatents

An ion exchange resin is described for extracting metal ions from a liquid waste stream. An ion exchange resin is prepared by copolymerizing a vinylidene diphosphonic acid with styrene, acrylonitrile and divinylbenzene. 10 figs.

Horwitz, E.P.; Alexandratos, S.D.; Gatrone, R.C.; Chiarizia, R.

1996-07-23

44

Final report on the safety assessment of capsicum annuum extract, capsicum annuum fruit extract, capsicum annuum resin, capsicum annuum fruit powder, capsicum frutescens fruit, capsicum frutescens fruit extract, capsicum frutescens resin, and capsaicin.  

PubMed

Capsicum-derived ingredients function as skin-conditioning agents--miscellaneous, external analgesics, flavoring agents, or fragrance components in cosmetics. These ingredients are used in 19 cosmetic products at concentrations as high as 5%. Cosmetic-grade material may be extracted using hexane, ethanol, or vegetable oil and contain the full range of phytocompounds that are found in the Capsicum annuum or Capsicum frutescens plant (aka red chiles), including Capsaicin. Aflatoxin and N-nitroso compounds (N-nitrosodimethylamine and N-nitrosopyrrolidine) have been detected as contaminants. The ultraviolet (UV) absorption spectrum for Capsicum Annuum Fruit Extract indicates a small peak at approximately 275 nm, and a gradual increase in absorbance, beginning at approximately 400 nm. Capsicum and paprika are generally recognized as safe by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for use in food. Hexane, chloroform, and ethyl acetate extracts of Capsicum Frutescens Fruit at 200 mg/kg resulted in death of all mice. In a short-term inhalation toxicity study using rats, no difference was found between vehicle control and a 7% Capsicum Oleoresin solution. In a 4-week feeding study, red chilli (Capsicum annuum) in the diet at concentrations up to 10% was relatively nontoxic in groups of male mice. In an 8-week feeding study using rats, intestinal exfoliation, cytoplasmic fatty vacuolation and centrilobular necrosis of hepatocytes, and aggregation of lymphocytes in the portal areas were seen at 10% Capsicum Frutescens Fruit, but not 2%. Rats fed 0.5 g/kg day-1 crude Capsicum Fruit Extract for 60 days exhibited no significant gross pathology at necropsy, but slight hyperemia of the liver and reddening of the gastric mucosa were observed. Weanling rats fed basal diets supplemented with whole red pepper at concentrations up to 5.0% for up to 8 weeks had no pathology of the large intestines, livers, and kidneys, but destruction of the taste buds and keratinization and erosion of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract were noted in groups fed 0.5% to 5.0% red pepper. The results of 9-and 12-month extension of this study showed normal large intestines and kidneys. In rabbits fed Capsicum Annuum Powder at 5 mg/kg day-1 in the diet daily for 12 months damage to the liver and spleen was noted. A rabbit skin irritation test of Capsicum Annuum Fruit Extract at concentrations ranging from 0.1% to 1.0% produced no irritation, but Capsicum Frutescens Fruit Extract induced concentration-dependent (at 25 to 500 microg/ml) cytotoxicity in a human buccal mucosa fibroblast cell line. An ethanol extract of red chili was mutagenic in Salmonella typhimurium TA98, but not in TA100, or in Escherichia coli. Other genotoxicity assays gave a similar pattern of mixed results. Adenocarcinoma of the abdomen was observed in 7/20 mice fed 100 mg red chilies per day for 12 months; no tumors were seen in control animals. Neoplastic changes in the liver and intestinal tumors were observed in rats fed red chili powder at 80 mg/kg day-1 for 30 days, intestinal and colon tumors were seen in rats fed red chili powder and 1,2-dimethyl hydrazine, but no tumors were observed in controls. In another study in rats, however, red chile pepper in the diet at the same dose decreased the number of tumors seen with 1,2-dimethylhydrazine. Other feeding studies evaluated the effect of red chili peppers on the incidence of stomach tumors produced by N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine, finding that red pepper had a promoting effect. Capsicum Frutescens Fruit Extract promoted the carcinogenic effect of methyl(acetoxymethyl)nitrosamine (carcinogen) or benzene hexachloride (hepatocarcinogen) in inbred male and female Balb/c mice dosed orally (tongue application). Clinical findings include symptoms of cough, sneezing, and runny nose in chili factory workers. Human respiratory responses to Capsicum Oleoresin spray include burning of the throat, wheezing, dry cough, shortness of breath, gagging, gasping, inability to breathe or speak, and, rarely, cyanosis, apnea, and respiratory arrest. A trade n

2007-01-01

45

Azocalix[4]pyrrole Amberlite XAD-2: new polymeric chelating resins for the extraction, preconcentration and sequential separation of Cu(II), Zn(II) and Cd(II) in natural water samples.  

PubMed

Two novel azocalix[4]pyrrole Amberlite XAD-2 polymeric chelating resins were synthesized by covalently linking diazotized Amberlite XAD-2 with calix[4]pyrrole macrocycles. The chelating resins were used for extraction, preconcentration and sequential separation of metal ions such as Cu(II), Zn(II) and Cd(II) by column chromatography prior to their determination by UV/vis spectrophotometry or flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry (FAAS) or inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). Various parameters such as effect of pH on absorption, concentration of eluting agents, flow rate, total sorption capacity, exchange kinetics, preconcentration factor, distribution coefficient, breakthrough capacity and resin stability, were optimized for effective separation and preconcentration. The resin showed good ability for the separation of metal ions from binary and ternary mixture on the basis of pH of absorption and concentration of eluting agents. The newly synthesized resins showed good potential for trace enrichment of Cu(II), Zn(II) and Cd(II) metal ions, especially for Cu(II), as compared to the earlier reported resins. The synthesized resins were recycled at least 8-10 times without much affecting column sorption capacity. The presented method was successfully applied for determination of Cu(II), Zn(II) and Cd(II) in natural and ground water samples. PMID:19635367

Jain, Vinod K; Mandalia, Hiren C; Gupte, Hrishikesh S; Vyas, Disha J

2009-10-15

46

Ionic liquid-based vacuum microwave-assisted extraction followed by macroporous resin enrichment for the separation of the three glycosides salicin, hyperin and rutin from Populus bark.  

PubMed

An effective ionic liquid vacuum microwave-assisted method was developed for extraction of the thermo- and oxygen-sensitive glycosides salicin, hyperin and rutin from Populus bark due to the strong solvating effects of ionic liquids on plant cell walls. In this study, [C4mim]BF4 solution was selected as the extracting solution for extraction of the target analytes. After optimization by single factor experiments and response surface methodology, the optimum condition parameters were achieved, which included 1.0 M [C4mim]BF4, 2 h soaking time, -0.08 MPa vacuum, 20 min microwave irradiation time, 400 W microwave irradiation power and 25 mL/g liquid/solid ratio. Under the optimum conditions, higher extraction yields of salicin (35.53 mg/g), hyperin (1.32 mg/g) and rutin (2.40 mg/g) were obtained. Compared with other extraction methods, the developed method provided higher yields of the three target components after a relatively shorter extraction time (20 min). No obvious degradation of the target analytes was observed under the optimum conditions in performed stability studies and the proposed method had a high reproducibility. Meanwhile, after adsorption and desorption on macroporous D101 resin, the target analytes can be effectively separated from the [C4mim]BF4 ionic liquid extraction solution and the yields of salicin, hyperin and rutin were 89%, 82% and 84%, respectively. The recovered [C4mim]BF4 ionic liquid presented a good extraction effect on the three analytes after recycling five times. PMID:25004075

Chen, Fengli; Mo, Kailin; Liu, Zhaizhi; Yang, Fengjian; Hou, Kexin; Li, Shuangyang; Zu, Yuangang; Yang, Lei

2014-01-01

47

Chromium speciation in environmental samples by solid- phase extraction using lewatit ionac SR-7 resin and flame atomic absorption spectrometry.  

PubMed

A new method for the speciation, preconcentration, and separation of Cr(lll) and Cr(VI) species in different matrixes was developed using SPE combined with flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Theprocedure is based on the exchange of Cr(VI) ions as CrO(4)(2-) with CI- ions on Lewatit lonac SR-7 ion-exchange resin. After the oxidation of Cr(lll) to CrO(4)(2-) ions by concentrated H202 in basic medium, the procedure was applied to the determination of total Cr. Cr(lll) was calculated as the difference between the total Cr and Cr(VI) contents. The influence of the analytical parameters including the pH of the solution, amount of resin, eluent type, sample volume, and flow rates of the sample and eluent solutions were investigated. No considerable interferences were observed from: other anions and cations investigated in the Cr speciation. The preconcentration factor was found to be 500. The LOD for Cr(VI), corresponding to three times the SD of the blank, was 0.003 ?g/L. The sorption capacity and binding equilibrium constant were calculated as 17.2 mg/g and 2.54 L/mg, respectively. The accuracy of the method was verified by analyzing certified reference materials. The proposed method was applied to the speciation of Cr species in real samples with satisfactory results. PMID:25632449

Sacmaçi, Serife; Kartal, Senol; Kumsuz, Sevim

2014-01-01

48

Reactivity of Trametes laccases with fatty and resin acids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lipophilic extractives commonly referred to as wood pitch or wood resin can have a negative impact on paper machine runnability and product quality. The lipophilic extractives are composed mainly of fatty acids, resin acids, sterols, steryl esters and triglycerides. In this work, the suitability of laccases for the modification of fatty and resin acids was studied, using two model fractions.

Stina Karlsson; Bjarne Holmbom; Peter Spetz; Annikka Mustranta; Johanna Buchert

2001-01-01

49

Detection and Identification of Simple Phenolics in Pistacia lentiscus Resin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Identification and quantification of a series of phenolic compounds in Pistacia lentiscus resin, commonly known as Chios mastic gum, has been achieved based on high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) fractionation of polar extract of the resin prior to dual?column gas chromatography?mass spectrometry (GC?MS) analysis. Polyphenols were extracted from the resin with methanol\\/water and the extract was fractionated by HPLC. Identification

A. C. Kaliora; A. Mylona; A. Chiou; D. G. Petsios; N. K. Andrikopoulos

2005-01-01

50

Scintillating 99Tc Selective Ion Exchange Resins  

SciTech Connect

Scintillating technetium (99Tc) selective ion exchange resins have been developed and evaluated for equilibrium capacities and detection efficiencies. These resins can be utilized for the in-situ concentration and detection of low levels of pertechnetate anions (99TcO4-) in natural waters. Three different polystyrene type resin support materials were impregnated with varying amounts of tricaprylmethylammonium chloride (Aliquat 336) extractant, several different scintillating fluors and wavelength shifters. The prepared resins were contacted batch-wise to equilibrium over a wide range of 99TcO4- concentrations in natural water. The measured capacities were used to develop Langmuir adsorption isotherms for each resin. 99Tc detection efficiencies were determined and up to 71.4 ± 2.6% was achieved with some resins. The results demonstrate that a low level detection limit for 99TcO4- in natural waters can be realized.

Mitchell Greenhalgh; Richard D. Tillotson

2012-07-01

51

Determining resin/fiber content of laminates  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Article discusses procedure where hydrazine is used to extract graphite fibers from cured polyimide resin. Method does not attack graphite fibers and is faster than hot-concentrated-acid digestion process.

Garrard, G. G.; Houston, D. W.

1979-01-01

52

Resin hybrid composite laminates  

SciTech Connect

Hybrid composites are generally referred to as the materials that combine two or more fibers in a suitable binding resin. Resin hybrid composites described in this paper utilize two or more resins with a suitable reinforcement. The resins are rigid resin and flexible resins. The elongation of the rigid resin is less than 2% and elongation of the flexible resins are varied between 25% to 100% by blending a very flexible resin with the rigid resin. Test laminates are fabricated by using either glass, carbon or aramid reinforcement in a layered sequence. This produces rigid-flexible-rigid and flexible-rigid-flexible laminates. These laminates are tested for impact, compression, flexural and inter-laminar strengths. Results show that the resin hybriding provides a wide choice of mechanical properties to the composite industry.

Bhatnagar, A.

1986-01-01

53

Separation and Enrichment of Gallium(III) as 4-(2-Thiazolylazo) Resorcinol (TAR) Complex by Solid Phase Extraction on Amberlite XAD-4 Adsorption Resin  

Microsoft Academic Search

A rapid, sensitive, and facile method for enrichment and separation of trace amounts of gallium was established by using mini column filled Amberlite XAD-4. Gallium(III) as a 4-(2-thiazolylazo) resorcinol (TAR) complex is sorbed on the Amberlite XAD-4 resin and is easily eluted by using 1 M nitric acid in acetone. The determinations of gallium were performed by atomic absorption spectrometry. The

Umit Divrikli; Mustafa Soylak; Latif Elci

2003-01-01

54

Process for preparing phenolic formaldehyde resole resin products derived from fractionated fast-pyrolysis oils  

DOEpatents

A process for preparing phenol-formaldehyde resole resins and adhesive compositions in which portions of the phenol normally contained in said resins are replaced by a phenol/neutral fractions extract obtained from fractionating fast-pyrolysis oils.

Chum, Helena L. (Arvada, CO); Kreibich, Roland E. (Auburn, WA)

1992-01-01

55

Devolatilization of polymer resins  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Commercial silicon resin was devolatilized by vacuum distillation, cured at room temperature and tested favorably for outgassing criteria. Applications of the devolatilized resin are potting compounds and conformal coatings.

Seidenberg, B.; Park, J.; Clatterbuck, C.

1972-01-01

56

Guayule resin detection and influence on guayule rubber  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Guayule (Parthenium argentatum) is a natural rubber (cis-1,4-polyisoprene) producing crop, native to North America. Guayule also produces organic resins, complex mixtures of terpenes, triglycerides, guayulins, triterpenoids and other components. During natural rubber extraction, guayule resins can b...

57

Branched polymeric media: boron-chelating resins from hyperbranched polyethylenimine.  

PubMed

Extraction of boron from aqueous solutions using selective resins is important in a variety of applications including desalination, ultrapure water production, and nuclear power generation. Today's commercial boron-selective resins are exclusively prepared by functionalization of styrene-divinylbenzene (STY-DVB) beads with N-methylglucamine to produce resins with boron-chelating groups. However, such boron-selective resins have a limited binding capacity with a maximum free base content of 0.7 eq/L, which corresponds to a sorption capacity of 1.16 ± 0.03 mMol/g in aqueous solutions with equilibrium boron concentration of ?70 mM. In this article, we describe the synthesis and characterization of a new resin that can selectively extract boron from aqueous solutions. We show that branched polyethylenimine (PEI) beads obtained from an inverse suspension process can be reacted with glucono-1,5-D-lactone to afford a resin consisting of spherical beads with high density of boron-chelating groups. This resin has a sorption capacity of 1.93 ± 0.04 mMol/g in aqueous solution with equilibrium boron concentration of ?70 mM, which is 66% percent larger than that of standard commercial STY-DVB resins. Our new boron-selective resin also shows excellent regeneration efficiency using a standard acid wash with a 1.0 M HCl solution followed by neutralization with a 0.1 M NaOH solution. PMID:22827255

Mishra, Himanshu; Yu, Changjun; Chen, Dennis P; Goddard, William A; Dalleska, Nathan F; Hoffmann, Michael R; Diallo, Mamadou S

2012-08-21

58

Glutathione Resins I. List of Components  

E-print Network

that is applicable for up to 50 g of E. coli cells. Other extraction methods can be used with varying recovery purifications of up to 10 mg of GST-tagged protein per column. · Five Glutathione-Uniflow Columns Each column Clontech · www.clontech.com · 800-662-2566 #12;GlutathioneResinProtocol · Polypropylene tubes · Centrifuge

Lebendiker, Mario

59

Delayed cure bismaleimide resins  

DOEpatents

Prior art polybismaleimides begin to polymerize at or just above the melting point of the monomer. This patent describes new bismaleimide resins which have an increased pot life and provide longer time periods in which the monomer remains fluid. The resins can be polymerized into molded articles with a high uniformity of properties. (DLC)

Not Available

1982-08-12

60

Incombustible resin composition  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Incombustible resin compositions composed of aromatic compounds were obtained through (1) combustion polymer material and (2) bisphenol A or halogenated bisphenol A and bisphenol A diglycidl ether or halogenated bisphenol A diglycidyl ether. The aromatic compound is an adduct of bifunctional phenols and bifunctional epoxy resins.

Akima, T.

1982-01-01

61

Development of resins for composites by resin transfer molding  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Designed to cover a wide range of resin technology and to meet the near-term and long-term needs of the aircraft industry, this research has three objectives: to produce resin transfer molding (RES) resins with improved processability, to produce prepreg systems with high toughness and service temperature, and to produce new resin systems. Progress on reaching the objectives is reported.

Woo, Edmund P.; Puckett, Paul M.; Maynard, Shawn J.

1991-01-01

62

Isolation of organic acids from large volumes of water by adsorption on macroporous resins  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Adsorption on synthetic macroporous resins, such as the Amberlite XAD series and Duolite A-7, is routinely used to isolate and concentrate organic acids from forge volumes of water. Samples as large as 24,500 L have been processed on site by using these resins. Two established extraction schemes using XAD-8 and Duolite A-7 resins are described. The choice of the appropriate resin and extraction scheme is dependent on the organic solutes of interest. The factors that affect resin performance, selectivity, and capacity for a particular solute are solution pH, resin surface area and pore size, and resin composition. The logistical problems of sample handling, filtration, and preservation are also discussed.

Aiken, George R.

1987-01-01

63

Biocompatibility of composite resins  

PubMed Central

Dental materials that are used in dentistry should be harmless to oral tissues, so they should not contain any leachable toxic and diffusible substances that can cause some side effects. Reports about probable biologic hazards, in relation to dental resins, have increased interest to this topic in dentists. The present paper reviews the articles published about biocompatibility of resin-restorative materials specially resin composites and monomers which are mainly based on Bis-GMA and concerns about their degradation and substances which may be segregated into oral cavity. PMID:23372592

Mousavinasab, Sayed Mostafa

2011-01-01

64

Biocidal quaternary ammonium resin  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Activated carbon (charcoal) and polymeric resin sorbents are widely used in the filtration and treatment of drinking water, mainly to remove dissolved organic and inorganic impurities and to improve the taste. Earlier hopes that activated carbon might "disinfect' water proved to be unfounded. The feasibility of protecting against microbial infestation in charcoal and resin beds such as those to be incorporated into total water reuse systems in spacecraft was investigated. The biocidal effect of IPCD (insoluable polymeric contact disinfectants) in combination with a representative charcoal was assessed. The ion exchange resins (IPCD) were shown to adequately protect charcoal and ion exchange beds.

Janauer, G. E.

1983-01-01

65

The use of ultraviolet LED illumination for composite resin removal: an in vitro study.  

PubMed

It may be difficult to recognize composite resin restorations that are correctly shade-matched and well-placed by visual and tactile inspection alone--which can make the replacement of an existing resin restoration challenging. Many composite resins fluoresce under UV light, which can help dentists to detect resin material. This article explores a technique that utilizes a UV LED to cause composite resin to fluoresce. A UV/visible light spectrofluorometer was used to measure fluorescence excitation and emission maxima of 14 composite resin brands. Control samples of dentin and enamel were measured in a similar manner. Subsequently, each brand of composite resin was placed in extracted teeth and relative fluorescence was assessed. The composite resins were then removed and each tooth was inspected using UV light to detect remaining resin. Results from this study indicated that the optimal excitation wavelength was 385-395 nm, while 460 nm was determined to be the mean emission maxima. This study revealed three types of resin: highly fluorescent, moderately fluorescent, and weakly fluorescent. In each instance, the UV light revealed the presence of resin after all resin was believed to have been removed. Based on the results of this study, the use of UV illumination can be a useful technique for determining if composite resin has been removed completely. PMID:20829156

Bush, Mary A; Hermanson, Arnold S; Yetto, Robert J; Wieczkowski, Gerard

2010-01-01

66

[Study of purity tests for silicone resins].  

PubMed

In the 8th edition of Japan's Specifications and Standards for Food Additives, the purity test for silicone resins requires the determination of the refractive index and kinetic viscosity of the extracted silicone oil, and allows for only a limited amount of silicon dioxide. In the purity test, carbon tetrachloride is used to separate the silicone oil and silicon dioxide. To exclude carbon tetrachloride, methods were developed for separating the silicone oil and silicon dioxide from silicone resin, which use hexane and 10% n-dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid in hexane. For silicone oil, the measured refractive index and kinetic viscosity of the silicone oil obtained from the hexane extract were shown to be equivalent to those of the intact silicone oil. In regard to silicon dioxide, it was confirmed that, following the separation with 10% n-dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid in hexane, the level of silicon dioxide in silicone resin can be accurately determined. Therefore, in this study, we developed a method for testing the purity of silicone resins without the use of carbon tetrachloride, which is a harmful reagent. PMID:23243991

Sato, Kyoko; Otsuki, Noriko; Ohori, Akio; Chinda, Mitsuru; Furusho, Noriko; Osako, Tsutomu; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Kawamura, Yoko

2012-01-01

67

Acetylene terminated matrix resins  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The synthesis of resins with terminal acetylene groups has provided a promising technology to yield high performance structural materials. Because these resins cure through an addition reaction, no volatile by-products are produced during the processing. The cured products have high thermal stability and good properties retention after exposure to humidity. Resins with a wide variety of different chemical structures between the terminal acetylene groups are synthesized and their mechanical properties studied. The ability of the acetylene cured polymers to give good mechanical properties is demonstrated by the resins with quinoxaline structures. Processibility of these resins can be manipulated by varying the chain length between the acetylene groups or by blending in different amounts of reactive deluents. Processing conditions similar to the state-of-the-art epoxy can be attained by using backbone structures like ether-sulfone or bis-phenol-A. The wide range of mechanical properties and processing conditions attainable by this class of resins should allow them to be used in a wide variety of applications.

Goldfarb, I. J.; Lee, Y. C.; Arnold, F. E.; Helminiak, T. E.

1985-01-01

68

Quantification and Purification of Mulberry Anthocyanins With Macroporous Resins  

PubMed Central

Total anthocyanins in different cultivars of mulberry were measured and a process for the industrial preparation of mulberry anthocyanins as a natural food colorant was studied. In 31 cultivars of mulberry, the total anthocyanins, calculated as cyanidin 3-glucoside, ranged from 147.68 to 2725.46?mg/L juice. Extracting and purifying with macroporous resins was found to be an efficient potential method for the industrial production of mulberry anthocyanins as a food colorant. Of six resins tested, X-5 demonstrated the best adsorbent capability for mulberry anthocyanins (91?mg/mL resin). The adsorption capacity of resins increased with the surface area and the pore radius. Residual mulberry fruit juice after extraction of pigment retained most of its nutrients, except for anthocyanins, and may provide a substrate for further processing. PMID:15577197

Liu, Xueming

2004-01-01

69

40 CFR 414.50 - Applicability; description of the thermosetting resins subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Polyesters *Furan Resins Glyoxal-Urea Formaldehyde Textile Resin *Ketone-Formaldehyde Resins *Melamine Resins *Phenolic Resins *Polyacetal Resins Polyacrylamide *Polyurethane Prepolymers *Polyurethane Resins...

2010-07-01

70

Chemical and biological investigation of Araucaria heterophylla Salisb. resin.  

PubMed

Three labdane diterpenes, namely lambda-8(17),14-diene, 13-epicupressic acid, and 13-Oacetyl-13-epicupressic acid, were isolated from the resin collected from stem exudates of Araucaria heterophylla Salisb. (Araucariaceae). The isolated compounds were identified using different spectroscopic methods (1H NMR, 13C NMR, HMQC, HMBC and COSY). The resin extract showed antiulcerogenic activity against ethanol-induced stomach ulcers in Sprauge Dawely rats using ranitidine as standard. In addition, the resin and the isolated compounds showed variable cytotoxic activities against breast (MCF7) and colon (HCT116) cancer cell lines. PMID:20158152

Abdel-Sattar, Essam; Monem, Azza R Abdel; Ezzat, Shahira M; El-Halawany, Ali M; Mouneir, Samar M

2009-01-01

71

SCREENING OF E- AND Z-GUGGULSTERONES IN THE GUM-RESIN EXUDATES OF SOME COMMON PLANTS AND METHOD VALIDATION IN RAW, EXTRACTED, AND PHARMACEUTICAL FORMULATIONS OF COMMIPHORA MUKUL BY HPLC  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hypolipidemic agents, E- and Z-guggulsterones, are the biomarker compounds found in the gum-resin exudates of Commiphora mukul. Gum-Resin exudates of six common plants included Mangifera indica, Ficus religiosa, Delonix regia, Acacia nilotica, Abies balsamea, and Commiphora stocksiana and were screened against the said drug by the HPLC method. The developed method was validated for the quantification of E- and Z-guggulsterones

Syed Ghulam Musharraf; Naveed Iqbal; Muhammad Arif Ahmed; Shumiala Mazhar; Muhammad Iqbal Choudhary

2011-01-01

72

Graphite fiber reinforced thermoplastic resins  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mechanical properties of neat resin samples and graphite fiber reinforced samples of thermoplastic resins were characterized with particular emphasis directed to the effects of environmental exposure (humidity, temperature and ultraviolet radiation). Tensile, flexural, interlaminar shear, creep and impact strengths were measured for polysulfone, polyarylsulfone and a state-of-the-art epoxy resin samples. In general, the thermoplastic resins exhibited environmental degradation resistance equal to or superior to the reference epoxy resin. Demonstration of the utility and quality of a graphite/thermoplastic resin system was accomplished by successfully thermoforming a simulated compressor blade and a fan exit guide vane.

Novak, R. C.

1975-01-01

73

High-performance bismaleimide resin for resin film infusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel high-performance resin system, suitable for resin film infusion (RFI) process, has been developed. It was prepared from N,N?-diphenylbismaleimide, o,o?-diallylbisphenol A, and polyethylsulfone. The resin and its composite, reinforced by a glass fiber cloth, were prepared and characterized in detail. The results showed that the prepared resin film is stable at room temperature, the infusion temperature is 120°C, and

Guozheng Liang; Dong Wang

2002-01-01

74

Method for removing contaminants from plastic resin  

DOEpatents

A resin recycling method that produces essentially contaminant-free synthetic resin material in an environmentally safe and economical manner. The method includes receiving the resin in container form. The containers are then ground into resin particles. The particles are exposed to a solvent, the solvent contacting the resin particles and substantially removing contaminants on the resin particles. After separating the particles and the resin, a solvent removing agent is used to remove any residual solvent remaining on the resin particles after separation.

Bohnert, George W. (Harrisonville, MO); Hand, Thomas E. (Lee's Summit, MO); DeLaurentiis, Gary M. (Jamestown, CA)

2008-12-09

75

Glycoprotein Enrichment Resin User Manual  

E-print Network

Glycoprotein Enrichment Resin User Manual Cat. No. 635647 PT4050-1 (PR912675) Published 14 January Laboratories, Inc. Version No. PR912675 ATakara Bio Company 2 Glycoprotein Enrichment Resin User Manual I.................................................................................................4 IV. Glycoprotein Enrichment

Lebendiker, Mario

76

Progress in DUV resins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Starting from general arguments on the relation of polymer structure, transparency at 248 nm, resin hydrophilicity and resist dissolution characteristics, binder systems for novel DUV resists are presented, and the results of their lithographic evaluation are discussed. Phenolic polymers studied include homo- and copolymers of 2-, 3-, and 4- hydroxystyrenes and of their alkyl substituted derivatives for three- component systems, as well as 2- and 4-hydroxyphenylmethacrylates for use in two-component t-BOC-type resists. As an alternative nonphenolic resin, the performance of a maleimide/styrene copolymer in a two- component system is discussed.

Przybilla, Klaus J.; Roeschert, Heinz; Spiess, Walter; Eckes, Charlotte; Chatterjee, Subhankar; Khanna, Dinesh N.; Pawlowski, Georg; Dammel, Ralph R.

1991-06-01

77

Determination of Human-Health Pharmaceuticals in Filtered Water by Chemically Modified Styrene-Divinylbenzene Resin-Based Solid-Phase Extraction and High-Performance Liquid Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 1999, the Methods Research and Development Program of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Laboratory began the process of developing a method designed to identify and quantify human-health pharmaceuticals in four filtered water-sample types: reagent water, ground water, surface water minimally affected by human contributions, and surface water that contains a substantial fraction of treated wastewater. Compounds derived from human pharmaceutical and personal-care product use, which enter the environment through wastewater discharge, are a newly emerging area of concern; this method was intended to fulfill the need for a highly sensitive and highly selective means to identify and quantify 14 commonly used human pharmaceuticals in filtered-water samples. The concentrations of 12 pharmaceuticals are reported without qualification; the concentrations of two pharmaceuticals are reported as estimates because long-term reagent-spike sample recoveries fall below acceptance criteria for reporting concentrations without qualification. The method uses a chemically modified styrene-divinylbenzene resin-based solid-phase extraction (SPE) cartridge for analyte isolation and concentration. For analyte detection and quantitation, an instrumental method was developed that used a high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS) system to separate the pharmaceuticals of interest from each other and coextracted material. Immediately following separation, the pharmaceuticals are ionized by electrospray ionization operated in the positive mode, and the positive ions produced are detected, identified, and quantified using a quadrupole mass spectrometer. In this method, 1-liter water samples are first filtered, either in the field or in the laboratory, using a 0.7-micrometer (um) nominal pore size glass-fiber filter to remove suspended solids. The filtered samples then are passed through cleaned and conditioned SPE cartridges at a rate of about 15 milliliters per minute. Excess water is eliminated from the cartridge sorbent bed by passing air through the cartridges, and the analytes retained on the SPE bed are eluted from the cartridge sequentially, first with methanol, followed by acidified methanol, and combined in collection tubes. This sample extract then is reduced from about 10 milliliters (mL) to about 0.1 mL (or 100 microliters) under a stream of purified nitrogen gas with the collection tubes in a heated (40 degrees C) water bath. The reduced extracts then are fortified with an internal standard solution (when using internal standard quantitation), brought to a final volume of 1 mL with an aqueous ammonium formate buffer solution, and filtered through a 0.2-um Teflon syringe filter as they are transferred into vials for instrumental analysis. Instrumental analysis by the HPLC/MS procedure permits determination of individual pharmaceutical concentrations from 0.005 to 1.0 microgram per liter, based on the lowest and the highest calibration standards routinely used. The reporting levels for this method are compound dependent, and have been experimentally determined based on the precision of quantitation of compounds from eight fortified organic-free water samples in single-operator experiments. The method detection limits and interim reporting levels for the compounds determined by this method were calculated from recoveries of the pharmaceuticals from reagent-water samples amended at 0.05 microgram per liter, and ranged between 0.0069 and 0.0142 microgram per liter, and 0.015 and 0.10 microgram per liter, respectively. Concentrations for 12 compounds are reported without qualification, and for two compounds are reported as qualified estimates. After initial development, the method was applied to more than 1,800 surface-, ground-, and wastewater samples from 2002 to 2005 and documented in a number of published studies. This research application of the method provided the opportunity to collect a l

Furlong, Edward T.; Werner, Stephen L.; Anderson, Bruce D.; Cahill, Jeffery D.

2008-01-01

78

Resin impregnation process for producing a resin-fiber composite  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Process for vacuum impregnation of a dry fiber reinforcement with a curable resin to produce a resin-fiber composite, by drawing a vacuum to permit flow of curable liquid resin into and through a fiber reinforcement to impregnate same and curing the resin-impregnated fiber reinforcement at a sufficient temperature and pressure to effect final curing. Both vacuum and positive pressure, e.g. autoclave pressure, are applied to the dry fiber reinforcement prior to application of heat and prior to any resin flow to compact the dry fiber reinforcement, and produce a resin-fiber composite of reduced weight, thickness and resin content, and improved mechanical properties. Preferably both a vacuum and positive pressure, e.g. autoclave pressure, are also applied during final curing.

Palmer, Raymond J. (Inventor); Moore, William E. (Inventor)

1994-01-01

79

Nontoxic Resins Advance Aerospace Manufacturing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The 2008 NASA Commercial Invention of the Year, PETI-330, is a polyimide matrix resin that performs well at high temperatures and is easily processed into composites in a simple, short curing cycle. Invented by scientists at Langley Research Center, PETI-330 is now licensed to Ube Industries, based in Japan with its American headquarters in New York. In addition to being durable and lightweight, the resin is also nontoxic, which makes it safe for workers to handle. PETI-330 was created specifically for heat-resistant composites formed with resin transfer molding and resin infusion, which formerly could only be used with low temperature resin systems.

2009-01-01

80

Bond strengths and remnant adhesive resin on debonding for orthodontic bonding techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bond strengths and remnant adhesive resin on the tooth surface after debonding for three bonding techniques used to attach foil mesh orthodontic brackets to 315 freshly extracted bovine incisor teeth were compared in an in vitro study. Each method of bonding used 105 teeth in groups of 15, bonded with seven different (bis-GMA type) two-paste chemically cured resins. The direct

Pramod K. Sinha; Ram S. Nanda; Manville G. Duncanson; Michael J. Hosier

1995-01-01

81

21 CFR 175.380 - Xylene-formaldehyde resins condensed with 4,4?-isopropylidenediphenol-epichlorohydrin epoxy resins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...4â²-isopropylidenediphenol-epichlorohydrin epoxy resins. 175.380 Section...4?-isopropylidenediphenol-epichlorohydrin epoxy resins. The resins identified...4?-isopropylidenediphenol-epichlorohydrin epoxy resins, to which...

2012-04-01

82

21 CFR 175.380 - Xylene-formaldehyde resins condensed with 4,4?-isopropylidenediphenol-epichlorohydrin epoxy resins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...4â²-isopropylidenediphenol-epichlorohydrin epoxy resins. 175.380 Section...4?-isopropylidenediphenol-epichlorohydrin epoxy resins. The resins identified...4?-isopropylidenediphenol-epichlorohydrin epoxy resins, to which...

2010-04-01

83

21 CFR 175.380 - Xylene-formaldehyde resins condensed with 4,4?-isopropylidenediphenol-epichlorohydrin epoxy resins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...4â²-isopropylidenediphenol-epichlorohydrin epoxy resins. 175.380 Section...4?-isopropylidenediphenol-epichlorohydrin epoxy resins. The resins identified...4?-isopropylidenediphenol-epichlorohydrin epoxy resins, to which...

2014-04-01

84

21 CFR 175.380 - Xylene-formaldehyde resins condensed with 4,4?-isopropylidenediphenol-epichlorohydrin epoxy resins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...4â²-isopropylidenediphenol-epichlorohydrin epoxy resins. 175.380 Section...4?-isopropylidenediphenol-epichlorohydrin epoxy resins. The resins identified...4?-isopropylidenediphenol-epichlorohydrin epoxy resins, to which...

2011-04-01

85

21 CFR 175.380 - Xylene-formaldehyde resins condensed with 4,4?-isopropylidenediphenol-epichlorohydrin epoxy resins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...4â²-isopropylidenediphenol-epichlorohydrin epoxy resins. 175.380 Section...4?-isopropylidenediphenol-epichlorohydrin epoxy resins. The resins identified...4?-isopropylidenediphenol-epichlorohydrin epoxy resins, to which...

2013-04-01

86

Flame Retardant Epoxy Resins  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As part of a program to develop fire resistant exterior composite structures for future subsonic commercial aircraft, flame retardant epoxy resins are under investigation. Epoxies and their curing agents (aromatic diamines) containing phosphorus were synthesized and used to prepare epoxy formulations. Phosphorus was incorporated within the backbone of the epoxy resin and not used as an additive. The resulting cured epoxies were characterized by thermogravimetric analysis, propane torch test, elemental analysis and microscale combustion calorimetry. Several formulations showed excellent flame retardation with phosphorous contents as low as 1.5% by weight. The fracture toughness of plaques of several cured formulations was determined on single-edge notched bend specimens. The chemistry and properties of these new epoxy formulations are discussed.

Thompson, C. M.; Smith, J. G., Jr.; Connell, J. W.; Hergenrother, P. M.; Lyon, R. E.

2004-01-01

87

Biological Ion Exchanger Resins  

PubMed Central

Utilizing Escherichia coli as the prototype of an ion-accumulating cell, the ion exchange isotherm is introduced as a concise method of characterizing biological ion exchange events. The ion exchange isotherm for the alkali cation exchange, K ? Na, is described. The total charge profile of this bacterium is compiled and compared for bacteria in the Na form and in the K form. Macromolecule fixed charge was found to provide 80% of the counter ions that pair with potassium. Therefore, in its physiological state, 80% of the cell potassium in E. coli is associated with an ion exchange site on a macromolecule. The primary cation exchange sites are found to be about equally divided between carboxylate and phosphate sites indicating that E. coli is a bifunctional resin with respect to cation exchange. During substrate-dependent cation accumulation (“active transport”), phosphate esters and organic acids were shown to accumulate. One may conclude that the role of intermediate metabolism in “active transport” is to increase the ion exchange capacity of the biological resin by the production of charged metabolites that sorb to the framework of the resin. PMID:4943652

Damadian, Raymond

1971-01-01

88

System for removing contaminants from plastic resin  

DOEpatents

A resin recycling system that produces essentially contaminant-free synthetic resin material in an environmentally safe and economical manner. The system includes receiving the resin in container form. A grinder grinds the containers into resin particles. The particles are exposed to a solvent in one or more solvent wash vessels, the solvent contacting the resin particles and substantially removing contaminants on the resin particles. A separator is used to separate the resin particles and the solvent. The resin particles are then placed in solvent removing element where they are exposed to a solvent removing agent which removes any residual solvent remaining on the resin particles after separation.

Bohnert, George W. (Harrisonville, MO); Hand, Thomas E. (Lee's Summit, MO); DeLaurentiis, Gary M. (Jamestown, CA)

2010-11-23

89

Advanced thermoplastic resins, phase 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Eight thermoplastic polyimide resin systems were evaluated as composite matrix materials. Two resins were selected for more extensive mechanical testing and both were versions of LaRC-TPI (Langley Research Center - Thermoplastic Polyimide). One resin was made with LaRC-TPI and contained 2 weight percent of a di(amic acid) dopant as a melt flow aid. The second system was a 1:1 slurry of semicrystalline LaRC-TPI powder in a polyimidesulfone resin diglyme solution. The LaRC-TPI powder melts during processing and increases the melt flow of the resin. Testing included dynamic mechanical analysis, tension and compression testing, and compression-after-impact testing. The test results demonstrated that the LaRC-TPI resins have very good properties compared to other thermoplastics, and that they are promising matrix materials for advanced composite structures.

Hendricks, C. L.; Hill, S. G.; Falcone, A.; Gerken, N. T.

1991-01-01

90

Vitrification of ion exchange resins  

DOEpatents

The present invention relates to vitrification of ion exchange resins that have become loaded with hazardous or radioactive wastes, in a way that produces a homogenous and durable waste form and reduces the disposal volume of the resin. The methods of the present invention involve directly adding borosilicate glass formers and an oxidizer to the ion exchange resin and heating the mixture at sufficient temperature to produce homogeneous glass.

Cicero-Herman, Connie A. (Aiken, SC); Workman, Rhonda Jackson (North Augusta, SC)

2001-01-01

91

Retrofit for Plastic Resin Driers  

E-print Network

RETROFIT FOR PLASTIC RESIN DRIERS BABU JOSEPH PH.D. Supervising Engineer Southern California Edison Company, Irwindale, California GEORGE THURO Thuro, & Associates, Costa Mesa, California Plastic resins used in injection molding have... temperature units, and vary depending on the resin, the mold and the molding process. Typically the drier is set for the worst possible conditions. So there are opportunities for energy savings. This study conducted by Southern California Edison Company...

Joseph, B.; Thuro, G.

92

Evaluating resin-enamel bonds by microshear and microtensile bond strength tests: effects of composite resin  

PubMed Central

Objectives The aims of this study were to evaluate the effect of resin composite (Filtek Z250 and Filtek Flow Z350) and adhesive system [(Solobond Plus, Futurabond NR (VOCO) and Adper Single Bond (3M ESPE)] on the microtensile (µTBS) and microshear bond strength (µSBS) tests on enamel, and to correlate the bond strength means between them. Material and methods Thirty-six extracted human molars were sectioned to obtain two tooth halves: one for µTBS and the other one for µSBS. Adhesive systems and resin composites were applied to the enamel ground surfaces and light-cured. After storage (37ºC/24 h) specimens were stressed (0.5 mm/ min). Fracture modes were analyzed under scanning electron microscopy. The data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (?=0.05). Results The correlation between tests was estimated with Pearson's product-moment correlation statistics (? =0.05). For both tests only the main factor resin composite was statistically significant (p<0.05). The correlation test detected a positive (r=0.91) and significant (p=0.01) correlation between the tests. Conclusions The results were more influenced by the resin type than by the adhesives. Both microbond tests seem to be positive and linearly correlated and can therefore lead to similar conclusions. PMID:21308290

de ANDRADE, Andrea Mello; MOURA, Sandra Kiss; REIS, Alessandra; LOGUERCIO, Alessandro Dourado; GARCIA, Eugenio Jose; GRANDE, Rosa Helena Miranda

2010-01-01

93

21 CFR 177.2260 - Filters, resin-bonded.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...total extractives not to exceed 4 percent by weight of the filter. (2) Conditions of use. It is used to filter milk, coffee, tea, and potable water at temperatures not to exceed 212 °F. (i) Resin-bonded filters conforming with the...

2011-04-01

94

21 CFR 177.2260 - Filters, resin-bonded.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...total extractives not to exceed 4 percent by weight of the filter. (2) Conditions of use. It is used to filter milk, coffee, tea, and potable water at temperatures not to exceed 212 °F. (i) Resin-bonded filters conforming with the...

2010-04-01

95

Phosphorus-containing bisimide resins  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The production of fire-resistant resins particularly useful for making laminates with inorganic fibers such as graphite fibers is discussed. The resins are by (1) condensation of an ethylenically unsaturated cyclic anhydride with a bis(diaminophenyl) phosphine oxide, and (2) by addition polymerization of the bisimide so obtained. Up to about 50%, on a molar basis, of benzophenonetetracarboxylic acid anhydride can be substituted for some of the cyclic anhydride to alter the properties of the products. Graphite cloth laminates made with these resins show 800 C char yields greater than 70% by weight in nitrogen. Limiting oxygen indexes of more than 100% are determined for these resins.

Varma, I. K.; Fohlen, G. M.; Parker, J. A. (inventors)

1981-01-01

96

Indirect resin composites  

PubMed Central

Aesthetic dentistry continues to evolve through innovations in bonding agents, restorative materials, and conservative preparation techniques. The use of direct composite restoration in posterior teeth is limited to relatively small cavities due to polymerization stresses. Indirect composites offer an esthetic alternative to ceramics for posterior teeth. This review article focuses on the material aspect of the newer generation of composites. This review was based on a PubMed database search which we limited to peer-reviewed articles in English that were published between 1990 and 2010 in dental journals. The key words used were ‘indirect resin composites,’ composite inlays,’ and ‘fiber-reinforced composites.’ PMID:21217945

Nandini, Suresh

2010-01-01

97

Imide modified epoxy matrix resins  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

High char yield epoxy using novel bisimide amines (BIA's) as curing agents with a state of the art epoxy resin was developed. Stoichiometric quantities of the epoxy resin and the BIA's were studied to determine the cure cycle required for preparation of resin specimens. The bisimide cured epoxies were designated IME's (imide modified epoxy). The physical, thermal and mechanical properties of these novel resins were determined. The levels of moisture absorption exhibited by the bisimide amine cured expoxies (IME's) were considerably lower than the state of the art epoxies. The strain-to-failure of the control resin system was improved 25% by replacement of DDS with 6F-DDS. Each BIA containing resin exhibited twice the char yield of the control resin MY 720/DDS. Graphite fiber reinforced control (C) and IME resins were fabricated and characterized. Two of the composite systems showed superior properties compared to the other Celion 6000/IME composite systems and state of the art graphite epoxy systems. The two systems exhibited excellent wet shear and flexural strengths and moduli at 300 and 350 F.

Scola, D. A.; Pater, R. H.

1981-01-01

98

Immediate cantilevered resin-bonded bridgework: a case report.  

PubMed

Resin-bonded bridgework (RBB) is now an accepted alternative to conventional bridgework in specific cases. This article reviews the immediate replacement of two anterior teeth with the resin-bonded technique and describes the use of immediate cantilevered RBB in the aesthetic treatment of a patient with class II division II malocclusion on a moderate skeletal II base. Both maxillary lateral incisors were extracted and immediately replaced with cantilevered RBB. This simple and conservative approach produced an instant solution to a difficult aesthetic problem of proclined lateral incisors. The reported RBB continues to function successfully after 15 months. PMID:10860053

al-Wahadni, A M; Hussey, D L

1999-09-01

99

Cobalt dicarbollide containing polymer resins for cesium and strontium uptake  

SciTech Connect

Cobalt(III) dicarbollide [(C{sub 2}B{sub 9}H{sub 11}){sub 2}Co]{sup {minus}} (CB{sub 2}) is being investigated for Cs and Sr extraction from nuclear waste. Because organic solvents should be avoided, bonding of CB{sub 2} to resins were investigated. CB{sub 2} was successfully covalently bonded to polystyrene and polybenzimidazole resins. Tetrahydrofuran was the most efficient solvent for grafting. Analysis is being performed, and separation coefficients are also being determined. 3 figs, 8 refs.

Steckle, W.P. Jr.; Duke, J.R. Jr.; Jorgensen, B.S.

1994-04-01

100

Resin–dentin bonds to EDTA-treated vs. acid-etched dentin using ethanol wet-bonding  

PubMed Central

Objective To compare resin–dentin bond strengths and the micropermeability of hydrophobic vs. hydrophilic resins bonded to acid-etched or EDTA-treated dentin, using the ethanol wet-bonding technique. Methods Flat dentin surfaces from extracted human third molars were conditioned before bonding with: 37% H3PO4 (15 s) or 0.1 M EDTA (60 s). Five experimental resin blends of different hydrophilicities and one commercial adhesive (SBMP: Scotchbond Multi-Purpose) were applied to ethanol wet-dentin (1 min) and light-cured (20 s). The solvated resins were used as primers (50% ethanol/50% comonomers) and their respective neat resins were used as the adhesive. The resin-bonded teeth were stored in distilled water (24 h) and sectioned in beams for microtensile bond strength testing. Modes of failure were examined by stereoscopic light microscopy and SEM. Confocal tandem scanning microscopy (TSM) interfacial characterization and micropermeability were also performed after filling the pulp chamber with 1 wt% aqueous rhodamine-B. Results The most hydrophobic resin 1 gave the lowest bond strength values to acid-etched dentin and all beams failed prematurely when the resin was applied to EDTA-treated dentin. Resins 2 and 3 gave intermediate bond strengths to both conditioned substrates. Resin 4, an acidic hydrophilic resin, gave the highest bond strengths to both EDTA-treated and acid-etched dentin. Resin 5 was the only hydrophilic resin showing poor resin infiltration when applied on acid-etched dentin. Significance The ethanol wet-bonding technique may improve the infiltration of most of the adhesives used in this study into dentin, especially when applied to EDTA-treated dentin. The chemical composition of the resin blends was a determining factor influencing the ability of adhesives to bond to EDTA-treated or 37% H3PO4 acid-etched dentin, when using the ethanol wet-bonding technique in a clinically relevant time period. PMID:20074787

Sauro, Salvatore; Toledano, Manuel; Aguilera, Fatima Sánchez; Mannocci, Francesco; Pashley, David H.; Tay, Franklin R.; Watson, Timothy F.; Osorio, Raquel

2013-01-01

101

Resin composite repair: Quantitative microleakage evaluation of resin-resin and resin-tooth interfaces with different surface treatments  

PubMed Central

Objective: The aim was to evaluate the effect of different adhesive systems and surface treatments on the integrity of resin-resin and resin-tooth interfaces after partial removal of preexisting resin composites using quantitative image analysis for microleakage testing protocol. Materials and Methods: A total of 80 human molar teeth were restored with either of the resin composites (Filtek Z250/GrandioSO) occlusally. The teeth were thermocycled (1000×). Mesial and distal 1/3 parts of the restorations were removed out leaving only middle part. One side of the cavity was finished with course diamond bur and the other was air-abraded with 50 ?m Al2O3. They were randomly divided into four groups (n = 10) to receive: Group 1: Adper Single Bond 2; Group 2: All Bond 3; Group 3: ClearfilSE; Group 4: BeautiBond, before being repaired with the same resin composite (Filtek Z250). The specimens were re-thermocycled (1000×), sealed with nail varnish, stained with 0.5% basic fuchsin, sectioned mesiodistally and photographed digitally. The extent of dye penetration was measured by image analysis software (ImageJ) for both bur-finished and air-abraded surfaces at resin-tooth and resin-resin interfaces. The data were analyzed statistically. Results: BeautiBond exhibited the most microleakage at every site. Irrespective of adhesive and initial composite type, air-abrasion showed less microleakage except for BeautiBond. The type of initial repaired restorative material did not affect the microleakage. BeautiBond adhesive may not be preferred in resin composite repair in terms of microleakage prevention. Conclusions: Surface treatment with air-abrasion produced the lowest microleakage scores, independent of the adhesive systems and the pre-existing resin composite type. Pre-existing composite type does not affect the microleakage issue. All-in-one adhesive resin (BeautiBond) may not be preferred in resin composite repair in terms of microleakage prevention. PMID:25713491

Celik, Cigdem; Cehreli, Sevi Burcak; Arhun, Neslihan

2015-01-01

102

K Basin sludge/resin bead separation test report  

SciTech Connect

The K Basin sludge is an accumulation of fuel element corrosion products, organic and inorganic ion exchange materials, canister gasket materials, iron and aluminum corrosion products, sand, dirt and minor amounts of other organic material. The sludge will be collected and treated for storage and eventual disposal. This process will remove the large solid materials by a 1/4 inch screen. The screened material will be subjected to nitric acid in a chemical treatment process. The organic ion exchange resin beads produce undesirable chemical reactions with the nitric acid. The resin beads must be removed from the bulk material and treated by another process. An effective bead separation method must extract 95% of the resin bead mass without entraining more than 5% of the other sludge component mass. The test plan I-INF-2729, ``Organic Ion Exchange Resin Separation Methods Evaluation,`` proposed the evaluation of air lift, hydro cyclone, agitated slurry and elutriation resin bead separation methods. This follows the testing strategy outlined in section 4.1 of BNF-2574, ``Testing Strategy to Support the Development of K Basins Sludge Treatment Process``. Engineering study BNF-3128, ``Separation of Organic Ion Exchange Resins from Sludge,`` Rev. 0, focused the evaluation tests on a method that removed the fine sludge particles by a sieve and then extracted the beads by means of a elutriation column. Ninety-nine percent of the resin beads are larger than 125 microns and 98.5 percent are 300 microns and larger. Particles smaller than 125 microns make up the largest portion of sludge in the K Basins. Eliminating a large part of the sludge`s non-bead component will reduce the quantity that is lifted with the resin beads in the elutriation column. Resin bead particle size distribution measurements are given in Appendix A The Engineering Testing Laboratory conducted measurements of a elutriation column`s ability to extract resin beads from a sieved, non-radioactive sludge simulant. A elutriation column uses a constant velocity upward flow stream to segregate materials. In simplistic terms, the dense particles fall to the column`s bottom while the flow lifts less dense particles to the column`s top. A particle can be streamlined or have a high drag profile; this factor also influences the lift or fall of a particle exposed to the column flow. The sludge components that lift or fall are determined by the fluid velocity. The column flow velocity needed to lift the bulk of the resin beads will also lift other, non-bead, sludge components. Resin bead treatment and disposal are complicated by large quantities of non-bead material. Tests are necessary to determine a column flow velocity that will collect the bulk of the resin beads and the amount of non-bead sludge components that are also collected.

Squier, D.M.

1998-08-25

103

Synthesis and application of a new functionalized resin for use in an on-line, solid phase extraction system for the determination of trace elements in waters and reference cereal materials by flame atomic absorption spectrometry.  

PubMed

The synthesis and characterization of the resin Amberlite XAD-4 functionalized with 2,6-pyridinedicarboxaldehyde and its application in an on-line system for the preconcentration of cadmium, cobalt, copper, lead and manganese prior to determination using flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) is proposed. Metal ions retained on the modified resin were eluted using 1.0 mol L(-1) HNO3 solution and aspirated directly to the nebulizer-burner system of a FAAS instrument using a flow injection system. Detection limits (3?) were determined to be 0.13 ?g L(-1) for Cd, 0.29 ?g L(-1) for Cu, 0.23 ?g L(-1) for Mn, 0.58 ?g L(-1) for Co and 2.19 ?g L(-1) for Pb using a 10 mL of water sample loading volume. The limits of detection would be 100 times higher with units of ?g kg(-1) for the solid samples in which their dilution ratios as (volume/weight) were 100. Enrichment factors ranged from 23.6 to 28.9 (for Co and Mn, respectively). The proposed method was successfully applied to determination of the analytes in natural water samples and certified reference materials. PMID:23790831

Karada?, Cennet; Turhan, Onur; Kara, Derya

2013-11-15

104

Chromatography resin support  

DOEpatents

An apparatus and method of using an improved chromatography resin support is disclosed. The chromatography support platform is provided by a stainless steel hollow cylinder adapted for being inserted into a chromatography column. An exterior wall of the stainless steel cylinder defines a groove for carrying therein an "O"-ring. The upper surface of the stainless steel column is covered by a fine stainless steel mesh welded to the edges of the stainless steel cylinder. When placed upon a receiving ledge defined within a chromatography column, the "O"-ring provides a fluid tight seal with the inner edge wall of the chromatography cylinder. The stainless steel mesh supports the chromatography matrix and provides a back flushable support which is economical and simple to construct.

Dobos, James G. (North Augusta, SC)

2002-01-01

105

Reduction of polyester resin shrinkage by means of epoxy resin—I. Epoxy resin modified with acids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An attempt was made to decrease the shrinkage of unsaturated polyester resin, taking place during radiation-induced curing, by the addition of epoxy resin. In order to combine chemically both resins, the epoxy component was modified with cinnamic and acrylic acids. A composition of 90 parts of polyesster resin, 10 parts of epoxy resin modified with cinnamic acid, and 150 parts of a silica filler showed a volume shrinkage of 1.2%.

Pietrzak, M.; Brzostowski, A.

106

Grafted methylenediphosphonate ion exchange resins  

DOEpatents

An ion exchange resin is disclosed that is comprised of an insoluble copolymer onto which are grafted pendent groups that provide 1.0 to about 10 mmol/g dry weight phosphorous. The pendent groups have the formula ##STR1## wherein R is hydrogen, a cation or mixtures thereof; and R.sup.1 is hydrogen or an C.sub.1 -C.sub.2 alkyl group. The resin also contains zero to about 5 mmol/g dry weight of pendent aromatic sulfonate groups. Processes for making and using an ion exchange-resin are also disclosed.

Trochimcznk, Andrzej W. (Knoxville, TN); Gatrone, Ralph C. (Plymouth, PA); Alexandratos, Spiro (Knoxville, TN); Horwitz, E. Philip (Naperville, IL)

1998-01-27

107

Grafted methylenediphosphonate ion exchange resins  

DOEpatents

An ion exchange resin is disclosed that is comprised of an insoluble copolymer onto which are grafted pendent groups that provide 1.0 to about 10 mmol/g dry weight phosphorus. The pendent groups have the formula as shown in the patent wherein R is hydrogen, a cation or mixtures thereof; and R{sup 1} is hydrogen or an C{sub 1}-C{sub 2} alkyl group. The resin also contains zero to about 5 mmol/g dry weight of pendent aromatic sulfonate groups. Processes for making and using an ion exchange resin are also disclosed.

Trochimcznk, A.W.; Gatrone, R.C.; Alexandratos, S.; Horwitz, E.P.

1997-04-08

108

Grafted methylenediphosphonate ion exchange resins  

DOEpatents

An ion exchange resin is disclosed that is comprised of an insoluble copolymer onto which are grafted pendent groups that provide 1.0 to about 10 mmol/g dry weight phosphorous. The pendent groups have the formula ##STR1## wherein R is hydrogen, a cation or mixtures thereof; and R.sup.1 is hydrogen or an C.sub.1 -C.sub.2 alkyl group. The resin also contains zero to about 5 mmol/g dry weight of pendent aromatic sulfonate groups. Processes for making and using an ion exchange resin are also disclosed.

Trochimcznk, Andrzej W. (Knoxbille, TN); Gatrone, Ralph C. (Plymouth, PA); Alexandratos, Spiro (Knoxville, TN); Horwitz, E. Philip (Naperville, IL)

1997-01-01

109

Flammability screening tests of resins  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Selected flammability characteristics of glass cloth laminates of thermosetting resins are evaluated. A protocol for the evaluation of the flammability hazards presented by glass cloth laminates of thermosetting resins and the usefulness of that protocol with two laminates are presented. The glass laminates of an epoxy resin, M-751 are evaluated for: (1) determination of smoke generation from the laminates; (2) analysis of products of oxidative degradation of the laminates; (3) determination of minimum oxygen necessary to maintain flaming oxidation; (4) evaluation of toxicological hazards.

Arhart, R. W.; Farrar, D. G.; Hughes, B. M.

1979-01-01

110

Resin/graphite fiber composites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

High temperature resin matrices suitable for use in advanced graphite fiber composites for jet engine applications were evaluated. A series of planned, sequential screening experiments with resin systems in composite form were performed to reduce the number of candidates to a single A-type polyimide resin that repetitively produced void-free, high strength and modulus composites acceptable for use in the 550 F range for 1000 hours. An optimized processing procedure was established for this system. Extensive mechanical property studies characterized this single system, at room temperature, 500 F, 550 F and 600 F, for various exposure times.

Cavano, P. J.; Jones, R. J.; Vaughan, R. W.

1972-01-01

111

Resole resin products derived from fractionated organic and aqueous condensates made by fast-pyrolysis of biomass materials  

DOEpatents

A process for preparing phenol-formaldehyde resole resins by fractionating organic and aqueous condensates made by fast-pyrolysis of biomass materials while using a carrier gas to move feed into a reactor to produce phenolic-containing/neutrals in which portions of the phenol normally contained in said resins are replaced by a phenolic/neutral fractions extract obtained by fractionation.

Chum, H.L.; Black, S.K.; Diebold, J.P.; Kreibich, R.E.

1993-08-10

112

Resole resin products derived from fractionated organic and aqueous condensates made by fast-pyrolysis of biomass materials  

DOEpatents

A process for preparing phenol-formaldehyde resole resins by fractionating organic and aqueous condensates made by fast-pyrolysis of biomass materials while using a carrier gas to move feed into a reactor to produce phenolic-containing/neutrals in which portions of the phenol normally contained in said resins are replaced by a phenolic/neutral fractions extract obtained by fractionation.

Chum, Helena L. (8448 Allison Ct., Arvada, CO 80005); Black, Stuart K. (4976 Raleigh St., Denver, CO 80212); Diebold, James P. (57 N. Yank Way, Lakewood, CO 80228); Kreibich, Roland E. (4201 S. 344th, Auburn, WA 98001)

1993-01-01

113

Comparison of four DNA extraction methods for forensic application  

Microsoft Academic Search

Challenging biological samples found in crime scenes are often brought to our lab. Several factors, such as degradation and the presence of inhibitors, can difficult the analysis of these samples. Chelating resin, silica membranes, silica-coated magnetic beads and paramagnetic resin were DNA extraction techniques used in this study. Our aim was to find out the DNA extraction method more suitable

V. Bogas; F. Balsa; M. Carvalho; M. J. Anjos; M. F. Pinheiro; F. Corte-Real

114

Epoxy hydantoins as matrix resins  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Tensile strength and fracture toughness of castings of the hydantoin resins cured with methylenedianiline are significantly higher than MY 720 control castings. Water absorption of an ethyl, amyl hydantoin formulation is 2.1 percent at equilibrium and Tg's are about 160 C, approximately 15 deg below the final cure temperature. Two series of urethane and ester-extended hydantoin epoxy resins were synthesized to determine the effect of crosslink density and functional groups on properties. Castings cured with methylenedianiline or with hexahydrophthalic anhydride were made from these compounds and evaluated. The glass transition temperatures, tensile strengths and moduli, and fracture toughness values were all much lower than that of the simple hydantoin epoxy resins. Using a methylene bishydantoin epoxy with a more rigid structure gave brittle, low-energy fractures, while a more flexible, ethoxy-extended hydantoin epoxy resin gave a very low Tg.

Weiss, J.

1983-01-01

115

Liquid chromatographic extraction medium  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus are disclosed for extracting strontium and technetium values from biological, industrial and environmental sample solutions using a chromatographic column. An extractant medium for the column is prepared by generating a solution of a diluent containing a Crown ether and dispersing the solution on a resin substrate material. The sample solution is highly acidic and is introduced directed to the chromatographic column and strontium or technetium is eluted using deionized water. 1 fig.

Horwitz, E.P.; Dietz, M.L.

1994-09-13

116

Liquid chromatographic extraction medium  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus for extracting strontium and technetium values from biological, industrial and environmental sample solutions using a chromatographic column is described. An extractant medium for the column is prepared by generating a solution of a diluent containing a Crown ether and dispersing the solution on a resin substrate material. The sample solution is highly acidic and is introduced directed to the chromatographic column and strontium or technetium is eluted using deionized water.

Horwitz, E. Philip (Naperville, IL); Dietz, Mark L. (Evanston, IL)

1994-01-01

117

Liquid monobenzoxazine based resin system  

DOEpatents

The present invention provides a liquid resin system including a liquid monobenzoxazine monomer and a non-glycidyl epoxy compound, wherein the weight ratio of the monobenzoxazine monomer to the non-glycidyl epoxy compound is in a range of about 25:75 to about 60:40. The liquid resin system exhibits a low viscosity and exceptional stability over an extended period of time making its use in a variety of composite manufacturing methods highly advantageous.

Tietze, Roger; Nguyen, Yen-Loan; Bryant, Mark

2014-10-07

118

40 CFR 414.50 - Applicability; description of the thermosetting resins subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Product groups are indicated with an asterisk (*). *Alkyd Resins Dicyanodiamide Resin *Epoxy Resins *Fumaric Acid Polyesters *Furan Resins Glyoxal-Urea Formaldehyde Textile Resin *Ketone-Formaldehyde Resins *Melamine Resins...

2014-07-01

119

40 CFR 414.50 - Applicability; description of the thermosetting resins subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Product groups are indicated with an asterisk (*). *Alkyd Resins Dicyanodiamide Resin *Epoxy Resins *Fumaric Acid Polyesters *Furan Resins Glyoxal-Urea Formaldehyde Textile Resin *Ketone-Formaldehyde Resins *Melamine Resins...

2013-07-01

120

Treatment of a Vertical Root Fracture Using Dual-Curing Resin Cement: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Introduction. Vertical root fracture (VRF) is one of the most frustrating complications of root canal treatment. The prognosis of the root with VRF is poor therefore tooth extraction and root amputation are usually the only treatment options. However, bonding of the fracture line with adhesive resin cement during the intentional replantation procedure was recently suggested as an alternative to tooth extraction. Methods. A vertically fractured left maxillary incisor was carefully extracted, fracture line was treated with adhesive resin cement, a retrograde cavity was produced and filled with calcium-enriched mixture (CEM) cement, and tooth was replanted. Results. After 12 months the tooth was asymptomatic. The size of periapical radiolucency was noticeably reduced and there was no clinical sign of ankylosis. Conclusion. Using adhesive resin cement to bond the fracture lines extraorally in roots with VRF and intentional replantation of the reconstructed teeth could be considered as an alternative to tooth extraction, especially for anterior teeth. PMID:23316397

Moradi Majd, Nima; Akhtari, Farshid; Araghi, Solmaz; Homayouni, Hamed

2012-01-01

121

Treatment of a vertical root fracture using dual-curing resin cement: a case report.  

PubMed

Introduction. Vertical root fracture (VRF) is one of the most frustrating complications of root canal treatment. The prognosis of the root with VRF is poor therefore tooth extraction and root amputation are usually the only treatment options. However, bonding of the fracture line with adhesive resin cement during the intentional replantation procedure was recently suggested as an alternative to tooth extraction. Methods. A vertically fractured left maxillary incisor was carefully extracted, fracture line was treated with adhesive resin cement, a retrograde cavity was produced and filled with calcium-enriched mixture (CEM) cement, and tooth was replanted. Results. After 12 months the tooth was asymptomatic. The size of periapical radiolucency was noticeably reduced and there was no clinical sign of ankylosis. Conclusion. Using adhesive resin cement to bond the fracture lines extraorally in roots with VRF and intentional replantation of the reconstructed teeth could be considered as an alternative to tooth extraction, especially for anterior teeth. PMID:23316397

Moradi Majd, Nima; Akhtari, Farshid; Araghi, Solmaz; Homayouni, Hamed

2012-01-01

122

Surface coating and leakage of dentin-bonded resin composite restorations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To compare the marginal leakage of dentin-bonded resin composite restorations in tooth sections coated with nail varnish and similarly restored sections coated with cyanoacrylate cement.Methods: MO and DO cavities were prepared with the gingival floor below the CEJ in 11 non-carious extracted human molars. Each cavity was restored with a dentin adhesive and resin composite. Sectioning yielded four specimens

Sandra Guzmán-Armstrong; Richard J Mitchell

2002-01-01

123

Repeated use of ion-exchange resin membranes in calcareous soils  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This study compared the consistency of nutrient extraction among repeated cycles of ion-exchange resin membrane use. Two sandy calcareous soils and different equilibration temperatures were tested. No single nutrient retained consistent values from cycle to cycle in all treatments, although both soil source and temperature conferred some influence. It was concluded that the most conservative use of resin membranes is single-use.

Sherrod, S.K.; Belnap, J.; Miller, M.E.

2003-01-01

124

Influence of fiber extraction and surface modification on mechanical properties of green composites with bamboo fiber  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environment-friendly fiber reinforced composites were fabricated using bamboo fibers and vinylester resin by the vacuum assisted resin transfer molding technique. Prior to green composites fabrication, bamboo fiber bundles were extracted by three methods, namely steam explosion, alkali extraction, and chemical extraction. Bamboo fiber bundles were characterized for their interfacial shear strength (IFSS) and tensile properties using the Weibull distribution. The

Hyojin Kim; Kazuya Okubo; Toru Fujii; Kenichi Takemura

2012-01-01

125

Low Melt Viscosity Resins for Resin Transfer Molding  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In recent years, resin transfer molding (RTM) has become one of the methods of choice for high performance composites. Its cost effectiveness and ease of fabrication are major advantages of RTM. RTM process usually requires resins with very low melt viscosity (less than 10 Poise). The optimum RTM resins also need to display high thennal-oxidative stability, high glass transition temperature (T(sub g)), and good toughness. The traditional PMR-type polyimides (e.g. PMR-15) do not fit this requirement, because the viscosities are too high and the nadic endcap cures too fast. High T(sub g), low-melt viscosity resins are highly desirable for aerospace applications and NASA s Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) program. The objective of this work is to prepare low-melt viscosity polyimide resins for RTM or resin film infusion (RFI) processes. The approach involves the synthesis of phenylethynyl-terminated imide oligomers. These materials have been designed to minimize their melt viscosity so that they can be readily processed. During the cure, the oligomers undergo both chain extension and crosslinking via the thermal polymerization of the phenylethynyl groups. The Phenylethynyl endcap is preferred over the nadic group due to its high curing temperature, which provides broader processing windows. This work involved the synthesis and polymerization of oligomers containing zig-zag backbones and twisted biphenyl structures. Some A-B type precursors which possessed both nitro and anhydride functionality, or both nitro and amine functionality, were also synthesized in order to obtain the well defined oligomers. The resulting zig-zag structured oligomers were then end-capped with 4-phenylethynylphthalic anhydride (PEPA) for further cure. The properties of these novel imide oligomers are evaluated.

Harris, Frank W.

2002-01-01

126

21 CFR 177.2510 - Polyvinylidene fluoride resins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...fluoride resins. Polyvinylidene fluoride resins may be safely used...section, the polyvinylidene fluoride resins consist of basic resins...polymerization of vinylidene fluoride. (b) The finished food-contact...with the solvents distilled water, 50 percent (by...

2010-04-01

127

Thermal debracketing of orthodontic resins.  

PubMed

Ten commercial brands of orthodontic bonding materials representing three modes of delivery systems (two-paste, no-mix, and powder/liquid) were used to bond stainless steel brackets to bovine teeth. Heat was applied to the bracket, and the temperature at debonding was noted for each type of resin. The two-paste systems required a higher temperature to debond than did the no-mix systems. The powder/liquid system required the lowest temperature. There is a direct relationship between filler content and debonding temperature. There is an inverse exponential relationship between debonding temperature and load needed to cause debracketing. Room-temperature debonding showed failure at the bracket/resin interface with evidence of cohesive enamel fracture. Thermal debonding showed no evidence of overt enamel fracture, and failure site shifted toward the tooth/resin interface. Ceramic brackets required almost twice the time to debracket than did stainless steel brackets. PMID:2194390

Rueggeberg, F A; Lockwood, P

1990-07-01

128

Selective flotation of fossil resin from Western coal. Final report, July 1, 1990--May 25, 1992  

SciTech Connect

The proof-of-concept test program was designed to clarify a number of concerns that have been raised by coal companies who own the valuable resin resource. First, from laboratory bench-scale flotation experiments, a froth product from cleaner flotation containing more than 80% hexane-extractable resin at higher than 80% recovery can be produced. Pilot-plant testing was initiated to demonstrate the selective flotation of fossil resin and to establish a better confidence level in the new technology. Second, pilot-plant testing was designed to evaluate the effect and impact of random variation in slurry solids concentration and feed grade on this new selective fossil resin flotation technology. The flotation performance obtained under these industrial conditions is more realistic for process evaluation. Third, more accurate operating cost data was to be obtained for economic analysis. Fourth, sufficient quantities of the fossil resin concentrate were to be produced from the test program for evaluation by potential industrial users. Fifth, and finally, optimum levels for the operating variables were to be established. Such information was required for eventual scale-up and design of a fossil resin flotation plant. The pilot-plant proof-of-concept testing of selective resinate flotation has demonstrated that: (1) technically, the new flotation technologies discovered at the University of Utah and then improved upon by Advanced Processing Technologies, Inc. provide a highly efficient means to selectively recover fossil resin from coal. The proof-of-concept continuous flotation circuit (about 0.1 tph) resulted in fossil resin recovery with the same separation efficiency as was obtained from laboratory bench-scale testing (more than 80% recovery at about 80% concentrate grade); and (2) economically, the selective flotation process has been shown to be sufficiently profitable to justify the development of a fossil resin industry based on this new flotation process.

Jensen, G.F.; Miller, J.D.

1992-05-25

129

Soluble high molecular weight polyimide resins  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

High molecular weight polyimide resins have greater than 20 percent /by weight/ solubility in polar organic solvents. They permit fabrication into films, fibers, coatings, reinforced composite, and adhesive product forms. Characterization properties for one typical polyimide resin are given.

Jones, R. J.; Lubowitz, H. R.

1970-01-01

130

21 CFR 872.3140 - Resin applicator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3140 Resin applicator. (a) Identification. A resin applicator is a brushlike device...

2010-04-01

131

21 CFR 177.1585 - Polyestercarbonate resins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...following specifications: (i) The solution intrinsic viscosity of the polyestercarbonate resins shall be a minimum of 0...per gram, as determined by a method entitled “Intrinsic Viscosity (IV) of Lexan ® Polyestercarbonate Resin by...

2013-04-01

132

21 CFR 177.1585 - Polyestercarbonate resins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...following specifications: (i) The solution intrinsic viscosity of the polyestercarbonate resins shall be a minimum of 0...per gram, as determined by a method entitled “Intrinsic Viscosity (IV) of Lexan ® Polyestercarbonate Resin by...

2010-04-01

133

21 CFR 177.1585 - Polyestercarbonate resins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...following specifications: (i) The solution intrinsic viscosity of the polyestercarbonate resins shall be a minimum of 0...per gram, as determined by a method entitled “Intrinsic Viscosity (IV) of Lexan ® Polyestercarbonate Resin by...

2012-04-01

134

21 CFR 177.1585 - Polyestercarbonate resins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...following specifications: (i) The solution intrinsic viscosity of the polyestercarbonate resins shall be a minimum of 0...per gram, as determined by a method entitled “Intrinsic Viscosity (IV) of Lexan ® Polyestercarbonate Resin by...

2011-04-01

135

21 CFR 177.1585 - Polyestercarbonate resins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...following specifications: (i) The solution intrinsic viscosity of the polyestercarbonate resins shall be a minimum of 0...per gram, as determined by a method entitled “Intrinsic Viscosity (IV) of Lexan ® Polyestercarbonate Resin by a...

2014-04-01

136

21 CFR 872.3140 - Resin applicator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Identification. A resin applicator is a brushlike device intended for use in spreading dental resin on a tooth during application of tooth shade material. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). The device is exempt...

2011-04-01

137

21 CFR 172.280 - Terpene resin.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Coatings, Films and Related Substances § 172.280 Terpene resin. The food additive terpene resin may be safely used in accordance...

2011-04-01

138

21 CFR 172.280 - Terpene resin.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Coatings, Films and Related Substances § 172.280 Terpene resin. The food additive terpene resin may be safely used in accordance...

2014-04-01

139

21 CFR 172.280 - Terpene resin.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Coatings, Films and Related Substances § 172.280 Terpene resin. The food additive terpene resin may be safely used in accordance...

2010-04-01

140

21 CFR 172.280 - Terpene resin.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Coatings, Films and Related Substances § 172.280 Terpene resin. The food additive terpene resin may be safely used in accordance...

2013-04-01

141

21 CFR 172.280 - Terpene resin.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Coatings, Films and Related Substances § 172.280 Terpene resin. The food additive terpene resin may be safely used in accordance...

2012-04-01

142

Diffusion of resin monomers through human carious dentin in vitro.  

PubMed

The diffusion of 2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate (HEMA) and triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) from light cured bonding resin-composite resin restorations through human carious dentin was investigated. Extracted human molar teeth with different degrees of caries were obtained from consenting donors. Teeth were classified into three groups according to caries severity (mild, moderate and severe) using subjective criteria. The outer carious lesions were then removed guided by a proprietary caries detector dye. Teeth with exposure of the pulp space after caries removal were excluded from the study. A polypropylene chamber was attached to the cemento-enamel junction of each tooth to contain 1 ml distilled water. Each cavity was restored with a HEMA containing bonding resin then a TEGDMA-containing resin composite. Water samples were retrieved over a time course and analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography. There was great variation between teeth in HEMA and TEGDMA permeability. The cumulative amounts released were of similar magnitude to those observed in non-carious teeth for the mild and moderately-severe groups. However, the cumulative amounts released were markedly greater in severely carious teeth than in those with moderate or mild caries. PMID:9206381

Hamid, A; Hume, W R

1997-02-01

143

SRM filament wound case resin characterization studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The amine cured epoxy wet winding resin used in fabrication of the SRM filament wound case is analyzed. High pressure liquid chromatography (HPSC) is utilized extensively to study lot-to-lot variation in both resin and curing agent. The validity of quantitative hplc methodology currently under development in-process resin/catalyst assay is assessed.

Chou, L. W.

1985-01-01

144

Method of removing contaminants from plastic resins  

DOEpatents

A method for removing contaminants from synthetic resin material containers using a first organic solvent system and a second carbon dioxide system. The organic solvent is utilized for removing the contaminants from the synthetic resin material and the carbon dioxide is used to separate any residual organic solvent from the synthetic resin material.

Bohnert, George W. (Harrisonville, MO); Hand, Thomas E. (Lee's Summit, MO); DeLaurentiis, Gary M. (Jamestown, CA)

2008-11-18

145

Method for removing contaminants from plastic resin  

DOEpatents

A method for removing contaminants from synthetic resin material containers using a first organic solvent system and a second carbon dioxide system. The organic solvent is utilized for removing the contaminants from the synthetic resin material and the carbon dioxide is used to separate any residual organic solvent from the synthetic resin material.

Bohnert, George W. (Harrisonville, MO); Hand, Thomas E. (Lee's Summit, MO); DeLaurentiis, Gary M. (Jamestown, CA)

2008-12-30

146

Method of removing contaminants from plastic resins  

DOEpatents

A method for removing contaminants from synthetic resin material containers using a first organic solvent system and a second carbon dioxide system. The organic solvent is utilized for removing the contaminants from the synthetic resin material and the carbon dioxide is used to separate any residual organic solvent from the synthetic resin material.

Bohnert,George W. (Harrisonville, MO); Hand,Thomas E. (Lee's Summit, MO); Delaurentiis,Gary M. (Jamestown, CA)

2007-08-07

147

Large scale purification of puerarin from Puerariae Lobatae Radix through resins adsorption and acid hydrolysis.  

PubMed

Puerarin is the major isoflavone of Puerariae Lobatae Radix. A method for large scale purification of puerarin was developed through resins adsorption and acid hydrolysis. The adsorption properties of six macroporous resins (D101, S-8, H103, X-5, HPD600, AB-8) were compared through the adsorption kinetics and equilibrium adsorption isotherms. Results showed that H103 resin had the best adsorption rate and capacity. The mass transfer zone motion model was further used for analyzing the fixed bed adsorption of H103 resin. Its length of mass transfer zone with 2mg/ml of puerarin in water and 10% ethanol at flow rate of 10ml/min were 41.6 and 47.5cm, while the equilibrium adsorption capacity was 165.03 and 102.88mg/g, respectively. By using 75% ethanol, puerarin could be well desorbed from the resin with recovery of 97.4%. Subsequently, H103 resin was successfully used for puerarin purification from Puerariae Lobatae Radix. The content of total isoflavones and puerarin in the resin adsorption product were 69.25% and 41.78%, respectively, which were about three times increased compared to the crude extract. Then, the product was hydrolyzed by 2.5M HCl at 90°C for 1h. Puerarin with purity of 90% and a byproduct daidzein with purity of 78% were obtained. PMID:25553536

Guo, Hai-Dong; Zhang, Qing-Feng; Chen, Ji-Guang; Shangguang, Xin-Cheng; Guo, Yu-Xian

2015-02-01

148

Comparison of Shear Bond Strength of RMGI and Composite Resin for Orthodontic Bracket Bonding  

PubMed Central

Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the shear bond strength (SBS) of resin modified glass ionomer (RMGI) and composite resin for bonding metal and ceramic brackets. Materials and Methods: Eighty-eight human premolars extracted for orthodontic purposes were divided into 4 groups (n=22). In groups 1 and 2, 22 metal and ceramic brackets were bonded using composite resin (Transbond XT), respectively. Twenty-two metal and ceramic brackets in groups 3 and 4, respectively were bonded using RMGI (Fuji Ortho LC, Japan). After photo polymerization, the teeth were stored in water and thermocycled (500 cycles between 5° and 55°). The SBS value of each sample was determined using a Universal Testing Machine. The amount of residual adhesive remaining on each tooth was evaluated under a stereomicroscope. Statistical analyses were done using two-way ANOVA. Results: RMGI bonded brackets had significantly lower SBS value compared to composite resin bonded groups. No statistically significant difference was observed between metal and ceramic brackets bonded with either the RMGI or composite resin. The comparison of the adhesive remnant index (ARI) scores between the groups indicated that the bracket failure mode was significantly different among groups (P<0.001) with more adhesive remaining on the teeth bonded with composite resin. Conclusion: RMGIs have significantly lower SBS compared to composite resin for orthodontic bonding purposes; however the provided SBS is still within the clinically acceptable range. PMID:25628663

Yassaei, Soghra; Davari, Abdolrahim; Goldani Moghadam, Mahjobeh; Kamaei, Ahmad

2014-01-01

149

Biological activity of some naturally occurring resins, gums and pigments against in vitro LDL oxidation.  

PubMed

Naturally occurring gums and resins with beneficial pharmaceutical and nutraceutical properties were tested for their possible protective effect against copper-induced LDL oxidation in vitro. Chiosmastic gum (CMG) (Pistacia lentiscus var. Chia resin) was the most effective in protecting human LDL from oxidation. The minimum and maximum doses for the saturation phenomena of inhibition of LDL oxidation were 2.5 mg and 50 mg CMG (75.3% and 99.9%, respectively). The methanol/water extract of CMG was the most effective compared with other solvent combinations. CMG when fractionated in order to determine a structure-activity relationship showed that the total mastic essential oil, collofonium-like residue and acidic fractions of CMG exhibited a high protective activity ranging from 65.0% to 77.8%. The other natural gums and resins (CMG resin 'liquid collection', P. terebinthus var. Chia resin, dammar resin, acacia gum, tragacanth gum, storax gum) also tested as above, showed 27.0%-78.8% of the maximum LDL protection. The other naturally occurring substances, i.e. triterpenes (amyrin, oleanolic acid, ursolic acid, lupeol, 18-a-glycyrrhetinic acid) and hydroxynaphthoquinones (naphthazarin, shikonin and alkannin) showed 53.5%-78.8% and 27.0%-64.1% LDL protective activity, respectively. The combination effects (68.7%-76.2% LDL protection) of ursolic-, oleanolic- and ursodeoxycholic- acids were almost equal to the effect (75.3%) of the CMG extract in comparable doses. PMID:12748987

Andrikopoulos, Nikolaos K; Kaliora, Andriana C; Assimopoulou, Andreana N; Papapeorgiou, Vassilios P

2003-05-01

150

Synthesis of improved phenolic resins  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Twenty seven addition cured phenolic resin compositions were prepared and tested for their ability to give char residues comparable to state-of-the-art phenolic resins. Cyanate, epoxy, allyl, acrylate, methacrylate and ethynyl derivatized phenolic oligomers were investigated. The novolac-cyanate and propargyl-novolac resins provided anaerobic char yields at 800 C of 58 percent. A 59 percent char yield was obtained from modified epoxy novolacs. A phosphonitrilic derivative was found to be effective as an additive for increasing char yields. The novolac-cyanate, epoxy-novolac and methacrylate-epoxy-novolac systems were investigated as composite matrices with Thornel 300 graphite fiber. All three resins showed good potential as composite matrices. The free radical cured methacrylate-epoxy-novolac graphite composite provided short beam shear strengths at room temperature of 93.3 MPa (13.5 ksi). The novolac-cyanate graphite composite produced a short beam shear strength of 74 MPa (10.7 ksi) and flexural strength of 1302 MPa (189 ksi) at 177 C. Air heat aging of the novolac-cyanate and epoxy novolac based composites for 12 weeks at 204 C showed good property retention.

Delano, C. B.; Mcleod, A. H.

1979-01-01

151

Metal Affinity Resins User Manual  

E-print Network

BD TALONTM Metal Affinity Resins User Manual PT1320-1 (PR34731) Published 29 April 2003 BD Biosciences #12;BD Biosciences Clontech www.bdbiosciences.com Protocol No. PT1320-1 2 Version No. PR34731 BD III. Additional Materials Required 13 IV. Buffers for BD TALONTM Purification & Buffer Kits 17 V

Lebendiker, Mario

152

Process for curing bismaleimide resins  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This invention relates to vinyl pyridine group containing compounds and oligomers, their advantageous copolymerization with bismaleimide resins, and the formation of reinforced composites based on these copolymers. When vinyl pyridines including vinyl stilbazole materials and vinyl styrylpyridine oligomer materials are admixed with bismaleimides and cured to form copolymers the cure temperatures of the copolymers are substantially below the cure temperatures of the bismaleimides alone.

Parker, John A. (inventor); OTHY S.imides alone. (inventor)

1986-01-01

153

Chronology of alveolar healing following immediate implantation of Ricinus communis polyurethane resin: histometric analysis in rats.  

PubMed

The purpose of the present study was to determine whether granules of Ricinus communis polyurethane resin implanted immediately after tooth extraction interfere with the time course of alveolar wound healing in rats. Progressive bone neoformation in parallel to a decrease in the volume fraction of connective tissue was quantified by a histometric method 1, 2, 3, and 6 weeks after tooth extraction. In spite of the biocompatible nature, the presence of polyurethane resin granules in the cervical third led to a small (9-22%) but significant delay in bone formation in the middle and apical alveolar thirds from the second week on, as compared to controls. PMID:9407291

Carvalho, T L; Teófilo, J M; Araújo, C A; Brentegani, L G

1997-12-15

154

A Method for Characterizing PMR-15 Resin  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Quantitative analysis technique based on reverse-phase, highperformance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and paired-ion chromatography (PIC) developed for PMR-15 resins. In reverse-phase HPLC experiment, polar solvent containing material to be analyzed passed through column packed with nonpolar substrate. Composition of PMR-15 Resin of 50 weight percent changes as resin ages at room temperature. Verification of proper resin formulation and analysis of changes in resin composition during storage important to manufacturers of PMR-15 polymer matrix composite parts. Technique especially suitable for commercial use by manufacturers of high-performance composite components.

Roberts, G. D.; Lauver, R. W.

1986-01-01

155

Phenoxy resins containing pendent ethynyl groups  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As part of an effort on tougher/solvent resistant matrix resins for composites, research was directed towards exploring methods to improve the solvent resistance of linear amorphous thermoplastics. Ethyl reactive groups were placed on the ends of oligomers and pendent along the polymer chain and subsequently thermally reacted to provide crosslinking and thus improvement in solvent resistance. This concept is extended to another thermoplastic, a phenoxy resin. A commercially available phenoxy resin (PKHH) was systematically modified by reaction of the pendent hydroxyl groups on the phenoxy resin with various amounts of 4-ethynylbenzoyl chloride. As the pendent ethynyl group content in the phenoxy resin increased, the cured resin exhibited a higher glass transition temperature, better solvent resistance and less flexibility. The solvent resistance was further improved by correcting a low molecular weight diethynyl compound, 2,2-bis(4-ethynylbenzoyloxy-4'-phenyl)propane, with a phenoxy resin containing pendent ethynyl groups.

Hergenrother, P. M.; Jensen, B. J.; Havens, S. J.

1984-01-01

156

Effect of laser preparation on bond strength of a self-adhesive flowable resin.  

PubMed

The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of laser treatment on shear bond strength of a self-adhesive flowable resin composite to human dentin. Eighty extracted sound human molar teeth were used for the study. The teeth were sectioned mesiodistally and embedded in acrylic blocks. The dentin surfaces were ground wet with 600-grit silicon carbide (SiC) paper. They were randomly divided into two preparation groups: laser (Er:YAG laser, with 12 Hz, 350 mJ energy) and control (SiC). Each group was then divided into two subgroups according to the flowable resin composite type (n = 20). A self-adhesive flowable (Vertise Flow) and a conventional flowable resin (Premise Flow) were used. Flowable resin composites were applied according to the manufacturer's recommendations using the Ultradent shear bond Teflon mold system. The bonded specimens were stored in water at 37 °C for 24 h. Shear bond strength was tested at 1 mm/min. The data were logarithmically transformed and analyzed using two-way analysis of variance and Student-Newman-Keul's test at a significance level of 0.05. The self-adhesive flowable resin showed significantly higher bond strength values to laser-prepared surfaces than to SiC-prepared surfaces (p < 0.001). The conventional flowable resin did not show such differences (p = 0.224). While there was a significant difference between the two flowable resin composites in SiC-prepared surfaces (p < 0.001), no significant difference was detected in laser-prepared surfaces (p = 0.053). The bond strength of a self-adhesive flowable resin composite differs according to the type of dentin surface preparation. Laser treatment increased the dentin bonding values of the self-adhesive flowable resin. PMID:22821150

Yazici, A Rüya; Agarwal, Ishita; Campillo-Funollet, Marc; Munoz-Viveros, Carlos; Antonson, Sibel A; Antonson, Donald E; Mang, Thomas

2013-01-01

157

Evaluation of extractables in processed and unprocessed polymer materials used for pharmaceutical applications.  

PubMed

Polymeric materials are often used in pharmaceutical packaging, delivery systems, and manufacturing components. There is continued concern that chemical entities from polymeric components may leach into various dosage forms, particularly those that are comprised of liquids such as parenterals, injectables, ophthalmics, and inhalation products. In some cases, polymeric components are subjected to routine extractables testing as a control measure. To reduce the risk of discovering leachables during stability studies late in the development process, or components that may fail extractables release criteria, it is proposed that extractables testing on polymer resins may be useful as a screening tool. Two studies have been performed to evaluate whether the extractables profile generated from a polymer resin is representative of the extractables profile of components made from that same resin. The ELSIE Consortium pilot program examined polyvinyl chloride and polyethylene, and another study evaluated polypropylene and a copolymer of polycarbonate and acrylonitrile butadiene styrene. The test materials were comprised of polymer resin and processed resin or molded components. Volatile, semi-volatile, and nonvolatile chemical profiles were evaluated after headspace sampling and extraction with solvents of varying polarity and pH. The findings from these studies indicate that there may or may not be differences between extractables profiles obtained from resins and processed forms of the resin depending on the type of material, the compounds of interest, and extraction conditions used. Extractables testing of polymer resins is useful for material screening and in certain situations may replace routine component testing. PMID:25227309

Stults, Cheryl L M; Ansell, Jennifer M; Shaw, Arthur J; Nagao, Lee M

2015-02-01

158

Accurate determination of ¹²?I concentrations and ¹²?I/¹³?Cs ratios in spent nuclear resins by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry.  

PubMed

Determining long-lived radionuclide concentrations in radioactive waste has fundamental implications for the long-term management of storage sites. This paper focuses on the measurement of low (129)I contents in ion exchange resins used for primary fluid purification in Pressurised Water Reactors (PWR). Iodine-129 concentrations were successfully determined using Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) following a chemical procedure which included (1) acid digestion of resin samples in HNO3/HClO4, (2) radioactive decontamination by selective iodine extraction using a new chromatographic resin (CL Resin), and (3) AgI precipitation. Measured (129)I concentrations ranged from 4 to 12 ng/g, i.e. from 0.03 to 0.08 Bq/g. The calculation of (129)I/(137)Cs activity ratios used for routine waste management produced values in agreement with the few available data for PWR resin samples. PMID:24525301

Nottoli, Emmanuelle; Bienvenu, Philippe; Labet, Alexandre; Bourlès, Didier; Arnold, Maurice; Bertaux, Maité

2014-04-01

159

Foam, Foam-resin composite and method of making a foam-resin composite  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This invention relates to a foam, a foam-resin composite and a method of making foam-resin composites. The foam set forth in this invention comprises a urethane modified polyisocyanurate derived from an aromatic amino polyol and a polyether polyol. In addition to the polyisocyanurate foam, the composite of this invention further contains a resin layer, wherein the resin may be epoxy, bismaleimide, or phenolic resin. Such resins generally require cure or post-cure temperatures of at least 350.degree. F.

Cranston, John A. (Inventor); MacArthur, Doug E. (Inventor)

1995-01-01

160

Sulfur geochemistry of hydrothermal waters in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, USA. III. An anion-exchange resin technique for sampling and preservation of sulfoxyanions in natural waters  

PubMed Central

A sampling protocol for the retention, extraction, and analysis of sulfoxyanions in hydrothermal waters has been developed in the laboratory and tested at Yellowstone National Park and Green Lake, NY. Initial laboratory testing of the anion-exchange resin Bio-Rad™ AG1-X8 indicated that the resin was well suited for the sampling, preservation, and extraction of sulfate and thiosulfate. Synthetic solutions containing sulfate and thiosulfate were passed through AG1-X8 resin columns and eluted with 1 and 3 M KCl, respectively. Recovery ranged from 89 to 100%. Comparison of results for water samples collected from five pools in Yellowstone National Park between on-site 1C analysis (U.S. Geological Survey mobile lab) and IC analysis of resin-stored sample at SUNY-Stony Brook indicates 96 to 100% agreement for three pools (Cinder, Cistern, and an unnamed pool near Cistern) and 76 and 63% agreement for two pools (Sulfur Dust and Frying Pan). Attempts to extract polythionates from the AG1-X8 resin were made using HCl solutions, but were unsuccessful. Bio-Rad™ AG2-X8, an anion-exchange resin with weaker binding sites than the AG1-X8 resin, is better suited for polythionate extraction. Sulfate and thiosulfate extraction with this resin has been accomplished with KCl solutions of 0.1 and 0.5 M, respectively. Trithionate and tetrathionate can be extracted with 4 M KCl. Higher polythionates can be extracted with 9 M hydrochloric acid. Polythionate concentrations can then be determined directly using ion chromatographic methods, and laboratory results indicate recovery of up to 90% for synthetic polythionate solutions using AG2-X8 resin columns.

Druschel, Greg K; Schoonen, Martin AA; Nordstrom, D Kirk; Ball, James W; Xu, Yong; Cohn, Corey A

2003-01-01

161

Advanced thermoplastic resins, phase 2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

High temperature structural resins are required for use on advanced aerospace vehicles as adhesives and composite matrices. NASA-Langley developed polyimide resins were evaluated as high temperature structural adhesives for metal to metal bonding and as composite matrices. Adhesive tapes were prepared on glass scrim fabric from solutions of polyamide acids of the semicrystalline polyimide LARC-CPI, developed at the NASA-Langley Research Center. Using 6Al-4V titanium adherends, high lap shear bond strengths were obtained at ambient temperature (45.2 MPa, 6550 psi) and acceptable strengths were obtained at elevated temperature (14.0 MPa, 2030 psi) using the Pasa-Jell 107 conversion coating on the titanium and a bonding pressure of 1.38 MPa (200 psi). Average zero degree composite tensile and compressive strengths of 1290 MPa (187 ksi) and 883 MPa (128 ksi) respectively were obtained at ambient temperature with unsized AS-4 carbon fiber reinforcement.

Brown, A. M.; Hill, S. G.; Falcone, A.

1991-01-01

162

High Temperature Transfer Molding Resins  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

High temperature resins containing phenylethynyl groups that are processable by transfer molding have been prepared. These phenylethynyl containing oligomers were prepared from aromatic diamines containing phenylethynyl groups and various ratios of phthalic anhydride and 4-phenylethynlphthalic anhydride in glacial acetic acid to form a mixture of imide compounds in one step. This synthetic approach is advantageous since the products are a mixture of compounds and consequently exhibit a relatively low melting temperature. In addition, these materials exhibit low melt viscosities which are stable for several hours at 210-275 C, and since the thermal reaction of the phenylethynyl group does not occur to any appreciable extent at temperatures below 300 C, these materials have a broad processing window. Upon thermal cure at approximately 300-350 C, the phenylethynyl groups react to provide a crosslinked resin system. These new materials exhibit excellent properties and are potentially useful as adhesives, coatings, films, moldings and composite matrices.

Connell, John W. (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G., Jr. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor)

2000-01-01

163

Phosphorus-containing imide resins  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Flame-resistant reinforced bodies are disclosed which are composed of reinforcing fibers, filaments or fabrics in a cured body of bis- and tris-imide resins derived from tris(m-aminophenyl) phosphine oxides by reaction with maleic anhydride or its derivatives, or of addition polymers of such imides, including a variant in which a mono-imide is condensed with a dianhydride and the product is treated with a further quantity of maleic anhydride.

Varma, I. K.; Fohlen, G. M.; Parker, J. A. (inventors)

1984-01-01

164

Application of inverse gas chromatography in physicochemical characterization of phenolic resin adhesives.  

PubMed

One of the most important stages during production of abrasive tools is their hardening. The degree of hardening is very important and influence toughness of the final product. During hardening process the cross-linking of the phenolic resins, used as a binder, occurs. Nowadays, there is no standard, accurate and simple method for the estimation of the hardening degree of abrasive tools. The procedure of the determination of hardening degree of the binder (phenolic resins) by means of inverse gas chromatography (IGC) was presented in this paper. Results obtained by use of IGC derived method was verified by Soxhlet extraction and by FTIR method. Good agreement was found for results from IGC and Soxhlet extraction whereas those from FTIR were much lower. FTIR method supplies data concerning bulk properties not the surface as in case of IGC and Soxhlet methods. These results indicate that resins are more cross-linked on the surface than inside the material. PMID:25441354

Strzemiecka, Beata; Voelkel, Adam; Hinz, Mateusz; Rogozik, Mateusz

2014-11-14

165

The presence of dichloromethane on cleaned XAD-2 resin: A potential problem and solutions  

SciTech Connect

Preparation of XAD-2 resin for indoor air sampling with commonly used cleaning methods, such as Soxhlet extraction with dichloromethane (DCM) followed by vacuum drying and nitrogen purging, can lead to elevated DCM levels (> 100 ppb) in the sampled indoor air, which result from DCM remaining in the resin after cleaning. Since DCM is a suspect human carcinogen, indoor human exposure to DCM should be minimized. Several procedures to remove residual DCM after Soxhlet extraction were evaluated. Removal by fluidizing the XAD-2 resin bed in a drying column with a nitrogen stream at 40{degree}C was best. The effectiveness of this procedure was demonstrated in parallel air sampling with a syringe sampler and with a prototype quiet sampler equipped with a quartz fiber filter and an XAD-2 cartridge in series. Sampling was conducted in an office and in residence. With the modified procedures, indoor DCM levels were at typical indoor values. (< 10 ppb).

Chuang, J.C.; Holdren, M.W. (Battelle Columbus Div., OH (USA)); Wilson, N.K. (Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (USA))

1990-06-01

166

Presence of dichloromethane on cleaned XAD-2 resin: A potential problem and solutions  

SciTech Connect

Preparation of XAD-2 resin for indoor air sampling with commonly used cleaning methods, such as Soxhlet extraction with dichloromethane (DCM) followed by vacuum drying and nitrogen purging, can lead to elevated DCM levels (>100 ppb) in the sampled indoor air, which result from DCM remaining in the resin after cleaning. Since DCM is a suspect human carcinogen, indoor human exposure to DCM should be minimized. Several procedures to remove residual DCM after Soxhlet extraction were evaluated. Removal by fluidizing the XAD-2 resin bed in a drying column with a nitrogen stream at 40C was best. The effectiveness of this procedure was demonstrated in parallel air sampling with a syringe sampler and with a prototype quiet sampler equipped with a quartz fiber filter and an XAD-2 cartridge in series. Sampling was conducted in an office and in residences. With the modified procedures, indoor DCM levels were at typical indoor values (<10 ppb).

Chuang, J.C.; Holdren, M.W.; Wilson, N.K.

1990-01-01

167

Synthesis of improved polyester resins  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Eighteen aromatic unsaturated polyester prepolymers prepared by a modified interfacial condensation technique were investigated for their solubility in vinyl monomers and ability to provide high char yield forming unsaturated polyester resins. The best resin system contained a polyester prepolymer of phthalic, fumaric and diphenic acids reacted with 2,7-naphthalene diol and 9,9-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)fluorene. This prepolymer is very soluble in styrene, divinyl benzene, triallyl cyanurate, diallyl isophthalate and methylvinylpyridine. It provided anaerobic char yields as high as 41 percent at 800 C. The combination of good solubility and char yield represents a significant improvement over state-of-the-art unsaturated polyester resins. The majority of the other prepolymers had only low or no solubility in vinyl monomers. Graphite composites from this prepolymer with styrene were investigated. The cause for the observed low shear strengths of the composites was not determined, however 12-week aging of the composites at 82 C showed that essentially no changes in the composites had occurred.

Mcleod, A. H.; Delano, C. B.

1979-01-01

168

Correlation between hybrid layer thickness, resin tag length and microtensile bond strength of a self-etching adhesive system.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the correlation between the hybrid layer thickness, resin tag length and resin bond strength of a self-etching adhesive system to sound dentin tissue "in vivo". After performing restorative procedures and tooth extractions, ten specimens were sectioned in a mesiodistal direction. One dental section was used for light microscope analysis, in which both the resin tag length and hybrid layer thickness were measured, while the other section was analyzed using a microtensile test (0.5 mm/min). The fractured surface of the latter section was characterized using a stereoscopic magnifying glass (40x magnifcation). The results were subject to statistical analysis using the Pearson Correlation Test (a = 0.05). The hybrid layer thickness, resin tag length and resin bond strength mean values were 2.19 microm (0.34), 4.34 microm (0.28) and 9.73 MPa (5,55), respectively. In addition, correlation tests between the resin tag length and the resin bond strength (r=0.014) and also between the hybrid layer thickness and bond strength (r=0.43), showed no statistically significant correlation. The microtensile bond strength of Adper Prompt L Pop self-etching adhesive system does not depend on hybrid layer thickness or resin tag length. PMID:23230647

Rahal, Vanessa; de Oliveira, Fernanda G; Briso, André L F; dos Santos, Paulo H; Sundefeld, Maria L M M; Sundfeld, Renato H

2012-01-01

169

A study on the compatibility between one-bottle dentin adhesives and composite resins using micro-shear bond strength  

PubMed Central

Objectives This study was performed to determine whether the combined use of one-bottle self-etch adhesives and composite resins from same manufacturers have better bond strengths than combinations of adhesive and resins from different manufacturers. Materials and Methods 25 experimental micro-shear bond test groups were made from combinations of five dentin adhesives and five composite resins with extracted human molars stored in saline for 24 hr. Testing was performed using the wire-loop method and a universal testing machine. Bond strength data was statistically analyzed using two way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey's post hoc test. Results Two way ANOVA revealed significant differences for the factors of dentin adhesives and composite resins, and significant interaction effect (p < 0.001). All combinations with Xeno V (Dentsply De Trey) and Clearfil S3 Bond (Kuraray Dental) adhesives showed no significant differences in micro-shear bond strength, but other adhesives showed significant differences depending on the composite resin (p < 0.05). Contrary to the other adhesives, Xeno V and BondForce (Tokuyama Dental) had higher bond strengths with the same manufacturer's composite resin than other manufacturer's composite resin. Conclusions Not all combinations of adhesive and composite resin by same manufacturers failed to show significantly higher bond strengths than mixed manufacturer combinations. PMID:25671210

2015-01-01

170

Development of tough, moisture resistant laminating resins  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Tough, moisture resistant laminating resins for employment with graphite fibers were developed. The new laminating resins exhibited cost, handleability and processing characteristics equivalent to 394K (250 F) curing epoxies. The laminating resins were based on bisphenol A dicyanate and monofunctional cyanates with hydrophobic substituents. These resins sorb only small quantities of moisture at equilibrium (0.5% or less) with minimal glass transition temperature depression and represent an improvement over epoxies which sorb around 2% moisture at equilibrium. Toughening was accomplished by the precipitation of small diameter particles of butadiene nitrile rubber throughout the resin matrix. The rubber domains act as microcrack termini and energy dissipation sites, allowing increased stress accommodation prior to catastrophic failure. A unique blend of amine terminated butadiene nitrile elastomer (MW 2,000) and a high nitrile content butadiene nitrile rubber yielded the desired resin morphology.

Brand, R. A.; Harrison, E. S.

1982-01-01

171

RAPID MEASUREMENTS OF NEPTUNIUM OXIDATION STATES USING CHROMATOGRAPHIC RESINS  

SciTech Connect

The Savannah River Site's (SRS) H-Canyon facility uses ceric ammonium nitrate (CAN) to separate impure neptunium (Np) from a high sulfate feed stream. The material is processed using a two-pass solvent extraction purification which relies on CAN to oxidize neptunium to Np(VI) during the first pass prior to extraction. Spectrophotometric oxidation-state analyses normally used to validate successful oxidation to Np(VI) prior to extraction were compromised by this feed stream matrix. Therefore, a rapid chromatographic method to validate successful Np oxidation was developed using Eichrom Industries TRU and TEVA{reg_sign} resins. The method was validated and subsequently transferred to existing operations in the process analytical laboratories.

Diprete, D; C Diprete, C; Mira Malek, M; Eddie Kyser, E

2009-03-24

172

Separation of tea polyphenol from Green Tea Leaves by a combined CATUFM-adsorption resin process  

Microsoft Academic Search

A process for isolating tea polyphenol and caffeine from Green Tea Leaves using extraction with water, followed by ultrafiltration with a CA–Ti composite ultrafiltration membrane, adsorption by PA resin and finally elution by a mixed solvent system has been developed. After ultrafiltration with the CA–Ti composite ultrafiltration membrane, a product with a tea polyphenol content of more than 40% was

Ping Li; Yanhui Wang; Runyu Ma; Xiaolin Zhang

2005-01-01

173

PRESENCE OF DICHLOROMETHANE ON CLEANED XAD-2 RESIN: A POTENTIAL PROBLEM AND SOLUTIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

Preparation of XAD-2 resin for indoor air sampling with commonly used cleaning methods, such as Soxhlet extraction with dichloromethane (DCM) followed by vacuum drying and nitrogen purging, can lead to elevated DCM levels (>100 ppb) in the sampled indoor air, which result from DC...

174

Graphite composites with advanced resin matrices  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effect of processing variables on the flammability and mechanical properties for state-of-the-art and advanced resin matrices for graphite composites were studied. Resin matrices which were evaluated included state-of-the-art epoxy, phenolic-novolac, phenolic-xylok, two types of bismaleimides, benzyl, polyethersulfone, and poly(p-phenylene sulfone). Comparable flammability and thermochemical data on graphite-reinforced laminates prepared with these resin matrices are presented, and the relationship of some of these properties to the anaerobic char yield of the resins is described.

Kourtides, D. A.

1980-01-01

175

Novel silica-based ion exchange resin  

SciTech Connect

Eichrom`s highly successful Diphonixo resin resembles a conventional ion exchange resin in its use of sulfonic acid ligands on a styrene- divinylbenzene matrix. Diphonix resin exhibits rapid exchange kinetics that allow economical operation of ion exchange systems. Unlike conventional resins, Diphonix resin contains chelating ligands that are diphosphonic acid groups that recognize and remove the targeted metals and reject the more common elements such as sodium, calcium and magnesium. This latter property makes Diphonix ideal for many industrial scale applications, including those involving waste treatment. For treatment of low-level, transuranic (TRU) and high- level radioactive wastes, Diphonix`s polystyrene backbone hinders its application due to radiolytic stability of the carbon-hydrogen bonds and lack of compatibility with expected vitrification schemes. Polystyrene-based Diphonix is approximately 60% carbon- hydrogen. In response to an identified need within the Department of Energy for a resin with the positive attributes of Diphonix that also exhibits greater radiolytic stability and final waste form compatibility, Eichrom has successfully developed a new, silica-based resin version of Diphonix. Target application for this new resin is for use in environmental restoration and waste management situations involving the processing of low-level, transuranic and high-level radioactive wastes. The resin can also be used for processing liquid mixed waste (waste that contains low level radioactivity and hazardous constituents) including mixed wastes contaminated with organic compounds. Silica-based Diphonix is only 10% carbon-hydrogen, with the bulk of the matrix silica.

NONE

1997-11-01

176

Advanced resin systems for graphite epoxy composites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The value of resin/carbon fiber composites as lightweight structures for aircraft and other vehicle applications is dependent on many properties: environmental stability, strength, toughness, resistance to burning, smoke produced when burning, raw material costs, and complexity of processing. A number of woven carbon fiber and epoxy resin composites were made. The epoxy resin was commercially available tetraglycidylmethylene dianiline. In addition, composites were made using epoxy resin modified with amine and carboxyl terminated butadiene acrylonitrile copolymer. Strength and toughness in flexure as well as oxygen index flammability and NBS smoke chamber tests of the composites are reported.

Gilwee, W. J.; Jayarajan, A.

1980-01-01

177

Microbiological Study of Water-Softener Resins  

PubMed Central

Microbial identification using effluents backflushed from exhausted urban and rural tank resins and cleaned resins containing the sulfonated copolymer of styrene and divinylbenzene (SDB) were completed, along with microbial assessment of the concentrated stock salt brine. Forty-four different bacterial and fungal genera were identified. Extensive biochemical and animal virulence tests completed on one of the six bacterial salt brine isolates indicated a pathogenic staphylococcal strain. The retention of Staphylococcus aureus, a Flavobacterium sp, and Escherichia coli B bacteriophage was demonstrated both by using the nonexhausted sodium-regenerated resin and by using the same resin exchanged with different mono-, di-, and trivalent cations. Effluent counts completed after bacterial seepage through the resins indicated the Pb++ exchanged resin removed 55% of the bacteria; Na+, Fe++, and Al+++ removed 31 to 36% and Ca++ and Cu++ removed about 10 to 15%. Seventy per cent or more of the bacteriophage was removed by Fe++, Cu++, and Al+++, whereas the Ca++ and Na++ cations removed 25 to 31%. Over a 77-day period, nonsterile tap water was passed through bacterial seeded and uninoculated SDB (Na) resin columns. Effluent and resin elution counts demonstrated the growth and survival of 2 different bacteria per column. Increased bacterial retention, survival, and multiplication occurred concomitantly with accumulation of organic and inorganic materials and the Ca++ and Mg++ cations from the tap water. Furthermore, microbial elution from resin particles taken from column depths of 1, 8, and 16 cm indicated a bacterial diminution with increasing depths. PMID:5373675

Stamm, John M.; Engelhard, Warren E.; Parsons, James E.

1969-01-01

178

75 FR 67105 - Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy and Japan  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy and Japan AGENCY: United States International Trade...polytetrafluoroethylene resin from Italy and Japan...polytetrafluoroethylene resin from Italy and Japan would be likely to lead to...

2010-11-01

179

40 CFR 721.5908 - Modified phenolic resin (generic).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Modified phenolic resin (generic). 721.5908 Section...Substances § 721.5908 Modified phenolic resin (generic). (a) Chemical...identified generically as modified phenolic resin (PMN P-01-561) is...

2010-07-01

180

21 CFR 177.2410 - Phenolic resins in molded articles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Phenolic resins in molded articles. 177.2410 Section...Intended for Repeated Use § 177.2410 Phenolic resins in molded articles. Phenolic resins identified in this section may be...

2010-04-01

181

40 CFR 721.5905 - Modified phenolic resin (generic).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Modified phenolic resin (generic). 721.5905 Section...Substances § 721.5905 Modified phenolic resin (generic). (a) Chemical...identified generically as a modified phenolic resin (PMN P-01-441) is...

2010-07-01

182

40 CFR 721.5762 - Aromatic aldehyde phenolic resin (generic).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Aromatic aldehyde phenolic resin (generic). 721.5762 Section...721.5762 Aromatic aldehyde phenolic resin (generic). (a) Chemical...generically as aromatic aldehyde phenolic resin (PMN P-01-573) is...

2010-07-01

183

21 CFR 872.3770 - Temporary crown and bridge resin.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Temporary crown and bridge resin. 872.3770 Section 872.3770...Devices § 872.3770 Temporary crown and bridge resin. (a) Identification. A temporary crown and bridge resin is a device composed of a...

2010-04-01

184

40 CFR 721.5762 - Aromatic aldehyde phenolic resin (generic).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Aromatic aldehyde phenolic resin (generic). 721...Substances § 721.5762 Aromatic aldehyde phenolic resin (generic). (a...substance identified generically as aromatic aldehyde phenolic resin (PMN...

2012-07-01

185

40 CFR 721.5762 - Aromatic aldehyde phenolic resin (generic).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Aromatic aldehyde phenolic resin (generic). 721...Substances § 721.5762 Aromatic aldehyde phenolic resin (generic). (a...substance identified generically as aromatic aldehyde phenolic resin (PMN...

2014-07-01

186

40 CFR 721.5762 - Aromatic aldehyde phenolic resin (generic).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Aromatic aldehyde phenolic resin (generic). 721...Substances § 721.5762 Aromatic aldehyde phenolic resin (generic). (a...substance identified generically as aromatic aldehyde phenolic resin (PMN...

2011-07-01

187

40 CFR 721.5762 - Aromatic aldehyde phenolic resin (generic).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Aromatic aldehyde phenolic resin (generic). 721...Substances § 721.5762 Aromatic aldehyde phenolic resin (generic). (a...substance identified generically as aromatic aldehyde phenolic resin (PMN...

2013-07-01

188

21 CFR 872.3820 - Root canal filling resin.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Root canal filling resin. 872.3820 Section 872... Prosthetic Devices § 872.3820 Root canal filling resin. (a) Identification. A root canal filling resin is a device composed of...

2012-04-01

189

21 CFR 872.3820 - Root canal filling resin.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Root canal filling resin. 872.3820 Section 872... Prosthetic Devices § 872.3820 Root canal filling resin. (a) Identification. A root canal filling resin is a device composed of...

2014-04-01

190

21 CFR 872.3200 - Resin tooth bonding agent.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Resin tooth bonding agent. 872.3200 Section 872...Prosthetic Devices § 872.3200 Resin tooth bonding agent. (a) Identification. A resin tooth bonding agent is a device material,...

2011-04-01

191

21 CFR 872.3200 - Resin tooth bonding agent.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Resin tooth bonding agent. 872.3200 Section 872...Prosthetic Devices § 872.3200 Resin tooth bonding agent. (a) Identification. A resin tooth bonding agent is a device material,...

2010-04-01

192

21 CFR 177.2410 - Phenolic resins in molded articles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Phenolic resins in molded articles. 177.2410 Section 177.2410...Substances for Use Only as Components of Articles Intended for Repeated Use § 177.2410 Phenolic resins in molded articles. Phenolic resins identified...

2011-04-01

193

Imide modified epoxy matrix resins  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results of a program designed to develop tough imide modified epoxy (IME) resins cured by bisimide amine (BIA) hardeners are presented. State of the art epoxy resin, MY720, was used. Three aromatic bisimide amines and one aromatic aliphatic BIA were evaluated. BIA's derived from 6F anhydride (3,3 prime 4,4 prime-(hexafluoro isopropyl idene) bis (phthalic anhydride) and diamines, 3,3 prime-diam nodiphenyl sulfone (3,3 prime-DDS), 4,4 prime-diamino diphenyl sulfone (4,4 prime-DDS), 1.12-dodecane diamine (1,12-DDA) were used. BIA's were abbreviated 6F-3,3 prime-DDS, 6F-4,4 prime-DDS, 6F-3,3 prime-DDS-4,4 prime DDS, and 6F-3,3 prime-DDS-1,12-DDA corresponding to 6F anhydride and diamines mentioned. Epoxy resin and BIA's (MY720/6F-3,3 prime-DDS, MY720/6F-3,3 prime-DDS-4,4 prime-DDS, MY720/6F-3,3 prime-DDS-1,12-DDA and a 50:50 mixture of a BIA and parent diamine, MY720/6F-3,3 prime-DDS/3,3 prime-DDS, MY720/6F-3,3 prime-DDS-4,4 prime-DDS/3,3 prime-DDS, MY720/6F-3,3 prime-DDS-1,12-DDA/3,3 prime-DDS were studied to determine effect of structure and composition. Effect of the addition of two commercial epoxies, glyamine 200 and glyamine 100 on the properties of several formulations was evaluated. Bisimide amine cured epoxies were designated IME's (imide modified epoxy). Physical, thermal and mechanical properties of these resins were determined. Moisture absorption in boiling water exhibited by several of the IME's was considerably lower than the state of the art epoxies (from 3.2% for the control and state of the art to 2.0 wt% moisture absorption). Char yields are increased from 20% for control and state of the art epoxies to 40% for IME resins. Relative toughness characteristics of IME resins were measured by 10 deg off axis tensile tests of Celion 6000/IME composites. Results show that IME's containing 6F-3,3 prime-DDS or 6F-3,3 prime-DDS-1,12-DDA improved the "toughness" characteristics of composites by about 35% (tensile strength), about 35% (intralaminar shear strength), and about 78% (shear strain to failure) relative to the control composite.

Scola, D. A.

1982-01-01

194

Separation of Lanthanide Ions with Kläui Ligand Resin  

SciTech Connect

Separation and pre-concentration of the desired analyte is often a critical step in many radioanalytical methods. Current procedures for separating and concentrating analytes for detection are complex, and can be both expensive and time consuming. Therefore, the purpose of this research is to develop an alternative method of separating lanthanide ions through the use of an extraction chromatography resin containing a Klaui ligand salt. This research is a continuation of a concerted effort to develop new methods of detecting small concentrations of radionuclides and lanthanides using Klaui ligands. The Klaui ligands, C5Me5Co(OP(OR)2)3- (R=Me, Et, n-Pr) (LOR-), have unique affinity for lanthanide and actinide ions in the presence of competing metal ions. The use of 1 wt% NaLOR (R=Et or n-Pr) adsorbed onto resin support has been shown to extract lanthanide ions from aqueous nitric acid solutions of different concentrations. In order to further evaluate the utility of these materials in radiochemical separation, the selectivity of the resins for the different lanthanide ions was examined by measuring the distribution coefficients (Kd) for a series of lanthanides over a range of solution conditions. Based on prior research with actinide ions, it was hypothesized that the lanthanide ions would bond strongly with the Klaui ligands. The success of this research is important, because it will assist in expanding and improving current automated radiochemical methods, which will decrease the cost of developing and implementing radiochemical methods. To date, Kd values have been determined for Eu+3, Nd+3 and Pr+3 under varying nitric acid (HNO3) concentration, using a resin consisting of 1.0 wt% NaLOPr on Amberlite XAD-7HP. The dependence of the Kd values for Eu+3 has also been examined as a function of the ligand-to-europium ratio and the nitrate concentration. Decreasing Kd values were obtained upon increasing the nitric acid concentration, indicating protonation of the ligand, which competes with binding of the lanthanide ions. As expected, increasing the Klaui ligand-to-europium ratio results in increasing Kd, but no conclusions could be made from these data regarding stoichiometry of the complex formed on the resin. No dependence of the Kd on the nitrate concentration was observed, supporting the notion that the HNO3 dependence is dominated by the presence of the acidic hydronium ion (as opposed to the nitrate ion). Future work will involve the determination of the Kd values for the remainder of the lanthanide series to further assess the potential of the Klaui ligand for intra-group lanthanide separations.

Granger, Trinity D.; Henry, Victoria A.; Latesky, Stanley

2007-07-01

195

Antitrypanosomal Property of Some Extracts of Different Parts of Moringa oleifera, Lam  

Microsoft Academic Search

Different extracts of Moringa oleifera parts were evaluated for their anti-trypanosomal activity and broad phytochemical classes. Alkaloids, resins and saponins were detected. In vitro, the petroleum ether extract of the root bark, chloroform extract of the stem bark, methanol extracts of the stem and the aqueous extracts of all parts were active at 4 and 2 mg\\/ ml doses. The

Sunday E. Atawodi; Hassana Shehu

196

Biocompatibility of resin-modified filling materials.  

PubMed

Increasing numbers of resin-based dental restorations have been placed over the past decade. During this same period, the public interest in the local and especially systemic adverse effects caused by dental materials has increased significantly. It has been found that each resin-based material releases several components into the oral environment. In particular, the comonomer, triethyleneglycol di-methacrylate (TEGDMA), and the 'hydrophilic' monomer, 2-hydroxy-ethyl-methacrylate (HEMA), are leached out from various composite resins and 'adhesive' materials (e.g., resin-modified glass-ionomer cements [GICs] and dentin adhesives) in considerable amounts during the first 24 hours after polymerization. Numerous unbound resin components may leach into saliva during the initial phase after polymerization, and later, due to degradation or erosion of the resinous restoration. Those substances may be systemically distributed and could potentially cause adverse systemic effects in patients. In addition, absorption of organic substances from unpolymerized material, through unprotected skin, due to manual contact may pose a special risk for dental personnel. This is borne out by the increasing numbers of dental nurses, technicians, and dentists who present with allergic reactions to one or more resin components, like HEMA, glutaraldehyde, ethyleneglycol di-methacrylate (EGDMA), and dibenzoyl peroxide (DPO). However, it must be emphasized that, except for conventional composite resins, data reported on the release of substances from resin-based materials are scarce. There is very little reliable information with respect to the biological interactions between resin components and various tissues. Those interactions may be either protective, like absorption to dentin, or detrimental, e.g., inflammatory reactions of soft tissues. Microbial effects have also been observed which may contribute indirectly to caries and irritation of the pulp. Therefore, it is critical, both for our patients and for the profession, that the biological effects of resin-based filling materials be clarified in the near future. PMID:11021634

Geurtsen, W

2000-01-01

197

Polyimide Resins Resist Extreme Temperatures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Spacecraft and aerospace engines share a common threat: high temperature. The temperatures experienced during atmospheric reentry can reach over 2,000 F, and the temperatures in rocket engines can reach well over 5,000 F. To combat the high temperatures in aerospace applications, Dr. Ruth Pater of Langley Research Center developed RP-46, a polyimide resin capable of withstanding the most brutal temperatures. The composite material can push the service temperature to the limits of organic materials. Designed as an environmentally friendly alternative to other high-temperature resins, the RP-46 polyimide resin system was awarded a 1992 "R&D 100" award, named a "2001 NASA Technology of the Year," and later, due to its success as a spinoff technology, "2004 NASA Commercial Invention of the Year." The technology s commercial success also led to its winning the Langley s "Paul F. Holloway Technology Transfer Award" as well as "Richard T. Whitcom Aerospace Technology Transfer Award" both for 2004. RP-46 is relatively inexpensive and it can be readily processed for use as an adhesive, composite, resin molding, coating, foam, or film. Its composite materials can be used in temperatures ranging from minus 150 F to 2,300 F. No other organic materials are known to be capable of such wide range and extreme high-temperature applications. In addition to answering the call for environmentally conscious high-temperature materials, RP-46 provides a slew of additional advantages: It is extremely lightweight (less than half the weight of aluminum), chemical and moisture resistant, strong, and flexible. Pater also developed a similar technology, RP-50, using many of the same methods she used with RP-46, and very similar in composition to RP-46 in terms of its thermal capacity and chemical construction, but it has different applications, as this material is a coating as opposed to a buildable composite. A NASA license for use of this material outside of the Space Agency as well as additional government-funded testing proved that RP-46 is even more exceptional than originally thought.

2009-01-01

198

Phosphorus-containing imide resins  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cured polymers of bis and tris-imides derived from tris(m-aminophenyl) phosphine oxides by reaction with maleic anhydride or its derivatives, and addition polymers of such imides, including a variant in which a monoimide is condensed with a dianhydride and the product is treated with a further quantity of maleic anhydride prior to curing are disclosed and claimed. Such polymers are flame resistant. Also disclosed are an improved method of producing tris(m-aminophenyl) phosphine oxides from the nitro analogues by reduction with hydrazine hydrate using palladized charcoal or Raney nickel as the catalyst and fiber reinforced cured resin composites.

Varma, I. K.; Fohlen, G. M.; Parker, J. A. (inventors)

1985-01-01

199

21 CFR 173.25 - Ion-exchange resins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...dimethylamine and oxidized with hydrogen peroxide whereby the resin contains not...calcium, carbonate, chloride, hydrogen, hydroxyl, magnesium...cation-exchange resins in the hydrogen form identified in...

2012-04-01

200

21 CFR 173.25 - Ion-exchange resins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...dimethylamine and oxidized with hydrogen peroxide whereby the resin contains not...calcium, carbonate, chloride, hydrogen, hydroxyl, magnesium...cation-exchange resins in the hydrogen form identified in...

2013-04-01

201

21 CFR 173.25 - Ion-exchange resins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...dimethylamine and oxidized with hydrogen peroxide whereby the resin contains not...calcium, carbonate, chloride, hydrogen, hydroxyl, magnesium...cation-exchange resins in the hydrogen form identified in...

2011-04-01

202

21 CFR 173.25 - Ion-exchange resins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...dimethylamine and oxidized with hydrogen peroxide whereby the resin contains not...calcium, carbonate, chloride, hydrogen, hydroxyl, magnesium...cation-exchange resins in the hydrogen form identified in...

2014-04-01

203

Surface preparations for metal frameworks of composite resin veneered prostheses made with an adhesive opaque resin.  

PubMed

Bond strengths of a laboratory developed light-cured composite resin to dental casting alloys were evaluated with a new adhesive opaque resin. The metal specimens were type III gold, nickel-chromium, and cobalt-chromium alloys, while the surface treatments for bonding were heating, Sn plating, and ion coating. The cast metal specimens were "particle blasted" with aluminum oxide and were surface treated. Adhesive 4-META/MMA-TBB opaque resin was applied and a light-cured composite resin was placed over the opaque layer. The prepared specimens were thermocycled in water and shear bond strengths were recorded. The light-cured composite resin was bonded strongly to heated or Sn-plated type III alloy with 4-META/MMA-TBB opaque resin. Copper ion coating in a sputter coater was effective for all three alloys, with only slightly diminished bond strengths. These methods were satisfactory for making composite resin veneered prostheses. PMID:1941662

Matsumura, H; Kawahara, M; Tanaka, T; Atsuta, M

1991-07-01

204

21 CFR 177.1500 - Nylon resins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...paragraph (d) of this section. (1) Nylon 66 resins are manufactured by the condensation...hexamethylene-diamine and sebacic acid. (3) Nylon 66/610 resins are manufactured by the...condensation of equal-weight mixtures of nylon 66 salts and nylon 610 salts....

2011-04-01

205

21 CFR 177.1500 - Nylon resins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...paragraph (d) of this section. (1) Nylon 66 resins are manufactured by the condensation...hexamethylene-diamine and sebacic acid. (3) Nylon 66/610 resins are manufactured by the...condensation of equal-weight mixtures of nylon 66 salts and nylon 610 salts....

2014-04-01

206

21 CFR 177.1500 - Nylon resins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...paragraph (d) of this section. (1) Nylon 66 resins are manufactured by the condensation...hexamethylene-diamine and sebacic acid. (3) Nylon 66/610 resins are manufactured by the...condensation of equal-weight mixtures of nylon 66 salts and nylon 610 salts....

2012-04-01

207

21 CFR 177.1500 - Nylon resins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...paragraph (d) of this section. (1) Nylon 66 resins are manufactured by the condensation...hexamethylene-diamine and sebacic acid. (3) Nylon 66/610 resins are manufactured by the...condensation of equal-weight mixtures of nylon 66 salts and nylon 610 salts....

2013-04-01

208

IMPROVEMENTS IN EPOXY RESIN EMBEDDING METHODS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epoxy embedding methods of Glauert and Kushida have been modified so as to yield rapid, reproducible, and convenient embedding methods for electron microscopy. The sections are robust and tissue damage is less than with methacrylate embedding. It has become apparent that there is considerable advantage in using epoxy resins in embedding tissues for electron microscopy. Compared to methacrylates, epoxy resins

JOHN H. LUFT

209

Volumetric polymerization shrinkage of contemporary composite resins.  

PubMed

The polymerization shrinkage of composite resins may affect negatively the clinical outcome of the restoration. Extensive research has been carried out to develop new formulations of composite resins in order to provide good handling characteristics and some dimensional stability during polymerization. The purpose of this study was to analyze, in vitro, the magnitude of the volumetric polymerization shrinkage of 7 contemporary composite resins (Definite, Suprafill, SureFil, Filtek Z250, Fill Magic, Alert, and Solitaire) to determine whether there are differences among these materials. The tests were conducted with precision of 0.1 mg. The volumetric shrinkage was measured by hydrostatic weighing before and after polymerization and calculated by known mathematical equations. One-way ANOVA (á = 0.05) was used to determine statistically significant differences in volumetric shrinkage among the tested composite resins. Suprafill (1.87+/-0.01) and Definite (1.89+/-0.01) shrank significantly less than the other composite resins. SureFil (2.01+/-0.06), Filtek Z250 (1.99+/-0.03), and Fill Magic (2.02+/-0.02) presented intermediate levels of polymerization shrinkage. Alert and Solitaire presented the highest degree of polymerization shrinkage. Knowing the polymerization shrinkage rates of the commercially available composite resins, the dentist would be able to choose between using composite resins with lower polymerization shrinkage rates or adopting technical or operational procedures to minimize the adverse effects deriving from resin contraction during light-activation. PMID:19089177

Nagem Filho, Halim; Nagem, Haline Drumond; Francisconi, Paulo Afonso Silveira; Franco, Eduardo Batista; Mondelli, Rafael Francisco Lia; Coutinho, Kennedy Queiroz

2007-10-01

210

Silicone modified resins for graphite fiber laminates  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Six silicone modified resins were selected for evaluation in unidirectional filament wound graphite laminates. Neat samples of these resins had 1,000 C char residues of 6-63%. The highest flexural values measured for the laminates were a strength of 1,220 MPa and a modulus of 105 GPa. The highest interlaminar shear strength was 72 MPa.

Frost, L. W.; Bower, G. M.

1980-01-01

211

Method of curing unsaturated polymer resin  

Microsoft Academic Search

An unsaturated polyester resin in contact with a vulcanized rubber is ; haadened by ionization radiation. The unsaturated polyester resin includes ; unsaturated dibasic acid such as maleic anhydride and phthalic anhydride, ; reaction products with dihydric alcohols such as ethylene glycol and propylene ; glycol, the compounds that can be obtained by dissolving into vinyl monomer such ; as

K. Goto; K. Araki; T. Sasaki

1970-01-01

212

21 CFR 177.1550 - Perfluorocarbon resins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...characteristic infrared spectra. (2) Melt-viscosity. (i) The per-fluoro-carbon resins...1) of this section shall have a melt viscosity of not less than 104 poises at 380...ibr_locations.html. The melt viscosity of the perfluorocarbon resins...

2013-04-01

213

21 CFR 177.1550 - Perfluorocarbon resins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...characteristic infrared spectra. (2) Melt-viscosity. (i) The per-fluoro-carbon resins...1) of this section shall have a melt viscosity of not less than 104 poises at 380...ibr_locations.html. The melt viscosity of the perfluorocarbon resins...

2012-04-01

214

21 CFR 177.1550 - Perfluorocarbon resins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...characteristic infrared spectra. (2) Melt-viscosity. (i) The per-fluoro-carbon resins...1) of this section shall have a melt viscosity of not less than 104 poises at 380...ibr_locations.html. The melt viscosity of the perfluorocarbon resins...

2010-04-01

215

21 CFR 177.1550 - Perfluorocarbon resins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...characteristic infrared spectra. (2) Melt-viscosity. (i) The per-fluoro-carbon resins...1) of this section shall have a melt viscosity of not less than 104 poises at 380...ibr_locations.html. The melt viscosity of the perfluorocarbon resins...

2011-04-01

216

21 CFR 177.1550 - Perfluorocarbon resins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...characteristic infrared spectra. (2) Melt-viscosity. (i) The per-fluoro-carbon resins...1) of this section shall have a melt viscosity of not less than 104 poises at 380...ibr_locations.html. The melt viscosity of the perfluorocarbon resins...

2014-04-01

217

TALONTM Resins I. List of Components  

E-print Network

) 5 2-ml Disposable Gravity Columns 1 10-ml Disposable Gravity Column · TALONTM Buffer Kit (#K1252 Imidazole, pH 7) · TALONTM 2-ml Disposable Gravity Columns (#8903-1) TALONTMResinProtocol 37BD Biosciences to TALON Resins, which decreases resin specific capacity and the final purity of your target protein. You

Lebendiker, Mario

218

Resin/graphite fiber composites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Techniques were developed that provided thermo-oxidatively stable A-type polyimide/graphite fiber composites using the approach of in situ polymerization of monomeric reactants directly on reinforcing fibers, rather than employing separately prepared prepolymer varnish. This was accomplished by simply mixing methylene dianiline and two ester-acids and applying this solution to the fibers for subsequent molding. Five different formulated molecular weight resins were examined, and an optimized die molding procedure established for the 1500 formulated molecular weight system. Extensive ultrasonic inspection of composites was successfully utilized as a technique for monitoring laminate quality. Composite mechanical property studies were conducted with this polyimide resin at room temperature and after various time exposures in a thermo-oxidative environment at 561 K (550 F), 589 K (600 F) and 617 K (650 F). It was determined that such composites have a long term life in the temperature range of 561 K to 589 K. The final phase involved the fabrication and evaluation of a series of demonstration airfoil specimens.

Cavano, P. J.

1974-01-01

219

Reduction of polyester resin shrinkage by means of epoxy resin—II. Epoxy resin modified with acrylamide and N-hydroxymethyloloacrylamide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The possibility was investigated of reducing the shrinkage of unsaturated polyester resin taking place in radiation-induced curing, by the addition of epoxy resin. In order to combine chemically both resins, the epoxy component was modified by introducing unsaturated bonds via acrylamide and N-hydroxymethyloloacrylamide. A composition of 90% unsaturated polyester resin and 10% acrylamide-modified epoxy resin, filled with silica (1:1.5), showed a volume shrinkage below 2%.

Pietrzak, M.; Brzostowski, A.

220

Release and toxicity of dental resin composite  

PubMed Central

Dental resin composite that are tooth-colored materials have been considered as possible substitutes to mercury-containing silver amalgam filling. Despite the fact that dental resin composites have improved their physico-chemical properties, the concern for its intrinsic toxicity remains high. Some components of restorative composite resins are released in the oral environment initially during polymerization reaction and later due to degradation of the material. In vitro and in vivo studies have clearly identified that these components of restorative composite resins are toxic. But there is a large gap between the results published by research laboratories and clinical reports. The objective of this manuscript was to review the literature on release phenomenon as well as in vitro and in vivo toxicity of dental resin composite. Interpretation made from the recent data was also outlined. PMID:23293458

Gupta, Saurabh K.; Saxena, Payal; Pant, Vandana A.; Pant, Aditya B.

2012-01-01

221

Extraction platform evaluations: A comparison of Automate Express™, EZ1® Advanced XL, and Maxwell® 16 Bench-top DNA extraction systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The DNA extraction performance of three low-throughput extraction systems was evaluated. The instruments and respective chemistries all use a similar extraction methodology that involves binding DNA to a coated magnetic resin in the presence of chaotropic salt, washing of the resin to remove undesirable compounds, and elution of DNA from the particles in a low-salt solution. The AutoMate Express™ (Life

Carey P. Davis; Jonathan L. King; Bruce Budowle; Arthur J. Eisenberg; Meredith A. Turnbough

222

Use of EIChroM`s TRU resin in the determination of americium, plutonium and uranium in air filter and water samples  

SciTech Connect

TRU Resin, an extraction chromatographic material (octyl (phenyl)-N,Ndiisobutylcarbamoyl-methylphosphene oxide (CMPO) dissolved in tributyl phosphate (TBP)) manufactured by EIChroM Industries, was tested for its actinide sorption and desorption characteristics. A study was initiated to demonstrate the effectiveness of extracting plutonium, americium and uranium from water and air filter samples from the Environmental Measurements Laboratory`s Quality Assessment Program (QAP), and the effectiveness of subsequent desorption of one chemical species at a time in order to prepare each of them for a spectrometry. Crossover of plutonium into the americium fraction with the TRU Resin was observed and could not be eliminated while using TRU Resin only. However, prior extraction of plutonium using an anion exchange resin can overcome this problem. A method for the determination of americium is proposed which combines the extraction of plutonium onto Bio-Rad AG 1-X8 anion exchange resin with the extraction of americium using the TRU Resin. This method was tested on three triplicate sets of QAP air filters and two triplicate sets of QAP water samples. The recoveries ranged from 70 to 90 percent, and the results were identical to those obtained by the existing methods. The time required to perform the analysis for americium was shortened from 5 weeks to 1 week.

Berne, A.

1995-12-01

223

A microcapsule containing chelating resin selective for cadmium (II).  

PubMed

Ion exchange and solvent extraction technologies have been widely used for uptake and recovery of heavy metals from aqueous phases. However, different problems have been encountered on applying these techniques. Alternative to overcome these limitations is the microcapsulation of extractants within a functionalized polymeric shell. A chelating resin was prepared by treating Ceralite IR 400 with chromotropic acid and characterized by FTIR spectrum and sulphur analysis. Then, polystyrene microcapsules containing chelating resin were prepared by interfacial copolymerization of w/o/w emulsions. The adsorption of Zn(II), Cd(II), Ni(II), Co(II), Cu(II) and Pb(II) into microcapsule was studied by batch experiments. The effect of pH and counter ions on adsorption behavior has been investigated. Maximum uptake of Cd(II) into microcapsule was found in the presence of I ions and remained unchanged in the pH range 1-7 and the Cd(II) ions remained unaffected in the microcapsule even in 1 M HCl solution. The selectivity for Cd(II) was over four times greater than the other investigated metal ions. The breakthrough capacity for Cd(II) was 2.68 m mol/g microcapsule. The microcapsule packed mini-column has been applied for separation of Cd(II) from Zn(II), Pb(II), Cu(II), Ni(II) and Co(II). The microcapsule has also been tested for selective recovery of Cd(II) from river water. PMID:23505815

Gehlot, C L; Singh, Anuradha

2011-10-01

224

Phytochemical and anti-staphylococcal biofilm assessment of Dracaena draco L. Spp. draco resin  

PubMed Central

Background: Dracaena draco L. ssp. draco is known as the “dragon's blood tree” and it is endemic from the Canary Islands and Morocco. Objective: Carry out phytochemical investigation of acetonic extracts of red resin obtained from the trunk of D. draco, to obtain to the isolation of the most abundant resin constituents, belonging to the class of flavonoids: flavans, along with homoisoflavans and homoisoflavanones. Materials and Methods: The structures of the isolated compounds were established by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and mass spectrometry data and comparison with literature data. The acetonic extract was evaluated for its anti-staphylococcal properties against two reference strains. Results: The acetonic extracts resulted inactive at the maximum tested concentration of 1000 ?g/ml against free living forms of tested staphylococci, but they showed a very interesting activity in the prevention of a biofilm formation at a concentration equal to 200 ?g/ml against S. aureus ATCC 25923. PMID:24991124

Stefano, V. Di; Pitonzo, R.; Schillaci, D.

2014-01-01

225

[Implantation of flakes of castor oil resin in rat dental alveolus].  

PubMed

The purposes of the present study were: 1) to investigate the biocompatibility of a natural resin (made of fatty acids extracted from Ricinus communis) implanted in the dental alveolus of rats and 2) to verify any possible interference of that material in the osseous healing following tooth extraction. The resin (AUG-EX, Poliquil Araraquara Polímeros Químicos LTDA, Araraquara--SP) was placed inside de alveoli immediately after extraction of the upper right incisors. The animals were sacrificed 1, 2, 3 and 6 weeks after extraction or extraction + implantation. The hemi-maxillae were decalcified and processed for paraffin embedding. Longitudinal 6-micrometer-thick semi-serial sections stained with hematoxylin and eosin were obtained. Histologic examination showed particles of irregular shape and variable size (700-1200 microns) localized in the medium/cervical alveolar thirds, with a scanty but persistent foreign body reaction. From the second week on, as the relative volume of bone trabeculae increased, it was seen in close contact with the surface of the implanted material in some regions. Histometric analysis (differential point counting method), used to quantify the healing process in the apical third, showed a small but significant decrease (13%-20%) in new bone formation in the implanted rats. In conclusion, the results show that, in spite of its biocompatible nature, the studied resin hinders the post-extration healing process. PMID:11705274

Calixto, R F; Teófilo, J M; Brentegani, L G; Carvalho, T L

2001-01-01

226

Assessing the effects of adsorptive polymeric resin additions on fungal secondary metabolite chemical diversity.  

PubMed

Adsorptive polymeric resins have been occasionally described to enhance the production of specific secondary metabolites (SMs) of interest. Methods that induce the expression of new chemical entities in fungal fermentations may lead to the discovery of new bioactive molecules and should be addressed as possible tools for the creation of new microbial chemical libraries for drug lead discovery. Herein, we apply both biological activity and chemical evaluations to assess the use of adsorptive resins as tools for the differential expression of SMs in fungal strain sets. Data automation approaches were applied to ultra high performance liquid chromatography analysis of extracts to evaluate the general influence in generating new chemical entities or in changing the production of specific SMs by fungi grown in the presence of resins and different base media. PMID:25379340

González-Menéndez, Víctor; Asensio, Francisco; Moreno, Catalina; de Pedro, Nuria; Monteiro, Maria Candida; de la Cruz, Mercedes; Vicente, Francisca; Bills, Gerald F; Reyes, Fernando; Genilloud, Olga; Tormo, José R

2014-07-01

227

Assessing the effects of adsorptive polymeric resin additions on fungal secondary metabolite chemical diversity  

PubMed Central

Adsorptive polymeric resins have been occasionally described to enhance the production of specific secondary metabolites (SMs) of interest. Methods that induce the expression of new chemical entities in fungal fermentations may lead to the discovery of new bioactive molecules and should be addressed as possible tools for the creation of new microbial chemical libraries for drug lead discovery. Herein, we apply both biological activity and chemical evaluations to assess the use of adsorptive resins as tools for the differential expression of SMs in fungal strain sets. Data automation approaches were applied to ultra high performance liquid chromatography analysis of extracts to evaluate the general influence in generating new chemical entities or in changing the production of specific SMs by fungi grown in the presence of resins and different base media. PMID:25379340

González-Menéndez, Víctor; Asensio, Francisco; Moreno, Catalina; de Pedro, Nuria; Monteiro, Maria Candida; de la Cruz, Mercedes; Vicente, Francisca; Bills, Gerald F.; Reyes, Fernando; Genilloud, Olga; Tormo, José R.

2014-01-01

228

Resin infiltration-taking the first steps to filling the holes in cheese molars.  

PubMed

Molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH) involves enamel hypomineralization of systemic origin affecting one or more first permanent molars (FPM) and is often associated with other teeth, particularly the incisors. A challenging condition for both the clinician and the patient, MIH affected teeth are often subjected to repeated treatments and frequently the decision to extract one or more FPM is made. At present, there are no clinical reports of available restorative materials that are able to provide consistently adequate restorations on hypomineralized teeth. The concept of resin infiltration, which involves occluding incipient enamel carious lesions with low viscosity resins to arrest or slow the development of caries has the potential to be applied to hypomineralized enamel. Successful penetration of resin infiltrant into MIH affected enamel may aid in improving its micromechanical properties. PMID:24783847

Kumar, Harleen; Palamara, Joseph; Burrow, Michael F; Manton, David J

2012-04-01

229

Literature search on the use of resins for treatment of radioactive wastes  

SciTech Connect

Over 100 commercial providers with mixed-waste treatability capabilities exist in the US. The maturity level of these technologies varies from a bench scale to a pilot or a commercial scale. The techniques include deactivation, chemical oxidation, recovery of metals, stabilization, vitrification, incineration, biodegradation, and chemical extraction. This report focuses on the use of resins to remove actinides and heavy metals from aqueous waste streams. Only the literature that described resins with high removing efficiency are presented here. The majority of the literature reviewed are proceedings and national or international reports ordered through the Berkeley Lab Library. Some of the reports that the authors requested have not yet arrived. Only a few papers were found in the open literature (journals or magazines). Although this report does not include all existing references, it provides an accurate assessment of efficient resins to be considered for waste minimization procedures. 70 refs.

AlMahamid, I.; Smith, B.M.

1997-10-01

230

Resin/graphite fiber composites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Processing techniques were developed for the fabrication of both polyphenylquinoxaline and polyimide composites by the in situ polymerization of monomeric reactants directly on the graphite reinforcing fibers, rather than using previously prepared prepolymer varnishes. Void-free polyphenylquinoxaline composites were fabricated and evaluated for room and elevated flexure and shear properties. The technology of the polyimide system was advanced to the point where the material is ready for commercial exploitation. A reproducible processing cycle free of operator judgment factors was developed for fabrication of void-free composites exhibiting excellent mechanical properties and a long time isothermal life in the range of 288 C to 316 C. The effects of monomer reactant stoichiometry and process modification on resin flow were investigated. Demonstration of the utility and quality of this polyimide system was provided through the successful fabrication and evaluation of four complex high tip speed fan blades.

Cavano, P. J.

1974-01-01

231

Tc-99 Ion Exchange Resin Testing  

SciTech Connect

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory was contracted by CHPRC to evaluate the release of 99Tc from spent resin used to treat water from well 299-W15-765 and stored for several years. The key questions to be answered are: 1) does 99Tc readily release from the spent ion exchange resin after being in storage for several years; 2) if hot water stripping is used to remove the co-contaminant carbon tetrachloride, will 99Tc that has been sequestered by the resin be released; and 3) can spent resin be encapsulated into a cementitious waste form; if so, how much 99Tc would be released from the weathering of the monolith waste form? The results from the long term stability leach test results confirm that the resin is not releasing a significant amount of the sequestered 99Tc, evident by the less than 0.02% of the total 99Tc loaded being identified in the solution. Furthermore, it is possible that the measured 99Tc concentration is the result of 99Tc contained in the pore spaces of the resin. In addition to these results, analyses conducted to examine the impact of hot water on the release of 99Tc suggest that only a small percentage of the total is being released. This suggest that hot water stripping to remove carbon tetrachloride will not have a significant affect on the resin’s ability to hold-on to sequestered 99Tc. Finally, encapsulation of spent resin in a cementitious material may be a viable disposal option, but additional tests are needed to examine the extent of physical degradation caused by moisture loss and the effect this degradation process can have on the release of 99Tc.

Valenta, Michelle M.; Parker, Kent E.; Pierce, Eric M.

2010-08-01

232

Characterizing Delamination Resistance of Toughened Resin Composites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The delamination resistance of toughened resin composites was studied. Both the edge delamination test (EDT) and the double-cantilever-beam (DCB) test provided a useful ranking of improvements in delamination resistance between brittle and tough resin composites. Several layups were designed for the edge delamination test to cover a wide range of mixed-mode conditions. The DCB and the various layups of the EDT were then used to characterize the interlaminar fracture behavior of brittle and toughened resin composites subjected to both static and cyclic loading.

Obrien, T. K.

1984-01-01

233

Improved microbial-check-valve resins  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Improved microbial-check-valve resins have been tested for their microbicidal effectiveness and long-term stability. Resins give more-stable iodine concentrations than previous preparations and do not impart objectionable odor or taste to treated water. Microbial check valve is small cylindrical device, packed with iodide-saturated resin, that is installed in water line where contamination by micro-organisms is to be prevented. Prototype microbial check valve was tested for stability and performance under harsh environmental conditions. Effectiveness was 100 percent at 35 deg, 70 deg, and 160 deg F (2 deg, 21 deg, and 71 deg C).

Colombo, G. V.; Putnam, D. F.

1980-01-01

234

Method for selective plugging using resin emulsions  

SciTech Connect

Methods and compositions are provided for selectively plugging the water-rich strata of subterranean formations, including injection into the formation of a water-insoluble, oil-soluble resin emulsion. A series of chemical reactions is initiated insitu such that the emulsion demulsifies, resulting in the coalescence of resin droplets. The coalesced water-insoluble, oil-soluble resin droplets are effective to selectively plug the water-rich strata over a relatively long distance and over a relatively long period of time.

Friedman, R.H.

1982-10-05

235

Chemical Characterization of Phenol/Formaldehyde Resins  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Report discusses tests of commercial phenol/formaldehyde resins to establish relationships among composition before use, behavior during curing, and strength after curing. Resin used in carbon/carbon laminates. In curing process, two molecules of phenol joined together in sequence of reactions involving molecule of formaldehyde. Last step of sequence, molecule of water released. Sequence repeats until one of ingredients used up, leaving solidified thermoset plastic. Issues to be resolved: number and relative abundances of ingredients, presence of certain chemical groups, heat-producing ability of resin, and range of molecular weights present.

Brayden, T. H.

1986-01-01

236

SEM and elemental analysis of composite resins  

SciTech Connect

Twenty-four chemically cured, 21 light-cured anterior, three light-cured anterior/posterior, and 18 light-cured posterior composite resins were examined using scanning electron microscopy, and the elemental composition of their filler particles was analyzed with an energy dispersive electron probe microanalyzer. According to the results obtained, the composite resins were divided into five groups (traditional, microfilled type, submicrofilled type, hybrid type, and semihybrid), with two additional hypothetical categories (microfilled and hybrid). Characteristics of each type were described with clinical indications for selective guidance of respective composite resins for clinical use.

Hosoda, H.; Yamada, T.; Inokoshi, S. (Tokyo Medical and Dental Univ., (Japan))

1990-12-01

237

Molecular composition and paleobotanical origin of Eocene resin from northeast India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The molecular composition of fossil resins from early to middle Eocene coal from northeast India, has been analyzed for the first time to infer their paleobotanical source. The soluble component of fossil resin was analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The resin extracts are composed of cadalene-based C15 sesquiterpenoids and diagenetically altered triterpenoids. The macromolecular composition was investigated using pyrolysis gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Py-GC-MS) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The major pyrolysis products are C15 bicyclic sesquiterpenoids, alkylated naphthalenes, benzenes and a series of C17-C34 n-alkene- n-alkane pairs. Spectroscopic analysis revealed the dominance of aliphatic components. The presence of cadalene-based sequiterpenoids confirms the resin to be Class II or dammar resin, derived from angiosperms of Dipterocarpaceae family. These sesquiterpenoids are often detected in many SE Asian fluvio-deltaic oils. Dipterocarpaceae are characteristic of warm tropical climate suggesting the prevalence of such climate during early Eocene in northeast India.

Rudra, Arka; Dutta, Suryendu; Raju, Srinivasan V.

2014-06-01

238

Epoxy resin synthesis using low molecular weight lignin separated from various lignocellulosic materials.  

PubMed

A low molecular weight lignin from various lignocellulosic materials was used for the synthesis of bio-based epoxy resins. The lignin extracted with methanol from steam-exploded samples (steaming time of 5min at steam pressure of 3.5MPa) from different biomasses (i.e., cedar, eucalyptus, and bamboo) were functionalized by the reaction with epichlorohydrin, catalyzed by a water-soluble phase transfer catalyst tetramethylammonium chloride, which was further reacted with 30wt% aqueous NaOH for ring closure using methyl ethyl ketone as a solvent. The glycidylated products of the lignin with good yields were cured to epoxy polymer networks with bio-based curing agents i.e., lignin itself and a commercial curing agent TD2131. Relatively good thermal properties of the bio-based epoxy network was obtained and thermal decomposition temperature at 5% weight loss (Td5) of cedar-derived epoxy resin was higher than that derived from eucalyptus and bamboo. The bio-based resin satisfies the stability requirement of epoxy resin applicable for electric circuit boards. The methanol-insoluble residues were enzymatically hydrolyzed to produce glucose. This study indicated that the biomass-derived methanol-soluble lignin may be a promising candidate to be used as a substitute for petroleum-based epoxy resin derived from bisphenol A, while insoluble residues may be processed to give a bioethanol precursor i.e., glucose. PMID:25572718

Asada, Chikako; Basnet, Sunita; Otsuka, Masaya; Sasaki, Chizuru; Nakamura, Yoshitoshi

2015-03-01

239

Factorial experimental design for recovering heavy metals from sludge with ion-exchange resin.  

PubMed

Wastewaters containing heavy metals are usually treated by chemical precipitation method in Taiwan. This method can remove heavy metals form wastewaters efficiently, but the resultant heavy metal sludge is classified as hazardous solid waste and becomes another environmental problem. If we can remove heavy metals from sludge, it becomes non-hazardous waste and the treatment cost can be greatly reduced. This study aims at using ion-exchange resin to remove heavy metals such as copper, zinc, cadmium, and chromium from sludge generated by a PCB manufacturing plant. Factorial experimental design methodology was used to study the heavy metal removal efficiency. The total metal concentrations in the sludge, resin, and solution phases were measured respectively after 30 min reaction with varying leaching agents (citric acid and nitric acid); ion-exchange resins (Amberlite IRC-718 and IR-120), and temperatures (50 and 70 degrees C). The experimental results and statistical analysis show that a stronger leaching acid and a higher temperature both favor lower heavy metal residues in the sludge. Two-factors and even three-factor interaction effects on the heavy metal sorption in the resin phase are not negligible. The ion-exchange resin plays an important role in the sludge extraction or metal recovery. Empirical regression models were also obtained and used to predict the heavy metal profiles with satisfactory results. PMID:16843592

Lee, I Hsien; Kuan, Yu-Chung; Chern, Jia-Ming

2006-12-01

240

How we process trephine biopsy specimens: epoxy resin embedded bone marrow biopsies  

PubMed Central

Improved cytomorphology of semithin resin sections over paraffin wax embedded sections may be important in diagnostic haematopathology. However, resin embedding can make immunohistochemical antigen detection or DNA isolation for clonal gene rearrangement assays difficult. This review describes the processing of bone marrow biopsies using buffered formaldehyde based fixation and epoxy resin embedding, with or without EDTA decalcification. Traditional semithin resin sections are completely rehydrated after etching in home made sodium methoxide solution. Resin elimination allows high resolution staining of tissue components with common histological stains. Efficient antigen retrieval and the Envision-HRP system permit the immunohistological detection of many antigens of diagnostic relevance, with retention of high quality cytomorphology. Furthermore, DNA can be extracted for clonality analysis. The technique can be completed within a similar time period to that of paraffin wax processing with only ?30% increase in cost. This technique has been used for diagnosis in over 4000 bone marrow biopsies over the past 14 years. By meeting traditional and contemporary demands on the haematopathologist, it offers a powerful alternative to paraffin wax processing for diagnosis and research. PMID:16126867

Krenacs, T; Bagdi, E; Stelkovics, E; Bereczki, L; Krenacs, L

2005-01-01

241

Cobalt Ions Improve the Strength of Epoxy Resins  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Technique developed for improving mechanical strength of epoxy resins by adding cobalt ions in form of tris(acetylacetonato)cobalt (III) complex. Solid cast disks prepared from cobalt ion-containing epoxy resins tested for flexural strength and stiffness. Incorporation of cobalt ions into epoxies increased flexural strength of resins by 10 to 95 percent. Suitable resins for this technique include any liquid or solid TGMDA resins. Improved epoxy formulation proves useful as composite matrix resin, adhesive, or casting resin for applications on commercial and advanced aircraft.

Stoakley, D. M.; St. Clair, A. K.

1986-01-01

242

Hydraulic Permeability of Resorcinol-Formaldehyde Resin  

SciTech Connect

An ion exchange process using spherical resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) resin is the baseline process for removing cesium from the dissolved salt solution in the high-level waste tanks at the Hanford Site, using large scale columns as part of the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP). The RF resin is also being evaluated for use in the proposed small column ion exchange (SCIX) system, which is an alternative treatment option at Hanford and at the Savannah River Site (SRS). A recirculating test loop with a small ion exchange column was used to measure the effect of oxygen uptake and radiation exposure on the permeability of a packed bed of the RF resin. The lab-scale column was designed to be prototypic of the proposed Hanford columns at the WTP. Although the test equipment was designed to model the Hanford ion exchange columns, the data on changes in the hydraulic permeability of the resin will also be valuable for determining potential pressure drops through the proposed SCIX system. The superficial fluid velocity in the lab-scale test (3.4-5.7 cm/s) was much higher than is planned for the full-scale Hanford columns to generate the maximum pressure drop expected in those columns (9.7 psig). The frictional drag from this high velocity produced forces on the resin in the lab-scale tests that matched the design basis of the full-scale Hanford column. Any changes in the resin caused by the radiation exposure and oxygen uptake were monitored by measuring the pressure drop through the lab-scale column and the physical properties of the resin. Three hydraulic test runs were completed, the first using fresh RF resin at 25 C, the second using irradiated resin at 25 C, and the third using irradiated resin at 45 C. A Hanford AP-101 simulant solution was recirculated through a test column containing 500 mL of Na-form RF resin. Known amounts of oxygen were introduced into the primary recirculation loop by saturating measured volumes of the simulant solution with oxygen and reintroducing the oxygenated simulant into the feed tank. The dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration of the recirculating simulant was monitored, and the amount of oxygen that reacted with the resin was determined from the change in the DO concentration of the recirculating simulant solution. Prior to hydraulic testing the resin for runs 2 and 3 was covered with the simulant solution and irradiated in a spent fuel element at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR). Both batches of resin were irradiated to a total gamma dose of 177 Mrad, but the resin for run 2 reached a maximum temperature during irradiation of 51 C, while the resin for run 3 reached a temperature of 38 C. The different temperatures were the result of the operating status of HFIR at the time of the irradiation and were not part of the test plan; however, the results clearly show the impact of the higher-temperature exposure during irradiation. The flow rate and pressure drop data from the test loop runs show that irradiating the RF resin reduces both the void fraction and the permeability of the resin bed. The mechanism for the reduction in permeability is not clear because irradiation increases the particle size of the resin beads and makes them deform less under pressure. Microscopic examination of the resin beads shows that they are all smooth regular spheres and that irradiation or oxygen uptake did not change the shape of the beads. The resin reacts rapidly with DO in the simulant solution, and the reaction with oxygen reduces the permeability of a bed of new resin by about 10% but has less impact on the permeability of irradiated resin. Irradiation increases the toughness of the resin beads, probably by initiating cross-linking reactions in them. Oxygen uptake reduces the crush strength of both new and irradiated resin; however, the pressures that caused the beads to crush are much higher than would be expected during the operation of an ion exchange column. There was no visible evidence of broken beads in any of the resin samples taken from the test loop. Reaction with oxygen red

Taylor, Paul Allen [ORNL

2010-01-01

243

Method for regenerating magnetic polyamine-epichlorohydrin resin  

DOEpatents

Magnetic polymer resins capable of efficient removal of actinides and heavy metals from contaminated water are disclosed together with methods for making, using, and regenerating them. The resins comprise polyamine-epichlorohydrin resin beads with ferrites attached to the surfaces of the beads. Markedly improved water decontamination is demonstrated using these magnetic polymer resins of the invention in the presence of a magnetic field, as compared with water decontamination methods employing ordinary ion exchange resins or ferrites taken separately.

Kochen, Robert L. (Boulder, CO); Navratil, James D. (Simi Valley, CA)

1997-07-29

244

Method for regenerating magnetic polyamine-epichlorohydrin resin  

DOEpatents

Magnetic polymer resins capable of efficient removal of actinides and heavy metals from contaminated water are disclosed together with methods for making, using, and regenerating them. The resins comprise polyamine-epichlorohydrin resin beads with ferrites attached to the surfaces of the beads. Markedly improved water decontamination is demonstrated using these magnetic polymer resins of the invention in the presence of a magnetic field, as compared with water decontamination methods employing ordinary ion exchange resins or ferrites taken separately. 9 figs.

Kochen, R.L.; Navratil, J.D.

1997-07-29

245

Phenoxy resins containing pendent ethynyl groups and cured resins obtained therefrom  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Phenoxy resins containing pendent ethynyl groups, the process for preparing the same, and the cured resin products obtained therefrom are disclosed. Upon the application of heat, the ethynyl groups react to provide branching and crosslinking with the cure temperature being lowered by using a catalyst if desired but not required. The cured phenoxy resins containing pendent ethynyl groups have improved solvent resistance and higher use temperature than linear uncrosslinked phenoxy resins and are applicable for use as coatings, films, adhesives, composited matrices and molding compounds.

Hergenrother, P. M. (inventor)

1985-01-01

246

Synthesis of improved phenolic and polyester resins  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thirty-seven cured phenolic resin compositions were prepared and tested for their ability to provide improved char residues and moisture resistance over state of the art epoxy resin composite matrices. Cyanate, epoxy novolac and vinyl ester resins were investigated. Char promoter additives were found to increase the anaerobic char yield at 800 C of epoxy novolacs and vinyl esters. Moisture resistant cyanate and vinyl ester compositions were investigated as composite matrices with Thornel 300 graphite fiber. A cyanate composite matrix provided state of the art composite mechanical properties before and after humidity exposure and an anaerobic char yield of 46 percent at 800 C. The outstanding moisture resistance of the matrix was not completely realized in the composite. Vinyl ester resins showed promise as candidates for improved composite matrix systems.

Delano, C. B.

1980-01-01

247

21 CFR 177.1556 - Polyaryletherketone resins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Surfaces § 177.1556 Polyaryletherketone resins. The poly(oxy-1,4-phenylenecarbonyl-1,4-phenyleneoxy-1...of this chapter and the following: (1) Benzoyl chloride, poly(tetrafluoro ethylene). (2) [Reserved] (c)...

2011-04-01

248

21 CFR 177.1556 - Polyaryletherketone resins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Surfaces § 177.1556 Polyaryletherketone resins. The poly(oxy-1,4-phenylenecarbonyl-1,4-phenyleneoxy-1...of this chapter and the following: (1) Benzoyl chloride, poly(tetrafluoro ethylene). (2) [Reserved] (c)...

2010-04-01

249

An update on resin-bonded bridges.  

PubMed

Since the introduction of the 'Rochette' bridge in the 1970s the resin-bonded bridge has undergone a number of developments to become a commonly used technique for replacement of a missing tooth, especially in a minimally restored dentition. One of the major advantages of the resin-bonded bridge is that it requires less tooth preparation than conventional bridgework, with some authorities advising no preparation at all. Some reports have suggested poor long-term success rates, however, if used in appropriate clinical situations, this treatment modality can be extremely successful. The aim of this paper is to review the literature relating to resin-bonded bridges and suggest recommendations for clinicalpractice concerning the provision of resin-bonded bridges. PMID:18468318

Barber, M W; Preston, A J

2008-03-01

250

21 CFR 178.3930 - Terpene resins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...hydrocarbons obtainable from sulfate turpentine and meeting the following specifications: Drop-softening point of 118°-138 °C; iodine value less than 20. (b) Terpene resins consisting of polymers of beta-pinene and meeting the following...

2010-04-01

251

Silicone modified resins for graphite fiber laminates  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of silicon modified resins for graphite fiber laminates which will prevent the dispersal of graphite fibers when the composites are burned is discussed. Eighty-five silicone modified resins were synthesized and evaluated including unsaturated polyesters, thermosetting methacrylates, epoxies, polyimides, and phenolics. Neat resins were judged in terms of Si content, homogeneity, hardness, Char formation, and thermal stability. Char formation was estimated by thermogravimetry to 1,000 C in air and in N2. Thermal stability was evaluated by isothermal weight loss measurements for 200 hrs in air at three temperatures. Four silicone modified epoxies were selected for evaluation in unidirectional filament wound graphite laminates. Neat samples of these resins had 1,000 C char residues of 25 to 50%. The highest flexural values measured for the laminates were a strength of 140 kpsi and a modulus of 10 Mpsi. The highest interlaminar shear strength was 5.3 kpsi.

Frost, L. W.; Bower, G. M.

1979-01-01

252

Improved high-temperature resistant matrix resins  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A study was performed with the objective of developing matrix resins that exhibit improved thermo-oxidative stability over state-of-the-art high temperature resins for use at temperatures up to 644 K (700 F) and air pressures up to 0.7 MPa (100 psia). The work was based upon a TRW discovered family of polyimides currently licensed to and marketed by Ethyl Corporation as EYMYD(R) resins. The approach investigated to provide improved thermo-oxidative properties was to use halogenated derivatives of the diamine, 2, 2-bis (4-(4-aminophenoxy)phenyl) hexafluoropropane (4-BDAF). Polyimide neat resins and Celion(R) 12,000 composites prepared from fluorine substituted 4-BDAF demonstrated unexpectedly lower glass transition temperatures (Tg) and thermo-oxidative stabilities than the baseline 4-BDAF/PMDA polymer.

Green, H. E.; Chang, G. E.; Wright, W. F.; Ueda, K.; Orell, M. K.

1989-01-01

253

Cesium-specific phenolic ion exchange resin  

DOEpatents

A phenolic, cesium-specific, cation exchange resin is prepared by neutralizing resorcinol with potassium hydroxide, condensing/polymerizing the resulting intermediate with formaldehyde, heat-curing the resulting polymer to effect cross-linking and grinding it to desired particle size for use. This resin will selectively and efficiently adsorb cesium ions in the presence of a high concentration of sodium ions with a low carbon to cesium ratio. 2 figs.

Bibler, J.P.; Wallace, R.M.

1995-08-15

254

Cesium-specific phenolic ion exchange resin  

DOEpatents

A phenolic, cesium-specific, cation exchange resin is prepared by neutralizing resorcinol with potassium hydroxide, condensing/polymerizing the resulting intermediate with formaldehyde, heat-curing the resulting polymer to effect cross-linking and grinding it to desired particle size for use. This resin will selectively and efficiently adsorb cesium ions in the presence of a high concentration of sodium ions with a low carbon to cesium ratio.

Bibler, Jane P. (Aiken, SC); Wallace, Richard M. (Aiken, SC)

1995-01-01

255

Separation and purification of amygdalin from thinned bayberry kernels by macroporous adsorption resins.  

PubMed

To utilize the low-value thinned bayberry (Myrica rubra Sieb. et Zucc) kernels (TBKs) waste, an efficient method using macroporous adsorption resins (MARs) for separation and purification of amygdalin from TBKs crude extracts was developed. An aqueous crude sample was prepared from a methanol TBK extract, followed by resin separation. A series of MARs were initially screened for adsorption/desorption of amygdalin in the extract, and D101 was selected for characterization and method development. The static adsorption data of amygdalin on D101 was best fitted to the pseudo-second-order kinetics model. The solute affinity toward D101 at 30 °C was described and the equilibrium experimental data were well-fitted to Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. Through one cycle of dynamic adsorption/desorption, the purity of amygdalin in the extract, determined by HPLC, increased about 17-fold from 4.8% to 82.0%, with 77.9% recovery. The results suggested that D101 resin effectively separate amygdalin from TBKs. PMID:25438243

Wang, Tao; Lu, Shengmin; Xia, Qile; Fang, Zhongxiang; Johnson, Stuart

2015-01-15

256

Selective recovery of Cr and Cu in leachate from chromated copper arsenate treated wood using chelating and acidic ion exchange resins.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to selectively remove chromium and copper from CCA-treated wood acid leachates (initial concentrations of 447-651 mg As l(-1), 374-453 mg Cu l(-1) and 335-622 mg Cr l(-1)) using ion exchange resins and precipitation techniques. Batch experiments revealed that the chelating resin Dowex M4195 had a high copper selectivity in the presence of chromium while the Amberlite IR120 resin had a high chromium sorption capacity. Combining M4195 and IR120 resins in four successive columns, made with Plexiglas tube, led to 96% copper extraction and 68% chromium extraction. NH(4)OH (4M) efficiently eluted copper from the chelating resin while H(2)SO(4) (10%v/v) was used for IR120 resin elution. Copper and chromium recovery by elution reached 94% and 81%, respectively. Successive sorption and elution steps using M4195 and IR120 ion exchange resins presented similar metal removal capacities over the five cycles. No resin deterioration was observed but the results suggested arsenic bulk diffusion into the M4195 resin. Successive treatments of CCA-treated wood leachate with M4195 and IR120 allowed for copper and chromium removal while arsenic could be extracted by coagulation treatment with ferric chloride and precipitation with Ca(OH)(2) at pH 5.7. This final process led to 99.9% arsenic removal. The final effluent contained less than 1 mg l(-1) of arsenic, chromium and copper. PMID:19446391

Janin, Amélie; Blais, Jean-François; Mercier, Guy; Drogui, Patrick

2009-09-30

257

77 FR 1267 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group IV Polymers and Resins...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...defined here: ABS--Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene Resin ADAF...Resins Source Categories A. Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene Resin (ABS) B...Methacrylate- 325211 1317 Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene...

2012-01-09

258

Imide modified epoxy matrix resins  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of a program designed to develop tough imide modified epoxy resins cured by bisimide amine (BIA) hardeners are described. State-of-the-art epoxides MY720 and DER383 were used, and four bismide amines were evaluated. These were the BIA's derived from the 6F anhydride (4,4'-(hexafluoroisopropylidene) bis(phthalic anhydride) and the diamines 3,3'-diaminodiphynyl sulfone, 4,4'-oxygianiline, 4,4'-methylene dianiline, and 1,12-dodecane diamine. A key intermediate, designated 6F anhydride, is required for the synthesis of the bisimide amines. Reaction parameters to synthesize a precursor to the 6F anhydride (6FHC) in high yields were investigated. The catalyst trifluoromethane sulfonic acid was studied. Although small scale runs yielded the 6FHC in 50 percent yield, efforts to ranslate these results to a larger scale synthesis gave the 6FHC in only 9 percent yield. Results show that the concept of using bisimide amine as curing agents to improve the toughness properties of epoxies is valid.

Scola, D. A.

1984-01-01

259

Effect of elevated temperatures on the strength of cured resins and resin-based materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurement of the loss of weight and ultimate compressive strength of phenol-formaldehyde resins under the influence of elevated temperatures has shown that during thermal degradation there is an abrupt transition from a first to a second and third structural stage with steadily increasing stabilization of the strength properties. Apart from the dependence on the heat treatment conditions, all the resins

E. B. Trostyanskaya; V. U. Novikov; Yu. N. Kazanskii

1966-01-01

260

Classification of natural resins by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry using chemometric analysis.  

PubMed

Twenty-six resins from six botanical sources belonging to the class Magnoliopsida were compared based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry data. The extracts were analysed by GC after silylation and by reversed phase LC combined with atmospheric pressure photoionisation (APPI) mass spectrometry. The chromatograms were re-organized in data matrices, where each sample was represented by a single column comprising 2755 observations (intensity, time, m/z) in GC-MS and 360 observations in LC-MS. A simple comparison of resin fingerprints was attempted by organizing data according to a three dimensional bubble chart (retention time against m/z where each point was a bubble which size represented the ion intensity) where it is possible to easily superimpose the fingerprints. Thus the common and different species can be easily observed enabling to classify the resins. Hierarchical cluster analysis based on characteristics of GC-MS and LC-MS profiles affords a complete description of the classes of the resins and shows that 26 resins are divided into five main clusters Commiphora mukul, Daniella oliveri, Gardenia gummifera, Canarium madagascariensis, Boswellia dalzielii and Boswellia serrata, respectively. In conclusion, the proposed method has been applied to three other resinous samples from the Burseraceae family to evaluate their alteration state. PMID:22885042

Rhourrhi-Frih, B; West, C; Pasquier, L; André, P; Chaimbault, P; Lafosse, M

2012-09-21

261

Resin from the mukul myrrh tree, guggul, can it be used for treating hypercholesterolemia? A randomized, controlled study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Background: Guggul, herbal extract from resin of the Commiphora mukul tree, is widely used in Asia as a cholesterol-lowering agent based on Indian Ayurvedic medicine. Its popularity for this use is increasing in the US and Western Europe. Guggulsterones, the presumed bioactive compounds of guggul, may antagonise two nuclear hormone receptors involved in cholesterol metabolism, which is a possible

Lise Anett Nohr; Lars Bjørn Rasmussen; Jørund Straand

2009-01-01

262

Evaluation of gel filtration resins for the removal of PCR-inhibitory substances from soils and sediments.  

PubMed

A variety of gel filtration resins (Sephadex G200 and G150; Sepharose 6B, 4B and 2B; Bio-Gel P100, P200; and Toyopearl HW 55, HW 65, and HW 75) were evaluated for their efficacy in removing PCR-inhibitory substances from feedlot soil DNA crude extracts using gravity-flow disposable columns. Sepharose resins demonstrated the best properties for DNA purification when compared to other gel filtration resins, and Sepharose 2B was the most efficient purification resin based upon flow rate and the elution of DNA and humic acids from the columns. A method for purifying large solution volumes of DNA extract economically was also developed using low-cost disposable Disposaflex columns. Crude DNA extracts of cattle feedlot soil and aquifer sediment impacted by animal and human wastes were easily purified using the Disposaflex column method regardless of whether a gentle chemical lysis or a bead mill homogenization DNA extraction method was employed. PMID:11166099

Miller, D N

2001-02-01

263

??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? D2EHPA SEPARATION OF URANIUM FROM TRISODIUM PHOSPHATE SOLUTION BY D2EHPA IMPREGNATED RESINS ????????? ???????????1, ??????? ??????????1 ??? ????? ????????????1  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the monazite ore breakdown by alkali process to separate nuclear elements and rare earth elements composed in this phosphate ore, trisodium phosphate byproduct from the digestion process may contain uranium up to 300 ppm. Therefore, it is necessary to purify this trisodium phosphate. This study has used di(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid (D2EHPA) impregnated resins to extract uranium from the trisodium

Uthaiwan Injarean; Pipat Pichestapong; Wannee Srinuttrakul

264

Resin flow monitoring in vacuum-assisted resin transfer molding using optical fiber distributed sensor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, we implemented resin flow monitoring by using an optical fiber sensor during vacuum assisted resin transfer molding (VaRTM).We employed optical frequency domain reflectometry (OFDR) and fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor for distributed sensing. Especially, long gauge FBGs (about 100mm) which are 10 times longer than an ordinary FBG were employed for more effective distributed sensing. A long gauge FBG was embedded in GFRP laminates, and other two ones were located out of laminate for wavelength reference and temperature compensation, respectively. During VaRTM, the embedded FBG could measure how the preform affected the sensor with vacuum pressure and resin was flowed into the preform. In this study, we intended to detect the gradient of compressive strain between impregnated part and umimpregnated one within long gauge FBG. If resin is infused to preform, compressive strain which is generated on FBG is released by volume of resin. We could get the wavelength shift due to the change of compressive strain along gauge length of FBG by using short-time Fourier transformation for signal acquired from FBG. Therefore, we could know the resin flow front with the gradient of compressive strain of FBG. In this study, we used silicon oil which has same viscosity with resin substitute for resin in order to reuse FBG. In order to monitor resin flow, the silicon oil was infused from one edge of preform, the silicon oil was flowed from right to left. Then, we made dry spot within gauge length by infusing silicon oil to both sides of preform to prove the ability of dry spot monitoring with FBG. We could monitor resin flow condition and dry spot formation successfully using by FBG based on OFDR.

Eum, Soohyun; Kageyama, Kazuro; Murayama, Hideaki; Ohsawa, Isamu; Uzawa, Kiyoshi; Kanai, Makoto; Igawa, Hirotaka

2007-04-01

265

Anion-exchange resin-based desulfurization process  

SciTech Connect

The University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI) has a Department of Energy grant to further develop the Institute's anion-exchange resin-based flue gas, desulfurization concept. The developmental program proposed includes screening of commercially available resins to select three candidate resins for further study. These three resins will undergo a series of experiments designed to test the resins' performance under different process conditions (including the use of spent MHD seed material). The best of these resins will be used in optimizing the regeneration step and in testing the effects of performance enhancers. The process schematic developed from the results will be used to estimate the related economics.

Sheth, A.C.; Strevel, S.D.

1991-01-01

266

Development and characterisation of a new Sr selective resin for the rapid determination of ??Sr in environmental water samples.  

PubMed

A new resin selective for Sr has been developed and characterised for the direct binding of (90)Sr from environmental waters with minimal pre-treatment. The new selective resin comprises of a mixture of two extractants, 4,4'(5')-bis-t-butylcyclohexano-18-crown-6 and di(2-ethyl-hexyl)phosphoric acid, sorbed onto Amberchrom CG-71. Sr uptake is shown to be high (the distribution weight coefficient Dw >100 mL g(-1)) across a range of environmentally realistic conditions (pH 2-8 and up to 11,500 mg L(-1) NaCl, 500 mg L(-1) Ca, 400 mg L(-1) K and 1300 mg L(-1) Mg). The Sr capacity of the resin is shown to be 7.7±0.4 mg g(-1), meaning that the resin has a sufficient capacity to quantitatively remove Sr from most environmental water samples. The reasonably fast uptake kinetics of the resin (95±4% of strontium bound within 30 min) results in a resin that is applicable to both batch- and column-type separation procedures. A range of potentially co-extracted radio-elements have been identified and an elution scheme has been developed to separate interferences, including (90)Y, from (90)Sr. The clean elution of (90)Sr permits immediate measurement by radiometric means, with no need for complicated spectral processing or waiting for secular equilibrium between (90)Sr and (90)Y. The characterised resin is applicable for use in rapid determination procedures, enabling the swift analysis of water samples required by monitoring schemes at contaminated nuclear sites and in the aftermath of nuclear accidents. PMID:25127642

Surman, J J; Pates, J M; Zhang, H; Happel, S

2014-11-01

267

ROSE Process Offers Energy Savings for Solvent Extraction  

E-print Network

surprisingly successful and led to a significant breakthrough in solvent extraction technology. Not only were the asphaltenes, resins and oils separated by the newly developed techniques, but the revolu tionary discovery was made that one could utilize... and residuals while rejecting the less des irable mater ials. For example, propane deasphalting rejects high molecular weight viscous asphaltic and resinous materials from residuals while producing premium quality lube oil stocks and FCC and hydrocracker...

Gearheart, J. A.; Nelson, S. R.

1983-01-01

268

Diffusion of residual monomer in polymer resins.  

PubMed Central

A simplified mathematical model which made use of Fick's laws of diffusion written in spherical coordinates was developed to describe the rate of diffusion of residual monomers from polymer resins. The properties of the monomer-polymer system which influenced the amount of monomer remaining in the polymer as a function of time were the diffusivity and solubility of the monomer in the polymer, and the particle size of the polymer resin. This model was used to analyze literature data on the diffusion of residual vinyl chloride monomer in polyvinyl chloride resins made by the suspension process. It was concluded that particle size of the resin was a significant parameter which should be taken advantage of in process equipment designed to remove residual monomer from PVC resins. The diffusivity of the monomer in the polymer was a function of the solubility of the monomer in the polymer. Monomer solubility can be determined from Henry's law. It was suggested that this model could be adapted to describe diffusion of monomers from any monomer-polymer system, and would be a useful approach to modeling the transport of nonreactive chemical additives from plastics. PMID:1026410

Piver, W T

1976-01-01

269

Development of a heterogeneous laminating resin system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The factors which effect the impact resistance of laminating resin systems and yet retain equivalent performance with the conventional 450 K curing epoxy matrix systems in other areas were studied. Formulation work was conducted on two systems, an all-epoxy and an epoxy/bismaleimide, to gain fundamental information on the effect formulation changes have upon neat resin and composite properties. The all-epoxy work involved formulations with various amounts and combinations of eight different epoxy resins, four different hardeners, fifteen different toughening agents, a filler, and a catalyst. The epoxy/bismaleimide effort improved formulations with various amounts and combinations of nine different resins, four different hardeners, eight different toughening agents, four different catalysts, and a filler. When a formulation appeared to offer the proper combination of properties required for a laminating resin Celion 3K-70P fabric was prepregged. Initial screening tests on composites primarily involved Gardner type impact and measurement of short beam shear strengths under dry and hot/wet conditions.

Biermann, T. F.; Hopper, L. C.

1985-01-01

270

76 FR 3614 - Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Japan: Final Results of Sunset Review and Revocation...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Japan: Final Results of Sunset Review and Revocation...polytetrafluoroethylene resin (``PTFE resin'') from Japan. See Initiation of Five-Year (``Sunset...duty order on imports of PTFE resin from Japan. See Antidumping Duty Order;...

2011-01-20

271

76 FR 42114 - Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy: Continuation of Antidumping Duty Order  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy: Continuation of Antidumping Duty Order...polytetrafluoroethylene resin (``PTFE resin'') from Italy would likely lead to a continuation or...antidumping duty order on PTFE resin from Italy, pursuant to section 751(c)(2)...

2011-07-18

272

76 FR 12939 - Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy: Final Results of Expedited Sunset Review of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy: Final Results of Expedited Sunset Review...polytetrafluoroethylene resin (``PTFE resin'') from Italy. The Department has conducted an expedited...antidumping duty order on PTFE resin from Italy pursuant to section 751(c) of the...

2011-03-09

273

Four new triterpenoids isolated from the resin of Garcinia hanburyi.  

PubMed

Four new triterpenoids, 2-O-acetyl-3-O-(4'-O-acetyl)-?-l-arabinopyranosylmaslinic acid (1), 2-O-acetyl-3-O-(3'-O-acetyl)-?-l-arabinopyranosylmaslinic acid (2), 2-O-acetyl-3-O-(3',4'-O-diacetyl)-?-l-arabinopyranosylmaslinic acid (3), and 3-O-(3'-O-acetyl)-?-l-arabinopyranosyloleanolic acid (4), together with six known triterpenoids, 3-O-(4'-O-acetyl)-?-l-arabinopyranosyloleanolic acid (5), maslinic acid (6), 2-O-acetylmaslinic acid (7), 3-O-acetylmaslinic acid (8), betulinic acid (9), and 2?-hydroxy-3?-O-acetylbetulinic acid (10), were isolated from the EtOAc extract of Garcinia hanburyi resin. Their structures were elucidated by analysis of the spectroscopic data and chemical methods. PMID:24392659

Wang, Hong-Min; Liu, Qun-Fang; Zhao, Yi-Wu; Liu, Shuang-Zhu; Chen, Zhen-Hua; Zhang, Ru-Jun; Wang, Zhen-Zhong; Xiao, Wei; Zhao, Wei-Min

2014-01-01

274

Additive effects on the toughening of unsaturated polyester resins  

SciTech Connect

An elastomer additive, carboxy-terminated acrylonitrile-butadiene copolymer, was used for toughening in the free radical cross-linking copolymerization of unsaturated polyester (UP) resins. For molded parts, Charpy impact behavior was generally enhanced and the number of catastrophic failures was reduced. The miscibility and interfacial properties of additive and resin blends play important roles in the toughening process. Phase-diagram studies showed that the elastomer additive is immiscible with the UP resin and is phase-separated from the resin matrix during curing. This phase-separation phenomenon is similar to that in the low-profile mechanism of UP resins. Additive-resin system miscibility greatly influences curing morphology. Microvoids occurred in the additive phase of cured resin because of shrinkage stress. The intrinsic inhomogeneity of the polyester network and the existence of microvoids in the final product limit the toughening effect of additives on unsaturated polyester resins. 49 refs., 13 figs., 3 tabs.

Suspene, L. [Centre de Recherches et de Technologies de Verneuil, Verneuil-en-Halatte (France); Yang, Y.S.; Pascault, J.P. [Institut National des Science Appliquees de Lyon, Villeurbanne (France)

1993-12-31

275

Performance Properties of Graphite Reinforced Composites with Advanced Resin Matrices  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This article looks at the effect of different resin matrices on thermal and mechanical properties of graphite composites, and relates the thermal and flammability properties to the anaerobic char yield of the resins. The processing parameters of graphite composites utilizing graphite fabric and epoxy or other advanced resins as matrices are presented. Thermoset resin matrices studied were: aminecured polyfunctional glycidyl aminetype epoxy (baseline), phenolicnovolac resin based on condensation of dihydroxymethyl-xylene and phenol cured with hexamine, two types of polydismaleimide resins, phenolic resin, and benzyl resin. The thermoplastic matrices studied were polyethersulfone and polyphenylenesulfone. Properties evaluated in the study included anaerobic char yield, limiting oxygen index, smoke evolution, moisture absorption, and mechanical properties at elevated temperatures including tensile, compressive, and short-beam shear strengths. Generally, it was determined that graphite composites with the highest char yield exhibited optimum fire-resistant properties.

Kourtides, Demetrius A.

1980-01-01

276

21 CFR 178.3610 - ?-Methylstyrene-vinyltoluene resins, hydrogenated.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...?-Methylstyrene-vinyltoluene resins, hydrogenated. Hydrogenated ?-methylstyrene-vinyltoluene copolymer resins having a molar ratio of 1 ?-methylstyrene to 3 vinyltoluene may be safely used as components of polyolefin film intended for use in...

2014-04-01

277

21 CFR 178.3610 - ?-Methylstyrene-vinyltoluene resins, hydrogenated.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...?-Methylstyrene-vinyltoluene resins, hydrogenated. Hydrogenated ?-methylstyrene-vinyltoluene copolymer resins having a molar ratio of 1 ?-methylstyrene to 3 vinyltoluene may be safely used as components of polyolefin film intended for use in...

2013-04-01

278

21 CFR 178.3610 - ?-Methylstyrene-vinyltoluene resins, hydrogenated.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...?-Methylstyrene-vinyltoluene resins, hydrogenated. Hydrogenated ?-methylstyrene-vinyltoluene copolymer resins having a molar ratio of 1 ?-methylstyrene to 3 vinyltoluene may be safely used as components of polyolefin film intended for use in...

2010-04-01

279

21 CFR 178.3610 - ?-Methylstyrene-vinyltoluene resins, hydrogenated.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...?-Methylstyrene-vinyltoluene resins, hydrogenated. Hydrogenated ?-methylstyrene-vinyltoluene copolymer resins having a molar ratio of 1 ?-methylstyrene to 3 vinyltoluene may be safely used as components of polyolefin film intended for use in...

2012-04-01

280

21 CFR 178.3610 - ?-Methylstyrene-vinyltoluene resins, hydrogenated.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...?-Methylstyrene-vinyltoluene resins, hydrogenated. Hydrogenated ?-methylstyrene-vinyltoluene copolymer resins having a molar ratio of 1 ?-methylstyrene to 3 vinyltoluene may be safely used as components of polyolefin film intended for use in...

2011-04-01

281

21 CFR 177.1650 - Polysulfide polymer-polyepoxy resins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-04-01 false Polysulfide polymer-polyepoxy resins. 177.1650 Section...CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: POLYMERS Substances for Use as Basic Components...Surfaces § 177.1650 Polysulfide polymer-polyepoxy resins....

2012-04-01

282

21 CFR 177.1650 - Polysulfide polymer-polyepoxy resins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-04-01 false Polysulfide polymer-polyepoxy resins. 177.1650 Section...CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: POLYMERS Substances for Use as Basic Components...Surfaces § 177.1650 Polysulfide polymer-polyepoxy resins....

2013-04-01

283

21 CFR 177.1650 - Polysulfide polymer-polyepoxy resins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-04-01 false Polysulfide polymer-polyepoxy resins. 177.1650 Section...CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: POLYMERS Substances for Use as Basic Components...Surfaces § 177.1650 Polysulfide polymer-polyepoxy resins....

2014-04-01

284

21 CFR 177.2355 - Mineral reinforced nylon resins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...the purpose of this section the mineral reinforced nylon resins consist of nylon 66, as identified in and complying with the specifications...calcium silicate. (b) The mineral reinforced nylon resins may contain up to 0.2 percent by...

2013-04-01

285

21 CFR 177.2355 - Mineral reinforced nylon resins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...the purpose of this section the mineral reinforced nylon resins consist of nylon 66, as identified in and complying with the specifications...calcium silicate. (b) The mineral reinforced nylon resins may contain up to 0.2 percent by...

2010-04-01

286

21 CFR 177.2355 - Mineral reinforced nylon resins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...the purpose of this section the mineral reinforced nylon resins consist of nylon 66, as identified in and complying with the specifications...calcium silicate. (b) The mineral reinforced nylon resins may contain up to 0.2 percent by...

2014-04-01

287

21 CFR 177.2355 - Mineral reinforced nylon resins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...the purpose of this section the mineral reinforced nylon resins consist of nylon 66, as identified in and complying with the specifications...calcium silicate. (b) The mineral reinforced nylon resins may contain up to 0.2 percent by...

2012-04-01

288

21 CFR 177.2355 - Mineral reinforced nylon resins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...the purpose of this section the mineral reinforced nylon resins consist of nylon 66, as identified in and complying with the specifications...calcium silicate. (b) The mineral reinforced nylon resins may contain up to 0.2 percent by...

2011-04-01

289

21 CFR 872.3820 - Root canal filling resin.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3820 Root canal filling resin. (a) Identification. A root canal filling resin is a...

2011-04-01

290

21 CFR 872.3300 - Hydrophilic resin coating for dentures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3300 Hydrophilic resin coating for dentures. (a) Identification. A hydrophilic resin...

2013-04-01

291

21 CFR 872.3200 - Resin tooth bonding agent.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3200 Resin tooth bonding agent. (a) Identification. A resin tooth bonding agent is a...

2014-04-01

292

21 CFR 872.3820 - Root canal filling resin.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3820 Root canal filling resin. (a) Identification. A root canal filling resin is a...

2010-04-01

293

21 CFR 872.3820 - Root canal filling resin.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3820 Root canal filling resin. (a) Identification. A root canal filling resin is a...

2013-04-01

294

21 CFR 872.3300 - Hydrophilic resin coating for dentures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3300 Hydrophilic resin coating for dentures. (a) Identification. A hydrophilic resin...

2011-04-01

295

21 CFR 872.3690 - Tooth shade resin material.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Tooth shade resin material. (a) Identification. Tooth shade resin material is a device composed of materials such as bisphenol-A glycidyl methacrylate (Bis-GMA) intended to restore carious lesions or structural defects in teeth. (b)...

2010-04-01

296

21 CFR 872.3690 - Tooth shade resin material.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Tooth shade resin material. (a) Identification. Tooth shade resin material is a device composed of materials such as bisphenol-A glycidyl methacrylate (Bis-GMA) intended to restore carious lesions or structural defects in teeth. (b)...

2011-04-01

297

21 CFR 872.3690 - Tooth shade resin material.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Tooth shade resin material. (a) Identification. Tooth shade resin material is a device composed of materials such as bisphenol-A glycidyl methacrylate (Bis-GMA) intended to restore carious lesions or structural defects in teeth. (b)...

2014-04-01

298

21 CFR 872.3690 - Tooth shade resin material.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Tooth shade resin material. (a) Identification. Tooth shade resin material is a device composed of materials such as bisphenol-A glycidyl methacrylate (Bis-GMA) intended to restore carious lesions or structural defects in teeth. (b)...

2012-04-01

299

21 CFR 872.3690 - Tooth shade resin material.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Tooth shade resin material. (a) Identification. Tooth shade resin material is a device composed of materials such as bisphenol-A glycidyl methacrylate (Bis-GMA) intended to restore carious lesions or structural defects in teeth. (b)...

2013-04-01

300

Standard tests for toughened resin composites, revised edition  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Several toughened resin systems are evaluated to achieve commonality for certain kinds of tests used to characterize toughened resin composites. Specifications for five tests were standardized; these test standards are described.

1983-01-01

301

21 CFR 172.215 - Coumarone-indene resin.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Coatings, Films and Related Substances § 172.215 Coumarone-indene resin. The food additive coumarone-indene resin may be...

2013-04-01

302

21 CFR 172.215 - Coumarone-indene resin.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Coatings, Films and Related Substances § 172.215 Coumarone-indene resin. The food additive coumarone-indene resin may be...

2012-04-01

303

21 CFR 172.215 - Coumarone-indene resin.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Coatings, Films and Related Substances § 172.215 Coumarone-indene resin. The food additive coumarone-indene resin may be...

2010-04-01

304

21 CFR 172.215 - Coumarone-indene resin.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Coatings, Films and Related Substances § 172.215 Coumarone-indene resin. The food additive coumarone-indene resin may be...

2011-04-01

305

21 CFR 172.215 - Coumarone-indene resin.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Coatings, Films and Related Substances § 172.215 Coumarone-indene resin. The food additive coumarone-indene resin may be...

2014-04-01

306

Isolation and quantification of 55Fe and 63Ni in reactor effluents using extraction chromatography and liquid scintillation analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel extraction chromatographic resin based on diisobutyl ketone has been developed for the isolation of 55Fe. This material has been used in conjunction with a dimethylglyoxime-based resin for the sequential separation of 55Fe and 63Ni and isolation of these radionuclides from associated contaminants. The preparation and characterisation of these resins is described along with an assessment of their performance

P. E. Warwick; I. W. Croudace

2006-01-01

307

Occupational dermatitis to epoxydic and phenolic resins.  

PubMed

Contact dermatitis to epoxydic and phenolic resins are the most frequent contact dermatoses due to plastics, in particular in the form of airborne dermatitis. The chemical formulas of the various components of these resins and their additives are complex and the patch tests available in the trade are insufficient and often arrive at a late stage in the progress of industry, in particular in advanced technologies like aeronautical engineering, shipbuilding or the new floor and wall coverings in buildings. This article is a review of the actions to be taken with these allergies, as well as with regards to their diagnosis, prevention and medico-legal compensation. PMID:19349256

Geraut, Christian; Tripodi, Dominique; Brunet-Courtois, Béatrice; Leray, Fabrice; Geraut, Laurent

2009-01-01

308

Technical assessment for quality control of resins  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Survey visits to companies involved in the manufacture and use of graphite-epoxy prepregs were conducted to assess the factors which may contribute to variability in the mechanical properties of graphite-epoxy composites. In particular, the purpose was to assess the contributions of the epoxy resins to variability. Companies represented three segments of the composites industry - aircraft manufacturers, prepreg manufacturers, and epoxy resin manufacturers. Several important sources of performance variability were identified from among the complete spectrum of potential sources which ranged from raw materials to composite test data interpretation.

Gosnell, R. B.

1977-01-01

309

Resin transfer molding of textile composites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design and manufacture of textile composite panels, tubes, and angle sections that were provided to NASA for testing and evaluation are documented. The textile preform designs and requirements were established by NASA in collaboration with Boeing and several vendors of textile reinforcements. The following four types of preform architectures were used: stitched uniweave, 2D-braids, 3D-braids, and interlock weaves. The preforms consisted primarily of Hercules AS4 carbon fiber; Shell RSL-1895 resin was introduced using a resin transfer molding process. All the finished parts were inspected using ultrasonics.

Falcone, Anthony; Dursch, Harry; Nelson, Karl; Avery, William

1993-01-01

310

COMPARISON OF FINISHING AND POLISHING SYSTEMS FOR RESIDUAL RESIN REMOVAL AFTER DEBONDING  

PubMed Central

Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate (1) the effectiveness of one-step polishers on the surface morphology of enamel using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and compare their effects with conventional systems for residual adhesive removal; and (2) the time spent to remove resin remnants. Material and Methods: Metal brackets were bonded to the buccal surface of 80 freshly extracted human premolar teeth and received the same resin-removal methods to evaluate the time spent to remove resin remnants (n=10). The brackets were debonded and residual adhesive was removed using different systems. Fourty-five premolars, including the control group with intact enamel (n=5), were examined by SEM. Results: 30-blade tungsten carbide burs were the least timeconsuming procedure. The best system in SEM study was the PoGo micro-polishers followed by Super-Snap Rainbow system. Conclusions: The effect of polishing systems on residual resin removal was dependent on the characteristics of the instruments in each system. PMID:19466253

Ulusoy, Çaöry

2009-01-01

311

Regeneration of Mixed Solvent by Ion Exchange Resin: Selective Removal of Chloride and Sulfate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The selective extraction of sulfate and chloride ions from mixed solvent solutions was investigated. The mixed solvents consisted of water and 50 to 100%?w (salt?free solvent) ethylene glycol. The extraction was measured for mixed solvent solutions containing only sulfate and chloride, and mixed solvent solutions saturated with trona (sodium sesquicarbonate, Na2CO3 · NaHCO3 · 2H2O(s). Three anion exchange resins, Dowex 1X8?50, Dowex 21K?Cl, and

Robert S. Gärtner

2005-01-01

312

Hydrolysis Activities of Resins of Complexes Made from Polysaccharides and Ce 4+  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resins of complexes made from agarose-Ce4+ (RCA-Ce) and chitosan-Ce4+ (RCC-Ce) were prepared. Hydrolysis rates of methamidophos, omethoate and chlorpyrifos treated by RCA-Ce were 32.39%, 27.12% and 46.62%, respectively, those of chlorpyrifos and methamidophos in mung bean sprout juice 38.28% and 35.45%, and that of chlorpyrifos in tea extract 59.76%. Hydrolysis rates of protein in tea extract treated by RCA-Ce increased

Yu Lina; Wang dongfeng; Li Haiyan; Su Lin; Wang Jialin

2006-01-01

313

Characterization of an anti-tuberculosis resin glycoside from the prairie medicinal plant Ipomoea leptophylla.  

PubMed

The organic soluble extract from the leaves of the native North American prairie plant Ipomoea leptophylla (big root morning glory) showed in vitro activity against M. tuberculosis. Bioassay-guided fractionation of this extract resulted in the identification of two new resin glycosides (6, 7). Base-catalyzed hydrolysis of these glycosides gave operculinic acid (1) as the glycosidic acid component as well as trans-cinnamic acid, propanoic acid, and lauric acid. The complete structure elucidation was accomplished through derivatization, 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy (TOCSY, ROESY, HSQC, HMBC), and MS/MS experiments on 6 and 7 as well as the permethylated derivative 8. PMID:14640518

Barnes, Curtis C; Smalley, Mary K; Manfredi, Kirk P; Kindscher, Kelly; Loring, Hillary; Sheeley, Douglas M

2003-11-01

314

Effect of thermal and mechanical load cycling on the marginal integrity of Class II resin composite restorations.  

PubMed

Class II cavities were prepared in extracted human teeth and adhesively restored with one of three different composite systems. Also, for each system samples were made with a light-cured glass ionomer base. Marginal integrity was measured by dye penetration and SEM observation before and after stressing the samples with thermal and mechanical load cycling. Before loading, the bond system in combination with acid etching the dentin provided superior results. Loading did not significantly affect marginal integrity in light-cured glass ionomer lined samples. This was in contrast to unlined resin dentin bonding system/resin composite restorations where loading did deteriorate marginal integrity significantly. PMID:8329161

Davidson, C L; Abdalla, A I

1993-02-01

315

49 CFR 173.165 - Polyester resin kits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Polyester resin kits. 173.165 Section 173.165...Other Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.165 Polyester resin kits. (a) Polyester resin kits consisting of a base material...

2013-10-01

316

49 CFR 173.165 - Polyester resin kits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Polyester resin kits. 173.165 Section...Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.165 Polyester resin kits. (a) Except for transportation by aircraft, polyester resin kits consisting of a base...

2012-10-01

317

49 CFR 173.165 - Polyester resin kits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Polyester resin kits. 173.165 Section...Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.165 Polyester resin kits. (a) Except for transportation by aircraft, polyester resin kits consisting of a base...

2011-10-01

318

49 CFR 173.165 - Polyester resin kits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Polyester resin kits. 173.165 Section 173.165...Other Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.165 Polyester resin kits. (a) Polyester resin kits consisting of a base material...

2014-10-01

319

Seasonal variation in the leaf resin components of Mimulus aurantiacus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chaparral subshrub, Mimulus aurantiacus, produces leaf surface resins in excess of 30% of leaf dry weight. The resin provides some defense against the insect herbivore, Euphydryas chalcedona, and perhaps from desiccation and injury from UV light. The resin comprises six flavanones and an ?-pyrone. The different components may differ in their ecological roles. Methoxylated components may be most effective

J. Daniel Hare

2002-01-01

320

Reusable chelating resins concentrate metal ions from highly dilute solutions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Column chromatographic method uses new metal chelating resins for recovering heavy-metal ions from highly dilute solutions. The absorbed heavy-metal cations may be removed from the chelating resins by acid or base washes. The resins are reusable after the washes are completed.

Bauman, A. J.; Weetal, H. H.; Weliky, N.

1966-01-01

321

Bismaleimide resins for flame resistant honeycomb sandwich panels  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A 60 kg batch of Resin M751 was produced in pilot plant scale. The resin was delivered to the prepreg company as an NMP solution. 100 kg of glass-fabric prepregs were fabricated. Prepreg characteristics and curing cycles for laminate fabrication were provided. A new batch of Resin M756 (Code M756 - 2) was synthesized.

1978-01-01

322

Urea–formaldehyde (UF) adhesive resins for wood  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urea–formaldehyde (UF) resins are the most important type of adhesive resins for the production of wood based panels. They convince by their high reactivity and good performance in the production and by their low price, however they lack in water resistance of the hardened resin owing to the reversibility of the aminomethylene link and hence the susceptibility to hydrolysis. This

M. Dunky

1998-01-01

323

Occupational asthma due to unheated polyvinylchloride resin dust.  

PubMed Central

Polyvinylchloride (PVC) resins are widely used in industry. Asthma due to the thermal degradation products of PVC are well documented. In this first case of occupational asthma due to unheated PVC resin dust the patient was exposed to PVC resin dust during the mixing of chemicals used for making plastic seals for bottle caps. PMID:2590649

Lee, H S; Yap, J; Wang, Y T; Lee, C S; Tan, K T; Poh, S C

1989-01-01

324

Pistacia atlantica Resin Has a Dose-Dependent Effect on Angiogenesis and Skin Burn Wound Healing in Rat  

PubMed Central

Objectives. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of Pistacia atlantica resin extract on the rat skin burn wound healing. Methods. Thirty-two Wistar rats were divided into four groups and treated by vehicle, 5%, 10%, and 20% concentration of Pistacia atlantica resin extract for 14 days (G1, G2, G3, and G4, resp.). The efficacy of treatment was assessed based on reduction of burn wound size and histological and molecular characteristics. Results. ?-Pinene (46.57%) was the main content of essential oil of resin. There were no statistically significant differences between groups according to wound size analysis. The mean histological wound healing scores were not statistically different. Capillary counts of G2 and G3 were significantly higher than those of the G1 (P = 0.042 and 0.032, resp.). NO concentration in wound fluids on the 5th day of study was not significantly different between groups (P = 0.468). But bFGF concentration in G2 and G3 and PDGF concentration in G3 were significantly higher in comparison to G1 (P = 0.043, 0.017, and 0.019, resp.). Conclusion. Our results revealed that Pistacia atlantica resin extract has a concentration-dependent effect on the healing of burn wounds after 14 days of treatment by increasing the concentration of bFGF and PDGF and also through improving the angiogenesis. PMID:24285978

Haghdoost, Faraidoon; Baradaran Mahdavi, Mohammad Mehdi; Zandifar, Alireza; Sanei, Mohammad Hossein; Zolfaghari, Behzad; Javanmard, Shaghayegh Haghjooy

2013-01-01

325

Pistacia atlantica Resin Has a Dose-Dependent Effect on Angiogenesis and Skin Burn Wound Healing in Rat.  

PubMed

Objectives. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of Pistacia atlantica resin extract on the rat skin burn wound healing. Methods. Thirty-two Wistar rats were divided into four groups and treated by vehicle, 5%, 10%, and 20% concentration of Pistacia atlantica resin extract for 14 days (G1, G2, G3, and G4, resp.). The efficacy of treatment was assessed based on reduction of burn wound size and histological and molecular characteristics. Results. ? -Pinene (46.57%) was the main content of essential oil of resin. There were no statistically significant differences between groups according to wound size analysis. The mean histological wound healing scores were not statistically different. Capillary counts of G2 and G3 were significantly higher than those of the G1 (P = 0.042 and 0.032, resp.). NO concentration in wound fluids on the 5th day of study was not significantly different between groups (P = 0.468). But bFGF concentration in G2 and G3 and PDGF concentration in G3 were significantly higher in comparison to G1 (P = 0.043, 0.017, and 0.019, resp.). Conclusion. Our results revealed that Pistacia atlantica resin extract has a concentration-dependent effect on the healing of burn wounds after 14 days of treatment by increasing the concentration of bFGF and PDGF and also through improving the angiogenesis. PMID:24285978

Haghdoost, Faraidoon; Baradaran Mahdavi, Mohammad Mehdi; Zandifar, Alireza; Sanei, Mohammad Hossein; Zolfaghari, Behzad; Javanmard, Shaghayegh Haghjooy

2013-01-01

326

Low-melt Viscosity Polyimide Resins for Resin Transfer Molding (RTM) II  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A series of polyimide resins with low-melt viscosities in the range of 10-30 poise and high glass transition temperatures (Tg s) of 330-370 C were developed for resin transfer molding (RTM) applications. These polyimide resins were formulated from 2,3,3 ,4 -biphenyltetracarboxylic dianhydride (a-BPDA) with 4-phenylethynylphthalic anhydride endcaps along with either 3,4 - oxyaniline (3,4 -ODA), 3,4 -methylenedianiline, (3,4 -MDA) or 3,3 -methylenedianiline (3,3 -MDA). These polyimides had pot lives of 30-60 minutes at 260-280 C, enabling the successful fabrication of T650-35 carbon fiber reinforced composites via RTM process. The viscosity profiles of the polyimide resins and the mechanical properties of the polyimide carbon fiber composites will be discussed.

Chuang, Kathy C.; Criss, Jim M.; Mintz, Eric A.; Scheiman, Daniel A.; Nguyen, Baochau N.; McCorkle, Linda S.

2007-01-01

327

Methyl Jasmonate Induces Traumatic Resin Ducts, Terpenoid Resin Biosynthesis, and Terpenoid Accumulation in Developing Xylem of Norway Spruce Stems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst) produces an oleoresin characterized by a diverse array of terpenoids, monoterpenoids, sesquiterpenoids, and diterpene resin acids that can protect conifers against potential herbivores and pathogens. Oleoresin accumulates constitutively in resin ducts in the cortex and phloem (bark) of Norway spruce stems. De novo formation of traumatic resin ducts (TDs) is observed in the developing

Diane Martin; Dorothea Tholl; Jonathan Gershenzon; Jorg Bohlmann

2002-01-01

328

Selective molecular sequestration with concurrent natural product functionalization and derivatization: from crude natural product extracts to a single natural product derivative in one step.  

PubMed

A resin-bound nitroso compound sequestered a single unexpected component from crude plant seed extracts. Several plants, including Piper nigrum, Eugenia caryophyllata, and Pimenta dioica, were extracted with organic solvent in the presence of a nitroso-containing resin. The nitroso resin selectively sequestered a single compound, ?-caryophyllene, via a chemo- and regioselective ene reaction. The ene product was released from the resin, and proper selection of the solid-phase linker and cleavage cocktail allowed concomitant further transformation of the primary ene product to a novel functionalized polycycle. Preliminary studies indicate that the new hydroxylamine-containing natural product derivatives have antibiotic activity. PMID:22059469

Krch?ák, Viktor; Zají?ek, Jaroslav; Miller, Patricia A; Miller, Marvin J

2011-12-16

329

Selective Molecular Sequestration with Concurrent Natural Product Functionalization and Derivatization: From Crude Natural Product Extracts to a Single Natural Product Derivative in One Step  

PubMed Central

A resin-bound nitroso compound sequestered a single unexpected component from crude plant seed extracts. Several plants, including Piper nigrum, Eugenia caryophyllata, and Pimenta dioica, were extracted with organic solvent in the presence of a nitroso-containing resin. The nitroso resin selectively sequestered a single compound, ?-caryophyllene, via a chemo and regioselective ene reaction. The ene product was released from the resin and proper selection of the solid-phase linker and cleavage cocktail allowed concomitant further transformation of the primary ene product to a novel functionalized polycycle. Preliminary studies indicate that the new hydroxylamine-containing natural product derivatives have antibiotic activity. PMID:22059469

Krch?ák, Viktor; Zají?ek, Jaroslav; Miller, Patricia A.; Miller, Marvin J.

2011-01-01

330

Fiber reinforced thermoplastic resin matrix composites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Polyimide polymer composites having a combination of enhanced thermal and mechanical properties even when subjected to service temperatures as high as 700.degree. F. are described. They comprise (a) from 10 to 50 parts by weight of a thermoplastic polyimide resin prepared from 2,2-bis[4-(4-aminophenoxy)phenyl]hexafluoropropane and (b) from 90 to 50 parts by weight of continuous reinforcing fibers, the total of (a) and (b) being 100 parts by weight. Composites based on polyimide resin formed from 2,2-bis[4-(4-aminophenoxy)phenyl]hexafluoropropane and pyromellitic dianhydride and continuous carbon fibers retained at least about 50% of their room temperature shear strength after exposure to 700.degree. F. for a period of 16 hours in flowing air. Preferably, the thermoplastic polyimide resin is formed in situ in the composite material by thermal imidization of a corresponding amide-acid polymer prepared from 2,2-bis[4-(4-aminophenoxy)phenyl]hexafluoropropane. It is also preferred to initially size the continuous reinforcing fibers with up to about one percent by weight of an amide-acid polymer prepared from 2,2-bis[4-(4-aminophenoxy)phenyl]hexafluoropropane. In this way imidization at a suitable elevated temperature results in the in-situ formation of a substantially homogeneous thermoplastic matrix of the polyimide resin tightly and intimately bonded to the continuous fibers. The resultant composites tend to have optimum thermo-mechanical properties.

Jones, Robert J. (Inventor); Chang, Glenn E. C. (Inventor)

1989-01-01

331

REMOVING RADIUM-226 ION EXCHANGE RESINS  

E-print Network

1 1 REMOVING RADIUM-226 FROM ION EXCHANGE RESINS USED IN DRINKING WATER TREATMENT James McMahon Dr) SEPTEMBER 22, 2007 2 Presentation Outline · Radionuclide/Radium-226 Regulations · Radium-226 Treatment for Radionuclides · 1962 US Public Health Services DWS ­ 3 pCi/L Radium 226 · 1977 USEPA National Interim Prim. DWS

332

Pharmaceutical Applications of Ion-Exchange Resins  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The historical uses of ion-exchanged resins and a summary of the basic chemical principles involved in the ion-exchanged process are discussed. Specific applications of ion-exchange are provided that include drug stabilization, pharmaceutical excipients, taste-masking agents, oral sustained-release products, topical products for local application…

Elder, David

2005-01-01

333

Antimicrobial activity of resin acid derivatives  

Microsoft Academic Search

The wide potential of resin acids as bioactive agents gave rise to a growing effort in the search for new applications of the natural forms and their derivatives. In some of these compounds, the antimicrobial activity is associated to the presence in the molecules of functional groups such as the hydroxyl, aldehyde, and ketone or to their cis or trans

Sonia Savluchinske-Feio; Maria João Marcelo Curto; Bárbara Gigante; J. Carlos Roseiro

2006-01-01

334

A model for resin viscosity during cure in the resin transfer moulding process  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cure model has been developed for the viscosity of two-part epoxy\\/amine resins, focussing on low extents of cure—the most important region for the mould-filling stage in resin transfer moulding. A key advantage of the model is that it is not explicitly dependent on the extent of cure; therefore, the model can be used to predict the viscosity during cure

N Kiuna; C. J Lawrence; Q. P. V Fontana; P. D Lee; T Selerland; P. D. M Spelt

2002-01-01

335

Synthesis/characterization of a new chelating resin and on-line solid phase extraction for the determination of Ag(I) and Pd(II) from water, cream, anode slime and converter samples by flow injection flame atomic absorption spectrometry.  

PubMed

On-line preconcentration procedures for the determination of Ag(I) and Pd(II) by flame atomic absorption spectrometry have been described. A new chelating resin, poly (N,N'-dipropionitrilemethacrylamide-co-divinylbenzene-co-2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propane sulfonic acid) was synthesized and used as a new adsorbent material. The resin was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and elemental analysis. Ag(I) was adsorbed on the chelating resin at pH 5.0 and eluted with 1.0 mol L(-1) HNO3. Pd(II) was retained at pH 9.5 and eluted with 1.5 mol L(-1) HCl. The experimental parameters (pH, type and concentration of eluent, flow rates of sample and eluent solutions, elution time and the effect of interfering ions) for both Ag(I) and Pd(II) were investigated in detail. The detection limit for Ag(I) was 2.4 ?g L(-1) and the relative standard deviation was 2.9% for 0.2 ?g mL(-1) Ag(I). The detection limit for Pd(II) was 1.7 ?g L(-1) and the relative standard deviation was 2.8% for 0.3 ?g mL(-1) Pd(II). Accuracy was confirmed by analyzing a certified reference material (TMDA-70), recovery studies on real samples and comparison with electrothermal atomic absorption analysis. The proposed methods were successfully applied to the on-line determination of Ag(I) in bottled water, pharmaceutical cream and anode slime samples and Pd(II) in bottled water and catalytic converter samples. PMID:23598028

Çetin, Tülin; Tokalio?lu, Serife; Ülgen, Ahmet; Sahan, Serkan; Özentürk, Ismail; Soykan, Cengiz

2013-02-15

336

NITRATE CONVERSION OF HB-LINE REILLEXTM HPQ RESIN  

SciTech Connect

Reillex{trademark} HPQ ion exchange resin is used by HB Line to remove plutonium from aqueous streams. Reillex{trademark} HPQ resin currently available from Vertellus Specialties LLC is a chloride ionic form, which can cause stress corrosion cracking in stainless steels. Therefore, HB Line Engineering requested that Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) convert resin from chloride form to nitrate form in the Engineering Development Laboratory (EDL). To perform this task, SRNL treated two batches of resin in 2012. The first batch of resin from Reilly Industries Batch 80302MA was initially treated at SRNL in 2001 to remove chloride. This batch of resin, nominally 30 liters, has been stored wet in carboys since that time until being retreated in 2012. The second batch of resin from Batch 23408 consisted of 50 kg of new resin purchased from Vertellus Specialties in 2012. Both batches were treated in a column designed to convert resin using downflow of 1.0 M sodium nitrate solution through the resin bed followed by rinsing with deionized water. Both batches were analyzed for chloride concentration, before and after treatment, using Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA). The resin specification [Werling, 2003] states the total chlorine and chloride concentration shall be less than 250 ppm. The resin condition for measuring this concentration is not specified; however, in service the resin would always be fully wet. Measurements in SRNL showed that changing from oven dry resin to fully wet resin, with liquid in the particle interstices but no supernatant, increases the total weight by a factor of at least three. Therefore, concentration of chlorine or chloride expressed as parts per million (ppm) decreases by a factor of three. Therefore, SRNL recommends measuring chlorine concentration on an oven dry basis, then dividing by three to estimate chloride concentration in the fully wet condition. Chloride concentration in the first batch (No.80302MA) was nearly the same before the current treatment (759 ppm dry) and after treatment (745 ppm dry or {approx}248 ppm wet). Treatment of the second batch of resin (No.23408) was very successful. Chloride concentration decreased from 120,000 ppm dry to an average of 44 ppm dry or {approx}15ppm wet, which easily passes the 250 ppm wet criterion. Per guidance from HB Line Engineering, SRNL blended Batch 80302 resin with Batch P9059 resin which had been treated previously by ResinTech to remove chloride. The chloride concentrations for the two drums of Batch P9059 were 248 ppm dry ({approx}83 ppm wet) {+-}22.8% and 583 ppm dry ({approx}194 ppm wet) {+-} 11.8%. The blended resin was packaged in five gallon buckets.

Steimke, J.; Williams, M.; Steeper, T.; Leishear, R.

2012-05-29

337

Resin film infusion mold tooling and molding method  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A mold apparatus and method for resin film infusion molding including an outer mold tool having a facing sheet adapted to support a resin film and preform assembly. The facing sheet includes attachment features extending therefrom. An inner mold tool is positioned on the facing sheet to enclose the resin film and preform assembly for resin film infusion molding. The inner mold tool includes a plurality of mandrels positioned for engagement with the resin film and preform assembly. Each mandrel includes a slot formed therein. A plurality of locating bars cooperate with the slots and with the attachment features for locating the mandrels longitudinally on the outer mold tool.

Burgess, Roger (Inventor); Grossheim, Brian (Inventor); Mouradian, Karbis (Inventor); Thrash, Patrick J. (Inventor)

1999-01-01

338

Stability Of A Carbon-Dioxide-Removing Resin  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Report describes experiments determing long-term chemical stability of IRA-45, commerical ion-exchange resin candidate for use in removing CO2 from atmosphere of Space Station. In proposed system, cabin air passes through resin, and acidic CO2 absorbed by weakly-basic hydrated diethylenetriamine bonded to porous resin substrate. When resin absorbs all CO2, disconnects from airstream and heated with steam to desorb CO2. Resin reuseable. Removed by post-treating process air with phosphoric acid on charcoal. Other chemicals removed by trace-contaminant-control subsystem of Space Station.

Wydeven, Theodore; Wood, Peter

1990-01-01

339

ANALYSIS OF VENTING OF A RESIN SLURRY  

SciTech Connect

A resin slurry venting analysis was conducted to address safety issues associated with overpressurization of ion exchange columns used in the Purex process at the Savannah River Site (SRS). If flow to these columns were inadvertently interrupted, an exothermic runaway reaction could occur between the ion exchange resin and the nitric acid used in the feed stream. The nitric acid-resin reaction generates significant quantities of noncondensable gases, which would pressurize the column. To prevent the column from rupturing during such events, rupture disks are installed on the column vent lines. The venting analysis models accelerating rate calorimeter (ARC) tests and data from tests that were performed in a vented test vessel with a rupture disk. The tests showed that the pressure inside the test vessel continued to increase after the rupture disk opened, though at a slower rate than prior to the rupture. Calculated maximum discharge rates for the resin venting tests exceeded the measured rates of gas generation, so the vent size was sufficient to relieve the pressure in the test vessel if the vent flow rate was constant. The increase in the vessel pressure is modeled as a transient phenomenon associated with expansion of the resin slurry/gas mixture upon rupture of the disk. It is postulated that the maximum pressure at the end of this expansion is limited by energy minimization to approximately 1.5 times the rupture disk burst pressure. The magnitude of this pressure increase is consistent with the measured pressure transients. The results of this analysis demonstrate the need to allow for a margin between the design pressure and the rupture disk burst pressure in similar applications.

Laurinat, J.; Hensel, S.

2012-03-27

340

Synthesis and Characterizations of Melamine-Based Epoxy Resins  

PubMed Central

A new, easy and cost-effective synthetic procedure for the preparation of thermosetting melamine-based epoxy resins is reported. By this innovative synthetic method, different kinds of resins can be obtained just by mixing the reagents in the presence of a catalyst without solvent and with mild curing conditions. Two types of resins were synthesized using melamine and a glycidyl derivative (resins I) or by adding a silane derivative (resin II). The resins were characterized by means of chemical-physical and thermal techniques. Experimental results show that all the prepared resins have a good thermal stability, but differ for their mechanical properties: resin I exhibits remarkable stiffness with a storage modulus value up to 830 MPa at room temperature, while lower storage moduli were found for resin II, indicating that the presence of silane groups could enhance the flexibility of these materials. The resins show a pot life higher than 30 min, which makes these resins good candidates for practical applications. The functionalization with silane terminations can be exploited in the formulation of hybrid organic-inorganic composite materials. PMID:24013372

Ricciotti, Laura; Roviello, Giuseppina; Tarallo, Oreste; Borbone, Fabio; Ferone, Claudio; Colangelo, Francesco; Catauro, Michelina; Cioffi, Raffaele

2013-01-01

341

Study on the resin temperature developments during UV imprinting process.  

PubMed

During the imprinting process, the temperature of the UV resin increases as the phase of the resin changes from fluid into solid. During UV curing, some amount of heat is released from inside the resin and transferred into contacting materials. The heat flow is measured with photo-DSC, and other related thermal and mechanical properties of the resin. With the measured material properties, the temperature developments both inside of the resin layer and along the interfaces of the contacting materials are computed. During the UV exposure period, the thermal deformation of the mold, which directly influences the pattern distortion are investigated. Under this condition, the developments of strain and temperature inside the mold structure including the UV resin of 3-D shape are computed with the transient time scale during UV curing according to the thickness of resin layer. These computational results are expected to provide useful information for better designs of the imprinting mold and the process condition. PMID:22629908

Jeon, Jongduk; Jang, Siyoul

2012-02-01

342

Utilization of Methacrylates and Polymer Matrices for the Synthesis of Ion Specific Resins  

SciTech Connect

Disposal, storage, and/or transmutation of actinides such as americium (Am) will require the development of specific separation schemes. Existing efforts focus on solvent extraction systems for achieving suitable separation of actinide from lanthanides. However, previous work has shown the feasibility of ion-imprinting polymer-based resins for use in ion-exchange-type separations with metal ion recognition. Phenolic-based resins have been shown to function well for Am-Eu separations, but these resins exhibited slow kinetics and difficulties in the imprinting process. This project addresses the need for new and innovative methods for the selective separation of actinides through novel ion-imprinted resins. The project team will explore incorporation of metals into extended frameworks, including the possibility of 3D polymerized matrices that can serve as a solid-state template for specific resin preparation. For example, an anhydrous trivalent f-element chain can be formed directly from a metal carbonate, and methacrylic acid from water. From these simple coordination complexes, molecules of discrete size or shape can be formed via the utilization of coordinating ligands or by use of an anionic multi-ligand system incorporating methacrylate. Additionally, alkyl methyl methacrylates have been used successfully to create template nanospaces, which underscores their potential utility as 3D polymerized matrices. This evidence provides a unique route for the preparation of a specific metal ion template for the basis of ion-exchange separations. Such separations may prove to be excellent discriminators of metal ions, even between f-elements.

Czerwinski, Kenneth

2013-10-29

343

Effects of curing mode of resin cements on the bond strength of a titanium post: An intraradicular study  

PubMed Central

Aim: To compare push-out bond strength between self-cured and dual-cured resin cement using a titanium post. Background: Dual-cured resin cements have been found to be less polymerized in the absence of light; thus the bond strength of cements would be compromised due to the absence of light with a metallic post. Materials and Methods: Ten extracted teeth were prepared for cement titanium PARAPOST, of five specimens each, with Panavia F [dual-cured (PF)] and Rely×Luting 2 [self-cured resin-modified glass ionomer luting cement (RL)]; the push-out bond strength (PBS) at three different levels of the sectioned roots was measured. The failure modes were observed and the significance of the differences in bond strength of the two types of cement at each level and at different levels of the same type was analyzed with non-parametric tests. Results: The push-out bond strength of the RL group was greater at all the three levels; with significant differences at the coronal and middle levels (P<0.05). No significant differences in PBS at different levels of the same group were observed. Cement material around the post was obvious in the PF group. The failure mode was mostly adhesive between the post and resin cement in the RL group. Conclusion: Bond strength was greater with self-cured, resin-modified glass ionomer luting cement, using titanium post. PMID:22557808

Reza, Fazal; Lim, Siau Peng

2012-01-01

344

Preparative separation and purification of fumigaclavine C from fermented mycelia of Aspergillus fumigatus CY018 by macroporous adsorption resin.  

PubMed

In this work, the separation and purification of fumigaclavine C (FC), an ergot alkaloid with strong anti-inflammatory activity from fermented mycelia of Aspergillus fumigatus was systematically evaluated. Among the eight tested resins, the non-polar resin D101 displayed the best adsorption and desorption based on of static adsorption and desorption tests. Adsorption isotherms were constructed on D101 resin and fitted well to the Freundlich model. Dynamic adsorption and desorption tests on a column packed with D101 resin have been investigated for optimization of chromatographic parameters. Under optimized conditions, the contents of FC increased from 7.32% (w/w) in the crude extract to 67.54% in the final product with a recovery yield of 90.35% (w/w) via one run. Furthermore, a lab scale-up separation was carried out, in which the FC content and recovery yield were 65.83% and 90.13%, respectively. These results demonstrated that this adsorption-desorption strategy by using D101 resin was simple and efficient, thus showing potential for large scale purification and preparation of FC in the future. PMID:25817261

Yao, Ling-Yun; Zhu, Yi-Xiang; Liu, Chang-Qing; Jiao, Rui-Hua; Lu, Yan-Hua; Tan, Ren-Xiang

2015-05-01

345

Influence of handpiece maintenance sprays on resin bonding to dentin  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the influence of maintenance spray on resin bonding to dentin. Materials and methods The crown of extracted, caries-free human molars was transversally sectioned with a model trimmer to prepare the dentin surfaces from mid-coronal sound dentin, and then uniformly abraded with #600 silicon carbide paper. The dentin surfaces were randomly divided into three groups: oil-free spray group where maintenance cleaner for air bearing handpieces was sprayed onto the dentin surface for 1 s and rinsed with water spray for 30 s; oil-containing spray group where maintenance cleaner for micro motor handpieces was sprayed onto the dentin surface for 1 s and rinsed with water spray for 30 s; and control group where the surface was rinsed with water spray for 30 s and then air-dried. These surfaces were then bonded with Clearfil SE Bond (Kuraray Medical), and resin composite (Clearfil AP-X, Kuraray Medical) build-up crowns were incrementally constructed on the bonded surfaces. After storage for 24 h in 37°C water, the bonded teeth were sectioned into hour-glass shaped slices (0.7-mm thick) perpendicular to the bonded surfaces. The specimens were then subjected to microtensile bond strength (?TBS) testing at a crosshead speed of 1.0 mm/min. Data were analyzed with one-way ANOVA and the Tukey-Kramer test. Results Maintenance spray-contaminated specimens (oil-free and oil-containing spray groups) showed significantly lower ?TBS than control specimens (P < 0.05). However, there was no significant difference between the spray-contaminated groups (P > 0.05). Conclusion Maintenance spray significantly reduces the bond strength of Clearfil SE Bond to dentin. PMID:23662078

Sugawara, Toyotarou; Kameyama, Atsushi; Haruyama, Akiko; Oishi, Takumi; Kukidome, Nobuyuki; Takase, Yasuaki; Tsunoda, Masatake

2010-01-01

346

Effect of Resin Coating and Chlorhexidine on Microleakage of Two Resin Cements after Storage  

PubMed Central

Objective: Evaluating the effect of resin coating and chlorhexidine on microleakage of two resin cements after water storage. Materials and Methods: Standardized class V cavities were prepared on facial and lingual surfaces of one hundred twenty intact human molars with gingival margins placed 1 mm below the cemento-enamel junction. Indirect composite inlays were fabricated and the specimens were randomly assigned into 6 groups. In Groups 1 to 4, inlays were cemented with Panavia F2.0 cement. G1: according to the manufacturer’s instruction. G2: with light cured resin on the ED primer. G3: chlorhexidine application before priming. G4: with chlorhexidine application before priming and light cured resin on primer. G5: inlays were cemented with Nexus 2 resin cement. G6: chlorhexidine application after etching. Each group was divided into two subgroups based on the 24-hour and 6-month water storage time. After preparation for microleakage test, the teeth were sectioned and evaluated at both margins under a 20× stereomicroscope. Dye penetration was scored using 0–3 criteria. The data was analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis and complementary Dunn tests. Results: There was significantly less leakage in G2 and G4 than the Panavia F2.0 control group at gingival margins after 6 months (P<0.05). There was no significant differences in leakage between G1 and G3 at both margins after 24 hours and 6 months storage. After 6 months, G6 revealed significantly less leakage than G5 at gingival margins (P=0.033). In general, gingival margins showed more leakage than occlusal margins. Conclusion: Additionally, resin coating in self-etch (Panavia F2.0) and chlorhexidine application in etch-rinse (Nexus) resin cement reduced microleakage at gingival margins after storage. PMID:21998773

Shafie, F.; Doozandeh, M.; Alavi, A.

2010-01-01

347

Anion-exchange resin-based desulfurization process. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The following investigations were performed: (1) batch mode screening of eleven(11) commercially available resins and selection of three candidate resins for further evaluation in a fixed-bed setup. (2) Process variables study using three candidate resins in the fixed-bed setup and selection of the ``best`` resin for process economics development. (3) Exhaustion efficiency and solution concentration were found to be inversely related necessitating a trade-off between the resin cost versus the cost of evaporation/concentration of ensuing effluents. (4) Higher concentration of the HCO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} form of active sites over less active CO{sub 3}{sup 2{minus}} form of sites in the resin was believed to be the main reason for the observed increase in the equilibrium capacity of the resin at an elevated static CO{sub 2}-pressure. This Increase in capacity was found to level off around 80--120 psig range. The increase in CO{sub 2}-pressure, however, did not appear to affect the overall ion-exchange kinetics. (5) In the fixed-bed mode, the solution concentration was found to affect the equilibrium capacity of candidate resins. Their relationship was well satisfied by the Langmuir type non-linear equilibrium isotherm. Alternatively, the effect of solution concentration on overall ion-exchange kinetics varied from resin to resin. (6) Product inhibition effect on the resin was observed as an initial increase followed by a significant decrease in the resin`s equilibrium capacity for SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} as the HCO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}/SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} molar ratio in the solution was increased from 0 to 1.0. This ratio, however, did not affect the overall ion-exchange kinetics.

Sheth, A C; Dharmapurikar, R; Strevel, S D

1994-01-01

348

Flammability of Epoxy Resins Containing Phosphorus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As part of a program to develop fire-resistant exterior composite structures for future subsonic commercial and general aviation aircraft, flame-retardant epoxy resins are under investigation. Epoxies and their curing agents (aromatic diamines) containing phosphorus were synthesized and used to prepare epoxy formulations. Phosphorus was incorporated within the backbone of the epoxy resin and not used as an additive. The resulting cured neat epoxy formulations were characterized by thermogravimetric analysis, propane torch test, elemental analysis, microscale combustion calorimetry, and fire calorimetry. Several formulations showed excellent flame retardation with phosphorous contents as low as 1.5% by weight. The fracture toughness and compressive strength of several cured formulations showed no detrimental effect due to phosphorus content. The chemistry and properties of these new epoxy formulations are discussed.

Hergenrother, P. M.; Thompson, C. M.; Smith, J. G.; Connell, J. W.; Hinkley, J. A.

2005-01-01

349

Processable polyimide adhesive and matrix composite resin  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A high temperature polyimide composition prepared by reacting 4,4'-isophthaloyldiphthalic anhydride with metaphenylenediamine is employed to prepare matrix resins, adhesives, films, coatings, moldings, and laminates, especially those showing enhanced flow with retention of mechanical and adhesive properties. It can be used in the aerospace industry, for example, in joining metals to metals or metals to composite structures. One area of application is in the manufacture of lighter and stronger aircraft and spacecraft structures.

Pratt, J. Richard (inventor); St.clair, Terry L. (inventor); Progar, Donald J. (inventor)

1990-01-01

350

Expandable Foam from Amorphous Polyester Resin  

Microsoft Academic Search

A resilient foam that is both expandable and moldable was prepared from an amorphous polyester resin using a mixed blowing agent of a high-solubility compound and a low-permeability compound. The high-solubility compound permits a high degree of expansion, while the low-permeability compound renders secondary expandability. The polyester foam remedies the deficiencies of existing bead products. Polystyrene beads retain blowing agents

Chung P. Park; Gerald A. Garcia; Roby G. Watson

2003-01-01

351

Candida albicans adhesion to composite resin materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adhesion of Candida albicans to dental restorative materials in the human oral cavity may promote the occurrence of oral candidosis. This study aimed\\u000a to compare the susceptibility of 14 commonly used composite resin materials (two compomers, one ormocer, one novel silorane,\\u000a and ten conventional hybrid composites) to adhere Candida albicans. Differences in the amount of adhering fungi should be

Ralf Bürgers; Wulf Schneider-Brachert; Martin Rosentritt; Gerhard Handel; Sebastian Hahnel

2009-01-01

352

Ceramic whisker reinforcement of dental resin composites.  

PubMed

Resin composites currently available are not suitable for use as large stress-bearing posterior restorations involving cusps due to their tendencies toward excessive fracture and wear. The glass fillers in composites provide only limited reinforcement because of the brittleness and low strength of glass. The aim of the present study was to reinforce dental resins with ceramic single-crystalline whiskers of elongated shapes that possess extremely high strength. A novel method was developed that consisted of fusing silicate glass particles onto the surfaces of individual whiskers for a two-fold benefit: (1) to facilitate silanization regardless of whisker composition; and (2) to enhance whisker retention in the matrix by providing rougher whisker surfaces. Silicon nitride whiskers, with an average diameter of 0.4 microm and length of 5 microm, were coated by the fusion of silica particles 0.04 microm in size to the whisker surface at temperatures ranging from 650 degrees C to 1000 degrees C. The coated whiskers were silanized and manually blended with resins by spatulation. Flexural, fracture toughness, and indentation tests were carried out for evaluation of the properties of the whisker-reinforced composites in comparison with conventional composites. A two-fold increase in strength and toughness was achieved in the whisker-reinforced composite, together with a substantially enhanced resistance to contact damage and microcracking. The highest flexural strength (195+/-8 MPa) and fracture toughness (2.1+/-0.3 MPa x m(1/2)) occurred in a composite reinforced with a whisker-silica mixture at whisker:silica mass ratio of 2:1 fused at 800 degrees C. To conclude, the strength, toughness, and contact damage resistance of dental resin composites can be substantially improved by reinforcement with fillers of ceramic whiskers fused with silica glass particles. PMID:10029470

Xu, H H; Martin, T A; Antonucci, J M; Eichmiller, F C

1999-02-01

353

Chemoviscosity modeling for thermosetting resins - I  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new analytical model for chemoviscosity variation during cure of thermosetting resins was developed. This model is derived by modifying the widely used WLF (Williams-Landel-Ferry) Theory in polymer rheology. Major assumptions involved are that the rate of reaction is diffusion controlled and is linearly inversely proportional to the viscosity of the medium over the entire cure cycle. The resultant first order nonlinear differential equation is solved numerically, and the model predictions compare favorably with experimental data of EPON 828/Agent U obtained on a Rheometrics System 4 Rheometer. The model describes chemoviscosity up to a range of six orders of magnitude under isothermal curing conditions. The extremely non-linear chemoviscosity profile for a dynamic heating cure cycle is predicted as well. The model is also shown to predict changes of glass transition temperature for the thermosetting resin during cure. The physical significance of this prediction is unclear at the present time, however, and further research is required. From the chemoviscosity simulation point of view, the technique of establishing an analytical model as described here is easily applied to any thermosetting resin. The model thus obtained is used in real-time process controls for fabricating composite materials.

Hou, T. H.

1984-01-01

354

Copper resinate: an XPS study of degradation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we describe an X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) study of copper resinate, a transparent green glaze that is coloured by copper salts of resin acids. This pigment was used in Europe in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, but it does not seem to be a usual feature of the palette anywhere after the end of the sixteenth century, because its tendency to discolour was already widely known by artists. An essential prerequisite for the restoration of works of art is the understanding of the effects of various climatic parameters on the deterioration process. For this reason, pictorial models of copper resinate in linseed oil, capable of simulating the ancient paintings on mobile supports, were prepared and aged in a climatic chamber, under different conditions such as exposure to UV radiations, humidity and different concentration of chemical pollutants (NO2 and SO2). All the samples were investigated by XPS and the data obtained were evaluated in order to estimate aging effects as well as mechanisms of degradation. On these paint layers damage induced by X-ray irradiation was also verified.

Altavilla, C.; Ciliberto, E.

2006-06-01

355

Composite fabrication via resin transfer molding technology  

SciTech Connect

The IMPReS (Integrated Modeling and Processing of Resin-based Structures) Program was funded in FY95 to consolidate, evaluate and enhance Sandia`s capabilities in the design and fabrication of composite structures. A key driver of this and related programs was the need for more agile product development processes and for model based design and fabrication tools across all of Sandia`s material technologies. A team of polymer, composite and modeling personnel was assembled to benchmark Sandia`s existing expertise in this area relative to industrial and academic programs and to initiate the tasks required to meet Sandia`s future needs. RTM (Resin Transfer Molding) was selected as the focus composite fabrication technology due to its versatility and growing use in industry. Modeling efforts focused on the prediction of composite mechanical properties and failure/damage mechanisms and also on the uncured resin flow processes typical of RTM. Appropriate molds and test composites were fabricated and model validation studies begun. This report summarizes and archives the modeling and fabrication studies carried out under IMPReS and evaluates the status of composite technology within Sandia. It should provide a complete and convenient baseline for future composite technology efforts within Sandia.

Jamison, G.M.; Domeier, L.A.

1996-04-01

356

Effect of three different antioxidants on the shear bond strength of composite resin to bleached enamel: An in vitro study  

PubMed Central

Objective: The effect of 10% sodium ascorbate, 10% grape seed extract, and 10% pine bark extract on the shear bond strength of composite resin to bleached enamel was evaluated. Materials and Methods: Ninety recently extracted human premolars were divided into six groups of 15 teeth each. Except Group I (negative control), the labial enamel surface of all specimens in the other groups were bleached with 37.5% hydrogen peroxide. After bleaching, Group II specimens were stored in artificial saliva for 3weeks before composite bonding. Immediately following bleaching; Groups III, IV, and V specimens were treated with antioxidants 10% sodium ascorbate, 10% grape seed extract, and 10% pine bark extract, respectively, for 10 min and bonded with composite resin. In Group VI (positive control), the composite bonding was done immediately after bleaching. All specimens were stored in deionized water for 24 h at 37?C before shear bond strength testing. The data obtained were tabulated and statistically analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Duncan's multiple range test. Results: The unbleached teeth showed the highest shear bond strength followed by the bleached teeth treated with the antioxidant 10% pine bark extract. Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study, it was observed that the use of antioxidants effectively reversed the compromised bond strength of bleached enamel. Among the antioxidants, 10% pine bark extract application after bleaching showed better bond strength.

Subramonian, Rajalekshmy; Mathai, Vijay; Christaine Angelo, Jeya Balaji Mano; Ravi, Jotish

2015-01-01

357

CHARACTERIZATION OF CYCLED SPHERICAL RESORCINOL-FORMALDEHYDE ION EXCHANGE RESIN  

SciTech Connect

This report presents characterization data for two spherical resorcinol-formaldehyde (sRF) resin beds that had processed cesium in non-radioactive and radioactive cycles. All column cycle operations for the resin beds including loading, displacements, elution, regeneration, breakthroughs, and solution analyses are reported in Nash and Duignan, 2009a. That report covered four ion exchange (IX) campaigns using the two {approx}11 mL beds in columns in a lead-lag arrangement. The first two campaigns used Savannah River Site (SRS) Tank 2F nonradioactive simulant while the latter two were fed with actual dissolved salt in the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) Shielded Cells. Both radioactive cycles ran to cesium breakthrough of the lead column. The resin beds saw in excess of 400 bed volumes of feed in each cycle. Resin disposal plans in tank farm processing depend on characterizations of resin used with actual tank feed. Following a final 30 bed volume (BV) elution with nitric acid, the resin beds were found to contain detectable chromium, barium, boron, aluminum, iron, sodium, sulfur, plutonium, cesium, and mercury. Resin affinity for plutonium is important in criticality safety considerations. Cesium-137 was found to be less than 10E+7 dpm/g of resin, similar to past work with sRF resin. Sulfur levels are reasonably consistent with other work and are expected to represent sulfur chemistry used in the resin manufacture. There were low but detectable levels of technetium, americium, and curium. Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) work on the used (eluted) resin samples showed significant contents of mercury, barium, and chromium. One resin sample exceeded the TCLP level for mercury while the other metals were below TCLP levels. TCLP organics measurements indicated measurable benzene in one case, though the source was unknown. Results of this work were compared with other work on similar sRF resin characterizations in this report. This is the first work to quantify mercury on sRF resin. Resin mercury content is important in plans for the disposition of used sRF resin. Mercury speciation in high level waste (HLW) is unknown. It may be partly organic, one example being methyl mercury cation. Further study of the resin's affinity for mercury is recommended.

Nash, C.; Duignan, M.

2010-02-23

358

Effects of layering technique on the shade of resin overlays and the microhardness of dual cure resin cement.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to assess the color of layered resin overlays and to test the early microhardness of dual cure resin cement (DCRC) light cured through the layered resin overlays. Resin overlays of 1.5 mm thickness were fabricated with the A3 shade of Z350 (Group 1L), the A3B and A3E shades of Supreme XT (Group 2L), and the A3, E3, and T1 shades of Sinfony (Group 3L) using one, two, and three layers, respectively (n=7). Each layer of the resin overlays was set in equal thickness. The color of the resin overlays was measured with a colorimeter and compared with an A3 shade resin denture tooth. DCRC was light cured through the resin overlays, and the early microhardness of the DCRC was measured. The ?E value between the denture tooth and the resin overlays and the Vickers hardness number (VHN) of the DCRC were analyzed with one-way ANOVA and Tukey's HSD test. The color differences were 8.9±0.5, 5.3±1.0, and 7.3±0.5 and the VHNs were 19.4±1.1, 21.1±0.9, and 29.3±0.6 for Groups 1L, 2L, and 3L, respectively. Therefore, to match the designated tooth color of resin inlays and to increase the early microhardness of DCRC, layered resin inlays are more appropriate than single-dentin-layer resin inlays. However, the translucent layer should be used cautiously because the color difference of resin inlays with a translucent layer was affected more than those without a translucent layer. PMID:24918368

Chang, Hoon-Sang; Hong, Sung-Ok

2014-01-01

359

Plant tissue extraction for metabolomics.  

PubMed

Plants are not only important producers of foods and energy storages (e.g., sugars, carbohydrates, proteins, and fats) in the form of grains, fruits, and vegetables, they also provide many valuable products to human existence including wood, fibers, oils, resins, pigments, antioxidants, and sources of medicine. Most importantly in light of this book, plants have been a source of therapeutic and health promoting compounds throughout history. This chapter describes several essential considerations for the extraction process when aiming to study plant metabolism or to characterize the chemical composition of plant originated samples using metabolomics technologies. PMID:23963900

Roessner, Ute; Dias, Daniel Anthony

2013-01-01

360

Preconcentration and separation of copper, zinc and cadmium by the use of 6-mercapto purinylazo resin and their application in microwave digested certified biological samples followed by AAS determination of the metal ions.  

PubMed

6-Mercapto purinylazo resin has been used as solid phase extractor. Based on solid phase extraction, the present work describes the preconcentration and determination of copper, zinc and cadmium in certified biological samples after microwave-assisted digestion. The exchange capacity of the resin, the sorption and desorption of metal ions, and the effect of diverse ions have also been determined. The results show that the resin is highly selective for determination of these biologically significant metals. The method is simple, rapid and free from interferences and can be used routinely. PMID:12437149

Mondal, Bhim C; Das, Debasis; Das, Arabinda K

2002-01-01

361

Bismaleimide resins for flame resistant honeycomb sandwich panels  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Bismaleimide resins are prime candidates for nonflammable aircraft interior panels. Three resin types with different structures and processing characteristics were formulated. Resin M 751 was used to fabricate 100 kg of glass fabric prepregs which were used for the preparation of face sheets for honeycomb sandwich panels. Prepreg characteristics and curing cycles for laminate fabrication are provided. In order to advance beyond the current solvent resin technology for fibre and fabric impregnation, a hot melt solvent-less resin system was prepared and characterized. Preliminary tests were performed to develop a wet bonding process for the fabrication of advanced sandwich honeycomb panels by use of polybismaleimide glass fabric face sheets and polybismaleimide Nomex honeycomb core. B-stage material was used for both the core and the face sheet, providing flatwise tensile properties equivalent to those obtained by the state-of-the-art 3-step process which includes an epoxy adhesive resin.

Stenzenberger, H. D.

1978-01-01

362

Health Problems of Epoxy Resins and Amine-curing Agents  

PubMed Central

Epoxy resins were first introduced about 10 years ago. Toxic effects, particularly dermatitis, have been frequently described. An investigation into the possible causes of pathological sequelae following the use of epoxy resin/amine mixtures has been undertaken. The cause of most cases of dermatitis and sensitization appears to be uncombined amine which is present in recent mixtures and persists in hardened resin for long periods. The results of experiments with two of the most commonly used resin/amine mixtures confirm this. Cold-cured resins are more dangerous and remain so even when hardened. A simple theory is suggested for the mechanism of the reaction between epoxy resins, amines, and biological systems. This theory leads logically to the handling precautions outlined. Images PMID:13651551

Bourne, L. B.; Milner, F. J. M.; Alberman, K. B.

1959-01-01

363

Inorganic resins for clinical use of .sup.213Bi generators  

DOEpatents

Applicant's invention is a radionuclide generator resin material for radiochemical separation of daughter radionuclides, particularly .sup.213Bi, from a solution of parental radionuclides, the resin material capable of providing clinical quantities of .sup.213Bi of at least 20-mCi, wherein the resin material comprises a silica-based structure having at least one bifunctional ligand covalently attached to the surface of the silica-based structure. The bifunctional ligand comprises a chemical group having desirable surface functionality to enable the covalent attachment of the bifunctional ligand thereon the surface of the structure and the bifunctional ligand further comprises a second chemical group capable of binding and holding the parental radionuclides on the resin material while allowing the daughter radionuclides to elute off the resin material. The bifunctional ligand has a carbon chain with a limited number of carbons to maintain radiation stability of the resin material.

DePaoli, David W. (Knoxville, TN); Hu, Michael Z. (Knoxville, TN); Mirzadeh, Saed (Knoxville, TN); Clavier, John W. (Elizabethton, TN)

2011-03-29

364

CCMR: Green Composites: Using Modified Sunflower Based Resins  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this research, green composites were developed using sunflower based resins and jute fabric material. More specifically, research was done on the effects of modification on the mechanical properties of the resin. By incorporating modified sunflower based resin, the protein content increases, which therefore enhance the mechanical properties. Modifying the resin by changing the pH, using a micro fabric filtration, and applying recycled newspaper fibers all enhance the young’s modulus, tensile stress, and tensile strain of the sunflower plant based resin. As more research on how to increase the properties of the resin develop, the more likely green composites can be used throughout society as biodegradable, renewable materials, rather than petroleum-based materials.

Yarbrough, DeAnna S.

2010-08-15

365

Epoxy Resin\\/Graphite Electrically Conductive Nanosheet Nanocomposite  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, graphite nanosheets were prepared by powdering expanded graphite with sonication in aqueous alcoholic solution. Epoxy resin\\/graphite nanosheet nanocomposites were fabricated and their electrical and mechanical properties were investigated. The results revealed that graphite sheets 30–80 nm in thickness could be effectively dispersed within the epoxy resin. The percolation threshold of epoxy resin\\/graphite nanoparticles was about 0.015, much lower

Wei Lu; Jianxin Weng; Dajun Wu; Cuiling Wu; Guohua Chen

2006-01-01

366

Chromium Ions Improve Moisure Resistance of Epoxy Resins  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Broad spectrum of thermosetting epoxy resins used on commercial and military aircraft, primarily as composite matrices and adhesives. In new technique, chromium-ion containing epoxy with improved resistance to moisture produced where chromium ions believed to prevent absorption of water molecules by coordinating themselves to hydroxyl groups on epoxy chain. Anticipated that improved epoxy formulation useful as composite matrix resin, adhesive, or casting resin for applications on commercial and advanced aircraft. Improvement made without sacrifice in mechanical properties of polymer.

St. Clair, A. K.; St. Clair, T. L.; Stoakley, D. M.; Singh, J. J.; Sprinkle, D. R.

1986-01-01

367

Detoxification of lignocellulose hydrolysates with ion-exchange resins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lignocellulose hydrolysates contain fermentation inhibitors causing decreased ethanol production. The inhibitors include phenolic\\u000a compounds, furan aldehydes, and aliphatic acids. One of the most efficient methods for removing inhibiting compounds prior\\u000a to fermentation is treatment of the hydrolysate with ion-exchange resins. The performance and detoxification mechanism of\\u000a three different resins were examined: an anion exchanger, a cation exchanger, and a resin

Nils-Olof Nilvebrant; Anders Reimann; Simona Larsson; Leif J. Jönsson

2001-01-01

368

Phenol-Crotonaldehyde Resins. III. Curing Behavior with Hexamethylenetetramine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solid thermoplastic resins were prepared by acid-catalyzed condensation of phenol and crotonaldehyde (both crude and distilled). The thermal and curing properties were compared with the conventional phenol-formaldehyde (PF) novolak resins. Phenol-crotonaldehyde (PC) resins were found to be thermoplastic even after curing with the crosslinking agent hexamethylenetetramine up to 160°C. This curing behavior was observed irrespective of the purity of the

R. N. Dongre; S. Ponrathnam; V. M. Nadkarni

1987-01-01

369

Hydrolyzable polyester resins, varnishes and coating compositions containing the same  

DOEpatents

Preparation of hydrolyzable polyester resin comprising reacting polycarboxylic acid and polyhydric alcohol components, which is characterized by using, as at least part of said polyhydric alcohol component, a metallic salt of hydroxy carboxylic acid of the formula defined and effecting the polycondensation at a temperature which is no more than the decomposition temperature of said metallic salt. The polyester resins are useful as resinous vehicle of varnishes and antifouling paints.

Yamamori, Naoki (Minoo, JP); Yokoi, Junji (Nara, JP); Yoshikawa, Motoyoshi (Nara, JP)

1984-01-01

370

Resin compounds from the seed cones of three fossil conifer species from the Miocene Clarkia flora, Emerald Creek, Idaho, USA, and from related extant species  

Microsoft Academic Search

The terpenoid compositions of three conifer species from the Miocene Clarkia flora, Emerald Creek, Idaho, USA, and of related extant species were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The extracts of the seed cones of Miocene Taxodium dubium, Glyptostrobus oregonensis, and Cunninghamia chaneyi (Cupressaceae s.l.) contain several sesqui- and diterpenoids which originate from the resins. Many of the terpenoids have been

Angelika Otto; Bernd R. T. Simoneit; William C. Rember

2003-01-01

371

Synthesis and Thermal Degradation Studies of Melamine Formaldehyde Resins  

PubMed Central

Melamine formaldehyde (MF) resins have been synthesized at different reaction temperature and pH values. Different molar ratios of melamine and formaldehyde were used to synthesize the corresponding resins. The prepared resin samples were characterized by using molecular weight determination viscometry and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The maximum percentage of solid content (69.7%) was obtained at pH 8.5 and 75°C temperature. The molecular weight of MF resin was increased with an increase of melamine monomer concentration. The highest residual weight 14.125?wt.% was obtained with sample 10. PMID:25436237

Ullah, Sami; Bustam, M. A.; Nadeem, M.; Tan, W. L.; Shariff, A. M.

2014-01-01

372

Synthesis and thermal degradation studies of melamine formaldehyde resins.  

PubMed

Melamine formaldehyde (MF) resins have been synthesized at different reaction temperature and pH values. Different molar ratios of melamine and formaldehyde were used to synthesize the corresponding resins. The prepared resin samples were characterized by using molecular weight determination viscometry and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The maximum percentage of solid content (69.7%) was obtained at pH 8.5 and 75°C temperature. The molecular weight of MF resin was increased with an increase of melamine monomer concentration. The highest residual weight 14.125 wt.% was obtained with sample 10. PMID:25436237

Ullah, Sami; Bustam, M A; Nadeem, M; Naz, M Y; Tan, W L; Shariff, A M

2014-01-01

373

A tool for increasing the lifetime of chromatography resins  

PubMed Central

There is a steadily increasing demand for speed, cost efficiency and process understanding within biopharmaceutical process development. To match this, a high-throughput method for screening of cleaning-in-place (CIP) conditions for chromatography resins has been developed. The methodology includes fouling of MabSelect SuRe chromatography resin in 96-well filter plates, cleaning of the fouled resin by incubation in different CIP agents, and finally, analysis of the residual impurities on the resin after cleaning. This article describes the improvements that transformed the method from low throughput and significant manual interference to a totally automated method with high throughput and good reproducibility. PMID:21304272

Grönberg, Anna; Eriksson, Malin; Ersoy, Maria

2011-01-01

374

Maleimido substituted cyclotriphosphazene resins for fire and heat resistant composites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new class of fire- and heat-resistant matrix resins have been synthesized by the thermal polymerization of maleimido substituted phenoxycyclotriphosphazenes. The resins have exhibited a char yield of 82 percent at 800 C in nitrogen and 81 percent at 700 C in air. Graphite-fabric laminates based on a resin of this class have shown a limiting oxygen index of 100 percent even at 300 C. Details of the fabrication of the resins and the composites and testing procedures are discussed.

Kumar, D.; Fohlen, G. M.; Parker, J. A.

1983-01-01

375

Synthesis, characterization and analytical application of a hydroxamic acid resin.  

PubMed

A chelating ion-exchange resin with hydroxamic acid functional groups was synthesized from styrene-maleic acid co-polymer cross-linked with divinylbenzene. A resin prepared from equimolar amounts of styrene and maleic anhydride with 0.75 mole% divinylbenzene gives the best sorption characteristics. The selectivity of the resin for metal ions is copper(II) > cobalt(II) > zinc(II) > nickel(II) > manganese(II) > chromium(III) > iron(III) > vanadium(V). Copper(II), chromium(III) and iron(III) in chromium plating baths can be separated by use of the resin and determined spectrophotometrically. PMID:18964984

Mendez, R; Pillai, V N

1990-06-01

376

Novel processing and cure of epoxy resin systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermoset resin based prepregs are typically fabricated into advanced composite parts using autoclave cures of up to twelve hours in duration. Prepregs based on high performance engineering thermoplastic resins have better shelf lives but are more difficult to handle and require very high (300 C) temperatures for fabrication. This paper describes the development of epoxy resin systems which offer the potential of extended shelf life while curing at relatively low temperatures. These systems offer the user reductions in autoclave usage of 75 percent (or greater) and display some of the sought after processing characteristics of a thermoplastic thermoset. In addition, neat resin characterization, rheology information, and cure conditions are described.

Breitigam, W. V.; Bauer, R. S.; May, Clayton

377

Discriminatory protein binding by a library of 96 new affinity resins: a novel dye-affinity chromatography tool-kit.  

PubMed

Initial acceptance of Cibacron Blue 3G-A based matrices has made dye-ligand affinity chromatography an attractive proposition. This prompted the synthesis and search for new dye structures. A systematic library of 96 affinity resins was generated using novel analogs of Cibacron Blue 3G-A and also by varying spacer lengths for immobilization. The library was tested in a batch binding and elution mode using seven different proteins--four Aspergillus enzymes namely, NADP-glutamate dehydrogenase, laccase, glutamine synthetase and arginase, bovine pancreatic trypsin and the two serum proteins human serum albumin and immunoglobulin G. Unique binding patterns were observed for each of them indicating that the library displayed discriminatory interactions. The significance of spacer length in the interaction with proteins was discernable. Trypsin interacted best with affinity resins that had no spacer. It was possible to resolve IgG and HSA from a mixture using a combination of resins. There was a good spread of HSA binding capacity in the 96 affinity resins. While some showed better HSA binding capacity than the commercial CB3GA-based matrix, a few with lower capacity were also observed. Subsequent to an initial screen, one affinity resin (CR-017) could be used to enrich Aspergillus terreus NADP-GDH from crude cell extracts. The efficacy of this dye-affinity resin was rationalized by characterizing NADP-GDH inhibition kinetics with the corresponding free dye ligand. In the sum, the library provides a set of dye-ligand affinity matrices with a potential for use in high throughput screening for protein purification. PMID:19766065

Kumar, Sunil; Dalvi, Darshan B; Moorthy, Masana; Korde, Shilpa S; Fondekar, Kamalesh Pai; Sahasrabudhe, Suhas D; Schacht, Hans-Thomas; Ekkundi, Vadiraj S; Halik, Christine; Choudhury, Rajarshi; Kumar, Awanit; Punekar, Narayan S

2009-11-01

378

An In Vitro Evaluation of the Apical Sealing Ability of a New Resin-Based Root Canal Obturation System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to assess the apical sealing ability of the new resin-based Epiphany-Resilon root canal filling system, and to compare this with the sealing abilities of different pairings of AH plus, gutta-percha, Epiphany, and Resilon. Seventy extracted human single-rooted teeth were used. All teeth were instrumented using a set of ProTaper rotary instruments. The canal spaces

Emel Olga Onay; Mete Ungor; Hasan Orucoglu

2006-01-01

379

Bonding exterior grade structural panels with copolymer resins of biomass residue components, phenol, and formaldehyde  

SciTech Connect

Components of various forest and agricultural residue biomass-including the polyphenolic compounds-were converted into aqueous solution and/or suspension by extraction and digestion. Some biomass components reacted vigorously under alkaline catalysis with formaldehyde and initially showed a high degree of exothermic reaction; however, other components did not react as vigorously under these conditions, indicating that different biomass materials require different methods to obtain optimum reactivity for the copolymerization with phenol. Our primary goal is to develop adhesives capable of producing acceptable bond quality, as determined by the wood products industries` standards, under a reasonable range of gluing conditions. Copolymer resins of phenol, formaldehyde, and biomass components were synthesized and evaluated for gluability of bonding exterior grade structural replaced with chemicals derived from peanut hulls, pecan shell flour, pecan pith, southern pine bark, and pine needle required shorter press times. These resins also tolerated a broader range of gluing conditions. In summary, it appears that the technology of the fast curing copolymer resins of biomass components as adhesives for wood products has been developed and is ready to be transferred to industrial practice.

Chen, C.M. [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States)

1993-12-31

380

Assessment of cadmium in aquatic sediment using dialysis samplers with ion-exchange-resin collection  

SciTech Connect

Simultaneously extracted metals (SEM) and acid volatile sulfide (AVS) show the potential for toxicity on the basis of their ratio. Accordingly, the authors spiked cadmium in a range for which Cd/AVS ratios were from 0.2 to 10 in the sediment with its weight about 8 kg in each batch. Dialysis samplers with a cation ion-exchange resin (Dowex 50W-X4) collection were used in a laboratory for the determination of free cadmium concentrations in pore water of the collected sediment. When equilibrium was reached among cadmium in pore water, sediment, and ion-exchange resin, cadmium exchanged onto resin phase was regenerated with 1 N hydrochloric acid (OPTIMA grade) and determined using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer (Zeeman 5000) with a graphite furnace accessory. Cadmium determined using the dialysis sampler is considered as free cadmium which is related to the metal bioavailability toward aquatic biota. The developed methodology provides a new technique for assessment of free metal in aquatic sediment systems.

Shi, B. [Kimberly-Clark Corp., Neenah, WI (United States). Environmental Technology; Allen, H.E. [Univ. of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering; Desnoyers, C. [ERM Program Management Co., Exton, PA (United States)

1998-05-01

381

The effect of dentine thickness on diffusion of resin monomers in vitro.  

PubMed

Forty extracted human third molar teeth were divided into four groups, each of 10 teeth, to test the hypothesis that dentine thickness variation influences diffusion of the monomers 2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate (HEMA) and triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) from light-cured bonding resin-composite resin restorations to the pulp space. An occlusal cavity 6 mm in diameter was prepared in each tooth of four groups with remaining dentine thickness of 3.4-3.6, 2.4-2.6, 1.4-1.6 and 0.4-0.6 mm, respectively. A polypropylene chamber was attached to the cemento-enamel junction of each tooth to contain 1 mL of distilled water. Each cavity was treated with Scotchbond Multipurpose (3 M, U.S.A.) then restored with Z100 (3 M) and light activated for 30 s. Water samples were retrieved over a time course up to 30 days and analysed by high performance liquid chromatography. Both HEMA and TEGDMA were detected in the pulp samples for all teeth. Decreasing dentine thickness substantially increased pulpward diffusion rate of both HEMA and TEGDMA during the first day after placement, as well as the total release of both components from a bonding resin-composite combination in vitro. PMID:9049915

Hamid, A; Hume, W R

1997-01-01

382

Enrichment and purification of marine polyphenol phlorotannins using macroporous adsorption resins.  

PubMed

Phlorotannins are one of the most important bioactive polyphenols; however, their purification using chromatographic methods has not been explored. Here, we studied purification of phlorotannins from the crude phlorotannin extract (CPhE) of the brown seaweed Ecklonia cava using macroporous adsorption resins. For purification of phlorotannins, four resins (HP-20, SP-850, XAD-7HP, and XAD-2) were screened. Among them, HP-20 resin showed the highest adsorption and desorption capacities. In static adsorption tests, the adsorption capacity of HP-20 increased with increasing temperature (25-45°C). Optimal conditions for the dynamic experiments can be summarized as follows: total phlorotannin content (TPhC) in loading solution: 1.5mg PGE/mL, processing volume: 4 BV, flow rate: 1 mL/min, temperature: 45°C, desorption solvent: 40% ethanol solution. After purification, TPhC (452 mg PGE/g) and arsenic (180 ?g/g) of CPhE increased and decreased to 905 mg PGE/g and 48 ?g/g, respectively. Recovery rate of phlorotannins from CPhE was 92%. PMID:24874368

Kim, Jiyoung; Yoon, Minseok; Yang, Hyejin; Jo, Jinho; Han, Daeseok; Jeon, You-Jin; Cho, Suengmok

2014-11-01

383

Inhibiting microbial adhesion to denture base acrylic resin by titanium dioxide coating.  

PubMed

Mechanical cleaning of dentures is effective in preventing infections such as aspiration pneumonia and denture stomatitis. For denture wearers with a physical handicap and the elderly, however, mechanical cleaning can present problems. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of coating denture base acrylic resin with titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) in the inhibition of oral microbial adhesion. We prepared uniformly sized acrylic resin plates (10 mm x 10 mm x 0.5 mm), which were divided into two groups (a non-coated group and a TiO(2)-coated group). The plates were immersed in cultured Streptococcus sanguinis or Candida albicans and incubated for 24 h. After incubation, each plate was washed to remove loosely adherent microorganisms, and then incubated for a further 24 h. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) content of the microorganisms was evaluated using a reagent containing benzalkonium, which extracts intra-cellular ATP. In addition, to determine biofilm formation, we also observed each plate by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). We found that the ATP content of both S. sanguinis and C. albicans was reduced by the TiO(2) coating (P = 0.000). Observation by SEM confirmed that the TiO(2) coating inhibited biofilm formation. The results indicate that a TiO(2) coating on a denture base acrylic resin inhibits adhesion of S. sanguinis and C. albicans. PMID:19941590

Arai, T; Ueda, T; Sugiyama, T; Sakurai, K

2009-12-01

384

Determination of alkylbenzenesulfonate surfactants in groundwater using macroreticular resins and carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry  

SciTech Connect

Alkylbenzenesulfonate surfactants were determined in groundwater at concentrations as low as 0.3 mg/L. The method uses XAD-8 resin for concentration, followed by elution with methanol, separation of anionic and nonionic surfactants by anion exchange, quantitation by titration, and identification by TC nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry. Laboratory standards and field samples containing straight-chain and branched-chain alkylbenzenesulfonates, sodium dodecyl sulfate, and alkylbenzene ethoxylates were studied. The XAD-8 extraction of surfactants from groundwater was completed in the field, which simplified sample preservation and reduced the cost of transporting samples.

Thurman, E.M.; Willoughby, T.; Barber, L.B. Jr.; Thorn, K.A.

1987-07-15

385

Determination of alkylbenzenesulfonate surfactants in groundwater using macroreticular resins and carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Alkylbenzenesulfonate surfactants were determined in groundwater at concentrations as low as 0.3 mg/L. The method uses XAD-8 resin for concentration, followed by elution with methanol, separation of anionic and nonionic surfactants by anion exchange, quantitation by titration, and identification by 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry. Laboratory standards and field samples containing straight-chain and branched-chain alkylbenzenesulfonates, sodium dodecyl sulfate, and alkylbenzene ethoxylates were studied. The XAD-8 extraction of surfactants from groundwater was completed in the field, which simplified sample preservation and reduced the cost of transporting samples.

Thurman, E.M.; Willoughby, T.; Barber, L.B., Jr.; Thorn, K.A.

1987-01-01

386

21 CFR 175.260 - Partial phosphoric acid esters of polyester resins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...true Partial phosphoric acid esters of polyester resins. 175.260 Section 175.260...260 Partial phosphoric acid esters of polyester resins. Partial phosphoric acid esters of polyester resins identified in this section...

2010-04-01

387

21 CFR 175.260 - Partial phosphoric acid esters of polyester resins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Partial phosphoric acid esters of polyester resins. 175.260 Section 175.260...260 Partial phosphoric acid esters of polyester resins. Partial phosphoric acid esters of polyester resins identified in this section...

2012-04-01

388

21 CFR 175.260 - Partial phosphoric acid esters of polyester resins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...false Partial phosphoric acid esters of polyester resins. 175.260 Section 175.260...260 Partial phosphoric acid esters of polyester resins. Partial phosphoric acid esters of polyester resins identified in this section...

2014-04-01

389

21 CFR 175.260 - Partial phosphoric acid esters of polyester resins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Partial phosphoric acid esters of polyester resins. 175.260 Section 175.260...260 Partial phosphoric acid esters of polyester resins. Partial phosphoric acid esters of polyester resins identified in this section...

2013-04-01

390

21 CFR 175.260 - Partial phosphoric acid esters of polyester resins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Partial phosphoric acid esters of polyester resins. 175.260 Section 175.260...260 Partial phosphoric acid esters of polyester resins. Partial phosphoric acid esters of polyester resins identified in this section...

2011-04-01

391

77 FR 31875 - Certain Rubber Resins and Processes for Manufacturing Same; Notice of Receipt of Complaint...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...COMMISSION [Docket No. 2897] Certain Rubber Resins and Processes for Manufacturing...received a complaint entitled Certain Rubber Resins and Processes for Manufacturing...United States after importation of certain rubber resins and processes for...

2012-05-30

392

40 CFR 721.5380 - Mixed alkyl phenolic novolak resin (generic).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Mixed alkyl phenolic novolak resin (generic). 721.5380...721.5380 Mixed alkyl phenolic novolak resin (generic). (a) Chemical...generically as mixed alkyl phenolic novolak resin (PMN P-98-718)...

2010-07-01

393

40 CFR Appendix B to Subpart Nnn... - Free Formaldehyde Analysis of Insulation Resins by Hydroxylamine Hydrochloride  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...developed for water-soluble phenolic resins that have a relatively high...may also be suitable for other phenolic resins, especially those with a high...HCl b. Free formaldehyde in phenolic resins is present as...

2010-07-01

394

76 FR 28455 - Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy; Scheduling of an Expedited Five-Year Review...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy; Scheduling of an Expedited Five-Year...Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy AGENCY: United States International Trade...granular polytetrafluoroethylene resin from Italy would be likely to lead to...

2011-05-17

395

76 FR 27663 - Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy; Scheduling of an Expedited Five-Year Review...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy; Scheduling of an Expedited Five-Year...Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy AGENCY: United States International Trade...granular polytetrafluoroethylene resin from Italy would be likely to lead to...

2011-05-12

396

21 CFR 872.3750 - Bracket adhesive resin and tooth conditioner.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-04-01 false Bracket adhesive resin and tooth conditioner. 872...Prosthetic Devices § 872.3750 Bracket adhesive resin and tooth conditioner. (a) Identification. A bracket adhesive resin and tooth conditioner is a...

2012-04-01

397

21 CFR 872.3750 - Bracket adhesive resin and tooth conditioner.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-04-01 false Bracket adhesive resin and tooth conditioner. 872...Prosthetic Devices § 872.3750 Bracket adhesive resin and tooth conditioner. (a) Identification. A bracket adhesive resin and tooth conditioner is a...

2013-04-01

398

21 CFR 872.3750 - Bracket adhesive resin and tooth conditioner.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-04-01 false Bracket adhesive resin and tooth conditioner. 872...Prosthetic Devices § 872.3750 Bracket adhesive resin and tooth conditioner. (a) Identification. A bracket adhesive resin and tooth conditioner is a...

2010-04-01

399

21 CFR 872.3750 - Bracket adhesive resin and tooth conditioner.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-04-01 false Bracket adhesive resin and tooth conditioner. 872...Prosthetic Devices § 872.3750 Bracket adhesive resin and tooth conditioner. (a) Identification. A bracket adhesive resin and tooth conditioner is a...

2011-04-01

400

21 CFR 189.300 - Hydrogenated 4,4?-isopropyl-idene-diphenol-phosphite ester resins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...isopropyl-idene-diphenol-phosphite ester resins. 189.300 Section 189...isopropyl-idene-diphenol-phosphite ester resins. (a) Hydrogenated 4,4?-isopropylidene-diphenolphosphite ester resins are the condensation...

2010-04-01

401

77 FR 16508 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group IV Polymers and Resins...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group IV Polymers and Resins; Pesticide Active Ingredient...Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group IV Polymers and Resins; National Emission Standards...Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group IV Polymers and Resins; Pesticide Active...

2012-03-21

402

Separation and preconcentration of actinides by extraction chromatography using a supported liquid anion exchanger: application to the characterization of high-level nuclear waste solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel extraction chromatographic resin comprised of a quaternary amine-based liquid anion exchanger sorbed on an inert polymeric substrate for the sorption of actinides from nitric and hydrochloric acids is described. The resin is shown to exhibit preferential retention of tetravalent actinides over a wide range of acidities. The application of this material to the separation and preconcentration of selected

E. Philip Horwitz; Mark L. Dietz; Renato Chiarizia; Herbert Diamond; Sherrod L. Maxwell; Matthew R. Nelson

1995-01-01

403

Rapid procedure for plutonium and uranium determination in soils using a borate fusion followed by ion-exchange and extraction chromatography  

Microsoft Academic Search

A rapid and highly precise method, which uses a borate fusion, of U and Pu determination in soils, sediments and other materials is described. The chemical separation steps are optimised by using an anion resin column stacked on an extraction chromatography column (Eichrom Industries UTEVA resin). The whole procedure was streamlined to measure 700 soil samples in 10 weeks as

Ian Croudace; Phillip Warwick; Rex Taylor; Stephen Dee

1998-01-01

404

40 CFR 63.5731 - What standards must I meet for resin and gel coat mixing operations?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...must I meet for resin and gel coat mixing operations? 63.5731 Section... Standards for Resin and Gel Coat Mixing Operations § 63.5731 What standards must I meet for resin and gel coat mixing operations? (a) All resin...

2010-07-01

405

Reactive Additives for Phenylethynyl-Containing Resins  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Phenylethynyl-containing reactive additive (PERA) compounds and mixtures have been found to be useful for improving the processability of oligomers, polymers, co-oligomers, and copolymers that contain phenylethynyl groups. The additives can be incorporated in different forms: A solution of an amide acid or an imide of a PERA can be added to a solution of phenylethynyl-containing oligomer, polymer, co-oligomer, or copolymer; or An imide powder of a PERA can be mixed with a dry powder of a phenylethynyl-containing oligomer, polymer, co-oligomer, or copolymer. The effect of a given PERA on the processability and other properties of the resin system depends on whether the PERA is used in the amide acid or an imide form. With proper formulation, the PERA reduces the melt viscosity of the resin and thereby reduces the processing pressures needed to form the adhesive bonds, consolidate filled or unfilled moldings, or fabricate fiber-reinforced composite laminates. During thermal cure, a PERA reacts with itself as well as with the phenylethynyl-containing host resin and thereby becomes chemically incorporated into the resin system. The effects of the PERA on mechanical properties, relative to those of the host resin, depend on the amount of PERA used. Typically, the incorporation of the PERA results in (1) increases in the glass-transition temperature (Tg), modulus of elasticity, and parameters that characterize behavior under compression, and (2) greater retention of the aforementioned mechanical properties at elevated temperatures without (3) significant reduction of toughness or damage tolerance. Of the formulations tested thus far, the ones found to yield the best overall results were those for which the host resin was the amide acid form of a phenylethynyl-terminated imide (PETI) co-oligomer having a molecular weight of 5,000 g/mole [hence, designated PETI-5] and a PERA denoted as PERA-1. PETI-5 was made from 3,3',4'4'-biphenyltetracarboxylic dianhydride, 3,4'-oxydianiline (3,4'-ODA), 1,3-bis(3-aminophenoxy) benzene (1,3-APB), and 4-phenylethynylphthalic anhydride (PEPA). PERA-1 was made from 3,5-diamino- 4.-phenylethynylbenzophenon and equimolar amounts of phthalic anhydride and PEPA. To make PERA-1 in the imide form, the aforementioned ingredients were processed by refluxing in glacial acetic acid. To make the amide form of PERA-1, the ingredients were reacted in N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone (NMP) under nitrogen at a temperature of 23 C (see figure). On the basis of the processability and other properties, a blend comprising 20 weight percent of PERA-1 and 80 weight percent PETI-5 was selected for further evaluation. Relative to neat PETI-5, the blend exhibited an increase in Tg; improved processability; and comparable values of shear strength in adhesion to titanium panels, open-hole compressive properties, compression properties after impact, and resistance to microcracking.

Connell, John W.; Smith, Joseph G., Jr.; Hergenrother, Paul M.; Rommel, Monica L.

2005-01-01

406

Sugar Cane Bagasse Lignin in Resol-Type Resin: Alternative Application for Ligninphenol-Formaldehyde Resins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lignin can be recovered from sugar cane bagasse, which is widely available in Brazil as a residue from sugar mills. Many reports can be found in the literature on the partial replacement of phenol by lignin in phenolic-type resins, but normally only their application as an adhesive is considered. This work is part of a study intended to look for

Rogério S. J. Piccolo; Fernando Santos; Elisabete Frollini

1997-01-01

407

Extraction and utilization of breadfruit seed oil ( Treculia africana)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oil was extracted from crushed breadfruit (Treculia africana) seeds by Soxhlet. The yield of the oil was 20·83 ± 0·57%. Tests showed the oil to be a semi-drying oil which is unsaturated, with a high saponification value, acidic and requires purification. The oil could be used for making soap, hair shampoo and alkyd resin.

V. I. E. Ajiwe; C. A. Okeke; H. U. Agbo

1995-01-01

408

Microshear bond strength of composite resins to enamel and porcelain substrates utilizing unfilled versus filled resins  

PubMed Central

Background: Failures such as marginal discoloration and composite chipping are still the problems of tooth-colored restorations on the substrate of enamel and porcelain, which some of these problems are consequently as a result of failures in the bonding layer. Using filled resin has been recently introduced to increase the bond strength of this layer. The aim of this study was to compare the microshear bond strength (?-SBS) of composite resins to enamel incubated in periods of 24 h and 9 months and porcelain with unfilled resin and flowable composites (filled resin). Materials and Methods: In this in vitro study, two groups of 75 enamel samples with different storage times (24 h and 9 months) and a group of 75 porcelain samples were used. They were divided into 5 experimental groups of 15 samples in each. Composite cylinders in tygon tubes were bonded on the surface of acid-etched enamel and pretreated porcelain. Wave, Wave MV, Wave HV, Grandioflow and Margin Bond were used as bonding agents. The ?-SBS was measured at the speed of 1.0 mm/min. The bond strengths were analyzed with one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) test followed by Tukey test. P < 0.05 was selected as the level of statistical significance in this study. Results: The results showed that for enamel (24 h), the ?-SBS of the Wave MV and Wave HV groups were significantly lower than the Margin Bond group. Tukey test indicated the absence of a significant difference between the ?-SBS of the Wave group and the Margin Bond group. However, the ?-SBS of the Grandioflow group was significantly higher than the one for the Margin Bond as a bonding agent. In enamel (9 months), there was a significant difference between the Grandioflow and Margin Bond groups. Regarding bonding to the porcelain the one-way ANOVA test did not show a significant difference among the groups. Conclusion: This study revealed that flowable composites (filled resins) can be used instead of unfilled resins in bonding composite resins to enamel and porcelain substrates. PMID:25540657

Najafi-Abrandabadi, Ahmad; Najafi-Abrandabadi, Siamak; Ghasemi, Amir; Kotick, Philip G.

2014-01-01

409

Effects of Different Light Curing Units/Modes on the Microleakage of Flowable Composite Resins  

PubMed Central

Objectives The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the influence of different light curing units and modes on microleakage of flowable composite resins. Methods Eighty Class V cavities were prepared in buccal and lingual surfaces of 40 extracted human premolars with cervical wall located in dentin and the occlusal wall in enamel. These teeth were randomly assigned into two groups (n=20) and restored with different flowable composites; Group I: Esthet-X Flow, Group II: Grandio Flow. Each group was randomly divided into four subgroups; while the samples of the first subgroup were polymerized with conventional Halogen light, the rest of them were polymerized with different curing modes of Light Emitting Diode (LED). The second subgroup was polymerized with fast-curing; the third subgroup with pulse-curing and those of the fourth subgroup with step-curing modes of LED. After the samples were thermocycled and immersed in dye, they were longitudinally sectioned. Dye penetration was assessed under a stereomicroscope. Data were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests. Results None of the restorations showed leakage on enamel margins. On dentin margins no significant differences were observed between flowable composite resins polymerized with halogen light (P>.05). While step curing mode of LED presented significant differences between the resins, the difference was insignificant when fast-curing and pulse-curing mode of LED were used. No statistically significant differences were observed between curing units for Esthet-X Flow samples. For Grandio Flow samples, only step-curing mode of LED caused statistically higher leakage scores than halogen and other curing modes of LED (P<.05). Conclusions The effect of curing units’ type and curing mode on flowable composite resin leakage might be material-dependent. PMID:19212529

Yazici, A. Ruya; Celik, Cigdem; Dayangac, Berrin; Ozgunaltay, Gul

2008-01-01

410

Marginal leakage and microhardness evaluation of low-shrinkage resin-based restorative materials.  

PubMed

This study sought to compare the marginal leakage and microhardness of low-shrinkage resin-based dental restorative materials containing ormocer- and silorane-based composites to that of conventional methacrylate-based systems. A total of 50 noncarious extracted human teeth were collected after debridement and standard Class V cavities were prepared. Teeth were randomly assigned to five groups (n = 10) and restored with 5 types of resin-based restorative material composites: hybrid, microhybrid, nanohybrid, ormocer-based, and silorane-based. After thermocycling, all teeth were placed in a silver nitrate solution, sectioned longitudinally in a buccolingual direction, and observed under a stereomicroscope to determine the degree of dye penetration. Data were analyzed using a non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis test (P < 0.05). For the microhardness test, five specimens were made for each restorative material, using Teflon molds with disk-shaped specimen wells. Specimens were photocured and placed in distilled water (at 37°C) for 24 hours. Vickers Hardness Number (VHN) measurements were performed using a microhardness tester. Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and Bonferroni post hoc tests. In terms of microhardness, there was no statistically significant difference among the resin-based restorative materials (P > 0.05). The degree of microleakage at the gingival margins was lowest for the silorane composite, followed by microhybrid and nanohybrid. The silorane composite was significantly lower than that of the ormocer and hybrid composites (P < 0.05). Based on the results of this study, it was concluded that the silorane-based composite material could provide a marginal seal comparable to that provided by microhybrid or nanohybrid resin composites. PMID:23302363

Hooshmand, Tabassom; Tabari, Negin; Keshvad, Alireza

2013-01-01

411

Resin catalysts and method of preparation  

DOEpatents

Heat stabilized catalyst compositions are prepared from nuclear sulfonic acid, for example, macroporous crosslinked polyvinyl aromatic compounds containing sulfonic acid groups are neutralized with a metal of Al, Fe, Zn, Cu, Ni, ions or mixtures and alkali, alkaline earth metals or ammonium ions by contacting the resin containing the sulfonic acid with aqueous solutions of the metals salts and alkali, alkaline earth metal or ammonium salts. The catalysts have at least 50% of the sulfonic acid groups neutralized with metal ions and the balance of the sulfonic acid groups neutralized with alkali, alkaline earth ions or ammonium ions.

Smith, Jr., Lawrence A. (P.O. Box 34687, Houston, TX 77243)

1986-01-01

412

Isothermal aging effects on PMR-15 resin  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Specimens of PMR-15 polyimide neat resin were aged in air at temperatures of 288, 316, and 343 C. Weight losses and dimensional changes were monitored during the course of the exposure time. Physical changes were also observed by optical and electron microscopy. It was found that polyimide polymer degradation occurred within a thin surface layer that developed and grew during thermal aging. The cores of the polymer specimens were protected from oxidative degradation, and they were relatively unchanged by the thermal treatment. Surface cracking was observed at 343 C and was probably due to an interaction between voids and stresses that developed in the surface layer.

Bowles, Kenneth J.; Jayne, Douglas; Leonhardt, Todd A.

1992-01-01

413

Determination of neptunium in environmental samples by extraction chromatography after valence adjustment.  

PubMed

Neptunium(V) ions are unstable in acid media, which limits their extraction on chromatographic resins. We developed a novel analytical method to measure Np by either ?-spectrometry or inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) after extraction chromatography as Np(VI). We investigated the reactivity of various oxidizing reagents, and determined the retention capacity of Np(IV, V, and VI) on various extraction chromatographic supports. A simple method using two UTEVA resins was used to rapidly detect Np in soil and sediment samples. PMID:20630769

Guérin, Nicolas; Langevin, Marc-Antoine; Nadeau, Kenny; Labrecque, Charles; Gagné, Alexandre; Larivière, Dominic

2010-12-01

414

40 CFR 414.40 - Applicability; description of the thermoplastic resins subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Resins Polyvinyl Acetate *Polyvinyl Acetate—PVC Copolymers *Polyvinyl Acetate Copolymers ...*Polyvinylidene-Vinyl Chloride Resins *PVC Copolymers, Acrylates (Latex) *PVC Copolymers, Ethylene-Vinyl Chloride...

2012-07-01

415

40 CFR 414.40 - Applicability; description of the thermoplastic resins subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Resins Polyvinyl Acetate *Polyvinyl Acetate—PVC Copolymers *Polyvinyl Acetate Copolymers ...*Polyvinylidene-Vinyl Chloride Resins *PVC Copolymers, Acrylates (Latex) *PVC Copolymers, Ethylene-Vinyl Chloride...

2014-07-01

416

40 CFR 414.40 - Applicability; description of the thermoplastic resins subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Resins Polyvinyl Acetate *Polyvinyl Acetate—PVC Copolymers *Polyvinyl Acetate Copolymers ...*Polyvinylidene-Vinyl Chloride Resins *PVC Copolymers, Acrylates (Latex) *PVC Copolymers, Ethylene-Vinyl Chloride...

2013-07-01

417

40 CFR 414.40 - Applicability; description of the thermoplastic resins subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Resins Polyvinyl Acetate *Polyvinyl Acetate—PVC Copolymers *Polyvinyl Acetate Copolymers ...*Polyvinylidene-Vinyl Chloride Resins *PVC Copolymers, Acrylates (Latex) *PVC Copolymers, Ethylene-Vinyl Chloride...

2011-07-01

418

40 CFR 721.9480 - Resorcinol, formaldehyde substituted carbomonocycle resin (generic).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Resorcinol, formaldehyde substituted carbomonocycle resin...Substances § 721.9480 Resorcinol, formaldehyde substituted carbomonocycle resin...identified generically as resorcinol, formaldehyde substituted carbomonocycle...

2012-07-01

419

40 CFR 721.9480 - Resorcinol, formaldehyde substituted carbomonocycle resin (generic).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Resorcinol, formaldehyde substituted carbomonocycle resin...Substances § 721.9480 Resorcinol, formaldehyde substituted carbomonocycle resin...identified generically as resorcinol, formaldehyde substituted carbomonocycle...

2013-07-01

420

40 CFR 721.9480 - Resorcinol, formaldehyde substituted carbomonocycle resin (generic).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Resorcinol, formaldehyde substituted carbomonocycle resin...Substances § 721.9480 Resorcinol, formaldehyde substituted carbomonocycle resin...identified generically as resorcinol, formaldehyde substituted carbomonocycle...

2011-07-01

421

40 CFR 721.9480 - Resorcinol, formaldehyde substituted carbomonocycle resin (generic).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 false Resorcinol, formaldehyde substituted carbomonocycle resin...Substances § 721.9480 Resorcinol, formaldehyde substituted carbomonocycle resin...identified generically as resorcinol, formaldehyde substituted carbomonocycle...

2014-07-01

422

40 CFR 721.9480 - Resorcinol, formaldehyde substituted carbomonocycle resin (generic).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Resorcinol, formaldehyde substituted carbomonocycle resin...Substances § 721.9480 Resorcinol, formaldehyde substituted carbomonocycle resin...identified generically as resorcinol, formaldehyde substituted carbomonocycle...

2010-07-01

423

Organic geochemistry of resins from modern Agathis australis and Eocene resins from New Zealand: Diagenetic and taxonomic implications  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A maturation series of resins and fossil resins from New Zealand, ranging in age from Modern to Eocene and ranging from uncoalified to high volatile C bituminous coal, were analyzed by elemental, pyrolysis-gas chromatography (Py-GC), Fourier Transform infrared (FTir), and solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (13C NMR) techniques. For comparison, four resin samples from the Latrobe Valley, Australia, were analyzed. All of the resins and fossil resins of this study show very high H/C atomic ratios, and are characterized by dominant peaks in the 10-60??ppm range of solid-state 13C NMR spectra and prominent bands in the aliphatic stretching region (2800-3000??cm- 1) of FTir spectra, all indicating a highly aliphatic molecular structure. The 13C NMR and FTir data indicate a diterpenoid structure for these resins. There is an abrupt loss of oxygen that occurs at the Lignite A/Subbituminous C stage, which is attributed to a dramatic loss of carboxyl (COOH) from the diterpenoid molecule. This is a new finding in the diagenesis of resins. This important loss in oxygenated functional groups is attributed to a maturation change. Also, there is a progressive loss of exomethylene (CH2) groups with increasing degree of maturation, as shown by both 13C NMR and FTir data. This change has been noted by previous investigators. Exomethylene is absent in the fossil resins from the Eocene high volatile C bituminous coals. This progressive loss is characteristic of Class I resinites. FTir data indicate that the oxygenated functional groups are strong in all the resin samples except the fossil resin from high volatile C bituminous coal. This important change in oxygenated functional groups is attributed to maturation changes. The 13C NMR and FTir data indicate there are minor changes in the Agathis australis resin from the living tree and soil, which suggests that alteration of A. australis resins begins shortly after deposition in the soil for as little as 1000??years. The Morwell and Yallourn fossil resins from brown coal (lignite B) Australia do not have some of the FTir characteristics of the New Zealand resins, which most likely indicates they have a different plant source because different degrees of oxidation and weathering and changes due to fires (i.e., charring) can be ruled out. Our results have implications for studies of the maturation, provenance, and botanical sources of fossil resins and resinites in Eocene and Miocene coals and sediments of New Zealand and Australia. ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Lyons, P.C.; Mastalerz, M.; Orem, W.H.

2009-01-01

424

A Comparison of Shear Bond Strength of Ceramic and Resin Denture Teeth on Different Acrylic Resin Bases  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study is to compare the shear bond strength of different resin bases and artificial teeth made of ceramic or acrylic resin materials and whether tooth-base interface may be treated with aluminium oxide sandblasting. Experimental measurements were carried on 80 specimens consisting of a cylinder of acrylic resin into which a single tooth is inserted. An ad hoc metallic frame was realized to measure the shear bond strength at the tooth-base interface. A complete factorial plan was designed and a three-way ANalysis Of VAriance (ANOVA) was carried out to investigate if shear bond strength is affected by the following factors: (i) tooth material (ceramic or resin); (ii) base material (self-curing or thermal-curing resin); (iii) presence or absence of aluminium oxide sandblasting treatment at the tooth-base interface. Tukey post hoc test was also conducted to evaluate any statistically significant difference between shear strength values measured for the dif-ferently prepared samples. It was found from ANOVA that the above mentioned factors all affect shear strength. Furthermore, post hoc analysis indi-cated that there are statistically significant differences (p-value=0.000) between measured shear strength values for: (i) teeth made of ceramic material vs. teeth made of acrylic resin material; (ii) bases made of self-curing resin vs. thermal-curing resin; (iii) specimens treated with aluminium oxide sandblasting vs. untreated specimens. Shear strength values measured for acryl-ic resin teeth were on average 70% higher than those measured for ceramic teeth. The shear bond strength was maximized by preparing samples with thermal-curing resin bases and resin teeth submitted to aluminium oxide sandblasting. PMID:25614770

Corsalini, Massimo; Venere, Daniela Di; Pettini, Francesco; Stefanachi, Gianluca; Catapano, Santo; Boccaccio, Antonio; Lamberti, Luciano; Pappalettere, Carmine; Carossa, Stefano

2014-01-01

425

PHYTOCHEMICAL AND ACUTE TOXICITY STUDIES OF MORINGA OLEIFERA ETHANOL LEAF EXTRACT  

E-print Network

Acute toxicity and phytochemical studies of ethanol leaf extract of Moringa oleifera were analysed. The phytochemical analyses of the ethanol extract of Moringa oleifera leaf showed the presence of tannins, carbohydrates, saponins, glycosides, reducing sugars, terpenoids, steroids, flavonoids and alkaloids. Phytochemicals such as resins, proteins and fat oils were not detected. The LD

Pharm Res; Ugwu Okechukwu Et Al; Ugwu Okechukwu P C; Nwodo Okwesili F C; Joshua Parker E; Bawa Abubakar; Ossai Emmanuel C; Odo Christian E

426

New methods and materials for solid phase extraction and high performance liquid chromatography  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes methods for solid phase extraction and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The following are described: Effects of Resin Sulfonation on the Retention of Polar Organic Compounds in Solid Phase Extraction; Ion-Chromatographic Separation of Alkali Metals In Non-Aqueous Solvents; Cation-Exchange Chromatography in Non-Aqueous Solvents; and Silicalite As a Stationary Phase For HPLC.

Dumont, P.J.

1996-04-23

427

Measuring Asphaltenes and Resins, and Dipole Moment in Petroleum Fluids  

E-print Network

Measuring Asphaltenes and Resins, and Dipole Moment in Petroleum Fluids Lamia Goual Earth Science, Palo Alto, CA 94306 A petroleum fluid can be di®ided into three types of species: asphaltenes, resins or mildly polar. The interaction among these species strongly affect asphaltene precipitation from petroleum

Firoozabadi, Abbas

428

Space charge measurements on different epoxy resin-alumina nanocomposites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently a number of papers have reported enhanced electrical (ageing and breakdown) performance of nano-composites when compared to the properties of the base resin material. The physical reasons for this improvement are the subject of many current studies and have yet to be fully formulated. In this work, the build-up and decay of space charge in epoxy resin materials, containing

F. Magraner; A. Garci?a-Bernabe?; M. Gil; P. Llovera; S. J. Dodd; L. A. Dissado

2010-01-01

429

Regional Measurement of Resin-Dentin Bonding as an Array  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the development of the microtensile bond-testing method, large variations in bond strengths were noted among serial sections. The reason for these variations is unknown. The purpose of this work was to determine the consistency of resin-dentin bond strengths across the occlusal surface of coronal dentin by dividing composite resin buildups into an array of 1 x 1 mm beams,

Y. Shono; T. Ogawa; M. Terashita; R. M. Carvalho; E. L. Pashley; D. H. Pashley

1999-01-01

430

The role of maleic anhydride in adhesive resin cements.  

PubMed

The adherence of resin cements depends upon, among other factors, the polar interactions across the interface: resin cement/restorative material. The polar interactions may be augmented by inclusion of polar additives such as maleic anhydride to the cement monomer. However, maleic anhydride is slowly converted to maleic acid when exposed to an aqueous environment. This may affect mechanical properties of such a cement in a negative way. It was the aim of the present investigation to analyze the role of maleic anhydride dissolved in the monomer of resin cements. The resin cement monomers used were common methacrylates, to which maleic anhydride in amounts of up to 30 mol% was added. Polymerization initiators were included to make the materials dual curing. Finally, the preparations were mixed with silanated fillers. The adherence energy of the cements bonded to a chromium-cobalt alloy was assessed by means of the double cantilever beam test. The strength and stiffness of the resin cements were recorded at base line and after two months storage in water. The initial adherence energy increased by a factor of about two as a result of addition of maleic anhydride. However, resin cements containing maleic anhydride suffered significant reductions in long-term adherence, strength and stiffness. These reductions were particularly pronounced in non-irradiated specimens. The use of resin cements containing maleic anhydride is not a viable means of conveying adhesiveness to resin cements. PMID:9708691

Asmussen, E; Peutzfeldt, A

1998-08-01

431

76 FR 4936 - Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...identified a review on granular PTFE resin from Japan, it did not...review of the order on granular PTFE resin from Italy. Instead...cut-to-length carbon quality steel plate...antidumping duty orders on granular PTFE from Italy and Japan, and...

2011-01-27

432

Viscoelastic Properties of an Epoxy Resin during Cure  

E-print Network

Viscoelastic Properties of an Epoxy Resin during Cure DANIEL J. O'BRIEN1 Department of Mechanical of these issues with experimental and analytical viscoelastic characterization of an epoxy resin throughout the entire cure process. There has been limited work in the literature on the development of viscoelastic

Mather, Patrick T.

433

Retrospective study of orthodontic bonding without liquid resin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to evaluate the retention of fixed orthodontic appliances bonded without liquid resin with the use of a retrospective study design. Patients from each of 2 consultant orthodontists in the same specialty clinic were chosen under strict selection criteria. In the test group (n = 37), composite material (Phase II) without liquid resin was used

Alexander T. H. Tang; Lars Björkman; Lars Isaksson; Karl-Fredrik Lindbäck; Anna Andlin-Sobocki; Jan Ekstrand

2000-01-01

434

Characterization of DGEBA (diglycidyl ethers bisphenol-A) epoxy resins  

SciTech Connect

High-resolution gel permeation chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography can be applied to commercially available DGEBA epoxy resins to elucidate small but significant differences in the oligomer and impurity compositions of these resins. The GPC profiles can be used to type or identify the various commercial grades of these DGEBA resins. Lot-to-lot consistency and aging characteristics can also be determined using GPC and HPLC. Quantitation of the various oligomers and impurities such as the ..cap alpha..-glycol, isomer, and chlorohydrin species is possible. Using 20% isoconversion predictive cure thermal analysis data, the relative resin reactivity of several liquid, low-molecular DGEBA resins has been measured. These data show that the higher viscosity, higher oligomer content resins, which have higher hydroxyl content, reacted faster with amine cure agents than the lower viscosity, higher purity - and consequently lower hydroxyl content - resins. Thus, a combination of liquid chromatography (GPC or HPLC) and DSC kinetics can be used to establish a correlation or equivalency beween the commercially available low-molecular-weight DGEBA epoxy resins.

Larsen, F.N.; Spieker, D.A.

1987-04-01

435

SECURING CONTAINERIZED HAZARDOUS WASTES WITH POLYETHYLENE RESIN AND FIBERGLASS ENCAPSULATES  

EPA Science Inventory

This study investigates the fabrication and use of polyethylene resin and fiberglass to encapsulate and secure containerized hazardous wastes. Laboratory-scale encapsulates of composite structure were made from powdered, high-density polyethylene (HDPE) and epoxy-resin-wetted fib...

436

Method and solvent composition for regenerating an ion exchange resin  

DOEpatents

A method and composition for removing perchlorate from a highly selective ion exchange resin is disclosed. The disclosed approach comprises treating the resin in a solution of super critical or liquid carbon dioxide and one or more quaternary ammonium chloride surfactant compounds.

Even, William R. (Livermore, CA); Irvin, David J. (Livermore, CA); Irvin, Jennifer A. (Livermore, CA); Tarver, Edward E. (Livermore, CA); Brown, Gilbert M. (Knoxville, TN); Wang, James C. F. (Livermore, CA)

2002-01-01

437

Team 1: Design of Carbon Fiber Resin Composites for Improved  

E-print Network

the transportation industry because of their incredible strength and very low weight. Unfortunately, these composites9999 #12;100 Team 1: Design of Carbon Fiber Resin Composites for Improved Fatigue Behavior Sponsored by: MSH1 Bicycle Works Sponsor Advisor: Matthew Klucha Design of Carbon Fiber Resin Composites

Alpay, S. Pamir

438

Ethnobotanical studies on Berberis aristata DC. root extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

-3 mg\\/ml and for Aspergillus species, it was 3 ? 10 -3 mg\\/ml. All three extracts also had antifungal activity against the fungal species tested, except Candida krusei. The extracts of B. aristata also demonstrated anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic activities. Chemical analysis revealed the presence of alkaloids, amino acids, tannins, terpenes, resins, phenols and reducing sugars as major compounds. FTIR-spectral

M. Shahid; T. Rahim; A. Shahzad; A. Latif; T. Fatma; M. Rashid; Adil Raza; S. Mustafa

2009-01-01

439

Method for liquid chromatographic extraction of strontium from acid solutions  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus for extracting strontium and technetium values from biological, industrial and environmental sample solutions using a chromatographic column is described. An extractant medium for the column is prepared by generating a solution of a diluent containing a Crown ether and dispersing the solution on a resin substrate material. The sample solution is highly acidic and is introduced directed to the chromatographic column and strontium or technetium is eluted using deionized water.

Horwitz, E. Philip (Naperville, IL); Dietz, Mark L. (Evanston, IL)

1992-01-01

440

Neptunium(III) application in extraction chromatography.  

PubMed

This paper describes a novel strategy for actinide separation by extraction chromatography with Np(III) valence adjustment. Neptunium(IV) was reduced to Np(III) using Cr(II) and then selectively separated from uranium (IV) on a TEVA resin. After elution, Np(III) was retained on a DGA resin in order to remove any detrimental chromium impurities. Neptunium(III) formation was demonstrated by the complete and selective elution of Np from TEVA resin (99 ± 7%) in less than 12 mL of 9M HCl from U(IV) (0.7 ± 0.7%). It was determined by UV-visible and kinetic studies that Cr(II) was the only species responsible for the elution of Np(IV) as Np(III) and that the Cr(II) solution could be prepared from 2 to 30 min before its use without the need of complex degassing systems to prevent the oxidation of Np(III) by oxygen. The methodology proposed here with TEVA/DGA resins provides removal of Cr(III) impurities produced at high decontamination factors (2.8 × 10(3) and 7.3 × 10(4) respectively). PMID:22099641

Guérin, Nicolas; Nadeau, Kenny; Larivière, Dominic

2011-12-15

441

Preparative separation of lithospermic acid B from Salvia miltiorrhiza by polyamide resin and preparative high-performance liquid chromatography.  

PubMed

Adsorption on polyamide resin was investigated as a means of separating lithospermic acid B (LAB) from a crude extract of the roots of the traditional Chinese medicine Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge ("Danshen"). Variables affecting adsorption capacity (solution pH, contact time on resin, initial LAB concentration) were studied. Adsorption was strongly dependent upon the initial concentration of LAB and pH. In all conditions, the polyamide resin gave optimal adsorption of LAB at an initial concentration of 2.66 mg/mL and pH <3.0. The adsorption isotherm correlated well with the Langmuir-type adsorption isotherm. Maximal adsorption capacity was calculated to be 380 mg/g at pH 2.0 and 25°C. LAB purity of 85.30% could be obtained by polyamide resin adsorption followed by elution with 70% ethanol solution, and the recovery was 87.1%. After preparative HPLC, the maximum HPLC purity obtained was 99.28% with a recovery of 75.2%. This method provides an efficient and low-cost method for LAB purification for industrial applications. PMID:21652037

Guo, Y X; Zhou, L L; Li, T; Wang, L H

2011-07-22

442

Comparison of ion-exchange resin counterions in the nutrient measurement of calcareous soils: implications for correlative studies of plant-soil relationships  

USGS Publications Warehouse

For more than 40 years, ion-exchange resins have been used to characterize nutrient bioavailability in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. To date, however, no standardized methodology has been developed, particularly with respect to the counterions that initially occupy resin exchange sites. To determine whether different resin counterions yield different measures of soil nutrients and rank soils differently with respect to their measured nutrient bioavailability, we compared nutrient measurements by three common counterion combinations (HCl, HOH, and NaHCO3). Five sandy calcareous soils were chosen to represent a range of soil characteristics at Canyonlands National Park, Utah, and resin capsules charged with the different counterions equilibrated in saturated pastes of these soils for one week. Data were converted to proportions of total ions of corresponding charge for ANOVA. Results from the different methods were not comparable with respect to any nutrient. Of eleven nutrients measured, all but iron (Fe2+), manganese (Mn2+), and zinc (Zn2+) differed significantly (pa??0.05) as a function of soilcounterion interactions; Fe2+ and Zn2+ varied as functions of counterion alone. Of the counterion combinations, HCl-resins yielded the most net ion exchange with all measured nutrients except Na+, and the three of which desorbed in the greatest quantities from HOH-resins. Conventional chemical extractions using ammonium acetate generally yielded high proportional values of Ca2+, K+, and Na+. Further, among-soil rankings of nutrient bioavailability varied widely among methods. This study highlights the fact that various ion-exchange resin techniques for measuring soil nutrients may have differential effects on the soil-resin environment and yield data that should not be compared nor considered interchangeable. The most appropriate methods for characterizing soil-nutrient bioavailability depends on soil characteristics and likely on the physiological uptake mechanisms of plants or functional groups of interest. The effects of different extraction techniques on nutrient measures should be understood before selecting an extraction method. For example, in the calcareous soils used for this experiment, nutrient extraction methods that alter soil carbonates through dissolution or precipitation could compromise the accurate measurement of plant-available nutrients. The implications of this study emphasize the universal importance of understanding the differential effects of alternate methods on soil chemistry.

Sherrod, S.K.; Belnap, Jayne; Miller, M.E.

2003-01-01

443

Comparison of ion-exchange resin counterions in the nutrient measurement of calcareous soils: Implications for correlative studies of plant-soil relationships  

USGS Publications Warehouse

For more than 40 years, ion-exchange resins have been used to characterize nutrient bioavailability in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. To date, however, no standardized methodology has been developed, particularly with respect to the counterions that initially occupy resin exchange sites. To determine whether different resin counterions yield different measures of soil nutrients and rank soils differently with respect to their measured nutrient bioavailability, we compared nutrient measurements by three common counterion combinations (HCl, HOH, and NaHCO3). Five sandy calcareous soils were chosen to represent a range of soil characteristics at Canyonlands National Park, Utah, and resin capsules charged with the different counterions equilibrated in saturated pastes of these soils for one week. Data were converted to proportions of total ions of corresponding charge for ANOVA. Results from the different methods were not comparable with respect to any nutrient. Of eleven nutrients measured, all but iron (Fe2+), manganese (Mn2+), and zinc (Zn2+) differed significantly (p ??? 0.05) as a function of soil x counterion interactions; Fe2+ and Zn2+ varied as functions of counterion alone. Of the counterion combinations, HCl-resins yielded the most net ion exchange with all measured nutrients except Na+, NH4+, and HPO42-, the three of which desorbed in the greatest quantities from HOH-resins. Conventional chemical extractions using ammonium acetate generally yielded high proportional values of Ca2+, K+, and Na+. Further, among-soil rankings of nutrient bioavailability varied widely among methods. This study highlights the fact that various ion-exchange resin techniques for measuring soil nutrients may have differential effects on the soil-resin environment and yield data that should not be compared nor considered interchangeable. The most appropriate methods for characterizing soil-nutrient bioavailability depends on soil characteristics and likely on the physiological uptake mechanisms of plants or functional groups of interest. The effects of different extraction techniques on nutrient measures should be understood before selecting an extraction method. For example, in the calcareous soils used for this experiment, nutrient extraction methods that alter soil carbonates through dissolution or precipitation could compromise the accurate measurement of plant-available nutrients. The implications of this study emphasize the universal importance of understanding the differential effects of alternate methods on soil chemistry.

Sherrod, S.K.; Belnap, J.; Miller, M.E.

2003-01-01

444

Radionuclide Leaching from Organic Ion Exchange Resin  

SciTech Connect

Laboratory tests were performed to examine the efficacy of leach treatments for decontaminating organic ion exchange resins (OIER), which have been found in a number of samples retrieved from K East Basin sludge. Based on process records, the OIER found in the K Basins is a mixed-bet strong acid/strong base material marketed as Purolite{trademark} NRW-037. Radionuclides sorbed or associated with the OIER can restrict its disposal to the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF). The need for testing to support development of a treatment process for K Basin sludge has been described in Section 4.2 of ''Testing Strategy to Support the Development of K Basins Sludge Treatment Process'' (Flament 1998). To help understand the effects of anticipated OIER elutriation and washing, tests were performed with well-rinsed OIER material from K East Basin floor sludge (sample H-08 BEAD G) and with well-rinsed OIER having approximately 5% added K East canister composite sludge (sample KECOMP). The rinsed resin-bearing material also contained the inorganic ion exchanger Zeolon-900{trademark}, a zeolite primarily composed of the mineral mordenite. The zeolite was estimated to comprise 27 weight percent of the dry H-08 BEAD G material.

Delegard, C.H.; Rinehart, D.E.

1999-04-02

445

Antimicrobial activity of resin acid derivatives.  

PubMed

The wide potential of resin acids as bioactive agents gave rise to a growing effort in the search for new applications of the natural forms and their derivatives. In some of these compounds, the antimicrobial activity is associated to the presence in the molecules of functional groups such as the hydroxyl, aldehyde, and ketone or to their cis or trans configurations. The resin acid family covers a spectrum of antimicrobial activities against several microorganisms, from bacteria to fungi, in which the mode of action was studied by electron microscopy. The morphological alterations are consistent with an unspecific mode of action causing inhibition of the fungal growth or damaging the fungal cells in parallel with a mechanism of resistance based on the retention of the compound by the lipid accumulation. The sterol composition of phytopathogenic fungi Botrytis cinerea and Lophodermium seditiosum treated with methyl cis-7-oxo-deisopropyldehydroabietate revealed the presence of ergosterol (M+ 396) and dihydroergosterol (M+ 398) in both cultures showing that this compound did not interfere with the ergosterol metabolic pathway of both fungi. PMID:16896605

Savluchinske-Feio, Sonia; Curto, Maria João Marcelo; Gigante, Bárbara; Roseiro, J Carlos

2006-09-01

446

Radiation degradation in EPICOR-2 ion exchange resins  

SciTech Connect

The Low-Level Waste Data base Development -- EPICOR-II Resin/Liner Investigation Program funded by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission is investigating chemical and physical conditions for organic ion exchange resins contained in several EPICOR-II prefilters. Those prefilters were used during cleanup of contaminated water from the Three Mile Island Nuclear Power Station after the March 1979 accident. The work was performed by EG G Idaho, Inc. at the Idaho Engineering Laboratory. This is the final report of this task and summarizes results and analyses of three samplings of ion exchange resins from prefilters PF-8 and -20. Results are compared with baseline data from tests performed on unirradiated resins supplied by Epicor, Inc. to determine the extent of degradation due to the high internal radiation dose received by the organic resins. Results also are compared with those of other researchers. 18 refs., 23 figs., 7 tabs.

McConnell, J.W. Jr.; Johnson, D.A.; Sanders, R.D. Sr.

1990-09-01

447

Surface characteristics of resin composite materials after finishing and polishing.  

PubMed

This in vitro study determined the surface roughness (Ra) and absolute gloss (AG) values for 2 resin composites: a microhybrid and a microfill. Eight groups (n = 4) of each resin composite were prepared, along with 4 controls (Mylar strip) for the 2 resin composites. After finishing with a medium polishing disc, the specimens from each resin composite material were subjected to 7 polishing procedures, and Ra measurements and AG values were determined. Two-way ANOVA and Fisher's LSD multiple comparisons revealed significant differences (P ? 0.05). For both materials, the control group produced the lowest Ra values and highest AG values, and the medium polishing disc produced the highest Ra values and lowest AG values. Of the 2 resin composites, the microhybrid had lower mean Ra and higher mean AG than the microfill for the majority of the polishing procedures. Pearson's r correlation coefficient (P ? 0.001) indicated an inverse linear relationship between Ra and AG. PMID:25734283

St Germain, Henry; Samuelson, Bart A

2015-01-01

448

Pentacyclic triterpenes from Manilkara bidentata resin. Isolation, identification and biological properties.  

PubMed

Three pentacyclic triterpenes were isolated for the first time from resinous plant Manilkara bidentata. Ultrasound-assisted extraction with ethanol was chosen after a comparison of various extraction methods. Analysis of the extract was performed by HPLC with evaporative light scattering detection and semi-preparative HPLC has enabled us to isolate two urs-12-enes (3?-O-acetyl-?-amyrin and 3?-O-trans cinnamyl-?-amyrin) and a lupane-type derivative (3?-O-trans cinnamyl lupeol). Structures were elucidated on the basis of HRESIMS, atmospheric pressure photoionization MS, and homo- and heteronuclear correlation NMR experiments. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities were determined on Manilkara extract and isolated fractions. We have also investigated their action on collagen and fibronectin synthesis, two very important proteins of the extracellular matrix. Thus, Manilkara extract was able to decrease IL-1? and IL-8 pro-inflammatory cytokines. These activities exhibit the potential use of Manilkara extract as an anti-inflammatory and anti-aging ingredient for pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. PMID:23664853

Rhourri-Frih, Boutayna; Renimel, Isabelle; Chaimbault, Patrick; André, Patrice; Herbette, Gaëtan; Lafosse, Michel

2013-07-01

449

Removal of perfluorooctane sulfonate from wastewater by anion exchange resins: effects of resin properties and solution chemistry.  

PubMed

Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is a new persistent organic pollutant of substantial environmental concern, and its removal from industrial wastewater is critical to eliminate its release into water environment. In this paper, six anion exchange resins with different polymer matrix, porosity, and functional group were evaluated for PFOS removal from simulated wastewater. Resin matrix displayed significant effect on the sorption kinetics and capacity of PFOS, and the polyacrylic resins including IRA67 and IRA958 exhibited faster sorption and higher sorption capacity for PFOS than the polystyrene resins due to the hydrophilic matrix. Sorption isotherms illustrated that the sorption capacity of PFOS on IRA67 and IRA958 was up to 4-5 mmol/g, and the amount of PFOS sorbed on the resins was more than chloride released from resins, indicating that other interactions besides anion exchange were involved in the sorption. Solution pH had little impact on the sorption of PFOS on IRA958, but displayed significant effect on IRA67 at pH above 10 due to the deprotonation of amine groups. The coexisting sulfate and hexavalent chromium in wastewater interfered with the sorption of PFOS because of their competitive sorption on the exchange sites. The spent resins were successfully regenerated using the mixture of NaCl and methanol solution. This work provided an understanding of sorption behavior and mechanism of PFOS on different anion exchange resins, and should result in more effective applications of ion exchange for PFOS removal from industrial wastewater. PMID:20605036

Deng, Shubo; Yu, Qiang; Huang, Jun; Yu, Gang

2010-10-01

450

Histological assessment of pulpal responses to resin modified glass ionomer cements in human teeth  

PubMed Central

Background: The biocompatibility of resin-modified glass ionomers (RMGIs) as a lining material is still under question. The present study evaluated the response of the pulp-dentin complex following application of resin-modified glass-ionomer cement, calcium hydroxide and conventional glass-ionomer in deep cavities prepared in human teeth. Materials and Methods: In this controlled clinical trial, 30 deep class V buccal cavities (3 mm × 2 mm × 2 mm) were prepared in human premolars treatment planned to be extracted for orthodontic reasons and divided into 3 groups. Groups were lined by a RMGI (Vivaglass), conventional glass Ionomer (Ionocid) and calcium hydroxide respectively. The cavities were subsequently filled with amalgam. Each group was then divided into two sub-groups according to time intervals 5 and 30 days. The patients were referred to Kerman Dental School and in accordance with orthodontic treatment plan; premolars were extracted and then prepared for histological assessment. The sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin and periodic acid Schiff techniques. All of the samples were examined using a number of criteria including odontoblastic changes, inflammatory cells response, reactionary dentin formation and presence of microorganisms. The data were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests. P < 0.05 was considered as significant. Results: There was no significant difference among odontoblastic changes, reactionary dentin, presence of bacteria and inflammatory cells response of the groups (P > 0.05). Conclusion: Ionocid and Vivaglass resin-modified glass ionomers can be used as lining materials in human teeth. PMID:25878679

Eskandarizadeh, Ali; Parizi, Molook Torabi; Goroohi, Hossein; Badrian, Hamid; Asadi, Abbas; Khalighinejad, Navid

2015-01-01

451

Identification of dehydroabietc acid from Boswellia thurifera resin as a positive GABAA receptor modulator.  

PubMed

In a two-microelectrode voltage clamp assay with Xenopus laevis oocytes, a petroleum ether extract (100 ?g/mL) of the resin of Boswellia thurifera (Burseraceae) potentiated GABA-induced chloride currents (IGABA) through receptors of the subtype ??????s by 319.8% ± 79.8%. With the aid of HPLC-based activity profiling, three known terpenoids, dehydroabietic acid (1), incensole (2), and AKBA (3), were identified in the active fractions of the extract. Structure elucidation was achieved by means of HR-MS and microprobe 1D/2D NMR spectroscopy. Compound 1 induced significant receptor modulation in the oocyte assay, with a maximal potentiation of IGABA of 397.5% ± 34.0%, and EC?? of 8.7 ?M ± 1.3 ?M. This is the first report of dehydroabietic acid as a positive GABAA receptor modulator. PMID:25200370

Rueda, Diana C; Raith, Melanie; De Mieri, Maria; Schöffmann, Angela; Hering, Steffen; Hamburger, Matthias

2014-12-01

452

Phosphorus-containing imide resins - Modification by elastomers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The syntheses and general features of addition-type maleimide resins based on bis(m-aminophenyl)phosphine oxide and tris(m-aminophenyl)phosphine oxide have been reported previously. These resins have been used to fabricate graphite cloth laminates having excellent flame resistance. These composites did not burn even in pure oxygen. However, these resins were somewhat brittle. This paper reports the modification of these phosphorus-containing resins by an amine-terminated butadiene-acrylonitrile copolymer (ATBN) and a perfluoroalkylene diaromatic amine elastomer (3F). An approximately two-fold increase in short beam shear strength and flexural strength was observed at 7 percent ATBN concentration. The tensile, flexural, and shear strengths were reduced when 18 percent ATBN was used. Anaerobic char yields of the resins at 800 C and the limiting oxygen indexes of the laminates decreased with increasing ATBN concentration. The perfluorodiamine (3F) was used with both imide resins at 6.4 percent concentration. The shear strength was doubled in the case of the bisimide with no loss of flammability characteristics. The modified trisimide laminate also had improved properties over the unmodified one. The dynamic mechanical analysis of a four-ply laminate indicated a glass transition temperature above 300 C. Scanning electron micrographs of the ATBN modified imide resins were also recorded.

Varma, I. K.; Fohlen, G. M.; Parker, J. A.; Varma, D. S.

1984-01-01

453

Adsorption behaviour of metal ions on hydroximate resins.  

PubMed

Some new chelating ion-exchange resins containing a hydroxamic acid moiety attached to a divinylbenzene styrene (DVBS) copolymer, i.e. glycine hydroximate in DVBS (GH-DVBS). anthranilic acid hydroximate in DVBS (AAHDVBS), malonic acid dihydroximate in DVBS (MAH-DVBS) and iminodiacetic acid dihydroximate in DVBS (IDAAH-DVBS). have been synthesized and their various physicochemical characteristics studied. The degree of retention of metal ions by the resins at equilibrium has been determined in terms of the molar distribution coefficient (k(d)). In general, the resins having a dihydroximate moiety are found to be more efficient compared to monohydroximate resins. However, it is of interest to note that the monohydroximate derivative of amino acid (GH-DVBS) showed better metal retention capability than the dihydroximate of carboxylic acid (MAH-DVBS). The selectivity of the resins for transition and highly charged metal ions is quite high compared to that for alkaline earth metals. All the synthesized resins can be utilized for the separation of a mixture of metal ions because the differences in the distribution coefficient values are large enough to permit good separations on columns. However, the GH-DVBS resin was tried for the separation of copper cobalt and copper nickel mixtures at pH 5.5 using the column mode of operation. PMID:18966686

Ahuja, M; Rai, A K; Mathur, P N

1996-11-01

454

Resin-Transfer-Molding of a Tool Face  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A resin-transfer-molding (RTM) process has been devised for fabricating a matrix/graphite-cloth composite panel that serves as tool face for manufacturing other composite panels. Heretofore, RTM has generally been confined to resins with viscosities low enough that they can readily flow through interstices of cloth. The present process makes it possible to use a high-temperature, more-viscous resin required for the tool face. First, a release layer and then a graphite cloth are laid on a foam pattern that has the desired contour. A spring with an inside diameter of 3/8 in. (.9.5 mm) is placed along the long dimension of the pattern to act as a conduit for the resin. Springs with an inside diameter of 1/4 in. (.6.4 mm) are run off the larger lengthwise spring for distributing the resin over the tool face. A glass cloth is laid on top to act as breather. The whole layup is vacuum-bagged. Resin is mixed and made to flow under vacuum assistance to infiltrate the layup through the springs. The whole process takes less than a day, and the exposure of personnel to resin vapors is minimized.

Fowler, Mike; Ehlers, Edward; Brainard, David; Kellermann, Charles

2004-01-01

455

Evaluation of tensile retention of Y-TZP crowns cemented on resin composite cores: effect of the cement and Y-TZP surface conditioning.  

PubMed

This study evaluated the effect of the cement type (adhesive resin, self-adhesive, glass ionomer, and zinc phosphate) on the retention of crowns made of yttria-stabilized polycrystalline tetragonal zirconia (Y-TZP). Therefore, 108 freshly extracted molars were embedded in acrylic resin, perpendicular to their long axis, and prepared for full crowns: the crown preparations were removed and reconstructed using composite resin plus fiber posts with dimensions identical to the prepared dentin. The preparations were impressed using addition silicone, and Y-TZP copings were produced, which presented a special setup for the tensile testing. Cementation was performed with two adhesive resin cements (Multilink Automix, Ivoclar-Vivadent; RelyX ARC, 3M ESPE, St Paul, MN, USA), one self-adhesive resin cement (RelyX U100, 3M ESPE), one glass ionomer based cement (RelyX Luting, 3M ESPE), and one zinc phosphate cement (Cimento de Zinco, SS White, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil). For the resin cement groups, the inner surfaces of the crowns were subjected to three surface treatments: cleaning with isopropyl alcohol, tribochemical silica coating, or application of a thin low-fusing glass porcelain layer plus silanization. After 24 hours, all groups were subjected to thermocycling (6000 cycles) and included in a special device for tensile testing in a universal testing machine to test the retention of the infrastructure. After testing, the failure modes of all samples were analyzed under a stereomicroscope. The Kruskal-Wallis test showed that the surface treatment and cement type (?=0.05) affected the tensile retention results. The Multilink cement presented the highest tensile retention values, but that result was not statistically different from RelyX ARC. The surface treatment was statistically relevant only for the Multilink cement. The cement choice was shown to be more important than the crown surface treatment for cementation of a Y-TZP crown to a composite resin substrate. PMID:25162722

Rippe, M P; Amaral, R; Oliveira, F S; Cesar, P F; Scotti, R; Valandro, L F; Bottino, M A

2015-01-01

456

Devices using resin wafers and applications thereof  

DOEpatents

Devices incorporating a thin wafer of electrically and ionically conductive porous material made by the method of introducing a mixture of a thermoplastic binder and one or more of anion exchange moieties or cation exchange moieties or mixtures thereof and/or one or more of a protein capture resin and an electrically conductive material into a mold. The mixture is subjected to temperatures in the range of from about 60.degree. C. to about 170.degree. C. at pressures in the range of from about 0 to about 500 psig for a time in the range of from about 1 to about 240 minutes to form thin wafers. Devices include electrodeionization and separative bioreactors in the production of organic and amino acids, alcohols or esters for regenerating cofactors in enzymes and microbial cells.

Lin, YuPo J. (Naperville, IL); Henry, Michael P. (Batavia, IL); Snyder, Seth W. (Lincolnwood, IL); St. Martin, Edward (Libertyville, IL); Arora, Michelle (Woodridge, IL); de la Garza, Linda (Woodridge, IL)

2009-03-24

457

Critical appraisal. Resin bonding to zirconia.  

PubMed

Research has focused on adhesion and bond strengths to zirconia, but the question is "what is the gold standard--what is the bond strength we are trying to achieve?" Clinical data are needed to further understand adhesion issues--and studies are just now being published. Preliminary clinical research indicates that some failures are due to loss of adhesion but more are due to chipping of veneer porcelain. Commercial adhesion products are continuously being developed and optimized for clinical use. It is anticipated that the use of zirconia in dentistry will increase in the future, so reliable clinical adhesion solutions are needed. Based on the literature and the commercial products available to clinicians today, using novel primers (e.g., Z-PrimePlus) coupled with low pressure air-abrasion would be more than sufficient for adequate bonding of resin cement. PMID:23342396

Piascik, Jeffrey R

2012-12-01

458

Creep on a composite resin in water.  

PubMed

The compressive creep test of a composite resin (0-3.5 kg/mm2 stress levels) was conducted in water for 500 h. Linear regressions were obtained between the creep strains and the compressive stress levels at various hours. It is possible to predict the creep strain of the composite from the regression when it reaches water absorbed equilibrium after 500 h. The stress of the hygroscopic expansion was calculated from the linear regressions. The maximum stress due to the hygroscopic examination of the composite was 0.74 kg/mm2 at equilibrium of the water absorbed of the composite. The linear regressions at several compressive stress levels were obtained within 30-50 hr in the strain-log time diagrams. PMID:2638964

Hirano, S; Hirasawa, T

1989-06-01

459

Methane production using resin-wafer electrodeionization  

DOEpatents

The present invention provides an efficient method for creating natural gas including the anaerobic digestion of biomass to form biogas, and the electrodeionization of biogas to form natural gas and carbon dioxide using a resin-wafer deionization (RW-EDI) system. The method may be further modified to include a wastewater treatment system and can include a chemical conditioning/dewatering system after the anaerobic digestion system. The RW-EDI system, which includes a cathode and an anode, can either comprise at least one pair of wafers, each a basic and acidic wafer, or at least one wafer comprising of a basic portion and an acidic portion. A final embodiment of the RW-EDI system can include only one basic wafer for creating natural gas.

Snyder, Seth W; Lin, YuPo; Urgun-Demirtas, Meltem

2014-03-25

460

Transfer heat in a resin sheath  

SciTech Connect

As a material of construction for heat exchangers, fluoropolymers offer a combination of low cost and performance that is difficult for other materials to match. Durable, pliable, and less brittle than glass and graphite, fluoropolymers are generally specified over those materials in heat exchangers. Fluoropolymers have also displaced certain metals, depending on their susceptibility to corrosion from aggressive chemicals. Since making their debut in shell-and-tube models more than 30 years ago, fluoropolymers have also found their way into other configurations, namely reactor coils and immersion coils. Although fluoropolymer exchangers have proven their worth, there are still obstacles to overcome. One is the bias that exists toward process equipment that is made of plastic or other synthetic resins, particularly in high-heat environments. Secondly, there is the assumption that because fluoropolymers are inherently poor conductors of heat, they are odd candidates for heat exchangers. The paper discusses the advantages of fluoropolymer use in heat exchangers.

Wharry, S.R. Jr. [Ametek, Wilmington, DE (United States). Haveg Div.

1996-02-01

461

Geographic and genetic variation in the leaf surface resin components of Mimulus aurantiacus from southern California  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nearly 30% of the dry weight of leaves of the chaparral subshrub Mimulus aurantiacus comprise leaf surface resins. This resin provides some defense against the insect herbivore, Euphydryas chalcedona and may also protect plants from desiccation and UV light injury. The resin is composed of several components and the different components may contribute differentially to the resin's multiple protective roles.

J. D. Hare

2002-01-01

462

Study on the Miscibility of Chlorinated Polypropylene with Alkyd Resin by Dilute Solution Viscometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The viscosity of dilute chlorinated polypropylene(CPP)-alkyd resin (344 resin)-toluene solutions at different compositions was measured, and the criteria, ?, ?k and ?, were calculated from the experimental data. The results obtained indicate that the miscibility of the 344 resin-CPP blends can be predicted by the criterion ?, and the blends are miscible when the weight percentage of 344 resin in

Zhong-Lei Fan; Da-Zhuang Liu; Jian-Ji Wang

2003-01-01

463

Friction and wear of friction materials containing two different phenolic resins reinforced with aramid pulp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Friction and wear characteristics of automotive friction materials containing two different phenolic resins (a straight novolac resin and a modified novolac resin) were investigated using a pad-on-disk type friction tester. Six different friction materials with different relative amounts of the phenolic resins and aramid pulp were manufactured and tested. Two different test modes were employed to examine the friction characteristics

Seong Jin Kim; Ho Jang

2000-01-01

464

Push-out bond strengths of fiber-reinforced composite posts with various resin cements according to the root level  

PubMed Central

PURPOSE The aim of this study was to determine whether the push-out bond strengths between the radicular dentin and fiber reinforced-composite (FRC) posts with various resin cements decreased or not, according to the coronal, middle or apical level of the root. MATERIALS AND METHODS FRC posts were cemented with one of five resin cement groups (RelyX Unicem: Uni, Contax with activator & LuxaCore-Dual: LuA, Contax & LuxaCore-Dual: Lu, Panavia F 2.0: PA, Super-Bond C&B: SB) into extracted human mandibular premolars. The roots were sliced into discs at the coronal, middle and apical levels. Push-out bond strength tests were performed with a universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min, and the failure aspect was analyzed. RESULTS There were no significant differences (P>.05) in the bond strengths of the different resin cements at the coronal level, but there were significant differences in the bond strengths at the middle and apical levels (P<.05). Only the Uni and LuA cements did not show any significant decrease in their bond strengths at all the root levels (P>.05); all other groups had a significant decrease in bond strength at the middle or apical level (P<.05). The failure aspect was dominantly cohesive at the coronal level of all resin cements (P<.05), whereas it was dominantly adhesive at the apical level. CONCLUSION All resin cement groups showed decreases in bond strengths at the middle or apical level except LuA and Uni. PMID:24049569

Chang, Hoon-Sang; Noh, Young-Sin; Lee, Yoon; Min, Kyung-San

2013-01-01

465

Advanced thermoset resins for fire-resistant composites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The thermal and flammability properties of some thermoset polymers and composites are described. The processing and evaluation of composites fabricated from currently used resins and advanced fire-resistant resins are also described. Laboratory test methodology used to qualify candidate composite materials includes thermochemical characterization of the polymeric compounds and evaluation of the glass reinforced composites for flammability and smoke evolution. The use of these test methods will be discussed in comparing advanced laminating resins and composites consisting of modified epoxies, phenolics and bismaleimide, with conventional baseline materials consisting of epoxy.

Kourtides, D. A.; Parker, J. A.

1979-01-01

466

Cryogenic compressive properties of basic epoxy resin systems  

SciTech Connect

The compressive properties of short cylindrical samples of many different epoxy resin systems have been measured at ambient temperature and at 77/sup 0/K. These are pure resin systems of known chemistry, without the inorganic fillers or fibrous reinforcements needed in final cryogenic systems. Of course, chemically incorporated modifiers such as flexibilizing resins have been included. This data should make possible inferences about cryogenic properties from molecular structures and provide specific data useful to formulators and end users. Measurements on some other plastics such as PTFE, Polyimides, and UHMWPE have been made for comparison purposes.

Markley, F.W.; Hoffman, J.A.; Muniz, D.P.

1985-09-01

467

Statistical failure analysis of adhesive resin cement bonded dental ceramics  

PubMed Central

The goal of this work is to quantitatively examine the effect of adhesive resin cement on the probability of crack initiation from the internal surface of ceramic dental restorations. The possible crack bridging mechanism and residual stress effect of the resin cement on the ceramic surface are examined. Based on the fracture-mechanics-based failure probability model, we predict the failure probability of glass-ceramic disks bonded to simulated dentin subjected to indentation loads. The theoretical predictions match experimental data suggesting that both resin bridging and shrinkage plays an important role and need to be considered for accurate prognostics to occur. PMID:18670583

Wang, Yaou; Katsube, Noriko; Seghi, Robert R; Rokhlin, Stanislav I.

2007-01-01

468

Infiltration/cure modeling of resin transfer molded composite materials using advanced fiber architectures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A model was developed which can be used to simulate infiltration and cure of textile composites by resin transfer molding. Fabric preforms were resin infiltrated and cured using model generated optimized one-step infiltration/cure protocols. Frequency dependent electromagnetic sensing (FDEMS) was used to monitor in situ resin infiltration and cure during processing. FDEMS measurements of infiltration time, resin viscosity, and resin degree of cure agreed well with values predicted by the simulation model. Textile composites fabricated using a one-step infiltration/cure procedure were uniformly resin impregnated and void free. Fiber volume fraction measurements by the resin digestion method compared well with values predicted using the model.

Loos, Alfred C.; Weideman, Mark H.; Long, Edward R., Jr.; Kranbuehl, David E.; Kinsley, Philip J.; Hart, Sean M.

1991-01-01

469

Low-density resin impregnated ceramic article and method for making the same  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A low-density resin impregnated ceramic article advantageously employed as a structural ceramic ablator comprising a matrix of ceramic fibers. The fibers of the ceramic matrix are coated with an organic resin film. The organic resin can be a thermoplastic resin or a cured thermosetting resin. In one embodiment, the resin is uniformly distributed within the ceramic article. In a second embodiment, the resin is distributed so as to provide a density gradient along at least one direction of the ceramic article. The resin impregnated ceramic article is prepared by providing a matrix of ceramic fibers; immersing the matrix of ceramic fibers in a solution of a solvent and an organic resin infiltrant; and removing the solvent to form a resin film on the ceramic fibers.

Tran, Huy K. (Inventor); Henline, William D. (Inventor); Hsu, Ming-ta S. (Inventor); Rasky, Daniel J. (Inventor); Riccitiello, Salvatore R. (Inventor)

1997-01-01

470

Radium separation through complexation by aqueous crown ethers and ion exchange or solvent extraction  

SciTech Connect

The effect of three water-soluble, unsubstituted crown ethers (15-crown-5 (15C5), 18-crown-6 (18C6) and 21-crown-7 (21C7)) on the uptake of Ca, Sr, Ba and Ra cations by a sulfonic acid cation exchange resin, and on the extraction of the same cations by xylene solutions of dinonylnaphthalenesulfonic acid (HDNNS) from aqueous hydrochloric acid solutions has been investigated. The crown ethers enhance the sorption of the larger cations by the ion exchange resin, thereby improving the resin selectivity over calcium, a result of a synergistic interaction between the crown ether and the ionic functional groups of the resin. Similarly, the extraction of the larger alkaline earth cations into xylene by HDNNS is strongly synergized by the presence of the crown ethers in the aqueous phase. Promising results for intra-Group IIa cation separations have been obtained using each of the three crown ethers as the aqueous ligands and the sulfonic acid cation exchange resin. Even greater separation factors for the radium-calcium couple have been measured with the crown-ethers and HDNNS solutions in the solvent extraction mode. The application of the uptake and extraction results to the development of radium separation schemes is discussed and a possible flowchart for the determination of {sup 226}Ra/{sup 228}Ra in natural waters is presented.

Chiarizia, R.; Dietz, M.L.; Horwitz, E.P. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Chemistry Div.; Burnett, W.C. [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States). Dept. of Oceanography

1997-11-01

471

Comparison of sorption behavior of Th(IV) and U(VI) on modified impregnated resin containing quinizarin with that conventional prepared impregnated resin.  

PubMed

This paper reports the results obtained by studying the ion-exchange properties of a new solvent impregnated resin (SIR), which was prepared by impregnation of quinizarin (1,4-dihydroxyanthraquinone, QNZ) on Amberlite XAD-16 after nitration of the benzene rings present in its structure. The sorption behavior of Th(IV) and U(VI) on/in the modified SIR was compared with that of the SIR prepared via the conventional method. It was observed that sorption capacity and sorption rate of the modified SIR are significantly greater than the conventional one. The modified SIR was then applied to the extraction of Th(IV) and U(VI) ions at the presence of many co-existence metal ions. The results obtained denote on successful application of this new SIR to analysis of natural water samples spiked to Th(IV) and U(VI) ions. PMID:21530077

Hosseini, Mohammad Saeid; Hosseini-Bandegharaei, Ahmad

2011-06-15

472

Comparative Evaluation of Sorption, Solubility and Microhardness of Heat Cure Polymethylmethacrylate Denture Base Resin & Flexible Denture Base Resin  

PubMed Central

Aim: The aim of the study was to evaluate and compare sorption, solubility and microhardness of heat cure polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) denture base resin and flexible (thermoplastic polyamide nylon) denture base resin. Materials and Methods: Sorption, solubility and microhardness were assessed to determine compliance with ADA Specification no. 12. Results were assessed using statistical and observational analyses. Result: All materials satisfied ADA requirements for sorption, solubility and microhardness. Heat cure PMMA showed more sorption, solubility and microhardness than flexible (thermoplastic polyamide nylon). Conclusion: Flexible (thermoplastic polyamide nylon) resin absorbs less water, is less soluble and is more flexible than PMMA. PMID:25302291

Bulbule, Nilesh; Kulkarni, Shilpa; Shah, Riddhi; Kakade, Dilip

2014-01-01

473

Removal of radioactive materials and heavy metals from water using magnetic resin  

DOEpatents

Magnetic polymer resins capable of efficient removal of actinides and heavy metals from contaminated water are disclosed together with methods for making, using, and regenerating them. The resins comprise polyamine-epichlorohydrin resin beads with ferrites attached to the surfaces of the beads. Markedly improved water decontamination is demonstrated using these magnetic polymer resins of the invention in the presence of a magnetic field, as compared with water decontamination methods employing ordinary ion exchange resins or ferrites taken separately.

Kochen, Robert L. (Boulder, CO); Navratil, James D. (Simi Valley, CA)

1997-01-21

474

Metabolomics reveals the origins of antimicrobial plant resins collected by honey bees.  

PubMed

The deposition of antimicrobial plant resins in honey bee, Apis mellifera, nests has important physiological benefits. Resin foraging is difficult to approach experimentally because resin composition is highly variable among and between plant families, the environmental and plant-genotypic effects on resins are unknown, and resin foragers are relatively rare and often forage in unobservable tree canopies. Subsequently, little is known about the botanical origins of resins in many regions or the benefits of specific resins to bees. We used metabolomic methods as a type of environmental forensics to track individual resin forager behavior through comparisons of global resin metabolite patterns. The resin from the corbiculae of a single bee was sufficient to identify that resin's botanical source without prior knowledge of resin composition. Bees from our apiary discriminately foraged for resin from eastern cottonwood (Populus deltoides), and balsam poplar (P. balsamifera) among many available, even closely related, resinous plants. Cottonwood and balsam poplar resin composition did not show significant seasonal or regional changes in composition. Metabolomic analysis of resin from 6 North American Populus spp. and 5 hybrids revealed peaks characteristic to taxonomic nodes within Populus, while antimicrobial analysis revealed that resin from different species varied in inhibition of the bee bacterial pathogen, Paenibacillus larvae. We conclude that honey bees make discrete choices among many resinous plant species, even among closely related species. Bees also maintained fidelity to a single source during a foraging trip. Furthermore, the differential inhibition of P. larvae by Populus spp., thought to be preferential for resin collection in temperate regions, suggests that resins from closely related plant species many have different benefits to bees. PMID:24204850

Wilson, Michael B; Spivak, Marla; Hegeman, Adrian D; Rendahl, Aaron; Cohen, Jerry D

2013-01-01

475

Removal of radioactive materials and heavy metals from water using magnetic resin  

DOEpatents

Magnetic polymer resins capable of efficient removal of actinides and heavy metals from contaminated water are disclosed together with methods for making, using, and regenerating them. The resins comprise polyamine-epichlorohydrin resin beads with ferrites attached to the surfaces of the beads. Markedly improved water decontamination is demonstrated using these magnetic polymer resins of the invention in the presence of a magnetic field, as compared with water decontamination methods employing ordinary ion exchange resins or ferrites taken separately. 9 figs.

Kochen, R.L.; Navratil, J.D.

1997-01-21

476

Metabolomics Reveals the Origins of Antimicrobial Plant Resins Collected by Honey Bees  

PubMed Central

The deposition of antimicrobial plant resins in honey bee, Apis mellifera, nests has important physiological benefits. Resin foraging is difficult to approach experimentally because resin composition is highly variable among and between plant families, the environmental and plant-genotypic effects on resins are unknown, and resin foragers are relatively rare and often forage in unobservable tree canopies. Subsequently, little is known about the botanical origins of resins in many regions or the benefits of specific resins to bees. We used metabolomic methods as a type of environmental forensics to track individual resin forager behavior through comparisons of global resin metabolite patterns. The resin from the corbiculae of a single bee was sufficient to identify that resin's botanical source without prior knowledge of resin composition. Bees from our apiary discriminately foraged for resin from eastern cottonwood (Populus deltoides), and balsam poplar (P. balsamifera) among many available, even closely related, resinous plants. Cottonwood and balsam poplar resin composition did not show significant seasonal or regional changes in composition. Metabolomic analysis of resin from 6 North American Populus spp. and 5 hybrids revealed peaks characteristic to taxonomic nodes within Populus, while antimicrobial analysis revealed that resin from different species varied in inhibition of the bee bacterial pathogen, Paenibacillus larvae. We conclude that honey bees make discrete choices among many resinous plant species, even among closely related species. Bees also maintained fidelity to a single source during a foraging trip. Furthermore, the differential inhibition of P. larvae by Populus spp., thought to be preferential for resin collection in temperate regions, suggests that resins from closely related plant species many have different benefits to bees. PMID:24204850

Wilson, Michael B.; Spivak, Marla; Hegeman, Adrian D.; Rendahl, Aaron; Cohen, Jerry D.

2013-01-01

477

Matrix resin effects in composite delamination - Mode I fracture aspects  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A number of thermoset, toughened thermoset, and thermoplastic resin matrix systems were characterized for Mode I critical strain energy release rates, and their composites were tested for interlaminar critical strain energy release rates using the double cantilever beam method. A clear correlation is found between the two sets of data. With brittle resins, the interlaminar critical strain energy release rates are somewhat larger than the neat resin values due to a full transfer of the neat resin toughness to the composite and toughening mechanisms associated with crack growth. With tougher matrices, the higher critical strain energy release rates are only partially transferred to the composites, presumably because the fibers restrict the crack-tip deformation zones.

Hunston, Donald L.; Moulton, Richard J.; Johnston, Norman J.; Bascom, Willard D.

1987-01-01

478

Creep of an epoxy resin under transient temperatures  

E-print Network

(Member) . Saya Memb' r) August 1973 ABSTRACT Creep of an Epoxy Resin Under Transient Temperatures. (August 1973) Larry Alan Watkins, B. S. , Texas ASM Univers1ty D1rected by: Dr. R. A. Schapery Transient temperature tests were performed...

Watkins, Larry Alan

1973-01-01

479

A comparative study of fluoride-releasing adhesive resin materials.  

PubMed

One of the most important and exciting properties of recently introduced dental restorative materials is their ability to release fluoride ions, as this has several advantageous effects on tooth structures. They have been extensively used as fluoride-releasing filling and luting materials. Recently, fluoride-releasing adhesive resins and fluoride-releasing adhesive resin cement have been developed and introduced for clinical use. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the fluoride release from these adhesive resins and the fluoride uptake by both enamel and dentin, as well as the acid-resistance of these tooth structures. Based on our results, we conclude that fluoride-releasing adhesive resins and luting cements are useful for the prevention of initial or secondary caries, especially along the margins of restorations. PMID:12046524

Han, Linlin; Edward, Cruz; Okamoto, Akira; Iwaku, Masaaki

2002-03-01

480

Effects of Resin Hydrophilicity on Dentin Bond Strength  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to determine if hydrophobic resins can be coaxed into dentin wet with ethanol instead of water. The test hypothesis was that dentin wet with ethanol would produce higher bond strengths for hydrophobic resins than would dentin wet with water. This study examined the microtensile bond strength of 5 experimental adhesives (50 wt% ethanol/50% comonomers) of various degrees of hydrophilicity to acid-etched dentin that was left moist with water, moist with ethanol, or air-dried. Following composite buildups, hourglass-shaped slabs were prepared from the bonded teeth for microtensile testing. For all 3 types of dentin surfaces, higher bond strengths were achieved with increased resin hydrophilicity. The lowest bond strengths were obtained on dried dentin, while the highest bond strengths were achieved when dentin was bonded moist with ethanol. Wet-bonding with ethanol achieved higher bond strengths with hydrophobic resins than were possible with water-saturated matrices. PMID:17062742

Nishitani, Y.; Yoshiyama, M.; Donnelly, A.M.; Agee, K.A.; Sword, J.; Tay, F.R.; Pashley, D.H.

2008-01-01