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1

Effect of resin sulfonation on the retention of polar organic compounds in solid-phase extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hydrophobic nature of polymeric resins used in solid-phase extraction (SPE) often limits their efficiency by preventing intimate surface contact with aqueous samples. A polymeric resin modified by a series of chemical derivatizations with sulfuric acid was found to display excellent surface hydrophilicity and improved extraction efficiencies. The degree of sulfonation was found to play a vital role in determining

Philip J. Dumont; James S. Fritz

1995-01-01

2

Separation and recovery of food coloring dyes using aqueous biphasic extraction chromatographic resins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aqueous biphasic systems (ABS) and aqueous biphasic extraction chromatographic (ABEC) resins are currently under investigation for their utility in the removal of color from textile plant wastes. The structures of several widely used food colorings, suggest that these dyes would also be retained on the resins. In work currently in progress, we have begun to investigate the retention and resolution

Jonathan G. Huddleston; Heather D. Willauer; Kathy R. Boaz; Robin D. Rogers

1998-01-01

3

Enrichment and Purification of Total Chlorogenic Acids from Tobacco Waste Extract with Macroporous Resins  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, an evaluation was conducted on the performance and separation characteristics of nine macroporous resins for the enrichment and purification of total chlorogenic acids from tobacco (Nicotiana tobaccum L.) waste extracts. Based on the results, XAD-4 offered higher adsorption and desorption capacities for total chlorogenic acids than other resins. To optimize the separation process of total chlorogenic

Zhao Hui; Wang Jun; Jia Jing; Liu Ji; Ling Xiuquan; Lu Dingqiang

2010-01-01

4

Effects of extraction media upon fluoride release from a resin-modified glass-ionomer cement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies have shown that various factors such as ionic composition or pH of the extraction medium may significantly\\u000a influence leaching of components from restorative materials. Therefore, it was the aim of this investigation to determine\\u000a the release of fluoride from a resin-modified glass-ionomer cement (GIC) following storage in various extraction media, including\\u000a an esterase buffer. Specimens of the resin-modified

W. Geurtsen; P. Bubeck; G. Leyhausen; F. Garcia-Godoy

1998-01-01

5

Copolymer resins made of agricultural and forest residues extracts for wood laminating adhesives  

SciTech Connect

Extracts of Southern pine bark, peanut hulls, pecan nut pitch, and pecan shell flour were used to synthesize copolymer resins using resorcinol, phenol, and formaldehyde. The test joints of both southern pine and oak were laminated in room temperature. The gluability of these copolymer resins were evaluated with shear compression loading test. The effects of resorcinol level, the molar ratio of formaldehyde to phenolic, and the composition of the hardener on bonding quality were investigated. With a more than 80% wood failure after vacuum pressure treatment, several copolymer resins provided good bonding quality as a wood laminating adhesive. Different extracts required different formulations of copolymer resin and hardner to obtain the best bonding quality.

Chen, C.M. [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States)

1995-11-01

6

The Separation of Beryllium from Selected Elements Using the Dipex Extraction Chromatographic Resin  

Microsoft Academic Search

An extraction chromatographic resin containing the acidic chelating organophosphorus extractant, Dipex, sorbed onto an inert polymeric substrate has been evaluated for the separation of beryllium from a wide range of elements. The elements selected comprise those which can interfere with the determination of beryllium by inductively coupled plasma?atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP?AES) and matrix elements which commonly occur in environmental and

E. Philip Horwitz; Daniel R. McAlister

2005-01-01

7

Interphase mobility and migration of hydrophobic organic metal extractant molecules in solvent-impregnated resins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solvent-impregnated resins (SIRs) were made from polyvinyl pyridine and polyvinyl benzyl ammonium types of ionic polymers by impregnation of thiophosphoric acid type extractants. Morphological and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) studies were performed to observe the physical migration of the extractants under variation of two chemical factors: acidity and metal concentration. Morphological (surface area) measurements of the SIR-type polymer reveal surface

Abraham Warshawsky; Alex G. Strikovsky; Mark Y. Vilensky; Karel Jerabek

2002-01-01

8

Extraction of high quality DNA from seized Moroccan cannabis resin (Hashish).  

PubMed

The extraction and purification of nucleic acids is the first step in most molecular biology analysis techniques. The objective of this work is to obtain highly purified nucleic acids derived from Cannabis sativa resin seizure in order to conduct a DNA typing method for the individualization of cannabis resin samples. To obtain highly purified nucleic acids from cannabis resin (Hashish) free from contaminants that cause inhibition of PCR reaction, we have tested two protocols: the CTAB protocol of Wagner and a CTAB protocol described by Somma (2004) adapted for difficult matrix. We obtained high quality genomic DNA from 8 cannabis resin seizures using the adapted protocol. DNA extracted by the Wagner CTAB protocol failed to give polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA) synthase coding gene. However, the extracted DNA by the second protocol permits amplification of THCA synthase coding gene using different sets of primers as assessed by PCR. We describe here for the first time the possibility of DNA extraction from (Hashish) resin derived from Cannabis sativa. This allows the use of DNA molecular tests under special forensic circumstances. PMID:24124454

El Alaoui, Moulay Abdelaziz; Melloul, Marouane; Alaoui Amine, Sanaâ; Stambouli, Hamid; El Bouri, Aziz; Soulaymani, Abdelmajid; El Fahime, Elmostafa

2013-01-01

9

[Purification technology of procymidone residues in ginseng extracts by macroporous resins].  

PubMed

The macroporous resin separation technology has been mainly applied in the enrichment of saponins, flavonoids, alkaloids and other ingredients, and used in the removal of heavy metal impurities and pesticide residues in recent years. This paper focuses on the synthesis of the new-type macroporous adsorption resin LKS-11 according to the molecular structure characteristics of procymidone. Specifically, the selective absorptive property and other advantages of macroporous resin were utilized to analyze the procymidone removal efficiency in ginseng extracts from different sources. The type of macroporous resins, absorptive property and desorption conditions were observed respectively by static and dynamic adsorption methods to determined the optimum process conditions. According to the results, LKS-11 showed a good absorptive property to procymidone in ginseng extracts and provided a theoretical basis for studies on the removal of procymidone residues from ginseng extracts by using macroporous adsorption resin. Because of no secondary pollution on samples, low production and operation costs, high procymidone removal efficiency and high product recovery rate, this method is suitable to be applied in production. PMID:25276973

Cui, Li-Li; Zheng, Pei-He; Wang, Ying-Ping

2014-07-01

10

Effects of Experimental Conditions on Extraction Yield of Extracellular Polymeric Substances by Cation Exchange Resin  

PubMed Central

Effects of experimental conditions on the yield of extracellular polymeric substances (EPSs) extraction by cation exchange resin (CER) were investigated using activated sludge flocs. The experimental variables included resin dose, extraction time, sample dilution, and storage time. An empirical model was proposed to describe the kinetics of extraction process. The extraction yield increases with the extraction time and CER dose until it reached the maximum amount of EPS extraction. The maximum yield of EPS was affected as well by the sample dilution, exhibiting a decreasing trend with increasing dilution factor. It was also found that the amount of EPS extracted from a raw sample depends on the storage time. Once EPS was extracted from the sample, however, the EPS keeps its original quantity under storage at 4°C. Based on the model, the maximum amount of EPS extraction and yield rate could be estimated for different conditions. Comparing the model parameters allows one to quantitatively compare the extraction efficiencies under various extracting conditions. Based on the results, we recommend the original sample should be diluted with the volume ratio of above 1?:?2 and a raw sample should be treated quickly to prevent the reduction of sample homogeneity and original integrity. PMID:22919352

Cho, Jinwoo; Hermanowicz, Slawomir W.; Hur, Jin

2012-01-01

11

Extraction of phosphorus, potassium, calcium, and magnesium from soils by an ion?exchange resin procedure  

Microsoft Academic Search

A procedure for the simultaneous extraction of phosphorus, potassium, calcium and magnesium from soils, by an ion?exchange resin procedure applicable to large?scale advisory soil testing, is described. The important steps are the disaggregation of soil by shaking in water during 15 minutes with a glass marble, the transference of the elements from the soil to a sodium bicarbonate treated mixture

B. van Raij; J. A. Quaggio; N. M. da Silva

1986-01-01

12

Properties of resorcinol-tannin-formaldehyde copolymer resins prepared from the bark extracts of Taiwan acacia and China fir.  

PubMed

Resorcinol-tannin-formaldehyde copolymer resins (RTF) were prepared by using the bark extracts of Taiwan acacia (Acacia confusa) and China fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) to substitute part of the resorcinol. From the results, the content of reactive phenolic materials in Taiwan acacia and China fir bark extracts were 51.6% and 46.5%, respectively. Aromatic compounds were the main components in the bark extracts showed by FT-IR analysis. The conventional synthesis condition used for RF resin was certainly not suitable for the RTF copolymer resin. It should be formed the novolak RF prepolymer by reacting the resorcinol with formaldehyde at the first stage, and then the bark extracts added and underwent the copolymerization reaction under acidic condition at the second-stage. The RTF copolymer resins prepared had cold-setting capability. They had higher viscosity, shorter gel time as compared with the RF resin. The RTF copolymer resins could be carried out the gluing application immediately after the hardener was added and had bonding strength the same as RF resin. But the RTF copolymer resins had worse stability and shorter shelf life than RF resin. PMID:16171683

Lee, Wen-Jau; Lan, Wei-Chuan

2006-01-01

13

Methylene crosslinked calix[6]arene hexacaarboxylic acid resin: a highly efficient solid phase extractant for decontamination of lead bearing effluents.  

PubMed

Calixarene-based cation exchange resin has been developed by methylene crosslinking of calix[6]arene hexacarboxylic acid derivative and the resin has been exploited for solid phase extraction of some toxic heavy metal ions. The selectivity order of the resin towards some metal ions follows the order Pb(II) > Cu(II)> Zn(II), Ni(II), Co(II). The maximum lead ion binding capacity of the resin was found to be 1.30 mmol g(-1) resin. The loaded lead was quantitatively eluted with dilute acid solution regenerating the resin. Mutual separation of Pb(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) was achieved by using the column packed with the resin. PMID:21835544

Adhikari, Birendra Babu; Gurung, Manju; Kawakita, Hidetaka; Jumina; Ohto, Keisuke

2011-10-15

14

Determination of weight distribution ratios of Pa(V) and Np(V) with some extraction chromatography resins and the AG1-X8 resin.  

PubMed

Literature data on distribution ratios (Dw) of Np(V) and Pa(V) for the AG1-X8 resin are scarce whereas those related on resin capacity factors (k') values for TEVA, TRU and U/TEVA resins are absent. Therefore, batch extraction experiments for Pa(V) and Np(V) from HCl and HNO3 media were realized, at tracer scale, with AG1-X8 and EIChroM resins (TEVA, TRU and U/TEVA). Based on the new Dw and k' values obtained in this study, a new protocol for Pa/Np separation has been developed leading to a better separation factor of 10(5) and a chemical yield of 97±3% and 99±1% for Pa and Np, respectively. A separation of (231)Pa from uranium matrix was successfully tested. PMID:23680558

Mendes, M; Aupiais, J; Jutier, C; Pointurier, F

2013-05-30

15

Improved resins and novel materials and methods for solid phase extraction and high performance liquid chromatography  

SciTech Connect

Solid-phase extraction (SPE) has grown to be one of the most widely used methods for isolation and preconcentration of a vast range of compounds from aqueous solutions. By modifying polymeric SPE resins with chelating functional groups, the selective uptake of metals was accomplished. The resin, along with adsorbed metals, was vaporized in the ICP and detection of the metals was then possible using either mass or emission spectroscopy. Drug analyses in biological fluids have received heightened attention as drug testing is on the increase both in sports and in the work environment. By using a direct-injection technique, biological fluids can be injected directly into the liquid chromatographic system with no pretreatment. A new surfactant, a sulfonated form of Brij-30 (Brij-S) is shown to prevent the uptake of serum proteins on commercial HPLC columns by forming a thin coating on the silica C18 surface. Excellent separations of eight or more drugs with a wide range of retention times were obtained. The separations had sharper peaks and lower retention times than similar separations performed with the surfactant sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS). Quantitative recovery of a number of drugs with limits of detection near 1 ppm with a 5 {micro}l injection volume were obtained. Finally, a method for solid-phase extraction in a syringe is introduced. The system greatly reduced the volume of solvent required to elute adsorbed analytes from the SPE bed while providing a semi-automated setup. SPE in a syringe consists of a very small bed of resin-loaded membrane packed into a GC or HPLC syringe. After extraction, elution was performed with just a few {micro}l of solvent. This small elution volume allowed injection of the eluent directly from the syringe into the chromatographic system, eliminating the handling problems associated with such small volumes.

Freeze, R.

1997-10-08

16

Chemically modified polymeric resins for solid-phase extraction and group separation prior to analysis by liquid or gas chromatography  

SciTech Connect

Polystyrene divinylbenzene was modified by acetyl, sulfonic acid, and quaternary ammonium groups. A resin functionalized with an acetyl group was impregnated in a PTFE membrane and used to extract and concentrate phenolic compounds from aqueous samples. The acetyl group created a surface easily wetted, making it an efficient adsorbent for polar compounds in water. The membrane stabilized the resin bed. Partially sulfonated high surface area resins are used to extract and group separate an aqueous mixture of neutral and basic organics; the bases are adsorbed electrostatically to the sulfonic acid groups, while the neutraons are adsorbed hydrophobically. A two-step elution is then used to separate the two fractions. A partially functionalized anion exchange resin is used to separate organic acids and phenols from neutrals in a similar way. Carboxylic acids are analyzed by HPLC and phenols by GC.

Schmidt, L.W.

1993-07-01

17

Anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activities of the ethanolic extract of Shorea robusta Gaertn. f. resin.  

PubMed

Shorea robusta Gaertn. f. (Sal) is one of the most important traditional Indian medicinal plants. The resin of the plant has been used in the treatment of inflammation in folklore medicine. In the present study, ethanolic extract (70%) of S. robusta resin (SRE) was investigated for its anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activities. Acute inflammation was produced by carrageenan-induced hind paw edema and sub-acute by cotton pellet-induced granuloma in male Wistar rats. The antipyretic activity of SRE was studied using Brewer's yeast-induced pyrexia in rats. The rats were divided into five groups with five animals in each group. Group I was treated with vehicle i.e. 1% v/v Tween-80 and served as control. Groups II to IV were treated with three different doses of SRE (30, 100 and 300 mg/kg orally). Group V was treated with standard drug etoricoxib (10 mg/kg orally). The anti-inflammatory activity of SRE was assessed by per cent reduction in edema volume of carrageenan-induced hind paw edema and by per cent decrease in granuloma formation in cotton pellet-induced granuloma test. SRE (100 and 300 mg/kg) produced a significant reduction in edema volume and decrease in granulation tissue formation in rats. Significant reduction in pyrexia was observed at all the dose levels of SRE i.e. 30, 100 and 300 mg/kg. The results of the present study demonstrated anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activities of S. robusta resin and supported its traditional therapeutic use in painful inflammatory conditions and fever. PMID:23350282

Wani, T A; Chandrashekara, H H; Kumar, D; Prasad, R; Sardar, K K; Kumar, D; Tandan, S K

2012-12-01

18

Phosphorus in runoff assessed by anion exchange resin extraction and an algal assay.  

PubMed

Eutrophication of surface waters can be accelerated by agricultural inputs of phosphorus (P), provided that P is in a form that can be utilized by aquatic algae. We studied anion exchange resin (AER) extraction and a dual culture algal assay (DCAA) for the determination of potentially algal-available P in water samples without sediment preconcentration. Our material consisted of agricultural and forest runoff and wastewaters. The results obtained by the two methods were essentially equal when the samples contained only small amounts of particulate phosphorus (PP) in relation to dissolved molybdate-reactive phosphorus (DRP). However, in turbid agricultural runoff, P extracted with AER averaged 72% (n = 17) of the P yield of the 3-wk DCAA (R2 = 0.94). When the runoff samples were diluted for the AER extraction in the same manner as for the DCAA, the AER-P yield increased to 85% (n = 5) of DCAA-P. The minimum detectable value was greater for the AER test (41 microg L(-1) AER-extractable P) than for the DCAA (7 microg L(-1) DCAA-P). At concentrations greater than about 50 microg L(-1) AER-P or DCAA-P, the accuracy of the methods was satisfactory, with the coefficient of variation in replicated analyses being less than 10% for the AER test and less than 20% for the DCAA. Other anions competing for the exchange sites of the AER decreased P recovery by 15 to 20% when their equivalent concentration exceeded about 4 mmol, L(-1), and this effect was relatively constant over a large concentration range. We consider that AER extraction is a suitable low-cost method to estimate the algal availability of P in runoff samples. PMID:12708688

Uusitalo, Risto; Ekholm, Petri

2003-01-01

19

Fatty and resin acid analysis in tall oil products via supercritical fluid extraction-supercritical fluid reaction using enzymatic catalysis.  

PubMed

Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) is combined with supercritical fluid reaction (SFR) in an analytical mode to assess tall oil products for their fatty or resin acid content or both. The SFR consists of an inline enzymatically catalyzed reaction in which a lipase transesterifies specific lipids with methanol. The SFE-SFR sequence is conducted employing commercially available extractors using supported lipases in the extraction cell to form methyl esters. In this study, six different commercially available lipases are screened for activity. The SFE-SFR extracts are analyzed by capillary gas chromatography and supercritical fluid chromatography and then compared with tall oil products derivatized by conventional chemical derivatization techniques. PMID:11471988

Taylor, S L; King, J W

2001-07-01

20

New hydrophilic polymeric resin based on 4-vinylpyridine–divinylbenzene for solid-phase extraction of polar compounds from water  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 4-vinylpyridine–divinylbenzene (VP–DVB) resin was synthesized to be used for on-line solid-phase extraction process and it was tested for a group of polar compounds. The high specific surface area and the nitrogen content of the VP–DVB sorbent increased the interactions with the polar analytes in the preconcentration process. The sorbent enabled 100ml of water to be concentrated with recoveries higher

Núria Fontanals; Patricia Puig; Marina Galià; Rosa Maria Marcé; Francesc Borrull

2004-01-01

21

Extraction, Characterization and Utilization of Organosolv Miscanthus Lignin for the Conception of Environmentally Friendly Mixed Tannin\\/Lignin Wood Resins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lignin was extracted from Miscanthus × giganteus using two procedures: an aqueous-ethanol organosolv treatment and a two-step process involving a dilute acid pre-soaking step followed by an aqueous-ethanol organosolv treatment. The organosolv lignin was subjected to a comprehensive structural characterization by C and MALDI-TOF MS and used for the formulation of a green wood adhesive prepared with 100% natural resins.

Roland El Hage; Nicolas Brosse; Paola Navarrete; Antonio Pizzi

2011-01-01

22

Selective Separation of Lanthanides with Phenolic Resins: Extraction Behavior and Thermal Stability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Catechol, resorcinol, and their admixtures with 8-hydroxyquinoline were converted into polymeric resins by alkaline polycondensation with formaldehyde. The resins were characterized by FTIR spectroscopy, moisture regain, ion-exchange capacity, and distribution coefficient (D) for Eu. Thermogravimetric analysis of the polymer samples was studied, and the effect of the sorption of metal ions on their thermal stability was evaluated. Complexation of Eu

M. DRAYE; K. R. CZERWINSKI; A. FAVRE-RÉGUILLON; J. FOOS; A. GUY; M. LEMAIRE

2000-01-01

23

DNA extraction method using a silica-base resin type kit for the detection of genetically modified papaya.  

PubMed

Genetically modified (GM) papaya has not yet been approved for importation into, or cultivation in the European Union (EU) and Japan. A DNA extraction method using the Qiagen DNeasy Plant Mini Kit (PM method) and a method using a buffer containing cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB method) have been adopted as the official Japanese methods for detecting GM foods. However, the amounts of DNA extracted from papaya by these methods are very low. Therefore, we investigated an extraction method to obtain a high yield of DNA from raw or freeze-dried fresh papaya using the Promega Wizard DNA Clean-Up Resin System (WCR). The incubation for the extraction was carried out at 58 degrees C without proteinase K for 15 min. The extract was applied to a mini-column, then the column was washed with 80% isopropyl alcohol, and genomic DNA adsorbed on the column was eluted with TE buffer. The WCR method gave a higher yield of genomic DNA, and was simpler and faster than the PM method or CTAB method. In addition, it could be used to extract genomic DNA from fresh papaya at various stages of ripeness. Based on these results, we propose that the present method using WCR is the most practical and useful way to extract genomic DNA for the purpose of detecting GM papaya. PMID:18503240

Ohmori, Kiyomi; Tsuchiya, Hisayo; Watanabe, Takahiro; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Maitani, Tamio; Yamada, Toshiharu; Hirayama, Kuni; Satoh, Shuji

2008-04-01

24

Influence of chemical modification of polymeric resin on retention of polar compounds in solid-phase extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Three polymeric adsorbents, two of which had been chemically modified with different hydrophilic functional moieties and the\\u000a third, which was the corresponding unmodified polystyrene-divinylbenzene (PSDVB) resin, were compared for solid-phase extraction\\u000a (SPE) of several polar pesticides and phenolic compounds from water samples. The SPE system was online coupled to a liquid\\u000a chromatograph with UV detector.\\u000a \\u000a Chemical modification of the PS-DVB

N. Masqué; M. Galiá; R. M. Marcé; F. Borrull

1999-01-01

25

Extraction of anthocyanins from black bean canning wastewater with macroporous resins.  

PubMed

This study investigated purification of anthocyanins from black bean canning wastewater by column chromatography with 5 types of macroporous resins (Diaion Hp20, Sepabeads Sp70, Sepabeads Sp207, Sepabeads Sp700, and Sepabeads Sp710). By-product of canned black beans was partially purified by filtration, in anticipation of higher performance during column chromatography. Equilibrium adsorption isotherms were measured and analyzed using Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. Both Langmuir (all R² ? 0.98) and Freundlich (all R² ? 0.97) models can describe the adsorption process of anthocyanins from black bean canning wastewater using the tested resins. The adsorption and desorption behaviors of anthocyanins were studied using a dynamic method on the 5 types of resins, and Sp700 presented the highest adsorption capacity (39 ± 4 mg/g; P < 0.05) as well as desorption capacity (19 ± 2%; P < 0.05), indicating that of the resins examined, Sp700 is a better candidate for purification of anthocyanins from black bean canning wastewater. PMID:24472095

Wang, Xiaoxi; Hansen, Conly; Allen, Karin

2014-02-01

26

Adsorption and desorption properties of macroporous resins for anthocyanins from the calyx extract of roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.).  

PubMed

Adsorption of roselle anthocynins, a natural pigment, onto various macroporous resins was optimized to develop a simple and efficient process for industrial separation and purification of roselle anthocyanins. Nine different macroporous resins (AB-8, X-5, HPD-100, SP-207, XAD-4, LS-305A, DM-21, LS-610B, and LS-305) were evaluated for the adsorption properties of the anthocyanins extracted from the calyx extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. The influences of phase contact time, solution pH, initial anthocyanin concentration, and ethanol concentration with different citric acid amounts were studied by the static adsorption/desorption method. The adsorption isotherm data were fitted well to the Langmuir isotherm, and according to this model, LS-610B and LS-305 exhibited the highest monolayer sorption capacities of 31.95 and 38.16 mg/g, respectively. The kinetic data were modeled using pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order, and intraparticle diffusion equations. The experimental data were well described by the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. Continuous column adsorption-regeneration cycles indicated negligible capacity loss of LS-305 during operation. The overall yield of pigment product was 49.6 mg/g dried calyces. The content of roselle anthocynins in the pigment product was 4.85%. PMID:22329796

Chang, Xiu-Lian; Wang, Dong; Chen, Bi-Yun; Feng, Yong-Mei; Wen, Shao-Hong; Zhan, Peng-Yuan

2012-03-01

27

Novel polysiloxane resin functionalized with dicyclohexano-18-crown-6 (DCH18C6): Synthesis, characterization and extraction of Sr(II) in high acidity HNO3 medium.  

PubMed

A novel kind of polysiloxane resin functionalized with dicyclohexano-18-crown-6 (DCH18C6) was synthesized through a post-modification approach. The DCH18C6 moieties bearing amino groups were firstly prepared, followed by covalent grafting to a silica precursor P-(CH(2))(3)-Cl (Where P represents a 3-dimentional polymerized silica matrix) based on nucleophilic substitution reaction. (29)Si and (13)C solid-state NMR, FT-IR, XPS, TGA, ESEM and elemental analysis were employed to systematically characterize the structure, thermal property and surface morphology of the functionalized resin. The results indicated that the DCH18C6 ligands were successfully bonded to the polysiloxane resin with a satisfactory grafting degree (33.6wt.%). Due to the robust organosilica framework and the covalent immobilization of the ligands, the functionalized resin had excellent thermal stability and acid resistance. Batch experiments showed that the resin could effectively separate Sr(II) in high acidity mediums. The distribution coefficient (K(d)) of 43.6cm(3)/g could be achieved in 5.0mol/L HNO(3) solution. The influences of contact time and acidity of HNO(3) on the resin's extraction performance were examined. The reusability and the selectivity to Sr(II) over interference ions were investigated. The DCH18C6-functionalized resin might be potentially applied for the radiostrontium removal in the high level liquid waste (HLLW). PMID:22609393

Ye, Gang; Bai, Feifei; Wei, Jichao; Wang, Jianchen; Chen, Jing

2012-07-30

28

Solid phase extraction of some precious metals from hydrochloric acid to polystyrene-divinylbenzene porous resin impregnated with polyoxyethylene-type nonionic surfactant.  

PubMed

The solid phase extraction of gold(III), platinum(II), and palladium(II) to surfactant-impregnated polystyrene-divinylbenzene porous resin (XAD-4) was studied. The extracting media could be prepared just by mixing the resin in aqueous surfactant solutions. XAD-4 impregnated with a nonionic surfactant, polyethylene glycol monooleyl ether, was useful for extracting gold(III) from hydrochloric acid. The extractions of platinum(II) and palladium(II) were improved in the use of XAD-4 impregnated with a nitrogen-containing nonionic surfactant, polyethylene glycol stearyl amine. On the other hand, base metals such as copper(II), cobalt(II), nickel(II) and zinc(II), were hardly extracted. PMID:16259992

Saitoh, Tohru; Suzuki, Syuntaro; Hiraide, Masataka

2005-12-01

29

Effect of Extraction Media and Storage Time on the Elution of Monomers from Four Contemporary Resin Composite Materials  

PubMed Central

Introduction: The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of different extraction media, including culture media, as well as storage times on the elution of monomers from modern dental composites. Materials and Methods: Four contemporary composite materials were tested: (a) Clearfil Majesty Esthetic (Kuraray), (b) Esthet X (DENTSPLY), (c) Filtek Silorane (3M ESPE), and (d) Admira (Voco). Forty-eight specimens were made. The specimens were stored in 1 ml of (a) artificial saliva, (b) Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium (DMEM), (c) DMEM plus 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS), and (d) ethanol 75%. The specimens were analyzed after 24 hours and after 1 week of storage. HPLC Liquid Chromatography was performed to analyze the extracted solutions. The statistical package SPSS 18 was used for the statistical analysis of the results. Results: All the materials tested released monomers that were consistent with the base composition of their resin matrix. Bisphenol-A (BPA) was detected in Clearfil Esthetic and EsthetX when ethanol 75% was used for storage. TEGDMA was released at a faster rate compared to the other monomers with most of the monomer eluted in the first 24 hours. The effect of storage solution and storage time on the elution of the same monomers varied between materials. Conclusions: There was a significant effect of time, storage solution, and material on the elution of the detectable unbound monomers. Unbound monomers were detected in culture media, which may lead to false-negative results in cytotoxicity tests of resin composite materials. BPA was detected in two of the tested materials. PMID:24748741

Tsitrou, Effrosyni; Kelogrigoris, Stavros; Koulaouzidou, Elisabeth; Antoniades-Halvatjoglou, Maria; Koliniotou-Koumpia, Eugenia; van Noort, Richard

2014-01-01

30

Method for recovering and using lignin in adhesive resins by extracting demethylated lignin  

DOEpatents

Lignin, or a lignin derived material, which has been significantly demethylated (e.g., the demethylated lignin found in the raffinate produced as a by-product of dimethyl sulfide production which can be carried out using the spent liquor from wood pulping operations) can be isolated by a process wherein an organic solvent is added to a lignin-containing aqueous solution. The organic solvent is typically a polar, and at least a partially water-immiscible substance such as, for example, ethyl acetate. The resulting lignin-containing aqueous solution/organic solvent mixture is acidified to produce a water layer which is discarded and an organic solvent layer which contains the demethylated lignin. Upon its recovery, the demethylated lignin is dissolved in an alkaline solution to which an aldehyde source is added to produce a resol-type resin. The aldehyde source may be formaldehyde in solution, paraformaldehyde, hexamethylenetetramine, or other aldehydes including acetaldehyde, furfural, and their derivatives.

Schroeder, Herbert A. (Ft. Collins, CO)

1991-01-01

31

Tunable aqueous polymer-phase impregnated resins-technology-a novel approach to aqueous two-phase extraction.  

PubMed

Aqueous Two-Phase Extraction (ATPE) represents a promising unit operation for downstream processing of biotechnological products. The technique provides several advantages such as a biocompatible environment for the extraction of sensitive and biologically active compounds. However, the tendency of some aqueous two-phase systems to form intensive and stable emulsions can lead to long phase separation times causing an increased footprint for the required mixer-settler devices or the need for additional equipment such as centrifuges. In this work, a novel approach to improve ATPE for downstream processing applications called 'Tunable Aqueous Polymer-Phase Impregnated Resins' (TAPPIR(®))-Technology is presented. The technology is based on the immobilization of one aqueous phase inside the pores of a solid support. The second aqueous phase forms the bulk liquid around the impregnated solids. Due to the immobilization of one phase, phase emulsification and phase separation of ATPE are realized in a single step. In this study, a biodegradable and sustainable aqueous two-phase system consisting of aqueous polyethylene glycol/sodiumcitrate solutions was chosen. The impregnation of different macroporous glass and ceramic solids was investigated and could be proven to be stable. Additionally, the separation of the dye Patent blue V was successfully performed with the TAPPIR(®)-Technology. Thus, the "proof of principle" of this technology is presented. PMID:24462465

van Winssen, F A; Merz, J; Schembecker, G

2014-02-14

32

Investigation of radioactive lead, uranium, and thorium in environmental waters by extraction chromatography resins  

Microsoft Academic Search

A time-saving and sensitive method for monitoring low concentration (activities) of Pb, Th, and Th and U, U, and U in water samples has been developed. Through the combination of co-precipitation and extraction chromatography by 3M RAD disks and UTEVA (Eichrom) columns effective radiochemical separation of the analytes was carried out. Thorium and uranium activities were determined by alpha spectrometry

Zornitza Tosheva; Antoine Kies; Inna Taskaeva

2006-01-01

33

Extractive fermentation for enhanced production of thailandepsin A from Burkholderia thailandensis E264 using polyaromatic adsorbent resin Diaion HP-20.  

PubMed

Thailandepsin A is natural product of Burkholderia thailandensis E264 with potent histone deacetylase inhibitory activities and promising anticancer activities. The titer of thailandepsin A is very low (less than 10 mg/l) from limited empirical fermentation. To facilitate preclinical evaluations and potentially clinical development of thailandepsin A, systematic optimization and extractive fermentation of thailandepsin A from B. thailandensis E264 culture in flasks were investigated in this pilot study. The main fermentation parameters--28°C, pH 7.0, inoculum ratio 1% (v/v), incubation duration 60 h, medium volume 26%, shaking speed 170 rpm, and chloroform as extracting solvent--were determined by single factor experiments. Polyaromatic adsorbent resin Diaion HP-20, when added at a concentration of 4% (w/v), was most effective to reduce feedback inhibition of thailandepsin A and to significantly increase the titer of target product. Central composite design was used to further optimize the fermentation medium for B. thailandensis E264. The optimized medium contains glucose 17.89 g/l, tryptone 34.98 g/l, potassium phosphate 24.84 g/l, and sodium citrate 0.01 g/l, which resulted in a large increase of the titer of thailandepsin A to 236.7 mg/l. Finally kinetic models based on the modified logistic and Luedeking-Piret equations were developed, delivering a good description of temporal variations of biomass, product, and substrate in the fermentation process, which could be used as references for developing large-scale fermentation. PMID:22246221

Liu, Bing; Hui, Junyuan; Cheng, Yi-Qiang; Zhang, Xuehong

2012-05-01

34

Chemical affinities between the solvent extractable and the bulk organic matter of fossil resin associated with an extinct podocarpaceae  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Analyses by GC-MS and GC-IR of resin associated to Dacridiumites mawsonii deposits, an extinct species of Podocarpaceae occurring on the South Island of New Zealand during the Bortonian (Middle Eocene), have revealed that dehydroabietic acid is the predominant component of the solvent soluble fraction. Accordingly, this diterpenoid has been selected as the principal component material for spectroscopic comparison with the bulk resin using IR and CP/MAS 13C NMR. ?? 1989.

Grimalt, J.O.; Simoneit, B.R.T.; Hatcher, P.G.

1989-01-01

35

Determination of some trace metals by FAAS after solid-phase extraction with amberlite XAD-1180/TAN chelating resin.  

PubMed

A new chelating resin was synthesized by immobilizing 1-(2-thiazolylazo)-2-naphthol through the -N=N- group on Amberlite XAD-1180. The resin was used for the preconcentration of Cd(II), Co(II), Cu(II), Mn(II), Ni(II), and Pb(II) ions and their determination by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). The influences of some analytical parameters, such as the pH, volume of the sample, flow rates of the sample and eluent, matrix components, amount of the resin, and amount and type of the eluent on the recovery, were investigated. Those metals retained on the resin at pH 8.5 were eluted with 25 mL of 2 mol L(-1) HNO(3). The sorption capacity of the resin was determined, except for Pb(II). The recoveries were found to be ?95%, and the relative standard-deviation values were ?4.3%. The detection limits were in the range of 0.1 - 3.6 µg L(-1). For the accuracy of the method, the analysis of a certified reference material was performed. This method was applied to environmental water samples. PMID:22687933

Yilmaz, Vedat; Kartal, Senol

2012-01-01

36

Speciation of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) in environmental samples by solid phase extraction on Ambersorb 563 resin.  

PubMed

A simple and sensitive method for the speciation, separation and preconcentration of Cr(VI) and Cr(III) in natural water, soil and sediment samples was developed. Cr(VI) has been separated from Cr(III) and preconcentrated as Cr(III)-diphenylcarbazone complex by using Ambersorb 563 resin and determined by spectrophotometric method at 540 nm. Effect of analytical parameters such as sulfuric acid concentration, ligand volume, type of elution solution, sample volume, amount of resin and foreign ions were investigated. The presented procedure was successfully applied for the chromium speciation in various environmental samples with successfully results. PMID:16442725

Narin, Ibrahim; Surme, Yavuz; Soylak, Mustafa; Dogan, Mehmet

2006-08-25

37

Phosphonic acid based ion exchange resins  

DOEpatents

An ion exchange resin is described for extracting metal ions from a liquid waste stream. An ion exchange resin is prepared by copolymerizing a vinylidene diphosphonic acid with styrene, acrylonitrile and divinylbenzene. 10 figs.

Horwitz, E.P.; Alexandratos, S.D.; Gatrone, R.C.; Chiarizia, R.

1996-07-23

38

Solid phase extractive preconcentration of trace metals using p-tert-butylcalix[4]arene-1,2-crown-4-anchored chloromethylated polymeric resin beads.  

PubMed

5,11,17,23-Tetrakis(1,1-dimethylethyl)-25,26-dihydroxy-27,28-crown-4-calix[4]arene in the cone conformation was synthesized. This p-tert-butylcalix[4]arene-1,2-crown-4 compound was then anchored with Merrifield chloromethylated resin beads. The modified polymeric resin was characterized by (1)H NMR, FT-IR and elemental analysis and used successfully for the separation and preconcentration of Cu(II), Cd(II), Co(II), Ni(II) and Zn(II) prior to their determination by FAAS. Effective extraction conditions were optimized in both batch and column methods. The resin exhibits good separating ability with maximum between pH 6.0-7.0 for Cu(II), pH 6.0 for Cd(II), pH 5.0 for Co(II), pH 4.0-4.5 for Ni(II), and pH 4.5 for Zn(II). The elution studies were carried out with 0.5 mol L(-1) HCl for Cu(II), Co(II) and Co(II), 1.0 mol L(-1) HCl for Cd(II) and Zn(II). The sorption capacity, preconcentration factor and distribution coefficient of each metal ion were determined. The detection limits were 1.10, 1.25, 1.83, 1.68 and 2.01 microg L(-1) for Cu(II), Cd(II), Co(II), Ni(II) and Zn(II). The influence of several ions on the resin performance was also investigated. The validity of the proposed method was checked for these metal ions in NIST standard reference material 2709 (San Joaquin Soil) and 2711 (Montana Soil). PMID:17386638

Seyhan, Serap; Colak, Mehmet; Merdivan, Melek; Demirel, Nadir

2007-02-19

39

Azocalix[4]pyrrole Amberlite XAD-2: new polymeric chelating resins for the extraction, preconcentration and sequential separation of Cu(II), Zn(II) and Cd(II) in natural water samples.  

PubMed

Two novel azocalix[4]pyrrole Amberlite XAD-2 polymeric chelating resins were synthesized by covalently linking diazotized Amberlite XAD-2 with calix[4]pyrrole macrocycles. The chelating resins were used for extraction, preconcentration and sequential separation of metal ions such as Cu(II), Zn(II) and Cd(II) by column chromatography prior to their determination by UV/vis spectrophotometry or flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry (FAAS) or inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). Various parameters such as effect of pH on absorption, concentration of eluting agents, flow rate, total sorption capacity, exchange kinetics, preconcentration factor, distribution coefficient, breakthrough capacity and resin stability, were optimized for effective separation and preconcentration. The resin showed good ability for the separation of metal ions from binary and ternary mixture on the basis of pH of absorption and concentration of eluting agents. The newly synthesized resins showed good potential for trace enrichment of Cu(II), Zn(II) and Cd(II) metal ions, especially for Cu(II), as compared to the earlier reported resins. The synthesized resins were recycled at least 8-10 times without much affecting column sorption capacity. The presented method was successfully applied for determination of Cu(II), Zn(II) and Cd(II) in natural and ground water samples. PMID:19635367

Jain, Vinod K; Mandalia, Hiren C; Gupte, Hrishikesh S; Vyas, Disha J

2009-10-15

40

Electrothermal vaporization inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry determination of gold, palladium, and platinum using chelating resin YPA(4) as both extractant and chemical modifier.  

PubMed

A new method for determination of trace gold (Au), palladium (Pd), and platinum (Pt) in environmental and geological samples by electrothermal vaporization (ETV)-inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) with the use of chelating resin YPA(4) as both solid phase extractant and chemical modifier has been developed. The resin loaded with analytes was prepared to slurry and directly introduced into the graphite furnace without any pretreatment. The factors affecting the vaporization behaviors of Au, Pd, and Pt were investigated in detail. It was found that, in the presence of YPA(4), Au and Pd could be quantitatively vaporized at lower vaporization temperature of 1900 degrees C. Compared with the conventional electrothermal vaporization, the vaporization temperature was decreased by 700 degrees C, and the detection limits for Au and Pd was decreased by a three-fold. However, a little effect of YPA(4) on the ETV-ICP-AES determination of Pt was found. Under the optimized conditions, the detection limits (3sigma) of Au, Pd, and Pt for this method are 75, 60, and 217pg, respectively; and their relative standard deviations (R.S.D.) are 4.4, 5.6, and 3.7%, respectively (n=9, C=0.2mugml(-1)). The proposed method has been applied to the determination of trace Pd and Pt in sewage sludge, and the results well agreed with the recommended values. In order to further verify the accuracy of the developed method, a GBW07293 certified geological reference material and an auto catalyst NIST SRM 2557 reference material were analyzed, and the determined values coincided with the certified values very well. PMID:18969473

Wu, Yiwei; Jiang, Zucheng; Hu, Bin; Duan, Jiankun

2004-06-17

41

Method of purifying neutral organophosphorus extractants  

DOEpatents

A method for removing acidic contaminants from neutral mono and bifunctional organophosphorous extractants by contacting the extractant with a macroporous cation exchange resin in the H.sup.+ state followed by contact with a macroporous anion exchange resin in the OH.sup.- state, whereupon the resins take up the acidic contaminants from the extractant, purifying the extractant and improving its extraction capability.

Horwitz, E. Philip (Naperville, IL); Gatrone, Ralph C. (Naperville, IL); Chiarizia, Renato (Rome, IT)

1988-01-01

42

Preparation of p-tert[(dimethylamino)methyl]-calix[4]arene functionalized aminopropylpolysiloxane resin for selective solid-phase extraction and preconcentration of metal ions.  

PubMed

A new p-tert-[(dimethylamino)methyl]-1,3-bisglyciyl-calix[4]arene functionalized aminopropylpolysiloxane resin (APPS-CA) has been prepared and investigated for selective solid-phase extraction (SPE) of trace Cr (III), Cu (II), Ni (II), Co (II) and Zn (II) prior to their determination by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The characterization of the surface modification was performed on the basis of FT-IR spectroscopy, elemental analysis and thermal gravimetric analysis. The separation/preconcentration conditions of analytes were investigated, including effect of pH, the shaking time, the sample flow rate and volume, the elution condition, the interfering ions and stability test. At pH 4.0, the maximum adsorption capacity of Cr (III), Cu (II), Ni (II), Co (II) and Zn (II) were 47.2, 34.3, 52.8, 29.8 and 36.4 mg g(-1), respectively. The adsorbed metal ions were quantitatively eluted by 2.0 mL of 0.5 mol L(-1) HCl. Common coexisting ions did not interfere with the separation. According to the definition of International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry, the detection limits (3 sigma) of this method were found to be 0.58, 0.33, 0.47, 0.61 and 0.14 ng mL(-1) for Cr (III), Cu (II), Ni (II), Co (II) and Zn (II), respectively. The relative standard deviation under optimum conditions is less than 4.0%. The application of this new adsorbent to preconcentration trace Cr (III), Cu (II), Ni (II), Co (II) and Zn (II) of two water samples gave high accurate and precise results. PMID:19398269

Nie, Rong; Chang, Xijun; He, Qun; Hu, Zheng; Li, Zhenhua

2009-09-30

43

21 CFR 177.1585 - Polyestercarbonate resins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...regulations/ibr_locations.html. (ii) A minimum weight-average molecular weight of 27,000, as determined by gel permeation chromatography using polystyrene standards. (2) Extractives limitations. The polyestercarbonate resins to be...

2013-04-01

44

21 CFR 177.1585 - Polyestercarbonate resins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...regulations/ibr_locations.html. (ii) A minimum weight-average molecular weight of 27,000, as determined by gel permeation chromatography using polystyrene standards. (2) Extractives limitations. The polyestercarbonate resins to be...

2010-04-01

45

21 CFR 177.1585 - Polyestercarbonate resins.  

...regulations/ibr_locations.html. (ii) A minimum weight-average molecular weight of 27,000, as determined by gel permeation chromatography using polystyrene standards. (2) Extractives limitations. The polyestercarbonate resins to be...

2014-04-01

46

Scintillating 99Tc Selective Ion Exchange Resins  

SciTech Connect

Scintillating technetium (99Tc) selective ion exchange resins have been developed and evaluated for equilibrium capacities and detection efficiencies. These resins can be utilized for the in-situ concentration and detection of low levels of pertechnetate anions (99TcO4-) in natural waters. Three different polystyrene type resin support materials were impregnated with varying amounts of tricaprylmethylammonium chloride (Aliquat 336) extractant, several different scintillating fluors and wavelength shifters. The prepared resins were contacted batch-wise to equilibrium over a wide range of 99TcO4- concentrations in natural water. The measured capacities were used to develop Langmuir adsorption isotherms for each resin. 99Tc detection efficiencies were determined and up to 71.4 ± 2.6% was achieved with some resins. The results demonstrate that a low level detection limit for 99TcO4- in natural waters can be realized.

Mitchell Greenhalgh; Richard D. Tillotson

2012-07-01

47

Resin hybrid composite laminates  

SciTech Connect

Hybrid composites are generally referred to as the materials that combine two or more fibers in a suitable binding resin. Resin hybrid composites described in this paper utilize two or more resins with a suitable reinforcement. The resins are rigid resin and flexible resins. The elongation of the rigid resin is less than 2% and elongation of the flexible resins are varied between 25% to 100% by blending a very flexible resin with the rigid resin. Test laminates are fabricated by using either glass, carbon or aramid reinforcement in a layered sequence. This produces rigid-flexible-rigid and flexible-rigid-flexible laminates. These laminates are tested for impact, compression, flexural and inter-laminar strengths. Results show that the resin hybriding provides a wide choice of mechanical properties to the composite industry.

Bhatnagar, A.

1986-01-01

48

Anodic stripping voltammetric determination of bismuth after solid-phase extraction using amberlite XAD-2 resin modified with 2-(5-bromo-2-pyridylazo)-5-diethylaminophenol.  

PubMed

A highly selective and sensitive anodic stripping differential pulse polarographic method has been developed for the determination of trace amount of bismuth in various samples after adsorption of its 2-(5-bromo-2-pyridylazo)-5-diethylaminophenol complex on amberlite XAD-2 resin in the pH range of 2.0-3.0. The retained analyte on the resin recovered with 10.0ml of 2M hydrochloric acid and bismuth is determined by anodic stripping differential pulse polarography. In this case, 0.15mug of bismuth can be concentrated in the column from 1100ml of aqueous sample, where its concentration is as low as 0.14ngml(-1) and the linearity is maintained in the concentration range 0.05-160mugml(-1) in final solution with a correlation coefficient of 0.999 and relative standard deviation of +/-1.2%. Various parameters such as the effect of pH, flow rate, and interference of number of metal ions on the determination of bismuth have been studied in detail to optimize the conditions for determination of bismuth in standard alloys: Nippon Keikinzoku Kogyo (NKK CRM No. 916 aluminum alloy); (NKK CRM No. 1021 Al, Si, Cu, Zn alloy); and (NKK CRM No. 920 aluminum alloy), biological samples: National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES, No. 5 human hair; NIES, No. 7 tea leaves) and water samples: (spring water, river water; Kerman water; and Shiraz water). PMID:18969502

Taher, Mohammad Ali; Rezaeipour, Ebrahim; Afzali, Darush

2004-06-17

49

Extraction of inclusions from (sub)fossil resins, with description of a new species of stingless bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Meliponini) in Quaternary Colombian copal  

E-print Network

ambers and Quaternary Colombian copal using chloroform. Extraction of specimens from amber was unsuccessful, but we were able to extract a stingless bee from the less polymerized copal and dissect it under a microscope as if it were a recently caught...

Penney, David; Wadsworth, Caroline; Green, David I.; Kennedy, Sandra L.; Preziosi, Richard F.; Brown, Terence A.

2013-05-09

50

Resin processing system  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a resin processing system for use in chemical decontamination of nuclear reactor primary systems. It comprises a fresh resin supply tank; a batching tank; a fresh resin pump connected to the fresh resin supply tank and the batching tank; a plurality of demineralizers wherein process fluids are demineralized; a resin feed pump connected to the batching tank capable of transporting fresh resin from the batching tank; a movable connection means connecting the resin feed pump to one of the plurality of demineralizers; a sluice water supply tank; a sluice water pump connected to the sluice water supply tank and the plurality of demineralizers; a spent resin storage tank connected to each of the plurality of demineralizers; a recycle pump connected to an outlet of the spent resin storage tank and having a pump outlet connected to the sluice water supply tank; and a screen at the outlet of the spent resin storage tank to retain spent resin within the spent resin storage tank while allowing sluice water to be recycled.

Corpora, G.J.; Schlonski, J.S.; Miller, P.E.; Bauer, F.I.

1992-08-18

51

Rapid and simple method for DNA extraction from plant and algal species suitable for PCR amplification using a chelating resin Chelex 100  

Microsoft Academic Search

A DNA extraction method using Chelex 100 is widely used for bacteria, Chlamydomonas, and animal cell lines, but only rarely for plant materials due to the need for additional time-consuming and tedious steps.\\u000a We have modified the Chelex 100 protocol and successfully developed a rapid and simple method of DNA extraction for efficient\\u000a PCR-based detection of transgenes from a variety

Kwon HwangBo; Su Hyun Son; Jong Suk Lee; Sung Ran Min; Suk Min Ko; Jang R. Liu; Dongsu Choi; Won Joong Jeong

2010-01-01

52

Effect of posterior resin composite placement technique on the resin-dentin interface formed in vivo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the morphology of the resin-dentin interface formed in vivo with two posterior resin composite placement techniques (incremental and bulk). Method and materi- als: After approval from the patients, 12 Class II cavities with margins in enamel (2.5 2.5 4.5 mm) were prepared in caries-free premolars scheduled to be extracted for orthodontic

Guilherme Carpena Lopes; Luiz Narciso Baratieri; Sylvio Monteiro; Luiz Clóvis Cardoso Vieira

53

21 CFR 177.1900 - Urea-formaldehyde resins in molded articles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Urea-formaldehyde resins in molded articles. Urea-formaldehyde resins...food-contact surface of molded articles intended for use in contact...2 moles of formaldehyde in water solution. (b) The resins...The finished food-contact article, when extracted...

2012-04-01

54

21 CFR 177.1900 - Urea-formaldehyde resins in molded articles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Urea-formaldehyde resins in molded articles. Urea-formaldehyde resins...food-contact surface of molded articles intended for use in contact...2 moles of formaldehyde in water solution. (b) The resins...The finished food-contact article, when extracted...

2013-04-01

55

21 CFR 177.1900 - Urea-formaldehyde resins in molded articles.  

...Urea-formaldehyde resins in molded articles. Urea-formaldehyde resins...food-contact surface of molded articles intended for use in contact...2 moles of formaldehyde in water solution. (b) The resins...The finished food-contact article, when extracted...

2014-04-01

56

21 CFR 177.1900 - Urea-formaldehyde resins in molded articles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Urea-formaldehyde resins in molded articles. Urea-formaldehyde resins...food-contact surface of molded articles intended for use in contact...2 moles of formaldehyde in water solution. (b) The resins...The finished food-contact article, when extracted...

2011-04-01

57

Branched polymeric media: boron-chelating resins from hyperbranched polyethylenimine.  

PubMed

Extraction of boron from aqueous solutions using selective resins is important in a variety of applications including desalination, ultrapure water production, and nuclear power generation. Today's commercial boron-selective resins are exclusively prepared by functionalization of styrene-divinylbenzene (STY-DVB) beads with N-methylglucamine to produce resins with boron-chelating groups. However, such boron-selective resins have a limited binding capacity with a maximum free base content of 0.7 eq/L, which corresponds to a sorption capacity of 1.16 ± 0.03 mMol/g in aqueous solutions with equilibrium boron concentration of ?70 mM. In this article, we describe the synthesis and characterization of a new resin that can selectively extract boron from aqueous solutions. We show that branched polyethylenimine (PEI) beads obtained from an inverse suspension process can be reacted with glucono-1,5-D-lactone to afford a resin consisting of spherical beads with high density of boron-chelating groups. This resin has a sorption capacity of 1.93 ± 0.04 mMol/g in aqueous solution with equilibrium boron concentration of ?70 mM, which is 66% percent larger than that of standard commercial STY-DVB resins. Our new boron-selective resin also shows excellent regeneration efficiency using a standard acid wash with a 1.0 M HCl solution followed by neutralization with a 0.1 M NaOH solution. PMID:22827255

Mishra, Himanshu; Yu, Changjun; Chen, Dennis P; Goddard, William A; Dalleska, Nathan F; Hoffmann, Michael R; Diallo, Mamadou S

2012-08-21

58

Polyester Resin Hazards  

PubMed Central

Polyester resins are being increasingly used in industry. These resins require the addition of catalysts and accelerators. The handling of polyester resin system materials may give rise to skin irritations, allergic reactions, and burns. The burns are probably due to styrene and organic peroxides. Atmospheric pollution from styrene and explosion and fire risks from organic peroxides must be prevented. Where dimethylaniline is used scrupulous cleanliness and no-touch technique must be enforced. Handling precautions are suggested. Images PMID:14014495

Bourne, L. B.; Milner, F. J. M.

1963-01-01

59

Fast and easy GC\\/MS identification of myrrh resins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extracts prepared from Commiphora molmol resins were analyzed by GC-MS. Twenty-two terpenoid compounds were identified in the hexane extract of the resin. Among them,\\u000a 2-acetoxyfuranodiene (9.80%), furanoeudesma-1,3-diene (8.97%), isofuranogermacrene (6.71%), epicurzerenone (3.64%), 2-methoxyfuranodiene\\u000a (2.97%), and lindestrene (2.74%) were the main compounds from the first myrrh resin (Tamar Ltd.), and furanoeudesma-1,3-diene\\u000a (20.59%), isofuranogermacrene (17.94%), 2-acetoxyfuranodiene (8.80%), 2-methoxyfuranodiene (7.33%), and lindestrene (6.24%)

L. O. Hanuš; D. Rosenthal; T. ?ezanka; V. M. Dembitsky; A. Moussaief

2008-01-01

60

Delayed cure bismaleimide resins  

DOEpatents

Prior art polybismaleimides begin to polymerize at or just above the melting point of the monomer. This patent describes new bismaleimide resins which have an increased pot life and provide longer time periods in which the monomer remains fluid. The resins can be polymerized into molded articles with a high uniformity of properties. (DLC)

Not Available

1982-08-12

61

IRRADIATED PETROLEUM RESINS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for improving the properties of polymeric material produced by ; the Friedel-Crafts polymerization of light, cracked petroleum fractions is ; presented. The petroleum resins are mixed with a divinyl aromatic and irradiated ; at a dose rate of at least 0.1 equivalent Mr\\/hr until at least 1\\/2 equivalent Mr ; is absorbed. Resinous solids are obtained that have

J. E. Shewmaker; J. F. Nelson

1963-01-01

62

Isolation of organic acids from large volumes of water by adsorption on macroporous resins  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Adsorption on synthetic macroporous resins, such as the Amberlite XAD series and Duolite A-7, is routinely used to isolate and concentrate organic acids from forge volumes of water. Samples as large as 24,500 L have been processed on site by using these resins. Two established extraction schemes using XAD-8 and Duolite A-7 resins are described. The choice of the appropriate resin and extraction scheme is dependent on the organic solutes of interest. The factors that affect resin performance, selectivity, and capacity for a particular solute are solution pH, resin surface area and pore size, and resin composition. The logistical problems of sample handling, filtration, and preservation are also discussed.

Aiken, George R.

1987-01-01

63

Biocompatibility of composite resins  

PubMed Central

Dental materials that are used in dentistry should be harmless to oral tissues, so they should not contain any leachable toxic and diffusible substances that can cause some side effects. Reports about probable biologic hazards, in relation to dental resins, have increased interest to this topic in dentists. The present paper reviews the articles published about biocompatibility of resin-restorative materials specially resin composites and monomers which are mainly based on Bis-GMA and concerns about their degradation and substances which may be segregated into oral cavity. PMID:23372592

Mousavinasab, Sayed Mostafa

2011-01-01

64

Guayule resin separation and purification  

E-print Network

to investigate economic viability. The composition of the resin is only partially known. A substantial portion, about 44%, of the resin remains uncharacterized. This uncharacterized portion is of low volatility (5). The characterized portion consists... resin chromatography most of the mass elutes in the 2nd fraction. This is possibly so because of the difference in composition of the two resins. 30 Table 2. Column chromatography of xylene resins over basic alumina Fraction Eluting solvent hexane...

Bajwa, Mohinder P.S.

2012-06-07

65

Removal of dyes from water using crosslinked aminomethane sulfonic acid based resin.  

PubMed

A new polymeric resin with amino sulfonic acid pendant functions has been prepared for the extraction of acidic and basic dyes from water. Beaded polymer supports were prepared by suspension polymerization of vinyl benzyl chloride (0.9 mol) and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (0.1 mol). The resulting copolymer beads were modified with amino methane sulfonic acid. The dye adsorption capacity of the resin was found as 0.16 g dye/g resin for ramazol black and 0.15 g dye/g resin for crystal violet. The pH depending measurements and dye sorption kinetics of the resin were also investigated. PMID:20401517

Kaner, Damla; Saraç, Ayfer; Senkal, Bahire Filiz

2010-08-01

66

Quantification and Purification of Mulberry Anthocyanins With Macroporous Resins  

PubMed Central

Total anthocyanins in different cultivars of mulberry were measured and a process for the industrial preparation of mulberry anthocyanins as a natural food colorant was studied. In 31 cultivars of mulberry, the total anthocyanins, calculated as cyanidin 3-glucoside, ranged from 147.68 to 2725.46?mg/L juice. Extracting and purifying with macroporous resins was found to be an efficient potential method for the industrial production of mulberry anthocyanins as a food colorant. Of six resins tested, X-5 demonstrated the best adsorbent capability for mulberry anthocyanins (91?mg/mL resin). The adsorption capacity of resins increased with the surface area and the pore radius. Residual mulberry fruit juice after extraction of pigment retained most of its nutrients, except for anthocyanins, and may provide a substrate for further processing. PMID:15577197

Liu, Xueming

2004-01-01

67

40 CFR 414.50 - Applicability; description of the thermosetting resins subcategory.  

...Ketone-Formaldehyde Resins *Melamine Resins *Phenolic Resins *Polyacetal Resins Polyacrylamide *Polyurethane Prepolymers *Polyurethane Resins *Urea Formaldehyde Resins *Urea Resins [52 FR 42568, Nov. 5, 1987, as amended...

2014-07-01

68

Graphite fiber reinforced thermoplastic resins  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mechanical properties of neat resin samples and graphite fiber reinforced samples of thermoplastic resins were characterized with particular emphasis directed to the effects of environmental exposure (humidity, temperature and ultraviolet radiation). Tensile, flexural, interlaminar shear, creep and impact strengths were measured for polysulfone, polyarylsulfone and a state-of-the-art epoxy resin samples. In general, the thermoplastic resins exhibited environmental degradation resistance equal to or superior to the reference epoxy resin. Demonstration of the utility and quality of a graphite/thermoplastic resin system was accomplished by successfully thermoforming a simulated compressor blade and a fan exit guide vane.

Novak, R. C.

1975-01-01

69

Method for removing contaminants from plastic resin  

DOEpatents

A resin recycling method that produces essentially contaminant-free synthetic resin material in an environmentally safe and economical manner. The method includes receiving the resin in container form. The containers are then ground into resin particles. The particles are exposed to a solvent, the solvent contacting the resin particles and substantially removing contaminants on the resin particles. After separating the particles and the resin, a solvent removing agent is used to remove any residual solvent remaining on the resin particles after separation.

Bohnert, George W. (Harrisonville, MO); Hand, Thomas E. (Lee's Summit, MO); DeLaurentiis, Gary M. (Jamestown, CA)

2008-12-09

70

In vitro comparison of the cytotoxicity of acetal resin, heat-polymerized resin, and auto-polymerized resin as denture base materials.  

PubMed

This in vitro study aims to evaluate three different base materials (acetal, heat-polymerized, and auto-polymerized resins) on L-929 mouse fibroblast cells over 1 h-, 1-, 3-, 5-, 7-day periods. The hypothesis was that acetal resin would show higher cytotoxic effect than heat-polymerized and auto-polymerized acrylic resins, as it seems possible that residual formaldehyde might be leaching from the material into the cell culture medium. The samples were produced according to the manufacturer's protocol. Then they were placed in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium/Ham's F12 (DMEM/F12) for 1 h, 1, 3, 5, 7 days. After the incubation periods, cytotoxicity of the extracts to cultured fibroblasts (L-929) was measured by MTT assay. The degree of cytotoxicity of each sample was determined according to the reference value represented by the cells with a control. Statistical significance was determined by one-way ANOVA. Tukey and Tamhane tests were used as a post-hoc method to determine differences among the groups. Statistically significant difference was found among test groups at all time incubation periods (p = 0.000). The auto-polymerized resin performed higher cytotoxic effect than heat-polymerized resin and it was statistically significant at 1-day period (p < 0.05). The highest cytotoxic effect of acetal resin was observed at 5-day incubation period. In conclusion, the hypothesis was verified, since acetal resin showed more cytotoxic effect on the 3rd, 5th, and 7th days than heat- and auto-polymerized resins. Cell survival rates (% of control) of acetal resin were 58, 54, and 60%, respectively. PMID:19637373

Ata, Secil Ozkan; Yavuzyilmaz, Hüsnü

2009-11-01

71

Retrofit for Plastic Resin Driers  

E-print Network

RETROFIT FOR PLASTIC RESIN DRIERS BABU JOSEPH PH.D. Supervising Engineer Southern California Edison Company, Irwindale, California GEORGE THURO Thuro, & Associates, Costa Mesa, California Plastic resins used in injection molding have... FOR PLASTIC RESIN DRIERS BABU JOSEPH PH.D. Supervising Engineer Southern California Edison Company, Irwindale, California GEORGE THURO Thuro, & Associates, Costa Mesa, California Plastic resins used in injection molding have to be dried to specified levels...

Joseph, B.; Thuro, G.

72

Production of petroleum polymer resins  

Microsoft Academic Search

In other countries, petroleum polymer resins are being used successfully in large volumes. In the U.S. in 1982, for example, 128,000 tonnes of petroleum polymer resins were produced [2], much of which was used in the paint and varnish industry. In commercial production in the USSR are a dark-colored styrene-lndene resin and light-colored petroleum polymer resins of two types --

Yu. V. Dumskii; M. E. Belyakov; A. K. Suroto; G. F. Cherednikova; L. B. Grin'ko

1988-01-01

73

Analysis of Photo-initiators in Visible-light-cured Dental Composite Resins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seven commercial visible-light-cured (VL) dental composite resins were analytically studied for identification of the photo-initiator consisting of photo-sensitizer and reducing agent. Gas-liquid chromatography (GC) was used for the determination of the dilute components extracted from the composite resin. Mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) was used for confirmation of the qualitative data obtained by GC.The results showed that all composite resins examined included

M. Taira; H. Urabe; T. Hirose; K. Wakasa; M. Yamaki

1988-01-01

74

Powdered resin for condensate polishing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Powdered resin systems have a lot to offer in the deionization of low TDS waters, as can be seen in the wide use of this process for the treatment of condensate in the electric power industry. I believe that as new ion-exchange resins are developed, we will see the powdered ion-exchange resin process adopted in other industries. At this time,

Richard Hetherington

1997-01-01

75

Leaching of concrete admixtures containing thiocyanate and resin acids.  

PubMed

There is an increasing concern about the emission of pollutants during the construction and lifetime of buildings. The leaching of concrete admixtures containing thiocyanate and resin acids was studied using standard leaching tests and chemical analysis. Ecotoxicological risk was assessed for each admixture. Thiocyanate leaching from concrete, with a chlorine-free accelerating admixture, was determined by ion chromatography. Of the total amount of thiocyanate added, 6-8% was emitted within 30 d. The thiocyanate diffusion curve indicates a fast dissolution process from the surface layer, followed by a slower continuous diffusion process. Thiocyanate exhibits both acute and chronic toxicity, which makes it of immediate environmental concern. Resin acid leaching from concrete test specimens containing an admixture of air-entraining agents with tall oil was determined by solid-phase extraction, methylation, and GC/MS. Of added resin acids, 10% was emitted over 143 d. The leaching curves for the resin acids indicate a continuous diffusion that is proportional to the square root of time and follows Fick's first law of diffusion. The chemical composition of the resin acids in the leachate demonstrates degradation and rearrangement of the resin acids during diffusion. Resin acids emitted from concrete are of environmental concern because they are persistent and have the ability to bioaccumulate in aquatic organisms. PMID:11349293

Andersson, A C; Stromvall, A M

2001-02-15

76

Resin impregnation process for producing a resin-fiber composite  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Process for vacuum impregnation of a dry fiber reinforcement with a curable resin to produce a resin-fiber composite, by drawing a vacuum to permit flow of curable liquid resin into and through a fiber reinforcement to impregnate same and curing the resin-impregnated fiber reinforcement at a sufficient temperature and pressure to effect final curing. Both vacuum and positive pressure, e.g. autoclave pressure, are applied to the dry fiber reinforcement prior to application of heat and prior to any resin flow to compact the dry fiber reinforcement, and produce a resin-fiber composite of reduced weight, thickness and resin content, and improved mechanical properties. Preferably both a vacuum and positive pressure, e.g. autoclave pressure, are also applied during final curing.

Palmer, Raymond J. (Inventor); Moore, William E. (Inventor)

1994-01-01

77

Production of petroleum polymer resins  

SciTech Connect

A dark-colored styrene-indene resin and light-colored petroleum polymer resins of two types- SPP and Piroplast-2 are in commercial production in the Soviet Union. The raw material for the production of the dark-colored styrene-indene resin is heavy pyrolysis tar which is a residue from the distillation of liquid byproducts obtained in pyrolysis. The flow plans for the continuous production of SPP resin and Piroplast-2 are described. These resins are low cost materials as the original raw material is inexpensive and the production costs are low.

Dumskii, Yu.V.; Belyakov, M.E.; Suroto, A.K.; Cherednikova, G.F.; Grin'ko, L.B.

1988-09-01

78

Bond strengths and remnant adhesive resin on debonding for orthodontic bonding techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bond strengths and remnant adhesive resin on the tooth surface after debonding for three bonding techniques used to attach foil mesh orthodontic brackets to 315 freshly extracted bovine incisor teeth were compared in an in vitro study. Each method of bonding used 105 teeth in groups of 15, bonded with seven different (bis-GMA type) two-paste chemically cured resins. The direct

Pramod K. Sinha; Ram S. Nanda; Manville G. Duncanson; Michael J. Hosier

1995-01-01

79

Repeated Use of Ion-Exchange Resin Membranes in Calcareous Soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study compared the consistency of nutrient extraction among repeated cycles of ion-exchange resin membrane use. Two sandy calcareous soils and different equilibration temperatures were tested. No single nutrient retained consistent values from cycle to cycle in all treatments, although both soil source and temperature conferred some influence. It was concluded that the most conservative use of resin membranes is

S. K. Sherrod; J. Belnap; M. E. Miller

2003-01-01

80

Adhesive permeability affects coupling of resin cements that utilise self-etching primers to dentine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. To examine the effects of an experimental bonding technique that reduces the permeability of the adhesive layer on the coupling of resin cements to dentine.Methods. Extracted human third molars had their mid to deep dentin surface exposed flat by transversally sectioning the crowns. Resin composite overlays were constructed and cemented to the surfaces using either Panavia F (Kuraray) or

R. M. Carvalho; T. A. Pegoraro; F. R. Tay; L. F. Pegoraro; N. R. F. A. Silva; D. H. Pashley

2004-01-01

81

Differentiation between Resins Boswellia carterii and Boswellia frereana (Frankincense) of Somali Origin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemical composition of a methanolic extract of the resins of Boswellia frereana and B. carterii were examined by GC and GC\\/MS. Although only a limited number of constituents were identified, it is possible to use the data presented to differentiate between resins of each species.

Giuseppe Chiavari; Guido C. Galletti; Roberta Piccaglia; Mohamed Ahmed Mohamud

1991-01-01

82

Evaluation of Selective Ion Exchange Resins for Removal of Mercury from the H-Area Water Treatment Unit  

SciTech Connect

This study investigated the ability of seven ion exchange (IX) resins, some of which were mercury specific, to remove mercury in H-Area WTU waters from three sources (Reverse Osmosis (RO) Feed, RO Permeate from Train A, and a mercury ''hot spot'' extraction well HEX 18). Seven ion exchange resins, including ResinTech CG8 and Dowex 21K (the cation and anion exchange resins currently used at the H-Area WTU) were screened against five alternative ion exchange materials plus an experimental blank. Mercury decontamination factors (DFs), mercury breakthrough, and post-test contaminant concentrations of IX resins were determined for each IX material tested.

Serkiz, S.M.

2000-09-05

83

Flame Retardant Epoxy Resins  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As part of a program to develop fire resistant exterior composite structures for future subsonic commercial aircraft, flame retardant epoxy resins are under investigation. Epoxies and their curing agents (aromatic diamines) containing phosphorus were synthesized and used to prepare epoxy formulations. Phosphorus was incorporated within the backbone of the epoxy resin and not used as an additive. The resulting cured epoxies were characterized by thermogravimetric analysis, propane torch test, elemental analysis and microscale combustion calorimetry. Several formulations showed excellent flame retardation with phosphorous contents as low as 1.5% by weight. The fracture toughness of plaques of several cured formulations was determined on single-edge notched bend specimens. The chemistry and properties of these new epoxy formulations are discussed.

Thompson, C. M.; Smith, J. G., Jr.; Connell, J. W.; Hergenrother, P. M.; Lyon, R. E.

2004-01-01

84

Phenoxy resins containing pendent ethynyl groups and cured resins therefrom  

SciTech Connect

Phenoxy resins containing pendent ethynyl groups, the process for preparing the same, and the cured resin products obtained therefrom, are discussed. Upon the application of heat, the ethynyl groups react to provide branching and crosslinking. The cure temperature can be lowered by using a catalyst, but this step is not required. The cured phenoxy resins containing pendent ethynyl groups have improved solvent resistance and higher use temperature than linear uncrosslinked phenoxy resins. These improved thermoplastics are applicable for use as coatings, films, adhesives, composited matrices, and molding compounds.

Hergenrother, P.M.

1984-05-01

85

Functional polycyclopentadiene resins via hydroboration process  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a process for preparing a functionalized petroleum resin. It comprises dissolving a petroleum resin in a solvent to form a solution, the resin being formed by polymerizing feeds containing cyclopentadiene, dicyclopentadiene and alkyl derivatives thereof, the resin having a norbornene moiety with a double bond; adding to the solution a borane, reacting the petroleum resin with the

T. C. Chung; E. Berluche; J. Bock; R. V. Kastrup

1992-01-01

86

Permeability reduction by asphaltenes and resins deposition in porous media  

Microsoft Academic Search

The deposition of crude oil polar fractions such as asphaltenes and resins in oil reservoir rocks reduce considerably the rock permeability and the oil production. In the present work, a crude oil and various core samples were extracted from Rhourd–Nouss (RN) reservoir rock. Afterwards, core flow experiments were carried out in the laboratory to investigate permeability reduction that causes formation

R. Hamadou; M. Khodja; M. Kartout; A. Jada

2008-01-01

87

Ion Exchange Resin for Assessing Phosphorus Availability in Soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

hosphorus has received considerable attention in the research of methods of soil analysis, but agreement on best methodology is lacking. Resin extractable P seems to be a superior method, but its adoption in routine soil testing is still limited worldwide. When there is a choice between several methods of analy- sis, if results are not comparable, greenhouse experiments under controlled

Bernardo van Raij; H. Cantarella; J. A. Quaggio; Luís Ignácio Prochnow

88

Removal of Ni(II) from water and wastewater using modified Duolite XAD-761 resin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Complete mixing of cross-linked phenol-formaldehyde polymeric resin (Duolite XAD-761) with anionic surfactant - sodium dioctyl sulphosuccinate (SDOSS) and EDTA-disodium salt (Chelating agent) in an aqueous solution led to the formation of a modified resin. FT-IR studies showed that the immobilization of the extractants results from hydrophobic interaction between the alkyl group of the extractants and phenyl group of the support,

V Tharanitharan; K Srinivasan

89

21 CFR 178.3930 - Terpene resins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Terpene resins. The terpene resins identified in paragraph (a) of this section may be safely used as components of polypropylene film intended for use in contact with food, and the terpene resins identified in paragraph (b) of this section may...

2012-04-01

90

21 CFR 178.3930 - Terpene resins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Terpene resins. The terpene resins identified in paragraph (a) of this section may be safely used as components of polypropylene film intended for use in contact with food, and the terpene resins identified in paragraph (b) of this section may...

2013-04-01

91

21 CFR 178.3930 - Terpene resins.  

... Terpene resins. The terpene resins identified in paragraph (a) of this section may be safely used as components of polypropylene film intended for use in contact with food, and the terpene resins identified in paragraph (b) of this section may...

2014-04-01

92

21 CFR 178.3930 - Terpene resins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Terpene resins. The terpene resins identified in paragraph (a) of this section may be safely used as components of polypropylene film intended for use in contact with food, and the terpene resins identified in paragraph (b) of this section may...

2011-04-01

93

Synthesis and application of a new functionalized resin for use in an on-line, solid phase extraction system for the determination of trace elements in waters and reference cereal materials by flame atomic absorption spectrometry.  

PubMed

The synthesis and characterization of the resin Amberlite XAD-4 functionalized with 2,6-pyridinedicarboxaldehyde and its application in an on-line system for the preconcentration of cadmium, cobalt, copper, lead and manganese prior to determination using flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) is proposed. Metal ions retained on the modified resin were eluted using 1.0 mol L(-1) HNO3 solution and aspirated directly to the nebulizer-burner system of a FAAS instrument using a flow injection system. Detection limits (3?) were determined to be 0.13 ?g L(-1) for Cd, 0.29 ?g L(-1) for Cu, 0.23 ?g L(-1) for Mn, 0.58 ?g L(-1) for Co and 2.19 ?g L(-1) for Pb using a 10 mL of water sample loading volume. The limits of detection would be 100 times higher with units of ?g kg(-1) for the solid samples in which their dilution ratios as (volume/weight) were 100. Enrichment factors ranged from 23.6 to 28.9 (for Co and Mn, respectively). The proposed method was successfully applied to determination of the analytes in natural water samples and certified reference materials. PMID:23790831

Karada?, Cennet; Turhan, Onur; Kara, Derya

2013-11-15

94

Imide modified epoxy matrix resins  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

High char yield epoxy using novel bisimide amines (BIA's) as curing agents with a state of the art epoxy resin was developed. Stoichiometric quantities of the epoxy resin and the BIA's were studied to determine the cure cycle required for preparation of resin specimens. The bisimide cured epoxies were designated IME's (imide modified epoxy). The physical, thermal and mechanical properties of these novel resins were determined. The levels of moisture absorption exhibited by the bisimide amine cured expoxies (IME's) were considerably lower than the state of the art epoxies. The strain-to-failure of the control resin system was improved 25% by replacement of DDS with 6F-DDS. Each BIA containing resin exhibited twice the char yield of the control resin MY 720/DDS. Graphite fiber reinforced control (C) and IME resins were fabricated and characterized. Two of the composite systems showed superior properties compared to the other Celion 6000/IME composite systems and state of the art graphite epoxy systems. The two systems exhibited excellent wet shear and flexural strengths and moduli at 300 and 350 F.

Scola, D. A.; Pater, R. H.

1981-01-01

95

Processable High Temperature Laminating Resins.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

P13N Polyimide Resin was modified to provide autoclave moldability for boron monofilament and graphite fiber prepregs and to improve the thermo-oxidative stability of composites. It was shown that a modified P13N resin provided autoclave molded boron and ...

R. W. Vaughan, R. J. Jones

1971-01-01

96

Cobalt dicarbollide containing polymer resins for cesium and strontium uptake  

SciTech Connect

Cobalt(III) dicarbollide [(C{sub 2}B{sub 9}H{sub 11}){sub 2}Co]{sup {minus}} (CB{sub 2}) is being investigated for Cs and Sr extraction from nuclear waste. Because organic solvents should be avoided, bonding of CB{sub 2} to resins were investigated. CB{sub 2} was successfully covalently bonded to polystyrene and polybenzimidazole resins. Tetrahydrofuran was the most efficient solvent for grafting. Analysis is being performed, and separation coefficients are also being determined. 3 figs, 8 refs.

Steckle, W.P. Jr.; Duke, J.R. Jr.; Jorgensen, B.S.

1994-04-01

97

Chromatography resin support  

DOEpatents

An apparatus and method of using an improved chromatography resin support is disclosed. The chromatography support platform is provided by a stainless steel hollow cylinder adapted for being inserted into a chromatography column. An exterior wall of the stainless steel cylinder defines a groove for carrying therein an "O"-ring. The upper surface of the stainless steel column is covered by a fine stainless steel mesh welded to the edges of the stainless steel cylinder. When placed upon a receiving ledge defined within a chromatography column, the "O"-ring provides a fluid tight seal with the inner edge wall of the chromatography cylinder. The stainless steel mesh supports the chromatography matrix and provides a back flushable support which is economical and simple to construct.

Dobos, James G. (North Augusta, SC)

2002-01-01

98

Resin reinforced expansion anchor system  

SciTech Connect

An expansion anchor assembly is described in combination with a dual compartment resin and cartridge inserted into a mine roof opening, the anchor assembly including: (a) an elongated bolt having a head at one end and threaded for a portion of its length at the other end; (b) an expansion member engaged with the threaded end of the bolt; (c) the expansion member including an expansion shell having a plurality of leaf segments; (d) a first means for engaging the expansion shell with the elongated bolt; (e) a wedge threaded on the elongated bolt for engagement with the expansion shell to urge the latter into gripping engagement with the mine roof; (f) a first resin passageway means on the outer surface of the wedge for permitting resin to gravitate therethrough; (g) the leaf segments of the expansion shell being separated to form a second resin passageway means aligned with the first resin passageway means, whereby resin may gravitate downwardly through substantially the entire length of the assembly, and (h) a second means within the first passageway and engageable with one of the leaf segments to prevent relative rotation of the wedge member with respect to the expansion shell; (i) the resin being mixed upon rotation of the bolt and expansion member and gravitating downwardly through the first and second passageway means into engagement with that portion of the mine roof defining the mine roof opening.

Clark, C.A.; Wright, R.L.

1988-08-16

99

Resole resin products derived from fractionated organic and aqueous condensates made by fast-pyrolysis of biomass materials  

DOEpatents

A process for preparing phenol-formaldehyde resole resins by fractionating organic and aqueous condensates made by fast-pyrolysis of biomass materials while using a carrier gas to move feed into a reactor to produce phenolic-containing/neutrals in which portions of the phenol normally contained in said resins are replaced by a phenolic/neutral fractions extract obtained by fractionation.

Chum, H.L.; Black, S.K.; Diebold, J.P.; Kreibich, R.E.

1993-08-10

100

Resole resin products derived from fractionated organic and aqueous condensates made by fast-pyrolysis of biomass materials  

DOEpatents

A process for preparing phenol-formaldehyde resole resins by fractionating organic and aqueous condensates made by fast-pyrolysis of biomass materials while using a carrier gas to move feed into a reactor to produce phenolic-containing/neutrals in which portions of the phenol normally contained in said resins are replaced by a phenolic/neutral fractions extract obtained by fractionation.

Chum, Helena L. (8448 Allison Ct., Arvada, CO 80005); Black, Stuart K. (4976 Raleigh St., Denver, CO 80212); Diebold, James P. (57 N. Yank Way, Lakewood, CO 80228); Kreibich, Roland E. (4201 S. 344th, Auburn, WA 98001)

1993-01-01

101

Grafted methylenediphosphonate ion exchange resins  

DOEpatents

An ion exchange resin is disclosed that is comprised of an insoluble copolymer onto which are grafted pendent groups that provide 1.0 to about 10 mmol/g dry weight phosphorous. The pendent groups have the formula ##STR1## wherein R is hydrogen, a cation or mixtures thereof; and R.sup.1 is hydrogen or an C.sub.1 -C.sub.2 alkyl group. The resin also contains zero to about 5 mmol/g dry weight of pendent aromatic sulfonate groups. Processes for making and using an ion exchange-resin are also disclosed.

Trochimcznk, Andrzej W. (Knoxville, TN); Gatrone, Ralph C. (Plymouth, PA); Alexandratos, Spiro (Knoxville, TN); Horwitz, E. Philip (Naperville, IL)

1998-01-27

102

Grafted methylenediphosphonate ion exchange resins  

DOEpatents

An ion exchange resin is disclosed that is comprised of an insoluble copolymer onto which are grafted pendent groups that provide 1.0 to about 10 mmol/g dry weight phosphorous. The pendent groups have the formula ##STR1## wherein R is hydrogen, a cation or mixtures thereof; and R.sup.1 is hydrogen or an C.sub.1 -C.sub.2 alkyl group. The resin also contains zero to about 5 mmol/g dry weight of pendent aromatic sulfonate groups. Processes for making and using an ion exchange resin are also disclosed.

Trochimcznk, Andrzej W. (Knoxbille, TN); Gatrone, Ralph C. (Plymouth, PA); Alexandratos, Spiro (Knoxville, TN); Horwitz, E. Philip (Naperville, IL)

1997-01-01

103

Resin/graphite fiber composites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

High temperature resin matrices suitable for use in advanced graphite fiber composites for jet engine applications were evaluated. A series of planned, sequential screening experiments with resin systems in composite form were performed to reduce the number of candidates to a single A-type polyimide resin that repetitively produced void-free, high strength and modulus composites acceptable for use in the 550 F range for 1000 hours. An optimized processing procedure was established for this system. Extensive mechanical property studies characterized this single system, at room temperature, 500 F, 550 F and 600 F, for various exposure times.

Cavano, P. J.; Jones, R. J.; Vaughan, R. W.

1972-01-01

104

21 CFR 169.175 - Vanilla extract.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...vanilla oleo-resin. Vanilla extract may contain one or more of the following optional ingredients: (1) Glycerin...vanilla flavoring”, as appropriate. If the article contains two or more units of vanilla constituent, the name of the...

2010-04-01

105

21 CFR 169.175 - Vanilla extract.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...vanilla oleo-resin. Vanilla extract may contain one or more of the following optional ingredients: (1) Glycerin...vanilla flavoring”, as appropriate. If the article contains two or more units of vanilla constituent, the name of the...

2011-04-01

106

Rapid Column Extraction Methods for Urine  

SciTech Connect

A new fecal analysis method that dissolves plutonium oxide was developed at the Westinghouse Savannah River Site. Diphonix Resin (Eichrom Industries), is used to pre-concentrate the actinides from digested fecal samples. A rapid microwave digestion technique is used to remove the actinides from the Diphonix Resin, which effectively extracts plutonium and americium from acidic solutions containing hydrofluoric acid. After resin digestion, the plutonium and americium are recovered in a small volume of nitric acid that is loaded onto small extraction chromatography columns, TEVA Resin and TRU Resin (Eichrom Industries). The method enables complete dissolution of plutonium oxide and provides high recovery of plutonium and americium with good removal of thorium isotopes such as thorium-228.

Maxwell, S.L. III

2000-06-09

107

Petroleum resins and their production  

Microsoft Academic Search

A process is described for the production of petroleum resins compatible with base polymers in hot melt formulations and having a softening point of from about 60°C. to about 120°C. and Gardner color of about 4 or less, comprising copolymerizing using a Friedel-Crafts catalyst. The mixture is substantially free form cyclopentadiene and dicyclopentadiene. This patent also describes a resin consisting

Luvinh

1989-01-01

108

Potential of Presep(®) PolyChelate as a chelating resin: comparative study with some aminocarboxylic acid-type resins.  

PubMed

The potential of Presep(®) PolyChelate as a chelating resin was studied in detail. The chelating resin with extraction capacity for Cu of 0.30 mmol L(-1) could quantitatively extract Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Mo, Ni, Pb, V, and Zn at pH 4 or 5.5; however, only very scant amounts of Na, K, Mg, and Ca were captured at pH levels below 7. The quantitative extraction could be achieved in 100 - 1000 mL of artificial seawater and at a flow rate of 3 - 30 mL min(-1). The performance of Presep(®) PolyChelate was compared to the other aminocarboxylic acid-type chelating resins, including Nobias Chelate-PA1, Chelex 100, Muromac B-1, Lewatit TP 207, and NTA Superflow, under the same conditions. The solid-phase extraction of the nine elements in the certified reference material (ES-L-1, ground water) and a commercially available table salt was also demonstrated. PMID:24212740

Kagaya, Shigehiro; Saeki, Yumi; Morishima, Daiki; Shirota, Riko; Kajiwara, Takehiro; Kato, Toshifumi; Gemmei-Ide, Makoto

2013-01-01

109

Removal of natural organic material by a magnetic ion exchange resin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this research was to elucidate the interactions among dissolved organic carbon (DOC), inorganic anions and a magnetic ion exchange (MIEX) resin. Model waters containing well characterised natural organic matter (NOM) extracts in addition to DOC-free model waters containing sulphate and bicarbonate were used in all experiments. The NOM extracts used in this work included two reference fulvic

T. H. Boyer; P. C. Singer

2008-01-01

110

Maleimide Functionalized Siloxane Resins  

SciTech Connect

Polyorganosiloxanes are a commercially important class of compounds. They exhibit many important properties, including very low glass transition temperatures, making them useful over a wide temperature range. In practice, the polysiloxane polymer is often mixed with a filler material to help improve its mechanical properties. An alternative method for increasing polymer mechanical strength is through the incorporation of certain substituents on the polymer backbone. Hard substituents such as carbonates and imides generally result in improved mechanical properties of polysiloxanes. In this paper, we present the preparation of novel polysiloxane resins modified with hard maleimide substituents. Protected ethoxysilyl-substituted propyl-maleimides were prepared. The maleimide substituent was protected with a furanyl group and the monomer polymerized under aqueous acidic conditions. At elevated temperatures (>120 C), the polymer undergoes retro Diels-Alder reaction with release of foran (Equation 1). The deprotected polymer can then be selectively crosslinked by a forward Diels-Alder reaction (in the presence of a co-reactant having two or more dime functionalities).

Loy, D.A.; Shaltout, R.M.

1999-04-01

111

Effects of mechanical properties of adhesive resins on bond strength to dentin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the micro-tensile bond strength to dentin and mechanical properties of the cured adhesive resins.Methods: Coronal dentin surfaces of extracted human teeth were treated with four commercial self-etching priming systems (Clearfil SE Bond; UniFil Bond; Tokuso Mac-Bond II; and Imperva Fluoro Bond) and bonded with a resin composite. After

A Takahashi; Y Sato; S Uno; P. N. R Pereira; H Sano

2002-01-01

112

Functional polycyclopentadiene resins via hydroboration process  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a process for preparing a functionalized petroleum resin. It comprises dissolving a petroleum resin in a solvent to form a solution, the resin being formed by polymerizing feeds containing cyclopentadiene, dicyclopentadiene and alkyl derivatives thereof, the resin having a norbornene moiety with a double bond; adding to the solution a borane, reacting the petroleum resin with the borane compound at about room temperature for a sufficient period of time to form a derivative of the petroleum resin containing a borane group; and reacting the derivative of the petroleum resin with a chemical agent capable of replacing the borane group of the petroleum resin derivative with a functional group, thereby converting the derivative into the functionalized petroleum resin.

Chung, T.C.; Berluche, E.; Bock, J.; Kastrup, R.V.

1992-03-03

113

FB-Line resin testing final report  

SciTech Connect

The Dowex 50W-X8 and 50W-Xl2 resin samples are both strong acid cation materials in the hydrogen form. Each material has a water retention capacity characteristic of its respective marketed degree of cross-linking. Dowex 21K gives confirmatory responses to tests for a strong anion exchange resin in the nitrate form. All three resins have the manufacturer's specified ionic type and form, and the Dowex 50W resins have characteristic water retention capacities. These tests conclude that the ion exchange resins in use in FB-Line meet the approved safety document criteria for cross-linking, ionic form, and resin type.

Bannochie, C.J.

1992-01-23

114

Disposal of bead ion exchange resin wastes  

SciTech Connect

Bead ion exchange resin wastes are disposed of by a process which involves spray-drying a bead ion exchange resin waste in order to remove substantially all of the water present in such waste, including the water on the surface of the ion exchange resin beads and the water inside the ion exchange resin beads. The resulting dried ion exchange resin beads can then be solidified in a suitable solid matrix-forming material, such as a polymer, which solidifies to contain the dried ion exchange resin beads in a solid monolith suitable for disposal by burial or other conventional means.

Gay, R.L.; Granthan, L.F.

1985-12-17

115

21 CFR 177.1585 - Polyestercarbonate resins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...following specifications: (i) The solution intrinsic viscosity of the polyestercarbonate resins shall be a minimum of 0...per gram, as determined by a method entitled “Intrinsic Viscosity (IV) of Lexan ® Polyestercarbonate Resin by...

2011-04-01

116

21 CFR 175.380 - Xylene-formaldehyde resins condensed with 4,4?-isopropylidenediphenol-epichlorohydrin epoxy resins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...isopropylidenediphenol-epichlorohydrin epoxy resins. The resins identified in paragraph...conditions. (a) The resins are produced by the condensation of xylene-formaldehyde resin and 4,4?-isopropylidenediphenol-epichlorohydrin...di-, or trimethylol phenol and capryl alcohol...

2010-04-01

117

Improved Fire-Resistant Resins for Laminates  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fire-resistant resins for fabricating laminates with inorganic fibers, especially graphite fibers, are formed from bisimides containing main-chain phosphorus and olefinic end groups. Bisimides are thermally polymerized to form resins and laminates virtually imcombustible in pure oxygen at 300 degrees C. New resins are suitable for many applications requiring good adhesion and excellent resistance to heat, fire, solvents and chemicals.

Fohlen, G. M.; Parker, J. A.; Varma, I. K.

1982-01-01

118

Analysis of photo-initiators in visible-light-cured dental composite resins.  

PubMed

Seven commercial visible-light-cured (VL) dental composite resins were analytically studied for identification of the photo-initiator consisting of photo-sensitizer and reducing agent. Gas-liquid chromatography (GC) was used for the determination of the dilute components extracted from the composite resin. Mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) was used for confirmation of the qualitative data obtained by GC. The results showed that all composite resins examined included camphorquinone (CQ) as a photo-sensitizer. The concentration of CQ in the resin phase, however, ranged from 0.17 to 1.03% w/w. The composite resin with hybrid-sized filler tended to have a higher concentration of CQ than did the micro-filled composite resin. As for the reducing agent, two out of seven brands contained dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA), and one included dimethyl-p-toluidine (DMPTI). The mixing ratio between CQ and the amine in these three composite resins also varied. Another four brands did not contain either DMAEMA or DMPTI, and would utilize different reducing agents. PMID:11039039

Taira, M; Urabe, H; Hirose, T; Wakasa, K; Yamaki, M

1988-01-01

119

Object extraction Object extraction  

E-print Network

Object extraction #12;Object extraction · Extracting topographic objects from images · the main goal of aerial photogrammetry · object extraction consists of two steps · image interpretation extraction · Extracting topographic objects from images · identify all objects of a certain class · measure

Giger, Christine

120

Glycoprotein Enrichment Resin User Manual  

E-print Network

buffer containing either Tris or sorbitol. Specific Enrichment of Glycoproteins Glycoprotein Enrichment Enrichment Resin· Other User Manual (PT4050-1)· Visit our Protein Expression and Purification product pages at www.clontech.com for a current list of products available for protein research. #12;Glycoprotein

Lebendiker, Mario

121

Color Improvement of Petroleum Resin \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

A reaction of thermal-cracked higher fractions obtained from petroleum naptha with maleic anhydride gives a raw material affording a lighter color petroleum resin of 6 G than ordinarily produced one of 11 to 12 G, measured by Gardner scale. Then, some color components which were not yet reported, removed by the reaction, have been identified from the reaction products to

Yoshiyuki Iwase

1979-01-01

122

SPECTROSCOPIC STUDIES OF PETROLEUM RESINS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resin fractions containing heteroatoms obtained from deasphaltened oils of petroleum residues (500C+) of Bombay High 7lpar;BH) and Gujrat Crude Mix (GCM) have been separated into acidic, basic and neutral Lewis base (NLB) types employing chromatographic methods. Ultimate compositions of these fractions have been determined for deducing the average molecular formulae. Infrared spectroscopy has been employed for assigning various heteroatomic functional

S. L. S. Sarowha; I. D. Singh

1988-01-01

123

Light-curing acrylic resin as an orthodontic baseplate material.  

PubMed

Heat-curing autopolymerizing (self-cure or cold-cure), thermoplastic, and light-curing acrylic resin are the most commonly used orthodontic baseplate materials. While cured acrylic resins present few problems to the patient, in the laboratory acrylic resin has to be sprayed, mixed, or packed in a fume-extraction unit because of the harmful fumes emitted by the raw inflammable chemicals. Light-curing material, on the other hand, is virtually nonflammable and has virtually no aroma. A light-cure technique for the construction of orthodontic baseplates is described. While buildup of the baseplate is slightly slower than for self-cured material, the shorter time involved in trimming and polishing means that overall construction is faster. It is easier to obtain a uniform thickness with light-cured material, and it provides superior fit. These results, however, are subject to more extensive clinical trials. The only apparent disadvantage is the fine powder produced during trimming. Even with a bench equipped with an extraction unit, it is advisable to use a face mask to prevent the inhalation of dust. PMID:9807131

Brown, J; Kerr, W J

1998-08-01

124

Lignans in resin of Araucaria angustifolia by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Total extract of resin from Araucaria angustifolia was analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and 32 lignans were identified. Lignan acetates are present in the resin and consist of four secoisolariciresinol acetates, six lariciresinol acetates, two 7'-hydroxylariciresinol acetates and an isolariciresinol acetate, which have hitherto not been reported in the plant kingdom. Shonanin and 7'-hydroxylariciresinol type lignans are also present in A. angustifolia resin. Lignans containing syringyl moieties, characteristic for angiosperms, occur in the resin and consist of 5-methoxylariciresinol-9-acetate, 5'-methoxylariciresinol-9-acetate, 5-methoxypinoresinol dimethyl ether and 5-methoxypinoresinol. This is noteworthy because syringyl moieties have only been reported for Thuja species (Cupressaceae) among the gymnosperms. The mass spectra of the various lignan trimethylsilyl derivatives are discussed with the interpretations of the fragmentation patterns. PMID:15532064

Yamamoto, Shuichi; Otto, Angelika; Simoneit, Bernd R T

2004-11-01

125

Bioprotective properties of Dragon's blood resin: In vitro evaluation of antioxidant activity and antimicrobial activity  

PubMed Central

Background Food preservation is basically done to preserve the natural characteristics and appearance of the food and to increase the shelf life of food. Food preservatives in use are natural, chemical and artificial. Keeping in mind the adverse effects of synthetic food preservatives, there is a need to identify natural food preservatives. The aims of this study were to evaluate in vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of Dragon's blood resin obtained from Dracaena cinnabari Balf f., with a view to develop safer food preservatives. Methods In this study, three solvents of varying polarity were used to extract and separate the medium and high polarity compounds from the non-polar compounds of the Dragon's blood resin. The extracts were evaluated for their antimicrobial activity against the food borne pathogens. The antioxidant activities of the extracts were assessed using DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging, FRAP, metal chelating and reducing power assays. Total phenolics, flavonoids and flavonols of extracts were also estimated using the standard methods. Results Phytochemical analysis of extracts revealed high phenolic content in CH2Cl2 extract of resin. Free radical scavenging of CH2Cl2 extract was found to be highest which is in good correlation with its total phenolic content. All test microorganisms were also inhibited by CH2Cl2 extract. Conclusions Our result provide evidence that CH2Cl2 extract is a potential source of natural antioxidant compounds and exhibited good inhibitory activity against various food borne pathogens. Thus, CH2Cl2 extract of Dragon's blood resin could be considered as possible source of food preservative. PMID:21329518

2011-01-01

126

Sulfur geochemistry of hydrothermal waters in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, USA. III. An anion-exchange resin technique for sampling and preservation of sulfoxyanions in natural waters  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A sampling protocol for the retention, extraction, and analysis of sulfoxyanions in hydrothermal waters has been developed in the laboratory and tested at Yellowstone National Park and Green Lake, NY. Initial laboratory testing of the anion-exchange resin Bio-Rad??? AG1-X8 indicated that the resin was well suited for the sampling, preservation, and extraction of sulfate and thiosulfate. Synthetic solutions containing sulfate and thiosulfate were passed through AG1-X8 resin columns and eluted with 1 and 3 M KCl, respectively. Recovery ranged from 89 to 100%. Comparison of results for water samples collected from five pools in Yellowstone National Park between on-site IC analysis (U.S. Geological Survey mobile lab) and IC analysis of resin-stored sample at SUNY-Stony Brook indicates 96 to 100% agreement for three pools (Cinder, Cistern, and an unnamed pool near Cistern) and 76 and 63% agreement for two pools (Sulfur Dust and Frying Pan). Attempts to extract polythionates from the AG1-X8 resin were made using HCl solutions, but were unsuccessful. Bio-Rad??? AG2-X8, an anion-exchange resin with weaker binding sites than the AG1-X8 resin, is better suited for polythionate extraction. Sulfate and thiosulfate extraction with this resin has been accomplished with KCl solutions of 0.1 and 0.5 M, respectively. Trithionate and tetrathionate can be extracted with 4 M KCl. Higher polythionates can be extracted with 9 M hydrochloric acid. Polythionate concentrations can then be determined directly using ion chromatographic methods, and laboratory results indicate recovery of up to 90% for synthetic polythionate solutions using AG2-X8 resin columns. ?? The Royal Society of Chemistry and the Division of Geochemistry of the American Chemical Society 2003.

Druschel, G.K.; Schoonen, M.A.A.; Nordstorm, D.K.; Ball, J.W.; Xu, Y.; Cohn, C.A.

2003-01-01

127

Sulfur geochemistry of hydrothermal waters in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, USA. III. An anion-exchange resin technique for sampling and preservation of sulfoxyanions in natural waters  

PubMed Central

A sampling protocol for the retention, extraction, and analysis of sulfoxyanions in hydrothermal waters has been developed in the laboratory and tested at Yellowstone National Park and Green Lake, NY. Initial laboratory testing of the anion-exchange resin Bio-Rad™ AG1-X8 indicated that the resin was well suited for the sampling, preservation, and extraction of sulfate and thiosulfate. Synthetic solutions containing sulfate and thiosulfate were passed through AG1-X8 resin columns and eluted with 1 and 3 M KCl, respectively. Recovery ranged from 89 to 100%. Comparison of results for water samples collected from five pools in Yellowstone National Park between on-site 1C analysis (U.S. Geological Survey mobile lab) and IC analysis of resin-stored sample at SUNY-Stony Brook indicates 96 to 100% agreement for three pools (Cinder, Cistern, and an unnamed pool near Cistern) and 76 and 63% agreement for two pools (Sulfur Dust and Frying Pan). Attempts to extract polythionates from the AG1-X8 resin were made using HCl solutions, but were unsuccessful. Bio-Rad™ AG2-X8, an anion-exchange resin with weaker binding sites than the AG1-X8 resin, is better suited for polythionate extraction. Sulfate and thiosulfate extraction with this resin has been accomplished with KCl solutions of 0.1 and 0.5 M, respectively. Trithionate and tetrathionate can be extracted with 4 M KCl. Higher polythionates can be extracted with 9 M hydrochloric acid. Polythionate concentrations can then be determined directly using ion chromatographic methods, and laboratory results indicate recovery of up to 90% for synthetic polythionate solutions using AG2-X8 resin columns.

Druschel, Greg K; Schoonen, Martin AA; Nordstrom, D Kirk; Ball, James W; Xu, Yong; Cohn, Corey A

2003-01-01

128

Petroleum resins and their production  

SciTech Connect

A process is described for the production of petroleum resins compatible with base polymers in hot melt formulations and having a softening point of from about 60/sup 0/C. to about 120/sup 0/C. and Gardner color of about 4 or less, comprising copolymerizing using a Friedel-Crafts catalyst. The mixture is substantially free form cyclopentadiene and dicyclopentadiene. This patent also describes a resin consisting essentially of a copolymer containing from 5 to 80 wt. % of units derived from an olefinically unsaturated aromatic compound form 5 to 80 wt. % of units derived from C/sub 5/ olefines or diolefines or C/sub 6/ olefines diolefines or a mixture of C/sub 5/ and C/sub 6/ olefines or diolefines and from 7 to 45 wt. % of units derived from a terpene.

Luvinh, Q.

1989-04-25

129

Pharmaceutical Applications of Ion-Exchange Resins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The historical uses of ion-exchange resins and a summary of the basic chemical principles involved in the ion-exchange process are discussed. Specific applications of ion-exchange resins are provided. The utility of these agents to stabilize drugs are evaluated. Commonly occurring chemical and physical incompatibilities are reviewed. Ion-exchange resins have found applicability as inactive pharmaceutical constituents, particularly as disintegrants (inactive tablet ingredient whose function is to rapidly disrupt the tablet matrix on contact with gastric fluid). One of the more elegant approaches to improving palatability of ionizable drugs is the use of ion-exchange resins as taste-masking agents. The selection, optimization of drug:resin ratio and particle size, together with a review of scaleup of typical manufacturing processes for taste-masked products are provided. Ion-exchange resins have been extensively utilized in oral sustained-release products. The selection, optimization of drug:resin ratio and particle size, together with a summary of commonly occurring commercial sustained-release products are discussed. Ion-exchange resins have also been used in topical products for local application to the skin, including those where drug flux is controlled by a differential electrical current (ionotophoretic delivery). General applicability of ion-exchange resins, including ophthalmic delivery, nasal delivery, use as drugs in their own right (e.g., colestyramine, formerly referred to as cholestyramine), as well as measuring gastrointestinal transit times, are discussed. Finally, pharmaceutical monographs for ion-exchange resins are reviewed.

Elder, David P.

2005-04-01

130

Synthesis of improved polyester resins  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Eighteen aromatic unsaturated polyester prepolymers prepared by a modified interfacial condensation technique were investigated for their solubility in vinyl monomers and ability to provide high char yield forming unsaturated polyester resins. The best resin system contained a polyester prepolymer of phthalic, fumaric and diphenic acids reacted with 2,7-naphthalene diol and 9,9-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)fluorene. This prepolymer is very soluble in styrene, divinyl benzene, triallyl cyanurate, diallyl isophthalate and methylvinylpyridine. It provided anaerobic char yields as high as 41 percent at 800 C. The combination of good solubility and char yield represents a significant improvement over state-of-the-art unsaturated polyester resins. The majority of the other prepolymers had only low or no solubility in vinyl monomers. Graphite composites from this prepolymer with styrene were investigated. The cause for the observed low shear strengths of the composites was not determined, however 12-week aging of the composites at 82 C showed that essentially no changes in the composites had occurred.

Mcleod, A. H.; Delano, C. B.

1979-01-01

131

Antitrypanosomal Property of Some Extracts of Different Parts of Moringa oleifera, Lam  

Microsoft Academic Search

Different extracts of Moringa oleifera parts were evaluated for their anti-trypanosomal activity and broad phytochemical classes. Alkaloids, resins and saponins were detected. In vitro, the petroleum ether extract of the root bark, chloroform extract of the stem bark, methanol extracts of the stem and the aqueous extracts of all parts were active at 4 and 2 mg\\/ ml doses. The

Sunday E. Atawodi; Hassana Shehu

132

RAPID MEASUREMENTS OF NEPTUNIUM OXIDATION STATES USING CHROMATOGRAPHIC RESINS  

SciTech Connect

The Savannah River Site's (SRS) H-Canyon facility uses ceric ammonium nitrate (CAN) to separate impure neptunium (Np) from a high sulfate feed stream. The material is processed using a two-pass solvent extraction purification which relies on CAN to oxidize neptunium to Np(VI) during the first pass prior to extraction. Spectrophotometric oxidation-state analyses normally used to validate successful oxidation to Np(VI) prior to extraction were compromised by this feed stream matrix. Therefore, a rapid chromatographic method to validate successful Np oxidation was developed using Eichrom Industries TRU and TEVA{reg_sign} resins. The method was validated and subsequently transferred to existing operations in the process analytical laboratories.

Diprete, D; C Diprete, C; Mira Malek, M; Eddie Kyser, E

2009-03-24

133

A challenge to the conventional wisdom that simultaneous etching and resin infiltration always occurs in self-etch adhesives  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study provided morphological evidence that discrepancies between the depth of demineralisation and the depth of resin infiltration can occur in some mild self-etch adhesives. Sound dentine specimens derived from extracted human third molars were bonded with 5 one-step and 5 two-step self-etch adhesives. One millimeter thick slabs containing the resin–dentine interfaces were immersed in 50wt% aqueous ammoniacal silver nitrate

Ricardo M. Carvalho; Stefano Chersoni; Roland Frankenberger; David H. Pashley; Carlo Prati; Franklin R. Tay

2005-01-01

134

Soluble polymer bound cleavage reagents: a multipolymer strategy for the cleavage of tertiary amines from REM resin.  

PubMed

Soluble polymer bound reagent 1 has been prepared to cleave tertiary amines from REM resin. Normally, amines cleaved from REM resin require extraction or chromatography to remove excess cleavage reagent and its byproducts. The solubility profile of non-crosslinked polystyrene (NCPS) based reagent 1 eliminates the need for such purification and allows for the direct isolation of a library of pure tertiary amines through simple filtration and concentration operations. PMID:10930244

Toy, P H; Reger, T S; Janda, K D

2000-07-27

135

Sorption Behavior of In(III) Ions onto Cation-Exchange Carboxylic Resin in Aqueous Solutions: Batch and Column Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Indium and its compounds have numerous industrial applications in the manufacture of liquid crystal displays and semiconductors. They are considered hazardous substances. This article reports the research into the recovery of In(III) from aqueous solution by sorption. Cation-exchange carboxylic resin (D155 resin) was used as a sorbent for indium(III) ions extraction in this research. The factors of parameters, such as

Chunhua Xiong; Xiaoxiang Han; Caiping Yao

2010-01-01

136

Development of tough, moisture resistant laminating resins  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Tough, moisture resistant laminating resins for employment with graphite fibers were developed. The new laminating resins exhibited cost, handleability and processing characteristics equivalent to 394K (250 F) curing epoxies. The laminating resins were based on bisphenol A dicyanate and monofunctional cyanates with hydrophobic substituents. These resins sorb only small quantities of moisture at equilibrium (0.5% or less) with minimal glass transition temperature depression and represent an improvement over epoxies which sorb around 2% moisture at equilibrium. Toughening was accomplished by the precipitation of small diameter particles of butadiene nitrile rubber throughout the resin matrix. The rubber domains act as microcrack termini and energy dissipation sites, allowing increased stress accommodation prior to catastrophic failure. A unique blend of amine terminated butadiene nitrile elastomer (MW 2,000) and a high nitrile content butadiene nitrile rubber yielded the desired resin morphology.

Brand, R. A.; Harrison, E. S.

1982-01-01

137

New modified hydrocarbon resins; An alternative to styrenated terpene resins in hot melts  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports on the development of two hydrocarbon-based resin formulations that could be used with different thermoplastic block copolymers to formulate pressure-sensitive adhesives. Results are examined with one of these resins in formulations with styrene-isoprene-styrene (SIS) and styrene-butadiene (SB) compounds. The new modified hydrocarbon resin, with a softening point of 98{degrees} C, matches the adhesive performance of a terpene resin with a softening point of 105{degrees} C. The resin performs as well as the modified terpene in SIS-, SB-, and EVA-based adhesives. The new hydrocarbon resin is especially well suited for hot-melt adhesives. It exhibits low volatility, good color stability, and excellent melt viscosity stability. Since the new resin is based on petroleum hydrocarbon feedstocks, it should be available at moderate, stable prices. The other hydrocarbon resin, with a softening point of 85{degrees} C, produced comparable results.

Carper, J.D. (Hercules Inc., Wilmington, DE (US))

1990-06-01

138

New AnionExchange Resins for Improved Separations of Nuclear Materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Improved separations of nuclear materials will have a significant impact upon a broad range of DOE activities. DOE-EM Focus Areas and Crosscutting Programs have identified improved methods for the extraction and recovery of radioactive metal ions from process, waste, and environmental waters as critical needs for the coming years. We propose to develop multifunctional anion-exchange resins that facilitate anion uptake

Richard A. Bartsch; Mary E. Barr

2001-01-01

139

Traditional Cannabis Cultivation in Darchula District, Nepal—Seed, Resin and Textiles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The higher elevation regions of Darchula District in the northwest of Nepal provide a unique example of a basic Cannabis agricultural system whereby all three major products-seeds and resin from the female flowers as well as fiber from the stems-are extracted from the same crop. For centuries prior to the relatively recent influences of market economics and law enforcement, this

Robert C. Clarke

2007-01-01

140

PRESENCE OF DICHLOROMETHANE ON CLEANED XAD-2 RESIN: A POTENTIAL PROBLEM AND SOLUTIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

Preparation of XAD-2 resin for indoor air sampling with commonly used cleaning methods, such as Soxhlet extraction with dichloromethane (DCM) followed by vacuum drying and nitrogen purging, can lead to elevated DCM levels (>100 ppb) in the sampled indoor air, which result from DC...

141

Sulfur geochemistry of hydrothermal waters in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, USA. III. An anion-exchange resin technique for sampling and preservation of sulfoxyanions in natural waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

: A sampling protocol for the retention, extraction, and analysis of sulfoxyanions in hydrothermal waters has been developed in the laboratory and tested at Yellowstone National Park and Green Lake, NY. Initial laboratory testing of the anion-exchange resin Bio-Rad™ AG1-X8 indicated that the resin was well suited for the sampling, preservation, and extraction of sulfate and thiosulfate. Synthetic solutions containing

Greg K. Druschel; Martin A. A. Schoonen; D. Kirk Nordstrom; James W. Ball; Yong Xuc; Corey A. Cohnc

2003-01-01

142

FB-Line resin testing final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Dowex 50W-X8 and 50W-Xl2 resin samples are both strong acid cation materials in the hydrogen form. Each material has a water retention capacity characteristic of its respective marketed degree of cross-linking. Dowex 21K gives confirmatory responses to tests for a strong anion exchange resin in the nitrate form. All three resins have the manufacturer`s specified ionic type and form,

Bannochie

1992-01-01

143

FB-Line resin testing final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Dowex 50W-X8 and 50W-Xl2 resin samples are both strong acid cation materials in the hydrogen form. Each material has a water retention capacity characteristic of its respective marketed degree of cross-linking. Dowex 21K gives confirmatory responses to tests for a strong anion exchange resin in the nitrate form. All three resins have the manufacturer's specified ionic type and form,

Bannochie

1992-01-01

144

Porous Ceramic Spheres from Ion Exchange Resin  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A commercial cation ion exchange resin, cross-linked polystyrene, has been successfully used as a template to fabricate 20 to 50 micron porous ceramic spheres. Ion exchange resins have dual template capabilities. Pore architecture of the ceramic spheres can be altered by changing the template pattern. Templating can be achieved by utilizing the internal porous structure or the external surface of the resin beads. Synthesis methods and chemical/physical characteristics of the ceramic spheres will be reported.

Dynys, Fred

2005-01-01

145

Adsorption properties and preparative separation of phenylethanoid glycosides from Cistanche deserticola by use of macroporous resins.  

PubMed

A simple and efficient chromatographic method for large-scale preparative separation of phenylethanoid glycosides (mainly contain echinacoside and acteoside) from Cistanche deserticola was developed. The adsorption properties of eight macroporous resins were evaluated. Three selected resins were further screened depending on the adsorption kinetics curves, in which HPD300 resin showed the best separation efficiency. The adsorption isotherm data on HPD300 resin were fitted to the Freundlich equation in certain concentration range. The dynamic adsorption and desorption experiments were carried out on columns packed with HPD300 resin to optimize the separation process. The breakthrough curves showed that acteoside had a higher affinity to the resin than echinacoside. The contents of echinacoside and acteoside in the product increased from 1.79% and 1.43% in the crude extracts to 16.66% and 15.17%, with recovery yields of 80.41% and 90.17%, respectively. The purity of total phenylethanoid glycosides in the product was 76.58%. PMID:24022055

Liu, Boyan; Ouyang, Jie; Yuan, Xiaofan; Wang, Liwei; Zhao, Bing

2013-10-15

146

Synthesis and application of calix[4]arene based resin for the removal of azo dyes.  

PubMed

The present study describes a novel synthetic method for the immobilization of calix[4]arene (II) onto the surface of modified Amberlite XAD-4 resin (4), which does not require the derivatization of calixarene moiety. The novel calix[4]arene based resin (C4 resin) 5 was used as sorbent for the removal of azo dyes. Batch-wise sorption study was carried out and observed that the C4 resin (5) is more effective as compared to compound II as well as pure Amberlite XAD-4 resin (1) to remove the selected dyes [i.e. Reactive Black-5 (RB-5), Reactive Red-45 (RR-45) and Congo Red (CR)]. The effect of sorbent dosage and pH on % sorption was studied. During the extraction process, various kinds of interactions such as electrostatic repulsion, deprotonation of the hydroxyl groups of C4 resin, dissociation of reactive dyes into anions/cations and structural variations were monitored and found that they are highly pH dependent. PMID:19640639

Kamboh, Muhammad Afzal; Solangi, Imam Bakhsh; Sherazi, S T H; Memon, Shahabuddin

2009-12-15

147

Interferometric study of epoxy resin gelation  

SciTech Connect

The transition of epoxy resins from a mobile liquid to a rubbery gel is a complex process depending on chemical reaction kinetics and both heat and mass transfer. The purpose of this study is to determine the locus of initial gelation in an epoxy resin, and the course of gelatin through both neat resins and glass fiber/epxoy resin composites. This was accomplished by monitoring the local changes in refractive index in transparent epoxy castings using laser interferometry, supplemented by temperature profiles obtained from thermocouple arrays. These experiments were carried out on pure DGEBA epoxy (DOW DER-332) cured with a variety of primary amine, secondary amine, and anhydride curing agents.

Hirschbuehler, K.R.

1981-01-01

148

Characterization of PMR polyimide resin and prepreg  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Procedures for the chemical characterization of PMR-15 resin solutions and graphite-reinforced prepregs were developed, and a chemical data base was established. In addition, a basic understanding of PMR-15 resin chemistry was gained; this was translated into effective processing procedures for the production of high quality graphite composites. During the program the PMR monomers and selected model compounds representative of postulated PMR-15 solution chemistry were acquired and characterized. Based on these data, a baseline PMR-15 resin was formulated and evaluated for processing characteristics and composite properties. Commercially available PMR-15 resins were then obtained and chemically characterized. Composite panels were fabricated and evaluated.

Lindenmeyer, P. H.; Sheppard, C. H.

1984-01-01

149

Graphite composites with advanced resin matrices  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effect of processing variables on the flammability and mechanical properties for state-of-the-art and advanced resin matrices for graphite composites were studied. Resin matrices which were evaluated included state-of-the-art epoxy, phenolic-novolac, phenolic-xylok, two types of bismaleimides, benzyl, polyethersulfone, and poly(p-phenylene sulfone). Comparable flammability and thermochemical data on graphite-reinforced laminates prepared with these resin matrices are presented, and the relationship of some of these properties to the anaerobic char yield of the resins is described.

Kourtides, D. A.

1980-01-01

150

Novolak resin analogs for resist applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Novolak resins, used to make typical g or i-line resists, are commonly made by condensing phenolic monomers with aldehydes. In the strictest definition of novolaks the aldehyde of choice is always formaldehyde. Under the acid catalyzed conditions generally used to make novolak the resins the carbocations formed by the protonation of the aldehydic carbonyl react with the phenolic reactant(s) to form the resins with elimination of water. Other aldehydes or low molecular weight ketones have been used on occasion to make useful analog for resist applications. Competing aldol condensations may interfere with isolation of pure polymeric resins especially in the case of ketones. Unique novolak resin analogs have been made by condensing `masked' bifunctional electrophiles with phenolic reactants under acidic conditions similar to standard novolak resin techniques. These resins were used as replacements for novolak resins and showed increased image contrast and thermal resistance. They were also used as photoactive compound backbones. Low molecular weight resins made with polyhydroxy aromatic phenolic monomers were especially useful as speed enhancing additives in thick film applications.

Wanat, Stan F.; Jensen, Kathryn H.; Lu, Ping-Hung; McKenzie, Douglas S.

1998-06-01

151

Sand control with resin and explosive  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a method for treating a well having perforated casing to prevent solids movement through the perforations and into the wellbore. It comprises positioning a quantity of liquid resin solution such that the solution occupies the interval of the casing having perforations; positioning an explosive in proximity with the liquid resin solution; detonating the explosive; displacing the liquid resin solution remaining in the wellbore after step (c) through the perforations with a displacing fluid; and injecting a chemical solution through the perforations to cause the resin to polymerize to form a consolidated permeable matrix.

Dees, J.M.; Begnaud, W.J.; Sahr, N.L.

1992-09-08

152

Resin flow analysis with fiber preform deformation in through thickness direction during Compression Resin Transfer Molding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resin flow during Compression Resin Transfer Molding (CRTM) can be best described and analyzed in three phases. In the first phase, a gap is created by holding the upper mold platen parallel to the preform surface at a fixed distance from it. The desired amount of resin injected into the gap quickly flows primarily over the preform. The second phase

Justin Merotte; Pavel Simacek; Suresh G. Advani

2010-01-01

153

Failure load of acrylic resin denture teeth bonded to high impact acrylic resins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Statement of problem. Techniques for bonding denture teeth to an acrylic resin denture base remain empirical, with little consensus from the literature, among clinicians, or among dental laboratories. Purpose. This study evaluated the failure load of acrylic resin teeth bonded to 2 high impact acrylic resins. Methods and material. The ridge lap portion on 120 identical denture teeth were modified

Donna Barpal; Donald A. Curtis; Frederick Finzen; Jovin Perry; Stuart A. Gansky

1998-01-01

154

75 FR 67105 - Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy and Japan  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy and Japan AGENCY: United States International Trade...polytetrafluoroethylene resin from Italy and Japan...polytetrafluoroethylene resin from Italy and Japan would be likely to lead to...

2010-11-01

155

40 CFR 721.4380 - Modified hydrocarbon resin.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Modified hydrocarbon resin. 721.4380 Section 721...Substances § 721.4380 Modified hydrocarbon resin. (a) Chemical substance...identified generically as a modified hydrocarbon resin (P-91-1418) is...

2012-07-01

156

40 CFR 721.4380 - Modified hydrocarbon resin.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Modified hydrocarbon resin. 721.4380 Section 721...Substances § 721.4380 Modified hydrocarbon resin. (a) Chemical substance...identified generically as a modified hydrocarbon resin (P-91-1418) is...

2011-07-01

157

40 CFR 721.4380 - Modified hydrocarbon resin.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Modified hydrocarbon resin. 721.4380 Section 721...Substances § 721.4380 Modified hydrocarbon resin. (a) Chemical substance...identified generically as a modified hydrocarbon resin (P-91-1418) is...

2013-07-01

158

40 CFR 721.4380 - Modified hydrocarbon resin.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Modified hydrocarbon resin. 721.4380 Section 721...Substances § 721.4380 Modified hydrocarbon resin. (a) Chemical substance...identified generically as a modified hydrocarbon resin (P-91-1418) is...

2010-07-01

159

21 CFR 177.2510 - Polyvinylidene fluoride resins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Polyvinylidene fluoride resins. 177.2510 Section 177.2510...Repeated Use § 177.2510 Polyvinylidene fluoride resins. Polyvinylidene fluoride resins may be safely used as articles...

2012-04-01

160

21 CFR 177.2510 - Polyvinylidene fluoride resins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Polyvinylidene fluoride resins. 177.2510 Section 177.2510...Repeated Use § 177.2510 Polyvinylidene fluoride resins. Polyvinylidene fluoride resins may be safely used as articles...

2013-04-01

161

21 CFR 177.2510 - Polyvinylidene fluoride resins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Polyvinylidene fluoride resins. 177.2510 Section 177.2510...Repeated Use § 177.2510 Polyvinylidene fluoride resins. Polyvinylidene fluoride resins may be safely used as articles...

2011-04-01

162

21 CFR 177.2510 - Polyvinylidene fluoride resins.  

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Polyvinylidene fluoride resins. 177.2510 Section 177.2510...Repeated Use § 177.2510 Polyvinylidene fluoride resins. Polyvinylidene fluoride resins may be safely used as articles...

2014-04-01

163

21 CFR 872.3770 - Temporary crown and bridge resin.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Temporary crown and bridge resin. 872.3770 Section 872.3770...Devices § 872.3770 Temporary crown and bridge resin. (a) Identification. A temporary crown and bridge resin is a device composed of a...

2013-04-01

164

21 CFR 872.3770 - Temporary crown and bridge resin.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Temporary crown and bridge resin. 872.3770 Section 872.3770...Devices § 872.3770 Temporary crown and bridge resin. (a) Identification. A temporary crown and bridge resin is a device composed of a...

2010-04-01

165

21 CFR 872.3770 - Temporary crown and bridge resin.  

...2014-04-01 false Temporary crown and bridge resin. 872.3770 Section 872.3770...Devices § 872.3770 Temporary crown and bridge resin. (a) Identification. A temporary crown and bridge resin is a device composed of a...

2014-04-01

166

21 CFR 872.3770 - Temporary crown and bridge resin.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 false Temporary crown and bridge resin. 872.3770 Section 872.3770...Devices § 872.3770 Temporary crown and bridge resin. (a) Identification. A temporary crown and bridge resin is a device composed of a...

2012-04-01

167

21 CFR 872.3770 - Temporary crown and bridge resin.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Temporary crown and bridge resin. 872.3770 Section 872.3770...Devices § 872.3770 Temporary crown and bridge resin. (a) Identification. A temporary crown and bridge resin is a device composed of a...

2011-04-01

168

Sulfonated Petroleum Polymeric Resins as Plasticizers for Cement Mortars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sulfonation of petroleum polymeric resins based on the C9 fraction with various suilfonatic agents was studied, and procedure was developed for preparing sulfonated resins. The possibility of using sulfo resins as effective plasticizers for concrete was examined.

V. P. Lesnyak; L. V. Gaponik; V. P. Mardykin; F. N. Kaputskii

2003-01-01

169

Separation of Lanthanide Ions with Kläui Ligand Resin  

SciTech Connect

Separation and pre-concentration of the desired analyte is often a critical step in many radioanalytical methods. Current procedures for separating and concentrating analytes for detection are complex, and can be both expensive and time consuming. Therefore, the purpose of this research is to develop an alternative method of separating lanthanide ions through the use of an extraction chromatography resin containing a Klaui ligand salt. This research is a continuation of a concerted effort to develop new methods of detecting small concentrations of radionuclides and lanthanides using Klaui ligands. The Klaui ligands, C5Me5Co(OP(OR)2)3- (R=Me, Et, n-Pr) (LOR-), have unique affinity for lanthanide and actinide ions in the presence of competing metal ions. The use of 1 wt% NaLOR (R=Et or n-Pr) adsorbed onto resin support has been shown to extract lanthanide ions from aqueous nitric acid solutions of different concentrations. In order to further evaluate the utility of these materials in radiochemical separation, the selectivity of the resins for the different lanthanide ions was examined by measuring the distribution coefficients (Kd) for a series of lanthanides over a range of solution conditions. Based on prior research with actinide ions, it was hypothesized that the lanthanide ions would bond strongly with the Klaui ligands. The success of this research is important, because it will assist in expanding and improving current automated radiochemical methods, which will decrease the cost of developing and implementing radiochemical methods. To date, Kd values have been determined for Eu+3, Nd+3 and Pr+3 under varying nitric acid (HNO3) concentration, using a resin consisting of 1.0 wt% NaLOPr on Amberlite XAD-7HP. The dependence of the Kd values for Eu+3 has also been examined as a function of the ligand-to-europium ratio and the nitrate concentration. Decreasing Kd values were obtained upon increasing the nitric acid concentration, indicating protonation of the ligand, which competes with binding of the lanthanide ions. As expected, increasing the Klaui ligand-to-europium ratio results in increasing Kd, but no conclusions could be made from these data regarding stoichiometry of the complex formed on the resin. No dependence of the Kd on the nitrate concentration was observed, supporting the notion that the HNO3 dependence is dominated by the presence of the acidic hydronium ion (as opposed to the nitrate ion). Future work will involve the determination of the Kd values for the remainder of the lanthanide series to further assess the potential of the Klaui ligand for intra-group lanthanide separations.

Granger, Trinity D.; Henry, Victoria A.; Latesky, Stanley

2007-07-01

170

Imide modified epoxy matrix resins  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results of a program designed to develop tough imide modified epoxy (IME) resins cured by bisimide amine (BIA) hardeners are presented. State of the art epoxy resin, MY720, was used. Three aromatic bisimide amines and one aromatic aliphatic BIA were evaluated. BIA's derived from 6F anhydride (3,3 prime 4,4 prime-(hexafluoro isopropyl idene) bis (phthalic anhydride) and diamines, 3,3 prime-diam nodiphenyl sulfone (3,3 prime-DDS), 4,4 prime-diamino diphenyl sulfone (4,4 prime-DDS), 1.12-dodecane diamine (1,12-DDA) were used. BIA's were abbreviated 6F-3,3 prime-DDS, 6F-4,4 prime-DDS, 6F-3,3 prime-DDS-4,4 prime DDS, and 6F-3,3 prime-DDS-1,12-DDA corresponding to 6F anhydride and diamines mentioned. Epoxy resin and BIA's (MY720/6F-3,3 prime-DDS, MY720/6F-3,3 prime-DDS-4,4 prime-DDS, MY720/6F-3,3 prime-DDS-1,12-DDA and a 50:50 mixture of a BIA and parent diamine, MY720/6F-3,3 prime-DDS/3,3 prime-DDS, MY720/6F-3,3 prime-DDS-4,4 prime-DDS/3,3 prime-DDS, MY720/6F-3,3 prime-DDS-1,12-DDA/3,3 prime-DDS were studied to determine effect of structure and composition. Effect of the addition of two commercial epoxies, glyamine 200 and glyamine 100 on the properties of several formulations was evaluated. Bisimide amine cured epoxies were designated IME's (imide modified epoxy). Physical, thermal and mechanical properties of these resins were determined. Moisture absorption in boiling water exhibited by several of the IME's was considerably lower than the state of the art epoxies (from 3.2% for the control and state of the art to 2.0 wt% moisture absorption). Char yields are increased from 20% for control and state of the art epoxies to 40% for IME resins. Relative toughness characteristics of IME resins were measured by 10 deg off axis tensile tests of Celion 6000/IME composites. Results show that IME's containing 6F-3,3 prime-DDS or 6F-3,3 prime-DDS-1,12-DDA improved the "toughness" characteristics of composites by about 35% (tensile strength), about 35% (intralaminar shear strength), and about 78% (shear strain to failure) relative to the control composite.

Scola, D. A.

1982-01-01

171

Polyimide Resins Resist Extreme Temperatures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Spacecraft and aerospace engines share a common threat: high temperature. The temperatures experienced during atmospheric reentry can reach over 2,000 F, and the temperatures in rocket engines can reach well over 5,000 F. To combat the high temperatures in aerospace applications, Dr. Ruth Pater of Langley Research Center developed RP-46, a polyimide resin capable of withstanding the most brutal temperatures. The composite material can push the service temperature to the limits of organic materials. Designed as an environmentally friendly alternative to other high-temperature resins, the RP-46 polyimide resin system was awarded a 1992 "R&D 100" award, named a "2001 NASA Technology of the Year," and later, due to its success as a spinoff technology, "2004 NASA Commercial Invention of the Year." The technology s commercial success also led to its winning the Langley s "Paul F. Holloway Technology Transfer Award" as well as "Richard T. Whitcom Aerospace Technology Transfer Award" both for 2004. RP-46 is relatively inexpensive and it can be readily processed for use as an adhesive, composite, resin molding, coating, foam, or film. Its composite materials can be used in temperatures ranging from minus 150 F to 2,300 F. No other organic materials are known to be capable of such wide range and extreme high-temperature applications. In addition to answering the call for environmentally conscious high-temperature materials, RP-46 provides a slew of additional advantages: It is extremely lightweight (less than half the weight of aluminum), chemical and moisture resistant, strong, and flexible. Pater also developed a similar technology, RP-50, using many of the same methods she used with RP-46, and very similar in composition to RP-46 in terms of its thermal capacity and chemical construction, but it has different applications, as this material is a coating as opposed to a buildable composite. A NASA license for use of this material outside of the Space Agency as well as additional government-funded testing proved that RP-46 is even more exceptional than originally thought.

2009-01-01

172

The nature and fate of natural resins in the geosphere - VIII - NMR and Py-GC-MS characterization of soluble labdanoid polymers isolated from holocene class I resins.  

SciTech Connect

Soluble polylabdanoids isolated by sequential solvent extraction have been characterized by liquid-state {sup 13}C- and {sup 1}H NMR and {sup 13}C-{sup 1}H HMQC (heteronuclear correlation) NMR spectroscopy in addition to solid-state NMR and Py-GC-MS techniques. Two Holocene resins originating from Santander, Colombia and Mombasa, Kenya were analyzed. Soluble polymers were isolated by extraction with a 1:1 (v/v) methylene chloride-methanol mixture following sequential extractions with methylene chloride and methanol. The molecular weight of polymer extracts was shown by GPC analyses to exceed that of non-polymeric occluded terpenoids. Py-GC-MS, solid-state {sup 13}C CP/MAS and {sup 13}C cross-polarization/depolarization NMR spectroscopy results indicated that chemical compositions of soluble polymers isolated from immature resins are highly representative of the structure of corresponding insoluble polymers, i.e. polylabdatrienes. These data provide evidence for cross-linking or cyclization of side-chain olefinic carbons during or shortly after polymerization. Generally, the characterization of soluble resin polymers by liquid-state NMR spectroscopy has proven to be an excellent means for investigating the maturation mechanism of polylabdanoid resinites, and has potential for furthering the application of Class I resinites as geothermal indicators.

Clifford, D. J.; Hatcher, P. G.; Botto, R. E.; Muntean, J. V.; Michaels, B.; Anderson, K. B.; Chemistry; Pennsylvania State Univ.; Amoco Oil Co.

1997-01-01

173

21 CFR 177.1500 - Nylon resins.  

...ibr_locations.html. (ii) The viscosity number (VN) for Nylon 6/69 and Nylon PA-6-3-T resins in a 99 percent cresol solution (5 milligrams resin per milliliter) shall be determined at 25 °C (77 °F) by method ISO...

2014-04-01

174

Ethynyl-Containing Aromatic Polyamide Resins.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In accordance with the present invention there is provided a novel aromatic polyamide resin having repeating units, each containing at least one o-ethynyl amido subunits. The resins of this invention which contain the above subunit can be thermally treate...

R. C. Evers

1985-01-01

175

Fluorinated diamond bonded in fluorocarbon resin  

SciTech Connect

By fluorinating diamond grit, the grit may be readily bonded into a fluorocarbon resin matrix. The matrix is formed by simple hot pressing techniques. Diamond grinding wheels may advantageously be manufactured using such a matrix. Teflon fluorocarbon resins are particularly well suited for using in forming the matrix.

Taylor, Gene W. (Los Alamos, NM)

1982-01-01

176

Fluorinated diamond bonded in fluorocarbon resin  

SciTech Connect

By fluorinating diamond grit, the grit may be readily bonded into a fluorocarbon resin matrix. The matrix is formed by simple hot pressing techniques. Diamond grinding wheels may advantageously be manufactured using such a matrix. Teflon fluorocarbon resins are particularly well suited for using in forming the matrix.

Taylor, G.W.

1982-08-10

177

Gold recovery with ion exchange used resins  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper one strong acidic, one strong basic and one weak basic ion-exchange resins, considered as exhausted in an industrial demineralizing plant, are screened for gold recovery from cyanide solutions. Based on the observed ability for the recovery and on the ease of regeneration, the weak base anion exchanger Purolite A-100 is selected. This spent resin is stable until

Carmen P. Gomes; Manuel F. Almeida; José M. Loureiro

2001-01-01

178

Novel process of isolating novolac resin fractions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Typical phenol/formaldehyde resin syntheses generate a broad distribution of molecular weight fragments with a wide polydispersity. A process was developed to isolate novolak resin fractions of narrow polydispersity from phenol- formaldehyde condensation products in ethyl lactate without any high temperature distillation. The characterization and the performance of these fractions in i-line photoresist composition are discussed.

Rahman, M. D.; Lu, Ping-Hung; Cook, Michelle M.

1997-07-01

179

Resin/graphite fiber composites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Techniques were developed that provided thermo-oxidatively stable A-type polyimide/graphite fiber composites using the approach of in situ polymerization of monomeric reactants directly on reinforcing fibers, rather than employing separately prepared prepolymer varnish. This was accomplished by simply mixing methylene dianiline and two ester-acids and applying this solution to the fibers for subsequent molding. Five different formulated molecular weight resins were examined, and an optimized die molding procedure established for the 1500 formulated molecular weight system. Extensive ultrasonic inspection of composites was successfully utilized as a technique for monitoring laminate quality. Composite mechanical property studies were conducted with this polyimide resin at room temperature and after various time exposures in a thermo-oxidative environment at 561 K (550 F), 589 K (600 F) and 617 K (650 F). It was determined that such composites have a long term life in the temperature range of 561 K to 589 K. The final phase involved the fabrication and evaluation of a series of demonstration airfoil specimens.

Cavano, P. J.

1974-01-01

180

Release and toxicity of dental resin composite  

PubMed Central

Dental resin composite that are tooth-colored materials have been considered as possible substitutes to mercury-containing silver amalgam filling. Despite the fact that dental resin composites have improved their physico-chemical properties, the concern for its intrinsic toxicity remains high. Some components of restorative composite resins are released in the oral environment initially during polymerization reaction and later due to degradation of the material. In vitro and in vivo studies have clearly identified that these components of restorative composite resins are toxic. But there is a large gap between the results published by research laboratories and clinical reports. The objective of this manuscript was to review the literature on release phenomenon as well as in vitro and in vivo toxicity of dental resin composite. Interpretation made from the recent data was also outlined. PMID:23293458

Gupta, Saurabh K.; Saxena, Payal; Pant, Vandana A.; Pant, Aditya B.

2012-01-01

181

Solidification of ion exchange resin wastes  

SciTech Connect

Solidification media investigated included portland type I, portland type III and high alumina cements, a proprietary gypsum-based polymer modified cement, and a vinyl ester-styrene thermosetting plastic. Samples formulated with hydraulic cement were analyzed to investigate the effects of resin type, resin loading, waste-to-cement ratio, and water-to-cement ratio. The solidification of cation resin wastes with portland cement was characterized by excessive swelling and cracking of waste forms, both after curing and during immersion testing. Mixed bed resin waste formulations were limited by their cation component. Additives to improve the mechanical properties of portland cement-ion exchange resin waste forms were evaluated. High alumina cement formulations dislayed a resistance to deterioration of mechanical integrity during immersion testing, thus providing a significant advantage over portland cements for the solidification of resin wastes. Properties of cement-ion exchange resin waste forms were examined. An experiment was conducted to study the leachability of /sup 137/Cs, /sup 85/Sr, and /sup 60/Co from resins modified in portland type III and high alumina cements. The cumulative /sup 137/Cs fraction release was at least an order of magnitude greater than that of either /sup 85/Sr or /sup 60/Co. Release rates of /sup 137/Cs in high alumina cement were greater than those in portland III cement by a factor of two.Compressive strength and leach testing were conducted for resin wastes solidified with polymer-modified gypsum based cement. /sup 137/Cs, /sup 85/Sr, and /sup 60/Co fraction releases were about one, two and three orders of magnitude higher, respectively, than in equivalent portland type III cement formulations. As much as 28.6 wt % dry ion exchange resin was successfully solidified using vinyl ester-styrene compared with a maximum of 25 wt % in both portland and gypsum-based cement.

Not Available

1982-08-01

182

Feature extraction Feature extraction  

E-print Network

(hyperspectral sensors) Meteosat thermal IR channel hyperspectral "image cube" #12;Raw intensities · ProsFeature extraction #12;Feature extraction · Image interpretation: extract information from images · but the desired information may not be explicit in the raw observed pixel intensities · Transform image to make

Giger, Christine

183

Feature extraction Feature extraction  

E-print Network

(hyperspectral sensors) Meteosat thermal IR channel hyperspectral "image cube" #12;Raw intensities ! � ProsFeature extraction #12;Feature extraction ! � Image interpretation: extract information from images � but the desired information may not be explicit in the raw observed pixel intensities � Transform image to make

Giger, Christine

184

Rapid Actinide Column Extraction Methods for Bioassay Samples  

SciTech Connect

A new, rapid separation method to assay actinides in urine samples has been developed at the Westinghouse Savannah River Site (SRS). The new method separates plutonium, neptunium, uranium, americium and strontium-90 with high chemical recovery and excellent thorium removal. The method uses calcium phosphate precipitation and stacked TEVA Resin(R) and TRU Resin(R) cartridges to separate and purify the actinides. Plutonium and neptunium are separated on TEVA Resin(R), while uranium and americium are simultaneously retained and separated on TRU Resin(R). Plutonium-236 tracer can be used to allow simultaneous separation and measurement of both plutonium and neptunium using TEVA Resin(R). Strontium-90 can also be separated on Sr Resin(R) by evaporating and redissolving load and rinse solutions collected from the TEVA/TRU column and separating strontium on Sr-Resin(R). Fast flow rates are achieved by using small particle size resin cartridges and a vacuum box separation system that will separate 24 samples at a time. This unique approach can be used with urine samples because iron is not present at significant levels in urine and plutonium reduction is accomplished without adding iron (II) to the sample. The advantage of this approach is that actinides can be loaded onto two separate resins in a single load step with simultaneous extraction and assay of neptunium and plutonium with high chemical recovery and excellent removal of matrix interferences.

Maxwell, S.L.

2003-01-14

185

Comparison of bracket debonding force between two conventional resin adhesives and a resin-reinforced glass ionomer cement: an in vitro and in vivo study.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to compare the debonding force of orthodontic brackets bonded with two conventional resin adhesives (Resilience L3 and Light Bond) and a resin-reinforced glass ionomer cement (Fuji Ortho LC). For the in vitro part of the study, 80 extracted premolars were randomly divided into four groups. In groups A and B, brackets were bonded to unetched enamel using Fuji Ortho LC cement in wet and dry conditions, respectively. In groups C and D, brackets were bonded to etched enamel using Resilience L3 and Light Bond, respectively. Debonding force was determined using a servohydraulic testing machine at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min. Data was analyzed using the ANOVA and Tukey-Kramer multiple comparison test at p<0.05. A significant difference was found in debonding force between unetched Fuji Ortho LC and the two conventional resins. There was no significant difference between the two conventional resins or between unetched resin-reinforced glass ionomer in the wet and dry conditions. For the in vivo part of the study, 30 patients were randomly assigned to one of the three bonding material groups. Bracket survival rates and distributions were obtained by following these patients for 1.2 years. Data was analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier product-limit estimates of survivorship function. Bond failure interface was determined using a modified adhesive remnant index (ARI). These results showed no significant difference between survival rates and distributions among the three bonding materials with respect to the type of malocclusion, type of orthodontic treatment, or location of bracket. There were significant differences between survival distributions of males and females in the unetched Fuji Ortho LC group and among type of teeth in the conventional resin groups. The predominant mode of bracket failure for the unetched Fuji Ortho LC cement was at the enamel-adhesive interface, and for conventional resins, the enamel-adhesive interface and the bracket-adhesive interface. These results suggest that resin-reinforced glass ionomer cement can withstand occlusal and orthodontic forces despite having a bond strength lower than that of conventional resin adhesives. PMID:10515145

Shammaa, I; Ngan, P; Kim, H; Kao, E; Gladwin, M; Gunel, E; Brown, C

1999-10-01

186

Phytochemical and anti-staphylococcal biofilm assessment of Dracaena draco L. Spp. draco resin  

PubMed Central

Background: Dracaena draco L. ssp. draco is known as the “dragon's blood tree” and it is endemic from the Canary Islands and Morocco. Objective: Carry out phytochemical investigation of acetonic extracts of red resin obtained from the trunk of D. draco, to obtain to the isolation of the most abundant resin constituents, belonging to the class of flavonoids: flavans, along with homoisoflavans and homoisoflavanones. Materials and Methods: The structures of the isolated compounds were established by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and mass spectrometry data and comparison with literature data. The acetonic extract was evaluated for its anti-staphylococcal properties against two reference strains. Results: The acetonic extracts resulted inactive at the maximum tested concentration of 1000 ?g/ml against free living forms of tested staphylococci, but they showed a very interesting activity in the prevention of a biofilm formation at a concentration equal to 200 ?g/ml against S. aureus ATCC 25923. PMID:24991124

Stefano, V. Di; Pitonzo, R.; Schillaci, D.

2014-01-01

187

Assessing the effects of adsorptive polymeric resin additions on fungal secondary metabolite chemical diversity  

PubMed Central

Adsorptive polymeric resins have been occasionally described to enhance the production of specific secondary metabolites (SMs) of interest. Methods that induce the expression of new chemical entities in fungal fermentations may lead to the discovery of new bioactive molecules and should be addressed as possible tools for the creation of new microbial chemical libraries for drug lead discovery. Herein, we apply both biological activity and chemical evaluations to assess the use of adsorptive resins as tools for the differential expression of SMs in fungal strain sets. Data automation approaches were applied to ultra high performance liquid chromatography analysis of extracts to evaluate the general influence in generating new chemical entities or in changing the production of specific SMs by fungi grown in the presence of resins and different base media. PMID:25379340

González-Menéndez, Víctor; Asensio, Francisco; Moreno, Catalina; de Pedro, Nuria; Monteiro, Maria Candida; de la Cruz, Mercedes; Vicente, Francisca; Bills, Gerald F.; Reyes, Fernando; Genilloud, Olga; Tormo, José R.

2014-01-01

188

Magnetic ion-exchange resin treatment: impact of water type and resin use.  

PubMed

Three raw waters of fundamentally different natural organic matter (NOM) character were treated by magnetic resin using a bench-scale method designed to mimic how the resin is used in continuous operation. Increasing water hydrophobicity resulted in reduced dissolved organic carbon (DOC) removal with removal of 56%, 33% and 25% for waters containing 21%, 50% and 75% hydrophobic NOM, respectively. Study of consecutive resin uses showed that the NOM in the hydrophobic water had high affinity for the resin shown by DOC removal of 65% after the first use of the resin. This dropped to 25% DOC removal after 15 consecutive resin uses. For the more hydrophilic waters, NOM removal remained consistent after each resin use. The hydrophobic sample contained higher MW NOM that was capable of blocking resin sites that prevented continual adsorption of organics on to the resin. The hydrophilic NOM containing a large proportion of hydrophilic acids was consistently removed to around 60%. The water containing algogenic-derived NOM was poorly removed by magnetic resin. Subsequent coagulation showed higher removal with increasing hydrophobicity. PMID:18155745

Mergen, Max R D; Jefferson, Bruce; Parsons, Simon A; Jarvis, Peter

2008-04-01

189

Resin/graphite fiber composites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Processing techniques were developed for the fabrication of both polyphenylquinoxaline and polyimide composites by the in situ polymerization of monomeric reactants directly on the graphite reinforcing fibers, rather than using previously prepared prepolymer varnishes. Void-free polyphenylquinoxaline composites were fabricated and evaluated for room and elevated flexure and shear properties. The technology of the polyimide system was advanced to the point where the material is ready for commercial exploitation. A reproducible processing cycle free of operator judgment factors was developed for fabrication of void-free composites exhibiting excellent mechanical properties and a long time isothermal life in the range of 288 C to 316 C. The effects of monomer reactant stoichiometry and process modification on resin flow were investigated. Demonstration of the utility and quality of this polyimide system was provided through the successful fabrication and evaluation of four complex high tip speed fan blades.

Cavano, P. J.

1974-01-01

190

Tc-99 Ion Exchange Resin Testing  

SciTech Connect

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory was contracted by CHPRC to evaluate the release of 99Tc from spent resin used to treat water from well 299-W15-765 and stored for several years. The key questions to be answered are: 1) does 99Tc readily release from the spent ion exchange resin after being in storage for several years; 2) if hot water stripping is used to remove the co-contaminant carbon tetrachloride, will 99Tc that has been sequestered by the resin be released; and 3) can spent resin be encapsulated into a cementitious waste form; if so, how much 99Tc would be released from the weathering of the monolith waste form? The results from the long term stability leach test results confirm that the resin is not releasing a significant amount of the sequestered 99Tc, evident by the less than 0.02% of the total 99Tc loaded being identified in the solution. Furthermore, it is possible that the measured 99Tc concentration is the result of 99Tc contained in the pore spaces of the resin. In addition to these results, analyses conducted to examine the impact of hot water on the release of 99Tc suggest that only a small percentage of the total is being released. This suggest that hot water stripping to remove carbon tetrachloride will not have a significant affect on the resin’s ability to hold-on to sequestered 99Tc. Finally, encapsulation of spent resin in a cementitious material may be a viable disposal option, but additional tests are needed to examine the extent of physical degradation caused by moisture loss and the effect this degradation process can have on the release of 99Tc.

Valenta, Michelle M.; Parker, Kent E.; Pierce, Eric M.

2010-08-01

191

Removing Aquatic Organic Substances by Anion Exchange Resins  

Microsoft Academic Search

The focus of this study was verification of the mechanisms of removal of aquatic organic substances by anion exchange resins, influence of resin properties and clarification processes on removal, and Chromatographie behavior of organic substances in anion exchange columns. Depending on the type of resin and the nature of the organic matter, anion exchange resins removed up to 80 percent

Paul L. K. Fu; James M. Symons

1990-01-01

192

Microleakage at the resin-alloy interface of chemically retained composite resins for cast restorations.  

PubMed

New retentive mechanisms between veneering resins and casting alloys are claimed to have a chemical bond that results in a high bond strength combined with low microleakage between the veneering resin and cast restoration. This study compared the microleakage of four chemical bonding mechanisms when three veneering resins were bonded to two dental casting alloys. Resin-veneered alloy disks were immersed in red India ink and kept at 37 degrees C for 72 hours. The disks were then bench dried for 24 hours. The resin veneer was sectioned into eight sectors in an engineering milling machine and these resin sectors were removed to display the microleakage pattern. It was concluded that (1) no microleakage was found in two combinations, and (2) the highest microleakage was with Sr-Isosit-N/Panavia EX/Firmilay combinations. PMID:1712849

Strygler, H; Nicholls, J I; Townsend, J D

1991-06-01

193

EP-toxicity test of saturated GT-73 resin and resin in grout  

SciTech Connect

The results of EP-toxicity tests on mercury saturated Duolite{reg sign} GT-73 cation exchange resin clarify options for the ultimate disposal of spent resin. Samples of GT-73 saturated with mercury passed the EP-toxicity test, indicating that fully spent resin may be classifed as solid''-not hazardous''-waste and stored or disposed-of as such. Samples of GT-73 resin saturated with mercury and then incorporated into Portland Type 1 cement did not pass the EP-toxicity test and fall into the hazardous waste'' category. Samples of GT-73 resin less-than-saturated with mercury which were in corporated in Portland Type 1 cement passed the EP-toxicity test and may be classified as solid waste.'' Other commercially available materials are being investigated for incorporating fully spent GT-73 resin in a solid waste form.

Bibler, J.P.

1985-04-24

194

4META Opaque Resin — A New Resin Strongly Adhesive to Nickel-Chromium Alloy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opaque resins lacking adhesion and mechanical retention devices are required in positioning crowns; the average bond strength in such cases is 60-70 kg\\/cm2. An adhesive opaque resin containing 4-methacryloxyethyl trimellitate anhydride was prepared for use with acrylic veneer crowns, and its bond strength and durability of adhesion with an alloy were studied. Its bonding strength between cured resin and dental

T. Tanaka; K. Nagata; M. Takeyama; M. Atsuta; N. Nakabayashi; E. Masuhara

1981-01-01

195

New modified hydrocarbon resins; An alternative to styrenated terpene resins in hot melts  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on the development of two hydrocarbon-based resin formulations that could be used with different thermoplastic block copolymers to formulate pressure-sensitive adhesives. Results are examined with one of these resins in formulations with styrene-isoprene-styrene (SIS) and styrene-butadiene (SB) compounds. The new modified hydrocarbon resin, with a softening point of 98° C, matches the adhesive performance of a terpene

Carper

1990-01-01

196

Hydraulic Permeability of Resorcinol-Formaldehyde Resin  

SciTech Connect

An ion exchange process using spherical resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) resin is the baseline process for removing cesium from the dissolved salt solution in the high-level waste tanks at the Hanford Site, using large scale columns as part of the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP). The RF resin is also being evaluated for use in the proposed small column ion exchange (SCIX) system, which is an alternative treatment option at Hanford and at the Savannah River Site (SRS). A recirculating test loop with a small ion exchange column was used to measure the effect of oxygen uptake and radiation exposure on the permeability of a packed bed of the RF resin. The lab-scale column was designed to be prototypic of the proposed Hanford columns at the WTP. Although the test equipment was designed to model the Hanford ion exchange columns, the data on changes in the hydraulic permeability of the resin will also be valuable for determining potential pressure drops through the proposed SCIX system. The superficial fluid velocity in the lab-scale test (3.4-5.7 cm/s) was much higher than is planned for the full-scale Hanford columns to generate the maximum pressure drop expected in those columns (9.7 psig). The frictional drag from this high velocity produced forces on the resin in the lab-scale tests that matched the design basis of the full-scale Hanford column. Any changes in the resin caused by the radiation exposure and oxygen uptake were monitored by measuring the pressure drop through the lab-scale column and the physical properties of the resin. Three hydraulic test runs were completed, the first using fresh RF resin at 25 C, the second using irradiated resin at 25 C, and the third using irradiated resin at 45 C. A Hanford AP-101 simulant solution was recirculated through a test column containing 500 mL of Na-form RF resin. Known amounts of oxygen were introduced into the primary recirculation loop by saturating measured volumes of the simulant solution with oxygen and reintroducing the oxygenated simulant into the feed tank. The dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration of the recirculating simulant was monitored, and the amount of oxygen that reacted with the resin was determined from the change in the DO concentration of the recirculating simulant solution. Prior to hydraulic testing the resin for runs 2 and 3 was covered with the simulant solution and irradiated in a spent fuel element at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR). Both batches of resin were irradiated to a total gamma dose of 177 Mrad, but the resin for run 2 reached a maximum temperature during irradiation of 51 C, while the resin for run 3 reached a temperature of 38 C. The different temperatures were the result of the operating status of HFIR at the time of the irradiation and were not part of the test plan; however, the results clearly show the impact of the higher-temperature exposure during irradiation. The flow rate and pressure drop data from the test loop runs show that irradiating the RF resin reduces both the void fraction and the permeability of the resin bed. The mechanism for the reduction in permeability is not clear because irradiation increases the particle size of the resin beads and makes them deform less under pressure. Microscopic examination of the resin beads shows that they are all smooth regular spheres and that irradiation or oxygen uptake did not change the shape of the beads. The resin reacts rapidly with DO in the simulant solution, and the reaction with oxygen reduces the permeability of a bed of new resin by about 10% but has less impact on the permeability of irradiated resin. Irradiation increases the toughness of the resin beads, probably by initiating cross-linking reactions in them. Oxygen uptake reduces the crush strength of both new and irradiated resin; however, the pressures that caused the beads to crush are much higher than would be expected during the operation of an ion exchange column. There was no visible evidence of broken beads in any of the resin samples taken from the test loop. Reaction with oxygen red

Taylor, Paul Allen [ORNL

2010-01-01

197

Curing kinetics of phenol formaldehyde resin and wood-resin interactions in the presence of wood substrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The curing kinetics of resol PF resin and resin–wood interactions in the presence of wood substrates have been studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The activation energy of cure of PF resin generally increases when PF resin is mixed with wood, mainly due to the decrease of the pH values resulting from the presence

Guangbo He; Bernard Riedl

2004-01-01

198

Evaluation of ultrafiltration membranes in the purification of guayule resin  

E-print Network

. Extensive research on the utilization of guayule resin is being conducted (5) resulting in a need to fractionate certain constituents of the resin to suit specific purposes. Research on the composition of the resin is still going on and about, 44 wtFs of...' the resin remains uncharacterized. The characterized portion consists of glycolipids, phosphatidic acids, flavonoids (6), flavonoid glyco- sides, solubilized lignins and polyacetylenes (7). Analyses have also indicated tliat the resin composition changes...

Jeyaseelan, Ranjit S.

2012-06-07

199

Method for regenerating magnetic polyamine-epichlorohydrin resin  

DOEpatents

Magnetic polymer resins capable of efficient removal of actinides and heavy metals from contaminated water are disclosed together with methods for making, using, and regenerating them. The resins comprise polyamine-epichlorohydrin resin beads with ferrites attached to the surfaces of the beads. Markedly improved water decontamination is demonstrated using these magnetic polymer resins of the invention in the presence of a magnetic field, as compared with water decontamination methods employing ordinary ion exchange resins or ferrites taken separately. 9 figs.

Kochen, R.L.; Navratil, J.D.

1997-07-29

200

Method for regenerating magnetic polyamine-epichlorohydrin resin  

DOEpatents

Magnetic polymer resins capable of efficient removal of actinides and heavy metals from contaminated water are disclosed together with methods for making, using, and regenerating them. The resins comprise polyamine-epichlorohydrin resin beads with ferrites attached to the surfaces of the beads. Markedly improved water decontamination is demonstrated using these magnetic polymer resins of the invention in the presence of a magnetic field, as compared with water decontamination methods employing ordinary ion exchange resins or ferrites taken separately.

Kochen, Robert L. (Boulder, CO); Navratil, James D. (Simi Valley, CA)

1997-07-29

201

Removal of Trace Contaminants from Water Using New Chelating Resins  

Microsoft Academic Search

The modification of cross?linked polyacrylamide (CPAAm) and incorporation of methyl thiourea (MeTU) or phenyl thiourea (PhTU) group were utilized in the preparation of two new chelating resins CPAAm?EDA?MeTU (resin I) and CPAAM?EDA?PhTU (resin II), [EDA=ethylenediamine]. The prepared resins were characterized by elemental analysis and IR spectroscopy. The sorption behaviors of Cd(II), Pb(II), and Zn(II) ions on the prepared resins were

Mohammed A. Sharaf; Said A. Sayed; Ahmed A. Younis; A. B. Farag; Hassan A. Arida

2007-01-01

202

Nano/microstructured ion exchange resins and their applications.  

PubMed

Ion exchange resins, due to their specific nano/microstructures and applications, have attracted great attention in the past decades. This paper reviews the recent advances and applications of nano/microstructured ion exchange resins, with an introduction to the preparation and property of different ion exchange resins. The applications of different ion exchange resins in catalysts, medicine, metallurgical regeneration, metals, and chemicals removal are summarized and discussed. The perspectives for the future developments of ion exchange resins are also proposed. PMID:24749456

Yu, Bing; Cong, Hailin; Yuan, Hua; Liu, Xuesong; Jiao, Mingming; Wang, Dong

2014-02-01

203

Antiectoparasitic activity of the gum resin, gum haggar, from the East African plant, Commiphora holtziana.  

PubMed

The mechanism of ixodid tick (Acari: Ixodidae) repellency by gum haggar, a resin produced by Commiphora holtziana (Burseraceae), was investigated by evaluating activity against the cattle tick, Boophilus microplus. In an arena bioassay, a hexane extract of the resin of C. holtziana exhibited a repellent effect lasting up to 5h. The hydrocarbon fraction of the resin extract was shown to account for the repellent activity, and was analysed by coupled gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Major sesquiterpene hydrocarbons were tentatively identified as germacrene-D, delta-elemene and beta-bourbonene. The identity and stereochemistry of the former compound was confirmed as the (+)-isomer by peak enhancement using enantioselective GC, whereas the latter 2 compounds, which are most likely degradation products of germacrene-type precursors, were identified through isolation by preparative gas chromatography followed by microprobe-NMR spectroscopy. GC comparison of gum haggar with another resin, C. myrrha, which was inactive in the tick bioassay, showed that the latter contained much lower levels of these hydrocarbons. To assess the suitability of the gum haggar resin as a general acarine repellent, further tests were made on a major acarine pest of European and US animal husbandry systems, the red poultry mite, Dermanyssus gallinae (Acari: Dermanyssidae). Gum haggar extract, and the isolated hydrocarbon fraction, showed strong repellent effects in an olfactometer assay, and again gum myrrh showed no effect. These findings provide a scientific basis for the observed anti-tick properties of gum haggar, and demonstrate the potential for its development as a general acarine repellent for use in animal husbandry systems. PMID:18402993

Birkett, Michael A; Abassi, Sate Al; Kröber, Thomas; Chamberlain, Keith; Hooper, Antony M; Guerin, Patrick M; Pettersson, Jan; Pickett, John A; Slade, Robin; Wadhams, Lester J

2008-05-01

204

21 CFR 177.1580 - Polycarbonate resins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...transporting, or holding food, in accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a) Polycarbonate resins are polyesters produced by: (1) The condensation of 4,4?-iso-propylidenediphenol and carbonyl chloride to which may have...

2011-04-01

205

Silicone modified resins for graphite fiber laminates  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of silicon modified resins for graphite fiber laminates which will prevent the dispersal of graphite fibers when the composites are burned is discussed. Eighty-five silicone modified resins were synthesized and evaluated including unsaturated polyesters, thermosetting methacrylates, epoxies, polyimides, and phenolics. Neat resins were judged in terms of Si content, homogeneity, hardness, Char formation, and thermal stability. Char formation was estimated by thermogravimetry to 1,000 C in air and in N2. Thermal stability was evaluated by isothermal weight loss measurements for 200 hrs in air at three temperatures. Four silicone modified epoxies were selected for evaluation in unidirectional filament wound graphite laminates. Neat samples of these resins had 1,000 C char residues of 25 to 50%. The highest flexural values measured for the laminates were a strength of 140 kpsi and a modulus of 10 Mpsi. The highest interlaminar shear strength was 5.3 kpsi.

Frost, L. W.; Bower, G. M.

1979-01-01

206

21 CFR 177.1556 - Polyaryletherketone resins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...that the finished resins have a minimum weight average molecular weight of 20,000 grams per mole, as determined by light scattering measurements in sulfuric acid at room temperature. (b) Optional adjuvant substances. The basic...

2010-04-01

207

21 CFR 177.1556 - Polyaryletherketone resins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...that the finished resins have a minimum weight average molecular weight of 20,000 grams per mole, as determined by light scattering measurements in sulfuric acid at room temperature. (b) Optional adjuvant substances. The basic...

2012-04-01

208

21 CFR 177.1556 - Polyaryletherketone resins.  

...that the finished resins have a minimum weight average molecular weight of 20,000 grams per mole, as determined by light scattering measurements in sulfuric acid at room temperature. (b) Optional adjuvant substances. The basic...

2014-04-01

209

21 CFR 177.1556 - Polyaryletherketone resins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...that the finished resins have a minimum weight average molecular weight of 20,000 grams per mole, as determined by light scattering measurements in sulfuric acid at room temperature. (b) Optional adjuvant substances. The basic...

2013-04-01

210

21 CFR 177.1556 - Polyaryletherketone resins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...that the finished resins have a minimum weight average molecular weight of 20,000 grams per mole, as determined by light scattering measurements in sulfuric acid at room temperature. (b) Optional adjuvant substances. The basic...

2011-04-01

211

21 CFR 177.1680 - Polyurethane resins.  

...3-Tetramethylbutyl) - phenyl]-omega- hydroxypoly(oxyethylene) (5 moles), average molecular weight 425. Trimethylol propane. (b) Optional adjuvant substances employed in the production of the polyurethane resins or added thereto to impart...

2014-04-01

212

Radiation testing of organic ion exchange resins  

SciTech Connect

A number of ion exchange materials are being evaluated as part of the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) Pretreatment Project for the removal of {sup 137}Cs from aqueous tank wastes. Two of these materials are organic resins; a phenol-formaldehyde resin (Duolite CS-100) produced by Rohm and Haas Co. (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania) and a resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) resin produced by Boulder Scientific Co. (Mead, Colorado). One of the key parameters in the assessment of the organic based ion exchange materials is its useful lifetime in the radioactive and chemical environment that will be encountered during waste processing. The focus of the work presented in this report is the radiation stability of the CS-100 and the RF resins. The scope of the testing included one test with a sample of the CS-100 resin and testing of two batches of the RF resin (BSC-187 and BSC-210). Samples of the exchangers were irradiated with a {sup 60}Co source to a total absorbed dose of 10{sup 9} R over a period of 5 months in a static (no flow) and a flowing configuration with neutralized current acid waste (NCAW) simulant as a feed. Based on a maximum concentration of {sup 137}Cs on the resin that would result from processing NCAW, this dose represents an operational period of at least 150 days for the RF resin and at least 1260 days for the CS-100 resin. Gas generation in the static experiment was continuously monitored and G values (molecules of gas per 100 eV) were determined for each species. Resin samples were obtained periodically and the equilibrium behavior of the resins was assessed by determining the distribution coefficients (K{sub d}s). Structural information was also obtained by {sup 13}C cross polarization magic angle (CPMAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometry and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy so that changes to the chemical structure could be correlated with changes in K{sub d}.

Carlson, C.D.; Bray, L.A.; Bryan, S.A. [and others

1995-09-01

213

Cesium-specific phenolic ion exchange resin  

DOEpatents

A phenolic, cesium-specific, cation exchange resin is prepared by neutralizing resorcinol with potassium hydroxide, condensing/polymerizing the resulting intermediate with formaldehyde, heat-curing the resulting polymer to effect cross-linking and grinding it to desired particle size for use. This resin will selectively and efficiently adsorb cesium ions in the presence of a high concentration of sodium ions with a low carbon to cesium ratio. 2 figs.

Bibler, J.P.; Wallace, R.M.

1995-08-15

214

Cesium-specific phenolic ion exchange resin  

DOEpatents

A phenolic, cesium-specific, cation exchange resin is prepared by neutralizing resorcinol with potassium hydroxide, condensing/polymerizing the resulting intermediate with formaldehyde, heat-curing the resulting polymer to effect cross-linking and grinding it to desired particle size for use. This resin will selectively and efficiently adsorb cesium ions in the presence of a high concentration of sodium ions with a low carbon to cesium ratio.

Bibler, Jane P. (Aiken, SC); Wallace, Richard M. (Aiken, SC)

1995-01-01

215

Ion Exchange Temperature Testing with SRF Resin  

SciTech Connect

Ion exchange using the Spherical Resorcinol-Formaldehyde (SRF) resin has been selected by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of River Protection for use in the Pretreatment Facility of the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) and for potential application in an at-tank deployment for removing 137Cs. Recent proposed changes to the WTP ion exchange process baseline indicate that higher temperatures (50°C) to alleviate post-filtration precipitation issues prior to reaching the ion exchange columns may be required. Therefore, it is important to understand the behavior of SRF resin performance under the conditions expected with the new equipment and process changes. This research examined the impact of elevated temperature on resin loading and resin degradation during extended solution flow using elevated temperature (45°, 50°, 55°, 60°, 65°, 75°C). Testing for extended times at elevated temperatures showed that the resin does degrade and loading capacity is reduced at and above 45°C. Above 60°C the resin appears to not load at all.

Russell, Renee L.; Rinehart, Donald E.; Brown, Garrett N.; Peterson, Reid A.

2012-03-01

216

[Resin-bonded fixed partial dentures].  

PubMed

A resin-bonded fixed partial denture is a prosthetic construction which can replace I or several teeth in an occlusal system and which comprises a pontic element which is adhesively attached to 1 or more abutment teeth. To compensate for the limited shear strength of the adhesive layer, the Jixed partial denture is occlusally supported by the abutment(s). A direct resin-bonded fixed partial denture is made of composite, reinforced or not by a frame of flexible metal or fiber material. For an indirect resin-bonded fixed partial denture, a metal, fibre-reinforced composite or ceramic substructure is fabricated in a dental laboratory. The basic principle of a resin-bonded fixed partial denture is minimal invasiveness. However, a restoration in an abutment tooth requires a certain occlusal space which is realized by tooth preparation. Resistance preparations may be performed to improve the longevity of resin-bonded fixed partial dentures. Both financially and biologically, a resin-bonded bridge is a cost-effective prosthetic construction. The longevity is limited, but when the construction fails the negative consequences for the abutments are generally limited, which leaves open several types of other treatments. PMID:23495569

Kreulen, C M; Creugers, N H J

2013-02-01

217

Anomalous effects in the character of the carbonyl absorption (ca. 1700 cm⁻¹) in the infrared spectra of petroleum resins and asphaltenes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presence of the carbonyl functional groups in asphaltenes and resins were detected by ir spectroscopy following saponification. By following the spectra through a reaction sequence, the bituminous extracts from fresh oil sands showed the presence of esters and carboxylic acids. The extracts from a hot water process showed either carboxylic acids or esters. 1 figure, 2 tables.

J. G. Speight; S. E. Moschopedis

1981-01-01

218

Epoxy resin system for in situ rehabilitation of pipes  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a process for in situ pipe rehabilitation. It comprises: impregnating a fibrous substrate with a liquid epoxy resin composition comprising at least one liquid epoxy resin having epoxide equivalent weight within the range of about 165 to about 195; a minor amount, relative to the liquid epoxy resin, of an epoxide functional reactive diluent; a minor amount, relative to the liquid epoxy resin, of a thixotroping agent; and an effective amount of a liquid curing agent comprising a polyamide resin, a polyoxalkylenediamine, and from about 35 to about 55 weight percent, based on the weight of component, of 2-ethyl-4-methyl imidazole or derivatives thereof; positioning the resin-impregnated fibrous substrate within a pipe to be rehabilitated so that a surface of the resin-impregnated fibrous substrate is in contact with the interior surface of the pipe; and subjecting the thus-positioned resin-impregnated fibrous substrate to conditions effective to cure the liquid epoxy resin.

Edwards, G.D.; Wilson, B.S.

1992-04-14

219

Switch to an advanced ion exchange resin cuts boiler costs  

SciTech Connect

This article discusses how a field study demonstrated how that one refinery could save $384,000/yr by changing boiler feedwater ion exchange resin. Constant deterioration of ion exchange resin, used to demineralize boiler feedwater, prompted Star Enterprise to conduct a side-by-side evaluation of two resins. The study compared the macroporous weak base anion (WBA) resin that the refinery had used for years with a new WBA resin that features a uniform particle size. The results of this field trial, which was conducted over an 18-month period, showed that the uniform particle size resin had a higher resistance to organic fouling and produced an average of 28 percent more treated water per cycle than the old resin. Replacement and regeneration costs with the new resin resulted in a $48,000 annual savings per bed of resin.

Kratzer, W.R.; Coker, S.D.

1994-10-01

220

Magnetic ion-exchange resin treatment: Impact of water type and resin use  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three raw waters of fundamentally different natural organic matter (NOM) character were treated by magnetic resin using a bench-scale method designed to mimic how the resin is used in continuous operation. Increasing water hydrophobicity resulted in reduced dissolved organic carbon (DOC) removal with removal of 56%, 33% and 25% for waters containing 21%, 50% and 75% hydrophobic NOM, respectively. Study

Max R. D. Mergen; Bruce Jefferson; Simon A. Parsons; Peter Jarvis

2008-01-01

221

Resin flow monitoring in vacuum-assisted resin transfer molding using optical fiber distributed sensor  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we implemented resin flow monitoring by using an optical fiber sensor during vacuum assisted resin transfer molding (VaRTM).We employed optical frequency domain reflectometry (OFDR) and fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor for distributed sensing. Especially, long gauge FBGs (about 100mm) which are 10 times longer than an ordinary FBG were employed for more effective distributed sensing. A long

Soohyun Eum; Kazuro Kageyama; Hideaki Murayama; Isamu Ohsawa; Kiyoshi Uzawa; Makoto Kanai; Hirotaka Igawa

2007-01-01

222

Effect of resin hydrophilicity and temperature on water sorption of dental adhesive resins  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the effects of copolymer hydrophilicity and temperature on water sorption and solubility characteristics of five copolymer blends of increasing degree of hydrophilicity using gravimetric measurements. Six resin disks (15mm in diameter×1mm in thickness) were prepared from each copolymer blend and were stored in deionised water at 23, 37 and 55°C. Water sorption and solubility of the resin

Cynthia K. Y. Yiu; Nigel M. King; Marcela R. O. Carrilho; Salvatore Sauro; Frederick A. Rueggeberg; Carlo Prati; Ricardo M. Carvalho; David H. Pashley; Franklin R. Tay

2006-01-01

223

Emulsion Paint of Aromatic Petroleum Resin. I. Emulsification of Aromatic Petroleum Resin Solution in Water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Industrial emulsification of an aromatic petroleum resin solu tion in bodied linseed oil was investigated using an emulsion inversion process. It was found that the preferred surfactant had the best match in solubility parameter between olefinic group and resin solution A slight variation was found in optimum H LB for emulsification, depending on the chemical family of surfactants chosen, but

Yoshiyuki Iwase

1980-01-01

224

Resin from the mukul myrrh tree, guggul, can it be used for treating hypercholesterolemia? A randomized, controlled study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Background: Guggul, herbal extract from resin of the Commiphora mukul tree, is widely used in Asia as a cholesterol-lowering agent based on Indian Ayurvedic medicine. Its popularity for this use is increasing in the US and Western Europe. Guggulsterones, the presumed bioactive compounds of guggul, may antagonise two nuclear hormone receptors involved in cholesterol metabolism, which is a possible

Lise Anett Nohr; Lars Bjørn Rasmussen; Jørund Straand

2009-01-01

225

Classification of natural resins by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry using chemometric analysis.  

PubMed

Twenty-six resins from six botanical sources belonging to the class Magnoliopsida were compared based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry data. The extracts were analysed by GC after silylation and by reversed phase LC combined with atmospheric pressure photoionisation (APPI) mass spectrometry. The chromatograms were re-organized in data matrices, where each sample was represented by a single column comprising 2755 observations (intensity, time, m/z) in GC-MS and 360 observations in LC-MS. A simple comparison of resin fingerprints was attempted by organizing data according to a three dimensional bubble chart (retention time against m/z where each point was a bubble which size represented the ion intensity) where it is possible to easily superimpose the fingerprints. Thus the common and different species can be easily observed enabling to classify the resins. Hierarchical cluster analysis based on characteristics of GC-MS and LC-MS profiles affords a complete description of the classes of the resins and shows that 26 resins are divided into five main clusters Commiphora mukul, Daniella oliveri, Gardenia gummifera, Canarium madagascariensis, Boswellia dalzielii and Boswellia serrata, respectively. In conclusion, the proposed method has been applied to three other resinous samples from the Burseraceae family to evaluate their alteration state. PMID:22885042

Rhourrhi-Frih, B; West, C; Pasquier, L; André, P; Chaimbault, P; Lafosse, M

2012-09-21

226

Resin glycoside constituents of Ipomoea pes-caprae (beach morning glory).  

PubMed

Eight new resin glycosides, pescapreins X-XVII (1-8), were isolated from a lipophilic fraction of an ethanol extract of the entire plant of beach morning glory, Ipomoea pes-caprae. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic data analysis and by chemical transformation. These compounds were evaluated biologically in terms of cancer cell line cytotoxicity, antibacterial and antifungal activity, and effects on the mu-opioid receptor. PMID:19061389

Tao, Hongwen; Hao, Xiaojiang; Liu, Jinggen; Ding, Jian; Fang, Yuchun; Gu, Qianqun; Zhu, Weiming

2008-12-01

227

Diterpenoids from Pinus massoniana resin and their cytotoxicity against A431 and A549 cells.  

PubMed

Five diterpenoids and 14 known diterpenoids were isolated from the petroleum ether extract of Pinus massoniana resin. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic data interpretation. The cytotoxic activities of these compounds were evaluated using the MTT method. The results showed that three of the less polar diterpenoids had strong cytotoxicity against A431 and A549 cancer cells, whereas those of high polarity had none. PMID:20598722

Yang, Nian-Yun; Liu, Li; Tao, Wei-Wei; Duan, Jin-Ao; Tian, Li-Juan

2010-09-01

228

Thermal cycling effects on adhesion of resin-bovine enamel junction among different composite resins.  

PubMed

Thermal cycling is used to mimic the changes in oral cavity temperature experienced by composite resins when used clinically. The purpose of this study is to assess the thermal cycling effects of in-house produced composite resin on bonding strength. The dicalcium phosphate anhydrous filler surfaces are modified using nanocrystals and silanization (w/NP/Si). The resin is compared with commercially available composite resins Filtek Z250, Z350, and glass ionomer restorative material GIC Fuji-II LC (control). Different composite resins were filled into the dental enamel of bovine teeth. The bond force and resin-enamel junction graphical structures of the samples were determined after thermal cycling between 5 and 55°C in deionized water for 600 cycles. After thermal cycling, the w/NP/Si 30wt%, 50wt% and Filtek Z250, Z350 groups showed higher shear forces than glass ionomer GIC, and w/NP/Si 50wt% had the highest shear force. Through SEM observations, more of the fillings with w/NP/Si 30wt% and w/NP/Si 50wt% groups flowed into the enamel tubule, forming closed tubules with the composite resins. The push-out force is proportional to the resin flow depth and uniformity. The push-out tubule pore and resin shear pattern is the most uniform and consistent in the w/NP/Si 50wt% group. Accordingly, this developed composite resin maintains great mechanical properties after thermal cycling. Thus, it has the potential to be used in a clinical setting when restoring non-carious cervical lesions. PMID:25047352

Chen, Wen-Cheng; Ko, Chia-Ling; Wu, Hui-Yu; Lai, Pei-Ling; Shih, Chi-Jen

2014-10-01

229

Synthesis and applications of XAD-4DAN chelate resin for the separation and determination of Se(IV)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solid-phase extraction for cationic elements is a promising approach for water treatment or for analysis applications. However, supports that allow the selective extraction and\\/or preconcentration of metalloid species are still not widespread. A new chelating sorbent has been prepared by grafting 2,3-diaminonaphtalene (DAN) on Amberlite® XAD-4 resin beads via a diazo bridge. The synthesis was first carried out at a

Geoffrey Depecker; Catherine Branger; André Margaillan; Thierry Pigot; Sylvie Blanc; Fabien Robert-Peillard; Bruno Coulomb; Jean-Luc Boudenne

2009-01-01

230

New bismaleimide matrix resins for graphite fiber composites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two new bismaleimide resins based on the N,N'-m-phenylene-bis(m-amino-benzamide) structure have been synthesized and characterized. The mixtures of the two resins gave better handling, processing, mechanical, and thermal properties in graphite composites than did the individual resins. The mechanical strength of the cured graphite composites prepared from the 1:1 copolymer of the two bismaleimide resins was excellent at both ambient and elevated temperatures. The physical and mechanical properties of the composites from the new bismaleimide matrix resin systems are compared with conventional composites based on epoxy and other bismaleimide systems. The copolymer system provides another method for improving bismaleimide resins.

Hsu, M.-T. S.; Chen, T. S.; Parker, J. A.; Heimbuch, A. H.

1985-01-01

231

Thermal rearrangement of novolak resins used in microlithography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Changes in phenolic-formaldehyde resin properties are described in terms of thermal exposure. At high temperature, resin molecular weight, dissolution properties and chemical composition change depending on the presence or absence of monomers. Without monomer in the resin melt at 220 degree(s)C, resin molecular weight increases with a corresponding decrease in dissolution rate. In the presence of monomer, molecular weight generally decreases. Dissolution rate may fluctuate depending on the monomer mixture. Three,five- Xylenol and 2,3,5-trimethylphenol co-monomers induced the most extreme changes in resin properties with thermal treatment. Resin degradation-recombination processes suggest a classical Friedel-Craft rearrangement mechanism.

Hardy, Ricky; Zampini, Anthony; Monaghan, Michael J.; O'Leary, Michael J.; Cardin, William J.; Eugster, Timothy J.

1995-06-01

232

Resin glycosides from the flowers of Ipomoea murucoides.  

PubMed

The CHCl(3)-soluble extract from the flowers of the Mexican medicinal plant Ipomoea murucoides, through preparative-scale recycling HPLC, yielded murucoidins I-V (1-5), which are new pentasaccharides of jalapinolic acid, as well as the known stoloniferin I (6). Saponification of the crude resin glycoside mixture yielded two glycosidic acids, simonic acid B (9) and operculinic acid A (10), and their esterifying residues were composed of the two short-chain fatty acids, 2-methylpropanoic and (2S)-methylbutyric acids. All the isolated compounds (1-6) were characterized through high-field NMR spectroscopy. Compound 4 exhibited marginal cytotoxicity against Hep-2 cells (ED(50) 4 microg/mL). PMID:16643033

Chérigo, Lilia; Pereda-Miranda, Rogelio

2006-04-01

233

Diffusion of residual monomer in polymer resins.  

PubMed Central

A simplified mathematical model which made use of Fick's laws of diffusion written in spherical coordinates was developed to describe the rate of diffusion of residual monomers from polymer resins. The properties of the monomer-polymer system which influenced the amount of monomer remaining in the polymer as a function of time were the diffusivity and solubility of the monomer in the polymer, and the particle size of the polymer resin. This model was used to analyze literature data on the diffusion of residual vinyl chloride monomer in polyvinyl chloride resins made by the suspension process. It was concluded that particle size of the resin was a significant parameter which should be taken advantage of in process equipment designed to remove residual monomer from PVC resins. The diffusivity of the monomer in the polymer was a function of the solubility of the monomer in the polymer. Monomer solubility can be determined from Henry's law. It was suggested that this model could be adapted to describe diffusion of monomers from any monomer-polymer system, and would be a useful approach to modeling the transport of nonreactive chemical additives from plastics. PMID:1026410

Piver, W T

1976-01-01

234

Development of a heterogeneous laminating resin system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The factors which effect the impact resistance of laminating resin systems and yet retain equivalent performance with the conventional 450 K curing epoxy matrix systems in other areas were studied. Formulation work was conducted on two systems, an all-epoxy and an epoxy/bismaleimide, to gain fundamental information on the effect formulation changes have upon neat resin and composite properties. The all-epoxy work involved formulations with various amounts and combinations of eight different epoxy resins, four different hardeners, fifteen different toughening agents, a filler, and a catalyst. The epoxy/bismaleimide effort improved formulations with various amounts and combinations of nine different resins, four different hardeners, eight different toughening agents, four different catalysts, and a filler. When a formulation appeared to offer the proper combination of properties required for a laminating resin Celion 3K-70P fabric was prepregged. Initial screening tests on composites primarily involved Gardner type impact and measurement of short beam shear strengths under dry and hot/wet conditions.

Biermann, T. F.; Hopper, L. C.

1985-01-01

235

Improved high temperature resistant matrix resins  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective was to develop organic matrix resins suitable for service at temperatures up to 644 K (700 F) and at air pressures up to 0.4 MPa (60 psia) for time durations of a minimum of 100 hours. Matrix resins capable of withstanding these extreme oxidative environmental conditions would lead to increased use of polymer matrix composites in aircraft engines and provide significant weight and cost savings. Six linear condensation, aromatic/heterocyclic polymers containing fluorinated and/or diphenyl linkages were synthesized. The thermo-oxidative stability of the resins was determined at 644 K and compressed air pressures up to 0.4 MPa. Two formulations, both containing perfluoroisopropylidene linkages in the polymer backbone structure, exhibited potential for 644 K service to meet the program objectives. Two other formulations could not be fabricated into compression molded zero defect specimens.

Chang, G. E.; Powell, S. H.; Jones, R. J.

1983-01-01

236

[Allergic contact eczema from epoxy resin].  

PubMed

Epoxy resins are plastics that are widely used as electrical insulation, in coatings, and as adhesives and paints. They have strong sensitizing power and are one of the main causes of allergic contact eczema, both in the workplace and elsewhere. We present the case of a worker at a plastics/chemical plant, who handled aeronautical components in the process of manufacturing fuselage parts. He consulted his physician because of eczematous lesions on his fingers, hands and forearms which had developed over a two-year period and were clearly related to his work. The standard battery of skin tests was performed, along with the plastics and adhesives series and tests using the products from his workplace. Positivity was shown to epoxy resins (standard battery) and to the products from his workplace, which included different fiberglass and carbon fiber sheets impregnated with epoxy resins and epoxy adhesives. PMID:16476309

Calzado, Leticia; Ortiz-de Frutos, Francisco J; del Prado Sánchez-Caminero, María; Galera, Carmen María; Valverde, Ricardo; Vanaclocha, Francisco

2005-11-01

237

Jetted mixtures of particle suspensions and resins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Drop-on-demand (DoD) ink-jetting of hard particle suspensions with volume fraction ? ˜ 0.25 has been surveyed using 1000 ultra-high speed videos as a function of particle size (d90 = 0.8—3.6 ?m), with added 2 wt. % acrylic (250 kDa) or 0.5 wt. % cellulose (370 kDa) resin, and also compared with Newtonian analogues. Jet break-off times from 80 ?m diameter nozzles were insensitive (120 ± 10 ?s) to particle size, and resin jet break-off times were not significantly altered by >30 wt. % added particles. Different particle size grades can be jetted equally well in practice, while resin content effectively controls DoD break-off times.

Hoath, S. D.; Hsiao, W.-K.; Hutchings, I. M.; Tuladhar, T. R.

2014-10-01

238

Characterization of an anti-tuberculosis resin glycoside from the prairie medicinal plant Ipomoea leptophylla.  

PubMed

The organic soluble extract from the leaves of the native North American prairie plant Ipomoea leptophylla (big root morning glory) showed in vitro activity against M. tuberculosis. Bioassay-guided fractionation of this extract resulted in the identification of two new resin glycosides (6, 7). Base-catalyzed hydrolysis of these glycosides gave operculinic acid (1) as the glycosidic acid component as well as trans-cinnamic acid, propanoic acid, and lauric acid. The complete structure elucidation was accomplished through derivatization, 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy (TOCSY, ROESY, HSQC, HMBC), and MS/MS experiments on 6 and 7 as well as the permethylated derivative 8. PMID:14640518

Barnes, Curtis C; Smalley, Mary K; Manfredi, Kirk P; Kindscher, Kelly; Loring, Hillary; Sheeley, Douglas M

2003-11-01

239

Extraction of cesium from an alkaline leaching solution of spent catalysts using an ion-exchange column  

SciTech Connect

The selective extraction of cesium from an alkaline leaching solution of spent catalysts using phenolic resins was studied. The resins were synthesized by alkaline polycondensation of formaldehyde by phenol, resorcinol, catechol, and phloroglucinol. Their ionoselectivities for five alkali metals were evaluated with a solid-liquid extraction, and their ion-exchange capacities were compared. The resin with the best selectivity for cesium was tested with a real solution at different pH values. An on-column extraction is proposed to obtain cesium with high purity.

Dumont, N.; Favre-Reguillon, A.; Dunjic, B.; Lemaire, M. [Institut De Recherches sur la Catalyse et Laboratoire de Catalyse et Synthese Organique, Villeubanne (France)

1996-04-01

240

Biphenyl liquid crystalline epoxy resin as a low-shrinkage resin-based dental restorative nanocomposite.  

PubMed

Low-shrinkage resin-based photocurable liquid crystalline epoxy nanocomposite has been investigated with regard to its application as a dental restoration material. The nanocomposite consists of an organic matrix and an inorganic reinforcing filler. The organic matrix is made of liquid crystalline biphenyl epoxy resin (BP), an epoxy resin consisting of cyclohexylmethyl-3,4-epoxycyclohexanecarboxylate (ECH), the photoinitiator 4-octylphenyl phenyliodonium hexafluoroantimonate and the photosensitizer champhorquinone. The inorganic filler is silica nanoparticles (?70-100 nm). The nanoparticles were modified by an epoxy silane of ?-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane to be compatible with the organic matrix and to chemically bond with the organic matrix after photo curing. By incorporating the BP liquid crystalline (LC) epoxy resin into conventional ECH epoxy resin, the nanocomposite has improved hardness, flexural modulus, water absorption and coefficient of thermal expansion. Although the incorporation of silica filler may dilute the reinforcing effect of crystalline BP, a high silica filler content (?42 vol.%) was found to increase the physical and chemical properties of the nanocomposite due to the formation of unique microstructures. The microstructure of nanoparticle embedded layers was observed in the nanocomposite using scanning and transmission electron microscopy. This unique microstructure indicates that the crystalline BP and nanoparticles support each other and result in outstanding mechanical properties. The crystalline BP in the LC epoxy resin-based nanocomposite was partially melted during exothermic photopolymerization, and the resin expanded via an order-to-disorder transition. Thus, the post-gelation shrinkage of the LC epoxy resin-based nanocomposite is greatly reduced, ?50.6% less than in commercialized methacrylate resin-based composites. This LC epoxy nanocomposite demonstrates good physical and chemical properties and good biocompatibility, comparable to commercialized composites. The results indicate that this novel LC nanocomposite is worthy of development and has potential for further applications in clinical dentistry. PMID:22842038

Hsu, Sheng-Hao; Chen, Rung-Shu; Chang, Yuan-Ling; Chen, Min-Huey; Cheng, Kuo-Chung; Su, Wei-Fang

2012-11-01

241

Standard tests for toughened resin composites, revised edition  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Several toughened resin systems are evaluated to achieve commonality for certain kinds of tests used to characterize toughened resin composites. Specifications for five tests were standardized; these test standards are described.

1983-01-01

242

Resin additive improves performance of high-temperature hydrocarbon lubricants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Paraffinic resins, in high temperature applications, improve strength of thin lubricant film in Hertzian contacts even though they do not increase bulk oil viscosity. Use of resin circumvents corrosivity and high volatility problems inherent with many chemical additives.

Johnson, R. L.; Loomis, W. R.

1971-01-01

243

21 CFR 177.1650 - Polysulfide polymer-polyepoxy resins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-04-01 false Polysulfide polymer-polyepoxy resins. 177.1650 Section...CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: POLYMERS Substances for Use as Basic Components...Surfaces § 177.1650 Polysulfide polymer-polyepoxy resins....

2011-04-01

244

Influence of resin coating materials on Porphyromonas gingivalis attachment.  

PubMed

Resin coating materials have been used for composite resin or provisional restoration in order to prevent plaque accumulation on their surfaces. However, it is not clear whether the coating materials influence attachment of periodontal bacteria. Therefore, we investigated the effect of resin coating materials on the attachment of Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg). The polymerized auto cure resin plates were coated with two resin coating materials. To estimate the Pg attachment, each plate was immersed in brain heart infusion medium containing Pg. The quantity of bacteria attached on each plate was evaluated by crystal violet quantification. Morphological change of Pg was recorded using scanning electron microscopy. Both coating groups presented significantly lower Pg attachment compared to the control. The Pg shapes on the plates with resin coating materials were similar to the non-treated control plates. The resin coating materials clearly prevent Pg attachment on the polymerized auto cure resin plate. PMID:22277610

Kumada, Ai; Matsuka, Yoshizo; Mine, Atsushi; Ono, Mitsuaki; Uehara, Junji; Sonoi, Norihiro; Ito, Takashi; Takashiba, Shogo; Kuboki, Takuo

2012-02-01

245

21 CFR 573.120 - Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01... Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin. 573.120 Section 573.120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION...CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED... Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin....

2013-04-01

246

21 CFR 573.120 - Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01... Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin. 573.120 Section 573.120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION...CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED... Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin....

2012-04-01

247

Benzonorbornadiene end caps for PMR resins  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Several ortho-disubstituted benzonorbornadiene derivatives are described. These molecules contain acid, ester, or anhydride functionality permitting their use as end caps in PMR (polymerization of monomer reactants) polyimide systems. The replacement of the currently used norbornenyl end caps with benzonorbornadienyl end caps affords resins of increased aromatic content. It also allows evaluation of some mechanistic aspects of PMR cross-linking. Initial testing of N-phenylimide model compounds and of actual resin formulations using the benzonorbornadienyl end cap reveals that they undergo efficient thermal crosslinking to give oligomers with physical properties and thermal stability comparable to commercial norbornene-end-capped PMR systems.

Panigot, Michael J.; Waters, John F.; Varde, Uday; Sutter, James K.; Sukenik, Chaim N.

1992-01-01

248

Occupational dermatitis to epoxydic and phenolic resins.  

PubMed

Contact dermatitis to epoxydic and phenolic resins are the most frequent contact dermatoses due to plastics, in particular in the form of airborne dermatitis. The chemical formulas of the various components of these resins and their additives are complex and the patch tests available in the trade are insufficient and often arrive at a late stage in the progress of industry, in particular in advanced technologies like aeronautical engineering, shipbuilding or the new floor and wall coverings in buildings. This article is a review of the actions to be taken with these allergies, as well as with regards to their diagnosis, prevention and medico-legal compensation. PMID:19349256

Geraut, Christian; Tripodi, Dominique; Brunet-Courtois, Béatrice; Leray, Fabrice; Geraut, Laurent

2009-01-01

249

Use of crystalline, crosslinked synthetic resins as a storage material in latent heat stores  

SciTech Connect

The invention relates to the use of crystalline resins as storage material in latent heat accumulators. Crystalline synthetic resins replace the crystalline inorganic salt of the known latent heat reservoirs. Preferably epoxide resins, polyurethane resins and polyester resins, which contain very specific long-chain polyester molecule moieties, are used. The crystalline synthetic resins have one or more, preferably two, crystallite melt temperatures.

Kreibich, U.; Schmid, R.

1981-03-31

250

Pistacia atlantica Resin Has a Dose-Dependent Effect on Angiogenesis and Skin Burn Wound Healing in Rat  

PubMed Central

Objectives. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of Pistacia atlantica resin extract on the rat skin burn wound healing. Methods. Thirty-two Wistar rats were divided into four groups and treated by vehicle, 5%, 10%, and 20% concentration of Pistacia atlantica resin extract for 14 days (G1, G2, G3, and G4, resp.). The efficacy of treatment was assessed based on reduction of burn wound size and histological and molecular characteristics. Results. ?-Pinene (46.57%) was the main content of essential oil of resin. There were no statistically significant differences between groups according to wound size analysis. The mean histological wound healing scores were not statistically different. Capillary counts of G2 and G3 were significantly higher than those of the G1 (P = 0.042 and 0.032, resp.). NO concentration in wound fluids on the 5th day of study was not significantly different between groups (P = 0.468). But bFGF concentration in G2 and G3 and PDGF concentration in G3 were significantly higher in comparison to G1 (P = 0.043, 0.017, and 0.019, resp.). Conclusion. Our results revealed that Pistacia atlantica resin extract has a concentration-dependent effect on the healing of burn wounds after 14 days of treatment by increasing the concentration of bFGF and PDGF and also through improving the angiogenesis. PMID:24285978

Haghdoost, Faraidoon; Baradaran Mahdavi, Mohammad Mehdi; Zandifar, Alireza; Sanei, Mohammad Hossein; Zolfaghari, Behzad; Javanmard, Shaghayegh Haghjooy

2013-01-01

251

Synthesis/characterization of a new chelating resin and on-line solid phase extraction for the determination of Ag(I) and Pd(II) from water, cream, anode slime and converter samples by flow injection flame atomic absorption spectrometry.  

PubMed

On-line preconcentration procedures for the determination of Ag(I) and Pd(II) by flame atomic absorption spectrometry have been described. A new chelating resin, poly (N,N'-dipropionitrilemethacrylamide-co-divinylbenzene-co-2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propane sulfonic acid) was synthesized and used as a new adsorbent material. The resin was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and elemental analysis. Ag(I) was adsorbed on the chelating resin at pH 5.0 and eluted with 1.0 mol L(-1) HNO3. Pd(II) was retained at pH 9.5 and eluted with 1.5 mol L(-1) HCl. The experimental parameters (pH, type and concentration of eluent, flow rates of sample and eluent solutions, elution time and the effect of interfering ions) for both Ag(I) and Pd(II) were investigated in detail. The detection limit for Ag(I) was 2.4 ?g L(-1) and the relative standard deviation was 2.9% for 0.2 ?g mL(-1) Ag(I). The detection limit for Pd(II) was 1.7 ?g L(-1) and the relative standard deviation was 2.8% for 0.3 ?g mL(-1) Pd(II). Accuracy was confirmed by analyzing a certified reference material (TMDA-70), recovery studies on real samples and comparison with electrothermal atomic absorption analysis. The proposed methods were successfully applied to the on-line determination of Ag(I) in bottled water, pharmaceutical cream and anode slime samples and Pd(II) in bottled water and catalytic converter samples. PMID:23598028

Çetin, Tülin; Tokalio?lu, Serife; Ülgen, Ahmet; Sahan, Serkan; Özentürk, Ismail; Soykan, Cengiz

2013-02-15

252

49 CFR 173.165 - Polyester resin kits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Polyester resin kits. 173.165 Section...Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.165 Polyester resin kits. (a) Except for transportation by aircraft, polyester resin kits consisting of a base...

2011-10-01

253

Tensile Properties of Resin-infiltrated Demineralized Human Dentin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of adhesive resins to restore the physical properties of demineralized dentin has not been well-documented. The unfilled resins that are used for adhesion have relatively low moduli of elasticity and limited ability to increase dentin stiffness, although they may increase the ultimate tensile strength of dentin. This study tested the hypothesis that resin infiltration of demineralized dentin can

H. Sano; T. Takatsu; B. Ciucchi; C. M. Russell; D. H. Pashley

1995-01-01

254

40 CFR 721.9499 - Modified silicone resin.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Modified silicone resin. 721.9499 Section...Substances § 721.9499 Modified silicone resin. (a) Chemical...identified generically as a modified silicone resin (PMN P-96-1649...uses are: (i) Release to water. Requirements as...

2010-07-01

255

40 CFR 721.9499 - Modified silicone resin.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Modified silicone resin. 721.9499 Section...Substances § 721.9499 Modified silicone resin. (a) Chemical...identified generically as a modified silicone resin (PMN P-96-1649...uses are: (i) Release to water. Requirements as...

2011-07-01

256

40 CFR 721.9499 - Modified silicone resin.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Modified silicone resin. 721.9499 Section...Substances § 721.9499 Modified silicone resin. (a) Chemical...identified generically as a modified silicone resin (PMN P-96-1649...uses are: (i) Release to water. Requirements as...

2013-07-01

257

40 CFR 721.9499 - Modified silicone resin.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Modified silicone resin. 721.9499 Section...Substances § 721.9499 Modified silicone resin. (a) Chemical...identified generically as a modified silicone resin (PMN P-96-1649...uses are: (i) Release to water. Requirements as...

2012-07-01

258

Creep behavior of epoxy resin during irradiation at cryogenic temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Creep tests of an epoxy resin during bending and irradiation have been carried out to investigate the synergistic effects of radiation and stress on mechanical properties of the resin. Simultaneous application of stress and irradiation on the epoxy resin enhanced creep rates in comparison with the application of stress on an irradiated sample. In order to clarify the mechanism of

Tetsuya Nishiura; Shigehiro Nishijima; Toichi Okada

1999-01-01

259

Bismaleimide resins for flame resistant honeycomb sandwich panels  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A 60 kg batch of Resin M751 was produced in pilot plant scale. The resin was delivered to the prepreg company as an NMP solution. 100 kg of glass-fabric prepregs were fabricated. Prepreg characteristics and curing cycles for laminate fabrication were provided. A new batch of Resin M756 (Code M756 - 2) was synthesized.

1978-01-01

260

Composites from Natural Fibers and Soy Oil Resins  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of this project is to develop new composites using fibers and resins from renewable resources. The ACRES (Affordable Composites from Renewable Sources) group at the University of Delaware has developed new chemistries to synthesize rigid polymers from plant oils. The resins produced contain at least 50% plant triglycerides and have mechanical properties comparable to commercially available synthetic resins

George I. Williams; Richard P. Wool

2000-01-01

261

Reusable chelating resins concentrate metal ions from highly dilute solutions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Column chromatographic method uses new metal chelating resins for recovering heavy-metal ions from highly dilute solutions. The absorbed heavy-metal cations may be removed from the chelating resins by acid or base washes. The resins are reusable after the washes are completed.

Bauman, A. J.; Weetal, H. H.; Weliky, N.

1966-01-01

262

21 CFR 175.270 - Poly(vinyl fluoride) resins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Poly(vinyl fluoride) resins. 175.270 Section 175.270...Components of Coatings § 175.270 Poly(vinyl fluoride) resins. Poly(vinyl fluoride) resins identified in this section...

2013-04-01

263

21 CFR 175.270 - Poly(vinyl fluoride) resins.  

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Poly(vinyl fluoride) resins. 175.270 Section 175.270...Components of Coatings § 175.270 Poly(vinyl fluoride) resins. Poly(vinyl fluoride) resins identified in this section...

2014-04-01

264

21 CFR 175.270 - Poly(vinyl fluoride) resins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Poly(vinyl fluoride) resins. 175.270 Section 175.270...Components of Coatings § 175.270 Poly(vinyl fluoride) resins. Poly(vinyl fluoride) resins identified in this section...

2011-04-01

265

21 CFR 175.270 - Poly(vinyl fluoride) resins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Poly(vinyl fluoride) resins. 175.270 Section 175.270...Components of Coatings § 175.270 Poly(vinyl fluoride) resins. Poly(vinyl fluoride) resins identified in this section...

2012-04-01

266

Occupational asthma due to unheated polyvinylchloride resin dust.  

PubMed

Polyvinylchloride (PVC) resins are widely used in industry. Asthma due to the thermal degradation products of PVC are well documented. In this first case of occupational asthma due to unheated PVC resin dust the patient was exposed to PVC resin dust during the mixing of chemicals used for making plastic seals for bottle caps. PMID:2590649

Lee, H S; Yap, J; Wang, Y T; Lee, C S; Tan, K T; Poh, S C

1989-11-01

267

Simulation of the C5 Aliphatic Petroleum Resins Production Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Petroleum resins are used widely in many industries. They are solvable in most of aromatic and aliphatic solvents. There are different grades of petroleum resins from dark and viscose liquids to bright and hard ones. They are used mostly in the adherent industry as binder. In this article the production process of aliphatic petroleum resin is simulated based on the

B. Berahman; B. Dabir; S. Sadeghpour

2010-01-01

268

PETROLEUM RESINS: SEPARATION, CHARACTER, AND ROLE IN PETROLEUM  

Microsoft Academic Search

In petroleum science, the term resin generally implies material that has been eluted from various solid adsorbents, whereas the term maltenes (or petrolenes) indicates a mixture of the resins and oils obtained as filtrates from the asphaltene precipitation. Thus, after the asphaltenes are precipitated, adsorbents are added to the n-pentane solutions of the resins and oils, by which process the

Simon I. Andersen; James G. Speight

2001-01-01

269

Evaluation of the apical sealing ability and adaptation to the dentin of two resin-based Sealers: An in vitro study  

PubMed Central

Aim: To quantitatively evaluate the apical sealing ability and adaptation of two resin-based sealers to dentin. Materials and Methods: Fifty freshly extracted mandibular first premolars were taken and sectioned at the cemento-enamel junction. Thirty teeth were subjected to a leakage study by the resin infiltration method with two groups of 10 teeth each. Group I teeth were obturated with methacrylate resin-based sealer (EnoRez) and Group II teeth were obturated with epoxy resin-based sealer (AH Plus). The remaining 10 teeth were used as controls (positive and negative of five teeth each). Twenty teeth were divided into two groups and obturated as in the leakage study and subjected to a scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) analysis for adaptation and resin depth penetration. Results: Both the sealers produced apical leakage to a certain extent. The adaptation and resin sealer penetration in the coronal and middle thirds was better than in the apical third of the root canal under SEM observation. The hybridized resin sealer tags in the coronal and middle thirds of Group I were much longer than that shown by Group II. Conclusion: We conclude that the physical integrity of the sealer matrix may also be important in providing resistance to leakage. PMID:24082576

Kumar, Narasimiah Suresh; Palanivelu, Ajitha; Narayanan, L Lakshmi

2013-01-01

270

Resin Powder Slurry Process for Composite Fabrication  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Potentially useful process for fabrication of fiber-reinforced resinmatrix composites is powder slurry technique. Applicability of technique demonstrated using powdered resin made from thermoplastic polyimide LaRC/ TPI (thermoplastic polyimide). Use of process circumvents need for such high-cost organic solvents as N-methylpyrrolidinone and diglyme (diglycol methyl ether). Two basic slurries for LaRC/TPI powder investigated.

Mike, R. A.

1986-01-01

271

Resin Vacuum Casting System for LED Screen  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper mainly describes the resin vacuum casting system for LED screen which uses thin film degassing technology and meter mix technology. Thin film degassing technology is currently the most effective method. In this paper, we describe in detail its working model. And meter mix dispensing technology integrates metering pump and mixing pump. It mixes materials according to the demand.

Hong Robin; Wang Hongmei; Hu Ming

2010-01-01

272

Ternary Resin-Bound Dynamic Combinatorial Chemistry  

PubMed Central

The ability to carry out simultaneous orthogonal exchange chemistries has opened new opportunities for increasing the numerical and structural diversity accessible to Dynamic Combinatorial Chemistry. We present proof-of-concept experiments demonstrating this concept is transferrable to resin-bound DCC, facilitating the generation and analysis of libraries with greater structural diversity. PMID:22240966

Gromova, Anna V.; Ciszewski, Joseph M.; Miller, Benjamin L.

2013-01-01

273

Pharmaceutical Applications of Ion-Exchange Resins  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The historical uses of ion-exchanged resins and a summary of the basic chemical principles involved in the ion-exchanged process are discussed. Specific applications of ion-exchange are provided that include drug stabilization, pharmaceutical excipients, taste-masking agents, oral sustained-release products, topical products for local application…

Elder, David

2005-01-01

274

Process for manufacturing a petroleum resin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present invention relates to a process for manufacturing a petroleum resin wherein a fraction (Component a) containing an aromatic hydrocarbon obtained by cracking of petroleum and a thermally polymerized oil (Component b) obtained by previously thermal-polymerizing the component a are mixed and then the mixture of the components a and B is subjected to polymerization by employing a Friedel-Crafts

T. Iwashita; M. Nagano; K. Tanaka

1981-01-01

275

Resin transfer molding speeds composite making  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fabrication resin transfer molding (RTM) composite parts for different industrial applications is discussed. These applications include composite aerospace parts, sports car components, and high performance sporting equipment. It is pointed out that RTM parts are lighter than metals and can be formulated to have superior durability. But like all composite parts, they are expensive and are made in limited runs.

Valenti, Michael

1992-11-01

276

Simultaneous enrichment and separation of flavonoids from Herba Epimedii by macroporous resins coupled with preparative chromatographic method.  

PubMed

An efficient, feasible enrichment and separation method of epimedins A, B, C and icariin from Herba Epimedii was developed by the combination of microwave-assisted extraction, macroporous resins and preparative HPLC. WDX-5 macroporous resin shows better recoveries at 96.2%, 97.0%, 98.2% and 97.1% for epimedins A, B, C and icariin than other macroporous resins used in the experiments. As a result, epimedins A (5.1 mg), B (15.3 mg), C (7.6 mg) and icariin (14.3 mg) were obtained from 6.0 g crude Herba Epimedii with the recoveries at 70.8%, 68.9%, 66.7% and 95.3%, respectively. The method developed in this study may provide scientific references for the enrichment and separation of flavonoids from Herba Epimedii. PMID:25277166

Zhou, Zhengzheng; Luo, Jianguang; Wang, Junsong; Li, Liang; Kong, Lingyi

2015-01-01

277

Resin film infusion mold tooling and molding method  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A mold apparatus and method for resin film infusion molding including an outer mold tool having a facing sheet adapted to support a resin film and preform assembly. The facing sheet includes attachment features extending therefrom. An inner mold tool is positioned on the facing sheet to enclose the resin film and preform assembly for resin film infusion molding. The inner mold tool includes a plurality of mandrels positioned for engagement with the resin film and preform assembly. Each mandrel includes a slot formed therein. A plurality of locating bars cooperate with the slots and with the attachment features for locating the mandrels longitudinally on the outer mold tool.

Burgess, Roger (Inventor); Grossheim, Brian (Inventor); Mouradian, Karbis (Inventor); Thrash, Patrick J. (Inventor)

1999-01-01

278

NITRATE CONVERSION OF HB-LINE REILLEXTM HPQ RESIN  

SciTech Connect

Reillex{trademark} HPQ ion exchange resin is used by HB Line to remove plutonium from aqueous streams. Reillex{trademark} HPQ resin currently available from Vertellus Specialties LLC is a chloride ionic form, which can cause stress corrosion cracking in stainless steels. Therefore, HB Line Engineering requested that Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) convert resin from chloride form to nitrate form in the Engineering Development Laboratory (EDL). To perform this task, SRNL treated two batches of resin in 2012. The first batch of resin from Reilly Industries Batch 80302MA was initially treated at SRNL in 2001 to remove chloride. This batch of resin, nominally 30 liters, has been stored wet in carboys since that time until being retreated in 2012. The second batch of resin from Batch 23408 consisted of 50 kg of new resin purchased from Vertellus Specialties in 2012. Both batches were treated in a column designed to convert resin using downflow of 1.0 M sodium nitrate solution through the resin bed followed by rinsing with deionized water. Both batches were analyzed for chloride concentration, before and after treatment, using Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA). The resin specification [Werling, 2003] states the total chlorine and chloride concentration shall be less than 250 ppm. The resin condition for measuring this concentration is not specified; however, in service the resin would always be fully wet. Measurements in SRNL showed that changing from oven dry resin to fully wet resin, with liquid in the particle interstices but no supernatant, increases the total weight by a factor of at least three. Therefore, concentration of chlorine or chloride expressed as parts per million (ppm) decreases by a factor of three. Therefore, SRNL recommends measuring chlorine concentration on an oven dry basis, then dividing by three to estimate chloride concentration in the fully wet condition. Chloride concentration in the first batch (No.80302MA) was nearly the same before the current treatment (759 ppm dry) and after treatment (745 ppm dry or {approx}248 ppm wet). Treatment of the second batch of resin (No.23408) was very successful. Chloride concentration decreased from 120,000 ppm dry to an average of 44 ppm dry or {approx}15ppm wet, which easily passes the 250 ppm wet criterion. Per guidance from HB Line Engineering, SRNL blended Batch 80302 resin with Batch P9059 resin which had been treated previously by ResinTech to remove chloride. The chloride concentrations for the two drums of Batch P9059 were 248 ppm dry ({approx}83 ppm wet) {+-}22.8% and 583 ppm dry ({approx}194 ppm wet) {+-} 11.8%. The blended resin was packaged in five gallon buckets.

Steimke, J.; Williams, M.; Steeper, T.; Leishear, R.

2012-05-29

279

Removal of phenol from saline water by polyamine chelating resin.  

PubMed

Removal of phenol from saline water was carried out with chelating resin. A polyamine chelating resin, Diaion CR-20, removed phenol compounds selectively from industrial wastewater containing 2% salt. From saline water containing 20 mg/L phenol, 70% of the phenol was removed. After treatment, phenol was eluted from the resin by aqueous NaOH, and the resin could also be regenerated by heating in air. Diaion CR-20 adsorbed phenol even in the presence of FeCl3, indicating that treatment with this resin of wastewater containing metal can remove phenol and metal cations in a single step. PMID:24185065

Yamada, Arisa; Matsui, Akihiro; Tsuji, Hideyuki

2013-01-01

280

Method for detecting resin leakage in LWR coolant  

SciTech Connect

Resin leakage from condensate polishing units can result in steam generator corrosion. This report describes the development of a resin leakage detection method based in analyzing the organic breakdown products released from resin on heating. The breakdown products are analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detection. Some of the organic products formed have been identified. A design for a resin monitoring unit, suitable for incorporation into the IONTRAC system, is presented. Theoretically, detection of ppB levels of resin by processing about one liter of water, is possible.

Girard, J.E.

1988-05-01

281

Programmed gelation of polymers using melamine resins  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a process for enhancing the amount of oil recovered from a subterranean oil-bearing formation having relatively high permeability zones and relatively low permeability zones penetrated by at least one injection well and at least one production well by selectively plugging at least a portion of the relatively high permeability zones with a profile control gel. It comprises: determining a quantity of a gel-forming mixture required for the selective plugging of at least a portion of the relatively high permeability zones within the formation and the period of time within which full gelation of the mixture is to be completed; preparing a gel-forming mixture comprising a polymer which is crosslinkable by reaction with an amino resin, a rapid amino resin crosslinking agent and a delayed amino resin crosslinking agent, the gel-forming mixture capable of complete gelation within the period of time determined; partially gelling the mixture to impart selectivity to the mixture by reacting the polymer with the rapid amino resin crosslinking agent which is effective to complete the partial gelation by crosslinking the polymer to form a viscous liquid; injecting the viscous liquid into the relatively high permeability zones within the formation; fully gelling the viscous liquid by reacting the polymer with the delayed amino resin crosslinking agent which is effective to complete the full gelation by crosslinking the polymer within the period of time determined; injecting a flooding fluid into the relatively low permeability zones of the formation via the injection well; and recovering fluids including oil from the formation via the production well.

Shu, P.

1990-10-23

282

Electrically conductive resinous bond and method of manufacture  

DOEpatents

A method of bonding elements together with a bond of high strength and good electrical conductivity which comprises: applying an unfilled polyimide resin between surfaces of the elements to be bonded, heat treating said unfilled polyimide resin in stages between a temperature range of about 40.degree. to 365.degree. C. to form a strong adhesive bond between said elements, applying a metal-filled polyimide resin overcoat between said elements so as to provide electrical connection therebetween, and heat treating said metal-filled polyimide resin with substantially the same temperature profile as the unfilled polyimide resin. The present invention is also concerned with an adhesive, resilient, substantially void free bonding combination for providing a high strength, electrically conductive adhesive attachment between electrically conductive elements which comprises a major amount of an unfilled polyimide resin and a minor amount of a metal-filled polyimide resin.

Snowden, Jr., Thomas M. (P.O. Box 4231, Clearwater, FL 33518); Wells, Barbara J. (865 N. Village Dr., Apt. 101B, St. Petersburg, FL 33702)

1987-01-01

283

Technique for removing resin from a molded object  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Resin is removed from a molded object in such a way that no cracks or expansion occurs in the casting. The resin is first mixed with a ceramics powder or metal powder. This mixture is then molded and the resin is removed by heat. The molded object is then placed into a container which is sealed and large enough to allow the gas from the resin to be controlled by heat from the resin. The gas pressure at the surface of the object is increased by the gas pressure generated from the resin and the resin removed. The increase in gas pressure from the surface of the molded object is 1.5 atm to 3 atm at 350 C to 400 C.

Hemmi, I.; Morishita, T.; Ono, T.

1983-01-01

284

Electrically conductive resinous bond and method of manufacture  

DOEpatents

A method of bonding elements together with a bond of high strength and good electrical conductivity which comprises: applying an unfilled polyimide resin between surfaces of the elements to be bonded, heat treating said unfilled polyimide resin in stages between a temperature range of about 40 to 365/sup 0/C to form a strong adhesive bond between said elements, applying a metal-filled polyimide resin overcoat between said elements so as to provide electrical connection therebetween, and heat treating said metal-filled polyimide resin with substantially the same temperature profile as the unfilled polyimide resin. The present invention is also concerned with an adhesive, resilient, substantially void free bonding combination for providing a high strength, electrically conductive adhesive attachment between electrically conductive elements which comprises a major amount of an unfilled polyimide resin and a minor amount of a metal-filled polyimide resin.

Snowden, T.M. Jr.; Wells, B.J.

1985-01-01

285

Study on the resin temperature developments during UV imprinting process.  

PubMed

During the imprinting process, the temperature of the UV resin increases as the phase of the resin changes from fluid into solid. During UV curing, some amount of heat is released from inside the resin and transferred into contacting materials. The heat flow is measured with photo-DSC, and other related thermal and mechanical properties of the resin. With the measured material properties, the temperature developments both inside of the resin layer and along the interfaces of the contacting materials are computed. During the UV exposure period, the thermal deformation of the mold, which directly influences the pattern distortion are investigated. Under this condition, the developments of strain and temperature inside the mold structure including the UV resin of 3-D shape are computed with the transient time scale during UV curing according to the thickness of resin layer. These computational results are expected to provide useful information for better designs of the imprinting mold and the process condition. PMID:22629908

Jeon, Jongduk; Jang, Siyoul

2012-02-01

286

Determination of molybdate in environmental water by ion chromatography coupled with a preconcentration method employing a selective chelating resin.  

PubMed

A simple and sensitive suppressed ion chromatography (IC) method with conductivity detection for the determination of molybdate in environmental water is proposed. Molybdate in highly saline water was extracted and preconcentrated. Preconcentration was accomplished by using a chelating resin using a chelating resin immobilized with carboxymethylated polyethylenimine (Presep(®) PolyChelate). This resin is able to trap a variety of metal elements without any interference of alkali and alkaline-earth metals. A 30-mL volume of brackish water was adjusted for appropriate pH and then flushed through 100 mg of the chelating resin. Molybdate concentrated on the resin could be easily eluted with 6 mL of 0.1 M NaOH. A large volume injection method for IC was achieved with in-line neutralization of the effluent. The determination of 0.6 ?g L(-1) molybdate in highly saline water was made possible with a 500-?L injection. Samples of brackish water were taken at various distances from the river mouth. The determined concentrations of molybdate correlated closely with concentrations of chloride. PMID:23149614

Nakashima, Yasuo; Inoue, Yoshinori; Yamamoto, Takahisa; Kamichatani, Waka; Kagaya, Sigehiro; Yamamoto, Atsushi

2012-01-01

287

Ionizing irradiation affects the microtensile resin dentin bond strength under simulated clinical conditions  

PubMed Central

Objectives: This study evaluated the effect of ionizing radiations on resin–dentin interface in terms of marginal adaptation and micro-tensile bond strength under thermocycling and mechanical loading. Materials and Methods: Forty extracted human mandibular third molars were divided into four groups. GR I: No Irradiation and Class II MO cavities were prepared that were restored with composite restorations; GR II: Teeth were irradiated and restored; GR III: Teeth were restored and irradiated; GR IV: Teeth were restored during irradiation dosage fractions. All samples were thermal and mechanical loaded with 5000 cycles, 5 ± 2-55 ± 2°C, dwell time 30 s and 150,000 cycles at 60N. Resin–dentin slabs were trimmed into dumbbell-shaped slabs and microtensile bond strength was measured. The bond strength data was analyzed by one-way analysis of variance test. Results and Conclusions: Irradiation before tooth preparation deteriorated the microtensile bond strength. PMID:23716968

Yadav, Suman; Yadav, Harish

2013-01-01

288

Uranium Adsorption on Ion-Exchange Resins - Batch Testing  

SciTech Connect

The uranium adsorption performance of five resins (Dowex 1, Dowex 21K 16-30 [fresh], Dowex 21K 16-30 [regenerated], Purofine PFA600/4740, and ResinTech SIR-1200) were tested using unspiked, nitrate-spiked, and nitrate-spiked/pH adjusted source water from well 299-W19-36. These batch tests were conducted in support of a resin selection process in which the best resin to use for uranium treatment in the 200-West Area groundwater pump-and-treat system will be identified. The results from these tests are as follows: • The data from the high-nitrate (1331 mg/L) tests indicated that Dowex 1, Dowex 21K 16-30 (fresh), Purofine PFA600/4740, and ResinTech SIR-1200 all adsorbed uranium similarly well with Kd values ranging from ~15,000 to 95,000 ml/g. All four resins would be considered suitable for use in the treatment system based on uranium adsorption characteristics. • Lowering the pH of the high nitrate test conditions from 8.2 to 7.5 did not significantly change the uranium adsorption isotherms for the four tested resins. The Kd values for these four resins under high nitrate (1338 mg/L), lower pH (7.5) ranged from ~15,000 to 80,000 ml/g. • Higher nitrate concentrations greatly reduced the uranium adsorption on all four resins. Tests conducted with unspiked (no amendments; nitrate at 337 mg/L and pH at 8.2) source water yielded Kd values for Dowex 1, Dowex 21K 16-30 (fresh), Purofine PFA600/4740, and ResinTech SIR-1200 resins ranging from ~800,000 to >3,000,000 ml/g. These values are about two orders of magnitude higher than the Kd values noted from tests conducted using amended source water. • Compared to the fresh resin, the regenerated Dowex 21K 16-30 resin exhibited significantly lower uranium-adsorption performance under all test conditions. The calculated Kd values for the regenerated resin were typically an order of magnitude lower than the values calculated for the fresh resin. • Additional testing using laboratory columns is recommended to better resolve differences between the adsorption abilities of the resins and to develop estimates of uranium loading on the resins. By determining the quantity of uranium that each resin can adsorb and the time required to reach various levels of loading, resin lifetime in the treatment system can be estimated.

Mattigod, Shas V.; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Cordova, Elsa A.; Smith, Ronald M.

2010-12-01

289

Plasma treatment increased shear bond strength between heat cured acrylic resin and self-curing acrylic resin.  

PubMed

Self-curing acrylic resin is generally used for the repair of a fractured denture base. However, re-fracture of the repaired denture base resin often occurs because of poor bonding strength between the base resin and self-curing repair resin. The effect of plasma treatment on the shear bond strength between heat cured acrylic resin and the self-cured acrylic was examined. It was revealed that plasma irradiation is effective in increasing the shear bond strength. Plasma irradiation does not cause environmental pollution, as it does not require chemicals. It is a useful method to increase adhesive strength between heat cured acrylic resin and self-curing acrylic resin. PMID:14641672

Nishigawa, G; Maruo, Y; Oka, M; Oki, K; Minagi, S; Okamoto, M

2003-11-01

290

Application of extraction chromatography to the separation of thorium and uranium dissolved in a solution of high salt concentration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extraction chromatography with commercially available UTEVA resin (for uranium and tetravalent actinide) was applied for the separation of Th and U from control solutions prepared from a multi-element control solution and from sample solutions of solidified simulated waste. Thorium and U in control solutions with 1–5mol\\/dm3 HNO3 were extracted with UTEVA resin and recovered with a solution containing 0.1mol\\/dm3 HNO3

Asako Fujiwara; Yutaka Kameo; Akiko Hoshi; Tomoko Haraga; Mikio Nakashima

2007-01-01

291

Ethynylated aromatics as high temperature matrix resins  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Difunctional and trifunctional arylacetylenes were used as monomers to form thermoset matrix resin composites. Composites can be hot pressed at 180 C to react 80 percent of the acetylene groups. Crosslinking is completed by postcuring at 350 C. The postcured resins are thermally stable to nominally 460 C in air. As a result of their high crosslink density, the matrix exhibits brittle failure when unaxial composites are tested in tension. Failure of both uniaxial tensile and flexural specimens occurs in shear at the fiber matrix interface. Tensile fracture stresses for 0 deg composites fabricated with 60 v/o Celion 6K graphite fiber were 827 MPa. The strain to failure was 0.5 percent. Composites fabricated with 8 harness satin Celion cloth (Fiberite 1133) and tested in tension also failed in shear at tensile stresses of 413 MPa.

Hurwitz, Frances I.

1986-01-01

292

Process for manufacturing a petroleum resin  

SciTech Connect

The present invention relates to a process for manufacturing a petroleum resin wherein a fraction (Component a) containing an aromatic hydrocarbon obtained by cracking of petroleum and a thermally polymerized oil (Component b) obtained by previously thermal-polymerizing the component a are mixed and then the mixture of the components a and B is subjected to polymerization by employing a Friedel-Crafts catalyst. It is also directed to propose a petroleum resin of a superior quality having a softening point optionally in a range of 30-120/sup 0/C and various bromine value in such a manner that a mixing ratio of the components a and B is properly adjusted.

Iwashita, T.; Nagano, M.; Tanaka, K.

1981-08-11

293

Flammability of Epoxy Resins Containing Phosphorus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As part of a program to develop fire-resistant exterior composite structures for future subsonic commercial and general aviation aircraft, flame-retardant epoxy resins are under investigation. Epoxies and their curing agents (aromatic diamines) containing phosphorus were synthesized and used to prepare epoxy formulations. Phosphorus was incorporated within the backbone of the epoxy resin and not used as an additive. The resulting cured neat epoxy formulations were characterized by thermogravimetric analysis, propane torch test, elemental analysis, microscale combustion calorimetry, and fire calorimetry. Several formulations showed excellent flame retardation with phosphorous contents as low as 1.5% by weight. The fracture toughness and compressive strength of several cured formulations showed no detrimental effect due to phosphorus content. The chemistry and properties of these new epoxy formulations are discussed.

Hergenrother, P. M.; Thompson, C. M.; Smith, J. G.; Connell, J. W.; Hinkley, J. A.

2005-01-01

294

Anion-exchange resin-based desulfurization process. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The following investigations were performed: (1) batch mode screening of eleven(11) commercially available resins and selection of three candidate resins for further evaluation in a fixed-bed setup. (2) Process variables study using three candidate resins in the fixed-bed setup and selection of the ``best`` resin for process economics development. (3) Exhaustion efficiency and solution concentration were found to be inversely related necessitating a trade-off between the resin cost versus the cost of evaporation/concentration of ensuing effluents. (4) Higher concentration of the HCO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} form of active sites over less active CO{sub 3}{sup 2{minus}} form of sites in the resin was believed to be the main reason for the observed increase in the equilibrium capacity of the resin at an elevated static CO{sub 2}-pressure. This Increase in capacity was found to level off around 80--120 psig range. The increase in CO{sub 2}-pressure, however, did not appear to affect the overall ion-exchange kinetics. (5) In the fixed-bed mode, the solution concentration was found to affect the equilibrium capacity of candidate resins. Their relationship was well satisfied by the Langmuir type non-linear equilibrium isotherm. Alternatively, the effect of solution concentration on overall ion-exchange kinetics varied from resin to resin. (6) Product inhibition effect on the resin was observed as an initial increase followed by a significant decrease in the resin`s equilibrium capacity for SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} as the HCO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}/SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} molar ratio in the solution was increased from 0 to 1.0. This ratio, however, did not affect the overall ion-exchange kinetics.

Sheth, A C; Dharmapurikar, R; Strevel, S D

1994-01-01

295

Potential contribution of exposed resin to ecosystem emissions of monoterpenes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Conifers, especially pines, produce and store under pressure monoterpene-laden resin in canals located throughout the plant. When the plants are damaged and resin canals punctured, the resin is exuded and the monoterpenes are released into the atmosphere, a process that has been shown to influence ecosystem-level monoterpene emissions. Less attention has been paid to the small amounts of resin that are exuded from branches, expanding needles, developing pollen cones, and terminal buds in the absence of any damage. The goal of this study was to provide the first estimate of the potential of this naturally-exposed resin to influence emissions of monoterpenes from ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) ecosystems. When resin is first exuded as small spherical beads from undamaged tissues it emits monoterpenes to the atmosphere at a rate that is four orders of magnitude greater than needle tissue with an equivalent exposed surface area and the emissions from exuded beads decline exponentially as the resin dries. We made measurements of resin beads on the branches of ponderosa pine trees in the middle of the growing season and found, on average, 0.15 cm2 of exposed resin bead surface area and 1250 cm2 of total needle surface area per branch tip. If the resin emerged over the course of 10 days, resin emissions would make up 10% of the ecosystem emissions each day. Since we only accounted for exposed resin at a single point in time, this is probably an underestimate of how much total resin is exuded from undamaged pine tissues over the course of a growing season. Our observations, however, reveal the importance of this previously unrecognized source of monoterpenes emitted from pine forests and its potential to influence regional atmospheric chemistry dynamics.

Eller, Allyson S. D.; Harley, Peter; Monson, Russell K.

2013-10-01

296

Candida albicans adhesion to composite resin materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adhesion of Candida albicans to dental restorative materials in the human oral cavity may promote the occurrence of oral candidosis. This study aimed\\u000a to compare the susceptibility of 14 commonly used composite resin materials (two compomers, one ormocer, one novel silorane,\\u000a and ten conventional hybrid composites) to adhere Candida albicans. Differences in the amount of adhering fungi should be

Ralf Bürgers; Wulf Schneider-Brachert; Martin Rosentritt; Gerhard Handel; Sebastian Hahnel

2009-01-01

297

Ion Exchange Resins Transforming Drug Delivery Systems.  

PubMed

Ion-exchange resins are light, porous, three-dimensional high molecular weight cross -linked matrix of hydrocarbon chains carrying positively or negatively charged sites that can attract an ion of opposite charge from the surrounding medium. There is stoichiometric exchange of mobile ions between the solid and the solution called as Ion-exchange which does not lead to any radical change in the properties and structure of the solid. Depending upon the type of Ionexchanged it can be either Cation-exchange or Anion-exchange. They are prepared in the form of granules, beads or sheets. As drug delivery systems they have received considerable attention after the 1950s due to their inertness, freedom from side effects, high drug loading capacity, ease of sterilization and the fact that their structure can be easily altered to achieve the desired drug release characteristics. Their use is revolutionizing all traditional delivery systems namely- oral, nasal, ophthalmic and parenteral. Ion- exchange resins have been used for the development of novel drug delivery systems (NDDSs), to modify the characteristics of the dosage form and various other biomedical applications. The present article deals with the varied applications of ion-exchange resins for taste making, as resinates (simple and microencapsulated or coated), Pennkinetic systems, in selective recovery of pharmaceuticals, in pH and ionic strength responsive systems, in gastro-retentive systems, in hollow fiber systems, as sigmoidal release systems, as site specific delivery systems and as inotophoretically assisted transdermal drug delivery systems. They also have an immense importance when used as disintegrants/ superdisintegrants in formulation of orodispersible tablets, powder processing aids and in the dissolution and stabilization of drugs. PMID:20497105

Gupta, Shweta; Benien, Parul; Sahoo, P K

2010-05-24

298

Ion Exchange Resins Transforming Drug Delivery Systems.  

PubMed

Ion-exchange resins are light, porous, three-dimensional high molecular weight cross -linked matrix of hydrocarbon chains carrying positively or negatively charged sites that can attract an ion of opposite charge from the surrounding medium. There is stoichiometric exchange of mobile ions between the solid and the solution called as Ion-exchange which does not lead to any radical change in the properties and structure of the solid. Depending upon the type of Ion-exchanged it can be either Cation-exchange or Anion-exchange. They are prepared in the form of granules, beads or sheets. As drug delivery systems they have received considerable attention after the 1950s due to their inertness, freedom from side effects, high drug loading capacity, ease of sterilization and the fact that their structure can be easily altered to achieve the desired drug release characteristics. Their use is revolutionizing all traditional delivery systems namely- oral, nasal, ophthalmic and parenteral. Ion- exchange resins have been used for the development of novel drug delivery systems (NDDSs), to modify the characteristics of the dosage form and various other biomedical applications. The present article deals with the varied applications of ion-exchange resins for taste making, as resinates (simple and microencapsulated or coated), Pennkinetic systems, in selective recovery of pharmaceuticals, in pH and ionic strength responsive systems, in gastro-retentive systems, in hollow fiber systems, as sigmoidal release systems, as site specific delivery systems and as inotophoretically assisted transdermal drug delivery systems. They also have an immense importance when used as disintegrants / superdisintegrants in formulation of orodispersible tablets, powder processing aids and in the dissolution and stabilization of drugs. PMID:20158479

Gupta, Shweta; Parul; Sahoo, P K

2010-02-17

299

Fire- and Heat-Resistant Laminating Resins  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Imide compounds containing phosphourus thermally polymerized. New maleimido- or citraconimido-end-capped monomers, have relatively low melting temperatures, polymerized at moderate temperatures to rigid bisimide resins without elimination of volatiles. Monomers dissolve in such solvents as methyl ethyl ketone, acetone, and tetrahydrofuran, suitable and perferred as "varnish solvents" for composite fabrication. Low melting points of these componds allow use as adhesives without addition of solvents.

Kourtides, Demetrius A.; Mikroyannidis, John A.

1987-01-01

300

Light color, low softening point hydrocarbon resins  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a hydrocarbon resin having a softening point of from 0° C to about 40° C, a Gardner color of about 7 or less, a number average molecular weight (Mn) of from about 100 to about 600, and a M{sub {ital w}}\\/M{sub {ital n}} ratio of from about 1.1 to about 2.7, prepared by Friedel Crafts polymerization of

M. L. Evans; S. G. Hentges

1990-01-01

301

Glutathione Resins I. List of Components  

E-print Network

-1) Purchase of the GST Purification Kit provides sufficient reagents for performing five batch/gravity flow Clontech · www.clontech.com · 800-662-2566 #12;GlutathioneResinProtocol · Polypropylene tubes · Centrifuge (pre-chilled to 4ºC) · TALONTM 2-ml Disposable Gravity Columns (#8903-1) · Deionized H2O · Ice · Column

Lebendiker, Mario

302

Ceramic whisker reinforcement of dental resin composites.  

PubMed

Resin composites currently available are not suitable for use as large stress-bearing posterior restorations involving cusps due to their tendencies toward excessive fracture and wear. The glass fillers in composites provide only limited reinforcement because of the brittleness and low strength of glass. The aim of the present study was to reinforce dental resins with ceramic single-crystalline whiskers of elongated shapes that possess extremely high strength. A novel method was developed that consisted of fusing silicate glass particles onto the surfaces of individual whiskers for a two-fold benefit: (1) to facilitate silanization regardless of whisker composition; and (2) to enhance whisker retention in the matrix by providing rougher whisker surfaces. Silicon nitride whiskers, with an average diameter of 0.4 microm and length of 5 microm, were coated by the fusion of silica particles 0.04 microm in size to the whisker surface at temperatures ranging from 650 degrees C to 1000 degrees C. The coated whiskers were silanized and manually blended with resins by spatulation. Flexural, fracture toughness, and indentation tests were carried out for evaluation of the properties of the whisker-reinforced composites in comparison with conventional composites. A two-fold increase in strength and toughness was achieved in the whisker-reinforced composite, together with a substantially enhanced resistance to contact damage and microcracking. The highest flexural strength (195+/-8 MPa) and fracture toughness (2.1+/-0.3 MPa x m(1/2)) occurred in a composite reinforced with a whisker-silica mixture at whisker:silica mass ratio of 2:1 fused at 800 degrees C. To conclude, the strength, toughness, and contact damage resistance of dental resin composites can be substantially improved by reinforcement with fillers of ceramic whiskers fused with silica glass particles. PMID:10029470

Xu, H H; Martin, T A; Antonucci, J M; Eichmiller, F C

1999-02-01

303

Metallic-resin compounds fuel processing process  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a demonstration plant for the recycling of post-use electric home appliances, the authors developed a metal-resin compounds fuel processing system for generated plastics and shredder dusts from this recycling plant. In this system, waste plastics and other shredder dust is thermally cracked in an oxygen-free rotary carbonization reactor with a maximum rate of 250 kg\\/h. Most of the plastic

H. Hoshina; T. Hayanose

1999-01-01

304

Thermochemical study of behavior of petroleum resins  

Microsoft Academic Search

The stability of petroleum disperse systems and the structural-mechanical properties of these systems are determined mainly by the presence of high-molecular-weight waxes, asphaltenes, and resins, which form complex structural units (CSUs) in the system. The influence of the energy of intermolecular interaction (IMI) on the formation of associates has not yet been thoroughly evaluated, although an important role has been

E. N. Sazonova; M. Yu. Mashkov; A. A. Velikov; N. V. Yudina

1988-01-01

305

Morphological characterization of furfuraldehyde resins adsorbents  

SciTech Connect

Sugar cane is one of the most traditional plantation cultivated crops in large areas in Brazil. The State University of the North of Rio de Janeiro, UENF, is currently engaged in a program aimed to exploit the potentialities of sugar cane industry as a self sustained non-polluting enterprise. One of the projects being carried out at the UENF is the transformation of sugar cane bagasse in precursor materials for the industry of furan derivatives such as the furfuraldehyde resins obtained by acid catalysis. The possibility of employing acid catalyzed furfuraldehyde resins as selective adsorbents has arisen during a comprehensive study of physical-chemical adsorption properties of these materials. The morphology of these resins depend on the synthesis method. Scanning Electron Microscopic studies of these materials which were synthesized, in bulk (FH-M) and solution (FH-D), showed differences in surface density and particle size. Using mercury porosimeter techniques and BET adsorption methods, it was found different pore size distributions and a decrement in surface area when solvent was employed in the synthesis process. By thermogravimetric analysis it was found similar weight losses (6%) of water adsorption and a small differences in thermal stabilities.

Sanchez, R.; Monteiro, S.N. [State Univ. of the North of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); D`Almeida, J.R. [Rio de Janeiro-Catholic Univ. (Brazil)

1996-12-31

306

Surface integrity of provisional resin materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Provisional resin materials are widely used in prosthetic dentistry and play an important role in the success of restorative treatment. Therefore, these materials must meet the requirements of preserving surface integrity during the treatment process. This study was done to evaluate surface roughness and microhardness of two provisional resin materials after 37 °C water storage. Two rectangular samples 21 mm × 11 mm × 3 mm, one bis-acrylic (bis-acrylic-Protemp II) and one polyethyl methacrylate (Trim®-PEMA) were fabricated as examples of provisional materials (n = 5 per material). The specimens were stored in 37 °C deionized distilled water for 24 h, 1, 2 and 3 weeks. The control specimens were not stored in water. The surface roughness of the tested materials (n = 10) was measured using a profilometer. Microhardness tests were conducted using a Vickers microscope mounted indenter system (n = 10). At 24 h, the surface roughness was recorded with bis-acrylic-Protemp II as higher than methacrylate materials. No significant differences of microhardness between Trim®-PEMA and bis-acrylic-Protemp II were recognized at 1, 2 and 3 weeks. The microhardness values increased with the increase of surface roughness and vice versa in both Trim®-PEMA and bis-acrylic-Protemp II. Both surface roughness and microhardness are affected by water storage. Bis-acrylic-Protemp II revealed better results in hardness than methacrylate resins, whereas Trim®-PEMA has a better surface roughness.

Abouelatta, O. B.; El-Bediwi, A.; Sakrana, A.; Jiang, X. Q.; Blunt, L.

2006-03-01

307

Transparent resins for 157-nm lithography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of sufficiently transparent resin systems is one of the key elements required for a successful and timely introduction for 157 nm lithography. This paper reports on the Simple Transmission Understanding and Prediction by Incremental Dilution (STUPID) model, a quick back-of-the-envelope increment scheme to estimate the absorption of polymers at 157 nm. A number of promising candidate resins based on norbornenes are discussed, and results with a first 157 nm resin system developed at the University of Austin are presented. The new system is based on copolymers of norbornene-5-methylenehexafluoroisopropanol (NMHFA) and t-butyl norbornene carboxylate (BNC), formulated with an acetal additive obtained by copolymerization of t-butyl norbornene-5-trifluoromethyl-5-carboxylate (BNTC) with carbon monoxide. Lithographic performance of this system extends to 110 nm dense features using standard illumination and a binary mask, or 80 nm semi-dense and 60 nm isolated features with a strong phase shift mask. The dry etch resistance of this resist is found to be slightly lower than APEX-E DUV resist for polysilicon but superior to it for oxide etches.

Dammel, Ralph R.; Sakamuri, Raj; Romano, Andrew R.; Vicari, Richard; Hacker, Cheryl; Conley, Will; Miller, Daniel A.

2001-08-01

308

Chemoviscosity modeling for thermosetting resins - I  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new analytical model for chemoviscosity variation during cure of thermosetting resins was developed. This model is derived by modifying the widely used WLF (Williams-Landel-Ferry) Theory in polymer rheology. Major assumptions involved are that the rate of reaction is diffusion controlled and is linearly inversely proportional to the viscosity of the medium over the entire cure cycle. The resultant first order nonlinear differential equation is solved numerically, and the model predictions compare favorably with experimental data of EPON 828/Agent U obtained on a Rheometrics System 4 Rheometer. The model describes chemoviscosity up to a range of six orders of magnitude under isothermal curing conditions. The extremely non-linear chemoviscosity profile for a dynamic heating cure cycle is predicted as well. The model is also shown to predict changes of glass transition temperature for the thermosetting resin during cure. The physical significance of this prediction is unclear at the present time, however, and further research is required. From the chemoviscosity simulation point of view, the technique of establishing an analytical model as described here is easily applied to any thermosetting resin. The model thus obtained is used in real-time process controls for fabricating composite materials.

Hou, T. H.

1984-01-01

309

Novel materials and methods for solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report contains a general introduction which discusses solid-phase extraction and solid-phase micro-extraction as sample preparation techniques for high-performance liquid chromatography, which is also evaluated in the study. This report also contains the Conclusions section. Four sections have been removed and processed separately: silicalite as a sorbent for solid-phase extraction; a new, high-capacity carboxylic acid functionalized resin for solid-phase extraction;

1997-01-01

310

Correlations of norbornenyl crosslinked polyimide resin structures with resin thermo-oxidative stability, resin glass transition temperature and composite initial mechanical properties  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

PMR (polymerization of monomeric reactants) methodology was used to prepare 70 different polyimide oligomeric resins and 30 different unidirectional graphite fiber/polyimide composites. Monomeric composition as well as chain length between sites of crosslinks were varied to examine their effects on resin thermo-oxidative stability and glass transition temperature (Tg) of the cured/postcured resins. A linear correlation of decreasing 316 C resin weight loss/surface area versus (1) decreasing aliphatic content, or (2) increasing benzylic/aliphatic content stoichiometry ratio over a wide range of resin compositions was observed. An almost linear correlation of Tg versus molecular distance between the crosslinks was also observed. An attempt was made to correlate Tg with initial composite mechanical properties (flexural strength and interlaminar shear strength). However, the scatter in mechanical strength data prevented obtaining a clear correlation. Instead, only a range of composite mechanical properties was obtained at 25, 288, and 316 C. Perhaps more importantly, what did become apparent during the correlation study was (1) the PMR methodology could be used to prepare composites from resins containing a wide variety of monomer modifications, (2) that these composites almost invariably provided satisfactory initial mechanical properties as long as the resins formulated exhibited satisfactory processing flow, and (3) that PMR resins exhibited predictable rates of 316 C weight loss/surface area based on their benzylic/aliphatic stoichiometery ratio.

Alston, William B.

1988-01-01

311

CHARACTERIZATION OF CYCLED SPHERICAL RESORCINOL-FORMALDEHYDE ION EXCHANGE RESIN  

SciTech Connect

This report presents characterization data for two spherical resorcinol-formaldehyde (sRF) resin beds that had processed cesium in non-radioactive and radioactive cycles. All column cycle operations for the resin beds including loading, displacements, elution, regeneration, breakthroughs, and solution analyses are reported in Nash and Duignan, 2009a. That report covered four ion exchange (IX) campaigns using the two {approx}11 mL beds in columns in a lead-lag arrangement. The first two campaigns used Savannah River Site (SRS) Tank 2F nonradioactive simulant while the latter two were fed with actual dissolved salt in the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) Shielded Cells. Both radioactive cycles ran to cesium breakthrough of the lead column. The resin beds saw in excess of 400 bed volumes of feed in each cycle. Resin disposal plans in tank farm processing depend on characterizations of resin used with actual tank feed. Following a final 30 bed volume (BV) elution with nitric acid, the resin beds were found to contain detectable chromium, barium, boron, aluminum, iron, sodium, sulfur, plutonium, cesium, and mercury. Resin affinity for plutonium is important in criticality safety considerations. Cesium-137 was found to be less than 10E+7 dpm/g of resin, similar to past work with sRF resin. Sulfur levels are reasonably consistent with other work and are expected to represent sulfur chemistry used in the resin manufacture. There were low but detectable levels of technetium, americium, and curium. Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) work on the used (eluted) resin samples showed significant contents of mercury, barium, and chromium. One resin sample exceeded the TCLP level for mercury while the other metals were below TCLP levels. TCLP organics measurements indicated measurable benzene in one case, though the source was unknown. Results of this work were compared with other work on similar sRF resin characterizations in this report. This is the first work to quantify mercury on sRF resin. Resin mercury content is important in plans for the disposition of used sRF resin. Mercury speciation in high level waste (HLW) is unknown. It may be partly organic, one example being methyl mercury cation. Further study of the resin's affinity for mercury is recommended.

Nash, C.; Duignan, M.

2010-02-23

312

Rehabilitation of periodontally compromised teeth with fiber-reinforced composite resin: a case report.  

PubMed

The rehabilitation of prosthetic spaces resulting from severe periodontitis represents a challenge in terms of functional and esthetic aspects. Generally, tooth extraction is followed by alveolar ridge volume reduction, which increases the esthetic problem. The aim of this article is to report the integration of esthetics and functional parameters in the oral rehabilitation of extracted periodontally compromised mandibular central incisors through the construction of a direct glass fiber-reinforced composite fixed partial denture (DFPD). After periodontal therapy, the patient received a periodontal subepithelial graft, enabling an increase in the thickness and height of the alveolar ridge. The DFPD was fabricated with the use of extracted teeth. Mandibular canines and lateral incisors received cavities 2 mm deep and wide. After fiber insertion, tooth adaptation, and composite resin coverage, the teeth were finished and polished. Results showed an excellent esthetic result with stabilization and function of the remaining periodontally affected teeth. PMID:21359245

Hoeppner, Márcio Grama; Fonseca, Rodrigo Borges; Pfau, Eduardo Augusto; Justo, Flávio Roberto Machado; Fávero, Alexandre; Bremm, Laerte Luiz

2011-02-01

313

Effects of layering technique on the shade of resin overlays and the microhardness of dual cure resin cement.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to assess the color of layered resin overlays and to test the early microhardness of dual cure resin cement (DCRC) light cured through the layered resin overlays. Resin overlays of 1.5 mm thickness were fabricated with the A3 shade of Z350 (Group 1L), the A3B and A3E shades of Supreme XT (Group 2L), and the A3, E3, and T1 shades of Sinfony (Group 3L) using one, two, and three layers, respectively (n=7). Each layer of the resin overlays was set in equal thickness. The color of the resin overlays was measured with a colorimeter and compared with an A3 shade resin denture tooth. DCRC was light cured through the resin overlays, and the early microhardness of the DCRC was measured. The ?E value between the denture tooth and the resin overlays and the Vickers hardness number (VHN) of the DCRC were analyzed with one-way ANOVA and Tukey's HSD test. The color differences were 8.9±0.5, 5.3±1.0, and 7.3±0.5 and the VHNs were 19.4±1.1, 21.1±0.9, and 29.3±0.6 for Groups 1L, 2L, and 3L, respectively. Therefore, to match the designated tooth color of resin inlays and to increase the early microhardness of DCRC, layered resin inlays are more appropriate than single-dentin-layer resin inlays. However, the translucent layer should be used cautiously because the color difference of resin inlays with a translucent layer was affected more than those without a translucent layer. PMID:24918368

Chang, Hoon-Sang; Hong, Sung-Ok

2014-01-01

314

Machine for applying a two component resin to a roadway surface  

DOEpatents

A portable machine for spraying two component resins onto a roadway, the machine having a pneumatic control system, including apparatus for purging the machine of mixed resin with air and then removing remaining resin with solvent. Interlocks prevent contamination of solvent and resin, and mixed resin can be purged in the event of a power failure.

Huszagh, Donald W. (Bayport, NY)

1985-01-01

315

Machine for applying a two component resin to a roadway surface  

DOEpatents

A portable machine for spraying two component resins onto a roadway, the machine having a pneumatic control system, including means for purging the machine of mixed resin with air and then removing remaining resin with solvent. Interlocks prevent contamination of solvent and resin, and mixed resin can be purged in the event of a power failure.

Huszagh, D.W.

1984-01-01

316

Machine for applying a two component resin to a roadway surface  

SciTech Connect

A portable machine for spraying two component resins onto a roadway, the machine having a pneumatic control system, including apparatus for purging the machine of mixed resin with air and then removing remaining resin with solvent. Interlocks prevent contamination of solvent and resin, and mixed resin can be purged in the event of a power failure.

Huszagh, D. W.

1985-07-16

317

Application of a FIB-STEM system for 3D observation of a resin-embedded yeast cell.  

PubMed

The combination of a focused ion beam (FIB) system and a scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) has been applied to the three-dimensional (3D) observation of a resin-embedded yeast cell. Using a FIB microsampling technique, a sample with a thickness of tens of micrometres was extracted from a resin-embedded block sample. The extracted sample was transferred to a FIB-STEM-compatible specimen rotation holder and trimmed by FIB milling for 3D STEM observation. Although the FIB milling was carried out at an operating voltage of 40 KV, the sample was cross sectioned without forming a harmful damage layer on its surface. Cell structures, such as cell wall, cell membrane, mitochondria, peroxisomes, endoplasmic reticulum and vacuoles, were observed clearly in a pillar-shaped sample of 20 microm long, 4 microm wide and 3 microm deep. PMID:15582966

Kamino, Takeo; Yaguchi, Toshie; Ohnishi, Tsuyoshi; Ishitani, Tohru; Osumi, Masako

2004-01-01

318

Bismaleimide resins for flame resistant honeycomb sandwich panels  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Bismaleimide resins are prime candidates for nonflammable aircraft interior panels. Three resin types with different structures and processing characteristics were formulated. Resin M 751 was used to fabricate 100 kg of glass fabric prepregs which were used for the preparation of face sheets for honeycomb sandwich panels. Prepreg characteristics and curing cycles for laminate fabrication are provided. In order to advance beyond the current solvent resin technology for fibre and fabric impregnation, a hot melt solvent-less resin system was prepared and characterized. Preliminary tests were performed to develop a wet bonding process for the fabrication of advanced sandwich honeycomb panels by use of polybismaleimide glass fabric face sheets and polybismaleimide Nomex honeycomb core. B-stage material was used for both the core and the face sheet, providing flatwise tensile properties equivalent to those obtained by the state-of-the-art 3-step process which includes an epoxy adhesive resin.

Stenzenberger, H. D.

1978-01-01

319

Inorganic resins for clinical use of .sup.213Bi generators  

DOEpatents

Applicant's invention is a radionuclide generator resin material for radiochemical separation of daughter radionuclides, particularly .sup.213Bi, from a solution of parental radionuclides, the resin material capable of providing clinical quantities of .sup.213Bi of at least 20-mCi, wherein the resin material comprises a silica-based structure having at least one bifunctional ligand covalently attached to the surface of the silica-based structure. The bifunctional ligand comprises a chemical group having desirable surface functionality to enable the covalent attachment of the bifunctional ligand thereon the surface of the structure and the bifunctional ligand further comprises a second chemical group capable of binding and holding the parental radionuclides on the resin material while allowing the daughter radionuclides to elute off the resin material. The bifunctional ligand has a carbon chain with a limited number of carbons to maintain radiation stability of the resin material.

DePaoli, David W. (Knoxville, TN); Hu, Michael Z. (Knoxville, TN); Mirzadeh, Saed (Knoxville, TN); Clavier, John W. (Elizabethton, TN)

2011-03-29

320

Resin impregnation during the manufacturing of composite materials  

SciTech Connect

A numerical and experimental study of resin-impregnation processes during the manufacturing of composite materials was performed. A formulation of the problem was accomplished using ideas taken from the theory of flow through anisotropic porous media. A treatment of the resin-impregnation front that exists during impregnation processes was also suggested. Using these ideas, a methodology for simulating two-dimensional isothermal resin-impregnation processes under conditions of specified injection rate or specified applied pressure was developed. Special attention was directed at the simulation of resin-transfer modeling and resin film stacking/compression modeling processes. Due to the geometrical complexity of the situations to be modeled, the computational technique of boundary-fitted coordinate systems encompassing numerical grid generation was chosen. It was found that the simulation of impregnation under specified applied-pressure loading conditions is much more involved than that of the specified resin injection rate conditions.

Coulter, J.P.

1988-01-01

321

Improved well stimulation with resin-coated proppants  

SciTech Connect

Resin-coated proppants improve well stimulation results by preventing flowback, or fracture evacuation, near the wellbore, a phenomenon that effectively ''decouples'' the wellbore and the productive formation. In addition, the deformable coating protects the resin-coated proppants from crushing and helps resist embedment in softer formations. The tough coating is chemically inert in crude oils, brines, and most acids. The resin-coated materials work best under actual downhole conditions since the closure stress and temperature help lock the materials in the fracture for the life of the well. This paper reviews case histories from four wells in which resin-coated proppants were used. In addition, simple lab tests of the resin-coated proppants in an API crush cell confirm their excellent properties and potential. Together, these results show the need for resin-coated proppants in many types of wells. In many ways they act as ''ideal'' proppants that can be economically justified over uncoated proppants.

Sinclair, A.R.; Graham, J.W.; Sinclair, C.P.

1983-02-01

322

Analysis of pentacyclic triterpenic acids from frankincense gum resins and related phytopharmaceuticals by high-performance liquid chromatography. Identification of lupeolic acid, a novel pentacyclic triterpene  

Microsoft Academic Search

An HPLC gradient method with photodiode array detection was developed for the simultaneous analysis of 12 different pentacyclic triterpenic acids in Indian and African frankincense gum resins as well as in related phytopharmaceuticals. The triterpenic acids were obtained by an exhaustive extraction procedure. Identification of the compounds was based on retention times, UV-spectra and add on technique with standards isolated

Berthold Büchele; Waltraud Zugmaier; Thomas Simmet

2003-01-01

323

Versatile composite resins simplifying the practice of restorative dentistry.  

PubMed

After decades of technical development and refinement, composite resins continue to simplify the practice of restorative dentistry, offering clinicians versatility, predictability, and enhanced physical properties. With a wide range of products available today, composite resins are a reliable, conservative, multi-functional restorative material option. As manufacturers strive to improve such properties as compression strength, flexural strength, elastic modulus, coefficient of thermal expansion, water sorption, and wear resistance, several classification systems of composite resins have been developed. PMID:24571527

Margeas, Robert

2014-01-01

324

High performance mixed bisimide resins and composites based thereon  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mixtures of bismaleimide/biscitraconirnide resins produces materials which have better handling, processing or mechanical and thermal properties, particularly in graphite composites, than materials made with the individual resins. The mechanical strength of cured graphite composites prepared from a 1:1 copolymer of such bisimide resins is excellent at both ambient and elevated temperatures. The copolymer mixture provides improved composites which are lighter than metals and replace metals in many aerospace applications.

Parker, J. A.; ations.

1986-01-01

325

Thermal behaviour of hydroxymethyl compounds as models for adhesive resins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urea–formaldehyde (UF) and phenol–formaldehyde (PF) resins are the most widely used wood adhesives. The first stage in resin\\u000a manufacturing is the formation of methylol derivatives which polycondensation leads to building the tridimensional network.\\u000a Understanding the behaviour of methylol compounds in curing provides useful information for developing appropriate resin structures.\\u000a Thermal behaviour of N,N?-dihydroxymethylurea, 2- and 4-hydroxymethylphenols, urea and phenol as

K. Siimer; P. Christjanson; T. Kaljuvee; T. Pehk; I. Saks

2009-01-01

326

Characterization of petroleum resins by nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry  

SciTech Connect

In this paper an approach to resin structure determination using /sup 1/H and /sup 13/C NMR spectrometries is presented and briefly discussed. The analyzed resin samples are prepared by catalytic and thermic polymerization of the liquid byproducts, obtained by pyrolysis of primary gasoline. The result point out the differences in resin structures depending on crude oil types as well as on the applied polymerization conditions in connection with their physical properties.

Muhl, J.; Srica, V.; Jarm, V.; Kovac-Filipovic, M.

1987-07-01

327

The Sorption Capacity of Boron on Anionic-Exchange Resin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Boron sorption capacities on anionic-exchange resins vary with temperature, concentration, and resin crosslinkage. A semiempirical correlation, developed from boron solution chemistry, is presented to account for these variations. The relationship, based on boron chemistry and changes in Gibb's energy, can be stated approximately as Q = a1CBz exp[-(a4T + a5T + a6z )]. Correlation parameters, which vary with resin type,

JIDONG LOU; GARY L. FOUTCH; JUNG WON NA

1999-01-01

328

Natural fiber composites with plant oil-based resin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vacuum-assisted resin transfer molding or resin vacuum infusion process was used to make composite panels out of plant oil-based resin [acrylated epoxidized soybean oil (AESO)] and natural fiber mats made of flax, cellulose, pulp and hemp. The composites formed by room temperature cure with natural fiber reinforcement of about 10–50 wt% increased the flexural modulus to a range between 1.5

A O'Donnell; M. A Dweib; R. P Wool

2004-01-01

329

Chromium Ions Improve Moisure Resistance of Epoxy Resins  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Broad spectrum of thermosetting epoxy resins used on commercial and military aircraft, primarily as composite matrices and adhesives. In new technique, chromium-ion containing epoxy with improved resistance to moisture produced where chromium ions believed to prevent absorption of water molecules by coordinating themselves to hydroxyl groups on epoxy chain. Anticipated that improved epoxy formulation useful as composite matrix resin, adhesive, or casting resin for applications on commercial and advanced aircraft. Improvement made without sacrifice in mechanical properties of polymer.

St. Clair, A. K.; St. Clair, T. L.; Stoakley, D. M.; Singh, J. J.; Sprinkle, D. R.

1986-01-01

330

Quantifying the Strength of a Resin-coated Dental Ceramic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resin luting all-ceramic restorations increases clinical performance; however, the strengthening mechanisms are not fully understood. The authors have previously proposed the existence of a resin-ceramic hybrid layer, and the hypothesis tested was that ceramic strength enhancement was conferred by the characteristics of the resin-ceramic hybrid layer. Dentin porcelain discs were polished with a P4000-grade abrasive paper, and half were centrally

O. Addison; P. M. Marquis; G. J. P. Fleming

2008-01-01

331

Hydrolyzable polyester resins, varnishes and coating compositions containing the same  

DOEpatents

Preparation of hydrolyzable polyester resin comprising reacting polycarboxylic acid and polyhydric alcohol components, which is characterized by using, as at least part of said polyhydric alcohol component, a metallic salt of hydroxy carboxylic acid of the formula defined and effecting the polycondensation at a temperature which is no more than the decomposition temperature of said metallic salt. The polyester resins are useful as resinous vehicle of varnishes and antifouling paints.

Yamamori, Naoki (Minoo, JP); Yokoi, Junji (Nara, JP); Yoshikawa, Motoyoshi (Nara, JP)

1984-01-01

332

Synthesis and Characterization of Dicyclopentadiene – cresol Epoxy Resin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Starting from cresol, the synthesis of dicyclopentadiene (DCPD) – cresol epoxy resin was conducted. DCPD-containing phenol\\u000a resin (DPR) was prepared via Friedel–Crafts alkylation, whereas DCPD-containing epoxy resin (DER) was prepared via epoxidation\\u000a of DPR with epichlorohydrin. The chemical structure was characterized with FTIR and 1HNMR. Cure behaviors and glass transition temperature (Tg) of the resulting polymers were studied by differential

Tao Wang; Ping Y. Wan; Qin P. Yu; Meng Yu

2008-01-01

333

Method of treating wells using resin-coated particles  

SciTech Connect

The treatment of subterranean, hydrocarbon-bearing formations is discussed. A well treatment method is described which employs resin-coated particulate material. Particles coated with a fusible thermosetting resin are placed in the vicinity of a well bore and in conjunction with a subterranean formation surrounding the well bore. They are cured in the presence of a treating solution containing a softening agent capable of reducing the fusion temperature of the resin. 12 claims.

Graham, J.W.; Sinclair, A.R.; Brandt, J.L.

1982-06-29

334

Characterization of petroleum resins by nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper an approach to resin structure determination using ¹H and ¹³C NMR spectrometries is presented and briefly discussed. The analyzed resin samples are prepared by catalytic and thermic polymerization of the liquid byproducts, obtained by pyrolysis of primary gasoline. The result point out the differences in resin structures depending on crude oil types as well as on the

J. Muhl; Vlasta Srica; Vida Jarm; Margita Kovac-Filipovic

1987-01-01

335

Trace metal preconcentration using a thioglycolate chelating resin  

SciTech Connect

A styrene-divinyl benzene copolymer resin (Amberlite XAD-4), modified with thioglycolate complexing groups, has been employed for the preconcentration of cadmium, zinc, lead and nickel from natural waters. The resin exhibits its strongest affinity for cadmium and lead but can be used to quantitatively remove all four metals from non-saline waters. With seawater samples, the resin is best only employed for the enrichment of cadmium and lead as the recovery of nickel and zinc from this medium is poor.

Howard, A.G.; Danilona-Mirzaians, R.

1989-01-01

336

A study on a combined process for the treatment of phenolic resin plant effluents.  

PubMed

The removal of phenol and formaldehyde from phenolic resin plant effluents has been studied by using a combined process. In the first step, phenol was removed from effluent by solvent extraction. Special attention was paid to the effluent with a low content of phenol, which was treated by non-dispersive solvent extraction in hollow fibres. It was found that a single module of Liqui-Cel 2.5in. x 8in. membrane contactor allowed processing approximately 24 L/h of effluent with 0.4-0.7 g/L phenol and attaining values as low as 0.5 mg/L in the raffinate. Formaldehyde, which was left in phenolic resin plant effluent after the removal of phenol, has been treated with hydrogen peroxide in alkaline medium and also in acidic medium (Fenton process). In alkaline medium, formaldehyde was oxidized with hydrogen peroxide to formate ion, which was recovered by solvent extraction. The oxidation of formaldehyde with Fenton process was also studied under several operating conditions. It was found that a large amount of hydrogen peroxide (i.e. mole ratio H(2)O(2):HCHO>6) was necessary to mineralize more than 90% HCHO in 1-2h, at atmospheric pressure and 25 degrees C. The combination of pressure and high temperature strongly increased the kinetics of the process and allowed achieving a very high overall efficiency of the treatment under moderate H(2)O(2) dosage. PMID:19409698

Agarwal, Shiva; Ferreira, Ana E; Reis, M Teresa A; Ismael, M Rosinda C; Ferreira, Licínio M; Machado, Remígio M; Carvalho, Jorge M R

2009-09-30

337

Determination of neptunium in environmental samples by extraction chromatography after valence adjustment.  

PubMed

Neptunium(V) ions are unstable in acid media, which limits their extraction on chromatographic resins. We developed a novel analytical method to measure Np by either ?-spectrometry or inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) after extraction chromatography as Np(VI). We investigated the reactivity of various oxidizing reagents, and determined the retention capacity of Np(IV, V, and VI) on various extraction chromatographic supports. A simple method using two UTEVA resins was used to rapidly detect Np in soil and sediment samples. PMID:20630769

Guérin, Nicolas; Langevin, Marc-Antoine; Nadeau, Kenny; Labrecque, Charles; Gagné, Alexandre; Larivière, Dominic

2010-12-01

338

In vitro Study on Apical Sealing Ability of Nano-Hydroxyapatite-Filled Epoxy Resin Based Endodontic Sealer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of this in vitro study were to evaluate the apical sealing ability of experimental nano hydroxyapatite (HA)-filled epoxy resin based endodontic sealer and to compare it with the commercial AH26 sealant. A total of 76 extracted human anterior teeth were instrumented using NiTi files and randomly divided into two groups of 33 teeth each and two control groups

S. M. Masudi; N. Luddin; D. Mohamad; J. J. Alkashakhshir; R. Adnan; R. A. Ramli

2010-01-01

339

Novel Acrylic Resin For Injection Molded Precision Lenses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel acrylic resin has been developed for injection molded precision lenses. This resin is a copolymer of tricyclodecyl methacrylate (TCDMA) with other acrylic monomers. The novel resin, TCDMA-Acrylic copolymer has rigid, bulky cyclic hydrocarbons in the side chain so that it possesses characteristics superior to conventional acrylic resin (PMMA) in terms of low moisture absorption properties and high temperature resistance. However, like PMMA, it also provides high transparency, low birefringence, and low dispersion of refraction. Because of these characteristics, TCDMA-Acrylic copolymer is being used for precision aspheric lenses that cannot be realized by conventional optical plastics.

Kawai, Hiromasa; Kanega, Fumiaki; Kohkame, Hisashi

1988-07-01

340

Synthesis and Thermal Degradation Studies of Melamine Formaldehyde Resins  

PubMed Central

Melamine formaldehyde (MF) resins have been synthesized at different reaction temperature and pH values. Different molar ratios of melamine and formaldehyde were used to synthesize the corresponding resins. The prepared resin samples were characterized by using molecular weight determination viscometry and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The maximum percentage of solid content (69.7%) was obtained at pH 8.5 and 75°C temperature. The molecular weight of MF resin was increased with an increase of melamine monomer concentration. The highest residual weight 14.125?wt.% was obtained with sample 10.

Ullah, Sami; Bustam, M. A.; Nadeem, M.; Tan, W. L.; Shariff, A. M.

2014-01-01

341

Diversity matters: how bees benefit from different resin sources.  

PubMed

Biodiverse environments provide a variety of resources that can be exploited by consumers. While many studies revealed a positive correlation between biodiversity and consumer biomass and richness, only few studies have investigated how resource diversity affects single consumers. To better understand whether a single consumer species benefits from diverse resources, we tested how the protective function of a defensive plant resource (i.e. resin exploited by social bees) varied among different sources and target organisms (predators, parasites and pathogens). To assess synergistic effects, resins from different plant genera were tested separately and in combination. We found that resin diversity is beneficial for bees, with its functional properties depending on the target organisms, type and composition of resin. Different resins showed different effects, and mixtures were more effective than some of the single resins (functional complementarity). We conclude that resins of different plant species target different organisms and act synergistically where combined. Bees that rely on resin for protection benefit more when they have access to diverse resin sources. Loss of biodiversity may in turn destabilize consumer populations due to restricted access to a variety of resources. PMID:25205030

Drescher, Nora; Wallace, Helen M; Katouli, Mohammad; Massaro, Carmelina F; Leonhardt, Sara Diana

2014-12-01

342

Preparation of site-selective ion-exchange resins  

SciTech Connect

Ion-exchange resins were prepared by copolymerization of styrenic monomers with metal ion complex compounds bearing polymerizable ligands. Removal of the metal ions by acid washing produced sites in the resins which contained ligands configured to match the bonding characteristics of the ions used in their construction. This template procedure was performed with Ni{sup 2+} and Cu{sup 2+} ions, and comparisons were made of exchange capacities and equilibrium constants for templated and untemplated resins. Templated resins showed order of magnitude capacity preferences for the ion used in their preparation. Equilibrium constants were found to be inversely related to capacities.

Harkins, D.A.; Schweitzer, G.K. (Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville (USA))

1991-01-01

343

High fracture toughness and high modules silicone resins  

E-print Network

Rigid silicone resins, generally referred to as polyalkylsilsesquioxanes, are an important class of hybrid thermosetting polymers with both inorganic and organic characteristics. They have superior thermal stability, heat ...

Li, Zhongtao, 1971-

2000-01-01

344

Oil recovery method utilizing highly oxyalklated phenolic resins  

SciTech Connect

A method is described for recovering petroleum from a subterranean reservoir. It consists of introducing, through an injection well, a predeterminable amount of polyalkylene oxide adduct of a fusible phenolic, hydrocarbon-soluble synthetic resin, the resin containing from about 4 to about 16 phenolic groups and being a condensate of an ortho or para alkyl or cycloaliphatic substituted phenol and an aldehyde. The adduct is formed by further condensation of the condensate resin with ethylene oxide and at least one other alkylene oxide containing 3 or 4 carbon atoms. The adduct contains more than about 1% by weight and less than about 50% by weight of phenolic resin moiety.

Blair, C.M. Jr.; Stout, C.A.; Olsen, R.P.

1989-03-21

345

New methods and materials for solid phase extraction and high performance liquid chromatography  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes methods for solid phase extraction and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The following are described: Effects of Resin Sulfonation on the Retention of Polar Organic Compounds in Solid Phase Extraction; Ion-Chromatographic Separation of Alkali Metals In Non-Aqueous Solvents; Cation-Exchange Chromatography in Non-Aqueous Solvents; and Silicalite As a Stationary Phase For HPLC.

Dumont, P.J.

1996-04-23

346

Structure of wood extract colloids and effect of CaCl2 on the molecular mobility  

E-print Network

-layered model for the colloid structure for both pinus and spruce wood extracts has been proposed (Qin et alStructure of wood extract colloids and effect of CaCl2 on the molecular mobility Roland Lee, Karen J. Turro KEYWORDS: Wood resin, Pitch, Colloid structure, Electron paramagnetic resonance

Turro, Nicholas J.

347

Bonding exterior grade structural panels with copolymer resins of biomass residue components, phenol, and formaldehyde  

SciTech Connect

Components of various forest and agricultural residue biomass-including the polyphenolic compounds-were converted into aqueous solution and/or suspension by extraction and digestion. Some biomass components reacted vigorously under alkaline catalysis with formaldehyde and initially showed a high degree of exothermic reaction; however, other components did not react as vigorously under these conditions, indicating that different biomass materials require different methods to obtain optimum reactivity for the copolymerization with phenol. Our primary goal is to develop adhesives capable of producing acceptable bond quality, as determined by the wood products industries` standards, under a reasonable range of gluing conditions. Copolymer resins of phenol, formaldehyde, and biomass components were synthesized and evaluated for gluability of bonding exterior grade structural replaced with chemicals derived from peanut hulls, pecan shell flour, pecan pith, southern pine bark, and pine needle required shorter press times. These resins also tolerated a broader range of gluing conditions. In summary, it appears that the technology of the fast curing copolymer resins of biomass components as adhesives for wood products has been developed and is ready to be transferred to industrial practice.

Chen, C.M. [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States)

1993-12-31

348

Inhibiting microbial adhesion to denture base acrylic resin by titanium dioxide coating.  

PubMed

Mechanical cleaning of dentures is effective in preventing infections such as aspiration pneumonia and denture stomatitis. For denture wearers with a physical handicap and the elderly, however, mechanical cleaning can present problems. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of coating denture base acrylic resin with titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) in the inhibition of oral microbial adhesion. We prepared uniformly sized acrylic resin plates (10 mm x 10 mm x 0.5 mm), which were divided into two groups (a non-coated group and a TiO(2)-coated group). The plates were immersed in cultured Streptococcus sanguinis or Candida albicans and incubated for 24 h. After incubation, each plate was washed to remove loosely adherent microorganisms, and then incubated for a further 24 h. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) content of the microorganisms was evaluated using a reagent containing benzalkonium, which extracts intra-cellular ATP. In addition, to determine biofilm formation, we also observed each plate by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). We found that the ATP content of both S. sanguinis and C. albicans was reduced by the TiO(2) coating (P = 0.000). Observation by SEM confirmed that the TiO(2) coating inhibited biofilm formation. The results indicate that a TiO(2) coating on a denture base acrylic resin inhibits adhesion of S. sanguinis and C. albicans. PMID:19941590

Arai, T; Ueda, T; Sugiyama, T; Sakurai, K

2009-12-01

349

Wear properties of a novel resin composite compared to human enamel and other restorative materials.  

PubMed

SUMMARY The purpose of this in vitro study was to compare the two-body wear resistance of human enamel, a pressable glass-ceramic (Imagine PressX), a type 3 gold alloy (Aurocast8), three resins composites currently available on the market (Enamel plus HRi, Filtek Supreme XTE, Ceram.X duo), and one recently introduced resin composite (Enamel plus HRi-Function). Resin composites were tested after simple light curing and after a further heat polymerization cycle. Ten cylindrical specimens (7 mm in diameter) were manufactured with each dental material according to standard laboratory procedures. Ten flat enamel specimens were obtained from freshly extracted human molars and included in the control group. All samples were subjected to a two-body wear test in a dual-axis chewing simulator over up to 120,000 loading cycles, against yttria stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal cusps. Wear resistance was analyzed by measuring the vertical substance loss (mm) and the volume loss (mm(3)). Antagonist wear (mm) was also recorded. Data were statistically analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) (wear depth and volume loss) and Kruskal-Wallis one-way ANOVA on ranks (antagonist wear). Heat-cured HRi function and Aurocast8 showed similar mean values for wear depth and volumetric loss, and their results did not statistically differ in comparison with the human enamel. PMID:25084103

D'Arcangelo, C; Vanini, L; Rondoni, Gd; Pirani, M; Vadini, M; Gattone, M; De Angelis, F

2014-01-01

350

40 CFR 721.10545 - Aminotriazine modified cresol novolec resin (generic).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Aminotriazine modified cresol novolec resin (generic). 721.10545...721.10545 Aminotriazine modified cresol novolec resin (generic). (a...identified generically as aminotriazine modified cresol novolec resin (PMN P-04-313)...

2013-07-01

351

21 CFR 175.260 - Partial phosphoric acid esters of polyester resins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...true Partial phosphoric acid esters of polyester resins. 175.260 Section 175.260...260 Partial phosphoric acid esters of polyester resins. Partial phosphoric acid esters of polyester resins identified in this section...

2010-04-01

352

21 CFR 175.260 - Partial phosphoric acid esters of polyester resins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Partial phosphoric acid esters of polyester resins. 175.260 Section 175.260...260 Partial phosphoric acid esters of polyester resins. Partial phosphoric acid esters of polyester resins identified in this section...

2011-04-01

353

21 CFR 872.3750 - Bracket adhesive resin and tooth conditioner.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-04-01 false Bracket adhesive resin and tooth conditioner. 872...Prosthetic Devices § 872.3750 Bracket adhesive resin and tooth conditioner. (a) Identification. A bracket adhesive resin and tooth conditioner is a...

2011-04-01

354

21 CFR 872.3750 - Bracket adhesive resin and tooth conditioner.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-04-01 false Bracket adhesive resin and tooth conditioner. 872...Prosthetic Devices § 872.3750 Bracket adhesive resin and tooth conditioner. (a) Identification. A bracket adhesive resin and tooth conditioner is a...

2010-04-01

355

21 CFR 872.3750 - Bracket adhesive resin and tooth conditioner.  

... 2014-04-01 false Bracket adhesive resin and tooth conditioner. 872...Prosthetic Devices § 872.3750 Bracket adhesive resin and tooth conditioner. (a) Identification. A bracket adhesive resin and tooth conditioner is a...

2014-04-01

356

49 CFR 173.173 - Paint, paint-related material, adhesives, ink and resins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Paint, paint-related material, adhesives, ink and resins. 173.173 Section... Paint, paint-related material, adhesives, ink and resins. (a) When the...Paint, paint-related material, adhesives, ink and resins must be packaged...

2012-10-01

357

21 CFR 872.3750 - Bracket adhesive resin and tooth conditioner.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-04-01 false Bracket adhesive resin and tooth conditioner. 872...Prosthetic Devices § 872.3750 Bracket adhesive resin and tooth conditioner. (a) Identification. A bracket adhesive resin and tooth conditioner is a...

2012-04-01

358

21 CFR 872.3750 - Bracket adhesive resin and tooth conditioner.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-04-01 false Bracket adhesive resin and tooth conditioner. 872...Prosthetic Devices § 872.3750 Bracket adhesive resin and tooth conditioner. (a) Identification. A bracket adhesive resin and tooth conditioner is a...

2013-04-01

359

49 CFR 173.173 - Paint, paint-related material, adhesives, ink and resins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Paint, paint-related material, adhesives, ink and resins. 173.173 Section... Paint, paint-related material, adhesives, ink and resins. (a) When the...Paint, paint-related material, adhesives, ink and resins must be packaged...

2013-10-01

360

49 CFR 173.173 - Paint, paint-related material, adhesives, ink and resins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Paint, paint-related material, adhesives, ink and resins. 173.173 Section... Paint, paint-related material, adhesives, ink and resins. (a) When the...Paint, paint-related material, adhesives, ink and resins must be packaged...

2010-10-01

361

49 CFR 173.173 - Paint, paint-related material, adhesives, ink and resins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Paint, paint-related material, adhesives, ink and resins. 173.173 Section... Paint, paint-related material, adhesives, ink and resins. (a) When the...Paint, paint-related material, adhesives, ink and resins must be packaged...

2011-10-01

362

77 FR 16508 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group IV Polymers and Resins...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group IV Polymers and Resins; Pesticide Active Ingredient...Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group IV Polymers and Resins; National Emission Standards...Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group IV Polymers and Resins; Pesticide Active...

2012-03-21

363

49 CFR 173.173 - Paint, paint-related material, adhesives, ink and resins.  

... Paint, paint-related material, adhesives, ink and resins. 173.173 Section... Paint, paint-related material, adhesives, ink and resins. (a) When the...Paint, paint-related material, adhesives, ink and resins must be packaged...

2014-10-01

364

21 CFR 175.260 - Partial phosphoric acid esters of polyester resins.  

...2014-04-01 false Partial phosphoric acid esters of polyester resins. 175.260...Coatings § 175.260 Partial phosphoric acid esters of polyester resins. Partial phosphoric acid esters of polyester resins identified...

2014-04-01

365

21 CFR 177.1340 - Ethylene-methyl acrylate copolymer resins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ethylene-methyl acrylate copolymer resins. 177...Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1340 Ethylene-methyl acrylate copolymer resins. Ethylene-methyl acrylate copolymer resins...

2010-04-01

366

[Polymerization of visible-light cured veneering resins. 3. Influence of conversion on the bond strength of opaque resins].  

PubMed

New light-curable adhesive opaque resins were prepared using 4-methacryloxyethyl trimellitate anhydride (4-META), triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA), di (methacryloxyethyl) trimethylhexamethylene diurethane (UDMA) and titanium dioxide. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relation between the conversion of opaque resins and the bond strengths. Amounts of residual monomers in the bulk-photo-polymerized resins with various compositions were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. Shear bond strengths of light-cured opaque resins joined to surface-treated Au-Ag-Pd alloy were measured with various primers, components and curing conditions. Photo-polymerized resins which contained mehyl methacrylate (MMA) showed lower conversion compared with bifunctional methacrylate resins. Favorable shear bond strengths were obtained from TEGDMA/UDMA based opaque resins. The opaque resins without MMA bonded strongly to heated and 4-META primed Au-Ag-Pd alloy and 22-23 M Pa strengths were maintained after 20,000 thermocycles. The results revealed that the conversion of MMA with photo-initiater system was lower than that of bifunctional methacrylate, which affected bond strength of opaque resins. PMID:2489704

Yoshida, K

1989-02-01

367

Conversion of ion exchange resin to various functional resins and the application in the field of pharmaceutical sciences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ion exchange resins are widely used for separating ions in the solution, desalination, removal of impurities, and etc. Giving a new function to these ion exchange resins enables the application in more various fields. Until now, we carried out the research work about the following 5 project.: (1) Conversion of ion exchange resins into selective adsorbents by using low molecular reagents, which possess capabilities of a selective reaction with target ions, ion exchange reaction with the ion exchange resin and strong physical adsorption to the ion exchange resin. (2) Synthesis of resins for ion exchange high performance liquid chromatography (IEHPLC) and the analysis of biomaterials. (3) Development of insoluble macromolecular Sn(II) complex based on the aminophosphonic acid type ion exchange resin and its application to the 99mTc labeling of proteins. (4) Development of a new 68Ge-68Ga generator using N-methylglucamine type organic polymer as the adsorbent for 68Ge and production of 68Ga for PET. (5) Preparation of an ion-exchangeable polymer bead wrapped with bilayer membrane structures. In this paper, the application of various functional resins prepared based on ion exchange resin in the field of pharmaceutical sciences has been summarized.

Nakayama, Morio

368

Characterization of Composite Fan Case Resins  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The majority of commercial turbine engines that power today s aircraft use a large fan driven by the engine core to generate thrust which dramatically increases the engine s efficiency. However, if one of these fan blades fails during flight, it becomes high energy shrapnel, potentially impacting the engine or puncturing the aircraft itself and thus risking the lives of passengers. To solve this problem, the fan case must be capable of containing a fan blade should it break off during flight. Currently, all commercial fan cases are made of either just a thick metal barrier or a thinner metal wall surrounded by Kevlar-an ultra strong fiber that elastically catches the blade. My summer 2004 project was to characterize the resins for a composite fan case that will be lighter and more efficient than the current metal. The composite fan case is created by braiding carbon fibers and injecting a polymer resin into the braid. The resin holds the fibers together, so at first using the strongest polymer appears to logically lead to the strongest fan case. Unfortunately, the stronger polymers are too viscous when melted. This makes the manufacturing process more difficult because the polymer does not flow as freely through the braid, and the final product is less dense. With all of this in mind, it is important to remember that the strength of the polymer is still imperative; the case must still contain blades with high impact energy. The research identified which polymer had the right balance of properties, including ease of fabrication, toughness, and ability to transfer the load to the carbon fibers. Resin deformation was studied to better understand the composite response during high speed impact. My role in this research was the testing of polymers using dynamic mechanical analysis and tensile, compression, and torsion testing. Dynamic mechanical analysis examines the response of materials under cyclic loading. Two techniques were used for dynamic mechanical analysis. The ARES Instrument analyzed the material through torsion. The second machine, TA Instruments apparatus, applied a bending force to the specimen. These experiments were used to explore the effects of temperature and strain rate on the stiffness and strength of the resins. The two different types of loading allowed us to verify our results. An axial-torsional load frame, manufactured by MTS Systems, Inc., was used to conduct the tensile, compression, and torsional testing. These tests were used to determine the stress-strain curves for the resins. The elastic and plastic deformation data was provided to another team member for characterization of high fidelity material property predictions. This information was useful in having a better understanding of the polymers so that the fan cases could be as sturdy as possible. Deformation studies are the foundation for the computational modeling that provides the structural design of a composite engine case as well as detailed analysis of the blade impact event.

Dvoracek, Charlene M.

2004-01-01

369

Reactive Additives for Phenylethynyl-Containing Resins  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Phenylethynyl-containing reactive additive (PERA) compounds and mixtures have been found to be useful for improving the processability of oligomers, polymers, co-oligomers, and copolymers that contain phenylethynyl groups. The additives can be incorporated in different forms: A solution of an amide acid or an imide of a PERA can be added to a solution of phenylethynyl-containing oligomer, polymer, co-oligomer, or copolymer; or An imide powder of a PERA can be mixed with a dry powder of a phenylethynyl-containing oligomer, polymer, co-oligomer, or copolymer. The effect of a given PERA on the processability and other properties of the resin system depends on whether the PERA is used in the amide acid or an imide form. With proper formulation, the PERA reduces the melt viscosity of the resin and thereby reduces the processing pressures needed to form the adhesive bonds, consolidate filled or unfilled moldings, or fabricate fiber-reinforced composite laminates. During thermal cure, a PERA reacts with itself as well as with the phenylethynyl-containing host resin and thereby becomes chemically incorporated into the resin system. The effects of the PERA on mechanical properties, relative to those of the host resin, depend on the amount of PERA used. Typically, the incorporation of the PERA results in (1) increases in the glass-transition temperature (Tg), modulus of elasticity, and parameters that characterize behavior under compression, and (2) greater retention of the aforementioned mechanical properties at elevated temperatures without (3) significant reduction of toughness or damage tolerance. Of the formulations tested thus far, the ones found to yield the best overall results were those for which the host resin was the amide acid form of a phenylethynyl-terminated imide (PETI) co-oligomer having a molecular weight of 5,000 g/mole [hence, designated PETI-5] and a PERA denoted as PERA-1. PETI-5 was made from 3,3',4'4'-biphenyltetracarboxylic dianhydride, 3,4'-oxydianiline (3,4'-ODA), 1,3-bis(3-aminophenoxy) benzene (1,3-APB), and 4-phenylethynylphthalic anhydride (PEPA). PERA-1 was made from 3,5-diamino- 4.-phenylethynylbenzophenon and equimolar amounts of phthalic anhydride and PEPA. To make PERA-1 in the imide form, the aforementioned ingredients were processed by refluxing in glacial acetic acid. To make the amide form of PERA-1, the ingredients were reacted in N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone (NMP) under nitrogen at a temperature of 23 C (see figure). On the basis of the processability and other properties, a blend comprising 20 weight percent of PERA-1 and 80 weight percent PETI-5 was selected for further evaluation. Relative to neat PETI-5, the blend exhibited an increase in Tg; improved processability; and comparable values of shear strength in adhesion to titanium panels, open-hole compressive properties, compression properties after impact, and resistance to microcracking.

Connell, John W.; Smith, Joseph G., Jr.; Hergenrother, Paul M.; Rommel, Monica L.

2005-01-01

370

HIGH ASPECT RATIO ION EXCHANGE RESIN BED - HYDRAULIC RESULTS FOR SPERICAL RESIN BEADS  

SciTech Connect

A principal role of the DOE Savannah River Site is to safely dispose of a large volume of liquid nuclear waste held in many storage tanks. An in-tank ion exchange unit is being considered for cesium removal to accelerate waste processing. This unit is planned to have a relatively high bed height to diameter ratio (10:1). Complicating the design is the need to cool the ion exchange media; therefore, the ion exchange column will have a central cooling core making the flow path annular. To separate cesium from waste the media being considered is made of resorcinol formaldehyde resin deposited on spherical plastic beads and is a substitute for a previously tested resin made of crystalline silicotitanate. This spherical media not only has an advantage of being mechanically robust, but, unlike its predecessor, it is also reusable, that is, loaded cesium can be removed through elution and regeneration. Resin regeneration leads to more efficient operation and less spent resin waste, but its hydraulic performance in the planned ion exchange column was unknown. Moreover, the recycling process of this spherical resorcinol formaldehyde causes its volume to significantly shrink and swell. To determine the spherical media's hydraulic demand a linearly scaled column was designed and tested. The waste simulant used was prototypic of the wastes' viscosity and density. This paper discusses the hydraulic performance of the media that will be used to assist in the design of a full-scale unit.

Duignan, M; Charles Nash, C; Timothy Punch, T

2007-09-27

371

Process for preparing light colored petroleum resins and resins produced thereby  

Microsoft Academic Search

Petroleum resins of lightened color while retaining satisfactory melting point and compatibility are provided by a process which comprises heat soaking a petroleum cracking or reforming fraction containing cationically polymerizable hydrocarbons and from 2 to more than 0.5 weight percent of cyclodienes until the cyclodiene content is no more than 0.5 weight percent distilling said heat soaked petroleum fraction and

A. B. Small; F. M. Benitez; V. L. Hughes

1985-01-01

372

Studies on metal complexes of SMH resin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nature of bonding in poly(styrene-co-maleic hydroxamic acid) resin complexes of Fe(III), Cu(II), Ni(II), and Co(II) was investigated using FT-i.r., electronic and EPR spectra. Ligand to metal bonding is through the hydroxamic acid-nitrogen. Fe(III), Co(II), and Ni(II) show octahedral geometry and Cu(II) shows a square planar geometry. Thermal decomposition studies by TG and DTA indicate catalysis of decomposition by the

Rita Mendez; K. Usha; K. K. Mohammed Yussuf; V. N. Sivasankara Pillai

1996-01-01

373

Resin catalysts and method of preparation  

DOEpatents

Heat stabilized catalyst compositions are prepared from nuclear sulfonic acid, for example, macroporous crosslinked polyvinyl aromatic compounds containing sulfonic acid groups are neutralized with a metal of Al, Fe, Zn, Cu, Ni, ions or mixtures and alkali, alkaline earth metals or ammonium ions by contacting the resin containing the sulfonic acid with aqueous solutions of the metals salts and alkali, alkaline earth metal or ammonium salts. The catalysts have at least 50% of the sulfonic acid groups neutralized with metal ions and the balance of the sulfonic acid groups neutralized with alkali, alkaline earth ions or ammonium ions.

Smith, L.A. Jr.

1986-12-16

374

Resin catalysts and method of preparation  

DOEpatents

Heat stabilized catalyst compositions are prepared from nuclear sulfonic acid, for example, macroporous crosslinked polyvinyl aromatic compounds containing sulfonic acid groups are neutralized with a metal of Al, Fe, Zn, Cu, Ni, ions or mixtures and alkali, alkaline earth metals or ammonium ions by contacting the resin containing the sulfonic acid with aqueous solutions of the metals salts and alkali, alkaline earth metal or ammonium salts. The catalysts have at least 50% of the sulfonic acid groups neutralized with metal ions and the balance of the sulfonic acid groups neutralized with alkali, alkaline earth ions or ammonium ions.

Smith, Jr., Lawrence A. (P.O. Box 34687, Houston, TX 77243)

1986-01-01

375

The effect of resin thickness on polymerization characteristics of silorane-based composite resin  

PubMed Central

Objectives This study examined the influence of the resin thickness on the polymerization of silorane- and methacrylate-based composites. Materials and Methods One silorane-based (Filtek P90, 3M ESPE) and two methacrylate-based (Filtek Z250 and Z350, 3M ESPE) composite resins were used. The number of photons were detected using a photodiode detector at the different thicknesses (thickness, 1, 2 and 3 mm) specimens. The microhardness of the top and bottom surfaces was measured (n = 15) using a Vickers hardness with 200 gf load and 15 sec dwell time conditions. The degree of conversion (DC) of the specimens was determined using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Scratched powder of each top and bottom surface of the specimen dissolved in ethanol for transmission FTIR spectroscopy. The refractive index was measured using a Abbe-type refractometer. To measure the polymerization shrinkage, a linometer was used. The results were analyzed using two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test at p < 0.05 level. Results The silorane-based resin composite showed the lowest filler content and light attenuation among the specimens. P90 showed the highest values in the DC and the lowest microhardness at all depth. In the polymerization shrinkage, P90 showed a significantly lower shrinkage than the rest two resin products (p < 0.05). P90 showed a significantly lower refractive index than the remaining two resin products (p < 0.05). Conclusions DC, microhardness, polymerization rate and refractive index linearly decreased as specimen thickness linearly increased. P90 showed much less polymerization shrinkage compared to other specimens. P90, even though achieved the highest DC, showed the lowest microhardness and refractive index.

Son, Sung-Ae; Roh, Hyoung-Mee; Hur, Bock; Kwon, Yong-Hoon

2014-01-01

376

40 CFR 414.40 - Applicability; description of the thermoplastic resins subcategory.  

...Resins Polyvinyl Acetate *Polyvinyl Acetate—PVC Copolymers *Polyvinyl Acetate Copolymers ...*Polyvinylidene-Vinyl Chloride Resins *PVC Copolymers, Acrylates (Latex) *PVC Copolymers, Ethylene-Vinyl Chloride...

2014-07-01

377

Curing kinetics of a furan resin and its nanocomposites  

Microsoft Academic Search

A furan resin was synthesized from furfural and phenol and it was expected to have similar properties to the commonly used phenolic resins because the former was obtained by the replacement of formaldehyde by furfural, reducing the dangerous formaldehyde emissions. In the present work, nanocomposites were obtained by the in situ addition of 2% of different types of clays to

Guadalupe Rivero; Valeria Pettarin; Analía Vázquez; Liliana B. Manfredi

2011-01-01

378

ISOLATION OF ORGANIC WATER POLLUTANTS BY XAD RESINS AND CARBON  

EPA Science Inventory

The recovery efficiencies of XAD resins -2, -4, -7, and -8 and of resin mixtures were measured using distilled water samples containing 13 organic pollutants. An equal-weight mixture of XAD-4 and XAD-8 was most efficient. XAD-2 and XAD-4/8 were further tested and found effective ...

379

Measuring Asphaltenes and Resins, and Dipole Moment in Petroleum Fluids  

E-print Network

Measuring Asphaltenes and Resins, and Dipole Moment in Petroleum Fluids Lamia Goual Earth Science, Palo Alto, CA 94306 A petroleum fluid can be di®ided into three types of species: asphaltenes, resins or mildly polar. The interaction among these species strongly affect asphaltene precipitation from petroleum

Firoozabadi, Abbas

380

Ant repellent resins of honeybees and stingless bees  

Microsoft Academic Search

We measured the repellent effects of plant resins against the weaver ants, Oecophylla smaragdina. The resins were the sticky bands of the dwarf honeybees, Apis florea and A. andreniformis, propolis of the Western honeybee, A. mellifera and the nest entrance tubes of the stingless bees, Tetrigona apicalis, Lepidotrigona terminata, and Tetragonula collina. A bioassay was developed for testing the effects

O. Duangphakdee; N. Koeniger; S. Deowanish; H. R. Hepburn; S. Wongsiri

2009-01-01

381

Tackification of Textile Fiber Preforms in Resin Transfer Molding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tackified textile fiber preforms are used widely in resin transfer molding (RTM) to produce aerospace-grade composite parts. To optimize the preforming process, a thorough understanding of many important material and process issues, such as fabric formability, preform dimension control, preform permeability, fiber wetting, and tackifier compatibility with the matrix resin, is essential. These issues are investigated based on a commercial

Chih-Hsin Shih; L. James Lee

2001-01-01

382

Dienophile compounds as inhibitors of resin formation in fuels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Products from thermal processing in oil refining contain a large number of unstable compounds which are readily oxidized. These materials show low induction periods to the start of noticeable oxygen absorption and form large proportions of oxidation products - resins and solid residues. Antioxidation additives, e.g. ionol inhibit oxygen absorption, but have little influence over residue and resin-formation. At the

A. M. Danilov; Ye. L. Talisman; Ye. V. Alekseyeva

1985-01-01

383

Research Article Kinetic Study of Epoxy Resin Decomposition  

E-print Network

ether type epoxy resin from bisphenol A, E-51, was cured by methyl- hexahydrophthalic anhydride (MeResearch Article Kinetic Study of Epoxy Resin Decomposition in Near-Critical Water A diglycidyl to the saturated water vapor pressure. The kinetics study of the epoxy decomposition was also carried out

Guo, John Zhanhu

384

Sand control in wells with gas generator and resin  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a method of treating a wellbore having formation perforations for controlling sand and other fine materials. It comprises positioning a quantity of fluid resin material in alignment with the formation perforations of the wellbore; positioning a gas generator in proximity with the fluid resin material; actuating the gas generator to increase wellbore pressure in a substantially instantaneous manner to a pressure substantially in excess of well pressure to force the fluid resin material from the wellbore into the formation perforations; and subsequently polymerizing the resin material to form a consolidated, porous, permeable matrix which retains the sand and other fine materials while permitting the flow of production fluid into the wellbore. This paper also describes a method of treating a wellbore having formation perforations for controlling sand and other fine materials. It comprises positioning a coiled tubing, having a valve and gas generator attached thereto, so that the valve is positioned in a predetermined location relative to the bottom formation perforation; injecting a predetermined amount of fluid resin material through the coiled tubing and valve into the wellbore; raising the gas generator to a position across the formation perforations and in proximity with the fluid resin material; actuating the gas generator to force the fluid resin material into the formation perforations; and thereafter polymerizing the previously fluid resin material to form a consolidated, porous, permeable matrix which retains the sand and other fine materials while permitting the flow of production fluid into the wellbore.

Dees, J.M.

1992-04-07

385

Determination of Some Color Components Present in Petroleum Resin  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a previous report, it was found that some of the color components in the starting material of petroleum resin were cyclopentadiene, methylcyclopentadiene, and their dimers. In the present study, other color components than those mentioned above and the cause of coloring petroleum resin by cyclopentadiene and methyl derivative were investigated. Norbornadiene and ethylidene norbornene were found also to be

Akira Hatano; Yoshiyukiiwase; Kenji Ashida

1978-01-01

386

Selective flotation of fossil resin from western coal  

SciTech Connect

Flotation of coal continued. Technical activities for the third quarter involved efforts by both the University of Utah and Advanced Processing Technologies, Inc. Laboratory research at the University of Utah was concerned with surface chemistry/resin characterization and the development of analytical techniques. APT's activities included proof-of-concept plant testing of the fossil resin flotation circuit. 4 figs.

Jensen, G.F.; Miller, J.D.

1991-06-04

387

Project Summary Title: EFRI-RESIN Proposal, 21st  

E-print Network

Project Summary Title: EFRI-RESIN Proposal, 21st Century National Energy and Transportation/vehicular transportation systems. The project is uniquely suitable to EFRI-RESIN as it targets two critical national, carbon, and transportation; and between prices of petroleum, natural gas, and electricity, will join

Vaswani, Namrata

388

Selective flotation of fossil resin from Western coal  

SciTech Connect

Technical activities for the fourth quarter involved efforts by both the University of Utah and Advanced Processing Technologies, Inc. Laboratory research at the University of Utah was primarily concerned with surface chemistry/resin characterization, which has emphasized Fourier transform infrared analysis in the past quarter. APT's major activities included proof-of-concept plant testing of the fossil resin flotation circuit. (VC)

Jensen, G.F.; Miller, J.D.

1991-10-15

389

Selective flotation of fossil resin from western coal  

SciTech Connect

Research continued flotation of resin from coal. This quarter laboratory research at the University of Utah was concerned with surface chemistry/resin characterization and the development of analytical techniques. APT's activities included plant construction, shake-down testing and flotation testing. Data from {sup 13}C NMR analysis is presented. 2 figs., 2 tabs.

Not Available

1991-03-15

390

Method of treating wells using resin-coated particles  

SciTech Connect

Particles coated with a fusible thermosetting resin are placed in the vicinity of a wellbore and in conjunction with a subterranean formation surrounding the wellbore and are cured in the presence of a treating solution containing a softening agent capable of reducing the fusion temperature of the resin.

Brandt, J.L.; Graham, J.W.; Sinclair, A.R.

1982-06-29

391

Kinetic behavior of lightly crosslinked chelating resins containing amidoxime groups for batchwise adsorption of UO[sub 2][sup 2+  

SciTech Connect

Lightly crosslinked poly(acrylonitrile-co-divinylbenzene) beads (RN-5) have been synthesized by suspension polymerization. The use of dichloroethane and chloroform as a porogen produced lightly crosslinked copolymer beads having highly porous structures. The chelating resins containing amidoxime groups (RNH-5) have been prepared by the reaction of copolymer beads with NH[sub 2]OH in MeOH. The resulting chelating resins have been used in the batchwise adsorption of UO[sub 2][sup 2+] from nitrate solutions containing 0.01 mol[center dot]dm [sup 3]UO[sub 2][sup 2+] at pH 3.25. In order to get some measure of the relative performance of each resin in kinetic terms, the extraction of UO[sub 2][sup 2+] was monitored with time and some adsorption profiles were obtained. An increase in porogen content resulted in a marked increase in the batchwise adsorption of UO[sub 2][sup 2+]. Alkaline treatment allowed a high swelling and hence rapid accessibility of UO[sub 2][sup 2+] to the ligands. Even after 30 minutes, the alkali-treated resins were 50% loaded. 22 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

Kabay, N. (Ege Univ., Izmir (Turkey)); Egawa, Hiroaki (Kumamoto Univ. (Japan))

1993-08-01

392

Effect of moisture and moisture-insensitive primer on bond strength of composite resin to enamel and dentin.  

PubMed

This article sought to compare the influence of moisture and the effect of moisture-insensitive primer (MIP) on shear bond strength (SBS). This study divided 160 extracted teeth randomly into 2 groups (n = 80): Group 1 (enamel) and Group 2 (dentin). Groups 1 and 2 were divided into 4 subgroups (n = 20), according to the surface treatment administered. Subgroup A samples were etched and primed, and received composite resin; Subgroup B samples were etched, contaminated with artificial saliva, and primed before application of composite resin; Subgroup C samples were etched, primed, and contaminated before application of composite resin. Subgroup D samples were etched, primed, contaminated, and primer was applied a second time before application of composite resin. All the specimens were stored in distilled water and thermocycled for 500 cycles; at that point, SBS was tested. According to Tukey's test, only the mean values in Subgroups A and C revealed statistically significant differences (P < 0.05). The use of MIP on contaminated etched tooth surfaces achieved comparable bond strength to noncontaminated tooth surfaces and might have a role in restorative dentistry cases where moisture contamination is inevitable. PMID:24401359

Jain, Amit A; Ramakrishna, Yeluri; Munshi, Autar Krishen

2014-01-01

393

Composite resin bond strength to tooth structure treated with an erbium,chromium:YSGG-laser-powered hydrokinetic system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Er;YAG and Er,Cr;YSGG Lasers that emit in the near red wave lengths cut both enamel and dentine. Dental preparations are often restored with composite resins that bond to enamel. The purpose of this investigation was to assess the shear strength of composite resin bonded to tooth structure cut by an Er,Cr;YSGG powered hydrokinetic system (HKS), (Millennium SystemTM, BioLase Technology, Inc, San Clemente, CA) as compared to surfaces cut with a carbide bur. Extracted human molars devoid of caries and restorations were treated with both systems, with and without acid etching. Shear bond strengths (SBS) for composite resin adherence to these surfaces were measured and compared. There was no significant difference between bur and HKS prepared surfaces in the etched enamel group. The SBS for composite bonded to nonetched enamel was significantly higher with the HKS treatment compared with the bur cut surfaces. There were no significant differences between acid etched bur cut and non etched HKS enamel surfaces. Bonded to nonetched dentin was found to be higher for bur cut surfaces. It is concluded that the Er,Cr;YSGG hydrokinetic system produces surface characteristics that allow for adequate bonding of composite resin to both etched and nonetched enamel.

Lin, Sean; Caputo, Angelo A.; Rizoiu, Ioana-Mihaela; Eversole, Lewis R.

1998-04-01

394

Radionuclide Leaching from Organic Ion Exchange Resin  

SciTech Connect

Laboratory tests were performed to examine the efficacy of leach treatments for decontaminating organic ion exchange resins (OIER), which have been found in a number of samples retrieved from K East Basin sludge. Based on process records, the OIER found in the K Basins is a mixed-bet strong acid/strong base material marketed as Purolite{trademark} NRW-037. Radionuclides sorbed or associated with the OIER can restrict its disposal to the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF). The need for testing to support development of a treatment process for K Basin sludge has been described in Section 4.2 of ''Testing Strategy to Support the Development of K Basins Sludge Treatment Process'' (Flament 1998). To help understand the effects of anticipated OIER elutriation and washing, tests were performed with well-rinsed OIER material from K East Basin floor sludge (sample H-08 BEAD G) and with well-rinsed OIER having approximately 5% added K East canister composite sludge (sample KECOMP). The rinsed resin-bearing material also contained the inorganic ion exchanger Zeolon-900{trademark}, a zeolite primarily composed of the mineral mordenite. The zeolite was estimated to comprise 27 weight percent of the dry H-08 BEAD G material.

Delegard, C.H.; Rinehart, D.E.

1999-04-02

395

Alternative coinitiators applicable to photocurable resin composites.  

PubMed

This review aimed to examine the evolution of the composite resins`s photoinitiator system, with emphasis on those developed in recent years. This review covered literature from 1990 to 2013 and only papers with the key words of interest were included: "coinitiators", "amines", "composite resins", "photopolymerization". The search used full-text papers from PubMed and Science Direct databasis. It was included only English papers, and meeting abstracts and short communications were excluded. Hand search of the references completed the review. A total of 29 articles were studied. Many coinitiators are being researched as an alternative to traditional tertiary amines, particularly in order to improve the physical and mechanical properties of the final polymer and its biocompatibility with oral tissues. Polymerizable amines, natural compounds, and coinitiators with low toxicity and antiseptic properties were studied, and the results found they would be promising substitutes. These materials must present appropriate concentration and reactivity to obtain adequate physical and mechanical properties and high biocompatibility. However, further in vivo studies are required to verify the performance of these alternative coinitiators in the composite materials, mainly when in contact with oral tissues and the stomatognathic system. PMID:25284513

Bittencourt, Bruna Fortes; Dominguez, John Alexis; Farago, Paulo Vitor; Pinheiro, Luis Antonio; Gomes, Osnara Maria Mongruel

2014-09-01

396

Exhausting and regenerating resin for uranium removal  

SciTech Connect

Uranium removal with chloride-form anion exchange resin was studied near Houston, Texas, where an abandoned water supply well contained 120 [mu]g/L uranium and 25 pCi/L radium. With this neutral-pH, sulfate-free water, the resin exhibited enormous capacity for the uranyl tricarbonate complex, still removing 95 percent uranium after nearly 16 months without regeneration and after 302,000 bed volumes of throughput. Computer predictions indicate, however, that the presence of sulfate in feedwater would significantly shorten the run length. The efficiency of uranium removal did not deteriorate at a feed pH as low as 5.6, but when the pH was lowered to 4.3. uranium removal decreased to 50 percent and the run length was shortened to 5,000 bed volumes. Results indicate that sodium chloride (NaCl) was an adequate regenerant and, within the range of 0.5 to 4.0 N, the more concentrated the NaCl, the more efficient it was.

Zhihe Zhang; Clifford, D.A. (Univ. of Houston, TX (United States). Dept. of Environmental Engineering)

1994-04-01

397

Properties of Some Toughened, Radiation Stable Epoxy Resins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Impregnating resins for use in fusion magnet technology are required to be radiation stable, have a long useable life together with some degree of toughness to minimise the risk of cracking during cool-down. Some multi-functional resins in combination with solid aromatic amines have, in the past, been shown to have lost little of their strength after a total absorbed dose of 200 MGy. Using resins that are known to be radiation stable with a liquid aromatic amine hardener, the effect of adding an aromatic epoxy resin as a reactive `toughening agent,' to improve the toughness of otherwise brittle resins has been assessed. Boron free glass composites, using various amounts of added toughening agent were prepared by vacuum impregnation and a number of critical composite properties have been measured, at room temperature and at 77 K.

Zhang, H.; Huang, R. J.; Li, L. F.; Evans, D.

2008-03-01

398

[Purification process of proanthrocyanidin from rapeseed with macroporous resins].  

PubMed

The characteristics of absoption and desorption of four classes (five kinds) of macroporous resins in the solution of rapeseed proanthrocyanidin were compared. The results indicated that the weak polar macroporous resins AB-8 and HPD450 were better than the other three macroporous resins in some characteristics of absorption and desorption. In this experiment, the purity of rapeseed proanthrocyanidin prepared only by AB-8 macroporous resin column was higher than only by HPD450 column. However,the yield was lower. Using two steps of purification (first HPD450 column and second AB-8 column) obtained better results. The yield and purity were 62. 5% and 84% ,respectively. After using mixed resin column (50% HPD450 and 50% AB-8), the yield and purity were 75.2% and 80.3%, respectively. The last results might be used in industry. PMID:21213547

Wu, Jian-ming; Xia, Chun-tang; Zhang, Xiao-jun; Ding, Feng

2010-08-01

399

Anion-exchange resin-based desulfurization process  

SciTech Connect

The University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI) has been directed to further develop an anion-exchange, resin-based desulfurization concept. It is necessary that the soluble sulfates of alkali metal sorbents be desulfurized (regenerated) and recycled to make regenerative flue gas desulfurization options more attractive. In order to achieve this, a low-temperature, low-cost desulfurization process to reactivate spent alkali metal sorbents is necessary. UTSI's anion-exchange, resin-based concept is believed to satisfy this requirement. Investigators will perform the following investigations: screening of commercially available resins; process variables study and improving resin performance; optimization of resin-regeneration; evaluation of performance enhancers; development of Best-Process Schematic and related economics; and planing for proof-of-concept (POC) scale testing. 2 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

Sheth, A.C.; Strevel, S.D.

1991-01-01

400

Recovery of resins and hydrocarbons by in situ combustion of resinous coals. Part VII: in situ gasification  

Microsoft Academic Search

A liquid resin and a hydrocarbon gas may be recovered from impermeable resinous coals by contact of the coal with steam at 550 to 800°F and 200 to 14,000 lb\\/sq in gage. A porous carbonaceous residue is left, suitable for combustion in situ.

E. M. Craighead; H. Purre

1959-01-01

401

Determination of neptunium in environmental samples by extraction chromatography after valence adjustment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neptunium(V) ions are unstable in acid media, which limits their extraction on chromatographic resins. We developed a novel analytical method to measure Np by either ?-spectrometry or inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) after extraction chromatography as Np(VI). We investigated the reactivity of various oxidizing reagents, and determined the retention capacity of Np(IV, V, and VI) on various extraction chromatographic

Nicolas Guérin; Marc-Antoine Langevin; Kenny Nadeau; Charles Labrecque; Alexandre Gagné; Dominic Larivière

2010-01-01

402

Process for preparing light colored petroleum resins and resins produced thereby  

SciTech Connect

Petroleum resins of lightened color while retaining satisfactory melting point and compatibility are provided by a process which comprises heat soaking a petroleum cracking or reforming fraction containing cationically polymerizable hydrocarbons and from 2 to more than 0.5 weight percent of cyclodienes until the cyclodiene content is no more than 0.5 weight percent distilling said heat soaked petroleum fraction and polymerizing said distilled petroleum fraction in the presence of a polymerization catalyst.

Small, A. B.; Benitez, F. M.; Hughes, V. L.

1985-12-31

403

Phosphorus-containing imide resins - Modification by elastomers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The syntheses and general features of addition-type maleimide resins based on bis(m-aminophenyl)phosphine oxide and tris(m-aminophenyl)phosphine oxide have been reported previously. These resins have been used to fabricate graphite cloth laminates having excellent flame resistance. These composites did not burn even in pure oxygen. However, these resins were somewhat brittle. This paper reports the modification of these phosphorus-containing resins by an amine-terminated butadiene-acrylonitrile copolymer (ATBN) and a perfluoroalkylene diaromatic amine elastomer (3F). An approximately two-fold increase in short beam shear strength and flexural strength was observed at 7 percent ATBN concentration. The tensile, flexural, and shear strengths were reduced when 18 percent ATBN was used. Anaerobic char yields of the resins at 800 C and the limiting oxygen indexes of the laminates decreased with increasing ATBN concentration. The perfluorodiamine (3F) was used with both imide resins at 6.4 percent concentration. The shear strength was doubled in the case of the bisimide with no loss of flammability characteristics. The modified trisimide laminate also had improved properties over the unmodified one. The dynamic mechanical analysis of a four-ply laminate indicated a glass transition temperature above 300 C. Scanning electron micrographs of the ATBN modified imide resins were also recorded.

Varma, I. K.; Fohlen, G. M.; Parker, J. A.; Varma, D. S.

1984-01-01

404

Hand/face/neck localized pattern: sticky problems--resins.  

PubMed

Plastic resin systems have an increasingly diverse array of applications but also induce health hazards, the most common of which are allergic and irritant contact dermatitis. Contact urticaria, pigmentary changes, and photoallergic contact dermatitis may occasionally occur. Other health effects, especially respiratory and neurologic signs and symptoms, have also been reported. These resin systems include epoxies, the most frequent synthetic resin systems to cause contact dermatitis, (meth)acrylics, polyurethanes, phenol-formaldehydes, polyesters, amino resins (melamine-formaldehydes, urea-formaldehydes), polyvinyls, polystyrenes, polyolefins, polyamides and polycarbonates. Contact dermatitis usually occurs as a result of exposure to the monomers and additives in the occupational setting, although reports from consumers, using the raw materials or end products periodically surface. Resin- and additive-induced direct contact dermatitis usually presents on the hands, fingers, and forearms, while facial, eyelid, and neck involvement may occur through indirect contact, eg, via the hands, or from airborne exposure. Patch testing with commercially available materials, and in some cases the patient's own resins, is important for diagnosis. Industrial hygiene prevention techniques are essential to reduce contact dermatitis when handling these resin systems. PMID:19580919

Cao, Lauren Y; Sood, Apra; Taylor, James S

2009-07-01

405

Influence of bulk-resin properties on composite properties  

SciTech Connect

Transverse cracking is a major type of damage often observed in fiber-reinforced composites. This type of cracking occurs in the plies along the fiber direction due to the load acting perpendicular to the fibers. The objective of this research was to correlate composite properties with bulk resin properties. The purpose was to determine the influence of material variables such as molecular weight of the resin, degree of cure, and resin concentration in the composite on the fracture properties. As the resin concentration increases, the composite fracture energies of all the resins employed increased. It is found that as the molecular weight of the resin increases both the bulk and the composite fracture energies increase, the rate of increase being greater in the bulk resin. This type of behavior can be attributed to a number of different mechanisms: (1) different degrees of cure, (2) residual stresses in the samples, (3) mixed adhesive and cohesive failure of the matrix, and (4) mechanical constraint of the crack tip plastic zone. This work demonstrates the factors controlling the fracture process and attributes the results to constraints on the crack-tip plastic zone by the fibers.

Sundaram, R.

1991-01-01

406

Processing of continuous fiber composites using thermoplastic polyimide matrix resins  

SciTech Connect

Composites have been produced which contain a solvent resistant polyimide matrix with favorable physical properties. The polyimide matrix resin has been designated as P12. The prepegs used to produce the composite contain a low molecular weight resin which is the polyamic acid precursor to P12. Polymerization and imidization of the precursor resin occurs in-situ during processing. Similar commercial systems are often processed in an autoclave and pressure is used at high temperatures to obtain consolidation between prepreg laminates. Pressure is generally applied after polymerization and imidization are complete and at temperatures above the melting point of the polymer. In this research a significant decrease in composite void content was obtained by applying pressure earlier in the cure. Obtaining composites with low void content with these types of systems can be difficult. This is due in part to the generation of low molecular weight reaction by products, water and methanol. High void content results in a decrease in the physical properties of the composite structure. This is especially true for fracture properties. An empirical equation was used to describe the rate of resin removal from the composite to the bleeder cloth during processing. This equation is based on Springer-Loos resin flow model. The conditions in which this model does not apply were also determined. Determining resin removal rates is helpful in producing composites with consistent fiber/resin ratios. In addition, conditions which favor void growth can be prevented.

Kranjc, M.D.

1993-01-01

407

Effect of temporary cements on the microtensile bond strength of self-etching and self-adhesive resin cement.  

PubMed

Abstract Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate the microtensile bond strength (µTBS) of self-etching and self-adhesive resin cement systems to dentin affected by the presence of remnants of either eugenol-containing or eugenol-free temporary cements. Materials and methods. Thirty extracted teeth were obtained and a flat dentin surface was exposed on each tooth. Acrylic blocks were fabricated and cemented either with one of two temporary cements, one zinc oxide eugenol (ZOE) and one eugenol free (ZOE-free), or without cement (control). After cementation, specimens were stored in water at 37°C for 1 week. The restorations and remnants of temporary cements were removed and dentin surfaces were cleaned with pumice. Resin composite blocks were cemented to the bonded dentin surfaces with one of two resin cements, either self-etching (Panavia F 2.0) or self-adhesive (RelyX U-100). After 24 h, the specimens were sectioned to obtain beams for submission to µTBS. The fracture mode was evaluated under a stereoscopic loupe and a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Data from µTBS were submitted to two-way repeated-measure ANOVA and the Tukey test (alpha = 0.05). Results. The cross-product interaction was statistically significant (p < 0.0003). The presence of temporary cements reduced the bond strength to Panavia self-etching resin cements only (p < 0.05). Fracture occurred predominantly at the dentin-adhesive interface. Conclusions. The presence of eugenol-containing temporary cements did not interfere in the bond strength to dentin of self-adhesive resin cements. PMID:24837710

Carvalho, Edilausson Moreno; Carvalho, Ceci Nunes; Loguercio, Alessandro Dourado; Lima, Darlon Martins; Bauer, José

2014-11-01

408

Intermediate velocity bullet impact response of laminated glass fiber reinforced hybrid (HEP) resin carbon nano composite  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, five different types of six layered GFRP laminates were prepared from three types of resin systems and compared for their intermediate velocity bullet impact response. The first panel was made of epoxy resin, second one is of hybrid resin (a blend of 60% epoxy and 40% polyester) and the remaining three panels were made of hybrid resin

P. S. Venkatanarayanan; A. Joseph Stanley

409

Composite veneered acrylic resin provisional restorations for complete veneer crowns.  

PubMed

Restorations that are remade to improve esthetics, teeth with pronounced gingival-to-incisal color contrast, or high-value translucent teeth can limit the capability of shaded acrylic resin provisional restorations to satisfy the esthetic demands of certain patients. This article describes a procedure to incorporate a composite veneer in an acrylic resin provisional restoration. Improved optical properties of microfilled composite are combined with the excellent marginal seal and contour of acrylic resin. Precise control of color, translucency, and surface texture provide excellent interim esthetics and a better guide for the definitive prosthesis. PMID:10559721

Solow, R A

1999-11-01

410

Chromatographic zinc isotope separation by phenol formaldehyde benzo crown resin.  

PubMed

New types of phenol formaldehyde resin having benzo crown as a functional group were synthesized and applied to zinc isotope chromatographic operation. Zinc adsorption and isotope separation capacities were dramatically improved by using phenol formaldehyde benzo-15-crown-5 resin. Zinc batch adsorption tests were performed by various dehydrated organic solvents. Separation coefficient, epsilon 8.1 x 10(-4) and height equivalent to a theoretical plate (HETP) 0.105 cm for the isotopic pair of 68Zn/64Zn in phenol formaldehyde benzo-15-crown-5 resin were obtained in the case of acetone as the solvent at 298+/-1K. PMID:16499915

Ding, Xingcheng; Nomura, Masao; Suzuki, Tatsuya; Sugiyama, Yuichi; Kaneshiki, Toshitaka; Fujii, Yasuhiko

2006-04-28

411

Cryogenic compressive properties of basic epoxy resin systems  

SciTech Connect

The compressive properties of short cylindrical samples of many different epoxy resin systems have been measured at ambient temperature and at 77/sup 0/K. These are pure resin systems of known chemistry, without the inorganic fillers or fibrous reinforcements needed in final cryogenic systems. Of course, chemically incorporated modifiers such as flexibilizing resins have been included. This data should make possible inferences about cryogenic properties from molecular structures and provide specific data useful to formulators and end users. Measurements on some other plastics such as PTFE, Polyimides, and UHMWPE have been made for comparison purposes.

Markley, F.W.; Hoffman, J.A.; Muniz, D.P.

1985-09-01

412

TALONTM Resins I. List of Components  

E-print Network

Extraction/Wash Buffer (250 mM Sodium Phosphate, 1.5 M Sodium Chloride, pH 7) 160 ml 5X Extraction Buffer (250 mM Sodium Phosphate, 1.5 M Sodium Chloride, pH 8) 25 ml 10X Elution Buffer (1.5 M Imidazole, pH 7-1) 160 ml 5X Extraction/Wash Buffer (250 mM Sodium Phosphate, 1.5 M Sodium Chloride, pH 7) 160 ml 5X

Lebendiker, Mario

413

DNA Extraction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity related to plant biotechnology, learners extract DNA from fruit to investigate how it looks and feels. The procedure is similar to what scientists have to do before they can use information contained in this DNA. This lesson guide includes procedure and discussion questions to help learners reflect on the process and purpose of DNA extraction. Modifications for younger learners are included in a related PDF (see related resources).

Stephens, Janice; Leach, Jan

2011-01-01

414

Comparing the effect of a resin based sealer on crown retention for three types of cements: an in vitro study.  

PubMed

To determine the effect of resin based sealer on retention of casting cemented with three different luting agents. 55 extracted molar teeth were prepared with a flat occlusal surface, 20° taper and 4 mm axial height. The axial surface of each specimen was determined. The specimen were then distributed into five groups based on decreasing surface area, so each cementation group contained 11 specimens with similar mean axial surface area. A two-step, single bottle universal adhesive system (One-Step-Resinomer, Bisco) was used to seal dentin after the tooth preparation. Sealer was not used on the control specimens except for the modified-resin cement (Resinomer, Bisco) specimens that required use of adhesive with cementation. Using ceramometal (Wirobond(®), BEGO), a casting was produced for each specimen and cemented with either zinc phosphate (Harvard), glass ionomer (Vivaglass) or modified resin cement (Resinomer) with single bottle adhesive. All the castings were cemented with a force of 20 kg. Castings were thermal cycled at 5 and 55 °C for 2,500 cycles and were then removed along the path of insertion using a universal testing machine at 0.5 mm/min. A single-factor ANOVA was used with a = 0.05. The nature of failure was also recorded. The mean stress removal for non sealed zinc phosphate, sealed zinc phosphate, non sealed glass ionomer, sealed glass ionomer and modified resin cement was found to be 3.56, 1.92, 2.40, 4.26, 6.95 MPa respectively. Zinc phosphate cement remained principally on the castings when the tooth surface was treated with the sealer and was found on both the tooth and the casting when the sealer was not used. Fracture of root before dislodgement was seen in 9 of 11 specimens with modified resin cement. Resin sealer decreases the retention of the castings when used with zinc phosphate and increases it when used with glass ionomer cement. The highest mean dislodgement force was measured with modified resin cement. PMID:24431752

Patel, Pankaj; Thummar, Mansukh; Shah, Dipti; Pitti, Varun

2013-09-01

415

21 CFR 177.1330 - Ionomeric resins.  

...ethanol/water. ii. Nonalcoholic 3% acetic acid. iii. Containing more than 8% alcohol 50% ethanol/water. 7. Bakery products Water, n -heptane. 8. Dry solids (without free fat or oil) No extraction test required. 9. Dry...

2014-04-01

416

Comparative Evaluation of Sorption, Solubility and Microhardness of Heat Cure Polymethylmethacrylate Denture Base Resin & Flexible Denture Base Resin  

PubMed Central

Aim: The aim of the study was to evaluate and compare sorption, solubility and microhardness of heat cure polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) denture base resin and flexible (thermoplastic polyamide nylon) denture base resin. Materials and Methods: Sorption, solubility and microhardness were assessed to determine compliance with ADA Specification no. 12. Results were assessed using statistical and observational analyses. Result: All materials satisfied ADA requirements for sorption, solubility and microhardness. Heat cure PMMA showed more sorption, solubility and microhardness than flexible (thermoplastic polyamide nylon). Conclusion: Flexible (thermoplastic polyamide nylon) resin absorbs less water, is less soluble and is more flexible than PMMA. PMID:25302291

Bulbule, Nilesh; Kulkarni, Shilpa; Shah, Riddhi; Kakade, Dilip

2014-01-01

417

Removal of radioactive materials and heavy metals from water using magnetic resin  

DOEpatents

Magnetic polymer resins capable of efficient removal of actinides and heavy metals from contaminated water are disclosed together with methods for making, using, and regenerating them. The resins comprise polyamine-epichlorohydrin resin beads with ferrites attached to the surfaces of the beads. Markedly improved water decontamination is demonstrated using these magnetic polymer resins of the invention in the presence of a magnetic field, as compared with water decontamination methods employing ordinary ion exchange resins or ferrites taken separately.

Kochen, Robert L. (Boulder, CO); Navratil, James D. (Simi Valley, CA)

1997-01-21

418

Removal of radioactive materials and heavy metals from water using magnetic resin  

DOEpatents

Magnetic polymer resins capable of efficient removal of actinides and heavy metals from contaminated water are disclosed together with methods for making, using, and regenerating them. The resins comprise polyamine-epichlorohydrin resin beads with ferrites attached to the surfaces of the beads. Markedly improved water decontamination is demonstrated using these magnetic polymer resins of the invention in the presence of a magnetic field, as compared with water decontamination methods employing ordinary ion exchange resins or ferrites taken separately. 9 figs.

Kochen, R.L.; Navratil, J.D.

1997-01-21

419

Metabolomics Reveals the Origins of Antimicrobial Plant Resins Collected by Honey Bees  

PubMed Central

The deposition of antimicrobial plant resins in honey bee, Apis mellifera, nests has important physiological benefits. Resin foraging is difficult to approach experimentally because resin composition is highly variable among and between plant families, the environmental and plant-genotypic effects on resins are unknown, and resin foragers are relatively rare and often forage in unobservable tree canopies. Subsequently, little is known about the botanical origins of resins in many regions or the benefits of specific resins to bees. We used metabolomic methods as a type of environmental forensics to track individual resin forager behavior through comparisons of global resin metabolite patterns. The resin from the corbiculae of a single bee was sufficient to identify that resin's botanical source without prior knowledge of resin composition. Bees from our apiary discriminately foraged for resin from eastern cottonwood (Populus deltoides), and balsam poplar (P. balsamifera) among many available, even closely related, resinous plants. Cottonwood and balsam poplar resin composition did not show significant seasonal or regional changes in composition. Metabolomic analysis of resin from 6 North American Populus spp. and 5 hybrids revealed peaks characteristic to taxonomic nodes within Populus, while antimicrobial analysis revealed that resin from different species varied in inhibition of the bee bacterial pathogen, Paenibacillus larvae. We conclude that honey bees make discrete choices among many resinous plant species, even among closely related species. Bees also maintained fidelity to a single source during a foraging trip. Furthermore, the differential inhibition of P. larvae by Populus spp., thought to be preferential for resin collection in temperate regions, suggests that resins from closely related plant species many have different benefits to bees. PMID:24204850

Wilson, Michael B.; Spivak, Marla; Hegeman, Adrian D.; Rendahl, Aaron; Cohen, Jerry D.

2013-01-01

420

DIPHONIX-CS : A NOVEL COMBINED CESIUM AND STRONTIUM SELECTIVE ION EXCHANGE RESIN  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recently developed Diphonix® resin contains the geminally substituted diphosphonic acid ligand chemically bonded to a styrene-divinylbenzene copolymer. The resin exhibits an extraordinarily strong affinity for actinides, especially in the terra- and hexavalent oxidation states. Therefore the resin has potential for application in TRU removal from nuclear wastes. The Diphonix-CS resin is a Diphonix-type resin that contains also phenolic groups

R. Chiarizia; E. P. Horwitz; R. A. Beauvais; S. D. Alexandratos

1998-01-01

421

21 CFR 872.3670 - Resin impression tray material.  

...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3670...resin impression tray material is applied to this preliminary study model to form a custom tray. This tray is then filled...

2014-04-01

422

21 CFR 177.2415 - Poly(aryletherketone) resins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...polystyrene standards, and a minimum mid-point glass transition temperature of 142 °C, as determined by differential scanning calorimetry. (b) Optional adjuvant substances. The basic resins identified in paragraph (a) may contain optional...

2013-04-01

423

21 CFR 177.2415 - Poly(aryletherketone) resins.  

...polystyrene standards, and a minimum mid-point glass transition temperature of 142 °C, as determined by differential scanning calorimetry. (b) Optional adjuvant substances. The basic resins identified in paragraph (a) may contain optional...

2014-04-01

424

21 CFR 177.2415 - Poly(aryletherketone) resins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...polystyrene standards, and a minimum mid-point glass transition temperature of 142 °C, as determined by differential scanning calorimetry. (b) Optional adjuvant substances. The basic resins identified in paragraph (a) may contain optional...

2011-04-01

425

21 CFR 177.2415 - Poly(aryletherketone) resins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...polystyrene standards, and a minimum mid-point glass transition temperature of 142 °C, as determined by differential scanning calorimetry. (b) Optional adjuvant substances. The basic resins identified in paragraph (a) may contain optional...

2012-04-01

426

21 CFR 177.2450 - Polyamide-imide resins.  

...coating and heat curing at 600 °F for 15 minutes on stainless steel plates, each having such resin-coated surface...this chapter, using a plurality of spaced, coated stainless steel plates, exposed to the respective food...

2014-04-01

427

Creep behavior of epoxy resin during irradiation at cryogenic temperature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Creep tests of an epoxy resin during bending and irradiation have been carried out to investigate the synergistic effects of radiation and stress on mechanical properties of the resin. Simultaneous application of stress and irradiation on the epoxy resin enhanced creep rates in comparison with the application of stress on an irradiated sample. In order to clarify the mechanism of the radiation-induced creep, measurements of solvent swelling of specimens have been performed. The swelling increased with the dose and the increase of the swelling corresponds to the increase of the chain scission. The mechanism of increased deformation of the resin during irradiation is proposed to be caused by increased chain scission following the release of the local strain energy.

Nishiura, Tetsuya; Nishijima, Shigehiro; Okada, Toichi

1999-11-01

428

21 CFR 177.2490 - Polyphenylene sulfide resins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...in Organic Compounds,” “Determination of the Inherent Viscosity of Polyphenylene Sulfide,” and “Analysis for Dichlorobenzene...percent by weight of finished resin. (2) Minimum inherent viscosity: 0.13 deciliters per gram. (3) Maximum residual...

2011-04-01

429

Modified Paving Bitumens Based on Tar and Petroleum Polymeric Resins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modification of tar with petroleum polymeric resins yields paving-grade bitumens with enhanced cohesion. With respect to the heat resistance and other parameters, these bitumens meet the requirements of GOST (State Standard) for BND 90\\/130 paving bitumens.

V. V. Fedorov; A. M. Syroezhko; O. Yu. Begak; V. A. Proskuryakov; G. I. Borovikov

2002-01-01

430

Evaluation of antioxidant activities of aqueous extracts and fractionation of different parts of Elsholtzia ciliata.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant and free-radical scavenging activity of extract and fractions from various parts of Elsholtzia ciliata. The inflorescences, leaves, stems and roots of E. ciliata were extracted separately and two phenolic component enrichment methods: ethyl acetate-water liquid-liquid extraction and macroporous resin adsorption-desorption, were adopted in this study. The antioxidant activities of water extracts and fractions of E. ciliata were examined using different assay model systems in vitro. The fraction root E (purified by HPD300 macroporous resin) exhibited the highest total phenolics content (497.2 ± 24.9 mg GAE/g), accompanied with the highest antioxidant activity against various antioxidant systems in vitro compared to other fractions. On the basis of the results obtained, E. ciliata extracts can be used potentially as a ready accessible and valuable bioactive source of natural antioxidants. PMID:22572928

Liu, Xiangping; Jia, Jia; Yang, Lei; Yang, Fengjian; Ge, Hongshuang; Zhao, Chunjian; Zhang, Lin; Zu, Yuangang

2012-01-01

431

An Engineering Evaluation of Spherical Resorcinol Formaldehyde Resin  

SciTech Connect

A small column ion exchange (SCIX) system has been proposed for removal of cesium from caustic, supernatant, and dissolved salt solutions stored or generated from high-level tank wastes at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site and Savannah River Sites. In both instances, deployment of SCIX systems, either in-tank or near-tank, is a means of expediting waste pretreatment and dispositioning with minimal or no new infrastructure requirements. Conceptually, the treatment approach can utilize a range of ion exchange media. Previously, both crystalline silicotitanate (CST), an inorganic, nonelutable sorbent, and resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF), an organic, elutable resin, have been considered for cesium removal from tank waste. More recently, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) evaluated use of SuperLig{reg_sign} 644, an elutable ion exchange medium, for the subject application. Results of testing indicate hydraulic limitations of the SuperLig{reg_sign} resin, specifically a high pressure drop through packed ion exchange columns. This limitation is likely the result of swelling and shrinkage of the irregularly shaped (granular) resin during repeated conversions between sodium and hydrogen forms as the resin is first loaded then eluted. It is anticipated that a similar flow limitation would exist in columns packed with conventional, granular RF resin. However, use of spherical RF resin is a likely means of mitigating processing limitations due to excessive pressure drop. Although size changes occur as the spherical resin is cycled through loading and elution operations, the geometry of the resin is expected to effectively mitigate the close packing that leads to high pressure drops across ion exchange columns. Multiple evaluations have been performed to determine the feasibility of using spherical RF resin and to obtain data necessary for design of an SCIX process. The work performed consisted of examination of radiation effects on resin performance, quantification of cesium adsorption performance as a function of operating temperature and pH, and evaluation of sodium uptake (titration) as function of pH and counteranion concentration. The results of these efforts are presented in this report. Hydraulic performance of the resin and the use of eluant alternatives to nitric acid have also been evaluated and have been reported elsewhere (Taylor 2009, Taylor and Johnson 2009).

Birdwell Jr, Joseph F [ORNL; Lee, Denise L [ORNL; Taylor, Paul Allen [ORNL; Collins, Robert T [ORNL; Hunt, Rodney Dale [ORNL

2010-09-01

432

Evaluation of Resin Dissolution Using an Advanced Oxidation Process - 13241  

SciTech Connect

The ion-exchange resin is widely used in nuclear reactors, in cooling water purification and removing radioactive elements. Because of the long periods of time inside the reactor system, the resin becomes radioactive. When the useful life of them is over, its re-utilization becomes inappropriate, and for this reason, the resin is considered radioactive waste. The most common method of treatment is the immobilization of spent ion exchange resin in cement in order to form a solid monolithic matrix, which reduces the radionuclides release into the environment. However, the characteristic of contraction and expansion of the resin limits its incorporation in 10%, resulting in high cost in its direct immobilization. Therefore, it is recommended the utilization of a pre-treatment, capable of reducing the volume and degrading the resin, which would increase the load capacity in the immobilization. This work aims to develop a method of degradation of ion spent resins from the nuclear research reactor of Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Brazil, using the Advanced Oxidative Process (AOP) with Fenton's reagent (hydrogen peroxide and ferrous sulphate as catalyst). The resin evaluated was a mixture of cationic (IR 120P) and anionic (IRA 410) resins. The reactions were conducted by varying the concentration of the catalyst (25, 50, 100 e 150 mM) and the volume of the hydrogen peroxide, at three different temperatures, 50, 60 and 70 deg. C. The time of reaction was three hours. Total organic carbon content was determined periodically in order to evaluate the degradation as a function of time. The concentration of 50 mM of catalyst was the most effective in degrading approximately 99%, using up to 330 mL of hydrogen peroxide. The most effective temperature was about 60 deg. C, because of the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide in higher temperatures. TOC content was influenced by the concentration of the catalyst, interfering in the beginning of the degradation process. It was possible to correlate it with the final amount of non-degraded resins. These results show that these conditions were favorable to destroy the resins, indicating to be the AOP an effective technique to reduce the volume of the waste. (authors)

Goulart de Araujo, Leandro; Vicente de Padua Ferreira, Rafael; Takehiro Marumo, Julio [Nuclear and Energy Research Institute, Av. Lineu Prestes, 2242., Sao Paulo, SP. (Brazil)] [Nuclear and Energy Research Institute, Av. Lineu Prestes, 2242., Sao Paulo, SP. (Brazil); Passos Piveli, Roque; Campos, Fabio [The Polytechnic School of the University of Sao Paulo, Av. Prof. Almeida Prado, 83, trav.2. Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)] [The Polytechnic School of the University of Sao Paulo, Av. Prof. Almeida Prado, 83, trav.2. Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

2013-07-01

433

Fluorinated diamond particles bonded in a filled fluorocarbon resin matrix  

DOEpatents

A method of producing fluorinated diamond particles bonded in a filled fluorocarbon resin matrix. Simple hot pressing techniques permit the formation of such matrices from which diamond impregnated grinding tools and other articles of manufacture can be produced. Teflon fluorocarbon resins filled with Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 yield grinding tools with substantially improved work-to-wear ratios over grinding wheels known in the art.

Taylor, Gene W. (Los Alamos, NM); Roybal, Herman E. (Santa Fe, NM)

1985-01-01

434

Radiation degradation in EPICOR-2 ion exchange resins  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Low-Level Waste Data base Development -- EPICOR-II Resin\\/Liner Investigation Program funded by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission is investigating chemical and physical conditions for organic ion exchange resins contained in several EPICOR-II prefilters. Those prefilters were used during cleanup of contaminated water from the Three Mile Island Nuclear Power Station after the March 1979 accident. The work was performed

J. W. Jr. McConnell; D. A. Johnson; R. D. Sr. Sanders

1990-01-01

435

PEG-related polymer resins as synthetic supports  

Microsoft Academic Search

Combinatorial chemistry has become a significant part of the discovery and optimization process for novel drugs, affinity\\u000a ligands, and catalysts. The polymeric supports play a key role in combinatory chemistry. Therefore, various kinds of functional\\u000a polymer resins have been exploited as supports, reagents, and catalysts in organic synthesis. In comparison to the conventional\\u000a Merrifield resins, the poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-related polymer

Zheng Wang; RuLei Yang; JunDong Zhu; XiaoXia Zhu

2010-01-01

436

Affordable Resins and Adhesives From Optimized Soybean Varieties (ARA Program)  

SciTech Connect

The Mission of the ARA Program was to develop the Corporate Infrastructure to mass-produce new bio-based materials from Soybeans. The resins were integrated with the bio-fuels program. (1) to research, develop, and commercialize low cost adhesives and resins from soy oil and protein, the co-products of the soy bio-diesel process. (2) to study structure-functionality of soy oil and proteins at molecular and genomic levels

Dr. Richard WOol; Dr. X. Susan Sun; Rich Chapas

2004-04-21

437

Energy dependent polymerization of resin-based composite  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: This study explores the relationship between the extent of polymerization and the radiant energy (dose) applied during the photopolymerization of resin-based composites.Method: FTIR was used to measure the 5-min and 24-h conversion of four resin-based composites prepared in a thin film and polymerized under conditions of decreasing intensity and a constant exposure time (30s) using a tungsten halogen curing

Rolf H. Halvorson; Robert L. Erickson; Carel L. Davidson

2002-01-01

438

Assessing the aquatic hazard of commercial hydrocarbon resins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrocarbon resins are used to modify polymer products to achieve desired functional properties for a diverse range of products. These complex hydrocarbon-based mixtures are typically poorly soluble in water. However, resins may leach lower-molecular-weight monomers or impurities upon contact with water, thus posing a potential hazard to the aquatic environment. The bioavailability and toxicity of leachable constituents of four solid

R. W. Woods; D. J. Letinski; E. J. Febbo; C. L. Dzamba; M. J. Connelly; T. F. Parkerton

2007-01-01

439

Characterization and fractionation by ultrafiltration of guayule resin  

E-print Network

Committee: Dr. Aydin Akgerman Dr. John Wagner Utililization of the resinous co-product from guayule rubber production would improve the overall economics of the process. The resin was characterized by gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and by infrared... BACKGROUND THEORY GEL PERMEATION CHROMATOGRAPHY ANALYSIS INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY TYPES OF MEMBRANE SEPARATION PROCESSES DIAFILTRATIO N POLYMER VS. CERAMIC MEMBRANES MICROPOROUS VS. ASYMMETRIC MEMBRANES MANUFACTURE OF TUBULAR ASYMMETRIC CERAMIC UF...

Daly, Monica Ann

2012-06-07

440

Fluorinated diamond particles bonded in a filled fluorocarbon resin matrix  

DOEpatents

A method of producing fluorinated diamond particles bonded in a filled fluorocarbon resin matrix. Simple hot pressing techniques permit the formation of such matrices from which diamond impregnated grinding tools and other articles of manufacture can be produced. Teflon fluorocarbon resins filled with Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ yield grinding tools with substantially improved work-to-wear ratios over grinding wheels known in the art.

Taylor, G.W.; Roybal, H.E.

1983-11-14

441

Chemical modification of matrix Resin networks with engineering thermoplastics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Functionally terminated bisphenol-A polysulfone oligomers were used in the modification of Epon Resin 828\\/4,4'-diamino-diphenylsulfone (DDS) network system. Phenolic hydroxyl terminated PSF oligomers were first capped with a large excess of bisphenol-A diglycidyl ether or Epon Resin 828 at both ends and then the resulting system was cured with DDS, in a two-step process. During these studies molecular weight and the

James L. Hedrick; I. Yilgör; Garth L. Wilkes; James E. McGrath

1985-01-01

442

Effect of Bleaching on Roughness of Dental Composite Resins  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the effect of three bleaching agents (Whiteness Perfect, Whiteness Super, Whiteness HP) on roughness of three dental resin composites (Admira, Durafill VS, Gradia Direct). Twenty disk-shaped standard specimens (10 × 2 mm) of each composite material were prepared and divided into four subgroups (n = 5). In each resin composite group, the unbleached specimens served as control; the other specimens were bleached

Arife Dogan; Suleyman Ozcelik; Orhan Murat Dogan; Ihsan Hubbezoglu; Mehmet Cakmak; Giray Bolayir

2008-01-01

443

Production of polymer resins from products of secondary origin  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.A study has been made of the possibility of the polymerization of different petroleum raw material of secondary origin, including liquid products from a synthetic-rubber plant, products of deep thermal cracking and catalytic cracking, with the aim of producing synthetic resins.2.It has been shown that petroleum polymer resins can be obtained from the liquid products of a syntheticrubber plant (from

V. S. Aliev; N. B. Al'tman; L. V. Malina; G. E. Nesterenko; G. A. Iofin

1968-01-01

444

Tetrapod-like Zinc Oxide Whisker Enhancement of Resin Composite  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is an increasing demand for composite resins with both strong antibacterial activity and satisfactory mechanical properties. This study tested the hypothesis that the new antibacterial agent tetrapod-like zinc oxide whisker (T-ZnOw) could simultaneously enhance the antibacterial activity and mechanical properties of a two-component composite resin. The antibacterial activities of the materials were assessed by the broth dilution test and

L. N. Niu; M. Fang; K. Jiao; L. H. Tang; Y. H. Xiao; L. J. Shen; J. H. Chen

2010-01-01

445

Synthesis and characterization of petroleum resins with epoxy groups  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   \\u000a Pyrolysis of petroleum hydrocarbons (including diesel pyrolysis) aimed at obtaining polyethylene also creates certain liquid\\u000a products which can be used for making so-called petroleum resins (PRs). The C9 fraction from pyrolysis contains among others, styrene and its derivatives, indene and pentanodiene. Petroleum resins with\\u000a epoxy groups (PREs) have been synthesized by oligomerization of unsaturated components of the C9

Michael Bratychak; Witold Brostow; Oleg Grynyshyn; Olena Shyshchak

2003-01-01

446

In situ extraction strategy affects benzophenanthridine alkaloid production fluxes in suspension cultures of Eschscholtzia californica.  

PubMed

The effect of contact between cells and extractive phase on secondary metabolite production was investigated in two-phase suspension cultures of Eschscholtzia californica. A system was designed to extract benzophenanthridine alkaloids from the cell culture, without contact between XAD-7 resins and the cells: only medium was recirculated through a column packed with the extractive phase. This strategy was compared to the classic method of addition of resins directly into the cell suspension. Removal of the product directly from the medium enabled important increases in production of alkaloids, namely a 20-fold increase in sanguinarine production and a 10-fold increase in chelerythrine, with high recovery in the resin. The recirculation strategy greatly simplified the production process since the resins are easily recovered from the cell culture and enable harvest of product without termination of culture. However, due to limited flow rate, the recirculation strategy was slightly less effective than direct addition of resins into the cell suspension. In addition to enabling increased production, removal of secondary metabolites from the medium changed metabolic flux distribution, testifying to a complex control mechanism of production. PMID:15744839

Klvana, M; Legros, R; Jolicoeur, M

2005-02-01

447

Usage of Fiber-Reinforced Resin Instruments in Interproximal Surfaces  

PubMed Central

Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of fiber-reinforced resin burs on the surface roughness of a nanofilled composite. Methods Average surface roughness values (Ra, ?m) were measured using a surface profilometer and surface textures after finishing procedures were evaluated using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Thirty cylindrical specimens were prepared using sectional teflon molds. A nanofilled composite was chosen. After the preparation specimens were divided into three subgroups randomly. After profilometric measurements, representative samples of the mentioned finishing procedures were selected and SEM analyses were carried out. Results Mylar strip group was statistically different from the other two groups (P<.05). The smoothest surfaces occurred when composite resin samples were light cured against the strips. On the other hand there was no statistical difference between fiber-reinforced resin burs and Sof-Lex discs (P>.05). For fiber-reinforced resin burs scratches and pitting which may be due to plucking of the filler particles during finishing were observed on the surface topography of the composite resin material. On the other hand, for the Sof-Lex discs although scratches were noticed on the surface topography, no pitting was observed. Conclusions Fiber-reinforced resin burs can be preferred for the grinding of composite surplus in interproximal surfaces, where the use of Sof-Lex discs can be harmful to soft tissues. PMID:19212518

Can-Karabulut, Deniz C.; Ozyurt, Perihan; Gurbuz, Ayhan; Gullu, Abdulkadir

2008-01-01

448

Long-term deterioration of composite resin and amalgam restorations.  

PubMed

Previous long-term longitudinal studies of two different methods of placing an auto-cured conventional anterior composite resin, and of a low- and a high-copper amalgam alloy, had shown similar restoration survivals despite the different resin treatment methods used or the types of amalgam alloy placed. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to assess several clinical factors or characteristics of these restorations that were believed to affect the survival of the restorative materials. The 950 composite resin and the 1042 amalgam restorations examined were placed by many operators in numerous patients attending a dental hospital. The composite resin restorations were placed using unetched- and etched-enamel-bonding treatment methods, and the amalgam restorations were polished after insertion. Clinical ratings supplemented by color transparencies were used for the assessment of four factors for the resin, and four factors for the amalgam restoration. Significant deterioration differences were found for several of the clinical factors assessed for both the two different composite resin treatment methods, and for the two different amalgam alloys, which were not directly related to the restoration survivals. PMID:1840079

Smales, R J

1991-01-01

449

Evaluation of commercial resins for fructo-oligosaccharide separation.  

PubMed

Fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) produced by fermentative processes are obtained in mixtures containing significant amounts of salts and other non-prebiotic sugars. A demineralisation process using a mixture of a cationic and an anionic resin was proposed. The separation of FOS from a mixture of fructose, glucose and sucrose was evaluated. Experiments were conducted with several commercial cationic exchange resins in calcium, sodium and potassium forms packed in preparative columns (7cm×2.2cm length×diameter). Resins in potassium form obtained the higher retention factor values for sugars when compared to the other ionic forms. However, when compared to calcium and sodium ones, resins in potassium cationic forms were shown to be the less efficient separating sugar mixtures. The resin with best separation performance was the Diaion UBK535Ca. A recovery yield of 92% (w/w) of FOS with 90% (w/w) of purity was obtained from batch experiments conducted in a single column loaded with the Diaion UBK535Ca resin at 25°C. The temperature shown did not influence the separation performance significantly. By increasing the column length, the purity of FOS increased to 92% (w/w), however the recovery yield decreased to 88% (w/w). PMID:23806732

Nobre, C; Suvarov, P; De Weireld, G

2014-01-25

450

Biomimetic Remineralization of Resin-bonded Acid-etched Dentin  

PubMed Central

Degradation of denuded collagen within adhesive resin-infiltrated dentin is a pertinent problem in dentin bonding. A biomimetic remineralization scheme that incorporates non-classic crystallization pathways of fluidic amorphous nanoprecursors and mesoscopic transformation has been successful in remineralizing resin-free, acid-etched dentin, with evidence of intrafibrillar and interfibrillar remineralization. This study tested the hypothesis that biomimetic remineralization provides a means for remineralizing incompletely infiltrated resin-dentin interfaces created by etch-and-rinse adhesives. The remineralization medium consists of a Portland cement/simulated body fluid that includes polyacrylic acid and polyvinylphosphonic acid biomimetic analogs for amorphous calcium phosphate dimension regulation and collagen targeting. Both interfibrillar and intrafibrillar apatites became readily discernible within the hybrid layers after 2-4 months. In addition, intra-resin apatite clusters were deposited within the porosities of the adhesive resin matrices. The biomimetic remineralization scheme provides a proof-of-concept for the adoption of nanotechnology as an alternative strategy to extend the longevity of resin-dentin bonds. PMID:19734458

Tay, F.R.; Pashley, D.H.

2009-01-01

451

Resin transfer molding of textile preforms for aircraft structural applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA LaRC is conducting and supporting research to develop cost-effective fabrication methods that are applicable to primary composite aircraft structures. One of the most promising fabrication methods that has evolved is resin transfer molding (RTM) of dry textile material forms. RTM has been used for many years for secondary structures, but has received increased emphasis because it is an excellent method for applying resin to damage-tolerant textile preforms at low cost. Textile preforms based on processes such as weaving, braiding, knitting, stitching, and combinations of these have been shown to offer significant improvements in damage tolerance compared to laminated tape composites. The use of low-cost resins combined with textile preforms could provide a major breakthrough in achieving cost-effective composite aircraft structures. RTM uses resin in its lowest cost form, and storage and spoilage costs are minimal. Near net shape textile preforms are expected to be cost-effective because automated machines can be used to produce the preforms, post-cure operations such as machining and fastening are minimized, and material scrap rate may be reduced in comparison with traditional prepreg molding. The purpose of this paper is to discuss experimental and analytical techniques that are under development at NASA Langley to aid the engineer in developing RTM processes for airframe structural elements. Included are experimental techniques to characterize preform and resin behavior and analytical methods that were developed to predict resin flow and cure kinetics.

Hasko, Gregory H.; Dexter, H. Benson; Weideman, Mark H.

1992-01-01

452

Dienophile compounds as inhibitors of resin formation in fuels  

SciTech Connect

Products from thermal processing in oil refining contain a large number of unstable compounds which are readily oxidized. These materials show low induction periods to the start of noticeable oxygen absorption and form large proportions of oxidation products - resins and solid residues. Antioxidation additives, e.g. ionol inhibit oxygen absorption, but have little influence over residue and resin-formation. At the same time these processes take place vigorously during oxidation of products from vigorous oil refining processes thermal cracking, coking, pyrolysis, etc., which hinders their extensive introduction into fuels. Various mechanisms of addition are proposed to control resin- and residue-formation: dispersing, so-called screening and metal passivators. All these have a certain effect, but (except for the last-named) they do not prevent the formation of oxidation products transferring them instead into dissolved, or dispersed states in the fuel. The formation of residues and resins may not be linked with the absorption of noticeable amounts of oxygen therefore, conventional antioxidizing additives are often ineffective. Sequences of oxidative polymerization (polycondensation) are assumed to take place in the presence of traces of oxygen and result in resin-formation. Such processes are initiated by dienes, a small but sufficient proportion of which is present in products from degrative petroleum processing. If this is the case, resin formation may be precluded by introducing into the fuel particular compounds - dienophiles, which can react with dienes, forming adducts inactive toward oxidation. The possibility of using such additives is examined in this paper.

Danilov, A.M.; Talisman, Ye.L.; Alekseyeva, Ye.V.

1985-01-01

453

Flame-retardant Elvacite Acrylic Resin Nanocompoistes Using Melt Blending  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flame retardant Elvacite acrylic resin/clay nanocomposites were prepared via direct melt intercalation by using a Brabender twin-screw extruder. The TEM results indicate a high degree of exfoliation occurs, 62.5exfoliated, 37.5platelets. This high degree of exfoliation results in a large improvement in thermal stability and UV resistance. The Cone Calorimetry test data show the heat release rate (HRR) and mass loss rate (MLR) of clay/Elvacite acrylic resin nanocompoistes are reduced by a factor of 2.1 and 2.2 compared to pure resins, which are consistent with a dramatic increase in the specific heat of nanocomposites as determined from high precision differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) measurements. And thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) measurement indicates the thermal stability of nancomposites is enhanced by almost 50 ¡ãC (at 50weight loss) when the samples are thermally degraded under nitrogen. That strongly proves that the introduction of clay can dramatically improve the flame retardance of Elvacite acrylics resins. The Elvacite acrylic resin/clay nanocomposites made by this method don't have a flash point and burn gradually. And the Young's modulus of nanocomposites measured by dynamic mechanical analyzer (DMA) is higher then pure resins, especially in the molten state, which makes this new material much easier to process and mold.

Hefter, Jonathan; Song, Andrew; Si, Mayu; Rafailovich, Miriam; Sokolov, Jonathan; Goldman, Michael; Smith, Michael; Rudomen, Gregory

2003-03-01

454

A throughfall collection method using mixed bed ion exchange resin columns.  

PubMed

Measurement of ionic deposition in throughfall is a widely used method for measuring deposition inputs to the forest floor. Many studies have been published, providing a large database of throughfall deposition inputs to forests. However, throughfall collection and analysis is labor intensive and expensive because of the large number of replicate collectors needed and because sample collection and chemical analyses are required on a stochastic precipitation event-based schedule. Therefore we developed and tested a throughfall collector system using a mixed bed ion exchange resin column. We anticipate that this method will typically require only one to three samplings per year. With this method, bulk deposition and bulk throughfall are collected by a funnel or snow tube and ions are retained as the solution percolates through the resin column. Ions retained by the resin are then extracted in the same column with 2 N KCl and analyzed for nitrate and ammonium. Deposition values in throughfall from conventional throughfall solution collectors and colocated ion exchange samplers were not significantly different during consecutive 3- and 4-month exposure periods at a high (Camp Paivika; >35 kg N ha(-1) year(-1)) and a low deposition (Barton Flats; 5-9 kg N ha(-1) year(-1)) site in the San Bernardino Mountains in southern California. N deposition in throughfall under mature pine trees at Camp Paivika after 7 months of exposure was extremely high (87 and 92 kg ha-1 based on the two collector types) compared to Barton Flats (11 and 13 kg ha(-1)). A large proportion of the N deposited in throughfall at Camp Paivika occurred as fog drip, demonstrating the importance of fog deposition as an input source of N at this site. By comparison, bulk deposition rates in open areas were 5.1 and 5.4 kg ha(-1) at Camp Paivika based on the two collector types, and 1.9 and 3.0 kg ha(-1) at Barton Flats. PMID:12806045

Fenn, Mark E; Poth, Mark A; Arbaugh, Michael J

2002-01-15

455

Effectiveness of Flowable Resin Composite in Reducing Microleakage - An In Vitro Study  

PubMed Central

Background: This study aimed to evaluate the microleakage, when flowable composite is used as a restorative material and a liner. Materials and Methods: Forty, non-carious, extracted human premolar teeth were used and they were divided into five groups according to the type of composite material used. Group I: Hybrid composite was inserted and cured for 40 s. Group II: Flowable resin composite which was cured for 40 s. Group III: A thin layer of flowable composite was used to line the axial wall of cavity, over that hybrid composite was inserted and cured for 40 s. Group IV: A thin layer of flowable composite was lined on the axial wall of cavity; over that a packable composite was inserted and cured for 40 s. Group V: Group V was a control group. These cavities were not etched and bonded. They were restored with resin modified glass ionomer cement. After thermocycling and dye immersion, each tooth sectioned longitudinally. Each restoration was observed under a binocular stereomicroscope with magnifying loop of ×12 for microleakage. Results: The results of the study indicate that there was minimum leakage at the enamel margin of all groups. In every group, the leakage at the dentin margin was more than that at the enamel margin. The difference was statistically significant in hybrid and flowable composite (P values are 0.29 and 0.289, respectively). Conclusion: Similar leakage values were shown by Groups I and II, indicating that flowable and hybrid composites performed equally well in terms of microleakage. The use of flowable composite as a liner under hybrid and packable composite have shown a trend toward less leakage compared to hybrid and flowable composite alone. How to cite the article: Lokhande NA, Padmai AS, Rathore VP, Shingane S, Jayashankar DN, Sharma U. Effectiveness of flowable resin composite in reducing microleakage – An in vitro Study. J Int Oral Health 2014;6(3):111-4. PMID:25083045

Lokhande, Niket A; Padmai, Amit S; Rathore, Vishnu Pratap Singh; Shingane, Shrikant; Jayashankar, D N; Sharma, Usha

2014-01-01

456

Direct composite resin layering techniques for creating lifelike CAD/CAM-fabricated composite resin veneers and crowns.  

PubMed

Direct composite resin layering techniques preserve sound tooth structure and improve function and esthetics. However, intraoral placement techniques present challenges involving isolation, contamination, individual patient characteristics, and the predictability of restorative outcomes. Computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) restorations enable dentists to better handle these variables and provide durable restorations in an efficient and timely manner; however, milled restorations may appear monochromatic and lack proper esthetic characteristics. For these reasons, an uncomplicated composite resin layering restoration technique can be used to combine the benefits of minimally invasive direct restorations and the ease and precision of indirect CAD/CAM restorations. Because most dentists are familiar with and skilled at composite resin layering, the use of such a technique can provide predictable and highly esthetic results. This article describes the layered composite resin restoration technique. PMID:24680167

LeSage, Brian

2014-07-01

457

Extractant composition  

DOEpatents

An organic extracting solution useful for separating elements of the actinide series of the periodic table from elements of the lanthanide series, where both are in trivalent form. The extracting solution consists of a primary ligand and a secondary ligand, preferably in an organic solvent. The primary ligand is a substituted monothio-1,3-dicarbonyl, which includes a substituted 4-acyl-2-pyrazolin-5-thione, such as 4-benzoyl-2,4-dihydro-5-methyl-2-phenyl-3H-pyrazol-3-thione (BMPPT). The secondary ligand is a substituted phosphine oxide, such as trioctylphosphine oxide (TOPO).

Smith, Barbara F. (Los Alamos, NM); Jarvinen, Gordon D. (Los Alamos, NM); Ryan, Robert R. (Los Alamos, NM)

1990-01-01

458

[Studies of dental methacrylic resin. (Part. 6) Adhesive strength of self-curing methacrylic resin to polymethylmetacrylates with various cross-linking density. (author's transl)].  

PubMed

The adhesive property of dental acrylic resin to resin teeth and denture base resins is an important property, in the case of preperating, repairing and rebasing denture. Then, as models of denture base resin and resin tooth, heat-curing methacrylic resins which were cross-linked with three kinds of polyethylene glycol dimethacrylate, i.e., EDMA, tri-EDMA, nona-EDMA, were prepared, and the tensile adhesive strengths of self-curing methacrylic resin to them were examined. The results were as follows. 1) The tensile adhesive strength under the dry condition was dependent on cross-linking density of adherent resin, and decreased according to the increase of concentration of cross-linking agent added in adherent resin. 2) The greater the number of chain members of cross-linking agent used to adherent resin was, the higher the adhesive strength was. In particular, the adhesive strength to adherent resin added with nona-EDMA in concentration from 16.7 to 30 mole%, agreed with the tensile strength of adherent resin itself indicating a favourable adhesion. 3) The adhesive strengths under the wet condition, that is, when specimens were immersed in water at 37 degrees C for 21 days, decreased from 30 to 50%, compared with that under the dry condition. PMID:290711

Hirasawa, T; Hirabayashi, S; Harashima, I

1979-04-01

459

Development of Resin Disc Soil Testing in Rice Crop in Relation to Kinetics of Nutrient Adsorption on Resin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this investigation was to develop a durable, rigid, and reusable resin disc for soil testing with the hypothesis that a uniformly shaped disc of cation\\/anion exchange resin placed in direct contact with the soil will accumulate ions from the soil by processes similar to those for living plant roots in the natural soil–solution–plant continuum. To develop regression

Samar Chandra Datta; Sunil Kumar Singhal; Debashish Mandal

2012-01-01

460

Bonding orthodontic acrylic resin to enamel.  

PubMed

Bonded acrylic orthodontic appliances are a recent alternative to banded methods. However, the physical properties demonstrated by bonding adhesives at the acrylic-enamel interphase have not been well documented. The purpose of this study was to use a laboratory testing model to evaluate the ultimate shear and tensile strengths and fracture sites of five bonding adhesives: unfilled (Bracketbond and Genie); filled (Unite, Excel, and Concise). One hundred bovine mandibular incisors were embedded in dental stone, labial surfaces ground flat for uniform acrylic-enamel adaptation, and stored in modified Fusyama's artificial saliva. Twenty 7-mm diameter acrylic cylinders were bonded in each group. Ten samples from each group were tested for shear strength and ten for tensile strength with an Instron testing machine. Bonding adhesive retained on the cylinder was measured by means of a Bioquant digitizer. Scanning electron microscopy was used to analyze fracture sites. The results showed that the percentage of bonding adhesive that remains on the acrylic surface after fracture is decreased by the addition of inorganic fillers to the adhesive and the use of separate liquid resin sealants, and is increased by the use of plastic bracket primers and bonding adhesives that are chemically similar to methylmethacrylate. Few significant differences in shear and tensile strengths were found among the bonding adhesives. Unfilled bonding adhesives cause less enamel damage and are indicated for clinical bonding of acrylic orthodontic appliances to enamel. PMID:3287897

Eversoll, D K; Moore, R N

1988-06-01

461

Resinous binders for coal and chars  

SciTech Connect

Binder development and application to the briquetting or pelleting of coal fines has been extensive. The search for low-cost, effective binders for making strong and durable briquettes or pellets continues unabated. Strong, durable compacts are required, not only for handling, transport, and storage of the product but also to withstand the rigors of application such as flue gas treatment sorbents and catalytic supports. Many kinds of binders, organic and inorganic, have been used to gain the desired strength. Synthetic polymers have been investigated because they promote good strength and water insolubility, but these features are generally outweighed by the polymer cost. Promising earlier developments of biomass-derived binders have received slow market acceptance, mainly because of the cost resulting from the high concentrations required. However, recent advances in processing lignocellulosic materials have generated potentially low-cost polymeric binding agents for making coal briquettes. Phenol novolaks were previously used with lignites to make activated carbons. Recently, binders were prepared from mixtures of phenol, lignin, and formaldehyde and used for wood flour molding and friction materials. The goal of our work was to investigate the characteristics of resinous binders from lignocellulosic as well as coal-derived materials when used with dried or beneficiated coals and chars.

Olson, E.S.; Sharma, R.K.; Young, B.C. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States)

1995-12-31

462

Light color, low softening point hydrocarbon resins  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a hydrocarbon resin having a softening point of from 0{degrees} C to about 40{degrees} C, a Gardner color of about 7 or less, a number average molecular weight (Mn) of from about 100 to about 600, and a M{sub {ital w}}/M{sub {ital n}} ratio of from about 1.1 to about 2.7, prepared by Friedel Crafts polymerization of a hydrocarbon feed. It comprises: from about 5% to about 75% by weight of a C{sub 8} to C{sub 10} vinyl aromatic hydrocarbon stream; up to about 35% by weight of a piperylene stream; and from about 25% to about 70% by weight of a stream containing C{sub 4} to C{sub 8} monoolefin chain transfer agent of the formula RR{prime}C {double bond} CR{double prime}R triple{prime} where R and R{prime} are C{sub 1} to C{sub 5} alkyl, R{double prime} and R triple{prime} are independently selected from H and a C{sub 1} to C{sub 4} alkyl group.

Evans, M.L.; Hentges, S.G.

1990-06-12

463

Platinum cluster catalysts supportedon porous chelate resin-metal complexes: Effect of resin porosity on catalytic activity  

SciTech Connect

Porous chelate resin-metal complexes were prepared from a commercial chelate resin having iminodiacetic acid moieties. This was accomplished by complexing with multivalent cations such as Al{sup 3+} and drying after washing with ethanol. The supported platinum cluster catalysts, formed by reducing the platinum ions on the porous chelate resin-metal complexes, had a mean diameter of 26 {Angstrom}, occupying pores approximately 40 {Angstrom} in diameter of the chelate resin-metal complexes. These systems were then used as catalysts during the hydrogenation of olefin or diene. The catalytic activity was found to depend on the type of metal ion used in the chelate resin-metal complexes, and it increased in the order of Na{sup +} < Mg{sup 2+} < Al{sup 3+}. The surface area of the chelate resin-metal complex, measured by a BET method, also increased in the same order, suggesting that the surface area is related to the catalytic activity. 23 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

Toshima, Naoki; Teranishi, Toshiharu; Asanuma, Hiroyuki [Univ. of Tokoyo, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku (Japan)] [and others

1992-04-30

464

Contributions of the network structure to the cure kinetics of epoxy resin systems according to the change of hardeners  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cure kinetics of epoxy resin systems was investigated according to the change of curing agents, and analyzed in respect of the network structure. An autocatalytic cure reaction can be shown in the epoxy resin systems with phenol novolac hardener regardless of the kinds of epoxy resin and the epoxy resin systems using Xylok and dicyclopentadiene type phenol resin curing

Whan Gun Kim; Jun Young Lee

2002-01-01

465

Coal extraction  

SciTech Connect

Coal is extracted using a mixed solvent which includes a substantially aromatic component and a substantially naphthenic component, at a temperature of 400/sup 0/ to 500/sup 0/C. Although neither component is an especially good solvent for coal by itself, the use of mixed solvent gives greater flexibility to the process and offers efficiency gains.

Clarke, J.W.; Kimber, G.M.; Rantell, T.D.; Snape, C.E.

1985-06-04

466

Denitration of Rocky Flats Ion-Exchange Resins: Recommendation of Denitration Processes, October 19, 1995  

SciTech Connect

Resin denitration via anion-exchange is an implementable process that can effectively mitigate the hazards associated with stored resins in which the bulk of the nitrate consists of an "exchangeable nitrate" ionically bound to the cationic sites of the anion-exchange resins. Salicylate has been selected as the exchange anion of choice because of its superior selectivity for the Rocky Flats resins and its unique potential for comprehensive recovery and recycle. This report outlines a single recommended resin denigration procedure that is reasonably independent of the resin composition and the current stored form. This procedure is not optimized but rather seeks to `over-treat' the resins so that a single procedure works for the variety of stored resins. The recommended treatment with sodium salicylate reduces resins by 95-99+% the measured exothermic behavior of the ion-exchange.

Jacob Espinoza; Mary Barr; Wayne Smith

1998-12-01

467

Antimicrobial activities of amphiphilic peptides covalently bonded to a water-insoluble resin.  

PubMed Central

A series of polymer-bound antimicrobial peptides was prepared, and the peptides were tested for their antimicrobial activities. The immobilized peptides were prepared by a strategy that used solid-phase peptide synthesis that linked the carboxy-terminal amino acid with an ethylenediamine-modified polyamide resin (PepsynK). The acid-stable, permanent amide bond between the support and the nascent peptide renders the peptide resistant to cleavage from the support during the final acid-catalyzed deprotection step in the synthesis. Select immobilized peptides containing amino acid sequences that ranged from the naturally occurring magainin to simpler synthetic sequences with idealized secondary structures were excellent antimicrobial agents against several organisms. The immobilized peptides typically reduced the number of viable cells by > or = 5 log units. We show that the reduction in cell numbers cannot be explained by the action of a soluble component. We observed no leached or hydrolyzed peptide from the resin, nor did we observe any antimicrobial activity in soluble extracts from the immobilized peptide. The immobilized peptides were washed and reused for repeated microbial contact and killing. These results suggest that the surface actions by magainins and structurally related antimicrobial peptides are sufficient for their lethal activities. PMID:7726486

Haynie, S L; Crum, G A; Doele, B A

1995-01-01

468

Inconsistency in the strength testing of dental resin-based composites among researchers  

PubMed Central

The aims of this paper were to review the current strength testing methods of the dental resin-based composites (RBCs) and to explore the inconsistencies with regard to strength testing among researchers. Data selection/extraction: An outline of the most relevant aspects of RBCs was created, and a subsequent literature search for articles published during last four decades (1970-2010) was conducted using the databases, namely PubMed, Science Direct and ISI Web of Knowledge. Conclusion: The literature review highlighted a lack of consensus among researchers regarding the reliability of ISO recommended three-point flexure strength testing method. Several investigators have used Weibull statistics for the analysis of RBCs strength data, however their applicability might be questioned as many RBCs contain greater resin content and may exhibit sufficient viscous deformation prior to brittle failure. In addition, variability in the selection of cross-head speed and mould material for strength testing was evident which may lead to variation in the strength data and render the interpretation difficult among researchers. PMID:24353541

Kumar, Naresh

2013-01-01

469

Extraction of extracellular polymeric substances from extreme acidic microbial biofilms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efficiency of five extraction methods for extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) was compared on three benthic eukaryotic\\u000a biofilms isolated from an extreme acidic river, Río Tinto (SW, Spain). Three chemical methods (MilliQ water, NaCl, and ethylenediamine\\u000a tetraacetic acid [EDTA]) and two physical methods (Dowex 50.8 and Crown Ether cation exchange resins) were tested. The quality\\u000a and quantity of the EPS

Angeles Aguilera; Virginia Souza-Egipsy; Patxi San Martín-Úriz; Ricardo Amils

2008-01-01

470

Evaluation of Cellular Toxicity of Three Denture Base Acrylic Resins  

PubMed Central

Objective This study aimed to evaluate the cellular toxicity of two newly-released acrylic resins (Futura Gen and GC Reline Hard) in comparison with the conventional heat-cure resin (Meliodent). Materials and Methods: Sample discs from each acrylic resin were placed in 24-well culture plates along with L929 mouse fibroblast cell line. A mixture of the RPMI 1640 medium, antibiotics and 10% FBS was added to the plates and the specimens were incubated in a CO2 incubator. The amount of light absorption by each plate was determined after 1 hour, 24 hours and 1 week by the MTT assay and ELISA. The cytotoxic effect of the resins was compared among groups using the two-way ANOVA and further paired comparison was performed using the post-hoc Tukey’s test. Results: After 1 hour, Futura Gen displayed a significantly lower level of light absorption in comparison with Meliodent (P=0.03). After 24 hours, GC Reline Hard rendered a significantly lower level of light absorption compared to Meliodent (P=0.02). After one-week of incubation, the mean absorption rates for GC Reline Hard, Meliodent and Futura Gen were relatively similar (P>0.05). The lowest and highest level of cytotoxicity among all resins were observed after one week and 1 hour of immersion in water, respectively. Conclusion: All the tested resins induced some degree of cytotoxicity. Cytotoxicity of Futura Gen, GC Reline Hard and Meliodent resins failed to show any significant reduction from 24 hours to one week. Thus, it is recommended to immerse the dentures in water for 24 hours prior to delivery to the patient. PMID:23323179

Ebrahimi Saravi, M.; Vojdani, M.; Bahrani, F.

2012-01-01

471

Isolation and purification of four flavone C-glycosides from antioxidant of bamboo leaves by macroporous resin column chromatography and preparative high-performance liquid chromatography  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study investigated a robust method for the preparation of four flavone C-glycosides, i.e. orientin, homoorientin, vitexin and isovitexin, which were prepared from an ethanol aqueous extract, i.e. antioxidant of bamboo leaves (AOB), by AB-8 resin-based column chromatography and preparative high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) using a mobile phase consisting of 10% and 15% (v\\/v) of acetonitrile and 1% acetic

Yu Zhang; Jingjing Jiao; Chengmei Liu; Xiaoqin Wu; Ying Zhang

2008-01-01