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Sample records for rabbit draize test

  1. A summary report of the COLIPA international validation study on alternatives to the draize rabbit eye irritation test.

    PubMed

    Brantom, P G; Bruner, L H; Chamberlain, M; De Silva, O; Dupuis, J; Earl, L K; Lovell, D P; Pape, W J; Uttley, M; Bagley, D M; Baker, F W; Bracher, M; Courtellemont, P; Declercq, L; Freeman, S; Steiling, W; Walker, A P; Carr, G J; Dami, N; Thomas, G; Harbell, J; Jones, P A; Pfannenbecker, U; Southee, J A; Tcheng, M; Argembeaux, H; Castelli, D; Clothier, R; Esdaile, D J; Itigaki, H; Jung, K; Kasai, Y; Kojima, H; Kristen, U; Larnicol, M; Lewis, R W; Marenus, K; Moreno, O; Peterson, A; Rasmussen, E S; Robles, C; Stern, M

    1997-01-01

    The principal goal of this study was to determine whether the results from a set of selected currently available alternative methods as used by cosmetics companies are valid for predicting the eye irritation potential of cosmetics formulations and ingredients and, as a consequence, could be valid replacements for the Draize eye irritation test. For the first time in a validation study, prediction models (PMs) that convert the in vitro data from an assay to a prediction of eye irritation were developed for each alternative method before the study began. The PM is an unequivocal description of the relationship between the in vitro and the in vivo data and allows an objective assessment of the reliability and relevance of the alternative methods. In this study, 10 alternative methods were evaluated using 55 test substances selected as representative of substances commonly used in the cosmetics industry (23 ingredients and 32 formulations). Twenty of the single ingredients were common to the European Commission/British Home Office (EC/HO) eye irritation validation study (Balls et al., 1995b). The test substances were coded and supplied to the participating laboratories. The results were collected centrally and analysed independently, using statistical methods that had been agreed before the testing phase began. Each alternative method was then evaluated for reliability and relevance in assessing eye irritation potential. Using the criteria of both reliability and relevance as defined in the study, the preliminary results indicate that none of the alternative methods evaluated could be confirmed as a valid replacement for the Draize eye irritation test across the full irritation scale. However, three alternative methods-the fluorescein leakage test, the red blood cell assay (classification model) and the tissue equivalent assay-each satisfied one criterion of reliability or relevance. Further investigation of the decoded data from this study to explore more fully the relationship between the in vitro data and the in vivo data is recommended. Such a review may allow the development of new prediction models to be tested in a subsequent validation study. PMID:20654303

  2. Improvement of the Bovine Corneal Opacity and Permeability (BCOP) assay as an in vitro alternative to the Draize rabbit eye irritation test.

    PubMed

    Verstraelen, Sandra; Jacobs, An; De Wever, Bart; Vanparys, Philippe

    2013-06-01

    Measurement of ocular irritancy is a necessary step in the safety evaluation of both industrial and consumer products. Assessment of the acute eye irritation potential is therefore part of the international regulatory requirements for testing of chemicals. The Bovine Corneal Opacity and Permeability (BCOP) assay is generally accepted as a valid in vitro alternative method to the Draize eye irritation test to detect corrosive and severe eye irritants (category 1), but has not proven sensitive enough to discriminate accurately moderate (category 2A/2B) to mild and non-irritating compounds. In the currently accepted BCOP assay, opacity is determined by the amount of light transmission through the cornea, and permeability is determined by the amount of sodium fluorescein dye that passes through all corneal cell layers. Both measurements are used to assign an In Vitro Irritancy Score (IVIS) for prediction of the in vivo ocular irritation potential of a test substance. Nowadays, opacity is measured by an OP-KIT opacitometer providing a center-weighted reading of light transmission by measuring changes in voltage when the transmission of white light passes through the cornea alters. As a consequence, this may underestimate opacity that develops as spots or heterogeneous opaque areas on the periphery of an isolated cornea. A prototype of a laser light-based opacitometer (PLLBO) allowing better measurement of opacities was developed by Van Goethem et al. (2010). This new device showed improved sensitivity to detect subtle changes in corneal transparency. Furthermore, the new opacitometer allowed the analysis of the complete corneal surface and was able to detect more efficiently opaque spots located along the sides of the excised corneas. A further improved prototype of the PLLBO was constructed in combination with a camera and a speckle noise reducer. Treatment conditions of the corneas in the cornea holders were optimized in order to mimic more the real in vivo situation. A set of test compounds with irritancy potencies especially in the mild and moderate range was tested. The improved LLBO showed some promising features which potentially could improve the usefulness of the BCOP test. Adaptation of cornea holders showed to be of limited value and only restricted to concentrations up to 15% which mimics more test conditions in industry. This 3-year research project was sponsored by the Stavros Niarchos Foundation (Greece). PMID:23501624

  3. Bioconvective Assay As Alternative To Draize Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noever, David A.; Matsos, Helen C.

    1993-01-01

    Protocol to determine toxicities of chemicals implemented relatively cheaply by use of equipment and materials packaged in convenient kit form. Tests involve observation of macroscopic patterns formed at high concentrations of free-swimming protozoan species Tetrahymena pyriformis in liquid media. Provides more-sensitive indication of toxicity and costs less. Given that there are no data on toxicities of 70 to 80 percent of commercial chemicals, high cost of, and current opposition to, testing on higher animals, new protocol helps meet pressing need.

  4. Retrospective analysis of the Draize test for serious eye damage/eye irritation: importance of understanding the in vivo endpoints under UN GHS/EU CLP for the development and evaluation of in vitro test methods.

    PubMed

    Adriaens, Els; Barroso, João; Eskes, Chantra; Hoffmann, Sebastian; McNamee, Pauline; Alépée, Nathalie; Bessou-Touya, Sandrine; De Smedt, Ann; De Wever, Bart; Pfannenbecker, Uwe; Tailhardat, Magalie; Zuang, Valérie

    2014-03-01

    For more than two decades, scientists have been trying to replace the regulatory in vivo Draize eye test by in vitro methods, but so far only partial replacement has been achieved. In order to better understand the reasons for this, historical in vivo rabbit data were analysed in detail and resampled with the purpose of (1) revealing which of the in vivo endpoints are most important in driving United Nations Globally Harmonized System/European Union Regulation on Classification, Labelling and Packaging (UN GHS/EU CLP) classification for serious eye damage/eye irritation and (2) evaluating the method's within-test variability for proposing acceptable and justifiable target values of sensitivity and specificity for alternative methods and their combinations in testing strategies. Among the Cat 1 chemicals evaluated, 36-65 % (depending on the database) were classified based only on persistence of effects, with the remaining being classified mostly based on severe corneal effects. Iritis was found to rarely drive the classification (<4 % of both Cat 1 and Cat 2 chemicals). The two most important endpoints driving Cat 2 classification are conjunctiva redness (75-81 %) and corneal opacity (54-75 %). The resampling analyses demonstrated an overall probability of at least 11 % that chemicals classified as Cat 1 by the Draize eye test could be equally identified as Cat 2 and of about 12 % for Cat 2 chemicals to be equally identified as No Cat. On the other hand, the over-classification error for No Cat and Cat 2 was negligible (<1 %), which strongly suggests a high over-predictive power of the Draize eye test. Moreover, our analyses of the classification drivers suggest a critical revision of the UN GHS/EU CLP decision criteria for the classification of chemicals based on Draize eye test data, in particular Cat 1 based only on persistence of conjunctiva effects or corneal opacity scores of 4. In order to successfully replace the regulatory in vivo Draize eye test, it will be important to recognise these uncertainties and to have in vitro tools to address the most important in vivo endpoints identified in this paper. PMID:24374802

  5. Interlaboratory validation of the in vitro eye irritation tests for cosmetic ingredients. (1) Overview of the validation study and Draize scores for the evaluation of the tests.

    PubMed

    Ohno, Y; Kaneko, T; Inoue, T; Morikawa, Y; Yoshida, T; Fujii, A; Masuda, M; Ohno, T; Hayashi, M; Momma, J; Uchiyama, T; Chiba, K; Ikeda, N; Imanishi, Y; Itakagaki, H; Kakishima, H; Kasai, Y; Kurishita, A; Kojima, H; Matsukawa, K; Nakamura, T; Ohkoshi, K; Okumura, H; Saijo, K; Sakamoto, K; Suzuki, T; Takano, K; Tatsumi, H; Tani, N; Usami, M; Watanabe, R

    1999-02-01

    A three-step interlaboratory validation of alternative methods to the Draize eye irritation test (Draize test) was conducted by the co-operation of 27 organizations including national research institutes, universities, cosmetic industries, kit suppliers and others. Twelve alternative methods were evaluated using 38 cosmetic ingredients and isotonic sodium chloride solution. Draize tests were conducted according to the OECD guidelines using the same lot of test substances as was evaluated in the alternative tests. Results were as follows. (1) Variation in Draize scores was large near the critical range (maximal average Draize total scores (MAS)=15-50) for the evaluation of cosmetic ingredients. (2) Interlaboratory variation was relatively small for the alternative tests. The mean coefficients of variation (CV%) were less than 50 for all assays except for the hen's egg-chorioallantoic membrane test (HET-CAM), chorioallantoic membrane-trypan blue staining test (CAM-TB) and haemoglobin denaturation test (HD). The CV% of these three methods came into the same range as the other tests when non-irritants were excluded from the data analysis. (3) Results for acids (pH of 10% solution <2.5), alkalis (pH of 10% solution >11.5) and alcohols (lower mono-ol) in cytotoxicity tests clearly deviated from the other samples in the comparison of cytotoxicity with Draize results. (4) Pearson's correlation coefficients (r) between results from cytotoxicity tests using serum and MAS were -0.86 to -0.92 for samples excluding acids, alkalis and alcohols. (5) When the samples were divided into liquids and powders, r of CAM-TB increased from 0.71 for all samples to 0.80 and 0.92, respectively. (6) Spearman's rank correlation coefficients between the results of alternative methods and MAS were relatively high (r>0.8) in the case of HET-CAM and CAM-TB. Those for cytotoxicity tests were high if the data for acids, alkalis and alcohols were excluded (SIRC-CVS: r=0.945, SIRC-NRU: r=0.931, HeLa-MTT: r=0.926, CHL-CVS: r=0.880). Exclusion of data for powdered samples also increased the coefficient of HET-CAM and CAM-TB to 0.831 and 0.863, respectively. These results suggest that no single method can constitute an evaluation system applicable to all types of test substances by itself. However, several methods will be useful for the prediction of eye irritation potential of cosmetic ingredients if they are used with clear understanding of the characteristics of those methods. PMID:20654468

  6. A new cell-based method for assessing the eye irritation potential of chemicals: an alternative to the Draize test.

    PubMed

    Cho, Sun-A; An, Susun; Lee, Eunyoung; Shin, Kyeho; Cho, Jun-Cheol; Lee, Tae Ryong

    2012-07-20

    Using a human corneal cell line (HCE-T cells) and 2 evaluation criteria, we developed a new alternative method to assess the eye irritation potential of chemicals. We exposed HCE-T cells to different concentrations of 38 chemicals for 1h and measured relative cell viability (RCV) as an endpoint at each concentration. Using the RCV values, we calculated the RCV50. We also exposed HCE-T cells to 3 fixed concentrations of the 38 chemicals (5%, 0.5%, and 0.05%) for 1h and measured the RCV at each concentration. Using the RCV values at 5%, 0.5%, and 0.05%, we developed a new criterion for eye irritation potential (total eye irritation score, TEIS) and estimated the ocular irritancy. We then assessed the correlation of the results of RCV50 and TEIS with those of the Draize rabbit eye irritation. Both the RCV50 and TEIS results exhibited good positive correlations (sensitivity: 80.77%, specificity: 83.33%, and accuracy: 81.58% for TEIS; sensitivity: 73.08-76.92%, specificity: 75.00%, and accuracy: 73.68-76.32% for RCV50). We conclude that the new in vitro model using HCE-T cells is a good alternative evaluation model for the prediction of the eye irritation potential of chemicals. PMID:22595615

  7. First alternative method validated by a retrospective weight-of-evidence approach to replace the Draize eye test for the identification of non-irritant substances for a defined applicability domain.

    PubMed

    Hartung, Thomas; Bruner, Leon; Curren, Rodger; Eskes, Chantra; Goldberg, Alan; McNamee, Pauline; Scott, Laurie; Zuang, Valérie

    2010-01-01

    A replacement alternative to the rabbit eye irritation test has been sought for many years. First published in 1944 by FDA toxicologist J. H. Draize, the test, now known as the Draize Eye Test, has been used extensively to assess eye safety. It has also been a focal point for concern regarding its animal use. In 1992, Molecular Devices developed the Cytosensor Microphysiometer (CM) technology, an automated potentiometric online measurement of pH changes in cells, and evaluated it also for chemically induced irritation. The method was included in some of the six major validation studies for eye irritation from 1991-1997. The results for CM were inconclusive as were those from other tests evaluated as stand-alone methods to fully replace the animal test. In 2002, the European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods (ECVAM) started applying concepts from evidence-based medicine, and opened validation to retrospective meta-analysis. This activity was done in collaboration with US counterpart ICCVAM/NICEATM, and the European Cosmetics Association, Colipa. After a new, comprehensive evaluation of the prior available data, the ECVAM scientific advisory committee (ESAC) has recently accepted the CM as capable of identifying non-irritants for testing limited to water-soluble surfactants and water-soluble surfactant-containing mixtures. This 25-year development is remarkable and instructive in many respects. The authors see this as opening the door, at last, for an end to the use of animals as a standard requirement for eye irritation. Here, several of the people critically involved in this processes have summarized the important aspects of this history. PMID:20390238

  8. In vitro eye irritancy test of lauryl derivatives using the reconstructed rabbit corneal epithelium model.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Sanae; Hisama, Masayoshi; Shibayama, Hiroharu; Itou, Norihiko; Iwaki, Masahiro

    2009-06-01

    The rabbit corneal epithelium model (RCE model) was developed as a three-dimensional in vitro model to replace animal testing for the assessment of eye tolerance. In the model, a stratified culture of rabbit corneal epithelial cells is grown at the air-liquid interface on an amniotic membrane acting as a parabasal membrane. The alkaline exposure was restored each day in the presence of no irritants, although with the addition of SLS, which is a major irritant, the restoration of deficit was inhibited on the RCE model in a dose-dependent manner. The results of this test were comparable with those of the Draize test, and thus, this method using the RCE model may prove to be a useful and sensitive in vitro eye irritation test. The lauryl fatty chain derivatives, such as polyoxyethylene (9) lauryl ether (PLE), sodium polyoxyethylene (2) lauryl ether sulfate (SPLE), mono glyceryl laurate (MGL), and sodium N-lauroyl-l-glutaminate (SLG), which are widely used as surfactants for toiletry products and cosmetics, were evaluated for in vitro eye irritation potential using the RCE model. SLS, PLE, SPLE, MGL, and SLG inhibited 88.7%, 59.2%, 69.0%, 47.5%, and 15.7% of the restoration of deletion 24h after treatment at a concentration of 0.05%. The IC(50) (50% inhibitory concentration) values of SLS, PLE, SPLE, MGL, and SLG were 0.002%, 0.021%, 0.005%, 0.056%, and 0.448%, respectively. These results indicated that a functional group at the end of lauryl chain is an important factor for inhibiting the restoration of deletion using the RCE model. PMID:19490837

  9. In vitro eye irritancy test of polyoxyethylene alkyl derivatives using a reconstructed rabbit corneal epithelium model.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Sanae; Hisama, Masayoshi; Shibayama, Hiroharu; Itou, Norihiko; Iwaki, Masahiro

    2009-05-01

    We have developed the Rabbit Corneal Epithelial (RCE) Model to evaluate the in vitro eye irritation potential of chemicals including pharmaceuticals, cosmetics and their raw ingredients. In the model, a stratified culture of rabbit corneal epithelial cells is grown at the air-liquid interface on an amnion acting as a parabasal membrane. The alkaline exposure was restored each day in the presence of no irritants, although with the addition of sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), which is a major irritant, the restoration of deficit was inhibited on the RCE model in a dose-dependent manner. The results of this test were comparable with those of the Draize test, and thus, this method using the RCE model may prove to be a useful and sensitive in vitro eye irritation test. The in vitro eye irritation potential of polyoxyethylene alkyl derivatives, polyoxyethylene lauryl ether (PLE), polyoxyethylene cetyl ether (PCE), polyoxyethylene stearyl ether (PSE), polyoxyethylene oleyl ether (POE), and polyoxyethylene behenyl ether (PBE) were evaluated using the RCE model containing an alkaline exposure. POE inhibited 90.2% of the restoration of deficit at a concentration of 0.5% on the 4th day after addition. Depending on the structure, an activity relationship was defined. The polyoxyethylene alkyl derivatives had distinctly different inhibitory potencies against the restoration of deficit, according to their substitution patterns. POE inhibited the restoration of deficit greater than other polyoxyethylene alkyl derivatives on the RCE model. These results indicated that the oleyl chain of POE is an important factor for inhibiting the restoration of deficit on the RCE model. PMID:19420746

  10. Human and rabbit eye responses to chemical insult.

    PubMed

    Freeberg, F E; Nixon, G A; Reer, P J; Weaver, J E; Bruce, R D; Griffith, J F; Sanders, L W

    1986-11-01

    Groups of eight human volunteers and eight albino rabbits, under controlled laboratory conditions, were exposed in one eye without subsequent rinsing to the same concentrations and volumes of four prototype consumer products: fabric softener, shampoo, hand soap, and laundry detergent. Dose volume was 0.10 or 0.01 ml. The dose concentrations were selected to produce moderate effects with recovery within 24 to 48 hr. Two irritation scales were employed with both human and animal subjects: the Draize scale by a technician and a medical scale used with slit lamp examination by an ophthalmologist. Eyes were examined by both graders before and after dosing at specified intervals until recovery. Mean and maximum irritation scores are presented for each grading time, method, and exposure, as are the mean hours to recovery (clearing) for each exposure. Recovery times for human eyes were consistent with those reported previously for accidental human exposures to similar materials. Correlation coefficients for time to clear, comparing human vs rabbit for each dose volume-species combination across the four test products, were 0.72, 0.1 ml-human vs 0.01 ml-rabbit; 0.66, 0.01 ml-human vs 0.01 ml-rabbit; 0.40, 0.01 ml-human vs 0.1 ml-rabbit; 0.35, 0.1 ml-human vs 0.1 ml-rabbit. Thus, recovery time obtained under conditions of the "Low-Volume" test (0.01 ml-rabbit) better correlates with human eye recovery time (either dose volume) than does recovery time under Draize test conditions (0.10 ml-rabbit).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3803757

  11. Fracture repair during external fixation. Torsion tests of rabbit osteotomies.

    PubMed

    Aalto, K; Holmström, T; Karaharju, E; Joukainen, J; Paavolainen, P; Slätis, P

    1987-02-01

    Bone repair was studied in the rabbit tibiofibular bone after a midshaft transverse osteotomy stabilized by external fixation and heavy compression. Both subendosteal and subperiosteal callus formation with concomitant contact healing were observed within 3 weeks, and were further succeeded by subendosteal resorption and increased porosis resulting in atrophy of the cortical bone. Subjected to the torsion test, the bones exhibited restoration of strength within 3 weeks, with maximal energy absorption and elasticity at 6 weeks. The failure of the osteotomy in the torsion test, with radiographic visibility of the osteotomy, characterized the soft-tissue type of behavior of the bones. Hard-tissue like behaviour of the bones with resistance to torsion at the osteotomy site and radiographic obliteration of the osteotomy line occurred by 12 weeks, indicating complete union of the osteotomy. Our experiments demonstrate that elastic external fixation is preferable to the rigid compression plate. PMID:3577742

  12. Non-animal alternative toxicity tests for detergents: genuine replacements or mere prescreens?

    PubMed

    Balls, M; Reader, S; Atkinson, K; Tarrant, J; Clothier, R

    1991-01-01

    Non-animal toxicity tests and testing strategies for use in identifying the potential toxic hazard of chemicals and products, and in providing information for use in risk and safety assessment, are in the course of development, validation and evaluation. Possible replacement alternatives to the rabbit Draize eye irritancy test are discussed, and results obtained for two in-vitro tests developed by FRAME (the kenacid blue test and the neutral red release test), applied to 19 surfactants and 32 formulations, are discussed. It is concluded that there are now legal and moral requirements that relevant and reliable non-animal tests should be developed and accepted for use whenever possible. PMID:1367188

  13. HET-CAM test for determining the possible eye irritancy of pesticides.

    PubMed

    Budai, Péter; Lehel, József; Tavaszi, Judit; Kormos, Eva

    2010-09-01

    Agrochemicals and veterinary products must undergo numerous toxicological tests before registration. The use of animals in these studies is a controversial issue. The Draize eye irritation test is one of the most criticised methods because of the injuries inflicted on the test animals. Several in vitro methods have been used to investigate the toxicity of potential eye irritants with a view to replacing in vivo eye irritation testing. One of these alternative methods is the Hen's Egg Test--Chorioallantoic Membrane (HET-CAM) test. In the present studies comparative screening was performed with a set of agrochemicals to establish parallel data on in vitro (HET-CAM) and in vivo (Draize) results. The examined materials were: Totril (ioxynil), Omite 57 E (propargit), Actellic 50 EC (pyrimiphos-methyl), Stomp 330 EC (pendimethalin), Mospilan 3 EC (acetamiprid), Alirox 80 EC (EPTC), Match 050 EC (lufenuron), Nonit (dioctyl sulphosuccinate sodium), Perenal (haloxyfop-R methyl ester), Pyrinex 48 EC (chlorpyrifos). These experiments showed good correlation between results obtained by the HET-CAM test and those of the Draize rabbit eye test in most cases. The present form of the HET-CAM test can be proposed as a pre-screening method for the determination of eye irritative potential, therefore the number of test animals can be reduced and/or experimental animals can be replaced. PMID:20713327

  14. Alternative methods for eye and skin irritation tests: an overview.

    PubMed

    Vinardell, M P; Mitjans, M

    2008-01-01

    The evaluation of eye and skin irritation potential is essential to ensuring the safety of individuals in contact with a wide variety of substances designed for industrial, pharmaceutical or cosmetic use. The Draize rabbit eye and skin irritancy tests have been used for 60 years to attempt to predict the human ocular and dermal irritation of such products. The Draize test has been the standard for ocular and dermal safety assessments for decades. However, several aspects of the test have been criticised. These include: the subjectivity of the method; the overestimation of human responses; and the method's cruelty. The inadequacies of the Draize test have led to several laboratories over the last 20 years making efforts to develop in vitro assays to replace it. Protocols that use different types of cell cultures and other methods have been devised to study eye and skin irritation. Different commercial kits have also been developed to study eye and skin irritation, based on the action of chemicals on these tissues. This article presents a review of the main alternatives developed to replace the use of animals in the study of chemical irritation. Particular attention is paid to the reproducibility of each method. PMID:17701961

  15. Vehicle test report: South Coast technology electric conversion of a Volkswagen Rabbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, T. W.; Shain, T. W.; Bryant, J. A.

    1981-01-01

    The South Coast Technology Volkswagen Rabbit, was tested at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's (JPL) dynamometer facility and at JPL's Edwards Test Station (ETS). The tests were performed to characterize certain parameters of the South Coast Rabbit and to provide baseline data that will be used for the comparison of near term batteries that are to be incorporated into the vehicle. The vehicle tests were concentrated on the electrical drive system; i.e., the batteries, controller, and motor. The tests included coastdowns to characterize the road load, maximum effort acceleration, and range evaluation for both cyclic and constant speed conditions. A qualitative evaluation of the vehicle was made by comparing its constant speed range performance with those vehicles described in the document 'state of the Art assessment of Electric and Hybrid Vehicles'. The Rabbit performance was near to the best of the 1977 vehicles.

  16. Computerized In Vitro Test for Chemical Toxicity Based on Tetrahymena Swimming Patterns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noever, David A.; Matsos, Helen C.; Cronise, Raymond J.; Looger, Loren L.; Relwani, Rachna A.; Johnson, Jacqueline U.

    1994-01-01

    An apparatus and a method for rapidly determining chemical toxicity have been evaluated as an alternative to the rabbit eye initancy test (Draize). The toxicity monitor includes an automated scoring of how motile biological cells (Tetrahymena pyriformis) slow down or otherwise change their swimming patterns in a hostile chemical environment. The method, called the motility assay (MA), is tested for 30 s to determine the chemical toxicity in 20 aqueous samples containing trace organics and salts. With equal or better detection limits, results compare favorably to in vivo animal tests of eye irritancy.

  17. Thermal Threshold Testing for Evaluation of Analgesics in New Zealand White Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Barter, Linda S; Kwiatkowski, Anna

    2013-01-01

    We adapted a thermal analgesiometric device developed for cats for use in unrestrained rabbits. A probe composed of an electrical element and temperature sensor was held against shaved skin by using an elasticized band placed circumferentially around the thorax. An inflated bladder located between the probe and elastic maintained constant contact between probe and skin. The probe was heated until the rabbit displayed a behavioral reaction or the safety cutoff of 55 °C was reached. Threshold temperatures in unmedicated rabbits were stable over a 5-h period provided that tests were 15 min or more apart. Careful acclimation and testing resulted in no false-negative responses, and sham testing did not produce false-positive results. When compared with baseline values, thermal thresholds were significantly increased from 30 to 240 min, but not 300 min, after the administration of morphine at 3 mg/kg. Administration of equivalent volumes of saline via the same route had no effect on thermal threshold. This device may be suitable for investigating analgesic pharmacology in rabbits. PMID:23562032

  18. Vehicle test report: South Coast Technology electric cconversion of a Volkswagen Rabbit

    SciTech Connect

    Price, T.W.; Shain, T.W.; Bryant, J.A.

    1981-02-15

    The South Coast Technology Volkswagen Rabbit, an electric vehicle manufactured by South Coast Technology of Santa Barbara, California was tested at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's (JPL) dynamometer facility in Pasadena and at JPL's Edwards Test Station (ETS) located near Lancaster, California. The tests were conducted between April and July, 1979. These tests were performed to characterize certain parameters of the South Coast Rabbit and to provide baseline data that will be used for the comparison of near-term batteries that are to be incorporated into the vehicle. The vehicle tests were concentrated on the electrical drive system; i.e., the batteries, controller, and motor. The tests included coastdowns to characterize the road load, maximum effort acceleration, and range evaluation for both cyclic constant speed conditions. A qualitative evaluation of the vehicle was made by comparing its constant speed range performance with those vehicles described in the document State of the Art assessment of Electric and Hybrid Vehicles. The Rabbit performance was near to the best of the 1977 vehicles.

  19. Limitations of the rabbit pyrogen test for assessing meningococcal OMV based vaccines.

    PubMed

    Vipond, Caroline; Findlay, Lucy; Feavers, Ian; Care, Rory

    2016-01-01

    The rabbit pyrogen test was developed in the early 1900's to detect contaminating pyrogens in parenteral medicines. Since its conception alternative methods with improved sensitivity, relevancy and which are ethically more acceptable have been developed. However, the test is a current Pharmacopeial method and is used to evaluate the pyrogen content of some vaccines. In this article the limitations and pitfalls of using the test to measure pyrogenicity of vaccines containing outer membrane vesicles are described. The method is unsuitable as a safety test for these products due to the high levels of endotoxin present in the vaccine which generate a pyrogenic response in rabbits when delivered intravenously without any dilution. Its use as a consistency test is also ambiguous as the test gives a qualitative rather than quantitative response and the rabbit models are highly variable. In addition there is evidence that measuring the temperature rise of the animals over three hours does not capture the maximum fever response. Finally the article considers the use of alternative methods and the validity of animal models when applying a consistency based approach for assessing the quality of licensed products. PMID:26626274

  20. Chitosan coated PLA nanoparticles for ophthalmic delivery: characterization, in-vitro and in-vivo study in rabbit eye.

    PubMed

    Nagarwal, Ramesh C; Singh, P N; Kant, S; Maiti, P; Pandit, J K

    2010-12-01

    The objective of the present study is to develop a poly (D, L-lactic acid) (PLA) nano-carrier for topical ocular applications. PLA nanoparticles (PLA-NPs) with 5-fluorouracil were prepared using varying concentration and molecular weight of PLA to regulate the particle size. The dimension and shape of nanoparticles were verified by using dynamic light scattering (DLS), atomic force microscope (AFM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Ex-vivo permeation study was conducted by goat and rabbit excised cornea. In-vivo experiment was conducted in rabbit eye and 5-FU concentration was measured in aqueous and vitreous humor by HPLC. In-vitro experiments indicated a diffusion controlled release of 5-FU. No significant interaction was observed in between mucin and PLA NPs that measured in terms of viscosity change. Ex-vivo permeation was significantly higher with rabbit cornea as compared to goat cornea. PLA and CH-PLA DNPs showed increased level of 5-FU as comparison to 5-FU solution. In-vivo study showed significantly higher concentration in case of uncoated and CH coated PLA nanoparticles in rabbit eye as compared to free 5-FU solution. PLA nanoparticle was found non-irritant in nature by modified Draize test. PMID:21361129

  1. A tiered approach to the use of alternatives to animal testing for the safety assessment of cosmetics: skin irritation.

    PubMed

    Macfarlane, Martin; Jones, Penny; Goebel, Carsten; Dufour, Eric; Rowland, Joanna; Araki, Daisuke; Costabel-Farkas, Margit; Hewitt, Nicola J; Hibatallah, Jalila; Kirst, Annette; McNamee, Pauline; Schellauf, Florian; Scheel, Julia

    2009-07-01

    Evaluation of the skin irritancy and corrosivity potential of an ingredient is a necessity in the safety assessment of cosmetic ingredients. To date, there are two formally validated alternatives to the rabbit Draize test for skin corrosivity in place, namely the rat skin transcutaneous electrical resistance (TER) assay and the Human Skin Model Test using EpiSkin, EpiDerm and SkinEthic reconstructed human epidermal equivalents. For skin irritation, EpiSkin, EpiDerm and SkinEthic are validated as stand-alone test replacements for the rabbit Draize test. Data from these tests are rarely considered in isolation and are evaluated in combination with other factors to establish the overall irritating or corrosive potential of an ingredient. In light of the deadlines established in the Cosmetics Directive for cessation of animal testing for cosmetic ingredients, a COLIPA scientific meeting was held in Brussels on 30th January, 2008 to review the use of alternative approaches and to set up a decision tree approach for their integration into tiered testing strategies for hazard and safety assessment of cosmetic ingredients and their use in products. In conclusion, the safety assessments for skin irritation/corrosion of new chemicals for use in cosmetics can be confidently accomplished using exclusively alternative methods. PMID:19393278

  2. Development and hemocompatibility testing of nitric oxide releasing polymers using a rabbit model of thrombogenicity

    PubMed Central

    Major, Terry C; Handa, Hitesh; Annich, Gail M; Bartlett, Robert H

    2014-01-01

    Hemocompatibility is the goal for any biomaterial contained in extracorporeal life supporting (ECLS) medical devices. The hallmarks for hemocompatibility include nonthrombogenicity, platelet preservation and maintained platelet function. Both in vitro and in vivo assays testing for compatibility of the blood/biomaterial interface have been used over the last several decades to ascertain if the biomaterial used in medical tubing and devices will require systemic anticoagulation for viability. Over the last 50 years systemic anticoagulation with heparin has been the gold standard in maintaining effective ECLS. However, the biomaterial that maintains effective ECLS without the use of any systemic anticoagulant has remained elusive. In this review, the in vivo 4-h rabbit thrombogenicity model genesis will be described with emphasis on biomaterials that may require no systemic anticoagulation for ECLS longevity. These novel biomaterials may improve extracorporeal circulation (ECC) hemocompatibility by preserving near resting physiology of the major blood components, the platelets and monocytes. The rabbit ECC model provides a complete assessment of biomaterial interactions with the intrinsic coagulation players, the circulating platelet and monocytes. This total picture of blood/biomaterial interaction suggests that this rabbit thrombogenicity model could provide a standardization for biomaterial hemocompatibility testing. PMID:24934500

  3. Supercritical fluid-mediated liposomes containing cyclosporin A for the treatment of dry eye syndrome in a rabbit model: comparative study with the conventional cyclosporin A emulsion

    PubMed Central

    Karn, Pankaj Ranjan; Kim, Hyun Do; Kang, Han; Sun, Bo Kyung; Jin, Su-Eon; Hwang, Sung-Joo

    2014-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy of cyclosporin (CsA)-encapsulated liposomes with the commercially available CsA emulsion (Restasis®) for the treatment of dry eye syndrome in rabbits. Methods Liposomes containing CsA were prepared by the supercritical fluid (SCF) method consisted of phosphatidylcholine from soybean (SCF-S100) and egg lecithins (SCF-EPCS). An in vitro permeation study was carried out using artificial cellulose membrane in Franz diffusion cells. Dry eye syndrome was induced in male albino rabbits and further subdivided into untreated, Restasis®-treated, EPCS, and S100-treated groups. Tear formation in the dry-eye-induced rabbits was evaluated using the Schirmer tear test. All formulations were also evaluated by ocular irritation tests using the Draize eye and winking methods with the determination of CsA concentration in rabbit tears. Results After the treatment, the Schirmer tear test value significantly improved in EPCS-treated (P=0.005) and S100-treated (P=0.018) groups compared to the Restasis®-treated group. The AUC0–24 h for rabbit’s tear film after the administration of SCF-S100 was 32.75±9.21 ?g·h/mg which was significantly higher than that of 24.59±8.69 ?g·h/mg reported with Restasis®. Liposomal CsA formulations used in this study showed lower irritation in rabbit eyes compared with Restasis®. Conclusion These results demonstrate that the novel SCF-mediated liposomal CsA promises a significant improvement in overcoming the challenges associated with the treatment of dry eyes. PMID:25143728

  4. A tiered approach to the use of alternatives to animal testing for the safety assessment of cosmetics: eye irritation.

    PubMed

    McNamee, Pauline; Hibatallah, Jalila; Costabel-Farkas, Margit; Goebel, Carsten; Araki, Daisuke; Dufour, Eric; Hewitt, Nicola J; Jones, Penny; Kirst, Annette; Le Varlet, Béatrice; Macfarlane, Martin; Marrec-Fairley, Monique; Rowland, Joanna; Schellauf, Florian; Scheel, Julia

    2009-07-01

    The need for alternative approaches to replace the in vivo rabbit Draize eye test for evaluation of eye irritation of cosmetic ingredients has been recognised by the cosmetics industry for many years. Extensive research has lead to the development of several assays, some of which have undergone formal validation. Even though, to date, no single in vitro assay has been validated as a full replacement for the rabbit Draize eye test, organotypic assays are accepted for specific and limited regulatory purposes. Although not formally validated, several other in vitro models have been used for over a decade by the cosmetics industry as valuable tools in a weight of evidence approach for the safety assessment of ingredients and finished products. In light of the deadlines established in the EU Cosmetics Directive for cessation of animal testing for cosmetic ingredients, a COLIPA scientific meeting was held in Brussels on 30th January, 2008 to review the use of alternative approaches and to set up a decision-tree approach for their integration into tiered testing strategies for hazard and safety assessment of cosmetic ingredients and their use in products. Furthermore, recommendations are given on how remaining data gaps and research needs can be addressed. PMID:19393279

  5. The Ex Vivo Eye Irritation Test as an alternative test method for serious eye damage/eye irritation.

    PubMed

    Spöler, Felix; Kray, Oya; Kray, Stefan; Panfil, Claudia; Schrage, Norbert F

    2015-07-01

    Ocular irritation testing is a common requirement for the classification, labelling and packaging of chemicals (substances and mixtures). The in vivo Draize rabbit eye test (OECD Test Guideline 405) is considered to be the regulatory reference method for the classification of chemicals according to their potential to induce eye injury. In the Draize test, chemicals are applied to rabbit eyes in vivo, and changes are monitored over time. If no damage is observed, the chemical is not categorised. Otherwise, the classification depends on the severity and reversibility of the damage. Alternative test methods have to be designed to match the classifications from the in vivo reference method. However, observation of damage reversibility is usually not possible in vitro. Within the present study, a new organotypic method based on rabbit corneas obtained from food production is demonstrated to close this gap. The Ex Vivo Eye Irritation Test (EVEIT) retains the full biochemical activity of the corneal epithelium, epithelial stem cells and endothelium. This permits the in-depth analysis of ocular chemical trauma beyond that achievable by using established in vitro methods. In particular, the EVEIT is the first test to permit the direct monitoring of recovery of all corneal layers after damage. To develop a prediction model for the EVEIT that is comparable to the GHS system, 37 reference chemicals were analysed. The experimental data were used to derive a three-level potency ranking of eye irritation and corrosion that best fits the GHS categorisation. In vivo data available in the literature were used for comparison. When compared with GHS classification predictions, the overall accuracy of the three-level potency ranking was 78%. The classification of chemicals as irritating versus non-irritating resulted in 96% sensitivity, 91% specificity and 95% accuracy. PMID:26256395

  6. An overview of current techniques for ocular toxicity testing.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Samantha L; Ahearne, Mark; Hopkinson, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Given the hazardous nature of many materials and substances, ocular toxicity testing is required to evaluate the dangers associated with these substances after their exposure to the eye. Historically, animal tests such as the Draize test were exclusively used to determine the level of ocular toxicity by applying a test substance to a live rabbit's eye and evaluating the biological response. In recent years, legislation in many developed countries has been introduced to try to reduce animal testing and promote alternative techniques. These techniques include ex vivo tests on deceased animal tissue, computational models that use algorithms to apply existing data to new chemicals and in vitro assays based on two dimensional (2D) and three dimensional (3D) cell culture models. Here we provide a comprehensive overview of the latest advances in ocular toxicity testing techniques, and discuss the regulatory framework used to evaluate their suitability. PMID:25445805

  7. Vehicle test report: South Coast Technology electric Volkswagen Rabbit with developmental low-power armature chopper

    SciTech Connect

    Marte, J.E.; Bryant, J.A.; Livingston, R.

    1983-06-01

    Dynamometer performance of a South Coast Technology electric conversion of a Volkswagen (VW) Rabbit designated SCT-8 was tested. The SCT-8 vehicle was fitted with a transistorized chopper in the motor armature circuit to supplement the standard motor speed control via field weakening. The armature chopper allowed speed control below the motor base speed. This low speed control was intended to reduce energy loss at idle during stop-and-go traffic; to eliminate the need for using the clutch below base motor speed; and to improve the drivability. Test results indicate an improvement of about 3.5% in battery energy economy for the SAE J227a-D driving cycle and 6% for the C-cycle with only a minor reduction in acceleration performance. A further reduction of about 6% would be impossible if provision were made for shutting down field power during the idle phases of the driving cycles. Drivability of the vehicle equipped with armature chopper was significantly improved compared with the standard SCT Electric Rabbit.

  8. Vehicle test report: South Coast Technology electric Volkswagen Rabbit with developmental low-power armature chopper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marte, J. E.; Bryant, J. A.; Livingston, R.

    1983-01-01

    Dynamometer performance of a South Coast Technology electric conversion of a Volkswagen (VW) Rabbit designated SCT-8 was tested. The SCT-8 vehicle was fitted with a transistorized chopper in the motor armature circuit to supplement the standard motor speed control via field weakening. The armature chopper allowed speed control below the motor base speed. This low speed control was intended to reduce energy loss at idle during stop-and-go traffic; to eliminate the need for using the clutch below base motor speed; and to improve the drivability. Test results indicate an improvement of about 3.5% in battery energy economy for the SAE J227a-D driving cycle and 6% for the C-cycle with only a minor reduction in acceleration performance. A further reduction of about 6% would be possible if provision were made for shutting down field power during the idle phases of the driving cycles. Drivability of the vehicle equipped with the armature chopper was significantly improved compared with the standard SCT Electric Rabbit.

  9. A method to test contractility of the supraspinatus muscle in mouse, rat, and rabbit.

    PubMed

    Valencia, Ana P; Iyer, Shama R; Pratt, Stephen J P; Gilotra, Mohit N; Lovering, Richard M

    2016-02-01

    The rotator cuff (RTC) muscles not only generate movement but also provide important shoulder joint stability. RTC tears, particularly in the supraspinatus muscle, are a common clinical problem. Despite some biological healing after RTC repair, persistent problems include poor functional outcomes with high retear rates after surgical repair. Animal models allow further exploration of the sequela of RTC injury such as fibrosis, inflammation, and fatty infiltration, but there are few options regarding contractility for mouse, rat, and rabbit. Histological findings can provide a "direct measure" of damage, but the most comprehensive measure of the overall health of the muscle is contractile force. However, information regarding normal supraspinatus size and contractile function is scarce. Animal models provide the means to compare muscle histology, imaging, and contractility within individual muscles in various models of injury and disease, but to date, most testing of animal contractile force has been limited primarily to hindlimb muscles. Here, we describe an in vivo method to assess contractility of the supraspinatus muscle and describe differences in methods and representative outcomes for mouse, rat, and rabbit. PMID:26586911

  10. Combined use of borneol or menthol with labrasol promotes penetration of baicalin through rabbit cornea in vitro.

    PubMed

    Huang, Lei; Bai, Jianhai; Yang, Hongbin; Liu, Jingjing; Cui, Hao

    2015-01-01

    The permeability of most drugs through the eyes is very limited, so finding safe and effective penetration enhancers is of high importance in current ophthalmology research. In this paper, we use a new approach that integrates Chinese and Western medicine to improve the corneal permeability of baicalin, a water- and fat-insoluble target drug, in vitro. Rabbits were divided into three groups. The first group was dosed with borneol (0.05%, 0.1%). menthol (0.1%, 0.2%), or Labrasol (1%, 2%) individually, the second was dosed with a combination of Labrasol with either borneol or menthol, and the third group received a control treatment. Compared with the control treatment, borneol, menthol, or Labrasol alone clearly improved the permeability of baicalin in vitro. Furthermore, the penetrating effects were significantly increased by combining the application of Labrasol with menthol or borneol. Among the various combined penetration enhancers, 0.1% borneol with 2% Labrasol achieved the best apparent permeability, approximately 16.35 times that of the control. Additionally, the calculation of corneal hydration level and the Draize test demonstrated the safety of these penetration enhancers to the rabbit corneas in vivo. This study confirms that the combined use of borneol or menthol, compounds both derived from Chinese herbs, with Labrasol can improve the corneal permeability of water- and fat-insoluble drugs. PMID:25553687

  11. Establishment of a new in vitro test method for evaluation of eye irritancy using a reconstructed human corneal epithelial model, LabCyte CORNEA-MODEL.

    PubMed

    Katoh, Masakazu; Hamajima, Fumiyasu; Ogasawara, Takahiro; Hata, Ken-ichiro

    2013-12-01

    Finding in vitro eye irritation testing alternatives to animal testing such as the Draize eye test, which uses rabbits, is essential from the standpoint of animal welfare. It has been developed a reconstructed human corneal epithelial model, the LabCyte CORNEA-MODEL, which has a representative corneal epithelium-like structure. Protocol optimization (pre-validation study) was examined in order to establish a new alternative method for eye irritancy evaluation with this model. From the results of the optimization experiments, the application periods for chemicals were set at 1min for liquid chemicals or 24h for solid chemicals, and the post-exposure incubation periods were set at 24h for liquids or zero for solids. If the viability was less than 50%, the chemical was judged to be an eye irritant. Sixty-one chemicals were applied in the optimized protocol using the LabCyte CORNEA-MODEL and these results were evaluated in correlation with in vivo results. The predictions of the optimized LabCyte CORNEA-MODEL eye irritation test methods were highly correlated with in vivo eye irritation (sensitivity 100%, specificity 80.0%, and accuracy 91.8%). These results suggest that the LabCyte CORNEA-MODEL eye irritation test could be useful as an alternative method to the Draize eye test. PMID:23999412

  12. Chitosan coated sodium alginate-chitosan nanoparticles loaded with 5-FU for ocular delivery: in vitro characterization and in vivo study in rabbit eye.

    PubMed

    Nagarwal, Ramesh C; Kumar, Rakesh; Pandit, J K

    2012-11-20

    The objective of the study was to develop chitosan (CH) coated sodium alginate-chitosan (SA-CH) nanoparticles, i.e. CH-SA-CH NPs loaded with 5-FU for ophthalmic delivery. Drug loaded nanoparticles (DNPs) were prepared by ionic gelation technique using sodium alginate (SA) and chitosan (CH) and then suspended in chitosan solution. The mean size of nanoparticles and morphology were characterized by dynamic light scattering, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy and zeta potential. The in vitro release was studied by dialysis membrane technique. The size and drug encapsulation efficiency were dependent on molar ratio of SA and CH. The size of SA-CH nanoparticles was significantly increased with changed morphology after CH coating. SA-CH nanoparticles did not show any interaction with mucin while an enhanced viscosity was observed on coating of nanoparticles with CH. CH-SA-CH DNPs presented a sustained release of 5-FU compared to the 5-FU solution with high burst effect. In vivo study in rabbit eye showed significantly greater level of 5-FU in aqueous humor compared to 5-FU solution. The enhanced mucoadhesiveness of CH-SA-CH DNPs results in higher bioavailability as compared to the uncoated nanoparticles. Optimized formulation was found non-irritant and tolerable when tested by modified Draize test in rabbit eye. PMID:22922098

  13. Determination of the elastic properties of rabbit vocal fold tissue using uniaxial tensile testing and a tailored finite element model

    PubMed Central

    Latifi, Neda; Miri, Amir K.; Mongeau, Luc

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to quantify the effects of the specimen shape on the accuracy of mechanical properties determined from a shape-specific model generation strategy. Digital images of five rabbit vocal folds (VFs) in their initial undeformed conditions were used to build corresponding specific solid models. The displacement field of the VFs under uniaxial tensile test was then measured over the visible portion of the surface using digital image correlation. A three-dimensional finite element model was built, using ABAQUS, for each solid model, while imposing measured boundary conditions. An inverse-problem method was used, assuming a homogeneous isotropic linear elastic constitutive model. Unknown elastic properties were identified iteratively through an error minimization technique between simulated and measured force-time data. The longitudinal elastic moduli of the five rabbit VFs were calculated and compared to values from a simple analytical method and those obtained by approximating the cross-section as elliptical. The use of shape-specific models significantly reduced the standard deviation of the Young's modulus of the tested specimens. However, a non-parametric statistical analysis test, i.e., the Friedman test, yielded no statistically significant differences between the shape-specific method and the elliptic cylindrical finite element model. Considering the required procedures to reconstruct the shape-specific finite element model for each tissue specimen, it might be expedient to use the simpler method when large numbers of tissue specimens are to be compared regarding their Young's moduli. PMID:25173237

  14. Disposable rabbit

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, Leroy C. (Idaho Falls, ID); Trammell, David R. (Rigby, ID)

    1986-01-01

    A disposable rabbit for transferring radioactive samples in a pneumatic transfer system comprises aerated plastic shaped in such a manner as to hold a radioactive sample and aerated such that dissolution of the rabbit in a solvent followed by evaporation of the solid yields solid waste material having a volume significantly smaller than the original volume of the rabbit.

  15. Disposal rabbit

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, L.C.; Trammell, D.R.

    1983-10-12

    A disposable rabbit for transferring radioactive samples in a pneumatic transfer system comprises aerated plastic shaped in such a manner as to hold a radioactive sample and aerated such that dissolution of the rabbit in a solvent followed by evaporation of the solid yields solid waste material having a volume significantly smaller than the original volume of the rabbit.

  16. Synchrotron radiation microimaging in rabbit models of cancer for preclinical testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umetani, Keiji; Uesugi, Kentaro; Kobatake, Makito; Yamamoto, Akira; Yamashita, Takenori; Imai, Shigeki

    2009-10-01

    Preclinical laboratory animal imaging modalities such as microangiography and micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) have been developed at the SPring-8 BL20B2 bending magnet beamline. The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the usefulness of microangiography systems for physiological examinations of live animals and micro-CT systems for postmortem morphological examinations. Synchrotron radiation microangiography and micro-CT with contrast agents present the main advantageous capability of depicting the anatomy of small blood vessels with tens of micrometers' diameter. This paper reports two imaging instrument types and their respective applications to preclinical imaging of tumor angiogenic blood vessels in tumor-bearing rabbits, where tumor angiogenesis is characterized morphologically by an increased number of blood vessels. A microangiography system with spatial resolution around 10 ?m has been used for therapeutically evaluating angiogenic vessels in a rabbit model of cancer for evaluating embolization materials in transcatheter arterial embolization and for radiation therapy. After an iodine contrast agent was injected into an artery, in vivo imaging was carried out using a high-resolution real-time detector incorporating an X-ray direct-conversion-type SATICON pickup tube. On the other hand, a micro-CT system capably performed three-dimensional visualization of tumor angiogenic blood vessels using tumor-transplanted rabbit specimens with a barium sulfate contrast agent injected into the blood vessels. For specimen imaging, a large-field high-resolution micro-CT system based on a 10-megapixel CCD camera was developed to study tumor-associated alterations in angioarchitecture. Evidence of increased vascularity by tumor angiogenesis and decreased vascularity by tumor treatments was achieved by physiological evaluation of angiogenic small blood vessels in microangiographic imaging and by morphological assessment in micro-CT imaging. These results demonstrate the accuracy and usefulness of microangiography and micro-CT systems for quantitative examination of animals' angioarchitecture, respectively, during live and postmortem examinations.

  17. Determination of the elastic properties of rabbit vocal fold tissue using uniaxial tensile testing and a tailored finite element model.

    PubMed

    Latifi, Neda; Miri, Amir K; Mongeau, Luc

    2014-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to quantify the effects of the specimen shape on the accuracy of mechanical properties determined from a shape-specific model generation strategy. Digital images of five rabbit vocal folds (VFs) in their initial undeformed conditions were used to build corresponding specific solid models. The displacement field of the VFs under uniaxial tensile test was then measured over the visible portion of the surface using digital image correlation. A three-dimensional finite element model was built, using ABAQUS, for each solid model, while imposing measured boundary conditions. An inverse-problem method was used, assuming a homogeneous isotropic linear elastic constitutive model. Unknown elastic properties were identified iteratively through an error minimization technique between simulated and measured force-time data. The longitudinal elastic moduli of the five rabbit VFs were calculated and compared to values from a simple analytical method and those obtained by approximating the cross-section as elliptical. The use of shape-specific models significantly reduced the standard deviation of the Young?s moduli of the tested specimens. However, a non-parametric statistical analysis test, i.e., the Friedman test, yielded no statistically significant differences between the shape-specific method and the elliptic cylindrical finite element model. Considering the required procedures to reconstruct the shape-specific finite element model for each tissue specimen, it might be expedient to use the simpler method when large numbers of tissue specimens are to be compared regarding their Young?s moduli. PMID:25173237

  18. Baclofen-loaded microspheres: preparation and efficacy testing in a new rabbit model.

    PubMed

    Lagarce, Frederic; Renaud, Pascal; Faisant, Nathalie; Nicolas, Guillaume; Cailleux, Annie; Richard, Joel; Menei, Philippe; Benoit, Jean-Pierre

    2005-04-01

    Intrathecal baclofen is the reference treatment for severe spasticity. This drug has to be injected chronically in the intrathecal space by implanted pumps which are very expensive, uncomfortable and sometimes lead to side effects. Previous work has been performed by our group to assess the feasibility of encapsulating baclofen into poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) microspheres and injecting these preparations in the intrathecal space of rabbits. The aims of the present study were to improve the encapsulation process for industrial application (scale-up), and to set up an animal model to assess the duration of effect of the new formulations. Modifications included the replacement of methylene chloride by a less toxic solvent, ethyl acetate, and the use of high molecular weight polymers to extend the release rate of the drug. The temperature and organic solvent extraction rate were fully controlled during the whole manufacturing process. All these modifications resulted in high quality microsphere batches with a CV inferior to 5% for encapsulation efficiency and drug loading. Encapsulation efficiency and release patterns were dependent on the drug payload and the polymer used. A formulation displaying a sustained release of baclofen over 174 days and a moderate burst effect of 16% in the first day in vitro was evaluated in a new reliable model of baclofen activity based on electrophysiological measurement of H-reflex in the rabbit. The activity of a very low dose of baclofen microspheres in vivo was sustained over 35 days. Furthermore, the preparation was well tolerated. These newly developed preparations are a very promising approach for enhancing the efficacy and comfort of patients undergoing spasticity treatment. PMID:15760725

  19. Applicability of the Monocyte Activation Test (MAT) for hyperimmune sera in the routine of the quality control laboratory: Comparison with the Rabbit Pyrogen Test (RPT).

    PubMed

    da Silva, Cristiane Caldeira; Presgrave, Octavio Augusto França; Hartung, Thomas; de Moraes, Aurea Maria Lage; Delgado, Isabella Fernandes

    2016-04-01

    Pyrogen tests are safety assays performed during the routine quality control of injectable products required by regulatory agencies. Currently, there are three available testing possibilities: 1) the Rabbit Pyrogen Test (RPT); 2) the Bacterial Endotoxin Test (BET); and 3) test systems using human whole-blood or monocytes, termed Monocyte Activation Test (MAT). Although BET is often considered as a replacement for the animal test, it is unable to detect pyrogens other than endotoxin. MAT is based on the human fever reaction and thus, most closely reflects the human response. The aim of this study was to conduct a parallel comparison of the RPT and MAT for hyperimmune sera (HS) batches analyzed during the routine of a quality control laboratory. MAT was performed in the same 43 batches of HS previously tested using RPT. The results showed that MAT presented 100% sensitivity and approximately 85% specificity as compared to RPT, i.e., no false-negative results were obtained. Few suspicious samples, which were negative in the RPT after retesting, provided divergent positive results suggesting a lower limit of detection of MAT. MAT is thus able to detect contaminants in biological products such as HS batches. PMID:26688320

  20. Soluble ?-(1,3)-glucans enhance LPS-induced response in the monocyte activation test, but inhibit LPS-mediated febrile response in rabbits: Implications for pyrogenicity tests.

    PubMed

    Pardo-Ruiz, Zenia; Menéndez-Sardiñas, Dalia E; Pacios-Michelena, Anabel; Gabilondo-Ramírez, Tatiana; Montero-Alejo, Vivian; Perdomo-Morales, Rolando

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we aimed to determine the influence of ?-(1,3)-d-glucans on the LPS-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine response in the Monocyte Activation Test (MAT) for pyrogens, and on the LPS-induced febrile response in the Rabbit Pyrogen Test (RPT), thus evaluating the resulting effect in the outcome of each test. It was found that ?-(1,3)-d-glucans elicited the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1?, IL-6 and TNF-?, also known as endogenous pyrogens, but not enough to classify them as pyrogenic according to MAT. The same ?-(1,3)-d-glucans samples were non-pyrogenic by RPT. However, ?-(1,3)-d-glucans significantly enhanced the LPS-induced pro-inflammatory cytokines response in MAT, insomuch that samples containing non-pyrogenic concentrations of LPS become pyrogenic. On the other hand, ?-(1,3)-d-glucans had no effect on sub-pyrogenic LPS doses in the RPT, but surprisingly, inhibited the LPS-induced febrile response of pyrogenic LPS concentrations. Thus, while ?-(1,3)-d-glucans could mask the LPS pyrogenic activity in the RPT, they exerted an overstimulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the MAT. Hence, MAT provides higher safety since it evidences an unwanted biological response, which is not completely controlled and is overlooked by the RPT. PMID:26428698

  1. Assessment of the eye irritation potential of chemicals: A comparison study between two test methods based on human 3D hemi-cornea models.

    PubMed

    Tandon, R; Bartok, M; Zorn-Kruppa, M; Brandner, J M; Gabel, D; Engelke, M

    2015-12-25

    We have recently developed two hemi-cornea models (Bartok et al., Toxicol in Vitro 29, 72, 2015; Zorn-Kruppa et al. PLoS One 9, e114181, 2014), which allow the correct prediction of eye irritation potential of chemicals according to the United Nations globally harmonized system of classification and labeling of chemicals (UN GHS). Both models comprise a multilayered epithelium and a stroma with embedded keratocytes in a collagenous matrix. These two models were compared, using a set of fourteen test chemicals. Their effects after 10 and 60minutes (min) exposure were assessed from the quantification of cell viability using the MTT reduction assay. The first approach separately quantifies the damage inflicted to the epithelium and the stroma. The second approach quantifies the depth of injury by recording cell death as a function of depth. The classification obtained by the two models was compared to the Draize rabbit eye test and an ex vivo model using rabbit cornea (Jester et al. Toxicol in Vitro. 24, 597-604, 2010). With a 60min exposure, both of our models are able to clearly differentiate UN GHS Category 1 and UN GHS Category 2 test chemicals. PMID:26362509

  2. Non-animal testing strategies for assessment of the skin corrosion and skin irritation potential of ingredients and finished products.

    PubMed

    Robinson, M K; Cohen, C; de Fraissinette, A de Brugerolle; Ponec, M; Whittle, E; Fentem, J H

    2002-05-01

    The dermatotoxicologist today is faced with a dilemma. Protection of workers and consumers from skin toxicities (irritation and allergy) associated with exposure to products, and the ingredients they contain, requires toxicological skin testing prior to manufacture, transport, or marketing. Testing for skin corrosion or irritation has traditionally been conducted in animals, particularly in rabbits via the long established Draize test method. However, this procedure, among others, has been subject to criticism, both for its limited predictive capacity for human toxicity, as well as for its use of animals. In fact, legislation is pending in the European Union which would ban the sale of cosmetic products, the ingredients of which have been tested in animals. These considerations, and advancements in both in vitro skin biology and clinical testing, have helped drive an intensive effort among skin scientists to develop alternative test methods based either on in vitro test systems (e.g. using rat, pig or human skin ex vivo, or reconstructed human skin models) or ethical clinical approaches (human volunteer studies). Tools are now in place today to enable a thorough skin corrosion and irritation assessment of new ingredients and products without the need to test in animals. Herein, we describe general testing strategies and new test methods for the assessment of skin corrosion and irritation. The methods described, and utilized within industry today, provide a framework for the practicing toxicologist to support new product development initiatives through the use of reliable skin safety testing and risk assessment tools and strategies. PMID:11955663

  3. Rabbit whole embryo culture.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Valerie A; Carney, Edward W

    2012-01-01

    Although the rabbit is used extensively in developmental toxicity testing, relatively little is known about the fundamental developmental biology of this species let alone mechanisms underlying developmental toxicity. This paucity of information about the rabbit is partly due to the historic lack of whole embryo culture (WEC) methods for the rabbit, which have only been made available fairly recently. In rabbit WEC, early somite stage embryos (gestation day 9) enclosed within an intact amnion and attached to the visceral yolk sac are dissected from maternal tissues and placed in culture for up to 48 h at approximately 37°C and are continuously exposed to an humidified gas atmosphere mixture in a rotating culture system. During this 48 h culture period, major phases of organogenesis can be studied including cardiac looping and segmentation, neural tube closure, and development of anlagen of the otic system, eyes and craniofacial structures, somites and early phases of limb development (up to bud stage), as well as expansion and closure of the visceral yolk sac around the embryo. Following completion of the culture period, embryos are evaluated based on several growth and development parameters and also are assessed for morphological abnormalities. The ability to sustain embryo development independent of the maternal system allows for exposure at precise development stages providing the opportunity study the direct action of a teratogen or one of its metabolites on the developing embryo. Rabbit WEC is perhaps most useful when used in conjunction with rodent WEC methods to investigate species-specific mechanisms of developmental toxicity. PMID:22669668

  4. Postnatal changes in the expression of claudin-11 in the testes and excurrent ducts of the domestic rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus domesticus).

    PubMed

    Park, Chan Jin; Lee, Jae Eun; Oh, Young Seok; Shim, Sara; Kim, Dong Min; Park, Nam Cheol; Park, Hyun Jun; Gye, Myung Chan

    2011-01-01

    We examined the expression of claudin-11 (CLDN11) in the testes and male reproductive tracts of rabbits. The rabbit CLDN11 cDNA sequences were nearly identical with human, mouse, and bovine CLDN11. The levels of CLDN11 mRNA and protein (22 kDa) were markedly increased in the testis during adult development. On postnatal day (PND) 10, CLDN11 was colocalized with ZO-1 at the lateral contacts between adjacent Sertoli cells and was perpendicular to the basal lamina. In adult testis on PND 180, CLDN11 was codistributed with ZO1, and the pattern of immunoreactivity consisted of wavy linear tracts parallel to the basal lamina, which was different according to the spermatogenic stage. These results suggest that CLDN11 participates in inter-Sertoli cell tight junctions (TJs) at the blood-testis barrier in adult rabbits. CLDN11 was also found in the basal regions of Sertoli cells adjacent to the basal lamina in adult testis, suggesting that CLDN11 also participates in the adhesion between Sertoli cells and the basal lamina. CLDN11 mRNA and protein expressions were decreased in the adult epididymis compared with those in immature animals. In adults, CLDN11 mRNA levels were relatively high in the efferent duct, followed by those in the vas deferens, proximal corpus, and distal cauda, although low levels were observed in the initial segment and caput. On PND 10, CLDN11 immunoreactivity was identified at the apicolateral contacts between adjacent epithelial cells in the epididymis and vas deferens. In adults, CLDN11 was found in the nonciliated cells in the efferent duct and at the lateral contacts in the epithelial cells in the epididymal segments. In the caput, CLDN11 was found at the apicolateral contacts between adjacent epithelial cells, but expression was weak to negligible in the corpus of the vas deferens. CLDN11 may play an important role in TJs and cell adhesion in immature rabbit excurrent duct epithelia. In adult rabbits, CLDN11 in efferent duct epithelium and epididymal epithelium may contribute to the specific environment for sperm maturation. PMID:20966426

  5. A tiered approach combining the short time exposure (STE) test and the bovine corneal opacity and permeability (BCOP) assay for predicting eye irritation potential of chemicals.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Kazuhiko; Mori, Taeko; Abo, Takayuki; Koike, Mirei; Takahashi, Yutaka; Sakaguchi, Hitoshi; Nishiyama, Naohiro

    2012-01-01

    For the evaluation of eye irritation, one in vitro alternative test may not completely replace the Draize test. Therefore, a tiered approach combining several in vitro assays, including cytotoxicity assays, is proposed in order to estimate the eye irritation potential of a wide range of chemical classes. The Short Time Exposure (STE) test, a relatively newer alternative eye irritation test, involves exposing Statens seruminstitut rabbit cornea (SIRC) cells for 5 min to two concentrations (5% and 0.05%) of test material. In the present study, we examined the predictive capacity of a tiered approach analyzing the results from the STE test and then the results of the bovine corneal opacity and permeability (BCOP) assay for assessing globally harmonized system (GHS) eye irritation rankings of various chemicals. The accuracy of predicting the GHS rankings was slightly improved when the tiered approach combination of STE test and BCOP assay was used compared to when the STE test irritation rank classification was used alone. Moreover, the under prediction rate was substantially improved when this tiered approach was used. From these results, the tiered approach of combining the data analysis of the STE test and BCOP assay might be a promising alternative eye irritation test strategy. PMID:22467017

  6. Comparison of temperature rise interpretations in the rabbit pyrogen test among Chinese, Japanese, European, and United States pharmacopeias and 2-2-2 theoretical models proposed by S. Hoffmann.

    PubMed

    Du, Ying; Li, Xiu-Ji; Tan, De-Jiang

    2011-10-01

    Although the rabbit pyrogen test is one of the crucial methods included in each pharmacopeia to evaluate the safety of parenteral medicine, the experimental procedures and pyrogen result judgment algorithms (PRJAs) are still greatly different from one another. In the first stage of testing, original data of 879 batches from a total of 2637 rabbits in our laboratory were judged by PRJAs in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia 2005 III, the Japanese Pharmacopoeia XIV, the Japanese Pharmacopoeia XV, the European Pharmacopeia 6.0, the United States Pharmacopoeia 32 NF27 and two theoretical models proposed by S. Hoffmann, respectively. The results were analyzed to evaluate the effects of various PRJAs. It was shown that: (i) the significant differences in the results judged by various pharmacopeias and Hoffmann's theoretical models were mainly due to the PRJAs and the great differences in PRJAs should be harmonized throughout the world based on balance of reducing animal use and guaranteeing the safety of medicines; (ii) it is better to use PRJAs that depend on the threshold of the sum of temperature rise of all tested rabbits than those that depend on the number of rabbits that are over the threshold of temperature rise of individual rabbit according to clinical proof and the experimental data; and (iii) the PRJA of the Japanese Pharmacopoeia XV has obvious advantages when the total suspicious rate of samples was less than 10%. Additionally, a new PRJA designed for reducing the additional experiment stages and animal consumption is promoted for evaluation. PMID:21088045

  7. Catecholamines and encephalitozoonosis in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Levkut, M; Horváth, M; Bálent, P; Levkutová, M; Hipíková, V; Letková, V

    1997-12-15

    Twenty four rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus f. domestica) were used to detect specific anti-Encephalitozoon cuniculi antibodies. To identify microsporidian infection, a haemolytic test in agar gel was carried out. Blood samples of animals with and without spontaneous encephalitozoonosis were evaluated, and compared for the presence of epinephrine (EPI), norepinephrine (NE), and dopamine (DA). Rabbits infected spontaneously with E. cuniculi had significantly lower levels of catecholamines than healthy animals. This decrease in catecholamines is of special interest because of their role as factors modifying the immune response. These neuromediators also have different influences on the function of immune cells. PMID:9477503

  8. Rabbit Soft Tissue Surgery.

    PubMed

    Szabo, Zoltan; Bradley, Katriona; Cahalane, Alane Kosanovich

    2016-01-01

    This article summarizes the available information on different soft tissue surgical procedures in rabbits, based on the literature and the authors' experiences, emphasizing the differences between rabbits and the more familiar dogs and cats. The major surgical principles in rabbits are discussed, and common surgical procedures, such as abdominal exploration, gastrotomy, enterotomy, liver lobectomy, nephrectomy, cystotomy, cystectomy, ovariohysterectomy, ovariectomy, orchidectomy, are described. PMID:26611928

  9. Prefabrication of 3D Cartilage Contructs: Towards a Tissue Engineered Auricle – A Model Tested in Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    von Bomhard, Achim; Veit, Johannes; Bermueller, Christian; Rotter, Nicole; Staudenmaier, Rainer; Storck, Katharina; The, Hoang Nguyen

    2013-01-01

    The reconstruction of an auricle for congenital deformity or following trauma remains one of the greatest challenges in reconstructive surgery. Tissue-engineered (TE) three-dimensional (3D) cartilage constructs have proven to be a promising option, but problems remain with regard to cell vitality in large cell constructs. The supply of nutrients and oxygen is limited because cultured cartilage is not vascular integrated due to missing perichondrium. The consequence is necrosis and thus a loss of form stability. The micro-surgical implantation of an arteriovenous loop represents a reliable technology for neovascularization, and thus vascular integration, of three-dimensional (3D) cultivated cell constructs. Auricular cartilage biopsies were obtained from 15 rabbits and seeded in 3D scaffolds made from polycaprolactone-based polyurethane in the shape and size of a human auricle. These cartilage cell constructs were implanted subcutaneously into a skin flap (15×8 cm) and neovascularized by means of vascular loops implanted micro-surgically. They were then totally enhanced as 3D tissue and freely re-implanted in-situ through microsurgery. Neovascularization in the prefabricated flap and cultured cartilage construct was analyzed by microangiography. After explantation, the specimens were examined by histological and immunohistochemical methods. Cultivated 3D cartilage cell constructs with implanted vascular pedicle promoted the formation of engineered cartilaginous tissue within the scaffold in vivo. The auricles contained cartilage-specific extracellular matrix (ECM) components, such as GAGs and collagen even in the center oft the constructs. In contrast, in cultivated 3D cartilage cell constructs without vascular pedicle, ECM distribution was only detectable on the surface compared to constructs with vascular pedicle. We demonstrated, that the 3D flaps could be freely transplanted. On a microangiographic level it was evident that all the skin flaps and the implanted cultivated constructs were well neovascularized. The presented method is suggested as a promising alternative towards clinical application of engineered cartilaginous tissue for plastic and reconstructive surgery. PMID:23951215

  10. Repeated pulmonary thromboembolism in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Olsen, E G

    1975-03-01

    Ten rabbits received 24 to 76 intravenous injections of finely divided thrombi prepared by a modification of Chandler's apparatus. Eight rabbits were killed soon after the last injection (group A) and two rabbits were allowed to survive for 4 months after the last introduction of thrombi (group B). Ten rabbits received repeated saline injections only, and six animals underwent no manipulation whatever. Six test rabbits and six control rabbits underwent catheterization of the pulmonary artery. The pulmonary arteries of each lung received injections of radiopaque material and were x-rayed; multiple blocks were selected from each lobe of each lung, cut, and stained with Weigert's elastic Van Gieson's stain, which permitted measurement of arterial medial thickness. Sections were also stained with hematoxylin and eosin and Martius scarlet blue. The results of catheterization showed that only mild pulmonary hypertension had been induced. Histologically, thromboemboli had become incorporated into the wall of the arteries. Concentric intimal thickening included an "onionskin" arrangement and was more prevalent than eccentric configuration. Medial hypertrophy of almost all vessels was found. The onionskin arrangement in an occasional precapillary vessel was also encountered. More severe histologic grades of pulmonary hypertension were not seen. The two group B animals showed recent thrombi, which suggested that once intimal thickening had occurred the process of fresh thrombotic superimposition continues, resulting in progression of the lesions. The experimental findings were compared with 13 patients (thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (eight) and primary pulmonary hypertension (five)) and with 181 patients reported in the literature. Features such as the onionskin type of intimal thickening in muscular arteries and precapillary vessels have been suggested as points of distinction between these two conditions. These features have been reproduced in these experiments. Despite the fact that more severe histologic grades of pulmonary hypertension were not produced, it is suggested that these experiments lend support to the concept that primary pulmonary hypertension may have a thromboembolic etiology in at least some patients. PMID:123612

  11. Use of polymerase chain reaction and rabbit infectivity testing to detect Treponema pallidum in amniotic fluid, fetal and neonatal sera, and cerebrospinal fluid.

    PubMed Central

    Grimprel, E; Sanchez, P J; Wendel, G D; Burstain, J M; McCracken, G H; Radolf, J D; Norgard, M V

    1991-01-01

    The diagnosis of congenital syphilis continues to pose a difficult clinical challenge. Because the serodiagnosis of congenital syphilis has significant limitations, the direct detection of Treponema pallidum in suspect neonatal tissues or body fluids represents a desirable alternate diagnostic strategy. We developed and applied the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the detection of T. pallidum in clinical material relevant to the diagnosis of congenital syphilis but which typically contain factors inhibitory for the PCR. Four methods of specimen processing were examined to circumvent PCR inhibition; clinical materials included amniotic fluids, neonatal sera, and neonatal cerebrospinal fluids. The PCR was 100% specific for T. T. pallidum compared with the sensitive rabbit infectivity test (RIT) for all clinical materials tested. For amniotic fluids, the PCR was 100% sensitive when correlated with the RIT but had a lesser sensitivity when applied to sera or cerebrospinal fluids, which typically contain few treponemes. The combined sensitivity of the PCR for all clinical samples was 78%. Positive PCR results also were obtained among some clinical specimens for which RIT was not performed; these results correlated well with either stigmata or risk factors for congenital syphilis. The combined results suggest that the PCR can be a useful adjunct to the diagnosis and clinical management of congenital syphilis and that it will provide a valuable tool for investigations of the pathogenesis of the disorder. Images PMID:1761693

  12. Cysticercosis in laboratory rabbits.

    PubMed

    Owiny, J R

    2001-03-01

    There are no data on the current incidence of Taenia pisiformis in laboratory rabbits. Two cases of cysticercosis most likely due to T. pisiformis in laboratory rabbits (intermediate host) are presented. Both rabbits had no contact with dogs (final host); their caretakers did not work with dogs, and these caretakers changed into facility scrubs and wore gloves when working with the rabbits. Rabbit 1 may have been infected after being fed hay at our facility. In light of the life cycle of the parasite and the history of rabbit 2, it potentially could have been infected prior to arrival at our facility. There have been only three cases of tapeworm cysts in rabbits in our facility (average daily census, 250) during the last 10 years (incidence, < 1%). This report indicates that although cysticercosis is rare in laboratory rabbits, one should always be aware of such incidental findings. Although it may not produce overt illness in the rabbit, hepatic migration could adversely affect the outcome of some experimental procedures PMID:11300689

  13. Combined in vitro tests as an alternative to in vivo eye irritation tests.

    PubMed

    Ying, Yang; Xingfen, Yang; Wengai, Zhang; Jinheng, Cai; Jinyu, Xue; Guangyu, Yang; Xiaohua, Tan; Xiaoping, Xie; Xikun, Xiong; Junming, Huang; Xiang, Guo

    2010-08-01

    Accurate methods that test the eye irritation potential of chemicals, which do not involve the use of animals, are needed to meet new regulatory standards. We evaluated the applicability and predictive capacity of five in vitro tests for eye irritation: the Hen's Egg Test-Chorioallantoic Membrane (HET-CAM) assay; the Chorioallantoic Membrane-Trypan Blue Staining (CAM-TBS) assay; the Fluorescein Leakage Test (FLT); the 3T3-Neutral Red Uptake (3T3-NRU) cytotoxicity assay; and the red blood cell (RBC) haemolysis assay. A panel of 16 chemicals (some at multiple concentrations) was assessed by using the five tests, and the results were compared with historical in vivo Draize test data. The results showed rank correlation and class concordance between the five alternative methods and the Draize test for the 16 chemicals. These in vitro assays had good predictive capacity, reproducibility and reliability when compared to the Draize test. The best relationship was between the HET-CAM, CAM-TBS and FLT results, and the modified maximum average score(s) (MMAS). A prediction model (PM) was developed, based on the maximum possible correlation between the MMAS and the HET-CAM, CAM-TBS and FLT results. The PM had a good predictive capacity when compared to the results of animal tests, indicating its potential value for the in vitro screening of chemicals for eye irritation effects. PMID:20822323

  14. Assessing the Systemic Toxicity in Rabbits after Sub Acute Exposure to Ocular Irritant Chemicals

    PubMed Central

    Sruthi, Sudhakaran; Syama, Santhakumar; Gayathri, Vishwanath; Mohanan, Parayanthala Valappil

    2015-01-01

    Eye is a highly vascularised organ. There are chances that a foreign substance can enter the systemic circulation through the eye and cause oxidative stress and evoke immune response. Here the eyes of rabbits were exposed, for a period of 7 days, to 5 known ocular irritants: Cetyl pyridinium chloride (CPC), sodium salicylate (SS), imidazole (IMI), acetaminophen (ACT) and nicotinamide (NIC). The eyes were scored according to the draize scoring. Blood collected from the treated rabbit were analyzed for haematological and biochemical parameters. After sacrifice, histological analysis of the eye and analysis of pro-inflammatory biomarkers (IL-1?, IL-1?, IL-8 and TNF-?) in the cornea using ELISA was carried out. Spleen was collected and the proliferation capacities of spleenocytes were analyzed. Liver and brain were collected and assessed for oxidative stress. The eye irritation potential of the chemicals was evident from the redness and swelling of the conjunctiva and cornea. Histopathological analysis and ELISA assay showed signs of inflammation in the eye. However, the haematological and biochemical parameters showed no change. Spleenocyte proliferations showed only slight alterations which were not significant. Also oxidative stress in the brain and liver were negligible. In conclusion, chemicals which cause ocular irritation and inflammation did not show any systemic side-effects in the present scenario. PMID:25874033

  15. Assessing the systemic toxicity in rabbits after sub acute exposure to ocular irritant chemicals.

    PubMed

    Reshma, Cherian Sebastian; Sruthi, Sudhakaran; Syama, Santhakumar; Gayathri, Vishwanath; Mohanan, Parayanthala Valappil

    2015-03-01

    Eye is a highly vascularised organ. There are chances that a foreign substance can enter the systemic circulation through the eye and cause oxidative stress and evoke immune response. Here the eyes of rabbits were exposed, for a period of 7 days, to 5 known ocular irritants: Cetyl pyridinium chloride (CPC), sodium salicylate (SS), imidazole (IMI), acetaminophen (ACT) and nicotinamide (NIC). The eyes were scored according to the draize scoring. Blood collected from the treated rabbit were analyzed for haematological and biochemical parameters. After sacrifice, histological analysis of the eye and analysis of pro-inflammatory biomarkers (IL-1?, IL-1?, IL-8 and TNF-?) in the cornea using ELISA was carried out. Spleen was collected and the proliferation capacities of spleenocytes were analyzed. Liver and brain were collected and assessed for oxidative stress. The eye irritation potential of the chemicals was evident from the redness and swelling of the conjunctiva and cornea. Histopathological analysis and ELISA assay showed signs of inflammation in the eye. However, the haematological and biochemical parameters showed no change. Spleenocyte proliferations showed only slight alterations which were not significant. Also oxidative stress in the brain and liver were negligible. In conclusion, chemicals which cause ocular irritation and inflammation did not show any systemic side-effects in the present scenario. PMID:25874033

  16. Astroviruses in Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Moschidou, Paschalina; Pinto, Pierfrancesco; Catella, Cristiana; Desario, Constantina; Larocca, Vittorio; Circella, Elena; Bànyai, Krisztian; Lavazza, Antonio; Magistrali, Chiara; Decaro, Nicola; Buonavoglia, Canio

    2011-01-01

    By screening rabbits with enterocolitis or enteritis complex and asymptomatic rabbits, we identified a novel astrovirus. The virus was distantly related (19.3%–23.7% aa identity) in the capsid precursor to other mammalian astroviruses within the Mamastrovirus genus. By using real-time reverse transcription PCR, with specific primers and probes and targeting a conserved stretch in open reading frame 1b, we found rabbit astrovirus in 10 (43%) of 23 samples from animals with enteric disease and in 25 (18%) of 139 samples from asymptomatic animals in Italy during 2005–2008. The mean and median titers in the positive animals were 102× and 103× greater, respectively, in the symptomatic animals than in the asymptomatic animals. These findings support the idea that rabbit astroviruses should be included in the diagnostic algorithm of rabbit enteric disease and animal experiments to increase information obtained about their epidemiology and potential pathogenic role. PMID:22172457

  17. Interlaboratory Validation of the In Vitro Eye Irritation Tests for Cosmetic Ingredients. (6) Evaluation of MATREX((TM)).

    PubMed

    Ohuchi, J; Kasai, Y; Sakamoto, K; Ohnuma, M; Kitamura, M; Kawasaki, Y; Kakishima, H; Suzuki, K; Kuwahara, H; Imanishi, Y; Tatsumi, H; Kotani, M; Inoue, K; Okumura, H; Arashima, M; Kurishita, A; Kinoshita, S; Tani, N; Kojima, H; Nakamura, T; Suzuki, K; Ishibashi, T; Hori, H; Takahashi, H; Nishikawa, T; Kitano, Y; Ohno, Y

    1999-02-01

    MATREX(TM) is a test system for evaluating eye irritation potential, using the living dermal model (LDM). The LDM consists of normal human dermal fibroblasts in a contracted collagen lattice, which eventually forms a three-dimensional structure. This system has several advantages. It can be applied to insoluble substances and does not require sterile conditions for operation. In the present study, MATREX was introduced as an alternative to the Draize eye irritation test (Draize test) for cosmetics ingredients. MATREX was evaluated through a three-phase series interlaboratory validation as part of a joint project of the National Institute of Health Sciences (NIHS) and Japan Cosmetic Industry Association (JCIA). Toxicity for LDM was mainly evaluated by cytotoxicity, the indicator was EC(50) (concentration that inhibits the viability of the cell to 50% of control) value. Additionally, MATREX score indicating the grade of cytotoxicity was also introduced in the third phase of the validation study. Both test procedures were controlled under the same standard operating procedure (SOP), at all the participating laboratories. A total of 39 test substances both water-soluble and -insoluble were examined. LDM was applicable to almost all substances that could be evaluated by the Draize test. Furthermore interlaboratory variance was relatively low. The correlation coefficient between the EC(50) value and the maximal average Draize total score (MAS) was -0.672. The MATREX score was closely related to the EC(50) value. Moreover, the MATREX scoring method showed a similar prediction ability for eye irritation potential to the EC(50) method. Thus, the MATREX scoring method, a simplified EC(50) method, appears to be a viable alternative to the current EC(50) measurement method. The present results demonstrate the possibility that the MATREX system would form part of a prediction system of Draize test results. PMID:20654473

  18. Complement activation induced by rabbit rheumatoid factor.

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, R R; Brown, J C

    1980-01-01

    Rabbit rheumatoid factor produced in animals by hyperimmunized with group C streptococcal vaccine activated guinea pig complement. Anti-streptococcal serum was fractionated by Sephacryl S-200 chromatography into excluded (19S) and included (7S) material and examined for hemolytic activity in a sensitive homologous hemolytic assay system. In the presence of complement, both 19S and 7S antistreptococcal serum fractions induced lysis of bovine (ox) erythrocytes coated with mildly reduced and carboxymethylated rabbit anti-erythrocyte immunoglobulin G. That rabbit rheumatoid factor was responsible for the observed hemolytic activity was substantiated by hemolytic inhibition assays. Significant inhibition of hemolysis was effected when antistreptococcal serum fractions were incubated in the presence of human immunoglobulin G, rabbit immunoglobulin G, and Fc, whereas, no inhibition was detected when the same fractions were tested in the presence of rabbit Fab or F(ab')2 fragments. Deaggregation of inhibitor preparations revealed a preferential reactivity of rheumatoid factor for rabbit immunoglobulin G. In addition to the rheumatoid factor-dependent hemolytic activity observed in humoral preparations, immunoglobulin G-specific antibody-forming cells in spleen and peripheral blood lymphocyte isolates were enumerated by plaque-forming cell assay. PMID:7399707

  19. Genomic Analysis of Companion Rabbit Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Holmes, Mark A.; Harrison, Ewan M.; Fisher, Elizabeth A.; Graham, Elizabeth M.; Parkhill, Julian; Foster, Geoffrey; Paterson, Gavin K.

    2016-01-01

    In addition to being an important human pathogen, Staphylococcus aureus is able to cause a variety of infections in numerous other host species. While the S. aureus strains causing infection in several of these hosts have been well characterised, this is not the case for companion rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus), where little data are available on S. aureus strains from this host. To address this deficiency we have performed antimicrobial susceptibility testing and genome sequencing on a collection of S. aureus isolates from companion rabbits. The findings show a diverse S. aureus population is able to cause infection in this host, and while antimicrobial resistance was uncommon, the isolates possess a range of known and putative virulence factors consistent with a diverse clinical presentation in companion rabbits including severe abscesses. We additionally show that companion rabbit isolates carry polymorphisms within dltB as described as underlying host-adaption of S. aureus to farmed rabbits. The availability of S. aureus genome sequences from companion rabbits provides an important aid to understanding the pathogenesis of disease in this host and in the clinical management and surveillance of these infections. PMID:26963381

  20. Zoonoses of rabbits and rodents.

    PubMed

    Hill, William Allen; Brown, Julie Paige

    2011-09-01

    Millions of households in the US own rabbits or rodents, including hamsters, guinea pigs, and gerbils. Activities such as hunting and camping also involve human interactions with wild rabbits and rodents. In many environments, feral rabbits and rodents live in close proximity to humans, domesticated animals, and other wildlife. Education of rodent and rabbit owners and individuals with occupational or recreational exposures to these species is paramount to reduce the prevalence of zoonoses associated with rabbit and rodent exposure. PMID:21872786

  1. In-house validation of the EpiOcular(TM) eye irritation test and its combination with the bovine corneal opacity and permeability test for the assessment of ocular irritation.

    PubMed

    Kolle, Susanne N; Kandárová, Helena; Wareing, Britta; van Ravenzwaay, Bennard; Landsiedel, Robert

    2011-09-01

    In 2009, the Bovine Corneal Opacity and Permeability (BCOP) test was accepted by the regulatory bodies for the identification of corrosive and severe ocular irritants (Global Harmonised System [GHS] Category 1). However, no in vitro test is currently accepted for the differentiation of ocular irritants (GHS Category 2) and non-irritants (GHS No Category). Human reconstructed tissue models have been suggested for incorporation into a tiered testing strategy to ultimately replace the Draize rabbit eye irritation test (OECD TG 405). The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether the EpiOcular(TM) reconstructed cornea-like tissue model and the COLIPA pre-validated EpiOcular Eye Irritation Test (EpiOcular-EIT) could be used as suitable components of this testing strategy. The in-house validation of the EpiOcular-EIT was performed by using 60 test substances, including a broad variety of chemicals and formulations for which in vivo data (from the Draize rabbit eye irritation test) were available. The test substances fell into the following categories: 18 severe irritants/corrosives (Category 1), 21 irritants (Category 2), and 21 non-irritants (No Category). Test substances that decreased tissue viability to ? 60% (compared to the negative control tissue) were considered to be eye irritants (Category 1/2). Test substances resulting in tissue viability of > 60% were considered to be non-irritants (No Category). For the assessed dataset and the classification cut-off of 60% viability, the EpiOcular-EIT provided 98% and 84% sensitivity, 64% and 90% specificity, and 85% and 86% overall accuracy for the literature reference and BASF proprietary substances, respectively. Applying a 50% tissue viability cut-off to distinguish between irritants and non-irritants resulted in 93% and 82% sensitivity, 68% and 100% specificity, and 84% and 88% accuracy for the literature reference and BASF proprietary substances, respectively. Further, in the EpiOcular-EIT (60% cut-off), 100% of severely irritating substances under-predicted by the BCOP assay were classified as Category 1/2. The results obtained in this study, based on 60 test substances, indicate that the EpiOcular-EIT and the BCOP assay can be combined in a testing strategy to identify strong/severe eye irritants (Category 1), moderate and mild eye irritants (Category 2), and non-irritants (No Category) in routine testing. In particular, when the bottom-up strategy with the 60% viability cut-off was employed, none of the severely irritating substances (Category 1) were under-predicted to be non-irritant. Sensitivity for Category 1/2 substances was 100% for literature reference substances and 89% for BASF SE proprietary substances. PMID:21942548

  2. Novel bocaparvoviruses in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Lanave, G; Martella, V; Farkas, S L; Marton, S; Fehér, E; Bodnar, L; Lavazza, A; Decaro, N; Buonavoglia, C; Bányai, K

    2015-11-01

    Bocaparvovirus is a newly established genus within the family Parvoviridae and has been identified as a possible cause of enteric, respiratory, reproductive/neonatal and neurological disease in humans and several animal species. In this study, metagenomic analysis was used to identify and characterise a novel bocaparvovirus in the faeces of rabbits with enteric disease. To assess the prevalence of the novel virus, rectal swabs and faecal samples obtained from rabbits with and without diarrhoea were screened with a specific PCR assay. The complete genome sequence of the novel parvovirus was reconstructed. The virus was distantly related to other bocaparvoviruses; the three ORFs shared 53%, 53% and 50% nucleotide identity, respectively, to homologous genes of porcine bocaparvoviruses. The virus was detected in 8/29 (28%) and 16/95 (17%) samples of rabbits with and without diarrhoea, respectively. Sequencing of the capsid protein fragment targeted by the diagnostic PCR identified two distinct bocaparvovirus populations/sub-types, with 91.7-94.5% nucleotide identity to each other. Including these novel parvoviruses in diagnostic algorithms of rabbit diseases might help inform their potential pathogenic role and impact on rabbit production and the virological profiles of laboratory rabbits. PMID:26383859

  3. Seroprevalence of Encephalitozoon cuniculi in Humans and Rabbits in China

    PubMed Central

    PAN, Yaoqian; WANG, Shuai; LIU, Xingyou; LI, Ruizhen; SUN, Yuqian; GADAHI, Javaid Ali

    2015-01-01

    Background: Encephalitozoon cuniculi is a microsporidian parasite commonly found in rabbits that can infect humans, causing encephalitozoonosis. Our objective in this study was to evaluate the seroprevalence of this parasite in rabbits and humans in China Methods: Overall, 300 serum samples each from clinically healthy rabbit and human were collected from three regions of China (Sichuan Province, Chongqing Municipality and Jilin Province) from January to September 2013 and tested for anti-E. Cuniculi antibodies using an ELISA. Results: An overall seroprevalence of E. cuniculi was recorded as 56/300 (18.76%) and 29/300 (9.76%) in rabbit and human sera, respectively. The seropositivity of rabbit samples collected from Jilin province was 41%, which was significantly higher (P<0.01) than Sichuan Province (9%) and Chongqing Municipality (6%). Three breeds of rabbit were used in the present study and antibody detection in Rex Rabbit was significantly (P<0.01) higher than Japanese White and New Zealand Rabbit. In human, Jilin province was more prevalent (18%) followed by Sichuan Province (6%) and Chongqing Municipality (5%). Conclusions: The E. cuniculi was present and widespread among healthy rabbits and humans in China PMID:26246829

  4. Antigenic Structure of Rabbit γ Globulin

    PubMed Central

    Dubiski, S.; Dubiska, Anna; Skalba, Danuta; Kelus, A.

    1961-01-01

    By iso-immunization, antisera to five rabbit γ globulin antigens were obtained. They are called A (former Da), B, C, D and E. Individual sera of 670 rabbits belonging to six separate populations were tested by precipitation methods. The distribution of the iso-antigens and their combinations into serum groups were studied. Each particular γ globulin iso-antigen was found to be of hereditary character; they seem to form three genetic systems: A, C and BDE, statistically independent. Various antisera from England, Poland and U.S.A were compared. PMID:13724581

  5. Infant Rabbit Model for Diarrheal Diseases.

    PubMed

    Abel, Sören; Waldor, Matthew K

    2015-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae is the agent of cholera, a potentially lethal diarrheal disease that remains a significant threat to populations in developing nations. The infant rabbit model of cholera is the only non-surgical small animal model system that closely mimics human cholera. Following orogastric inoculation, V. cholerae colonizes the intestines of infant rabbits, and the animals develop severe cholera-like diarrhea. In this unit, we provide a detailed description of the preparation of the V. cholerae inoculum, the inoculation process and the collection and processing of tissue samples. This infection model is useful for studies of V. cholerae factors and mechanisms that promote its intestinal colonization and enterotoxicity, as well as the host response to infection. The infant rabbit model of cholera enables investigations that will further our understanding of the pathophysiology of cholera and provides a platform for testing new therapeutics. © 2015 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. PMID:26237109

  6. Becoming and Being: "The Velveteen Rabbit."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Anne Devereaux

    1997-01-01

    Defends "Velveteen Rabbit," a beloved classic, on its 75th anniversary. Finds that the story of a toy which becomes real has stood the test of time, even though critics call it overly sentimental. States that it deals with a universal theme and prepares its young readers for life's vicissitudes. Lists the book's classic elements. Gives questions…

  7. Failure to detect killer cell activity in rabbits.

    PubMed Central

    Karavodin, L M; Sidell, N; Woan, M C; Tompkins, W A

    1982-01-01

    Rabbit lymphoid cells from spleen, peripheral blood, and peritoneal cavity lacked killer (K)-cell activity against cell lines of rabbit and human origin, including virus-infected human tumor cells. This lack of activity was not affected by antibody concentration, source of antibodies, effector/target cell ratio, or length of assay. Rabbit leukocytes, however, were capable of lysing antibody-coated chicken erythrocytes. Hamster leukocytes, serving as a known source of K cells, mediated antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity against all targets. EA-rosette assays and mixed effector cell competition tests suggested a deficiency in rabbit K-cell activity which is not a result of an inherent lack of Fc receptor-positive cells or of some suppressor mechanism operating in the rabbit cell populations. Our data support the concept that antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity may not be a significant in vivo immune mechanism in certain species. PMID:6460000

  8. Mycobacterium avium in pygmy rabbits (Brachylagus idahoensis): 28 cases.

    PubMed

    Harrenstien, Lisa A; Finnegan, Mitchell V; Woodford, Nina L; Mansfield, Kristin G; Waters, W Ray; Bannantine, John P; Paustian, Michael L; Garner, Michael M; Bakke, Antony C; Peloquin, Charles A; Phillips, Terry M

    2006-12-01

    The Columbia basin subpopulation of pygmy rabbit Brachylagus idahoensis was listed as endangered by the United States Fish and Wildlife Service in November 2001, and no pygmy rabbits have been seen in the wild since spring 2002. Captive propagation efforts have attempted to increase population size in preparation for reintroduction of animals into central Washington. Disseminated mycobacteriosis due to Mycobacterium avium has been the most common cause of death of adult captive pygmy rabbits. Between June 2002 and September 2004, mycobacteriosis was diagnosed in 28 captive adult pygmy rabbits (representing 29% of the captive population), in contrast to 18 adult pygmy rabbits dying of all other causes in the same time period. Antemortem and postmortem medical records were evaluated retrospectively to describe the clinical course of mycobacteriosis in pygmy rabbits, physical examination findings, and diagnostic test results in the diagnosis of mycobacteriosis in pygmy rabbits. Various treatment protocols, possible risk factors for mortality, and recommendations for prevention of mycobacteriosis were evaluated also. Compromised cell-mediated immunity appears to be the best explanation at this time for the observed high morbidity and mortality from mycobacterial infections in pygmy rabbits. PMID:17315435

  9. Dermal toxicity and microscopic alterations by JP-8 jet fuel components in vivo in rabbit.

    PubMed

    Singh, Somnath; Singh, Jagdish

    2004-04-01

    In this study, we investigated the skin irritation, macroscopic and microscopic barrier alteration in vivo in rabbits from aliphatic and aromatic components of jet propellant-8 (JP-8) jet fuel. Macroscopic barrier properties were evaluated by measuring transepidermal water loss (TEWL), skin capacitance, and skin temperature; microscopic changes were observed by light microscopy. Draize visual scoring system was used to measure skin irritation. We found significant (P<0.05) increase in temperature at the site of all chemically saturated patches immediately after patch removal in comparison to the control site. Tridecane (TRI) produced a greater increase in temperature and capacitance at all time points than all the other components of JP-8. Both the aliphatic and aromatic components increased the TEWL at all time points. Tridecane produced greater increase in TEWL followed by naphthalene (NAP), 1-methylnaphthalene (1-MN), 2-metylnaphthalene (2-MN), tetradecane (TET), and dodecane (DOD). All of the above components of JP-8 caused moderate to severe erythema and edema, which were not resolved to the baseline even after 24h of patch removal. Light microscopy revealed an increase in epidermal thickness (ET), and decrease in length and thickness of collagen fibers' bundle by the above components of JP-8. These results suggest potential dermatotoxicity from the JP-8 components. PMID:21782702

  10. The Cutaneous Rabbit Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flach, Rudiger; Haggard, Patrick

    2006-01-01

    In the cutaneous rabbit effect (CRE), a tactile event (so-called attractee tap) is mislocalized toward an adjacent attractor tap. The effect depends on the time interval between the taps. The authors delivered sequences of taps to the forearm and asked participants to report the location of one of the taps. The authors replicated the original CRE…

  11. Haemostatic effect of ecliptaalba on albino rabbits.

    PubMed

    Mahar, S; Prasad, A; Datta, P P; Jena, J

    2014-04-01

    Ecliptaalba (Bhringraj) is an important traditional Indian medicinal plant reported to have antipyretic, anti-inflammatory, antihistaminic, hepatoprotective and anthelmintic effect well documented in literature. In the present study ethanolic leaf extract of eclipta alba (EEEA) was evaluated for its haemostatic activity by their ability to affect the screening test or modify the experimentally induced prolongation of test time on the basis of its folklore claim in normal, aspirin and heparin treated rabbits. The parameters recorded were BT, CT, PT and APTT & platelet count in all the three groups. The study was carried out in 3 parts in different doses 200,400,600 & 800mg/kg. Part-A-study of the haemostatic effect of Ethanolic extract of E. alba (EEEA) in graded doses on normal rabbits. Part-B-study of EEEA in aspirin treated rabbits. Part-C-study of EEEA in heparin treated rabbits. Tranexamic acid was used as the standard drug. Statistical analysis was performed using one way ANOVA & student t test. In normal rabbits EEEA high doses 800mg/k & 600mg/kg exhibited significant reduction in BT & CT (p<0.01). The same doses were found to decrease the aspirin induced increase in BT & heparin induced increase in CT in a significant manner (p<0.01). As decrease in CT might be due to liberation of some active principles from leaves of Ecliptaalba which demonstrated to have anti-haemorrhagic activity against snake bite not affecting any coagulation factor. No significant effect on PT, APPT and platelet count was observed. EEEA exhibited definite haemostatic effect in the above 3 sets of study. Phytochemical analysis and isolation of active principle is essential to carry on beneficial effects from laboratory bench to bedside of patients. PMID:24858166

  12. Rabbits killing birds revisited.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jimin; Fan, Meng; Kuang, Yang

    2006-09-01

    We formulate and study a three-species population model consisting of an endemic prey (bird), an alien prey (rabbit) and an alien predator (cat). Our model overcomes several model construction problems in existing models. Moreover, our model generates richer, more reasonable and realistic dynamics. We explore the possible control strategies to save or restore the bird by controlling or eliminating the rabbit or the cat when the bird is endangered. We confirm the existence of the hyperpredation phenomenon, which is a big potential threat to most endemic prey. Specifically, we show that, in an endemic prey-alien prey-alien predator system, eradication of introduced predators such as the cat alone is not always the best solution to protect endemic insular prey since predator control may fail to protect the indigenous prey when the control of the introduced prey is not carried out simultaneously. PMID:16529776

  13. Immunological unresponsiveness to protein antigens in rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Humphrey, J. H.

    1964-01-01

    The immunological responses of rabbits to HSA, HGG or BSA were tested at various times later in animals which had received the corresponding antigens before or shortly after birth. As judged by the criterion of failure to show immune elimination of antigen, a high proportion of the rabbits remained unresponsive at times when it was calculated that all the originally administered antigen would have been eliminated from the circulation. Furthermore, removal of antigen by passively administered antibody failed to restore the capacity to respond. It is concluded that, in respect of the antigens used, their persistence in the extracellular body fluids is not a prerequisite for maintenance of immunological unresponsiveness. Further administration of the same antigen to rabbits which had escaped from a state of specific immunological unresponsiveness generally produced a very weak response, and in a few instances resulted in a return to the unresponsive state. When the cross-reacting antigens HSA and BSA were administered adsorbed on alum to rabbits made unresponsive by neonatal contact with BSA and HSA respectively, and at the same time a further dose of the original antigen was given, antibodies were formed which were specific for the second antigen and did not cross-react with the first. In only 1/9 animals was responsiveness to the first antigen restored. The significance of these results is discussed. PMID:14193157

  14. Survey of ocular irritation predictive capacity using Chorioallantoic Membrane Vascular Assay (CAMVA) and Bovine Corneal Opacity and Permeability (BCOP) test historical data for 319 personal care products over fourteen years.

    PubMed

    Donahue, D A; Kaufman, L E; Avalos, J; Simion, F A; Cerven, D R

    2011-03-01

    The Chorioallantoic Membrane Vascular Assay (CAMVA) and Bovine Corneal Opacity and Permeability (BCOP) test are widely used to predict ocular irritation potential for consumer-use products. These in vitro assays do not require live animals, produce reliable predictive data for defined applicability domains compared to the Draize rabbit eye test, and are rapid and inexpensive. Data from 304 CAMVA and/or BCOP studies (319 formulations) were surveyed to determine the feasibility of predicting ocular irritation potential for various formulations. Hair shampoos, skin cleansers, and ethanol-based hair styling sprays were repeatedly predicted to be ocular irritants (accuracy rate=0.90-1.00), with skin cleanser and hair shampoo irritation largely dependent on surfactant species and concentration. Conversely, skin lotions/moisturizers and hair styling gels/lotions were repeatedly predicted to be non-irritants (accuracy rate=0.92 and 0.82, respectively). For hair shampoos, ethanol-based hair stylers, skin cleansers, and skin lotions/moisturizers, future ocular irritation testing (i.e., CAMVA/BCOP) can be nearly eliminated if new formulations are systematically compared to those previously tested using a defined decision tree. For other tested product categories, new formulations should continue to be evaluated in CAMVA/BCOP for ocular irritation potential because either the historical data exhibit significant variability (hair conditioners and mousses) or the historical sample size is too small to permit definitive conclusions (deodorants, make-up removers, massage oils, facial masks, body sprays, and other hair styling products). All decision tree conclusions should be made within a conservative weight-of-evidence context, considering the reported limitations of the BCOP test for alcohols, ketones, and solids. PMID:21147215

  15. Changes in testosterone concentration in the fetal rabbit testis after removal of the hypothalamus (encephalectomy)

    SciTech Connect

    Proshlyakova, E.V.; Rumyantseva, O.N.; Mitskevich, M.S.

    1986-10-01

    The aim of this investigation was to obtain direct data on the role of the hypothalamus in regulation of the adrogen function of the testes in rabbit fetuses. Testosterone was determined by radioimmunoassay. Changes in testostereone concentration in rabbit fetal testis after encephalectomy and after injection of luteinizing hormone releasing hormone (LHRH) into encephalectomized fetuses is shown. Results obtained are evidence that the hypothalamus, pituitary and testes in the rabbit aged 23-25 days of prenatal development constitute a single functional system. It is concluded that in both rabbit and hog fetuses, the hypothalamus begins to regulate pituitary gonadotrophic activity after LHRH can be detected in the hypothalamus itself.

  16. Single unit receptive fields in rabbit primary binocular cortex.

    PubMed

    Vaney, D I; Hughes, A

    1982-01-01

    The receptive fields of 125 single units recorded from the binocular region of rabbit primary visual cortex have been analysed. The population of 43% radially symmetric, 23% directional, and 23% orientation selective units is similar to that of rabbit monocular visual cortex. The relative scarcity of orientation selective units and the absence of orientation columns differentiates rabbit from cat primary visual cortex. However, the majority of binocular units had similar receptive fields in each eye and very unconventional receptive fields were not encountered. Tested binocular units demonstrated summation upon simultaneous stimulation of both receptive fields. In conjunction with findings reported elsewhere, these results suggest that rabbit and cat possess a similar provision for binocular vision in spite of some differences in their cortical organisation. PMID:7095034

  17. SCIENTIST DEMONSTRATES PLACING A "RABBIT CATCHER" INTO ONE OF THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SCIENTIST DEMONSTRATES PLACING A "RABBIT CATCHER" INTO ONE OF THE VERTICAL TEST HOLES AT THE TOP OF THE MTR. CONTROL ROD DRIVES ARE BEHIND HIM TOWARDS LEFT OF VIEW. INL NEGATIVE NO. 56-513. Jack L. Anderson, Photographer, 2/13/1956 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  18. VENEREAL SPIROCHETOSIS IN AMERICAN RABBITS

    PubMed Central

    Noguchi, Hideyo

    1922-01-01

    Of 50 rabbits, otherwise regarded as normal, three adult females and two adult males (10 per cent) have been found to have in their genitoperineal region certain papulosquamous, often ulcerating, lesions. A recently purchased group of twenty rabbits contained six females (30 per cent) with similar lesions. This condition runs a chronic course and is characterized by the presence of a spiral organism closely resembling Treponema pallidum. The rabbit spirochete has the same morphological features as Treponema pallidum; it is possibly a trifle thicker and longer than the average pallidum. Long specimens measuring 30 µ are frequently encountered, and they show a tendency to form loosely entangled knots. A stellate arrangement of several organisms in a mass is frequently observed. In the lesion of one rabbit there were two types of spirochete, one of the variety just described, the other a somewhat coarser organism, closely resembling Treponema calligyrum found in a human condyloma, but a trifle thinner and longer. This organism is perhaps merely a variant type of the rabbit spirochete. The histological reactions are similar to, but considerably less cellular, than those occurring in typical primary syphilitic lesions. There is a marked hyperkeratosis and interpapillary infiltration not observed in scrotal chancre. The disease is transmissible to normal rabbits, in which the usual papular lesions can be readily reproduced in the genitoperineal region. In the first passages the incubation period varied from 20 to 88 days; subsequently one of the strains produced a lesion in 20 days on the second, and in 5 days on the third passage. No typical orchitis or keratitis was produced in the rabbits of the present series, although in one of the original rabbits (No. 4) scaly, papular lesions have developed on the nose, lips, eyelid, and paws. Monkeys (Macacus rhesus) failed to show any lesions within a period of 4 months after inoculation. In one instance transmission was accomplished through the mating of an infected female with a normal male. The Wassermann reaction was uniformly negative in the five rabbits with spontaneous lesions and in eighteen rabbits experimentally infected. Salvarsan had the same therapeutic effect on the lesions produced by the rabbit spirochete as on the experimental pallidum lesion of the rabbit. The organism belongs to the genus Treponema, and may be designated Treponema cuniculi. PMID:19868615

  19. The EpiOcular™ Eye Irritation Test is the Method of Choice for the In Vitro Eye Irritation Testing of Agrochemical Formulations: Correlation Analysis of EpiOcular Eye Irritation Test and BCOP Test Data According to the UN GHS, US EPA and Brazil ANVISA Classification Schemes.

    PubMed

    Kolle, Susanne N; Rey Moreno, Maria Cecilia; Mayer, Winfried; van Cott, Andrew; van Ravenzwaay, Bennard; Landsiedel, Robert

    2015-07-01

    The Bovine Corneal Opacity and Permeability (BCOP) test is commonly used for the identification of severe ocular irritants (GHS Category 1), but it is not recommended for the identification of ocular irritants (GHS Category 2). The incorporation of human reconstructed tissue model-based tests into a tiered test strategy to identify ocular non-irritants and replace the Draize rabbit eye irritation test has been suggested (OECD TG 405). The value of the EpiOcular™ Eye Irritation Test (EIT) for the prediction of ocular non-irritants (GHS No Category) has been demonstrated, and an OECD Test Guideline (TG) was drafted in 2014. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether the BCOP test, in conjunction with corneal histopathology (as suggested for the evaluation of the depth of the injury( and/or the EpiOcular-EIT, could be used to predict the eye irritation potential of agrochemical formulations according to the UN GHS, US EPA and Brazil ANVISA classification schemes. We have assessed opacity, permeability and histopathology in the BCOP assay, and relative tissue viability in the EpiOcular-EIT, for 97 agrochemical formulations with available in vivo eye irritation data. By using the OECD TG 437 protocol for liquids, the BCOP test did not result in sufficient correct predictions of severe ocular irritants for any of the three classification schemes. The lack of sensitivity could be improved somewhat by the inclusion of corneal histopathology, but the relative viability in the EpiOcular-EIT clearly outperformed the BCOP test for all three classification schemes. The predictive capacity of the EpiOcular-EIT for ocular non-irritants (UN GHS No Category) for the 97 agrochemical formulations tested (91% sensitivity, 72% specificity and 82% accuracy for UN GHS classification) was comparable to that obtained in the formal validation exercise underlying the OECD draft TG. We therefore conclude that the EpiOcular-EIT is currently the best in vitro method for the prediction of the eye irritation potential of liquid agrochemical formulations. PMID:26256396

  20. Hypolipidaemic effects of Ballota undulata in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Qazan, Walid Sh

    2008-04-15

    The aim of to study the effect of Ballota undulata (70% EtOH) extract on lipid profile on Rabbits. The plant extract was orally administered to the atherogenic rabbits (atherogenic diet + cholesterol powder supplement 400 mg/kg/body weight/day dissolved in 5 mL coconut oil) at dose of 1.2 g kg(-1) body weight/day. During the overall period of the experiment blood was collected and serum was analyzed for lipid profile. Animals were sacrificed; the heart and the liver were collected and kept at -20 degrees C until assayed. Biochemical analysis of blood serum and tissue (liver and heart muscle) level were made for cholesterol, phospholipids and triglycerides. In addition blood serum was analyzed further for HDL-Cholesterol. All the results were statistically analyzed using students t-test. Hypolipidaemic nature of Ballota undulata (70% EtOH) extract was studied in hyperlipidaemic Rabbits. The increased cholesterol levels were brought to normal by administration of Ballota undulata. Serum cholesterol levels dropped from 940.7 to 230.41 (75.55%) and further to 119.2 (87.32%) by the end of the experiment. Similarly, phospholipids and triglycerides levels were observed to be also reduced. The tissues lipids profiles of liver and heart muscle showed similar changes in those noticed in serum lipids. Ballota undulata possesses active hypolipidaemic constituents. PMID:18819560

  1. Neurofilament Accumulation in Rabbit Retinas.

    PubMed

    Kawasako, K; Oshikata, T; Kanno, T; Hamamura, M

    2015-11-01

    An eosinophilic body (EB) was observed in the inner nuclear layer and the outer plexiform layer of the anterior dorsal region of the retina in New Zealand White, Japanese White and Dutch rabbits. Immunohistochemistry confirmed that the EB was an accumulation of neurofilaments (NFs). Ultrastructurally, intermediate filaments of approximately 10 nm in diameter were observed in the EB, but there were no intracellular organelles. These results suggested that the NFs had accumulated in the neurites of the horizontal cells in the retina. This is the first description of a new pattern of NF accumulation in the mammalian retina. The prevalence of the EBs increased significantly in 44-56-week-old male Dutch rabbits (38.9 %) compared with 18-23-week-old (12.9 %) rabbits, suggesting that the formation of EBs in the rabbit retina could be an age-related change. PMID:26292767

  2. Periodontal bacteria in rabbit mandibular and maxillary abscesses.

    PubMed

    Tyrrell, Kerin L; Citron, Diane M; Jenkins, Jeffrey R; Goldstein, Ellie J C

    2002-03-01

    Despite the high incidence of odontogenic abscesses in pet rabbits, published data on the bacteriology of these infections are lacking, and clinical cultures are often ambiguous, making antibiotic choices difficult. In order to define the bacteriology of these infections, 12 rabbit mandibular and maxillary abscesses were cultured aerobically and anaerobically. All specimens yielded pathogenic bacteria, including Fusobacterium nucleatum, Prevotella heparinolytica, Prevotella spp., Peptostreptococcus micros, Streptococcus milleri group, Actinomyces israelii, and Arcanobacterium haemolyticum. These organisms are consistent with the characterized bacteriology of periodontal disease in human and other mammalian studies. The isolates were tested against 10 antimicrobial agents commonly used to treat rabbits; 100% of the strains tested were susceptible to clindamycin, 96% were susceptible to penicillin and ceftriaxone, 54% were susceptible to ciprofloxacin, and only 7% were susceptible to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. PMID:11880435

  3. Optic nerve head axonal transport in rabbits with hereditary glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Bunt-Milam, A H; Dennis, M B; Bensinger, R E

    1987-04-01

    Rabbits with hereditary glaucoma develop ocular changes that resemble human congenital glaucoma and buphthalmia. The inheritance is autosomal recessive (bu). Previous research was performed primarily on albino bu/bu rabbits that were unhealthy and bred poorly. We have bred pigmented bu/bu rabbits to determine if this would improve hardiness and provide a better model for the disease in humans. First-generation offspring from matings of bu/bu albino with bu/bu pigmented rabbits were all affected, indicating that the bu gene is found at the same locus in both strains. The pigmented bu/bu offspring had a high degree of mortality, as reported previously for albino bu/bu rabbits. Newborn bu/bu rabbits initially had normal intraocular pressure (IOP; 15-23 mmHg); after 1- to 3 months, the IOP increased to 26-48 mmHg. The eyes became buphthalmic and the IOP returned to normal or sub-normal levels after 6-10 months. Since the lamina cribrosa is absent or poorly formed in the rabbit optic nerve head (ONH), this model was used to test the role of mechanical factors in the etiology of ONH pathology caused by increased IOP. Orthograde axonal transport was evaluated in both eyes from eight normal and 24 bu/bu rabbits of different ages, using intravitreal injections of [3H]leucine to mark orthograde axonal transport, followed by light- and electron-microscopic radioautography of the ONHs and superior colliculi. Normal rabbits of all ages showed no blockage of axonal transport in the ONH. All optic axons from young bu/bu rabbits with normal IOP and most axons from older buphthalmic rabbits that previously had elevated IOP were normal morphologically. Small zones of transport blockage occurred in bu/bu eyes while IOP was elevated; most affected axons lay immediately adjacent to ONH connective tissue beams that radiate outward from the central retinal vessels to the optic-nerve sheath. Thus, the rabbit, which lacks a true lamina cribrosa, does not show marked blockage of axonal transport as occurs in the LS of the monkey and cat ONH when IOP is elevated acutely. This anatomic difference appears to be protective against axonal damage, since bu/bu rabbits with chronic IOP elevation did not show significant loss of optic axons. These results are consistent with the proposed 'mechanical' theory of ONH damage resulting from increased IOP. Electron-microscopic radioautography revealed that chronically elevated IOP in bu/bu rabbits, which caused small foci of blocked ONH axonal transport against ONH beams, also caused degeneration of a few optic nerve terminals in the superior colliculi as the disease progressed.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:2439361

  4. Comedogenicity in rabbit: some cosmetic ingredients/vehicles.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Nguyen SH; Dang TP; Maibach HI

    2007-01-01

    The rabbit external ear canal was used to define which chemicals caused comedone formation on topical application. Some of the tested ingredients are currently used in topically applied formulations. Certain raw materials have been shown to produce follicular hyperkeratosis in the rabbit ear assay. This study quantifies comedogenic potential of cosmetic materials, including: isopropyl palmitate, isopropyl myristate, butyl stearate, isopropyl isostearate, decyl oleate, isostearyl neopentanoate, isocetyl stearate, myristle myristate, cocoa butter, cetyl alcohol, paraffin, stearyl alcohol sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), and petrolatum. The first nine were deemed positive. Factors aiding clinical relevance are listed.

  5. Comedogenicity in rabbit: some cosmetic ingredients/vehicles.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Shawn H; Dang, Thao P; Maibach, Howard I

    2007-01-01

    The rabbit external ear canal was used to define which chemicals caused comedone formation on topical application. Some of the tested ingredients are currently used in topically applied formulations. Certain raw materials have been shown to produce follicular hyperkeratosis in the rabbit ear assay. This study quantifies comedogenic potential of cosmetic materials, including: isopropyl palmitate, isopropyl myristate, butyl stearate, isopropyl isostearate, decyl oleate, isostearyl neopentanoate, isocetyl stearate, myristle myristate, cocoa butter, cetyl alcohol, paraffin, stearyl alcohol sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), and petrolatum. The first nine were deemed positive. Factors aiding clinical relevance are listed. PMID:18058303

  6. Rabbit anti-rabies immunoglobulins production and evaluation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xinjian; Liu, Qiongqiong; Feng, Xiaomin; Tang, Qi; Wang, Zhongcan; Li, Suqing; Feng, Zhenqing; Zhu, Jin; Guan, Xiaohong

    2011-04-01

    Due to the disadvantages of human and equine rabies immunoglobulin, it is necessary to develop a substitute for HRIG and ERIG, especially for those people living in the developing countries. Because of higher affinity and lower immunogenicity of rabbit's immunoglobulins, anti-rabies immunoglobulins specific to rabies virus were produced in rabbits as a bioreactor, and had been characterized by ELISA, affinity assay, immunofluorescence assay (IFA), immunocytochemistry, rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test (RFFIT). ELISA, affinity assay and IFA showed that rabbit RIG (RRIG) bound specifically to rabies virions. RFFIT result showed that RRIG has neutralization activity. This result was confirmed in vivo in a Kunming mouse challenge model and the protection rate of the treatment with RRIG was higher (25%) than that offered by HRIG when mice were challenged with a lethal RV dose. Our results demonstrate that RRIG is safe and efficacious as a candidate drug to replace rabies immunoglobulin in post-exposure prophylaxis. PMID:21602780

  7. HSV-1 latent rabbits shed viral DNA into their saliva

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Rabbits latent with HSV-1 strain McKrae spontaneously shed infectious virus and viral DNA into their tears and develop recurrent herpetic-specific corneal lesions. The rabbit eye model has been used for many years to assess acute ocular infections and pathogenesis, antiviral efficacy, as well as latency, reactivation, and recurrent eye diseases. This study used real-time PCR to quantify HSV-1 DNA in the saliva and tears of rabbits latent with HSV-1 McKrae. Methods New Zealand white rabbits used were latent with HSV-1 strain McKrae and had no ocular or oral pathology. Scarified corneas were topically inoculated with HSV-1. Eye swabs and saliva were taken from post inoculation (PI) days 28 through 49 (22 consecutive days). Saliva samples were taken four times each day from each rabbit and the DNA extracted was pooled for each rabbit for each day; one swab was taken daily from each eye and DNA extracted. Real-time PCR was done on the purified DNA samples for quantification of HSV-1 DNA copy numbers. Data are presented as copy numbers for each individual sample, plus all the copy numbers designated as positive, for comparison between left eye (OS), right eye (OD), and saliva. Results The saliva and tears were taken from 9 rabbits and from 18 eyes and all tested positive at least once. Saliva was positive for HSV-1 DNA at 43.4% (86/198) and tears were positive at 28.0% (111/396). The saliva positives had 48 episodes and the tears had 75 episodes. The mean copy numbers ± the SEM for HSV-1 DNA in saliva were 3773 ± 2019 and 2294 ± 869 for tears (no statistical difference). Conclusion Rabbits latent with strain McKrae shed HSV-1 DNA into their saliva and tears. HSV-1 DNA shedding into the saliva was similar to humans. This is the first evidence that documents HSV-1 DNA in the saliva of latent rabbits. PMID:23021094

  8. Ivermectin: its effect on the immune system of rabbits and rats infested with ectoparasites.

    PubMed

    Uhlír, J; Volf, P

    1992-11-01

    The influence of subcutaneously administered ivermectin on the specific immune response was studied in rabbits infested with mites (Psoroptes cuniculi) and in rats infested with lice (Polyplax spinulosa). A pronounced specific antibody activity and a change in immunoblotting pattern was observed in rabbits after the ivermectin treatment. However, in rats the antibody activity decreased and the profile of specific antibodies, tested by immunoblotting, remained the same as before the treatment. The specific immune response in rabbits artificially immunized with whole-body Psoroptes cuniculi extract was not affected by ivermectin. It was concluded that ivermectin has no direct effect on the immune response of rabbits and rats and that the enhanced immune response in the mite-infested rabbits was caused by the massive release of antigens associated with the synchronous death of the mites. PMID:1455687

  9. The Rabbit as a Model for Studying Lung Disease and Stem Cell Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Kamaruzaman, Nurfatin Asyikhin; Kamaldin, Nurulain ‘Atikah; Latahir, Ahmad Zaeri; Yahaya, Badrul Hisham

    2013-01-01

    No single animal model can reproduce all of the human features of both acute and chronic lung diseases. However, the rabbit is a reliable model and clinically relevant facsimile of human disease. The similarities between rabbits and humans in terms of airway anatomy and responses to inflammatory mediators highlight the value of this species in the investigation of lung disease pathophysiology and in the development of therapeutic agents. The inflammatory responses shown by the rabbit model, especially in the case of asthma, are comparable with those that occur in humans. The allergic rabbit model has been used extensively in drug screening tests, and this model and humans appear to be sensitive to similar drugs. In addition, recent studies have shown that the rabbit serves as a good platform for cell delivery for the purpose of stem-cell-based therapy. PMID:23653896

  10. Isoflurane Post-Treatment Improves Outcome after an Embolic Stroke in Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Jinbo; Zuo, Zhiyi; Li, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Application of commonly used volatile anesthetics after brain ischemia onset (post-treatment) provides neuroprotection in rodents. To further test its translational potential, this study was designed to determine whether isoflurane post-treatment induced neuroprotection in rabbits after embolic stroke. White male New Zealand rabbits received intra-carotid injection of clots when they were awake. Some rabbits were exposed to 2.5% isoflurane for 1 h at 5 min after the injection. Isoflurane post-treatment increased the tolerance of rabbits to the amount of clots. Isoflurane post-treatment also reduced brain infarct volumes and plasma S100B 3 days after the injection of 5 mg clots and improved neurological deficit scores after the stroke. Isoflurane post-treatment improves neurological outcome in rabbits after embolic stroke. PMID:26645542

  11. Efficacy of MR-guided Focused Ultrasound Thermal Ablation of Rabbit VX2 Tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Xiangtao; Zhang, Yongzhi; Tam, Karen; McDannold, Nathan; Hynynen, Kullervo

    2006-05-01

    This animal study addresses the treatment efficacy of the MR-guided thermal ablation technique and temperature monitoring in rabbit tumors. Specifically, the relationship between the thermal dose coverage in the tumors and the rabbit survival rate was investigated. Two groups of rabbits (14 in back tumor group and 12 in thigh tumor group) were treated with the ExAblate-2000 MR-guided focused ultrasound thermal ablation system one week after being injected VX2 tumor cells into their back muscle or thigh muscle. Sonication was repeated twice in a planned location in the tumor region and monitored in the coronal and sagittal planes respectively to ensure volumetric thermal dose monitoring. MR T1 Gad-enhanced contrast images of the tumors were obtained immediately after treatment and post-treatment at 2, 4, 8 and 12 weeks (or before sacrificing the rabbits). In the thigh tumor rabbits group, tumor recurrence was observed for only one and the other eleven rabbits survived without tumor recurrence at 4 weeks. Aiming at a longer survival time, the rabbits with back tumors had up to 12 weeks survival time. Three rabbits survived to 12 weeks without tumor recurrence in the back tumor group, yielding less promising survival rate than that of the thigh tumor group survival test. Successful thermal ablation (i.e. lack of recurrence) was demonstrated when the tumors received full thermal dose coverage.

  12. Hematological Assessment in Pet Rabbits: Blood Sample Collection and Blood Cell Identification.

    PubMed

    Moore, David M; Zimmerman, Kurt; Smith, Stephen A

    2015-09-01

    Pet rabbits are presented to veterinary clinics for routine care and treatment of clinical diseases. In addition to obtaining clinical history, additional diagnostic testing may be required, including hematological assessments. This article describes common blood collection methods, including venipuncture sites, volume of blood that can be safely collected, and handling of the blood. Hematological parameters for normal rabbits are provided for comparison with in-house or commercial test results. A description of the morphology of rabbit leukocytes is provided to assist in performing a differential count. Differential diagnoses are provided for abnormal values identified in the hemogram. PMID:26297408

  13. Hematological assessment in pet rabbits: blood sample collection and blood cell identification.

    PubMed

    Moore, David M; Zimmerman, Kurt; Smith, Stephen A

    2015-01-01

    Pet rabbits are presented to veterinary clinics for routine care and treatment of clinical diseases. In addition to obtaining clinical history, additional diagnostic testing may be required, including hematological assessments. This article describes common blood collection methods, including venipuncture sites, volume of blood that can be safely collected, and handling of the blood. Hematological parameters for normal rabbits are provided for comparison with in-house or commercial test results. A description of the morphology of rabbit leukocytes is provided to assist in performing a differential count. Differential diagnoses are provided for abnormal values identified in the hemogram. PMID:25421022

  14. Induction of Asherman's Syndrome in Rabbit

    PubMed Central

    Bazoobandi, Sanaz; Tanideh, Nader; Rahmanifar, Farhad; Tamadon, Amin; Keshtkar, Mohammadreza; Mehrabani, Davood; Kasraeian, Maryam; Koohi-Hosseinabadi, Omid

    2016-01-01

    Background: Uterine synechiae or Asherman's syndrome is a condition that can cause infertility. The present experimental study was designed to establish the rabbit as an animal model for human Asherman's syndrome using the endometrial curettage. Methods: In an experimental study, female adult rabbits (n=18) were randomly divided into intact and ovariectomized groups. One third of caudal part of both uteri was submitted to traumatic endometrial curettage. One group was simultaneously ovariectomized. The intact rabbits were artificially induced ovulation during 10 days after surgery. One third of cranial part of both uteri was selected as the control. Synechiae occurring, luminal area/total area (LA/TA), endometrial area/total area (EA/TA), myometrial and perimetrial area/total area (MPA/TA), endometrial area/uterine wall area (EA/UWA), and myometrial and perimetrial area/uterine wall area (MPA/UWA) ratios of both uteri in six subdivided groups (n=6) were analysed in curetted and intact control parts. On days 15, 30 and 45 following surgery by two-way ANOVA and LSD test (p<0.05). Results: Histopathologic findings showed significant epithelial damage together with significant inflammatory reaction in the intact curettage group. The LA/TA ratios of the intact curettage group on days 15 and 45 were more than the intact control group on day 15. The EA/TA ratio of the intact curettage group on day 30 was less than the intact control group on day 30. Conclusion: Uterine fibrosis was observed in intact curettage group, and this modified animal model showed a pathogenesis condition similar to intrauterine adhesions observed in human. PMID:26962478

  15. A missense mutation in the rabbit melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R) gene is associated with finishing weight in a meat rabbit line.

    PubMed

    Fontanesi, Luca; Scotti, Emilio; Cisarova, Katarina; Di Battista, Piero; Dall'olio, Stefania; Fornasini, Daniela; Frabetti, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    In this study we resequenced 1729 bp of the rabbit melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4 R) gene in 31 rabbits from different breeds/lines and identified ten polymorphisms: one was an indel and 9 were single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). The indel and 5 SNPs were in the 5'-flanking region, 3 were synonymous SNPs and one was a missense mutation (c.101G>A; p.G34D), located in a conserved position of the extracellular tail of the MC4 R protein. The missense mutation was analyzed in a panel of 74 rabbits of different breeds and in 516 performance tested rabbits of a commercial paternal line under selection for growth efficiency. Association analysis indicated that rabbits with the less frequent genotype in this population (DD) had a lighter weight at 70 postnatal days than animals with genotype GD (P < 0.10) and animals with genotype GG (P < 0.05). This is the third study on candidate genes, after those on GH1 and IGF2 that reported a marker associated with finishing weight. Therefore, it seems that a candidate gene approach in rabbit based on previous information accumulated in other livestock species could be useful to identify genes explaining a fraction of variability of performance traits with potential application on rabbit breeding and selection. PMID:23947663

  16. Novel Endogenous Retrovirus in Rabbits Previously Reported as Human Retrovirus 5

    PubMed Central

    Griffiths, David J.; Voisset, Cécile; Venables, Patrick J. W.; Weiss, Robin A.

    2002-01-01

    Human retrovirus 5 (HRV-5) represented a fragment of a novel retrovirus sequence identified in human RNA and DNA preparations. In this study, the genome of HRV-5 was cloned and sequenced and integration sites were analyzed. Using PCR and Southern hybridization, we showed that HRV-5 is not integrated into human DNA. A survey of other species revealed that HRV-5 is present in the genomic DNA of the European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) and belongs to an endogenous retrovirus family found in rabbits. The presence of rabbit sequences flanking HRV-5 proviruses in human DNA extracts suggested that rabbit DNA was present in our human extracts, and this was confirmed by PCR analysis that revealed the presence of rabbit mitochondrial DNA sequences in four of five human DNA preparations tested. The origin of the rabbit DNA and HRV-5 in human DNA preparations remains unclear, but laboratory contamination cannot explain the preferential detection of HRV-5 in inflammatory diseases and lymphomas reported previously. This is the first description of a retrovirus genome in rabbits, and sequence analysis shows that it is related to but distinct from A-type retroelements of mice and other rodents. The species distribution of HRV-5 is restricted to rabbits; other species, including other members of the order Lagomorpha, do not contain this sequence. Analysis of HRV-5 expression by Northern hybridization and reverse transcriptase PCR indicates that the virus is transcribed at a low level in many rabbit tissues. In light of these findings we propose that the sequence previously designated HRV-5 should now be denoted RERV-H (for rabbit endogenous retrovirus H). PMID:12072509

  17. Electrical stimulation in isolated rabbit retina.

    PubMed

    Shyu, Jeng-Shyong; Maia, Mauricio; Weiland, James D; Ohearn, Thomas; Chen, Shih-Jen; Margalit, Eyal; Suzuki, Satoshi; Humayun, Mark S

    2006-09-01

    Experiments were conducted to assess the effect of stimulating electrode parameters (size, position, and waveform shape) on electrically elicited ganglion cell action potentials from isolated rabbit retina. Thirty-eight isolated rabbit retinas were stimulated with bipolar stimulating electrodes (either 125 or 25 microm in diameter) positioned on either the ganglion or the photoreceptor side. Recording electrodes were placed between the optic disc and the stimulating electrodes. Cathodic-first, biphasic, current waveforms of varying pulse durations (0.1, 0.5, 1 ms) were used. For the four conditions tested (125-electrode and 25-microm electrode, ganglion cell, and photoreceptor positions) threshold currents ranged from 6.7 to 23.6 microA, depending on location and pulse duration. With 1-ms pulse duration, no statistically significant difference was seen between threshold currents when either size electrode was used to stimulate either the ganglion cell side or the photoreceptor side. For all groups, the threshold currents using the 1-ms pulse were lower than those using 0.1 ms, but the 0.1-ms pulses used less charge. These experiments provide a number of valuable insights into the relative effects of several stimulation parameters critical to the development of an implanted electronic retinal prosthesis. PMID:17009488

  18. Effects of Paradigm and Inter-Stimulus Interval on Age Differences in Eyeblink Classical Conditioning in Rabbits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodruff-Pak, Diana S.; Seta, Susan E.; Roker, LaToya A.; Lehr, Melissa A.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine parameters affecting age differences in eyeblink classical conditioning in a large sample of young and middle-aged rabbits. A total of 122 rabbits of mean ages of 4 or 26 mo were tested at inter-stimulus intervals (ISIs) of 600 or 750 msec in the delay or trace paradigms. Paradigm affected both age groups…

  19. Effects of Paradigm and Inter-Stimulus Interval on Age Differences in Eyeblink Classical Conditioning in Rabbits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodruff-Pak, Diana S.; Seta, Susan E.; Roker, LaToya A.; Lehr, Melissa A.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine parameters affecting age differences in eyeblink classical conditioning in a large sample of young and middle-aged rabbits. A total of 122 rabbits of mean ages of 4 or 26 mo were tested at inter-stimulus intervals (ISIs) of 600 or 750 msec in the delay or trace paradigms. Paradigm affected both age groups…

  20. [Changes in the digestibility of constituents of the diet in the rabbit].

    PubMed

    Candau, M; Bertrand, B; Fioramonti, J

    1978-01-01

    Fiber digestibility of two diets (the first based on alfalfa dried, the second based on beet-pulp dried) with the same level of crude fiber and crude protein was measured on rabbits of 6, 7, 11, 13 and 17 weeks old. The age has no significative effect on digestibility (dry matter, organic matter, crude fiber) of the two experimental diets. The quantity of cellulose and hemicellulose digested was greater in rabbits on the pulp diet. Independantly of the diet hemicellulose is more digestible than cellulose. Expediency of use other analytical test than crude fiber in the nutritional requirements of rabbits is discussed. PMID:153189

  1. Experimental and finite element analysis of tibial stress fractures using a rabbit model

    PubMed Central

    Franklyn, Melanie; Field, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To determine if rabbit models can be used to quantify the mechanical behaviour involved in tibial stress fracture (TSF) development. METHODS: Fresh rabbit tibiae were loaded under compression using a specifically-designed test apparatus. Weights were incrementally added up to a load of 30 kg and the mechanical behaviour of the tibia was analysed using tests for buckling, bone strain and hysteresis. Structural mechanics equations were subsequently employed to verify that the results were within the range of values predicted by theory. A finite element (FE) model was developed using cross-sectional computer tomography (CT) images scanned from one of the rabbit bones, and a static load of 6 kg (1.5 times the rabbit's body weight) was applied to represent running. The model was validated using the experimental strain gauge data, then geometric and elemental convergence tests were performed in order to find the minimum number of cross-sectional scans and elements respectively required for convergence. The analysis was then performed using both the model and the experimental results to investigate the mechanical behaviour of the rabbit tibia under compressive load and to examine crack initiation. RESULTS: The experimental tests showed that under a compressive load of up to 12 kg, the rabbit tibia demonstrates linear behaviour with little hysteresis. Up to 30 kg, the bone does not fail by elastic buckling; however, there are low levels of tensile stress which predominately occur at and adjacent to the anterior border of the tibial midshaft: this suggests that fatigue failure occurs in these regions, since bone under cyclic loading initially fails in tension. The FE model predictions were consistent with both mechanics theory and the strain gauge results. The model was highly sensitive to small changes in the position of the applied load due to the high slenderness ratio of the rabbit’s tibia. The modelling technique used in the current study could have applications in the development of human FE models of bone, where, unlike rabbit tibia, the model would be relatively insensitive to very small changes in load position. However, the rabbit model itself is less beneficial as a tool to understand the mechanical behaviour of TSFs in humans due to the small size of the rabbit bone and the limitations of human-scale CT scanning equipment. CONCLUSION: The current modelling technique could be used to develop human FE models. However, the rabbit model itself has significant limitations in understanding human TSF mechanics. PMID:24147262

  2. Production of antibody to staphylococcal delta-haemolysin in the rabbit.

    PubMed Central

    Heatley, N. G.

    1977-01-01

    Gamma-globulin and IgG from the sera of rabbits immunized with either "insoluble" or "solvent-transferred" staphylococcal delta-haemolysin precipitated with, and neutralized both forms of lysin. Similar preparations from the same rabbits before immunization did not; nor did those from rabbits made hyperimmune to other antigens. In these tests "insoluble" and "solvent-transferred" lysin could not be distinguished antigenically, nor could "insoluble" lysin from two different strains of staphylococci, each grown on two different media. An appendix presents further evidence for antigenicity of delta-lysin, based on affinity chromatography. PMID:410429

  3. Synthetic Neurotensin Analogues Are Nontoxic Analgesics for the Rabbit Cornea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Charles; Barbut, Denise; Heinemann, Murk H.; Pasternak, Gavril; Rosenblatt, Mark I.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To characterize the analgesic potency and toxicity of topical synthetic neurotensin analogues, and localize neurotensin receptors in the cornea and trigeminal ganglion. Methods. Cochet-Bonnet esthesiometry was performed on the rabbit cornea to test the analgesic dose response and duration of effect for two synthetic neurotensin analogues: NT71 and NT72. Receptors for neurotensin were localized in the murine cornea and trigeminal ganglion using quantitative PCR (qPCR), Western blotting, and immunohistochemistry. In vitro toxicity of NT71, NT72, and sodium channel blockers was evaluated using cytotoxicity, single-cell migration, and scratch closure assays performed on rabbit corneal epithelial cells. In vivo toxicity of these agents was assessed using a rabbit laser phototherapeutic keratectomy (PTK) model and histology. Results. NT71 and NT72 induced potent analgesic effects on the rabbit cornea at concentrations between 1.0 and 2.5 mg/mL, lasting up to 180 minutes. A site-specific distribution of neurotensin receptors was observed in the murine cornea and trigeminal ganglion. NT71 and NT72 did not cause any significant in vitro or in vivo toxicity, in contrast to sodium channel blockers. Conclusions. Synthetic neurotensin analogues are potent analgesics that avoid the toxicities associated with established topical analgesic agents. Receptors for neurotensin are present in both the cornea and trigeminal ganglion. PMID:24825106

  4. Development of germ cell neoplasia in situ in chinchilla rabbits.

    PubMed

    Vigueras-Villaseñor, Rosa María; Montelongo Solís, Paola; Chávez-Saldaña, Margarita; Gutiérrez-Pérez, Oscar; Cortés Trujillo, Lucero; Rojas-Castañeda, Julio César

    2016-05-01

    The present study was designed to describe the development of germ cell neoplasia in situ in Chinchilla rabbit by administration of estradiol. The study was performed in rabbits distributed into two groups: control and 17 β-estradiol. The determination of histological alterations and POU5F1 and c-kit proteins employed as biomarkers for the diagnosis of this neoplasia was carried out. Testicular descent and complete spermatogenesis were observed in the control group. The protein biomarkers were negative. However, in the rabbits treated with estradiol, the testes remained undescended with the gonocytes undifferentiated to spermatogonia. There were histological lesions owing to germ cell neoplasia in situ and positive to POU5F1 and c-kit proteins. These findings indicate that the chinchilla rabbit is an ideal model to study this neoplasia in which the histological characteristics and biomarkers of the disease could be clearly observed. Using this model we suggested that the persisting gonocytes could be responsible for the development of germ cell neoplasia in situ. PMID:26617392

  5. Production of transgenic rabbit embryos through intracytoplasmic sperm injection.

    PubMed

    Li, Qiuyan; Hou, Jian; Wang, Sheng; Chen, Yongfu; An, Xiao-Rong

    2010-11-01

    The objective of this study was to test if intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI)-mediated gene transfer was an effective method in the production of transgenic rabbit embryos. Rabbit sperm diluted in different media with various pH were treated by freezing without cryoprotectant, and their ability for DNA uptake was determined. In these experiments using production of transgenic rabbit embryos by ICSI, exogenous genes at three concentrations and of two conformation types were used. The rate of DNA association to the sperm seen by rhodamine-tagged DNA encoding green fluorescent protein (GFP) was 90.0%, 92.7%, 91.0%, 91.7%, and 92.3%, respectively in TCM199, DM, DPBS, CZB, and HCZB media. The DNA attachment to sperm was not affected by media pH within the range of 5.4-9.4 (p > 0.05). Expression of GFP first occurred at the 2-cell stage and continued to blastocyst formation. DNA concentration (between 5, 10, and 20 ng/?l) or conformation (linear and circular) had no effect on the production rate of transgenic embryos. These results indicated that genetically modified rabbit blastocysts can be efficiently produced by ICSI technique. PMID:20663236

  6. Immunosuppression abrogates resistance of young rabbits to Rabbit Haemorrhagic Disease (RHD)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Rabbit Haemorrhagic Disease (RHD) is caused by a calicivirus (RHDV) that kills 90% of infected adult European rabbits within 3 days. Remarkably, young rabbits are resistant to RHD. We induced immunosuppression in young rabbits by treatment with methylprednisolone acetate (MPA) and challenged the animals with RHDV by intramuscular injection. All of these young rabbits died within 3 days of infection due to fulminant hepatitis, presenting a large number of RHDV-positive dead or apoptotic hepatocytes, and a significant seric increase in cytokines, features that are similar to those of naïve adult rabbits infected by RHDV. We conclude that MPA-induced immunosuppression abrogates the resistance of young rabbits to RHD, indicating that there are differences in the innate immune system between young and adult rabbits that contribute to their distinct resistance/susceptibility to RHDV infection. PMID:24490832

  7. [A troponin detection-combined study of rabbit experiment for evaluating cardiac fatigue].

    PubMed

    Yan, Xiaobo; Luo, Linmei; Xiao, Shouzhong; Liu, Leichu; Deng, Suyuan; Zhang, Cong; Xia, Guoxiang

    2014-08-01

    The objective of this study is to combine troponin and indicators of cardiac acoustics for synthetically evaluating cardiac fatigue of rabbits, analyzing exercise-induced cardiac fatigue (EICF) and exercise-induced cardiac damage (EICD). New Zealand white rabbits were used to conduct a multi-step swimming experiments with load, reaching an exhaustive state for evaluating if the amplitude ratio of the first to second heart sound (S1/S2) and heart rate (HR) during the exhaustive exercise would decrease or not and if they would be recovered 24-48 h after exhaustive exercise. The experimental end point was to complete 3 times of exhaustions or death from exhaustion. Circulating troponin I (cTnI) were detected from all of the experimental rabbits at rest [(0. 02±0. 01) ng/mL], which, in general, indicated that there existed a physiological release of troponin. After the first exhaustive swim, cTnI of the rabbits increased. However, with 24-hour rest, S1/S2, HR, and cTnI of the tested rabbits all returned toward baseline levels, which meant that the experimental rabbits experienced a cardiac fatigue process. After repeated exhaustion, overloading phenomena were observed, which led to death in 3 out of 11 rabbits, indicating their cardiac damage; the troponin elevation under this condition could be interpreted by pathological release. Evaluation of myocardial damage can not be based on the troponin levels alone, but can only be based on a comprehensive analysis. PMID:25464802

  8. [A troponin detection-combined study of rabbit experiment for evaluating cardiac fatigue].

    PubMed

    Yan, Xiaobo; Luo, Linmei; Xiao, Shouzhong; Liu, Leichu; Deng, Suyuan; Zhang, Cong; Xia, Guoxiang

    2014-08-01

    The objective of this study is to combine troponin and indicators of cardiac acoustics for synthetically evaluating cardiac fatigue of rabbits, analyzing exercise-induced cardiac fatigue (EICF) and exercise-induced cardiac damage (EICD). New Zealand white rabbits were used to conduct a multi-step swimming experiments with load, reaching an exhaustive state for evaluating if the amplitude ratio of the first to second heart sound (S1/S2) and heart rate (HR) during the exhaustive exercise would decrease or not and if they would be recovered 24-48 h after exhaustive exercise. The experimental end point was to complete 3 times of exhaustions or death from exhaustion. Circulating troponin I (cTnI) were detected from all of the experimental rabbits at rest [(0. 02±0. 01) ng/mL], which, in general, indicated that there existed a physiological release of troponin. After the first exhaustive swim, cTnI of the rabbits increased. However, with 24-hour rest, S1/S2, HR, and cTnI of the tested rabbits all returned toward baseline levels, which meant that the experimental rabbits experienced a cardiac fatigue process. After repeated exhaustion, overloading phenomena were observed, which led to death in 3 out of 11 rabbits, indicating their cardiac damage; the troponin elevation under this condition could be interpreted by pathological release. Evaluation of myocardial damage can not be based on the troponin levels alone, but can only be based on a comprehensive analysis. PMID:25508433

  9. The bacterial communities associated with fecal types and body weight of rex rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Bo; Han, Shushu; Wang, Ping; Wen, Bin; Jian, Wensu; Guo, Wei; Yu, Zhiju; Du, Dan; Fu, Xiangchao; Kong, Fanli; Yang, Mingyao; Si, Xiaohui; Zhao, Jiangchao; Li, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Rex rabbit is an important small herbivore for fur and meat production. However, little is known about the gut microbiota in rex rabbit, especially regarding their relationship with different fecal types and growth of the hosts. We characterized the microbiota of both hard and soft feces from rex rabbits with high and low body weight by using the Illumina MiSeq platform targeting the V4 region of the 16S rDNA. High weight rex rabbits possess distinctive microbiota in hard feces, but not in soft feces, from the low weight group. We detected the overrepresentation of several genera such as YS2/Cyanobacteria, and Bacteroidales and underrepresentation of genera such as Anaeroplasma spp. and Clostridiaceae in high weight hard feces. Between fecal types, several bacterial taxa such as Ruminococcaceae, and Akkermansia spp. were enriched in soft feces. PICRUSt analysis revealed that metabolic pathways such as “stilbenoid, diarylheptanoid, gingerol biosynthesis” were enriched in high weight rabbits, and pathways related to “xenobiotics biodegradation” and “various types of N-glycan biosynthesis” were overrepresented in rabbit soft feces. Our study provides foundation to generate hypothesis aiming to test the roles that different bacterial taxa play in the growth and caecotrophy of rex rabbits. PMID:25791609

  10. The bacterial communities associated with fecal types and body weight of rex rabbits.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Bo; Han, Shushu; Wang, Ping; Wen, Bin; Jian, Wensu; Guo, Wei; Yu, Zhiju; Du, Dan; Fu, Xiangchao; Kong, Fanli; Yang, Mingyao; Si, Xiaohui; Zhao, Jiangchao; Li, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Rex rabbit is an important small herbivore for fur and meat production. However, little is known about the gut microbiota in rex rabbit, especially regarding their relationship with different fecal types and growth of the hosts. We characterized the microbiota of both hard and soft feces from rex rabbits with high and low body weight by using the Illumina MiSeq platform targeting the V4 region of the 16S rDNA. High weight rex rabbits possess distinctive microbiota in hard feces, but not in soft feces, from the low weight group. We detected the overrepresentation of several genera such as YS2/Cyanobacteria, and Bacteroidales and underrepresentation of genera such as Anaeroplasma spp. and Clostridiaceae in high weight hard feces. Between fecal types, several bacterial taxa such as Ruminococcaceae, and Akkermansia spp. were enriched in soft feces. PICRUSt analysis revealed that metabolic pathways such as "stilbenoid, diarylheptanoid, gingerol biosynthesis" were enriched in high weight rabbits, and pathways related to "xenobiotics biodegradation" and "various types of N-glycan biosynthesis" were overrepresented in rabbit soft feces. Our study provides foundation to generate hypothesis aiming to test the roles that different bacterial taxa play in the growth and caecotrophy of rex rabbits. PMID:25791609

  11. Lectin histochemistry of rabbit nephron.

    PubMed

    Castagnaro, M

    In order to investigate the usefulness of lectin histochemistry to detail nephronal segmentation we used 12 different biotinylated lectins (Con-A, DBA, GS-I, LCA, PNA, PWN, RCA-I, RCA-II, SWGA, SBA, UEA-I, and WGA) and Avidin-Biotin-Peroxidase (ABC) system on formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded rabbit kidney sections. Each lectin, except UEA-I which did not stain any nephron structure, shows a different staining pattern along the nephron. Con-A, LCA, and RCA-I display a diffuse staining, while BS-I, RCA-II, SWGA, PWN, DBA, SBA and PNA are selective markers for specific nephron tracts. Furthermore, it is possible, according to the WGA binding pattern, to differentiate the convoluted part of the proximal tubule into two parts, named Segment A and Segment B. Lectin histochemistry on formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded rabbit kidney sections displays a specific binding pattern along the rabbit nephron and shows interesting morphofunctional correlations. PMID:2091802

  12. Housing of growing rabbits in individual, bicellular and collective cages: fear level and behavioural patterns.

    PubMed

    Trocino, A; Majolini, D; Tazzoli, M; Filiou, E; Xiccato, G

    2013-04-01

    During growth (27 to 75 days of age), a total of 384 rabbits were kept in 72 individual cages, 48 bicellular cages (2 rabbits/cage) and 24 collective cages (9 rabbits/cage). To evaluate the effects of the housing system on the fear level and behavioural patterns of rabbits at the two ages (39 to 45 days and 66 to 73 days), a tonic immobility test and an open-field test were conducted and their behaviour was video recorded. In the tonic immobility test, the number of attempts to induce immobility (1.38) was lower, and the duration of immobility (47.8 s) was higher (0.05 < P < 0.01) in the rabbits housed in individual cages than in those kept in bicellular (1.72 attempts and 25.0 s of immobility) and collective cages (1.99 attempts and 25.0 s of immobility). During the open-field test, the rabbits from individual and bicellular cages showed higher latency (38.8 and 40.3 v. 27.0 s), a lower number of total (73.3 and 81.7 v. 91.9) and central displacements (3.6 and 2.8 v. 5.4) and a shorter running time (11.8 and 13.6 s v. 17.7 s) and the time biting the pen (5.5 and 9.1 s v. 28.2 s) compared with the rabbits kept in collective cages (0.05 < P < 0.001). During the 24-h video recording, the rabbits in individual and bicellular cages spent less time allogrooming (0.34% and 0.19% v. 1.44%), moving (0.74% and 0.60% v. 1.32%) and running (0.08% and 0.03% v. 0.21%) than the rabbits in the collective cages (0.01 < P < 0.001). The lowest numbers of alerts and hops were observed in the rabbits kept in bicellular cages. With increasing age, a lower number of rabbits were sensitive to the immobility test and more rabbits entered the pen spontaneously during the open-field test (P < 0.001). In conclusion, the rabbits in individual cages exhibited the highest fear level and incomplete behavioural patterns; the rabbits housed in collective cages showed the lowest fear levels and had the possibility of expressing a wider range of behaviour; and the rabbits in bicellular cages exhibited an inconsistent pattern of fear in the tonic immobility and open-field tests. Probably, these rabbits were in a less stressful condition compared with animals in individual cages because social contacts were allowed, even if freedom of movement was more limited. PMID:23153589

  13. In vivo gene therapy for hyperlipidemia: phenotypic correction in Watanabe rabbits by hepatic delivery of the rabbit LDL receptor gene.

    PubMed Central

    Li, J; Fang, B; Eisensmith, R C; Li, X H; Nasonkin, I; Lin-Lee, Y C; Mims, M P; Hughes, A; Montgomery, C D; Roberts, J D

    1995-01-01

    Elevations of plasma total or LDL cholesterol are major risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Efforts directed at preventing and treating cardiovascular disease have often focused on reducing the levels of these substances in the blood. The Watanabe Heritable Hyperlipidemic Rabbit, which has exceedingly high plasma cholesterol levels resulting from an LDL receptor deficiency, provides an excellent animal model for testing new treatments. A recombinant adenoviral vector containing the rabbit LDL receptor cDNA was administered to Watanabe rabbits. Plasma total cholesterol levels in the treated animals were reduced from 825.5 +/- 69.8 (mean +/- SD) to 247.3 +/- 61.5 mg/dl 6 d after infusion. These animals also demonstrated a 300-400% increase in plasma levels of HDL cholesterol and apo AI 10 d after treatment. As a result, the LDL:HDL ratio exhibited a dramatic decrease. Because only the rabbit LDL receptor gene was used for treatment, the results strongly suggest that the elevations of plasma HDL cholesterol and apo AI were secondary to a reduction in plasma total cholesterol in the treated animals. These results suggest an inverse relationship between plasma LDL and HDL cholesterol levels and imply that reduction of LDL cholesterol levels may have a beneficial effect on plasma HDL cholesterol. PMID:7860759

  14. Transiently enhanced LPS-induced fever following hyperthermic stress in rabbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibata, Masaaki; Uno, Tadashi; Riedel, Walter; Nishimaki, Michiyo; Watanabe, Kaori

    2005-11-01

    Hyperthermia has been shown to induce an enhanced febrile response to the bacterial-derived endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that the enhanced LPS-induced fever seen in heat stressed (HS) animals is caused by leakage of intestinal bacterial LPS into the circulation. Male rabbits were rendered transiently hyperthermic (a maximum rectal temperature of 43°C) and divided into three groups. They were then allowed to recover in a room at 24°C for 1, 2 or 3 days post-HS. One day after injection with LPS, the post-HS rabbits exhibited significantly higher fevers than the controls, though this was not seen in rabbits at either 2 or 3 days post-HS. The plasma levels of endogenous LPS were significantly increased during the HS as compared to those seen in normothermic rabbits prior to HS. LPS fevers were not induced in these animals. One day post-HS, rabbits that had been pretreated with oral antibiotics exhibited significantly attenuated LPS levels. When challenged with human recombinant interleukin-1? instead of LPS, the 1-day post-HS rabbits did not respond with enhanced fevers. The plasma levels of TNF? increased similarly during LPS-induced fevers in both the control and 1-day post-HS rabbits, while the plasma levels of corticosterone and the osmolality of the 1-day post-HS rabbits showed no significant differences to those seen prior to the HS. These results suggest that the enhanced fever in the 1-day post-HS rabbits is LPS specific, and may be caused by increased leakage of intestinal endotoxin into blood circulation.

  15. Renal nerves dynamically regulate renal blood flow in conscious, healthy rabbits.

    PubMed

    Schiller, Alicia M; Pellegrino, Peter R; Zucker, Irving H

    2016-01-15

    Despite significant clinical interest in renal denervation as a therapy, the role of the renal nerves in the physiological regulation of renal blood flow (RBF) remains debated. We hypothesized that the renal nerves physiologically regulate beat-to-beat RBF variability (RBFV). This was tested in chronically instrumented, healthy rabbits that underwent either bilateral surgical renal denervation (DDNx) or a sham denervation procedure (INV). Artifact-free segments of RBF and arterial pressure (AP) from calmly resting, conscious rabbits were used to extract RBFV and AP variability for time-domain, frequency-domain, and nonlinear analysis. Whereas steady-state measures of RBF, AP, and heart rate did not statistically differ between groups, DDNx rabbits had greater RBFV than INV rabbits. AP-RBF transfer function analysis showed greater admittance gain in DDNx rabbits than in INV rabbits, particularly in the low-frequency (LF) range where systemic sympathetic vasomotion gives rise to AP oscillations. In the LF range, INV rabbits exhibited a negative AP-RBF phase shift and low coherence, consistent with the presence of an active control system. Neither of these features were present in the LF range of DDNx rabbits, which showed no phase shift and high coherence, consistent with a passive, Ohm's law pressure-flow relationship. Renal denervation did not significantly affect nonlinear RBFV measures of chaos, self-affinity, or complexity, nor did it significantly affect glomerular filtration rate or extracellular fluid volume. Cumulatively, these data suggest that the renal nerves mediate LF renal sympathetic vasomotion, which buffers RBF from LF AP oscillations in conscious, healthy rabbits. PMID:26538235

  16. Site characterization at the Rabbit Valley Geophysical Performance Evaluation Range

    SciTech Connect

    Koppenjan, S,; Martinez, M.

    1994-06-01

    The United States Department of Energy (US DOE) is developing a Geophysical Performance Evaluation Range (GPER) at Rabbit Valley located 30 miles west of Grand Junction, Colorado. The purpose of the range is to provide a test area for geophysical instruments and survey procedures. Assessment of equipment accuracy and resolution is accomplished through the use of static and dynamic physical models. These models include targets with fixed configurations and targets that can be re-configured to simulate specific specifications. Initial testing (1991) combined with the current tests at the Rabbit Valley GPER will establish baseline data and will provide performance criteria for the development of geophysical technologies and techniques. The US DOE`s Special Technologies Laboratory (STL) staff has conducted a Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) survey of the site with its stepped FM-CW GPR. Additionally, STL contracted several other geophysical tests. These include an airborne GPR survey incorporating a ``chirped`` FM-CW GPR system and a magnetic survey with a surfaced-towed magnetometer array unit Ground-based and aerial video and still frame pictures were also acquired. STL compiled and analyzed all of the geophysical maps and created a site characterization database. This paper discusses the results of the multi-sensor geophysical studies performed at Rabbit Valley and the future plans for the site.

  17. Molecular analysis of hepatitis E virus from farm rabbits in Inner Mongolia, China and its successful propagation in A549 and PLC/PRF/5 cells.

    PubMed

    Jirintai, Suljid; Jinshan; Tanggis; Manglai, Dugarjavin; Mulyanto; Takahashi, Masaharu; Nagashima, Shigeo; Kobayashi, Tominari; Nishizawa, Tsutomu; Okamoto, Hiroaki

    2012-12-01

    Rabbit hepatitis E virus (HEV) strains have recently been isolated in several areas of China and in the US and France. However, the host range, distribution and zoonotic potential of these HEV strains remain unknown and their propagation in cultured cells has not yet been reported. A total of 211 4-month-old rabbits raised on a farm in Inner Mongolia were tested for the presence of anti-HEV antibodies and HEV RNA. Overall, 121 rabbits (57.3%) tested positive for anti-HEV antibodies, and 151 (71.6%) had detectable HEV RNA. The 174 HEV strains recovered from these viremic rabbits, including two distinct strains each from 23 rabbits, differed from each other by up to 13.6% in a 412-nucleotide (nt) sequence within ORF2, and were 89.3-95.9% identical to the reported rabbit HEV strains in other provinces of China. Three representative Inner Mongolian strains, one each from three phylogenetic clusters, whose entire genomic sequences were determined, shared 79.6-96.7% identities with reported rabbit HEV strains within the entire or 242- to 1349-nt partial genomic sequence. Rabbit HEV strains recovered from liver tissues of rabbits with a high HEV load propagated efficiently in human cell lines (A549 and PLC/PRF/5 cells), suggesting the potential zoonotic risk of rabbit HEV. PMID:23041252

  18. Absorption of enzymatically active sup 125 I-labeled bovine milk xanthine oxidase fed to rabbits

    SciTech Connect

    Rzucidlo, S.J. ); Zikakis, J.P. )

    1990-05-01

    Rabbits fed a regular laboratory diet supplemented with a high-fat milk containing xanthine oxidase (XO) were studied to determine the presence of active XO in the blood. A pilot feeding study, where rabbits consumed a high-fat diet containing xanthine oxidase, showed a correlation between dairy food consumption and XO activity in the blood. Antibody to dietary XO was also found. In a second study, rabbits were fed ad libitum the high-fat milk and blood serum samples were tested weekly for XO activity. No elevation in serum XO activity was found. A third study showed that serum XO activity was increased when rabbits were force fed the high-fat milk. The final study consisted of force feeding {sup 125}I-labeled XO to one rabbit to ascertain whether the observed increase in serum XO was due to dietary or endogenous XO. Isoelectric focusing of sera collected from the test rabbit strongly suggested that at least a portion of the serum XO contained the radioactive label. This is the first direct evidence showing the uptake of dietary active XO from the gut.

  19. Comparative histopathological effects of ethylene-bis-dithiocarbamate on the testis in rabbits and rats.

    PubMed

    Mallem, L; Chouaibia, A; Boulakoud, M S

    2009-01-01

    Maneb is an ethylene-bis-dithiocarbamate fungicide used in the control of the fungal diseases of plants. Males of domestic rabbits Oryctolagus cuniculus and Wistar rats received daily by gavage 2 and 3 mg/kg body weight of Maneb for 3 weeks. At the end of the treatment, the animals were sacrificed and the testis's samples were weighed and placed in formol 10% solution. The histopathology changes study was made in accordance with Martoja and Martoja, 1967 method. The obtained results show a very considerable reduction of the weight of testes in treated animals compared to the control group especially in the rabbits. A very reduction in testosterone concentration was noticed in the treated rabbits. The histological observation showed that no effect was observed in the testes in rats. Then, the testicle of treated rabbits with 2 mg/kg body weight reveal seminal tubules in involution Sertolienne and Leydig cells are a little too visible. White rabbits treated 3 mg/kg indicates that there is no spermatozoa in the epididymis, the most of the tubules are empty as compared to control. The testis in the control show normal spermatogenesis and the mitoses are distributed to all levels and spermatozoa are observed in many tubules and epididymis. In conclusion, administration Maneb with the used doses affects histological deformation in the testis of rabbits. PMID:20218523

  20. Welfare and the intensive production of rabbits.

    PubMed

    Morisse, J P; Maurice, R

    1994-03-01

    Rabbit production in Europe is concentrated largely in the "Latin" countries of Italy, France and Spain, in which animal protectionist attitudes are considered moderate. However, in the case of rabbits, the intensification of husbandry necessitates strict observance of physiological, behavioural and health requirements, in view of the very special needs of the species and the sensitivity of rabbits to environmental conditions. Rabbits are described as anxious, timid and emotional, with unusual arrangements for reproduction (induced ovulation) and digestion (caecotrophy). Therefore, these animals could not be reared intensively until the completion of extensive research, which has been conducted over the past twenty years, into the environmental and nutritional needs of rabbits, and the selection of lines having a calm temperament and maternal aptitude. This research was required to meet the welfare needs of this species. These concepts are perfectly integrated into the current operation of intensive units, and should not be brought into question on the basis of fragmentary observations by some researchers who would wish to see a return to rearing on litter. A discussion of rabbit welfare conducted in 1992 by specialists of the German branch of the World Rabbit Science Association approved modern methods of keeping rabbits on wire grids, provided that some changes were made to current procedures. PMID:8173093

  1. Rabbit models for continuous curvilinear capsulorhexis instruction

    PubMed Central

    Ruggiero, Jason; Keller, Christopher; Porco, Travis; Naseri, Ayman; Sretavan, David W.

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE To develop a rabbit model for continuous curvilinear capsulorhexis (CCC) instruction. SETTING University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, USA. DESIGN Experimental study. METHODS Isolated rabbit lenses were immersed in 2% to 8% paraformaldehyde (PFA) fixative from 15 minutes to 6 hours. Rabbit eyes were treated by substituting aqueous with 2% to 4% PFA for 30 minutes to 6 hours, followed by washes with a balanced salt solution. Treated lenses and eyes were held in purpose-designed holders using vacuum. A panel of 6 cataract surgeons with 5 to 15 years of experience performed CCC on treated lenses and eyes and responded to a questionnaire regarding the utility of these models for resident teaching using a 5-item Likert scale. RESULTS The expert panel found that rabbit lenses treated with increasing amounts of fixative simulated CCC on human lens capsules from the third to the seventh decade of life. The panel also found fixative-treated rabbit eyes to simulate some of the experience of CCC within the human anterior chamber but noted a shallower anterior chamber depth, variation in pupil size, and corneal clouding under some treatment conditions. CONCLUSIONS Experienced cataract surgeons who performed CCC on these rabbit models strongly agreed that isolated rabbit lenses treated with fixative provide a realistic simulation of CCC in human patients and that both models were useful tools for capsulorhexis instruction. Results indicate that rabbit lenses treated with 8% PFA for 15 minutes is a model with good fidelity for CCC training. PMID:22727296

  2. ALLOTYPY OF RABBIT SERUM PROTEINS

    PubMed Central

    Oudin, Jacques

    1960-01-01

    The relationships between six of the seven allotypes or families of allotypes (a, b, c, d, f, g) described in the preceding paper, have been studied from the standpoints of (1) their antigenic specificities, (2) their mutual influence on the limitation of their respective frequencies, and (3) their genetic control. Although the six different allotypes (or families) react quite differently with the rabbit antisera, at least five of them react identically with a guinea pig antiserum. Therefore, a large portion of the antigenic specificity of these allotypes, distinct from their allotypic specificity, is uniform in all the individuals of the rabbit species and is termed for this reason "isotypic specificity." In the early period of the rabbit's life, allotypes may be found in the serum, which are not determined by the genotype of the individual, but are directly transmitted by the mother. The allotypes of the antigenic species of globulin studied in this paper, which were synthesized by the young animal, did not appear in its serum before a certain period of time. Allelic relationships between the genes which control allotypes were indicated by, (1) the absence of certain kinds of groupings of the allotypes, which limits the number of allotypic formulas in the population sample studied, (2) dosage effects, the concentration of certain allotypes (drawn from the penetration of the zones in gel tubes) being smaller in supposed heterozygotes than in supposed homozygotes, (3) the results of the analysis of the sera of a number of rabbits and of their parents. Eight of the different antigenic substances studied in this paper (allotype e excluded) appear to be allotypic forms of what would have been considered to be a uniform protein antigen. They may be classified as follows: a first group which contains two allotypes b and d and a family of two allotypes c and c' apparently controlled by three allelic genes b c d, c and c' being controlled by the same gene; a second group which contains two allotypes a and f and a family g, g' apparently controlled by three allelic genes a f g. There are reasons to believe that this list is not complete, especially in the b c d group. PMID:13731717

  3. Thermal cataract formation in rabbits

    SciTech Connect

    Kramar, P.; Harris, C.; Guy, A.W.

    1987-01-01

    Intraocularly circulating hot water was used to produce cataracts in nine eyes of seven rabbits by maintaining their retrolental temperatures between 43 degrees C and 45 degrees C. A rapid rate of heating (1.3 degrees C/min) plus a sharp temperature gradient across the eye may have been contributing factors in the consistent production of cataracts at these temperatures. Biomicroscopy and light microscopy showed lens changes similar to those associated with acute exposure to microwave radiation. These findings support the assumption that microwave cataractogenesis is due to the local production of elevated temperatures.

  4. Conjugated linoleic acid and atherosclerosis in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Lee, K N; Kritchevsky, D; Pariza, M W

    1994-07-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) consists of a series of positional and geometric dienoic isomers of linoleic acid that occur naturally in foods. CLA exhibits antioxidant activity in vitro and in vivo. To assess the effect of CLA on atherosclerosis, 12 rabbits were fed a semi-synthetic diet containing 14% fat and 0.1% cholesterol for 22 weeks. For 6 of these rabbits, the diet was augmented with CLA (0.5 g CLA/rabbit per day). Blood samples were taken monthly for lipid analysis. By 12 weeks total and LDL cholesterol and triglycerides were markedly lower in the CLA-fed group. Interestingly, the LDL cholesterol to HDL cholesterol ratio and total cholesterol to HDL cholesterol ratio were significantly reduced in CLA-fed rabbits. Examination of the aortas of CLA-fed rabbits showed less atherosclerosis. PMID:7980704

  5. Hypoglycaemic effects of methanolic extract of Canscora decussata (Schult) whole-plant in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rabbits.

    PubMed

    Irshad, Nadeem; Akhtar, Muhammad Shoaib; Bashir, Sajid; Hussain, Azhar; Shafiq, Muhammad; Iqbal, Javeid; Malik, Abdul

    2015-01-01

    In present study hypoglycaemic effects of the crude powdered C. decussata and its methanolic extract (ME) in alloxan diabetic rabbits were evaluated. The hypoglycaemic effect was measured by blood glucose, insulin level, HbA1c and his to pathology of pancreas. Glucose lowering effect of the ME was studied in diabetic rabbits. The effects of extract on blood glucose, body weight, food in take, fluid intake, OGTT were also evaluated. The results showed that 0.5,1 and 2g/kg of the powder significantly decreased blood glucose levels in normal rabbits and diabetic rabbits at the intervals checked. Oral intake of pioglitazone also reduced the levels in these rabbits. Synergistic hypoglycaemic effect of 600mg/kg of ME with different doses of insulin (2 & 3unit/kg, s/c) further reduced blood glucose levels of treated alloxan-diabetic rabbits. The oral glucose tolerance test revealed lowered area under curve values in ME treated rabbits. Treatment with ME (400 and 600 mg/kg) for 30 days showed highly significant decrease in blood glucose level by augmenting insulin secretion, HbA1cand significant increase in body weight, serum insulin levels in treated diabetic rabbits. Histopathology study showed regeneration of ?-cells. These studies have, therefore, supported the traditional use of this herb in diabetic patients. PMID:25553693

  6. Behavioral fever in newborn rabbits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Satinoff, E.; Mcewen, G. N., Jr.; Williams, B. A.

    1976-01-01

    New Zealand white rabbit pups aged 12 to 72 hr were divided into three groups and given an intraperitoneal injection of Pseudomonas polysaccharide, a saline vehicle alone, and no treatment, respectively. The animals injected with pyrogen and maintained at an ambient temperature of 32 C for 2 hr did not develop fever. When placed in a thermally graded alleyway, the animals injected with pyrogen selected gradient positions that represented significantly higher temperatures than controls injected with saline. Further stay at selected positions for 5 min caused a considerable increase in the rectal temperature of the pyrogen-injected pups but not that of controls. The results support the hypothesis that newborn rabbits will develop a fever by behavioral means after a single injection of an exogenous pyrogen if the opportunity for thermoregulatory behavior is present. No fever develops if the pups must rely solely on internal thermoregulatory mechanisms. The behavioral system for producing a fever is mature at birth, but an adequate system of internal reflexes does not appear to develop for some days.

  7. BESNOITIA ORYCTOFELISI N. SP. (PROTOZOA: APICOMPLEXA) FROM DOMESTIC RABBITS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A species of Besnoitia from naturally infected rabbits from Argentina was propagated experimentally in mice, gerbils, rabbits, cats, and cell cultures. Cats fed tissue cysts from rabbits shed oocysts with a prepatent period of nine to 13 days. Sporulated oocysts were infective to gerbils, rabbits,...

  8. Classification of rabbit meat obtained with industrial and organic breeding by means of spectrocolorimetric technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menesatti, P.; D'Andrea, S.; Negretti, P.

    2007-09-01

    Rabbit meat is for its nutritional characteristics a food corresponding to new models of consumption. Quality improvement is possible integrating an extensive organic breeding with suitable rabbit genetic typologies. Aim of this work (financed by a Project of the Lazio Region, Italy) was the characterization of rabbit meat by a statistic model, able to distinguish rabbit meat obtained by organic breeding from that achieved industrially. This was pursued through the analysis of spectral data and colorimetric values. Two genetic typologies of rabbit, Leprino Viterbese and a commercial hybrid, were studied. The Leprino Viterbese has been breeded with two different systems, organic and industrial. The commercial hybrid has been bred only industrially because of its characteristics of high sensibility to diseases. The device used for opto-electronic analysis is a VIS-NIR image spectrometer (range: 400-970 nm). The instrument has a stabilized light, it works in accordance to standard CIE L*a*b* technique and it measures the spectral reflectance and the colorimetric coordinates values. The statistic data analysis has been performed by Partial Least Square technique (PLS). A part of measured data was used to create the statistic model and the remaining data were utilized in phase of test to verify the correct model classification. The results put in evidence a high percentage of correct classification (90%) of the model for the two rabbit meat classes, deriving from organic and industrial breeding. Moreover, concerning the different genetic typologies, the percentage of correct classification was 90%.

  9. Histopathological Studies on Rabbits Infected by Bacteria Causing Infectious Keratitis in Human through Eye Inoculation

    PubMed Central

    Aldebasi, Yousef H.; Mohamed, Hala A.; Aly, Salah M.

    2014-01-01

    Aim This study aimed to investigate the pathogenic effect of bacteria causing infectious keratitis among patients through experimental study conducted on rabbits’ eyes with the aid of histopathology as eye infection is a common disease in developing countries that may complicate to loss of vision. Methodology 100 swab samples were collected from human infected eyes, at Qassim region during 2012, for the isolation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. The isolated pathogenic bacteria were tested to various antibiotics using some selected antibiotics discs through agar-well diffusion method. Then, experimental study conducted on 27 rabbits. The rabbits were divided randomly into three equal groups, each containing 9 rabbits. Rabbits of group (1) served as control group (Negative Control) and their eyes were inoculated with the buffer only. Rabbits of group (2) were inoculated through eyes with the isolated Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Rabbits of group (3) were inoculated through eyes with the isolated Staphylococcus aureus. Results Out of 100 collected swab samples from human infected eyes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus were isolated with a total percentage of 25.21% and 15.65%; respectively and used in this study. Both bacterial isolates were sensitive to Gentamicin and Cefuroxime. Clinically, experimentally infected rabbits by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, revealed varying degree corneal abrasions, corneal abscess and dense corneal opacity. Histopathologically, at 3rd day post-infection (PI), the cornea revealed polymorpho-nuclear cells infiltration with loss of the outer epithelial lining. At 7th day PI, neutrophils were seen in the stroma. At 15th day PI, proliferation of fibroblasts and new vascularisation were seen in the stroma. Clinically, rabbits experimentally infected with Staphylococcus aureus, revealed corneal ulcers and focal abscesses. Histopathologically, at 3rd and 7th day PI, the cornea revealed edema and infiltration of leukocytes. At 15th day PI, hyperplasia of corneal epithelium and proliferation of keratocytes were evident. The liver and kidneys of experimented rabbits revealed no remarkable histopathological alterations along the period of experiment. Conclusion Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus are common eye infection in human, both induced severe lesions in the eyes of rabbits that could interfere with vision, therefore, strict measures to control these infections in human is recommended. PMID:25505861

  10. Correction of hypoalphalipoproteinemia in LDL receptor-deficient rabbits by lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Brousseau, M E; Wang, J; Demosky, S J; Vaisman, B L; Talley, G D; Santamarina-Fojo, S; Brewer, H B; Hoeg, J M

    1998-08-01

    Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH), a disease caused by a variety of mutations in the low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLr) gene, leads not only to elevated LDL-cholesterol (C) concentrations but to reduced high density lipoprotein (HDL)-C and apolipoprotein (apo) A-I concentrations as well. The reductions in HDL-C and apoA-I are the consequence of the combined metabolic defects of increased apoA-I catabolism and decreased apoA-I synthesis. The present studies were designed to test the hypothesis that overexpression of human lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (hLCAT), a pivotal enzyme involved in HDL metabolism, in LDLr defective rabbits would increase HDL-C and apoA-I concentrations. Two groups of hLCAT transgenic rabbits were established: 1) hLCAT+/LDLr heterozygotes (LDLr+/-) and 2) hLCAT+/LDLr homozygotes (LDLr-/-). Data for hLCAT+ rabbits were compared to those of nontransgenic (hLCAT-) rabbits of the same LDLr status. In LDLr+/- rabbits, HDL-C and apoA-I concentrations (mg/dl), respectively, were significantly greater in hLCAT+ (62 +/- 8, 59 +/- 4) relative to hLCAT- rabbits (21 +/- 1, 26 +/- 2). This was, likewise, the case when hLCAT+/ LDLr-/- (27 +/- 2, 19 +/- 6) and hLCAT-/LDLr-/- (5 +/- 1, 6 +/- 2) rabbits were compared. Kinetic experiments demonstrated that the fractional catabolic rate (FCR, d(-1)) of apoA-I was substantially delayed in hLCAT+ (0.376 +/- 0.025) versus hLCAT- (0.588) LDLr+/- rabbits, as well as in hLCAT+ (0.666 +/- 0.033) versus hLCAT- (1.194 +/- 0.138) LDLr-/- rabbits. ApoA-I production rate (PR, mg x kg x d(-1)) was greater in both hLCAT+/LDLr+/- (10 +/- 2 vs. 6) and hLCAT+/LDLr-/- (9 +/- 1 vs. 4 +/- 1) rabbits. Significant correlations (P < 0.02) were observed between plasma LCAT activity and HDL-C (r = 0.857), apoA-I FCR (r = -0.774), and apoA-I PR (r = 0.771), while HDL-C correlated with both apoA-I FCR (-0.812) and PR (0.751). In summary, these data indicate that hLCAT overexpression in LDLr defective rabbits increases HDL-C and apoA-I concentrations by both decreasing apoA-I catabolism and increasing apoA-I synthesis, thus correcting the metabolic defects responsible for the hypoalphalipoproteinemia observed in LDLr deficiency. PMID:9717715

  11. Bobcat attack on a cottontail rabbit

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Biggins, D.E.; Biggins, D.M.

    2006-01-01

    We observed an attack by a bobcat (Lynx rufus) on a cottontail rabbit (Sylvilagus) that involved stealthy approach by the cat for >1 h, followed by a 12.3-s chase covering 116.0 m for the cat and 128.4 m for the rabbit. During the chase, the route of the cat from starting point to kill site was more direct than the semi-circular route of the rabbit. Stride lengths for the cat and total distance covered by the chase were longer than those previously reported for bobcats.

  12. Seroprevalence of Encephalitozoon cuniculi and Toxoplasma gondii in domestic rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) in China

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Qing-Feng; Wang, Wei-Lin; Ni, Xiao-Ting; Li, Hai-Bin; Yao, Gui-Zhe; Sun, Xiao-Lin; Wang, Wei-Li; Cong, Wei

    2015-01-01

    The breeding of domestic rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) for human consumption has a long tradition in China. Infections that can affect the production of meat or even be transmitted from animals to humans are important to monitor, especially for public health reasons as well as for their impact on animal health. Thus, a total of 1,132 domestic rabbit sera from 4 regions in China were collected for serological screening for Encephalitozoon cuniculi and for Toxoplasma gondii by ELISA and modified agglutination test (MAT), respectively. Antibodies to E. cuniculi were detected in 248/1,132 (21.9%) sera tested while antibodies against T. gondii revealed a seroprevalence of 51/1,132 (4.5%). We believe that the present results are of epidemiological implications and public health importance due to the acknowledged susceptibility of humans to E. cuniculi and T. gondii infections. Therefore, routine screening tests of domestic rabbits are proposed considering the zoonotic potential of these parasites. PMID:26797446

  13. Steroid dynamics in the rabbit

    SciTech Connect

    Bourget, C.; Flood, C.; Longcope, C.

    1984-02-01

    Male rabbits were infused at a constant rate with /sup 3/H-androstenedione//sup 14/C-estrone (n . 5) or /sup 3/H-testosterone//sup 14/C-estradiol-17 beta (n . 3) for 3 1/2 hr and blood samples were obtained over the last hour and analyzed for radioactivity as androstenedione (A), testosterone (T), estrone (E1), estradiol-17 beta (E2 beta) and estradiol-17 alpha (E2 alpha). The mean value for the metabolic clearance rate of androstenedione (MCRA) was 85 +/- 10 l/day/kg, which was significantly greater than the mean MCRE1 59 +/- 10 l/day/kg. MCRT, 42 +/- 8 l/day/kg, and MCRE2 beta, 45 +/- 9 l/day/kg were not different. The conversion ratio of androstenedione to testosterone (CRA,T) was greater than CRT,A but for the estrogens, CRE2 beta, E1 was greater than CRE1,E2 beta. CRE2 beta, E2 alpha was greater than CRE1,E2 alpha. The overall aromatization of androstenedione to estrone, the fraction of /sup 3/H-androstenedione infused into the blood and measured as /sup 3/H-estrone in blood (( rho)A,E1BB) was 0.0005 +/- 0.0001 and for (rho)T,E2 beta BB was 0.0012 +/- 0.0006. In the rabbit both sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) and albumin binding may effect the MCRs, and peripheral aromatization of androgens occurs to a far lesser degree than in humans and primates.

  14. FMLP provokes coronary vasoconstriction and myocardial ischemia in rabbits

    SciTech Connect

    Gillespie, M.N.; Booth, D.C.; Friedman, B.J.; Cunningham, M.R.; Jay, M.; De Maria, A.N. )

    1988-03-01

    Recent pathological studies of coronary arteries from humans with suspected coronary spasm have revealed an augmented intramural burden of inflammatory cells. To test the hypothesis than inappropriate activation of inflammatory cells participates in the evolution of coronary vasospasm, the present experiment employed a newly developed coronary arteriographic technique for use in pentobarbital-anesthetized rabbits to evaluate the coronary vasomotor actions of the nonselective inflammatory cell stimulant, N-formyl-L-methionyl-L-leucyl-L-phenylalanine (fMLP). In 10 of 10 animals, selective left intracoronary injection of 200 ng fMLP evoked profound left coronary narrowing accompanied in all cases by ST segment deviation and dysrhythmias. Thallium-201 scintigraphy demonstrated hypoperfusion of the left ventricular free wall and septum supplied by the spastic coronary artery. The fMLP-induced epicardial vasoconstriction, ischemic electrocardiogram (ECG) changes, and thallium perfusion defects were reversed by intravenous nitroglycerin. Neither the right coronary artery nor its distribution were influenced by left coronary injection of fMLP. Additional experiments in isolated, salt solution-perfused rabbit hearts demonstrated that fMLP failed to exert direct coronary vasoconstrictor effects. These observations indicate that the nonselective inflammatory cell stimulant, fMLP, provokes arteriographically demonstrable coronary spasm with attendant myocardial hypoperfusion and ischemic ECG changes in anesthetized rabbits. Such a model may be useful in exploring the dynamic role of inflammatory cells in development of coronary spasm.

  15. Comparative pharmacodynamics of pancuronium, cisatracurium, and CW002 in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Leslie L; Zhang, Jingwei; Heerdt, Paul M

    2014-05-01

    Pancuronium is a long-duration neuromuscular blocking drug (NMBD) that has been used in anesthetized rabbits at 0.1 mg/kg. However, there are limited data regarding the time course for recovery from this dose either spontaneously or with pharmacologic reversal. Here we defined the potency, onset, and recovery characteristics for the intermediate-duration NMBD cisatracurium and CW002 (a novel cysteine-inactivated molecule) in the rabbit, and test the hypothesis that these drugs may be alternatives to 0.1 mg/kg pancuronium for survival procedures. New Zealand white rabbits anesthetized with isoflurane were studied in a cross-over design. Potencies of cisatracurium and CW002 were defined as the effective dose for 95% depression of evoked muscle twitch (ED95). Responses to 3×ED95 were used to define onset (time to maximal effect), recovery index (RI; time from 25% to 75% recovery of twitch), and duration (time to complete recovery). Responses to all drugs were determined with and without reversal by neostigmine-glycopyrrolate or L-cysteine. CW002 was 4-fold more potent than was cisatracurium, but their onset, RI, and duration were similar. Pancuronium had similar onset and RI but longer duration, compared with cisatracurium and CW002. Reversal shortened the recovery index and duration for all 3 drugs. At 3×ED95, cisatracurium and CW002 had the same onset as did standard-dose pancuronium, but durations were shorter and more predictable. In addition, CW002 can be reversed without the potential side effects of cholinergic manipulation. We conclude that cisatracurium and CW002 are viable alternatives to pancuronium for survival studies in rabbits. PMID:24827571

  16. Comparative Pharmacodynamics of Pancuronium, Cisatracurium, and CW002 in Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Diaz, Leslie L; Zhang, Jingwei; Heerdt, Paul M

    2014-01-01

    Pancuronium is a long-duration neuromuscular blocking drug (NMBD) that has been used in anesthetized rabbits at 0.1 mg/kg. However, there are limited data regarding the time course for recovery from this dose either spontaneously or with pharmacologic reversal. Here we defined the potency, onset, and recovery characteristics for the intermediate-duration NMBD cisatracurium and CW002 (a novel cysteine-inactivated molecule) in the rabbit, and test the hypothesis that these drugs may be alternatives to 0.1 mg/kg pancuronium for survival procedures. New Zealand white rabbits anesthetized with isoflurane were studied in a cross-over design. Potencies of cisatracurium and CW002 were defined as the effective dose for 95% depression of evoked muscle twitch (ED95). Responses to 3×ED95 were used to define onset (time to maximal effect), recovery index (RI; time from 25% to 75% recovery of twitch), and duration (time to complete recovery). Responses to all drugs were determined with and without reversal by neostigmine–glycopyrrolate or l-cysteine. CW002 was 4-fold more potent than was cisatracurium, but their onset, RI, and duration were similar. Pancuronium had similar onset and RI but longer duration, compared with cisatracurium and CW002. Reversal shortened the recovery index and duration for all 3 drugs. At 3×ED95, cisatracurium and CW002 had the same onset as did standard-dose pancuronium, but durations were shorter and more predictable. In addition, CW002 can be reversed without the potential side effects of cholinergic manipulation. We conclude that cisatracurium and CW002 are viable alternatives to pancuronium for survival studies in rabbits. PMID:24827571

  17. Effect of Pitavastatin on Vascular Reactivity in Hypercholesterolemic Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    de Almeida, Eros Antonio; Ozaki, Michiko Regina

    2014-01-01

    Background Pitavastatin is the newest statin available in Brazil and likely the one with fewer side effects. Thus, pitavastatin was evaluated in hypercholesterolemic rabbits in relation to its action on vascular reactivity. Objective To assess the lowest dose of pitavastatin necessary to reduce plasma lipids, cholesterol and tissue lipid peroxidation, as well as endothelial function in hypercholesterolemic rabbits. Methods Thirty rabbits divided into six groups (n = 5): G1 - standard chow diet; G2 - hypercholesterolemic diet for 30 days; G3 - hypercholesterolemic diet and after the 16th day, diet supplemented with pitavastatin (0.1 mg); G4 - hypercholesterolemic diet supplemented with pitavastatin (0.25 mg); G5 - hypercholesterolemic diet supplemented with pitavastatin (0.5 mg); G6 - hypercholesterolemic diet supplemented with pitavastatin (1.0 mg). After 30 days, total cholesterol, HDL, triglycerides, glucose, creatine kinase (CK), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were measured and LDL was calculated. In-depth anesthesia was performed with sodium thiopental and aortic segments were removed to study endothelial function, cholesterol and tissue lipid peroxidation. The significance level for statistical tests was 5%. Results Total cholesterol and LDL were significantly elevated in relation to G1. HDL was significantly reduced in G4, G5 and G6 when compared to G2. Triglycerides, CK, AST, ALT, cholesterol and tissue lipid peroxidation showed no statistical difference between G2 and G3-G6. Significantly endothelial dysfunction reversion was observed in G5 and G6 when compared to G2. Conclusion Pitavastatin starting at a 0.5 mg dose was effective in reverting endothelial dysfunction in hypercholesterolemic rabbits. PMID:25014056

  18. MTR, TRA603. BASEMENT FLOOR PLAN. REACTOR SHIELDING, CANAL AND RABBIT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR, TRA-603. BASEMENT FLOOR PLAN. REACTOR SHIELDING, CANAL AND RABBIT CANAL, DEEP WELL STORAGE. DECONTAMINATION ROOM, VAULT, MONITOR ROOM, OFFICE, STAIRWAYS. BLAW-KNOX 3150-803-1, 7/1950. INL INDEX NO. 531-0603-00-098-100560, REV. 6. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  19. Eyeblink conditioning in the developing rabbit

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Kevin L.; Woodruff-Pak, Diana S.

    2011-01-01

    Eyeblink classical conditioning in pre-weanling rabbits was examined in the present study. Using a custom lightweight headpiece and restrainer, New Zealand white littermates were trained once daily in 400 ms delay eyeblink classical conditioning from postnatal days (PD) 17–21 or PD 24–28. These ages were chosen because eyeblink conditioning emerges gradually over PD 17–24 in rats (Stanton, Freeman, & Skelton, 1992), another altricial species with neurodevelopmental features similar to those of rabbits. Consistent with well-established findings in rats, rabbits trained from PD 24–28 showed greater conditioning relative to littermates trained from PD 17–21. Both age groups displayed poor retention of eyeblink conditioning at retraining one month after acquisition. These findings are the first to demonstrate eyeblink conditioning in the developing rabbit. With further characterization of optimal conditioning parameters, this preparation may have applications to neurodevelopmental disease models as well as research exploring the ontogeny of memory. PMID:21953433

  20. Mucosally delivered peptides prime strong immunity in HLA-A2.1 transgenic rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Jiafen; Cladel, Nancy; Balogh, Karla; Christensen, Neil

    2010-01-01

    DNA vaccines delivered subcutaneously by gene-gun have generated strong protective and therapeutic immunity in rabbits. Recent studies have shown that peptides delivered by the mucosal routes also stimulate local and systemic immune responses. Since mucosal delivery is easier to administer and more cost-effective when compared to gene-gun delivery, we were interested to learn whether mucosally-delivered peptides would prime protective immunity comparable to that of gene-gun delivered DNA in rabbits. Our newly developed HLA-A2.1 transgenic rabbit model was used to test the hypothesis. We chose an HLA-A2.1 restricted cottontail rabbit papillomavirus (CRPV) E1 epitope (E1/303–311, MLQEKPFQL) for the peptide immunization studies because it provided complete protection when used as a DNA vaccine. Adjuvant has been widely used to boost immunity for vaccines. In this study, three adjuvants reported to be effective for rabbits (TT helper motif, PADRE and CpG2007) were tested with the peptide vaccine. Peptide alone or fused to TT helper or PADRE to create chimeric peptides was delivered by two mucosal routes (ocular and intranasal) together. Partial protection was found in HLA-A2.1 transgenic rabbits when peptide was delivered mucosally in the presence of adjuvant. When a subsequent booster of a half dose of the corresponding DNA vaccine was delivered, complete protections were achieved. We conclude that mucosal peptide immunization can be combined with a single DNA vaccination to provide strong protective immunity in rabbits. PMID:20332046

  1. Determination of tropical forage preferences using two offering methods in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Safwat, A M; Sarmiento-Franco, L; Santos-Ricalde, R H; Nieves, D

    2014-04-01

    Two methods of feed preference trials were compared to evaluate the acceptability of 5 fresh foliages: Leucaena leucocephala, Moringa oleifera, Portulaca oleracea, Guazuma ulmifolia, and Brosimum alicastrum that was included as control. The evaluation included chemical analyses and forage intake by rabbits. The first method was a cafeteria trial; 12 California growing rabbits aged 8 wk, allocated in individual cages, were offered the five forage plants at the same time inside the cage, while in the second trial 60 California growing rabbits aged 8 wk, allocated individually, were randomly distributed into 5 experimental groups (n = 12/group); for each group just one forage species was offered at a time. The testing period for each method lasted for 7 d, preceded by one week of adaptation. The results showed that B. alicastrum and L. lecocephala were the most preferred forages while on the contrary G. ulmifolia was the least preferred one by rabbits. The results also revealed that the CV% value for the 2nd method (16.32%), which the tested forages were presented separately to rabbits, was lower and methodologically more acceptable than such value for the 1(st) method (34.28%), which all forages were presented together at the same time. It can be concluded that a range of tropical forages were consumed in acceptable quantities by rabbits, suggesting that diets based on such forages with a concentrate supplement could be used successfully for rabbit production. However, growth performance studies are still needed before recommendations could be made on appropriate ration formulations for commercial use. PMID:25049983

  2. Determination of Tropical Forage Preferences Using Two Offering Methods in Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Safwat, A. M.; Sarmiento-Franco, L.; Santos-Ricalde, R. H.; Nieves, D.

    2014-01-01

    Two methods of feed preference trials were compared to evaluate the acceptability of 5 fresh foliages: Leucaena leucocephala, Moringa oleifera, Portulaca oleracea, Guazuma ulmifolia, and Brosimum alicastrum that was included as control. The evaluation included chemical analyses and forage intake by rabbits. The first method was a cafeteria trial; 12 California growing rabbits aged 8 wk, allocated in individual cages, were offered the five forage plants at the same time inside the cage, while in the second trial 60 California growing rabbits aged 8 wk, allocated individually, were randomly distributed into 5 experimental groups (n = 12/group); for each group just one forage species was offered at a time. The testing period for each method lasted for 7 d, preceded by one week of adaptation. The results showed that B. alicastrum and L. lecocephala were the most preferred forages while on the contrary G. ulmifolia was the least preferred one by rabbits. The results also revealed that the CV% value for the 2nd method (16.32%), which the tested forages were presented separately to rabbits, was lower and methodologically more acceptable than such value for the 1st method (34.28%), which all forages were presented together at the same time. It can be concluded that a range of tropical forages were consumed in acceptable quantities by rabbits, suggesting that diets based on such forages with a concentrate supplement could be used successfully for rabbit production. However, growth performance studies are still needed before recommendations could be made on appropriate ration formulations for commercial use. PMID:25049983

  3. Identification of some rabbit allergens as lipocalins.

    PubMed

    Baker, J; Berry, A; Boscato, L M; Gordon, S; Walsh, B J; Stuart, M C

    2001-02-01

    Rabbits are frequently used as laboratory animals or kept as domestic pets. Rabbit serum albumin and a 17-kDa protein referred to as Ory c 1 have previously been reported as allergens. Several other allergenic proteins have been recognized by crossed immuno-electrophoresis but have not been characterized. The aim of this study was to characterize the allergenic proteins present in rabbit saliva, urine and fur on the basis of molecular size and, where possible, to determine their amino acid sequences. Extracts from the male New Zealand white rabbit were used for developing specific direct RAST and RAST inhibition assays. Proteins in the extracts were separated by SDS-PAGE and the individual allergens identified by immunoblotting with serum from rabbit-allergic individuals. The N-termini of four allergens were sequenced. Saliva was the most potent extract. In total, 26 protein bands were recognized as allergens in the three extracts: 12 in saliva, seven in urine and seven in fur. Their molecular weights ranged from an 8-kDa species in saliva to an 80-kDa protein in urine. The N terminal sequences of an 18 kDa and a 21-kDa species in saliva, were identified as lipocalins with sequence similarity to a recently described odourant binding protein. This is the first evidence that allergens from the rabbit are members of the lipocalin superfamily of proteins, suggesting that similar mechanisms may be involved in eliciting the allergic response to rabbits. The 18 kDa allergen from saliva may be the previously named rabbit allergen, Ory c 1. PMID:11251632

  4. Photoacoustic endoscopic imaging of the rabbit mediastinum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Joon-Mo; Favazza, Christopher; Chen, Ruimin; Yao, Junjie; Cai, Xin; Li, Chiye; Maslov, Konstantin; Zhou, Qifa; Shung, K. Kirk; Wang, Lihong V.

    2013-03-01

    Like ultrasound endoscopy, photoacoustic endoscopy (PAE) could become a valuable addition to clinical practice due to its deep imaging capability. Results from our recent in vivo transesophageal endoscopic imaging study on rabbits demonstrate the technique's capability to image major organs in the mediastinal region, such as the lung, trachea, and cardiovascular systems. Here, we present various features from photoacoustic images from the mediastinal region of several rabbits and discuss possible clinical contributions of this technique and directions of future technology development.

  5. The incidence of Encephalitozoon cuniculi in a commercial barrier-maintained rabbit breeding colony.

    PubMed

    Greenstein, G; Drozdowicz, C K; Garcia, F G; Lewis, L L

    1991-10-01

    Between 1982 and 1987 sera from 4952 New Zealand White rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) obtained from a single commercial supplier were tested for the presence of antibodies to Encephalitozoon cuniculi. A commercially available carbon immunoassay test kit was used. Initially 32.9% of the rabbits were seropositive with the number progressively decreasing to 2.3% by 1987. The reason for the significant decline in the incidence of infection was most likely due to a selection process for breeding stock instituted by the supplier based upon productivity, posture and weight of each animal. PMID:1753686

  6. Effects of phenobarbital upon triacylglycerol metabolism in the rabbit.

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg, D M; Roomi, M W; Yu, A; Roncari, D A

    1980-01-01

    1. The association between hepatic microsomal enzyme induction and triacylglycerol metabolism was examined in fasting male rabbits (2kg body wt.) injected intra-peritoneally with 50 mg of phenobarbital per kg for 10 days. 2. Occurrence of enzyme induction was established by a significant increase in hepatic aminopyrine N-demethylase activity and cytochrome P-450 content, as well as a doubling of microsomal protein per g of liver and a 54% increase in liver weight. Parallel increments in hepatic gamma-glutamyltransferase (EC 2.3.2.2) activity occurred; these were more pronounced in the whole homogenate than in the microsomes, which only accounted for 12.5% of the total enzyme activity in the controls and 17.0% in the animals given phenobarbital. Increased activity of gamma-glutamyltransferase activity was also observed in the blood serum of the test animals. 3. The rabbits given phenobarbital manifested increased hepatic triacylglycerol content and the triacylglycerol concentration of blood serum was also elevated. These changes were accompanied by a significantly enhanced ability of cell-free fractions of liver from the test animals (postmitochondrial supernatant and microsomal fractions) to synthesize glycerolipids in vitro from sn-[14C] glycerol 3-phosphate and fatty acids, when expressed per whole liver. Relative to the protein content of the fraction, glycerolipid synthesis in vitro was significantly decreased in the microsomes, presumably consequent upon the dramatic increase in their total protein content, whereas no change occurred in the postmitochondrial supernatant, possibly due to the protective effect of cytosolic factors present in this fraction and known to enhance glycerolipid synthesis. 4. Microsomal phosphatidate phosphohydrolase accounted for 85% of the total liver activity of this enzyme and its specific activity was 20-fold higher than that of the cytosolic phosphatidate phosphohydrolase (EC 3.1.3.4), when each was measured under optimal conditions. A significant increase in the activity of both enzymes per whole liver occurred in the rabbits given phenobarbital. A closer correlation between hepatic triacylglycerol content and and microsomal phosphatidate phosphohydrolase, as well as the above observation, suggest that this, rather than the cytosolic enzyme, may be rate-limiting for triacylglycerol synthesis in rabbit liver. 5. Significant correlations were observed between the various factors of hepatic microsomal-enzyme induction (aminopyrine N-demethylase and gamma-glutamyltransferase activity as well as cytochrome P-450 content) and hepatic triacylglycerol content, suggesting that that microsomal enzyme induction may promote hepatic triacylglycerol synthesis and consequently hypertriglyceridaemia in the rabbit. PMID:7305894

  7. Alternative methods for the replacement of eye irritation testing.

    PubMed

    Lotz, Christian; Schmid, Freia F; Rossi, Angela; Kurdyn, Szymon; Kampik, Daniel; De Wever, Bart; Walles, Heike; Groeber, Florian K

    2016-01-01

    In the last decades significant regulatory attempts were made to replace, refine and reduce animal testing to assess the risk of consumer products for the human eye. As the original in vivo Draize eye test has been criticized for limited predictivity, costs and ethical issues, several animal-free test methods have been developed to categorize substances according to the global harmonized system (GHS) for eye irritation.This review summarizes the progress of alternative test methods for the assessment of eye irritation. Based on the corneal anatomy and the current knowledge of the mechanisms causing eye irritation, different ex vivo and in vitro methods will be presented and discussed in regard of possible limitations and their status of regulatory acceptance. In addition to established in vitro models, this review will also highlight emerging, full thickness cornea models that might be applicable to predict all GHS categories. PMID:26626125

  8. Material properties of articular cartilage in the rabbit tibial plateau

    PubMed Central

    Roemhildt, Maria L.; Coughlin, Kathryn M.; Peura, Glenn D.; Fleming, Braden C.; Beynnon, Bruce D.

    2010-01-01

    The material properties of articular cartilage in the rabbit tibial plateau were determined using biphasic indentation creep tests. Cartilage specimens from matched-pair hind limbs of rabbits approximately 4 months of age and greater than 12 months of age were tested on two locations within each compartment using a custom built materials testing apparatus. A three-way ANOVA was used to determine the effect of leg, compartment, and test location on the material properties (aggregate modulus, permeability, and Poisson's ratio) and thickness of the cartilage for each set of specimens. While no differences were observed in cartilage properties between the left and right legs, differences between compartments were found in each set of specimens. For cartilage from the adolescent group, values for aggregate modulus were 40% less in the medial compartment compared to the lateral compartment, while values for permeability and thickness were greater in the medial compartment compared to the lateral compartment (57% and 30%, respectively). Values for Poisson's ratio were 19% less in the medial compartment compared to the lateral compartment. There was also a strong trend for thickness to differ between test locations. Similar findings were observed for cartilage from the mature group with values for permeability and thickness being greater in the medial compartment compared to the lateral compartment (66% and 34%, respectively). Values for Poisson's ratio were 22% less in the medial compartment compared to the lateral compartment. PMID:16168420

  9. Viscoelastic Characterization of Peripapillary Sclera: Material Properties by Quadrant in Rabbit and Monkey Eyes

    PubMed Central

    Downs, J. Crawford; Suh, J-K. Francis; Thomas, Kevin A.; Bellezza, Anthony J.; Burgoyne, Claude F.; Hart, Richard T.

    2009-01-01

    In this report we characterize the viscoelastic material properties of peripapillary sclera from the four quadrants surrounding the optic nerve head in both rabbit and monkey eyes. Scleral tensile specimens harvested from each quadrant were subjected to uniaxial stress relaxation and tensile ramp to failure tests. Linear viscoelastic theory, coupled with a spectral reduced relaxation function, was employed to characterize the viscoelastic properties of the tissues. We detected no differences in the stress-strain curves of specimens from the four quadrants surrounding the optic nerve head (ONH) below a strain of 4 percent in either the rabbit or monkey. While the peripapillary sclera from monkey eyes is significantly stiffer (both instantaneously and in equilibrium) and relaxes more slowly than that from rabbits, we detected no differences in the viscoelastic material properties (tested at strains of 0–1 percent) of sclera from the four quadrants surrounding the ONH within either species group. PMID:12661206

  10. The ABCG2 efflux transporter from rabbit placenta: Cloning and functional characterization.

    PubMed

    Halwachs, Sandra; Kneuer, Carsten; Gohlsch, Katrin; Müller, Marian; Ritz, Vera; Honscha, Walther

    2016-02-01

    In human placenta, the ATP-binding cassette efflux transporter ABCG2 is highly expressed in syncytiotrophoblast cells and mediates cellular excretion of various drugs and toxins. Hence, physiological ABCG2 activity substantially contributes to the fetoprotective placenta barrier function during gestation. Developmental toxicity studies are often performed in rabbit. However, despite its toxicological relevance, there is no data so far on functional ABCG2 expression in this species. Therefore, we cloned ABCG2 from placenta tissues of chinchilla rabbit. Sequencing showed 84-86% amino acid sequence identity to the orthologues from man, rat and mouse. We transduced the rabbit ABCG2 clone (rbABCG2) in MDCKII cells and stable rbABCG2 gene and protein expression was shown by RT-PCR and Western blot analysis. The rbABCG2 efflux activity was demonstrated with the Hoechst H33342 assay using the specific ABCG2 inhibitor Ko143. We further tested the effect of established human ABCG2 (hABCG2) drug substrates including the antibiotic danofloxacin or the histamine H2-receptor antagonist cimetidine on H33342 accumulation in MDCKII-rbABCG2 or -hABCG2 cells. Human therapeutic plasma concentrations of all tested drugs caused a comparable competitive inhibition of H33342 excretion in both ABCG2 clones. Altogether, we first showed functional expression of the ABCG2 efflux transporter in rabbit placenta. Moreover, our data suggest a similar drug substrate spectrum of the rabbit and the human ABCG2 efflux transporter. PMID:26907376

  11. Preparation of platelet-rich plasma as a tissue adhesive for experimental transplantation in rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Luengo Gimeno, Federico; Gatto, Silvia; Ferro, José; Croxatto, Juan Oscar; Gallo, Juan Eduardo

    2006-01-01

    Purpose Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is an autologous substance with adhesive properties. We aimed at developing and testing the efficacy of a method for PRP preparation in rabbits. Materials and methods An in vitro study was carried out to obtain PRP from forty rabbits and to analyze the number of platelets and type of substance needed to trigger platelet activation. To induce platelet activation, 5%, 10%, 25% and 50% CaCl solutions were used. Then, an in vivo study was performed in twelve rabbits to test PRP adhesiveness in lamellar corneal graft. A control group made up of six rabbits underwent corneal transplantation without using PRP. Results 5% CaCl was the most effective concentration in activating PRP, with a mean time of 19 minutes. An attached corneal flap was seen 3 months after surgery. A detached corneal button was seen in all controls. Conclusion Our method was able to produce rabbit-derived PRP with suitable properties for soft tissue adhesion. These results could be useful for researchers of the growing fields of tissue repair and experimental transplantation. PMID:17005053

  12. A radiochemical assay for glycine N-acyltransferase activity. Some properties of the enzyme in rat and rabbit.

    PubMed

    James, M O; Bend, J R

    1978-05-15

    We have developed a sensitive radiochemical assay of glycine N-acyltransferase activity, using phenylacetyl-CoA as the acyl donor and glycine as the acceptor. This assay measures formation of the product, phenylacetylglycine, instead of disappearance of the substrate, phenylacetyl-CoA, as did earlier assays. The subcellular location and some properties of the conjugating activity were determined in liver and kidney of the rabbit and the rat. Rabbit lung and intestine were also tested for activity. PMID:666745

  13. Development of a rabbit animal model for miniaturized heart-lung machines.

    PubMed

    Schnoering, Heike; Arens, Jutta; Detering, Sabine M; Stopinski, Tadek; Kuschel, Tarah J; Tolba, Rene; Steinseifer, Ulrich; Vazquez-Jimenez, Jaime F

    2013-01-01

    The utilization of a heart-lung machine (HLM) for the correction of congenital heart defects can lead to various complications, which can culminate in multiorgan failure and death. To reduce the considerable risk of complications, we developed a miniaturized, highly integrated HLM (MiniHLM) for use in infants and children. For the purpose of testing the MiniHLM, we developed a new rabbit animal model. In all, surgery was performed on 32 rabbits. In the first series, 13 New Zealand white rabbits were placed on cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) for 1 hour with the use of an initial version of the MiniHLM. In the second series, we operated on 19 Chinchilla Bastard rabbits using the further developed MiniHLM 02 or the Dideco Kids D100 system. While several adjustments had to be made to the operating protocol in the first series in order to lower the mortality rate, 15 of the 19 rabbits were successfully weaned from the HLM in the second series. Blood tests pertaining to hemolysis and the expression of inflammation were performed. In addition, tissue samples were taken from the right atrial auricle for the purpose of investigating the expression of inflammatory parameters. The newly developed MiniHLM prototype was tested successfully in an animal model in terms of technical function, hemolysis, and the expression of inflammation. On account of the comparability of their blood values, as well as their anatomy, Chinchilla Bastard rabbits serve as excellent models for the testing of CPB and support systems for infants and children that do not require the administration of foreign blood. PMID:23438778

  14. Transgenic Mouse Bioassay: Evidence That Rabbits Are Susceptible to a Variety of Prion Isolates.

    PubMed

    Vidal, Enric; Fernández-Borges, Natalia; Pintado, Belén; Eraña, Hasier; Ordóñez, Montserrat; Márquez, Mercedes; Chianini, Francesca; Fondevila, Dolors; Sánchez-Martín, Manuel A; Andreoletti, Olivier; Dagleish, Mark P; Pumarola, Martí; Castilla, Joaquín

    2015-08-01

    Interspecies transmission of prions is a well-established phenomenon, both experimentally and under field conditions. Upon passage through new hosts, prion strains have proven their capacity to change their properties and this is a source of strain diversity which needs to be considered when assessing the potential risks associated with consumption of prion contaminated protein sources. Rabbits were considered for decades to be a prion resistant species until proven otherwise recently. To determine the extent of rabbit susceptibility to prions and to assess the effects of passage of different prion strains through this species a transgenic mouse model overexpressing rabbit PrPC was developed (TgRab). Intracerebral challenges with prion strains originating from a variety of species including field isolates (ovine SSBP/1 scrapie, Nor98- scrapie; cattle BSE, BSE-L and cervid CWD), experimental murine strains (ME7 and RML) and experimentally obtained ruminant (sheepBSE) and rabbit (de novo NZW) strains were performed. On first passage TgRab were susceptible to the majority of prions (Cattle BSE, SheepBSE, BSE-L, de novo NZW, ME7 and RML) tested with the exception of SSBP/1 scrapie, CWD and Nor98 scrapie. Furthermore, TgRab were capable of propagating strain-specific features such as differences in incubation periods, histological brain lesions, abnormal prion (PrPd) deposition profiles and proteinase-K (PK) resistant western blotting band patterns. Our results confirm previous studies proving that rabbits are not resistant to prion infection and show for the first time that rabbits are susceptible to PrPd originating in a number of other species. This should be taken into account when choosing protein sources to feed rabbits. PMID:26247589

  15. Transgenic Mouse Bioassay: Evidence That Rabbits Are Susceptible to a Variety of Prion Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Pintado, Belén; Eraña, Hasier; Ordóñez, Montserrat; Márquez, Mercedes; Chianini, Francesca; Fondevila, Dolors; Sánchez-Martín, Manuel A.; Andreoletti, Olivier; Dagleish, Mark P.; Pumarola, Martí; Castilla, Joaquín

    2015-01-01

    Interspecies transmission of prions is a well-established phenomenon, both experimentally and under field conditions. Upon passage through new hosts, prion strains have proven their capacity to change their properties and this is a source of strain diversity which needs to be considered when assessing the potential risks associated with consumption of prion contaminated protein sources. Rabbits were considered for decades to be a prion resistant species until proven otherwise recently. To determine the extent of rabbit susceptibility to prions and to assess the effects of passage of different prion strains through this species a transgenic mouse model overexpressing rabbit PrPC was developed (TgRab). Intracerebral challenges with prion strains originating from a variety of species including field isolates (ovine SSBP/1 scrapie, Nor98- scrapie; cattle BSE, BSE-L and cervid CWD), experimental murine strains (ME7 and RML) and experimentally obtained ruminant (sheepBSE) and rabbit (de novo NZW) strains were performed. On first passage TgRab were susceptible to the majority of prions (Cattle BSE, SheepBSE, BSE-L, de novo NZW, ME7 and RML) tested with the exception of SSBP/1 scrapie, CWD and Nor98 scrapie. Furthermore, TgRab were capable of propagating strain-specific features such as differences in incubation periods, histological brain lesions, abnormal prion (PrPd) deposition profiles and proteinase-K (PK) resistant western blotting band patterns. Our results confirm previous studies proving that rabbits are not resistant to prion infection and show for the first time that rabbits are susceptible to PrPd originating in a number of other species. This should be taken into account when choosing protein sources to feed rabbits. PMID:26247589

  16. PATHOGENESIS AND IMMUNE RESPONSES OF FRANCISELLA TULARENSIS STRAINS IN WILD-CAUGHT COTTONTAIL RABBITS (SYLVILAGUS SPP.).

    PubMed

    Brown, Vienna R; Adney, Danielle R; Bielefeldt-Ohmann, Helle; Gordy, Paul W; Felix, Todd A; Olea-Popelka, Francisco J; Bowen, Richard A

    2015-07-01

    Francisella tularensis is a highly virulent, zoonotic bacterium that causes significant natural disease and is of concern as an organism for bioterrorism. Serologic testing of wildlife is frequently used to monitor spatial patterns of infection and to quantify exposure. Cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus spp.) are a natural reservoir for F. tularensis in the US, although very little work has been done experimentally to determine how these animals respond to infection; thus, information gathered from field samples can be difficult to interpret. We characterized clinical disease, bacteremia, pathology, and antibody kinetics of North American cottontail rabbits experimentally infected with five strains of F. tularensis. Rabbits were infected with four field strains, including MA00-2987 (type A1b), WY96-3418 (type A2), KY99-3387, and OR96-0246 (type B), and with SchuS4 (type A1a), a widely used, virulent laboratory strain. Infection with the different strains of the bacterium resulted in varied patterns of clinical disease, gross pathology, and histopathology. Each of the type A strains were highly virulent, with rabbits succumbing to infection 3-13 d after infection. At necropsy, numerous microabscesses were observed in the livers and spleens of most rabbits, associated with high bacterial organ burdens. In contrast, most rabbits infected with type B strains developed mild fever and became lethargic, but the disease was infrequently lethal. Those rabbits infected with type B strains that survived past 14 d developed a robust humoral immune response, and F. tularensis was not isolated from liver, spleen, or lung of those animals. Understanding F. tularensis infection in a natural reservoir species can guide serosurveillance and generate new insights into environmental maintenance of this pathogen. PMID:25984770

  17. Endoscopic laser reshaping of rabbit tracheal cartilage: preliminary investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsang, Walter; Lam, Anthony; Protsenko, Dmitry; Wong, Brian J.

    2005-04-01

    Background: Tracheal cartilage deformities due to trauma, prolonged endotracheal intubation or infection are difficult to correct. Current treatment options such as dilation, laser ablation, stent placement, and segmental resection are only temporary or carry significant risks. The objectives of this project were to design and test a laser activated endotracheal stent system that can actively modify the geometry of tracheal cartilage, leading to permanent retention of a new and desirable tracheal geometry. Methods: Ex vivo rabbit tracheal cartilage (simulating human neonate trachea) were irradiated with an Er: Glass laser, (?= 1.54um, 0.5W-2.5W, 1 sec to 5 sec). Shape change and gross thermal injury were assessed visually to determine the best laser power parameters for reshaping. A rigid endoscopic telescope and hollow bronchoscope were used to record endoscopic images. The stent was constructed from nitinol wire, shaped into a zigzag configuration. An ex vivo testing apparatus was also constructed. Results: The best laser power parameter to produce shape change was 1 W for 6-7 seconds. At this setting, there was significant shape change with only minimal thermal injury to the tracheal mucosa, as assessed by visual inspection. The bronchoscopy system functioned adequately during testing in the ex vivo testing apparatus. Conclusion: We have successfully designed instrumentation and created the capability to endoscopically reshape tracheal cartilage in an ex vivo rabbit model. The results obtained in ex vivo tracheal cartilage indicated that reshaping using Er: Glass laser can be accomplished.

  18. [In vivo radiotelemetric study of strain on the rabbit mandible].

    PubMed

    Xue, M

    1990-01-01

    Using strain transducer to measure bone strain and stress in vitro on-line techniques are more popular. In this article, the radiotelemetric method is selected for measuring living tissue mechanic properties. The angle of rabbit mandible serves as tested site. The transducer is minutely foil type electrical resistance strain gage. The measuring instruments are KYOWA telemeter for strain measurement MRT-200 series. When the mandible is in rest position, the tested site shows no change of strain; when the mandible acts without eating any food, small change of strain appear; when the rabbit mastication two kinds of food, the tested site shows the regular change of tension strain and compressive strain, the former is about 150 microstrain and latter is about 30 microstrain. The rates of strain are different when the animal mastication the different foods. Comparing with the on-line technique method, the radiotelemetric method has significant advantages, and is the better test way for studying mechanic properties of living tissue. PMID:2114263

  19. Meniscal allograft transplantation in rabbit.

    PubMed

    Vilela, Liana M; Carlo, Ricardo J Del; Melo Filho, Edson V; Favarato, Lukiya S C; Duarte, Tatiana S; Pontes, Kelly C S; Cunha, Daise N Q

    2015-12-01

    This study evaluated the technique for meniscal allograft transplantation using allografts preserved in glycerin 98% in rabbits. Euthanasia was performed at 70 days to compare the transplanted (TM1 to TM16) versus the contralateral meniscus (OM1 to OM16). Sixteen menisci, 8 transplanted and 8 contralateral, were submitted to gross examination, histomorphometric analysis for identification and quantification of cellular type, and for quantification and distribution of collagen fibers. A revascularization study was conducted in all of the other samples. Lengths of the OM varied from 0.9 to 1.0 cm and two TM were smaller. All TM were completely attached to the synovial membrane, except for one case that presented partial fixation. Both, TM and OM had similar amounts of chondrocytes, fibroblasts and fibrocytes, and at the horns, chondrocytes were predominant. The collagen fibers in TM were well organized throughout the body, and disorganized at the horns. These fibers in OM were organized. The amounts of collagen type I and III, and the vascularization of the perimeniscal tissue and of the edge were similar in OM and TM. These results demonstrated graft integration and thus this transplantation technique and preservation method may be recommended. PMID:26648544

  20. Phosphatidylinositol kinase from rabbit reticulocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Tuazon, P.T.; Heng, A.B.W.; Traugh, J.A.

    1986-05-01

    Phosphatidylinositol (PI) kinase was isolated from the postribosomal supernatant of rabbit reticulocytes. This activity was identified by the formation of a product that comigrated with phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate (PIP) when purified PI was phosphorylated in the presence of (/sup 32/P)ATP and Mg/sup 2 +/. Three major peaks of PI kinase activity were resolved by chromatography on DEAE-cellulose. The first peak eluted at 50-100 mM NaCl together with several serine protein kinases, casein kinase (CK) I and protease activated kinase (PAK) I and II. The PI kinase was subsequently separated from the protein kinases by chromatography on phosphocellulose. The second peak eluted at 125-160 mM NaCl and contained another lipid kinase activity that produced a product which comigrated with phosphatidic acid on thin layer chromatography. The third peak, which eluted at 165-200 mM NaCl, partly comigrated with casein kinase (CK) II and an active protein kinase(s) which phosphorylated mixed histone and histone I. CK II and the histone kinase activities were also separated by chromatography on phosphocelluslose. The different forms of PI kinase were characterized and compared with respect to substrate and salt requirements.

  1. Distribution and Prevalence of the Australian Non-Pathogenic Rabbit Calicivirus Is Correlated with Rainfall and Temperature

    PubMed Central

    Liu, June; Fordham, Damien A.; Cooke, Brian D.; Cox, Tarnya; Mutze, Greg; Strive, Tanja

    2014-01-01

    Background Australia relies heavily on rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) for the biological control of introduced European wild rabbits Oryctolagus cuniculus, which are significant economic and environmental pests. An endemic non-pathogenic rabbit calicivirus termed RCV–A1 also occurs in wild rabbits in Australian and provides partial protection against lethal RHDV infection, thus interfering with effective rabbit control. Despite its obvious importance for rabbit population management, little is known about the epidemiology of this benign rabbit calicivirus. Methods We determined the continent-wide distribution and prevalence of RCV-A1 by analysing 1,805 serum samples from wild rabbit populations at 78 sites across Australia for the presence of antibodies to RCV-A1 using a serological test that specifically detects RCV-A1 antibodies and does not cross-react with co-occurring RHDV antibodies. We also investigated possible correlation between climate variables and prevalence of RCV-A1 by using generalised linear mixed effect models. Results Antibodies to RCV-A1 were predominantly detected in rabbit populations in cool, high rainfall areas of the south-east and south-west of the continent. There was strong support for modelling RCV-A1 prevalence as a function of average annual rainfall and minimum temperature. The best ranked model explained 26% of the model structural deviance. According to this model, distribution and prevalence of RCV-A1 is positively correlated with periods of above average rainfall and negatively correlated with periods of drought. Implications Our statistical model of RCV-A1 prevalence will greatly increase our understanding of RCV-A1 epidemiology and its interaction with RHDV in Australia. By defining the environmental conditions associated with the prevalence of RCV-A1, it also contributes towards understanding the distribution of similar viruses in New Zealand and Europe. PMID:25486092

  2. Isolation and Characterization of a Novel Betacoronavirus Subgroup A Coronavirus, Rabbit Coronavirus HKU14, from Domestic Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Susanna K. P.; Woo, Patrick C. Y.; Yip, Cyril C. Y.; Fan, Rachel Y. Y.; Huang, Yi; Wang, Ming; Guo, Rongtong; Lam, Carol S. F.; Tsang, Alan K. L.; Lai, Kenneth K. Y.; Chan, Kwok-Hung; Che, Xiao-Yan; Zheng, Bo-Jian

    2012-01-01

    We describe the isolation and characterization of a novel Betacoronavirus subgroup A coronavirus, rabbit coronavirus HKU14 (RbCoV HKU14), from domestic rabbits. The virus was detected in 11 (8.1%) of 136 rabbit fecal samples by reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR), with a viral load of up to 108 copies/ml. RbCoV HKU14 was able to replicate in HRT-18G and RK13 cells with cytopathic effects. Northern blotting confirmed the production of subgenomic mRNAs coding for the HE, S, NS5a, E, M, and N proteins. Subgenomic mRNA analysis revealed a transcription regulatory sequence, 5′-UCUAAAC-3′. Phylogenetic analysis showed that RbCoV HKU14 formed a distinct branch among Betacoronavirus subgroup A coronaviruses, being most closely related to but separate from the species Betacoronavirus 1. A comparison of the conserved replicase domains showed that RbCoV HKU14 possessed <90% amino acid identities to most members of Betacoronavirus 1 in ADP-ribose 1″-phosphatase (ADRP) and nidoviral uridylate-specific endoribonuclease (NendoU), indicating that RbCoV HKU14 should represent a separate species. RbCoV HKU14 also possessed genomic features distinct from those of other Betacoronavirus subgroup A coronaviruses, including a unique NS2a region with a variable number of small open reading frames (ORFs). Recombination analysis revealed possible recombination events during the evolution of RbCoV HKU14 and members of Betacoronavirus 1, which may have occurred during cross-species transmission. Molecular clock analysis using RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) genes dated the most recent common ancestor of RbCoV HKU14 to around 2002, suggesting that this virus has emerged relatively recently. Antibody against RbCoV was detected in 20 (67%) of 30 rabbit sera tested by an N-protein-based Western blot assay, whereas neutralizing antibody was detected in 1 of these 20 rabbits. PMID:22398294

  3. [Spontaneous Cryptosporidium infection in weaned rabbits].

    PubMed

    Pavlásek, I; Lávicka, M; T?mová, E; Skrivan, M

    1996-12-01

    The first occurrence of Cryptosporidium parvum Tyzzer, 1912 in broiler rabbits in the Czech Republic is reported. The protozoon was determined on the basis of morphometrical parameters of oocysts and of localization of endogenous developmental stages. The dynamics of natural Cryptosporidium infection was studied in a group of 72 young rabbits after weaning (their age ranging from 23-33 to 82-92 days) obtained from six large flocks and used in a feeding experiment. C. parvum was found in rabbits from four farms (Tab. I). Animals under observation were divided into 9 subgroups according to the genotype (Hyla 2000, California White, crosses of New Zealand x California, New Zealand White, Cunistar and Zika) as well as according to the farm of origin. The animals were housed in 28 cages under the conditions of two-floor cage technology. The upper floor consisted of cages housing three head, the lower floor two head each. The animals were fed ad libitum with commercial feed mixture (till the average age of 64.days supplemented with Robenidin as coccidiostat). During the first 10 days of observation pooled samples of droppings from each cage were examinated by flotation-centrifugation method according to Breza (1957) and Pavlásek (1991) in the intervals of three to four days, later one-week intervals. Post mortem scrapings from mucous epithelium taken from young rabbits were examinated (to reveal endogenous developmental stages of C. parvum) together with digesta (to detect oocysts of the protozoon) taken from the full length of the small intestine using method of native preparations and Giemsa stain. In one 37-day dead animal the small and large intestines were examined histologically. The maximum number of young rabbits infected with C. parvum were 30-40 and 33-43 days old (Fig. 1). In animals of this age category the oocysts of the protozoon were found in pooled samples in 11 and 12 cages (39.3 and 42.9%) from totally 28 cages under study. In rabbits of more than 50 days of age the occurrence of infection was significantly decreased (3.7%). During the experiment seven rabbits (9.7%) died; six of them (8.3%) at the age of 30-40 days. All these naturally infected and dead animals represented cases of monoinfection with C. parvum. The major clinical signs were typical diarrhoea lasting 3-5 days, inappetency, apathia, lethargy, prominent signs of exhaustion followed by dehydration of the organism. Atrophy of villi of the ileum in one of young rabbits was found histologically. Table II presents concrete data on significantly lower body weights (the decrease being 7-61.5%) as compared with rabbits of the same age not infected with cryptosporidia. It was not possible to evaluate objectively the differences in susceptibility to C. parvum infection between the individual genotypes of rabbits. As was found in the course of our further studies (unpublished data) a possible source of infection of young rabbits can be represented by their mothers in which oocysts are excreted sporadically shortly before parturition and during several days after it. Cryptosporidium infection (cryptosporidiosis) in flocks of broiler rabbits is taken as a new protozoal disease in the Czech Republic and C. parvum as one of possible agents in cases of disorders of digestive tract, namely in rabbits after weaning. PMID:9045499

  4. Autocrine Human Urotensin II Enhances Macrophage-Derived Foam Cell Formation in Transgenic Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Sihai; Li, Yafeng; Gao, Shoucui; Wang, Xiaojing; Sun, Lijing; Cheng, Daxing; Bai, Liang; Guan, Hua; Wang, Rong; Fan, Jianglin; Liu, Enqi

    2015-01-01

    Circulating urotensin II (UII) is involved in the development of atherosclerosis. However, the role of autocrine UII in the development of atherosclerosis remains unclear. Here, we tested the hypothesis that autocrine UII would promote atherosclerosis. Transgenic rabbits were created as a model to study macrophage-specific expressing human UII (hUII) and used to investigate the role of autocrine UII in the development of atherosclerosis. Transgenic rabbits and their nontransgenic littermates were fed a high cholesterol diet to induce atherosclerosis. Comparing the transgenic rabbits with their nontransgenic littermates, it was observed that hUII expression increased the macrophage-positive area in the atherosclerotic lesions by 45% and the positive area ratio by 56% in the transgenic rabbits. Autocrine hUII significantly decreased the smooth muscle cell-positive area ratio in transgenic rabbits (by 54%), without affecting the plasma levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and glucose and adipose tissue contents. These results elucidated for the first time that autocrine UII plays an important role in the development of atherosclerosis by increasing the accumulation of macrophage-derived foam cell. PMID:26640798

  5. Diarrhea and intestinal invasiveness of Aeromonas strains in the removable intestinal tie rabbit model.

    PubMed Central

    Pazzaglia, G; Sack, R B; Bourgeois, A L; Froehlich, J; Eckstein, J

    1990-01-01

    Twelve Aeromonas strains were tested for virulence by using the removable intestinal tie adult rabbit diarrhea model. Mortality was 50% or greater for 7 of 12 strains; 23 of 37 rabbits that died developed diarrhea before death, and 11 of 27 surviving rabbits developed diarrhea. Aeromonas bacteremia was detected in 36 of 37 (97%) animals that died, but only in 2 of 27 (7%) survivors. Death, diarrhea, and bacteremia were all strongly strain dependent. Gastrointestinal lesions varied from moderate focal enteritis to severe multifocal necrosis and hemorrhage of the ileal mucosa, often accompanied by hepatic and splenic lesions. Intestinal colonization assays performed after infection indicated that the ileum was the most heavily colonized portion of the gut and the probable site of invasion. The application of the removable intestinal tie adult rabbit diarrhea model for intestinal challenge with Aeromonas strains has shown that some isolates are capable of invading the mucosa of rabbits, causing diarrhea and bacteremia. These data suggest that such strains may be important in causing human invasive diarrhea. Images PMID:2341185

  6. Marsh rabbit mortalities tie pythons to the precipitous decline of mammals in the Everglades.

    PubMed

    McCleery, Robert A; Sovie, Adia; Reed, Robert N; Cunningham, Mark W; Hunter, Margaret E; Hart, Kristen M

    2015-04-22

    To address the ongoing debate over the impact of invasive species on native terrestrial wildlife, we conducted a large-scale experiment to test the hypothesis that invasive Burmese pythons (Python molurus bivittatus) were a cause of the precipitous decline of mammals in Everglades National Park (ENP). Evidence linking pythons to mammal declines has been indirect and there are reasons to question whether pythons, or any predator, could have caused the precipitous declines seen across a range of mammalian functional groups. Experimentally manipulating marsh rabbits, we found that pythons accounted for 77% of rabbit mortalities within 11 months of their translocation to ENP and that python predation appeared to preclude the persistence of rabbit populations in ENP. On control sites, outside of the park, no rabbits were killed by pythons and 71% of attributable marsh rabbit mortalities were classified as mammal predations. Burmese pythons pose a serious threat to the faunal communities and ecological functioning of the Greater Everglades Ecosystem, which will probably spread as python populations expand their range. PMID:25788598

  7. Human-derived nanoparticles and vascular response to injury in rabbit carotid arteries: proof of principle.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Maria A K; Lieske, John C; Kumar, Vivek; Farell-Baril, Gerard; Miller, Virginia M

    2008-01-01

    Self-calcifying, self-replicating nanoparticles have been isolated from calcified human tissues. However, it is unclear if these nanoparticles participate in disease processes. Therefore, this study was designed to preliminarily test the hypothesis that human-derived nanoparticles are causal to arterial disease processes. One carotid artery of 3 kg male rabbits was denuded of endothelium; the contralateral artery remained unoperated as a control. Each rabbit was injected intravenously with either saline, calcified, or decalcified nanoparticles cultured from calcified human arteries or kidney stones. After 35 days, both injured and control arteries were removed for histological examination. Injured arteries from rabbits injected with saline showed minimal, eccentric intimal hyperplasia. Injured arteries from rabbits injected with calcified kidney stone- and arterial-derived nanoparticles occluded, sometimes with canalization. The calcified kidney stone-derived nanoparticles caused calcifications within the occlusion. Responses to injury in rabbits injected with decalcified kidney stone-derived nanoparticles were similar to those observed in saline-injected animals. However, decalcified arterial-derived nanoparticles produced intimal hyperplasia that varied from moderate to occlusion with canalization and calcification. This study offers the first evidence that there may be a causal relationship between human-derived nanoparticles and response to injury including calcification in arteries with damaged endothelium. PMID:18686783

  8. Marsh rabbit mortalities tie pythons to the precipitous decline of mammals in the Everglades

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCleery, Robert A.; Sovie, Adia; Reed, Robert N.; Cunningham, Mark W.; Hunter, Margaret E.; Hart, Kristen M.

    2015-01-01

    To address the ongoing debate over the impact of invasive species on native terrestrial wildlife, we conducted a large-scale experiment to test the hypothesis that invasive Burmese pythons (Python molurus bivittatus) were a cause of the precipitous decline of mammals in Everglades National Park (ENP). Evidence linking pythons to mammal declines has been indirect and there are reasons to question whether pythons, or any predator, could have caused the precipitous declines seen across a range of mammalian functional groups. Experimentally manipulating marsh rabbits, we found that pythons accounted for 77% of rabbit mortalities within 11 months of their translocation to ENP and that python predation appeared to preclude the persistence of rabbit populations in ENP. On control sites, outside of the park, no rabbits were killed by pythons and 71% of attributable marsh rabbit mortalities were classified as mammal predations. Burmese pythons pose a serious threat to the faunal communities and ecological functioning of the Greater Everglades Ecosystem, which will probably spread as python populations expand their range.

  9. Hypercholesterolemia Impaired Sperm Functionality in Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Monclus, Maria A.; Cabrillana, Maria E.; Clementi, Marisa A.; Espínola, Leandro S.; Cid Barría, Jose L.; Vincenti, Amanda E.; Santi, Analia G.; Fornés, Miguel W.

    2010-01-01

    Hypercholesterolemia represents a high risk factor for frequent diseases and it has also been associated with poor semen quality that may lead to male infertility. The aim of this study was to analyze semen and sperm function in diet-induced hypercholesterolemic rabbits. Twelve adult White New Zealand male rabbits were fed ad libitum a control diet or a diet supplemented with 0.05% cholesterol. Rabbits under cholesterol-enriched diet significantly increased total cholesterol level in the serum. Semen examination revealed a significant reduction in semen volume and sperm motility in hypercholesterolemic rabbits (HCR). Sperm cell morphology was seriously affected, displaying primarily a “folded head”-head fold along the major axe-, and the presence of cytoplasmic droplet on sperm flagellum. Cholesterol was particularly increased in acrosomal region when detected by filipin probe. The rise in cholesterol concentration in sperm cells was determined quantitatively by Gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric analyses. We also found a reduction of protein tyrosine phosphorylation in sperm incubated under capacitating conditions from HCR. Interestingly, the addition of Protein Kinase A pathway activators -dibutyryl-cyclic AMP and iso-butylmethylxanthine- to the medium restored sperm capacitation. Finally, it was also reported a significant decrease in the percentage of reacted sperm in the presence of progesterone. In conclusion, our data showed that diet-induced hypercholesterolemia adversely affects semen quality and sperm motility, capacitation and acrosomal reaction in rabbits; probably due to an increase in cellular cholesterol content that alters membrane related events. PMID:20976152

  10. Simple suture and anchor in rabbit hips

    PubMed Central

    Garcia Filho, Fernando Cal; Guarniero, Roberto; de Godoy Júnior, Rui Maciel; Pereira, César Augusto Martins; Matos, Marcos Almeida; Garcia, Lucas Cortizo

    2012-01-01

    Objective Using biomechanical studies, this research aims to compare hip capsulorrhaphy in rabbits, carried out with two different techniques: capsulorrhaphy with simple sutures and with anchors. Method Thirteen New Zealand Albino (Oryctolaguscuniculus) male rabbits, twenty-six hip joints, were used. First, a pilot project was performed with three rabbits (six hip joints). This experiment consisted of ten rabbits divided into two groups: group 1 underwent capsulorrhaphy on both right and left hips with simple suture using polyglycolic acid absorbable thread, and group 2 underwent capsulorrhaphy with titanium anchors. After a four-week postoperative period, the animals were euthanized and the hip joints were frozen. On the same day of the biomechanical studies, after the hip joints were previously unfrozen, the following parameters were evaluated: rigidity, maximum force, maximum deformity and energy. Results There was no relevant statistical difference in rigidity, maximum force, maximum deformity and energy between the simple suture and anchor groups. Conclusion Through biomechanical analyses, using parameters of rigidity, maximum force, maximum deformity and energy, it has been shown that capsulorrhaphy with simple suture and with anchors has similar results in rabbit hip joints. Level of Evidence II, Prospective Comparative Study. PMID:24453618

  11. 9 CFR 354.124 - Quarantine of diseased rabbits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... shall be dealt with in one of the following ways: (a) If it is determined by a veterinary inspector that... veterinary inspector that further handling of the rabbits will not create a health hazard, such rabbits...

  12. 9 CFR 354.124 - Quarantine of diseased rabbits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... shall be dealt with in one of the following ways: (a) If it is determined by a veterinary inspector that... veterinary inspector that further handling of the rabbits will not create a health hazard, such rabbits...

  13. 9 CFR 354.124 - Quarantine of diseased rabbits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... shall be dealt with in one of the following ways: (a) If it is determined by a veterinary inspector that... veterinary inspector that further handling of the rabbits will not create a health hazard, such rabbits...

  14. 9 CFR 354.124 - Quarantine of diseased rabbits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... shall be dealt with in one of the following ways: (a) If it is determined by a veterinary inspector that... veterinary inspector that further handling of the rabbits will not create a health hazard, such rabbits...

  15. Tissue-specific antigens and autoantigens in the early developing rabbit male repoductive accessory glands.

    PubMed

    Vottero-Cima, E; Vides, M A; Shulman, S; Yantorno, C

    1975-01-01

    A comparative study was undertaken dealing with the postnatal development of rabbit male accessory glands specific macromolecules with and without autoantigenic properties. The two types of macromolecules were investigated in male accessory glands from rabbits of different ages, fron newborn up to six months old. The results obtained by passive hemagglutination, inhibition of hemagglutination and immunodiffusion tests, show that both types of macromolecules rise to a sufficient amount to be detected at approximately 3 months of age. The possible mechanisms explaining the autoantigenicity or the lack of this property in the macromolecules under study are discussed. PMID:58577

  16. Ultrastructural and pharmacologic studies on laser-induced glaucoma in primates and rabbits

    SciTech Connect

    March, W.F.; Gherezghiher, T.; Koss, M.; Nordquist, R.

    1984-01-01

    Sustained high intraocular pressure resulting in optic nerve cupping and loss of ganglion cells was produced in five rhesus monkeys and eight pigmented rabbits by applying argon laser energy to the trabecular meshwork. In addition, the rabbits manifested buphthalmus. Flow of carbon particles subsequently injected into the anterior chamber was obstructed at the trabecular meshwork by a wound-healing response that closed the intratrabecular spaces. Besides this sustained high intraocular pressure as a result of late scarring, an acute hypertensive response was seen in all rabbits which may correspond to the acute hypertension seen after laser trabeculoplasty in humans. The acute hypertensive response could be only partially blocked by prostaglandin inhibitors and the authors believe that prostaglandins are not primarily responsible for this effect. Medications known to lower intraocular pressure were systematically tested in both glaucoma models.

  17. Dihydrotestosterone decreases beta-adrenergic receptor binding in the fetal rabbit lung

    SciTech Connect

    Moawad, A.H.; River, L.P.; River, J.M.

    1988-07-01

    Tritium-labeled dihydroalprenolol was used to quantify the beta-adrenergic receptor sites in day 30 fetal rabbit lung tissue. Each of the fetuses of New Zealand White rabbits on day 28 of gestation was injected with dihydrotestosterone (2.0 micrograms) in one horn of the uterus and 10% ethanol in normal saline (the solvent) in the contralateral one. The animals were sacrificed 48 hours later and the fetal lung tissue was assayed. Dihydrotestosterone decreased the beta-adrenergic receptor site number in the treatment group compared with the control group (86 versus 111 fmol/mg protein, p less than 0.05 by paired t-test). In the presence of dihydrotestosterone, beta-adrenergic receptor binding is inhibited in the preterm fetal rabbit. This effect may be implicated in the beta-adrenergic mediation of phospholipid synthesis and/or release by fetal alveolar cells.

  18. Dermal irritation of petrolatum in rabbits but not in mice, rats or minipigs.

    PubMed

    Chandra, S A; Peterson, R A; Melich, D; Merrill, C M; Bailey, D; Mellon-Kusibab, K; Adler, R

    2014-08-01

    Petrolatum is widely used in cosmetics, topical pharmaceuticals and also as a vehicle in dermal toxicity studies. New Zealand white rabbits treated with white petrolatum (vehicle control) in a 2-week dermal irritation study exhibited moderate to severe erythema starting on Day 7 that subsided towards the end of the study. Histological examination of abraded and non-abraded petrolatum-treated skin obtained at termination (Day 15) revealed mild acanthosis, hyperkeratosis, dermal edema with mixed inflammatory cells in the dermis. Macroscopic and microscopic features noted in rabbits were consistent with dermal irritation to petrolatum. Wistar-Han rats, CD1 mice, C57/Bl/6J mice and Göttingen minipigs treated topically with white petrolatum did not exhibit clinical or histologic evidence of dermal irritation. Therapeutic agents developed for topical application are generally tested in rabbits during some point in development. Interpretation of skin irritation data from a single species can impact risk assessment for humans and on product labeling. PMID:23723039

  19. Clinical aspects of lagomorph dental anatomy: the rabbit (oryctolagus cuniculus).

    PubMed

    Crossley, D A

    1995-12-01

    The lagomorphs most commonly encountered as pets are rabbits. There are many breeds of domestic rabbit, varying from dwarf varieties with an adult weight of under one kilogram to giants weighing 10 kg. This article provides a working knowledge of the dental anatomy and physiology of rabbits so that veterinarians can interpret clinical and radiographic findings when investigating rabbits with suspected dental disease. PMID:9693639

  20. Electrical stunning in commercial rabbits: Effective currents, spontaneous physical activity and reflex behaviour.

    PubMed

    Anil, M H; Raj, A B; McKinstry, J L

    1998-01-01

    Electrical stunning was evaluated in commercial slaughter rabbits. Different voltage applications with varying current duration were tested in recovery experiments in 71 animals. Stunning parameters and duration of insensibility were measured and analysed for assessing stunning effectiveness. A minimum stunning current of 140 mA which can be achieved with application of 100 V was recommended. PMID:22062875

  1. White Rabbit in space related application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamro?y, M.; Gumi?ski, M.; Kasprowicz, G.; Romaniuk, R.; Po?niak, K.

    2015-09-01

    This paper describes study results regarding potential use of White Rabbit technology in Space Related Applications. During the study Technology Readiness Level and Compliance with Space Related Applications was evaluated. After considering possible deployment and development scenarios, main focus has been put on European Space Agency's tracking station system. This outcome derived from specific requirements of tracking system which are coherent with White Rabbit technology scope of application and further development plans. Current state of Time and Frequency Distribution technology implemented into tracking stations is based on multiple different technologies coexisting in parallel creating a complex system. It requires specific, custom made hardware to combine all the technologies which makes it expensive and difficult to maintain. White Rabbit could be use to reduce Time and Frequency Distribution to a single Ethernet based network with link redundancy, payload data transfer and sub-nanosecond accuracy.

  2. Rabbit Tissue Model (RTM) Harvesting Technique

    PubMed Central

    2002-01-01

    A method for creating a tissue model using a female rabbit for laparoscopic simulation exercises is described. The specimen is called a Rabbit Tissue Model (RTM). Dissection techniques are described for transforming the rabbit carcass into a small, compact unit that can be used for multiple training sessions. Preservation is accomplished by using saline and refrigeration. Only the animal trunk is used, with the rest of the animal carcass being discarded. Practice exercises are provided for using the preserved organs. Basic surgical skills, such as dissection, suturing, and knot tying, can be practiced on this model. In addition, the RTM can be used with any pelvic trainer that permits placement of larger practice specimens within its confines. PMID:12113427

  3. Multiphoton microscopic imaging of rabbit dorsal skin.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiaoqin; Xu, Yahao; Hong, Zhipeng; Chen, Jing; Zhuo, Shuangmu; Chen, Jianxin

    2015-01-01

    Rabbits are often preferred to be experimental animals during the skin research. The visualizing and understanding the full-thickness structure of rabbit skin has significance in biology, medicine, and animal husbandry. In this study, multiphoton microscopy (MPM) was employed to examine the rabbit skin on the back, which was based on second harmonic generation and two-photon excited fluorescence. High-resolution images were achieved from the fresh, unfixed, and unstained tissues, showing detailed microstructure of the skin without the administration of exogenous contrast agents. The morphology and distribution of the main components of epidermis and dermis, such as keratin, collagen fibers, elastic fibers, and hair follicles, can be distinctly identified in MPM images. Since the changes in these components are tightly related to skin diseases and wound healing, the noninvasive nature of MPM enables it become a valuable tool in skin research for detecting and monitoring. PMID:25521496

  4. Molecular characterization and antimicrobial susceptibility of Clostridium difficile isolated from rabbits raised for meat production.

    PubMed

    Drigo, Ilenia; Mazzolini, Elena; Bacchin, Cosetta; Tonon, Elena; Puiatti, Cinzia; Bano, Luca; Spigaglia, Patrizia; Barbanti, Fabrizio; Agnoletti, Fabrizio

    2015-12-31

    Clostridium difficile is an important cause of enteric disease in humans and animals. Recent studies demonstrated a genetic overlap between C. difficile isolated from animals and humans suggesting animals as possible reservoir for human pathogenic strains. This study was a preliminary investigation on the occurrence of C. difficile in rabbits raised in industrial holdings for food production and aimed to characterise isolates and estimate their antimicrobial susceptibility. C. difficile isolates were characterized by toxin profiles, toxinotyping and PCR-ribotyping. The MICs of six antibiotics were determined using E-test. Between 2007 and 2013, 285 industrial holdings (representing 40% of the national census) submitted rabbits to our laboratory for diagnostic purposes, among these holdings, groups of three to five post-weaned rabbits were sampled once by convenience. 1279 samples of caecal content were collected. The overall isolation rate of C. difficile from the enteric specimen was 3% (38/1279), with no difference among animals affected or not by enteric disorders. Among isolates 66% (25/38) were toxigenic. Sixteen different PCR-ribotypes (RTs) were identified. Among the toxigenic strains RT-014/020, RT-078 and RT-012 were found in at least three rabbit holdings. According to the ECOFF threshold, 82% (31/38) C. difficile isolates displayed a reduced susceptibility to at least one and 18% (7/38) to three tested antimicrobials. Rabbits are colonized by heterogeneous C. difficile ribotypes many of which are commonly isolated in humans. One third of isolates displayed a reduced susceptibility to MTZ, the first choice antimicrobial for human CDI treatment. According to our findings rabbits are a potential source of C. difficile for humans. PMID:26507420

  5. Comparative quantitative monitoring of rabbit haemorrhagic disease viruses in rabbit kittens

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Only one strain (the Czech CAPM-v351) of rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) has been released in Australia and New Zealand to control pest populations of the European rabbit O. cuniculus. Antigenic variants of RHDV known as RHDVa strains are reportedly replacing RHDV strains in other parts of the world, and Australia is currently investigating the usefulness of RHDVa to complement rabbit biocontrol efforts in Australia and New Zealand. RHDV efficiently kills adult rabbits but not rabbit kittens, which are more resistant to RHD the younger they are and which may carry the virus without signs of disease for prolonged periods. These different infection patterns in young rabbits may significantly influence RHDV epidemiology in the field and hence attempts to control rabbit numbers. Methods We quantified RHDV replication and shedding in 4–5 week old rabbits using quantitative real time PCR to assess their potential to shape RHDV epidemiology by shedding and transmitting virus. We further compared RHDV-v351 with an antigenic variant strain of RHDVa in kittens that is currently being considered as a potential RHDV strain for future release to improve rabbit biocontrol in Australia. Results Kittens were susceptible to infection with virus doses as low as 10 ID50. Virus growth, shedding and transmission after RHDVa infection was found to be comparable or non-significantly lower compared to RHDV. Virus replication and shedding was observed in all kittens infected, but was low in comparison to adult rabbits. Both viruses were shed and transmitted to bystander rabbits. While blood titres indicated that 4–5 week old kittens mostly clear the infection even in the absence of maternal antibodies, virus titres in liver, spleen and mesenteric lymph node were still high on day 5 post infection. Conclusions Rabbit kittens are susceptible to infection with very low doses of RHDV, and can transmit virus before they seroconvert. They may therefore play an important role in RHDV field epidemiology, in particular for virus transmission within social groups during virus outbreaks. PMID:24913134

  6. The Genetic Structure of Domestic Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Carneiro, Miguel; Afonso, Sandra; Geraldes, Armando; Garreau, Hervé; Bolet, Gerard; Boucher, Samuel; Tircazes, Aurélie; Queney, Guillaume; Nachman, Michael W.; Ferrand, Nuno

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the genetic structure of domestic species provides a window into the process of domestication and motivates the design of studies aimed at making links between genotype and phenotype. Rabbits exhibit exceptional phenotypic diversity, are of great commercial value, and serve as important animal models in biomedical research. Here, we provide the first comprehensive survey of nucleotide polymorphism and linkage disequilibrium (LD) within and among rabbit breeds. We resequenced 16 genomic regions in population samples of both wild and domestic rabbits and additional 35 fragments in 150 rabbits representing six commonly used breeds. Patterns of genetic variation suggest a single origin of domestication in wild populations from France, supporting historical records that place rabbit domestication in French monasteries. Levels of nucleotide diversity both within and among breeds were ∼0.2%, but only 60% of the diversity present in wild populations from France was captured by domestic rabbits. Despite the recent origin of most breeds, levels of population differentiation were high (FST = 17.9%), but the majority of polymorphisms were shared and thus transferable among breeds. Coalescent simulations suggest that domestication began with a small founding population of less than 1,200 individuals. Taking into account the complex demographic history of domestication with two successive bottlenecks, two loci showed deviations that were consistent with artificial selection, including GPC4, which is known to be associated with growth rates in humans. Levels of diversity were not significantly different between autosomal and X-linked loci, providing no evidence for differential contributions of males and females to the domesticated gene pool. The structure of LD differed substantially within and among breeds. Within breeds, LD extends over large genomic distances. Markers separated by 400 kb typically showed r2 higher than 0.2, and some LD extended up to 3,200 kb. Much less LD was found among breeds. This advantageous LD structure holds great promise for reducing the interval of association in future mapping studies. PMID:21216839

  7. The genetic structure of domestic rabbits.

    PubMed

    Carneiro, Miguel; Afonso, Sandra; Geraldes, Armando; Garreau, Hervé; Bolet, Gerard; Boucher, Samuel; Tircazes, Aurélie; Queney, Guillaume; Nachman, Michael W; Ferrand, Nuno

    2011-06-01

    Understanding the genetic structure of domestic species provides a window into the process of domestication and motivates the design of studies aimed at making links between genotype and phenotype. Rabbits exhibit exceptional phenotypic diversity, are of great commercial value, and serve as important animal models in biomedical research. Here, we provide the first comprehensive survey of nucleotide polymorphism and linkage disequilibrium (LD) within and among rabbit breeds. We resequenced 16 genomic regions in population samples of both wild and domestic rabbits and additional 35 fragments in 150 rabbits representing six commonly used breeds. Patterns of genetic variation suggest a single origin of domestication in wild populations from France, supporting historical records that place rabbit domestication in French monasteries. Levels of nucleotide diversity both within and among breeds were ~0.2%, but only 60% of the diversity present in wild populations from France was captured by domestic rabbits. Despite the recent origin of most breeds, levels of population differentiation were high (F(ST) = 17.9%), but the majority of polymorphisms were shared and thus transferable among breeds. Coalescent simulations suggest that domestication began with a small founding population of less than 1,200 individuals. Taking into account the complex demographic history of domestication with two successive bottlenecks, two loci showed deviations that were consistent with artificial selection, including GPC4, which is known to be associated with growth rates in humans. Levels of diversity were not significantly different between autosomal and X-linked loci, providing no evidence for differential contributions of males and females to the domesticated gene pool. The structure of LD differed substantially within and among breeds. Within breeds, LD extends over large genomic distances. Markers separated by 400 kb typically showed r(2) higher than 0.2, and some LD extended up to 3,200 kb. Much less LD was found among breeds. This advantageous LD structure holds great promise for reducing the interval of association in future mapping studies. PMID:21216839

  8. Rabbits and hominin survival in Iberia.

    PubMed

    Fa, John E; Stewart, John R; Lloveras, Lluís; Vargas, J Mario

    2013-04-01

    High dependence on the hunting and consumption of large mammals by some hominins may have limited their survival once their preferred quarry became scarce or disappeared. Adaptation to smaller residual prey would have been essential after the many large-bodied species decreased in numbers. We focus on the use of a superabundant species, the rabbit, to demonstrate the importance of this taxon in Iberia as fundamental to predators. We show that the use of the rabbit over time has increased, and that there could have been differential consumption by Neanderthals and Anatomically Modern Humans (AMH). Analysis of bone remains from excavations throughout Iberia show that this lagomorph was a crucial part of the diet of AMH but was relatively unutilised during the Mousterian, when Neanderthals were present. We first present changes in mammalian biomass and mean body mass of mammals over 50,000 years, to illustrate the dramatic loss of large mammalian fauna and to show how the rabbit may have contributed a consistently high proportion of the available game biomass throughout that period. Unlike the Italian Peninsula and other parts of Europe, in Iberia the rabbit has provided a food resource of great importance for predators including hominins. We suggest that hunters that could shift focus to rabbits and other smaller residual fauna, once larger-bodied species decreased in numbers, would have been able to persist. From the evidence presented here, we postulate that Neanderthals may have been less capable of prey-shifting and hence use the high-biomass prey resource provided by the rabbit, to the extent AMH did. PMID:23422239

  9. Light stimulation of iris tyrosinase in vivo. [Rabbits

    SciTech Connect

    Dryja, T.P.; Kimball, G.P.; Albert, D.M.

    1980-05-01

    This paper presents evidence that light stimulates tyrosinase activity in iris melanocytes in rabbits. Levels of iris tyrosinase were found to be greater in eyes of rabbits exposed to light for 6 weeks than in eyes of rabbits maintained in darkness. Despite increasing tyrosinase levels, exposure to light produced no clinically observable change in iris color.

  10. Chromate reduction by rabbit liver aldehyde oxidase

    SciTech Connect

    Banks, R.B.; Cooke, R.T. Jr.

    1986-05-29

    Chromate was reduced during the oxidation of 1-methylnicotinamide chlorine by partially purified rabbit liver aldehyde oxidase. In addition to l-methylnicotinamide, several other electron donor substrates for aldehyde oxidase were able to support the enzymatic chromate reduction. The reduction required the presence of both enzyme and the electron donor substrate. The rate of the chromate reduction was retarded by inhibitors or aldehyde oxidase but was not affected by substrates or inhibitors of xanthine oxidase. These results are consistent with the involvement of aldehyde oxidase in the reduction of chromate by rabbit liver cytosolic enzyme preparations.

  11. An Upgrade on the Rabbit Model of Anthracycline-Induced Cardiomyopathy: Shorter Protocol, Reduced Mortality, and Higher Incidence of Overt Dilated Cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Talavera, Jesús; Fernández-Del-Palacio, María Josefa; García-Nicolás, Obdulio; Seva, Juan; Brooks, Gavin; Moraleda, Jose M.

    2015-01-01

    Current protocols of anthracycline-induced cardiomyopathy in rabbits present with high premature mortality and nephrotoxicity, thus rendering them unsuitable for studies requiring long-term functional evaluation of myocardial function (e.g., stem cell therapy). We compared two previously described protocols to an in-house developed protocol in three groups: Group DOX2 received doxorubicin 2 mg/kg/week (8 weeks); Group DAU3 received daunorubicin 3 mg/kg/week (10 weeks); and Group DAU4 received daunorubicin 4 mg/kg/week (6 weeks). A cohort of rabbits received saline (control). Results of blood tests, cardiac troponin I, echocardiography, and histopathology were analysed. Whilst DOX2 and DAU3 rabbits showed high premature mortality (50% and 33%, resp.), DAU4 rabbits showed 7.6% premature mortality. None of DOX2 rabbits developed overt dilated cardiomyopathy; 66% of DAU3 rabbits developed overt dilated cardiomyopathy and quickly progressed to severe congestive heart failure. Interestingly, 92% of DAU4 rabbits showed overt dilated cardiomyopathy and 67% developed congestive heart failure exhibiting stable disease. DOX2 and DAU3 rabbits showed alterations of renal function, with DAU3 also exhibiting hepatic function compromise. Thus, a shortened protocol of anthracycline-induced cardiomyopathy as in DAU4 group results in high incidence of overt dilated cardiomyopathy, which insidiously progressed to congestive heart failure, associated to reduced systemic compromise and very low premature mortality. PMID:26788502

  12. An Upgrade on the Rabbit Model of Anthracycline-Induced Cardiomyopathy: Shorter Protocol, Reduced Mortality, and Higher Incidence of Overt Dilated Cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Talavera, Jesús; Giraldo, Alejandro; Fernández-Del-Palacio, María Josefa; García-Nicolás, Obdulio; Seva, Juan; Brooks, Gavin; Moraleda, Jose M

    2015-01-01

    Current protocols of anthracycline-induced cardiomyopathy in rabbits present with high premature mortality and nephrotoxicity, thus rendering them unsuitable for studies requiring long-term functional evaluation of myocardial function (e.g., stem cell therapy). We compared two previously described protocols to an in-house developed protocol in three groups: Group DOX2 received doxorubicin 2 mg/kg/week (8 weeks); Group DAU3 received daunorubicin 3 mg/kg/week (10 weeks); and Group DAU4 received daunorubicin 4 mg/kg/week (6 weeks). A cohort of rabbits received saline (control). Results of blood tests, cardiac troponin I, echocardiography, and histopathology were analysed. Whilst DOX2 and DAU3 rabbits showed high premature mortality (50% and 33%, resp.), DAU4 rabbits showed 7.6% premature mortality. None of DOX2 rabbits developed overt dilated cardiomyopathy; 66% of DAU3 rabbits developed overt dilated cardiomyopathy and quickly progressed to severe congestive heart failure. Interestingly, 92% of DAU4 rabbits showed overt dilated cardiomyopathy and 67% developed congestive heart failure exhibiting stable disease. DOX2 and DAU3 rabbits showed alterations of renal function, with DAU3 also exhibiting hepatic function compromise. Thus, a shortened protocol of anthracycline-induced cardiomyopathy as in DAU4 group results in high incidence of overt dilated cardiomyopathy, which insidiously progressed to congestive heart failure, associated to reduced systemic compromise and very low premature mortality. PMID:26788502

  13. Identification of Polymorphisms in the Rabbit Growth Hormone Receptor (GHR) Gene and Association with Finishing Weight in a Commercial Meat Rabbit Line.

    PubMed

    Fontanesi, Luca; Sparacino, Giuseppe; Utzeri, Valerio Joe; Scotti, Emilio; Fornasini, Daniela; Dall'Olio, Stefania; Frabetti, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    A shortcut to identify DNA markers associated with economic traits is to use a candidate gene approach that is still useful in livestock species in which molecular tools and resources are not advanced or not well developed. Mutations in the growth hormone receptor (GHR) gene associated with production traits have been already described in several livestock species. For this reason GHR could be an interesting candidate gene in the rabbit. In this study we re-sequenced all exons and non-coding regions of the rabbit GHR gene in a panel of 10 different rabbits and identified 10 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). One of them (g.63453192C>G or c.106C>G), located in exon 3 was a missense mutation (p.L36V) substituting an amino acid in a highly conserved position across all mammals. This mutation was genotyped in 297 performance tested rabbits of a meat male line and association analysis showed that the investigated SNP was associated with weight at 70 days (P < 0.05). The most frequent genotype (GG) was in animals with higher weight at this age, suggesting that the high directional selection pressure toward this trait since the constitution of the genotyped line might have contributed to shape allele frequencies at this polymorphic site. PMID:26913548

  14. Beneficial effect of lantibiotic nisin in rabbit husbandry.

    PubMed

    Lauková, Andrea; Chrastinová, Lubica; Plachá, Iveta; Kandri?áková, Anna; Szabóová, Renáta; Strompfová, Viola; Chrenková, Mária; Cobanová, Klaudia; Zit?an, Rudolf

    2014-03-01

    Nisin is a bacteriocin marketed as Nisaplin. The aim of our work was to test its in vivo effect in a rabbit model; its effect on phagocytic activity (PA) and morphometry has not so far been studied. Post-weaning rabbits (48), 5 weeks old (both sexes, Hycole breed), were divided into the experimental (E) and the control groups (C), 24 animals in each. They were fed a commercial diet with access to water ad libitum. Rabbits in E had nisin additionally administered to their drinking water (500 IU-20 ?g per animal/day) for 28 days. The experiment lasted 42 days. On day 28, significant decrease in coagulase-positive (CoPS) staphylococci and coliforms was noted (p < 0.01) in faeces of group E compared with C. Pseudomonads and clostridiae were also significantly reduced (p < 0.001; p < 0.05) and slight decrease was also in CoNS and enterococci. On day 42, coliforms were still significantly reduced (p < 0.001) in faeces; slight decrease in CoPS and pseudomonads was noted. In the caecum, significant decrease in pseudomonads (p < 0.05) was noted on day 28; slight decrease in coliforms. In the appendix slight decrease in coliforms, pseudomonads was obtained on both days. PA was increased significantly in E on days 28, 42 (p < 0.001). Biochemical parameters were not influenced; nor were volatile fatty acids or lactic acid in the chymus. Nisin application did not evoke oxidative stress. In group E, an increase in average body weight gain (about 9.4 %) was noted. The villus height/crypt depth ratio was not influenced; that is, resorption surface and functionality of mucosa were not influenced. PMID:24676766

  15. Borrelia sp. infection in coyotes, black-tailed jack rabbits and desert cottontails in southern Texas.

    PubMed

    Burgess, E C; Windberg, L A

    1989-01-01

    Coyotes (Canis latrans) from southern Texas were sampled for antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi from 1980 to 1986; black-tailed jack rabbits (Lepus californicus) and desert cottontails (Sylvilagus audubonii) were sampled in 1986. Coyote fetuses, adult coyote kidneys, and black-tailed jack rabbit and desert cottontail kidneys were cultured for B. burgdorferi in 1986. Results of indirect immunofluorescent antibody (IFA) tests for B. burgdorferi in coyotes were as follows (number positive at a dilution of greater than or equal to 1:128/number tested): 1980 (0 of 30), 1981 (0 of 21), 1982 (0 of 53), 1983 (0 of 78), 1984 (47 of 97), 1985 (20 of 88), and 1986 (42 of 80). Eight of 26 black-tailed jack rabbits and two of seven desert cottontails tested in 1986 had IFA titers to B. burgdorferi of greater than or equal to 1:128. Borrelia burgdorferi was isolated from one of five coyote fetuses, three of 31 adult coyote kidneys, and two of 10 black-tailed jack rabbit kidneys in 1986. These results indicate that B. burgdorferi infection has been present in coyotes in Texas, at least since 1984 and that transplacental transmission occurs. PMID:2644452

  16. Identification of single nucleotide polymorphisms in the CCNA2 gene and its association with wool density in Rex rabbits.

    PubMed

    Chen, S J; Liu, T; Liu, Y J; Dong, B; Huang, Y T; Gu, Z L

    2011-01-01

    The Rex rabbit is a typical fur breed. Wool density, hair length, wool fineness, and hide area are the main indices of fur quality. We previously found that the CCNA2 gene plays an important role in hair follicle initiation and development, and it is involved in the distinctive wool density of the Rex rabbit. It is an important candidate gene for wool density selection through marker-assisted selection. We conducted an association study to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the CCNA2 gene and their ligands associated with wool density. Using PCR-RFLP technology, we discovered two SNPs (129G>A and 1140G>C) of the CCNA2 gene. Allele frequencies of these two SNPs were investigated and evaluated by the ?(2) test in 100 Rex rabbits. The two SNPs were both in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. We also looked for a potential association of these SNPs with fur traits in 100 Rex rabbits. Rex rabbits with the GG genotype had significantly higher wool density (P < 0.01) than those with other genotypes; the other three fur traits did not differ significantly among the genotypes. In conclusion, the two SNPs of the CCNA2 gene affect wool density in the Rex rabbit. PMID:22095474

  17. Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis as a novel player in metabolic syndrome-induced erectile dysfunction: an experimental study in the rabbit.

    PubMed

    Vignozzi, Linda; Filippi, Sandra; Comeglio, Paolo; Cellai, Ilaria; Sarchielli, Erica; Morelli, Annamaria; Rastrelli, Giulia; Maneschi, Elena; Galli, Andrea; Vannelli, Gabriella Barbara; Saad, Farid; Mannucci, Edoardo; Adorini, Luciano; Maggi, Mario

    2014-03-25

    A pathogenic link between erectile dysfunction (ED) and metabolic syndrome (MetS) is now well established. Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), the hepatic hallmark of MetS, is regarded as an active player in the pathogenesis of MetS-associated cardiovascular disease (CVD). This study was aimed at evaluating the relationship between MetS-induced NASH and penile dysfunction. We used a non-genomic, high fat diet (HFD)-induced, rabbit model of MetS, and treated HFD rabbits with testosterone (T), with the selective farnesoid X receptor (FXR) agonist obeticholic acid (OCA), or with the anti-TNF? mAb infliximab. Rabbits fed a regular diet were used as controls. Liver histomorphological and gene expression analysis demonstrated NASH in HFD rabbits. Several genes related to inflammation (including TNF?), activation of stellate cells, fibrosis, and lipid metabolism parameters were negatively associated to maximal acetylcholine (Ach)-induced relaxation in penis. When all these putative liver determinants of penile Ach responsiveness were tested as covariates in a multivariate model, only the association between hepatic TNF? expression and Ach response was confirmed. Accordingly, circulating levels of TNF? were increased 15-fold in HFD rabbits. T and OCA dosing in HFD rabbits both reduced TNF? liver expression and plasma levels, with a parallel increase of penile eNOS expression and responsiveness to Ach. Also neutralization of TNF? with infliximab treatment fully normalized HFD-induced hypo-responsiveness to Ach, as well as responsiveness to vardenafil, a phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor. Thus, MetS-induced NASH in HFD rabbits plays an active role in the pathogenesis of ED, likely through TNF?, as indicated by treatments reducing liver and circulating TNF? levels (T or OCA), or neutralizing TNF? action (infliximab), which significantly improve penile responsiveness to Ach in HFD rabbits. PMID:24486698

  18. Routes of Intraspecies Transmission of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus): a Field Study

    PubMed Central

    Judge, Johanna; Kyriazakis, Ilias; Greig, Alastair; Davidson, Ross S.; Hutchings, Michael R.

    2006-01-01

    Rabbits have been increasingly linked to the persistence of paratuberculosis (Johne's disease) in domestic ruminants in the United Kingdom. The aims of this study were to determine the routes of intraspecies transmission of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) in rabbits and to estimate the probability of transmission via each route, in order to gain understanding of the dynamics of MAP in this host. Rabbits were sampled from two sites where MAP had previously been isolated from the livestock and rabbit populations. No pathology was noted in any animals, but the overall prevalence of MAP in rabbits was high at both sites studied, 39.7% and 23.0%, respectively. MAP was isolated from the testes, uterus, placenta, fetuses, and milk. This is the first time that the bacterium has been isolated from any of these tissues in a nonruminant wildlife species. These results suggest that transmission may occur vertically, pseudovertically, and horizontally. Vertical, i.e., transplacental, and/or pseudo-vertical, i.e., through the ingestion of contaminated milk and/or feces, transmission occurred in 14% of offspring entering the population at 1 month of age. As infection via these routes is only possible from infected adult females, this equates to a probability of infection via this route of 0.326. Probability of infection via horizontal transmission (including interspecies transmission) occurred at up to 0.037 per month. The presence of these routes of transmission within natural rabbit populations will contribute to the maintenance of MAP infections within such populations and, therefore, the environment. PMID:16391070

  19. Adjunctive Phosphodiesterase-4 Inhibitor Therapy Improves Antibiotic Response to Pulmonary Tuberculosis in a Rabbit Model

    PubMed Central

    Subbian, Selvakumar; Tsenova, Liana; Holloway, Jennifer; Peixoto, Blas; O'Brien, Paul; Dartois, Véronique; Khetani, Vikram; Zeldis, Jerome B.; Kaplan, Gilla

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Adjunctive host-directed therapy is emerging as a new potential approach to improve the outcome of conventional antimicrobial treatment for tuberculosis (TB). We tested the ability of a phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitor (PDE4i) CC-11050, co-administered with the first-line anti-TB drug isoniazid (INH), to accelerate bacillary killing and reduce chronic inflammation in the lungs of rabbits with experimental Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection. Methods A rabbit model of pulmonary TB that recapitulates the pathologic manifestations seen in humans was used. Rabbits were infected with virulent Mtb by aerosol exposure and treated for eight weeks with INH with or without CC-11050, starting at four weeks post infection. The effect of CC-11050 treatment on disease severity, pathology, bacillary load, T cell proliferation and global lung transcriptome profiles were analyzed. Results Significant improvement in bacillary clearance and reduced lung pathology and fibrosis were noted in the rabbits treated for eight weeks with INH + CC-11050, compared to those treated with INH or CC-11050 only. In addition, expression of host genes associated with tissue remodeling, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) regulation, macrophage activation and lung inflammation networks was dampened in CC-11050-treated, compared to the untreated rabbits. Conclusions Adjunctive CC-11050 therapy significantly improves the response of rabbits with experimental pulmonary TB to INH treatment. We propose that CC-11050 may be a promising candidate for host directed therapy of patients with pulmonary TB, reducing the duration and improving clinical outcome of antibiotic treatment. PMID:26981575

  20. Rabbitpox Virus and Vaccinia Virus Infection of Rabbits as a Model for Human Smallpox?

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Mathew M.; Rice, Amanda D.; Moyer, R. W.

    2007-01-01

    The threat of smallpox release and use as a bioweapon has encouraged the search for new vaccines and antiviral drugs, as well as development of new small-animal models in which their efficacy can be determined. Here, we reinvestigate a rabbit model in which the intradermal infection of rabbits with very low doses of either rabbitpox virus (RPV) or vaccinia virus Western Reserve (VV-WR) recapitulates many of the clinical features of human smallpox. Following intradermal inoculation with RPV, rabbits develop systemic disease characterized by extensive viremia, numerous secondary lesions on the skin and mucocutaneous tissues, severe respiratory disease, death by 9 days postinfection, and, importantly, natural aerosol transmission between animals. Contrary to previous reports, intradermal infection with VV-WR also resulted in a very similar lethal systemic disease in rabbits, again with natural aerosol transmission between animals. When sentinel and index animals were cohoused, transmission rates approached 100% with either virus, with sentinel animals exhibiting a similar, severe disease. Lower rates of transmission were observed when index and sentinel animals were housed in separate cages. Sentinel animals infected with RPV with one exception succumbed to the disease. However, the majority of VV-WR-infected sentinel animals, while becoming seriously ill, survived. Finally, we tested the efficacy of the drug 1-O-hexadecyloxypropyl-cidofovir in the RPV/rabbit model and found that an oral dose of 5 mg/kg twice a day for 5 days beginning 1 day before infection was able to completely protect rabbits from lethal disease. PMID:17686856

  1. Validation of rebound tonometry for intraocular pressure measurement in the rabbit.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong; Yang, Dong; Ross, Craig M; Wigg, Jonathan P; Pandav, Surinder; Crowston, Jonathan G

    2014-04-01

    Rabbits play a growing role in research into glaucoma surgical models and ocular drug delivery models. However, the lack of an accurate method for measuring intraocular pressure (IOP) in this animal has been a significant deficit. In this study we validated the use of the TonoVet rebound tonometer and provide conversion tables for its use in rabbits. Experiments were performed on 18 adult New Zealand White rabbits. The TonoVet measurements were obtained and compared to manometric readings by anterior chamber (AC) cannulation. The TonoVet position and 'd' (dog or cat) and 'p' (other species) modes were compared. The sensitivity of the TonoVet tonometer in assessing IOP changes was also tested. There was a strong linear correlation for both the 'd' mode (mean slope = 0.84 ± 0.03, r(2) = 0.99 ± 0.03) and the 'p' mode (mean slope = 0.64 ± 0.02, r2 = 0.97 ± 0.01) of the TonoVet with manometric IOP. However, the TonoVet had a tendency to underestimate IOP compared to manometry and conversion formulae were possible to calculate for both modes. The orientation of the TonoVet handle had no effect on IOP reading, as long as the groove was horizontal. No significant differences were observed when comparing right and left eyes (P > 0.05). IOP recovered four days after cannulation. Younger rabbits had lower IOP compared with older rabbits (P < 0.01). Timolol produced a 2.5 mmHg reduction in IOP 2 h later as detected by the TonoVet. Using the conversion table presented, the TonoVet is a reliable and precise tool for the measurement of IOP in rabbits. PMID:24561115

  2. Experimental infection of rabbits with ovine herpesvirus 2 from sheep nasal secretions.

    PubMed

    Gailbreath, Katherine L; Taus, Naomi S; Cunha, Cristina W; Knowles, Donald P; Li, Hong

    2008-11-25

    Malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) is a generally fatal disease that primarily occurs in ruminants and is caused by a group of gammaherpesviruses. Outside of Africa MCF is mainly caused by ovine herpesvirus 2 (OvHV-2) which is carried subclinically by sheep. Cell-free virus is present in nasal secretions of shedding sheep and aerosol is the primary mode of transmission. Although OvHV-2 has never been propagated in vitro, experimental infection involving intranasal nebulization with nasal secretions from shedding sheep has been used to induce MCF in cattle and bison. This method of inoculation has never been tested in rabbits, which are the primary small animal model. The objectives of this study were to determine whether rabbits become infected with OvHV-2 after intranasal nebulization with cell-free virus from sheep nasal secretions and whether they develop MCF with consistent gross and histologic lesions. Five of eight rabbits became infected, showed clinical signs and developed histologic lesions typical of MCF including multisystemic vasculitis and perivascular lymphoid accumulation. These lesions are similar to those reported in rabbits infected by intravenous injection with tissues from clinically affected animals containing cell-associated virus. Viral DNA and mRNA transcripts of a structural viral protein were present in tissues from affected rabbits suggesting that viral replication occurred, although the significance in terms of pathogenesis is unknown. This work demonstrates that OvHV-2 infection of rabbits by intranasal nebulization is a potentially useful model that mimics the natural route of infection and may be used to study viral replication and pathogenesis. PMID:18539411

  3. Efficient Immunoglobulin Gene Disruption and Targeted Replacement in Rabbit Using Zinc Finger Nucleases

    PubMed Central

    Offner, Sonja; Ros, Francesca; Lifke, Valeria; Zeitler, Bryan; Rottmann, Oswald; Vincent, Anna; Zhang, Lei; Jenkins, Shirin; Niersbach, Helmut; Kind, Alexander J.; Gregory, Philip D.; Schnieke, Angelika E.; Platzer, Josef

    2011-01-01

    Rabbits are widely used in biomedical research, yet techniques for their precise genetic modification are lacking. We demonstrate that zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs) introduced into fertilized oocytes can inactivate a chosen gene by mutagenesis and also mediate precise homologous recombination with a DNA gene-targeting vector to achieve the first gene knockout and targeted sequence replacement in rabbits. Two ZFN pairs were designed that target the rabbit immunoglobulin M (IgM) locus within exons 1 and 2. ZFN mRNAs were microinjected into pronuclear stage fertilized oocytes. Founder animals carrying distinct mutated IgM alleles were identified and bred to produce offspring. Functional knockout of the immunoglobulin heavy chain locus was confirmed by serum IgM and IgG deficiency and lack of IgM+ and IgG+ B lymphocytes. We then tested whether ZFN expression would enable efficient targeted sequence replacement in rabbit oocytes. ZFN mRNA was co-injected with a linear DNA vector designed to replace exon 1 of the IgM locus with ∼1.9 kb of novel sequence. Double strand break induced targeted replacement occurred in up to 17% of embryos and in 18% of fetuses analyzed. Two major goals have been achieved. First, inactivation of the endogenous IgM locus, which is an essential step for the production of therapeutic human polyclonal antibodies in the rabbit. Second, establishing efficient targeted gene manipulation and homologous recombination in a refractory animal species. ZFN mediated genetic engineering in the rabbit and other mammals opens new avenues of experimentation in immunology and many other research fields. PMID:21695153

  4. Immunostimulant Effect of Egyptian Propolis in Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Nassar, Somya A.; Mohamed, Amira H.; Soufy, Hamdy; Nasr, Soad M.; Mahran, K. M.

    2012-01-01

    The present experiment was conducted to study the effect of ethanolic extract of Egyptian propolis given alone or in combination with inactivated Pasteurella multocida vaccine on rabbits challenged with a virulent strain of Pasteurella multocida. Fifty-six New-Zealand rabbits, 6–8 weeks old and non-vaccinated against pasteurellosis, were randomly divided into eight equal groups. The first group was kept as a control for the experiment. The other groups received different treatments with propolis extract, inactivated vaccine, or both. The experiment continued for seven weeks during which clinical signs, body weight, and mortality rate were monitored, and blood samples were collected weekly for evaluating the leukogram, serum biochemistry, and immune response in all groups of animals. At the end of the seventh week, the animals were subjected to challenge with a virulent strain of Pasteurella multocida. Two weeks later, tissue specimens were collected from different organs for histopathological examination. Results showed that rabbits of the groups treated with both propolis and the vaccine by different routes appeared healthy after challenge. It has been concluded that alcoholic extract of propolis administrated in combination with inactivated Pasteurella multocida vaccine has no adverse effects on the general health conditions and enhances immune response in rabbits. PMID:22654648

  5. CLONING AND EXPRESSION OF RABBIT INTERLEUKIN-15

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In order to understand the inflammatory mechanisms related to rabbit interleukin-15 (RIL-15), we cloned and expressed RIL-15 cDNA gene. A cDNA encoding RIL-15 was cloned from heart mRNA by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) amplification using hIL-15 primers. The RIL-15 cDNA co...

  6. An individual-based model of rabbit viral haemorrhagic disease on European wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fa, John E.; Sharples, Colin M.; Bell, Diana J.; DeAngelis, Donald L.

    2001-01-01

    We developed an individual-based model of Rabbit Viral Hemorrhagic Disease (RVHD) for European wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus L.), representing up to 1000 rabbits in four hectares. Model output for productivity and recruitment matched published values. The disease was density-dependent and virulence affected outcome. Strains that caused death after several days produced greater overall mortality than strains in which rabbits either died or recovered very quickly. Disease effect also depended on time of year. We also elaborated a larger scale model representing 25 km2 and 100,000+ rabbits, split into a number of grid-squares. This was a more traditional model that did not represent individual rabbits, but employed a system of dynamic equations for each grid-square. Disease spread depended on probability of transmission between neighboring grid-squares. Potential recovery from a major population crash caused by the disease relied on disease virulence and frequency of recurrence. The model's dependence on probability of disease transmission between grid-squares suggests the way that the model represents the spatial distribution of the population affects simulation. Although data on RVHD in Europe are lacking, our models provide a basis for describing the disease in realistic detail and for assessing influence of various social and spatial factors on spread.

  7. International dissemination of a high virulence rabbit Staphylococcus aureus clone.

    PubMed

    Vancraeynest, D; Haesebrouck, F; Deplano, A; Denis, O; Godard, C; Wildemauwe, C; Hermans, K

    2006-11-01

    High virulence rabbit Staphylococcus aureus strains cause chronic and spreading problems of mastitis, pododermatitis and subcutaneous abscesses on rabbit flock level, whereas infections with low virulence strains are limited to individual rabbits. In the present report, 13 high virulence rabbit S. aureus strains, selected out of a large collection of strains isolated in five European countries between 1983 and 2004, were genotyped using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, spa typing, multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and accessory gene regulator (agr) group typing. Two low virulence rabbit S. aureus strains were also included in the study. The results indicate the clonal origin of high virulence rabbit S. aureus strains present in Europe. Furthermore, the results of MLST and spa typing form a basis for international epidemiology of rabbit S. aureus strains, as these DNA sequence-based typing techniques can easily be used for intercentre comparisons. PMID:17062118

  8. Assessing Ulcerative Pododermatitis of Breeding Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Rosell, Joan M.; de la Fuente, L. Fernando

    2013-01-01

    Simple Summary Sore hocks are a health and welfare problem in rabbits housed in cages with mesh floors. Footrests are used to prevent them. They occupy part of the mesh floor of the cage but allow droppings to fall and also protect the rabbit’s feet. In this study we evaluated the use of footrests on 664 commercial farms visited in Spain and Portugal, and the rates of sick animals during 2001–2012; the attention given by producers to animal care was evident as 28% of farms with footrests in 2001 increased to 75% in 2012. Abstract Rabbits in conventional farms are housed in wire net cages with mesh floors to separate them from droppings. In time, lacerations appear on the legs of adult rabbits causing ulcerative pododermatitis or sore hocks, a severe health and welfare problem. Pain causes behavioral changes; productivity is reduced and the most seriously affected animals die or are culled. In this study we evaluated the attention producers have given to this problem and its prevention by installing footrests in cages. We made 2,331 visits to 664 commercial farms in Spain and Portugal between 2001 and 2012, and evaluated morbidity by examining 105,009 females and 10,722 males. The study highlights that the rate of farms with footrests increased from 27.8% in 2001 to 75.2% in 2012. Prevalence of sore hocks in does in 2001 was 11.4%, decreasing to 6.3% in 2012; prevention of ulcerative pododermatitis was associated (P < 0.001) with the presence of footrests. Overall, prevalence was 4.87 ± 0.26 on farms with footrests and 13.71 ± 0.32 without (P < 0.01). PMID:26487404

  9. Adaptation of distortion product otoacoustic emissions predicts susceptibility to acoustic over-exposure in alert rabbits.

    PubMed

    Luebke, Anne E; Stagner, Barden B; Martin, Glen K; Lonsbury-Martin, Brenda L

    2014-04-01

    A noninvasive test was developed in rabbits based on fast adaptation measures for 2f1-f2 distortion-product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs). The goal was to evaluate the effective reflex activation, i.e., "functional strength," of both the descending medial olivocochlear efferent reflex (MOC-R) and the middle-ear muscle reflex (MEM-R) through sound activation. Classically, it is assumed that both reflexes contribute toward protecting the inner ear from cochlear damage caused by noise exposure. The DP-gram method described here evaluated the MOC-R effect on DPOAE levels over a two-octave (oct) frequency range. To estimate the related activation of the middle-ear muscles (MEMs), the MEM-R was measured by monitoring the level of the f1-primary tone throughout its duration. Following baseline measures, rabbits were subjected to noise over-exposure. A main finding was that the measured adaptive activity was highly variable between rabbits but less so between the ears of the same animal. Also, together, the MOC-R and MEM-R tests showed that, on average, DPOAE adaptation consisted of a combined contribution from both systems. Despite this shared involvement, the amount of DPOAE adaptation measured for a particular animal's ear predicted that ear's subsequent susceptibility to the noise over-exposure for alert but not for deeply anesthetized rabbits. PMID:25234992

  10. Teratological study of the herbicide 4-chloro-2-methylphenoxyacetic acid in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Ujházy, E; Sadlonová, I; Dubovický, M; Mach, M; Múcková, M; Flaskárová, E

    2006-01-01

    4-Chloro-2-methylphenoxyacetic acid (MCPA) is an aryloxyacetic acid derivative categorised as a plant hormone herbicide. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of MCPA on pregnant females and the prenatal development of rabbits. The substance tested was administered orally to pregnant New Zealand White rabbits from day 6 to day 27 of gestation at doses of 5, 10 and 25 mg kg(-1) day(-1). The animals were killed on day 28 of gestation and live fetuses were examined for gross, skeletal and visceral anomalies. Administration of MPCA did not induce any signs of maternal toxicity. There was a significant decrease of fetal and placental weight compared with controls at the highest dose of MPCA. No adverse effect of the substance tested was seen on uterine content variables, e.g. corpora lutea, pre-implantation and post-implantation loss, early, late resorptions, live and dead fetuses and sex ratio. Rabbit fetuses treated with the middle and highest doses of MPCA had a significantly elevated incidence of skull and pelvic bone delays. In conclusion, prenatal administration of MCPA did not exhibit a teratogenic effect on rabbit fetus development. PMID:16799935

  11. Histopathological alterations after a growth promoter boldenone injection in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Tousson, Ehab

    2016-02-01

    Boldenone (BOL) is a derivative of the testosterone that has dual effects on humans, both directly and indirectly; directly as injection to build muscles and indirectly as through consuming meat of animals that where treated with BOL. However, the action of these steroids on different body organs structures is still unclear; therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of the intramuscular injection of BOL undecylenate on the different organ structures. A total of 10 adult New Zealand rabbits were divided into two main groups, the first group was the control group, which includes animals that were injected intramuscularly with olive oil and the second group included animals that received two intramuscular injections of 5 mg/kg body weight BOL dissected after 6 weeks. Our results showed that intramuscular injection of rabbits with BOL showed hypertrophy in both skeletal and cardiac muscles, disturbances of the hepatocytes radially arranged cords with multifocal hepatocellular vacuolations in the liver, glomerulus mass reduction with multifocal glomerular injury in the kidney, disturbances of the cycle of spermatogenesis in the testes. In conclusion, using BOL, while preparing for a young bodybuilding contest, may cause an alteration in the histological structure of most of the body organs; these findings suggested that especially young people who misuse anablic androgenic steroids should be careful if they want to use such steroids to enhance their strength and endurance. PMID:24097356

  12. Tissue reactions to implanted orthodontic wires in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Gjerdet, N R; Kallus, T; Hensten-Pettersen, A

    1987-06-01

    Tissue response to a Fe-Cr-Ni and a Co-Cr-Ni orthodontic wire, in the as-received state and with silver soldered joints, was investigated. Specimens with polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) as a reference material were implanted in the subcutaneous tissue of rabbits. Six rabbits were sensitized to nickel, four animals were sham-sensitized, and two were left untreated. The results showed that the as-received wires gave no tissue response relative to the PTFE control. In soldered specimens that were moderate to extreme reactions adjacent to the soldered joint and around the wire portion as well. The soldered Co-Cr-Ni wire elicited the most severe reactions, most pronounced in the nickel-sensitized animals. The agar overlay cell culture test of some retrieved implants showed pronounced cytotoxicity of the soldered specimens. Leachable toxic components of the silver solder seemed to be of major importance in the observed cell culture and tissue response to the soldered specimens. PMID:2887083

  13. [Pulmonary hypertensive responses to erythrocytes components in sensitized rabbits].

    PubMed

    Enzan, K; Komatsu, H; Shouji, K; Mitsuhata, H; Suzuki, M; Yoshioka, N

    1995-02-01

    Antigen erythrocytes cause a transient pulmonary hypertension in sensitized rabbits. We investigated the main responsible component in the antigen erythrocytes. Eleven rabbits were immunized intravenously with human O-N type erythrocytes every ten days until the agglutinin titer = 1:8,000 was obtained. Another ten rabbits without immunization served as a control group. Human erythrocytes were osmolitically hemolyzed and then separated into hemoglobin and membrane components by centrifugation. In sensitized rabbits, a bolus injection of human hemoglobin 0.7 ml.kg-1 caused increases in pulmonary arterial and airway pressures within 3-4 min. Increase in pulmonary arterial pressure after injection of hemoglobin component was significantly higher than that after injection of membrane component in sensitized rabbits. However, in nonsensitized rabbits both components were ineffective. Leukocytes counts decreased by 73-62% in sensitized rabbit, while they decreased by 16-37% in nonsensitized rabbits 5 min after injection of hemoglobin or membrane component. Platelets decreased by 54-61% in sensitized rabbits, while they decreased by 24-9% in nonsensitized rabbits 5 min after injection of hemoglobin or membrane component. We conclude that hemoglobin is the responsible component in the antigen erythrocytes and chemical mediators, such as thromboxane and platelet activating factor, may not be released from platelets and leukocytes. PMID:7739096

  14. New properties of rabbit retinal ganglion cells.

    PubMed

    Caldwell, J H; Daw, N W

    1978-03-01

    1. Receptive fields of centre surround cells in the rabbit retina were investigated. There is a clear distinction between cells with sluggish responses, low spontaneous activity and slow conduction velocity (centre surround sluggish cells) and cells with brisk responses, higher spontaneous activity and faster conduction velocity (X and Y cells). The sluggish cells can be divided into sustained and transient types. X and Y cells can be distinguished from each other by their responses to a moving linear grating, a large rapidly moving object and whether or not there is a response to the alternation of certain stimuli. Some times the response to a rotating radial grating, the rate of spontaneous activity, and whether or not the response to spots and annuli was sustained or transient could also be used to distinguish these two types. The antidromic latency from electrical stimulation of the optic chiasm and the periphery effect did not distinguish X from Y. 2. Eleven colour coded units were investigated. They all gave on responses to blue light in the centre of their receptive field and off responses to green light in the periphery of their receptive field. The blue pigment had a spectral sensitivity peaking at about 465 nm. The other pigment peaked near 500 nm, like the rods but gave a response at high mesopic and probably photopic levels. In some cases there was evidence for excitatory input from the green receptors to the centre of the receptive field. All the colour coded cells had rapidly conducting axons and were on centre X cells by all criteria. 3. Eighty-five cells various types other than colour coded were tested for their thresholds at 420 nm and 590 nm. In all cases the results were explained by a pigment peaking close to 500 nm, even at high mesopic and low photopic levels, which suggests the existence of cones with a cyan pigment in them. 4. Conduction latency from stimulation at the optic chiasm was measured for cells with centre surround receptive fields and cells with more complex receptive fields. Both 'on-off' and 'on' directionally sensitive cells have short conduction latencies, overlapping X and Y cells. Orientation selective cells and local edge detectors have long conduction latencies, overlapping centre surround sluggish cells. The sample of uniformity detectors was too small to characterize... PMID:650447

  15. Molecular identification and phylogenesis of dermatophytes isolated from rabbit farms and rabbit farm workers.

    PubMed

    Cafarchia, Claudia; Weigl, Stefania; Figueredo, Luciana A; Otranto, Domenico

    2012-01-27

    Little information is available on the molecular epidemiology of dermatophytoses in rabbit farms and farm workers. A total of 117 isolates belonging to the Trichophyton mentagrophytes complex and 21 isolates of Microsporum canis were collected from rabbits with or without skin lesions, air samples of farms known to harbour these pathogens, and from farm workers with skin lesions, and molecularly characterized. Sequencing of amplicons from the T. mentagrophytes complex and M. canis isolates revealed the presence of one sequence-type for both partial chitin synthase-1 gene (pchs-1) and ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS+), respectively. On the basis of comparative sequence analyses, isolated representing the T. mentagrophytes complex were molecularly identified as Trichophyton interdigitale (zoophilic) Priestley. The M. canis and T. interdigitale pchs-1 sequences herein analysed were 100% homologous to known sequences from different hosts (i.e., cats, dogs, humans and rabbits). Conversely, the ITS+ sequences of T. interdigitale from dogs, pigs and mice were identical, but displayed up to 8.6% difference with those from humans, guinea pigs and rabbits. The results of this study suggest that environmental and clinical isolates of T. interdigitale (zoophilic) and M. canis might share a common origin. Interestingly, the close phylogenetic relationship between T. interdigitale (zoophilic) strains and isolates from dogs, pigs and mice might indicate that these animals represented a reservoir of dermatophyte infection in rabbit farms. These animal species should therefore be considered when setting up control protocols to prevent infections by dermatophytes and their zoonotic transmission. PMID:21840652

  16. Effect of AR-13324 on Episcleral Venous Pressure in Dutch Belted Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Kopczynski, Casey C.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: AR-13324 is a potential new drug for the treatment of patients with glaucoma that has been shown to lower intraocular pressure (IOP) by increasing trabecular outflow facility and decreasing aqueous production. The present study tested the hypothesis that AR-13324 also lowers IOP by reducing episcleral venous pressure (EVP). Methods: In Dutch Belted (DB) rabbits (n=11), arterial pressure (AP), IOP, carotid blood flow (BFcar), heart rate (HR), and EVP were measured invasively. Animals were dosed with AR-13324 (0.04%, topical, n=6) once daily for 3 days. On day 3, the animals were anesthetized, and then, measurements were obtained before dosing with AR-13324 or vehicle (n=5) and for 3?h after dosing. The data (mean±standard error of the mean) were analyzed by repeated measures ANOVA with post hoc testing. Retrospective baseline data from prior similar studies in New Zealand White rabbits were also compiled. Results: Baseline values were as follows: AP, 101±3?mmHg; IOP; 33±3?mmHg; EVP, 16±1?mmHg; BFcar, 41±4?mL/min; and HR, 330±6?bpm. Three hours after AR-13324 dosing, IOP was reduced by 39%±7% (P<0.001) and EVP decreased by 35%±4% (P<0.05); after vehicle dosing, IOP was reduced by 24%±4% (P<0.05) and EVP increased by 25%±5% (P<0.05). AP, BFcar, and HR were unchanged. Conclusions: AR-13324 produces statistically significant lowering of EVP in DB rabbits. In addition, the baseline values for AP, IOP, EVP, BFcar, and HR in the DB rabbit are higher than those previously reported in the New Zealand rabbit. PMID:25756366

  17. Lens extraction with ultrasound. Experiments in rabbits.

    PubMed Central

    Clarkson, D M; Phillips, C I

    1976-01-01

    The extraction of the rabbit lens is described using a 25 G irrigating needle and a 22 G aspirating needle; at the latter's bevelled tip lens fragmentation occurs due to the longitudinal ultrasonic vibrations generated there--an 'acoustic horn' causes the tip to vibrate with large amplitudes. The use of small needles allows considerable manoeuvrability in the anterior chamber and usually eliminates the need for corneal suturing. Push-pull coupled syringes equate the volume of irrigation with that of aspiration. This procedure makes possible lens extraction through an aperture in the anterior capsule of the rabbit's lens and a similar machine is being constructed for trial on human cataract. Images PMID:1009054

  18. Clinical, ultrasonography and haematology of aglepristone-induced mid-gestation pregnancy terminations in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Özalp, Gözde R; Temizel, Ethem M; Özocak-Batmaz, Elçin

    2013-01-01

    Aglepristone is a safe abortifacient in cats, dogs and rabbits. Although no serious side effects have been reported, there is no information available about the effects of the medicine on haematological parameters. For the first time clinical and ultrasonographic features and haematological profiles were evaluated in rabbits treated with aglepristone 15 and 16 days after mating. Ten healthy 10-14 month-old New Zealand White female rabbits were mated with fertile bucks and pregnancies were con?rmed by ultrasound 15 days later. Of these, 5 does were treated with aglepristone (test group, n = 5) whilst the remaining five (control group, n = 5) were treated with a saline solution (0.9% NaCl). The treatment dose was 10 mg/kg body weight, administered subcutaneously once daily on two consecutive days (day 15 and 16 post mating). Ultrasonographic, clinical and haematological assessments were performed daily. Aglepristone treatment induced embryonic fluid resorptions without foetal death in mid-gestation terminations. Following ultrasonographic and haematological examinations, it was established that aglepristone is a safe abortifacient in rabbits. PMID:23718772

  19. Pentoxifylline suppression of TNF-alpha mediated axonal degeneration in the rabbit optic nerve.

    PubMed

    Petrovich, M S; Hsu, H Y; Gu, X; Dugal, P; Heller, K B; Sadun, A A

    1997-10-01

    In AIDS patients, axonal degeneration in the optic nerve occurs as a histopathological manifestation of the optic neuropathy. Direct infection of neurons by HIV is unlikely, and the axonal injury may be an indirect effect mediated by cytotoxic factors such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) which we have previously demonstrated to cause axonal degeneration in the rabbit optic nerve. To test the suppressive effects of pentoxifylline in preventing TNF-alpha-mediated axonal degeneration, we applied pentoxifylline to an established rabbit model that demonstrates an AIDS-like optic neuropathy using intravitreal TNF-alpha injections. Degenerated axonal profiles were numerous in control rabbit optic nerve (mean 1879) and reduced in rabbits receiving the medium dose of pentoxifylline (300 mg PO BID, mean 439, p < 0.001) and the highest dose of pentoxifylline (600 mg PO BID, mean 120, p < 0.007). High dose pentoxifylline reduced TNF-alpha-induced axonal losses to less than 10% that seen without pentoxifylline pretreatment. Lower doses of pentoxifylline had a lesser but significant protective effect. Our results suggest that TNF-alpha-mediated axonal degeneration can be suppressed by high doses of pentoxifylline. Pentoxifylline may therefore be useful in AIDS patients demonstrating neurological or neuro-ophthalmological symptoms. PMID:9329035

  20. New subtype of Cryptosporidium cuniculus isolated from rabbits by sequencing the Gp60 gene.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xuehan; Zhou, Xiaoxiao; Zhong, Zhijun; Chen, Weigang; Deng, Jiabo; Niu, Lili; Wang, Qiang; Peng, Guangneng

    2014-08-01

    Given the paucity of literature available on rabbits infected with Cryptosporidium in Sichuan Province (China), 290 fecal samples were collected from rabbits in the animal house of Sichuan Agricultural University, China and examined for Cryptosporidium oocysts using the Sheather's sucrose flotation technique and a modified acid-fast staining method. Three samples tested positive (prevalence = 1.03%). The positive isolates were genotyped by sequence analysis of the 18S rRNA, HSP70, COWP, and Cp135 genes and characterized by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of the 18S rRNA gene. Phylogenetic analysis was established using the neighbor-joining (NJ) method. All the isolates were identified as Cryptosporidium cuniculus. Further subtyping of the positive isolates was performed by DNA sequencing of the 60-kDa glycoprotein (gp60) gene. Only 1 subtype family was detected, Va, which was proposed to be a new subtype, VaA31. This study is the first report about the prevalence, genetic identification, and Cp135 gene of C. cuniculus in rabbits in Sichuan Province, China. The obtained results indicate that the C. cuniculus subtype in rabbits in Sichuan Province is unique. PMID:24628387

  1. [Model for evaluating the risk of introducing rabbit viral hemorrhagic disease based on experience in Mexico].

    PubMed

    Heneidi Zeckua, A; Zepeda Sein, C; Mateos Poumián, A; Velázquez, G

    1997-04-01

    Viral haemorrhagic disease (VHD) of rabbits was introduced into Mexico from the United States of America in November 1988, following the importation of infected carcasses from China. In February 1989, the National System for Animal Health Emergencies was created, and an eradication programme was implemented at that time. The VHD virus was eradicated in 1992, by means of disease control procedures which included active epidemiological surveillance, publicity campaigns, slaughter, cleaning and disinfection of affected premises, the use of sentinel animals, serological monitoring and repopulation. The eradication programme involved the serological sampling of 39,727 rabbits (revealing an incidence of 1.4%) and the slaughter of 121,275 affected rabbits and rabbits at risk of exposure to infection. The final outbreak of the disease was recorded in April 1991. The country maintained strict epidemiological surveillance through serological testing, certification of premises free from the disease, and control of movement of animals and animal products. Mexico was declared free from the disease on 20 January 1993, becoming the first country to have eradicated VHD. The authors propose a model to evaluate the risk of introducing VHD through the importation of animals and animal products. A guide is provided to evaluate each branch of the relevant scenario tree and the principal criteria which indicate the event at each parameter. PMID:9537746

  2. Major histocompatibility complex variation and age-specific endoparasite load in subadult European rabbits.

    PubMed

    Oppelt, Claus; Starkloff, Anett; Rausch, Philipp; Von Holst, Dietrich; Rödel, Heiko G

    2010-10-01

    Genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) play a fundamental role in the vertebrate immune response and are amongst the most polymorphic genes in vertebrate genomes. It is generally agreed that the highly polymorphic nature of the MHC is maintained through host-parasite co-evolution. Two nonexclusive mechanisms of selection are supposed to act on MHC genes: superiority of MHC heterozygous individuals (overdominance) and an advantage for rare MHC alleles. However, the precise mechanisms and their relative importance are still unknown. Here, we examined MHC dependent parasite load in European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) from a distinct population with low MHC diversity (three alleles, six genotypes). Using a multivariate approach, we tested for associations of individual MHC class II DRB constitution and the rabbits' intestinal burden with nematodes and coccidia. Rabbits having a particular allele showed lower infestations with hepatic coccidia (E. stiedai). However, a comparison of all six genotypes in the population revealed that carriers of this allele only benefit when they are heterozygous, and furthermore, MHC heterozygosity in general did not affect individual parasite load. In conclusion, this study suggests an immunogenetic basis of European rabbit resistance to hepatic coccidiosis, which can strongly limit survival to maturity in this species. Our study gives a complex picture of MHC-parasite correlations, unveiling the limits of the classical hypotheses of how MHC polymorphism is maintained in natural systems. PMID:20723049

  3. Development of a Rabbit Model for a Preclinical Comparison of Coronary Stent Types In-Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Joo Myung; Lee, Jaewon; Jeong, Heewon; Choe, Won Seok; Seo, Won-Woo; Lim, Woo-Hyun; Kim, Young-Chan; Hur, Jin; Lee, Sang Eun; Yang, Han-Mo; Cho, Hyun-Jai

    2013-01-01

    Along with the development of innovative stent designs, preclinical trials in animal models are essential. Many animal models have been used and appear to yield comparable results to clinical trials despite substantial criticisms about their validity. Among the animal models, porcine coronary artery models have been the standard models for the preclinical evaluation of endovascular devices. However, rapid growth rate, high body weight potential, and the propensity to develop granulomatous inflammatory reactions are major limitations of the porcine coronary artery model. Compared with porcine coronary artery models, the comparative rabbit iliac artery model has the advantages of being small and easy to handle and relatively inexpensive. Furthermore, the rabbit model has been known to reliably reflect human restenosis histopathologically and have major advantages such as pairwise comparison, which makes each animal serve as its own control subject, therefore, maximizing its statistical power for comparative testing. However, despite the widespread use of this model, a systematic description of the procedure and harvest protocols has never been published. This article describes the surgical procedure, stent implantation procedure, method for tissue harvesting, and how measurements are performed. Although the results of animal models may not perfectly extrapolate to humans, the comparative rabbit iliac artery model may be a useful tool for assessing and comparing the efficacy of new coronary stents with conventional stent systems. This thorough description of the techniques required for vascular access, stent implantation, tissue preparation, and measurement, should aid investigators wishing to begin using the comparative rabbit iliac artery model. PMID:24363745

  4. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Swamp Rabbit

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, Arthur W.

    1985-01-01

    A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop a Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) model for the swamp rabbit (Sylvilagus aquaticus). The model consolidates habitat use information into a framework appropriate for field application, and is scaled to produce an index between 0.0 (unsuitable habitat) to 1.0 (optimum habitat). HSI models are designed to be used with Habitat Evaluation Procedures previously developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

  5. Lactate metabolism in the fetal rabbit lung

    SciTech Connect

    Engle, M.J.; Brown, D.J.; Dooley, M.

    1986-05-01

    Lactate is frequently overlooked as a potential substrate for the fetal lung, even though it is present in the fetal circulation in concentrations as high as 8 mM. These high concentrations, coupled with the relatively low levels of glucose in the fetal blood, may indicate that lactate can substitute for glucose in pulmonary energy generation and phospholipid synthesis. A series of experiments was therefore undertaken in order to investigate the role of lactate in perinatal pulmonary development. Explants from 30 day gestation fetal rabbit lungs were incubated in Krebs-Ringer bicarbonate buffer supplemented with 3 mM (U-/sup 14/C)-glucose and varying levels of lactate. In the absence of medium lactate, fetal rabbit lung explants were capable of producing lactate at a rate of approximately 200 etamoles/mg protein/hour. The addition of lactate to the bathing medium immediately reduced net lactate production and above 4 mM, fetal rabbit lung explants became net utilizers of lactate. Media lactate concentrations of 2.5 mM, 5 mM and 10 mM also decreased glucose incorporation into total tissue disaturated phosphatidylcholine by approximately 20%, 35%, and 45%, respectively. Glucose incorporation into surfactant phosphatidylcholine was also reduced by approximately 50%, when lactate was present in the incubation medium at a concentration of 5 mM. Additional experiments also revealed that fetal lung lactate dehydrogenase activity was almost twice that found in the adult rabbit lung. These data indicate that lactate may be an important carbon source for the developing lung and could be a significant component in the manufacture of surfactant phosphatidylcholine during late gestation.

  6. Expression and immunolocalisation of TpFABP as a candidate antigen for the serodiagnosis of rabbit Taenia pisiformis cysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Deying; Chen, Lin; Xie, Yue; Wu, Xuhang; Nong, Xiang; Peng, Xi; Lai, Weimin; Gu, Xiaobin; Wang, Shuxian; Peng, Xuerong; Yang, Guangyou

    2013-01-01

    The larval stage of Taenia pisiformis, also known as Cysticercus pisiformis, is the causative agent of cysticercosis and the cause of severe health problems in rabbits that negatively impacts on husbandry production. To date, there is no fast detection method to identify early infections in rabbits. In the present study, a new dot-ELISA-based on an endogenous antigen fatty acid-binding protein (FABP) was developed for the detection of cysticercosis, and its potential was then evaluated using test serum samples. Immunolocalisation showed that T. pisiformis FABP (TpFABP) localised to the parenchyma of the bladder wall of the cysticercus and perinuclear cytoplasm of parenchyma of the adult parasite. After cloning and expression, recombinant TpFABP (rTpFABP) protein was used for serodiagnosis of T. pisiformis infection in rabbits by dot-ELISA. The antibody was detected 14 days post-infection in rabbits experimentally infected with T. pisiformis. Based on the necropsy results, the sensitivity and specificity of 169 serum samples tested by rTpFABP dot-ELISA were found to be 98.2% (54/55) and 92.1% (105/114), respectively. These data suggest that the dot-ELISA developed in this study has potential for detection of T. pisiformis infection in rabbits. PMID:24325873

  7. Expression and immunolocalisation of TpFABP as a candidate antigen for the serodiagnosis of rabbit Taenia pisiformis cysticercosis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Deying; Chen, Lin; Xie, Yue; Wu, Xuhang; Nong, Xiang; Peng, Xi; Lai, Weimin; Gu, Xiaobin; Wang, Shuxian; Peng, Xuerong; Yang, Guangyou

    2013-01-01

    The larval stage of Taenia pisiformis, also known as Cysticercus pisiformis, is the causative agent of cysticercosis and the cause of severe health problems in rabbits that negatively impacts on husbandry production. To date, there is no fast detection method to identify early infections in rabbits. In the present study, a new dot-ELISA-based on an endogenous antigen fatty acid-binding protein (FABP) was developed for the detection of cysticercosis, and its potential was then evaluated using test serum samples. Immunolocalisation showed that T. pisiformis FABP (TpFABP) localised to the parenchyma of the bladder wall of the cysticercus and perinuclear cytoplasm of parenchyma of the adult parasite. After cloning and expression, recombinant TpFABP (rTpFABP) protein was used for serodiagnosis of T. pisiformis infection in rabbits by dot-ELISA. The antibody was detected 14 days post-infection in rabbits experimentally infected with T. pisiformis. Based on the necropsy results, the sensitivity and specificity of 169 serum samples tested by rTpFABP dot-ELISA were found to be 98.2% (54/55) and 92.1% (105/114), respectively. These data suggest that the dot-ELISA developed in this study has potential for detection of T. pisiformis infection in rabbits. PMID:24325873

  8. Carbon tetrachloride-induced liver injury in the rabbit.

    PubMed Central

    Bernacchi, A. S.; de Castro, C. R.; de Ferreyra, E. C.; Villarruel, M. C.; Fernández, G.; de Fenos, O. M.; Castro, J. A.

    1983-01-01

    CCl4 administration to rabbits leads to early destruction of liver microsomal cytochrome P-450, to depression of glucose 6 phosphatase, to ultrastructurally revealable alterations and to an intense necrosis and fat accumulation in liver. Despite the known resistance of rabbit liver microsomes to lipid peroxidation, CCl4 administration to rabbits promoted lipid peroxidation of their liver microsomal lipids as revealable by the diene hyperconjugation technique, at periods of time from 1 to 12 h. Nevertheless, the intensity of this process is not equivalent to that occurring in rat liver microsomes, since the arachidonic acid content of rabbit liver microsomal lipids does not decrease at either 6 or 24 h after CCl4 administration. Rabbit liver is able to activate CCl4 to reactive metabolites that bind covalently to lipids. Relevance of covalent binding of CCl4 reactive metabolites and CCl4-promoted lipid peroxidation to CCl4-induced rabbit liver injury is analysed. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:6309207

  9. Gasless laparoscopy in infants: the rabbit model.

    PubMed

    Luks, F I; Peers, K H; Deprest, J A; Lerut, T E

    1995-08-01

    Laparoscopic operations can be performed in neonates and infants, but carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum may be more dangerous than in adults. Therefore the concept of gasless laparoscopy is especially attractive for small children. The authors have developed an animal training model of gasless infant laparoscopy using the rabbit. Eleven New Zealand white rabbits (mean weight, 2.2 kg) were premedicated with fentanyl (10 micrograms intramuscularly) and maintained under inhalation anesthesia by mask, with halothane (1.0 to 2.5%) in oxygen and nitrous oxide (1:1). The animals were neither intubated nor mechanically ventilated. Heart rate and oxygen saturation were monitored by pulse oximetry. A supraumbilical incision was made through the peritoneum, and an abdominal wall elevator was inserted. A 4-mm-diameter 30 degrees endoscope was introduced at the same site, allowing excellent visualization of the abdominal cavity. Three additional 5-mm cannulas were placed, and a standard Nissen fundoplication was performed in all 11 animals. In seven of these, a left nephrectomy was also performed. Five-millimeter pediatric instruments and 1.7- and 2.7-mm laryngoscopic instruments were used. The rabbit can serve as a training model for laparoscopy in the infant. Gasless laparoscopy, using abdominal wall elevation, may be particularly useful in very small patients. PMID:7472984

  10. Anterior cruciate ligament surgery in the rabbit

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Various methods regarding allograft knee replacements have been described. The animal models, which are generally used for this purpose include sheep, dogs, goats, and pigs, and accrue significant costs for study protocols. The authors herein describe an efficient and cost-effective model to study either native or tissue-engineered allografts for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) replacement in a New Zealand rabbit model with the potential for transgenic and cell migration studies. Methods ACL reconstructions were performed in rabbits under general anesthesia. For fresh allograft implantations, two animals were operated in parallel. Each right extensor digitorum longus tendon was harvested and prepared for implantation. After excision of the ACL, tibial and femoral bone tunnels were created to implant each graft in the native ACL position. Results During a 2-year period, the authors have successfully undertaken this surgery in 61 rabbits and have not noticed any major complications attributed to this surgical technique. In addition, the authors have observed fast recovery in the animals postoperatively. Conclusion The authors recommend this surgical procedure as an excellent model for the study of knee surgery. PMID:23957941

  11. Sodium nitroprusside induces apoptosis of rabbit chondrocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Qian; Wang, Xiao-Ping; Chen, Tong-Sheng

    2013-02-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is characterized by a slowly progressing degradation of the matrix and destruction of articular cartilage. Apoptosis of chondrocyte is accounted for the mechanism of OA. Nitric oxide (NO), as a stimulus, has been shown to induce chondrocyte apoptosis by activating the matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), increasing the expression of cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) and the level of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), inhibiting the proteoglycan synthesis and type II collagen expression. In this study, sodium nitroprusside (SNP) was administered to be the NO donor to explore the mechanism of NO-induced apoptosis of rabbit chondrocytes obtained from six weeks old New Zealand rabbits. CCK-8 assay revealed the inhibitory effect of SNP on cell viability. We used flow cytometry (FCM) to assess the form of cell death by Annexin-V/propidium iodide (PI) double staining, and evaluate the change of mitochondrial membrane potential (??m). We found that the SNP induced chondrocyte apoptosis in a dose- and time-dependent manner and an observable reduction of ??m. In conclusion, our findings indicate that SNP induces apoptosis of rabbit chondrocytes via a mitochondria-mediated pathway.

  12. BIORESORBABLE POLYMERIC MENISCAL PROSTHESIS: STUDY IN RABBITS

    PubMed Central

    Cardoso, Tulio Pereira; de Rezende Duek, Eliana Aparecida; Amatuzzi, Marco Martins; Caetano, Edie Benedito

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To induce growth of a neomeniscus into the pores of a prosthesis in order to protect the knee joint cartilage. Methods: 70 knees of 35 New Zealand rabbits were operated. The rabbits were five to seven months old, weighed 2 to 3.8 kilograms, and 22 were male and 13 were female. Each animal underwent medial meniscectomy in both knees during a single operation. A bioabsorbable polymeric meniscal prosthesis composed of 70% polydioxanone and 30% L-lactic acid polymer was implanted in one side. The animals were sacrificed after different postoperative time intervals. The femoral condyles and neomeniscus were subjected to histological analysis. Histograms were used to measure the degradation and absorption of the prosthesis, the growth of meniscal tissue in the prosthesis and the degree of degradation of the femoral condyle joint cartilage. Results: The data obtained showed that tissue growth histologically resembling a normal meniscus occurred, with gradual absorption of the prosthesis, and the percentages of chondrocytes on the control side and prosthesis side. Conclusion: Tissue growth into the prosthesis pores that histologically resembled the normal rabbit meniscus was observed. The joint cartilage of the femoral condyles on the prosthesis side presented greater numbers of chondrocytes in all its layers.

  13. The comparative toxic effects of proprietary antidandruff, adult and baby shampoos on rabbit ileum.

    PubMed

    Muir, C K

    1983-09-01

    Each of four antidandruff shampoos, containing zinc pyrithione, was statistically significantly more potent at blocking spontaneous contractions of rabbit isolated ileum than was any of four adult shampoos which in turn were each significantly more potent that any of four baby shampoos tested. The ileum model therefore appears to be sufficiently sensitive to distinguish between antidandruff, adult and baby shampoos. It is suggested that if those who carry out in vivo eye irritancy testing also test their products on the ileum model then, over a period of time, this in vitro test might be proved to be a viable alternative to many of the in vivo tests currently carried out. PMID:6229903

  14. Resistance to infectious diseases is a heritable trait in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Gunia, M; David, I; Hurtaud, J; Maupin, M; Gilbert, H; Garreau, H

    2015-12-01

    Selection for disease resistance is a powerful way to improve the health status of herds and to reduce the use of antibiotics. The objectives of this study were to estimate 1) the genetic parameters for simple visually assessed disease syndromes and for a composite trait of resistance to infectious disease including all syndromes and 2) their genetic correlations with production traits in a rabbit population. Disease symptoms were recorded in the selection herds of 2 commercial paternal rabbit lines during weighing at the end of the test (63 and 70 d of age, respectively). Causes of mortality occurring before these dates were also recorded. Seven disease traits were analyzed: 3 elementary traits visually assessed by technicians on farm (diarrhea, various digestive syndromes, and respiratory syndromes), 2 composite traits (all digestive syndromes and all infectious syndromes), and 2 mortality traits (digestive mortality and infectious mortality). Each animal was assigned only 1 disease trait, corresponding to the main syndrome ( = 153,400). Four production traits were also recorded: live weight the day before the end of test on most animals ( = 137,860) and cold carcass weight, carcass yield, and perirenal fat percentage of the carcass on a subset of slaughtered animals ( = 13,765). Records on both lines were analyzed simultaneously using bivariate linear animal models after validation of consistency with threshold models applied to logit-transformed traits. The heritabilities were low for disease traits, from 0.01 ± 0.002 for various digestive syndromes to 0.04 ± 0.004 for infectious mortality, and moderate to high for production traits. The genetic correlations between digestive syndromes were high and positive, whereas digestive and respiratory syndromes were slightly negatively correlated. The genetic correlations between the composite infectious disease trait and digestive or respiratory syndromes were moderate. Genetic correlations between disease and production traits were favorable. Our results indicate that it is possible to select rabbits using visually assessed disease syndromes without the need for a trade-off between health and production traits. Using a composite criterion that includes all infectious syndromes is easy to implement and heritable and is, therefore, a promising way to improve the general disease resistance in livestock species. PMID:26641172

  15. Transgenic rabbit that expresses a functional human lipoprotein (a)

    DOEpatents

    Rouy, Didier (Thiais, FR); Duverger, Nicolas (Paris, FR); Emmanuel, Florence (Aubervilliers, FR); Denefle, Patrice (Saint Maur, FR); Houdebine, Louis-Marie (Buc, FR); Viglietta, Celine (Versailles, FR); Rubin, Edward M. (Berkeley, CA); Hughes, Steven D. (Oakland, CA)

    2003-01-01

    A transgenic rabbit which has in its genomic DNA sequences that encode apolipoprotein (a) and apolipoprotein B polypeptides which are capable of combining to produce lipoprotein (a), a process for creating such a rabbit, and the use of the rabbit to identify compounds which are effective in the treatment of human diseases which are associated with, induced and/or exacerbated by Lp(a) expression.

  16. Lack of effectiveness of ofloxacin against experimental syphilis in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Une, T; Nakajima, R; Otani, T; Katami, K; Osada, Y; Otani, M

    1987-09-01

    Ofloxacin, a new pyridone-carboxylic acid derivative, was evaluated in experimental syphilis in rabbits in comparison with penicillin G. Experimental syphilis was established by intradermal injection of Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum Nichols. Ten days after infection, the dermal lesions were characterized by syphilitic papula accompanied with central necrosis. These animals were subsequently treated either with ofloxacin twice a day at an oral dose of 10 mg/kg or with penicillin G once a day at an intramuscular dose of 10,000 U/kg for 21 consecutive days. In penicillin G-treated animals, the dermal lesions became smaller as early as day 3 of treatment and almost disappeared during the therapy. In marked contrast to remarkable efficacy of penicillin G was further development of the lesions in ofloxacin-treated animals, showing no difference in pathological manifestations as compared to untreated animals. The results of nontreponemal serologic test correlated well with the response of animals to treatment. PMID:3325066

  17. Human Handling Promotes Compliant Behavior in Adult Laboratory Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Swennes, Alton G; Alworth, Leanne C; Harvey, Stephen B; Jones, Carolyn A; King, Christopher S; Crowell-Davis, Sharon L

    2011-01-01

    Routine laboratory procedures can be stressful for laboratory animals. We wanted to determine whether human handling of adult rabbits could induce a degree of habituation, reducing stress and facilitating research-related manipulation. To this end, adult New Zealand white rabbits were handled either frequently or minimally. After being handled over 3 wk, these rabbits were evaluated by novel personnel and compared with minimally handled controls. Evaluators subjectively scored the rabbits for their relative compliance or resistance to being scruffed and removed from their cages, being transported to a treatment room, and their behavior at all stages of the exercise. Upon evaluation, handled rabbits scored significantly more compliant than nontreated controls. During evaluation, behaviors that the rabbits displayed when they were approached in their cages and while being handled outside their cages were recorded and compared between study groups. Handled rabbits displayed behavior consistent with a reduction in human-directed fear. This study illustrates the potential for handling to improve compliance in laboratory procedures and reduce fear-related behavior in laboratory rabbits. Such handling could be used to improve rabbit welfare through the reduction of stress and exposure to novel stimuli. PMID:21333162

  18. Rabbit haemorrhagic disease: are Australian rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) evolving resistance to infection with Czech CAPM 351 RHDV?

    PubMed

    Elsworth, P G; Kovaliski, J; Cooke, B D

    2012-11-01

    Rabbit haemorrhagic disease is a major tool for the management of introduced, wild rabbits in Australia. However, new evidence suggests that rabbits may be developing resistance to the disease. Rabbits sourced from wild populations in central and southeastern Australia, and domestic rabbits for comparison, were experimentally challenged with a low 60 ID50 oral dose of commercially available Czech CAPM 351 virus - the original strain released in Australia. Levels of resistance to infection were generally higher than for unselected domestic rabbits and also differed (0-73% infection rates) between wild populations. Resistance was lower in populations from cooler, wetter regions and also low in arid regions with the highest resistance seen within zones of moderate rainfall. These findings suggest the external influences of non-pathogenic calicivirus in cooler, wetter areas and poor recruitment in arid populations may influence the development rate of resistance in Australia. PMID:22244198

  19. Assessment of the rabbit as a wildlife reservoir of bovine viral diarrhea virus: serological analysis and generation of trans-placentally infected offspring.

    PubMed

    Grant, Dawn M; Dagleish, Mark P; Bachofen, Claudia; Boag, Brian; Deane, David; Percival, Ann; Zadoks, Ruth N; Russell, George C

    2015-01-01

    Eradication of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is ongoing in many European countries and is based on removal of persistently infected (PI) cattle. In this context, low-level risks, including alternative reservoirs of infection, may become more important as the number of BVDV-free herds increases. Alternative reservoirs include livestock, such as sheep and goats, as well as wildlife, including deer and rabbits. Due to the extensive nature of the beef industry in Scotland, where an eradication program started in 2010, contact between cattle and alternative reservoir hosts is common. Seroprevalence to BVDV in rabbit populations can be high. In addition, rabbits can be infected with BVDV by natural routes, indicating that they could be a wildlife reservoir of infection. We analyzed the potential risk to livestock from rabbit populations in the UK by two approaches. First, ?260 serum samples from free-ranging wild rabbits in Scotland and northern England were tested for BVDV-specific antibodies by ELISA. Only three samples exhibited low level BVDV-specific reactivity, suggesting that BVDV infection of rabbits was not frequent. Second, rabbits were challenged with BVDV at day 7 or 12 of pregnancy. This did not lead to any clinical signs in the infected animals or obvious increases in abortion or stillbirth in the infected dams. Samples from the dams, placental material and ?130 offspring were tested by BVDV-specific RT-PCR and antibody ELISA. Positive PCR results in the placentas and in the tissues and body fluids of rabbits up to 10 days old showed that trans-placental infection of rabbits with BVDV had occurred. Many of the offspring had BVDV-specific antibodies. These data support the view that a wildlife reservoir of BVDV in rabbit poses a small but non-zero risk of re-infection for BVDV-free cattle herds. Rabbits are susceptible to infection with BVDV but only a small proportion of free-living rabbits in the UK appear to have been infected. PMID:26441927

  20. Assessment of the rabbit as a wildlife reservoir of bovine viral diarrhea virus: serological analysis and generation of trans-placentally infected offspring

    PubMed Central

    Grant, Dawn M.; Dagleish, Mark P.; Bachofen, Claudia; Boag, Brian; Deane, David; Percival, Ann; Zadoks, Ruth N.; Russell, George C.

    2015-01-01

    Eradication of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is ongoing in many European countries and is based on removal of persistently infected (PI) cattle. In this context, low-level risks, including alternative reservoirs of infection, may become more important as the number of BVDV-free herds increases. Alternative reservoirs include livestock, such as sheep and goats, as well as wildlife, including deer and rabbits. Due to the extensive nature of the beef industry in Scotland, where an eradication program started in 2010, contact between cattle and alternative reservoir hosts is common. Seroprevalence to BVDV in rabbit populations can be high. In addition, rabbits can be infected with BVDV by natural routes, indicating that they could be a wildlife reservoir of infection. We analyzed the potential risk to livestock from rabbit populations in the UK by two approaches. First, ?260 serum samples from free-ranging wild rabbits in Scotland and northern England were tested for BVDV-specific antibodies by ELISA. Only three samples exhibited low level BVDV-specific reactivity, suggesting that BVDV infection of rabbits was not frequent. Second, rabbits were challenged with BVDV at day 7 or 12 of pregnancy. This did not lead to any clinical signs in the infected animals or obvious increases in abortion or stillbirth in the infected dams. Samples from the dams, placental material and ?130 offspring were tested by BVDV-specific RT-PCR and antibody ELISA. Positive PCR results in the placentas and in the tissues and body fluids of rabbits up to 10 days old showed that trans-placental infection of rabbits with BVDV had occurred. Many of the offspring had BVDV-specific antibodies. These data support the view that a wildlife reservoir of BVDV in rabbit poses a small but non-zero risk of re-infection for BVDV-free cattle herds. Rabbits are susceptible to infection with BVDV but only a small proportion of free-living rabbits in the UK appear to have been infected. PMID:26441927

  1. Evaluation of an ELISA using recombinant Ss?20?B3 antigen for the serological diagnosis of Sarcoptes scabiei infestation in domestic and wild rabbits.

    PubMed

    Casais, Rosa; Millán, Javier; Rosell, Joan Maria; Dalton, Kevin P; Prieto, José Miguel

    2015-12-15

    An ELISA, based on the Sarcoptes scabiei Ss?20?B3 inmunodominant antigen, was evaluated for the detection of antibodies to S. scabiei in experimentally infested (n=10), farm (n=109), and wild (n=78) rabbit sera. The S. scabiei antigen Ss?20?B3, a major structural protein present over the entire mite's body, was produced as a recombinant protein in Escherichia coli and purified for its use in the ELISA. The resulting ELISA showed, in experimentally infested domestic rabbits, detectable specific antibody responses (IgG) above the cut off level from week three post-infestation indicating that the assay is able to detect positive rabbits very early during the course of the infestation. The ELISA was validated on a panel of 109 domestic breeding rabbit sera collected from 26 Spanish farms, of which 41 were obtained from rabbits with skin lesions compatible with sarcoptic mange, 26 with skin lesions compatible with psoroptic mange, and 42 from unexposed individuals from mange-free farms. The ELISA in this group was characterized by 95% sensitivity, 97% specificity, and a high degree of repeatability. In the psoroptic mange compatible lesions group, included in the study as control group for cross-reactivity with the closely related mite Psoroptes cuniculi, cross-reacting antibodies to Ss?20?B3 S. scabiei antigen were detected in 42.30% of the rabbit sera. However, mean% OD values of the sarcoptic-mange group (55.61±39.20%) were significantly higher (p<0.001) than OD values of the psoroptic-mange (3.64%±5.4%) and also of the free-mange (0.21%±0.67%) groups. In addition, the ELISA was also evaluated in serum samples obtained from both naturally infested and non-infested wild rabbits from Mallorca Island. The sensitivity of the assay for this group was 100% (4 out of the 4 rabbits with sarcoptic mange compatible lesions and presence of S. scabiei mites were seropositive) and the specificity was 90% (67 out of 74 wild rabbits without detectable mange lesions were seronegative). Although, the total number of tested samples from experimentally infested, farm and wild rabbits was limited, our study showed that the ELISA is able to differentiate between infested and non-infested animals in all tested groups with very high sensitivity and specificity indicating that recombinant Ss?20?B3 is a reliable diagnostic antigen. This assay might be a cost-effective tool for detecting the presence of mangy animals and therefore helping prevent spread of mange among domestic rabbits, reducing potential transmission from female breeding rabbits to other farms, and detecting infestation with sarcoptic mange in the wild. PMID:26276579

  2. Complete genomic sequences of rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus G1 strains isolated in the European rabbit original range.

    PubMed

    Abrantes, Joana; Lopes, Ana M; Esteves, Pedro J

    2012-12-01

    The complete genomic sequences of rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) strains isolated in 1995 (CB137) and 2006 (CB194) from wild European rabbits from Portugal are described. The strains were isolated in the original range of the European rabbit and assigned to genogroup 1 (G1), which is known to have persisted only in the Iberian Peninsula. ORF2 of isolate CB137 might encode a shorter minor structural protein, VP10. PMID:23166278

  3. Neurological deficits associated with the elastase-induced aneurysm model in rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Cesar, Liliana; Miskolczi, Laszlo; Lieber, Baruch B.; Sadasivan, Chander; Gounis, Matthew J.; Wakhloo, Ajay K.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Although the rabbit elastase-induced aneurysm model is currently used widely for endovascular research and device testing, procedural causes leading to animal morbidity and mortality have not yet been clearly described. We conducted a retrospective study to analyse factors contributing to neurological deficits in rabbits that underwent the elastase-induced aneurysm creation procedure at our research center from 2002 to 2005 in order to improve the technique and reduce procedure-related morbidity and mortality. Methods: A total sample of 38 animals that underwent the procedure under the same conditions was analysed in two groups: animals that presented neurological deficits (ND, n=15) and animals that were neurological deficit free (NDF, n=23). Data were collected by reviewing the animal records and radiographic images from the procedures. Statistical analyses using the Mann–Whitney test, unpaired t-test with Welch correction and Fisher's exact tests were performed to compare the two groups based on variables associated with endothelial injury and activation of the coagulation cascade. Results: The variables of animal weight (signifying state of health of the animal), total procedure time, total balloon occlusion time and clot formation were found to be significantly and/or very significantly correlated to ND presentation. Discussion: Successful creation of the rabbit elastase-induced aneurysm model depends on careful control over several technical details. Important variables governing outcome have been identified here. A specific, improved endovascular arrangement that facilitates maneuvering of the devices and reduces the risk of air emboli is presented. PMID:18826754

  4. Acute irritation tests in risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Schlatter, C; Reinhardt, C A

    1985-02-01

    The two most important elements in assessing the risk of topical injury from a chemical are its biological properties, in the context of skin and mucous membrane damage, and the likelihood and likely nature of topical contact with the chemical. Appropriate biological tests in model systems should be based on the probable circumstances of exposure. Topical contact takes place under two distinct sets of circumstances--intentional and accidental. Chemicals that are intended to come into contact with skin and mucous membranes include cosmetics and dermatological preparations. For such compounds the frequency and extent of skin contact is predictable and any irritant effects are unacceptable. The absence of irritant effects is established by testing in human volunteers or experimental animals. Since animal skin and mucous membranes are more susceptible to irritants than those of man, the amounts or concentrations tested need not be greater than those intended for human use. It is hoped that validated alternatives to animal models will soon be available. For household or industrial chemicals where skin and/or mucous-membrane contact occurs accidentally, topical contact should generally be avoided. In such cases the objective of irritancy testing should be to establish which compounds are particularly irritant and therefore need extra care in handling. We are convinced that this latter objective can be achieved by simpler and less cruel tests than the Draize eye-irritation test. PMID:4040056

  5. Molecular dynamics studies on the NMR and X-ray structures of rabbit prion proteins.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiapu; Zhang, Yuanli

    2014-02-01

    Prion diseases, traditionally referred to as transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs), are invariably fatal and highly infectious neurodegenerative diseases that affect a wide variety of mammalian species, manifesting as scrapie in sheep and goats, bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE or mad-cow disease) in cattle, chronic wasting disease in deer and elk, and Creutzfeldt-Jakob diseases, Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker syndrome, fatal familial insomnia, and kulu in humans, etc. These neurodegenerative diseases are caused by the conversion from a soluble normal cellular prion protein (PrP(C)) into insoluble abnormally folded infectious prions (PrP(Sc)), and the conversion of PrP(C) to PrP(Sc) is believed to involve conformational change from a predominantly α-helical protein to one rich in β-sheet structure. Such a conformational change may be amenable to study by molecular dynamics (MD) techniques. For rabbits, classical studies show that they have a low susceptibility to be infected by PrP(Sc), but recently it was reported that rabbit prions can be generated through saPMCA (serial automated Protein Misfolding Cyclic Amplification) in vitro and the rabbit prion is infectious and transmissible. In this paper, we first do a detailed survey on the research advances of rabbit prion protein (RaPrP) and then we perform MD simulations on the NMR and X-ray molecular structures of rabbit prion protein wild-type and mutants. The survey shows to us that rabbits were not challenged directly in vivo with other known prion strains and the saPMCA result did not pass the test of the known BSE strain of cattle. Thus, we might still look rabbits as a prion resistant species. MD results indicate that the three α-helices of the wild-type are stable under the neutral pH environment (but under low pH environment the three α-helices have been unfolded into β-sheets), and the three α-helices of the mutants (I214V and S173N) are unfolded into rich β-sheet structures under the same pH environment. In addition, we found an interesting result that the salt bridges such as ASP201-ARG155, ASP177-ARG163 contribute greatly to the structural stability of RaPrP. PMID:24184221

  6. Novel retro-inverso peptide inhibitor reverses angiotensin receptor autoantibody-induced hypertension in the rabbit.

    PubMed

    Li, Hongliang; Kem, David C; Zhang, Ling; Huang, Bing; Liles, Campbell; Benbrook, Alexandria; Gali, Hariprasad; Veitla, Vineet; Scherlag, Benjamin J; Cunningham, Madeleine W; Yu, Xichun

    2015-04-01

    Activating autoantibodies to the angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) have been implicated in hypertensive disorders. We investigated whether AT1R antibodies produced in immunized rabbits will activate AT1R and contribute to hypertension by a direct contractile effect on the vasculature and whether they can be blocked by a novel decoy peptide. A multiple antigenic peptide containing the AT1R epitope AFHYESQ, which is the receptor-binding epitope of AT1R-activating autoantibodies, was used to immunize 6 rabbits. AT1R antibody activity was analyzed in AT1R-transfected cells, and their contractile effects were assayed using isolated perfused rat cremaster resistance arterioles. A retro-inverso D-amino acid epitope-mimetic peptide was tested for AT1R antibody inhibition in vitro and in vivo. All immunized animals produced high AT1R antibody titers and developed elevated blood pressure. No changes in measured blood chemistry values were observed after immunization. Rabbit anti-AT1R sera induced significant AT1R activation in transfected cells and vasoconstriction in the arteriole assay, both of which were blocked by losartan and the retro-inverso D-amino acid peptide. A single intravenous bolus injection of the retro-inverso d-amino acid peptide (1 mg/kg) into immunized rabbits dropped the mean arterial pressure from 122±11 to 82±6 mm Hg. Rabbit anti-AT1R sera partially suppressed angiotensin II-induced contraction of isolated rat cremaster arterioles, and the pressor response to angiotensin II infusion was attenuated in immunized animals. In conclusion, AT1R-activating autoantibodies and the retro-inverso d-amino acid peptide, respectively, have important etiologic and therapeutic implications in hypertensive subjects who harbor these autoantibodies. PMID:25691619

  7. MaxEPA fish oil enhances cholesterol-induced intimal foam cell formation in rabbits.

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, K. A.; Adelstein, R.

    1990-01-01

    In this study, the cholesterol-fed rabbit model was used to test the hypothesis that fish oil supplementation can influence the initiation and development of atherosclerotic lesions. Rabbits were fed one of two diets for a period of 30 days: a nonatherogenic diet with corn oil as the sole fat source, or an atherogenic diet containing beef tallow and cholesterol. In addition, animals received a daily supplement of either MaxEPA fish oil or corn oil (0.5 ml/kg body weight). Terminal blood samples were drawn and the cholesterol and triglyceride levels determined for both plasma and very low-density (VLDL), intermediate-density (IDL), low-density (LDL), and high-density (HDL) lipoproteins. Thiobarbituric acid-reacting substance (TBARS), an indicator of lipid peroxidation, was measured in the plasma samples. Besides these biochemical parameters of atherogenesis, the number of intimal foam cells in the descending thoracic aorta of each animal was determined by microscopic examination of the vessels en face. In rabbits fed the nonatherogenic diet, fish oil supplementation did not significantly affect any of the biochemical parameters that were measured. In contrast, fish oil supplementation of the atherogenic diet led to a significant increase in the LDL- and HDL-cholesterol as well as the HDL-triglyceride levels. Plasma TBARS also increased more than four times. Morphologic analysis of the vessels from rabbits fed the atherogenic diet indicated that fish oil supplementation led to a threefold increase in the number of intimal foam cells, a result that may be linked to increases in both LDL-cholesterol and plasma TBARS. The results of these experiments do not support the hypothesis that dietary fish oil will inhibit the initiation or progression of lesion formation in the cholesterol-fed rabbit. PMID:2221018

  8. A single immunization with a dry powder anthrax vaccine protects rabbits against lethal aerosol challenge

    PubMed Central

    Klas, S.D.; Petrie, C.R.; Warwood, S.J.; Williams, M.S.; Olds, C.L.; Stenz, J.P.; Cheff, A.M.; Hinchcliffe, M.; Richardson, C.; Wimer, S.

    2009-01-01

    Here we confirm that intranasal (IN) dry powder anthrax vaccine formulations are able to protect rabbits against aerosol challenge 9 weeks after a single immunization. The optimum dose of rPA in our dry powder anthrax vaccine formulation in rabbits was experimentally determined to be 150 ?g and therefore was chosen as the target dose for all subsequent experiments. Rabbits received a single dose of either 150 ?g rPA, 150 ?g rPA + 150 ?g of a conjugated 10-mer peptide representing the B. anthracis capsule (conj), or 150 ?g of conj alone. All dry powder formulations contained MPL and chitosan (ChiSys®). Significant anti-rPA titers and anthrax lethal toxin neutralizing antibody (TNA) levels were seen with both rPA containing vaccines, although rPA-specific IgG and TNA levels were reduced in rabbits immunized with rPA plus conj. Nine weeks after immunization, rabbits were exposed to a mean aerosol challenge dose of 278 LD50 of Ames spores. Groups immunized with rPA or with rPA + conj had significant increases in survivor proportions compared to the negative control group by Logrank test (p = 0.0001 and 0.003, respectively), and survival was not statistically different for the rPA and rPA + conj immunized groups (p = 0.63). These data demonstrate that a single immunization with our dry powder anthrax vaccine can protect against a lethal aerosol spore challenge 9 weeks later. PMID:18703110

  9. Absence of beneficial effects on rabbit sperm cell cryopreservation by several antioxidant agents.

    PubMed

    Maya-Soriano, M J; Taberner, E; Sabés-Alsina, M; Piles, M; Lopez-Bejar, M

    2015-02-01

    The generation of reactive oxygen species associated with cryopreservation could be responsible for mammalian sperm damage and the limitable value of stored semen in artificial insemination. The aim of this study was to assess several antioxidant agents supplemented in a commercial freezing extender (Gent B®) in order to improve post-thaw rabbit sperm quality. Ejaculates of 26 New Zealand White rabbit bucks were collected, evaluated and frozen using a conventional protocol. Antioxidant agents were tested at different concentrations: bovine serum albumin (BSA; 5, 30 or 60 mg/ml), retinol (RO; 50, 100 or 200 ?M) and retinyl (RI; 0.282 or 2.82 ?g/ml). Per cent viability, morphological abnormalities and intact acrosomes were determined using eosin-nigrosin staining. Motility and progressivity were analyzed by computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA). In general, all sperm quality parameters were negatively affected by the cryopreservation process, the largest effect seen was for total motility. The addition of antioxidant agents did not improve thaw sperm quality. Furthermore, for RI groups a significant decrease in sperm quality parameters was recorded. In conclusion, rabbit sperm quality is negatively affected by the cryopreservation process. To our knowledge this report is the first using these antioxidants to supplement rabbit freezing extender. BSA and RO at concentrations used in the study did not improve sperm quality parameters after thawing, whereas RI supplementation appeared to be toxic. More studies are required to find the appropriate antioxidants necessary and their most effective concentrations to improve rabbit post-thaw sperm quality. PMID:23965603

  10. +Gz-induced post-cholecystectomy syndrome in rabbit model by using a telemetric method

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Yalin; Zhao, Gang; Li, Yifeng; Wen, Dongqing; Zhang, Hui; He, Xiaojun; Zhen, Yuying; Zhang, Hongyi

    2015-01-01

    Aviation-related mechanism may exist in the post-cholecystectomy syndrome (PCS) of aircrew patients. The aim of this study was to test this hypothesis on vivo rabbit model and to explore the mechanism by using a novel telemetric method. We constructed a bile duct-to-intestinal bridge bypass on 30 rabbits, with a telemetry implant attached to the Oddi’s sphincter. Then a telemetric recording system was used to record the biliary pressure fluctuation through the subcutaneous bridge and the changes of electromyography of the Oddi’s sphincter under different +Gz acceleration. Self-control comparison was made before and after cholecystectomy. The fully implantable device was very well accepted by rabbits and the data could reflect the real experimental environment simultaneously. Biliary pressure in common bile duct increased accordingly with +Gz acceleration increased, but bile secretion didn’t change. Although +Gz acceleration could increase the frequency of burst of spike potentials in the Oddi’s sphincter, the frequency didn’t change with the +Gz acceleration increased, and the spike activity didn’t change obviously before cholecystectomy. After cholecystectomy, the biliary pressure in common bile duct remained high in 12 rabbits (40%) under +Gz exposure, and the pressure value didn’t change as the +Gz acceleration increased. The long-time changes in electromyography of the Oddi’s sphincter were observed in the same 12 rabbits, with symptoms of PCS developed in 9 of them. +Gz exposure is an important external factor leading to the biliary physiology disorder, and it may induce PCS in some aircrew patients with individual susceptibility, which means gallbladder maybe a dominant factor in regulating the biliary physiology in theses aircrew patients. PMID:26064268

  11. Enterococcus faecium AL 41: Its Enterocin M and Their Beneficial Use in Rabbits Husbandry.

    PubMed

    Lauková, Andrea; Chrastinová, L'ubica; Pogány Simonová, Monika; Strompfová, Viola; Plachá, Iveta; ?obanová, Klaudia; Formelová, Zuzana; Chrenková, Mária; Ondruška, L'ubomír

    2012-12-01

    Enterococci are ubiquitous microbiota constituting a large proportion of autochthonous microflora in animals. Some produce bacteriocins mostly enterocins; some of bacteriocin-producing strains also possess probiotic properties. Enterococcus faecium AL 41, Ent M-producing strain was tested for beneficial effect in rabbits. Five-week-old animals (72, Hycole) were divided into experimental groups (E1, E2) and control (C); 24 animals in each. Rabbits in E1 were administered AL 41 (500 ?l per animal/day, 10(9) cfu/ml) in water for 21 days; rabbits in E2 were administered Ent M (50 ?l/animal/day, activity 12,800 AU/ml) in water for 21 days. Rabbits in C fed a commercial diet. The experiment lasted 42 days. Sampling of faeces and blood was provided on day 0-1 and 21, 42; 3 animals per group were slaughtered. Caecum and appendix were separated. AL 41 colonized rabbits intestines <1.0 (log10) cfu/g, but stimulation of immunity was noted (P < 0.01; P < 0.001). Antimicrobial activity of both was noticed in faeces and/or caecum against pseudomonads. Significant decrease of coliform bacteria in faeces of E1 was noted on day 42 comparing with E2 (P < 0.05). On day 21, S. aureus cells were not detected in E1, E2. On day 42, S. aureus was not found in E2; in E1 their counts were <1.0 cfu/g, while in C it was in the count more than 1.0 cfu/g. In appendix, on day 21, significant decrease of not specified bacteria was found in E1, E2 comparing with C (P < 0.01). Administration of additives has not evoked oxidative stress. Biochemical parameters were not influenced. Higher average daily weight gains were detected by both, AL 41 and Ent M. PMID:26782184

  12. Seroprevalences of Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum in Pet Rabbits in Japan

    PubMed Central

    SALMAN, Doaa; OOHASHI, Eiji; MOHAMED, Adel Elsayed Ahmed; ABD EL-MOTTELIB, Abd El-Raheem; OKADA, Tadashi; IGARASHI, Makoto

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The potential contamination of Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum oocysts in the human environment is a concern from the public health viewpoint. However, estimation of their seroprevalences in humans cannot be performed in a manner that distinguishes between oocysts and tissue cysts as a source of infection. Rabbits are considered popular pet animals in Japan that can acquire natural infections by the aforementioned parasites only through the ingestion of oocysts. Therefore, this study was conducted to estimate the seroprevalences of T. gondii and N. caninum in pet rabbits in Japan as an indicator of the possible oocyst contamination in the environment surrounding human beings. Serum samples of 337 rabbits were examined by different serological methods. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays were performed to measure the titer of IgG and IgM antibodies. Samples revealed to be seropositive by ELISA were further analyzed by a latex agglutination test, Western blotting and an indirect immunofluorescence assay. The rates of seropositivity for T. gondii were 0.89% (3/337) and 0.29% (1/337) in IgG and IgM ELISA, respectively. SAG1 and SAG2 were detected as major antigens by the positive rabbit sera in Western blotting associated with strong staining observed by IFA in T. gondii tachyzoites. Regarding N. caninum, none of the serum samples showed a specific reaction in both Western blotting and the IFA. The results of this study indicate low seroprevalences of toxoplasmosis and neosporosis in pet rabbits in Japan, suggesting low oocyst contamination in the human environment. PMID:24584081

  13. Antithrombotic and Antiatherosclerotic Properties of Olive Oil and Olive Pomace Polar Extracts in Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Tsantila, Nektaria; Karantonis, Haralabos C.; Perrea, Despina N.; Theocharis, Stamatios E.; Iliopoulos, Dimitrios G.; Antonopoulou, Smaragdi; Demopoulos, Constantinos A.

    2007-01-01

    Olive oil polar lipid (OOPL) extract has been reported to inhibit atherosclerosis development on rabbits. Olive pomace polar lipid (PPL) extract inhibits PAF activity in vitro and the most potent antagonist has been identified as a glycerylether-sn-2-acetyl glycolipid with common structural characteristics with the respective potent antagonist of OOPL. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of PPL on early atherosclerosis development on rabbits and to compare it with the antiatherosclerotic effect of OOPL. OOPL and PPL inhibition potency, towards both PAF action and PAF binding, was tested in vitro on washed rabbit platelets. Consequently, rabbits were divided into three groups (A, B, and C). All groups were fed atherogenic diet for 22 days. Atherogenic diets in groups B and C were enriched with OOPL and PPL, respectively. At the end of the experimental time, rabbits were euthanized and aortic samples were examined histopathologically. OOPL and PPL inhibited PAF-induced aggregation, as well as specific PAF binding, with PPL being more potent. Free and bound PAF levels and PAF-AH activity were significantly elevated at the end of the experimental time. Plasma total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and triglycerides levels were also found increased. Groups B and C exhibited significantly increased values of EC50 compared to group A. Histopathological examination revealed that the development of early atherosclerosis lesions in groups B and C were significantly inhibited compared to group A. Significant differences were noted in the early atherosclerosis lesions between groups B and C, thus indicating that PPL exhibit its anti-atherosclerotic activity by blocking PAF receptor. Specific PAF antagonists with similar in vitro and in vivo bioactivity to those that have been previously reported in OOPL exist in PPL. PMID:18253466

  14. A Century of Shope Papillomavirus in Museum Rabbit Specimens

    PubMed Central

    Escudero Duch, Clara; Williams, Richard A. J.; Timm, Robert M.; Perez-Tris, Javier; Benitez, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Sylvilagus floridanus Papillomavirus (SfPV) causes growth of large horn-like tumors on rabbits. SfPV was described in cottontail rabbits (probably Sylvilagus floridanus) from Kansas and Iowa by Richard Shope in 1933, and detected in S. audubonii in 2011. It is known almost exclusively from the US Midwest. We explored the University of Kansas Natural History Museum for historical museum specimens infected with SfPV, using molecular techniques, to assess if additional wild species host SfPV, and whether SfPV occurs throughout the host range, or just in the Midwest. Secondary aims were to detect distinct strains, and evidence for strain spatio-temporal specificity. We found 20 of 1395 rabbits in the KU collection SfPV symptomatic. Three of 17 lagomorph species (S. nuttallii, and the two known hosts) were symptomatic, while Brachylagus, Lepus and eight additional Sylvilagus species were not. 13 symptomatic individuals were positive by molecular testing, including the first S. nuttallii detection. Prevalence of symptomatic individuals was significantly higher in Sylvilagus (1.8%) than Lepus. Half of these specimens came from Kansas, though new molecular detections were obtained from Jalisco—Mexico’s first—and Nebraska, Nevada, New Mexico, and Texas, USA. We document the oldest lab-confirmed case (Kansas, 1915), pre-dating Shope’s first case. SfPV amplification was possible from 63.2% of symptomatic museum specimens. Using multiple methodologies, rolling circle amplification and, multiple isothermal displacement amplification in addition to PCR, greatly improved detection rates. Short sequences were obtained from six individuals for two genes. L1 gene sequences were identical to all previously detected sequences; E7 gene sequences, were more variable, yielding five distinct SfPV1 strains that differing by less than 2% from strains circulating in the Midwest and Mexico, between 1915 and 2005. Our results do not clarify whether strains are host species specific, though they are consistent with SfPV specificity to genus Sylvilagus. PMID:26147570

  15. Poikilocytosis in Rabbits: Prevalence, Type, and Association with Disease

    PubMed Central

    Christopher, Mary M.; Hawkins, Michelle G.; Burton, Andrew G.

    2014-01-01

    Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) are a popular companion animal, food animal, and animal model of human disease. Abnormal red cell shapes (poikilocytes) have been observed in rabbits, but their significance is unknown. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence and type of poikilocytosis in pet rabbits and its association with physiologic factors, clinical disease, and laboratory abnormalities. We retrospectively analyzed blood smears from 482 rabbits presented to the University of California-Davis Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital from 1990 to 2010. Number and type of poikilocytes per 2000 red blood cells (RBCs) were counted and expressed as a percentage. Acanthocytes (>3% of RBCs) were found in 150/482 (31%) rabbits and echinocytes (>3% of RBCs) were found in 127/482 (27%) of rabbits, both healthy and diseased. Thirty-three of 482 (7%) rabbits had >30% acanthocytes and echinocytes combined. Mild to moderate (>0.5% of RBCs) fragmented red cells (schistocytes, microcytes, keratocytes, spherocytes) were found in 25/403 (6%) diseased and 0/79 (0%) healthy rabbits (P = 0.0240). Fragmentation and acanthocytosis were more severe in rabbits with inflammatory disease and malignant neoplasia compared with healthy rabbits (P<0.01). The % fragmented cells correlated with % polychromasia, RDW, and heterophil, monocyte, globulins, and fibrinogen concentrations (P<0.05). Echinocytosis was significantly associated with renal failure, azotemia, and acid-base/electrolyte abnormalities (P<0.05). Serum cholesterol concentration correlated significantly with % acanthocytes (P<0.0001), % echinocytes (P = 0.0069), and % fragmented cells (P = 0.0109), but correlations were weak (Spearman ρ <0.02). These findings provide important insights into underlying pathophysiologic mechanisms that appear to affect the prevalence and type of naturally-occurring poikilocytosis in rabbits. Our findings support the need to carefully document poikilocytes in research investigations and in clinical diagnosis and to determine their diagnostic and prognostic value. PMID:25402479

  16. Teratologic evaluation of ethylene glycol monobutyl ether in Fischer 344 rats and New Zealand white rabbits following inhalation exposure.

    PubMed Central

    Tyl, R W; Millicovsky, G; Dodd, D E; Pritts, I M; France, K A; Fisher, L C

    1984-01-01

    Timed-pregnant Fischer 344 rats and New Zealand White rabbits were exposed to ethylene glycol monobutyl ether vapors by inhalation on gestational days 6 through 15 (rats) or 6 through 18 (rabbits) at concentrations of 0, 25, 50, 100 or 200 ppm. The animals were sacrificed on gestational day 21 (rats) or 29 (rabbits). In rats, exposure to 200 or 100 ppm resulted in maternal toxicity (clinical signs, decreased body weight and weight gain, decreased absolute and relative organ weights, decreased food and water consumption and evidence of anemia), embryotoxicity (increased number of totally resorbed litters and decreased number of viable implantations per litter) and fetotoxicity (reductions in skeletal ossification). No increase in fetal malformations was observed in any exposure group relative to controls. At 50 or 25 ppm, there was no maternal, embryo or fetal toxicity (including malformations) in rats. In rabbits, exposure to 200 ppm resulted in maternal toxicity (apparent exposure-related increases in deaths and abortions, clinical signs, decreased weight during exposure and reduced gravid uterine weight at sacrifice) and embryotoxicity (reduced number of total and viable implantations per litter). No treatment-related fetotoxicity was seen. No treatment-related increased in fetal malformations or variations were seen at any exposure concentration tested. There was no evidence of maternal, embryo, or fetal toxicity (including malformations) at 100, 50 or 25 ppm in rabbits. PMID:6499818

  17. Comparative Immunogenicity in Rabbits of the Polypeptides Encoded by the 5' Terminus of Hepatitis C Virus RNA.

    PubMed

    Sominskaya, Irina; Jansons, Juris; Dovbenko, Anastasija; Petrakova, Natalia; Lieknina, Ilva; Mihailova, Marija; Latyshev, Oleg; Eliseeva, Olesja; Stahovska, Irina; Akopjana, Inara; Petrovskis, Ivars; Isaguliants, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies on the primate protection from HCV infection stressed the importance of immune response against structural viral proteins. Strong immune response against nucleocapsid (core) protein was difficult to achieve, requesting further experimentation in large animals. Here, we analyzed the immunogenicity of core aa 1-173, 1-152, and 147-191 and of its main alternative reading frame product F-protein in rabbits. Core aa 147-191 was synthesized; other polypeptides were obtained by expression in E. coli. Rabbits were immunized by polypeptide primes followed by multiple boosts and screened for specific anti-protein and anti-peptide antibodies. Antibody titers to core aa 147-191 reached 10(5); core aa 1-152, 5 × 10(5); core aa 1-173 and F-protein, 10(6). Strong immunogenicity of the last two proteins indicated that they may compete for the induction of immune response. The C-terminally truncated core was also weakly immunogenic on the T-cell level. To enhance core-specific cellular response, we immunized rabbits with the core aa 1-152 gene forbidding F-protein formation. Repeated DNA immunization induced a weak antibody and sustained proliferative response of broad specificity confirming a gain of cellular immunogenicity. Epitopes recognized in rabbits overlapped those in HCV infection. Our data promotes the use of rabbits for the immunogenicity tests of prototype HCV vaccines. PMID:26609538

  18. TeBG- and CBG-bound steroid hormones in rabbits are available for influx into uterus in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Chaudhuri, G.; Steingold, K.A.; Pardridge, W.M.; Judd, H.L. )

    1988-01-01

    The metabolic clearance rate (MCR) of gonadal or adrenal steroid hormones in rabbits often does not bear the expected inverse relationship with hormone binding to testosterone-binding globulin (TeBG) or corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG). This suggests TeBG or CBG may not impede steroid hormone delivery to tissues. The effects of rabbit plasma proteins on the influxes of {sup 3}H-labeled steroids from the circulation into the rabbit uterus were measured in vivo using a tissue sampling single-injection technique. In the absence of plasma proteins, estradiol (E{sub 2}) and testosterone (T) were freely diffusible through the uterine microvasculature (i.e., extraction >80%). The extractions of dihydrostestosterone (DHT) and corticosterone (B) ranged from 60 to 72%, while that of cortisol (F) was reduced at 40%. Rabbit serum exerted no inhibition of the influxes of the steroids tested. The influxes of T and B greatly exceeded the rates that would be expected if only the free and albumin-bound fractions estimated in vitro were diffusible in vivo. However, the extraction of ({sup 3}H)corticosteroid-binding globulin or bovine ({sup 3}H)albumin were low, consistent with little, if any, extravascular uptake of the plasma proteins. The results indicate both albumin-bound and globulin-bound steroid hormone are available for transport into the uterus in the rabbit in vivo without significant exodus of the plasma protein, per se.

  19. Comparative Immunogenicity in Rabbits of the Polypeptides Encoded by the 5′ Terminus of Hepatitis C Virus RNA

    PubMed Central

    Sominskaya, Irina; Jansons, Juris; Dovbenko, Anastasija; Petrakova, Natalia; Lieknina, Ilva; Mihailova, Marija; Latyshev, Oleg; Eliseeva, Olesja; Stahovska, Irina; Akopjana, Inara; Petrovskis, Ivars; Isaguliants, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies on the primate protection from HCV infection stressed the importance of immune response against structural viral proteins. Strong immune response against nucleocapsid (core) protein was difficult to achieve, requesting further experimentation in large animals. Here, we analyzed the immunogenicity of core aa 1–173, 1–152, and 147–191 and of its main alternative reading frame product F-protein in rabbits. Core aa 147–191 was synthesized; other polypeptides were obtained by expression in E. coli. Rabbits were immunized by polypeptide primes followed by multiple boosts and screened for specific anti-protein and anti-peptide antibodies. Antibody titers to core aa 147–191 reached 105; core aa 1–152, 5 × 105; core aa 1–173 and F-protein, 106. Strong immunogenicity of the last two proteins indicated that they may compete for the induction of immune response. The C-terminally truncated core was also weakly immunogenic on the T-cell level. To enhance core-specific cellular response, we immunized rabbits with the core aa 1–152 gene forbidding F-protein formation. Repeated DNA immunization induced a weak antibody and sustained proliferative response of broad specificity confirming a gain of cellular immunogenicity. Epitopes recognized in rabbits overlapped those in HCV infection. Our data promotes the use of rabbits for the immunogenicity tests of prototype HCV vaccines. PMID:26609538

  20. Osteostatin-loaded onto mesoporous ceramics improves the early phase of bone regeneration in a rabbit osteopenia model.

    PubMed

    Lozano, Daniel; Trejo, Cynthia G; Gómez-Barrena, Enrique; Manzano, Miguel; Doadrio, Juan C; Salinas, Antonio J; Vallet-Regí, María; García-Honduvilla, Natalio; Esbrit, Pedro; Buján, Julia

    2012-07-01

    Parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) is an important modulator of bone formation. Recently, we reported that PTHrP (107-111) (osteostatin) coating onto mesoporous ceramics confers osteogenic activity to these materials. Bone repair is dramatically compromised in osteopenia/osteoporosis. Thus, we examined the efficacy of unmodified and organically modified SBA15 ceramics loaded with osteostatin in promoting bone repair in an osteoporotic rabbit model. Osteoporosis was induced in New Zealand rabbits by methylprednisolone administration, and healthy rabbits were used as controls. Tested materials were implanted into a femoral cavitary defect, and animals were sacrificed at 2 weeks post-implantation. At this time, implants were encapsulated by a variable layer of fibrotic tissue with no evidence of inflammation. Similarly to observations in normal rabbits, both types of osteostatin-loaded bioceramics induced tissue regeneration associated with increased staining for PCNA, Runx2, osteopontin, and/or vascular endothelial growth factor in osteoporotic rabbits. Our present findings demonstrate that these osteostatin-bearing bioceramics increase the early repair response not only in normal bone but also in osteoporotic bone after a local injury. PMID:22414621

  1. Interspecies differences in the metabolism of methotrexate: An insight into the active site differences between human and rabbit aldehyde oxidase.

    PubMed

    Choughule, Kanika V; Joswig-Jones, Carolyn A; Jones, Jeffrey P

    2015-08-01

    Several drug compounds have failed in clinical trials due to extensive biotransformation by aldehyde oxidase (AOX) (EC 1.2.3.1). One of the main reasons is the difficulty in scaling clearance for drugs metabolised by AOX, from preclinical species to human. Using methotrexate as a probe substrate, we evaluated AOX metabolism in liver cytosol from human and commonly used laboratory species namely guinea pig, monkey, rat and rabbit. We found that the metabolism of methotrexate in rabbit liver cytosol was several orders of magnitude higher than any of the other species tested. The results of protein quantitation revealed that the amount of AOX1 in human liver was similar to rabbit liver. To understand if the observed differences in activity were due to structural differences, we modelled rabbit AOX1 using the previously generated human AOX1 homology model. Molecular docking of methotrexate into the active site of the enzyme led to the identification of important residues that could potentially be involved in substrate binding and account for the observed differences. In order to study the impact of these residue changes on enzyme activity, we used site directed mutagenesis to construct mutant AOX1 cDNAs by substituting nucleotides of human AOX1 with relevant ones of rabbit AOX1. AOX1 mutant proteins were expressed in Escherichia coli. Differences in the kinetic properties of these mutants have been presented in this study. PMID:26032640

  2. Removal of Nonspecific Antiproteinases from Serum of Rabbits Hyperimmunized Against Micrococcus and Staphylococcus Proteinases

    PubMed Central

    Scherer, R. K.; Brown, R. W.

    1972-01-01

    The naturally occurring (nonspecific) proteinase inhibitor which occurs in the alpha globulin fraction of immune rabbit serum was separated from specific staphylococcal and micrococcal antiproteinases by treatment of the antiserum with 2-ethoxy-6-9-diaminacridine. The 2-ethoxy-6-9-diaminacridine-treated serum could then be used to classify these bacterial proteinases by testing directly on casein agar without prior electrophoresis of the serum. Images PMID:5066560

  3. Evaluation of a Novel Silicate Substituted Hydroxyapatite Bone Graft Substitute in a Rabbit Posterolateral Fusion Model

    PubMed Central

    Fredericks, Douglas C.; Petersen, Emily B.; Sahai, Nikhil; Corley, Katherine Gibson N.; DeVries, Nicole; Grosland, Nicole M.; Smucker, Joseph D.

    2013-01-01

    Study Design/Setting Randomized, controlled study in a laboratory setting. Blinded observations/assessment of study outcomes. Objective The purpose of this study is to determine the performance characteristics of a novel silicate-substituted hydroxyapatite bone graft substitute (BGS), SiCaP EP (Baxter Healthcare/ ApaTech, Elstree, UK), in a stand-alone mode, a stand-alone with bone marrow aspirate (BMA) mode, and an extender mode with iliac crest autograft (ICBG) in a rabbit posterolateral spine fusion model. The investigational BGS is compared to a standard iliac crest autograft (ICBG) control. Summary of Background Data The rabbit posterolateral fusion model is an established environment for testing of fusion efficacy. It offers the opportunity to obtain radiographic, histological, and biomechanical data on novel bone graft substitutes. Methods One hundred and twenty rabbits were entered into the study with 116 used for analysis. Bilateral posterolateral lumbar intertransverse fusions were performed at L5-L6. The lateral two thirds of the transverse processes were decorti cated and covered with graft material in the following five groups: ICBG, SiCaP EP stand-alone, SiCaP EP with BMA (1:0.5 by volume), and SiCaP EP with ICBG (1:3 by volume). Rabbits were necropsied at 4, 8, and 12-week time points and fusion rate, quantity, and quality was evaluated based on manual palpation, mechanical stiffness testing, pqCT, and histological assessment. Results SiCaP EP, ICBG+SiCaP EP (3:1), and SiCaP EP+BMA (1:0.5) compare favorably to iliac crest autologous bone by multiple metrics in this rabbit posterolateral fusion model. Fusion efficacy via manual palpation and mechanical stiffness testing metrics indicate that all SiCaP EP groups had similar group-to-group performance, and were not significantly different than the ICBG control at each time period evaluated. Conclusions In this commonly used rabbit posterolateral fusion model, SiCaP EP utilized as a stand-alone, as a stand-alone with BMA, and as an autograft (ICBG) extender produces results that are clinically and radiographically similar to ICBG. PMID:24027457

  4. Allergens of mammalian origin. II. Characterization of allergens extracted from rat, mouse, guinea pig, and rabbit pelts.

    PubMed

    Ohman, J L; Lowell, F C; Bloch, K J

    1975-01-01

    Aqueous extracts prepared from lyophilized, defatted rat, mouse, guinea pig, and rabbit pelts elicited intense wheal-and-flare responses in the skin of a high proportion of patients who were clinically sensitive to these animals. The major allergens in each extract were nondialyzable. Skin test reactions to rat, mouse, and guinea pig serum were common in patients allergic to these animals. The fractions of rat, mouse, and rabbit pelt extract showing maximum allergenic activity contained proteins with the electrophoretic mobility of serum albumin. Fractions of guinea pig pelt extract with maximum allergenic activity were of prealbumin mobility and contained little stainable protein. On Sephadex G-100 gel filtration, most allergen from rat, mouse, and guinea pig pelt extracts was recovered in fractions containing proteins with a molecular weight range of 10,000 to 25,000 daltons. Allergen in rabbit pelt extract had a slightly higher molecular weight range of 18,000 to 38,000 daltons. PMID:162912

  5. Determination of toxicity in rabbits and corresponding detection of monofluoroacetate in four Palicourea (Rubiaceae) species from the Amazonas state, Brazil.

    PubMed

    de L Carvalho, Fabricio K; Cook, Daniel; Lee, Stephen T; Taylor, Charlotte M; Soares Oliveira, Jefferson Bruno; Riet-Correa, Franklin

    2016-01-01

    Numerous monofluoroacetate (MFA)-containing plants in Brazil cause sudden death syndrome precipitated by exercise in livestock, which is characterized by loss of balance, ataxia, labored breathing, muscle tremors, and recumbence leading to death. Four species of Palicourea collected at six farms were tested for the presence of MFA and their toxicity to rabbits. Palicourea longiflora and Palicourea barraensis contained MFA and caused sudden death in the rabbits. Palicourea croceoides and Palicourea nitidella did not contain MFA and were not toxic to rabbits. P. longiflora and P. barraensis were collected at three farms with a history of sudden death in their cattle. This is the first report of toxicity in regard to these two species. PMID:26603601

  6. Adiponectin stimulates glucose uptake in rabbit blastocysts.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Suenje; Santos, Anne Navarrete; Thieme, René; Ramin, Nicole; Fischer, Bernd

    2010-11-01

    Since the discovery of adipokines, the adipose tissue is no longer considered to be an inactive fat storage. It secretes a variety of bioactive molecules, which regulate body metabolism and energy homeostasis. One of these molecules is the adipokine adiponectin. In different tissues, adiponectin triggers metabolic effects through the adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (PRKA), which is a master regulator in glucose and lipid metabolism. Recent studies point to a role for adiponectin in reproduction. Adiponectin and its receptors are present in female reproductive tract during pregnancy, and the preimplantation embryo is fully equipped with adiponectin. Here, we show that both receptor isoforms, ADIPOR1 and ADIPOR2, are expressed in 6-day-old rabbit blastocysts. To investigate the signaling pathway of adiponectin in preimplantation embryos, rabbit blastocysts were cultured in vitro and stimulated with adiponectin. Supplementation of adiponectin (1 ?g/ml) enhanced PRKA alpha 1/2 (PRKAA1/2) phosphorylation and decreased expression of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase 2 (PCK2), a key regulator of gluconeogenesis. Inhibition of PRKAA1/2 by Compound C (10 ?M) restored PCK2 transcription. Adiponectin enhanced embryonic glucose uptake and led to a translocation of solute carrier family 2 (facilitated glucose transporter), member 4 (SLC2A4), previously known as GLUT4. We conclude that adiponectin influences the glucose metabolism of rabbit blastocysts via the phosphorylation of PRKAA1/2, which in turn results in a decrease of gluconeogenesis and an increase in glycolysis. The regulatory influence of adiponectin on glucose metabolism of blastocysts may be of specific interest in pathophysiological situations, such as obesity during pregnancy. PMID:20686181

  7. The anisotropic compressive mechanical properties of the rabbit patellar tendon.

    PubMed

    Williams, Lakiesha N; Elder, Steven H; Bouvard, J L; Horstemeyer, M F

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we examine the transverse and longitudinal compressive mechanical behavior of the rabbit patellar tendon. The anisotropic compressive properties are of interest, because compression occurs where the tendon attaches to bone and where the tendon wraps around bone leading to the development of fibro-cartilaginous matrices. We quantified the time dependent viscoelastic and anisotropic behavior of the tendon under compression. For both orientations, sections of patellar tendon were drawn from mature male white New Zealand rabbits in preparation for testing. The tendons were sequentially compressed to 40% strain at strain rates of 0.1, 1 and 10% strain(s) using a computer-controlled stepper motor driven device under physiological conditions. Following monotonic loading, the tendons were subjected to stress relaxation. The tendon equilibrium compressive modulus was quantified to be 19.49+/-11.46 kPa for the transverse direction and 1.11+/-0.57 kPa for the longitudinal direction. The compressive modulus at applied strain rates of 0.1, 1 and 10% strain(s) in the transverse orientation were 13.48+/-2.31, 18.24+/-4.58 and 20.90+/-8.60 kPa, respectively. The compressive modulus at applied strain rates of 0.1, 1 and 10% strain/s in the longitudinal orientation were 0.19+/-0.11, 1.27+/-1.38 and 3.26+/-3.49 kPa, respectively. The modulus values were almost significantly different for the examination of the effect of orientation on the equilibrium modulus (p=0.054). Monotonic loading of the tendon showed visual differences of the strain rate dependency; however, no significant difference was shown in the statistical analysis of the effect of strain rate on compressive modulus. The statistical analysis of the effect of orientation on compressive modulus showed a significant difference. The difference shown in the orientation analysis validated the anisotropic nature of the tendon. PMID:19065006

  8. NATURAL BESNOITIA SP. INFECTION IN DOMESTIC RABBITS FROM ARGENTINA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Besnoitia spp. are apicomplexan coccidian parasites affecting several species of mammals and cold-blooded animals in several countries. Besnoitia sp. tissue cysts were seen in several tissues of five rabbits from a rabbit breeder in La Plata, Argentina. Bradyzoites released from macroscopic tissue...

  9. Mineral analysis in rabbit meat from Galicia (NW Spain).

    PubMed

    Hermida, M; Gonzalez, M; Miranda, M; Rodríguez-Otero, J L

    2006-08-01

    A total of 54 rabbits 50, 70 and 90 days old, were taken from farms in Galicia (NW Spain); 18 rabbits of each age were sampled. The minerals in the muscle meat from the back legs of the rabbits were analysed, and the following average concentrations were found: ash 1.21/100g, potassium 388mg/100g; phosphorus 237mg/100g; sodium 60mg/100g; magnesium 27mg/100g; calcium 8.7mg/100g; zinc 10.9mg/kg; iron 5.56mg/kg; copper 0.78mg/kg; and manganese 0.33mg/kg. The high potassium and low sodium concentration may make rabbit meat particularly recommended for hypertension diets. Rabbit meat is rich in phosphorus, and 100g provides approximately 30% of the recommended daily intake. However, rabbit meat provides less zinc and iron than meats of other species. The Galician rabbit meat analysed in this study, shows higher copper and manganese, and lower calcium contents than those found in the literature for rabbit meat of other origins. PMID:22062563

  10. Rabbit haemorrhagic disease (RHD) and rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV): a review

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) is a calicivirus of the genus Lagovirus that causes rabbit haemorrhagic disease (RHD) in adult European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus). First described in China in 1984, the virus rapidly spread worldwide and is nowadays considered as endemic in several countries. In Australia and New Zealand where rabbits are pests, RHDV was purposely introduced for rabbit biocontrol. Factors that may have precipitated RHD emergence remain unclear, but non-pathogenic strains seem to pre-date the appearance of the pathogenic strains suggesting a key role for the comprehension of the virus origins. All pathogenic strains are classified within one single serotype, but two subtypes are recognised, RHDV and RHDVa. RHD causes high mortality in both domestic and wild adult animals, with individuals succumbing between 48-72 h post-infection. No other species has been reported to be fatally susceptible to RHD. The disease is characterised by acute necrotising hepatitis, but haemorrhages may also be found in other organs, in particular the lungs, heart, and kidneys due to disseminated intravascular coagulation. Resistance to the disease might be explained in part by genetically determined absence or weak expression of attachment factors, but humoral immunity is also important. Disease control in rabbitries relies mainly on vaccination and biosecurity measures. Such measures are difficult to be implemented in wild populations. More recent research has indicated that RHDV might be used as a molecular tool for therapeutic applications. Although the study of RHDV and RHD has been hampered by the lack of an appropriate cell culture system for the virus, several aspects of the replication, epizootology, epidemiology and evolution have been disclosed. This review provides a broad coverage and description of the current knowledge on the disease and the virus. PMID:22325049

  11. Parasites of cottontail rabbits of southern Illinois.

    PubMed

    Lepitzki, D A; Woolf, A; Bunn, B M

    1992-12-01

    Fifteen species of parasites including Haemaphysalis leporispalustris, Ixodes dentatus, Amblyomma americanum, Cediopsylla simplex, Odontopsyllus multispinosus, Cuterebra sp., Obeliscoides cuniculi, Trichostrongylus calcaratus, Trichostrongylus affinis, Longistriata noviberiae, Dermatoxys veligera, Trichuris sp., Mosgovoyia sp., Taenia pisiformis, and Hasstilesia tricolor as well as coccidia oocysts were collected from 96 cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus) confined to a pen in southern Illinois in 1983 and 1984. The diversity of parasites and the intensities of infections were similar to published reports on free-ranging populations. Most variations in parasite abundances were attributable to season. Few lesions were seen in association with parasitism. PMID:1491303

  12. Surgical Management of Ear Diseases in Rabbits.

    PubMed

    Csomos, Rebecca; Bosscher, Georgia; Mans, Christoph; Hardie, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Otitis externa and media are frequently diagnosed disorders in rabbits and are particularly common in lop-eared breeds because of the specific anatomy of the ear canal. Medical management for otitis externa and media often provides only a temporary improvement in clinical signs. Surgery by means of partial or total ear canal ablation (PECA or TECA) combined with lateral bulla osteotomy (LBO) represents a feasible approach that is well tolerated and provides a good clinical outcome. Short-term complications associated with PECA/TECA-LBO include facial nerve paralysis and vestibular disease. PMID:26611929

  13. A Ribosome Dissociation Factor from Rabbit Reticulocytes

    PubMed Central

    Lubsen, Nicolette H.; Davis, Bernard D.

    1972-01-01

    A ribosome dissociation factor has been detected in an extract of ribosomal particles from rabbit reticulocytes. This factor dissociates free ribosomes from reticulocytes and also from Escherichia coli; it does not dissociate ribosomes complexed with peptidyl-tRNA and mRNA. The reaction appears to be stoichiometric rather than catalytic; it reaches completion in one minute at 37°C, but is very slow at 0°C, and it is antagonized and reversed by Mg++. Reticulocyte dissociation factor thus closely resembles that from E. coli. However, the activity has been found primarily associated with the native large subunits rather than the small subunits in lysates. PMID:4551141

  14. Preliminary research on myosin light chain kinase in rabbit liver

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Bin; Zhu, Hua-Qing; Luo, Zhao-Feng; Zhou, Qing; Wang, Yuan; Wang, Yu-Zhen

    2001-01-01

    AIM: To study preliminarily the properties of myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) in rabbit liver. METHODS: The expression of MLCK was detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR); the MLCK was obtained from rabbit liver, and its activity was analyzed by ?-32 P incorporation technique to detect the phosphorylation of myosin light chain. RESULTS: MLCK was expressed in rabbit liver, and the activity of the enzyme was similar to rabbit smooth muscle MLCK, and calmodulin- dependent. When the concentration was 0.65 mg •L¯¹, the activity was at the highest level. CONCLUSION: MLCK expressed in rabbit liver may catalyze the phosphorylation of myosin light chain, which may play important roles in the regulation of hepatic cell functions. PMID:11854919

  15. Welfare Impacts of Pindone Poisoning in Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus).

    PubMed

    Fisher, Penny; Brown, Samantha; Arrow, Jane

    2016-01-01

    Control methods used to manage unwanted impacts of the European rabbit in Australia and New Zealand include the use of toxic bait containing the anticoagulant pindone. Towards increased certainty in evaluating the animal welfare impacts of pindone poisoning in rabbits, we recorded behavioral and post-mortem data from rabbits which ingested lethal quantities of pindone bait in a laboratory trial. Pindone poisoning in rabbits resulted in welfare compromise, primarily through functional impairments related to internal haemorrhage over a maximum duration of 7 days. Applying this data to a formal assessment framework for ranking animal welfare impacts indicated that pindone had relatively high severity and also duration of welfare impacts in comparison to other rabbit control methods. PMID:26927192

  16. Transgenic rabbits as therapeutic protein bioreactors and human disease models.

    PubMed

    Fan, Jianglin; Watanabe, Teruo

    2003-09-01

    Genetically modified laboratory animals provide a powerful approach for studying gene expression and regulation and allow one to directly examine structure-function and cause-and-effect relationships in pathophysiological processes. Today, transgenic mice are available as a research tool in almost every research institution. On the other hand, the development of a relatively large mammalian transgenic model, transgenic rabbits, has provided unprecedented opportunities for investigators to study the mechanisms of human diseases and has also provided an alternative way to produce therapeutic proteins to treat human diseases. Transgenic rabbits expressing human genes have been used as a model for cardiovascular disease, AIDS, and cancer research. The recombinant proteins can be produced from the milk of transgenic rabbits not only at lower cost but also on a relatively large scale. One of the most promising and attractive recombinant proteins derived from transgenic rabbit milk, human alpha-glucosidase, has been successfully used to treat the patients who are genetically deficient in this enzyme. Although the pronuclear microinjection is still the major and most popular method for the creation of transgenic rabbits, recent progress in gene targeting and animal cloning has opened new avenues that should make it possible to produce transgenic rabbits by somatic cell nuclear transfer in the future. Based on a computer-assisted search of the studies of transgenic rabbits published in the English literature here, we introduce to the reader the achievements made thus far with transgenic rabbits, with emphasis on the application of these rabbits as human disease models and live bioreactors for producing human therapeutic proteins and on the recent progress in cloned rabbits. PMID:12951161

  17. Specialised pacemaking cells in the rabbit urethra.

    PubMed

    Sergeant, G P; Hollywood, M A; McCloskey, K D; Thornbury, K D; McHale, N G

    2000-07-15

    1. Collagenase dispersal of strips of rabbit urethra yielded, in addition to normal spindle-shaped smooth muscle cells, a small proportion of branched cells which resembled the interstitial cells of Cajal dispersed from canine colon. These were clearly distinguishable from smooth muscle in their appearance under the phase-contrast microscope, their immunohistochemistry and their ultrastructure. They had abundant vimentin filaments but no myosin, a discontinuous basal lamina, sparse rough endoplasmic reticulum, many mitochondria and a well-developed smooth endoplasmic reticulum. 2. Interstitial cells were non-contractile but exhibited regular spontaneous depolarisations in current clamp. These could be increased in frequency by noradrenaline and blocked by perfusion with calcium-free solution. In voltage clamp they showed abundant calcium-activated chloride current and spontaneous transient inward currents which could be blocked by chloride channel blockers. 3. The majority of smooth muscle cells were vigorously contractile when stimulated but did not show spontaneous electrical activity in current clamp. In voltage clamp, smooth muscle cells showed very little calcium-activated chloride current. 4. We conclude that there are specialised pacemaking cells in the rabbit urethra that may be responsible for initiating the slow waves recorded from smooth muscle cells in the intact syncitium. PMID:10896724

  18. Mechanism of fever induction in rabbits.

    PubMed Central

    Siegert, R; Philipp-Dormston, W K; Radsak, K; Menzel, H

    1976-01-01

    Three exogenous pyrogens (Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide, synthetic double-stranded ribonucleic acid. Newcastle disease virus) were compared with respect to their mechanisms of fever induction in rabbits. All inducers stimulated the production of an endogenous pyrogen demonstrated in the blood as well as prostaglandins of the E group, and of cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate in the cerebrospinal fluid. The concentrations of these compounds were elevated approximately twofold as compared to the controls. Independently of the mode of induction, the fever reaction could be prevented by pretreatment with 5 mg of cycloheximide per kg, although the three fever mediators were induced as in febrile animals. Consequently, at least one additional fever mediator that is sensitive to a 30 to 50% inhibition of protein synthesis by cycloheximide has to be postulated. The comparable reactions of the rabbits after administration of different pyrogens argues for a similar fever mechanism. In contrast to fever induction there was no stimulation of endogenous pyrogen, prostaglandins of the E group, and cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate in hyperthermia as a consequence of exposure of the animals to exogenous overheating. Furthermore, hyperthermia could not be prevented by cycloheximide. PMID:185148

  19. Increased virulence of Rabbit Haemorrhagic Disease Virus associated with genetic resistance in wild Australian rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus)

    PubMed Central

    Elsworth, Peter; Cooke, Brian D.; Kovaliski, John; Sinclair, Ronald; Holmes, Edward C.; Strive, Tanja

    2015-01-01

    The release of myxoma virus (MYXV) and Rabbit Haemorrhagic Disease Virus (RHDV) in Australia with the aim of controlling overabundant rabbits has provided a unique opportunity to study the initial spread and establishment of emerging pathogens, as well as their co-evolution with their mammalian hosts. In contrast to MYXV, which attenuated shortly after its introduction, rapid attenuation of RHDV has not been observed. By studying the change in virulence of recent field isolates at a single field site we show, for the first time, that RHDV virulence has increased through time, likely because of selection to overcome developing genetic resistance in Australian wild rabbits. High virulence also appears to be favoured as rabbit carcasses, rather than diseased animals, are the likely source of mechanical insect transmission. These findings not only help elucidate the co-evolutionary interaction between rabbits and RHDV, but reveal some of the key factors shaping virulence evolution. PMID:25146599

  20. Apraclonidine effects on ocular responses to YAG laser irradiation to the rabbit iris

    SciTech Connect

    Sugiyama, K.; Kitazawa, Y.; Kawai, K. )

    1990-04-01

    Apraclonidine (p-aminoclonidine) ophthalmic solution effectively reduces the rise in intraocular pressure (IOP) following anterior segment laser surgery. We tested the effect of topical 0.5% apraclonidine on intraocular pressure and on protein and prostaglandin (PG) E2 concentrations in aqueous humor following Q-switched Nd:YAG laser irradiation to the iris of albino rabbits, at an energy level of 2 to 200 mJ. IOP was measured prior to and for 24 hr after irradiation. Aqueous humor was withdrawn before and 1 hr after laser irradiation for determining protein (Lowry method) and PGE2 (radioimmunoassay). Four to seven rabbits were used for each experiment. The increase in IOP and protein concentration following laser irradiation was demonstrated to be dependent on the amount of laser energy. Apraclonidine completely abolished the IOP rise, and significantly reduced the elevation of protein content. Apraclonidine failed to affect the increase in PGE2.

  1. Effects of alpha 1-adrenoceptor blocker prazosin on microcirculation in terminal rabbit ileum.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, C; Lewerenz, A; Kreyer, I; Luther, B

    1989-01-01

    The influence of the specific alpha 1-blocker prazosin on the microcirculation of the terminal ileum was examined in 10 rabbits. For this purpose an isotope clearance test was carried out by administering 133-Xenon solution into the intestinal wall before and after the intra-arterial injection of prazosin (1.0 mg) via the superior mesenteric artery. These experiments were supplemented by haemodynamic and thermographic measurements in a further group of 5 rabbits. Due to the systemic circulatory effect of prazosin, i.e. the drug-induced hypotension, the bowel segment exhibited, contrary to expectations, significantly delayed values for isotope elimination indicating a reduced local tissue clearance and blood supply. Thermographic observations also confirmed the impairment of mesenteric blood flow after prazosin. Therapeutic applicability of alpha 1-adrenoceptor blockers to treat intestinal circulatory disturbances in diseases of vascular genesis thus remains dubious. PMID:2576988

  2. Hypothyroidism Affects Vascularization and Promotes Immune Cells Infiltration into Pancreatic Islets of Female Rabbits.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Castelán, Julia; Martínez-Gómez, Margarita; Castelán, Francisco; Cuevas, Estela

    2015-01-01

    Thyroidectomy induces pancreatic edema and immune cells infiltration similarly to that observed in pancreatitis. In spite of the controverted effects of hypothyroidism on serum glucose and insulin concentrations, the number and proliferation of Langerhans islet cells as well as the presence of extracellular matrix are affected depending on the islet size. In this study, we evaluated the effect of methimazole-induced hypothyroidism on the vascularization and immune cells infiltration into islets. A general observation of pancreas was also done. Twelve Chinchilla-breed female adult rabbits were divided into control (n = 6) and hypothyroid groups (n = 6, methimazole, 0.02% in drinking water for 30 days). After the treatment, rabbits were sacrificed and their pancreas was excised, histologically processed, and stained with Periodic Acid-Schiff (PAS) or Masson's Trichrome techniques. Islets were arbitrarily classified into large, medium, and small ones. The external and internal portions of each islet were also identified. Student-t-test and Mann-Whitney-U test or two-way ANOVAs were used to compare variables between groups. In comparison with control rabbits, hypothyroidism induced a strong infiltration of immune cells and a major presence of collagen and proteoglycans in the interlobular septa. Large islets showed a high vascularization and immune cells infiltration. The present results show that hypothyroidism induces pancreatitis and insulitis. PMID:26175757

  3. Hypothyroidism Affects Vascularization and Promotes Immune Cells Infiltration into Pancreatic Islets of Female Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Castelán, Julia; Martínez-Gómez, Margarita; Castelán, Francisco; Cuevas, Estela

    2015-01-01

    Thyroidectomy induces pancreatic edema and immune cells infiltration similarly to that observed in pancreatitis. In spite of the controverted effects of hypothyroidism on serum glucose and insulin concentrations, the number and proliferation of Langerhans islet cells as well as the presence of extracellular matrix are affected depending on the islet size. In this study, we evaluated the effect of methimazole-induced hypothyroidism on the vascularization and immune cells infiltration into islets. A general observation of pancreas was also done. Twelve Chinchilla-breed female adult rabbits were divided into control (n = 6) and hypothyroid groups (n = 6, methimazole, 0.02% in drinking water for 30 days). After the treatment, rabbits were sacrificed and their pancreas was excised, histologically processed, and stained with Periodic Acid-Schiff (PAS) or Masson's Trichrome techniques. Islets were arbitrarily classified into large, medium, and small ones. The external and internal portions of each islet were also identified. Student-t-test and Mann-Whitney-U test or two-way ANOVAs were used to compare variables between groups. In comparison with control rabbits, hypothyroidism induced a strong infiltration of immune cells and a major presence of collagen and proteoglycans in the interlobular septa. Large islets showed a high vascularization and immune cells infiltration. The present results show that hypothyroidism induces pancreatitis and insulitis. PMID:26175757

  4. Innervation of the rabbit cardiac ventricles.

    PubMed

    Pauziene, Neringa; Alaburda, Paulius; Rysevaite-Kyguoliene, Kristina; Pauza, Audrys G; Inokaitis, Hermanas; Masaityte, Aiste; Rudokaite, Gabriele; Saburkina, Inga; Plisiene, Jurgita; Pauza, Dainius H

    2016-01-01

    The rabbit is widely used in experimental cardiac physiology, but the neuroanatomy of the rabbit heart remains insufficiently examined. This study aimed to ascertain the architecture of the intrinsic nerve plexus in the walls and septum of rabbit cardiac ventricles. In 51 rabbit hearts, a combined approach involving: (i) histochemical acetylcholinesterase staining of intrinsic neural structures in total cardiac ventricles; (ii) immunofluorescent labelling of intrinsic nerves, nerve fibres (NFs) and neuronal somata (NS); and (iii) transmission electron microscopy of intrinsic ventricular nerves and NFs was used. Mediastinal nerves access the ventral and lateral surfaces of both ventricles at a restricted site between the root of the ascending aorta and the pulmonary trunk. The dorsal surface of both ventricles is supplied by several epicardial nerves extending from the left dorsal ganglionated nerve subplexus on the dorsal left atrium. Ventral accessing nerves are thicker and more numerous than dorsal nerves. Intrinsic ventricular NS are rare on the conus arteriosus and the root of the pulmonary trunk. The number of ventricular NS ranged from 11 to 220 per heart. Four chemical phenotypes of NS within ventricular ganglia were identified, i.e. ganglionic cells positive for choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), and biphenotypic, i.e. positive for both ChAT/nNOS and for ChAT/tyrosine hydroxylase. Clusters of small intensely fluorescent cells are distributed within or close to ganglia on the root of the pulmonary trunk, but not on the conus arteriosus. The largest and most numerous intrinsic nerves proceed within the epicardium. Scarce nerves were found near myocardial blood vessels, but the myocardium contained only a scarce meshwork of NFs. In the endocardium, large numbers of thin nerves and NFs proceed along the bundle of His and both its branches up to the apex of the ventricles. The endocardial meshwork of fine NFs was approximately eight times denser than the myocardial meshwork. Adrenergic NFs predominate considerably in all layers of the ventricular walls and septum, whereas NFs of other neurochemical phenotypes were in the minority and their amount differed between the epicardium, myocardium and endocardium. The densities of NFs positive for nNOS and ChAT were similar in the epicardium and endocardium, but NFs positive for nNOS in the myocardium were eight times more abundant than NFs positive for ChAT. Potentially sensory NFs positive for both calcitonin gene-related peptide and substance P were sparse in the myocardial layer, but numerous in epicardial nerves and particularly abundant within the endocardium. Electron microscopic observations demonstrate that intrinsic ventricular nerves have a distinctive morphology, which may be attributed to remodelling of the peripheral nerves after their access into the ventricular wall. In conclusion, the rabbit ventricles display complex structural organization of intrinsic ventricular nerves, NFs and ganglionic cells. The results provide a basic anatomical background for further functional analysis of the intrinsic nervous system in the cardiac ventricles. PMID:26510903

  5. Quantitative assessment of rabbit alveolar macrophage function by chemiluminescence

    SciTech Connect

    Brennan, P.C.; Kirchner, F.R.

    1985-08-01

    Rabbit alveolar macrophages (RAM) were cultured for 24 hr with concentrations ranging from 3 to 12 ..mu..g/ml of vanadium oxide (V/sub 2/O/sub 5/), a known cytotoxic agent, or with high-molecular-weight organic by-products from coal gasification processes. After culture the cells were harvested and tested for functional capacity using three types of indicators: (1) luminol-amplified chemiluminescence (CL), which quantitatively detects photon emission due to respiratory burst activity measured in a newly designed instrument with standardized reagents; (2) the reduction of nitro blue tetrazolium-saturated polyacrylamide beads, a semiquantitative measure of respiratory burst activity; and (3) phagocytic efficiency, defined as percentage of cells incorporating immunoglobulin-coated polyacrylamide beads. Chemiluminescence declined linearly with increasing concentrations of V/sub 2/O/sub 5/ over the dose range tested. Dye reduction and phagocytic efficiency similarly decreased with increasing V/sub 2/O/sub 5/ concentration, but were less sensitive indicators of functional impairment than CL as measured by the amount required to reduce the response to 50% of untreated cells. The effect of coal gasification condensates on RAM function varied, but in general these test also indicated that the CL response was the most sensitive indicator.

  6. Modulation of Inflammatory and Profibrotic Signaling in a Rabbit Model of Acute Phonotrauma Using Triamcinolone

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Joseph E.; Suehiro, Atsushi; Branski, Ryan C.; Garrett, C. Gaelyn; Rousseau, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the hypothesis that prophylactic triamcinolone modulates acute vocal fold inflammatory and profibrotic signaling during acute phonotrauma. Study Design In vivo rabbit phonation model. Setting Academic medical center. Subjects and Methods Forty New Zealand white breeder rabbits were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 groups: control (no intervention), no treatment (30 minutes of raised intensity phonation), sham treatment (bilateral intralaryngeal triamcinolone acetonide injection at 0 ?g/25 ?L followed by 30 minutes of raised intensity phonation), or steroid treatment (bilateral intralaryngeal triamcinolone acetonide injection at 400 ?g/25 ?L followed by 30 minutes of raised intensity phonation). Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was used to investigate gene expression levels of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), interleukin (IL)–1?, and transforming growth factor (TGF)–?1. Results Results revealed a significant main effect for COX-2 (P = .002). Post hoc testing revealed that rabbits receiving no treatment (15.10) had higher COX-2 gene expression than control (5.90; P <.001). There were no significant differences in COX-2 expression between treatment groups. Results revealed a significant main effect for IL-1? (P < .001). Post hoc testing revealed that rabbits receiving no treatment (14.70) had higher IL-1? gene expression than control (6.30) (P = .001). There were no significant differences in IL-1? gene expression between treatment groups. There were no significant differences in TGF-?1 gene expression (P = .525) between treatment and control groups. Conclusion Given conflicting evidence, further studies are necessary to investigate vocal fold steroid injections prior to and following the induction of phonotrauma. Prophylactic administration of triamcinolone immediately prior to acute phonotrauma resulted in no significant changes in COX-2, IL-1?, and TGF-?1 gene transcript levels. PMID:22399283

  7. Development of an interlocked nail for segmental defects in the rabbit tibia.

    PubMed

    LeCronier, David J; Papakonstantinou, John S; Gheevarughese, Vineetha; Beran, Casey D; Walter, Norman E; Atkinson, Patrick J

    2012-04-01

    Previous animal models have been developed to study intramedullary nailing for challenging segmental defects in the tibia. In large animals, interlocked nail fixation created a stable environment suitable to study new bone growth technologies placed in the defect. To our knowledge, there are no comparable interlocked tibial defect models for the rabbit in which new technologies could be evaluated. Such a model would be helpful since the rabbit is a popular initial model for orthopedic research studies owing to its wide availability and low cost. While numerous studies have nailed the rabbit tibia, all were non-locked implants that allowed some degree of instability between the fracture fragments. In addition, the non-locked nails were constructed of stainless steel, whereas human nails are increasingly made from titanium alloy. In the current study, an interlocked titanium nail was developed for the rabbit tibia. It was implanted in cadaver tibiae and subjected to fatigue cycling in combined compression and bending at physiologic levels to 21,061 cycles. This duration is estimated to represent 12 weeks of gait by the animal. Before and after fatigue cycling, monotonic testing was performed in compression and bending at physiologic levels. The intact contralateral limbs served as controls. All limbs completed the cycling; the instrumented limbs exhibited interfragmentary cyclic strain amplitudes during fatigue (616 +/- 139 micro-strain), which was significantly greater than the control limbs (136 +/- 35 microstrain). Monotonic strain amplitudes for the test limbs in bending and compression were 4839 +/- 1028 and 542 +/- 122 microstrain, respectively; corresponding values for the control bones were 407 +/- 118 and 95 +/- 38 microstrain, respectively. These data are similar to those presented in prior studies in larger bone models. The current study presents one method for interlocked nail fixation for this complex tibial shaft fracture in a small animal. PMID:22611873

  8. Seroprevalence of toxoplasma gondii infection in domestic rabbits in Durango State, Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Toxoplasma gondii infection in rabbits is of public health importance because rabbit meat is consumed by humans, and rabbits are preyed upon by cats that then shed environmentally resistant oocysts. Antibodies to T. gondii were determined in 429 domestic rabbits in Durango State, Mexico using the mo...

  9. Bone formation in rabbit's leg muscle after autologous transplantation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells expressing human bone morphogenic protein-2

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Licheng; Lei, Guang-Hua; Yi, Han-Wen; Sheng, Pu-yi

    2014-01-01

    Background: To test whether autologous transplantation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) expressing human bone morphogenic protein-2 (hBMP-2) can produce bone in rabbit leg muscles. Materials and Methods: MSCs were isolated from BM of the iliac crest of rabbits and then infected with lentiviral vectors (LVs) bearing hBMP-2 and green fluorescent protein under the control of the cytomegalovirus (immediate early promoter). Differentiation of transduced MSCs to osteoblasts in vitro was evaluated with an alkaline phosphatase activity assay and immuohistochemistry against osteoblast specific markers. MSCs expressing hBMP-2 were placed in an absorbable gelatin sponge, which was then transplanted into the gastrocnemius of rabbits from which MSCs were isolated. Bone formation was examined by X-ray and histological analysis. Results: LVs efficiently mediated hBMP-2 gene expression in rabbit BM-MSCs. Ectopic expression of hBMP in these MSCs induced osteoblastic differentiation in vitro. Bone was formed after the MSCs expressing hBMP-2 were transplanted into rabbit muscles. Conclusion: Ectopic expression of hBMP-2 in rabbit MSCs induces them to differentiate into osteoblasts in vitro and to form a bone in vivo. PMID:25143636

  10. Shiga toxin 2-induced intestinal pathology in infant rabbits is A-subunit dependent and responsive to the tyrosine kinase and potential ZAK inhibitor imatinib

    PubMed Central

    Stone, Samuel M.; Thorpe, Cheleste M.; Ahluwalia, Amrita; Rogers, Arlin B.; Obata, Fumiko; Vozenilek, Aimee; Kolling, Glynis L.; Kane, Anne V.; Magun, Bruce E.; Jandhyala, Dakshina M.

    2012-01-01

    Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are a major cause of food-borne illness worldwide. However, a consensus regarding the role Shiga toxins play in the onset of diarrhea and hemorrhagic colitis (HC) is lacking. One of the obstacles to understanding the role of Shiga toxins to STEC-mediated intestinal pathology is a deficit in small animal models that perfectly mimic human disease. Infant rabbits have been previously used to study STEC and/or Shiga toxin-mediated intestinal inflammation and diarrhea. We demonstrate using infant rabbits that Shiga toxin-mediated intestinal damage requires A-subunit activity, and like the human colon, that of the infant rabbit expresses the Shiga toxin receptor Gb3. We also demonstrate that Shiga toxin treatment of the infant rabbit results in apoptosis and activation of p38 within colonic tissues. Finally we demonstrate that the infant rabbit model may be used to test candidate therapeutics against Shiga toxin-mediated intestinal damage. While the p38 inhibitor SB203580 and the ZAK inhibitor DHP-2 were ineffective at preventing Shiga toxin-mediated damage to the colon, pretreatment of infant rabbits with the drug imatinib resulted in a decrease of Shiga toxin-mediated heterophil infiltration of the colon. Therefore, we propose that this model may be useful in elucidating mechanisms by which Shiga toxins could contribute to intestinal damage in the human. PMID:23162799

  11. First reporting of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) ST398 in an industrial rabbit holding and in farm-related people.

    PubMed

    Agnoletti, Fabrizio; Mazzolini, Elena; Bacchin, Cosetta; Bano, Luca; Berto, Giacomo; Rigoli, Roberto; Muffato, Giovanna; Coato, Paola; Tonon, Elena; Drigo, Ilenia

    2014-05-14

    Livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) has been described in food-producing animals and farm or slaughterhouse workers involved in the primary industrial production of swine, bovine and poultry. This communication describes the first case of LA-MRSA (ST398, spa types t034 and t5210) occurring in rabbits raised intensively for meat production and involving farm workers or their family members. In 2012-2013, in a study involving 40 rabbit industrial holdings in Italy, one farm was found to have rabbits colonized or infected with MRSA. Four farm workers and one of their relatives were found to be carrying MRSA. In this case holding, rabbits, people and the holding environment were further investigated and followed up by a second sampling five months later. MRSA was found in 48% (11/23) and 25% (15/59) of the rabbits carrying S. aureus at first and second samplings, respectively. Five months after first detection, some farm workers or family members were still MRSA carriers. Surface samples (2/10) and air samples (2/3) were contaminated with MRSA. Air samples yielded MRSA counts of 5 and 15CFU/m(3). MRSA from rabbits and people collected at first sampling were spa types t034 and t5210 belonging to ST398. The MRSA isolates from rabbits and persons tested at second sampling were t034 and t5210, but spa types t1190 and t2970 were also detected in MRSA isolates from rabbits. Tracing the epidemiological pattern earlier may prevent further spread of LA-MRSA in these food producing animals. PMID:24602406

  12. Effect of a 5-lipoxygenase inhibitor and leukotriene antagonist (PF 5901) on PAF-induced airway responses in neonatally immunized rabbits.

    PubMed Central

    Herd, C. M.; Donigi-Gale, D.; Shoupe, T. S.; Page, C. P.

    1992-01-01

    1. Aerosol administration of platelet activating factor (PAF) (80 micrograms ml-1 for 60 min) to neonatally immunized rabbits caused bronchoconstriction which was far in excess of that produced by a comparable aerosol of bovine serum albumin (BSA), the carrier molecule for PAF. Bronchoconstriction of a similar magnitude was elicited by PAF in immunized, sham-immunized and normal rabbits. 2. Aerosol administration of PAF to immunized rabbits induced enhanced airway responsiveness to inhaled histamine in all animals tested, 24 h and 72 h after exposure. In not all cases had airways responsiveness returned to basal levels at 1 week following PAF challenge. In contrast, following exposure of immunized rabbits to BSA, no significant changes in airway responsiveness to histamine were evident at any of the measured time points. 3. A significant increase in the total number of inflammatory cells recovered in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid was determined 24 h and 72 h following PAF exposure in immunized rabbits. This was associated with a significant increase in the number of neutrophils and eosinophils. Similar changes were observed following exposure of PAF to normal and sham-immunized rabbits. No change in the total number of inflammatory cells was obtained in BAL after BSA challenge to immunized rabbits; however, neutrophil numbers were significantly increased. 4. PF 5901, a specific inhibitor of the 5-lipoxygenase pathway of arachidonic acid metabolism and a leukotriene D4 antagonist, at a dose of 10 mg (direct intratracheal administration) significantly inhibited the airway resistance (RL) component of the bronchoconstriction induced by PAF in neonatally-immunized rabbits.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1467833

  13. Expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 in macrophage-rich areas of human and rabbit atherosclerotic lesions.

    PubMed Central

    Ylä-Herttuala, S; Lipton, B A; Rosenfeld, M E; Särkioja, T; Yoshimura, T; Leonard, E J; Witztum, J L; Steinberg, D

    1991-01-01

    The recruitment of monocyte-macrophages into the artery wall is one of the earliest events in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) is a potent monocyte chemoattractant secreted by many cells in vitro, including vascular smooth muscle and endothelial cells. To test whether it is expressed in the artery in vivo, we used Northern blot analysis, in situ hybridization, and immunocytochemistry to study the expression of MCP-1 in normal and atherosclerotic human and rabbit arteries. Northern blot analysis showed that MCP-1 mRNA could be isolated from rabbit atherosclerotic lesions but not from the intima media of normal animals. Furthermore, MCP-1 mRNA was extracted from macrophage-derived foam cells isolated from arterial lesions of ballooned cholesterol-fed rabbits, whereas alveolar macrophages isolated simultaneously from the same rabbits did not express MCP-1 mRNA. MCP-1 mRNA was detected by in situ hybridization in macrophage-rich regions of both human and rabbit atherosclerotic lesions. No MCP-1 mRNA was found in sublesional medial smooth muscle cells or in normal arteries. By using immunocytochemistry, MCP-1 protein was demonstrated in human lesions, again only in macrophage-rich regions. Immunostaining of the serial sections with an antiserum against malondialdehyde-modified low density lipoprotein indicated the presence of oxidized low density lipoprotein indicated the presence of oxidized low density lipoprotein and/or other oxidation-specific lipid-protein adducts in the same areas that contained macrophages and MCP-1. We conclude that (i) MCP-1 is strongly expressed in a small subset of cells in macrophage-rich regions of human and rabbit atherosclerotic lesions and (ii) MCP-1 may, therefore, play an important role in the ongoing recruitment of monocyte-macrophages into developing lesions in vivo. Images PMID:2052604

  14. Hypertension and Estrogen Deficiency Augment Aneurysmal Remodeling in the Rabbit Circle of Willis in Response to Carotid Ligation.

    PubMed

    Tutino, Vincent M; Mandelbaum, Max; Takahashi, Akira; Pope, Liza C; Siddiqui, Adnan; Kolega, John; Meng, Hui

    2015-11-01

    Increased cerebral blood flow has been shown to induce pathological structural changes in the Circle of Willis (CoW) in experimental models. Previously, we reported flow-induced aneurysm-like remodeling in the CoW secondary to flow redistribution after bilateral common carotid artery (CCA) ligation in rabbits. In the current study, we tested the hypothesis that loading rabbits with biological risk factors for vascular disease would increase flow-induced aneurysmal remodeling in the CoW. In the same series as the previously-reported bilateral CCA-ligation-alone (n? = 6) and sham surgery (n?= 3) groups, eight additional female rabbits (the experimental group in this study) were subjected to two risk factors for intracranial aneurysm (hypertension and estrogen deficiency) and then bilateral CCA ligation. Upon euthanasia at 6 months, vascular corrosion casts of the CoW were created and analyzed by scanning electron microscopy for morphological changes and aneurysmal damage. In rabbits with hypertension and estrogen deficiency, arterial caliber increased throughout the CoW, similar to rabbits with CCA ligation alone. However, aneurysmal remodeling (i.e., local bulging) in the CoW was significantly greater than in CCA-ligation-only rabbits and was more widespread, presenting in regions that did not show aneurysmal changes after CCA ligation alone. Furthermore, hypertension and estrogen deficiency caused greater increases in vessel length and tortuosity. These results suggest that hypertension and estrogen deficiency make the CoW more vulnerable to flow-induced aneurysmal remodeling and tortuosity. We propose they do so by lowering the tolerance of vascular tissue to hemodynamic forces caused by CCA ligation, thus lowering the threshold necessary to incite vascular damage. PMID:26248728

  15. The Effect of Intravitreal Azithromycin on the Albino Newborn Rabbit Retina

    PubMed Central

    Cam, Duygu; Saatci, Ali Osman; Micili, Serap Cilaker; Ergur, Bekir Ugur; Karabag, Revan Yildirim; Durak, Ismet; Berk, Ayse Tulin

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the effect of intravitreal azithromycin on the retina in a newborn rabbit model. Methods: Twelve, two-week old New Zealand albino rabbits were divided into two groups (six in each). The right eyes of six rabbits received 0.75 mg (0.05 mL) azithromycin and the right eyes of the remaining six rabbits 1.5 mg (0.1 mL) azithromycin intravitreally. Left eyes were served as the control and received the same volume of saline. All eyes were enucleated at the third postinjection week. Retinal histology was examined by light microscopy. Apoptosis of the retinal cells was further evaluated by immunohistochemical staining for caspase-3 and in situ terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated biotin-deoxyuridine triphosphate nick-end labeling (TUNEL) of DNA fragments. Results: Light microscopy demonstrated no retinal abnormalities in all eyes. However, retinal nuclear DNA fragmentation was evident in both study groups (33.6% with 1.5 mg and 21.4% with 0.75 mg azithromycin) with the TUNEL method. TUNEL staining ratio was statistically higher only in the second group treated with 1.5 mg azithromycin when compared to the control group (p=0.01 Mann Whitney U test). The ratio of caspase-3 positive cells in the two study groups was 21.5% and 20.2%, respectively. Caspase-3 staining ratio was statistically higher in both study groups when compared to the control eyes (p=0.00, p=0.00 respectively). The difference of TUNEL staining ratio between the two study groups was statistically significant (p=0.028), but there were no statistically significant differences in the two study groups by caspase-3 staining (p=0.247). Conclusion: In newborn rabbits, intravitreal azithromycin injection resulted in an apoptotic activity in the photoreceptor, bipolar and ganglion cells. Immunohistochemical analysis suggested that doses of 0.75 mg and 1.5 mg azithromycin, administered intravitreally might be toxic to the newborn rabbit retina. PMID:27014381

  16. Direct in vivo injection of 131I-GMS and its distribution and excretion in rabbit

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yu; Wan, Yi; Luo, Dong-Hui; Duan, Li-Geng; Li, Lin; Xia, Chuan-Qin; Chen, Xiao-Li

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To explore the distribution and metabolism of 131I-gelatin microspheres (131I-GMSs) in rabbits after direct injection into rabbits’ livers. METHODS: Twenty-eight healthy New Zealand rabbits were divided into seven groups, with four rabbits per group. Each rabbit’s hepatic lobes were directly injected with 41.336 ± 5.106 MBq 131I-GMSs. Each day after 131I-GMSs administration, 4 rabbits were randomly selected, and 250 μL of serum was collected for γ count. Hepatic and thyroid functions were tested on days 1, 4, 8, 16, 24, 32, 48 and 64 after 131I-GMSs administration. Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) was taken for each group on days 0, 1, 4, 8, 16, 24, 32, 48, 64 after 131I-GMSs administration. A group of rabbits were sacrificed respectively on days 1, 4, 16, 24, 32, 48, 64 after 131I-GMSs administration. Their livers were taken out for histological examination. RESULTS: After 131I-GMSs administration, the nuclide was collected in the hepatic area with microspheres. The radiation could be detected on day 48 after 131I-GMSs administration, and radiography could be seen in thyroid areas in SPECT on days 4, 8, 16 and 24. One day after 131I-GMSs administration, the liver function was damaged but recovered 4 d later. Eight days after 131I-GMSs administration, the levels of free triiodothyronine and free thyroxin were reduced, which restored to normal levels on day 16. Histological examination showed that the microspheres were degraded to different degrees at 24, 32 and 48 d after 131I-GMSs administration. The surrounding parts of injection points were in fibrous sheathing. No microspheres were detected in histological examination on day 64 after 131I-GMSs administration. CONCLUSION: Direct in vivo injection of 131I-GMSs is safe in rabbits. It may be a promising method for treatment of malignant tumors. PMID:20440852

  17. Use of allicin as feed additive to enhance vaccination capacity of Clostridium perfringens toxoid in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Abu El Hammed, Waleed; Soufy, Hamdy; El-Shemy, Ahmed; Nasr, Soad M; Dessouky, Mohamed I

    2016-04-12

    The present study assessed the efficacy of Clostridium perfringens (C. perfringens) toxoid and/or allicin - as feed additive - in rabbits for preventing or minimizing the severity of infection with locally isolated strain of C. perfringens type A. Serum biochemical, immunological and pathological investigations were also done. One hundred rabbits of 6 weeks of age were divided into five equal groups (G1-G5). G1 were kept as normal control. G2 was allocated for C. perfringens type A infection. G3 was vaccinated with C. perfringens toxoid at zero time and then with a booster dose at the 3rd week of the experimental period. G4 was treated with allicin 20% added to the ration (200mg/kg ration) all over the experimental period. G5 was vaccinated with C. perfringens toxoid at the zero time then with a booster dose at the 3rd week of the experiment period, and treated with allicin 20% from the zero time till the end of the experiment. At the 4th week, G2, G3, G4 and G5 were challenged orally (5ml) and subcutaneously (2ml) with 24h cooked meat broth containing 1×10(7)colony-forming units/ml of C. perfringens type A strain. Blood and tissue samples were collected from all groups post-vaccination then post-challenge for biochemical analysis, serum neutralization test and histopathological examinations. Results revealed that rabbits treated with both allicin and toxoid vaccine demonstrated high level of antitoxin titre post-challenge, improved liver and kidney functions, and reduced morbidity and mortality rates and the severity of histopathological changes associated with challenge of rabbits with C. perfringens type A strain. In conclusion, vaccination of rabbits with C. perfringens toxoid combined with allicin 20% gave better protection, enhanced immune response and had no adverse effects on the general health conditions against C. perfringens type A infection compared to rabbits vaccinated with C. perfringens toxoid only. PMID:26973070

  18. Effect of Bilateral Mandibular Osteodistration on the Condylar Cartilage: An Experimental Study on Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Elgazzar, Reda F; El-Bialy, Tarek H; Megahed, Eman

    2008-01-01

    Although various aspects of bone formation during distraction osteogenesis have been studied extensively, there are only limited experimental data concerning the influence of hyper-physiologic mandibular distraction rate on structural alterations in the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) condylar cartilage. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of bilateral distraction osteogenesis of the mandibular body, at a hyper-physiologic rate and length, on the integrity of the condylar cartilage in rabbits. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighteen healthy adult male rabbits weighing 2 to 3 kg were assigned to 1 of 2 groups: the control group (n = 2 rabbits, 4 joints) or the study group (n = 16 rabbits, 32 joints) four rabbits (8 joints) in each subgroup according to the post-distraction period (1,2,3 or 4 weeks). In the control group, rabbits received sham surgery (Osteotomy without distraction) and then left to live for 4 weeks under the same condition of the study group then euthanized using intravenous overdose of pentobarbital sodium. In the study group, an extra oral custom-made distracter was employed to achieve bilateral mandibular hyper physiologic distraction (1.5 mm twice daily for 5 days) distraction. All animals were evaluated clinically and histomorphometrically and results analyzed by MINITABE 13.1 statistical package using ANOVA test. RESULTS: Animals underwent distraction showed obvious changes in condylar surface contour related to length of the follow up period, compared to the control; these changes seemed to be partly reversible. The most pronounced observation was the irregularities and resorption in the anterior part of the condylar cartilage and the subcondylar bone. Moreover, at the first two weeks, the area of resorption was invaded by large number of osteoclasts and chronic inflammatory cells which declined later in the 3rd and 4th weeks and replaced with osteoblastic activities. CONSLUSION: These experimental data showed that distraction rate of 3 mm per day may lead to degenerative or even early arthritic changes in the TMJ condylar cartilage in the 1st and 2nd post-distraction weeks. However, all condyles showed adaptive and remodeling sings in the following 3rd and 4th weeks. PMID:19088891

  19. Ultrasonographic analysis versus histopathologic evaluation of carotid advanced atherosclerotic stenosis in an experimental rabbit model.

    PubMed

    Mehrad, Hossein; Mokhtari-Dizaji, Manijhe; Ghanaati, Hossein; Shahbazfar, Amir-Ali; Salehnia, Mojdeh

    2012-08-01

    Advanced carotid atherosclerosis with severe stenosis (>70%) is a major clinical risk factor for ischemic stroke. Our ability to test new protocols for the treatment of atherosclerotic stenosis in humans is limited for obvious ethical reasons; therefore, a suitable animal model is required. The aim of this study was to generate an easily reproducible and inexpensive experimental rabbit carotid model of advanced atherosclerosis with morphological similarities to the human disease and the subsequent assessment of the reliability of B-mode ultrasound technology in the study of lumen area stenosis in this model. Briefly, New Zealand white rabbits underwent primary perivascular cold injury at the right common carotid artery followed by a 1.5% cholesterol-rich diet injury for eight weeks. All of the rabbits' arteries were imaged by B-mode ultrasound weekly, after which the rabbits were sacrificed, and their vessels were processed for histopathology. Ultrasound longitudinal view images from three cardiac cycles were processed by a new computerized analyzing method based on dynamic programming and maximum gradient algorithm for measurement of instantaneous changes in arterial wall thickness and lumen diameter in sequential ultrasound images. Histopathology results showed progressive changes, from the lipid-laden cells and fibrous connective tissue proliferation in neointimal layer, up to the fibro-lipid plaque formation, resulting in vessel wall thickening, remodeling and lumen stenosis. The B-mode ultrasound images and the histologic measurements showed an increase in the mean wall thickness and the lumen area stenosis within eight weeks. Quantitative and morphometric analysis of the mean wall thickness and the lumen area stenosis percentage showed a significant correlation between the B-mode ultrasound and the histological measurements at each time point (R = 0.989 and R = 0.995, p < 0.05, respectively). In conclusion, we successfully produced advanced atherosclerosis in the rabbit carotid artery that is similar to the condition seen in patients. This condition in rabbits can be properly assessed by B-mode ultrasound image processing. PMID:22698512

  20. Prolactin daily rhythm in suckling male rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez, Pilar; Cardinali, Daniel; Cano, Pilar; Rebollar, Pilar; Esquifino, Ana

    2005-01-01

    Background This study describes the 24-h changes in plasma prolactin levels, and dopamine (DA), serotonin (5HT), gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and taurine concentration in median eminence and adenohypophysis of newborn male rabbits. Methods Animals were kept under controlled light-dark cycles (LD 16:8, lights on at 08:00 h), housed in individual metal cages, and fed ad libitum with free access to tap water. On day 1 after parturition, litter size was standardized to 8–9 to assure similar lactation conditions during the experiment. Groups of 6–7 suckling male rabbits were killed by decapitation on day 11 of life at six different time points during a 24-h period. Results Plasma prolactin levels changed significantly throughout the day, showing a peak at the beginning of the active phase (at 01:00 h) and a second maximum during the first part of the resting phase (at 13:00 h). Median eminence DA concentration also changed significantly during the day, peaking at the same time intervals as plasma prolactin. A single maximum (at 13:00 h) was found for adenohypophysial DA concentration. Individual adenohypophysial DA concentrations correlated significantly with their respective plasma prolactin levels. A maximum in median eminence 5HT concentration occurred at 21:00 h whereas adenohypophysial 5HT peaked at 13:00 h. Median eminence 5HT concentration and circulating prolactin correlated inversely. In the median eminence, GABA concentration attained maximal values at 21:00 h, whereas it reached a maximum at 13:00 h in the pituitary gland. Median eminence GABA concentration correlated inversely with circulating prolactin. In the median eminence, taurine values varied in a bimodal way showing two maxima, at the second half of the rest span and of the activity phase, respectively. In the adenohypophysis, minimal taurine levels coincided with the major plasma prolactin peak (at 01:00 h). Circulating prolactin and adenohypophysial taurine levels correlated inversely. Conclusion The correlations among the changes in the neurotransmitters analyzed and circulating prolactin levels explain the circadian secretory pattern of the hormone in newborn male rabbits. PMID:15649326

  1. In vivo behavior of detergent-solubilized purified rabbit thrombomodulin on intravenous injection into rabbits

    SciTech Connect

    Ehrlich, H.J.; Esmon, N.L.; Bang, N.U. )

    1990-02-01

    Thrombomodulin is a thrombin endothelial cell membrane receptor. The thrombomodulin-thrombin complex rapidly activates protein C resulting in anticoagulant activity. We investigated the anticoagulant effects and pharmacokinetic behavior of detergent-solubilized purified rabbit thrombomodulin labeled with iodine 125 when intravenously injected into rabbits. Thrombomodulin half-life (t1/2) was determined by tracking the 125I-radiolabeled protein and the biologic activity as determined by the prolongation of the activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) and thrombin clotting time (TCT). When 200 micrograms/kg 125I-thrombomodulin was injected into rabbits, the APTT and TCT were immediately prolonged, whereas no effect on the prothrombin time was seen. In vitro calibration curves enabled us to convert the prolongations of the clotting times into micrograms per milliliter thrombomodulin equivalents. The best fit (r greater than 0.99) for the disappearance curves was provided by a two-compartment model with mean t1/2 alpha (distribution phase) of 18 minutes for 125I, 12 minutes for APTT, and 20 minutes for TCT, and mean t1/2 beta (elimination phase) of 385 minutes for 125I, 460 for APTT, and 179 for TCT. The administration of two doses of endotoxin (50 micrograms/kg) 24 hours apart did not accelerate the turnover rate of 125I-thrombomodulin as measured by the disappearance of 125I from the circulation. Thus, detergent-solubilized purified thrombomodulin administered intravenously circulates in a biologically active form for appreciable time periods.

  2. Pancreas tumor model in rabbit imaged by perfusion CT scans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunn, Jason; Tichauer, Kenneth; Moodie, Karen; Kane, Susan; Hoopes, Jack; Stewart, Errol E.; Hadway, Jennifer; Lee, Ting-Yim; Pereira, Stephen P.; Pogue, Brian W.

    2013-03-01

    The goal of this work was to develop and validate a pancreas tumor animal model to investigate the relationship between photodynamic therapy (PDT) effectiveness and photosensitizer drug delivery. More specifically, this work lays the foundation for investigating the utility of dynamic contrast enhanced blood perfusion imaging to be used to inform subsequent PDT. A VX2 carcinoma rabbit cell line was grown in the tail of the pancreas of three New Zealand White rabbits and approximately 3-4 weeks after implantation the rabbits were imaged on a CT scanner using a contrast enhanced perfusion protocol, providing parametric maps of blood flow, blood volume, mean transit time, and vascular permeability surface area product.

  3. Various forms of rabbit plasma alpha-1-antiproteinase.

    PubMed

    Saito, A; Sinohara, H

    1998-09-01

    Amino acid sequencing of the ficin-derived C-terminal fragments of alpha-1-antiproteinase (also called alpha-1-antitrypsin or alpha-1-proteinase inhibitor) prepared from rabbit plasma revealed the presence of the E isoform, which had been confirmed in the cDNA library in addition to the F and S-1 forms. The S-2 form was identified in inflamed rabbit plasma. The ficin digest of human plasma alpha-1-antitrypsin resulted in a major fragment of the M type. Multiple forms of alpha-1-antiproteinase in the rabbit plasma implicate the unknown functions other than the inhibition of neutrophil elastase. PMID:9784836

  4. Characterization of the rabbit intestinal fructose transporter (GLUT5).

    PubMed Central

    Miyamoto, K; Tatsumi, S; Morimoto, A; Minami, H; Yamamoto, H; Sone, K; Taketani, Y; Nakabou, Y; Oka, T; Takeda, E

    1994-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that the jejunal/kidney-type facilitative glucose transporter (GLUT5) functions as a high-affinity D-fructose transporter. However, its precise role in the small intestine is not clear. In an attempt to identify the fructose transporter in the small intestine, we measured fructose uptake in Xenopus oocytes expressing jejunal mRNA from five species (rat, mouse, rabbit, hamster and guinea-pig). Only jejunal mRNA from the rabbit significantly increased fructose uptake. We also cloned a rabbit GLUT5 cDNA from a jejunal library The predicted amino acid sequence of the 487-residue rabbit GLUT5 showed 72.3 and 67.1% identity with human and rat GLUT5 respectively. Northern-blot analysis revealed GLUT5 transcripts in rabbit duodenum, jejunum and, to a lesser extent, kidney. After separation of rabbit jejunal mRNA on a sucrose density gradient, the fractions that conferred D-fructose transport activity in oocytes also hybridized with rabbit GLUT5 cDNA. Hybrid depletion of jejunal mRNA with a GLUT5 antisense oligonucleotide markedly inhibited the mRNA-induced fructose uptake in oocytes. Immunoblot analysis indicated that GLUT5 (49 kDa) is located in the brush-border membrane of rabbit intestinal epithelial cells. Xenopus oocytes injected with rabbit GLUT5 cRNA exhibited fructose uptake activity with a Km of 11 mM for D-fructose. D-Fructose transport by GLUT5 was significantly inhibited by D-glucose and D-galactose. D-Fructose uptake in brush-border membrane vesicles shows a Km similar to that of GLUT5, but was not inhibited by D-glucose or D-galactose. Finally, cytochalasin B photolabelled a 49 kDa protein in rabbit brush-border-membrane preparations that was immunoprecipitated by antibodies to GLUT5. Our results suggest that GLUT5 functions as a fructose transporter in rabbit small intestine. However, biochemical properties of fructose transport in Xenopus oocytes injected with GLUT5 cRNA differed from those in rabbit jejunal vesicles. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:7980458

  5. Pharmacokinetic interaction of ibuprofen enantiomers in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Lin, Wenhui; Hayakawa, Toru; Yanaguimoto, Hitomi; Kuzuba, Mamoru; Obara, Takako; Ding, Guohua; Cui, Fude; Inotsume, Nobuo

    2004-03-01

    The potential interaction between two ibuprofen enantiomers was studied after intravenous administration of R-(-)-, S-(+)- and racemic ibuprofen to rabbits. The total body clearance values calculated by compartmental model analysis (0.65 +/- 0.21 for R-(-)-ibuprofen and 0.63 +/- 0.34 for S-(+)-ibuprofen) after intravenous administration of the racemate of ibuprofen were significantly smaller than those of individual enantiomers (0.95 +/- 0.23 for R-(-)-ibuprofen and 1.03 +/- 0.23 for S-(+)-ibuprofen), indicating that the enantiomer-enantiomer interaction results in a mutual inhibition. The enantiomeric interaction in the pharmacokinetic behaviour of ibuprofen after racemic administration is considered to be a result of an alteration in the metabolic or excretion phase (or both) rather than stereoselective protein binding in the systemic distribution. PMID:15025856

  6. Primo Vessel Stressed by Lipopolysaccharide in Rabbits.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hye-Rie; Rho, Min-Suk; Hong, Ye-Ji; Ha, Yae-Eun; Kim, Ji-Young; Noh, Young-Il; Park, Do-Young; Kim, Chang-Kyu; Kim, Eun-Jung; Jang, In-Ho; Kang, Suk-Yun; Lee, Sang-Suk

    2015-12-01

    For tracking the primo vascular system, we observed the primo vessels in vivo in situ using the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) response in the lymphatic vessels of a rabbit. Injection of LPS (200 μg/kg) into the lymph nodes resulted in greatly stained primo vessels, which were swollen in some cases. We were able to obtain comparative images through alcian blue and diaminobenzidine staining, which clearly showed different morphologies of the primo vessels. The mechanism causing the response of the primo vessels to the injected LPS is still unclear; however, these results might be a first attempt at giving an explanation of the function of the primo vascular system and identifying the changes in the structure and function of the primo vascular system in response to an external stimulus such as an injection of LPS. PMID:26742914

  7. Electrochemotherapy on liver tumours in rabbits.

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez, L. H.; Orlowski, S.; An, D.; Bindoula, G.; Dzodic, R.; Ardouin, P.; Bognel, C.; Belehradek, J.; Munck, J. N.; Mir, L. M.

    1998-01-01

    Electrochemotherapy (ECT) is a new therapeutic approach combining the effects of a low-permeant cytotoxic drug, bleomycin (BLM), administered i.v. and cell-permeabilizing electric pulses (EPs) locally delivered to tumours. The transient permeabilization of the cell membrane by the EPs allows free access of BLM to its intracellular targets, largely enhancing BLM's cytotoxic effects. ECT efficacy has been proved so far on transplanted subcutaneous murine tumours and on subcutaneous metastases in humans. Here, we present the first study of the effects of ECT on tumours transplanted to livers in rabbits. We used a recently developed EP applicator consisting of an array of parallel and equidistant needles to be inserted in tissues. Effects of EPs alone or of ECT were assessed by histological analysis, tumour growth rates and survival of the treated animals. A transient blood hypoperfusion was seen in the electropulsed areas, with or without BLM, related to EP-dependent vasoconstriction but this had no major effects on cell survival. Long-term effects depended on the presence of BLM at the time of EP delivery. Almost complete tumour necrosis was observed after ECT, resulting from both BLM direct cytotoxic effects on electropermeabilized tumour cells and indirect effects on the tumour vessels. A large reduction in tumour growth rate and significantly longer survival times were scored in comparison with control rabbits. Moreover, ECT of liver tumours was well tolerated and devoid of systemic side-effects. When ECT was associated with a local interleukin 2-based immunotherapy, increased local anti-tumour effectiveness as well as a large decrease in the number of metastases were observed. Thus, ECT could become a novel treatment modality for liver tumours and other solid internal malignancies. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:9649121

  8. Correlated firing in rabbit retinal ganglion cells.

    PubMed

    DeVries, S H

    1999-02-01

    A ganglion cell's receptive field is defined as that region on the retinal surface in which a light stimulus will produce a response. While neighboring ganglion cells may respond to the same stimulus in a region where their receptive fields overlap, it generally has been assumed that each cell makes an independent decision about whether to fire. Recent recordings from cat and salamander retina using multiple electrodes have challenged this view of independent firing by showing that neighboring ganglion cells have an increased tendency to fire together within +/-5 ms. However, there is still uncertainty about which types of ganglion cells fire together, the mechanisms that produce coordinated spikes, and the overall function of coordinated firing. To address these issues, the responses of up to 80 rabbit retinal ganglion cells were recorded simultaneously using a multielectrode array. Of the 11 classes of rabbit ganglion cells previously identified, coordinated firing was observed in five. Plots of the spike train cross-correlation function suggested that coordinated firing occurred through two mechanisms. In the first mechanism, a spike in an interneuron diverged to produce simultaneous spikes in two ganglion cells. This mechanism predominated in four of the five classes including the ON brisk transient cells. In the second mechanism, ganglion cells appeared to activate each other reciprocally. This was the predominant pattern of correlated firing in OFF brisk transient cells. By comparing the receptive field profiles of ON and OFF brisk transient cells, a peripheral extension of the OFF brisk transient cell receptive field was identified that might be produced by lateral spike spread. Thus an individual OFF brisk transient cell can respond both to a light stimulus directed at the center of its receptive field and to stimuli that activate neighboring OFF brisk transient cells through their receptive field centers. PMID:10036288

  9. Rabbit CD200R binds host CD200 but not CD200-like proteins from poxviruses

    PubMed Central

    Akkaya, Munir; Kwong, Lai-Shan; Akkaya, Erdem; Hatherley, Deborah; Barclay, A. Neil

    2016-01-01

    CD200 is a widely distributed membrane protein that gives inhibitory signals through its receptor (CD200R) on myeloid cells. CD200 has been acquired by herpesviruses where it has been shown to interact with host CD200R and downmodulate the immune system. It has been hypothesized that poxviruses have acquired CD200; but the potential orthologues show less similarity to their hosts. Myxoma virus M141 protein is a potential CD200 orthologue with a potent immune modulatory function in rabbits. Here, we characterized the rabbit CD200, CD200R and tested the CD200-like sequences for binding CD200R. No binding could be detected using soluble recombinant proteins, full length protein expressed on cells or myxoma virus infected cells. Finally, using knockdown models, we showed that the inhibitory effect of M141 on RAW 264.7 cells upon myxoma virus infection is not due to CD200R. We conclude that the rabbit poxvirus CD200-like proteins cause immunomodulation without utilizing CD200R. PMID:26590792

  10. Erythropoietin augments bone formation in a rabbit posterolateral spinal fusion model.

    PubMed

    Rölfing, Jan Hendrik Duedal; Bendtsen, Michael; Jensen, Jonas; Stiehler, Maik; Foldager, Casper Bindzus; Hellfritzsch, Michel Bach; Bünger, Cody

    2012-07-01

    We tested the hypothesis that erythropoietin (EPO) enhances bone formation after posterolateral spinal fusion (PLF) in a rabbit model. Thirty-four adult rabbits underwent posterolateral intertransverse arthrodesis at the L5-L6 level using 2.0 g autograft per side. The animals were randomly divided into two groups receiving subcutaneous daily injections of either EPO or saline for 20 days. Treatment commenced 2 days preoperatively. Hemoglobin was monitored at baseline and 2, 4, and 6 weeks after fusion surgery. After euthanasia 6 weeks postoperatively, manual palpation, radiographic, and histomorphometric examinations were performed. Bone volume of the fusion mass was estimated by CT after 6 weeks. EPO increased bone fusion volume to 3.85 ccm (3.66-4.05) compared with 3.26 ccm (2.97-3.55) in the control group (p<0.01). EPO treatment improved vascularization of the fusion mass and increased hemoglobin levels (p<0.01). Fusion rate tended to be higher in the EPO group based on manual palpation, CT, and radiographic examinations. For the first time EPO has shown to augment bone formation after autograft PLF in a rabbit model. Increased vascularization provides a partial explanation for the efficacy of EPO as a bone autograft enhancer. PMID:22144136

  11. High-rhythm automatic driver for bone traction: an experimental study in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Zheng, L W; Cheung, L K; Ma, L; Wong, M C M

    2008-08-01

    The distractors currently used in clinics are activated manually by intermittent advancement. An automatic driver has been developed to attach to custom-made or commercially available distractors and activate advancement at a high rhythm of 8 steps per second. One 1.5-V lithium button battery is used as the power source to drive a step motor and the driving torque is transmitted to the distractor through a flexible shaft at a rate of 2 revolutions per day. This automatic driver was tested in 5 rabbits for mandibular lengthening. Osteotomy was performed on one side of the mandible and the custom-made distractor was adapted. After a latency period of 3 days, the automatic driver was attached to the distractor's arm and mandibular lengthening was activated. After 11 days of continuous distraction the automatic driver was detached from the distractor's arm. All the rabbits were euthanized after 4 weeks of consolidation. The distraction regenerates were analysed by plain radiography, micro-computerized tomography and histological examination. All 5 rabbits completed the experimental process and healed uneventfully. The mandibles were confirmed to have lengthened successfully and the distraction gap was filled with newly formed bone. PMID:18468865

  12. Knee joint transplantation combined with surgical angiogenesis in rabbits – a new experimental model

    PubMed Central

    Kremer, Thomas; Giusti, Guilherme; Friedrich, Patricia F.; Willems, Wouter; Bishop, Allen T.; Giessler, Goetz A.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Purpose We have previously described a means to maintain bone allotransplant viability, without long-term immune modulation, replacing allogenic bone vasculature with autogenous vessels. A rabbit model for whole knee joint transplantation was developed and tested using the same methodology, initially as an autotransplant. Materials/Methods Eight New Zealand White rabbit knee joints were elevated on a popliteal vessel pedicle to evaluate limb viability in a non-survival study. Ten additional joints were elevated and replaced orthotopically in a fashion identical to allotransplantation, obviating only microsurgical repairs and immunosuppression. A superficial inferior epigastric facial (SIEF) flap and a saphenous arteriovenous (AV) bundle were introduced into the femur and tibia respectively, generating a neoangiogenic bone circulation. In allogenic transplantation, this step maintains viability after cessation of immunosuppression. Sixteen weeks later, x-rays, microangiography, histology, histomorphometry and biomechanical analysis were performed. Results Limb viability was preserved in the initial 8 animals. Both soft tissue and bone healing occurred in 10 orthotopic transplants. Surgical angiogenesis from the SIEF flap and AV bundle was always present. Bone and joint viability was maintained, with demonstrable new bone formation. Bone strength was less than the opposite side. Arthrosis and joint contractures were frequent. Conclusion We have developed a rabbit knee joint model and evaluation methods suitable for subsequent studies of whole joint allotransplantation. PMID:22113889

  13. Developmental toxicity of polyethylene glycol-g-polyvinyl alcohol grafted copolymer in rats and rabbits.

    PubMed

    Heuschmid, Franziska F; Schneider, Steffen; Schuster, Paul; Lauer, Birthe; van Ravenzwaay, Bennard

    2013-07-01

    Polyethylene glycol-g-polyvinyl alcohol (PEG-PVA) grafted copolymer was evaluated in developmental toxicity studies with Wistar rats and Himalayan rabbits. Pregnant Wistar rats were gavaged with 0 (vehicle control), 100, 300, or 1000 mg PEG-PVA grafted copolymer/kg bw/day from gestation day (GD) 6-15. Pregnant Himalayan rabbits received the same treatment from GD 6 to 19. On GD 20 and 29 for rats and rabbits, respectively, the animals were euthanized and were examined grossly. For each dam, corpora lutea were counted and number and distribution of implantation sites were determined. The fetuses were removed, sexed, weighed, and evaluated for any external, soft tissue, and skeletal findings. No significant findings were found that could be attributed to administration of PEG-PVA grafted copolymer. Under the conditions of these studies, the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) for maternal and developmental toxicity in both species was the highest dose tested of 1000 mg/kg bw/day. PMID:23298676

  14. Encephalitozoon cuniculi: Grading the Histological Lesions in Brain, Kidney, and Liver during Primoinfection Outbreak in Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Tovar, Luis E.; Nevárez-Garza, Alicia M.; Trejo-Chávez, Armando; Hernández-Martínez, Carlos A.; Zarate-Ramos, Juan J.; Castillo-Velázquez, Uziel

    2016-01-01

    This is the first confirmed report of Encephalitozoon cuniculi (E. cuniculi) in farm meat rabbits located in Northern Mexico. Eighty young rabbits exhibited clinical signs of this zoonotic emerging disease, like torticollis, ataxia, paresis, circling, and rolling. Samples of brain, kidney, and liver were examined for histology lesions. For the first time the lesions caused by E. cuniculi were graded according to their severity (I, II, and III) and the size of the granulomas (Types A, B, and C). The main cerebral injuries were Grade III, coinciding with the presence of Type C granulomas. The cerebral lesions were located in the cortex, brain stem, and medulla. The renal lesions were also Grade III distributed throughout cortex and renal medulla, with no granuloma formation. The involvement of hypersensitivity Types III and IV is suggested. All of the rabbits were seropositive to E. cuniculi by CIA testing, suggesting that this zoonotic and emerging pathogen is widely distributed among animals intended for human consumption. We believe this work could be used as a guide when examining E. cuniculi and will provide direction to confirm the diagnosis of this pathogen.

  15. Encephalitozoon cuniculi: Grading the Histological Lesions in Brain, Kidney, and Liver during Primoinfection Outbreak in Rabbits.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Tovar, Luis E; Nevárez-Garza, Alicia M; Trejo-Chávez, Armando; Hernández-Martínez, Carlos A; Hernández-Vidal, Gustavo; Zarate-Ramos, Juan J; Castillo-Velázquez, Uziel

    2016-01-01

    This is the first confirmed report of Encephalitozoon cuniculi (E. cuniculi) in farm meat rabbits located in Northern Mexico. Eighty young rabbits exhibited clinical signs of this zoonotic emerging disease, like torticollis, ataxia, paresis, circling, and rolling. Samples of brain, kidney, and liver were examined for histology lesions. For the first time the lesions caused by E. cuniculi were graded according to their severity (I, II, and III) and the size of the granulomas (Types A, B, and C). The main cerebral injuries were Grade III, coinciding with the presence of Type C granulomas. The cerebral lesions were located in the cortex, brain stem, and medulla. The renal lesions were also Grade III distributed throughout cortex and renal medulla, with no granuloma formation. The involvement of hypersensitivity Types III and IV is suggested. All of the rabbits were seropositive to E. cuniculi by CIA testing, suggesting that this zoonotic and emerging pathogen is widely distributed among animals intended for human consumption. We believe this work could be used as a guide when examining E. cuniculi and will provide direction to confirm the diagnosis of this pathogen. PMID:27022485

  16. Biomechanical and morphological studies on osseointegration in immunological arthritis in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Brånemark, R; Thomsen, P

    1997-09-01

    The biomechanics and morphology of the interface between bone tissue and threaded, commercially pure titanium implants were studied i an experimental model of monoarticular arthritis in New Zealand white rabbits (n = 8). Two of the eight rabbits died before evaluation. Immunisation with bovine serum albumin (BSA) and repeated intra-articular injections with BSA in one knee joint elicited an immune response and clinical signs of inflammation. The opposite joint was injected with saline. Three implants were inserted intra-articularly in the lateral femoral condyle in each joint. After a period of six weeks the stability of two of the three implants was evaluated by pull-out and torsion tests using a standardised biomechanical model. The rabbits were killed by perfusion fixation, and the implants and surrounding tissue were retrieved en bloc for histological analysis. The amount of bone, the degree of bone apposition, and the biomechanical evaluation showed that the absolute mechanical capacity of anchorage was not significantly reduced on the arthritic side compared with the control knees. These results indicate that it might be possible to obtain osseointegration in juxta-articular bone despite local joint inflammation. PMID:9299679

  17. Shikonin inhibits inflammatory responses in rabbit chondrocytes and shows chondroprotection in osteoarthritic rabbit knee.

    PubMed

    Li, Feng; Yin, Zhanhai; Zhou, Bing; Xue, Fei; Yang, Wei; Chang, Ruimiao; Ma, Kaige; Qiu, Yusheng

    2015-12-01

    Shikonin, a natural product from Lithospermum erythrorhizon, exerts a wide range of anti-inflammatory actions both in vitro and in vivo. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have long been considered as the major catabolic enzymes involved in osteoarthritis (OA) cartilage erosion. Here, we investigated the anti-inflammatory and effects of shikonin on MMPs in both IL-1β induced rabbit chondrocytes and the experimental rabbit OA model induced by anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) transection and evaluated the potential involvement of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) in the processes. In vitro, rabbit chondrocytes were cultured and pretreated with shikonin (0, 1, 5, 10μM) for 1h (h) with or without IL-1β (10ng/ml) for 24h. The expression of MMPs (MMP-1, MMP-3 and MMP-13) and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) at mRNA and protein levels were determined by quantitative real-time PCR and ELISA respectively. NF-κB related signaling molecules were investigated by Western blotting. In vivo study, the effects of shikonin on MMPs and TIMP-1 were determined at the gene level and the cartilage damage was evaluated at the histological level after the rabbits sacrificed. We found that shikonin significantly reversed the elevated expression of MMP-1, MMP-3 and MMP-13 and the reduced expression of TIMP-1 at both gene and protein levels in IL-1β induced chondrocytes. Additionally, the reduction of IκBα and the activation of NF-κB p65 induced by IL-1β were subsided by shikonin in rabbit chondrocytes. In vivo, both the cartilage damage and the elevated expression of MMP-1, MMP-3 and MMP-13 and the decreased expression of TIMP-1 were ameliorated in shikonin intra-articular injection knees compared to vehicle knees. Our findings indicated that shikonin have anti-inflammatory and chondro-protective effects and may be a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of OA. PMID:26395917

  18. Conduct and interpretation of a dermal developmental toxicity study with KBR 3023 (a prospective insect repellent) in the Sprague-Dawley rat and Himalayan rabbit.

    PubMed

    Astroff, A B; Young, A D; Holzum, B; Sangha, G K; Thyssen, J H

    2000-03-01

    KBR 3023, 1-(1-methyl-propoxycarbonyl)-2-(2-hydroxyethyl)piperidine, a prospective insect repellent being developed by Bayer Corporation, was evaluated for developmental toxicity in the Sprague-Dawley rat and Himalayan rabbit. As the intended human usage of the test compound is topical, the test systems were exposed to the compound via the dermal route. Specifically, the animals were fitted with Elizabethan collars, to reduce the likelihood of oral ingestion, and dermally administered either 0, 50, 200, or 400 mg KBR 3023/kg (rat), and 0, 50, 100, or 200 mg KBR 3023/kg (rabbit) on gestation days 0-19 (rat) and 0-28 (rabbit). Maternal toxicity, as demonstrated by clinical signs and changes in body weight gain and food consumption during gestation, was characterized. Animals were sacrificed on gestation day 20 (rat) and 29 (rabbit), at which time fetuses were removed by cesarean section and a gross maternal necropsy was performed. All fetuses were evaluated for external anomalies. With rats, approximately half of each litter was examined for visceral effects; the other half underwent a skeletal examination. With rabbits, all fetuses underwent both visceral and skeletal examinations. No effects were observed on maternal body weight gain or food consumption in either the rat or rabbit. In the rat, dermal effects (scaling/sloughing), were observed at the dose site of all test substance-treated groups from approximately gestation day 7 until termination of the study. Also noted were an increase in both absolute and relative liver weights in rats in the 400-mg/kg dose group. In the rabbit, dermal effects (slight erythema, squamous and cracked skin) were noted at the dose site of virtually all does administered the test compound, from approximately gestation day 7 until termination. Also observed in the rabbits was a potentially compound-related increase in soft stool, particularly at the highest dose level. In both species, there were no statistically significant effects on any reproductive parameters, or any embryonic endpoints, including pre/post-implantation loss and resorptions. There were no statistically significant effects on litter size or fetal or placental weights. No test compound-related external, visceral, or skeletal findings were observed. No effect on the individual fetal or litter incidence of total malformations or variations was observed and there was no difference in the incidence of malformations between males and females. KBR 3023 Technical, administered as described in these studies, produced maternal effects in the rat (liver weight) at a dose of 400 mg/kg, and in the rabbit (soft stool) in the 200-mg/kg dose group. No developmental toxicity was observed at any dose level. PMID:10661912

  19. Antioxidants attenuate atherosclerotic plaque development in a balloon-denuded and -radiated hypercholesterolemic rabbit

    SciTech Connect

    Leborgne, Laurent; Fournadjiev, Jana; Pakala, Rajbabu; Dilcher, Christian; Cheneau, Edouard; Wolfram, Roswitha; Hellinga, David; Seaborn, Rufus; O'Tio, Fermin; Waksman, Ron

    2003-03-01

    Background: Oxidation of lipoproteins is considered to be a key contributor to atherogenesis. Antioxidants are potential antiatherogenic agents because they can inhibit lipoprotein oxidation. Radiation has been shown to increase oxidative stress leading to increased atherogenesis. This study is designed to test the potential of antioxidants to inhibit atherosclerotic plaque progression in balloon-denuded and -radiated rabbits. Methods and Results: Two groups of New Zealand white rabbits (n=36) were fed with 1% cholesterol diet (control diet) or with 1% cholesterol diet containing a mixture of various antioxidants for 1 week. Iliac arteries in all the animals were balloon denuded and continued to fed with 0.15% cholesterol diet or 0.15% cholesterol diet containing antioxidants (antioxidant diet). Four weeks after balloon denudation one iliac artery in 12 animals from each group was radiated and all the animals were continued to be fed with the same diet. Four weeks after radiation animals were sacrificed and morphometric analysis of iliac arteries (n=12) in nonradiated and radiated animals were performed. Plaque area (PA) in the rabbits that were fed with cholesterol diet is 0.2{+-}0.12 mm{sup 2}, and it is increased by 2.75-fold (P<.05) in the radiated arteries of animals fed with cholesterol diet. Plaque area in the animals fed with antioxidant diet is 50% less then the one in the animals fed with cholesterol diet. Similarly, plaque area in radiated arteries of the animals fed with antioxidant diet is 50% less then the animals fed with cholesterol diet. Conclusion: Antioxidants significantly attenuate atherosclerotic plaque progression in balloon-injured and -radiated hypercholesterolemic rabbits.

  20. Immunoproteomic Identification of In Vivo-Produced Propionibacterium acnes Proteins in a Rabbit Biofilm Infection Model

    PubMed Central

    Achermann, Yvonne; Tran, Bao; Kang, Misun; Harro, Janette M.

    2015-01-01

    Propionibacterium acnes is well-known as a human skin commensal but can also act as an invasive pathogen causing implant-associated infections. In order to resolve these types of P. acnes infections, the implants must be removed, due to the presence of an established biofilm that is recalcitrant to antibiotic therapy. In order to identify those P. acnes proteins produced in vivo during a biofilm infection, we established a rabbit model of implant-associated infection with this pathogen. P. acnes biofilms were anaerobically grown on dextran beads that were then inoculated into the left tibias of rabbits. At 4 weeks postinoculation, P. acnes infection was confirmed by radiograph, histology, culture, and PCR. In vivo-produced and immunogenic P. acnes proteins were detected on Western blot using serum samples from rabbits infected with P. acnes after these bacterial proteins were separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Those proteins that bound host antibodies were then isolated and identified by tandem mass spectrometry. Radiographs and histology demonstrated a disruption in the normal bone architecture and adherent biofilm communities in those animals with confirmed infections. A total of 24 immunogenic proteins were identified; 13 of these proteins were upregulated in both planktonic and biofilm modes, including an ABC transporter protein. We successfully adapted a rabbit model of implant-associated infection for P. acnes to identify P. acnes proteins produced during a chronic biofilm-mediated infection. Further studies are needed to evaluate the potential of these proteins for either a diagnostic test or a vaccine to prevent biofilm infections caused by P. acnes. PMID:25694647

  1. A rabbit humerus model of plating and nailing osteosynthesis with and without Staphylococcus aureus osteomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Arens, D; Wilke, M; Calabro, L; Hackl, S; Zeiter, S; Zderic, I; Richards, R G; Moriarty, T F

    2015-01-01

    The local mechanical environment at a fracture is known to influence biological factors such as callus formation, immune cell recruitment and susceptibility to infection. Infection models incorporating a fracture are therefore required to evaluate prevention and treatment of infection after osteosynthesis. The aim of this study was to create humane, standardised and repeatable preclinical models of implant-related bone infection after osteosynthesis in the rabbit humerus. Custom-designed interlocked intramedullary nails and commercially available locking plates were subjected to biomechanical evaluation in cadaveric rabbit humeri; a 10-week in vivo healing study; a dose response study with Staphylococcus aureus over 4 weeks; and finally, a long-term infection of 10 weeks in the plate model.Outcome measures included biomechanical testing, radiography, histology, haematology and quantitative bacteriology. Both implants offered similar biomechanical stability in cadaveric bones, and when applied in the in vivo study, resulted in complete radiographic and histological healing and osteotomy closure within 10-weeks. As expected in the infection study, higher bacterial doses led to an increasing infection rate. In both infected groups, there was a complete lack of osteotomy closure at 4 weeks. C-reactive protein (CRP), lymphocyte: granulocyte ratio and weight loss were increased in infected animals receiving IM nails in comparison with non-inoculated equivalents, although this was less evident in the plate group. In the 10-week infection group, healing does not occur in the plated rabbits. We have successfully developed a rabbit model that is suitable for further studies, particularly those looking into preventative strategies for post-traumatic implant-related osteomyelitis. PMID:26388617

  2. Ocular and systemic pharmacokinetics of lidocaine hydrochloride ophthalmic gel in rabbits after topical ocular administration.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bing; Ding, Li; Xu, Xiaowen; Lin, Hongda; Sun, Chenglong; You, Linjun

    2015-12-01

    Lidocaine hydrochloride ophthalmic gel is a novel ophthalmic preparation for topical ocular anesthesia. The study is aimed at evaluating the ocular and systemic pharmacokinetics of lidocaine hydrochloride 3.5 % ophthalmic gel in rabbits after ocular topical administration. Thirty-six rabbits were randomly placed in 12 groups (3 rabbits per group). The rabbits were quickly killed according to their groups at 0 (predose), 0.0833, 0.167, 0.333, 0.667, 1, 1.5, 2, 3, 4, 6, and 8 h postdose and then the ocular tissue and plasma samples were collected. All the samples were analyzed by a validated LC-MS/MS method. The test result showed that the maximum concentration (C max) of lidocaine in different ocular tissues and plasma were all achieved within 20 min after drug administration, and the data of C max were (2,987 ± 1814) ?g/g, (44.67 ± 12.91) ?g/g, (26.26 ± 7.19) ?g/g, (11,046 ± 2,734) ng/mL, and (160.3 ± 61.0) ng/mL for tear fluid, cornea, conjunctiva, aqueous humor, and plasma, respectively. The data of the elimination half-life in these tissues were 1.5, 3.2, 3.5, 1.9, and 1.7 h for tear fluid, cornea, conjunctiva, aqueous humor, and plasma, respectively. The intraocular lidocaine levels were significantly higher than that in plasma, and the elimination half-life of lidocaine in cornea, conjunctiva, and aqueous humor was relatively longer than that in tear fluid and plasma. The high intraocular penetration, low systemic exposure, and long duration in the ocular tissues suggested lidocaine hydrochloride 3.5 % ophthalmic gel as an effective local anesthetic for ocular anesthesia during ophthalmic procedures. PMID:25031074

  3. Effects of various decellularization methods on histological and biomechanical properties of rabbit tendons

    PubMed Central

    XING, SHUXING; LIU, CONG; XU, BING; CHEN, JIANCHANG; YIN, DONGFENG; ZHANG, CHUNHAO

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of various decellularization methods on the histological and biomechanical properties of rabbit tendons. In total, six chemical reagents, including 1% t-octyl-phenoxypolyethoxyethanol (Triton-X 100), 0.5% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), 1% tri-n-butyl phosphate (TnBP), 1% Triton-X 100 + 0.5% SDS, 1% TnBP + 0.5% SDS and 1% TnBP + 1% Triton-X 100, were used on rabbit semitendinosus muscles and flexor digitorum tendons for 24 h to remove cells. Hematoxylin and eosin staining was applied for histological observation, while tension testing was used for biomechanical studies. The effects of the various decellularization methods on the histological structure and biomechanical properties of rabbit tendons were evaluated. A group of fresh tendons treated with phosphate-buffered saline served as controls. The various decellularization methods resulted in different effects on the tendons. All the treatment groups exhibited a decrease in tendon biomechanical properties, but no statistically significant differences were observed among the experimental groups. The extensibility of the 1% TnBP-treated group was found to be greater than that of the other groups; however, the difference was not statistically significant. Histologically, the 1% TnBP + 0.5% SDS treatment was shown to have the least impact on the rabbit tendon structure, with good decellularization and no clear cellular remnants observed. The 1% Triton-X 100 + 0.5% SDS treatment had a pronounced effect on the tendon collagen structure and a number of collagen ruptures were observed. Overall, 1% TnBP + 0.5% SDS was found to be the most effective compared with the other treatments, as this treatment preserved the tendon collagen structure while completely removing the cells. Tendons treated with 1% TnBP + 0.5% SDS were histologically similar to normal tendon tissue and biomechanically similar to the tendons in the control group. PMID:25009631

  4. Voxel modeling of rabbits for use in radiological dose rate calculations.

    PubMed

    Caffrey, E A; Johansen, M P; Higley, K A

    2016-01-01

    Radiation dose to biota is generally calculated using Monte Carlo simulations of whole body ellipsoids with homogeneously distributed radioactivity throughout. More complex anatomical phantoms, termed voxel phantoms, have been developed to test the validity of these simplistic geometric models. In most voxel models created to date, human tissue composition and density values have been used in lieu of biologically accurate values for non-human biota. This has raised questions regarding variable tissue composition and density effects on the fraction of radioactive emission energy absorbed within tissues (e.g. the absorbed fraction - AF), along with implications for age-dependent dose rates as organisms mature. The results of this study on rabbits indicates that the variation in composition between two mammalian tissue types (e.g. human vs rabbit bones) made little difference in self-AF (SAF) values (within 5% over most energy ranges). However, variable tissue density (e.g. bone vs liver) can significantly impact SAF values. An examination of differences across life-stages revealed increasing SAF with testis and ovary size of over an order of magnitude for photons and several factors for electrons, indicating the potential for increasing dose rates to these sensitive organs as animals mature. AFs for electron energies of 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.5, 0.7, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, and 4.0 MeV and photon energies of 0.01, 0.015, 0.02, 0.03, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, and 4.0 MeV are provided for eleven rabbit tissues. The data presented in this study can be used to calculate accurate organ dose rates for rabbits and other small rodents; to aide in extending dose results among different mammal species; and to validate the use of ellipsoidal models for regulatory purposes. PMID:25971772

  5. Immunoproteomic Identification of In Vivo-Produced Propionibacterium acnes Proteins in a Rabbit Biofilm Infection Model.

    PubMed

    Achermann, Yvonne; Tran, Bao; Kang, Misun; Harro, Janette M; Shirtliff, Mark E

    2015-05-01

    Propionibacterium acnes is well-known as a human skin commensal but can also act as an invasive pathogen causing implant-associated infections. In order to resolve these types of P. acnes infections, the implants must be removed, due to the presence of an established biofilm that is recalcitrant to antibiotic therapy. In order to identify those P. acnes proteins produced in vivo during a biofilm infection, we established a rabbit model of implant-associated infection with this pathogen. P. acnes biofilms were anaerobically grown on dextran beads that were then inoculated into the left tibias of rabbits. At 4 weeks postinoculation, P. acnes infection was confirmed by radiograph, histology, culture, and PCR. In vivo-produced and immunogenic P. acnes proteins were detected on Western blot using serum samples from rabbits infected with P. acnes after these bacterial proteins were separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Those proteins that bound host antibodies were then isolated and identified by tandem mass spectrometry. Radiographs and histology demonstrated a disruption in the normal bone architecture and adherent biofilm communities in those animals with confirmed infections. A total of 24 immunogenic proteins were identified; 13 of these proteins were upregulated in both planktonic and biofilm modes, including an ABC transporter protein. We successfully adapted a rabbit model of implant-associated infection for P. acnes to identify P. acnes proteins produced during a chronic biofilm-mediated infection. Further studies are needed to evaluate the potential of these proteins for either a diagnostic test or a vaccine to prevent biofilm infections caused by P. acnes. PMID:25694647

  6. Rotator cuff healing after continuous subacromial bupivacaine infusion: an in vivo rabbit study

    PubMed Central

    FRIEL, NICOLE A.; WANG, VINCENT M.; SLABAUGH, MARK A.; WANG, FANCHIA; CHUBINSKAYA, SUSAN; COLE, BRIAN J.

    2013-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of continuous subacromial bupivacaine infusion on supraspinatus muscle and rotator cuff tendon healing via gross, biomechanical, and histologic analyses. Methods Thirty-three New Zealand White rabbits underwent unilateral supraspinatus transection and rotator cuff repair (RCR). Rabbits were assigned to 1 of 3 groups: (1)RCR only, (2)RCR with continuous saline infusion for 48 hours, or (3)RCR with continuous 0.25% bupivacaine with epinephrine (1:200,000) infusion for 48 hours. Rabbits were sacrificed at either 2 (for histologic assessment) or 8 weeks post-operatively (for biomechanical and histologic assessment). Results Tensile testing showed significantly higher load to failure in intact tendons compared to repaired tendons (p<0.01); however, no statistical differences were detected among RCR only, RCR Saline, and RCR Bupivacaine groups. Histologically, the enthesis of repaired tendons showed increased cellularity and disorganized collagen fibers compared to intact tendons, with no differences between treatment groups. Muscle histology demonstrated scattered degenerative muscle fibers at 2 weeks in both RCR Saline and RCR Bupivacaine, but no degeneration was noted at 8 weeks. Conclusions The healing supraspinatus tendons exposed to bupivacaine infusion showed similar histologic and biomechanical characteristics compared to untreated and saline infused RCR groups. Muscle histology showed fiber damage at 2 weeks for both the saline and bupivacaine treated groups, with no apparent disruption at 8 weeks, suggesting a recovery process. Therefore, subacromial bupivacaine infusion in this rabbit rotator cuff model does not appear to impair muscle or tendon following acute injury and repair. Level Of Evidence Basic science study PMID:22818894

  7. Reevaluation of lipolytic activity of growth hormone in rabbit adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Barenton, B; Batifol, V; Combarnous, Y; Dulor, J P; Durand, P; Vezinhet, A

    1984-07-18

    The lipolytic activities of porcine pituitary fractions and purified growth hormone (GH) from human (h), porcine (p), ovine (o) and rabbit (Rb) origin as well as ovine placental lactogen (oPL), were compared to that of ACTH on rabbit adipocytes. All the GH preparations and oPL were equivalent in inhibiting the binding of labelled oGH to liver plasma membranes from pregnant rabbits. ACTH, and to a lesser extent porcine pituitary fractions and hGH, stimulated free fatty acid production by isolated adipocytes. The sensitivity of the adipocytes to these factors was increased when adenosine deaminase was added to the incubation medium. But, RbGH, pGH, oGH and oPL had no effect. We conclude that GH is not directly involved in the control of lipolysis in rabbit adipocytes and that the effect of hGH is rather due to a contamination of this preparation by other pituitary factors. PMID:6331444

  8. Neurogenic cardiomyopathy in rabbits with experimentally induced rabies.

    PubMed

    Kesdangsakonwut, S; Sunden, Y; Yamada, K; Nishizono, A; Sawa, H; Umemura, T

    2015-05-01

    Cardiomyopathies have been rarely described in rabbits. Here we report myocardial necrosis of the ventricular wall in rabbits with experimentally induced rabies. Myocardial lesions were found only in rabbits with brain lesions, and the severity of the cardiac lesions was proportional to that of the brain lesions. Neither the frequency nor the cumulative dose of anesthesia was related to the incidence or the severity of the myocardial lesions. The myocardial lesions were characterized by degeneration and/or necrosis of myocardial cells and were accompanied by contraction band necrosis, interstitial fibrosis, and infiltration of inflammatory cells. The brain lesions due to rabies virus infection were most prominent in the cerebral cortex, thalamus, hypothalamus, brainstem, and medulla. Rabies virus antigen was not found in the hearts of any rabbits. Based on these findings, the myocardial lesions were classified as neurogenic cardiomyopathy. PMID:25047229

  9. Bottom's Semiology: The Duck-Rabbit and Magritte's Pipe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berthoff, Ann E.

    1993-01-01

    Explores how a dyadic understanding of perception cancels the validity it might have as a model for the linguistic process. Discusses commonly misunderstood exhibits in the gallery of perception studies--the duck-rabbit and Magritte's pipe. (RS)

  10. The first reported case of rabbit hemorrhagic disease in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Embury-Hyatt, Carissa; Postey, Rosemary; Hisanaga, Tamiko; Burton, Lynn; Hooper-McGrevy, Kathleen; McIntyre, Leanne; Millar, Kevin; Pasick, John

    2012-01-01

    In March 2011, rabbit hemorrhagic disease (RHD) was suspected in a 1-year-old male neutered lop-eared rabbit that had acute onset liver failure. Gross pathology, histopathology, immunohistochemistry, partial nucleic acid sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of the major capsid protein (VP60) and animal inoculation studies all supported this diagnosis making it the first confirmed case of RHD in Canada. PMID:23450867

  11. Cholesterol enhances classical conditioning of the rabbit heart rate response

    PubMed Central

    Schreurs, Bernard G.; Smith-Bell, Carrie A.; Darwish, Deya S.; Wang, Desheng; Burhans, Lauren B.; Gonzales-Joekes, Jimena; Deci, Stephen; Stankovic, Goran; Sparks, D. Larry

    2007-01-01

    The cholesterol-fed rabbit is a model of atherosclerosis and has been proposed as an animal model of Alzheimer's disease. Feeding rabbits cholesterol has been shown to increase the number of beta amyloid immunoreactive neurons in the cortex. Addition of copper to the drinking water of cholesterol-fed rabbits can increase this number still further and may lead to plaque-like structures. Classical conditioning of the nictitating membrane response in cholesterol-fed rabbits is retarded in the presence of these plaque-like structures but may be facilitated in their absence. In a factorial design, rabbits fed 2% cholesterol or a normal diet (0% cholesterol) for 8 weeks with or without copper added to the drinking water were given trace classical conditioning using a tone and periorbital electrodermal stimulation to study the effects of cholesterol and copper on classical conditioning of heart rate and the nictitating membrane response. Cholesterol-fed rabbits showed significant facilitation of heart rate conditioning and conditioning-specific modification of heart rate relative to normal diet controls. Consistent with previous research, cholesterol had minimal effects on classical conditioning of the nictitating membrane response when periorbital electrodermal stimulation was used as the unconditioned stimulus. Immunohistochemical analysis showed a significant increase in the number of beta amyloid positive neurons in the cortex, hippocampus and amygdala of the cholesterol-fed rabbits. Supplementation of drinking water with copper increased the number of beta amyloid positive neurons in the cortex of cholesterol-fed rabbits but did not produce plaque-like structures or have a significant effect on heart rate conditioning. The data provide additional support for our finding that, in the absence of plaques, dietary cholesterol may facilitate learning and memory. PMID:17466388

  12. Novel picornavirus in domestic rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus var. domestica).

    PubMed

    Pankovics, Péter; Boros, Ákos; Bíró, Hunor; Horváth, Katalin Barbara; Phan, Tung Gia; Delwart, Eric; Reuter, Gábor

    2016-01-01

    Picornaviruses (family Picornaviridae) are small, non-enveloped viruses with positive sense, single-stranded RNA genomes. The numbers of the novel picornavirus species and genera are continuously increasing. Picornaviruses infect numerous vertebrate species from fish to mammals, but have not been identified in a member of the Lagomorpha order (pikas, hares and rabbits). In this study, a novel picornavirus was identified in 16 (28.6%) out of 56 faecal samples collected from clinically healthy rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus var. domestica) in two (one commercial and one family farms) of four rabbit farms in Hungary. The 8364 nucleotide (2486 amino acid) long complete genome sequence of strain Rabbit01/2013/HUN (KT325852) has typical picornavirus genome organization with type-V IRES at the 5'UTR, encodes a leader (L) and a single 2A(H-box/NC) proteins, contains a hepatitis-A-virus-like cis-acting replication element (CRE) in the 2A, but it does not contain the sequence forming a "barbell-like" secondary structure in the 3'UTR. Rabbit01/2013/HUN has 52.9%, 52% and 57.2% amino acid identity to corresponding proteins of species Aichivirus A (genus Kobuvirus): to murine Kobuvirus (JF755427) in P1, to canine Kobuvirus (JN387133) in P2 and to feline Kobuvirus (KF831027) in P3, respectively. The sequence and phylogenetic analysis indicated that Rabbit01/2013/HUN represents a novel picornavirus species possibly in genus Kobuvirus. This is the first report of detection of picornavirus in rabbit. Further study is needed to clarify whether this novel picornavirus plays a part in any diseases in domestic or wild rabbits. PMID:26588888

  13. A Complete Handbook on Backyward and Commercial Rabbit Production = Sa Kalusugan ng Bayan Rabbit Ang Alagaan. Appropriate Technologies for Development. Reprint R-41.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sicwaten, Juan B.; Stahl, Diane

    This handbook on rabbit raising, prepared for use by Peace Corps volunteers, attempts to share information gained by rabbit raisers in the Philippines along with information gathered from academic sources. The manual provides step-by-step information on how to begin and carry out a program of rabbit production. The 15 sections of the guide cover…

  14. Enrichment-toy trauma in a New Zealand White rabbit.

    PubMed

    Shomer, N H; Peikert, S; Terwilliger, G

    2001-01-01

    An injury was caused by an enrichment toy (a whiffle ball, which is a perforated hollow ball made of hard plastic) that led to its removal from the rabbit enrichment program. Manipulata and food treats form the basis of the Yale rabbit enrichment program. All singly housed rabbits are given toys such as balls, chains, wood blocks, PVC tubing, Nylabones, and corrugated plastic tunnels. Before they are used, all potential enrichment devices are reviewed for safety and potential veterinary problems. The whiffle ball had been considered safe because it was made of hard non-toxic plastic, had no sharp edges, was too large to be swallowed or inhaled, and was judged too sturdy to be broken by the rabbits. However, the ball became lodged in the incisors of an adult female New Zealand White rabbit, preventing her from eating or drinking for 12 h and causing marked trauma to her gums. Removal of the ball necessitated anesthetizing the rabbit and using bone cutters to cut away the ball. Ideally, environmental enrichment should increase species-specific normal behavior and minimize stereotypies and self- and conspecific-directed abusive behavior. This case illustrates that safety assessments for an enrichment device must include both the inherent properties of the device and the risks if the toy is misused or damaged. Considerations for safety assessment are discussed. PMID:11300673

  15. Rabbit haemorrhagic disease: virus persistence and adaptation in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Schwensow, Nina I; Cooke, Brian; Kovaliski, John; Sinclair, Ron; Peacock, David; Fickel, Joerns; Sommer, Simone

    2014-01-01

    In Australia, the rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) has been used since 1996 to reduce numbers of introduced European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) which have a devastating impact on the native Australian environment. RHDV causes regular, short disease outbreaks, but little is known about how the virus persists and survives between epidemics. We examined the initial spread of RHDV to show that even upon its initial spread, the virus circulated continuously on a regional scale rather than persisting at a local population level and that Australian rabbit populations are highly interconnected by virus-carrying flying vectors. Sequencing data obtained from a single rabbit population showed that the viruses that caused an epidemic each year seldom bore close genetic resemblance to those present in previous years. Together, these data suggest that RHDV survives in the Australian environment through its ability to spread amongst rabbit subpopulations. This is consistent with modelling results that indicated that in a large interconnected rabbit meta-population, RHDV should maintain high virulence, cause short, strong disease outbreaks but show low persistence in any given subpopulation. This new epidemiological framework is important for understanding virus–host co-evolution and future disease management options of pest species to secure Australia's remaining natural biodiversity. PMID:25553067

  16. Measurement of rabbit eardrum vibration through stroboscopic digital holography

    SciTech Connect

    De Greef, Daniël; Dirckx, Joris J. J.

    2014-05-27

    In this work, we present a setup for high-power single shot stroboscopic digital holography and demonstrate it in an application on rabbit eardrum vibration measurement. The setup is able to make full-field time-resolved measurements of vibrating surfaces with a precision in the nanometer range in a broad frequency range. The height displacement of the measured object is visualized over the entire surface as a function of time. Vibration magnitude and phase maps can be extracted from these data, the latter proving to be very useful to reveal phase delays across the surface. Such deviations from modal motion indicate energy losses due to internal damping, in contrast to purely elastic mechanics. This is of great interest in middle ear mechanics and finite element modelling. In our setup, short laser pulses are fired at selected instants within the surface vibration period and are recorded by a CCD camera. The timing of the pulses and the exposure of the camera are synchronized to the vibration phase by a microprocessor. The high-power frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser produces pulses containing up to 5 mJ of energy, which is amply sufficient to record single-shot holograms. As the laser pulse length is 8 ns and the smallest time step of the trigger electronics is 1 μs, vibration measurements of frequencies up to 250 kHz are achievable through this method, provided that the maximum vibration amplitude exceeds a few nanometers. In our application, middle ear mechanics, measuring frequencies extend from 5 Hz to 20 kHz. The experimental setup will be presented, as well as results of measurements on a stretched circular rubber membrane and a rabbit's eardrum. Two of the challenges when measuring biological tissues, such as the eardrum, are low reflectivity and fast dehydration. To increase reflectivity, a coating is applied and to counteract the undesirable effects of tissue dehydration, the measurement setup and software have been optimized for speed without compromising on the quality. Results of a repeatability test will be presented as well. Since the method measures the membrane motion as a function of time in small time steps, we do not only measure vibration amplitude like in time-average holography, but we can also measure non-linear elastic and transient behaviour. In conclusion, the combination of good spatial, depth and time resolution with the fast data acquisition and very wide frequency range make our technique applicable in a number of fields, including biological tissue vibrations.

  17. Measurement of rabbit eardrum vibration through stroboscopic digital holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Greef, Daniël; Dirckx, Joris J. J.

    2014-05-01

    In this work, we present a setup for high-power single shot stroboscopic digital holography and demonstrate it in an application on rabbit eardrum vibration measurement. The setup is able to make full-field time-resolved measurements of vibrating surfaces with a precision in the nanometer range in a broad frequency range. The height displacement of the measured object is visualized over the entire surface as a function of time. Vibration magnitude and phase maps can be extracted from these data, the latter proving to be very useful to reveal phase delays across the surface. Such deviations from modal motion indicate energy losses due to internal damping, in contrast to purely elastic mechanics. This is of great interest in middle ear mechanics and finite element modelling. In our setup, short laser pulses are fired at selected instants within the surface vibration period and are recorded by a CCD camera. The timing of the pulses and the exposure of the camera are synchronized to the vibration phase by a microprocessor. The high-power frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser produces pulses containing up to 5 mJ of energy, which is amply sufficient to record single-shot holograms. As the laser pulse length is 8 ns and the smallest time step of the trigger electronics is 1 μs, vibration measurements of frequencies up to 250 kHz are achievable through this method, provided that the maximum vibration amplitude exceeds a few nanometers. In our application, middle ear mechanics, measuring frequencies extend from 5 Hz to 20 kHz. The experimental setup will be presented, as well as results of measurements on a stretched circular rubber membrane and a rabbit's eardrum. Two of the challenges when measuring biological tissues, such as the eardrum, are low reflectivity and fast dehydration. To increase reflectivity, a coating is applied and to counteract the undesirable effects of tissue dehydration, the measurement setup and software have been optimized for speed without compromising on the quality. Results of a repeatability test will be presented as well. Since the method measures the membrane motion as a function of time in small time steps, we do not only measure vibration amplitude like in time-average holography, but we can also measure non-linear elastic and transient behaviour. In conclusion, the combination of good spatial, depth and time resolution with the fast data acquisition and very wide frequency range make our technique applicable in a number of fields, including biological tissue vibrations.

  18. Quantitative Analysis of Disc Degeneration Using Axial T2 Mapping in a Percutaneous Annular Puncture Model in Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Chai, Jee Won; Lee, Joon Woo; Kim, Su-Jin; Hong, Sung Hwan

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate T2 relaxation time change using axial T2 mapping in a rabbit degenerated disc model and determine the most correlated variable with histologic score among T2 relaxation time, disc height index, and Pfirrmann grade. Materials and Methods Degenerated disc model was made in 4 lumbar discs of 11 rabbits (n = 44) by percutaneous annular puncture with various severities of an injury. Lumbar spine lateral radiograph, MR T2 sagittal scan and MR axial T2 mapping were obtained at baseline and 2 weeks and 4 weeks after the injury in 7 rabbits and at baseline and 2 weeks, 4 weeks, and 6 weeks after the injury in 4 rabbits. Generalized estimating equations were used for a longitudinal analysis of changes in T2 relaxation time in degenerated disc model. T2 relaxation time, disc height index and Pfirrmann grade were correlated with the histologic scoring of disc degeneration using Spearman's rho test. Results There was a significant difference in T2 relaxation time between uninjured and injured discs after annular puncture. Progressive decrease in T2 relaxation time was observed in injured discs throughout the study period. Lower T2 relaxation time was observed in the more severely injured discs. T2 relaxation time showed the strongest inverse correlation with the histologic score among the variables investigated (r = -0.811, p < 0.001). Conclusion T2 relaxation time measured with axial T2 mapping in degenerated discs is a potential method to assess disc degeneration. PMID:26798222

  19. Effect of shigella enterotoxin 1 (ShET1) on rabbit intestine in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Fasano, A; Noriega, F R; Liao, F M; Wang, W; Levine, M M

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Shigella enterotoxin 1 is a novel enterotoxin elaborated by Shigella flexneri 2a that causes fluid accumulation in rabbit ileal loops and a rise in short circuit current in Ussing chambers. AIMS: To gain insights into the mechanism of action of shigella enterotoxin 1. METHODS: Supernatants from genetically engineered clones either overexpressing shigella enterotoxin 1 or producing deletion mutants of the toxin were tested in rabbit ileum both in vitro and in vivo. RESULTS: In rabbit ileum shigella enterotoxin 1 induced an irreversible rise in short circuit current that was not mediated by any of the recognised intracellular mediators of secretion. Deletion of 90% of the A subunit of the holotoxin ablated its enterotoxicity. In the in vivo perfusion model, the toxin induced a time dependent decrease in water absorption, whereas no changes were detected in the segment perfused with supernatants obtained from the deletion mutant. Finally, partially purified toxin induced a dose dependent increment in short circuit current that reached its plateau at a toxin concentration of 4 x 10(-6) M. CONCLUSIONS: Shigella enterotoxin 1 induces a time and dose dependent intestinal secretion in the rabbit animal model, suggesting that it may be responsible for the watery phase of Shigella flexneri 2a infection. Images PMID:9176079

  20. Development and partial metabolic characterization of a dietary cholesterol-resistant colony of rabbits

    SciTech Connect

    Overturf, M.L.; Smith, S.A.; Hewett-Emmett, D.; Loose-Mitchell, D.S.; Soma, M.R.; Gotto, A.M. Jr.; Morrisett, J.D. )

    1989-02-01

    A colony of New Zealand white rabbits has been developed which, when fed a cholesterol-supplemented diet, exhibit unusual resistance to hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis, disorders usually observed in normal cholesterol-fed rabbits. When resistant rabbits (RT) were fed a normal low cholesterol diet (ND), their plasma lipoprotein patterns were significantly different from those of normal rabbits (NR) fed the same diet. The low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c)/high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) ratio and LDL-c/very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-c) ratio were lower in the resistant rabbits. The hydrated density of HDL of the normal-responsive rabbits was greater than that of the resistant rabbits. LDL from resistant rabbits contained a lower proportion of esterified cholesterol and protein than LDL from normal rabbits. Peripheral mononuclear cells from resistant rabbits bound about 30% more {sup 125}I-labeled rabbit LDL than mononuclear cells from normal rabbits. These results demonstrate that the plasma cholesterol levels of these animals is at least partly under genetic control and that compositional differences exist between the major plasma lipoprotein classes of normal and resistant rabbits even during the ingestion of low-cholesterol diet. The results indicate that at least a part of the difference in the cholesterolemic responses between the two rabbit groups is due to an enhanced LDL uptake by the mononuclear cells, and presumably by other somatic cells of the resistant group.

  1. Toxicity of metallic ions and oxides to rabbit alveolar macrophages

    SciTech Connect

    Labedzka, M.; Gulyas, H.; Schmidt, N.; Gercken, G. )

    1989-04-01

    The effects of soluble compounds and oxides of As, Cd, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Sb, Sn, V, and Zn on oxidative metabolism and membrane integrity of rabbit alveolar macrophages were studied by 24-hr in vitro exposure. Oxidative metabolism induced by phagocytosis of opsonized zymosan was measured by H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and O{sub 2}{sup {minus}} release and by chemiluminescence in the presence of luminol. Membrane integrity was estimated by extracellular LDH activity. Metallic ions and oxides inhibited the release of active oxygen species. Cd(II), As(III), and V(V) were the most toxic elements as measured by all investigated parameters. Cu(II) decreased O{sub 2}{sup {minus}} release and chemiluminescence effectively but H{sub 2}O{sub 2} release and membrane integrity less. Chemiluminescence was decreased strongly by Hg(II) while O{sub 2}{sup {minus}} and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} release were depressed moderately. Zn(II) and Sb(III) compounds caused medium toxicity and the tested Sn, Ni, and Pb compounds showed only faint toxic effects.

  2. Estrogen formation by the ovary of the rabbit embryo.

    PubMed

    Milewich, L; George, F W; Wilson, J D

    1977-01-01

    The conversion of [1,2,6,7-3H]- testosterone to radioactive estradiol was assessed in tissue slices of 18 different tissues from rabbit embryos that varied in age from 16 to 29 days gestation. Significant rates of estradiol synthesis were demonstrated only in ovaries [4.2 +/- 0.7 (mean +/- SEM) pmol/h/mg) protein], placenta (0.7 +/- 0.2 pmol/h/mg protein) and brain (0.3 +/- 0.1 pmol/h/mg protein). Estradiol formation was undetectable in day 16 gonads of both sexes and in tests at all ages examined, but by day 18 it was demonstrable in ovaries and rose rapidly to reach a level of 6 pmol/h/mg protein by day 19. The time of appearance of the enzymatic capacity to convert testosterone to estradiol in the ovary is similar to the onset of the enzymatic capacity to form testosterone by the fetal testis, suggesting that the acquisition of the enzymatic activies that allow specific endocrine function by these two tissues may be regulated by the same or similar factors during embryonic development. PMID:830538

  3. Simulated airplane flight increases plasma lactate in fetal rabbits.

    PubMed

    Schumacher, B; Olson, G L; Saade, G R; Ou, C N; Sutton, T E; Moise, K J; Fife, C E

    1999-01-01

    We studied the effect of 9 h of simulated airplane cabin conditions at cruising altitude (8,000 feet; inspired oxygen equivalent to 15% O2 at sea level) on fetal plasma lactate in near-term pregnant rabbits. Controls (n = 19) spent 9 h at sea level (21% O2). Study group I (n = 21) experienced airplane cabin conditions. Study group II (n = 17) was studied at 8,000 feet with the inspired O2 concentration normalized to sea level. Study group III (n = 19) remained at sea level breathing 15% O2. Before ending each exposure, fetal blood sampling for lactate was performed under ultrasound guidance. Maternal lactates were obtained before and after sampling fetuses. Wilcoxon signed rank test, analysis of variance, and Bonferroni's method were used as appropriate. P < 0.05 denoted statistical significance. Study group I (altitude/hypoxia) had higher fetal lactates than controls (sea level/normoxia) and study group II (altitude/normoxia). Fetal lactates in study group I (altitude/hypoxia) were higher than in study group III (sea level/hypoxia). Maternal lactates were lower after fetal sampling. Fetal lactic acidemia was observed after 9 h of airplane cabin conditions. This was attributed to the combined effect of the lowered oxygen concentration and the decrease in atmospheric pressure. PMID:10372425

  4. Validation of serum IGF-I as a biomarker to monitor the bioactivity of exogenous growth hormone agonists and antagonists in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Bielohuby, Maximilian; Zarkesh-Esfahani, Sayyed Hamid; Manolopoulou, Jenny; Wirthgen, Elisa; Walpurgis, Katja; Toghiany Khorasgani, Mohaddeseh; Aghili, Zahra Sadat; Wilkinson, Ian Robert; Hoeflich, Andreas; Thevis, Mario; Ross, Richard J; Bidlingmaier, Martin

    2014-11-01

    The development of new growth hormone (GH) agonists and growth hormone antagonists (GHAs) requires animal models for pre-clinical testing. Ideally, the effects of treatment are monitored using the same pharmacodynamic marker that is later used in clinical practice. However, intact rodents are of limited value for this purpose because serum IGF-I, the most sensitive pharmacodynamic marker for the action of GH in humans, shows no response to treatment with recombinant human GH and there is little evidence for the effects of GHAs, except when administered at very high doses or when overexpressed. As an alternative, more suitable model, we explored pharmacodynamic markers of GH action in intact rabbits. We performed the first validation of an IGF-I assay for the analysis of rabbit serum and tested precision, sensitivity, linearity and recovery using an automated human IGF-I assay (IDS-iSYS). Furthermore, IGF-I was measured in rabbits of different strains, age groups and sexes, and we monitored IGF-I response to treatment with recombinant human GH or the GHA Pegvisomant. For a subset of samples, we used LC-MS/MS to measure IGF-I, and quantitative western ligand blot to analyze IGF-binding proteins (IGFBPs). Although recovery of recombinant rabbit IGF-I was only 50% in the human IGF-I assay, our results show that the sensitivity, precision (1.7-3.3% coefficient of variation) and linearity (90.4-105.6%) were excellent in rabbit samples. As expected, sex, age and genetic background were major determinants of IGF-I concentration in rabbits. IGF-I and IGFBP-2 levels increased after single and multiple injections of recombinant human GH (IGF-I: 286±22 versus 434±26 ng/ml; P<0.01) and were highly correlated (P<0.0001). Treatment with the GHA lowered IGF-I levels from the fourth injection onwards (P<0.01). In summary, we demonstrated that the IDS-iSYS IGF-I immunoassay can be used in rabbits. Similar to rodents, rabbits display variations in IGF-I depending on sex, age and genetic background. Unlike in rodents, the IGF-I response to treatment with recombinant human GH or a GHA closely mimics the pharmacodynamics seen in humans, suggesting that rabbits are a suitable new model to test human GH agonists and antagonists. PMID:25239917

  5. Validation of serum IGF-I as a biomarker to monitor the bioactivity of exogenous growth hormone agonists and antagonists in rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Bielohuby, Maximilian; Zarkesh-Esfahani, Sayyed Hamid; Manolopoulou, Jenny; Wirthgen, Elisa; Walpurgis, Katja; Toghiany Khorasgani, Mohaddeseh; Aghili, Zahra Sadat; Wilkinson, Ian Robert; Hoeflich, Andreas; Thevis, Mario; Ross, Richard J.; Bidlingmaier, Martin

    2014-01-01

    The development of new growth hormone (GH) agonists and growth hormone antagonists (GHAs) requires animal models for pre-clinical testing. Ideally, the effects of treatment are monitored using the same pharmacodynamic marker that is later used in clinical practice. However, intact rodents are of limited value for this purpose because serum IGF-I, the most sensitive pharmacodynamic marker for the action of GH in humans, shows no response to treatment with recombinant human GH and there is little evidence for the effects of GHAs, except when administered at very high doses or when overexpressed. As an alternative, more suitable model, we explored pharmacodynamic markers of GH action in intact rabbits. We performed the first validation of an IGF-I assay for the analysis of rabbit serum and tested precision, sensitivity, linearity and recovery using an automated human IGF-I assay (IDS-iSYS). Furthermore, IGF-I was measured in rabbits of different strains, age groups and sexes, and we monitored IGF-I response to treatment with recombinant human GH or the GHA Pegvisomant. For a subset of samples, we used LC-MS/MS to measure IGF-I, and quantitative western ligand blot to analyze IGF-binding proteins (IGFBPs). Although recovery of recombinant rabbit IGF-I was only 50% in the human IGF-I assay, our results show that the sensitivity, precision (1.7–3.3% coefficient of variation) and linearity (90.4–105.6%) were excellent in rabbit samples. As expected, sex, age and genetic background were major determinants of IGF-I concentration in rabbits. IGF-I and IGFBP-2 levels increased after single and multiple injections of recombinant human GH (IGF-I: 286±22 versus 434±26 ng/ml; P<0.01) and were highly correlated (P<0.0001). Treatment with the GHA lowered IGF-I levels from the fourth injection onwards (P<0.01). In summary, we demonstrated that the IDS-iSYS IGF-I immunoassay can be used in rabbits. Similar to rodents, rabbits display variations in IGF-I depending on sex, age and genetic background. Unlike in rodents, the IGF-I response to treatment with recombinant human GH or a GHA closely mimics the pharmacodynamics seen in humans, suggesting that rabbits are a suitable new model to test human GH agonists and antagonists. PMID:25239917

  6. Morphology and neurochemistry of rabbit iris innervation.

    PubMed

    He, Jiucheng; Bazan, Haydee E P

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to map the entire nerve architecture and sensory neuropeptide content of the rabbit iris. Irises from New Zealand rabbits were stained with antibodies against neuronal-class ?III-tubulin, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and substance P (SP), and whole-mount images were acquired to build a two-dimensional view of the iridal nerve architecture. After taking images in time-lapse mode, we observed thick nerves running in the iris stroma close to the anterior epithelia, forming four to five stromal nerve rings from the iris periphery to the pupillary margin and sub-branches that connected with each other, constituting the stromal nerve plexus. In the anterior side, fine divisions derivated from the stromal nerves, forming a nerve network-like structure to innervate the superficial anterior border layer, with the pupillary margin having the densest innervation. In the posterior side, the nerve bundles ran along with the pupil dilator muscle in a radial pattern. The morphology of the iris nerves on both sides changed with pupil size. To obtain the relative content of the neuropeptides in the iris, the specimens were double stained with ?III-tubulin and CGRP or SP antibodies. Relative nerve fiber densities for each fiber population were assessed quantitatively by computer-assisted analysis. On the anterior side, CGRP-positive nerve fibers constituted about 61%, while SP-positive nerves constitute about 30.5%, of the total nerve content, which was expressed as ?III tubulin-positive fibers. In addition, in the anterior stroma of the collarette region, there were non-neuronal cells that were positive for SP. On the posterior side, CGRP-positive nerve fibers were about 69% of total nerve content, while SP constituted only up to 20%. Similarly, in the trigeminal ganglia (TG), the number of CGRP-positive neurons significantly outnumbered those that were positive for SP. Also, all the SP-positive neurons were labeled with CGRP. This is the first study to provide a two-dimensional whole mount and a cross-sectional view of the entire iris nerve architecture. Considering the anatomical location, the high expression of CGRP and SP suggests that these neuropeptides may play a role in the pathogenesis of anterior uveitis, glaucoma, cataracts and chronic ocular pain. PMID:25752697

  7. Evaluation of Eye Irritation Potential of Solid Substance with New 3D Reconstructed Human Cornea Model, MCTT HCE(TM).

    PubMed

    Jang, Won-Hee; Jung, Kyoung-Mi; Yang, Hye-Ri; Lee, Miri; Jung, Haeng-Sun; Lee, Su-Hyon; Park, Miyoung; Lim, Kyung-Min

    2015-07-01

    The eye irritation potential of drug candidates or pharmaceutical ingredients should be evaluated if there is a possibility of ocular exposure. Traditionally, the ocular irritation has been evaluated by the rabbit Draize test. However, rabbit eyes are more sensitive to irritants than human eyes, therefore substantial level of false positives are unavoidable. To resolve this species difference, several three-dimensional human corneal epithelial (HCE) models have been developed as alternative eye irritation test methods. Recently, we introduced a new HCE model, MCTT HCE(TM) which is reconstructed with non-transformed human corneal cells from limbal tissues. Here, we examined if MCTT HCE(TM) can be employed to evaluate eye irritation potential of solid substances. Through optimization of washing method and exposure time, treatment time was established as 10 min and washing procedure was set up as 4 times of washing with 10 mL of PBS and shaking in 30 mL of PBS in a beaker. With the established eye irritation test protocol, 11 solid substances (5 non-irritants, 6 irritants) were evaluated which demonstrated an excellent predictive capacity (100% accuracy, 100% specificity and 100% sensitivity). We also compared the performance of our test method with rabbit Draize test results and in vitro cytotoxicity test with 2D human corneal epithelial cell lines. PMID:26157556

  8. Evaluation of Eye Irritation Potential of Solid Substance with New 3D Reconstructed Human Cornea Model, MCTT HCETM

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Won-hee; Jung, Kyoung-mi; Yang, Hye-ri; Lee, Miri; Jung, Haeng-Sun; Lee, Su-Hyon; Park, Miyoung; Lim, Kyung-Min

    2015-01-01

    The eye irritation potential of drug candidates or pharmaceutical ingredients should be evaluated if there is a possibility of ocular exposure. Traditionally, the ocular irritation has been evaluated by the rabbit Draize test. However, rabbit eyes are more sensitive to irritants than human eyes, therefore substantial level of false positives are unavoidable. To resolve this species difference, several three-dimensional human corneal epithelial (HCE) models have been developed as alternative eye irritation test methods. Recently, we introduced a new HCE model, MCTT HCETM which is reconstructed with non-transformed human corneal cells from limbal tissues. Here, we examined if MCTT HCETM can be employed to evaluate eye irritation potential of solid substances. Through optimization of washing method and exposure time, treatment time was established as 10 min and washing procedure was set up as 4 times of washing with 10 mL of PBS and shaking in 30 mL of PBS in a beaker. With the established eye irritation test protocol, 11 solid substances (5 non-irritants, 6 irritants) were evaluated which demonstrated an excellent predictive capacity (100% accuracy, 100% specificity and 100% sensitivity). We also compared the performance of our test method with rabbit Draize test results and in vitro cytotoxicity test with 2D human corneal epithelial cell lines. PMID:26157556

  9. Fragmented Adipose Tissue Graft for Bone Healing: Histological and Histometric Study in Rabbits’ Calvaria

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Lidiane C.; Giovanini, Allan F.; Abuabara, Allan; Klug, Luiz G.; Gonzaga, Carla C.; Zielak, João C.; Urban, Cícero A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The adipose tissue represents an important reservoir of stem cells. There are few studies in the literature with which to histologically evaluate whether or not the adipose tissue graft is really a safe option to achieve bone repair. This study histologically analyzed the effect of fragmented autogenous adipose tissue grafts on bone healing in surgically created, critical-size defects (CSD) in a rabbit’s calvaria. Study design Forty-two New Zealand rabbits were used in this study. CSD that were 15 mm in diameter were created in the calvarium of each animal. The defects were randomly divided into two groups: in Group C (control), the defect was filled only by a blood clot and, in Group FAT (i.e., fragmented adipose tissue), the defect was filled with fragmented autogenous adipose tissue grafts. The groups were divided into subgroups (n = 7) for euthanasia at 7, 15, and 40 days after the procedure had been conducted. Histologic and histometric analyses were performed. Data were statistically analysed with ANOVA and Tukey’s tests (p < 0.05). Results The amount of bone formation did not show statistically significant differences seven days after the operation, which indicates that the groups had similar amounts of mineral deposition in the earlier period of the repair. Conversely, a significant of amount of bone matrix deposition was identified in the FAT group at 15 and 40 days following the operation, both on the border and in the body of the defect. Such an outcome was not found in the control group. Conclusion In this study, an autologous adipose tissue graft may be considered as likely biomaterial for bone regeneration, since it positively affected the amount of bone formation in surgically created CSD in the rabbits’ calvaria 40 days after the procedure had been performed. Further investigations with a longer time evaluation are warranted to determine the effectiveness of autologous adipose tissue graft in the bone healing. Key words:Adipose tissue, bone regeneration, rabbits, critical defects. PMID:23524416

  10. Antigen detection and immunological typing of Haemophilus ducreyi with a specific rabbit polyclonal serum.

    PubMed Central

    Roggen, E L; Pansaerts, R; Van Dyck, E; Piot, P

    1993-01-01

    A rabbit polyclonal serum was raised against the 29-kDa species-specific marker, as well as the 30- to 34-kDa immunotype-specific markers of Haemophilus ducreyi described elsewhere (E. Roggen, S. De Breucker, E. Van Dyck, and P. Piot, Infect. Immun. 60:590-595, 1992). These antigens were purified from a cocktail of H. ducreyi isolates by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The immune serum reacted in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) preferentially with H. ducreyi, at a titer as high as 50,000. To make it specific to H. ducreyi, nonspecific antibodies were removed by adsorption on a mixture of Haemophilus spp., Escherichia coli, Candida albicans, and Corynebacterium spp. In the 29- to 34-kDa region of immunoblot profiles from H. ducreyi isolates (n = 450), the adsorbed serum revealed essentially the same antigens as did a pool of well-characterized human sera. Yet, eight different immunotypes were observed. With this rabbit polyclonal serum, an ELISA-based antigen detection test was developed. The adsorbed serum reacted specifically with all H. ducreyi isolates tested (n = 450), but not with other bacterial species (n = 15). This test was evaluated with a limited number of clinical specimens from African patients with culture-proven chancroid and no evidence for any other ulcerating etiology (n = 10) and a number of chancroid-negative control patients from Belgium (n = 20). Within this context, the test yielded a sensitivity and specificity of 100%. Images PMID:8349759

  11. Antimicrobial resistance and resistance genes in Staphylococcus aureus strains from rabbits.

    PubMed

    Vancraeynest, Dieter; Hermans, Katleen; Martel, An; Vaneechoutte, Mario; Devriese, Luc A; Haesebrouck, Freddy

    2004-08-01

    Fifty-six Staphylococcus aureus isolates recovered between 1998 and 2003 from 31 rabbit farms with and without problems of chronic staphylococcosis, were screened for resistance to enrofloxacin, erythromycin, gentamicin, lincomycin, neomycin, penicillin and tetracyclines using the agar dilution test. For penicillin, a disk diffusion test was also performed. The detection of tetP(B), tet(K), tet(L), tet(M), tet(O), tet(T), tet(W), erm(A), erm(B), erm(C) and mec(A) genes was done via a PCR assay. Four isolates showed resistance to erythromycin and lincomycin. These isolates were positive for the erm(C) gene in the PCR. Eleven strains were resistant to tetracyclines and all harboured the tet(K) gene. In the agar dilution test, five isolates showed resistance to penicillin, whereas in the disk diffusion test 12 isolates showed resistance. None of these 12 resistant isolates carried the mec(A) gene. Only one strain showed resistance to gentamicin, and all strains were susceptible to enrofloxacin and neomycin. This study demonstrates that resistance to antimicrobial agents in S. aureus isolates originating from rabbits is relatively rare compared to resistance in S. aureus isolates originating from other animals and humans. PMID:15261997

  12. Hydrostatic compression in glycerinated rabbit muscle fibers.

    PubMed Central

    Ranatunga, K W; Fortune, N S; Geeves, M A

    1990-01-01

    Glycerinated muscle fibers isolated from rabbit psoas muscle, and a number of other nonmuscle elastic fibers including glass, rubber, and collagen, were exposed to hydrostatic pressures of up to 10 MPa (100 Atm) to determine the pressure sensitivity of their isometric tension. The isometric tension of muscle fibers in the relaxed state (passive tension) was insensitive to increased pressure, whereas the muscle fiber tension in rigor state increased linearly with pressure. The tension of all other fiber types (except rubber) also increased with pressure; the rubber tension was pressure insensitive. The pressure sensitivity of rigor tension was 2.3 kN/m2/MPa and, in comparison with force/extension relation determined at atmospheric pressure, the hydrostatic compression in rigor muscle fibers was estimated to be 0.03% Lo/MPa. As reported previously, the active muscle fiber tension is depressed by increased pressure. The possible underlying basis of the different pressure-dependent tension behavior in relaxed, rigor, and active muscle is discussed. PMID:2275960

  13. Excitatory dyad synapse in rabbit retina.

    PubMed Central

    Raviola, E; Dacheux, R F

    1987-01-01

    In the inner plexiform layer of the rabbit retina, the synaptic endings of bipolar cells contact a pair of postsynaptic processes at an unusual type of specialized junction, the dyad synapse. One of the members of the postsynaptic dyad may return conventional feedback synapses onto the bipolar endings. Freeze-fracturing demonstrates that, opposite the presynaptic active zone, both postsynaptic membranes contain an aggregate of intramembrane particles that remain associated with the outer leaflet (E face) of the fractured plasmalemma; this is a feature typical of excitatory synapses in the central nervous system. Intracellular recordings followed by injection of horseradish peroxidase showed that at the dyad synapse the endings of rod bipolar cells are usually presynaptic to the dendrites of two amacrine cells, one narrow-field and bistratified (AII) and the other wide-field (A17). Only the A17 rod amacrine cell returns feedback synapses onto the bipolar endings. Both amacrine cells respond to illumination with transient-sustained depolarizations, dominated by rods; thus, the polarity of their light responses is the same as that of rod bipolar cells. We conclude that the dyad synapses established by rod bipolar cells with the two types of amacrine cells are excitatory. Images PMID:3478695

  14. Hippocampus responds to auditory change in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Ruusuvirta, T; Astikainen, P; Wikgren, J; Nokia, M

    2010-09-29

    Any change or novelty in the auditory environment is potentially important for survival. The cortex has been implicated in the detection of auditory change whereas the hippocampus has been associated with the detection of auditory novelty. Local field potentials (LFPs) were recorded from the CA1 area of the hippocampus in waking rabbits. In the oddball condition, a rare tone of one frequency (deviant) randomly replaced a repeated tone of another frequency (standard). In the equal-probability condition, the standard was replaced by a set of tones of nine different frequencies in order to remove the repetitive auditory background of the deviant (now labelled as control-deviant) while preserving its temporal probability. In the oddball condition, evoked potentials at 36-80 ms post-stimulus were found to have greater amplitude towards negative polarity for the deviant relative to the standard. No significant differences in response amplitudes were observed between the control-deviant and the standard. These findings suggest that the hippocampus plays a role in auditory change detection. PMID:20600633

  15. Mass Transport Properties of the Rabbit Aortic Wall

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Emma L.; Bazigou, Eleni; Sowinski, Piotr S. J.; Weinberg, Peter D.

    2015-01-01

    Uptake of circulating macromolecules by the arterial wall may be a critical step in atherogenesis. Here we investigate the age-related changes in patterns of uptake that occur in the rabbit. In immature aortas, uptake was elevated in a triangle downstream of branch ostia, a region prone to disease in immature rabbits and children. By 16-22 months, uptake was high lateral to ostia, as is lesion prevalence in mature rabbits and young adults. In older rabbits there was a more upstream pattern, similar to the disease distribution in older people. These variations were predominantly caused by the branches themselves, rather than reflecting larger patterns within which the branches happened to be situated (as may occur with patterns of haemodynamic wall shear stress). The narrow streaks of high uptake reported in some previous studies were shown to be post mortem artefacts. Finally, heparin (which interferes with the NO pathway) had no effect on the difference in uptake between regions upstream and downstream of branches in immature rabbits but reversed the difference in older rabbits, as does inhibiting NO synthesis directly. Nevertheless, examination of uptake all around the branch showed that changes occurred at both ages and that they were quite subtle, potentially explaining why inhibiting NO has only minor effects on lesion patterns in mature rabbits and contradicting the earlier conclusion that mechanotransduction pathways change with age. We suggest that recently-established changes in the patterns of haemodynamic forces themselves are more likely to account for the age-dependence of uptake patterns. PMID:25781997

  16. Detection of the new emerging rabbit haemorrhagic disease type 2 virus (RHDV2) in Sicily from rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) and Italian hare (Lepus corsicanus).

    PubMed

    Camarda, A; Pugliese, N; Cavadini, P; Circella, E; Capucci, L; Caroli, A; Legretto, M; Mallia, E; Lavazza, A

    2014-12-01

    Rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV), a member of the genus Lagovirus, causes rabbit haemorrhagic disease (RHD), a fatal hepatitis of rabbits, not previously reported in hares. Recently, a new RHDV-related virus emerged, called RHDV2. This lagovirus can cause RHD in rabbits and disease and mortality in Lepus capensis (Cape hare). Here we describe a case of RHDV2 infection in another hare species, Lepus corsicanus, during a concurrent RHD outbreak in a group of wild rabbits. The same RHDV2 strain infected rabbits and a hare, also causing a RHD-like syndrome in the latter. Our findings confirmed the capability of RHDV2 to infect hosts other than rabbits and improve the knowledge about the epidemiology and the host range of this new lagovirus. PMID:25458493

  17. Comparative metabolism of benorylate and an equivalent mixture of aspirin and paracetamol in neonate and adult rabbits.

    PubMed

    Davison, C; Dorrbecker, B R; Edelson, J

    1977-09-01

    1. Benorylate was well absorbed in rabbits, but more slowly than an equimolar mixture of aspirin and paracetamol. 2. Benorylate was extensively hydrolysed and converted to the typical metabolites of aspirin and paracetamol by both neonate and mature rabbits. 3. Absorption of either aspirin-paracetamol or benorylate was slower in neonate rabbits than in adult rabbits. 4. The excretion rate in adult rabbits was faster, for both aspirin and paracetamol metabolites, than in neonate rabbits. PMID:23612

  18. Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of Tualang honey in alkali injury on the eyes of rabbits: Experimental animal study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Alkali injury is one of the most devastating injuries to the eye. It results in permanent unilateral or bilateral visual impairment. Chemical eye injury is accompanied by an increase in the oxidative stress. Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant agents play a major role in the treatment of chemical eye injuries. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the anti-inflammatory (clinical and histopathological) and antioxidant effects of Tualang honey versus conventional treatment in alkali injury on the eyes of rabbits. Methods A preliminary study was carried out prior to the actual study to establish the alkali chemical injury on rabbit's cornea and we found that alkali chemical injury with 2 N NaOH showed severe clinical inflammatory features. In actual study, alkali injury with 2 N NaOH was induced in the right eye of 10 New Zealand White rabbits' cornea. The rabbits were divided into two groups, Group A was given conventional treatment and Group B was treated with both topical and oral Tualang honey. Clinical inflammatory features of the right eye were recorded at 12 hours, 24 hours, 72 hours, 5th day and 7th day post induction of alkali burn on the cornea. The histopathological inflammatory features of the right corneas of all rabbits were also evaluated on day-7. The level of total antioxidant status and lipid peroxidation products in the aqueous humour, vitreous humour and serum at day-7 were estimated biochemically. Fisher's Exact, Chi-Square and Mann-Whitney test were used to analyse the data. Results There was no statistically significant difference in clinical inflammatory features (p > 0.05) between honey treated and the conventional treated group at different times of examination. Histopathological examination of the cornea showed the number of polymorphonuclear leucocytes was below 50 for both groups (mild grade). There was also no significant difference in the level of total antioxidant status as well as lipid peroxidation products in aqueous humour (p = 0.117, p = 0.382 respectively), vitreous humour (p = 0.917, p = 0.248 respectively) and serum (p = 0.917, p = 0.332 respectively) between honey treated and the conventional treated group. Conclusion Tualang honey has almost the equal effects when compared with the conventional treatment in treating alkali injury on rabbit's eye. Future research with more number of rabbits and control group is warranted to explore the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of Tualang honey. PMID:21982267

  19. Transplantation of cultured rabbit retinal epithelium to rabbit retina using a closed-eye method.

    PubMed

    Lopez, R; Gouras, P; Brittis, M; Kjeldbye, H

    1987-07-01

    We have developed a closed-eye technique for transplanting cultured rabbit retinal epithelial cells to Bruch's membrane of the rabbit. A glass micropipette containing a suspension of 3H-thymidine-labeled, cultured retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells is inserted through a pars plana incision and positioned adjacent to the neural retina. A jet stream from the pipette is used to make a small retinal hole and bleb detachment. Patches of host retinal epithelium lift off with the neural retina, creating areas of bare Bruch's membrane. The cell suspension is injected into the subretinal space, and labeled cells can be seen attached to Bruch's membrane as early as 1 hr later. The neural retina spontaneously reattaches within 24 to 48 hr, bringing photoreceptor outer segments in direct contact with the transplanted cells. Phagocytosis of outer segment material by transplanted cells can be seen as early as 24 hr after surgery. This closed-eye technique offers an advantage over the open-sky method used previously in that it allows for reattachment of the neural retina and at least a partial return of function in the transplanted retinal epithelium. PMID:3596991

  20. Treatment of intractable dry eyes: tear secretion increase and morphological changes of the lacrimal gland of rabbit after acupuncture.

    PubMed

    Gong, Lan; Sun, Xinghuai

    2007-01-01

    Research on the effect of acupuncture for tear secretion and morphological changes of the lacrimal gland. Acupuncture therapy was given on the rabbits of New Zealand origin. The needles were inserted into the following acupoints around the right eye: Extra 1 (Taiyang), BL 2 ( Zanzhu) and SJ 23 (Sizhukong). The Schirmer Test I (S1T, The Schirmer test is probably the most commonly performed method of measuring aqueous tear production) values pre and post acupuncture therapy were blindly recorded. The lacrimal glands of the normal lacrimal gland group were stained by Hematoxylin and Eosin (HE) for light microscope examination and observed by transmission electron microscope. The S1T value was about sixty percent higher after acupuncture than before. Meanwhile changes also took place in the morphology of lacrimal gland tissu, indicated an active glandular function of synthesis and secretion. Acupuncture can increase lacrimal secretion by stimulating the rabbit lacrimal glandular function of synthesis and secretion. PMID:18494383

  1. Effect of dynamic hydrostatic pressure on rabbit intervertebral disc cells.

    PubMed

    Kasra, Mehran; Goel, Vijay; Martin, James; Wang, Shea-Tien; Choi, Woosung; Buckwalter, Joseph

    2003-07-01

    The pathogenesis of vibration-induced disorders of intervertebral disc at the cellular level is largely unknown. The objective of this study was to establish a method to investigate the ranges of constructive and destructive hydrostatic loading frequencies and amplitudes in preventing or inducing extracellular disc matrix degradation. Using a hydraulic chamber, normal rabbit intervertebral disc cells were tested under dynamic hydrostatic loading. Monolayer cultures of disc outer annulus cells and 3-dimensional (3-D) alginate cultures of disc nucleus pulposus cells were tested. Effects of different loading amplitudes (3-D culture, 0-3 MPa; monolayer, 0-1.7 MPa) and frequencies (1-20 Hz) on disc collagen and protein metabolism were investigated by measuring 3H-proline-labeled proteins associated with the cells in the extracellular matrix and release of 3H-proline-labeled molecules into culture medium. High frequency and high amplitude hydrostatic stress stimulated collagen synthesis in cultures of outer annulus cells whereas the lower amplitude and frequency hydrostatic stress had little effect. For the same loading duration and repetition, neither treatment significantly affected the relative amount of protein released from the cell layers, indicating that protein degradation and stability were unaffected. In the 3-D nucleus culture, higher amplitude and frequency increased synthesis rate and lowered degradation. In this case, loading amplitude had a stronger influence on cell response than that of loading frequency. Considering the ranges of loading amplitude and frequency used in this study, short-term application of high loading amplitudes and frequencies was beneficial in stimulation of protein synthesis and reduction of protein degradation. PMID:12798057

  2. Immunization with viruslike particles induces long-term protection of rabbits against challenge with cottontail rabbit papillomavirus.

    PubMed

    Christensen, N D; Reed, C A; Cladel, N M; Han, R; Kreider, J W

    1996-02-01

    Rabbits were immunized with recombinant baculovirus-produced virus-like particles (VLPs) of cottontail rabbit papillomavirus (CRPV) to determine whether these antigens could induce long-term protection against experimental challenge with CRPV. Infectious CRPV and human papillomavirus type 11 L1 VLPs were used as positive and negative control immunogens, respectively. Three groups of immunized animals were challenged with 10-fold serial dilutions of infectious CRPV at 2 weeks, 6 months, and 12 months after immunizations. Antibody titers in serum reached 1:10,000 immediately after the final booster immunization and then decayed to 1:150 at 6 months and 1:100 at 12 months in unchallenged rabbits. Serum neutralization titers followed similar kinetics. Papillomas grew on control-immunized rabbits at sites challenged with 10(-1) (100% of sites), 10(-2) (96% of sites), 10(-3) (63% of sites), and 10(-4) (13% of sites) dilutions of virus. At 2 weeks after CRPV L1 VLP immunizations, the rabbits were completely protected against virus challenge. At both 6 and 12 months after CRPV L1 VLP immunizations, strong protection was also observed. In the last two groups, three of seven rabbits were completely protected and only 4 of 14 or 29% of sites challenged with 10(-1 dilution of virus grew papillomas. Papillomas growing at these four sites were also reduced in size (3.5 +/- 0.7 mm) at 50 days postchallenge compared with sites challenged with 10(-1) dilution on control-immunized rabbits (13.2 +/- 4.2 mm). The results demonstrate that strong and long-lasting protection against experimental challenge with papillomaviruses can be achieved with VLP immunogens. PMID:8551636

  3. Histological evaluation of Accell Connexus® and Bio-Oss® on quality and rate of bone healing: a single blind experimental study on rabbit’s calvarium

    PubMed Central

    Khorsand, A.; Rasouli Ghahroudi, A. A. R.; Motahhari, P.; Rezaei Rad, M.; Soleimani Shayesteh, Y.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of Accell Connexus® on the quality and rate of healing in experimental defects of rabbit calvarium compared to Bio-Oss®. Materials and Methods: Twelve 2.5–3.5 kg weighing New Zealand white rabbits were used. Three defects (3×6 mm) were created in the cranium of the animals subsequently filled with Accell Connexus®, Bio-Oss® or served as controls. The animals were sacrificed four, six and eight weeks postoperatively and the histology blocks were studied in terms of inflammation, trabeculation thickness, bone type regeneration, foreign body and remained biomaterial by light microscope. The data were subject to Mann-Whitney U test. Results: Increased inflammatory reaction, foreign body reaction, delayed bone formation and lower rate of ossification were observed in DBM-filled defects compared to Bio-Oss® or controls. However, no significant differences were observed in bone formation between Bio-Oss®, Accell Connexus® and control specimens in the three time intervals. Furthermore, no significant differences were noted between Bio-Oss® and control groups. Conclusion: Accell Connexus® showeda lower rate of ossification and bone healing compared to Bio-Oss® or controlgroups. Other studies in this field seem necessary. PMID:23066476

  4. Multi-event capture–recapture modeling of host–pathogen dynamics among European rabbit populations exposed to myxoma and Rabbit Hemorrhagic Disease Viruses: common and heterogeneous patterns

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Host–pathogen epidemiological processes are often unclear due both to their complexity and over-simplistic approaches used to quantify them. We applied a multi-event capture–recapture procedure on two years of data from three rabbit populations to test hypotheses about the effects on survival of, and the dynamics of host immunity to, both myxoma virus and Rabbit Hemorrhagic Disease Virus (MV and RHDV). Although the populations shared the same climatic and management conditions, MV and RHDV dynamics varied greatly among them; MV and RHDV seroprevalences were positively related to density in one population, but RHDV seroprevalence was negatively related to density in another. In addition, (i) juvenile survival was most often negatively related to seropositivity, (ii) RHDV seropositives never had considerably higher survival, and (iii) seroconversion to seropositivity was more likely than the reverse. We suggest seropositivity affects survival depending on trade-offs among antibody protection, immunosuppression and virus lethality. Negative effects of seropositivity might be greater on juveniles due to their immature immune system. Also, while RHDV directly affects survival through the hemorrhagic syndrome, MV lack of direct lethal effects means that interactions influencing survival are likely to be more complex. Multi-event modeling allowed us to quantify patterns of host–pathogen dynamics otherwise difficult to discern. Such an approach offers a promising tool to shed light on causative mechanisms. PMID:24708296

  5. Teratogenesis study of o-toluenediamine in rats and rabbits.

    PubMed

    Becci, P J; Reagan, E L; Knickerbocker, M J; Barbee, S J; Wedig, J H

    1983-12-01

    o-Toluenediamine in corn oil was administered po to Sprague-Dawley rats at dosages of 10, 30, 100, or 300 mg/kg body wt/day during Days 6 through 15 of gestation. All animals were killed on Day 20 of gestation. A similar study was conducted with Dutch-Belted rabbits dosed po daily at 3, 10, 30, or 100 mg of o-toluenediamine/kg body wt/day from Days 6 through 18 of gestation. Rabbits were killed on Day 29 of gestation. Maternal toxicity was indicated at 300 mg/kg in rats and 100 mg/kg in rabbits by reduced body weight gain during gestation. Fetal body weight was reduced at the highest dosage in both rats and rabbits. In addition, at the high dosage, an increase in the number of resorption sites in rabbits were noted. Skeletal examination of rats showed increased incidence of missing sternebrae at 300 mg/kg and incompletely ossified vertebrae at 100 and 300 mg/kg in comparison to control fetuses. The effects on the fetus could be the result of maternal toxicity. There was no evidence of teratogenic effects or effects on the dams at dosages through 30 mg/kg body wt. PMID:6658784

  6. [Different properties of pyruvate kinase from rabbit and hare muscles].

    PubMed

    Strumilo, S; Tylicki, A

    2015-01-01

    Some catalytic and kinetic properties of pyruvate kinase (PK, EC 2.7.1.40) isolated from the heart and skeletal muscles of rabbits and hares with a 9-16-fold purification were studied. The initial specific activity of the enzyme in hare heart homogenates was 66% and in skeletal muscles 25% as high as in respective rabbit tissues. Temperature optimums and thermostability of PK from hare tissues were higher as compared with those in rabbits. From the comparison of K(M) (S0.5) values it follows that hare skeletal muscle PK exhibits a highest affinity to phosphoenol pyruvate, but lowest to ADP, as compared with rabbit skeletal muscle PK. Moreover, PK from both hare tissues exhibits a positive kinetic cooperativity (Hill coefficient > 1.35) of the phosphoenol pyruvate and ADP binding sites. In contrast to PK from rabbit tissues, the enzyme from the hare heart and muscles PK is presented by its allosteric isoform which might by advantageous under extreme conditions of the hare's habitation. PMID:26027383

  7. Intrinsic connectivity of neural networks in the awake rabbit.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, Matthew P; Weiss, Craig; Procissi, Daniel; Disterhoft, John F; Wang, Lei

    2016-04-01

    The way in which the brain is functionally connected into different networks has emerged as an important research topic in order to understand normal neural processing and signaling. Since some experimental manipulations are difficult or unethical to perform in humans, animal models are better suited to investigate this topic. Rabbits are a species that can undergo MRI scanning in an awake and conscious state with minimal preparation and habituation. In this study, we characterized the intrinsic functional networks of the resting New Zealand White rabbit brain using BOLD fMRI data. Group independent component analysis revealed seven networks similar to those previously found in humans, non-human primates and/or rodents including the hippocampus, default mode, cerebellum, thalamus, and visual, somatosensory, and parietal cortices. For the first time, the intrinsic functional networks of the resting rabbit brain have been elucidated demonstrating the rabbit's applicability as a translational animal model. Without the confounding effects of anesthetics or sedatives, future experiments may employ rabbits to understand changes in neural connectivity and brain functioning as a result of experimental manipulation (e.g., temporary or permanent network disruption, learning-related changes, and drug administration). PMID:26774609

  8. Thermal profile of rabbits infected with Eimeria intestinalis.

    PubMed

    Vadlejch, Jaroslav; Knízková, Ivana; Makovcová, Katerina; Kunc, Petr; Jankovská, Ivana; Janda, Karel; Borkovcová, Marie; Langrová, Iva

    2010-08-01

    In this study, infrared thermography (IRT) was assessed as a means of detecting the changes in body temperature in rabbit coccidiosis, as well as determining IRT used in imaging and measuring the regional changes in skin temperature that occur in the rabbits during this infection. Rabbits were inoculated with 5 x 10(4) or 1 x 10(5) oocysts of Eimeria intestinalis, respectively. The group of control animals remained non-inoculated throughout the study. All measured temperatures (rectal, ocular surface and auricle pavilion temperatures) dropped significantly (P<0.05) in rabbits infected with 1 x 10(5) oocysts. This group of rabbits also showed a medium negative correlation in rectal temperature (r=-0.49), ocular surface temperature (r=-0.49) and auricle pavilion temperature (r=-0.49) and a small negative correlation in live body weight gain (r=-0.22) depending on the number of days elapsed from the time of infection exposure. PMID:20418018

  9. Hypolipidemic effect of arborium plus in experimentally induced hypercholestermic rabbits.

    PubMed

    Murty, Devarakonda; Rajesh, Enjamoori; Raghava, Doonaboina; Raghavan, Tangaraj Vijaya; Surulivel, Mukanthan Karupiah Munirajan

    2010-06-01

    Hypercholesteremia is one of the risk factors for coronary artery disease. The present study highlights the efficacy of the ayurvedic herbal formulation Arborium Plus [Hyppophae ramnoides L. fruit juice (S) and Rhododendron arboreum Sm. Linn flower juice (R) in a 1:4 ratio] on triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), atherogenic index (AI), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and high-sensitivity c-reactive protein (hs CRP) in experimentally induced hypercholesterolemic rabbits. Four groups of rabbits were subjected to different treatments for 8 weeks: control group, CHOL group (1% w/w cholesterol for 8 weeks), S+R group (1% w/w cholesterol and Arborium Plus for 8 weeks), and A group (1% w/w cholesterol and atorvastatin for 8 weeks). The results showed significant increases in TG, TC, LDL, AI, and hs CRP in hypercholesterolemic rabbits which was significantly reduced in Arborium Plus-treated hypercholesterolemic rabbits. The data demonstrated that the Arborium Plus formulation was associated with hypolipidemic effects in experimentally induced hypercholesterolemic rabbits. PMID:20519862

  10. The binding of jacalin with rabbit immunoglobulin G.

    PubMed

    Kabir, S; Ahmed, I S; Daar, A S

    1995-08-01

    Rabbit immunoglobulin G (IgG) was subjected to affinity chromatography on a column of jacalin-Sepharose 4B. While the majority of IgG molecules did not bind, a small fraction, representing about 25% of the total IgG applied, bound to jacalin-Sepharose 4B. The binding of rabbit IgG to jacalin was further evidenced by ELISA performed on jacalin coated microtitre plates. While the jacalin-retained IgG fraction displayed strong binding, the unretained fraction did not demonstrate any detectable binding. Upon SDS-PAGE, both the jacalin retained and unretained rabbit IgG fractions displayed identical protein profiles. Upon protein blotting it was demonstrated that jacalin binding sites were located only on the heavy chain of IgG. These results suggest that rabbit IgG molecules are heterogeneous with respect to their glycosylation patterns. A small fraction of rabbit IgG molecules binds jacalin and the process is probably mediated through O-linked oligosaccharides present on the heavy chain of IgG. PMID:8543337

  11. Safety of Microbubbles and Transcranial Ultrasound in Rabbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Culp, William C.; Brown, Aliza T.; Hennings, Leah; Lowery, John; Culp, Benjamin C.; Erdem, Eren; Roberson, Paula; Matsunaga, Terry O.

    2007-05-01

    The object of this study was to evaluate the safety of large doses of microbubbles and ultrasound administered to the head of rabbits as if they were receiving acute stroke therapy of a similar nature. Materials and Methods: Female New Zealand White rabbits were used, N=24, in three groups 1] n=4 control (no treatment), 2] n=10 bubble control (ultrasound plus aspirin), and 3] n=10 target group (ultrasound plus aspirin plus MRX-815 microbubbles). Group 3 was infused with IV bubbles over 1 hour at 0.16cc/kg. Ultrasound was delivered to the dehaired side of the head during bubble infusion and for 1 additional hour at 0.8 W/cm2 20% pulsed wave. Rabbits survived for 22 to 24 hours, were imaged with computerized tomography and 3 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging including contrast studies, and sacrificed. Tetrazolium (TTC) and Hematoxylin and Eosin (H&E) sections were made for pathological examination. Results: All 24 animals showed absence of bleeding, endothelial damage, EKG abnormalities, stroke, blood-brain-barrier breakdown, or other acute abnormalities. CT and MRI showed no bleeding or signs of stroke, but two animals had mild hydrocephalus. The EKGs showed normal variation in QTc. Rabbit behavior was normal in all. Minimal chronic inflammation unrelated to the study was seen in 5. Two animals were excluded because of protocol violations and replaced during the study. Conclusion: The administered dose of microbubbles and ultrasound demonstrated no detrimental effects on the healthy rabbit animal model.

  12. In vivo determination of arterial collagen synthesis in atherosclerotic rabbits

    SciTech Connect

    Opsahl, W.P.; DeLuca, D.J.; Ehrhart, L.A.

    1986-03-01

    Collagen and non-collagen protein synthesis rates were determined in vivo in tissues from rabbits fed a control or atherogenic diet supplemented with 2% peanut oil and 0.25% cholesterol for 4 months. Rabbits received a bolus intravenous injection of L-(/sup 3/H)-proline (1.0 mCi/kg) and unlabeled L-proline (7 mmoles/kg) in 0.9% NaCl. Plasma proline specific activity decreased only 20% over 5 hr and was similar to the specific activity of free proline in tissues. Thoracic aortas from atherosclerotic rabbits exhibited raised plaques covering at least 75% of the surface. Thoracic intima plus a portion of the media (TIM) was separated from the remaining media plus adventitia (TMA). Dry delipidated weight, total collagen content, and collagen as a percent of dry weight were increased significantly in the TIM of atherosclerotic rabbits. Collagen synthesis rates and collagen synthesis as a percent of total protein synthesis were likewise increased both in the TIM and in the abdominal aortas. No differences from controls either in collagen content or collagen synthesis rates were observed in the TMA, lung or skin. These results demonstrate for the first time in vivo that formation of atherosclerotic plaques is associated with increased rates of collagen synthesis. Furthermore, as previously observed with incubations in vitro, collagen synthesis was elevated to a greater extent than noncollagen protein synthesis in atherosclerotic aortas from rabbits fed cholesterol plus peanut oil.

  13. Lipoic acid prevents steroid-induced osteonecrosis in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Lu, Bang-Bao; Li, Kang-Hua

    2012-06-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate in vivo effects of lipoic acid (LA) in preventing steroid-induced osteonecrosis and the possible pathway in a rabbit model. Sixty rabbits were divided into 2 groups: rabbits were intraperitoneally injected with LA aqueous solution at 36 mg/kg of body weight per day for 4 weeks in Group A and rabbits were injected with physiologic saline (PS) as a control in Group B. At 2 weeks after starting treatment, they were intramuscularly injected once with 20 mg/kg of methylprednisolone acetate (MPSL). The femora were histopathologically examined for the presence of osteonecrosis. The plasma levels of total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), glutathione (GSH), endothelin (ET) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were assayed at 2 weeks after the injection of MPSL. The incidence of osteonecrosis was significantly higher in Group B (73.1%) than in Group A (20.8%). The GSH level was higher in Group A than in Group B after the LA injection. The plasma MDA and ET levels were lower in Group A than in Group B at 2 weeks after the MPSL administration. Lipoic acid can prevent the development of steroid-induced osteonecrosis in rabbits. Inhibited oxidative stress and amendment of vascular endothelial dysfunction is a possible mechanism for this effect. PMID:21431293

  14. Creating a Long-Term Diabetic Rabbit Model

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jianpu; Wan, Rong; Mo, Yiqun; Zhang, Qunwei; Sherwood, Leslie C.; Chien, Sufan

    2010-01-01

    This study was to create a long-term rabbit model of diabetes mellitus for medical studies of up to one year or longer and to evaluate the effects of chronic hyperglycemia on damage of major organs. A single dose of alloxan monohydrate (100 mg/kg) was given intravenously to 20 young New Zealand White rabbits. Another 12 age-matched normal rabbits were used as controls. Hyperglycemia developed within 48 hours after treatment with alloxan. Insulin was given daily after diabetes developed. All animals gained some body weight, but the gain was much less than the age-matched nondiabetic rabbits. Hyperlipidemia, higher blood urea nitrogen and creatinine were found in the diabetic animals. Histologically, the pancreas showed marked beta cell damage. The kidneys showed significantly thickened afferent glomerular arterioles with narrowed lumens along with glomerular atrophy. Lipid accumulation in the cytoplasm of hepatocytes appeared as vacuoles. Full-thickness skin wound healing was delayed. In summary, with careful management, alloxan-induced diabetic rabbits can be maintained for one year or longer in reasonably good health for diabetic studies. PMID:21234414

  15. Toward an Animal Model of the Human Tear Film: Biochemical Comparison of the Mouse, Canine, Rabbit, and Human Meibomian Lipidomes

    PubMed Central

    Butovich, Igor A.; Lu, Hua; McMahon, Anne; Eule, J. Corinna

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. Secretions that are produced by meibomian glands (also known as meibum) are a major source of lipids for the ocular surface of humans and animals alike. Many animal species have been evaluated for their meibomian lipidomes. However, there have been a very small number of studies in which the animals were compared with humans side by side. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare meibum collected from humans and three typical laboratory animals, canines, mice, and rabbits, for their meibomian lipid composition in order to determine which animal species most resembles humans. Methods. High pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) and gas-liquid chromatography (GLC) in combination with mass spectrometry were used to evaluate lipidomes of all tested species. Results. Among three tested animal species, mice were found to be the closest match to humans in terms of their meibomian lipidomes, while canines were the second closest species. The lipids of these three species were close to each other structurally and, for most lipid classes, quantitatively. The rabbit meibomian lipidome, on the other hand, was vastly different from lipidomes of all other tested species. Interestingly, a previously described class of lipids, acylated omega-hydroxy fatty acids (OAHFA), was found to be present in every tested species as the major amphiphilic component of meibum. Conclusions. Our side by side comparison of the rabbit and the human meibum demonstrated their vast differences. Thus, the rabbit seems to be a poor animal model of the human tear film, at least when studying its biochemistry and biophysics. PMID:22918629

  16. Assessment of SiCaP-30 in a Rabbit Posterolateral Fusion Model with Concurrent Chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Smucker, Joseph D; Petersen, Emily B; Al-Hili, Ali; Nepola, James V; Fredericks, Douglas C

    2015-01-01

    Chemotherapy derivatives of the rabbit posterolateral fusion model are considered a challenging environment in which to test bone graft materials. The purpose of this study was to determine the performance characteristics of SiCaP-30 as a bone graft substitute relative to autograft (iliac crest bone graft [ICBG]), Actifuse ABX and ?-Tricalcium Phosphate-Bioactive Glass-Type I Collagen (?TCP-BG) in a rabbit posterolateral spine fusion model with concurrent chemotherapy treatment This was a randomized, controlled study in a laboratory setting with blinded assessment of fusion by manual palpation and flexibility testing. Sixty rabbits were entered into the study with 45 used for analysis. Chemotherapeutic agents, doxorubicin and cis-platin (2.5 mg/kg), were administered one week prior to surgery, and one, two and three weeks post surgery. Bilateral posterolateral lumbar intertransverse process fusions were performed at L5-L6. The lateral two thirds of the transverse processes were decorticated and covered with 3cc/side of one of the following graft materials: autologous ICBG, Actifuse ABX (ApaTech Ltd, UK), Vitoss BA (Orthovita, USA) or SiCaP-30 (ApaTech Ltd., UK). Animals were euthanized 12 weeks post surgery. The ICBG group had a 45% (5/11) manual palpation fusion rate and correlated with motion analysis fusion results of 36% (4/11). The Actifuse ABX group had a 33% (4/12) manual palpation fusion rate and a motion analysis fusion rate of 25% (3/12). No motion segments in the Vitoss BA group (0/11) showed any signs of fusion. The SiCaP-30 group demonstrated a statistically higher manual palpation and motion analysis fusion rate of 82% (9/11; p<0.05) and produced superior bone formation compared with Actifuse ABX and ?TCP-BG. PMID:26361457

  17. The length of productive life can be modified through selection: an experimental demonstration in the rabbit.

    PubMed

    Larzul, C; Ducrocq, V; Tudela, F; Juin, H; Garreau, H

    2014-06-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the feasibility of selecting for functional longevity in rabbits, defined as an ability to delay involuntary culling. Functional longevity was measured as the total number of AI performed after the first kindling. Breeding values were estimated using a discrete survival model. Male parents were selected on the basis of their progeny test results, and the efficiency of selection was estimated in the second generation, as was the correlated response on reproduction traits. A total of 48 males were progeny tested, based on the longevity of 10 daughters bred in 2 different farms. Based on their estimated genetic merit, 5 "high longevity" (HL) and 5 "low longevity" (LL) males were selected divergently and produced a new generation (5 bucks/sires and 10 daughters/bucks). A difference in longevity (+0.75 AI, i.e., 32 d) was observed between the 2 lines. In farm 1, the differences were mainly due to culling (26% in the LL line vs. 14% in the HL line) whereas mortality was similar in the 2 lines. In farm 2, mortality and culling were both higher in the LL line than in the HL line (33 vs. 15% and 19 vs. 7%, respectively). There was no difference between the 2 lines in terms of the reproduction traits recorded for each kindling. Nevertheless, because of the difference in the litter number between the 2 lines, the sum of young rabbits born alive per doe over her lifetime and the sum of young rabbits weaned per doe were higher in the HL line (+5 kits; P < 0.01). Selection for functional longevity using survival analysis is feasible for modifying lifetime reproduction traits. PMID:24867929

  18. Regulation of Na-Cl absorption in rabbit proximal colon in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Sellin, J.H.; De Siognie, R.

    1987-01-01

    Ion transport in rabbit proximal colon (PC) in vitro is dominated by a Na-Cl cotransport system stimulated by epinephrine. To further characterize the regulation of Na-Cl transport, the authors tested the effects of specific adrenergic agonists on ion fluxes under short-circuit conditions. Additionally, they tested the effects of the transport inhibitors bumetanide, furosemide, and 4-acetamido-4'-isothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid (SITS). Basal Na and Cl absorption were essentially nil. The ..cap alpha../sub 2/-agonist clonidine significantly increased net Na and Cl absorption. The ..cap alpha../sub 1/-agonist phenylephrine and the ..beta..-agonist isoproterenol did not alter ion transport. The ..cap alpha../sub 2/-blocker yohimbine (YOH) had a complex, concentration-dependent effect. Propranolol (10/sup -5/ M) and pracozin (10/sup -6/ M) did not significantly alter either basal or stimulated ion transport. Neither bumetanide (10/sup -6/ or 10/sup -4/ M) nor furosemide (10/sup -4/ M) blocked epinephrine-stimulated Na absorption. SITS (10/sup -4/ M) and removal of mucosal K did not have a significant effect on ion transport. Conclusions: 1) Na-Cl cotransport in rabbit PC is primarily under ..cap alpha../sub 2/-adrenergic control, 2) YOH at high concentrations acts as an agonist in PC, 3) ..cap alpha../sub 2/-adrenergic agonists stimulate Na-Cl absorption in both rabbit ileum and PC. In PC, however, the process is electrically quiet and therefore does not appear to be associated with electrogenic HCO/sub 3/ secretion as found in ileum, 4) the lack of effect of bumetanide, furosemide, and 0 K on Na transport suggests that a single Na-Cl (or Na-K-2Cl) carrier is not involved in Na-Cl cotransport in proximal colon.

  19. Assessment of SiCaP-30 in a Rabbit Posterolateral Fusion Model with Concurrent Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Smucker, Joseph D.; Petersen, Emily B.; Al-Hili, Ali; Nepola, James V.; Fredericks, Douglas C.

    2015-01-01

    Chemotherapy derivatives of the rabbit posterolateral fusion model are considered a challenging environment in which to test bone graft materials. The purpose of this study was to determine the performance characteristics of SiCaP-30 as a bone graft substitute relative to autograft (iliac crest bone graft [ICBG]), Actifuse ABX and β-Tricalcium Phosphate-Bioactive Glass-Type I Collagen (βTCP-BG) in a rabbit posterolateral spine fusion model with concurrent chemotherapy treatment This was a randomized, controlled study in a laboratory setting with blinded assessment of fusion by manual palpation and flexibility testing. Sixty rabbits were entered into the study with 45 used for analysis. Chemotherapeutic agents, doxorubicin and cis-platin (2.5 mg/kg), were administered one week prior to surgery, and one, two and three weeks post surgery. Bilateral posterolateral lumbar intertransverse process fusions were performed at L5-L6. The lateral two thirds of the transverse processes were decorticated and covered with 3cc/side of one of the following graft materials: autologous ICBG, Actifuse ABX (ApaTech Ltd, UK), Vitoss BA (Orthovita, USA) or SiCaP-30 (ApaTech Ltd., UK). Animals were euthanized 12 weeks post surgery. The ICBG group had a 45% (5/11) manual palpation fusion rate and correlated with motion analysis fusion results of 36% (4/11). The Actifuse ABX group had a 33% (4/12) manual palpation fusion rate and a motion analysis fusion rate of 25% (3/12). No motion segments in the Vitoss BA group (0/11) showed any signs of fusion. The SiCaP-30 group demonstrated a statistically higher manual palpation and motion analysis fusion rate of 82% (9/11; p<0.05) and produced superior bone formation compared with Actifuse ABX and βTCP-BG. PMID:26361457

  20. Monoclonal antibodies to rabbit progesterone receptor: crossreaction with other mammalian progesterone receptors.

    PubMed Central

    Logeat, F; Vu Hai, M T; Fournier, A; Legrain, P; Buttin, G; Milgrom, E

    1983-01-01

    A mouse was immunized with purified rabbit uterine cytosolic progesterone receptor (specific activity: 3 nmol of steroid bound per mg of protein). After fusion of its spleen cells with Sp2-OAg myeloma cells, supernatants of 11 hybrid cultures were found to react in both an immunoenzymatic test and a double-immunoprecipitation test with the progesterone receptor. Clones were obtained from the five hybrid cells that gave the strongest response in both tests. Antibodies from cell culture supernatants and ascitic fluids were characterized. Three are of the IgG1 and two of the IgG2a isotype. Their apparent affinity for the progesterone receptor was measured by immunoprecipitation in physiological salt conditions. The equilibrium dissociation constants were between 0.1 and 4 nM. All five monoclonal antibodies crossreacted with the rabbit nuclear receptor, the human cytosolic receptor, and other mammalian (rat, guinea pig) but not avian (chicken) cytosolic progesterone receptors. There was no interaction with the glucocorticoid receptor and corticosteroid binding globulin. PMID:6579531

  1. Human Umbilical Cord Blood Cells Ameliorate Motor Deficits in Rabbits in a Cerebral Palsy Model.

    PubMed

    Drobyshevsky, Alexander; Cotten, C Michael; Shi, Zhongjie; Luo, Kehuan; Jiang, Rugang; Derrick, Matthew; Tracy, Elizabeth T; Gentry, Tracy; Goldberg, Ronald N; Kurtzberg, Joanne; Tan, Sidhartha

    2015-01-01

    Cerebral palsy (CP) has a significant impact on both patients and society, but therapy is limited. Human umbilical cord blood cells (HUCBC), containing various stem and progenitor cells, have been used to treat various brain genetic conditions. In small animal experiments, HUCBC have improved outcomes after hypoxic-ischemic (HI) injury. Clinical trials using HUCBC are underway, testing feasibility, safety and efficacy for neonatal injury as well as CP. We tested HUCBC therapy in a validated rabbit model of CP after acute changes secondary to HI injury had subsided. Following uterine ischemia at 70% gestation, we infused HUCBC into newborn rabbit kits with either mild or severe neurobehavioral changes. Infusion of high-dose HUCBC (5 × 10(6) cells) dramatically altered the natural history of the injury, alleviating the abnormal phenotype including posture, righting reflex, locomotion, tone, and dystonia. Half the high dose showed lesser but still significant improvement. The swimming test, however, showed that joint function did not restore to naïve control function in either group. Tracing HUCBC with either MRI biomarkers or PCR for human DNA found little penetration of HUCBC in the newborn brain in the immediate newborn period, suggesting that the beneficial effects were not due to cellular integration or direct proliferative effects but rather to paracrine signaling. This is the first study to show that HUCBC improve motor performance in a dose-dependent manner, perhaps by improving compensatory repair processes. PMID:25791742

  2. Enhanced susceptibility of male rabbits to infection with a toxic shock strain of Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed Central

    Best, G K; Scott, D F; Kling, J M; Crowell, W F; Kirkland, J J

    1984-01-01

    Artificial infection chambers in rabbits were infected with a toxic shock strain of Staphylococcus aureus in an attempt to determine the nature of the enhanced virulence of toxic shock strains relative to non-toxic shock strains of staphylococci. The results showed that rabbits immunized with either neutral or acidic proteins were protected from the lethal effects of these infections. Male rabbits were found to be significantly more susceptible to these infections than female rabbits. Castration rendered both sexes equally susceptible to lethal infections. Numerous tissues from all infected rabbits were examined histologically, and most of the pathological findings involved lymphoid tissue. Of special interest was the observation that unprotected male rabbits which died had evidence of lymphoid depletion and that surviving rabbits, both male and female, usually manifested lymphoid hyperplasia. No other pathological response was noted which would characterize these infections, but immunized rabbits had a diminished level of thymic cortex involution that was not different between the sexes. Images PMID:6500708

  3. Mix-breeding with HEV-infected swine induced inapparent HEV infection in SPF rabbits.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lin; Wang, Lin; Xia, Junke; Zhang, Yulin; Zeng, Hang; Liu, Peng; Zou, Qinghua; Wang, Ling; Zhuang, Hui

    2016-04-01

    Studies have shown that swine HEV (sHEV) and rabbit HEV (rHEV) can experimentally infect rabbits and swine, respectively. However, no published data have documented isolating sHEV strains from rabbits in natural environment so far. To clarify the possibility of natural cross-species transmission of sHEV to rabbits, the pigs with HEV infection were farmed along with SPF rabbits in the same enclosed space. Five of 10 rabbits had seroconversion for anti-HEV antibody from the third week after mix-breeding. However, HEV RNA remained undetectable in feces, serum, liver and bile of the ten rabbits; and no obvious elevation of ALT was observed. The results possibly suggested that sHEV might lead to an inapparent infection of SPF rabbits by fecal-oral route. J. Med. Virol. 88:681-685, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26334930

  4. Antimicrobial activity of rabbit leukocyte defensins against Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum.

    PubMed Central

    Borenstein, L A; Selsted, M E; Lehrer, R I; Miller, J N

    1991-01-01

    Defensins, which are peptides with broad antimicrobial activity, are major constituents of rabbit neutrophils and certain macrophages. We tested six rabbit defensins, NP-1, NP-2, NP-3a, NP-3b, NP-4, and NP-5, for activity against Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum. Mixtures of T. pallidum and defensin in 10% normal rabbit serum (NRS) or heat-inactivated NRS (HI-NRS) were incubated anaerobically for various time periods ranging between 0 and 16 h and then examined by dark-field microscopy for treponemal motility or inoculated intradermally into rabbits to assess treponemal virulence. Immobilization of T. pallidum by NP-1 (400 micrograms/ml) occurred after 4 and 8 h of coincubation in mixtures containing NRS and HI-NRS, respectively. Similarly, neutralization of T. pallidum by NP-1 occurred more rapidly and was complete when incubations were performed in NRS as compared with that in HI-NRS. Endpoint titration confirmed the augmentation of NP-1 antitreponemal activity by heat-labile serum factors; NP-1 showed neutralizing activity at 4 micrograms/ml (about 1 microM) in NRS and at 40 micrograms/ml in HI-NRS. When NP-1 was tested in serum that was deficient in C6, the T. pallidum neutralizing activity of NP-1 was reduced to levels slightly greater than that observed in HI-NRS. NP-1 that had been reduced and alkylated was inactive against T. pallidum. When NP-2, NP-3a, NP-3b, NP-4, and NP-5 were tested at 400 micrograms/ml, all exerted potent treponemicidal activity, manifested by abrogation or delayed development of cutaneous lesions relative to that of controls. These data suggest that defensins may equip certain macrophages and neutrophils to participate in host defense against T. pallidum, that the direct activity of defensins against T. pallidum is enhanced by heat-labile serum factors (presumably complement), and that conformational factors influence the biological activity of the defensin molecule. Images PMID:2004816

  5. Immunohistochemical study of rabbit choroidal innervation.

    PubMed

    Ramírez, J M; Triviño, A; De Hoz, R; Ramírez, A I; Salazar, J J; García-Sánchez, J

    1999-04-01

    Immunocytochemical methods with antibodies to the light (68 kDa), medium (160 kDa), and heavy (200 kDa) chain subunits of the neurofilament triplet have been used to visualize neuronal structures in rabbit choroids. Choroidal nerve fibers were present in the suprachoroid and vascular laminae and absent in the choriocapillary layer. These fibers may be classified as perivascular and intervascular. Perivascular fibers surround all arterial and venous blood vessels and form a network; these fibers were labeled with the three NF antibodies, although they were more easily visualized with anti NF-160 and anti NF-200 than anti NF-68. Intervascular fibers formed two groups. The first group consisted of fibers situated between the blood vessels and parallel to the blood vessel wall surface (paravascular fibers); these fibers were better observed using anti NF-160 and NF-200 than anti NF-68. The second group consisted of fibers which travel the entire length of the choroid until they reach the nerve plexus of the ciliary body (long tract fibers). The plexus was observed with anti NF-68, anti NF-160 and anti NF-200; however, the long tract fibers were more clearly visualized with anti NF-160 and anti NF-200 than with anti NF-68. Two types of choroidal cell were also labeled: ganglion cells and melanocytes. Ganglion cells are small, scarce neurons situated in the peripheral choroid; they were labeled with anti NF-160 and anti NF-200. The melanocytes were only labeled with anti NF-200 and they were the only non neuronal structure visualized using antibodies against neurofilaments. PMID:10343839

  6. Homologous desensitization to prostaglandins in rabbit ileum

    SciTech Connect

    Musch, M.W.; Field, M.; Miller, R.J.; Stoff, J.S.

    1987-01-01

    Prostaglandins (PG's) increase short-circuit current (I/sub sc/), inhibit NaCl absorption, and stimulate Cl secretion in rabbit ileum. These changes occur with the following PGs; E/sub 3/, E/sub 1/, nitrilo-I/sub 2/ and, to a lesser extent, with A/sub 2/, D/sub 2/, and F/sub 2..cap alpha../. Arachidonic acid (AA) also stimulates secretion. The PG- or AA-stimulated I/sub sc/ does not persist, however, and on prolonged exposure tachyphylaxis develops. Resensitization of the I/sub sc/ response to PGE/sub 2/ is rapid, being essentially complete in 15 min after the PG is removed. Desensitization to AA is not reflected by diminished PG generation. PGE/sub 2/ release from the mucosa after AA addition is constant, although the AA-stimulated I/sub sc/ decreases. I/sub sc/ measurements indicate that PGE/sub 2/ at slightly below its EC/sub 50/ partially desensitizes and a near-maximal concentration completely desensitizes to PGE/sub 2/ but does not, however, inhibit the subsequent change in I/sub sc/ caused by theophylline or vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP). Adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) measurements suggest that desensitization applies to cAMP production. PGE/sub 2/ (10/sup -5/ M) increases mucosal cAMP three- to sevenfold, but this elevation is transient; a second challenge dose, which fails to elicit a I/sub sc/ change, also fails to increase mucosal cAMP. Adenylate cyclase measurements from untreated and PGE/sub 2/-treated enterocytes demonstrate a decrease in stimulation by PGE/sub 2/ but not in stimulation by VIP, fluoride, or 5-guanylylimidodiphosphate.

  7. UTILIZATION OF THE RABBIT ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGE AND CHINESE HAMSTER OVARY CELL FOR EVALUATION OF THE TOXICITY OF PARTICULATE MATERIALS. II. PARTICLES FROM COAL-RELATED PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rabbit alveolar macrophage (RAM) and Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells were used in vitro tests to evaluate the toxicity of particulate effluents from coal gasification, fluidized-bed combustion, and conventional coal combustion. Evaluation of the cytotoxicity of nine samples fro...

  8. Pulmonary vascular disease in a rabbit a high altitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heath, Donald; Williams, David; Rios-Datenz, Jaime; Gosney, John

    1990-03-01

    A male weanling rabbit of the New Zealand White strain, born and living at an altitude of 3800 m in La Paz, Bolivia, developed right ventricular hypertrophy. This was found to be associated with growth of vascular smooth muscle cells in the intima of pulmonary arterioles, and contrasted with muscularization of the walls of pulmonary arterioles, without extension into the intima, found in a healthy, high-altitude control rabbit of the same strain. A low-altitude control showed no such muscularization. It is concluded that alveolar hypoxia, acting directly or through an intermediate agent, is a growth factor for vascular smooth muscle cells in pulmonary arterioles. This is the first report of pulmonary vascular disease due to high altitude in rabbits.

  9. Rabbit MSTN gene polymorphisms and genetic effect analysis.

    PubMed

    Qiao, X B; Xu, K Y; Li, B; Luan, X; Xia, T; Fan, X Z

    2014-01-01

    We analyzed meat samples of nine pure lines of rabbit and its 37 hybrid combinations by sequencing and single-strand conformation polymorphism techniques to explore genetic polymorphisms of all the three exon regions and part of the 5'-regulatory region of the myostatin (MSTN) gene. Thus, we detected a single nucleotide mutation (T?C) on the 476 locus of the 5'-regulatory region, but no mutation sites were detected in the exon areas. The correlation analysis showed that the mutation had some favorable genetic effects, and it resulted in increased liver weight, carcass weight, forelegs weight, back and waist weight, ham weight, and tare weight, whereas it decreased muscle drip loss and cooking loss (P < 0.05). These results suggest that the mutations in the upstream regulatory region of the MSTN gene are beneficial to the rabbit soma development, and the mutations can be used as molecular markers for the selection of the meat quality of rabbits. PMID:24782047

  10. Characterization of pulmonary surfactant from ox, rabbit, rat and sheep.

    PubMed Central

    Harwood, J L; Desai, R; Hext, P; Tetley, T; Richards, R

    1975-01-01

    1. Pulmonary surfactants from ox, rabbit, rat and sheep were isolated and analysed. 2. All preparations had a high anenoic phosphatidylcholine content and would produce stable surface tensions of 0.01 Nm-1 or less. 3. Protein content was 8-18% of the dry weights. A number of proteins were observed; their overall composition were high in hydrophobic amino acid residues. 4. Lipid content varied from 79% (ox) to 90% (rabbit) with phosphatidylcholine representing from 58% (sheep) to 83% (rabbit) of the total lipid. The surfactant preparations were rather similar in lipid composition except that sheep surfactant contained about 10% lysophosphatidylcholine. 5. Hexadecanoic acid was the principal fatty acid. It was particularly high in phosphatidylcholine. 6. Phosphatidylglycerol was a minor constituent of all surfactants but phosphatidyldimethylethanolamine was not detected. PMID:1243652

  11. Effects of local simvastatin on periosteal distraction osteogenesis in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Kahraman, O E; Erdogan, Ö; Namli, H; Sencar, L

    2015-04-01

    Our aim was to evaluate the effect of local simvastatin on the formation of new bone using a new design of periosteal distractor. The distractors were placed between the periosteum and bone at the inferior border of the mandible of 20 New Zealand rabbits. In the first group (n=10) simvastatin was applied locally to the distraction zone. The other 10 rabbits served as controls. The formation of new bone was evaluated with digital direct radiography, computed tomography (CT), and histomorphometric analyses. New bone formed in all rabbits, but more formed in the experimental group according to histomorphometric variables. However, other measurements did not differ significantly between the groups. The new design of the periosteal distraction device was successful in causing new bone to form. Local simvastatin made no significant contribution to the procedure. PMID:25640700

  12. Bisphenol A Exposure Enhances Atherosclerosis in WHHL Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Chao; Ning, Bo; Waqar, Ahmed Bilal; Niimi, Manabu; Li, Shen; Satoh, Kaneo; Shiomi, Masashi; Ye, Ting; Dong, Sijun; Fan, Jianglin

    2014-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an environmental endocrine disrupter. Excess exposure to BPA may increase susceptibility to many metabolic disorders, but it is unclear whether BPA exposure has any adverse effects on the development of atherosclerosis. To determine whether there are such effects, we investigated the response of Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic (WHHL) rabbits to 400-µg/kg BPA per day, administered orally by gavage, over the course of 12 weeks and compared aortic and coronary atherosclerosis in these rabbits to the vehicle group using histological and morphometric methods. In addition, serum BPA, cytokines levels and plasma lipids as well as pathologic changes in liver, adipose and heart were analyzed. Moreover, we treated human umbilical cord vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and rabbit aortic smooth muscle cells (SMCs) with different doses of BPA to investigate the underlying molecular mechanisms involved in BPA action(s). BPA treatment did not change the plasma lipids and body weights of the WHHL rabbits; however, the gross atherosclerotic lesion area in the aortic arch was increased by 57% compared to the vehicle group. Histological and immunohistochemical analyses revealed marked increases in advanced lesions (37%) accompanied by smooth muscle cells (60%) but no significant changes in the numbers of macrophages. With regard to coronary atherosclerosis, incidents of coronary stenosis increased by 11% and smooth muscle cells increased by 73% compared to the vehicle group. Furthermore, BPA-treated WHHL rabbits showed increased adipose accumulation and hepatic and myocardial injuries accompanied by up-regulation of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and inflammatory and lipid metabolism markers in livers. Treatment with BPA also induced the expression of ER stress and inflammation related genes in cultured HUVECs. These results demonstrate for the first time that BPA exposure may increase susceptibility to atherosclerosis in WHHL rabbits. PMID:25333893

  13. The rabbit as an infection model for equine proliferative enteropathy

    PubMed Central

    Sampieri, Francesca; Allen, Andrew L.; Pusterla, Nicola; Vannucci, Fabio A.; Antonopoulos, Aphroditi J.; Ball, Katherine R.; Thompson, Julie; Dowling, Patricia M.; Hamilton, Don L.; Gebhart, Connie J.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to demonstrate the susceptibility of rabbits to Lawsonia intracellularis obtained from a case of clinical equine proliferative enteropathy (EPE). This is a preliminary step toward developing a rabbit infection model for studying pathogenesis and therapy of EPE in horses. Nine does were equally assigned to 3 groups. Animals in 2 groups (Group 1 and Group 2) were orally inoculated with different doses of cell-cultured L. intracellularis. Controls (Group 3) were sham-inoculated. Feces and blood were collected before the rabbits were infected and at 7, 14, and 21 days post-infection (DPI). Serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) titers were measured using an immunoperoxidase monolayer assay (IPMA) and fecal samples were analyzed with quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). A doe from each group was euthanized at 7, 14, and 21 DPI for collection and evaluation of intestinal samples. Tissues were stained by routine hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) method and immunohistochemistry (IHC) with L. intracellularis-specific mouse monoclonal antibody. At 14 DPI, serologic responses were detected in both infected groups, which maintained high titers through to 21 DPI. Lawsonia intracellularis DNA was detected in the feces of Group 2 on 7 DPI and in both infected groups on 14 DPI. Gross lesions were apparent in Group 1 and Group 2 on 14 DPI. Immunohistochemistry confirmed L. intracellularis antigen within cells of rabbits in Group 1 and Group 2 on 7, 14, and 21 DPI. No lesions, serologic response, shedding, or IHC labeling were found in Group 3 rabbits. This study describes an EPE rabbit model that simulates natural infection, as typical lesions, immune response, and fecal shedding were present. PMID:24082402

  14. Enterotomy fusion with laser energy: Preliminary results in rabbit ileum

    SciTech Connect

    Vlasak, J.; Kopchok, G.; Dayhovsky, L.; Grundfest, W.; White, R.A. )

    1989-01-01

    The utility of enterotomy closure with the argon and CO2 lasers was examined in New Zealand white rabbit ileum. Thermal properties of 10 argon (0.5 W power for 30 s, energy fluence 230 J/cm2) and 10 CO2 (1.0 W power for 30 s, energy fluence 2700 J/cm2) laser-fused enterotomies were determined during acute fusion experiments using an AGA 782 digital thermographic camera. Healing of the fusions created by the two lasers was subsequently assessed in an additional group of 28 rabbits by comparing three 1.0-cm longitudinal ileal enterotomies, with each rabbit having both types of laser-welded closures and a sutured control. Thermal measurements made from the 10 closures with each laser revealed that the CO2 fusions generated significantly higher temperatures (max. 198 degrees C, mean 106 +/- 37 degrees C, n = 100) than argon (max. 85.2 degrees C, mean 60.5 + 8.1 degrees C, n = 100) p less than 0.001. In the healing studies, four rabbits died from weld failures (one argon and one CO2 disruption, two rabbits with both welds disrupted). Two additional rabbits died at 1 day and one at 10 days for undetermined reasons. The remainder of the animals were sacrificed at 1 (n = 11), 2 (n = 2) and 4 (n = 9) weeks postoperatively. Sutured closures exhibited more granulation tissue and adhesions surrounding the wounds than did welded closures and seven microabscesses were noted adjacent to sutured repairs. One of the CO2 repairs had an abscess at 4 weeks and none of the argon laser fusions had evidence of disruption or abscess.

  15. Ketamine suppresses ischemic injury in the rabbit retina.

    PubMed

    Tsukahara, Y; Blair, N P; Eappen, D C; Moy, J J; Takahashi, A; Shah, G K; Viana, M A

    1992-04-01

    Overstimulation of the N-methyl D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor has been implicated as a factor in the pathogenesis of ischemic injury in the central nervous system. The present study was undertaken to determine whether ketamine hydrochloride, a potent NMDA antagonist, could attenuate ischemic injury in the rabbit retina. Retinal ischemia was induced for 60 min in one eye of 18 albino rabbits by raising intraocular pressure above the systolic blood pressure. Three concentrations of ketamine, 0.5, 1.5, 5.0 mumol were dissolved in 20 microliters of saline solution and injected in the midvitreous in each eye of 14 rabbits 1 hr prior to ischemia. Four rabbits received saline solution as controls. The scotopic electroretinogram was monitored in each eye to assess the postischemic recovery of retinal function. A statistically significant reduction in the b-wave was detected in the eyes treated with saline (P less than 0.05), whereas the postischemic recovery of b-wave amplitude was enhanced by pretreatment with lower doses of ketamine. The highest dose depressed b-wave amplitude regardless of ischemia. Six rabbits underwent unilateral ocular ischemia under general anesthesia with ketamine. A small ameliorative effect was seen (P = 0.029). These results suggest that ketamine may alleviate ischemic injury in the rabbit retina, presumably by antagonizing the NMDA receptor-mediated toxicity. Thus, ketamine may have potential in the treatment of retinal vascular occlusive diseases. Moreover, a modified ischemic state may exist in experiments on ischemia conducted under general anesthesia with ketamine hydrochloride. PMID:1532793

  16. Arterial peculiarities of the thoracolumbar spinal cord in rabbit.

    PubMed

    Mazensky, D; Danko, J; Petrovova, E; Mechirova, E; Prokes, M

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the arterial blood supply of the thoracolumbar spinal cord in rabbit. The study was carried out on twenty adult New Zealand white rabbits. Ten rabbits were used in the corrosion technique and ten rabbits in the dissection technique. After the killing, the vascular network was perfused with saline. Batson's corrosion casting kit no. 17 © was used as a casting medium. After polymerisation of the medium, in ten rabbits the maceration was carried out in KOH solution, and in ten other rabbits, formaldehyde was injected by the dissection technique into the vertebral canal. We found high variability of segmental arteries supplying blood to the spinal cord. There are 12 intercostal arteries and 1 costo-abdominal artery. Dorsal branches arising from the dorsal surface of the aorta thoracica were found as follows: in 70% of the cases, 9 pairs were present; in 20% of the cases 8 pairs; and in 10% of the cases 10 pairs. The paired arteriae lumbales were present in 6 pairs in 90% of the cases and in 5 pairs in 10% of the cases. On the dorsal surface of spinal cord, we found two irregular longitudinal arteries in 70% of the cases, no longitudinal arteries in 20% of the cases and three irregular longitudinal arteries in 10% of the cases receiving dorsal branches of rami spinales. Among the dorsal branches observed in the thoracic region, 60.5% were left-sided, 39.5% right-sided and in the lumbar region, 52.5% were left-sided and 47.5% right-sided. PMID:23952724

  17. Protective Effect of Egyptian Propolis against Rabbit Pasteurellosis

    PubMed Central

    Nassar, Somia A.; Mohamed, Amira H.; Nasr, Soad M.

    2013-01-01

    The present study was conducted to study the protective effect of ethanolic extract of propolis given subcutaneously (S/C) either alone or in combination with inactivated formalized Pasteurella multocida (P. multocida) vaccine in rabbits challenged with virulent P. multocida strain. Twenty-eight New-Zealand rabbits, 6–8 weeks old and not vaccinated against pasteurellosis, were randomly divided into four equal groups. Group (1) was kept as nonvaccinated control. Group (2) was injected S/C with propolis. Group (3) was vaccinated (S/C) with P. multocida vaccine only. Group (4) was injected with vaccine mixed with propolis as adjuvant. Groups (2, 3, and 4) received the same doses of propolis and vaccine after 4 weeks as a booster dose. The experiment continued for six weeks during which clinical signs, body weight, and mortality rate were recorded. Blood samples were collected every 2 weeks of treatment for evaluating the erythrogram and biochemical parameters. At the end of six weeks, all groups were subjected to challenge with a virulent strain of P. multocida. Two weeks later, tissue specimens were collected from different organs for histopathological investigation. Results showed that before challenge all rabbits of different groups were apparently healthy and had good appetite. After challenge, control group (1) showed acute form of the disease, 100% mortality rate, and severe histopathological changes. Rabbits of groups (2 and 3) showed less severe clinical signs, mortality rate, and histopathological changes than control. Rabbits of group (4) were apparently healthy with normal histological picture. In conclusion, an ethanolic extract of propolis injected alone or combined with formalized inactivated P. multocida vaccine improved general health conditions, liver and kidney functions in addition to reduction of the severity of adverse clinical signs, mortality rates, and histopathological changes associated with challenge of rabbits with P. multocida strain. PMID:24069588

  18. Potential penetration of topical ranibizumab (Lucentis) in the rabbit eye

    PubMed Central

    Chen, J J; Ebmeier, S E; Sutherland, W M; Ghazi, N G

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To assess ranibizumab (Lucentis) penetration into the retina after topical administration in a rabbit model. Methods Ranibizumab was topically applied to the right eye of rabbits according to three regimens: every 2 h (q2hr), four times daily (qid), and twice daily (bid). Intraocular penetration of ranibizumab was assessed at 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days following initiation of drops. At each time point, the anterior chambers, vitreous cavities, and blood of one of the rabbits from each subgroup were sampled for ranibizumab detection using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and both eyes were then enucleated for ranibizumab detection in the retina by confocal immunohistochemistry (CI). Another group of rabbits received intravitreal ranibizumab and was similarly sampled for comparison. Results CI showed ranibizumab staining in the right retina after 7 and 14 days of q2hr topical administration in two out of four experiments. No ranibizumab was detected in the left retina at any of the sampling time points. ELISA was positive in the vitreous of the right eye at 14 and 21 days in the q2hr treated rabbits in one out of four experiments. No ranibizumab was detected in the qid and bid subgroups. CI and ELISA of the aqueous and vitreous were consistently positive in the intravitreal group. Mild ranibizumab levels were detected in the blood in both the topical and intravitreal groups. Conclusions Topically applied ranibizumab can be detected in the retina following high-frequency administration in a rabbit model. A trans-scleral route of penetration is suggested. PMID:21921952

  19. Contrasting Effects of Climate Change on Rabbit Populations through Reproduction

    PubMed Central

    Tablado, Zulima; Revilla, Eloy

    2012-01-01

    Background Climate change is affecting many physical and biological processes worldwide. Anticipating its effects at the level of populations and species is imperative, especially for organisms of conservation or management concern. Previous studies have focused on estimating future species distributions and extinction probabilities directly from current climatic conditions within their geographical ranges. However, relationships between climate and population parameters may be so complex that to make these high-level predictions we need first to understand the underlying biological processes driving population size, as well as their individual response to climatic alterations. Therefore, the objective of this study is to investigate the influence that climate change may have on species population dynamics through altering breeding season. Methodology/Principal Findings We used a mechanistic model based on drivers of rabbit reproductive physiology together with demographic simulations to show how future climate-driven changes in breeding season result in contrasting rabbit population trends across Europe. In the Iberian Peninsula, where rabbits are a native species of high ecological and economic value, breeding seasons will shorten and become more variable leading to population declines, higher extinction risk, and lower resilience to perturbations. Whereas towards north-eastern countries, rabbit numbers are expected to increase through longer and more stable reproductive periods, which augment the probability of new rabbit invasions in those areas. Conclusions/Significance Our study reveals the type of mechanisms through which climate will cause alterations at the species level and emphasizes the need to focus on them in order to better foresee large-scale complex population trends. This is especially important in species like the European rabbit whose future responses may aggravate even further its dual keystone/pest problematic. Moreover, this approach allows us to predict not only distribution shifts but also future population status and growth, and to identify the demographic parameters on which to focus to mitigate global change effects. PMID:23152836

  20. Isolation of viable Toxoplasma gondii from guinea fowl (Numida meleagris) and rabbits from Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Toxoplasma gondii was isolated from a feral guinea fowl (Numida meleagris) and domestic rabbits from Brazil for the first time. Serum and brains from 10 guinea fowl and 21 rabbits from Brazil were examined for T. gondii infection. Antibodies to T. gondii were found in 2 of 10 fowl and 2 of 21 rabbit...

  1. THERMOREGULATORY RESPONSES OF THE RABBIT TO CENTRAL NEURAL INJECTION OF SULFOLANE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Systemic exposure of the rabbit to sulfolane results in hypothermia; however, the mechanism of this thermoregulatory effect is unknown. his study was designed to determine the thermoregulatory effects of sulfolane on the central nervous system (CNs) of the rabbit. ale rabbits wer...

  2. 7 CFR 70.56 - Grading requirements of poultry and rabbits identified with official identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Grading requirements of poultry and rabbits identified... AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) VOLUNTARY GRADING OF POULTRY PRODUCTS AND RABBIT PRODUCTS Grading of Poultry Products and Rabbit Products Identifying and Marking Products § 70.56...

  3. 7 CFR 70.56 - Grading requirements of poultry and rabbits identified with official identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Grading requirements of poultry and rabbits identified... AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) VOLUNTARY GRADING OF POULTRY PRODUCTS AND RABBIT PRODUCTS Grading of Poultry Products and Rabbit Products Identifying and Marking Products § 70.56...

  4. 7 CFR 70.56 - Grading requirements of poultry and rabbits identified with official identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Grading requirements of poultry and rabbits identified... AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) VOLUNTARY GRADING OF POULTRY PRODUCTS AND RABBIT PRODUCTS Grading of Poultry Products and Rabbit Products Identifying and Marking Products § 70.56...

  5. 7 CFR 70.56 - Grading requirements of poultry and rabbits identified with official identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Grading requirements of poultry and rabbits identified... AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) VOLUNTARY GRADING OF POULTRY PRODUCTS AND RABBIT PRODUCTS Grading of Poultry Products and Rabbit Products Identifying and Marking Products § 70.56...

  6. 7 CFR 70.56 - Grading requirements of poultry and rabbits identified with official identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grading requirements of poultry and rabbits identified... AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) VOLUNTARY GRADING OF POULTRY PRODUCTS AND RABBIT PRODUCTS Grading of Poultry Products and Rabbit Products Identifying and Marking Products § 70.56...

  7. Detection of Hepatitis E Virus in Archived Rabbit Serum Samples, Germany 1989.

    PubMed

    Eiden, Martin; Vina-Rodriguez, Ariel; Schlosser, Josephine; Schirrmeier, Horst; Groschup, Martin H

    2016-03-01

    We detected Hepatitis E virus in serum samples of wild rabbits that were hunted in 1989 around the city of Greifswald, Germany. The recovery of one partial sequence and subsequent phylogenetic analysis indicates a close relationship to rabbit HEV sequences from France and suggests a long-established circulation of rabbit HEV in Europe. PMID:26518295

  8. Development of a Zealand white rabbit deposition model to study inhalation anthrax.

    PubMed

    Asgharian, Bahman; Price, Owen; Kabilan, Senthil; Jacob, Richard E; Einstein, Daniel R; Kuprat, Andrew P; Corley, Richard A

    2016-02-01

    Despite using rabbits in several inhalation exposure experiments to study diseases such as anthrax, there is a lack of understanding regarding deposition characteristics and fate of inhaled particles (bio-aerosols and viruses) in the respiratory tracts of rabbits. Such information allows dosimetric extrapolation to humans to inform human outcomes. The lung geometry of the New Zealand white rabbit (referred to simply as rabbits throughout the article) was constructed using recently acquired scanned images of the conducting airways of rabbits and available information on its acinar region. In addition, functional relationships were developed for the lung and breathing parameters of rabbits as a function of body weight. The lung geometry and breathing parameters were used to extend the existing deposition model for humans and several other species to rabbits. Evaluation of the deposition model for rabbits was made by comparing predictions with available measurements in the literature. Deposition predictions in the lungs of rabbits indicated smaller deposition fractions compared to those found in humans across various particle diameter ranges. The application of the deposition model for rabbits was demonstrated by extrapolating deposition predictions in rabbits to find equivalent human exposure concentrations assuming the same dose-response relationship between the two species. Human equivalent exposure concentration levels were found to be much smaller than those for rabbits. PMID:26895308

  9. Associations of passerine birds, rabbits, and ticks with Borrelia miyamotoi and Borrelia andersonii in Michigan, U.S.A.

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Wild birds contribute to maintenance and dissemination of vectors and microbes, including those that impact human, domestic animal, and wildlife health. Here we elucidate roles of wild passerine birds, eastern cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus), and Ixodes dentatus ticks in enzootic cycles of two spirochetes, Borrelia miyamotoi and B. andersonii in a region of Michigan where the zoonotic pathogen B. burgdorferi co-circulates. Methods Over a four-year period, wild birds (n = 19,631) and rabbits (n = 20) were inspected for tick presence and ear tissue was obtained from rabbits. Samples were tested for Borrelia spirochetes using nested PCR of the 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer region (IGS) and bidirectional DNA sequencing. Natural xenodiagnosis was used to implicate wildlife reservoirs. Results Ixodes dentatus, a tick that specializes on birds and rabbits and rarely bites humans, was the most common tick found, comprising 86.5% of the 12,432 ticks collected in the study. The relapsing fever group spirochete B. miyamotoi was documented for the first time in ticks removed from wild birds (0.7% minimum infection prevalence; MIP, in I. dentatus), and included two IGS strains. The majority of B. miyamotoi-positive ticks were removed from Northern Cardinals (Cardinalis cardinalis). Borrelia andersonii infected ticks removed from birds (1.6% MIP), ticks removed from rabbits (5.3% MIP), and rabbit ear biopsies (5%) comprised twelve novel IGS strains. Six species of wild birds were implicated as reservoirs for B. andersonii. Frequency of I. dentatus larval and nymphal co-feeding on birds was ten times greater than expected by chance. The relatively well-studied ecology of I. scapularis and the Lyme disease pathogen provides a context for understanding how the phenology of bird ticks may impact B. miyamotoi and B. andersonii prevalence and host associations. Conclusions Given the current invasion of I. scapularis, a human biting species that serves as a bridge vector for Borrelia spirochetes, human exposure to B. miyamotoi and B. andersonii in this region may increase. The presence of these spirochetes underscores the ecological complexity within which Borrelia organisms are maintained and the need for diagnostic tests to differentiate among these organisms. PMID:23057837

  10. Effects of OsteoKing on osteoporotic rabbits

    PubMed Central

    DAI, LIFEN; WU, HAIYING; YU, SHAN; ZHAO, HONGBIN; XUE, LANJIE; XU, MING; SHEN, ZHIQIANG; HU, MIN

    2015-01-01

    Heng-Gu-Gu-Shang-Yu-He-Ji, also known as OsteoKing, is used as a herbal Traditional Chinese Medicine for the treatment of bone disease, including femoral head necrosis and osteoarthritis. However, whether OsteoKing has anti-osteoporotic properties has remained to be elucidated. The purpose of the present study was therefore to investigate the effects of OsteoKing on ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis in rabbits. Female New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into an ovariectomized (OVX) group and a sham-surgery group. The rabbits in the OVX group were subjected to an ovariectomy, while the rabbits in the sham group were subjected to the removal of an area of fat near the two ovaries. Bone mineral density, mechanical properties, serum biochemical parameters and micro-architecture were examined at 150 days post-OVX to characterize the experimental animal model. Once the osteoporotic rabbit model had been established, the rabbits in the OVX group were divided into the following groups: Model group, nilestriol group and 300 and 600 mg/kg OsteoKing groups, containing 16 rabbits in each group. OsteoKing and nilestriol were administered orally. The bone mineral density, mechanical properties, serum biochemical parameters, histology and micro-architecture were examined using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometric analysis, mechanical assessments, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, histopathological evaluation and micro-computerized tomography examination following 60 days and 120 days of treatment, respectively. Treatment with OsteoKing led to an elevation in the bone mineral density of the vertebra and serum phosphorus levels, reduced serum concentrations of osteocalcin, procollagen type I N-terminal peptide, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b and cross-linked N-telopeptide of type I collagen, improved mechanical properties (maximum load, stiffness and energy absorption capacity), and micro-architecture of the lumbar vertebra in the OVX osteoporotic rabbit model following treatment for 120 days. In conclusion, it was demonstrated that OsteoKing is effective in the prevention of estrogen deficiency-associated bone loss and may be a promising drug for the treatment of post-menopausal osteoporosis. PMID:25815520

  11. Phase separation of X-irradiated lenses of rabbit

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, J.I.; Giblin, F.J.; Reddy, V.N.; Benedek, G.B.

    1982-02-01

    The phase separation temperature (Tcat) was studied as a function of time (age) after the administration of a single dose of radiation (2000 rad), which induces cataract in the rabbit lens. In the normal unirradiated lens, Tcat decreases linearly with age at a rate (DTcat/dt) approximately 2.2 degrees/week. In the irradiated lens, Tcat initially decreases with age much less than the normal lens, then rises sharply with age at the time of the appearance of opacity in the living rabbit eye. We suggest that the phase separation temperature may serve as a sensitive and early indicator of cataractogenic processes in the lens.

  12. High dietary cholesterol facilitates classical conditioning of the rabbit’s nictitating membrane response

    PubMed Central

    SCHREURS, BERNARD G.; SMITH-BELL, CARRIE A.; DARWISH, DEYA S.; STANKOVIC, GORAN; SPARKS, D. LARRY

    2011-01-01

    Studies have shown that modifying dietary cholesterol may improve learning and that serum cholesterol levels can be positively correlated with cognitive performance. Rabbits fed a 0, 0.5, 1 or 2% cholesterol diet for eight weeks and 0.12ppm copper added to their drinking water received trace and then delay classical conditioning pairing tone with corneal air puff during which movement of the nictitating membrane (NM) across the eye was monitored. We found that the level of classical conditioning and conditioning-specific reflex modification (CRM) as well as the number of beta amyloid-labeled neurons in the cortex and hippocampus were a function of the concentration of cholesterol in the diet. The data provide support for the idea that dietary cholesterol may facilitate learning and memory. PMID:17539481

  13. Calcium sensitivity of residual force enhancement in rabbit skinned fibers.

    PubMed

    Joumaa, V; Herzog, W

    2014-08-15

    Isometric force after active stretch of muscles is higher than the purely isometric force at the corresponding length. This property is termed residual force enhancement. Active force in skeletal muscle depends on calcium attachment characteristics to the regulatory proteins. Passive force has been shown to influence calcium attachment characteristics, specifically the sarcomere length dependence of calcium sensitivity. Since one of the mechanisms proposed to explain residual force enhancement is the increase in passive force that results from engagement of titin upon activation and stretch, our aim was to test if calcium sensitivity of residual force enhancement was different from that of its corresponding purely isometric contraction and if such a difference was related to the molecular spring titin. Force-pCa curves were established in rabbit psoas skinned fibers for reference and residual force-enhanced states at a sarcomere length of 3.0 ?m 1) in a titin-intact condition, 2) after treatment with trypsin to partially eliminate titin, and 3) after treatment with trypsin and osmotic compression with dextran T-500 to decrease the lattice spacing in the absence of titin. The force-pCa curves of residual force enhancement were shifted to the left compared with their corresponding controls in titin-intact fibers, indicating increased calcium sensitivity. No difference in calcium sensitivity was observed between reference and residual force-enhanced contractions in trypsin-treated and osmotically compressed trypsin-treated fibers. Furthermore, calcium sensitivity after osmotic compression was lower than that observed for residual force enhancement in titin-intact skinned fibers. These results suggest that titin-based passive force regulates the increase in calcium sensitivity of residual force enhancement by a mechanism other than reduction of the myofilament lattice spacing. PMID:24965591

  14. Elemental and configural processing of odour mixtures in the newborn rabbit.

    PubMed

    Coureaud, Gérard; Hamdani, Younes; Schaal, Benoist; Thomas-Danguin, Thierry

    2009-08-01

    The processing of odour mixtures by young organisms is poorly understood. Recently, the perception of an AB mixture, known to engage configural perception in adult humans, was suggested also to be partially configural in newborn rabbits. In particular, pups did not respond to AB after they had learned A or B. However, two alternative hypotheses might be suggested to explain this result: the presence in the mixture of a novel odorant that inhibits the response to the learned stimulus, and the unevenness of the sensory and cognitive processes engaged during the conditioning and the behavioural testing. We conducted four experiments to explore these alternative hypotheses. In experiment 1, the learning of A or B ended in responses to mixtures including a novel odorant (AC or BC). Experiment 2 pointed to the absence of overshadowing. Therefore, a novelty effect cannot explain the non-response to AB after the learning of A or B. In experiment 3, pups having learned A or B in AC or BC did not respond to AB. However, they generalized odour information acquired in AB to AC or BC in experiment 4. Thus, the balancing of the perceptual tasks between the conditioning and retention test does not enhance the response to the AB mixture. To sum up, the present experiments give concrete support to the partially configural perception of specific odour mixtures by newborn rabbits. PMID:19648396

  15. Lower incisor intrusion with intraoral transosseous stainless steel wire anchorage in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jian-chao; Huang, Ji-na; Lin, Xin-ping

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the potential use of intraoral transosseous stainless steel wires as anchorage for intrusion of the lower incisors using a rabbit model. Placement of intraoral transosseous stainless steel wires around incisors is similar to that of intraoral transosseous wiring of edentulous mandibular fractures. Ten male New Zealand rabbits, 9 +/- 1.5 months of age, average weight 1.8 +/- 0.3 kg, were used in this study. One lower incisor was intruded with a 50 g bilateral force using a coil spring for 10 weeks, while the other incisor served as the control. Clinical measurements of the distances between the occlusal edges of the incisors (EE) were performed weekly with a calliper. In addition to standard descriptive statistical calculations, a paired Student's t-test was used for comparison of the two groups. All surgical sites healed uneventfully after insertion of the wires. Significant differences were found in the change of EE between the experimental and control sides from 4 weeks onwards. Intrusion of the incisor, 4 +/- 0.58 mm, was seen on the test side, while EE on the control side remained unchanged. Within the limits of this animal study, it is concluded that the intraoral transosseous stainless steel wire anchorage system is a cost-effective method for intrusion of lower incisors when the use of other anchorage system is not possible. PMID:20034994

  16. Polypyrrole coating on poly-(lactide/glycolide)-?-tricalcium phosphate screws enhances new bone formation in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ming-Dong; Björninen, Miina; Cao, Lu; Wang, Hui-Ren; Pelto, Jani; Li, Xiang-Qian; Hyttinen, Jari; Jiang, Yun-Qi; Kellomäki, Minna; Miettinen, Susanna; Sándor, George K; Seppänen, Riitta; Haimi, Suvi; Dong, Jian

    2015-12-01

    Polypyrrole (PPy) has gained interest as an implant material due to its multifunctional properties and its high compatibility with several cell and tissue types. For the first time, the biocompatibility and osteointegration of PPy coating, incorporated with chondroitin sulfate (CS), were studied in vivo by implanting PPy-coated bioabsorbable bone fixation composite screws of poly-(lactide/glycolide) copolymer (PLGA) and ?-tricalcium phosphate (TCP) into New Zealand white rabbits. Uncoated bioabsorbable polymer composite screws and commercially available stainless steel cortical screws were used as reference implants. The rabbits were euthanized 12 and 26 weeks after the implantation. The systemic effects were evaluated from food and water consumption, body weight, body temperature, clinical signs, blood samples, internal organ weights, and histological examination. Local effects were studied from bone tissue and surrounding soft tissue histology. New bone formation was evaluated by micro-computed tomography, tetracycline labeling and torsion tests. Torsion tests were performed in order to capture the peak value of the torsion force during the course of the screw's loosening. The coated screws induced significantly more bone formation than the uncoated screws. In addition, none of the implants induced any systemic or local toxicity. The results suggest that PPy is biocompatible with bone tissue and is a potential coating for enhancing osteointegration in orthopedic implants. PMID:26610717

  17. Denervation impairs bone regeneration during distraction osteogenesis in rabbit tibia lengthening

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background and purposes The nervous system plays an important role in bone metabolism. However, the effect of denervation on bone formation during distraction osteogenesis (DO) remains unclear. We studied neural influence on bone regeneration during DO in a rabbit model. Methods 24 New Zealand male white rabbits underwent left tibial osteodistraction. Before distraction, the animals were randomly divided into group R (resected left sciatic nerve) and group I (intact left sciatic nerve). 8 weeks after completion of distraction, the animals were killed and the lengthened tibias were harvested for radiography, micro-CT, histological evaluation, and mechanical testing. Results New regenerated bone was present in the distraction gaps of all animals at the end of the study, as revealed by radiography, micro-CT, and histology. However, less new bone formation and a lower degree of mineralization were observed in group R. The mechanical strength of the distraction gap in group I was 1.3-fold greater than that in group R when measured using the 3-point bending test. Interpretation The results suggest that the nervous system plays an essential role during DO: the denervation appears to have an inhibitory effect on bone formation. PMID:22880710

  18. Coleopterofauna found on fresh and frozen rabbit carcasses in Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Mise, K M; Corrêa, R C; Almeida, L M

    2013-08-01

    Many arthropod species are associated with carrion and some of them can be used as forensic indicators in murder investigations to estimate the time of death. Different physical conditions of cadavers may influence the fauna and the importance of freezing and thawing is unknown. The present paper sought to survey the Coleoptera species encountered in frozen and fresh rabbit carcasses, at a forest in Curitiba, Brazil. Four rabbit carcasses, two of them fresh and the other frozen were used. The coleopterofauna was sampled daily, and analyzed using non-parametric tests. A total of 666 beetles were sampled, belonging to 28 species in 10 families. Most of the beetles captured were larvae of Oxelytrum spp. (433) which are known to be necrophagous. The two frozen carcasses accounted for most of the beetles (338 and 180) in comparison with the two fresh carcasses (103 and 45). The tests were based on the most abundant species. Oxelytrum spp. median differed significantly between carcasses (H = 12.47844; p = 0.0059). The two fresh carcasses differed significantly (U = 190.0; p = 0.00019), but there was no significant difference between the frozen carcasses (U = 336.0; p = 0.29755). The data indicate that the freezing process prevents certain species to colonize carcasses, in this case with the dominance of species of Oxelytrum. These data also indicate that careful attention is necessary before using frozen carcasses in forensic entomology studies. PMID:24212695

  19. Effect of low intensity pulsed ultrasound stimulation on sinus augmentation in rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Takebe, Hiroaki; Nakanishi, Yasuhiro; Hirose, Yukito; Ochi, Morio

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The objective of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of low intensity pulsed ultrasound stimulation (LIPUS) and to determine the optimal frequency for enhancing bone regeneration in sinus augmentation using a rabbit model. Material and methods Thirty male rabbits underwent sinus augmentation. Two rectangular nasal bone windows were outlined bilaterally. LIPUS was applied at two different frequencies (1 MHz and 3 MHz) on experimental sites daily for 2, 4 and 8 weeks. Each histological area of the experimental and control sites was divided into upper and lower parts from the parietal region to a depth of 5 mm. Each area of new bone was measured. Results At 2, 4 and 8 weeks, the experimental sites in the 1 MHz group exhibited significantly more new bone growth than the control sites in both the upper and lower parts. When the upper and lower parts of each area were measured in combination there was a statistical difference between the test and control sites in the 1 MHz group at 2, 4 and 8 weeks; however, there were no statistical differences between the test and control sites in the 3 MHz group. Conclusions The results suggest that clinical application of LIPUS for sinus augmentation may promote new bone formation, and that the effect of LIPUS for sinus augmentation at a frequency of 1 MHz was greater than at 3 MHz until 8 weeks after sinus augmentation. PMID:23442146

  20. Applicability of in vitro tests for skin irritation and corrosion to regulatory classification schemes: substantiating test strategies with data from routine studies.

    PubMed

    Kolle, Susanne N; Sullivan, Kristie M; Mehling, Annette; van Ravenzwaay, Bennard; Landsiedel, Robert

    2012-12-01

    Skin corrosion or irritation refers to the production of irreversible or reversible damage to the skin following the application of a test substance, respectively. Traditionally, hazard assessments are conducted using the in vivo Draize skin test, but recently in vitro tests using reconstructed human epidermis (RhE) models have gained regulatory acceptance. In this study, skin corrosion (SCT) and irritation tests (SIT) using a RhE model were implemented to reduce the number of in vivo tests required by regulatory bodies. One hundred and thirty-four materials were tested from a wide range of substance classes included 46 agrochemical formulations. Results were assessed according to UN GHS, EU-CLP, ANVISA and US EPA classification schemes. There was high correlation between the two in vitro tests. Assessment of the SCT sensitivity was not possible due to the limited number of corrosives in the data set; SCT specificity and accuracy were 89% for all classification systems. Accuracy (63-76%) and sensitivity (53-67%) were low in the SIT. Specificity and concordance for agrochemical formulations alone in both the SCT and SIT were comparable to the values for the complete data set (SCT: 91% vs. 89% specificity, 91% vs. 89% accuracy and SIT: 64-88% vs. 70-85% specificity, 56-75% vs. 63-76% accuracy). PMID:22939940

  1. Ocular tolerability of Eudragit RS100 and RL100 nanosuspensions as carriers for ophthalmic controlled drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Pignatello, R; Bucolo, C; Puglisi, G

    2002-12-01

    Polymeric nanoparticle suspensions were prepared from inert polymer resins (Eudragit RS100, RS, and RL100, RL). When loaded with drugs, these resins have been recently proposed as delivery systems to prolong the release and improve ocular availability of the drug. To verify the absence of toxicity toward the ocular structures, blank RS and RL nanosuspensions were applied to rabbit eye and a modified Draize test was performed. Polymer nanoparticles appeared to be avoiding of any irritant effect on cornea, iris, and conjunctiva up to 24 h after application, thus appearing to be a suitable inert carrier for ophthalmic drug delivery. PMID:12434408

  2. Modeling the effect of population dynamics on the impact of rabbit hemorrhagic disease.

    PubMed

    Calvete, Carlos

    2006-08-01

    The European wild rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) is a staple prey species in Mediterranean ecosystems. The arrival and subsequent spread of rabbit hemorrhagic disease throughout southwestern Europe, however has caused a decline in rabbit numbers, leading to considerable efforts to enhance wild rabbit populations, especially through habitat management. Because rabbit population dynamics depend on habitat suitability and changes in habitat structure and composition subsequent to habitat management, I evaluated the effects of population dynamics on the long-term impact of rabbit hemorrhagic disease on rabbit populations. I used an age-structured model with varying degrees of population productivity and turnover and different habitat carrying capacities, and I assumed the existence of a unique, highly pathogenic virus. My results suggest that disease impact may be highly dependent on habitat carrying capacity and rabbit population dynamics, and the model provided some insight into the current abundance of wild rabbits in different locations in southwestern Europe. The highest disease impact was estimated for populations located in habitats with low to medium carrying capacity In contrast, disease impact was lower in high-density populations in habitats with high carrying capacity, corresponding to a lower mean age of rabbit infection and a resulting lower mortality from rabbit hemorrhagic disease. The outcomes of the model suggest that management strategies to help rabbit populations recover should be based on improving habitats to their maximum carrying capacity and increasing rabbit population productivity. In contrast, the use of strategies based on temporary increases in rabbit density, including vaccination campaigns, translocations, and temporal habitat improvements at medium carrying capacities, may increase disease impact, resulting in short-term decreases in rabbit population density. PMID:16922239

  3. Monoclonal antibodies against rabbit mammary prolactin receptors. Specific antibodies to the hormone binding domain

    SciTech Connect

    Katoh, M.; Djiane, J.; Kelly, P.A.

    1985-09-25

    Three monoclonal antibodies (M110, A82, and A917) were obtained by fusing myeloma cells and spleen cells from mice immunized with partially purified rabbit mammary gland prolactin (PRL) receptors. All 3 antibodies were capable of complete inhibition of SVI-ovine prolactin (oPRL) binding to rabbit mammary PRL receptors in either particulate or soluble form. M110 showed slightly greater potency than oPRL in competing for SVI-oPRL binding. These antibodies also inhibited PRL binding to microsomal fractions from rabbit liver, kidney, adrenal, ovary, and pig mammary gland, although A82 showed poor inhibition in pig mammary gland. There was no cross-reaction of any of the 3 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) for the other species tested: human (T-47D breast cancer cells) and rat (liver, ovary). In order to confirm that these antibodies are specific to the binding domain, antibodies were purified, iodinated, and binding characteristics were investigated. SVI-M110 and SVI-A82 binding was completely inhibited by lactogenic hormones, whereas nonlactogenic hormones did not cross-react. Competition of 125I-M110 by oPRL was comparable to that of SVI-oPRL by unlabeled oPRL, while SVI-A917 binding was only partially competed (30-60%) by lactogenic hormones. Tissue and species specificity of labeled antibody binding paralleled results of binding inhibition experiments using 125I-oPRL. In addition, A82 and A917 completely inhibited 125I-M110 binding. In contrast, 125I-A82 binding was stimulated by A917 and 125I-A917 binding was stimulated by A82.

  4. Administration of bisphosphonate (ibandronate) impedes molar tooth movement in rabbits: A radiographic assessment

    PubMed Central

    Venkataramana, V.; Kumar, S. Sathesh; Reddy, B. Vishnuvardhan; Cherukuri, A. Sreekanth; Sigamani, K. Raja; Chandrasekhar, G.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Bisphosphonate (Bp)-ibandronate is a pharmacological agent, exhibits antiosteoclastic or antiresorptive activity and used to treat osteolytic or osteopenic disorders. BP-ibandronate may also interfere during orthodontic tooth movement. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of locally administered Bp-ibandronate on experimental tooth movement in rabbits. Materials and Methods: Twenty rabbits were divided into two groups- “10” served as Group-1 (control) and other “10” as Group-2 (experimental). Both groups received nickel-titanium closed coil springs with 100 g force between mandibular molar and incisors. Group-1 animals received 1 ml normal saline and Group-2 animals received ibandronate solution (0.3 mg/kg body weight) locally, mesial to the mandibular molar on the 1st, 7th, and 14th day of the experiment. A total of “40” lateral cephalograms were taken from both groups on the 1st and 21st day using a digital X-ray unit (Siemens X-ray systems, 300 mA Pleomophos analog, 2008, Germany). Individually, each animal's radiograph was traced manually and superimposed. The molar tooth movement was measured with the help of a standard metric scale. Results: The Student's t-test has been done to compare the mean values of Group-1 (4.650 ± 0.363) and Group-2 (2.030 ± 0.291) and the difference was statistically significant (P < 0.001). Conclusion: The retarded molar tooth movement was noticed in local drug administered rabbits, which could be beneficial in orthodontics to control the undesired tooth movement. PMID:25210364

  5. Fecal Nitrogen Concentration as a Nutritional Quality Indicator for European Rabbit Ecological Studies

    PubMed Central

    Gil-Jiménez, Esperanza; Villamuelas, Miriam; Serrano, Emmanuel; Delibes, Miguel; Fernández, Néstor

    2015-01-01

    Measuring the quality of the nutritional resources available to wild herbivores is critical to understanding trophic regulation processes. However, the direct assessment of dietary nutritional characteristics is usually difficult, which hampers monitoring nutritional constraints in natural populations. The feeding ecology of ruminant herbivores has been often assessed by analyzing fecal nitrogen (FN) concentrations, although this method has been less evaluated in other taxa. This study analyzed the suitability of FN as an indicator of ingesta quality in the European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus), which is a keystone lagomorph species in Mediterranean ecosystems and of great conservation interest. Firstly, domestic O. cuniculus were used to evaluate under experimental conditions the accuracy of total FN and the metabolic FN as diet quality indicators of forages with characteristics similar to those available under natural conditions. Secondly, the accuracy of Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) to calculate FN was tested using partial least squares regression. Thirdly, a pilot field study was conducted to monitor FN dynamics from wild O. cuniculus in three different habitats during wet and drought periods. A strong association was found between diet type and total FN and metabolic FN (Pseudo-R2 ? 0.89). It was also found that NIRS calibrations were accurate for depicting nitrogen concentrations (R2 > 0.98 between NIRS and chemical results). Finally, the seasonal FN dynamics measured in the field were consistent with current knowledge on vegetation dynamics and forage limitations in the three habitats. The results support the use of NIRS methods and FN indices as a reliable and affordable approach to monitoring the nutritional quality of rabbit habitats. Potential applications include the assessment of the mechanistic relationships between resource limitations and population abundance, e.g., in relation to natural drought cycles and to habitat interventions aimed at reinforcing rabbit populations. PMID:25893872

  6. Neuromechanical matching of drive in the scalene muscle of the anesthetized rabbit.

    PubMed

    Legrand, Alexandre; Majcher, Melanie; Joly, Emma; Bonaert, Adeline; Gevenois, Pierre Alain

    2009-09-01

    The scalene is a primary respiratory muscle in humans; however, in dogs, EMG activity recorded from this muscle during inspiration was reported to derive from underlying muscles. In the present studies, origin of the activity in the medial scalene was tested in rabbits, and its distribution was compared with the muscle mechanical advantage. We assessed in anesthetized rabbits the presence of EMG activity in the scalene, sternomastoid, and parasternal intercostal muscles during quiet breathing and under resistive loading, before and after denervation of the scalene and after its additional insulation. At rest, activity was always recorded in the parasternal muscle and in the scalene bundle inserting on the third rib (medial scalene). The majority of this activity disappeared after denervation. In the bundle inserting on the fifth rib (lateral scalene), the activity was inconsistent, and a high percentage of this activity persisted after denervation but disappeared after insulation from underlying muscle layers. The sternomastoid was always silent. The fractional change in muscle length during passive inflation was then measured. The mean shortening obtained for medial and lateral scalene and parasternal intercostal was 8.0 +/- 0.7%, 5.5 +/- 0.5%, and 9.6 +/- 0.1%, respectively, of the length at functional residual capacity. Sternomastoid muscle length did not change significantly with lung inflation. We conclude that, similar to that shown in humans, respiratory activity arises from scalene muscles in rabbits. This activity is however not uniformly distributed, and a neuromechanical matching of drive is observed, so that the most effective part is also the most active. PMID:19608926

  7. Metabolomics Reveals Metabolic Alterations by Intrauterine Growth Restriction in the Fetal Rabbit Brain

    PubMed Central

    van Vliet, Erwin; Eixarch, Elisenda; Illa, Miriam; Arbat-Plana, Ariadna; González-Tendero, Anna; Hogberg, Helena T.; Zhao, Liang; Hartung, Thomas; Gratacos, Eduard

    2013-01-01

    Background Intrauterine Growth Restriction (IUGR) due to placental insufficiency occurs in 5–10% of pregnancies and is a major risk factor for abnormal neurodevelopment. The perinatal diagnosis of IUGR related abnormal neurodevelopment represents a major challenge in fetal medicine. The development of clinical biomarkers is considered a promising approach, but requires the identification of biochemical/molecular alterations by IUGR in the fetal brain. This targeted metabolomics study in a rabbit IUGR model aimed to obtain mechanistic insight into the effects of IUGR on the fetal brain and identify metabolite candidates for biomarker development. Methodology/Principal Findings At gestation day 25, IUGR was induced in two New Zealand rabbits by 40–50% uteroplacental vessel ligation in one horn and the contralateral horn was used as control. At day 30, fetuses were delivered by Cesarian section, weighed and brains collected for metabolomics analysis. Results showed that IUGR fetuses had a significantly lower birth and brain weight compared to controls. Metabolomics analysis using liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-QTOF-MS) and database matching identified 78 metabolites. Comparison of metabolite intensities using a t-test demonstrated that 18 metabolites were significantly different between control and IUGR brain tissue, including neurotransmitters/peptides, amino acids, fatty acids, energy metabolism intermediates and oxidative stress metabolites. Principle component and hierarchical cluster analysis showed cluster formations that clearly separated control from IUGR brain tissue samples, revealing the potential to develop predictive biomarkers. Moreover birth weight and metabolite intensity correlations indicated that the extent of alterations was dependent on the severity of IUGR. Conclusions IUGR leads to metabolic alterations in the fetal rabbit brain, involving neuronal viability, energy metabolism, amino acid levels, fatty acid profiles and oxidative stress mechanisms. Overall findings identified aspargine, ornithine, N-acetylaspartylglutamic acid, N-acetylaspartate and palmitoleic acid as potential metabolite candidates to develop clinical biomarkers for the perinatal diagnosis of IUGR related abnormal neurodevelopment. PMID:23724060

  8. Effect of berberine on acetylcholine-induced atrial fibrillation in rabbit

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Zhi-Wen; Zheng, Hong-Chao; Zhao, Li-Fang; Li, Wei; Hou, Jian-Wen; Yu, Yi; Miao, Pi-Zhi; Zhu, Jian-Ming

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the efficacy of Berberine (Ber) on atrial fibrillation (AF) induced by acetylcholine (ACh) and explore its underlying mechanisms of action. In vivo electrophysiology experiments were performed in adult anesthetized rabbits. Single atrial myocytes were isolated from rabbit hearts and action potentials recorded using patch clamp techniques. AF was induced by rapid atrial burst pacing during intravenous (IV) ACh infusion alone or with IV Ber. Compared to the Baseline, IV Ber (2 mg/kg) prolonged the RR interval and effective refractory period (195 ± 10 vs. 215 ± 11 msec; 80 ± 4 vs. 85 ± 5 msec, respectively; both P<0.05). The induced rate of sustained 1 min AF was lower during ACh infusion with Ber than during ACh infusion alone (4/10 vs. 30/35, P<0.01). The termination rate of ACh-induced AF was higher with IV Ber (1 mg/kg) than with IV saline (sustained 1 min AF: 6/8 vs. 6/20, sustained 10 min AF: 8/10 vs. 1/6, both P<0.05). ACh perfusion significantly shortened the action potential duration (APD) of isolated atrial myocytes (APD50: 152 ± 13 vs. 81 ± 10 msec; APD90: 256 ± 19 vs. 132 ± 13 msec, both P<0.01). Application of Ber reversed the APD shortening induced by ACh (APD50: 81 ± 10 vs. 134 ± 15 msec; APD90: 132 ± 13 vs: 213 ± 17 msec, both P<0.01). We conclude that Ber suppresses ACh-induced AF in the rabbit by increasing atrial effective refractory period and prolonging the APD of atrial myocytes. PMID:26396675

  9. Comparative Analysis of Methods to Induce Myocardial Infarction in a Closed-Chest Rabbit Model

    PubMed Central

    Isorni, Marc-Antoine; Casanova, Amaury; Piquet, Julie; Bellamy, Valérie; Pignon, Charly; Puymirat, Etienne; Menasche, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To develop a rabbit model of closed-chest catheter-induced myocardial infarction. Background. Limitations of rodent and large animal models justify the search for clinically relevant alternatives. Methods. Microcatheterization of the heart was performed in 47 anesthetized 3-4 kg New Zealand rabbits to test five techniques of myocardial ischemia: free coils (n = 4), interlocking coils (n = 4), thrombogenic gelatin sponge (n = 4), balloon occlusion (n = 4), and alcohol injection (n = 8). In order to limit ventricular fibrillation, an antiarrhythmic protocol was implemented, with beta-blockers/amiodarone before and xylocaine infusion during the procedure. Clinical, angiographic, and echographic data were gathered. End points included demonstration of vessel occlusion (TIMI flow grades 0 and 1 on the angiogram), impairment of left ventricular function at 2 weeks after procedure (by echocardiography), and pathologically confirmed myocardial infarction. Results. The best arterial access was determined to be through the right carotid artery. The internal mammary guiding catheter 4-Fr was selected as the optimal device for selective intracoronary injection. Free coils deployed prematurely and tended to prolapse into the aorta. Interlocking coils did not deploy completely and failed to provide reliable results. Gelatin sponge was difficult to handle, adhered to the catheter, and could not be clearly visualized by fluoroscopy. Balloon occlusion yielded inconsistent results. Alcohol injection was the most efficient and reproducible method for inducing myocardial infarction (4 out of 6 animals), the extent of which could be fine-tuned by using a coaxial balloon catheter as a microcatheter (0.52 mm) to achieve a superselective injection of 0.2 mL of alcohol. This approach resulted in a 20% decrease in LVEF and infarcted myocardium was confirmed histologically. Conclusions. By following a stepwise approach, a minimally invasive, effective, and reproducible rabbit model of catheter-induced myocardial infarction has been developed which addresses the limitations of rodent experiments while avoiding the logistical and cost issues associated with large animal models. PMID:26504843

  10. Pulmonary effects of inhaled zinc oxide in human subjects, guinea pigs, rats, and rabbits

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, T.; Chen, L.C.; Fine, J.M.; Schlesinger, R.B.; Su, W.Y.; Kimmel, T.A.; Amdur, M.O. )

    1992-08-01

    Occupational exposure to freshly formed zinc oxide (ZnO) particles (less than 1.0 micron aerodynamic diameter) produces a well-characterized response known as metal fume fever. An 8-hr threshold limit value (TLV) of 5 mg/m3 has been established to prevent adverse health effects because of exposure to ZnO fumes. Because animal toxicity studies have demonstrated pulmonary effects near the current TLV, the present study examined the time course and dose-response of the pulmonary injury produced by inhaled ZnO in guinea pigs, rats, rabbits, and human volunteers. The test animals were exposed to 0, 2.5, or 5.0 mg/m3 ZnO for up to 3 hr and their lungs lavaged. Both the lavage fluid and recovered cells were examined for evidence of inflammation or altered cell function. The lavage fluid from guinea pigs and rats exposed to 5 mg/m3 had significant increases in total cells, lactate dehydrogenase, beta-glucuronidase, and protein content. These changes were greatest 24 hr after exposure. Guinea pig alveolar macrophage function was depressed as evidenced by in vitro phagocytosis of opsonized latex beads. Significant changes in lavage fluid parameters were also observed in guinea pigs and rats exposed to 2.5 mg/m3 ZnO. In contrast, rabbits showed no increase in biochemical or cellular parameters following a 2-hr exposure to 5 mg/m3 ZnO. Differences in total lung burden of ZnO, as determined in additional animals by atomic absorption spectroscopy, appeared to account for the observed differences in species responses. Although the lungs of guinea pigs and rats retained approximately 20% and 12% of the inhaled dose, respectively, rabbits retained only 5%.

  11. Noise-induced Outer Hair Cells' Dysfunction and Cochlear Damage in Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Moussavi-Najarkola, S A; Khavanin, A; Mirzaei, R; Salehnia, M; Muhammadnejad, A; Akbari, M

    2012-01-01

    Background Outer hair cells' (OHCs') dysfunctions as the extent of temporary and permanent threshold shifts (TTS and PTS) and cochlear damage were assessed in rabbits exposed to continuous noise Methods Twelve New Zealand white rabbits were studied in noise (N) (n=6; exposed to continuous noise; 95 dB SPL, 500-8000 Hz for 8 h per day during 5 consecutive days) and control (C) (n=6; not exposed to noise). OHCs' functions were assessed by distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) level (Ldp) measurements in different periods and comparing TTS and PTS. Animals were anaesthetized by CO2; cochleae were extracted, fixed in 10% formaldehyde for 48 hours, decalcified by 10% nitric acid for 24 hours, and dehydrated, embedded, sectioned 5 µm thickness and stained by Hematoxylin and Eosin for light microscopy. Results The most and least Ldp or TTS or PTS were related to 5888.50 Hz and 588.00 Hz respectively in noise subjected rabbits (P<0.05). TTS and PTS were decreased up to 17.79 dB and to 16.01 dB respectively. TTS were more than PTS over all test frequencies, especially at 5888.50 Hz (P<0.05). Ldp or TTS or PTS were found to be equal across ears (P>0.05). Severely vacuolated OHCs, pyknotic IHCs, swollen SC, and slightly thickened BM were found. Conclusion Continuous noise extensively led to OHCs' dysfunctions as decreased Ldp (both TTS and PTS) and highly damage to cochlea. PMID:23285417

  12. A Chitosan-Based Sinus Sealant for Reduction of Adhesion Formation in Rabbit and Sheep Models

    PubMed Central

    Medina, Jennifer G.; Steinke, John W.; Das, Subinoy

    2013-01-01

    Objective Chronic sinusitis is the most prevalent chronic disease in the United States in adults aged 18 to 44 years, with approximately 250,000 operations performed annually. Although often successful, sinus surgery fails in greater than 15% of patients. Adhesion formation is a common complication and cause for subsequent revision surgery. Here, the authors evaluate a sprayable chitosan/starch-based sinus sealant and demonstrate its ability to reduce adhesion formation both in vitro and in 2 animal models. Study Design Randomized, controlled, animal trials. Setting Academic medical center (fibroblast experiments) and animal laboratories (sheep and rabbit studies). Subjects and Methods This sinus sealant was applied to human cultured fibroblasts obtained from surgically removed polyps to examine its ability to inhibit fibroblast migration and proliferation. The sinus sealant was applied to New Zealand White rabbits (n = 20) in an established cecal-sidewall abrasion model and to sheep (n = 10) in a sinus surgical adhesion model to examine its ability to reduce adhesion formation. Results This sinus sealant inhibited migration and proliferation of human cultured fibroblasts and reduced the total adhesion score from 4.9 to 0.3 for a total reduction of 94% (95th percentile confidence interval [CI], 78%, 100%; P < .001) in a well-established rabbit cecal-sidewall model commonly used for adhesion testing. Moreover, this sealant reduced adhesion formation from 80% to 10% for a total reduction of 70% (95th percentile CI, 57%, 93%; P = .003) in a sheep sinus adhesion surgical model. Conclusion This chitosan-based sealant demonstrates promise for reducing adhesion formation in sinus surgery. PMID:22492298

  13. Comparative Analysis of USA300 Virulence Determinants in a Rabbit Model of Skin and Soft Tissue Infection

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Scott D.; Malachowa, Natalia; Whitney, Adeline R.; Braughton, Kevin R.; Gardner, Donald J.; Long, Dan; Wardenburg, Juliane Bubeck; Schneewind, Olaf; Otto, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) infections are frequently associated with strains harboring genes encoding Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL). The role of PVL in the success of the epidemic CA-MRSA strain USA300 remains unknown. Here we developed a skin and soft tissue infection model in rabbits to test the hypothesis that PVL contributes to USA300 pathogenesis and compare it with well-established virulence determinants: alpha-hemolysin (Hla), phenol-soluble modulin-alpha peptides (PSM?), and accessory gene regulator (Agr). The data indicate that Hla, PSM?, and Agr contribute to the pathogenesis of USA300 skin infections in rabbits, whereas a role for PVL could not be detected. PMID:21849291

  14. A novel AAT-deletion mutation in the coding sequence of the BCO2 gene in yellow-fat rabbits.

    PubMed

    Strychalski, Janusz; Brym, Pawe?; Czarnik, Urszula; Gugo?ek, Andrzej

    2015-11-01

    The carcasses of yellow-fat rabbits may be attractive to modern consumers, because they have a relatively high content of biologically active compounds. One of the main candidate genes associated with the yellow-fat trait is ?-carotene 9',10'-oxygenase (BCO2). This study is the first report of the novel AAT-deletion mutation at codon 248 of the BCO2 gene, which has been found in homozygous yellow-fat rabbits. The deletion mutation, located at the beginning of exon 6, results in the absence of asparagine in protein. We also developed a PCR-RFLP test that supports intravital genotyping of indel polymorphism based on genomic DNA. PMID:26002694

  15. Ileal Loop Fluid Accumulation and Production of Diarrhea in Rabbits by Cell-free Products of Clostridium perfringens1

    PubMed Central

    Duncan, Charles L.; Strong, Dorothy H.

    1969-01-01

    The ability of cell extracts and culture filtrates of various strains of C. perfringens to produce ileal loop fluid accumulation and overt diarrhea in rabbits was tested. Good correlation was obtained in the ability of whole cells and a toxic factor (present in cell extracts and concentrated culture filtrates) to produce both fluid accumulation in ileal loops and diarrhea when injected into the normal ileum of the rabbit. The toxic factor was present in cell-free preparations when cells were grown in a sporulation medium, but not when they were grown in an asporogenic medium. The factor was shown to be heat labile, nondialyzable, and was inactivated by Pronase but not by trypsin, lipase, or amylase. Loss of activity occurred at pH 1.0, 3.0, 5.0, and 12.0. PMID:4310083

  16. Efficacy of Caltropis procera and Ficus sycomorus extracts in treating MRSA (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus)-keratitis in rabbit.

    PubMed

    Sayed, Waiel F; Salem, Wesam M A; Haridy, Mohie A M; Hassan, Ne'mat H

    2015-01-01

    MRSA-induced keratitis in rabbit was used to evaluate the therapeutic effect of F. sycomorus leaves and C. procera latex extracts. Within the 6 rabbit groups tested, group 1 received sterilized saline, while other groups (2 to 6) received 100 ?l of intrastromal injections of 1.5×10(3) colony forming unit (cfu) ml(-1) of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). After 12 hours, groups 3 to 6 also received chloramphenicol, aqueous extract of C. procera latex, aqueous and alcoholic extracts of F. sycomorus leaves, respectively 3 times daily for 12 successive days. The tested extracts inhibited MRSA growth in vitro (i.e. on culture medium). Colony counts in cornea discs from groups 3 to 6 were significantly reduced (P ? 0.001) compared to group 2 (untreated). Clinical signs of keratitis were observed on group 2 until the end of experiment. In groups 3 to 6, gradual recovery was observed and signs disappeared by the 12(th) DPI (days post inoculation). Only mild symptoms persisted in group 5 (aqueous extract of leaves). In group 3 and 5, cornea, iris, ciliary body and conjunctiva showed mild leukocytic infiltration and depigmentation of melanin cells while recovery of cornea and iris was observed in groups 4 and 6. In conclusion, the used extracts have potential therapeutic effects on MRSA-induced keratitis in rabbit. PMID:26648824

  17. Apparent effect of rabbit endogenous lentivirus type K acquisition on retrovirus restriction by lagomorph Trim5?s

    PubMed Central

    Yap, Melvyn W.; Stoye, Jonathan P.

    2013-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that rabbit endogenous lentivirus type K (RELIK) could play a role in shaping the evolution of TRIM5?, the susceptibility of viruses containing the RELIK capsid (CA) to TRIM5 restriction was evaluated. RELIK CA-containing viruses were susceptible to the TRIM5?s from Old World monkeys but were unaffected by most ape or New World monkey factors. TRIM5?s from various lagomorph species were also isolated and tested for anti-retroviral activity. The TRIM5?s from both cottontail rabbit and pika restrict a range of retroviruses, including HIV-1, HIV-2, FIV, EIAV and N-MLV. TRIM5?s from the European and cottontail rabbit, which have previously been found to contain RELIK, also restricted RELIK CA-containing viruses, whereas a weaker restriction was observed with chimeric TRIM5? containing the B30.2 domain from the pika, which lacks RELIK. Taken together, these results could suggest that the pika had not been exposed to exogenous RELIK and that endogenized RELIK might exert a selective pressure on lagomorph TRIM5?. PMID:23938750

  18. Local bacteriophage isolates showed anti- Escherichia coli O157:H7 potency in an experimental ligated rabbit ileal loop model.

    PubMed

    Alam, Muntasir; Akhter, Marufa Zerin; Yasmin, Mahmuda; Ahsan, Chowdhury Rafiqul; Nessa, Jamalun

    2011-05-01

    Escherichia coli O157:H7 is considered among the most important recently emerged food-borne bacteria causing severe hemorrhagic diarrhea. Antibiotic treatment is not recommended as a prospective curative agent against this pathogen. Therefore, potency assessment of the local lytic phage isolates infecting E. coli O157:H7 as an alternate remedy to antibiotics was the principal concern of this study. Phage isolates against E. coli O157:H7 were checked by polymerase chain reaction for the presence of the virulence genes stx1 and stx2, and the safe phages were further screened in vitro for their capacity as biocontrol agents. Two bacteriophage strains, namely PAH6 and P2BH2, that had expressed potential antibacterial activity (P < 0.05) in vitro were selected for in vivo testing in ligated rabbit ileal loop models. Both phage isolates were capable of decreasing fluid accumulation in rabbit ileal loops along with reducing bacterial growth (r = 0.992). Combined application of the phages was found most satisfactory, reducing seven log cycles of bacterial growth. Consistent results in both in vivo and in vitro experiments demonstrate the applicability of bacteriophages as a rapid response tool against E. coli O157:H7. To our knowledge, this is the first successful application of the rabbit ileal loop test for therapeutic evaluation of bacteriophages. PMID:21542784

  19. Efficacy of Caltropis procera and Ficus sycomorus extracts in treating MRSA (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus)-keratitis in rabbit

    PubMed Central

    Sayed, Waiel F.; Salem, Wesam M. A.; Haridy, Mohie A. M.; Hassan, Ne'mat H.

    2015-01-01

    MRSA-induced keratitis in rabbit was used to evaluate the therapeutic effect of F. sycomorus leaves and C. procera latex extracts. Within the 6 rabbit groups tested, group 1 received sterilized saline, while other groups (2 to 6) received 100 μl of intrastromal injections of 1.5×103 colony forming unit (cfu) ml-1 of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). After 12 hours, groups 3 to 6 also received chloramphenicol, aqueous extract of C. procera latex, aqueous and alcoholic extracts of F. sycomorus leaves, respectively 3 times daily for 12 successive days. The tested extracts inhibited MRSA growth in vitro (i.e. on culture medium). Colony counts in cornea discs from groups 3 to 6 were significantly reduced (P ≤ 0.001) compared to group 2 (untreated). Clinical signs of keratitis were observed on group 2 until the end of experiment. In groups 3 to 6, gradual recovery was observed and signs disappeared by the 12th DPI (days post inoculation). Only mild symptoms persisted in group 5 (aqueous extract of leaves). In group 3 and 5, cornea, iris, ciliary body and conjunctiva showed mild leukocytic infiltration and depigmentation of melanin cells while recovery of cornea and iris was observed in groups 4 and 6. In conclusion, the used extracts have potential therapeutic effects on MRSA-induced keratitis in rabbit. PMID:26648824

  20. Endothelial Injury Preceding Intracranial Aneurysm Formation in Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Li, M-H; Li, P-G; Huang, Q-L; Ling, J

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study investigates the change of endothelial cell morphology and function at the rabbit basilar bifurcations in response to sustained high blood flow after bilateral common carotid artery ligation. Methods: Fifteen adult female New Zealand white rabbits were divided into experimental and sham control groups. The experimental group was subjected to bilateral common carotid artery ligation to increase the compensatory basilar artery flow. Basilar artery flow was monitored by transcranial Doppler after surgery. The endothelial cells at the arterial bifurcations were studied morphologically by electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry using β-catenin antibodies. Basilar artery flow increased significantly following common carotid artery ligation. Results: Early-stage basilar artery bifurcation aneurysms were present in all rabbits at three months after ligation. The endothelial cells changed from a fusiform to column shape at the basilar artery bifurcation. Gaps between endothelial cells of the experimental group appeared wider in the electron microscopic photographs compared with those of the control group. The expression of endothelial β-catenin at the arterial bifurcations also decreased. Conclusion: This study is the first to present endothelial cell changes of basilar artery bifurcation in response to sustained high blood flow in rabbits. Endothelial cell impairment possibly initiates aneurysm formation. PMID:25303252

  1. Continuous deep intravenous infusion in rabbit embryotoxicity studies.

    PubMed

    Barrow, P C; Guyot, J Y

    1996-03-01

    1. This investigation was undertaken to evaluate the suitability of an intravenous infusion technique in the pregnant rabbit. 2. 18 New Zealand White rabbits were anaesthetised on day 1 of gestation and an indwelling catheter was implanted into the superior vena cava by introduction into the jugular vein. The catheter was attached by a tether system to a remote infusion pump. 3. The pregnant rabbits were infused with physiological saline at a rate of 4 ml kg-1 day-1 until day 19 of gestation. A caesarean examination was performed on day 29 of gestation. The results obtained were compared with historical control data from 150 mated rabbits. 4. Anaesthesia and catheter implantation caused a slight transient reduction in maternal food consumption and weight gain. Pregnancy rate, pre-implantation loss and early resorption incidence were not affected. 5. Late resorption incidence and post-implantation loss were higher in the infused group by comparison with the historical controls but the individual data did not suggest an effect of treatment. Foetal weight was not adversely influenced. Three of the infused dams each contained one malformed foetus: a possible influence of infusion in the aetiology of these abnormalities cannot be excluded nor confirmed within the limitations of this experiment. PMID:8839208

  2. The rabbit pup, a natural model of nursing anticipatory activity

    PubMed Central

    Caba, Mario; González-Mariscal, Gabriela

    2009-01-01

    Mother rabbits nurse their young once a day with circadian periodicity. Nursing bouts are brief (ca. 3 min) and occur inside the maternal burrow. Despite this limited contact mother rabbits and their pups are tuned to each other to ensure that the capacities of each party are used efficiently to ensure the weaning of a healthy litter. In this review we present behavioral, hormonal, metabolic and hormonal correlates of this phenomenon in mother rabbits and their pups. Research is revealing that the circadian rhythm of locomotion shifts in parallel to the timing of nursing in both parties. In pups corticosterone has a circadian rhythm with highest levels at the time of nursing. Other metabolic and hormonal parameters follow an exogenous or endogenous rhythm which is affected by the time of nursing. In the brain clock genes (e.g., Per1) are differentially expressed in specific brain regions (e.g., suprachiasmatic nucleus, paraventricular nucleus) in relation to providing or ingesting milk in mothers and young, respectively. These findings suggest that circadian activities are modulated, in the mothers, by suckling stimulation and, in the young, by the ingestion of milk and/or the perception of the mammary pheromone. In conclusion the rabbit pup is an extraordinary model for studying the entraining by a single daily food pulse with minimal manipulations. The mother offers the possibility of studying nursing as a non-photic synchronizer, also with minimal manipulation, as suckling stimulation from the litter occurs only once daily PMID:19863657

  3. The Functions of BMP3 in Rabbit Articular Cartilage Repair

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhe; Yang, Wenyu; Cao, Yiting; Shi, Yanping; Lei, Chen; Du, Bo; Li, Xuemin; Zhang, Qiqing

    2015-01-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) play important roles in skeletal development and repair. Previously, we found fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) induced up-regulation of BMP2, 3, 4 in the process of rabbit articular cartilage repair, which resulted in satisfactory repair effects. As BMP2/4 show a clearly positive effect for cartilage repair, we investigated the functions of BMP3 in rabbit articular cartilage repair. In this paper, we find that BMP3 inhibits the repair of partial-thickness defect of articular cartilage in rabbit by inducing the degradation of extracellular matrix, interfering with the survival of chondrocytes surrounding the defect, and directly inhibiting the expression of BMP2 and BMP4. Meanwhile BMP3 suppress the repair of full-thickness cartilage defect by destroying the subchondral bone through modulating the proliferation and differentiation of bone marrow stem cells (BMSCs), and directly increasing the expression of BMP4. Although BMP3 has different functions in the repair of partial and full-thickness defects of articular cartilage in rabbit, the regulation of BMP expression is involved in both of them. Together with our previous findings, we suggest the regulation of the BMP signaling pathway by BMP3 is essential in articular cartilage repair. PMID:26528966

  4. KINETIC MODEL OF FLUORIDE METABOLISM IN THE RABBIT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sodium fluoride, in small doses, was given to rabbits intravenously or by stomach tube, and the appearance of fluoride in the blood and urine was then monitored frequently over the next 10 hours. Compartmental analysis of the data yielded a kinetic model of fluoride metabolism co...

  5. [Preliminary study of rabbit experiment modality for evaluating cardiac fatigue].

    PubMed

    Yan, Xiaobo; Luo, Linmei; Liu, Leichu; Xiao, Shouzhong; Deng, Suyuan; Xiang, Lingli; Zhang, Cong

    2013-04-01

    This paper presents a preliminary study of rabbit experiment modality incorporating a new indicator for evaluating cardiac function changes, providing a basis for subsequent study of cardiac fatigue. Using only biochemical indicators, such as troponins, is difficult to make a distinction between exercise-induced cardiac fatigue (EICF) and exercise-induced cardiac damage (EICD). Therefore, some new indicators are needed to evaluate cardiac fatigue synthetically. In our study, we used New Zealand white rabbits to conduct a multi-step swimming experiments with load. We made the rabbits reach an exhaustive state to evaluate whether the amplitude ratio of the first to second heart sound (S1/S2) and heart rate (HR) during the exhaustive exercise would be decreased and whether they would be able to recover after the exhaustive exercise for 24 hours. During the first phase of swimming, S1/S2 and HR were increased, and then decreased at exhaustive state. They were recovered after the exhaustive exercise for 24 hours. Overloading led to deaths of three rabbis, and new phenomena from overloading and related to this kind of death were observed. The experiments proved that Multi-steps swimming experiments with loads by using New Zealand white rabbit is useful for studying cardiac fatigue and premonition of sudden cardiac death. PMID:23858749

  6. Perception of odor blending mixtures in the newborn rabbit.

    PubMed

    Coureaud, Gérard; Thomas-Danguin, Thierry; Le Berre, Elodie; Schaal, Benoist

    2008-09-01

    In adult mammals, the processing of complex odor mixtures is elemental or configural. Here, we challenged these processes in newborn rabbits, in evaluating their perception of a binary odor mixture for which perceptual blending occurs in humans. This model of newborn animal was interesting since general questions remain on how odor cues are processed in immature organisms, and since rabbit pups present abilities of rapid odor learning. In the present study, we first demonstrated (Exp. 1) that rabbit pups rapidly acquired the odor of the binary mixture through associative conditioning (when the mammary pheromone was used as unconditioned stimulus). Then, we compared how they responded to the mixture, its components and the mammary pheromone, after they had learned the mixture or one of its constituents. After they had learned the odor of the mixture, they responded to its odor and the odor of its constituents (Exp. 2). However, after they had learned one constituent's odor, they responded to this odor but not to the mixture's odor (Exp. 3). The response to the mixture appeared nevertheless when pups successively acquired the odor of the two components (Exp. 4). Therefore, both elemental and configural processing of the mixture seem to be displayed by rabbit pups, suggesting that neonatal perception of a simple odor mixture may involve more than the perception of its constituents. PMID:18586286

  7. Systematic Characterization and Comparative Analysis of the Rabbit Immunoglobulin Repertoire

    PubMed Central

    Lavinder, Jason J.; Hoi, Kam Hon; Reddy, Sai T.; Wine, Yariv; Georgiou, George

    2014-01-01

    Rabbits have been used extensively as a model system for the elucidation of the mechanism of immunoglobulin diversification and for the production of antibodies. We employed Next Generation Sequencing to analyze Ig germline V and J gene usage, CDR3 length and amino acid composition, and gene conversion frequencies within the functional (transcribed) IgG repertoire of the New Zealand white rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus). Several previously unannotated rabbit heavy chain variable (VH) and light chain variable (VL) germline elements were deduced bioinformatically using multidimensional scaling and k-means clustering methods. We estimated the gene conversion frequency in the rabbit at 23% of IgG sequences with a mean gene conversion tract length of 59±36 bp. Sequencing and gene conversion analysis of the chicken, human, and mouse repertoires revealed that gene conversion occurs much more extensively in the chicken (frequency 70%, tract length 79±57 bp), was observed to a small, yet statistically significant extent in humans, but was virtually absent in mice. PMID:24978027

  8. Postnatal development of the rabbit caecal microbiota composition and activity.

    PubMed

    Combes, Sylvie; Michelland, Rory Julien; Monteils, Valérie; Cauquil, Laurent; Soulié, Vincent; Tran, Ngoc Uyen; Gidenne, Thierry; Fortun-Lamothe, Laurence

    2011-09-01

    This study describes the development of the rabbit caecum microbiota and its metabolic activities from the neonatal (day 2) until the subadult period (day 70). The caecal microbiota was analysed using 16S rRNA gene approaches coupled with capillary electrophoresis single-stranded conformation polymorphism (CE-SSCP) and qPCR. At day 2, rabbits harboured population levels up to 8.4, 7.2 and 7.4 log(10) copy number g(-1) full caecum of the total bacteria, Bacteroides-Prevotella and Firmicutes groups, respectively. These populations reached their maximum levels from day 14 for Firmicutes groups (10.8 log(10) copy number g(-1) caecal content) and day 21 (11.4 and 10.7 log(10) copy number g(-1) caecal content of the total bacteria and the Bacteroides-Prevotella group, respectively). The archaeal population could be detected only from day 7 onwards (5.5 log(10) copy number g(-1) full caecum) and reached its maximum level at day 35 (7.4 log(10) copy number g(-1) caecal content). Similarity analysis, diversity calculation and quantitative evaluation of the stability of bacterial community CE-SSCP profiles provided some evidence that the caecal microbiota develops progressively from a simple and unstable community after birth into a complex and climax community in subadult rabbits. Meanwhile, the microbial activity evolved with the progressive decrease of the propionate/butyrate ratio towards a rabbit-specific value <1. PMID:21658088

  9. Helminths of the wild rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) in Macaronesia.

    PubMed

    Foronda, P; Valladares, B; Lorenzo-Morales, J; Ribas, A; Feliu, C; Casanova, J C

    2003-10-01

    Two hundred and four rabbits from 8 Macaronesian islands (Pico, San Jorge, San Miguel, Terceira, and Flores from Azores Archipelago; Tenerife and Alegranza from Canary Islands; and Madeira from Madeira Archipelago) were examined for helminth parasites between 1995 and 2000. Three species of cestodes, Taenia pisiformis (larvae), Andrya cuniculi, and Mosgovoyia ctenoides, and 5 species of nematodes, Trichuris leporis, Graphidium strigosum, Trichostrongylus retortaeformis, Passalurus ambiguus, and Dermatoxys hispaniensis, were identified. Only 3 species (M. ctenoides, T. retortaeformis, and P. ambiguus) were regularly distributed over the 3 archipelagos. Taenia pisiformis was not collected in Madeira, nor was A. cuniculi in the Azores and G. strigosum in the Canary Islands. Trichuris leporis and D. hispaniensis were only found in Madeira. Significant differences in the general prevalence of the nematodes G. strigosum and T. retortaeformis were detected between Azores and Madeira. The prevalence of T. retortaeformis differs significantly between the Azores and the Canaries and that of P. ambiguus was higher in Madeira than in Azores and Canaries. The helminth richness found in the wild rabbit in these Macaronesian archipelagos was very low compared with the Palearctic helminth fauna of this host. The wild rabbit was introduced from the Iberian Peninsula into different Macaronesian islands. Helminths introduced with Oryctolagus cuniculus into these islands also are commonly found in Iberian wild rabbits, which are excellent colonizers, as demonstrated in this study. PMID:14627142

  10. Enzootic Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli Infection in Laboratory Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Buckley, Ellen M.; Parry, Nicola M. A.; Madden, Carolyn M.; García, Alexis; Morgan, Peter B.; Astrofsky, Keith M.; Fox, James G.

    2012-01-01

    Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) is the most important cause of persistent diarrhea in children, particularly in developing countries. Animals serve as pathogenic E. coli reservoirs, and compelling evidence for cross-species EPEC transmission exists. In this report, enzootic EPEC infection associated with up to 10.5% diarrhea-associated morbidity in a large laboratory Dutch Belted rabbit colony was investigated. These rabbits were obtained from a commercial vendor and had acute diarrhea following shipment. Fecal culture of 20 rabbits yielded 48 E. coli isolates, 83% of which were eae positive. Repetitive sequence-based PCR (REP-PCR) and serologic analysis identified a single disease-associated EPEC O145:H2 strain. In sampled rabbits, EPEC-positive culture and the presence of diarrhea were significantly associated. This strain displayed a localized adherence-like HEp-2 cell adherence pattern, as seen in diarrheic human infant EPEC isolates. Treatment was instituted with the fluoroquinolone antibiotic enrofloxacin, to which all isolates were susceptible. Preshipment parenteral enrofloxacin administration reduced diarrhea-associated morbidity 22-fold and mortality 12-fold in subsequent deliveries. This report emphasizes the zoonotic potential of animal EPEC strains and the need for virulence determinant-based screening of E. coli isolates from diarrheic animals. PMID:22573597

  11. Immunodissection and culture of rabbit cortical collecting tubule cells

    SciTech Connect

    Spielman, W.S.; Sonnenburg, W.K.; Allen, M.L.; Arend, L.J.; Gerozissis, K.; Smith, W.L.

    1986-08-01

    A mouse monoclonal antibody designated IgG3 (rct-30) has been prepared that reacts specifically with an antigen on the surface of all cells comprising the cortical and medullary rabbit renal collecting tubule including the arcades. Plastic culture dishes coated with IgG3 (rct-30) were used to isolate collecting tubule cells from collagenase dispersions of rabbit renal cortical cells by immunoadsorption. Typically, 10W rabbit cortical collecting tubule (RCCT) cells were obtained from 5 g of renal cortex (2 kidneys). Between 20 and 30% of the RCCT cells were reactive with peanut lectin suggesting that RCCT cells are a mixture of principal and intercalated cells. Approximately 10X RCCT cells were obtained after 4 to 5 days in primary culture. Moreover, RCCT cells continued to proliferate after passaging with a doubling time of approx.32 h. RCCT cells passaged once and then cultured 4-5 days were found 1) to synthesize cAMP in response to arginine vasopressin (AVP), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), isoproterenol, and parathyroid hormone, but not calcitonin, prostaglandin D2, or prostaglandin I, and 2) to release PGE2 in response to bradykinin but not arginine vasopressin or isoproterenol. The results indicate that cultured RCCT cells retain many of the hormonal, histochemical, and morphological properties expected for a mixture of principal and intercalated rabbit cortical collecting tubule epithelia. RCCT cells should prove useful both for studying hormonal interactions in the cortical collecting tubule and as a starting population for isolating intercalated collecting tubule epithelia.

  12. Delayed rejection of cardiac xenografts in C6-deficient rabbits.

    PubMed Central

    O'Regan, C C; Robitaille, P; Pinto-Blonde, M; Chartrand, C

    1979-01-01

    Puppy hearts were engrafted to C6-deficient rabbits, and also to complement-sufficient animals in order to determine the influence of the sixth component of complement on xenograft rejection. Delayed rejection was observed in the puppy hearts engrafted to the C6-deficient animals indicating that complement sufficiency of C6 is required for hyperacute xenograft rejection. PMID:389781

  13. Otoplasty Outcomes With Different Suture Materials in a Rabbit Model.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Benjamin A; Hong, Paul

    2016-03-01

    Otoplasty is a commonly performed procedure to correct prominent ears. Many different otoplasty techniques have been described but there is no gold standard technique. As well, many different suture materials are used in otoplasty but studies directly comparing different sutures materials are lacking. An otoplasty outcome study with Nylon and Mersilene (2 of the most commonly used sutures in otoplasty) sutures was conducted using a rabbit model. Each rabbit ear was randomized to receive a Mustardé-type horizontal mattress suture with either 4-0 clear Nylon (N = 12 ears) or 4-0 Mersilene sutures (N = 12 ears). Two weeks after surgery, the auricular bend angle was measured with a finger goniometer and histologic analysis with hematoxylin and eosin staining was performed on the rabbit auricular cartilage. Overall, there was no significant difference in the mean bend angle between the 2 groups (Nylon: 135.8°, SD = 22.7° and Mersilene: 143.2°, SD = 19.7°; P = 0.559). Also, no qualitative difference was observed on histologic analysis between the 2 suture groups. In the current rabbit model study, both Nylon and Mersilene sutures performed well and no significant differences were noted. PMID:26967081

  14. Comparison of the evolving histopathology of early and late cutaneous and asthmatic responses in rabbits after a single antigen challenge.

    PubMed

    Behrens, B L; Clark, R A; Presley, D M; Graves, J P; Feldsien, D C; Larsen, G L

    1987-01-01

    Histopathologic changes during the immediate cutaneous response (ICR) and late cutaneous response (LCR) to antigen challenge in allergic humans include dermal edema in the ICR (15 to 30 minutes) followed by increasing cellular infiltration in the LCR (6 hours and more). No description of the evolving histopathologic changes that occur during an immediate asthmatic response (IAR) followed by a late asthmatic response (LAR) exists in either clinical studies or animal models. We examined cutaneous and pulmonary histopathology at 1/2, 6, 24, and 48 hours as well as 7 days after simultaneous intradermal and aerosol antigen challenge of rabbits immunize with Alternaria tenuis extract. Nonimmunized rabbits challenged with Alternaria tenuis extract and immunized rabbits challenged with normal saline served as controls. Immediate wheal and flare responses followed by a LCR were seen in immunized but not control animals. Pulmonary function tests documented immediate and LAR in immunized but not control animals. Thirty minutes after antigen challenge of sensitized animals (ICR and IAR), both dermal sites and large airway submucosal sites had interstitial edema and vessel dilatation while small airways were essentially normal. At 6 hours after challenge, the dermal and large airway submucosal sites of immune animals (LCR and LAR) demonstrated a moderate mixed leukocyte infiltrate as well as residual edema. Additionally, bronchioles and pulmonary vessel adventitia from these responding animals had an intense and widespread leukocyte infiltration. At 24 and 48 hours, immune challenged animals but not controls had a marked mixed cellular infiltrate near skin vessels and near the bronchioles and pulmonary vessels with little or no residual interstitial edema. At 7 days, three of four animals showed resolution of the inflammation while the fourth showed minimal residual changes. Morphometric analysis of airway inflammation substantiated these qualitative observations and demonstrated that the granulocytes around airways of immune rabbits were a mixture of neutrophils and eosinophils at 6 hours, but were predominantly eosinophils at 48 hours. Immunofluorescent studies of skin and lung tissue did not demonstrate any granular or linear deposition of immunoglobulin or complement at the sites of inflammation, however, fibrin deposition was noted in the skin and lungs of immune rabbits. These observations show that immunized rabbits challenged with antigen develop cutaneous and pulmonary inflammation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:3540448

  15. Rabbit models for the study of human atherosclerosis: from pathophysiological mechanisms to translational medicine

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Jianglin; Kitajima, Shuji; Watanabe, Teruo; Xu, Jie; Zhang, Jifeng; Liu, Enqi; Chen, Y. Eugene

    2014-01-01

    Laboratory animal models play an important role in the study of human diseases. Using appropriate animals is critical not only for basic research but also for the development of therapeutics and diagnostic tools. Rabbits are widely used for the study of human atherosclerosis. Because rabbits have a unique feature of lipoprotein metabolism (like humans but unlike rodents) and are sensitive to a cholesterol diet, rabbit models have not only provided many insights into the pathogenesis and development of human atherosclerosis but also made a great contribution to translational research. In fact, rabbit was the first animal model used for studying human atherosclerosis, more than a century ago. Currently, three types of rabbit model are commonly used for the study of human atherosclerosis and lipid metabolism: (1) cholesterol-fed rabbits, (2) Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic rabbits, analogous to human familial hypercholesterolemia due to genetic deficiency of LDL receptors, and (3) genetically modified (transgenic and knock-out) rabbits. Despite their importance, compared with the mouse, the most widely used laboratory animal model nowadays, the use of rabbit models is still limited. In this review, we focus on the features of rabbit lipoprotein metabolism and pathology of atherosclerotic lesions that make it the optimal model for human atherosclerotic disease, especially for the translational medicine. For the sake of clarity, the review is not an attempt to be completely inclusive, but instead attempts to summarize substantial information concisely and provide a guideline for experiments using rabbits. PMID:25277507

  16. Role of Rabbit Lysozyme in In Vitro Serum and Plasma Serum Bactericidal Reactions Against Bacillus subtilis

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, Stephen F.; Martinez, Rafael J.

    1979-01-01

    The antibacterial activity of purified rabbit lysozyme was kinetically investigated at concentrations comparable to those in normal rabbit serum and plasma serum. The bactericidal capability, lysozyme content, and electrophoretic composition of “purified ?-lysin,” fractionated from normal rabbit serum, were also examined. In contrast to the extensive antibacterial activity of dilute normal rabbit serum observed in vitro, rabbit lysozyme was only weakly bactericidal for Bacillus subtilis. Inhibition of lysozyme enzymatic and bactericidal activities in normal rabbit serum by antilysozyme immunoglobulin G slightly reduced the initial rate of killing. The addition of neutralizing antibody or histamine (another lysozyme inhibitor) to partially purified bactericidal serum fractions had no effect on killing kinetics. Increasing the ionic strength of reaction mixtures containing normal serum or partially purified bactericidal fractions to levels which completely inhibited lysozyme activity resulted in stimulation of their respective killing kinetics. The addition of inhibitors to normal rabbit plasma serum completely eliminated its bactericidal activity. With regard to the killing of B. subtilis by rabbit and human blood fractions, these analyses clearly demonstrated that (i) although lysozyme is not a significant antibacterial component of normal rabbit serum, it represents the principal factor in normal rabbit plasma serum; (ii) different primary bactericidal mechanisms which are not detectable by singlepoint analyses operate in the sera of different species; and (iii) purified ?-lysin isolated from normal rabbit serum by the classical procedure is a heterogenous mixture of components. Images PMID:115789

  17. Assessment of Progenix® DBM Putty Bone Substitute in a Rabbit Posterolateral fusion Model

    PubMed Central

    Smucker, Joseph D.; Fredericks, Douglas C.

    2012-01-01

    Study Design/Setting Randomized, controlled study in a laboratory setting. Blinded observations/assessment of study outcomes. Objective The purpose of this study is to determine the performance characteristics of PROGENIX® DBM putty as a bone graft extender, enhancer, and substitute in a rabbit posterolateral spine fusion model. Summary of Background Data The rabbit posterolateral fusion model is an established environment for testing of fusion concepts. It offers the opportunity to obtain radiographic, histological, and biomechanical data on novel fusion materials. Methods Forty rabbits were entered into the study with 37 used for analysis. Bilateral posterolateral lumbar intertransverse fusions were performed at L5-L6. the lateral two thirds of the transverse processes were decorticated and covered with graft material: autograft only (1.5 or 3.0 cc/side), a combination of PROGENIX® (1.5cc) + autograft (1.5cc), PROGENIX® (1.5cc) + autograft (3.0cc), or PROGENIX® only (3.0cc/side). Results Radiographic Fusion: At 8 weeks the 3.0cc autograft group had a 67% fusion rate and the 1.5cc autograft group fused in 25%. the extender group (1.5cc autograft + 1.5cc PROGENIX®) had an 88% fusion rate at 8 weeks. In the enhancer group (3.0 cc autograft + 1.5cc PROGENIX®) 86% of the spines were fused. the substitute group (PROGENIX® only) had a fusion rate of 38%. Manual Palpation: the 3.0cc autograft group had a 67% fusion rate and the 1.5cc autograft group fused in 38%. the extender group had an 88% fusion rate. In the enhancer group 86% of the specimens fused. the substitute group had a 50% fusion rate. Conclusions In a rabbit posterolateral fusion model, PROGENIX® DBM Putty in an autograft extender or enhancer mode produced manual palpation and radiographic fusion rates equivalent or slightly better than autograft fusion (3cc) alone. the results from the two autograft groups demonstrate the need for adequate graft volume to achieve high radiographic and mechanical fusion rates. PMID:23576922

  18. Reversibility of cadmium-induced health effects in rabbits

    SciTech Connect

    Nomiyama, K.; Nomiyama, H.

    1984-03-01

    Twenty-one male rabbits were divided into three groups: rabbits of two groups were given pelleted food containing cadmium chloride at a dose level of 300 ..mu..g Cd/g over periods of 44 or 19 weeks. Rabbits of the last group were given ordinary commercial pelleted food and served as controls. Cadmium increased urinary protein and amino acid by week 19 and increased it to a remarkably high level by week 44. After cessation of cadmium exposure, rabbits of the first group (44 weeks exposure group) showed only little recovery from cadmium health effects: proteinuria and aminoaciduria were slightly improved. Depressed hepatic functions were also slightly improved, but did not return to the control level in 24 weeks. Fat and bone metabolism also remained depressed below the control level. Anemia did not also readily recover. On the other hand, rabbits of the second group (19 weeks exposure) recovered from the effects of cadmium: proteinuria and aminoaciduria in most animals disappeared soon after the end of cadmium exposure, plasma GPT fell after 1 week, and hemoglobin and hematocrit returned to normal in 6-11 weeks. The above results show that after cessation of cadmium exposure, mild cadmium-induced health effects were reversible in a short period, while more severe effects were not readily reversible. High performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) profiles of renal and hepatic cadmium-thionein (Cd-MT) during and after exposure to cadmium showed no correlation to the degree of cadmium health effects, and therefore, did not help to elucidate mechanisms of the recovery from cadmium-induced health effects, probably because cadmium not bound with metallothionein (non-MT-Cd) is responsible for inducing renal effects. 31 references, 4 figures.

  19. Rabbit meat as a source of bacterial foodborne pathogens.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Calleja, Jose M; García-López, Isabel; García-López, María-Luisa; Santos, Jesús A; Otero, Andrés

    2006-05-01

    Even though worldwide production of rabbit meat is >1,000,000 tons, little information is available for rabbit meat microbiology. This study provides data on the prevalence of Salmonella, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Yersinia enterocolitica, Listeria spp., motile Aeromonas spp., and Staphylococcus aureus on rabbit meat. A total of 24 rabbit carcasses from two abattoirs and 27 rabbit meat packages from supermarket displays were examined. In addition to culturing methods, associated virulence genes were investigated by PCR in suspect isolates and samples. Neither Salmonella nor E. coli O157:H7 was detected. All samples were negative for virulence-associated invA, stx1, and stx2 genes. At one abattoir, two carcasses (3.9%) carried Y. enterocolitica yst-, and two were positive for the yst gene, although viable Y. enterocolitica cells were not recovered from these samples. Seven samples (13.7%) were contaminated with Listeria. Of them, three were positive for hly and iap genes (Listeria monocytogenes hly+ / iap+), two carried Listeria seeligeri, one carried Listeria ivanovii, and one carried Listeria innocua. For detectable motile Aeromonas spp. (average count, 1.77 +/- 0.62 log CFU/g), the contamination rate was 35.3%, although ca. 90% of the samples were positive for the aerA and/or hlyA genes. The majority of aeromonad isolates were Aeromonas hydrophila aerA+ / hlyA+. Aeromonas caviae, Aeromonas popoffii, Aeromonas schubertii, and the two biovars of Aeromonas veronii were also isolated. The prevalence of S. aureus contamination (average count, 1.37 +/- 0.79 log CFU/g) was 52.9%. Among 27 S. aureus isolates, two harbored genes for staphylococcal enterotoxin B (seb), and two harbored genes for staphylococcal enterotoxin C (sec). The remaining isolates were negative for sea, seb, sec, sed, and see. PMID:16715811

  20. Model for assessment of mobility of toes and healing of tendons in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Olmarker, Kjell; Ekström, Lars; Håkansson, Joakim; Nilsson, Elin; Wiig, Monica; Mahlapuu, Margit

    2010-12-01

    Repair of a transected flexor tendon will, despite careful technique and early rehabilitation, usually result in a restricted range of movement. This is mainly because adhesions form between the tendon and the surrounding structures. Our aim was to establish an experimental model in rabbits for future studies on new techniques to reduce the formation of adhesions after zone II repair of flexor tendons. In rabbits' hind paws the metatarsal bones II, IV, and V were removed and the flexor tendon was freed to the metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joint. The digits were secured in a specifically-designed biomechanical testing device comprising a servo-hydraulic actuator that was designed to apply controlled force or displacement. The tests were videotaped with a digital force-monitor behind the tested digit. Paper printouts from the recordings were obtained for 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 Newton (N) and metatarsophalangeal, proximal interphalangeal, and distal interphalangeal, angles and distances between metatarsophalangeal joints and claws were measured. The tensile strength of the tendon was evaluated by a load-to-failure test. The continuous data obtained from the experiments were used to calculate functional stiffness at the selected forces. The model allows for unique continuous recordings of mobility of toes, thereby indirectly quantifying the presence of adhesions and the assessment of tensile strength. The data are reproducible, and there is little variation between the digits tested. The model is primarily intended to compare data among treated and non-treated digits of methods to limit the formation of adhesions after tendons have been repaired. PMID:21446803

  1. [Effects of captopril on the male reproductive organs and various semen parameters of rabbits].

    PubMed

    Köhler-Samouilidis, G; Schmidt-Adamopoulou, B; Samouilidis, S; Papaioannou, N; Kotsaki-Kovatsi, V P

    1997-06-01

    The effect of the administration of captopril on the concentrations of Zn, Cu, Mg and Ca into different organs, on their histological structure and several semen parameters of male rabbits was studied. For 9 weeks 6.5 mgs captopril/kg b.w. were administered daily to 7 months old White New Zealand rabbits p.o. Semen samples were collected at the beginning of the experiment and after 4 and 9 weeks. The animals were sacrificed 9 weeks after the beginning of the experiment and organ samples were collected for histological examination and for the determination of the Zn, Cu, Mg and Ca concentrations in several tissues and the semen samples. The absolute and relative weight of the right and left testes of the test animals revealed a tendency for increase. Absolute and relative weight of the right epididymis and the relative weight of the left epididymis were significantly increased. The concentration of Zn in the blood, of Cu and Ca in the epididymis and of Mg in the testes of the test animals were significantly decreased. A significant increase was observed of the Cu and Mg concentrations in the adrenals. In the semen Cu concentration was significantly increased 9 weeks after the beginning of the experiment. Mg concentration was significantly decreased 9 weeks as compared with 4 weeks after the beginning of the experiment. Histological examination of tissue specimens of brain, liver, kidney, adrenal glands, testes, epididymis, ductus deferens and seminal vesicles from all experimental animals didn't reveal any remarkable lesion under the light microscope. The other semen parameters like volume, motility, sperm number and morphology had not changed. As the values of alcalic and acid phosphatase and ASAT in the semen samples showed many variations, statistical analysis could not be performed. PMID:9290042

  2. Skeletal muscle adaptations and biomechanical properties of tendons in response to jump exercise in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Gondret, F; Hernandez, P; Rémignon, H; Combes, S

    2009-02-01

    Pen housing has been proposed in rabbits as an alternative to standard-sized cages. Rabbits reared in pens show greater physical activity. This study investigated whether jump exercise could modify body composition, muscle biochemical and histological characteristics, and some meat quality traits, including the biomechanical properties of tendons. Male weaned rabbits of similar BW (793 +/- 11 g) were either reared in giant collective cages and had to jump over obstacles to get food and water for 35 consecutive days (EXE), or confined in small isolated cages (SEDN). Rabbits were weighed weekly to determine ADG (n = 79 EXE; n = 46 SEDN) and ADFI (n = 9 cages in EXE; n = 46 cages in SEDN). At approximately 10 wk of age, rabbits were slaughtered in 2 series. After overnight chilling, carcasses in the first series (n = 30 EXE; n = 27 SEDN) were divided into fore, intermediate, and hind parts. Color and ultimate pH were recorded in the biceps femoris (BF) and LM. The Achilles tendon and patellar ligament were dissected from the legs and cooked. Muscles [semimembranosus proprius, semimembranosus accessorius (SMA), and BF] were harvested from the legs in a subset of animals from the second series (n = 10 in EXE; n = 9 in SEDN). Both ADG and ADFI were slightly reduced (P < 0.10) in EXE rabbits compared with SEDN rabbits. Exercised rabbits showed a greater (P = 0.01) proportion of hind parts than SEDN rabbits. Enzyme activities of 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase and citrate synthase, which play key roles in fatty acid oxidation and the terminal oxidative degradation of nutrients, respectively, were increased in the semimembranosus proprius, SMA (except citrate synthase), and BF muscles of EXE rabbits compared with SEDN rabbits. Only SMA exhibited a decreased (P = 0.05) activity of the glycolytic enzyme, lactate dehydrogenase, in EXE rabbits compared with SEDN animals. Total lipid content, mean diameter of perimysial adipocytes, and activities of core lipogenic enzymes in the SMA and BF muscles did not differ between EXE and SEDN rabbits. Meat color in BF was shifted toward greater a* (red; P = 0.001) and b* (yellow; P = 0.02) values in EXE rabbits compared with SEDN rabbits. Cooked Achilles tendon and patellar ligaments in the legs had greater stiffness (P < or = 0.05) in EXE rabbits compared with SEDN rabbits. This experiment demonstrates that rabbit muscles turn to a more oxidative metabolic pattern in response to jump exercise. The quality of attachment of cooked meat to bone is also improved in active rabbits. PMID:18849388

  3. Development of interspecies cloned embryos reconstructed with rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) oocytes and cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis) fibroblast cell nuclei.

    PubMed

    Yamochi, Takayuki; Kida, Yuta; Oh, Noriyoshi; Ohta, Sei; Amano, Tomoko; Anzai, Masayuki; Kato, Hiromi; Kishigami, Satoshi; Mitani, Tasuku; Matsumoto, Kazuya; Saeki, Kazuhiro; Takenoshita, Makoto; Iritani, Akira; Hosoi, Yoshihiko

    2013-11-01

    Interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer (ISCNT) has been proposed as a technique to produce cloned offspring of endangered species as well as to investigate nucleus-cytoplasm interactions in mammalian embryo. However, it is still not known which embryo culture medium is optimal for ISCNT embryos for the nuclear donor or the oocyte recipient. We assessed the effects of the culture medium on the developmental competence of the ISCNT embryos by introducing cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis) fibroblast nuclei into enucleated rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) oocytes (monkey-rabbit embryo). The monkey-rabbit ISCNT embryos that were cultured in mCMRL-1066 developed to the blastocyst stage, although all monkey-rabbit ISCNT embryos cultured in M199 were arrested by the 4-cell stage. When monkey-rabbit ISCNT and rabbit-rabbit somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) embryos were cultured in mCMRL-1066, the blastocyst cell numbers of the monkey-rabbit ISCNT embryos corresponded to the cell numbers of the control rabbit-rabbit SCNT embryos, which were produced from a rabbit fibroblast nucleus and an enucleated rabbit oocyte. In addition, the presence of mitochondria, which were introduced with monkey fibroblasts into rabbit recipient cytoplasm, was confirmed up to the blastocyst stage by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). This study demonstrated that: (1) rabbit oocytes can reprogramme cynomolgus monkey somatic cell nuclei, and support preimplantation development; (2) monkey-rabbit ISCNT embryos developed well in monkey culture medium at early embryonic developmental stages; (3) the cell number of monkey-rabbit ISCNT embryos is similar to that of rabbit-rabbit SCNT embryos; and (4) the mitochondrial fate of monkey-rabbit ISCNT embryos is heteroplasmic from the time just after injection to the blastocyst stage that has roots in both rabbit oocytes and monkey fibroblasts. PMID:22475527

  4. Evidence of Leishmania infantum Infection in Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) in a Natural Area in Madrid, Spain

    PubMed Central

    Navarro, Alejandro; Pérez-Sancho, Marta; García-Seco, Teresa; Rodríguez-Bertos, Antonio; Conty, María Luisa; Toraño, Alfredo; Prieto, Antonio; Domínguez, Lucas; Domínguez, Mercedes

    2014-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is one of the most important neglected zoonosis and remains endemic in at least 88 developing countries in the world. In addition, anthropogenic environmental changes in urban areas are leading to its emergency world wide. Zoonotic leishmaniasis control might only be achieved by an integrated approach targeting both the human host and the animal reservoirs, which in certain sylvatic cycles are yet to be identified. Recently, hares have been pointed out as competent reservoirs of Leishmania infantum in Spain, but the role of other lagomorphs has not been clarified. Here, 69 rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) from a natural area in Madrid in which a high density was present were analyzed using indirect (immunofluorescence antibody test, IFAT) and direct (PCR, culture) techniques. Fifty-seven (82.6%) of the animals were positive to at least one technique, with IFAT yielding the highest proportion of positive samples. L. infantum was isolated in 13% animals demonstrating the occurrence of infection in this setting. Our results suggest that rabbits could play a role of competent reservoir of L. infantum and demonstrate that the prevalence of infection is high in the analyzed area. PMID:24724079

  5. Thoracic gas volume in rabbits by low-frequency ambient pressure changes.

    PubMed

    Lyttle, B D; Duvivier, C; Glass, G M; Wohl, M E; Fredberg, J J

    1988-09-01

    R. Peslin et al. measured thoracic gas volume (TGV) in adults using a new method employing low-frequency ambient pressure changes (APC) (J. Appl. Physiol. 62: 359-363, 1987). We extended that methodology and then tested the hypothesis that this technique was applicable to small mammals. TGV [at functional residual capacity (FRC)] by APC and by conventional Boyle's law was compared in 12 rabbits. The rabbits were anesthetized, tracheostomized, intubated, and placed in a pressure plethysmograph. Although in the method of Peslin et al. box pressure was oscillated at a single frequency, in our extension box pressure was oscillated simultaneously at two frequencies (0.1 and 0.2 Hz). Flow at the airway opening consisted of rapid events due to spontaneous breathing, superposed on slower events due to the alveolar gas compression. The slower events were analyzed to yield alveolar gas compliance and, by Boyle's law, FRC. FRC by APC was highly correlated to FRC by conventional plethysmography (r = 0.85). Compared with the methodology of Peslin et al., our extension relaxes a key limitation and yields systematically higher estimates of FRC. We conclude that this method is applicable to small mammals, despite an inherently more compliant chest wall, and that the methodological extension improves the estimate of FRC. PMID:3182512

  6. Staurosporine Inhibits Frequency-Dependent Myofilament Desensitization in Intact Rabbit Cardiac Trabeculae

    PubMed Central

    Varian, Kenneth D.; Biesiadecki, Brandon J.; Ziolo, Mark T.; Davis, Jonathan P.; Janssen, Paul M. L.

    2012-01-01

    Myofilament calcium sensitivity decreases with frequency in intact healthy rabbit trabeculae and associates with Troponin I and Myosin light chain-2 phosphorylation. We here tested whether serine-threonine kinase activity is primarily responsible for this frequency-dependent modulations of myofilament calcium sensitivity. Right ventricular trabeculae were isolated from New Zealand White rabbit hearts and iontophoretically loaded with bis-fura-2. Twitch force-calcium relationships and steady state force-calcium relationships were measured at frequencies of 1 and 4?Hz at 37?°C. Staurosporine (100?nM), a nonspecific serine-threonine kinase inhibitor, or vehicle (DMSO) was included in the superfusion solution before and during the contractures. Staurosporine had no frequency-dependent effect on force development, kinetics, calcium transient amplitude, or rate of calcium transient decline. The shift in the pCa50 of the force-calcium relationship was significant from 6.05 ± 0.04 at 1?Hz versus 5.88 ± 0.06 at 4?Hz under control conditions (vehicle, P < 0.001) but not in presence of staurosporine (5.89 ± 0.08 at 1?Hz versus 5.94 ± 0.07 at 4?Hz, P = NS). Phosphoprotein analysis (Pro-Q Diamond stain) confirmed that staurosporine significantly blunted the frequency-dependent phosphorylation at Troponin I and Myosin light chain-2. We conclude that frequency-dependent modulation of calcium sensitivity is mediated through a kinase-specific effect involving phosphorylation of myofilament proteins. PMID:22649731

  7. Interaction between the horizontal vestibulo-ocular reflex and optokinetic response in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Batini, C; Ito, M; Kado, R T; Jastreboff, P J; Miyashita, Y

    1979-09-01

    Dynamic characteristics of the horizontal vestibulo-ocular reflex (HVOR), the optokinetic response (OKR), and their