Science.gov

Sample records for rabbit draize test

  1. Improvement of the Bovine Corneal Opacity and Permeability (BCOP) assay as an in vitro alternative to the Draize rabbit eye irritation test.

    PubMed

    Verstraelen, Sandra; Jacobs, An; De Wever, Bart; Vanparys, Philippe

    2013-06-01

    Measurement of ocular irritancy is a necessary step in the safety evaluation of both industrial and consumer products. Assessment of the acute eye irritation potential is therefore part of the international regulatory requirements for testing of chemicals. The Bovine Corneal Opacity and Permeability (BCOP) assay is generally accepted as a valid in vitro alternative method to the Draize eye irritation test to detect corrosive and severe eye irritants (category 1), but has not proven sensitive enough to discriminate accurately moderate (category 2A/2B) to mild and non-irritating compounds. In the currently accepted BCOP assay, opacity is determined by the amount of light transmission through the cornea, and permeability is determined by the amount of sodium fluorescein dye that passes through all corneal cell layers. Both measurements are used to assign an In Vitro Irritancy Score (IVIS) for prediction of the in vivo ocular irritation potential of a test substance. Nowadays, opacity is measured by an OP-KIT opacitometer providing a center-weighted reading of light transmission by measuring changes in voltage when the transmission of white light passes through the cornea alters. As a consequence, this may underestimate opacity that develops as spots or heterogeneous opaque areas on the periphery of an isolated cornea. A prototype of a laser light-based opacitometer (PLLBO) allowing better measurement of opacities was developed by Van Goethem et al. (2010). This new device showed improved sensitivity to detect subtle changes in corneal transparency. Furthermore, the new opacitometer allowed the analysis of the complete corneal surface and was able to detect more efficiently opaque spots located along the sides of the excised corneas. A further improved prototype of the PLLBO was constructed in combination with a camera and a speckle noise reducer. Treatment conditions of the corneas in the cornea holders were optimized in order to mimic more the real in vivo situation. A set of test compounds with irritancy potencies especially in the mild and moderate range was tested. The improved LLBO showed some promising features which potentially could improve the usefulness of the BCOP test. Adaptation of cornea holders showed to be of limited value and only restricted to concentrations up to 15% which mimics more test conditions in industry. This 3-year research project was sponsored by the Stavros Niarchos Foundation (Greece). PMID:23501624

  2. Bioconvective Assay As Alternative To Draize Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noever, David A.; Matsos, Helen C.

    1993-01-01

    Protocol to determine toxicities of chemicals implemented relatively cheaply by use of equipment and materials packaged in convenient kit form. Tests involve observation of macroscopic patterns formed at high concentrations of free-swimming protozoan species Tetrahymena pyriformis in liquid media. Provides more-sensitive indication of toxicity and costs less. Given that there are no data on toxicities of 70 to 80 percent of commercial chemicals, high cost of, and current opposition to, testing on higher animals, new protocol helps meet pressing need.

  3. Analysis of Draize eye irritation testing and its prediction by mining publicly available 2008-2014 REACH data.

    PubMed

    Luechtefeld, Thomas; Maertens, Alexandra; Russo, Daniel P; Rovida, Costanza; Zhu, Hao; Hartung, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Public data from ECHA online dossiers on 9,801 substances encompassing 326,749 experimental key studies and additional information on classification and labeling were made computable. Eye irritation hazard, for which the rabbit Draize eye test still represents the reference method, was analyzed. Dossiers contained 9,782 Draize eye studies on 3,420 unique substances, indicating frequent retesting of substances. This allowed assessment of the test's reproducibility test based on all substances tested more than once. There was a 10% chance of a non-irritant evaluation given after a prior severe-irritant result as given by UN GHS classification criteria. The most reproducible outcomes were the results negative (94% reproducible) and severe eye irritant (73% reproducible). To evaluate whether other GHS categorizations predict eye irritation we built a dataset of 5,629 substances (1,931 'irritant' and 3,698 'non-irritant'). The two best decision trees with up to three other GHS classifications resulted in balanced accuracies of 68% and 73%, i.e., in the rank order of the Draize rabbit eye test itself, but both use inhalation toxicity data ("May cause respiratory irritation"), which is not typically available. Next, a dataset of 929 substances with at least one Draize study was mapped to PubChem to compute chemical similarity using 2D conformational fingerprints and Tanimoto similarity. Using a minimum similarity of 0.7 and simple classification by the closest chemical neighbor resulted in balanced accuracy from 73% over 737 substances to 100% at a threshold of 0.975 over 41 substances. This represents a strong support of read-across and (Q)SAR approaches in this area. PMID:26863293

  4. Interlaboratory validation of the in vitro eye irritation tests for cosmetic ingredients. (1) Overview of the validation study and Draize scores for the evaluation of the tests.

    PubMed

    Ohno, Y; Kaneko, T; Inoue, T; Morikawa, Y; Yoshida, T; Fujii, A; Masuda, M; Ohno, T; Hayashi, M; Momma, J; Uchiyama, T; Chiba, K; Ikeda, N; Imanishi, Y; Itakagaki, H; Kakishima, H; Kasai, Y; Kurishita, A; Kojima, H; Matsukawa, K; Nakamura, T; Ohkoshi, K; Okumura, H; Saijo, K; Sakamoto, K; Suzuki, T; Takano, K; Tatsumi, H; Tani, N; Usami, M; Watanabe, R

    1999-02-01

    A three-step interlaboratory validation of alternative methods to the Draize eye irritation test (Draize test) was conducted by the co-operation of 27 organizations including national research institutes, universities, cosmetic industries, kit suppliers and others. Twelve alternative methods were evaluated using 38 cosmetic ingredients and isotonic sodium chloride solution. Draize tests were conducted according to the OECD guidelines using the same lot of test substances as was evaluated in the alternative tests. Results were as follows. (1) Variation in Draize scores was large near the critical range (maximal average Draize total scores (MAS)=15-50) for the evaluation of cosmetic ingredients. (2) Interlaboratory variation was relatively small for the alternative tests. The mean coefficients of variation (CV%) were less than 50 for all assays except for the hen's egg-chorioallantoic membrane test (HET-CAM), chorioallantoic membrane-trypan blue staining test (CAM-TB) and haemoglobin denaturation test (HD). The CV% of these three methods came into the same range as the other tests when non-irritants were excluded from the data analysis. (3) Results for acids (pH of 10% solution <2.5), alkalis (pH of 10% solution >11.5) and alcohols (lower mono-ol) in cytotoxicity tests clearly deviated from the other samples in the comparison of cytotoxicity with Draize results. (4) Pearson's correlation coefficients (r) between results from cytotoxicity tests using serum and MAS were -0.86 to -0.92 for samples excluding acids, alkalis and alcohols. (5) When the samples were divided into liquids and powders, r of CAM-TB increased from 0.71 for all samples to 0.80 and 0.92, respectively. (6) Spearman's rank correlation coefficients between the results of alternative methods and MAS were relatively high (r>0.8) in the case of HET-CAM and CAM-TB. Those for cytotoxicity tests were high if the data for acids, alkalis and alcohols were excluded (SIRC-CVS: r=0.945, SIRC-NRU: r=0.931, HeLa-MTT: r=0.926, CHL-CVS: r=0.880). Exclusion of data for powdered samples also increased the coefficient of HET-CAM and CAM-TB to 0.831 and 0.863, respectively. These results suggest that no single method can constitute an evaluation system applicable to all types of test substances by itself. However, several methods will be useful for the prediction of eye irritation potential of cosmetic ingredients if they are used with clear understanding of the characteristics of those methods. PMID:20654468

  5. First alternative method validated by a retrospective weight-of-evidence approach to replace the Draize eye test for the identification of non-irritant substances for a defined applicability domain.

    PubMed

    Hartung, Thomas; Bruner, Leon; Curren, Rodger; Eskes, Chantra; Goldberg, Alan; McNamee, Pauline; Scott, Laurie; Zuang, Valérie

    2010-01-01

    A replacement alternative to the rabbit eye irritation test has been sought for many years. First published in 1944 by FDA toxicologist J. H. Draize, the test, now known as the Draize Eye Test, has been used extensively to assess eye safety. It has also been a focal point for concern regarding its animal use. In 1992, Molecular Devices developed the Cytosensor Microphysiometer (CM) technology, an automated potentiometric online measurement of pH changes in cells, and evaluated it also for chemically induced irritation. The method was included in some of the six major validation studies for eye irritation from 1991-1997. The results for CM were inconclusive as were those from other tests evaluated as stand-alone methods to fully replace the animal test. In 2002, the European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods (ECVAM) started applying concepts from evidence-based medicine, and opened validation to retrospective meta-analysis. This activity was done in collaboration with US counterpart ICCVAM/NICEATM, and the European Cosmetics Association, Colipa. After a new, comprehensive evaluation of the prior available data, the ECVAM scientific advisory committee (ESAC) has recently accepted the CM as capable of identifying non-irritants for testing limited to water-soluble surfactants and water-soluble surfactant-containing mixtures. This 25-year development is remarkable and instructive in many respects. The authors see this as opening the door, at last, for an end to the use of animals as a standard requirement for eye irritation. Here, several of the people critically involved in this processes have summarized the important aspects of this history. PMID:20390238

  6. Reconstituted human corneal epithelium: a new alternative to the Draize eye test for the assessment of the eye irritation potential of chemicals and cosmetic products.

    PubMed

    Doucet, O; Lanvin, M; Thillou, C; Linossier, C; Pupat, C; Merlin, B; Zastrow, L

    2006-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the interest of a new three-dimensional epithelial model cultivated from human corneal cells to replace animal testing in the assessment of eye tolerance. To this end, 65 formulated cosmetic products and 36 chemicals were tested by means of this in vitro model using a simplified toxicokinetic approach. The chemicals were selected from the ECETOC data bank and the EC/HO International validation study list. Very satisfactory results were obtained in terms of concordance with the Draize test data for the formulated cosmetic products. Moreover, the response of the corneal model appeared predictive of human ocular response clinically observed by ophthalmologists. The in vitro scores for the chemicals tested strongly correlated with their respective scores in vivo. For all the compounds tested, the response of the corneal model to irritants was similar regardless of their chemical structure, suggesting a good robustness of the prediction model proposed. We concluded that this new three-dimensional epithelial model, developed from human corneal cells, could be promising for the prediction of eye irritation induced by chemicals and complex formulated products, and that these two types of materials should be tested using a similar protocol. A simple shortening of the exposure period was required for the chemicals assumed to be more aggressively irritant to the epithelial tissues than the cosmetic formulae. PMID:16243479

  7. Human and rabbit eye responses to chemical insult.

    PubMed

    Freeberg, F E; Nixon, G A; Reer, P J; Weaver, J E; Bruce, R D; Griffith, J F; Sanders, L W

    1986-11-01

    Groups of eight human volunteers and eight albino rabbits, under controlled laboratory conditions, were exposed in one eye without subsequent rinsing to the same concentrations and volumes of four prototype consumer products: fabric softener, shampoo, hand soap, and laundry detergent. Dose volume was 0.10 or 0.01 ml. The dose concentrations were selected to produce moderate effects with recovery within 24 to 48 hr. Two irritation scales were employed with both human and animal subjects: the Draize scale by a technician and a medical scale used with slit lamp examination by an ophthalmologist. Eyes were examined by both graders before and after dosing at specified intervals until recovery. Mean and maximum irritation scores are presented for each grading time, method, and exposure, as are the mean hours to recovery (clearing) for each exposure. Recovery times for human eyes were consistent with those reported previously for accidental human exposures to similar materials. Correlation coefficients for time to clear, comparing human vs rabbit for each dose volume-species combination across the four test products, were 0.72, 0.1 ml-human vs 0.01 ml-rabbit; 0.66, 0.01 ml-human vs 0.01 ml-rabbit; 0.40, 0.01 ml-human vs 0.1 ml-rabbit; 0.35, 0.1 ml-human vs 0.1 ml-rabbit. Thus, recovery time obtained under conditions of the "Low-Volume" test (0.01 ml-rabbit) better correlates with human eye recovery time (either dose volume) than does recovery time under Draize test conditions (0.10 ml-rabbit).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3803757

  8. Encephalitozoon cuniculi in rabbits in Germany: prevalence and sensitivity of antibody testing.

    PubMed

    Hein, J; Flock, U; Sauter-Louis, C; Hartmann, K

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of Encephalitozoon cuniculi antibodies in healthy and diseased rabbits in Germany. Age and gender dependencies were taken into consideration. The sensitivity of the E cuniculi antibody test and its relevance for the diagnosis of E cuniculi infection in rabbits was also examined. A total of 773 healthy and diseased rabbits were tested for E cuniculi antibodies (indirect immune fluorescence antibody test (IFAT) or carbon immunoassay (CIA). No differences between diseased and healthy rabbits were observed with regard to gender, but diseased rabbits were significantly older (P>0.001). Forty-three percent (336/773) of all rabbits were positive for E cuniculi antibodies. Of the diseased rabbits, 48 per cent (266/555) were positive for E cuniculi antibodies. While 96 per cent (91/95) of the rabbits with histopathologically or PCR confirmed encephalitozoonosis were E cuniculi antibody-positive, only 60 per cent (144/241) of the rabbits suspected of E cuniculi infection were antibody-positive. Of the healthy rabbits, 18 per cent (39/218) were positive for E cuniculi antibodies. Diseased rabbits were almost three times more likely to be E cuniculi antibody-positive than healthy ones (P>0.001; relative risk (RR): 2.68; 95% CI 1.99 to 3.61). The sensitivity of the E cuniculi antibody test was 96 per cent. PMID:24570403

  9. Non-animal alternative toxicity tests for detergents: genuine replacements or mere prescreens?

    PubMed

    Balls, M; Reader, S; Atkinson, K; Tarrant, J; Clothier, R

    1991-01-01

    Non-animal toxicity tests and testing strategies for use in identifying the potential toxic hazard of chemicals and products, and in providing information for use in risk and safety assessment, are in the course of development, validation and evaluation. Possible replacement alternatives to the rabbit Draize eye irritancy test are discussed, and results obtained for two in-vitro tests developed by FRAME (the kenacid blue test and the neutral red release test), applied to 19 surfactants and 32 formulations, are discussed. It is concluded that there are now legal and moral requirements that relevant and reliable non-animal tests should be developed and accepted for use whenever possible. PMID:1367188

  10. HET-CAM test for determining the possible eye irritancy of pesticides.

    PubMed

    Budai, Péter; Lehel, József; Tavaszi, Judit; Kormos, Eva

    2010-09-01

    Agrochemicals and veterinary products must undergo numerous toxicological tests before registration. The use of animals in these studies is a controversial issue. The Draize eye irritation test is one of the most criticised methods because of the injuries inflicted on the test animals. Several in vitro methods have been used to investigate the toxicity of potential eye irritants with a view to replacing in vivo eye irritation testing. One of these alternative methods is the Hen's Egg Test--Chorioallantoic Membrane (HET-CAM) test. In the present studies comparative screening was performed with a set of agrochemicals to establish parallel data on in vitro (HET-CAM) and in vivo (Draize) results. The examined materials were: Totril (ioxynil), Omite 57 E (propargit), Actellic 50 EC (pyrimiphos-methyl), Stomp 330 EC (pendimethalin), Mospilan 3 EC (acetamiprid), Alirox 80 EC (EPTC), Match 050 EC (lufenuron), Nonit (dioctyl sulphosuccinate sodium), Perenal (haloxyfop-R methyl ester), Pyrinex 48 EC (chlorpyrifos). These experiments showed good correlation between results obtained by the HET-CAM test and those of the Draize rabbit eye test in most cases. The present form of the HET-CAM test can be proposed as a pre-screening method for the determination of eye irritative potential, therefore the number of test animals can be reduced and/or experimental animals can be replaced. PMID:20713327

  11. Computerized In Vitro Test for Chemical Toxicity Based on Tetrahymena Swimming Patterns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noever, David A.; Matsos, Helen C.; Cronise, Raymond J.; Looger, Loren L.; Relwani, Rachna A.; Johnson, Jacqueline U.

    1994-01-01

    An apparatus and a method for rapidly determining chemical toxicity have been evaluated as an alternative to the rabbit eye initancy test (Draize). The toxicity monitor includes an automated scoring of how motile biological cells (Tetrahymena pyriformis) slow down or otherwise change their swimming patterns in a hostile chemical environment. The method, called the motility assay (MA), is tested for 30 s to determine the chemical toxicity in 20 aqueous samples containing trace organics and salts. With equal or better detection limits, results compare favorably to in vivo animal tests of eye irritancy.

  12. Vehicle test report: South Coast technology electric conversion of a Volkswagen Rabbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, T. W.; Shain, T. W.; Bryant, J. A.

    1981-01-01

    The South Coast Technology Volkswagen Rabbit, was tested at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's (JPL) dynamometer facility and at JPL's Edwards Test Station (ETS). The tests were performed to characterize certain parameters of the South Coast Rabbit and to provide baseline data that will be used for the comparison of near term batteries that are to be incorporated into the vehicle. The vehicle tests were concentrated on the electrical drive system; i.e., the batteries, controller, and motor. The tests included coastdowns to characterize the road load, maximum effort acceleration, and range evaluation for both cyclic and constant speed conditions. A qualitative evaluation of the vehicle was made by comparing its constant speed range performance with those vehicles described in the document 'state of the Art assessment of Electric and Hybrid Vehicles'. The Rabbit performance was near to the best of the 1977 vehicles.

  13. Thermal threshold testing for evaluation of analgesics in New Zealand white rabbits.

    PubMed

    Barter, Linda S; Kwiatkowski, Anna

    2013-01-01

    We adapted a thermal analgesiometric device developed for cats for use in unrestrained rabbits. A probe composed of an electrical element and temperature sensor was held against shaved skin by using an elasticized band placed circumferentially around the thorax. An inflated bladder located between the probe and elastic maintained constant contact between probe and skin. The probe was heated until the rabbit displayed a behavioral reaction or the safety cutoff of 55 °C was reached. Threshold temperatures in unmedicated rabbits were stable over a 5-h period provided that tests were 15 min or more apart. Careful acclimation and testing resulted in no false-negative responses, and sham testing did not produce false-positive results. When compared with baseline values, thermal thresholds were significantly increased from 30 to 240 min, but not 300 min, after the administration of morphine at 3 mg/kg. Administration of equivalent volumes of saline via the same route had no effect on thermal threshold. This device may be suitable for investigating analgesic pharmacology in rabbits. PMID:23562032

  14. Thermal Threshold Testing for Evaluation of Analgesics in New Zealand White Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Barter, Linda S; Kwiatkowski, Anna

    2013-01-01

    We adapted a thermal analgesiometric device developed for cats for use in unrestrained rabbits. A probe composed of an electrical element and temperature sensor was held against shaved skin by using an elasticized band placed circumferentially around the thorax. An inflated bladder located between the probe and elastic maintained constant contact between probe and skin. The probe was heated until the rabbit displayed a behavioral reaction or the safety cutoff of 55 °C was reached. Threshold temperatures in unmedicated rabbits were stable over a 5-h period provided that tests were 15 min or more apart. Careful acclimation and testing resulted in no false-negative responses, and sham testing did not produce false-positive results. When compared with baseline values, thermal thresholds were significantly increased from 30 to 240 min, but not 300 min, after the administration of morphine at 3 mg/kg. Administration of equivalent volumes of saline via the same route had no effect on thermal threshold. This device may be suitable for investigating analgesic pharmacology in rabbits. PMID:23562032

  15. Vehicle test report: South Coast Technology electric cconversion of a Volkswagen Rabbit

    SciTech Connect

    Price, T.W.; Shain, T.W.; Bryant, J.A.

    1981-02-15

    The South Coast Technology Volkswagen Rabbit, an electric vehicle manufactured by South Coast Technology of Santa Barbara, California was tested at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's (JPL) dynamometer facility in Pasadena and at JPL's Edwards Test Station (ETS) located near Lancaster, California. The tests were conducted between April and July, 1979. These tests were performed to characterize certain parameters of the South Coast Rabbit and to provide baseline data that will be used for the comparison of near-term batteries that are to be incorporated into the vehicle. The vehicle tests were concentrated on the electrical drive system; i.e., the batteries, controller, and motor. The tests included coastdowns to characterize the road load, maximum effort acceleration, and range evaluation for both cyclic constant speed conditions. A qualitative evaluation of the vehicle was made by comparing its constant speed range performance with those vehicles described in the document State of the Art assessment of Electric and Hybrid Vehicles. The Rabbit performance was near to the best of the 1977 vehicles.

  16. Limitations of the rabbit pyrogen test for assessing meningococcal OMV based vaccines.

    PubMed

    Vipond, Caroline; Findlay, Lucy; Feavers, Ian; Care, Rory

    2016-01-01

    The rabbit pyrogen test was developed in the early 1900's to detect contaminating pyrogens in parenteral medicines. Since its conception alternative methods with improved sensitivity, relevancy and which are ethically more acceptable have been developed. However, the test is a current Pharmacopeial method and is used to evaluate the pyrogen content of some vaccines. In this article the limitations and pitfalls of using the test to measure pyrogenicity of vaccines containing outer membrane vesicles are described. The method is unsuitable as a safety test for these products due to the high levels of endotoxin present in the vaccine which generate a pyrogenic response in rabbits when delivered intravenously without any dilution. Its use as a consistency test is also ambiguous as the test gives a qualitative rather than quantitative response and the rabbit models are highly variable. In addition there is evidence that measuring the temperature rise of the animals over three hours does not capture the maximum fever response. Finally the article considers the use of alternative methods and the validity of animal models when applying a consistency based approach for assessing the quality of licensed products. PMID:26626274

  17. Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in rabbits of Korea by serological tests and nested polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Shin, Hyun-Guk; Lee, Sang-Eun; Hong, Sung-Hee; Kim, Se-Mi; Choi, Young-Ki; Park, Hyung-Jin; Seo, Kyoung-Won; Song, Kun-Ho

    2013-12-30

    This study surveyed the Toxoplasma (T.) gondii infection prevalence in the Korean rabbit population. Rabbits (n=142) were obtained from two breeding farms in the Gongju area, Chungnam Province, and in the Kochang area, Junbuk Province, Korea. Of 142 sera samples analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), 15 (10.6%) exhibited T. gondii-specific IgG antibodies, and 1 (0.7%) rabbit harbored T. gondii-specific IgM. Female rabbits (9/84; 10.7%) had a similar T. gondii prevalence to males (6/58; 10.3%). When stratified by age, rabbits aged >1 year had a similar prevalence of T. gondii infection (7/66; 10.6%) to rabbits aged <1 year (8/76; 10.5%). Immunoblotting detected 6 major antigenic bands corresponding to T. gondii-positive sera at 20, 28, 30, 35, 63 and 77 kDa. Nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of whole-blood samples detected the T. gondii B1 gene in 23 rabbits (16.2%). All PCR-positive samples corresponded to partial T. gondii B1 gene sequences with 99% homology to a T. gondii sequence deposited in GenBank (accession number EU340874). Female rabbits (13/84; 15.5%) harbored a similar prevalence of T. gondii DNA to males (10/58; 17.2%). Rabbits aged >1 year had a similar prevalence (12/66; 18.2%) of T. gondii infection to rabbits aged <1 year (11/76; 14.5%). No statistically significant differences were observed regarding the prevalences of infection according to sex or age using molecular or serological tests. This study is the first survey using serological tests and nested PCR to analyze the T. gondii prevalence in rabbits in Korea. PMID:23955398

  18. Characterization of new eye drops with choline salicylate and assessment of their irritancy by in vitro short time exposure tests

    PubMed Central

    Wroblewska, Katarzyna; Kucinska, Małgorzata; Murias, Marek; Lulek, Janina

    2014-01-01

    The aim of our study was to examine the irritation potential of new eye drops containing 2% choline salicylate (CS) as an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) and various polymers increasing eye drop viscosity (hydroxyethylcellulose, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, methylcellulose, polyvinyl alcohol, polyvinylpyrrolidone). The standard method for assessing the potential of irritating substances has been the Draize rabbit eye test. However the European Centre for Validation of Alternative Methods and the Coordinating Committee for Validation of Alternative Methods recommend, short time exposure (STE) in vitro tests as an alternative method for assessing eye irritation. The eye irritation potential was determined using cytotoxicity test methods for rabbit corneal cell line (SIRC) after 5 min exposure. The viability of cells was determined using two cytotoxicity assays: MTT and Neutral Red Uptake. According to the irritation rankings for the short time exposure test, all tested eye drops are classified as non-irritating (cell viability >70%).

  19. Characterization of new eye drops with choline salicylate and assessment of their irritancy by in vitro short time exposure tests.

    PubMed

    Wroblewska, Katarzyna; Kucinska, Małgorzata; Murias, Marek; Lulek, Janina

    2015-09-01

    The aim of our study was to examine the irritation potential of new eye drops containing 2% choline salicylate (CS) as an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) and various polymers increasing eye drop viscosity (hydroxyethylcellulose, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, methylcellulose, polyvinyl alcohol, polyvinylpyrrolidone). The standard method for assessing the potential of irritating substances has been the Draize rabbit eye test. However the European Centre for Validation of Alternative Methods and the Coordinating Committee for Validation of Alternative Methods recommend, short time exposure (STE) in vitro tests as an alternative method for assessing eye irritation. The eye irritation potential was determined using cytotoxicity test methods for rabbit corneal cell line (SIRC) after 5 min exposure. The viability of cells was determined using two cytotoxicity assays: MTT and Neutral Red Uptake. According to the irritation rankings for the short time exposure test, all tested eye drops are classified as non-irritating (cell viability >70%). PMID:27134543

  20. Histopathological and immunohistochemical changes in the testes of rabbits after injection with the growth promoter boldenone.

    PubMed

    Tousson, Ehab; El-Moghazy, Mostafa; Massoud, Ahmed; Akel, Amani

    2012-03-01

    Recently, boldenone (androgenic steroid) is used in improvement of the growth and food conversion in food-producing animals. In addition, it is used by bodybuilders during both off-season and precontest, where it is well known for increasing vascularity while preparing for a bodybuilding contest. The present study was designed to investigate the possible effect of growth promoter boldenone undecylenate on the structure and functions of rabbit testes. A total of 32 adult New Zealand rabbits were divided into 4 groups. The first group in the control group includes animals that were intramuscularly injected with olive oil and dissected after 3 weeks. Three experimental groups include animals that receive 1, 2, and 3 intramuscular injections of 5 mg/kg body weight boldenone, and dissected after 3, 6, and 9 weeks, respectively. Treating rabbits with boldenone increased the testosterone levels compared to the control group. Seminiferous tubules of the rabbit testis treated with boldenone showed reduced development and degeneration of the germinal epithelium, leading to debris and syncytial cell formation in the lumina of seminiferous tubules. Our immunohistochemical results indicated severe reduction in proliferating cell nuclear antigen-positive spermatogonia in boldenone-treated animals as compared to the control group. These findings explain the common phenomena among athletics and bodybuilders who suffer from infertility as they were injected with some drugs such as steroids (boldenone) to build muscles. PMID:22383777

  1. Assessment of surgical sutures POLYMED® by intracutaneous irritation test in rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Danchev, Nikolai

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate local irritant effects to rabbit skin following a single application of test samples of non-sterile polyamide non-absorbable surgical sutures POLYMED®. The polar and nonpolar extracts were prepared by using saline solution and olive oil, respectively, after sinking the materials tested (2.0 g) in 10 ml of the corresponding liquid. Incubation was carried out at the temperature of 37 °C for 72 h. The saline solution and pure olive oil, which had no contact with the materials tested, were used as negative control samples and were incubated under the same conditions as above. Assessments of the extracts from each material were conducted on 2 albino rabbits of the New Zealand breed. On the back of each animal, 5 intracutaneous injections of the extract tested and 5 injections of the control solution, each of 0.2 ml, were carried out. The degree of irritation was scored at 4, 24, 48, 72 hours after injection and no skin changes were found. The intracutaneous irritation index (III) was calculated and yielded 0.0. Hence it was concluded that under the experimental conditions the extracts of the material tested, i.e. non-sterile polyamide non-absorbable surgical sutures POLYMED®, were ‘non-irritant’ to the skin of rabbits when compared with the respective control groups. The experimental procedure was conducted according to ISO10993-10. PMID:24179436

  2. Development and hemocompatibility testing of nitric oxide releasing polymers using a rabbit model of thrombogenicity

    PubMed Central

    Major, Terry C; Handa, Hitesh; Annich, Gail M; Bartlett, Robert H

    2014-01-01

    Hemocompatibility is the goal for any biomaterial contained in extracorporeal life supporting (ECLS) medical devices. The hallmarks for hemocompatibility include nonthrombogenicity, platelet preservation and maintained platelet function. Both in vitro and in vivo assays testing for compatibility of the blood/biomaterial interface have been used over the last several decades to ascertain if the biomaterial used in medical tubing and devices will require systemic anticoagulation for viability. Over the last 50 years systemic anticoagulation with heparin has been the gold standard in maintaining effective ECLS. However, the biomaterial that maintains effective ECLS without the use of any systemic anticoagulant has remained elusive. In this review, the in vivo 4-h rabbit thrombogenicity model genesis will be described with emphasis on biomaterials that may require no systemic anticoagulation for ECLS longevity. These novel biomaterials may improve extracorporeal circulation (ECC) hemocompatibility by preserving near resting physiology of the major blood components, the platelets and monocytes. The rabbit ECC model provides a complete assessment of biomaterial interactions with the intrinsic coagulation players, the circulating platelet and monocytes. This total picture of blood/biomaterial interaction suggests that this rabbit thrombogenicity model could provide a standardization for biomaterial hemocompatibility testing. PMID:24934500

  3. Vehicle test report: South Coast Technology electric Volkswagen Rabbit with developmental low-power armature chopper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marte, J. E.; Bryant, J. A.; Livingston, R.

    1983-01-01

    Dynamometer performance of a South Coast Technology electric conversion of a Volkswagen (VW) Rabbit designated SCT-8 was tested. The SCT-8 vehicle was fitted with a transistorized chopper in the motor armature circuit to supplement the standard motor speed control via field weakening. The armature chopper allowed speed control below the motor base speed. This low speed control was intended to reduce energy loss at idle during stop-and-go traffic; to eliminate the need for using the clutch below base motor speed; and to improve the drivability. Test results indicate an improvement of about 3.5% in battery energy economy for the SAE J227a-D driving cycle and 6% for the C-cycle with only a minor reduction in acceleration performance. A further reduction of about 6% would be possible if provision were made for shutting down field power during the idle phases of the driving cycles. Drivability of the vehicle equipped with the armature chopper was significantly improved compared with the standard SCT Electric Rabbit.

  4. A method to test contractility of the supraspinatus muscle in mouse, rat, and rabbit.

    PubMed

    Valencia, Ana P; Iyer, Shama R; Pratt, Stephen J P; Gilotra, Mohit N; Lovering, Richard M

    2016-02-01

    The rotator cuff (RTC) muscles not only generate movement but also provide important shoulder joint stability. RTC tears, particularly in the supraspinatus muscle, are a common clinical problem. Despite some biological healing after RTC repair, persistent problems include poor functional outcomes with high retear rates after surgical repair. Animal models allow further exploration of the sequela of RTC injury such as fibrosis, inflammation, and fatty infiltration, but there are few options regarding contractility for mouse, rat, and rabbit. Histological findings can provide a "direct measure" of damage, but the most comprehensive measure of the overall health of the muscle is contractile force. However, information regarding normal supraspinatus size and contractile function is scarce. Animal models provide the means to compare muscle histology, imaging, and contractility within individual muscles in various models of injury and disease, but to date, most testing of animal contractile force has been limited primarily to hindlimb muscles. Here, we describe an in vivo method to assess contractility of the supraspinatus muscle and describe differences in methods and representative outcomes for mouse, rat, and rabbit. PMID:26586911

  5. Supercritical fluid-mediated liposomes containing cyclosporin A for the treatment of dry eye syndrome in a rabbit model: comparative study with the conventional cyclosporin A emulsion

    PubMed Central

    Karn, Pankaj Ranjan; Kim, Hyun Do; Kang, Han; Sun, Bo Kyung; Jin, Su-Eon; Hwang, Sung-Joo

    2014-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy of cyclosporin (CsA)-encapsulated liposomes with the commercially available CsA emulsion (Restasis®) for the treatment of dry eye syndrome in rabbits. Methods Liposomes containing CsA were prepared by the supercritical fluid (SCF) method consisted of phosphatidylcholine from soybean (SCF-S100) and egg lecithins (SCF-EPCS). An in vitro permeation study was carried out using artificial cellulose membrane in Franz diffusion cells. Dry eye syndrome was induced in male albino rabbits and further subdivided into untreated, Restasis®-treated, EPCS, and S100-treated groups. Tear formation in the dry-eye-induced rabbits was evaluated using the Schirmer tear test. All formulations were also evaluated by ocular irritation tests using the Draize eye and winking methods with the determination of CsA concentration in rabbit tears. Results After the treatment, the Schirmer tear test value significantly improved in EPCS-treated (P=0.005) and S100-treated (P=0.018) groups compared to the Restasis®-treated group. The AUC0–24 h for rabbit’s tear film after the administration of SCF-S100 was 32.75±9.21 μg·h/mg which was significantly higher than that of 24.59±8.69 μg·h/mg reported with Restasis®. Liposomal CsA formulations used in this study showed lower irritation in rabbit eyes compared with Restasis®. Conclusion These results demonstrate that the novel SCF-mediated liposomal CsA promises a significant improvement in overcoming the challenges associated with the treatment of dry eyes. PMID:25143728

  6. Standardization of an in vitro red blood cell test for evaluating the acute cytotoxic potential of tensides.

    PubMed

    Pape, W J; Hoppe, U

    1990-04-01

    A new bovine red blood cell (RBC) test is presented as a biological in vitro assay for rapid assessment of the membrane and protein damaging effects of tensides. The system uses the hemoglobin released during RBC damage as an indicator to determine quantitatively the concentration at which the tensioactive agents affect and disrupt the plasma membrane. The spectrophotometric assay also considers the denaturation of hemoglobin caused by high concentrations of the tensides. Thus besides the halfmaximal concentrations to cause hemolysis (H50), a denaturation index (DI in %) can be determined for each test agent. The RBC assay was validated by assessing the H50 and DI for 30 randomly selected tensioactive agents from various sources and comparing the in vitro effects with their local irritant activity as assessed by the Draize test in the conjuntiva of conscious rabbits. The relationship between H50 and DI values, expressed as the lysis/denaturation ratio, was found to give a ranking order that best characterized the membrane damaging potency of the agents tested. Tensides known to possess ocular irritancy in the Draize test were characterized by a low lysis/denaturation ratio. PMID:2357252

  7. Rabbit behavior.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, J R

    2001-09-01

    Rabbit behavior is complex and closely related to wild rabbit behavior. The rabbit as a prey species, the rabbit's environment and natural social structure, and the rabbit as an herbivore all play significant roles in rabbit behavior. Stress, especially the stress related to predation, crowding, heat, and inappropriate caging, may affect the behavior of the pet rabbit and its success as a medical or surgical patient. The veterinarian treating the pet rabbit will have a higher level of success if these stresses and the rabbit's behaviors and physiologic responses related to them are taken into consideration. PMID:11601107

  8. Effect of sperminated pullulans on drug permeation through isolated rabbit cornea and determination of ocular irritation.

    PubMed

    Yu, N; Xun, Y; Jin, D; Yang, H; Hang, T; Cui, H

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of two sperminated pullulans (SP) with a different number of amino groups (SP-L, amino group content 0.124 mmol/g polymer; and SP-H, amino group content 0.578 mmol/g polymer) on the permeation of drugs through isolated rabbit corneas. Determination of corneal hydration levels and Draize eye tests were performed to assess the safety of SP both in vitro and in vivo. For 0.2% (w/v) SP-L and 0.2% (w/v) SP-H, the enhancement ratios (ERs) with dexamethasone of 1.34 and 1.42, respectively, were not statistically significant. For ofloxacin, tobramycin and sodium fluorescein, the ERs with 0.2% SP-L were 1.37, 2.02 and 2.12, respectively, and with 0.2% SP-H the ERs were 1.84, 4.69 and 6.87, respectively; these ERs were all statistically significant. Enhancement increased with increasing amino group content of the SP. The improved transcorneal drug absorption via the paracellular route indicated opening of the tight junctions in the corneal epithelium. Irritation tests indicated that 0.2% SP-L and 0.2% SP-H did not damage the corneal tissues. PMID:20515566

  9. Evaluation of Lacrimation Characteristics in Clinically Normal New Zealand White Rabbits by Using the Schirmer Tear Test I

    PubMed Central

    Whittaker, Alexandra L; Williams, David L

    2015-01-01

    Rabbits are a common animal model in eye research and in safety testing of novel chemical agents. In addition, ocular disease is a routine presentation in clinical practice. However, few studies have quantitatively examined lacrimation kinetics in this species. This study used a noninvasive method of tear measurement (the Schirmer tear test, STT) to quantify values for basal and reflex tearing and to determine the kinetic nature of tear production in 76 New Zealand white rabbits. We obtained a value of 7.58 ± 2.3 mm/min for the standard 1-min STT. Calculated values for mean residual tear volume and reflex tear flow were 1.95 µL and 0.035 µL/s, respectively. In addition, this study provides preliminary evidence for an interaction effect between eyes given that higher STT values were obtained from the second eye tested. PMID:26632789

  10. Determination of the elastic properties of rabbit vocal fold tissue using uniaxial tensile testing and a tailored finite element model

    PubMed Central

    Latifi, Neda; Miri, Amir K.; Mongeau, Luc

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to quantify the effects of the specimen shape on the accuracy of mechanical properties determined from a shape-specific model generation strategy. Digital images of five rabbit vocal folds (VFs) in their initial undeformed conditions were used to build corresponding specific solid models. The displacement field of the VFs under uniaxial tensile test was then measured over the visible portion of the surface using digital image correlation. A three-dimensional finite element model was built, using ABAQUS, for each solid model, while imposing measured boundary conditions. An inverse-problem method was used, assuming a homogeneous isotropic linear elastic constitutive model. Unknown elastic properties were identified iteratively through an error minimization technique between simulated and measured force-time data. The longitudinal elastic moduli of the five rabbit VFs were calculated and compared to values from a simple analytical method and those obtained by approximating the cross-section as elliptical. The use of shape-specific models significantly reduced the standard deviation of the Young's modulus of the tested specimens. However, a non-parametric statistical analysis test, i.e., the Friedman test, yielded no statistically significant differences between the shape-specific method and the elliptic cylindrical finite element model. Considering the required procedures to reconstruct the shape-specific finite element model for each tissue specimen, it might be expedient to use the simpler method when large numbers of tissue specimens are to be compared regarding their Young's moduli. PMID:25173237

  11. Disposable rabbit

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, Leroy C.; Trammell, David R.

    1986-01-01

    A disposable rabbit for transferring radioactive samples in a pneumatic transfer system comprises aerated plastic shaped in such a manner as to hold a radioactive sample and aerated such that dissolution of the rabbit in a solvent followed by evaporation of the solid yields solid waste material having a volume significantly smaller than the original volume of the rabbit.

  12. Disposal rabbit

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, L.C.; Trammell, D.R.

    1983-10-12

    A disposable rabbit for transferring radioactive samples in a pneumatic transfer system comprises aerated plastic shaped in such a manner as to hold a radioactive sample and aerated such that dissolution of the rabbit in a solvent followed by evaporation of the solid yields solid waste material having a volume significantly smaller than the original volume of the rabbit.

  13. Synchrotron radiation microimaging in rabbit models of cancer for preclinical testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umetani, Keiji; Uesugi, Kentaro; Kobatake, Makito; Yamamoto, Akira; Yamashita, Takenori; Imai, Shigeki

    2009-10-01

    Preclinical laboratory animal imaging modalities such as microangiography and micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) have been developed at the SPring-8 BL20B2 bending magnet beamline. The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the usefulness of microangiography systems for physiological examinations of live animals and micro-CT systems for postmortem morphological examinations. Synchrotron radiation microangiography and micro-CT with contrast agents present the main advantageous capability of depicting the anatomy of small blood vessels with tens of micrometers' diameter. This paper reports two imaging instrument types and their respective applications to preclinical imaging of tumor angiogenic blood vessels in tumor-bearing rabbits, where tumor angiogenesis is characterized morphologically by an increased number of blood vessels. A microangiography system with spatial resolution around 10 μm has been used for therapeutically evaluating angiogenic vessels in a rabbit model of cancer for evaluating embolization materials in transcatheter arterial embolization and for radiation therapy. After an iodine contrast agent was injected into an artery, in vivo imaging was carried out using a high-resolution real-time detector incorporating an X-ray direct-conversion-type SATICON pickup tube. On the other hand, a micro-CT system capably performed three-dimensional visualization of tumor angiogenic blood vessels using tumor-transplanted rabbit specimens with a barium sulfate contrast agent injected into the blood vessels. For specimen imaging, a large-field high-resolution micro-CT system based on a 10-megapixel CCD camera was developed to study tumor-associated alterations in angioarchitecture. Evidence of increased vascularity by tumor angiogenesis and decreased vascularity by tumor treatments was achieved by physiological evaluation of angiogenic small blood vessels in microangiographic imaging and by morphological assessment in micro-CT imaging. These results demonstrate the accuracy and usefulness of microangiography and micro-CT systems for quantitative examination of animals' angioarchitecture, respectively, during live and postmortem examinations.

  14. Determination of the elastic properties of rabbit vocal fold tissue using uniaxial tensile testing and a tailored finite element model.

    PubMed

    Latifi, Neda; Miri, Amir K; Mongeau, Luc

    2014-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to quantify the effects of the specimen shape on the accuracy of mechanical properties determined from a shape-specific model generation strategy. Digital images of five rabbit vocal folds (VFs) in their initial undeformed conditions were used to build corresponding specific solid models. The displacement field of the VFs under uniaxial tensile test was then measured over the visible portion of the surface using digital image correlation. A three-dimensional finite element model was built, using ABAQUS, for each solid model, while imposing measured boundary conditions. An inverse-problem method was used, assuming a homogeneous isotropic linear elastic constitutive model. Unknown elastic properties were identified iteratively through an error minimization technique between simulated and measured force-time data. The longitudinal elastic moduli of the five rabbit VFs were calculated and compared to values from a simple analytical method and those obtained by approximating the cross-section as elliptical. The use of shape-specific models significantly reduced the standard deviation of the Young׳s moduli of the tested specimens. However, a non-parametric statistical analysis test, i.e., the Friedman test, yielded no statistically significant differences between the shape-specific method and the elliptic cylindrical finite element model. Considering the required procedures to reconstruct the shape-specific finite element model for each tissue specimen, it might be expedient to use the simpler method when large numbers of tissue specimens are to be compared regarding their Young׳s moduli. PMID:25173237

  15. Applicability of the Monocyte Activation Test (MAT) for hyperimmune sera in the routine of the quality control laboratory: Comparison with the Rabbit Pyrogen Test (RPT).

    PubMed

    da Silva, Cristiane Caldeira; Presgrave, Octavio Augusto França; Hartung, Thomas; de Moraes, Aurea Maria Lage; Delgado, Isabella Fernandes

    2016-04-01

    Pyrogen tests are safety assays performed during the routine quality control of injectable products required by regulatory agencies. Currently, there are three available testing possibilities: 1) the Rabbit Pyrogen Test (RPT); 2) the Bacterial Endotoxin Test (BET); and 3) test systems using human whole-blood or monocytes, termed Monocyte Activation Test (MAT). Although BET is often considered as a replacement for the animal test, it is unable to detect pyrogens other than endotoxin. MAT is based on the human fever reaction and thus, most closely reflects the human response. The aim of this study was to conduct a parallel comparison of the RPT and MAT for hyperimmune sera (HS) batches analyzed during the routine of a quality control laboratory. MAT was performed in the same 43 batches of HS previously tested using RPT. The results showed that MAT presented 100% sensitivity and approximately 85% specificity as compared to RPT, i.e., no false-negative results were obtained. Few suspicious samples, which were negative in the RPT after retesting, provided divergent positive results suggesting a lower limit of detection of MAT. MAT is thus able to detect contaminants in biological products such as HS batches. PMID:26688320

  16. Measuring depth of injury (DOI) in an isolated rabbit eye irritation test (IRE) using biomarkers of cell death and viability.

    PubMed

    Jester, James V; Ling, Joseph; Harbell, John

    2010-03-01

    While DOI is a mechanistic correlate to the ocular irritation response, attempts to measure DOI in alternative tests have been limited to qualitative histopathologic assessment by veterinarian pathologists. The purpose of this study was to determine whether DOI could be measured objectively by fluorescent staining for biomarkers of cell death and viability using an ex vivo isolated rabbit eye (IRE) test. A panel of nine materials characterized by in vivo DOI were selected that caused slight (3% acetic acid and 5% SDS), mild (acetone, sodium hypochlorite and 10% acetic acid), moderate (cyclohexanol and parafluoroanaline) and severe (8% sodium hydroxide and 10% benzalkonium chloride) irritation. Materials were then tested using a modified IRE test with 3h recovery and then processed for cyrosectioning and staining using a TUNEL assay to detect cell death, phalloidin to detect intracellular f-actin and DAPI staining to detect nuclei. Control eyes treated with water showed intense phalloidin staining of the corneal epithelium and stromal keratocytes but no TUNEL labeling. In general, eyes treated with mild, moderate and severe irritants showed regions of TUNEL labeled epithelial and keratocyte nuclei with no phalloidin stain overlying phalloidin stained, undamaged cells. DOI measurements showed that slight irritants damaged<40% of the epithelium, mild and moderate irritants damaged>50% of the epithelium, extending at times into the anterior stroma (<20%), and the severe irritant damaged>50% of the stroma. Regression analysis between ex vivo and in vivo DOI showed a significant (p<0.007) correlation (r=0.785). These data suggest that fluorescent staining of fixed and sectioned tissue using biomarkers can be used to objectively identify the depth of injury caused by ocular irritants. PMID:19857567

  17. Non-animal testing strategies for assessment of the skin corrosion and skin irritation potential of ingredients and finished products.

    PubMed

    Robinson, M K; Cohen, C; de Fraissinette, A de Brugerolle; Ponec, M; Whittle, E; Fentem, J H

    2002-05-01

    The dermatotoxicologist today is faced with a dilemma. Protection of workers and consumers from skin toxicities (irritation and allergy) associated with exposure to products, and the ingredients they contain, requires toxicological skin testing prior to manufacture, transport, or marketing. Testing for skin corrosion or irritation has traditionally been conducted in animals, particularly in rabbits via the long established Draize test method. However, this procedure, among others, has been subject to criticism, both for its limited predictive capacity for human toxicity, as well as for its use of animals. In fact, legislation is pending in the European Union which would ban the sale of cosmetic products, the ingredients of which have been tested in animals. These considerations, and advancements in both in vitro skin biology and clinical testing, have helped drive an intensive effort among skin scientists to develop alternative test methods based either on in vitro test systems (e.g. using rat, pig or human skin ex vivo, or reconstructed human skin models) or ethical clinical approaches (human volunteer studies). Tools are now in place today to enable a thorough skin corrosion and irritation assessment of new ingredients and products without the need to test in animals. Herein, we describe general testing strategies and new test methods for the assessment of skin corrosion and irritation. The methods described, and utilized within industry today, provide a framework for the practicing toxicologist to support new product development initiatives through the use of reliable skin safety testing and risk assessment tools and strategies. PMID:11955663

  18. Relative susceptibility of microsomes from lung, heart, liver, kidney, brain and testes to lipid peroxidation: correlation with vitamin E content. [Rats, rabbits, mice, human

    SciTech Connect

    Kornbrust, D.J.; Mavis, R.D.

    1980-01-01

    Rates of in vitro lipid peroxidation of microsomes and homogenates were found to vary widely among different tissues and species. In rats and rabbits, lung microsomes peroxidized at 25- to 50-fold lower rate than liver, kidney, testes and brain microsomes. Heart microsomes peroxidized at a rate slightly greater than, but most similar to, lung microsomes. Comparison of tissue homogenates also revealed the unique resistance of lung and heart to lipid peroxidation. Higher rates of peroxidation in mouse lung microsomes relative to rabbit, rat and human lung microsomes were similarly correlated with a lower ratio of vitamin E to peroxidizable fatty acids in mouse lung microsomes. These data provide strong support for the role of vitamin E as the major cellular antioxidant, especially in the highly oxygenated tissues of heart and lung, and demonstrate the utility of the microsomal system in characterizing tissue differences in susceptibility to peroxidative membrane decomposition.

  19. In-vitro tensile testing machine for vibration study of fresh rabbit Achilles tendon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Revel, Gian M.; Scalise, Alessandro; Scalise, Lorenzo; Pianosi, Antonella

    2001-10-01

    A lot of people, overall athletic one suffer from tendinitis or complete rupture of the Achilles tendon. This structure becomes inflamed and damaged mainly from a variety of mechanical forces and sometimes due to metabolic problems, such as diabetes or arthritis. Over the past three decades extensive studies have been performed on the structural and mechanical properties of Achilles tendon trying to explain the constitutive equations to describe and foresee tendon behavior. Among the various mechanical parameters, the vibrational behavior is also of interest. Several investigations are performed in order to study how the Achilles tendon vibrations influence the response of the muscle proprioception and human posture. The present article describes how in vitro tensile experiments can be performed, taking into account the need to simulate physiological condition of Achilles tendon and thus approaching some opened problems in the design of the experimental set-up. A new system for evaluating tendon vibrations by non contact techniques is proposed. Preliminary simple elongation tests are made extracting the main mechanical parameters: stress and strain at different fixed stretches, in order to characterize the tissue. Finally, a vibration study is made at each pretensioned tendon level evaluating the oscillating curves caused by a small hammer.

  20. Rabbit whole embryo culture.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Valerie A; Carney, Edward W

    2012-01-01

    Although the rabbit is used extensively in developmental toxicity testing, relatively little is known about the fundamental developmental biology of this species let alone mechanisms underlying developmental toxicity. This paucity of information about the rabbit is partly due to the historic lack of whole embryo culture (WEC) methods for the rabbit, which have only been made available fairly recently. In rabbit WEC, early somite stage embryos (gestation day 9) enclosed within an intact amnion and attached to the visceral yolk sac are dissected from maternal tissues and placed in culture for up to 48 h at approximately 37C and are continuously exposed to an humidified gas atmosphere mixture in a rotating culture system. During this 48 h culture period, major phases of organogenesis can be studied including cardiac looping and segmentation, neural tube closure, and development of anlagen of the otic system, eyes and craniofacial structures, somites and early phases of limb development (up to bud stage), as well as expansion and closure of the visceral yolk sac around the embryo. Following completion of the culture period, embryos are evaluated based on several growth and development parameters and also are assessed for morphological abnormalities. The ability to sustain embryo development independent of the maternal system allows for exposure at precise development stages providing the opportunity study the direct action of a teratogen or one of its metabolites on the developing embryo. Rabbit WEC is perhaps most useful when used in conjunction with rodent WEC methods to investigate species-specific mechanisms of developmental toxicity. PMID:22669668

  1. Postnatal changes in the expression of claudin-11 in the testes and excurrent ducts of the domestic rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus domesticus).

    PubMed

    Park, Chan Jin; Lee, Jae Eun; Oh, Young Seok; Shim, Sara; Kim, Dong Min; Park, Nam Cheol; Park, Hyun Jun; Gye, Myung Chan

    2011-01-01

    We examined the expression of claudin-11 (CLDN11) in the testes and male reproductive tracts of rabbits. The rabbit CLDN11 cDNA sequences were nearly identical with human, mouse, and bovine CLDN11. The levels of CLDN11 mRNA and protein (22 kDa) were markedly increased in the testis during adult development. On postnatal day (PND) 10, CLDN11 was colocalized with ZO-1 at the lateral contacts between adjacent Sertoli cells and was perpendicular to the basal lamina. In adult testis on PND 180, CLDN11 was codistributed with ZO1, and the pattern of immunoreactivity consisted of wavy linear tracts parallel to the basal lamina, which was different according to the spermatogenic stage. These results suggest that CLDN11 participates in inter-Sertoli cell tight junctions (TJs) at the blood-testis barrier in adult rabbits. CLDN11 was also found in the basal regions of Sertoli cells adjacent to the basal lamina in adult testis, suggesting that CLDN11 also participates in the adhesion between Sertoli cells and the basal lamina. CLDN11 mRNA and protein expressions were decreased in the adult epididymis compared with those in immature animals. In adults, CLDN11 mRNA levels were relatively high in the efferent duct, followed by those in the vas deferens, proximal corpus, and distal cauda, although low levels were observed in the initial segment and caput. On PND 10, CLDN11 immunoreactivity was identified at the apicolateral contacts between adjacent epithelial cells in the epididymis and vas deferens. In adults, CLDN11 was found in the nonciliated cells in the efferent duct and at the lateral contacts in the epithelial cells in the epididymal segments. In the caput, CLDN11 was found at the apicolateral contacts between adjacent epithelial cells, but expression was weak to negligible in the corpus of the vas deferens. CLDN11 may play an important role in TJs and cell adhesion in immature rabbit excurrent duct epithelia. In adult rabbits, CLDN11 in efferent duct epithelium and epididymal epithelium may contribute to the specific environment for sperm maturation. PMID:20966426

  2. Immunoglobulin allotypy of allophenic rabbits.

    PubMed

    Bordenave, G R; Babinet, C

    1979-01-01

    We obtained two allophenic rabbits formed by the manipulation of blastocysts from strains which differed by their coat colour and their immunoglobulin allotypic specificities. The phenotype of these two rabbits was a1,a2,a3,b4. They were chimeras for their lymphocytic system but not for their coat colour as they had the homogeneous brown coat colour of one of their parental strain. The IgG concentration in the serum of these allophenic rabbits was of the same order of magnitude as the IgG concentration in the serum of normal rabbits of the same age. Twenty-five weeks after birth, one of the allophenic rabbits expressed predominantly the a1 allotypic specificity (around 70% a1, 5% a2, 20% a3) which came from its brown parents, while the second one expressed predominantly the a3 allotypic specificity (around 2% a1, 20% a2, 60% a3) which came from its white parents. Each allotypically different IgG produced by these allophenic rabbits possessed the whole set of allotypic determinants found on IgG carrying the same specificity and produced by normal rabbits. We did not find significant signs of genetic information transfers from the cells of one parental strain to the cells of the other parental strain, or of eventual perturbations of the functional haploidy of the immunoglobulin-producing cells. As these allophenic rabbits only had different a series allotypic specificities, the probability of finding such signs was certainly low as they would have implied hybrid IgG molecules with two allotypically different heavy chains. We now have allophenic rabbits in which different a and b series allotypic specificities are involved and with which we will look for hybrid IgG molecules with heavy chains from one parental strain and light chains from the other parental strain. With these two rabbits we observed the "chimeric drift", namely the slow disappearance of constituants (here one allotypic specificity) coming from one parental strain. The first progeny tests carried out with these allophenic rabbits indicated that they did not seem to be chimeras at the germinal cell level. All their first offspring which were homogeneously brown and homozygous a1,b4 expressed the whole set of variants and determinants of the a1 or the b4 allotypic specificity. PMID:111603

  3. Comparison of temperature rise interpretations in the rabbit pyrogen test among Chinese, Japanese, European, and United States pharmacopeias and 2-2-2 theoretical models proposed by S. Hoffmann.

    PubMed

    Du, Ying; Li, Xiu-Ji; Tan, De-Jiang

    2011-10-01

    Although the rabbit pyrogen test is one of the crucial methods included in each pharmacopeia to evaluate the safety of parenteral medicine, the experimental procedures and pyrogen result judgment algorithms (PRJAs) are still greatly different from one another. In the first stage of testing, original data of 879 batches from a total of 2637 rabbits in our laboratory were judged by PRJAs in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia 2005 III, the Japanese Pharmacopoeia XIV, the Japanese Pharmacopoeia XV, the European Pharmacopeia 6.0, the United States Pharmacopoeia 32 NF27 and two theoretical models proposed by S. Hoffmann, respectively. The results were analyzed to evaluate the effects of various PRJAs. It was shown that: (i) the significant differences in the results judged by various pharmacopeias and Hoffmann's theoretical models were mainly due to the PRJAs and the great differences in PRJAs should be harmonized throughout the world based on balance of reducing animal use and guaranteeing the safety of medicines; (ii) it is better to use PRJAs that depend on the threshold of the sum of temperature rise of all tested rabbits than those that depend on the number of rabbits that are over the threshold of temperature rise of individual rabbit according to clinical proof and the experimental data; and (iii) the PRJA of the Japanese Pharmacopoeia XV has obvious advantages when the total suspicious rate of samples was less than 10%. Additionally, a new PRJA designed for reducing the additional experiment stages and animal consumption is promoted for evaluation. PMID:21088045

  4. Rabbit Soft Tissue Surgery.

    PubMed

    Szabo, Zoltan; Bradley, Katriona; Cahalane, Alane Kosanovich

    2016-01-01

    This article summarizes the available information on different soft tissue surgical procedures in rabbits, based on the literature and the authors' experiences, emphasizing the differences between rabbits and the more familiar dogs and cats. The major surgical principles in rabbits are discussed, and common surgical procedures, such as abdominal exploration, gastrotomy, enterotomy, liver lobectomy, nephrectomy, cystotomy, cystectomy, ovariohysterectomy, ovariectomy, orchidectomy, are described. PMID:26611928

  5. Prefabrication of 3D Cartilage Contructs: Towards a Tissue Engineered Auricle – A Model Tested in Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    von Bomhard, Achim; Veit, Johannes; Bermueller, Christian; Rotter, Nicole; Staudenmaier, Rainer; Storck, Katharina; The, Hoang Nguyen

    2013-01-01

    The reconstruction of an auricle for congenital deformity or following trauma remains one of the greatest challenges in reconstructive surgery. Tissue-engineered (TE) three-dimensional (3D) cartilage constructs have proven to be a promising option, but problems remain with regard to cell vitality in large cell constructs. The supply of nutrients and oxygen is limited because cultured cartilage is not vascular integrated due to missing perichondrium. The consequence is necrosis and thus a loss of form stability. The micro-surgical implantation of an arteriovenous loop represents a reliable technology for neovascularization, and thus vascular integration, of three-dimensional (3D) cultivated cell constructs. Auricular cartilage biopsies were obtained from 15 rabbits and seeded in 3D scaffolds made from polycaprolactone-based polyurethane in the shape and size of a human auricle. These cartilage cell constructs were implanted subcutaneously into a skin flap (15×8 cm) and neovascularized by means of vascular loops implanted micro-surgically. They were then totally enhanced as 3D tissue and freely re-implanted in-situ through microsurgery. Neovascularization in the prefabricated flap and cultured cartilage construct was analyzed by microangiography. After explantation, the specimens were examined by histological and immunohistochemical methods. Cultivated 3D cartilage cell constructs with implanted vascular pedicle promoted the formation of engineered cartilaginous tissue within the scaffold in vivo. The auricles contained cartilage-specific extracellular matrix (ECM) components, such as GAGs and collagen even in the center oft the constructs. In contrast, in cultivated 3D cartilage cell constructs without vascular pedicle, ECM distribution was only detectable on the surface compared to constructs with vascular pedicle. We demonstrated, that the 3D flaps could be freely transplanted. On a microangiographic level it was evident that all the skin flaps and the implanted cultivated constructs were well neovascularized. The presented method is suggested as a promising alternative towards clinical application of engineered cartilaginous tissue for plastic and reconstructive surgery. PMID:23951215

  6. Variant Rabbit Hemorrhagic Disease Virus in Young Rabbits, Spain

    PubMed Central

    Dalton, Kevin P.; Nicieza, Inés; Balseiro, Ana; Muguerza, María A.; Rosell, Joan M.; Casais, Rosa; Álvarez, Ángel L.

    2012-01-01

    Outbreaks of rabbit hemorrhagic disease have occurred recently in young rabbits on farms on the Iberian Peninsula where rabbits were previously vaccinated. Investigation identified a rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus variant genetically related to apathogenic rabbit caliciviruses. Improved antivirus strategies are needed to slow the spread of this pathogen. PMID:23171812

  7. Use of polymerase chain reaction and rabbit infectivity testing to detect Treponema pallidum in amniotic fluid, fetal and neonatal sera, and cerebrospinal fluid.

    PubMed Central

    Grimprel, E; Sanchez, P J; Wendel, G D; Burstain, J M; McCracken, G H; Radolf, J D; Norgard, M V

    1991-01-01

    The diagnosis of congenital syphilis continues to pose a difficult clinical challenge. Because the serodiagnosis of congenital syphilis has significant limitations, the direct detection of Treponema pallidum in suspect neonatal tissues or body fluids represents a desirable alternate diagnostic strategy. We developed and applied the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the detection of T. pallidum in clinical material relevant to the diagnosis of congenital syphilis but which typically contain factors inhibitory for the PCR. Four methods of specimen processing were examined to circumvent PCR inhibition; clinical materials included amniotic fluids, neonatal sera, and neonatal cerebrospinal fluids. The PCR was 100% specific for T. T. pallidum compared with the sensitive rabbit infectivity test (RIT) for all clinical materials tested. For amniotic fluids, the PCR was 100% sensitive when correlated with the RIT but had a lesser sensitivity when applied to sera or cerebrospinal fluids, which typically contain few treponemes. The combined sensitivity of the PCR for all clinical samples was 78%. Positive PCR results also were obtained among some clinical specimens for which RIT was not performed; these results correlated well with either stigmata or risk factors for congenital syphilis. The combined results suggest that the PCR can be a useful adjunct to the diagnosis and clinical management of congenital syphilis and that it will provide a valuable tool for investigations of the pathogenesis of the disorder. Images PMID:1761693

  8. Interlaboratory Validation of the In Vitro Eye Irritation Tests for Cosmetic Ingredients. (6) Evaluation of MATREX((TM)).

    PubMed

    Ohuchi, J; Kasai, Y; Sakamoto, K; Ohnuma, M; Kitamura, M; Kawasaki, Y; Kakishima, H; Suzuki, K; Kuwahara, H; Imanishi, Y; Tatsumi, H; Kotani, M; Inoue, K; Okumura, H; Arashima, M; Kurishita, A; Kinoshita, S; Tani, N; Kojima, H; Nakamura, T; Suzuki, K; Ishibashi, T; Hori, H; Takahashi, H; Nishikawa, T; Kitano, Y; Ohno, Y

    1999-02-01

    MATREX(TM) is a test system for evaluating eye irritation potential, using the living dermal model (LDM). The LDM consists of normal human dermal fibroblasts in a contracted collagen lattice, which eventually forms a three-dimensional structure. This system has several advantages. It can be applied to insoluble substances and does not require sterile conditions for operation. In the present study, MATREX was introduced as an alternative to the Draize eye irritation test (Draize test) for cosmetics ingredients. MATREX was evaluated through a three-phase series interlaboratory validation as part of a joint project of the National Institute of Health Sciences (NIHS) and Japan Cosmetic Industry Association (JCIA). Toxicity for LDM was mainly evaluated by cytotoxicity, the indicator was EC(50) (concentration that inhibits the viability of the cell to 50% of control) value. Additionally, MATREX score indicating the grade of cytotoxicity was also introduced in the third phase of the validation study. Both test procedures were controlled under the same standard operating procedure (SOP), at all the participating laboratories. A total of 39 test substances both water-soluble and -insoluble were examined. LDM was applicable to almost all substances that could be evaluated by the Draize test. Furthermore interlaboratory variance was relatively low. The correlation coefficient between the EC(50) value and the maximal average Draize total score (MAS) was -0.672. The MATREX score was closely related to the EC(50) value. Moreover, the MATREX scoring method showed a similar prediction ability for eye irritation potential to the EC(50) method. Thus, the MATREX scoring method, a simplified EC(50) method, appears to be a viable alternative to the current EC(50) measurement method. The present results demonstrate the possibility that the MATREX system would form part of a prediction system of Draize test results. PMID:20654473

  9. Assessing the Systemic Toxicity in Rabbits after Sub Acute Exposure to Ocular Irritant Chemicals

    PubMed Central

    Sruthi, Sudhakaran; Syama, Santhakumar; Gayathri, Vishwanath; Mohanan, Parayanthala Valappil

    2015-01-01

    Eye is a highly vascularised organ. There are chances that a foreign substance can enter the systemic circulation through the eye and cause oxidative stress and evoke immune response. Here the eyes of rabbits were exposed, for a period of 7 days, to 5 known ocular irritants: Cetyl pyridinium chloride (CPC), sodium salicylate (SS), imidazole (IMI), acetaminophen (ACT) and nicotinamide (NIC). The eyes were scored according to the draize scoring. Blood collected from the treated rabbit were analyzed for haematological and biochemical parameters. After sacrifice, histological analysis of the eye and analysis of pro-inflammatory biomarkers (IL-1?, IL-1?, IL-8 and TNF-?) in the cornea using ELISA was carried out. Spleen was collected and the proliferation capacities of spleenocytes were analyzed. Liver and brain were collected and assessed for oxidative stress. The eye irritation potential of the chemicals was evident from the redness and swelling of the conjunctiva and cornea. Histopathological analysis and ELISA assay showed signs of inflammation in the eye. However, the haematological and biochemical parameters showed no change. Spleenocyte proliferations showed only slight alterations which were not significant. Also oxidative stress in the brain and liver were negligible. In conclusion, chemicals which cause ocular irritation and inflammation did not show any systemic side-effects in the present scenario. PMID:25874033

  10. Cysticercosis in laboratory rabbits.

    PubMed

    Owiny, J R

    2001-03-01

    There are no data on the current incidence of Taenia pisiformis in laboratory rabbits. Two cases of cysticercosis most likely due to T. pisiformis in laboratory rabbits (intermediate host) are presented. Both rabbits had no contact with dogs (final host); their caretakers did not work with dogs, and these caretakers changed into facility scrubs and wore gloves when working with the rabbits. Rabbit 1 may have been infected after being fed hay at our facility. In light of the life cycle of the parasite and the history of rabbit 2, it potentially could have been infected prior to arrival at our facility. There have been only three cases of tapeworm cysts in rabbits in our facility (average daily census, 250) during the last 10 years (incidence, < 1%). This report indicates that although cysticercosis is rare in laboratory rabbits, one should always be aware of such incidental findings. Although it may not produce overt illness in the rabbit, hepatic migration could adversely affect the outcome of some experimental procedures PMID:11300689

  11. Astroviruses in Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Moschidou, Paschalina; Pinto, Pierfrancesco; Catella, Cristiana; Desario, Constantina; Larocca, Vittorio; Circella, Elena; Bànyai, Krisztian; Lavazza, Antonio; Magistrali, Chiara; Decaro, Nicola; Buonavoglia, Canio

    2011-01-01

    By screening rabbits with enterocolitis or enteritis complex and asymptomatic rabbits, we identified a novel astrovirus. The virus was distantly related (19.3%–23.7% aa identity) in the capsid precursor to other mammalian astroviruses within the Mamastrovirus genus. By using real-time reverse transcription PCR, with specific primers and probes and targeting a conserved stretch in open reading frame 1b, we found rabbit astrovirus in 10 (43%) of 23 samples from animals with enteric disease and in 25 (18%) of 139 samples from asymptomatic animals in Italy during 2005–2008. The mean and median titers in the positive animals were 102× and 103× greater, respectively, in the symptomatic animals than in the asymptomatic animals. These findings support the idea that rabbit astroviruses should be included in the diagnostic algorithm of rabbit enteric disease and animal experiments to increase information obtained about their epidemiology and potential pathogenic role. PMID:22172457

  12. Genomic Analysis of Companion Rabbit Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Holmes, Mark A.; Harrison, Ewan M.; Fisher, Elizabeth A.; Graham, Elizabeth M.; Parkhill, Julian; Foster, Geoffrey; Paterson, Gavin K.

    2016-01-01

    In addition to being an important human pathogen, Staphylococcus aureus is able to cause a variety of infections in numerous other host species. While the S. aureus strains causing infection in several of these hosts have been well characterised, this is not the case for companion rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus), where little data are available on S. aureus strains from this host. To address this deficiency we have performed antimicrobial susceptibility testing and genome sequencing on a collection of S. aureus isolates from companion rabbits. The findings show a diverse S. aureus population is able to cause infection in this host, and while antimicrobial resistance was uncommon, the isolates possess a range of known and putative virulence factors consistent with a diverse clinical presentation in companion rabbits including severe abscesses. We additionally show that companion rabbit isolates carry polymorphisms within dltB as described as underlying host-adaption of S. aureus to farmed rabbits. The availability of S. aureus genome sequences from companion rabbits provides an important aid to understanding the pathogenesis of disease in this host and in the clinical management and surveillance of these infections. PMID:26963381

  13. Encephalitozoonosis in New Zealand rabbits and potential transmission risk.

    PubMed

    Ozkan, Ozcan; Ozkan, Aysegul Taylan; Zafer, Karaer

    2011-06-30

    Encephalitozoon cuniculi is a small protozoan parasite in the phylum Microspora. It has been shown to naturally infect several host species, including humans. Encephalitozoonosis is routinely diagnosed in vivo by serological examination or post mortem by histopathology. In a conventional rabbit colony, two animals suddenly showed clinical signs (torticollis and asthenia of limbs). Serum samples of these rabbits were seropositive for E. cuniculi after definitive diagnosis (Toxoplasma gondii and Listeria monocytogenes). The animals in the same breeding facility were also clinical examined, and the present study evaluated the prevalence of specific anti-E. cuniculi antibodies using serological testing, both in animals and in people working with animals, after two clinical cases. The rabbits showed no clinical symptoms of the disease. Blood samples were taken for E. cuniculi infection from 50 clinically healthy rabbits. Anti-E. cuniculi antibodies were found in two asymptomatic and two clinically affected animals belonging to the same rabbit colony. Finally, the present study found that the 7.7% (4/52) prevalence of CIA, test positive in rabbits. E. cuniculi spores were detected in the urine of one clinically affected rabbit, and one seropositive animal caretaker after staining with the modified trichrome stain. In conclusion, the presence of seropositive, but apparently healthy rabbits indicates the need for screening examinations to detect the anti-E. cuniculi antibody in rabbits, especially considering the potential zoonotic risk. Therefore, persons should avoid contact with the urine of infected or healthy animals, and always use good personal hygiene when handling animals. PMID:21377801

  14. Seroprevalence of Encephalitozoon cuniculi in Humans and Rabbits in China

    PubMed Central

    PAN, Yaoqian; WANG, Shuai; LIU, Xingyou; LI, Ruizhen; SUN, Yuqian; GADAHI, Javaid Ali

    2015-01-01

    Background: Encephalitozoon cuniculi is a microsporidian parasite commonly found in rabbits that can infect humans, causing encephalitozoonosis. Our objective in this study was to evaluate the seroprevalence of this parasite in rabbits and humans in China Methods: Overall, 300 serum samples each from clinically healthy rabbit and human were collected from three regions of China (Sichuan Province, Chongqing Municipality and Jilin Province) from January to September 2013 and tested for anti-E. Cuniculi antibodies using an ELISA. Results: An overall seroprevalence of E. cuniculi was recorded as 56/300 (18.76%) and 29/300 (9.76%) in rabbit and human sera, respectively. The seropositivity of rabbit samples collected from Jilin province was 41%, which was significantly higher (P<0.01) than Sichuan Province (9%) and Chongqing Municipality (6%). Three breeds of rabbit were used in the present study and antibody detection in Rex Rabbit was significantly (P<0.01) higher than Japanese White and New Zealand Rabbit. In human, Jilin province was more prevalent (18%) followed by Sichuan Province (6%) and Chongqing Municipality (5%). Conclusions: The E. cuniculi was present and widespread among healthy rabbits and humans in China PMID:26246829

  15. Experimental verocytotoxemia in rabbits.

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, S E; Rotman, T A; Jay, V; Smith, C R; Becker, L E; Petric, M; Olivieri, N F; Karmali, M A

    1992-01-01

    The clinicopathologic effects of intravenously administered purified verocytotoxin 1 (VT1; Shiga-like toxin 1) in 2-kg male rabbits was studied. The 50% lethal dose was 0.2 micrograms of protein per kg of body weight (2 x 10(4) 50% cytotoxic doses per kg). The clinical features included nonbloody diarrhea and a progressive flaccid paresis, usually culminating in death. The histopathology was characterized by edema and hemorrhage in the mucosa and submucosa of the cecum and edema, hemorrhage, and neuronal necrosis in the brain and gray matter of the spinal cord. Thrombotic microangiopathy, the characteristic histopathologic renal lesion in the hemolytic-uremic syndrome, was also found to be the underlying lesion in verocytotoxemic rabbits. To determine the specific distribution of VT1 in rabbit tissues, purified 125I-labelled VT1 was administered intravenously to 20 rabbits (both immunologically naive and VT1-immune rabbits). The highest specific uptake of 125I-VT1 was in the spinal cord, brain, cecum, colon, and small bowel in unimmunized animals but in the liver, spleen, and lungs in immune animals. Immunofluorescent staining of cecal and spinal cord tissues after intravenous administration of VT1 showed evidence of specific vascular endothelial cell binding of the toxin. The striking correlation of the central nervous system and gastrointestinal localization of 125I-VT1 with the sites of known histopathology is consistent with direct toxin-mediated injury to these tissues, initiated by the specific binding of VT1 to the vascular endothelium. We conclude that the vascular damage induced by VT1 in affected rabbit tissues is similar to that seen in the kidneys and other tissues in patients with verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli-associated hemolytic-uremic syndrome. This suggests that although the rabbit model fails to replicate human hemolytic-uremic syndrome, it is useful for studying the pathogenesis of the vascular lesions in verocytotoxin-producing E. coli-associated diseases. Images PMID:1398926

  16. Antigenic Structure of Rabbit γ Globulin

    PubMed Central

    Dubiski, S.; Dubiska, Anna; Skalba, Danuta; Kelus, A.

    1961-01-01

    By iso-immunization, antisera to five rabbit γ globulin antigens were obtained. They are called A (former Da), B, C, D and E. Individual sera of 670 rabbits belonging to six separate populations were tested by precipitation methods. The distribution of the iso-antigens and their combinations into serum groups were studied. Each particular γ globulin iso-antigen was found to be of hereditary character; they seem to form three genetic systems: A, C and BDE, statistically independent. Various antisera from England, Poland and U.S.A were compared. PMID:13724581

  17. Becoming and Being: "The Velveteen Rabbit."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Anne Devereaux

    1997-01-01

    Defends "Velveteen Rabbit," a beloved classic, on its 75th anniversary. Finds that the story of a toy which becomes real has stood the test of time, even though critics call it overly sentimental. States that it deals with a universal theme and prepares its young readers for life's vicissitudes. Lists the book's classic elements. Gives questions…

  18. Mycobacterium avium in pygmy rabbits (Brachylagus idahoensis): 28 cases.

    PubMed

    Harrenstien, Lisa A; Finnegan, Mitchell V; Woodford, Nina L; Mansfield, Kristin G; Waters, W Ray; Bannantine, John P; Paustian, Michael L; Garner, Michael M; Bakke, Antony C; Peloquin, Charles A; Phillips, Terry M

    2006-12-01

    The Columbia basin subpopulation of pygmy rabbit Brachylagus idahoensis was listed as endangered by the United States Fish and Wildlife Service in November 2001, and no pygmy rabbits have been seen in the wild since spring 2002. Captive propagation efforts have attempted to increase population size in preparation for reintroduction of animals into central Washington. Disseminated mycobacteriosis due to Mycobacterium avium has been the most common cause of death of adult captive pygmy rabbits. Between June 2002 and September 2004, mycobacteriosis was diagnosed in 28 captive adult pygmy rabbits (representing 29% of the captive population), in contrast to 18 adult pygmy rabbits dying of all other causes in the same time period. Antemortem and postmortem medical records were evaluated retrospectively to describe the clinical course of mycobacteriosis in pygmy rabbits, physical examination findings, and diagnostic test results in the diagnosis of mycobacteriosis in pygmy rabbits. Various treatment protocols, possible risk factors for mortality, and recommendations for prevention of mycobacteriosis were evaluated also. Compromised cell-mediated immunity appears to be the best explanation at this time for the observed high morbidity and mortality from mycobacterial infections in pygmy rabbits. PMID:17315435

  19. Survey of ocular irritation predictive capacity using Chorioallantoic Membrane Vascular Assay (CAMVA) and Bovine Corneal Opacity and Permeability (BCOP) test historical data for 319 personal care products over fourteen years.

    PubMed

    Donahue, D A; Kaufman, L E; Avalos, J; Simion, F A; Cerven, D R

    2011-03-01

    The Chorioallantoic Membrane Vascular Assay (CAMVA) and Bovine Corneal Opacity and Permeability (BCOP) test are widely used to predict ocular irritation potential for consumer-use products. These in vitro assays do not require live animals, produce reliable predictive data for defined applicability domains compared to the Draize rabbit eye test, and are rapid and inexpensive. Data from 304 CAMVA and/or BCOP studies (319 formulations) were surveyed to determine the feasibility of predicting ocular irritation potential for various formulations. Hair shampoos, skin cleansers, and ethanol-based hair styling sprays were repeatedly predicted to be ocular irritants (accuracy rate=0.90-1.00), with skin cleanser and hair shampoo irritation largely dependent on surfactant species and concentration. Conversely, skin lotions/moisturizers and hair styling gels/lotions were repeatedly predicted to be non-irritants (accuracy rate=0.92 and 0.82, respectively). For hair shampoos, ethanol-based hair stylers, skin cleansers, and skin lotions/moisturizers, future ocular irritation testing (i.e., CAMVA/BCOP) can be nearly eliminated if new formulations are systematically compared to those previously tested using a defined decision tree. For other tested product categories, new formulations should continue to be evaluated in CAMVA/BCOP for ocular irritation potential because either the historical data exhibit significant variability (hair conditioners and mousses) or the historical sample size is too small to permit definitive conclusions (deodorants, make-up removers, massage oils, facial masks, body sprays, and other hair styling products). All decision tree conclusions should be made within a conservative weight-of-evidence context, considering the reported limitations of the BCOP test for alcohols, ketones, and solids. PMID:21147215

  20. The Cutaneous Rabbit Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flach, Rudiger; Haggard, Patrick

    2006-01-01

    In the cutaneous rabbit effect (CRE), a tactile event (so-called attractee tap) is mislocalized toward an adjacent attractor tap. The effect depends on the time interval between the taps. The authors delivered sequences of taps to the forearm and asked participants to report the location of one of the taps. The authors replicated the original CRE…

  1. Rabbit care and husbandry.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Teresa

    2004-05-01

    This article provides information for the veterinary staff to be better prepared to care for the special needs of rabbit patients as they are presented in increased frequency for veterinary care. Housing, nutrition,restraint, and recognizing illness are covered in detail. Descriptions of techniques for blood collection, oral medication administration, and injection sites are included. Preventive care recommendations for examinations from first visit to geriatric visits are outlined as well as indications for spaying and neutering. Also provided are lists that will aid the veterinary staff in providing instructions when the appointment is made, recommendations for boarding, surgical, and anesthetic considerations and clinical signs that are associated with pain in rabbits. PMID:15145392

  2. Care of the geriatric rabbit.

    PubMed

    Lennox, Angela M

    2010-01-01

    The average life span reported in laboratory and lay literature for the domestic rabbit is 5 to 10 years. The author and other veterinarians are now regularly seeing rabbits living to 9 or 10 years, the oldest reported in the author's practice being 14 years. Rabbits are herbivorous prey species with continually growing (elodont) teeth. This feature allows the geriatric rabbit to possess teeth that are essentially "new", a distinct advantage over geriatric carnivores. Expanded longevity, while generally desirable, necessarily accompanies an increase in geriatric disorders. This article examines the spectrum of disease that can affect the geriatric rabbit as well as crucial factors concerning the clinical management of the animal up to the end of its life. An improved understanding of geriatric disorders in pet rabbits allows early recognition and the opportunity to improve quality of life. PMID:20159546

  3. A method for the production of rheumatoid factor in rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Biro, C. E.

    1968-01-01

    Rabbits rendered immunologically unresponsive to native human IgG and then injected with a single large dose of heat-aggregated human IgG produce an antibody which resembles rheumatoid factor in all its properties that were tested. It is an exclusively IgM antibody which reacts with both human and rabbit (autologous) aggregated IgG, but not with either protein in the native state. PMID:5303049

  4. Changes in testosterone concentration in the fetal rabbit testis after removal of the hypothalamus (encephalectomy)

    SciTech Connect

    Proshlyakova, E.V.; Rumyantseva, O.N.; Mitskevich, M.S.

    1986-10-01

    The aim of this investigation was to obtain direct data on the role of the hypothalamus in regulation of the adrogen function of the testes in rabbit fetuses. Testosterone was determined by radioimmunoassay. Changes in testostereone concentration in rabbit fetal testis after encephalectomy and after injection of luteinizing hormone releasing hormone (LHRH) into encephalectomized fetuses is shown. Results obtained are evidence that the hypothalamus, pituitary and testes in the rabbit aged 23-25 days of prenatal development constitute a single functional system. It is concluded that in both rabbit and hog fetuses, the hypothalamus begins to regulate pituitary gonadotrophic activity after LHRH can be detected in the hypothalamus itself.

  5. Single unit receptive fields in rabbit primary binocular cortex.

    PubMed

    Vaney, D I; Hughes, A

    1982-01-01

    The receptive fields of 125 single units recorded from the binocular region of rabbit primary visual cortex have been analysed. The population of 43% radially symmetric, 23% directional, and 23% orientation selective units is similar to that of rabbit monocular visual cortex. The relative scarcity of orientation selective units and the absence of orientation columns differentiates rabbit from cat primary visual cortex. However, the majority of binocular units had similar receptive fields in each eye and very unconventional receptive fields were not encountered. Tested binocular units demonstrated summation upon simultaneous stimulation of both receptive fields. In conjunction with findings reported elsewhere, these results suggest that rabbit and cat possess a similar provision for binocular vision in spite of some differences in their cortical organisation. PMID:7095034

  6. Experimental testing of the dual-layer Woven EndoBridge device using an elastase-induced aneurysm model in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yong-Hong; Dai, Daying; Schroeder, Dana; Kadirvel, Ramanathan; Kallmes, David F

    2016-06-01

    The dual-layer Woven EndoBridge (WEB) device (WEB II) is designed to improve the performance of the first-generation WEB device. This study was performed to evaluate the acute and chronic performance of WEB II for aneurysm occlusion in an elastase-induced aneurysm model in rabbits. We implanted WEB II devices in 36 elastase-induced aneurysms and followed up for one, three, six, and 12 months. Degree of aneurysm occlusion at follow-up was graded on the Web Occlusion Scale (WOS): Grade A, complete aneurysm occlusion; Grade B, complete occlusion with recess filling; Grade C, residual neck filling; and Grade D, residual aneurysm filling. Hematoxylin and eosin staining was performed for histological assessment of aneurysm healing. Grades A, B, C, and D aneurysm occlusion at one-month follow-up were noted in three (17%), three (17%), eight (44%), and four (22%) of 18 cases, respectively. At the three-month time point Grades A, B, C, and D were shown in two (33%), two (33%), one (17%), and one (17%) aneurysms. Six months after treatment, one (17%), two (33%), two (33%), and one (17%) cases demonstrated Grades A, B, C, and D occlusion. At the 12-month time point, Grades B, C, and D were shown in three (50%), two (33%), and one (17%) aneurysms. Histologic evaluation showed progressive thrombus organization within aneurysm lumen from one to 12 months. These results indicated that the WEB II device can achieve high rates of aneurysm occlusion over time in experimental aneurysms. PMID:26847799

  7. SCIENTIST DEMONSTRATES PLACING A "RABBIT CATCHER" INTO ONE OF THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SCIENTIST DEMONSTRATES PLACING A "RABBIT CATCHER" INTO ONE OF THE VERTICAL TEST HOLES AT THE TOP OF THE MTR. CONTROL ROD DRIVES ARE BEHIND HIM TOWARDS LEFT OF VIEW. INL NEGATIVE NO. 56-513. Jack L. Anderson, Photographer, 2/13/1956 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  8. Hypolipidaemic effects of Ballota undulata in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Qazan, Walid Sh

    2008-04-15

    The aim of to study the effect of Ballota undulata (70% EtOH) extract on lipid profile on Rabbits. The plant extract was orally administered to the atherogenic rabbits (atherogenic diet + cholesterol powder supplement 400 mg/kg/body weight/day dissolved in 5 mL coconut oil) at dose of 1.2 g kg(-1) body weight/day. During the overall period of the experiment blood was collected and serum was analyzed for lipid profile. Animals were sacrificed; the heart and the liver were collected and kept at -20 degrees C until assayed. Biochemical analysis of blood serum and tissue (liver and heart muscle) level were made for cholesterol, phospholipids and triglycerides. In addition blood serum was analyzed further for HDL-Cholesterol. All the results were statistically analyzed using students t-test. Hypolipidaemic nature of Ballota undulata (70% EtOH) extract was studied in hyperlipidaemic Rabbits. The increased cholesterol levels were brought to normal by administration of Ballota undulata. Serum cholesterol levels dropped from 940.7 to 230.41 (75.55%) and further to 119.2 (87.32%) by the end of the experiment. Similarly, phospholipids and triglycerides levels were observed to be also reduced. The tissues lipids profiles of liver and heart muscle showed similar changes in those noticed in serum lipids. Ballota undulata possesses active hypolipidaemic constituents. PMID:18819560

  9. Acute Immunologic Arthritis in Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Deshazo, Claude V.; Henson, Peter M.; Cochrane, Charles G.

    1972-01-01

    Mediators of acute immunologic injury have been studied in vivo by producing arthritis in rabbit knee joints. A reversed passive Arthus lesion was produced by injecting antibody into the joint space and antigen intravenously. Injury was assessed by measuring leakage of serum proteins and circulating radiolabeled proteins into the joint space and by the accumulation of neutrophils in the joint fluid. Inflammatory exudate was recovered for study by a standardized irrigation technique. Maximal vascular permeability developed 2 hr after injection as neutrophils accumulated about immune complexes in venule walls to produce structural injury. After 5 hr the number of neutrophils in the joint space rose rapidly, followed by a second rise in permeability at 8 hr. Neutrophil depletion abolished both peaks of permeability. It was then possible to reconstitute the synovial lesion in neutrophil-depleted rabbits by intra-articular injection of purified suspensions of neutrophils. A requirement for complement was demonstrated in development of the lesion. Rabbits genetically deficient in C6 showed delay in vascular permeability, appearance of neutrophils, and histologic lesions. The delay was longer in normal rabbits depleted of C3. In C6-deficient rabbits depleted of C3, still further reduction in injury occurred. Evidence was obtained as well for a chemotactic attraction of neutrophils in vivo. Antigen-antibody-complement complexes in the walls of blood vessels attracted neutrophils placed in the joint space of neutrophil-depleted rabbits. Omission of either antigen or antibody from this replacement reaction prevented the migration of neutrophils. Images PMID:4257028

  10. [Discovery and genetic analysis of blue-eyed mutant in the white rex rabbits].

    PubMed

    Pang, You-Zhi; Xu, Yong-Fei

    2013-06-01

    Using cross, backcross, and full-sib mating experiments, allelism test was conducted to study the genetic mechanism of blue-eyed mutant of the white rex rabbits originated from the F1 generation from the cross American White rex rabbits(♂) × Chinchilla meat rabbits(♀). The study showed that the reason for the blue-eyed mutant of the white rex rabbits was a recessive mutation in Vienna locus. When the V locus was homozygous for the recessive v gene, it was recessive epistatic to other loci (including A, B, C, D, and E), which also controlled the coat color. Regardless of the genotypes in other gene loci, the rabbits appeared blue eyes and white coat color as long as the genotype vv occurred at the Vienna locus. Thus, the combination of genotype vv and genotype rr will produce the blue-eyed and the white rex rabbits. As the blue-eyed mutant of the white rex rabbits is a new finding in China's rabbit breeding program, it is significant to explain the genetic mechanism of the blue-eyed mutant for the breeding and production of rex rabbits. PMID:23774024

  11. Periodontal bacteria in rabbit mandibular and maxillary abscesses.

    PubMed

    Tyrrell, Kerin L; Citron, Diane M; Jenkins, Jeffrey R; Goldstein, Ellie J C

    2002-03-01

    Despite the high incidence of odontogenic abscesses in pet rabbits, published data on the bacteriology of these infections are lacking, and clinical cultures are often ambiguous, making antibiotic choices difficult. In order to define the bacteriology of these infections, 12 rabbit mandibular and maxillary abscesses were cultured aerobically and anaerobically. All specimens yielded pathogenic bacteria, including Fusobacterium nucleatum, Prevotella heparinolytica, Prevotella spp., Peptostreptococcus micros, Streptococcus milleri group, Actinomyces israelii, and Arcanobacterium haemolyticum. These organisms are consistent with the characterized bacteriology of periodontal disease in human and other mammalian studies. The isolates were tested against 10 antimicrobial agents commonly used to treat rabbits; 100% of the strains tested were susceptible to clindamycin, 96% were susceptible to penicillin and ceftriaxone, 54% were susceptible to ciprofloxacin, and only 7% were susceptible to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. PMID:11880435

  12. Periodontal Bacteria in Rabbit Mandibular and Maxillary Abscesses

    PubMed Central

    Tyrrell, Kerin L.; Citron, Diane M.; Jenkins, Jeffrey R.; Goldstein, Ellie J. C.

    2002-01-01

    Despite the high incidence of odontogenic abscesses in pet rabbits, published data on the bacteriology of these infections are lacking, and clinical cultures are often ambiguous, making antibiotic choices difficult. In order to define the bacteriology of these infections, 12 rabbit mandibular and maxillary abscesses were cultured aerobically and anaerobically. All specimens yielded pathogenic bacteria, including Fusobacterium nucleatum, Prevotella heparinolytica, Prevotella spp., Peptostreptococcus micros, Streptococcus milleri group, Actinomyces israelii, and Arcanobacterium haemolyticum. These organisms are consistent with the characterized bacteriology of periodontal disease in human and other mammalian studies. The isolates were tested against 10 antimicrobial agents commonly used to treat rabbits; 100% of the strains tested were susceptible to clindamycin, 96% were susceptible to penicillin and ceftriaxone, 54% were susceptible to ciprofloxacin, and only 7% were susceptible to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. PMID:11880435

  13. Optic nerve head axonal transport in rabbits with hereditary glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Bunt-Milam, A H; Dennis, M B; Bensinger, R E

    1987-04-01

    Rabbits with hereditary glaucoma develop ocular changes that resemble human congenital glaucoma and buphthalmia. The inheritance is autosomal recessive (bu). Previous research was performed primarily on albino bu/bu rabbits that were unhealthy and bred poorly. We have bred pigmented bu/bu rabbits to determine if this would improve hardiness and provide a better model for the disease in humans. First-generation offspring from matings of bu/bu albino with bu/bu pigmented rabbits were all affected, indicating that the bu gene is found at the same locus in both strains. The pigmented bu/bu offspring had a high degree of mortality, as reported previously for albino bu/bu rabbits. Newborn bu/bu rabbits initially had normal intraocular pressure (IOP; 15-23 mmHg); after 1- to 3 months, the IOP increased to 26-48 mmHg. The eyes became buphthalmic and the IOP returned to normal or sub-normal levels after 6-10 months. Since the lamina cribrosa is absent or poorly formed in the rabbit optic nerve head (ONH), this model was used to test the role of mechanical factors in the etiology of ONH pathology caused by increased IOP. Orthograde axonal transport was evaluated in both eyes from eight normal and 24 bu/bu rabbits of different ages, using intravitreal injections of [3H]leucine to mark orthograde axonal transport, followed by light- and electron-microscopic radioautography of the ONHs and superior colliculi. Normal rabbits of all ages showed no blockage of axonal transport in the ONH. All optic axons from young bu/bu rabbits with normal IOP and most axons from older buphthalmic rabbits that previously had elevated IOP were normal morphologically. Small zones of transport blockage occurred in bu/bu eyes while IOP was elevated; most affected axons lay immediately adjacent to ONH connective tissue beams that radiate outward from the central retinal vessels to the optic-nerve sheath. Thus, the rabbit, which lacks a true lamina cribrosa, does not show marked blockage of axonal transport as occurs in the LS of the monkey and cat ONH when IOP is elevated acutely. This anatomic difference appears to be protective against axonal damage, since bu/bu rabbits with chronic IOP elevation did not show significant loss of optic axons. These results are consistent with the proposed 'mechanical' theory of ONH damage resulting from increased IOP. Electron-microscopic radioautography revealed that chronically elevated IOP in bu/bu rabbits, which caused small foci of blocked ONH axonal transport against ONH beams, also caused degeneration of a few optic nerve terminals in the superior colliculi as the disease progressed.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:2439361

  14. Comedogenicity in rabbit: some cosmetic ingredients/vehicles.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Nguyen SH; Dang TP; Maibach HI

    2007-01-01

    The rabbit external ear canal was used to define which chemicals caused comedone formation on topical application. Some of the tested ingredients are currently used in topically applied formulations. Certain raw materials have been shown to produce follicular hyperkeratosis in the rabbit ear assay. This study quantifies comedogenic potential of cosmetic materials, including: isopropyl palmitate, isopropyl myristate, butyl stearate, isopropyl isostearate, decyl oleate, isostearyl neopentanoate, isocetyl stearate, myristle myristate, cocoa butter, cetyl alcohol, paraffin, stearyl alcohol sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), and petrolatum. The first nine were deemed positive. Factors aiding clinical relevance are listed.

  15. Comedogenicity in rabbit: some cosmetic ingredients/vehicles.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Shawn H; Dang, Thao P; Maibach, Howard I

    2007-01-01

    The rabbit external ear canal was used to define which chemicals caused comedone formation on topical application. Some of the tested ingredients are currently used in topically applied formulations. Certain raw materials have been shown to produce follicular hyperkeratosis in the rabbit ear assay. This study quantifies comedogenic potential of cosmetic materials, including: isopropyl palmitate, isopropyl myristate, butyl stearate, isopropyl isostearate, decyl oleate, isostearyl neopentanoate, isocetyl stearate, myristle myristate, cocoa butter, cetyl alcohol, paraffin, stearyl alcohol sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), and petrolatum. The first nine were deemed positive. Factors aiding clinical relevance are listed. PMID:18058303

  16. Rabbit as an animal model for experimental research

    PubMed Central

    Mapara, Manjeet; Thomas, Betsy Sara; Bhat, K. M.

    2012-01-01

    Animal experimentation is carried out in consultation with the veterinary wing but it is essential that be familiar with experimental protocols of animal model to be able to design an approriate study. This is more so in place where the veterinary facilities are not easily available.Span Rabbits are commonly used as subjects for screening implant material. They have gained favour for their numerous advantages even though they should be ideally used prior to testing in a larger animal model. Though experimentation on rabbits seems to be easy there are many pitfalls. Our endeavor in this article is to integrate all the data about maintaining rabbits as a model and to critically analyze it on the basis of our experimentation. PMID:22363373

  17. HSV-1 latent rabbits shed viral DNA into their saliva

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Rabbits latent with HSV-1 strain McKrae spontaneously shed infectious virus and viral DNA into their tears and develop recurrent herpetic-specific corneal lesions. The rabbit eye model has been used for many years to assess acute ocular infections and pathogenesis, antiviral efficacy, as well as latency, reactivation, and recurrent eye diseases. This study used real-time PCR to quantify HSV-1 DNA in the saliva and tears of rabbits latent with HSV-1 McKrae. Methods New Zealand white rabbits used were latent with HSV-1 strain McKrae and had no ocular or oral pathology. Scarified corneas were topically inoculated with HSV-1. Eye swabs and saliva were taken from post inoculation (PI) days 28 through 49 (22 consecutive days). Saliva samples were taken four times each day from each rabbit and the DNA extracted was pooled for each rabbit for each day; one swab was taken daily from each eye and DNA extracted. Real-time PCR was done on the purified DNA samples for quantification of HSV-1 DNA copy numbers. Data are presented as copy numbers for each individual sample, plus all the copy numbers designated as positive, for comparison between left eye (OS), right eye (OD), and saliva. Results The saliva and tears were taken from 9 rabbits and from 18 eyes and all tested positive at least once. Saliva was positive for HSV-1 DNA at 43.4% (86/198) and tears were positive at 28.0% (111/396). The saliva positives had 48 episodes and the tears had 75 episodes. The mean copy numbers ± the SEM for HSV-1 DNA in saliva were 3773 ± 2019 and 2294 ± 869 for tears (no statistical difference). Conclusion Rabbits latent with strain McKrae shed HSV-1 DNA into their saliva and tears. HSV-1 DNA shedding into the saliva was similar to humans. This is the first evidence that documents HSV-1 DNA in the saliva of latent rabbits. PMID:23021094

  18. European Rabbits as Reservoir for Coxiella burnetii

    PubMed Central

    González-Barrio, David; Maio, Elisa; Vieira-Pinto, Madalena

    2015-01-01

    We studied the role of European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) as a reservoir for Coxiella burnetii in the Iberian region. High individual and population seroprevalences observed in wild and farmed rabbits, evidence of systemic infections, and vaginal shedding support the reservoir role of the European rabbit for C. burnetii. PMID:25988670

  19. The Rabbit as a Model for Studying Lung Disease and Stem Cell Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Kamaruzaman, Nurfatin Asyikhin; Kamaldin, Nurulain ‘Atikah; Latahir, Ahmad Zaeri; Yahaya, Badrul Hisham

    2013-01-01

    No single animal model can reproduce all of the human features of both acute and chronic lung diseases. However, the rabbit is a reliable model and clinically relevant facsimile of human disease. The similarities between rabbits and humans in terms of airway anatomy and responses to inflammatory mediators highlight the value of this species in the investigation of lung disease pathophysiology and in the development of therapeutic agents. The inflammatory responses shown by the rabbit model, especially in the case of asthma, are comparable with those that occur in humans. The allergic rabbit model has been used extensively in drug screening tests, and this model and humans appear to be sensitive to similar drugs. In addition, recent studies have shown that the rabbit serves as a good platform for cell delivery for the purpose of stem-cell-based therapy. PMID:23653896

  20. Intra-arterial delivery of triolein emulsion increases vascular permeability in skeletal muscles of rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hak Jin; Kim, Yong Woo; Lee, In Sook; Song, Jong Woon; Jeong, Yeon Joo; Choi, Seon Hee; Choi, Kyung Un; Suh, Kuen Tak; Cho, Byung Mann

    2009-01-01

    Background To test the hypothesis that triolein emulsion will increase vascular permeability of skeletal muscle. Methods Triolein emulsion was infused into the superficial femoral artery in rabbits (triolein group, n = 12). As a control, saline was infused (saline group, n = 18). Pre- and post-contrast T1-weighted MR images were obtained two hours after infusion. The MR images were qualitatively and quantitatively evaluated by assessing the contrast enhancement of the ipsilateral muscles. Histologic examination was performed in all rabbits. Results The ipsilateral muscles of the rabbits in the triolein group showed contrast enhancement, as opposed to in the ipsilateral muscles of the rabbits in the saline group. The contrast enhancement of the lesions was statistically significant (p < 0.001). Histologic findings showed that most examination areas of the triolein and saline groups had a normal appearance. Conclusion Rabbit thigh muscle revealed significantly increased vascular permeability with triolein emulsion; this was clearly demonstrated on the postcontrast MR images. PMID:19604410

  1. Ivermectin: its effect on the immune system of rabbits and rats infested with ectoparasites.

    PubMed

    Uhlr, J; Volf, P

    1992-11-01

    The influence of subcutaneously administered ivermectin on the specific immune response was studied in rabbits infested with mites (Psoroptes cuniculi) and in rats infested with lice (Polyplax spinulosa). A pronounced specific antibody activity and a change in immunoblotting pattern was observed in rabbits after the ivermectin treatment. However, in rats the antibody activity decreased and the profile of specific antibodies, tested by immunoblotting, remained the same as before the treatment. The specific immune response in rabbits artificially immunized with whole-body Psoroptes cuniculi extract was not affected by ivermectin. It was concluded that ivermectin has no direct effect on the immune response of rabbits and rats and that the enhanced immune response in the mite-infested rabbits was caused by the massive release of antigens associated with the synchronous death of the mites. PMID:1455687

  2. Screening of differentially-expressed genes in the muscles of rabbit breeds with expression profile chip.

    PubMed

    Wang, W Z; Li, T; Shi, L J; Yan, X R; Pan, Y L; Wu, X S

    2015-01-01

    The molecular mechanism underlying muscle development in rabbits is not well-understood. In the current study, differentially-expressed genes were scanned using an expression profile chip in New Zealand white rabbits (introduced breed) and Fujian yellow rabbits (local breed), and some of the genes were tested using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The amplification results were consistent with the microarray data. Fourteen and 13 genes involved in muscle development were identified in the dorsal longissimus and leg muscles, respectively. Myh6, Myh7, Myh7b, Myo5b, Tnnc1, Tpm3, and Acta2 were scanned in the longissimus and leg muscles. Thus, these genes may be involved in muscle fiber formation and muscle development in rabbits. This study provides a theoretical basis for improving meat quality, as well as for the future development and utilization of local meat rabbit breeds. PMID:26214486

  3. Osteoblastic Osteosarcoma in a Rabbit

    PubMed Central

    Ishikawa, Megumi; Kondo, Hirotaka; Onuma, Mamoru; Shibuya, Hisashi; Sato, Tsuneo

    2012-01-01

    An osteosarcoma developed in the tarsal joint region involving the distal tibia of a domestic rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus). Micrometastases were present in the lungs. Histologically the tumor was composed of ovoid to short-spindle cells with abundant giant cells, producing irregular islands of osteoids. The tumor cells were immunopositive with antiosteocalcin monoclonal antibody, consistent with their derivation from osteoblasts. According to review of 10 published cases, productive osteoblasic osteosarcoma is the most common bone tumor in rabbits, with half of all cases developing in the skull or facial bones. PMID:22546918

  4. Osteoblastic osteosarcoma in a rabbit.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Megumi; Kondo, Hirotaka; Onuma, Mamoru; Shibuya, Hisashi; Sato, Tsuneo

    2012-04-01

    An osteosarcoma developed in the tarsal joint region involving the distal tibia of a domestic rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus). Micrometastases were present in the lungs. Histologically the tumor was composed of ovoid to short-spindle cells with abundant giant cells, producing irregular islands of osteoids. The tumor cells were immunopositive with antiosteocalcin monoclonal antibody, consistent with their derivation from osteoblasts. According to review of 10 published cases, productive osteoblasic osteosarcoma is the most common bone tumor in rabbits, with half of all cases developing in the skull or facial bones. PMID:22546918

  5. Hematological assessment in pet rabbits: blood sample collection and blood cell identification.

    PubMed

    Moore, David M; Zimmerman, Kurt; Smith, Stephen A

    2015-01-01

    Pet rabbits are presented to veterinary clinics for routine care and treatment of clinical diseases. In addition to obtaining clinical history, additional diagnostic testing may be required, including hematological assessments. This article describes common blood collection methods, including venipuncture sites, volume of blood that can be safely collected, and handling of the blood. Hematological parameters for normal rabbits are provided for comparison with in-house or commercial test results. A description of the morphology of rabbit leukocytes is provided to assist in performing a differential count. Differential diagnoses are provided for abnormal values identified in the hemogram. PMID:25421022

  6. Experimental infection of young rabbits with a rabbit enteric coronavirus.

    PubMed Central

    Descôteaux, J P; Lussier, G

    1990-01-01

    The clinical signs and lesions caused by the rabbit enteric coronavirus (RECV) were studied in young rabbits orally inoculated with a suspension containing RECV particles. The inoculated animals were observed daily for evidence of diarrhea. Fecal samples and specimens from the small intestine and from the gut associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) were collected from 2 h to 29 days postinoculation (PI) and processed for immune electron microscopy (IEM) and light microscopy. Coronavirus particles were detected in the cecal contents of most inoculated animals from 6 h to 29 days PI. Lesions were first observed 6 h PI and were characterized by a loss of the brush border of mature enterocytes located at the tips of intestinal villi and by necrosis of these cells. At 48 h PI, short intestinal villi and hypertrophic crypts were noted. In the GALT, complete necrosis of the M cells as well as necrosis of the enterocytes lining the villi above the lymphoid follicules with hypertrophy of the corresponding crypts were observed in all the animals. Five inoculated rabbits had diarrhea three days PI. The presence of RECV particles in the feces of the sick animals and the microscopic lesions observed in the small intestine suggested that the virus was responsible for the clinical signs. A few inoculated rabbits remained free of diarrhea. Fecal material collected at postmortem examination contained RECV particles. The results suggest that the virus could also produce a subclinical infection. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. PMID:2174299

  7. Induction of Asherman's Syndrome in Rabbit

    PubMed Central

    Bazoobandi, Sanaz; Tanideh, Nader; Rahmanifar, Farhad; Tamadon, Amin; Keshtkar, Mohammadreza; Mehrabani, Davood; Kasraeian, Maryam; Koohi-Hosseinabadi, Omid

    2016-01-01

    Background: Uterine synechiae or Asherman's syndrome is a condition that can cause infertility. The present experimental study was designed to establish the rabbit as an animal model for human Asherman's syndrome using the endometrial curettage. Methods: In an experimental study, female adult rabbits (n=18) were randomly divided into intact and ovariectomized groups. One third of caudal part of both uteri was submitted to traumatic endometrial curettage. One group was simultaneously ovariectomized. The intact rabbits were artificially induced ovulation during 10 days after surgery. One third of cranial part of both uteri was selected as the control. Synechiae occurring, luminal area/total area (LA/TA), endometrial area/total area (EA/TA), myometrial and perimetrial area/total area (MPA/TA), endometrial area/uterine wall area (EA/UWA), and myometrial and perimetrial area/uterine wall area (MPA/UWA) ratios of both uteri in six subdivided groups (n=6) were analysed in curetted and intact control parts. On days 15, 30 and 45 following surgery by two-way ANOVA and LSD test (p<0.05). Results: Histopathologic findings showed significant epithelial damage together with significant inflammatory reaction in the intact curettage group. The LA/TA ratios of the intact curettage group on days 15 and 45 were more than the intact control group on day 15. The EA/TA ratio of the intact curettage group on day 30 was less than the intact control group on day 30. Conclusion: Uterine fibrosis was observed in intact curettage group, and this modified animal model showed a pathogenesis condition similar to intrauterine adhesions observed in human. PMID:26962478

  8. A missense mutation in the rabbit melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R) gene is associated with finishing weight in a meat rabbit line.

    PubMed

    Fontanesi, Luca; Scotti, Emilio; Cisarova, Katarina; Di Battista, Piero; Dall'olio, Stefania; Fornasini, Daniela; Frabetti, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    In this study we resequenced 1729 bp of the rabbit melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4 R) gene in 31 rabbits from different breeds/lines and identified ten polymorphisms: one was an indel and 9 were single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). The indel and 5 SNPs were in the 5'-flanking region, 3 were synonymous SNPs and one was a missense mutation (c.101G>A; p.G34D), located in a conserved position of the extracellular tail of the MC4 R protein. The missense mutation was analyzed in a panel of 74 rabbits of different breeds and in 516 performance tested rabbits of a commercial paternal line under selection for growth efficiency. Association analysis indicated that rabbits with the less frequent genotype in this population (DD) had a lighter weight at 70 postnatal days than animals with genotype GD (P < 0.10) and animals with genotype GG (P < 0.05). This is the third study on candidate genes, after those on GH1 and IGF2 that reported a marker associated with finishing weight. Therefore, it seems that a candidate gene approach in rabbit based on previous information accumulated in other livestock species could be useful to identify genes explaining a fraction of variability of performance traits with potential application on rabbit breeding and selection. PMID:23947663

  9. Functional alterations of rabbit erythrocytes induced by Loxosceles gaucho venom.

    PubMed

    Barretto, Orlando Cesar de Oliveira; Soeiro Prestes, Karina; Figueiredo Fonseca, Lorena Kessia; Achucarro Silveira, Paulo Augusto

    2007-10-01

    Loxoscelism is the syndrome caused by the brown spider Loxosceles gaucho bite in humans. Its effect on erythrocytes has been studied in humans, rabbits, pigs and guinea pigs. In this study, the damage that the L gaucho spider venom causes to the structure and function of erythrocytes in vivo was investigated in rabbits. Before and after the rabbits were envenomed, membrane proteins were studied through polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and membrane function was ascertained using the osmotic fragility test, together with the highly sensitive technique of ektacytometry. Six New Zealand rabbits were inoculated by intradermal injection into the dorsal region (10 microg of venom/kg of body weight in 0.2 mL of saline). Blood was collected at 24, 48, 72 and 120 h after inoculation. The membrane protein study did not reveal any alteration in their relative band concentrations, but the osmotic fragility test showed increased hemolysis in slightly hypotonic sodium chloride solutions (at 0.6 and 0.55%). In addition, the ektacytometer study revealed greater deformability to increasing shear stress on the order of 3-30 Pascals when compared with controls, showing that the L gaucho venom does in fact alter red cell function. PMID:18025054

  10. Electrical stimulation in isolated rabbit retina.

    PubMed

    Shyu, Jeng-Shyong; Maia, Mauricio; Weiland, James D; Ohearn, Thomas; Chen, Shih-Jen; Margalit, Eyal; Suzuki, Satoshi; Humayun, Mark S

    2006-09-01

    Experiments were conducted to assess the effect of stimulating electrode parameters (size, position, and waveform shape) on electrically elicited ganglion cell action potentials from isolated rabbit retina. Thirty-eight isolated rabbit retinas were stimulated with bipolar stimulating electrodes (either 125 or 25 microm in diameter) positioned on either the ganglion or the photoreceptor side. Recording electrodes were placed between the optic disc and the stimulating electrodes. Cathodic-first, biphasic, current waveforms of varying pulse durations (0.1, 0.5, 1 ms) were used. For the four conditions tested (125-electrode and 25-microm electrode, ganglion cell, and photoreceptor positions) threshold currents ranged from 6.7 to 23.6 microA, depending on location and pulse duration. With 1-ms pulse duration, no statistically significant difference was seen between threshold currents when either size electrode was used to stimulate either the ganglion cell side or the photoreceptor side. For all groups, the threshold currents using the 1-ms pulse were lower than those using 0.1 ms, but the 0.1-ms pulses used less charge. These experiments provide a number of valuable insights into the relative effects of several stimulation parameters critical to the development of an implanted electronic retinal prosthesis. PMID:17009488

  11. Evaluating the Functionality of Conjunctiva Using a Rabbit Dry Eye Model.

    PubMed

    Ning, Yuan; Bhattacharya, Dhruva; Jones, Richard E; Zhao, Fangkun; Chen, Rongji; Zhang, Jinsong; Wang, Mingwu

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To assess the conjunctival functionality in a rabbit dry eye (DE) model. Methods. Nictitating membrane, lacrimal and Harderian glands were surgically excised from male New Zealand white rabbits using minimally invasive surgery. Fluorescein/rose Bengal staining of ocular surface (OS) and Schirmer test were done before (BE) and after excision (AE). The expression of interleukin- (IL-) 1β, tumor necrosis factor- (TNF-) α, and MUC5AC proteins were estimated by immunoblotting from conjunctival impression cytology specimens. MUC5AC mRNA was quantified as well. The effect of epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) blockers on tear production and potential differences (PD) of OS were assessed under anesthesia in rabbits with and without surgery. Results. Increase in corneal and conjunctival staining was observed 1 month AE compared to BE. Schirmer tests failed to show decrease in tear production. Elevated IL-1β, and TNF-α, 1 month AE indicated inflammation. MUC5AC expression was elevated 1 month AE. ENaC blockers did not improve tear production in rabbit eyes AE but characteristic changes in PD were observed in rabbits with surgery. Conclusions. DE biomarkers are important tools for OS assessment and MUC5AC expression is elevated in rabbit DE. PD measurement revealed significant electrophysiological changes in rabbits with surgery. PMID:27088007

  12. Evaluating the Functionality of Conjunctiva Using a Rabbit Dry Eye Model

    PubMed Central

    Ning, Yuan; Bhattacharya, Dhruva; Jones, Richard E.; Zhao, Fangkun; Chen, Rongji; Zhang, Jinsong; Wang, Mingwu

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To assess the conjunctival functionality in a rabbit dry eye (DE) model. Methods. Nictitating membrane, lacrimal and Harderian glands were surgically excised from male New Zealand white rabbits using minimally invasive surgery. Fluorescein/rose Bengal staining of ocular surface (OS) and Schirmer test were done before (BE) and after excision (AE). The expression of interleukin- (IL-) 1β, tumor necrosis factor- (TNF-) α, and MUC5AC proteins were estimated by immunoblotting from conjunctival impression cytology specimens. MUC5AC mRNA was quantified as well. The effect of epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) blockers on tear production and potential differences (PD) of OS were assessed under anesthesia in rabbits with and without surgery. Results. Increase in corneal and conjunctival staining was observed 1 month AE compared to BE. Schirmer tests failed to show decrease in tear production. Elevated IL-1β, and TNF-α, 1 month AE indicated inflammation. MUC5AC expression was elevated 1 month AE. ENaC blockers did not improve tear production in rabbit eyes AE but characteristic changes in PD were observed in rabbits with surgery. Conclusions. DE biomarkers are important tools for OS assessment and MUC5AC expression is elevated in rabbit DE. PD measurement revealed significant electrophysiological changes in rabbits with surgery. PMID:27088007

  13. Effects of Paradigm and Inter-Stimulus Interval on Age Differences in Eyeblink Classical Conditioning in Rabbits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodruff-Pak, Diana S.; Seta, Susan E.; Roker, LaToya A.; Lehr, Melissa A.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine parameters affecting age differences in eyeblink classical conditioning in a large sample of young and middle-aged rabbits. A total of 122 rabbits of mean ages of 4 or 26 mo were tested at inter-stimulus intervals (ISIs) of 600 or 750 msec in the delay or trace paradigms. Paradigm affected both age groups

  14. Effects of Paradigm and Inter-Stimulus Interval on Age Differences in Eyeblink Classical Conditioning in Rabbits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodruff-Pak, Diana S.; Seta, Susan E.; Roker, LaToya A.; Lehr, Melissa A.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine parameters affecting age differences in eyeblink classical conditioning in a large sample of young and middle-aged rabbits. A total of 122 rabbits of mean ages of 4 or 26 mo were tested at inter-stimulus intervals (ISIs) of 600 or 750 msec in the delay or trace paradigms. Paradigm affected both age groups…

  15. Production of antibody to staphylococcal delta-haemolysin in the rabbit.

    PubMed Central

    Heatley, N. G.

    1977-01-01

    Gamma-globulin and IgG from the sera of rabbits immunized with either "insoluble" or "solvent-transferred" staphylococcal delta-haemolysin precipitated with, and neutralized both forms of lysin. Similar preparations from the same rabbits before immunization did not; nor did those from rabbits made hyperimmune to other antigens. In these tests "insoluble" and "solvent-transferred" lysin could not be distinguished antigenically, nor could "insoluble" lysin from two different strains of staphylococci, each grown on two different media. An appendix presents further evidence for antigenicity of delta-lysin, based on affinity chromatography. PMID:410429

  16. [Anesthesia procedures in the rabbit].

    PubMed

    Erhardt, W

    1984-01-01

    In a review common regimens of anesthesia in the rabbit are described. To carry out an anesthesia the following knowledge is requested: preanesthetic history and physical condition, preanesthetic feeding and handling, methods of drug application (aerogen, intravenously and intramuscularly). Special anesthetic risks in the rabbit are lined out. The methods of anesthesia are presented in four tables. Long term anesthesia: Ketamine (Ketanest) + Xylazine (Rompun) i.m. or Fluanison/Fentanyl (Hypnorm) i.m. Medium term anesthesia: Ketamine + Xylazine i.v. or Pentoparbitone (Narcoren) i.v. Short- and introductive anesthesia: Propanidid (Epontol) i.v.; Althesine (Saffan) or (Aurantex); Thiamylal (Surital) i.v.; Alfentanil (Rapifen) i.v. + Etomidat (Hypnomidat) i.v. + Azaperon (Stesnil) premedication Methods of inhalation anesthesia with volatile anesthetics like ether, halothan or methoxyfluran as admixture with normal air or with nitrousoxide/oxygen. PMID:6388029

  17. Silicone intraocular lenses in rabbits.

    PubMed Central

    Ruedemann, A D

    1977-01-01

    1. A series of rabbits have been operated upon utilizing two extracapsular techniques. An intraocular lens cast from several silicone materials was placed in each eye with the exception of one (number 9). 2. The eyes from these animals have been evaluated by clinical and microscopic techniques (including scanning electron microscopy). 3. From this limited study, it would appear that an intraocular lens made from cast silicone does not remarkably affect the physiological function of the rabbit eye. 4. Electron microscopic studies on some of the lenses in this series indicates no particular cellular reaction to or upon these lenses evaluated by this technique. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 A FIGURE 2 B FIGURE 2 C FIGURE 2 D FIGURE 3 A FIGURE 3 B FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 A FIGURE 5 B FIGURE 6 A FIGURE 6 B FIGURE 7 PMID:613529

  18. Development of germ cell neoplasia in situ in chinchilla rabbits.

    PubMed

    Vigueras-Villaseñor, Rosa María; Montelongo Solís, Paola; Chávez-Saldaña, Margarita; Gutiérrez-Pérez, Oscar; Cortés Trujillo, Lucero; Rojas-Castañeda, Julio César

    2016-05-01

    The present study was designed to describe the development of germ cell neoplasia in situ in Chinchilla rabbit by administration of estradiol. The study was performed in rabbits distributed into two groups: control and 17 β-estradiol. The determination of histological alterations and POU5F1 and c-kit proteins employed as biomarkers for the diagnosis of this neoplasia was carried out. Testicular descent and complete spermatogenesis were observed in the control group. The protein biomarkers were negative. However, in the rabbits treated with estradiol, the testes remained undescended with the gonocytes undifferentiated to spermatogonia. There were histological lesions owing to germ cell neoplasia in situ and positive to POU5F1 and c-kit proteins. These findings indicate that the chinchilla rabbit is an ideal model to study this neoplasia in which the histological characteristics and biomarkers of the disease could be clearly observed. Using this model we suggested that the persisting gonocytes could be responsible for the development of germ cell neoplasia in situ. PMID:26617392

  19. Tetraparental rabbits chimeric for their lymphoid system--I. Allotype expression.

    PubMed

    Bordenave, G R; Babinet, C

    1984-05-01

    We constructed tetraparental rabbits by immunosurgically prepared inner-cell-mass transplantation. The two constitutive parental strains were chosen so that they not only differed by their coat colour (brown and white rabbits) but also by the allotypic specificities of their immunoglobulins. It was thus possible to distinguish among the rabbits born from composite blastocysts those which were chimeric for their lymphoid system and to unambiguously quantitate the respective contribution of each parental strain to this chimerism. In this peculiar situation, the possible perturbation of the expression of immunoglobulin allotypic specificities could be tested. Thus further analysis of the tetraparental rabbit's immunoglobulins was performed to look at possible anomalies of their constitution. In only one out of the 20 tetraparental rabbits studied, we found IgG having heavy chains with the allotypic specificities of one parental strain and light chains with the allotypic specificities of the other parental strain. We did not observe, in any case, the expression of immunoglobulin allotypic specificities other than the expected ones. We always observed a marked decrease with time in the expression of the immunoglobulins produced by the lymphocytes of one parental strain accompanied by a concomitant increase in the expression of the immunoglobulins produced by the lymphocytes of the other parental strain. Two tetraparental rabbits were found to be germ-line chimeras. Analysis of the immunoglobulin allotypic specificities of the progeny of our tetraparental rabbits including these two did not reveal any perturbation in their hereditary transmission according to the usual Mendelian laws. PMID:6204194

  20. The bacterial communities associated with fecal types and body weight of rex rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Bo; Han, Shushu; Wang, Ping; Wen, Bin; Jian, Wensu; Guo, Wei; Yu, Zhiju; Du, Dan; Fu, Xiangchao; Kong, Fanli; Yang, Mingyao; Si, Xiaohui; Zhao, Jiangchao; Li, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Rex rabbit is an important small herbivore for fur and meat production. However, little is known about the gut microbiota in rex rabbit, especially regarding their relationship with different fecal types and growth of the hosts. We characterized the microbiota of both hard and soft feces from rex rabbits with high and low body weight by using the Illumina MiSeq platform targeting the V4 region of the 16S rDNA. High weight rex rabbits possess distinctive microbiota in hard feces, but not in soft feces, from the low weight group. We detected the overrepresentation of several genera such as YS2/Cyanobacteria, and Bacteroidales and underrepresentation of genera such as Anaeroplasma spp. and Clostridiaceae in high weight hard feces. Between fecal types, several bacterial taxa such as Ruminococcaceae, and Akkermansia spp. were enriched in soft feces. PICRUSt analysis revealed that metabolic pathways such as “stilbenoid, diarylheptanoid, gingerol biosynthesis” were enriched in high weight rabbits, and pathways related to “xenobiotics biodegradation” and “various types of N-glycan biosynthesis” were overrepresented in rabbit soft feces. Our study provides foundation to generate hypothesis aiming to test the roles that different bacterial taxa play in the growth and caecotrophy of rex rabbits. PMID:25791609

  1. The bacterial communities associated with fecal types and body weight of rex rabbits.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Bo; Han, Shushu; Wang, Ping; Wen, Bin; Jian, Wensu; Guo, Wei; Yu, Zhiju; Du, Dan; Fu, Xiangchao; Kong, Fanli; Yang, Mingyao; Si, Xiaohui; Zhao, Jiangchao; Li, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Rex rabbit is an important small herbivore for fur and meat production. However, little is known about the gut microbiota in rex rabbit, especially regarding their relationship with different fecal types and growth of the hosts. We characterized the microbiota of both hard and soft feces from rex rabbits with high and low body weight by using the Illumina MiSeq platform targeting the V4 region of the 16S rDNA. High weight rex rabbits possess distinctive microbiota in hard feces, but not in soft feces, from the low weight group. We detected the overrepresentation of several genera such as YS2/Cyanobacteria, and Bacteroidales and underrepresentation of genera such as Anaeroplasma spp. and Clostridiaceae in high weight hard feces. Between fecal types, several bacterial taxa such as Ruminococcaceae, and Akkermansia spp. were enriched in soft feces. PICRUSt analysis revealed that metabolic pathways such as "stilbenoid, diarylheptanoid, gingerol biosynthesis" were enriched in high weight rabbits, and pathways related to "xenobiotics biodegradation" and "various types of N-glycan biosynthesis" were overrepresented in rabbit soft feces. Our study provides foundation to generate hypothesis aiming to test the roles that different bacterial taxa play in the growth and caecotrophy of rex rabbits. PMID:25791609

  2. Serological survey of hepatitis E virus infection in farmed and pet rabbits in Italy.

    PubMed

    Di Bartolo, Ilaria; De Sabato, L; Marata, A; Martinelli, N; Magistrali, C F; Monini, M; Ponterio, E; Ostanello, F; Ruggeri, F M

    2016-05-01

    The recent identification in rabbits of hepatitis E viruses (HEV) related to viruses infecting humans raises the question of the role of this species as possible HEV reservoir. A serological survey on rabbit HEV infection was conducted in Italy during 2013-2014, including both farmed and pet rabbits. We found an anti-HEV antibody seroprevalence of 3.40 % in 206 farmed rabbits (collected on 7 farms) and 6.56 % in 122 pets. RNA was extracted from IgG-positive sera and analyzed by HEV-specific real-time RT-PCR. None of the samples were positive, confirming that no viremia was present in the presence of IgG. Only one serum sample from a farmed rabbit was positive for IgM, but no HEV RNA was detected in it. Pet rabbit feces were also tested for HEV RNA, with negative results. This finding suggests that HEV is circulating in rabbits in Italy. PMID:26873813

  3. In vivo gene therapy for hyperlipidemia: phenotypic correction in Watanabe rabbits by hepatic delivery of the rabbit LDL receptor gene.

    PubMed Central

    Li, J; Fang, B; Eisensmith, R C; Li, X H; Nasonkin, I; Lin-Lee, Y C; Mims, M P; Hughes, A; Montgomery, C D; Roberts, J D

    1995-01-01

    Elevations of plasma total or LDL cholesterol are major risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Efforts directed at preventing and treating cardiovascular disease have often focused on reducing the levels of these substances in the blood. The Watanabe Heritable Hyperlipidemic Rabbit, which has exceedingly high plasma cholesterol levels resulting from an LDL receptor deficiency, provides an excellent animal model for testing new treatments. A recombinant adenoviral vector containing the rabbit LDL receptor cDNA was administered to Watanabe rabbits. Plasma total cholesterol levels in the treated animals were reduced from 825.5 +/- 69.8 (mean +/- SD) to 247.3 +/- 61.5 mg/dl 6 d after infusion. These animals also demonstrated a 300-400% increase in plasma levels of HDL cholesterol and apo AI 10 d after treatment. As a result, the LDL:HDL ratio exhibited a dramatic decrease. Because only the rabbit LDL receptor gene was used for treatment, the results strongly suggest that the elevations of plasma HDL cholesterol and apo AI were secondary to a reduction in plasma total cholesterol in the treated animals. These results suggest an inverse relationship between plasma LDL and HDL cholesterol levels and imply that reduction of LDL cholesterol levels may have a beneficial effect on plasma HDL cholesterol. PMID:7860759

  4. Mapping of a QTL for serum HDL cholesterol in the rabbit using AFLP technology.

    PubMed

    Van Haeringen, W A; Den Bieman, M; Gillissen, G F; Lankhorst, A E; Kuiper, M T; Van Zutphen, L F; Van Lith, H A

    2001-01-01

    The amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) technique is a DNA technology that generates the so-called AFLP markers. These markers are genomic restriction fragments detected after two rounds of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) without prior knowledge of nucleotide sequence. Here we describe the first application of the AFLP technique in the rabbit. We have tested two primer combinations. The results obtained with the DNA from rabbits of different breeds justify the conclusion that AFLP analysis is an effective tool for genetic studies in the rabbit. In addition, we contribute to the linkage map of the rabbit by localizing two AFLP markers on rabbit linkage group VI (LG VI). For this purpose the progeny of a IIIVO/JU x [IIIVO/JU x AX/JU]F(1) backcross were genotyped for 12 AFLP markers and 3 LG VI classical markers [one coat color marker (e) and two biochemical markers (Es-1 and Est-2)]. AX/JU is a dietary cholesterol-susceptible (hyperresponding) inbred strain and IIIVO/JU is a dietary cholesterol resistant (hyporesponding) inbred strain. Moreover, it is possible to evoke dietary cholesterol-induced aorta atherosclerosis in a relatively short time period in AX/JU rabbits, in contrast to IIIVO/JU rabbits. A significant cosegregation was found between basal serum HDL cholesterol level (i.e., the level on a low-cholesterol, control diet) and an AFLP marker on LG VI. It is concluded that one or more genes of LG VI are regulating the basal serum HDL cholesterol level in rabbits. Thus the present study with rabbits clearly illustrates the value of AFLP markers for the construction of linkage maps and mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTL). PMID:11535644

  5. Transiently enhanced LPS-induced fever following hyperthermic stress in rabbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibata, Masaaki; Uno, Tadashi; Riedel, Walter; Nishimaki, Michiyo; Watanabe, Kaori

    2005-11-01

    Hyperthermia has been shown to induce an enhanced febrile response to the bacterial-derived endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that the enhanced LPS-induced fever seen in heat stressed (HS) animals is caused by leakage of intestinal bacterial LPS into the circulation. Male rabbits were rendered transiently hyperthermic (a maximum rectal temperature of 43°C) and divided into three groups. They were then allowed to recover in a room at 24°C for 1, 2 or 3 days post-HS. One day after injection with LPS, the post-HS rabbits exhibited significantly higher fevers than the controls, though this was not seen in rabbits at either 2 or 3 days post-HS. The plasma levels of endogenous LPS were significantly increased during the HS as compared to those seen in normothermic rabbits prior to HS. LPS fevers were not induced in these animals. One day post-HS, rabbits that had been pretreated with oral antibiotics exhibited significantly attenuated LPS levels. When challenged with human recombinant interleukin-1β instead of LPS, the 1-day post-HS rabbits did not respond with enhanced fevers. The plasma levels of TNFα increased similarly during LPS-induced fevers in both the control and 1-day post-HS rabbits, while the plasma levels of corticosterone and the osmolality of the 1-day post-HS rabbits showed no significant differences to those seen prior to the HS. These results suggest that the enhanced fever in the 1-day post-HS rabbits is LPS specific, and may be caused by increased leakage of intestinal endotoxin into blood circulation.

  6. Renal nerves dynamically regulate renal blood flow in conscious, healthy rabbits.

    PubMed

    Schiller, Alicia M; Pellegrino, Peter R; Zucker, Irving H

    2016-01-15

    Despite significant clinical interest in renal denervation as a therapy, the role of the renal nerves in the physiological regulation of renal blood flow (RBF) remains debated. We hypothesized that the renal nerves physiologically regulate beat-to-beat RBF variability (RBFV). This was tested in chronically instrumented, healthy rabbits that underwent either bilateral surgical renal denervation (DDNx) or a sham denervation procedure (INV). Artifact-free segments of RBF and arterial pressure (AP) from calmly resting, conscious rabbits were used to extract RBFV and AP variability for time-domain, frequency-domain, and nonlinear analysis. Whereas steady-state measures of RBF, AP, and heart rate did not statistically differ between groups, DDNx rabbits had greater RBFV than INV rabbits. AP-RBF transfer function analysis showed greater admittance gain in DDNx rabbits than in INV rabbits, particularly in the low-frequency (LF) range where systemic sympathetic vasomotion gives rise to AP oscillations. In the LF range, INV rabbits exhibited a negative AP-RBF phase shift and low coherence, consistent with the presence of an active control system. Neither of these features were present in the LF range of DDNx rabbits, which showed no phase shift and high coherence, consistent with a passive, Ohm's law pressure-flow relationship. Renal denervation did not significantly affect nonlinear RBFV measures of chaos, self-affinity, or complexity, nor did it significantly affect glomerular filtration rate or extracellular fluid volume. Cumulatively, these data suggest that the renal nerves mediate LF renal sympathetic vasomotion, which buffers RBF from LF AP oscillations in conscious, healthy rabbits. PMID:26538235

  7. Pathological and ultrastructural observations and liver function analysis of Eimeria stiedai-infected rabbits.

    PubMed

    Jing, Jin; Liu, Chun; Zhu, Shun-Xing; Jiang, Ying-Mei; Wu, Liu-Cheng; Song, Hong-Yan; Shao, Yi-Xiang

    2016-06-15

    To study the pathogenicity of Eimeria stiedai, sporulated oocysts were given orally to coccidian-free two-month-old New Zealand rabbits(1000±20g). After 30days, blood samples from the rabbit hearts were collected for routine blood tests, liver functions and four characteristics of blood coagulation. Additionally, specimens of the liver, bile duct and duodenum were collected to observe the changes in pathology and ultrastructure. E. stiedai severely restricted the growth and development of rabbits. Blood tests showed that glutamine transferase (GGT) and serum cholinesterase (ChE) were significantly different from the non-infected controls. Other extremely significant differences were observed in the biochemical indices of routine blood tests, liver function and four blood coagulation characteristics, indicating that the liver functions were significantly affected. Staining showed that, compared with the negative control group, the liver, bile duct and duodenum contained significant numbers of lesions, and organs and cell structures suffered severe damage in ultrastructure, which greatly affecting bodily functions. E. stiedai-infected rabbits model was successfully established, which might provide a theoretical basis for research on the pathogenesis of rabbit coccidia, and the diagnosis and prevention of coccidiosis in rabbits. PMID:27198796

  8. Dopamine and sexual behavior in the male rabbit.

    PubMed

    Agmo, A; Paredes, R G; Ramos, J I; Contreras, J L

    1996-10-01

    Male rabbits were treated with the dopamine releasing drug amphetamine or the dopamine D1/D2 receptor antagonist cis(Z)-flupenthixol. Amphetamine, 1 to 4 mg/kg, had no effect on sexual behavior. Flupenthixol, 2 mg/kg, reduced the proportion of rabbits that ejaculated and the number of ejaculations per test. Lower doses were ineffective. Castrated males were treated with both drugs at two intervals after castration, 19-21 and 27-29 days postcastration, respectively. Amphetamine was without effect while flupenthixol, 1 mg/kg, reduced sexual behavior at the test 19-21 days postcastration. At the second test, sexual behavior was almost completely absent in control animals. Therefore, no further reduction could be observed after treatment with flupenthixol. Another group of animals was castrated and given androgen replacement. Testosterone decanoate was injected once weekly at a dose of 3 mg/kg. This treatment maintained a stable, low sexual activity. In these animals, amphetamine was again ineffective whereas flupenthixol, 1 mg/kg, inhibited sexual behavior. Gross motor function was evaluated in a water escape test. Amphetamine was inactive, and the effective dose of flupenthixol was 10 mg/kg. This dose is far above the dose required for inhibiting sexual behavior. In sum, facilitated dopaminergic transmission does not seem to affect on sexual behavior in the male rabbit, whereas reduced dopaminergic activity disrupts this behavior. PMID:8951967

  9. Site characterization at the Rabbit Valley Geophysical Performance Evaluation Range

    SciTech Connect

    Koppenjan, S,; Martinez, M.

    1994-06-01

    The United States Department of Energy (US DOE) is developing a Geophysical Performance Evaluation Range (GPER) at Rabbit Valley located 30 miles west of Grand Junction, Colorado. The purpose of the range is to provide a test area for geophysical instruments and survey procedures. Assessment of equipment accuracy and resolution is accomplished through the use of static and dynamic physical models. These models include targets with fixed configurations and targets that can be re-configured to simulate specific specifications. Initial testing (1991) combined with the current tests at the Rabbit Valley GPER will establish baseline data and will provide performance criteria for the development of geophysical technologies and techniques. The US DOE`s Special Technologies Laboratory (STL) staff has conducted a Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) survey of the site with its stepped FM-CW GPR. Additionally, STL contracted several other geophysical tests. These include an airborne GPR survey incorporating a ``chirped`` FM-CW GPR system and a magnetic survey with a surfaced-towed magnetometer array unit Ground-based and aerial video and still frame pictures were also acquired. STL compiled and analyzed all of the geophysical maps and created a site characterization database. This paper discusses the results of the multi-sensor geophysical studies performed at Rabbit Valley and the future plans for the site.

  10. Site characterization at the Rabbit Valley Geophysical Performance Evaluation Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koppenjan, S.,; Martinez, M.

    The United States Department of Energy (US DOE) is developing a Geophysical Performance Evaluation Range (GPER) at Rabbit Valley located 30 miles west of Grand Junction, Colorado. The purpose of the range is to provide a test area for geophysical instruments and survey procedures. Assessment of equipment accuracy and resolution is accomplished through the use of static and dynamic physical models. These models include targets with fixed configurations and targets that can be re-configured to simulate specific specifications. Initial testing (1991) combined with the current tests at the Rabbit Valley GPER will establish baseline data and will provide performance criteria for the development of geophysical technologies and techniques. The US DOE's Special Technologies Laboratory (STL) staff has conducted a Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) survey of the site with its stepped FM-CW GPR. Additionally, STL contracted several other geophysical tests. These include an airborne GPR survey incorporating a 'chirped' FM-CW GPR system and a magnetic survey with a surfaced-towed magnetometer array unit Ground-based and aerial video and still frame pictures were also acquired. STL compiled and analyzed all of the geophysical maps and created a site characterization database. This paper discusses the results of the multi-sensor geophysical studies performed at Rabbit Valley and the future plans for the site.

  11. Molecular analysis of hepatitis E virus from farm rabbits in Inner Mongolia, China and its successful propagation in A549 and PLC/PRF/5 cells.

    PubMed

    Jirintai, Suljid; Jinshan; Tanggis; Manglai, Dugarjavin; Mulyanto; Takahashi, Masaharu; Nagashima, Shigeo; Kobayashi, Tominari; Nishizawa, Tsutomu; Okamoto, Hiroaki

    2012-12-01

    Rabbit hepatitis E virus (HEV) strains have recently been isolated in several areas of China and in the US and France. However, the host range, distribution and zoonotic potential of these HEV strains remain unknown and their propagation in cultured cells has not yet been reported. A total of 211 4-month-old rabbits raised on a farm in Inner Mongolia were tested for the presence of anti-HEV antibodies and HEV RNA. Overall, 121 rabbits (57.3%) tested positive for anti-HEV antibodies, and 151 (71.6%) had detectable HEV RNA. The 174 HEV strains recovered from these viremic rabbits, including two distinct strains each from 23 rabbits, differed from each other by up to 13.6% in a 412-nucleotide (nt) sequence within ORF2, and were 89.3-95.9% identical to the reported rabbit HEV strains in other provinces of China. Three representative Inner Mongolian strains, one each from three phylogenetic clusters, whose entire genomic sequences were determined, shared 79.6-96.7% identities with reported rabbit HEV strains within the entire or 242- to 1349-nt partial genomic sequence. Rabbit HEV strains recovered from liver tissues of rabbits with a high HEV load propagated efficiently in human cell lines (A549 and PLC/PRF/5 cells), suggesting the potential zoonotic risk of rabbit HEV. PMID:23041252

  12. Serological survey of Encephalitozoon cuniculi infection in commercially reared rabbit does in Northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Lonardi, Chiara; Grilli, Guido; Ferrazzi, Viviana; Dal Cin, Marta; Rigolin, Davide; Piccirillo, Alessandra

    2013-04-01

    The aim of the study was to carry out a serological survey of Encephalitozoon cuniculi in commercially reared rabbit does (Oryctolagus cuniculi) in Veneto region (Northern Italy). Two hundred and sixty blood samples from 13 farms were examined by a carbon immunoassay (CIA test) to detect the presence of antibodies anti-E. cuniculi. All sampled rabbit does were clinically healthy. Seropositivity against E. cuniculi was found in 196/260 (75.4%) sera and in all the sampled farms (100%). Logistic regression analysis showed that the size of the farm had no statistically significant effect on E. cuniculi positivity; whereas rabbits of the hybrid X showed a higher seropositivity (p<0.01) than rabbits belonging to other commercial breeds. Moreover, the age seemed to influence the seropositivity (p<0.05). This serological survey showed a high prevalence of E. cuniculi infection suggesting that this parasite may be endemic in industrial rabbitries in Northern Italy. PMID:23083923

  13. Testin on Atherosclerosis in Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yue; Yuan, Meng; Li, Hong-Min; Lao, Mi; Xu, Zhao; Li, Guang-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Background: The expression of TES, a novel tumor suppressor gene, is found to be down-regulated in the left anterior descending aorta of patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) compared with non-CAD subjects. This study aimed to investigate the expression of TES during the development of atherosclerosis in rabbits. Methods: Thirty-two New Zealand rabbits were randomly divided into a normal diet (ND) and high-fat diet (HFD) groups. Body weight and serum lipid levels were measured at 0, 4, and 12 weeks after diet treatment. The degree of atherosclerosis in thoracic aortas was analyzed by histological examinations. The expression of Testin in the tissue samples was inspected via immunohistochemical and immunofluorescence confocal microscopy. Real time-polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis were performed to evaluate the expression of TES/Testin at mRNA and protein levels in the aortic tissues. Results: After 12 weeks postenrollment, rabbits in HFD group had a higher level of serum lipids and atherosclerotic plaque compared to ND group (P < 0.05). Testin expression was detected at high levels in the endothelium and a weak expression on the subendothelium area. The expression of TES mRNA was markedly reduced by 10-fold in the aortic tissues in the HFD group compared with the ND group (P = 0.015), and the protein level was also significantly decreased in the HFD group (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Reduced TES/Testin expression is associated with the development of atherosclerosis, implicating a potentially important role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. PMID:26063370

  14. Absorption of enzymatically active sup 125 I-labeled bovine milk xanthine oxidase fed to rabbits

    SciTech Connect

    Rzucidlo, S.J. ); Zikakis, J.P. )

    1990-05-01

    Rabbits fed a regular laboratory diet supplemented with a high-fat milk containing xanthine oxidase (XO) were studied to determine the presence of active XO in the blood. A pilot feeding study, where rabbits consumed a high-fat diet containing xanthine oxidase, showed a correlation between dairy food consumption and XO activity in the blood. Antibody to dietary XO was also found. In a second study, rabbits were fed ad libitum the high-fat milk and blood serum samples were tested weekly for XO activity. No elevation in serum XO activity was found. A third study showed that serum XO activity was increased when rabbits were force fed the high-fat milk. The final study consisted of force feeding {sup 125}I-labeled XO to one rabbit to ascertain whether the observed increase in serum XO was due to dietary or endogenous XO. Isoelectric focusing of sera collected from the test rabbit strongly suggested that at least a portion of the serum XO contained the radioactive label. This is the first direct evidence showing the uptake of dietary active XO from the gut.

  15. Pathology of Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Koller, Loren D.; Zinkl, Joseph G.

    1973-01-01

    Rabbits were administered, orally, 300 mg of polychlorinated biphenyl Aroclor 1221, 1242 or 1254 once a week for 14 weeks. Elevated SGPT and SGOT levels occurred in the male and female 1254- and male 1242-treated rabbits as early as 2 weeks. The female 1242-treated rabbits had increased SGPT and SGOT activities at 4 and 8 weeks, respectively. These serum enzyme activities in the 1221-treated rabbits were similar to the controls during the 14-week period. Serum cholesterol concentrations were moderately elevated in the 1254-treated males throughout the experiment. The BUN, serum proteins, liver ALA-synthetase and hematologic values were similar in all groups. The livers in the 1254- and 1242-treated rabbits were significantly enlarged compared to the 1221-treated and control animals. The earliest change was megalohepatocytosis which was followed by subcapsular midzonal necrosis. In the 1254-treated rabbits, the midzonal necrosis was diffuse and frequently included most of the central part of the lobule. Fibrous connective tissue replaced the necrotic part of the lobules in the more severely affected livers. The rough endoplasmic reticulum in the livers of the 1254-treated rabbits appeared to have been destroyed. There was also atrophy of the uteri in the 1254-treated rabbits. ImagesFig 1Fig 2Fig 3Fig 4Fig 5Fig 6Fig 7Fig 8Fig 9Fig 10 PMID:4120300

  16. Uterine disorders in 50 pet rabbits.

    PubMed

    Künzel, Frank; Grinninger, Petra; Shibly, Sarina; Hassan, Jasmin; Tichy, Alexander; Berghold, Petra; Fuchs-Baumgartinger, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Although the incidence of uterine disorders in pet rabbits is high there are only a few retrospective studies and case reports on genital tract disease in female rabbits. Uterine disorders were assessed in 50 pet rabbits. In 31 pet rabbits with suspected clinical uterine disease, medical records were further reviewed regarding clinical signs, diagnostic workup, treatment as well as the outcome itself. Uterine adenocarcinoma (54%) was most frequently diagnosed, followed by endometrial hyperplasia (26%). Serosanguineous vaginal discharge was the predominant clinical sign observed by the rabbit owners. In approximately 50% of the rabbits with suspected uterine disorders, abdominal palpation revealed enlarged and/or irregular masses in the caudoventral abdomen indicating uterine lesions. Out of 23 rabbits undergoing ovariohysterectomy, four were either euthanized or died shortly after surgery because they were clinically unstable. Overall, 80% of the ovariohysterectomized animals were still alive 6 mo after surgery. In female pet rabbits that are not breeding, either ovariohysterectomy should be performed at an early age or routine checks including ultrasonography of the abdomen are recommended on a regular basis. PMID:25415217

  17. Welfare and the intensive production of rabbits.

    PubMed

    Morisse, J P; Maurice, R

    1994-03-01

    Rabbit production in Europe is concentrated largely in the "Latin" countries of Italy, France and Spain, in which animal protectionist attitudes are considered moderate. However, in the case of rabbits, the intensification of husbandry necessitates strict observance of physiological, behavioural and health requirements, in view of the very special needs of the species and the sensitivity of rabbits to environmental conditions. Rabbits are described as anxious, timid and emotional, with unusual arrangements for reproduction (induced ovulation) and digestion (caecotrophy). Therefore, these animals could not be reared intensively until the completion of extensive research, which has been conducted over the past twenty years, into the environmental and nutritional needs of rabbits, and the selection of lines having a calm temperament and maternal aptitude. This research was required to meet the welfare needs of this species. These concepts are perfectly integrated into the current operation of intensive units, and should not be brought into question on the basis of fragmentary observations by some researchers who would wish to see a return to rearing on litter. A discussion of rabbit welfare conducted in 1992 by specialists of the German branch of the World Rabbit Science Association approved modern methods of keeping rabbits on wire grids, provided that some changes were made to current procedures. PMID:8173093

  18. ALLOTYPY OF RABBIT SERUM PROTEINS

    PubMed Central

    Oudin, Jacques

    1960-01-01

    The relationships between six of the seven allotypes or families of allotypes (a, b, c, d, f, g) described in the preceding paper, have been studied from the standpoints of (1) their antigenic specificities, (2) their mutual influence on the limitation of their respective frequencies, and (3) their genetic control. Although the six different allotypes (or families) react quite differently with the rabbit antisera, at least five of them react identically with a guinea pig antiserum. Therefore, a large portion of the antigenic specificity of these allotypes, distinct from their allotypic specificity, is uniform in all the individuals of the rabbit species and is termed for this reason "isotypic specificity." In the early period of the rabbit's life, allotypes may be found in the serum, which are not determined by the genotype of the individual, but are directly transmitted by the mother. The allotypes of the antigenic species of globulin studied in this paper, which were synthesized by the young animal, did not appear in its serum before a certain period of time. Allelic relationships between the genes which control allotypes were indicated by, (1) the absence of certain kinds of groupings of the allotypes, which limits the number of allotypic formulas in the population sample studied, (2) dosage effects, the concentration of certain allotypes (drawn from the penetration of the zones in gel tubes) being smaller in supposed heterozygotes than in supposed homozygotes, (3) the results of the analysis of the sera of a number of rabbits and of their parents. Eight of the different antigenic substances studied in this paper (allotype e excluded) appear to be allotypic forms of what would have been considered to be a uniform protein antigen. They may be classified as follows: a first group which contains two allotypes b and d and a family of two allotypes c and c' apparently controlled by three allelic genes b c d, c and c' being controlled by the same gene; a second group which contains two allotypes a and f and a family g, g' apparently controlled by three allelic genes a f g. There are reasons to believe that this list is not complete, especially in the b c d group. PMID:13731717

  19. Thermal cataract formation in rabbits

    SciTech Connect

    Kramar, P.; Harris, C.; Guy, A.W.

    1987-01-01

    Intraocularly circulating hot water was used to produce cataracts in nine eyes of seven rabbits by maintaining their retrolental temperatures between 43 degrees C and 45 degrees C. A rapid rate of heating (1.3 degrees C/min) plus a sharp temperature gradient across the eye may have been contributing factors in the consistent production of cataracts at these temperatures. Biomicroscopy and light microscopy showed lens changes similar to those associated with acute exposure to microwave radiation. These findings support the assumption that microwave cataractogenesis is due to the local production of elevated temperatures.

  20. Conjugated linoleic acid and atherosclerosis in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Lee, K N; Kritchevsky, D; Pariza, M W

    1994-07-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) consists of a series of positional and geometric dienoic isomers of linoleic acid that occur naturally in foods. CLA exhibits antioxidant activity in vitro and in vivo. To assess the effect of CLA on atherosclerosis, 12 rabbits were fed a semi-synthetic diet containing 14% fat and 0.1% cholesterol for 22 weeks. For 6 of these rabbits, the diet was augmented with CLA (0.5 g CLA/rabbit per day). Blood samples were taken monthly for lipid analysis. By 12 weeks total and LDL cholesterol and triglycerides were markedly lower in the CLA-fed group. Interestingly, the LDL cholesterol to HDL cholesterol ratio and total cholesterol to HDL cholesterol ratio were significantly reduced in CLA-fed rabbits. Examination of the aortas of CLA-fed rabbits showed less atherosclerosis. PMID:7980704

  1. Severe maternal undernutrition and post-weaning behavior of rabbits.

    PubMed

    Simitzis, Panagiotis E; Symeon, George K; Kominakis, Antonios P; Bizelis, Iosif A; Chadio, Stella E; Abas, Zafeiris; Deligeorgis, Stelios G

    2015-03-15

    The objective of the present experiment was to investigate the implications of severe maternal undernutrition on the post-weaning behavior of rabbits. Thirty two does were randomly assigned to four groups: the control group (C) that was fed 100% of the recommended energy maintenance requirements throughout pregnancy and lactation and the U1, U2 and U3 groups that were fed 50% of the recommended energy maintenance requirements between the 6th and the 19th day of pregnancy, between the 20th and the 27th day of pregnancy and between the 3rd and the 10th day of lactation, respectively. At the age of 50 and 65 days, behavior of rabbits in cages was recorded and rabbits were further subjected to an open-field test; a paradigm used as an indicator of fear and emotional distress. Significant differences were found between the U2 and the other experimental groups for the duration of eating and drinking, and duration of locomotory and investigatory behaviors (P<0.05). At the age of 65 days, duration of comfort behaviors was also lower in the U2 compared to the other groups (P<0.05). On the other hand, duration of resting appeared to be the highest in the group of rabbits born from undernourished does between the 20th and the 27th day of pregnancy (P<0.05). Duration of resting was significantly increased, although frequency and duration of eating and drinking were significantly decreased at the age of 65 days (P<0.05). Male rabbits had greater values for locomotory and investigatory behaviors, and duration of eating and drinking compared to the females (P<0.01). A decreased activity of rabbits during the light period was observed (as expected), whereas an increase in duration of locomotory and investigatory behaviors was observed during the first four and the last 4h of the light and dark periods, respectively (P<0.05). Rabbits born from the U1 and U2 group of does displayed increased rates of latency to leave the start position compared to the other groups during the implementation of the open-field test (P<0.05). No other significant differences in the exhibition of the examined behaviors were found between the treatment groups, with the exception of 'moving forelegs' activity that had the lowest value in the U3 group of rabbits. It is concluded that severe maternal undernutrition (50% of the recommended maintenance requirements) especially between the 20th and the 27th day of pregnancy has significant effects on the exhibition of rabbits' post-weaning behavior, since the offspring from the U2 undernourished does were significantly less active compared to the other experimental groups. PMID:25619951

  2. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and Encephalitozoon cuniculi in rabbits from different farming systems.

    PubMed

    Neumayerová, Helena; Juránková, Jana; Jeklová, Edita; Kudláčková, Hana; Faldyna, Martin; Kovařčík, Kamil; Jánová, Eva; Koudela, Břetislav

    2014-08-29

    The breeding of domestic rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) for human consumption has a long tradition mainly in European and Asian countries. Infections that can affect the production of meat or even be transmitted from animals to humans are important to monitor, especially for public health reasons as well as for their impact on animals health. This study aimed to collect sera from rabbits bred in different conditions and test the presence of Toxoplasma gondii and Encephalitozoon cuniculi antibodies. Whether infections were active or latent was assessed by determining the occurrence of IgM or IgM together with IgG antibodies which indicated active infection whereas latent infection was characterized by finding IgG antibodies only. An ELISA test was performed with 1883 sera samples collected throughout the Czech and Slovak Republics. The seroprevalence of T. gondii in 902 samples from 6 commercial farms (CF) was very low with only 4 rabbits (0.4%) being positive. In total 99 (10.1%) individuals out of 981 samples from 29 household farms (HF) were positive for T. gondii antibodies. Only 2 (50%) of the T. gondii positive CF rabbits had active infections while the rest were latently infected. The serological results showed that 35 (35.4%) rabbits from the T. gondii positive HF group suffered from active infection. Out of CF samples 185 (20.5%) were positive for E. cuniculi. Antibodies of E. cuniculi were detected in 497 (50.7%) HF rabbits. Active E. cuniculi infections were determined in 85.9% of CF and 56.3% of HF rabbits; respectively. Interestingly, the E. cuniculi positive rabbits were significantly more often positive for anti-T. gondii antibodies in comparison to E. cuniculi negative individuals. Prevalence of T. gondii in CF rabbits was negligible. According to our results meat of HF rabbits still poses a risk of T. gondii infection. Nevertheless, the risk is on its lowest level in 20 years which is apparently caused due to changes in feeding practices. The occurrence of E. cuniculi antibodies was significantly lower in rabbits from commercial farms, apparently because of better hygiene conditions. PMID:24877785

  3. Analysis of long-term cognitive-enhancing effects of bryostatin-1 on the rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) nictitating membrane response.

    PubMed

    Wang, Desheng; Darwish, Deya S; Schreurs, Bernard G; Alkon, Daniel L

    2008-05-01

    Previous work demonstrated that protein kinase C (PKC) is implicated in learning and memory. This study investigated whether: (i) PKC activated by bryostatin-1 (Bryo) just before or just after sessions of classical conditioning was capable of enhancing classical conditioning of the rabbit nictitating membrane response; (ii) improved behavioral performance matched the time course of PKC activation induced by Bryo; and (iii) vitamin E (Vit E) enhanced the efficacy of Bryo. Paired rabbits received daily trace conditioning with a tone conditioned stimulus and a corneal air puff unconditioned stimulus. Unpaired rabbits received the same stimuli but in an explicitly unpaired manner. After trace conditioning, all rabbits received daily delay conditioning, and then tone intensity testing. Rabbits pretreated with 10 microg/kg Bryo every other day before a relatively simple trace conditioning task showed more conditioned responses (CRs) during the first 10 trials of each trace conditioning session and a higher likelihood of a CR on the first trial of each trace conditioning session than rabbits pretreated with the vehicle control. Rabbits either posttreated daily with 10 microg/kg Bryo or pretreated with Vit E and subjected to a difficult trace conditioning task showed increased CRs relative to the vehicle control. Neither Bryo nor Vit E or their combination altered nonassociative responding or altered sensitivity to the conditioned stimulus or unconditioned stimulus. These findings demonstrate Bryo has long-term enhancing effects on classical conditioning of the rabbit nictitating membrane response. PMID:18469542

  4. Alternative methods for the replacement of eye irritation testing.

    PubMed

    Lotz, Christian; Schmid, Freia F; Rossi, Angela; Kurdyn, Szymon; Kampik, Daniel; De Wever, Bart; Walles, Heike; Groeber, Florian K

    2016-01-01

    In the last decades significant regulatory attempts were made to replace, refine and reduce animal testing to assess the risk of consumer products for the human eye. As the original in vivo Draize eye test has been criticized for limited predictivity, costs and ethical issues, several animal-free test methods have been developed to categorize substances according to the global harmonized system (GHS) for eye irritation.This review summarizes the progress of alternative test methods for the assessment of eye irritation. Based on the corneal anatomy and the current knowledge of the mechanisms causing eye irritation, different ex vivo and in vitro methods will be presented and discussed in regard of possible limitations and their status of regulatory acceptance. In addition to established in vitro models, this review will also highlight emerging, full thickness cornea models that might be applicable to predict all GHS categories. PMID:26626125

  5. Behavioral fever in newborn rabbits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Satinoff, E.; Mcewen, G. N., Jr.; Williams, B. A.

    1976-01-01

    New Zealand white rabbit pups aged 12 to 72 hr were divided into three groups and given an intraperitoneal injection of Pseudomonas polysaccharide, a saline vehicle alone, and no treatment, respectively. The animals injected with pyrogen and maintained at an ambient temperature of 32 C for 2 hr did not develop fever. When placed in a thermally graded alleyway, the animals injected with pyrogen selected gradient positions that represented significantly higher temperatures than controls injected with saline. Further stay at selected positions for 5 min caused a considerable increase in the rectal temperature of the pyrogen-injected pups but not that of controls. The results support the hypothesis that newborn rabbits will develop a fever by behavioral means after a single injection of an exogenous pyrogen if the opportunity for thermoregulatory behavior is present. No fever develops if the pups must rely solely on internal thermoregulatory mechanisms. The behavioral system for producing a fever is mature at birth, but an adequate system of internal reflexes does not appear to develop for some days.

  6. Experimental and finite element analysis of tibial stress fractures using a rabbit model

    PubMed Central

    Franklyn, Melanie; Field, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To determine if rabbit models can be used to quantify the mechanical behaviour involved in tibial stress fracture (TSF) development. METHODS: Fresh rabbit tibiae were loaded under compression using a specifically-designed test apparatus. Weights were incrementally added up to a load of 30 kg and the mechanical behaviour of the tibia was analysed using tests for buckling, bone strain and hysteresis. Structural mechanics equations were subsequently employed to verify that the results were within the range of values predicted by theory. A finite element (FE) model was developed using cross-sectional computer tomography (CT) images scanned from one of the rabbit bones, and a static load of 6 kg (1.5 times the rabbit's body weight) was applied to represent running. The model was validated using the experimental strain gauge data, then geometric and elemental convergence tests were performed in order to find the minimum number of cross-sectional scans and elements respectively required for convergence. The analysis was then performed using both the model and the experimental results to investigate the mechanical behaviour of the rabbit tibia under compressive load and to examine crack initiation. RESULTS: The experimental tests showed that under a compressive load of up to 12 kg, the rabbit tibia demonstrates linear behaviour with little hysteresis. Up to 30 kg, the bone does not fail by elastic buckling; however, there are low levels of tensile stress which predominately occur at and adjacent to the anterior border of the tibial midshaft: this suggests that fatigue failure occurs in these regions, since bone under cyclic loading initially fails in tension. The FE model predictions were consistent with both mechanics theory and the strain gauge results. The model was highly sensitive to small changes in the position of the applied load due to the high slenderness ratio of the rabbit’s tibia. The modelling technique used in the current study could have applications in the development of human FE models of bone, where, unlike rabbit tibia, the model would be relatively insensitive to very small changes in load position. However, the rabbit model itself is less beneficial as a tool to understand the mechanical behaviour of TSFs in humans due to the small size of the rabbit bone and the limitations of human-scale CT scanning equipment. CONCLUSION: The current modelling technique could be used to develop human FE models. However, the rabbit model itself has significant limitations in understanding human TSF mechanics. PMID:24147262

  7. 9 CFR 354.124 - Quarantine of diseased rabbits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Quarantine of diseased rabbits. 354... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION VOLUNTARY INSPECTION OF RABBITS AND EDIBLE PRODUCTS THEREOF Inspection Procedures; Ante-Mortem Inspections § 354.124 Quarantine of diseased rabbits. If live rabbits, which...

  8. 9 CFR 354.124 - Quarantine of diseased rabbits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Quarantine of diseased rabbits. 354... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION VOLUNTARY INSPECTION OF RABBITS AND EDIBLE PRODUCTS THEREOF Inspection Procedures; Ante-Mortem Inspections § 354.124 Quarantine of diseased rabbits. If live rabbits, which...

  9. 9 CFR 354.124 - Quarantine of diseased rabbits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Quarantine of diseased rabbits. 354... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION VOLUNTARY INSPECTION OF RABBITS AND EDIBLE PRODUCTS THEREOF Inspection Procedures; Ante-Mortem Inspections § 354.124 Quarantine of diseased rabbits. If live rabbits, which...

  10. BESNOITIA ORYCTOFELISI N. SP. (PROTOZOA: APICOMPLEXA) FROM DOMESTIC RABBITS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A species of Besnoitia from naturally infected rabbits from Argentina was propagated experimentally in mice, gerbils, rabbits, cats, and cell cultures. Cats fed tissue cysts from rabbits shed oocysts with a prepatent period of nine to 13 days. Sporulated oocysts were infective to gerbils, rabbits,...

  11. Soft tissue ossification and condylar cartilage degeneration following TMJ disc perforation in a rabbit pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Embree, Mildred C.; Iwaoka, George M.; Kong, Danielle; Martin, Brittany N.; Patel, Ryan K.; Lee, Andrew; Nathan, John M.; Eisig, Sidney B.; Safarov, Aram; Koslovsky, David A; Koch, Alia; Romanov, Alex; Mao, Jeremy J

    2015-01-01

    Objective There are limited clinical treatments for temporomandibular joint pathologies, including degenerative disease, disc perforation and heterotopic ossification. One barrier hindering the development of new therapies is that animal models recapitulating TMJ diseases are poorly established. The objective of this study was to develop an animal model for TMJ cartilage degeneration and disc pathology, including disc perforation and soft tissue heterotopic ossification. Methods New Zealand white rabbits (n=9 rabbits) underwent unilateral TMJ disc perforation surgery and sham surgery on the contralateral side. A 2.5 mm defect was created using a punch biopsy in rabbit TMJ disc. The TMJ condyles and discs were evaluated macroscopically and histologically after 4, 8 and 12 weeks. Condyles were blindly scored by 4 independent observers using OARSI recommendations for macroscopic and histopathological scoring of osteoarthritis in rabbit tissues. Results Histological evidence of TMJ condylar cartilage degeneration was apparent in experimental condyles following disc perforation relative to sham controls after 4 and 8 weeks, including surface fissures and loss of Safranin O staining. At 12 weeks, OARSI scores indicated experimental condylar cartilage erosion into the subchondral bone. Most strikingly, heterotopic ossification occurred within the TMJ disc upon perforation injury in 6 rabbits after 8 and 12 weeks. Conclusion We report for the first time a rabbit TMJ injury model that demonstrates condylar cartilage degeneration and disc ossification, which is indispensible for testing the efficacy of potential TMJ therapies. PMID:25573797

  12. Classification of rabbit meat obtained with industrial and organic breeding by means of spectrocolorimetric technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menesatti, P.; D'Andrea, S.; Negretti, P.

    2007-09-01

    Rabbit meat is for its nutritional characteristics a food corresponding to new models of consumption. Quality improvement is possible integrating an extensive organic breeding with suitable rabbit genetic typologies. Aim of this work (financed by a Project of the Lazio Region, Italy) was the characterization of rabbit meat by a statistic model, able to distinguish rabbit meat obtained by organic breeding from that achieved industrially. This was pursued through the analysis of spectral data and colorimetric values. Two genetic typologies of rabbit, Leprino Viterbese and a commercial hybrid, were studied. The Leprino Viterbese has been breeded with two different systems, organic and industrial. The commercial hybrid has been bred only industrially because of its characteristics of high sensibility to diseases. The device used for opto-electronic analysis is a VIS-NIR image spectrometer (range: 400-970 nm). The instrument has a stabilized light, it works in accordance to standard CIE L*a*b* technique and it measures the spectral reflectance and the colorimetric coordinates values. The statistic data analysis has been performed by Partial Least Square technique (PLS). A part of measured data was used to create the statistic model and the remaining data were utilized in phase of test to verify the correct model classification. The results put in evidence a high percentage of correct classification (90%) of the model for the two rabbit meat classes, deriving from organic and industrial breeding. Moreover, concerning the different genetic typologies, the percentage of correct classification was 90%.

  13. Secondary lesions in rabbits experimentally infected with Treponema pallidum.

    PubMed Central

    Strugnell, R A; Drummond, L; Faine, S

    1986-01-01

    Thirty rabbits infected with 10(3) of either Nichols or Melbourne 1 strains of Treponema pallidum were observed for the development of secondary lesions, which appeared outside areas inoculated with viable treponemes. More rabbits infected with Melbourne 1 strain (eight of 15 rabbits) than were infected with the Nichols reference strain (three of 15 rabbits) developed secondary lesions. The mean (SD) incubation periods of secondary lesions were 52 (8) days for rabbits infected with Melbourne 1 and 56 (4) days for rabbits infected with Nichols strain. These mean incubation periods did not correlate with appreciably increased concentrations of immune complexes or glycosaminoglycans in the serum of infected rabbits. Images PMID:3949349

  14. Bobcat attack on a cottontail rabbit

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Biggins, D.E.; Biggins, D.M.

    2006-01-01

    We observed an attack by a bobcat (Lynx rufus) on a cottontail rabbit (Sylvilagus) that involved stealthy approach by the cat for >1 h, followed by a 12.3-s chase covering 116.0 m for the cat and 128.4 m for the rabbit. During the chase, the route of the cat from starting point to kill site was more direct than the semi-circular route of the rabbit. Stride lengths for the cat and total distance covered by the chase were longer than those previously reported for bobcats.

  15. Seroprevalence of Encephalitozoon cuniculi and Toxoplasma gondii in domestic rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) in China

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Qing-Feng; Wang, Wei-Lin; Ni, Xiao-Ting; Li, Hai-Bin; Yao, Gui-Zhe; Sun, Xiao-Lin; Wang, Wei-Li; Cong, Wei

    2015-01-01

    The breeding of domestic rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) for human consumption has a long tradition in China. Infections that can affect the production of meat or even be transmitted from animals to humans are important to monitor, especially for public health reasons as well as for their impact on animal health. Thus, a total of 1,132 domestic rabbit sera from 4 regions in China were collected for serological screening for Encephalitozoon cuniculi and for Toxoplasma gondii by ELISA and modified agglutination test (MAT), respectively. Antibodies to E. cuniculi were detected in 248/1,132 (21.9%) sera tested while antibodies against T. gondii revealed a seroprevalence of 51/1,132 (4.5%). We believe that the present results are of epidemiological implications and public health importance due to the acknowledged susceptibility of humans to E. cuniculi and T. gondii infections. Therefore, routine screening tests of domestic rabbits are proposed considering the zoonotic potential of these parasites. PMID:26797446

  16. Seroprevalence of Encephalitozoon cuniculi and Toxoplasma gondii in domestic rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) in China.

    PubMed

    Meng, Qing-Feng; Wang, Wei-Lin; Ni, Xiao-Ting; Li, Hai-Bin; Yao, Gui-Zhe; Sun, Xiao-Lin; Wang, Wei-Li; Cong, Wei

    2015-12-01

    The breeding of domestic rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) for human consumption has a long tradition in China. Infections that can affect the production of meat or even be transmitted from animals to humans are important to monitor, especially for public health reasons as well as for their impact on animal health. Thus, a total of 1,132 domestic rabbit sera from 4 regions in China were collected for serological screening for Encephalitozoon cuniculi and for Toxoplasma gondii by ELISA and modified agglutination test (MAT), respectively. Antibodies to E. cuniculi were detected in 248/1,132 (21.9%) sera tested while antibodies against T. gondii revealed a seroprevalence of 51/1,132 (4.5%). We believe that the present results are of epidemiological implications and public health importance due to the acknowledged susceptibility of humans to E. cuniculi and T. gondii infections. Therefore, routine screening tests of domestic rabbits are proposed considering the zoonotic potential of these parasites. PMID:26797446

  17. Steroid dynamics in the rabbit

    SciTech Connect

    Bourget, C.; Flood, C.; Longcope, C.

    1984-02-01

    Male rabbits were infused at a constant rate with /sup 3/H-androstenedione//sup 14/C-estrone (n . 5) or /sup 3/H-testosterone//sup 14/C-estradiol-17 beta (n . 3) for 3 1/2 hr and blood samples were obtained over the last hour and analyzed for radioactivity as androstenedione (A), testosterone (T), estrone (E1), estradiol-17 beta (E2 beta) and estradiol-17 alpha (E2 alpha). The mean value for the metabolic clearance rate of androstenedione (MCRA) was 85 +/- 10 l/day/kg, which was significantly greater than the mean MCRE1 59 +/- 10 l/day/kg. MCRT, 42 +/- 8 l/day/kg, and MCRE2 beta, 45 +/- 9 l/day/kg were not different. The conversion ratio of androstenedione to testosterone (CRA,T) was greater than CRT,A but for the estrogens, CRE2 beta, E1 was greater than CRE1,E2 beta. CRE2 beta, E2 alpha was greater than CRE1,E2 alpha. The overall aromatization of androstenedione to estrone, the fraction of /sup 3/H-androstenedione infused into the blood and measured as /sup 3/H-estrone in blood (( rho)A,E1BB) was 0.0005 +/- 0.0001 and for (rho)T,E2 beta BB was 0.0012 +/- 0.0006. In the rabbit both sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) and albumin binding may effect the MCRs, and peripheral aromatization of androgens occurs to a far lesser degree than in humans and primates.

  18. [Effects of frictional properties on traumas of rabbit skin].

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Qu, Shuxin; Kong, Mei; Zhou, Zhongrong

    2008-04-01

    Simulative experiments on skin traumas between prosthetic socket materials and residual limb skin were investigated by using the means of tribology, histology and animal experiment. Healthy adult rabbits were used as animal model and their denuded back skin was selected as experimental position to simulate residual limb skin. The effects of different normal load and reciprocal sliding frequency on rabbit skin trauma grade were investigated by using a reciprocal sliding skin friction testing apparatus to simulate prosthesis gait. The traumatic subcutaneous tissue slice was stained with hematoxylineosin and the morphology was observed under the optical microscope. The scab thickness of traumatic skin was measured under x 10 object lens. The inflammatory cells were counted in a given visual field under x 20 object lens. The statistical significance analysis of scab thickness and inflammatory cells were carried out to assess the effect of different frictional conditions on skin pathological traumas. The results showed: the greater normal load and higher reciprocal sliding frequency applied on the rabbit skin, the more serious injury to skin and more inflammatory cells in the subcutaneous tissue at the same time. The findings provide a theoretical basis of comfortized prosthesis design and gait analysis for the amputee. PMID:18610621

  19. FMLP provokes coronary vasoconstriction and myocardial ischemia in rabbits

    SciTech Connect

    Gillespie, M.N.; Booth, D.C.; Friedman, B.J.; Cunningham, M.R.; Jay, M.; De Maria, A.N. )

    1988-03-01

    Recent pathological studies of coronary arteries from humans with suspected coronary spasm have revealed an augmented intramural burden of inflammatory cells. To test the hypothesis than inappropriate activation of inflammatory cells participates in the evolution of coronary vasospasm, the present experiment employed a newly developed coronary arteriographic technique for use in pentobarbital-anesthetized rabbits to evaluate the coronary vasomotor actions of the nonselective inflammatory cell stimulant, N-formyl-L-methionyl-L-leucyl-L-phenylalanine (fMLP). In 10 of 10 animals, selective left intracoronary injection of 200 ng fMLP evoked profound left coronary narrowing accompanied in all cases by ST segment deviation and dysrhythmias. Thallium-201 scintigraphy demonstrated hypoperfusion of the left ventricular free wall and septum supplied by the spastic coronary artery. The fMLP-induced epicardial vasoconstriction, ischemic electrocardiogram (ECG) changes, and thallium perfusion defects were reversed by intravenous nitroglycerin. Neither the right coronary artery nor its distribution were influenced by left coronary injection of fMLP. Additional experiments in isolated, salt solution-perfused rabbit hearts demonstrated that fMLP failed to exert direct coronary vasoconstrictor effects. These observations indicate that the nonselective inflammatory cell stimulant, fMLP, provokes arteriographically demonstrable coronary spasm with attendant myocardial hypoperfusion and ischemic ECG changes in anesthetized rabbits. Such a model may be useful in exploring the dynamic role of inflammatory cells in development of coronary spasm.

  20. Rabbit Models of Ocular Diseases: New Relevance for Classical Approaches.

    PubMed

    Zernii, Evgeni Y; Baksheeva, Viktoriia E; Iomdina, Elena N; Averina, Olga A; Permyakov, Sergei E; Philippov, Pavel P; Zamyatnin, Andrey A; Senin, Ivan I

    2016-01-01

    Over 100 million individuals are affected by irreversible visual impairments and blindness worldwide, while ocular diseases remain a challenging problem despite significant advances in modern ophthalmology. Development of novel drugs and drug delivery mechanisms, as well as advanced ophthalmological techniques requires experimental models including animals, capable of developing ocular diseases with similar etiology and pathology, suitable for future trials of new therapeutic approaches. Although experimental ophthalmology and visual research are traditionally performed on rodent models, these animals are often unsuitable for pre-clinical drug efficacy and safety studies, as well as for testing novel drug delivery approaches, e.g. controlled release of pharmaceuticals using intra-ocular implants. Therefore, rabbit models of ocular diseases are particularly useful in this context, since rabbits can be easily handled, while sharing more common anatomical and biochemical features with humans compared to rodents, including longer life span and larger eye size. This review provides a brief description of clinical, morphological and mechanistic aspects of the most common ocular diseases (dry eye syndrome, glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration, light-induced retinopathies, cataract and uveitis) and summarizes the diversity of current strategies for their experimental modeling in rabbits. Several applications of some of these models in ocular pharmacology and eye care strategies are also discussed. PMID:26553163

  1. Hypolipidaemic effects of Citrullus colocynthis L. in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Daradka, Haytham; Almasad, Motasem M; Qazan, Walid Sh; El-Banna, Nasser M; Samara, Omar H

    2007-08-15

    Aim of this research to study the effect of Citrullus colocynthis (70% EtOH) extract on lipid profile on Rabbits. The plant extract was orally administered to the atherogenic rabbits (atherogenic diet + cholesterol powder supplement 400 mg/kg/body weight/day dissolved in 5 mL coconut oil) at dose of 1.2 g kg(-1) body weight/day. During the hall period of the experiment blood was collected and serum was analyzed for lipid profile. Animals were sacrificed; the heart and the liver were collected and kept at -20 degrees C until assayed. Biochemical analysis of blood serum and tissue (liver and heart muscle) level were made for cholesterol, Phospholipids and triglycerides. In addition blood serum was analyzed further for HDL-Cholesterol. All the results were statistically analyzed using students t-test. Hypolipidaemic nature of Citrullus colocynthis (70% EtOH) extract was studied in hyperlipidaemic Rabbits. The increased cholesterol levels were brought to normal by administration of Citrullus colocynthis. Serum cholesterol levels dropped from 940.7 to 230.41 (75.55%) and further to 119.2 (87.32%) by the end of the experiment. Similarly, phospholipids and triglycerides levels were observed to be also reduced. The tissues lipids profiles of liver and heart muscle showed similar changes in those noticed in serum lipids. Citrullus colocynthis possesses active hypolipidaemic constituents. PMID:19070101

  2. A New Rabbit Model of Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhi; Saraswati, Manda; Koehler, Raymond C; Robertson, Courtney; Kannan, Sujatha

    2015-09-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a common cause of disability in childhood, resulting in numerous physical, behavioral, and cognitive sequelae, which can influence development through the lifespan. The mechanisms by which TBI influences normal development and maturation remain largely unknown. Pediatric rodent models of TBI often do not demonstrate the spectrum of motor and cognitive deficits seen in patients. To address this problem, we developed a New Zealand white rabbit model of pediatric TBI that better mimics the neurological injury seen after TBI in children. On postnatal Day 5-7 (P5-7), rabbits were injured by a controlled cortical impact (6-mm impactor tip; 5.5 m/sec, 2-mm depth, 50-msec duration). Rabbits from the same litter served as naïve (no injury) and sham (craniotomy alone) controls. Functional abilities and activity levels were measured 1 and 5 d after injury. Maturation level was monitored daily. We performed cognitive tests during P14-24 and sacrificed the animals at 1, 3, 7, and 21 d after injury to evaluate lesion volume and microglia. TBI kits exhibited delayed achievement of normal developmental milestones. They also demonstrated significant cognitive deficits, with lower percentage of correct alternation rate in the T-maze (n=9-15/group; p<0.001) and less discrimination between novel and old objects (p<0.001). Lesion volume increased from 16% at Day 3 to 30% at Day 7 after injury, indicating ongoing secondary injury. Activated microglia were noted at the injury site and also in white matter regions of the ipsilateral and contralateral hemispheres. The neurologic and histologic changes in this model are comparable to those reported clinically. Thus, this rabbit model provides a novel platform for evaluating neuroprotective therapies in pediatric TBI. PMID:25758339

  3. Effect of Pitavastatin on Vascular Reactivity in Hypercholesterolemic Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    de Almeida, Eros Antonio; Ozaki, Michiko Regina

    2014-01-01

    Background Pitavastatin is the newest statin available in Brazil and likely the one with fewer side effects. Thus, pitavastatin was evaluated in hypercholesterolemic rabbits in relation to its action on vascular reactivity. Objective To assess the lowest dose of pitavastatin necessary to reduce plasma lipids, cholesterol and tissue lipid peroxidation, as well as endothelial function in hypercholesterolemic rabbits. Methods Thirty rabbits divided into six groups (n = 5): G1 - standard chow diet; G2 - hypercholesterolemic diet for 30 days; G3 - hypercholesterolemic diet and after the 16th day, diet supplemented with pitavastatin (0.1 mg); G4 - hypercholesterolemic diet supplemented with pitavastatin (0.25 mg); G5 - hypercholesterolemic diet supplemented with pitavastatin (0.5 mg); G6 - hypercholesterolemic diet supplemented with pitavastatin (1.0 mg). After 30 days, total cholesterol, HDL, triglycerides, glucose, creatine kinase (CK), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were measured and LDL was calculated. In-depth anesthesia was performed with sodium thiopental and aortic segments were removed to study endothelial function, cholesterol and tissue lipid peroxidation. The significance level for statistical tests was 5%. Results Total cholesterol and LDL were significantly elevated in relation to G1. HDL was significantly reduced in G4, G5 and G6 when compared to G2. Triglycerides, CK, AST, ALT, cholesterol and tissue lipid peroxidation showed no statistical difference between G2 and G3-G6. Significantly endothelial dysfunction reversion was observed in G5 and G6 when compared to G2. Conclusion Pitavastatin starting at a 0.5 mg dose was effective in reverting endothelial dysfunction in hypercholesterolemic rabbits. PMID:25014056

  4. Comparative Pharmacodynamics of Pancuronium, Cisatracurium, and CW002 in Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Diaz, Leslie L; Zhang, Jingwei; Heerdt, Paul M

    2014-01-01

    Pancuronium is a long-duration neuromuscular blocking drug (NMBD) that has been used in anesthetized rabbits at 0.1 mg/kg. However, there are limited data regarding the time course for recovery from this dose either spontaneously or with pharmacologic reversal. Here we defined the potency, onset, and recovery characteristics for the intermediate-duration NMBD cisatracurium and CW002 (a novel cysteine-inactivated molecule) in the rabbit, and test the hypothesis that these drugs may be alternatives to 0.1 mg/kg pancuronium for survival procedures. New Zealand white rabbits anesthetized with isoflurane were studied in a cross-over design. Potencies of cisatracurium and CW002 were defined as the effective dose for 95% depression of evoked muscle twitch (ED95). Responses to 3×ED95 were used to define onset (time to maximal effect), recovery index (RI; time from 25% to 75% recovery of twitch), and duration (time to complete recovery). Responses to all drugs were determined with and without reversal by neostigmine–glycopyrrolate or l-cysteine. CW002 was 4-fold more potent than was cisatracurium, but their onset, RI, and duration were similar. Pancuronium had similar onset and RI but longer duration, compared with cisatracurium and CW002. Reversal shortened the recovery index and duration for all 3 drugs. At 3×ED95, cisatracurium and CW002 had the same onset as did standard-dose pancuronium, but durations were shorter and more predictable. In addition, CW002 can be reversed without the potential side effects of cholinergic manipulation. We conclude that cisatracurium and CW002 are viable alternatives to pancuronium for survival studies in rabbits. PMID:24827571

  5. MTR, TRA603. BASEMENT FLOOR PLAN. REACTOR SHIELDING, CANAL AND RABBIT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR, TRA-603. BASEMENT FLOOR PLAN. REACTOR SHIELDING, CANAL AND RABBIT CANAL, DEEP WELL STORAGE. DECONTAMINATION ROOM, VAULT, MONITOR ROOM, OFFICE, STAIRWAYS. BLAW-KNOX 3150-803-1, 7/1950. INL INDEX NO. 531-0603-00-098-100560, REV. 6. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  6. Rabbit Models for Studying Human Infectious Diseases.

    PubMed

    Peng, Xuwen; Knouse, John A; Hernon, Krista M

    2015-12-01

    Using an appropriate animal model is crucial for mimicking human disease conditions, and various facets including genetics, anatomy, and pathophysiology should be considered before selecting a model. Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) are well known for their wide use in production of antibodies, eye research, atherosclerosis and other cardiovascular diseases. However, a systematic description of the rabbit as primary experimental models for the study of various human infectious diseases is unavailable. This review focuses on the human infectious diseases for which rabbits are considered a classic or highly appropriate model, including AIDS (caused by HIV1), adult T-cell leukemia-lymphoma (human T-lymphotropic virus type 1), papilloma or carcinoma (human papillomavirus) , herpetic stromal keratitis (herpes simplex virus type 1), tuberculosis (Mycobacterium tuberculosis), and syphilis (Treponema pallidum). In addition, particular aspects of the husbandry and care of rabbits used in studies of human infectious diseases are described. PMID:26678367

  7. Eyeblink conditioning in the developing rabbit

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Kevin L.; Woodruff-Pak, Diana S.

    2011-01-01

    Eyeblink classical conditioning in pre-weanling rabbits was examined in the present study. Using a custom lightweight headpiece and restrainer, New Zealand white littermates were trained once daily in 400 ms delay eyeblink classical conditioning from postnatal days (PD) 17–21 or PD 24–28. These ages were chosen because eyeblink conditioning emerges gradually over PD 17–24 in rats (Stanton, Freeman, & Skelton, 1992), another altricial species with neurodevelopmental features similar to those of rabbits. Consistent with well-established findings in rats, rabbits trained from PD 24–28 showed greater conditioning relative to littermates trained from PD 17–21. Both age groups displayed poor retention of eyeblink conditioning at retraining one month after acquisition. These findings are the first to demonstrate eyeblink conditioning in the developing rabbit. With further characterization of optimal conditioning parameters, this preparation may have applications to neurodevelopmental disease models as well as research exploring the ontogeny of memory. PMID:21953433

  8. Mucosally delivered peptides prime strong immunity in HLA-A2.1 transgenic rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Jiafen; Cladel, Nancy; Balogh, Karla; Christensen, Neil

    2010-01-01

    DNA vaccines delivered subcutaneously by gene-gun have generated strong protective and therapeutic immunity in rabbits. Recent studies have shown that peptides delivered by the mucosal routes also stimulate local and systemic immune responses. Since mucosal delivery is easier to administer and more cost-effective when compared to gene-gun delivery, we were interested to learn whether mucosally-delivered peptides would prime protective immunity comparable to that of gene-gun delivered DNA in rabbits. Our newly developed HLA-A2.1 transgenic rabbit model was used to test the hypothesis. We chose an HLA-A2.1 restricted cottontail rabbit papillomavirus (CRPV) E1 epitope (E1/303–311, MLQEKPFQL) for the peptide immunization studies because it provided complete protection when used as a DNA vaccine. Adjuvant has been widely used to boost immunity for vaccines. In this study, three adjuvants reported to be effective for rabbits (TT helper motif, PADRE and CpG2007) were tested with the peptide vaccine. Peptide alone or fused to TT helper or PADRE to create chimeric peptides was delivered by two mucosal routes (ocular and intranasal) together. Partial protection was found in HLA-A2.1 transgenic rabbits when peptide was delivered mucosally in the presence of adjuvant. When a subsequent booster of a half dose of the corresponding DNA vaccine was delivered, complete protections were achieved. We conclude that mucosal peptide immunization can be combined with a single DNA vaccination to provide strong protective immunity in rabbits. PMID:20332046

  9. Determination of tropical forage preferences using two offering methods in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Safwat, A M; Sarmiento-Franco, L; Santos-Ricalde, R H; Nieves, D

    2014-04-01

    Two methods of feed preference trials were compared to evaluate the acceptability of 5 fresh foliages: Leucaena leucocephala, Moringa oleifera, Portulaca oleracea, Guazuma ulmifolia, and Brosimum alicastrum that was included as control. The evaluation included chemical analyses and forage intake by rabbits. The first method was a cafeteria trial; 12 California growing rabbits aged 8 wk, allocated in individual cages, were offered the five forage plants at the same time inside the cage, while in the second trial 60 California growing rabbits aged 8 wk, allocated individually, were randomly distributed into 5 experimental groups (n = 12/group); for each group just one forage species was offered at a time. The testing period for each method lasted for 7 d, preceded by one week of adaptation. The results showed that B. alicastrum and L. lecocephala were the most preferred forages while on the contrary G. ulmifolia was the least preferred one by rabbits. The results also revealed that the CV% value for the 2nd method (16.32%), which the tested forages were presented separately to rabbits, was lower and methodologically more acceptable than such value for the 1(st) method (34.28%), which all forages were presented together at the same time. It can be concluded that a range of tropical forages were consumed in acceptable quantities by rabbits, suggesting that diets based on such forages with a concentrate supplement could be used successfully for rabbit production. However, growth performance studies are still needed before recommendations could be made on appropriate ration formulations for commercial use. PMID:25049983

  10. Determination of Tropical Forage Preferences Using Two Offering Methods in Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Safwat, A. M.; Sarmiento-Franco, L.; Santos-Ricalde, R. H.; Nieves, D.

    2014-01-01

    Two methods of feed preference trials were compared to evaluate the acceptability of 5 fresh foliages: Leucaena leucocephala, Moringa oleifera, Portulaca oleracea, Guazuma ulmifolia, and Brosimum alicastrum that was included as control. The evaluation included chemical analyses and forage intake by rabbits. The first method was a cafeteria trial; 12 California growing rabbits aged 8 wk, allocated in individual cages, were offered the five forage plants at the same time inside the cage, while in the second trial 60 California growing rabbits aged 8 wk, allocated individually, were randomly distributed into 5 experimental groups (n = 12/group); for each group just one forage species was offered at a time. The testing period for each method lasted for 7 d, preceded by one week of adaptation. The results showed that B. alicastrum and L. lecocephala were the most preferred forages while on the contrary G. ulmifolia was the least preferred one by rabbits. The results also revealed that the CV% value for the 2nd method (16.32%), which the tested forages were presented separately to rabbits, was lower and methodologically more acceptable than such value for the 1st method (34.28%), which all forages were presented together at the same time. It can be concluded that a range of tropical forages were consumed in acceptable quantities by rabbits, suggesting that diets based on such forages with a concentrate supplement could be used successfully for rabbit production. However, growth performance studies are still needed before recommendations could be made on appropriate ration formulations for commercial use. PMID:25049983

  11. Photoacoustic endoscopic imaging of the rabbit mediastinum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Joon-Mo; Favazza, Christopher; Chen, Ruimin; Yao, Junjie; Cai, Xin; Li, Chiye; Maslov, Konstantin; Zhou, Qifa; Shung, K. Kirk; Wang, Lihong V.

    2013-03-01

    Like ultrasound endoscopy, photoacoustic endoscopy (PAE) could become a valuable addition to clinical practice due to its deep imaging capability. Results from our recent in vivo transesophageal endoscopic imaging study on rabbits demonstrate the technique's capability to image major organs in the mediastinal region, such as the lung, trachea, and cardiovascular systems. Here, we present various features from photoacoustic images from the mediastinal region of several rabbits and discuss possible clinical contributions of this technique and directions of future technology development.

  12. Effects of phenobarbital upon triacylglycerol metabolism in the rabbit.

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg, D M; Roomi, M W; Yu, A; Roncari, D A

    1980-01-01

    1. The association between hepatic microsomal enzyme induction and triacylglycerol metabolism was examined in fasting male rabbits (2kg body wt.) injected intra-peritoneally with 50 mg of phenobarbital per kg for 10 days. 2. Occurrence of enzyme induction was established by a significant increase in hepatic aminopyrine N-demethylase activity and cytochrome P-450 content, as well as a doubling of microsomal protein per g of liver and a 54% increase in liver weight. Parallel increments in hepatic gamma-glutamyltransferase (EC 2.3.2.2) activity occurred; these were more pronounced in the whole homogenate than in the microsomes, which only accounted for 12.5% of the total enzyme activity in the controls and 17.0% in the animals given phenobarbital. Increased activity of gamma-glutamyltransferase activity was also observed in the blood serum of the test animals. 3. The rabbits given phenobarbital manifested increased hepatic triacylglycerol content and the triacylglycerol concentration of blood serum was also elevated. These changes were accompanied by a significantly enhanced ability of cell-free fractions of liver from the test animals (postmitochondrial supernatant and microsomal fractions) to synthesize glycerolipids in vitro from sn-[14C] glycerol 3-phosphate and fatty acids, when expressed per whole liver. Relative to the protein content of the fraction, glycerolipid synthesis in vitro was significantly decreased in the microsomes, presumably consequent upon the dramatic increase in their total protein content, whereas no change occurred in the postmitochondrial supernatant, possibly due to the protective effect of cytosolic factors present in this fraction and known to enhance glycerolipid synthesis. 4. Microsomal phosphatidate phosphohydrolase accounted for 85% of the total liver activity of this enzyme and its specific activity was 20-fold higher than that of the cytosolic phosphatidate phosphohydrolase (EC 3.1.3.4), when each was measured under optimal conditions. A significant increase in the activity of both enzymes per whole liver occurred in the rabbits given phenobarbital. A closer correlation between hepatic triacylglycerol content and and microsomal phosphatidate phosphohydrolase, as well as the above observation, suggest that this, rather than the cytosolic enzyme, may be rate-limiting for triacylglycerol synthesis in rabbit liver. 5. Significant correlations were observed between the various factors of hepatic microsomal-enzyme induction (aminopyrine N-demethylase and gamma-glutamyltransferase activity as well as cytochrome P-450 content) and hepatic triacylglycerol content, suggesting that that microsomal enzyme induction may promote hepatic triacylglycerol synthesis and consequently hypertriglyceridaemia in the rabbit. PMID:7305894

  13. Distribution of prostaglandins in rabbit kidney

    PubMed Central

    Crowshaw, Keith; Szlyk, J. Z.

    1970-01-01

    Three prostaglandins (PGE2, PGF2α and PGA2) are present in rabbit kidney medulla. An acidic lipid extract (0.165g) obtained from 2kg of frozen rabbit kidney cortex was separated by silicic acid chromatography to yield eluates containing fatty acids, possible non-polar prostaglandin metabolites, PGA, PGE and PGF compounds. Ultraviolet spectra of the eluates before and after treatment with sodium hydroxide did not yield chromophores typical of any known prostaglandins or related metabolites. By using more sensitive bioassay procedures (contraction of rabbit duodenum) weak activity equivalent to 60μg of PGE2 and 10μg of PGF2α was detected in the PGE and PGF eluates respectively. Extraction and bioassay of fresh kidney cortex revealed no prostaglandin-like activity. Attempts to biosynthesize prostaglandins in fresh homogenates of rabbit kidney cortex from endogenous precursors and from added arachidonic acid were unsuccessful. When freshly prepared homogenates of rabbit kidney cortex were incubated with added PGE1 no evidence of enzymic breakdown was obtained. It is concluded that rabbit kidney prostaglandins are present predominantly in the medulla and there are no cortical mechanisms for their biosynthesis or inactivation under normal conditions. PMID:5435688

  14. Material properties of articular cartilage in the rabbit tibial plateau

    PubMed Central

    Roemhildt, Maria L.; Coughlin, Kathryn M.; Peura, Glenn D.; Fleming, Braden C.; Beynnon, Bruce D.

    2010-01-01

    The material properties of articular cartilage in the rabbit tibial plateau were determined using biphasic indentation creep tests. Cartilage specimens from matched-pair hind limbs of rabbits approximately 4 months of age and greater than 12 months of age were tested on two locations within each compartment using a custom built materials testing apparatus. A three-way ANOVA was used to determine the effect of leg, compartment, and test location on the material properties (aggregate modulus, permeability, and Poisson's ratio) and thickness of the cartilage for each set of specimens. While no differences were observed in cartilage properties between the left and right legs, differences between compartments were found in each set of specimens. For cartilage from the adolescent group, values for aggregate modulus were 40% less in the medial compartment compared to the lateral compartment, while values for permeability and thickness were greater in the medial compartment compared to the lateral compartment (57% and 30%, respectively). Values for Poisson's ratio were 19% less in the medial compartment compared to the lateral compartment. There was also a strong trend for thickness to differ between test locations. Similar findings were observed for cartilage from the mature group with values for permeability and thickness being greater in the medial compartment compared to the lateral compartment (66% and 34%, respectively). Values for Poisson's ratio were 22% less in the medial compartment compared to the lateral compartment. PMID:16168420

  15. Viscoelastic Characterization of Peripapillary Sclera: Material Properties by Quadrant in Rabbit and Monkey Eyes

    PubMed Central

    Downs, J. Crawford; Suh, J-K. Francis; Thomas, Kevin A.; Bellezza, Anthony J.; Burgoyne, Claude F.; Hart, Richard T.

    2009-01-01

    In this report we characterize the viscoelastic material properties of peripapillary sclera from the four quadrants surrounding the optic nerve head in both rabbit and monkey eyes. Scleral tensile specimens harvested from each quadrant were subjected to uniaxial stress relaxation and tensile ramp to failure tests. Linear viscoelastic theory, coupled with a spectral reduced relaxation function, was employed to characterize the viscoelastic properties of the tissues. We detected no differences in the stress-strain curves of specimens from the four quadrants surrounding the optic nerve head (ONH) below a strain of 4 percent in either the rabbit or monkey. While the peripapillary sclera from monkey eyes is significantly stiffer (both instantaneously and in equilibrium) and relaxes more slowly than that from rabbits, we detected no differences in the viscoelastic material properties (tested at strains of 01 percent) of sclera from the four quadrants surrounding the ONH within either species group. PMID:12661206

  16. Diagnosis of the Encephalitozoon cuniculi infections in pet rabbits with neurological symptoms.

    PubMed

    Zietek, J; Adaszek, Ł; Dziegiel, B; Kalinowski, M; Bartnicki, M; Kalinowska, A; Jarosz, Ł; Winiarczyk, S

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was the in vivo diagnosing of E. cuniculi invasions in pet rabbits with neurological symptoms using the Real-Time PCR, and determination of the rate of invasion, in this group of animals. The study involved 103 pet rabbits with neurological symptoms. Parasitic invasions were diagnosed using Real-Time PCR. The DNA of the parasites for molecular tests was isolated from the urine of the diseased animals. Out of the 103 tested DNA samples, the presence of the E. cuniculi genetic material was detected in 27 samples (26.21%). The melting temperature (Tm) of all products was 77.5 degrees C. The presence of parasitic DNA in the urine of 26.21% of examined animals indicates that E. cuniculi infections occur widely in pet rabbits in Poland and are a significant cause of neurological disorders in those animals. PMID:24988865

  17. Antigenic evidence for host origin of exudative fluids in lesions of Treponema pallidum-infected rabbits.

    PubMed Central

    Wos, S M; Wicher, K

    1985-01-01

    Mucoid fluid accumulating within syphilitic lesions has been considered to be of Treponema pallidum origin. To test this assumption, we examined testicular exudative fluids from T. pallidum-infected rabbits for the presence of T. pallidum antigens by various sensitive immunochemical methods, including Western blot analysis. Antigenic analysis of these fluids revealed host components but not treponemal antigens. Prolonged immunization of rabbits, guinea pigs, and a goat with this material in complete Freund adjuvant elicited low titers (fluorescent-treponemal-antibody test titer, less than or equal to 10) of antitreponemal antibodies in the rabbits and guinea pigs but not in the goat. The data suggest that these mucoid fluids are of host origin. The presence of mucopolysaccharides in these fluids may be related to the infective process. The possible mechanism by which mucopolysaccharides protect T. pallidum from immune mechanisms and its potential relationship to the pathogenesis of the disease are discussed. Images PMID:3965397

  18. The ABCG2 efflux transporter from rabbit placenta: Cloning and functional characterization.

    PubMed

    Halwachs, Sandra; Kneuer, Carsten; Gohlsch, Katrin; Müller, Marian; Ritz, Vera; Honscha, Walther

    2016-02-01

    In human placenta, the ATP-binding cassette efflux transporter ABCG2 is highly expressed in syncytiotrophoblast cells and mediates cellular excretion of various drugs and toxins. Hence, physiological ABCG2 activity substantially contributes to the fetoprotective placenta barrier function during gestation. Developmental toxicity studies are often performed in rabbit. However, despite its toxicological relevance, there is no data so far on functional ABCG2 expression in this species. Therefore, we cloned ABCG2 from placenta tissues of chinchilla rabbit. Sequencing showed 84-86% amino acid sequence identity to the orthologues from man, rat and mouse. We transduced the rabbit ABCG2 clone (rbABCG2) in MDCKII cells and stable rbABCG2 gene and protein expression was shown by RT-PCR and Western blot analysis. The rbABCG2 efflux activity was demonstrated with the Hoechst H33342 assay using the specific ABCG2 inhibitor Ko143. We further tested the effect of established human ABCG2 (hABCG2) drug substrates including the antibiotic danofloxacin or the histamine H2-receptor antagonist cimetidine on H33342 accumulation in MDCKII-rbABCG2 or -hABCG2 cells. Human therapeutic plasma concentrations of all tested drugs caused a comparable competitive inhibition of H33342 excretion in both ABCG2 clones. Altogether, we first showed functional expression of the ABCG2 efflux transporter in rabbit placenta. Moreover, our data suggest a similar drug substrate spectrum of the rabbit and the human ABCG2 efflux transporter. PMID:26907376

  19. A radiochemical assay for glycine N-acyltransferase activity. Some properties of the enzyme in rat and rabbit.

    PubMed

    James, M O; Bend, J R

    1978-05-15

    We have developed a sensitive radiochemical assay of glycine N-acyltransferase activity, using phenylacetyl-CoA as the acyl donor and glycine as the acceptor. This assay measures formation of the product, phenylacetylglycine, instead of disappearance of the substrate, phenylacetyl-CoA, as did earlier assays. The subcellular location and some properties of the conjugating activity were determined in liver and kidney of the rabbit and the rat. Rabbit lung and intestine were also tested for activity. PMID:666745

  20. Feasibility and acute healing of vocal fold microflap incisions in a rabbit model

    PubMed Central

    Suehiro, Atsushi; Bock, Jonathan M.; Hall, Joseph E.; Garrett, C. Gaelyn; Rousseau, Bernard

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to: 1) investigate the feasibility of performing mucosal elevation of a vocal fold microflap in a rabbit model, and 2) measure the acute healing of rabbit microflap incisions compared to control vocal folds. Study Design Prospective animal study Methods Ten New Zealand white rabbits were used in this study. All rabbits received a 3mm incision through the epithelium of one vocal fold using a sickle knife and mucosal elevation through this incision using a microlaryngeal fine angled spatula. The contralateral vocal fold was left intact to serve as an internal control. Student t tests were used to investigate differences in epithelial thickness, immunohistochemical staining of CD 45, and inflammatory and pro-fibrotic gene expression between vocal folds undergoing microflap and control. Results Exposure of the rabbit larynx was achieved, allowing for the identification of a surgical plane and the creation of a microflap and elevation of the vocal fold mucosa. Hematoxylin-eosin staining revealed no significant differences in epithelial thickness, immunohistochemistry for CD 45 showed no significant differences in CD 45 positive cells, and quantitative PCR revealed no significant differences in IL-1β, TGFβ-1, or COX-2 gene expression between vocal folds undergoing microflap and control. Conclusions We demonstrate the feasibility of vocal fold microflap surgery in a rabbit model. With the advantage of greater access to primers and antibodies for molecular biological studies, the application of the microflap technique in a small animal model such as rabbit has broad implications for future experimental investigations in laryngology. Level of Evidence Animal Research. PMID:22253007

  1. Transgenic Mouse Bioassay: Evidence That Rabbits Are Susceptible to a Variety of Prion Isolates.

    PubMed

    Vidal, Enric; Fernández-Borges, Natalia; Pintado, Belén; Eraña, Hasier; Ordóñez, Montserrat; Márquez, Mercedes; Chianini, Francesca; Fondevila, Dolors; Sánchez-Martín, Manuel A; Andreoletti, Olivier; Dagleish, Mark P; Pumarola, Martí; Castilla, Joaquín

    2015-08-01

    Interspecies transmission of prions is a well-established phenomenon, both experimentally and under field conditions. Upon passage through new hosts, prion strains have proven their capacity to change their properties and this is a source of strain diversity which needs to be considered when assessing the potential risks associated with consumption of prion contaminated protein sources. Rabbits were considered for decades to be a prion resistant species until proven otherwise recently. To determine the extent of rabbit susceptibility to prions and to assess the effects of passage of different prion strains through this species a transgenic mouse model overexpressing rabbit PrPC was developed (TgRab). Intracerebral challenges with prion strains originating from a variety of species including field isolates (ovine SSBP/1 scrapie, Nor98- scrapie; cattle BSE, BSE-L and cervid CWD), experimental murine strains (ME7 and RML) and experimentally obtained ruminant (sheepBSE) and rabbit (de novo NZW) strains were performed. On first passage TgRab were susceptible to the majority of prions (Cattle BSE, SheepBSE, BSE-L, de novo NZW, ME7 and RML) tested with the exception of SSBP/1 scrapie, CWD and Nor98 scrapie. Furthermore, TgRab were capable of propagating strain-specific features such as differences in incubation periods, histological brain lesions, abnormal prion (PrPd) deposition profiles and proteinase-K (PK) resistant western blotting band patterns. Our results confirm previous studies proving that rabbits are not resistant to prion infection and show for the first time that rabbits are susceptible to PrPd originating in a number of other species. This should be taken into account when choosing protein sources to feed rabbits. PMID:26247589

  2. Transgenic Mouse Bioassay: Evidence That Rabbits Are Susceptible to a Variety of Prion Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Pintado, Belén; Eraña, Hasier; Ordóñez, Montserrat; Márquez, Mercedes; Chianini, Francesca; Fondevila, Dolors; Sánchez-Martín, Manuel A.; Andreoletti, Olivier; Dagleish, Mark P.; Pumarola, Martí; Castilla, Joaquín

    2015-01-01

    Interspecies transmission of prions is a well-established phenomenon, both experimentally and under field conditions. Upon passage through new hosts, prion strains have proven their capacity to change their properties and this is a source of strain diversity which needs to be considered when assessing the potential risks associated with consumption of prion contaminated protein sources. Rabbits were considered for decades to be a prion resistant species until proven otherwise recently. To determine the extent of rabbit susceptibility to prions and to assess the effects of passage of different prion strains through this species a transgenic mouse model overexpressing rabbit PrPC was developed (TgRab). Intracerebral challenges with prion strains originating from a variety of species including field isolates (ovine SSBP/1 scrapie, Nor98- scrapie; cattle BSE, BSE-L and cervid CWD), experimental murine strains (ME7 and RML) and experimentally obtained ruminant (sheepBSE) and rabbit (de novo NZW) strains were performed. On first passage TgRab were susceptible to the majority of prions (Cattle BSE, SheepBSE, BSE-L, de novo NZW, ME7 and RML) tested with the exception of SSBP/1 scrapie, CWD and Nor98 scrapie. Furthermore, TgRab were capable of propagating strain-specific features such as differences in incubation periods, histological brain lesions, abnormal prion (PrPd) deposition profiles and proteinase-K (PK) resistant western blotting band patterns. Our results confirm previous studies proving that rabbits are not resistant to prion infection and show for the first time that rabbits are susceptible to PrPd originating in a number of other species. This should be taken into account when choosing protein sources to feed rabbits. PMID:26247589

  3. Axial forces and bending moments in the loaded rabbit tibia in vivo

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Different animal models are used as fracture models in orthopaedic research prior to implant use in humans, although biomechanical forces can differ to a great extend between species due to variable anatomic conditions, particularly with regard to the gait. The rabbit is an often used fracture model, but biomechanical data are very rare. The objective of the present study was to measure axial forces, bending moments, and bending axis directly in the rabbit tibia in vivo. The following hypothesis was tested: Axial forces and bending moments in the mid-diaphysis of rabbit tibia differ from other experimental animals or indirectly calculated data. Methods A minifixateur system with 4 force sensors was developed and attached to rabbit tibia (n = 4), which were subsequently ostectomised. Axial forces, bending moments and bending angles were calculated telemetrically during weight bearing in motion between 6 and 42 days post operation. Results Highest single values were 201% body weight [% bw] for axial forces and 409% bw cm for bending moments. Whereas there was a continous decrease in axial forces over time after day 10 (P = 0.03 on day 15), a decrease in bending moments was inconsistent (P = 0.03 on day 27). High values for bending moments were frequently, but not consistently, associated with high values for axial forces. Conclusion Axial forces in rabbit tibia exceeded axial forces in sheep, and differed from indirectly calculated data. The rabbit is an appropriate fracture model because axial loads and bending moments in rabbit tibia were more closely to human conditions than in sheep tibia as an animal model. PMID:22462634

  4. Epitope-focused peptide immunogens in human use adjuvants protect rabbits from experimental inhalation anthrax

    PubMed Central

    Oscherwitz, Jon; Feldman, Daniel; Yu, Fen; Cease, Kemp B.

    2014-01-01

    Background Anthrax represents a formidable bioterrorism threat for which new, optimized vaccines are required. We previously demonstrated that epitope-focused multiple antigenic peptides or a recombinant protein in Freund’s adjuvant can elicit Ab against the loop neutralizing determinant (LND), a cryptic linear neutralizing epitope in the 2β2–2β3 loop of protective antigen from Bacillus anthracis, which mediated protection of rabbits from inhalation challenge with B. anthracis Ames strain. However, demonstration of efficacy using human-use adjuvants is required before proceeding with further development of an LND vaccine for testing in non-human primates and humans. Methods To optimize the LND immunogen, we first evaluated the protective efficacy and immune correlates associated with immunization of rabbits with mixtures containing two molecular variants of multiple antigenic peptides in Freunds adjuvant, termed BT-LND(2) and TB-LND(2). TB-LND(2) was then further evaluated for protective efficacy in rabbits employing human-use adjuvants. Results Immunization of rabbits with TB-LND(2) in human-use adjuvants elicited protection from Ames strain spore challenge which was statistically indistinguishable from that elicited through immunization with protective antigen. All TB-LND(2) rabbits with any detectable serum neutralization prior to challenge were protected from aerosolized spore exposure. Remarkably, rabbits immunized with TB-LND(2) in Alhydrogel/CpG had significant anamnestic increases in post-challenge LND-specific Ab and neutralization titers despite little evidence of spore germination in these rabbits. Conclusions An LND-specific epitope-focused vaccine may complement PA-based vaccines and may represent a complementary stand-alone vaccine for anthrax. PMID:25454087

  5. PATHOGENESIS AND IMMUNE RESPONSES OF FRANCISELLA TULARENSIS STRAINS IN WILD-CAUGHT COTTONTAIL RABBITS (SYLVILAGUS SPP.).

    PubMed

    Brown, Vienna R; Adney, Danielle R; Bielefeldt-Ohmann, Helle; Gordy, Paul W; Felix, Todd A; Olea-Popelka, Francisco J; Bowen, Richard A

    2015-07-01

    Francisella tularensis is a highly virulent, zoonotic bacterium that causes significant natural disease and is of concern as an organism for bioterrorism. Serologic testing of wildlife is frequently used to monitor spatial patterns of infection and to quantify exposure. Cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus spp.) are a natural reservoir for F. tularensis in the US, although very little work has been done experimentally to determine how these animals respond to infection; thus, information gathered from field samples can be difficult to interpret. We characterized clinical disease, bacteremia, pathology, and antibody kinetics of North American cottontail rabbits experimentally infected with five strains of F. tularensis. Rabbits were infected with four field strains, including MA00-2987 (type A1b), WY96-3418 (type A2), KY99-3387, and OR96-0246 (type B), and with SchuS4 (type A1a), a widely used, virulent laboratory strain. Infection with the different strains of the bacterium resulted in varied patterns of clinical disease, gross pathology, and histopathology. Each of the type A strains were highly virulent, with rabbits succumbing to infection 3-13 d after infection. At necropsy, numerous microabscesses were observed in the livers and spleens of most rabbits, associated with high bacterial organ burdens. In contrast, most rabbits infected with type B strains developed mild fever and became lethargic, but the disease was infrequently lethal. Those rabbits infected with type B strains that survived past 14 d developed a robust humoral immune response, and F. tularensis was not isolated from liver, spleen, or lung of those animals. Understanding F. tularensis infection in a natural reservoir species can guide serosurveillance and generate new insights into environmental maintenance of this pathogen. PMID:25984770

  6. Rat and rabbit heart infarction: effects of anesthesia, perfusate, risk zone, and method of infarct sizing.

    PubMed

    Ytrehus, K; Liu, Y; Tsuchida, A; Miura, T; Liu, G S; Yang, X M; Herbert, D; Cohen, M V; Downey, J M

    1994-12-01

    Rabbits and rats are becoming popular models for in vitro as well as in situ studies of myocardial infarction. In the present analysis we evaluated the results of several of our completed investigations and tested whether blood-free perfusate, anesthesia, or risk zone size affects infarction in these species. In addition, the influence of the method used for determining infarct size (histology or histochemistry) was examined in rabbits. All hearts experienced 30 min of regional ischemia followed by either 2-3 h of reperfusion in animals in which infarct size was assessed by staining with triphenyltetrazolium chloride or 72 h in those in which histological methods were used to measure infarct size. Eighteen rabbit and seven rat hearts perfused with Krebs buffer, seventeen open-chest rabbits, eight rats anesthetized with pentobarbital, and ten conscious rabbits were studied. Risk zone size measured with fluorescent particles was plotted against infarct size. Infarct size was linearly correlated with risk zone size and did not differ among models for each species. In rat hearts the regression line passed through the origin so that zero infarction occurred with zero risk zone size. However, in the rabbit heart there was no apparent infarction for risk zone sizes < 0.3 cm3. Although the relationship between risk zone and infarction was found to be remarkably independent of the model chosen, the nonzero intercept for the rabbit heart can be an important, previously unrecognized source of experimental variability when infarct size is expressed as a percentage of the risk zone. PMID:7528994

  7. [In vivo radiotelemetric study of strain on the rabbit mandible].

    PubMed

    Xue, M

    1990-01-01

    Using strain transducer to measure bone strain and stress in vitro on-line techniques are more popular. In this article, the radiotelemetric method is selected for measuring living tissue mechanic properties. The angle of rabbit mandible serves as tested site. The transducer is minutely foil type electrical resistance strain gage. The measuring instruments are KYOWA telemeter for strain measurement MRT-200 series. When the mandible is in rest position, the tested site shows no change of strain; when the mandible acts without eating any food, small change of strain appear; when the rabbit mastication two kinds of food, the tested site shows the regular change of tension strain and compressive strain, the former is about 150 microstrain and latter is about 30 microstrain. The rates of strain are different when the animal mastication the different foods. Comparing with the on-line technique method, the radiotelemetric method has significant advantages, and is the better test way for studying mechanic properties of living tissue. PMID:2114263

  8. Ultrastructure of rabbit semilunar cartilages.

    PubMed Central

    Ghadially, F N; Thomas, I; Yong, N; Lalonde, J M

    1978-01-01

    A light and transmission electron microscopical study of 6 to 8 months old rabbit semilunar cartilages has shown that the cells in this tissue resemble chondrocytes more than fibroblasts. The prominent organelles in these cells were rough endoplasmic reticulum and the Golgi complex. An unusual finding was the occurrence of filamentous material in Golgi sacs and vesicles, and collagen fibrils within smooth membrane-bound tubular structures, apparently within the cells. Collagen fibrils forming fibres, fibre bundles and lamellae constituted the major component of the menisci. Protein-polysaccharide particles and associated fine filaments were found in the interfibrillary matrix and in the sparse territorial matrix adjacent to the chondrocytes. Numerous immature elastic fibrils, and rare mature elastic fibres with an electorn-lucent amorphous core, were also found in the general matrix amongst the collagen fibrils. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 Fig. 18 Fig. 19 Fig. 20 PMID:580431

  9. Isolation and Characterization of a Novel Betacoronavirus Subgroup A Coronavirus, Rabbit Coronavirus HKU14, from Domestic Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Susanna K. P.; Woo, Patrick C. Y.; Yip, Cyril C. Y.; Fan, Rachel Y. Y.; Huang, Yi; Wang, Ming; Guo, Rongtong; Lam, Carol S. F.; Tsang, Alan K. L.; Lai, Kenneth K. Y.; Chan, Kwok-Hung; Che, Xiao-Yan; Zheng, Bo-Jian

    2012-01-01

    We describe the isolation and characterization of a novel Betacoronavirus subgroup A coronavirus, rabbit coronavirus HKU14 (RbCoV HKU14), from domestic rabbits. The virus was detected in 11 (8.1%) of 136 rabbit fecal samples by reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR), with a viral load of up to 108 copies/ml. RbCoV HKU14 was able to replicate in HRT-18G and RK13 cells with cytopathic effects. Northern blotting confirmed the production of subgenomic mRNAs coding for the HE, S, NS5a, E, M, and N proteins. Subgenomic mRNA analysis revealed a transcription regulatory sequence, 5′-UCUAAAC-3′. Phylogenetic analysis showed that RbCoV HKU14 formed a distinct branch among Betacoronavirus subgroup A coronaviruses, being most closely related to but separate from the species Betacoronavirus 1. A comparison of the conserved replicase domains showed that RbCoV HKU14 possessed <90% amino acid identities to most members of Betacoronavirus 1 in ADP-ribose 1″-phosphatase (ADRP) and nidoviral uridylate-specific endoribonuclease (NendoU), indicating that RbCoV HKU14 should represent a separate species. RbCoV HKU14 also possessed genomic features distinct from those of other Betacoronavirus subgroup A coronaviruses, including a unique NS2a region with a variable number of small open reading frames (ORFs). Recombination analysis revealed possible recombination events during the evolution of RbCoV HKU14 and members of Betacoronavirus 1, which may have occurred during cross-species transmission. Molecular clock analysis using RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) genes dated the most recent common ancestor of RbCoV HKU14 to around 2002, suggesting that this virus has emerged relatively recently. Antibody against RbCoV was detected in 20 (67%) of 30 rabbit sera tested by an N-protein-based Western blot assay, whereas neutralizing antibody was detected in 1 of these 20 rabbits. PMID:22398294

  10. [Spontaneous Cryptosporidium infection in weaned rabbits].

    PubMed

    Pavlsek, I; Lvicka, M; T?mov, E; Skrivan, M

    1996-12-01

    The first occurrence of Cryptosporidium parvum Tyzzer, 1912 in broiler rabbits in the Czech Republic is reported. The protozoon was determined on the basis of morphometrical parameters of oocysts and of localization of endogenous developmental stages. The dynamics of natural Cryptosporidium infection was studied in a group of 72 young rabbits after weaning (their age ranging from 23-33 to 82-92 days) obtained from six large flocks and used in a feeding experiment. C. parvum was found in rabbits from four farms (Tab. I). Animals under observation were divided into 9 subgroups according to the genotype (Hyla 2000, California White, crosses of New Zealand x California, New Zealand White, Cunistar and Zika) as well as according to the farm of origin. The animals were housed in 28 cages under the conditions of two-floor cage technology. The upper floor consisted of cages housing three head, the lower floor two head each. The animals were fed ad libitum with commercial feed mixture (till the average age of 64.days supplemented with Robenidin as coccidiostat). During the first 10 days of observation pooled samples of droppings from each cage were examinated by flotation-centrifugation method according to Breza (1957) and Pavlsek (1991) in the intervals of three to four days, later one-week intervals. Post mortem scrapings from mucous epithelium taken from young rabbits were examinated (to reveal endogenous developmental stages of C. parvum) together with digesta (to detect oocysts of the protozoon) taken from the full length of the small intestine using method of native preparations and Giemsa stain. In one 37-day dead animal the small and large intestines were examined histologically. The maximum number of young rabbits infected with C. parvum were 30-40 and 33-43 days old (Fig. 1). In animals of this age category the oocysts of the protozoon were found in pooled samples in 11 and 12 cages (39.3 and 42.9%) from totally 28 cages under study. In rabbits of more than 50 days of age the occurrence of infection was significantly decreased (3.7%). During the experiment seven rabbits (9.7%) died; six of them (8.3%) at the age of 30-40 days. All these naturally infected and dead animals represented cases of monoinfection with C. parvum. The major clinical signs were typical diarrhoea lasting 3-5 days, inappetency, apathia, lethargy, prominent signs of exhaustion followed by dehydration of the organism. Atrophy of villi of the ileum in one of young rabbits was found histologically. Table II presents concrete data on significantly lower body weights (the decrease being 7-61.5%) as compared with rabbits of the same age not infected with cryptosporidia. It was not possible to evaluate objectively the differences in susceptibility to C. parvum infection between the individual genotypes of rabbits. As was found in the course of our further studies (unpublished data) a possible source of infection of young rabbits can be represented by their mothers in which oocysts are excreted sporadically shortly before parturition and during several days after it. Cryptosporidium infection (cryptosporidiosis) in flocks of broiler rabbits is taken as a new protozoal disease in the Czech Republic and C. parvum as one of possible agents in cases of disorders of digestive tract, namely in rabbits after weaning. PMID:9045499

  11. Marsh rabbit mortalities tie pythons to the precipitous decline of mammals in the Everglades

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCleery, Robert A.; Sovie, Adia; Reed, Robert N.; Cunningham, Mark W.; Hunter, Margaret E.; Hart, Kristen M.

    2015-01-01

    To address the ongoing debate over the impact of invasive species on native terrestrial wildlife, we conducted a large-scale experiment to test the hypothesis that invasive Burmese pythons (Python molurus bivittatus) were a cause of the precipitous decline of mammals in Everglades National Park (ENP). Evidence linking pythons to mammal declines has been indirect and there are reasons to question whether pythons, or any predator, could have caused the precipitous declines seen across a range of mammalian functional groups. Experimentally manipulating marsh rabbits, we found that pythons accounted for 77% of rabbit mortalities within 11 months of their translocation to ENP and that python predation appeared to preclude the persistence of rabbit populations in ENP. On control sites, outside of the park, no rabbits were killed by pythons and 71% of attributable marsh rabbit mortalities were classified as mammal predations. Burmese pythons pose a serious threat to the faunal communities and ecological functioning of the Greater Everglades Ecosystem, which will probably spread as python populations expand their range.

  12. Diarrhea and intestinal invasiveness of Aeromonas strains in the removable intestinal tie rabbit model.

    PubMed Central

    Pazzaglia, G; Sack, R B; Bourgeois, A L; Froehlich, J; Eckstein, J

    1990-01-01

    Twelve Aeromonas strains were tested for virulence by using the removable intestinal tie adult rabbit diarrhea model. Mortality was 50% or greater for 7 of 12 strains; 23 of 37 rabbits that died developed diarrhea before death, and 11 of 27 surviving rabbits developed diarrhea. Aeromonas bacteremia was detected in 36 of 37 (97%) animals that died, but only in 2 of 27 (7%) survivors. Death, diarrhea, and bacteremia were all strongly strain dependent. Gastrointestinal lesions varied from moderate focal enteritis to severe multifocal necrosis and hemorrhage of the ileal mucosa, often accompanied by hepatic and splenic lesions. Intestinal colonization assays performed after infection indicated that the ileum was the most heavily colonized portion of the gut and the probable site of invasion. The application of the removable intestinal tie adult rabbit diarrhea model for intestinal challenge with Aeromonas strains has shown that some isolates are capable of invading the mucosa of rabbits, causing diarrhea and bacteremia. These data suggest that such strains may be important in causing human invasive diarrhea. Images PMID:2341185

  13. Streptococcus sanguis-induced platelet clotting in rabbits and hemodynamic and cardiopulmonary consequences.

    PubMed

    Meyer, M W; Gong, K; Herzberg, M C

    1998-12-01

    By mimicking hemostatic structural domains of collagen, Streptococcus sanguis (aggregation-positive phenotype; Agg+) induces platelets to aggregate in vitro. To test the hypothesis that aggregation occurs in vivo, S. sanguis (Agg+ or Agg- suspension) was infused intravenously into rabbits. The extent of hemodynamic and cardiopulmonary changes and the fate of circulating platelets were Agg+ strain dose dependent. Within 45 to 50 s of the start of infusion, 40 x 10(8) CFU of the Agg+ strain caused increased blood pressure. Thirty seconds after infusion, other changes occurred. Intermittent electrocardiographic abnormalities (13 of 15 rabbits), ST-segment depression (10 of 15 rabbits), and preventricular contractions (7 of 15 rabbits) manifested at 3 to 7 min, with frequencies dose dependent. Respiratory rate and cardiac contractility increased during this phase. Blood catecholamine concentration, thrombocytopenia, accumulation of 111Indium-labeled platelets in the lungs, and ventricular axis deviation also showed dose dependency. Rabbits were unaffected by inoculation of an Agg- strain. Therefore, Agg+ S. sanguis induced platelet aggregation in vitro. Platelet clots caused hemodynamic changes, acute pulmonary hypertension, and cardiac abnormalities, including ischemia. PMID:9826372

  14. Marsh rabbit mortalities tie pythons to the precipitous decline of mammals in the Everglades

    PubMed Central

    McCleery, Robert A.; Sovie, Adia; Reed, Robert N.; Cunningham, Mark W.; Hunter, Margaret E.; Hart, Kristen M.

    2015-01-01

    To address the ongoing debate over the impact of invasive species on native terrestrial wildlife, we conducted a large-scale experiment to test the hypothesis that invasive Burmese pythons (Python molurus bivittatus) were a cause of the precipitous decline of mammals in Everglades National Park (ENP). Evidence linking pythons to mammal declines has been indirect and there are reasons to question whether pythons, or any predator, could have caused the precipitous declines seen across a range of mammalian functional groups. Experimentally manipulating marsh rabbits, we found that pythons accounted for 77% of rabbit mortalities within 11 months of their translocation to ENP and that python predation appeared to preclude the persistence of rabbit populations in ENP. On control sites, outside of the park, no rabbits were killed by pythons and 71% of attributable marsh rabbit mortalities were classified as mammal predations. Burmese pythons pose a serious threat to the faunal communities and ecological functioning of the Greater Everglades Ecosystem, which will probably spread as python populations expand their range. PMID:25788598

  15. Marsh rabbit mortalities tie pythons to the precipitous decline of mammals in the Everglades.

    PubMed

    McCleery, Robert A; Sovie, Adia; Reed, Robert N; Cunningham, Mark W; Hunter, Margaret E; Hart, Kristen M

    2015-04-22

    To address the ongoing debate over the impact of invasive species on native terrestrial wildlife, we conducted a large-scale experiment to test the hypothesis that invasive Burmese pythons (Python molurus bivittatus) were a cause of the precipitous decline of mammals in Everglades National Park (ENP). Evidence linking pythons to mammal declines has been indirect and there are reasons to question whether pythons, or any predator, could have caused the precipitous declines seen across a range of mammalian functional groups. Experimentally manipulating marsh rabbits, we found that pythons accounted for 77% of rabbit mortalities within 11 months of their translocation to ENP and that python predation appeared to preclude the persistence of rabbit populations in ENP. On control sites, outside of the park, no rabbits were killed by pythons and 71% of attributable marsh rabbit mortalities were classified as mammal predations. Burmese pythons pose a serious threat to the faunal communities and ecological functioning of the Greater Everglades Ecosystem, which will probably spread as python populations expand their range. PMID:25788598

  16. Autocrine Human Urotensin II Enhances Macrophage-Derived Foam Cell Formation in Transgenic Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Sihai; Li, Yafeng; Gao, Shoucui; Wang, Xiaojing; Sun, Lijing; Cheng, Daxing; Bai, Liang; Guan, Hua; Wang, Rong; Fan, Jianglin; Liu, Enqi

    2015-01-01

    Circulating urotensin II (UII) is involved in the development of atherosclerosis. However, the role of autocrine UII in the development of atherosclerosis remains unclear. Here, we tested the hypothesis that autocrine UII would promote atherosclerosis. Transgenic rabbits were created as a model to study macrophage-specific expressing human UII (hUII) and used to investigate the role of autocrine UII in the development of atherosclerosis. Transgenic rabbits and their nontransgenic littermates were fed a high cholesterol diet to induce atherosclerosis. Comparing the transgenic rabbits with their nontransgenic littermates, it was observed that hUII expression increased the macrophage-positive area in the atherosclerotic lesions by 45% and the positive area ratio by 56% in the transgenic rabbits. Autocrine hUII significantly decreased the smooth muscle cell-positive area ratio in transgenic rabbits (by 54%), without affecting the plasma levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and glucose and adipose tissue contents. These results elucidated for the first time that autocrine UII plays an important role in the development of atherosclerosis by increasing the accumulation of macrophage-derived foam cell. PMID:26640798

  17. [Observations during captive bolt stunning of rabbits].

    PubMed

    Schütt-Abraham, I; Knauer-Kraetzl, B; Wormuth, H J

    1992-01-01

    78 rabbits of mixed breed and about 3 kg live weight were stunned before slaughter with a commercial spring operated captive bolt apparatus designed for rabbits and water fowl. The following reaction patterns were observed: 1.) Immediate onset of tonic spasm, followed by weak to heavy clonic spasms and/or subsequent relaxation; irreversible loss of corneal reflex and cessation of respiration: effective and irreversible stun tantamount to killing 2.) Same reaction as before except that respiration restarted after 1/2 to 2 min: effective but only temporary stun 3.) Similar reaction as before, but respiration maintained: insufficient stun 4.) Immediate onset of weak tonic spasm; respiration and corneal reflex maintained: insufficient stun. According to this classification 56 rabbits (72%) were killed outright and 18 (23%) temporarily stunned while in 4 (5%) the stun was ineffective. The captive bolt apparatus proved thus to be principally suited for the stunning resp. killing of slaughter rabbits. The best stunning results were obtained with shots into the parietal bone near the sagittal line but not hitting the bone sutures. To achieve this the apparatus has to be placed slightly paramedian on the front as close to the ears as possible. Insufficient stunning results could be blamed on deviating shooting positions. To avoid misses a good fixation of the animal including its head is necessary. Correct application provided the use of penetrating concussion stunners should be preferred to applying a blow to the neck for stunning rabbits. PMID:1543476

  18. Hypercholesterolemia Impaired Sperm Functionality in Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Monclus, Maria A.; Cabrillana, Maria E.; Clementi, Marisa A.; Espínola, Leandro S.; Cid Barría, Jose L.; Vincenti, Amanda E.; Santi, Analia G.; Fornés, Miguel W.

    2010-01-01

    Hypercholesterolemia represents a high risk factor for frequent diseases and it has also been associated with poor semen quality that may lead to male infertility. The aim of this study was to analyze semen and sperm function in diet-induced hypercholesterolemic rabbits. Twelve adult White New Zealand male rabbits were fed ad libitum a control diet or a diet supplemented with 0.05% cholesterol. Rabbits under cholesterol-enriched diet significantly increased total cholesterol level in the serum. Semen examination revealed a significant reduction in semen volume and sperm motility in hypercholesterolemic rabbits (HCR). Sperm cell morphology was seriously affected, displaying primarily a “folded head”-head fold along the major axe-, and the presence of cytoplasmic droplet on sperm flagellum. Cholesterol was particularly increased in acrosomal region when detected by filipin probe. The rise in cholesterol concentration in sperm cells was determined quantitatively by Gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric analyses. We also found a reduction of protein tyrosine phosphorylation in sperm incubated under capacitating conditions from HCR. Interestingly, the addition of Protein Kinase A pathway activators -dibutyryl-cyclic AMP and iso-butylmethylxanthine- to the medium restored sperm capacitation. Finally, it was also reported a significant decrease in the percentage of reacted sperm in the presence of progesterone. In conclusion, our data showed that diet-induced hypercholesterolemia adversely affects semen quality and sperm motility, capacitation and acrosomal reaction in rabbits; probably due to an increase in cellular cholesterol content that alters membrane related events. PMID:20976152

  19. [Etiopathogenesis and epizootiology of coccidiosis in rabbits].

    PubMed

    Sherkov, Sh N; Khalacheva, M; Kostova, T; Malchevski, M; Arnaudov, D

    1986-01-01

    Studies were carried out on the etiology and epizootiology of rabbit coccidiosis. Three experimental groups of rabbits were infected with intestinal, liver, and mixed intestinal and liver coccidia. The shedding of oocysts and the clinical course of the disease were followed up, with description of the morphologic changes and the results of the biochemical examinations of the blood. A total of eight species of coccidia were established in all cases--Eimeria magna, E. intestinalis, E. piriformis, E. media, E. exigua, E. irresidua, E. perforans, and E. stidae. Predominating were E. magna, E. perforans, and E. irresidua. Results showed that all age groups of rabbits were susceptible to the coccidial infection, mostly the weaned bunnies and young ones aged 2-3 months. It is admitted that under the present conditions of this country's rabbit raising coccidiosis is a disease of a seasonal character. Biochemical investigations of blood taken from experimentally infected rabbits revealed that the changes in the activity of GOT and alkaline phosphatase and in the amount of bilirubin were most pronounced. PMID:3811201

  20. Accumulation of sup 125 I-factor XI in atheroma of rabbit with hereditary hyperlipidemia (WHHL-rabbit)

    SciTech Connect

    Komiyama, Y.; Masuda, M.; Murakami, T.; Nishikado, H.; Egawa, H.; Nishimura, T.; Morii, S.; Murata, K. )

    1989-10-01

    We have studied the turnover and accumulation of rabbit factor XI (F.XI) in atherosclerotic lesion in Watanabe-hereditable hyperlipidemic rabbit (WHHL rabbit) to reveal the participation of blood coagulation in atherosclerotic lesion. Rabbit F.XI was iodinated and administered intravenously to WHHL rabbits and Japanese white rabbits. The turnover of {sup 125}I-rabbit F.XI was significantly faster in WHHL rabbits (T1/2 = 2.84 +/- 0.44 days) than in normal rabbits (T1/2 = 4.44 +/- 0.42 days). The thoracic aorta of WHHL rabbit was strongly labelled with {sup 125}I-rabbit F.XI, in sections obtained after 5 days by en-face autoradiography, whereas no radioactivity was detected in normal aorta. By an immunohistochemical study of WHHL rabbit aorta, we confirmed that many F.XI- and fibrin-related compounds existed in the atheroma, whereas albumin did not in these area. These results suggest that the activation of F.XI proceeds on the atherosclerotic lesions of WHHL rabbits.

  1. 9 CFR 354.124 - Quarantine of diseased rabbits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... shall be dealt with in one of the following ways: (a) If it is determined by a veterinary inspector that... veterinary inspector that further handling of the rabbits will not create a health hazard, such rabbits...

  2. 9 CFR 354.124 - Quarantine of diseased rabbits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... shall be dealt with in one of the following ways: (a) If it is determined by a veterinary inspector that... veterinary inspector that further handling of the rabbits will not create a health hazard, such rabbits...

  3. Preparation and applicability of Sarcocystis cruzi antigens and their anti-S. cruzi rabbit sera for serodiagnosis of bovine sarcocystosis.

    PubMed

    Saito, M; Ohuchi, Y; Kobayashi, M; Haritani, M; Itagaki, H

    1994-06-01

    Sarcocystis cruzi antigens and their antisera were prepared for the seroimmunological diagnosis of bovine sarcocystosis. Fresh S. cruzi cysts directly removed from cardial muscle of slaughtered cattle were digested with trypsin to release bradyzoites. By twelve cycles of freezing at-22 degrees C and thawing at 37 degrees C, bradyzoites were let to leach out soluble material. The soluble antigens were inoculated four times to rabbits at a dose of 343 micrograms protein and anti-S. cruzi sera were prepared with blood of the rabbits. Gel immunodiffusion test showed no cross-reaction between the present antigens and any of anti-Toxoplasma gondii, -Hammondia hammondi and -Besnoitia wallacei rabbit sera. Avidin-biotin complex immunoperoxidase (ABC) technique with the present anti-S. curzi rabbit sera showed clear positive reaction against S. cruzi cysts in the muscular sections of infected cattle. PMID:7948400

  4. Dihydrotestosterone decreases beta-adrenergic receptor binding in the fetal rabbit lung

    SciTech Connect

    Moawad, A.H.; River, L.P.; River, J.M.

    1988-07-01

    Tritium-labeled dihydroalprenolol was used to quantify the beta-adrenergic receptor sites in day 30 fetal rabbit lung tissue. Each of the fetuses of New Zealand White rabbits on day 28 of gestation was injected with dihydrotestosterone (2.0 micrograms) in one horn of the uterus and 10% ethanol in normal saline (the solvent) in the contralateral one. The animals were sacrificed 48 hours later and the fetal lung tissue was assayed. Dihydrotestosterone decreased the beta-adrenergic receptor site number in the treatment group compared with the control group (86 versus 111 fmol/mg protein, p less than 0.05 by paired t-test). In the presence of dihydrotestosterone, beta-adrenergic receptor binding is inhibited in the preterm fetal rabbit. This effect may be implicated in the beta-adrenergic mediation of phospholipid synthesis and/or release by fetal alveolar cells.

  5. Ultrastructural and pharmacologic studies on laser-induced glaucoma in primates and rabbits

    SciTech Connect

    March, W.F.; Gherezghiher, T.; Koss, M.; Nordquist, R.

    1984-01-01

    Sustained high intraocular pressure resulting in optic nerve cupping and loss of ganglion cells was produced in five rhesus monkeys and eight pigmented rabbits by applying argon laser energy to the trabecular meshwork. In addition, the rabbits manifested buphthalmus. Flow of carbon particles subsequently injected into the anterior chamber was obstructed at the trabecular meshwork by a wound-healing response that closed the intratrabecular spaces. Besides this sustained high intraocular pressure as a result of late scarring, an acute hypertensive response was seen in all rabbits which may correspond to the acute hypertension seen after laser trabeculoplasty in humans. The acute hypertensive response could be only partially blocked by prostaglandin inhibitors and the authors believe that prostaglandins are not primarily responsible for this effect. Medications known to lower intraocular pressure were systematically tested in both glaucoma models.

  6. Clinical aspects of lagomorph dental anatomy: the rabbit (oryctolagus cuniculus).

    PubMed

    Crossley, D A

    1995-12-01

    The lagomorphs most commonly encountered as pets are rabbits. There are many breeds of domestic rabbit, varying from dwarf varieties with an adult weight of under one kilogram to giants weighing 10 kg. This article provides a working knowledge of the dental anatomy and physiology of rabbits so that veterinarians can interpret clinical and radiographic findings when investigating rabbits with suspected dental disease. PMID:9693639

  7. Electrical stunning in commercial rabbits: Effective currents, spontaneous physical activity and reflex behaviour.

    PubMed

    Anil, M H; Raj, A B; McKinstry, J L

    1998-01-01

    Electrical stunning was evaluated in commercial slaughter rabbits. Different voltage applications with varying current duration were tested in recovery experiments in 71 animals. Stunning parameters and duration of insensibility were measured and analysed for assessing stunning effectiveness. A minimum stunning current of 140 mA which can be achieved with application of 100 V was recommended. PMID:22062875

  8. Rabbit placental relaxin: ultrastructural localization in secretory granules of the syncytiotrophoblast using rabbit placental relaxin antiserum.

    PubMed

    Eldridge, R K; Fields, P A

    1986-08-01

    Although relaxin has been isolated from the placenta of the human, rabbit, horse, and cat, this study represents the first ultrastructural localization of the hormone in placental tissue. Placentas were removed from rabbits on days 15, 23, and 30 of pregnancy, and the tissues were prepared for light and electron microscopies. The cytoplasm of the syncytiotrophoblast from all stages of pregnancy studied showed positive staining for the hormone at the light level using guinea pig antirabbit relaxin serum and the avidin-biotin technique. Ultrastructurally, the syncytiotrophoblast was found to contain membrane-bounded granules (150-400 nm in diameter) which formed at the Golgi and were seen in close association with the cell membrane. Exocytosis involving the incorporation of the granule membrane into the cell membrane was observed. These granules labeled positively for relaxin after treatment with guinea pig antirabbit relaxin serum and goat antiguinea pig immunoglobulin G-colloidal gold. Control sections in which the relaxin antiserum was absorbed with purified rabbit relaxin or substituted with normal guinea pig serum contained no gold-labeled granules. Cross-reactivity of the rabbit relaxin antiserum with porcine relaxin was demonstrated by labeling of the relaxin-containing granules in the pregnant pig corpus luteum with the rabbit relaxin antiserum and by inhibiting the labeling of rabbit placental and pig corpora luteal granules by absorbing the rabbit relaxin antiserum with porcine relaxin. We have previously described the labeling of rabbit placental relaxin with porcine relaxin antiserum. This study suggests that relaxin is synthesized and secreted from the syncytiotrophoblast of the rabbit placenta, with the subcellular site of storage being membrane-bounded granules. PMID:3525122

  9. White Rabbit in space related application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    JamroŻy, M.; Gumiński, M.; Kasprowicz, G.; Romaniuk, R.; Poźniak, K.

    2015-09-01

    This paper describes study results regarding potential use of White Rabbit technology in Space Related Applications. During the study Technology Readiness Level and Compliance with Space Related Applications was evaluated. After considering possible deployment and development scenarios, main focus has been put on European Space Agency's tracking station system. This outcome derived from specific requirements of tracking system which are coherent with White Rabbit technology scope of application and further development plans. Current state of Time and Frequency Distribution technology implemented into tracking stations is based on multiple different technologies coexisting in parallel creating a complex system. It requires specific, custom made hardware to combine all the technologies which makes it expensive and difficult to maintain. White Rabbit could be use to reduce Time and Frequency Distribution to a single Ethernet based network with link redundancy, payload data transfer and sub-nanosecond accuracy.

  10. Culture and characterization of juvenile rabbit tenocytes.

    PubMed

    Bernard-Beaubois, K; Hecquet, C; Houcine, O; Hayem, G; Adolphe, M

    1997-02-01

    The culture of rabbit tenocytes could be a useful model in the study of the physiopathology and pharmacotoxicology of tendons. This work was undertaken to examine the in vitro behavior of tenocytes form juvenile rabbit Achilles tendons. We report observations of the morphological and biological characteristics of primary culture and subsequent passages of rabbit tendon cells cultured in monolayer. Data obtained by electron microscopy and growth curves were complementary. After 36 passages, the generation time of tenocytes did not change and no sign of senescence could be seen. Primary culture and the first passages retained the expression of tenocyte differentiated functions, synthesis of type I collagen and decorin. Cell growth behavior was not modified upon passaging. However, when subcultured, tenocytes displayed a modulated phenotype. PMID:9049100

  11. Biotype, serotype, and pathogenicity of attaching and effacing enteropathogenic Escherichia coli strains isolated from diarrheic commercial rabbits.

    PubMed Central

    Peeters, J E; Geeroms, R; Orskov, F

    1988-01-01

    A total of 568 strains of Escherichia coli isolated from healthy and diarrheic rabbits were separated into 11 different biotypes according to the fermentation patterns of four carbohydrates. Strains belonging to biotypes 1 to 3, 6, and 8 induced lesions characteristic for attaching and effacing E. coli (AEEC). They attached to the intestinal epithelium of the terminal small intestine and the large intestine of 5-week-old rabbits after experimental infection and caused effacement of the microvillous brush border. However, pathogenicity for weaned rabbits, as judged by diarrhea score, anorexia, and reduced weight gain, varied according to the biotypes of the strains. Strains belonging to biotypes 1 and 6 produced only discrete clinical signs, strains belonging to biotypes 2 and 3+ (motile) induced diarrhea and growth depression, whereas strains belonging to biotypes 3- (immotile) and 8 caused severe clinical signs and high mortality. This confirms evidence from the field. Biotypes 3- and 8, accounting for 35.5 and 7.1% of AEEC strains in weaned diarrheic rabbits, respectively, were not detected in weaned healthy rabbits, while biotype 2 was the predominant strain in weaned healthy rabbits (62.3%). Finally, serotyping showed a close relationship between biotype and serotype of the AEEC examined. Most strains of biotypes 1+ and 2+ tested were O109:K-:H2 and O132:K-:H2, respectively, whereas all strains tested of biotype 3- were O15:K-:H- and those of biotype 8 were O103:K-:H2. These data indicate that specific clones of AEEC might be involved in juvenile rabbit enteritis. It was concluded that determination of biotypes allows the screening of highly pathogenic AEEC in weaned rabbits (biotypes 3- and 8). PMID:3286497

  12. Comparative quantitative monitoring of rabbit haemorrhagic disease viruses in rabbit kittens

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Only one strain (the Czech CAPM-v351) of rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) has been released in Australia and New Zealand to control pest populations of the European rabbit O. cuniculus. Antigenic variants of RHDV known as RHDVa strains are reportedly replacing RHDV strains in other parts of the world, and Australia is currently investigating the usefulness of RHDVa to complement rabbit biocontrol efforts in Australia and New Zealand. RHDV efficiently kills adult rabbits but not rabbit kittens, which are more resistant to RHD the younger they are and which may carry the virus without signs of disease for prolonged periods. These different infection patterns in young rabbits may significantly influence RHDV epidemiology in the field and hence attempts to control rabbit numbers. Methods We quantified RHDV replication and shedding in 4–5 week old rabbits using quantitative real time PCR to assess their potential to shape RHDV epidemiology by shedding and transmitting virus. We further compared RHDV-v351 with an antigenic variant strain of RHDVa in kittens that is currently being considered as a potential RHDV strain for future release to improve rabbit biocontrol in Australia. Results Kittens were susceptible to infection with virus doses as low as 10 ID50. Virus growth, shedding and transmission after RHDVa infection was found to be comparable or non-significantly lower compared to RHDV. Virus replication and shedding was observed in all kittens infected, but was low in comparison to adult rabbits. Both viruses were shed and transmitted to bystander rabbits. While blood titres indicated that 4–5 week old kittens mostly clear the infection even in the absence of maternal antibodies, virus titres in liver, spleen and mesenteric lymph node were still high on day 5 post infection. Conclusions Rabbit kittens are susceptible to infection with very low doses of RHDV, and can transmit virus before they seroconvert. They may therefore play an important role in RHDV field epidemiology, in particular for virus transmission within social groups during virus outbreaks. PMID:24913134

  13. Light stimulation of iris tyrosinase in vivo. [Rabbits

    SciTech Connect

    Dryja, T.P.; Kimball, G.P.; Albert, D.M.

    1980-05-01

    This paper presents evidence that light stimulates tyrosinase activity in iris melanocytes in rabbits. Levels of iris tyrosinase were found to be greater in eyes of rabbits exposed to light for 6 weeks than in eyes of rabbits maintained in darkness. Despite increasing tyrosinase levels, exposure to light produced no clinically observable change in iris color.

  14. Rabbits and hominin survival in Iberia.

    PubMed

    Fa, John E; Stewart, John R; Lloveras, Lluís; Vargas, J Mario

    2013-04-01

    High dependence on the hunting and consumption of large mammals by some hominins may have limited their survival once their preferred quarry became scarce or disappeared. Adaptation to smaller residual prey would have been essential after the many large-bodied species decreased in numbers. We focus on the use of a superabundant species, the rabbit, to demonstrate the importance of this taxon in Iberia as fundamental to predators. We show that the use of the rabbit over time has increased, and that there could have been differential consumption by Neanderthals and Anatomically Modern Humans (AMH). Analysis of bone remains from excavations throughout Iberia show that this lagomorph was a crucial part of the diet of AMH but was relatively unutilised during the Mousterian, when Neanderthals were present. We first present changes in mammalian biomass and mean body mass of mammals over 50,000 years, to illustrate the dramatic loss of large mammalian fauna and to show how the rabbit may have contributed a consistently high proportion of the available game biomass throughout that period. Unlike the Italian Peninsula and other parts of Europe, in Iberia the rabbit has provided a food resource of great importance for predators including hominins. We suggest that hunters that could shift focus to rabbits and other smaller residual fauna, once larger-bodied species decreased in numbers, would have been able to persist. From the evidence presented here, we postulate that Neanderthals may have been less capable of prey-shifting and hence use the high-biomass prey resource provided by the rabbit, to the extent AMH did. PMID:23422239

  15. The genetic structure of domestic rabbits.

    PubMed

    Carneiro, Miguel; Afonso, Sandra; Geraldes, Armando; Garreau, Herv; Bolet, Gerard; Boucher, Samuel; Tircazes, Aurlie; Queney, Guillaume; Nachman, Michael W; Ferrand, Nuno

    2011-06-01

    Understanding the genetic structure of domestic species provides a window into the process of domestication and motivates the design of studies aimed at making links between genotype and phenotype. Rabbits exhibit exceptional phenotypic diversity, are of great commercial value, and serve as important animal models in biomedical research. Here, we provide the first comprehensive survey of nucleotide polymorphism and linkage disequilibrium (LD) within and among rabbit breeds. We resequenced 16 genomic regions in population samples of both wild and domestic rabbits and additional 35 fragments in 150 rabbits representing six commonly used breeds. Patterns of genetic variation suggest a single origin of domestication in wild populations from France, supporting historical records that place rabbit domestication in French monasteries. Levels of nucleotide diversity both within and among breeds were ~0.2%, but only 60% of the diversity present in wild populations from France was captured by domestic rabbits. Despite the recent origin of most breeds, levels of population differentiation were high (F(ST) = 17.9%), but the majority of polymorphisms were shared and thus transferable among breeds. Coalescent simulations suggest that domestication began with a small founding population of less than 1,200 individuals. Taking into account the complex demographic history of domestication with two successive bottlenecks, two loci showed deviations that were consistent with artificial selection, including GPC4, which is known to be associated with growth rates in humans. Levels of diversity were not significantly different between autosomal and X-linked loci, providing no evidence for differential contributions of males and females to the domesticated gene pool. The structure of LD differed substantially within and among breeds. Within breeds, LD extends over large genomic distances. Markers separated by 400 kb typically showed r(2) higher than 0.2, and some LD extended up to 3,200 kb. Much less LD was found among breeds. This advantageous LD structure holds great promise for reducing the interval of association in future mapping studies. PMID:21216839

  16. The Genetic Structure of Domestic Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Carneiro, Miguel; Afonso, Sandra; Geraldes, Armando; Garreau, Hervé; Bolet, Gerard; Boucher, Samuel; Tircazes, Aurélie; Queney, Guillaume; Nachman, Michael W.; Ferrand, Nuno

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the genetic structure of domestic species provides a window into the process of domestication and motivates the design of studies aimed at making links between genotype and phenotype. Rabbits exhibit exceptional phenotypic diversity, are of great commercial value, and serve as important animal models in biomedical research. Here, we provide the first comprehensive survey of nucleotide polymorphism and linkage disequilibrium (LD) within and among rabbit breeds. We resequenced 16 genomic regions in population samples of both wild and domestic rabbits and additional 35 fragments in 150 rabbits representing six commonly used breeds. Patterns of genetic variation suggest a single origin of domestication in wild populations from France, supporting historical records that place rabbit domestication in French monasteries. Levels of nucleotide diversity both within and among breeds were ∼0.2%, but only 60% of the diversity present in wild populations from France was captured by domestic rabbits. Despite the recent origin of most breeds, levels of population differentiation were high (FST = 17.9%), but the majority of polymorphisms were shared and thus transferable among breeds. Coalescent simulations suggest that domestication began with a small founding population of less than 1,200 individuals. Taking into account the complex demographic history of domestication with two successive bottlenecks, two loci showed deviations that were consistent with artificial selection, including GPC4, which is known to be associated with growth rates in humans. Levels of diversity were not significantly different between autosomal and X-linked loci, providing no evidence for differential contributions of males and females to the domesticated gene pool. The structure of LD differed substantially within and among breeds. Within breeds, LD extends over large genomic distances. Markers separated by 400 kb typically showed r2 higher than 0.2, and some LD extended up to 3,200 kb. Much less LD was found among breeds. This advantageous LD structure holds great promise for reducing the interval of association in future mapping studies. PMID:21216839

  17. An Upgrade on the Rabbit Model of Anthracycline-Induced Cardiomyopathy: Shorter Protocol, Reduced Mortality, and Higher Incidence of Overt Dilated Cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Talavera, Jesús; Giraldo, Alejandro; Fernández-Del-Palacio, María Josefa; García-Nicolás, Obdulio; Seva, Juan; Brooks, Gavin; Moraleda, Jose M

    2015-01-01

    Current protocols of anthracycline-induced cardiomyopathy in rabbits present with high premature mortality and nephrotoxicity, thus rendering them unsuitable for studies requiring long-term functional evaluation of myocardial function (e.g., stem cell therapy). We compared two previously described protocols to an in-house developed protocol in three groups: Group DOX2 received doxorubicin 2 mg/kg/week (8 weeks); Group DAU3 received daunorubicin 3 mg/kg/week (10 weeks); and Group DAU4 received daunorubicin 4 mg/kg/week (6 weeks). A cohort of rabbits received saline (control). Results of blood tests, cardiac troponin I, echocardiography, and histopathology were analysed. Whilst DOX2 and DAU3 rabbits showed high premature mortality (50% and 33%, resp.), DAU4 rabbits showed 7.6% premature mortality. None of DOX2 rabbits developed overt dilated cardiomyopathy; 66% of DAU3 rabbits developed overt dilated cardiomyopathy and quickly progressed to severe congestive heart failure. Interestingly, 92% of DAU4 rabbits showed overt dilated cardiomyopathy and 67% developed congestive heart failure exhibiting stable disease. DOX2 and DAU3 rabbits showed alterations of renal function, with DAU3 also exhibiting hepatic function compromise. Thus, a shortened protocol of anthracycline-induced cardiomyopathy as in DAU4 group results in high incidence of overt dilated cardiomyopathy, which insidiously progressed to congestive heart failure, associated to reduced systemic compromise and very low premature mortality. PMID:26788502

  18. An Upgrade on the Rabbit Model of Anthracycline-Induced Cardiomyopathy: Shorter Protocol, Reduced Mortality, and Higher Incidence of Overt Dilated Cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Talavera, Jesús; Fernández-Del-Palacio, María Josefa; García-Nicolás, Obdulio; Seva, Juan; Brooks, Gavin; Moraleda, Jose M.

    2015-01-01

    Current protocols of anthracycline-induced cardiomyopathy in rabbits present with high premature mortality and nephrotoxicity, thus rendering them unsuitable for studies requiring long-term functional evaluation of myocardial function (e.g., stem cell therapy). We compared two previously described protocols to an in-house developed protocol in three groups: Group DOX2 received doxorubicin 2 mg/kg/week (8 weeks); Group DAU3 received daunorubicin 3 mg/kg/week (10 weeks); and Group DAU4 received daunorubicin 4 mg/kg/week (6 weeks). A cohort of rabbits received saline (control). Results of blood tests, cardiac troponin I, echocardiography, and histopathology were analysed. Whilst DOX2 and DAU3 rabbits showed high premature mortality (50% and 33%, resp.), DAU4 rabbits showed 7.6% premature mortality. None of DOX2 rabbits developed overt dilated cardiomyopathy; 66% of DAU3 rabbits developed overt dilated cardiomyopathy and quickly progressed to severe congestive heart failure. Interestingly, 92% of DAU4 rabbits showed overt dilated cardiomyopathy and 67% developed congestive heart failure exhibiting stable disease. DOX2 and DAU3 rabbits showed alterations of renal function, with DAU3 also exhibiting hepatic function compromise. Thus, a shortened protocol of anthracycline-induced cardiomyopathy as in DAU4 group results in high incidence of overt dilated cardiomyopathy, which insidiously progressed to congestive heart failure, associated to reduced systemic compromise and very low premature mortality. PMID:26788502

  19. Identification of Polymorphisms in the Rabbit Growth Hormone Receptor (GHR) Gene and Association with Finishing Weight in a Commercial Meat Rabbit Line.

    PubMed

    Fontanesi, Luca; Sparacino, Giuseppe; Utzeri, Valerio Joe; Scotti, Emilio; Fornasini, Daniela; Dall'Olio, Stefania; Frabetti, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    A shortcut to identify DNA markers associated with economic traits is to use a candidate gene approach that is still useful in livestock species in which molecular tools and resources are not advanced or not well developed. Mutations in the growth hormone receptor (GHR) gene associated with production traits have been already described in several livestock species. For this reason GHR could be an interesting candidate gene in the rabbit. In this study we re-sequenced all exons and non-coding regions of the rabbit GHR gene in a panel of 10 different rabbits and identified 10 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). One of them (g.63453192C>G or c.106C>G), located in exon 3 was a missense mutation (p.L36V) substituting an amino acid in a highly conserved position across all mammals. This mutation was genotyped in 297 performance tested rabbits of a meat male line and association analysis showed that the investigated SNP was associated with weight at 70 days (P < 0.05). The most frequent genotype (GG) was in animals with higher weight at this age, suggesting that the high directional selection pressure toward this trait since the constitution of the genotyped line might have contributed to shape allele frequencies at this polymorphic site. PMID:26913548

  20. Retinal tolerance to intravitreal perfluoroethylcyclohexane liquid in the rabbit.

    PubMed

    Sparrow, J R; Matthews, G P; Iwamoto, T; Ross, R; Gershbein, A; Chang, S

    1993-01-01

    To evaluate the use of perfluoroethylcyclohexane (PFE) liquid during vitreoretinal surgery, retinal tolerance was tested by electroretinographic (ERG) and histologic study of rabbit eyes undergoing intravitreal placement of PFE for 48 hours. When PFE occupied the vitreous cavity, ERG amplitudes were decreased, probably because of electrical insulation by the liquid. Immediately after removal of the liquid, elevations of a and b waves occurred. Further improvements in the waveforms were recorded when tested between 5 days and 2 months after PFE removal, such that the eyes injected with PFE exhibited ERG amplitudes comparable to contralateral control eyes and preoperative eyes. Histologic examination of the eyes 2 months after PFE removal also revealed normal morphologic features. Small residual amounts of PFE produced no adverse histologic changes after 6 months. When PFE remained intravitreally for longer than 1 week, dispersion of the liquid and preretinal accumulation of macrophages occurred, and in inferior retina, distortions of photoreceptor outer segments and narrowing of outer plexiform layer were observed in the rabbit model. PMID:8460281

  1. Borrelia sp. infection in coyotes, black-tailed jack rabbits and desert cottontails in southern Texas.

    PubMed

    Burgess, E C; Windberg, L A

    1989-01-01

    Coyotes (Canis latrans) from southern Texas were sampled for antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi from 1980 to 1986; black-tailed jack rabbits (Lepus californicus) and desert cottontails (Sylvilagus audubonii) were sampled in 1986. Coyote fetuses, adult coyote kidneys, and black-tailed jack rabbit and desert cottontail kidneys were cultured for B. burgdorferi in 1986. Results of indirect immunofluorescent antibody (IFA) tests for B. burgdorferi in coyotes were as follows (number positive at a dilution of greater than or equal to 1:128/number tested): 1980 (0 of 30), 1981 (0 of 21), 1982 (0 of 53), 1983 (0 of 78), 1984 (47 of 97), 1985 (20 of 88), and 1986 (42 of 80). Eight of 26 black-tailed jack rabbits and two of seven desert cottontails tested in 1986 had IFA titers to B. burgdorferi of greater than or equal to 1:128. Borrelia burgdorferi was isolated from one of five coyote fetuses, three of 31 adult coyote kidneys, and two of 10 black-tailed jack rabbit kidneys in 1986. These results indicate that B. burgdorferi infection has been present in coyotes in Texas, at least since 1984 and that transplacental transmission occurs. PMID:2644452

  2. Incidence of Shope's rabbit fibroma in cottontails at the Patuxent Research Refuge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herman, C.M.; Kilham, L.; Warbach, O.

    1956-01-01

    Between March, 1947, and December,1953, 359 cottontails were examined for evidence of fibromas at the Patuxent Research Refuge, Laurel, Md. No tumors were observed on the rabbits until December, 1950, when 3 of 16 shot animals had fibromas. Twelve rabbits of 70 examined in 1951, had tumors, and no tumors were found on 37 examined in 1952 and 29 examined in 1953. Neutralization tests, using Shope (OA) fibroma virus, were positive on sera from 6 of 36 rabbits trapped between July and December, 1951; one of two rabbits tested in 1952 showed evidence of antibodies; and 2 of 9 tested in 1953 were positive. Neither fibromas nor circulating antibodies were found in 70 cottontails trapped in January and February, 1953, in Rockville, Maryland and over 30 cottontails obtained from dealers in Kansas and Arkansas. No lesions developed on several species of mammals inoculated with a strain of the fibroma virus isolated from a wild cottontail captured on the Refuge. These findings were interpreted as indication of occurrence of an epizootic during the period December, 1950 through December, 1951. Although the local cottontail population showed a marked drop following this epizootic, available data were insufficient to determine whether or not fibroma virus was a contributing factor.

  3. Management of Hepatitis E Virus (HEV) Zoonotic Transmission: Protection of Rabbits against HEV Challenge following Immunization with HEV 239 Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Peng; Du, Ren jie; Wang, Ling; Han, Jian; Liu, Lin; Zhang, Yu lin; Xia, Jun ke; Lu, Feng min; Zhuang, Hui

    2014-01-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) constitutes a significant health burden worldwide, with an estimated approximately 33% of the world’s population exposed to the pathogen. The recent licensed HEV 239 vaccine in China showed excellent protective efficacy against HEV of genotypes 1 and 4 in the general population and pregnant women. Because hepatitis E is a zoonosis, it is also necessary to ascertain whether this vaccine can serve to manage animal sources of human HEV infection. To test the efficacy of the HEV 239 vaccine in protecting animal reservoirs of HEV against HEV infection, twelve specific-pathogen-free (SPF) rabbits were divided randomly into two groups of 6 animals and inoculated intramuscularly with HEV 239 and placebo (PBS). All animals were challenged intravenously with swine HEV of genotype 4 or rabbit HEV seven weeks after the initial immunization. The course of infection was monitored for 10 weeks by serum ALT levels, duration of viremia and fecal virus excretion and HEV antibody responses. All rabbits immunized with HEV 239 developed high titers of anti-HEV and no signs of HEV infection were observed throughout the experiment, while rabbits inoculated with PBS developed viral hepatitis following challenge, with liver enzyme elevations, viremia, and fecal virus shedding. Our data indicated that the HEV 239 vaccine is highly immunogenic for rabbits and that it can completely protect rabbits against homologous and heterologous HEV infections. These findings could facilitate the prevention of food-borne sporadic HEV infection in both developing and industrialized countries. PMID:24498149

  4. Identification of single nucleotide polymorphisms in the CCNA2 gene and its association with wool density in Rex rabbits.

    PubMed

    Chen, S J; Liu, T; Liu, Y J; Dong, B; Huang, Y T; Gu, Z L

    2011-01-01

    The Rex rabbit is a typical fur breed. Wool density, hair length, wool fineness, and hide area are the main indices of fur quality. We previously found that the CCNA2 gene plays an important role in hair follicle initiation and development, and it is involved in the distinctive wool density of the Rex rabbit. It is an important candidate gene for wool density selection through marker-assisted selection. We conducted an association study to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the CCNA2 gene and their ligands associated with wool density. Using PCR-RFLP technology, we discovered two SNPs (129G>A and 1140G>C) of the CCNA2 gene. Allele frequencies of these two SNPs were investigated and evaluated by the ?(2) test in 100 Rex rabbits. The two SNPs were both in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. We also looked for a potential association of these SNPs with fur traits in 100 Rex rabbits. Rex rabbits with the GG genotype had significantly higher wool density (P < 0.01) than those with other genotypes; the other three fur traits did not differ significantly among the genotypes. In conclusion, the two SNPs of the CCNA2 gene affect wool density in the Rex rabbit. PMID:22095474

  5. Diminished Clostridium difficile toxin A sensitivity in newborn rabbit ileum is associated with decreased toxin A receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Eglow, R; Pothoulakis, C; Itzkowitz, S; Israel, E J; O'Keane, C J; Gong, D; Gao, N; Xu, Y L; Walker, W A; LaMont, J T

    1992-01-01

    Human infants are relatively resistant to Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea and colitis compared to adults. In that toxin A is the major cause of intestinal damage with this organism, we compared toxin A receptor binding and biological effects in newborn vs adult rabbit ileum. Purified toxin A (M(r) 308 kD) was labeled with tritium or biotin with full retention of biologic activity. Appearance of specific toxin A brush border (BB) binding was strongly age dependent with minimal [3H]toxin A specific binding at 2 and 5 d of life, followed by gradual increase in binding to reach adult levels at 90 d. Absence of toxin A binding sites in newborn and presence in adult rabbits was confirmed by immunohistochemical studies using biotinylated toxin A. Toxin A (50 ng to 20 micrograms/ml) inhibited protein synthesis in 90-d-old rabbit ileal loops in a dose-dependent fashion. In contrast, inhibition of protein synthesis in 5-d-old rabbit ileum occurred only at the highest toxin A doses (5 and 20 micrograms/ml) and at all doses tested was significantly less than the adult rabbit ileum. In addition, toxin A (5 micrograms/ml) caused severe mucosal damage in adult rabbit ileal explants but had no discernable morphologic effect on 5-d-old rabbit intestine. Our data indicate that newborn rabbit intestine lacks BB receptors for toxin A. The absence of the high-affinity BB receptor for toxin A in the newborn period may explain lack of biologic responsiveness to purified toxin, and the absence of disease in human infants infected with this pathogen. Images PMID:1325998

  6. Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis as a novel player in metabolic syndrome-induced erectile dysfunction: an experimental study in the rabbit.

    PubMed

    Vignozzi, Linda; Filippi, Sandra; Comeglio, Paolo; Cellai, Ilaria; Sarchielli, Erica; Morelli, Annamaria; Rastrelli, Giulia; Maneschi, Elena; Galli, Andrea; Vannelli, Gabriella Barbara; Saad, Farid; Mannucci, Edoardo; Adorini, Luciano; Maggi, Mario

    2014-03-25

    A pathogenic link between erectile dysfunction (ED) and metabolic syndrome (MetS) is now well established. Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), the hepatic hallmark of MetS, is regarded as an active player in the pathogenesis of MetS-associated cardiovascular disease (CVD). This study was aimed at evaluating the relationship between MetS-induced NASH and penile dysfunction. We used a non-genomic, high fat diet (HFD)-induced, rabbit model of MetS, and treated HFD rabbits with testosterone (T), with the selective farnesoid X receptor (FXR) agonist obeticholic acid (OCA), or with the anti-TNF? mAb infliximab. Rabbits fed a regular diet were used as controls. Liver histomorphological and gene expression analysis demonstrated NASH in HFD rabbits. Several genes related to inflammation (including TNF?), activation of stellate cells, fibrosis, and lipid metabolism parameters were negatively associated to maximal acetylcholine (Ach)-induced relaxation in penis. When all these putative liver determinants of penile Ach responsiveness were tested as covariates in a multivariate model, only the association between hepatic TNF? expression and Ach response was confirmed. Accordingly, circulating levels of TNF? were increased 15-fold in HFD rabbits. T and OCA dosing in HFD rabbits both reduced TNF? liver expression and plasma levels, with a parallel increase of penile eNOS expression and responsiveness to Ach. Also neutralization of TNF? with infliximab treatment fully normalized HFD-induced hypo-responsiveness to Ach, as well as responsiveness to vardenafil, a phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor. Thus, MetS-induced NASH in HFD rabbits plays an active role in the pathogenesis of ED, likely through TNF?, as indicated by treatments reducing liver and circulating TNF? levels (T or OCA), or neutralizing TNF? action (infliximab), which significantly improve penile responsiveness to Ach in HFD rabbits. PMID:24486698

  7. Efficient Immunoglobulin Gene Disruption and Targeted Replacement in Rabbit Using Zinc Finger Nucleases

    PubMed Central

    Offner, Sonja; Ros, Francesca; Lifke, Valeria; Zeitler, Bryan; Rottmann, Oswald; Vincent, Anna; Zhang, Lei; Jenkins, Shirin; Niersbach, Helmut; Kind, Alexander J.; Gregory, Philip D.; Schnieke, Angelika E.; Platzer, Josef

    2011-01-01

    Rabbits are widely used in biomedical research, yet techniques for their precise genetic modification are lacking. We demonstrate that zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs) introduced into fertilized oocytes can inactivate a chosen gene by mutagenesis and also mediate precise homologous recombination with a DNA gene-targeting vector to achieve the first gene knockout and targeted sequence replacement in rabbits. Two ZFN pairs were designed that target the rabbit immunoglobulin M (IgM) locus within exons 1 and 2. ZFN mRNAs were microinjected into pronuclear stage fertilized oocytes. Founder animals carrying distinct mutated IgM alleles were identified and bred to produce offspring. Functional knockout of the immunoglobulin heavy chain locus was confirmed by serum IgM and IgG deficiency and lack of IgM+ and IgG+ B lymphocytes. We then tested whether ZFN expression would enable efficient targeted sequence replacement in rabbit oocytes. ZFN mRNA was co-injected with a linear DNA vector designed to replace exon 1 of the IgM locus with ∼1.9 kb of novel sequence. Double strand break induced targeted replacement occurred in up to 17% of embryos and in 18% of fetuses analyzed. Two major goals have been achieved. First, inactivation of the endogenous IgM locus, which is an essential step for the production of therapeutic human polyclonal antibodies in the rabbit. Second, establishing efficient targeted gene manipulation and homologous recombination in a refractory animal species. ZFN mediated genetic engineering in the rabbit and other mammals opens new avenues of experimentation in immunology and many other research fields. PMID:21695153

  8. Validation of rebound tonometry for intraocular pressure measurement in the rabbit.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong; Yang, Dong; Ross, Craig M; Wigg, Jonathan P; Pandav, Surinder; Crowston, Jonathan G

    2014-04-01

    Rabbits play a growing role in research into glaucoma surgical models and ocular drug delivery models. However, the lack of an accurate method for measuring intraocular pressure (IOP) in this animal has been a significant deficit. In this study we validated the use of the TonoVet rebound tonometer and provide conversion tables for its use in rabbits. Experiments were performed on 18 adult New Zealand White rabbits. The TonoVet measurements were obtained and compared to manometric readings by anterior chamber (AC) cannulation. The TonoVet position and 'd' (dog or cat) and 'p' (other species) modes were compared. The sensitivity of the TonoVet tonometer in assessing IOP changes was also tested. There was a strong linear correlation for both the 'd' mode (mean slope = 0.84 ± 0.03, r(2) = 0.99 ± 0.03) and the 'p' mode (mean slope = 0.64 ± 0.02, r2 = 0.97 ± 0.01) of the TonoVet with manometric IOP. However, the TonoVet had a tendency to underestimate IOP compared to manometry and conversion formulae were possible to calculate for both modes. The orientation of the TonoVet handle had no effect on IOP reading, as long as the groove was horizontal. No significant differences were observed when comparing right and left eyes (P > 0.05). IOP recovered four days after cannulation. Younger rabbits had lower IOP compared with older rabbits (P < 0.01). Timolol produced a 2.5 mmHg reduction in IOP 2 h later as detected by the TonoVet. Using the conversion table presented, the TonoVet is a reliable and precise tool for the measurement of IOP in rabbits. PMID:24561115

  9. Rabbitpox Virus and Vaccinia Virus Infection of Rabbits as a Model for Human Smallpox▿

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Mathew M.; Rice, Amanda D.; Moyer, R. W.

    2007-01-01

    The threat of smallpox release and use as a bioweapon has encouraged the search for new vaccines and antiviral drugs, as well as development of new small-animal models in which their efficacy can be determined. Here, we reinvestigate a rabbit model in which the intradermal infection of rabbits with very low doses of either rabbitpox virus (RPV) or vaccinia virus Western Reserve (VV-WR) recapitulates many of the clinical features of human smallpox. Following intradermal inoculation with RPV, rabbits develop systemic disease characterized by extensive viremia, numerous secondary lesions on the skin and mucocutaneous tissues, severe respiratory disease, death by 9 days postinfection, and, importantly, natural aerosol transmission between animals. Contrary to previous reports, intradermal infection with VV-WR also resulted in a very similar lethal systemic disease in rabbits, again with natural aerosol transmission between animals. When sentinel and index animals were cohoused, transmission rates approached 100% with either virus, with sentinel animals exhibiting a similar, severe disease. Lower rates of transmission were observed when index and sentinel animals were housed in separate cages. Sentinel animals infected with RPV with one exception succumbed to the disease. However, the majority of VV-WR-infected sentinel animals, while becoming seriously ill, survived. Finally, we tested the efficacy of the drug 1-O-hexadecyloxypropyl-cidofovir in the RPV/rabbit model and found that an oral dose of 5 mg/kg twice a day for 5 days beginning 1 day before infection was able to completely protect rabbits from lethal disease. PMID:17686856

  10. Proliferation of arteriovenous anastomoses in the developing rabbit ear is enhanced after denervation.

    PubMed

    Morris, J L; Bevan, R D

    1986-08-01

    The innervation of the rabbit ear vasculature by noradrenergic and substance P-immunoreactive (SP-IR) nerves was investigated in both young and adult animals. All vascular segments were supplied by both noradrenergic and SP-IR nerves. In the ear margins, the arteriovenous anastomoses (AVAs) were more densely innervated than other vessels. In general, the density of both noradrenergic and SP-IR nerves increased with age until 10-12 weeks postnatum. The ear vasculature was denervated in young rabbits to test whether the normal proliferation of AVAs in the growing ear was altered in the absence of nerves. Surgical resection of all auricular nerve trunks except the auricular branch of the auriculo-temporal nerve, and removal of the ipsilateral superior cervical ganglion in 10- to 12-day-old rabbits left the ear devoid of both noradrenergic and SP-IR nerves for at least four weeks. Repeated administration of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) to young rabbits produced degeneration of noradrenergic terminal axons, but preterminal nerve trunks survived. SP-IR nerves did not appear to be affected by 6-OHDA. These denervation regimes resulted in a 1.5- to 2-fold increase in the number of AVAs formed in the growing ear. Surgical denervation and 6-OHDA treatment also led to retarded growth of the media of the central ear artery, but this effect of 6-OHDA was probably not due to a specific action on vascular smooth muscle. Surgical resection of most of the dorsal auricular nerves in adult rabbits did not affect AVA density. Large differences in AVA density were apparent between groups of control animals from different parts of the country, or groups examined at different times of the year. These results demonstrate that the labile nature of AVAs in the rabbit ear can result in considerable variability in the absolute number of AVAs and suggest that both intrinsic and extrinsic factors may influence development of the microvasculature. PMID:2428235

  11. Adjunctive Phosphodiesterase-4 Inhibitor Therapy Improves Antibiotic Response to Pulmonary Tuberculosis in a Rabbit Model

    PubMed Central

    Subbian, Selvakumar; Tsenova, Liana; Holloway, Jennifer; Peixoto, Blas; O'Brien, Paul; Dartois, Véronique; Khetani, Vikram; Zeldis, Jerome B.; Kaplan, Gilla

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Adjunctive host-directed therapy is emerging as a new potential approach to improve the outcome of conventional antimicrobial treatment for tuberculosis (TB). We tested the ability of a phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitor (PDE4i) CC-11050, co-administered with the first-line anti-TB drug isoniazid (INH), to accelerate bacillary killing and reduce chronic inflammation in the lungs of rabbits with experimental Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection. Methods A rabbit model of pulmonary TB that recapitulates the pathologic manifestations seen in humans was used. Rabbits were infected with virulent Mtb by aerosol exposure and treated for eight weeks with INH with or without CC-11050, starting at four weeks post infection. The effect of CC-11050 treatment on disease severity, pathology, bacillary load, T cell proliferation and global lung transcriptome profiles were analyzed. Results Significant improvement in bacillary clearance and reduced lung pathology and fibrosis were noted in the rabbits treated for eight weeks with INH + CC-11050, compared to those treated with INH or CC-11050 only. In addition, expression of host genes associated with tissue remodeling, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) regulation, macrophage activation and lung inflammation networks was dampened in CC-11050-treated, compared to the untreated rabbits. Conclusions Adjunctive CC-11050 therapy significantly improves the response of rabbits with experimental pulmonary TB to INH treatment. We propose that CC-11050 may be a promising candidate for host directed therapy of patients with pulmonary TB, reducing the duration and improving clinical outcome of antibiotic treatment. PMID:26981575

  12. Embryo-Fetal Developmental Toxicity Studies with Pregabalin in Mice and Rabbits.

    PubMed

    Morse, Dennis C

    2016-04-01

    Pregabalin was evaluated for potential developmental toxicity in mice and rabbits. Pregabalin was administered once daily by oral gavage to female albino mice (500, 1250, or 2500 mg/kg) and New Zealand White rabbits (250, 500, or 1250 mg/kg) during organogenesis (gestation day 6 through 15 [mice] or 6 through 20 [rabbits]). Fetuses were evaluated for viability, growth, and morphological development. Pregabalin administration to mice did not induce maternal or developmental toxicity at doses up to 2500 mg/kg, which was associated with a maternal plasma exposure (AUC0-24 ) of 3790 μg•hr/ml, ≥30 times the expected human exposure at the maximum recommended daily dose (MRD; 600 mg/day). In rabbits, treatment-related clinical signs occurred at all doses (AUC0-24 of 1397, 2023, and 4803 μg•hr/ml at 250, 500, and 1250 mg/kg, respectively). Maternal toxicity was evident at all doses and included ataxia, hypoactivity, and cool to touch. In addition, abortion and females euthanized moribund with total resorption occurred at 1250 mg/kg. There were no treatment-related malformations at any dose. At 1250 mg/kg, compared with study and historical controls, the percentage of fetuses with retarded ossification was significantly increased and the mean number of ossification sites was decreased, which correlated with decreased fetal and placental weights, consistent with in utero growth retardation. Therefore, the no-effect dose for developmental toxicity in rabbits was 500 mg/kg, which produced systemic exposure approximately 16-times human exposure at the MRD. These findings indicate that pregabalin, at the highest dose tested, was not teratogenic in mice or rabbits. PMID:27044003

  13. Lewis Thomas and droopy rabbit ears

    PubMed Central

    Bashyam, Hema

    2007-01-01

    In 1956, Lewis Thomas discovered that injecting rabbits with a plant protease called papain caused their ears to collapse. This experiment led to the identification of the endogenous proteases that cause the tissue destruction seen in diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis.

  14. CLONING AND EXPRESSION OF RABBIT INTERLEUKIN-15

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In order to understand the inflammatory mechanisms related to rabbit interleukin-15 (RIL-15), we cloned and expressed RIL-15 cDNA gene. A cDNA encoding RIL-15 was cloned from heart mRNA by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) amplification using hIL-15 primers. The RIL-15 cDNA co...

  15. An individual-based model of rabbit viral haemorrhagic disease on European wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fa, John E.; Sharples, Colin M.; Bell, Diana J.; DeAngelis, Donald L.

    2001-01-01

    We developed an individual-based model of Rabbit Viral Hemorrhagic Disease (RVHD) for European wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus L.), representing up to 1000 rabbits in four hectares. Model output for productivity and recruitment matched published values. The disease was density-dependent and virulence affected outcome. Strains that caused death after several days produced greater overall mortality than strains in which rabbits either died or recovered very quickly. Disease effect also depended on time of year. We also elaborated a larger scale model representing 25 km2 and 100,000+ rabbits, split into a number of grid-squares. This was a more traditional model that did not represent individual rabbits, but employed a system of dynamic equations for each grid-square. Disease spread depended on probability of transmission between neighboring grid-squares. Potential recovery from a major population crash caused by the disease relied on disease virulence and frequency of recurrence. The model's dependence on probability of disease transmission between grid-squares suggests the way that the model represents the spatial distribution of the population affects simulation. Although data on RVHD in Europe are lacking, our models provide a basis for describing the disease in realistic detail and for assessing influence of various social and spatial factors on spread.

  16. Prevalence and pathological study on rabbit hepatic coccidiosis in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Wang, J S; Tsai, S F

    1991-10-01

    Five breeds of rabbits, which included the New Zealand, Californian, Spot, Rex and Angora rabbit, were found from a survey of 1,152 rabbits in Taiwan. The prevalence of coccidia in young rabbits (weaning-2 months old) was 95% to 100%. Adult female rabbits usually acted as carriers within the farm and transmitted the parasite to young rabbits, which caused severe infection with clinical signs and even death. Parasitism of hepatic coccidia (Eimeria stiedai) in the rabbit led to severe mortality. Numerous and scattered white nodules about 0.1 to 0.5 cm in diameter were seen on the liver surface and dark greenish mucoid exudate was found in intestinal lumen. Histopathologic lesions included hyperplasia of the bile duct epithelium with different developmental stages of coccidia within. Oocysts could be seen in the lumen, and granuloma tissues encircle the bile duct with infiltration of inflammatory cells. The other organs were not infected. PMID:1815262

  17. Immune complex orchitis in vasectomized rabbits.

    PubMed

    Bigazzi, P E; Kosuda, L L; Hsu, K C; Andres, G A

    1976-02-01

    The results of the present study show that bilaterally vasectomized rabbits with high levels of antibodies to sperm antigens frequently develop an orchitis associated with granular deposits of rabbit IgG and C3 in the basement membranes of seminiferous tubules. The immune deposits correspond in location to electron-opaque deposits seen by electron microscopy. The "membranous orchitis" is characterized by thickening of tubular basement membranes, acc-mulation of macrophages and a few polymorphonuclear leukocytes, and destruction of the basal lamina, of the Sertoli and spermatogenetic cells. The pathogenetic role of the immune deposits and the possibility that they contain antigen-antibody complexes is indicated by: (a) selective accumulation of IgG and C3 granular deposits along the basement membranes of seminiferous tubules in rabbits producing high and persistent levels of antibodies to sperm antigens; (b) the elution of immunoglobulins from tissues with chaotropic ion-containing buffers, acid buffers, or heat; (c) the observation that the immuno-globulins accumulated in the testis contain antibody to sperm antigens; and (d) the demonstration of sperm antigens in a location similar to that of IgG and C3. It is postulated that sperm antigen-antibody complexes are formed in the basement membranes of seminiferous tubules when antigens leaking out of the tubules react with specific antibody coming from the circulation. In two rabbits with higher levels of circulating antisperm antibodies and severe orchitis, granular deposits of IgG and C3 were also present in renal glomeruli. Immunoglobulins eluted from the kidneys contained antibody with antisperm activity. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that in some vasectomized rabbits extratesticular lesions may develop by a mechanism comparable to that of chronic serum sickness. PMID:129498

  18. Histopathological alterations after a growth promoter boldenone injection in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Tousson, Ehab

    2016-02-01

    Boldenone (BOL) is a derivative of the testosterone that has dual effects on humans, both directly and indirectly; directly as injection to build muscles and indirectly as through consuming meat of animals that where treated with BOL. However, the action of these steroids on different body organs structures is still unclear; therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of the intramuscular injection of BOL undecylenate on the different organ structures. A total of 10 adult New Zealand rabbits were divided into two main groups, the first group was the control group, which includes animals that were injected intramuscularly with olive oil and the second group included animals that received two intramuscular injections of 5 mg/kg body weight BOL dissected after 6 weeks. Our results showed that intramuscular injection of rabbits with BOL showed hypertrophy in both skeletal and cardiac muscles, disturbances of the hepatocytes radially arranged cords with multifocal hepatocellular vacuolations in the liver, glomerulus mass reduction with multifocal glomerular injury in the kidney, disturbances of the cycle of spermatogenesis in the testes. In conclusion, using BOL, while preparing for a young bodybuilding contest, may cause an alteration in the histological structure of most of the body organs; these findings suggested that especially young people who misuse anablic androgenic steroids should be careful if they want to use such steroids to enhance their strength and endurance. PMID:24097356

  19. Gastro-protective effect of crude hexane leaf extract of Sesamum indicum in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Okwuosa, C N; Okoi-Ewa, R; Achukwu, P U; Onuba, A C; Azubuike, N C

    2011-06-01

    The gastroprotective effect of the hexane extract of the leaves of Sesamum indicum (HESI) was investigated in twenty-eight male rabbits. Gastroprotective activity against necrotizing agent induced ulceration was studied. Gastric wall mucus was determined by standard methods. Anti-secretory activity was determined in twelve pyloric-ligated rabbits. Phytochemical and acute toxicity tests were performed. Results showed that the hexane extract of S. indicum significantly reduced gastric ulcers induced by necrotizing agent when compared with values obtained with the negative control (p<0.01). Pre-treatment with graded doses of HESI significantly increased gastric mucous in a dose dependent manner when compared with negative control (p<0.001). Misoprostol significantly protected rabbits from necrotizing agent induced ulceration by 99.9% when compared with negative control (p<0.01). Misoprostol also significantly increased mucous turnover with mean gastric mucous of 597.75 ± 4.70μg Alcian blue/g wet tissue when compared with the negative control (p<0.001). Additionally, treatment with HESI resulted in a significant increase in gastric fluid after histamine stimulation in pyloric-ligated rabbits when compared with the negative control (p<0.001). The extract of S. indicum also significantly decreased titratable acidity of histamine treated rabbits and increased gastric pH when compared with negative control (p<0.001). HESI significantly protected rabbits from ulceration after histamine administration in 4 hour pyloric ligated rabbits with a percentage protection of 79.3% (p<0.001). The extract also increased the volume of gastric fluid significantly after 4 hr pyloric ligation (p<0.01). Cimetidine protected pyloric-ligated rabbits from ulceration (92.1%) (p<0.001) and also raised the gastric pH (p<0.001), protein concentration in the gastric fluid (p<0.001), and reduced the titratable acidity (p<0.001) when compared with the negative control. The leaves of S. indicum possess gastroprotective properties. PMID:22314987

  20. Value of histopathology, immunohistochemistry, and real-time polymerase chain reaction in the confirmatory diagnosis of Encephalitozoon cuniculi infection in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Leipig, Miriam; Matiasek, Kaspar; Rinder, Heinz; Janik, Dirk; Emrich, Daniela; Baiker, Kerstin; Hermanns, Walter

    2013-01-01

    Morphological lesions in kidneys and brain are all too often considered diagnostic for confirmation of encephalitozoonosis in rabbits. The current study evaluated the diagnostic value of histology versus other etiological tests, including immunohistochemistry and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for Encephalitozoon cuniculi infection diagnosis. Samples of brain, heart, lungs, intestine, liver, and kidneys from 81 rabbits were examined for morphological lesions attributed to E. cuniculi infection as well as for the presence of spores and E. cuniculi antigen. Of these, 55 rabbits were tested for E. cuniculi DNA. Histological changes consistent with E. cuniculi infection were seen in 33 rabbits (41%, 33/81) representing 87% (33/38) of all rabbits with confirmed E. cuniculi infection. Brains of these rabbits displayed 6 different types of focal lesions corresponding to the stage of infection and specific tissue response. In 5 rabbits that were tested positive, histology was either inconclusive or inconspicuous. Etiological diagnosis was based on histological spore detection in 16% (6/38) of infected rabbits. Immunohistochemistry was more sensitive (42%, 16/38) than histological spore detection, and real-time PCR proved to be the most sensitive of all investigated methods (30/35, 86% of the examined rabbits with E. cuniculi infection). Encephalitozoon cuniculi infection rarely occurs without characteristic kidney and brain lesions. However, the spectrum of brain changes is wider than previously reported. Based on these findings, confirmation of pathogenic E. cuniculi infection should include standard histology of the predilection sites and a specific etiological assay, preferably real-time PCR. PMID:23166180

  1. Characterization of Rabbit CD5 Isoforms

    PubMed Central

    Pospisil, Richard; Kabat, Juraj; Mage, Rose G.

    2009-01-01

    Previously described polyclonal or monoclonal antibodies (mAb) to rabbit CD5, raised against expressed recombinant protein or peptides, recognize CD5 on most rabbit B cells. The mAb KEN-5 was originally reported to recognize rabbit CD5. However, KEN-5 binds almost exclusively to T cells and only to a minor population of B cells. We show here that by Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA), KEN-5 binds to recombinant rabbit CD5. This interaction is partially inhibited by polyclonal goat anti-CD5 antibody. In addition, immunoprecipitations from lysates of surface biotinylated rabbit lymphocytes with KEN-5 or our anti-CD5 mAb isolate molecules that migrate identically on gels with the same approximate relative molecular mass of 67,000 Mr. By flow cytometric analyses of individual cells from spleen, thymus and appendix, KEN-5 recognizes CD5-like molecules mainly on T cells and on 3-6% of IgM+ B cells. Immunohistochemical staining of splenic and appendix tissues and confocal immunofluorescent imaging confirm and extend results from flow cytometric analyses. Quantitation of fluorescent colocalization indicates that staining by KEN-5 colocalizes with staining by anti-CD5 on small percentages lymphocytes in splenic tissue sections. As CD5 has both N- and O-linked glycosylation, we hypothesised that differential binding of KEN-5 to T cells and B-cells may be explained by different glycan structures on the CD5 present on T compared to B cells. This hypothesis is supported by ELISA data that show that deglycosylation diminishes the binding of KEN-5 to recombinant rabbit CD5. Screening KEN-5 on an array with 406 glycans was inconclusive. Although we did not identify a strongly binding glycan structure, the data are suggestive that the epitope recognized by KEN-5 may be influenced by glycan structures. The epitope this mAb recognizes may either be the glycan itself, or more likely, is influenced by neighboring glycan structure. Our findings suggest that development, selection and function of different B- and T-cell subsets or their preferential survival may be directly or indirectly dependent on different glycan structures associated with CD5 or CD5-like molecules expressed on T cells compared to B cells. PMID:19520434

  2. New properties of rabbit retinal ganglion cells.

    PubMed

    Caldwell, J H; Daw, N W

    1978-03-01

    1. Receptive fields of centre surround cells in the rabbit retina were investigated. There is a clear distinction between cells with sluggish responses, low spontaneous activity and slow conduction velocity (centre surround sluggish cells) and cells with brisk responses, higher spontaneous activity and faster conduction velocity (X and Y cells). The sluggish cells can be divided into sustained and transient types. X and Y cells can be distinguished from each other by their responses to a moving linear grating, a large rapidly moving object and whether or not there is a response to the alternation of certain stimuli. Some times the response to a rotating radial grating, the rate of spontaneous activity, and whether or not the response to spots and annuli was sustained or transient could also be used to distinguish these two types. The antidromic latency from electrical stimulation of the optic chiasm and the periphery effect did not distinguish X from Y. 2. Eleven colour coded units were investigated. They all gave on responses to blue light in the centre of their receptive field and off responses to green light in the periphery of their receptive field. The blue pigment had a spectral sensitivity peaking at about 465 nm. The other pigment peaked near 500 nm, like the rods but gave a response at high mesopic and probably photopic levels. In some cases there was evidence for excitatory input from the green receptors to the centre of the receptive field. All the colour coded cells had rapidly conducting axons and were on centre X cells by all criteria. 3. Eighty-five cells various types other than colour coded were tested for their thresholds at 420 nm and 590 nm. In all cases the results were explained by a pigment peaking close to 500 nm, even at high mesopic and low photopic levels, which suggests the existence of cones with a cyan pigment in them. 4. Conduction latency from stimulation at the optic chiasm was measured for cells with centre surround receptive fields and cells with more complex receptive fields. Both 'on-off' and 'on' directionally sensitive cells have short conduction latencies, overlapping X and Y cells. Orientation selective cells and local edge detectors have long conduction latencies, overlapping centre surround sluggish cells. The sample of uniformity detectors was too small to characterize... PMID:650447

  3. Effect of AR-13324 on Episcleral Venous Pressure in Dutch Belted Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Kopczynski, Casey C.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: AR-13324 is a potential new drug for the treatment of patients with glaucoma that has been shown to lower intraocular pressure (IOP) by increasing trabecular outflow facility and decreasing aqueous production. The present study tested the hypothesis that AR-13324 also lowers IOP by reducing episcleral venous pressure (EVP). Methods: In Dutch Belted (DB) rabbits (n=11), arterial pressure (AP), IOP, carotid blood flow (BFcar), heart rate (HR), and EVP were measured invasively. Animals were dosed with AR-13324 (0.04%, topical, n=6) once daily for 3 days. On day 3, the animals were anesthetized, and then, measurements were obtained before dosing with AR-13324 or vehicle (n=5) and for 3 h after dosing. The data (mean±standard error of the mean) were analyzed by repeated measures ANOVA with post hoc testing. Retrospective baseline data from prior similar studies in New Zealand White rabbits were also compiled. Results: Baseline values were as follows: AP, 101±3 mmHg; IOP; 33±3 mmHg; EVP, 16±1 mmHg; BFcar, 41±4 mL/min; and HR, 330±6 bpm. Three hours after AR-13324 dosing, IOP was reduced by 39%±7% (P<0.001) and EVP decreased by 35%±4% (P<0.05); after vehicle dosing, IOP was reduced by 24%±4% (P<0.05) and EVP increased by 25%±5% (P<0.05). AP, BFcar, and HR were unchanged. Conclusions: AR-13324 produces statistically significant lowering of EVP in DB rabbits. In addition, the baseline values for AP, IOP, EVP, BFcar, and HR in the DB rabbit are higher than those previously reported in the New Zealand rabbit. PMID:25756366

  4. The effects of hypothalamic implants of ovarian steroids on oestrous behaviour in rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Palka, Yvonne S.; Sawyer, Charles H.

    1966-01-01

    1. The brains of ovariectomized female rabbits which were anoestrous in behaviour when tested with vigorous males were implanted either bilaterally or unilaterally with 10% oestradiol benzoate in cholestrol. 2. Rabbits with implants in the ventromedial-premammillary hypothalamus ca. 1 mm lateral to the mid line became highly oestrous in behaviour within 1-2 days of implantation and mated 100% of the times tested. Implants of blank tubing, cholesterol or progesterone in this area, or oestrogen implants elsewhere in the hypothalamus had no effect on sexual behaviour. 3. The uteri of all females implanted with diluted oestrogen were atrophic and similar to those of castrate controls, indicating that the effects of hypothalamic implants on sexual behaviour were direct local effects of oestrogen on the C.N.S. 4. Rabbits implanted bilaterally with undiluted oestradiol benzoate showed some slight systemic spread of the implanted oestrogen. Oestrous behaviour was evoked within an average of 3·4 days by implantation into a large hypothalamic area, presumably as a result of oestrogen diffusing from the site of implantation to the critical ventromedial-premammillary region. 5. Injections of progesterone in dosages known to block oestrous behaviour in intact or oestrogen-primed rabbits, failed to block this behaviour in females implanted with pure oestrogen in the ventromedial-premammillary hypothalamus. 6. Implantation of progestins into the ventromedial-premammillary area in overiectomized rabbits did not usually inhibit oestrous behaviour induced by small threshold doses of systemically administered oestrogen. The possibilities that oestrogen and progesterone (1) interact in different areas of the C.N.S. or (2) compete for `steroid receptors' in the ventromedial-premammillary hypothalamus are discussed. PMID:16992222

  5. Novel regulators of rabbit reproductive functions.

    PubMed

    Sirotkin, Alexander V; Chrenek, Peter; Kolesarová, Adriana; Parillo, Francesco; Zerani, Massimo; Boiti, Cristiano

    2014-08-01

    This is a review of original data concerning new extra- and intracellular regulators of rabbit ovarian functions. Effects of some hormones including leptin, ghrelin, oxytocin, arginine-vasotocin, endothelin (ET-1), gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), growth factors such as insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), epidermal growth factor (EGF), nuclear peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ), pharmacological regulators of some protein kinases such as protein kinase A (PKA), mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase, cell division cycle protein 2 homolog (CDC2 kinase, CDK), tyrosine kinases), and plant molecules (resveratrol, rapamycin) on the functions of ovarian cells (proliferation, apoptosis, secretory activity, expression of some protein kinases) and reproductive end points (blood level of reproductive hormones, ovarian morphology, number of ovulations, embryo yield and quality, number and viability of offspring), and their possible interrelationships and practical application in rabbit breeding are reviewed. PMID:24957967

  6. Stereoselective degradation of metalaxyl and its enantiomers in rat and rabbit hepatic microsomes in vitro.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ping; Shen, Zhigang; Xu, Xinyuan; Zhu, Wentao; Dang, Ziheng; Wang, Xinru; Liu, Donghui; Zhou, Zhiqiang

    2012-06-01

    The stereoselective degradations of racemate metalaxyl (rac-MX) and its single enantiomers in rat and rabbit hepatic microsomes were assayed by a chiral high-performance liquid chromatography method. The t(1/2) of (+)-S-MX in rat liver microsomes was between 7-8 min tested by rac-MX and the individual (+)-S-enantiomer, respectively, and that for (-)-R-MX was 15-16 min. In contrast, t(1/2) in rabbit liver microsomes was much longer and showed great difference when using racemate and single enantiomer, which was similar to the results of in vivo study. The enantioselectivity in rat hepatic microsomes was more evident and the degradations of MX enantiomers in rat and rabbit hepatic microsomes were Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-dependent. Michaelis constant (K(m)) and intrinsic metabolic clearance (CL(int)) of (+)-S-MX were larger than that of (-)-R-MX and there was no chiral inversion from (+)-S-MX to (-)-R-MX or vice versa in both rat and rabbit hepatic microsomes. PMID:22348420

  7. Development of a Rabbit Model for a Preclinical Comparison of Coronary Stent Types In-Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Joo Myung; Lee, Jaewon; Jeong, Heewon; Choe, Won Seok; Seo, Won-Woo; Lim, Woo-Hyun; Kim, Young-Chan; Hur, Jin; Lee, Sang Eun; Yang, Han-Mo; Cho, Hyun-Jai

    2013-01-01

    Along with the development of innovative stent designs, preclinical trials in animal models are essential. Many animal models have been used and appear to yield comparable results to clinical trials despite substantial criticisms about their validity. Among the animal models, porcine coronary artery models have been the standard models for the preclinical evaluation of endovascular devices. However, rapid growth rate, high body weight potential, and the propensity to develop granulomatous inflammatory reactions are major limitations of the porcine coronary artery model. Compared with porcine coronary artery models, the comparative rabbit iliac artery model has the advantages of being small and easy to handle and relatively inexpensive. Furthermore, the rabbit model has been known to reliably reflect human restenosis histopathologically and have major advantages such as pairwise comparison, which makes each animal serve as its own control subject, therefore, maximizing its statistical power for comparative testing. However, despite the widespread use of this model, a systematic description of the procedure and harvest protocols has never been published. This article describes the surgical procedure, stent implantation procedure, method for tissue harvesting, and how measurements are performed. Although the results of animal models may not perfectly extrapolate to humans, the comparative rabbit iliac artery model may be a useful tool for assessing and comparing the efficacy of new coronary stents with conventional stent systems. This thorough description of the techniques required for vascular access, stent implantation, tissue preparation, and measurement, should aid investigators wishing to begin using the comparative rabbit iliac artery model. PMID:24363745

  8. New subtype of Cryptosporidium cuniculus isolated from rabbits by sequencing the Gp60 gene.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xuehan; Zhou, Xiaoxiao; Zhong, Zhijun; Chen, Weigang; Deng, Jiabo; Niu, Lili; Wang, Qiang; Peng, Guangneng

    2014-08-01

    Given the paucity of literature available on rabbits infected with Cryptosporidium in Sichuan Province (China), 290 fecal samples were collected from rabbits in the animal house of Sichuan Agricultural University, China and examined for Cryptosporidium oocysts using the Sheather's sucrose flotation technique and a modified acid-fast staining method. Three samples tested positive (prevalence = 1.03%). The positive isolates were genotyped by sequence analysis of the 18S rRNA, HSP70, COWP, and Cp135 genes and characterized by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of the 18S rRNA gene. Phylogenetic analysis was established using the neighbor-joining (NJ) method. All the isolates were identified as Cryptosporidium cuniculus. Further subtyping of the positive isolates was performed by DNA sequencing of the 60-kDa glycoprotein (gp60) gene. Only 1 subtype family was detected, Va, which was proposed to be a new subtype, VaA31. This study is the first report about the prevalence, genetic identification, and Cp135 gene of C. cuniculus in rabbits in Sichuan Province, China. The obtained results indicate that the C. cuniculus subtype in rabbits in Sichuan Province is unique. PMID:24628387

  9. [Model for evaluating the risk of introducing rabbit viral hemorrhagic disease based on experience in Mexico].

    PubMed

    Heneidi Zeckua, A; Zepeda Sein, C; Mateos Poumián, A; Velázquez, G

    1997-04-01

    Viral haemorrhagic disease (VHD) of rabbits was introduced into Mexico from the United States of America in November 1988, following the importation of infected carcasses from China. In February 1989, the National System for Animal Health Emergencies was created, and an eradication programme was implemented at that time. The VHD virus was eradicated in 1992, by means of disease control procedures which included active epidemiological surveillance, publicity campaigns, slaughter, cleaning and disinfection of affected premises, the use of sentinel animals, serological monitoring and repopulation. The eradication programme involved the serological sampling of 39,727 rabbits (revealing an incidence of 1.4%) and the slaughter of 121,275 affected rabbits and rabbits at risk of exposure to infection. The final outbreak of the disease was recorded in April 1991. The country maintained strict epidemiological surveillance through serological testing, certification of premises free from the disease, and control of movement of animals and animal products. Mexico was declared free from the disease on 20 January 1993, becoming the first country to have eradicated VHD. The authors propose a model to evaluate the risk of introducing VHD through the importation of animals and animal products. A guide is provided to evaluate each branch of the relevant scenario tree and the principal criteria which indicate the event at each parameter. PMID:9537746

  10. Characterization of beta-adrenoceptors in urinary bladder: comparison between rat and rabbit.

    PubMed

    Oshita, M; Hiraoka, Y; Watanabe, Y

    1997-12-01

    1. beta-Adrenoceptor subtypes in rat and rabbit urinary bladder were investigated in functional experiments by use of several agonists and antagonists. 2. All agonists tested produced concentration-dependent relaxation, but the relative potencies varied between both species: BRL 37344 (pD2:8.0) > isoprenaline (7.3) > adrenaline (6.7) = noradrenaline (6.6) in rat bladder, and isoprenaline (8.7) = adrenaline (8.5) > noradrenaline (7.7) = BRL 37344 (7.4) in rabbit bladder. 3. The relaxation response to isoprenaline in rat bladder was relatively resistant to propranolol and ICI 118551, and the slopes of Schild plot for both antagonists were different from unity. The apparent pKB values estimated by single concentrations of propranolol (1, 10 microM) and ICI 118551(10 microM) were 6.6 and 5.4, respectively. 4. On the other hand, the relaxation response to isoprenaline in rabbit bladder was antagonized by lower concentrations (1 nM-100 nM) of propranolol and ICI 118551 in a competitive manner, resulting in pA2 values of 8.7 and 8.6, respectively. 5. These results suggest species-heterogeneity of beta-adrenoceptors in urinary bladder; beta 3 and beta 2 subtypes in rat and beta 2 subtype in rabbit. PMID:9422819

  11. Characterization of β-adrenoceptors in urinary bladder: comparison between rat and rabbit

    PubMed Central

    Oshita, Masafumi; Hiraoka, Yasuko; Watanabe, Yoshinari

    1997-01-01

    β-Adrenoceptor subtypes in rat and rabbit urinary bladder were investigated in functional experiments by use of several agonists and antagonists. All agonists tested produced concentration-dependent relaxation, but the relative potencies varied between both species: BRL  37344 (pD2:8.0)>isoprenaline (7.3)>adrenaline (6.7)=noradrenaline (6.6) in rat bladder, and isoprenaline (8.7)=adrenaline (8.5)>noradrenaline (7.7)=BRL  37344 (7.4) in rabbit bladder. The relaxation response to isoprenaline in rat bladder was relatively resistant to propranolol and ICI  118551, and the slopes of Schild plot for both antagonists were different from unity. The apparent pKB values estimated by single concentrations of propranolol (1, 10 μM) and ICI  118551(10 μM) were 6.6 and 5.4, respectively. On the other hand, the relaxation response to isoprenaline in rabbit bladder was antagonized by lower concentrations (1 nM–100 nM) of propranolol and ICI  118551 in a competitive manner, resulting in pA2 values of 8.7 and 8.6, respectively. These results suggest species-heterogeneity of β-adrenoceptors in urinary bladder; β3 and β2 subtypes in rat and β2 subtype in rabbit. PMID:9422819

  12. Major histocompatibility complex variation and age-specific endoparasite load in subadult European rabbits.

    PubMed

    Oppelt, Claus; Starkloff, Anett; Rausch, Philipp; Von Holst, Dietrich; Rdel, Heiko G

    2010-10-01

    Genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) play a fundamental role in the vertebrate immune response and are amongst the most polymorphic genes in vertebrate genomes. It is generally agreed that the highly polymorphic nature of the MHC is maintained through host-parasite co-evolution. Two nonexclusive mechanisms of selection are supposed to act on MHC genes: superiority of MHC heterozygous individuals (overdominance) and an advantage for rare MHC alleles. However, the precise mechanisms and their relative importance are still unknown. Here, we examined MHC dependent parasite load in European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) from a distinct population with low MHC diversity (three alleles, six genotypes). Using a multivariate approach, we tested for associations of individual MHC class II DRB constitution and the rabbits' intestinal burden with nematodes and coccidia. Rabbits having a particular allele showed lower infestations with hepatic coccidia (E.stiedai). However, a comparison of all six genotypes in the population revealed that carriers of this allele only benefit when they are heterozygous, and furthermore, MHC heterozygosity in general did not affect individual parasite load. In conclusion, this study suggests an immunogenetic basis of European rabbit resistance to hepatic coccidiosis, which can strongly limit survival to maturity in this species. Our study gives a complex picture of MHC-parasite correlations, unveiling the limits of the classical hypotheses of how MHC polymorphism is maintained in natural systems. PMID:20723049

  13. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Swamp Rabbit

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, Arthur W.

    1985-01-01

    A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop a Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) model for the swamp rabbit (Sylvilagus aquaticus). The model consolidates habitat use information into a framework appropriate for field application, and is scaled to produce an index between 0.0 (unsuitable habitat) to 1.0 (optimum habitat). HSI models are designed to be used with Habitat Evaluation Procedures previously developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

  14. Rabbit Trochlear Model of Osteochondral Allograft Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    To, Nhat; Curtiss, Shane; Neu, Corey P; Salgado, Christopher J; Jamali, Amir A

    2011-01-01

    Allografting and autografting of osteochondral tissues is a promising strategy to treat articular cartilage lesions in damaged joints. We developed a new model of fresh osteochondral allografting using the entire rabbit trochlea. The objective of the current study was to demonstrate that this model would achieve reproducible graft–host healing and maintain normal articular cartilage histologic, immunolocalization, and biochemical characteristics after transplantation under diverse storage and transplantation conditions. New Zealand white (n = 8) and Dutch belted (n = 8) rabbits underwent a 2-stage transplantation operation using osteochondral grafts that had been stored for 2 or 4 wk. Trochlear grafts harvested from the left knee were transplanted to the right knee as either autografts or allografts. Grafts were fixed with 22-gauge steel wire or 3-0 nylon suture. Rabbits were euthanized for evaluation at 1, 2, 4, 6, and 12 wk after transplantation. All grafts that remained in vivo for at least 4 wk demonstrated 100% interface healing by microCT. Trabecular bridging was present at the host–graft interface starting at 2 wk after transplantation, with no significant difference in cartilage histology between the various groups. The combined histology scores indicated minimal evidence of osteoarthritis. Immunostaining revealed that superficial zone protein was localized at the surface of all transplants. The rabbit trochlear model met our criteria for a successful model in regard to the ease of the procedure, low rate of surgical complications, relatively large articular cartilage surface area, and amount of host–graft bone interface available for analysis. PMID:22330350

  15. Lactate metabolism in the fetal rabbit lung

    SciTech Connect

    Engle, M.J.; Brown, D.J.; Dooley, M.

    1986-05-01

    Lactate is frequently overlooked as a potential substrate for the fetal lung, even though it is present in the fetal circulation in concentrations as high as 8 mM. These high concentrations, coupled with the relatively low levels of glucose in the fetal blood, may indicate that lactate can substitute for glucose in pulmonary energy generation and phospholipid synthesis. A series of experiments was therefore undertaken in order to investigate the role of lactate in perinatal pulmonary development. Explants from 30 day gestation fetal rabbit lungs were incubated in Krebs-Ringer bicarbonate buffer supplemented with 3 mM (U-/sup 14/C)-glucose and varying levels of lactate. In the absence of medium lactate, fetal rabbit lung explants were capable of producing lactate at a rate of approximately 200 etamoles/mg protein/hour. The addition of lactate to the bathing medium immediately reduced net lactate production and above 4 mM, fetal rabbit lung explants became net utilizers of lactate. Media lactate concentrations of 2.5 mM, 5 mM and 10 mM also decreased glucose incorporation into total tissue disaturated phosphatidylcholine by approximately 20%, 35%, and 45%, respectively. Glucose incorporation into surfactant phosphatidylcholine was also reduced by approximately 50%, when lactate was present in the incubation medium at a concentration of 5 mM. Additional experiments also revealed that fetal lung lactate dehydrogenase activity was almost twice that found in the adult rabbit lung. These data indicate that lactate may be an important carbon source for the developing lung and could be a significant component in the manufacture of surfactant phosphatidylcholine during late gestation.

  16. [Problematic aspects of breeding dwarf rabbits].

    PubMed

    Wegner, W

    1997-05-01

    Some aspects of relevance for animal protection in breeding dwarf (pet) rabbits are enumerated and discussed. The predisposition of these standard dwarfs (Dw/dw) for certain defects and diseases underlines the partial dominance of Dw; mating of these heterozygous dwarfs is an open neglect of the German animal protection law (section 11b). For feasibility of control breeders (and especially so in commercial pet rabbitries) should be obliged to guarantee unambiguous identification of breeding animals and their progeny. PMID:9289403

  17. Expression and immunolocalisation of TpFABP as a candidate antigen for the serodiagnosis of rabbit Taenia pisiformis cysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Deying; Chen, Lin; Xie, Yue; Wu, Xuhang; Nong, Xiang; Peng, Xi; Lai, Weimin; Gu, Xiaobin; Wang, Shuxian; Peng, Xuerong; Yang, Guangyou

    2013-01-01

    The larval stage of Taenia pisiformis, also known as Cysticercus pisiformis, is the causative agent of cysticercosis and the cause of severe health problems in rabbits that negatively impacts on husbandry production. To date, there is no fast detection method to identify early infections in rabbits. In the present study, a new dot-ELISA-based on an endogenous antigen fatty acid-binding protein (FABP) was developed for the detection of cysticercosis, and its potential was then evaluated using test serum samples. Immunolocalisation showed that T. pisiformis FABP (TpFABP) localised to the parenchyma of the bladder wall of the cysticercus and perinuclear cytoplasm of parenchyma of the adult parasite. After cloning and expression, recombinant TpFABP (rTpFABP) protein was used for serodiagnosis of T. pisiformis infection in rabbits by dot-ELISA. The antibody was detected 14 days post-infection in rabbits experimentally infected with T. pisiformis. Based on the necropsy results, the sensitivity and specificity of 169 serum samples tested by rTpFABP dot-ELISA were found to be 98.2% (54/55) and 92.1% (105/114), respectively. These data suggest that the dot-ELISA developed in this study has potential for detection of T. pisiformis infection in rabbits. PMID:24325873

  18. Expression and immunolocalisation of TpFABP as a candidate antigen for the serodiagnosis of rabbit Taenia pisiformis cysticercosis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Deying; Chen, Lin; Xie, Yue; Wu, Xuhang; Nong, Xiang; Peng, Xi; Lai, Weimin; Gu, Xiaobin; Wang, Shuxian; Peng, Xuerong; Yang, Guangyou

    2013-01-01

    The larval stage of Taenia pisiformis, also known as Cysticercus pisiformis, is the causative agent of cysticercosis and the cause of severe health problems in rabbits that negatively impacts on husbandry production. To date, there is no fast detection method to identify early infections in rabbits. In the present study, a new dot-ELISA-based on an endogenous antigen fatty acid-binding protein (FABP) was developed for the detection of cysticercosis, and its potential was then evaluated using test serum samples. Immunolocalisation showed that T. pisiformis FABP (TpFABP) localised to the parenchyma of the bladder wall of the cysticercus and perinuclear cytoplasm of parenchyma of the adult parasite. After cloning and expression, recombinant TpFABP (rTpFABP) protein was used for serodiagnosis of T. pisiformis infection in rabbits by dot-ELISA. The antibody was detected 14 days post-infection in rabbits experimentally infected with T. pisiformis. Based on the necropsy results, the sensitivity and specificity of 169 serum samples tested by rTpFABP dot-ELISA were found to be 98.2% (54/55) and 92.1% (105/114), respectively. These data suggest that the dot-ELISA developed in this study has potential for detection of T. pisiformis infection in rabbits. PMID:24325873

  19. Exposure of rabbits to spores of Aspergillus fumigatus or Penicillium sp: survival of fungi and microscopic changes in the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts.

    PubMed

    Thurston, J R; Cysewski, S J; Richard, J L

    1979-10-01

    Rabbits were exposed to spores of Aspergillus fumigatus by 1 of 2 routes: exposure to aerosols of dry spores or introduction of liquid suspensions of spores directly into the stomach. Rabbits also were exposed to aerosols containing spores of a Penicillium sp. Cultural and microscopic examinations of tissues from the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts indicated fungi were distributed throughout the gastrointestinal tract of the rabbits within 1 hour after exposure to aerosols of A fumigatus or Penicillum spores. Viable A fumigatus and Penicillium were detected in lung tissues of rabbits for 2 or 3 weeks after inhalation of spores. Aspergillus fumigatus was isolated from the gastrointestinal tract no more than 1 week after aerosol exposure, and Penicillium, not beyond 48 hours. However, when large numbers of A fumigatus spores were introduced directly into the stomach, fungi were isolated from tissues for as long as 16 days after exposure even though the intestinal contents were negative 4 to 7 days after introduction of spores. Tests for precipitating antibody were negative, with one exception, among 26 rabbits surviving for 2 weeks or more. Microscopic changes were more pronounced in rabbits exposed to spores of A fumigatus than in rabbits exposed to Penicillium spores. PMID:393142

  20. BIORESORBABLE POLYMERIC MENISCAL PROSTHESIS: STUDY IN RABBITS

    PubMed Central

    Cardoso, Tulio Pereira; de Rezende Duek, Eliana Aparecida; Amatuzzi, Marco Martins; Caetano, Edie Benedito

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To induce growth of a neomeniscus into the pores of a prosthesis in order to protect the knee joint cartilage. Methods: 70 knees of 35 New Zealand rabbits were operated. The rabbits were five to seven months old, weighed 2 to 3.8 kilograms, and 22 were male and 13 were female. Each animal underwent medial meniscectomy in both knees during a single operation. A bioabsorbable polymeric meniscal prosthesis composed of 70% polydioxanone and 30% L-lactic acid polymer was implanted in one side. The animals were sacrificed after different postoperative time intervals. The femoral condyles and neomeniscus were subjected to histological analysis. Histograms were used to measure the degradation and absorption of the prosthesis, the growth of meniscal tissue in the prosthesis and the degree of degradation of the femoral condyle joint cartilage. Results: The data obtained showed that tissue growth histologically resembling a normal meniscus occurred, with gradual absorption of the prosthesis, and the percentages of chondrocytes on the control side and prosthesis side. Conclusion: Tissue growth into the prosthesis pores that histologically resembled the normal rabbit meniscus was observed. The joint cartilage of the femoral condyles on the prosthesis side presented greater numbers of chondrocytes in all its layers. PMID:27022549

  1. Sodium nitroprusside induces apoptosis of rabbit chondrocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Qian; Wang, Xiao-Ping; Chen, Tong-Sheng

    2013-02-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is characterized by a slowly progressing degradation of the matrix and destruction of articular cartilage. Apoptosis of chondrocyte is accounted for the mechanism of OA. Nitric oxide (NO), as a stimulus, has been shown to induce chondrocyte apoptosis by activating the matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), increasing the expression of cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) and the level of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), inhibiting the proteoglycan synthesis and type II collagen expression. In this study, sodium nitroprusside (SNP) was administered to be the NO donor to explore the mechanism of NO-induced apoptosis of rabbit chondrocytes obtained from six weeks old New Zealand rabbits. CCK-8 assay revealed the inhibitory effect of SNP on cell viability. We used flow cytometry (FCM) to assess the form of cell death by Annexin-V/propidium iodide (PI) double staining, and evaluate the change of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm). We found that the SNP induced chondrocyte apoptosis in a dose- and time-dependent manner and an observable reduction of ΔΨm. In conclusion, our findings indicate that SNP induces apoptosis of rabbit chondrocytes via a mitochondria-mediated pathway.

  2. Gasless laparoscopy in infants: the rabbit model.

    PubMed

    Luks, F I; Peers, K H; Deprest, J A; Lerut, T E

    1995-08-01

    Laparoscopic operations can be performed in neonates and infants, but carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum may be more dangerous than in adults. Therefore the concept of gasless laparoscopy is especially attractive for small children. The authors have developed an animal training model of gasless infant laparoscopy using the rabbit. Eleven New Zealand white rabbits (mean weight, 2.2 kg) were premedicated with fentanyl (10 micrograms intramuscularly) and maintained under inhalation anesthesia by mask, with halothane (1.0 to 2.5%) in oxygen and nitrous oxide (1:1). The animals were neither intubated nor mechanically ventilated. Heart rate and oxygen saturation were monitored by pulse oximetry. A supraumbilical incision was made through the peritoneum, and an abdominal wall elevator was inserted. A 4-mm-diameter 30 degrees endoscope was introduced at the same site, allowing excellent visualization of the abdominal cavity. Three additional 5-mm cannulas were placed, and a standard Nissen fundoplication was performed in all 11 animals. In seven of these, a left nephrectomy was also performed. Five-millimeter pediatric instruments and 1.7- and 2.7-mm laryngoscopic instruments were used. The rabbit can serve as a training model for laparoscopy in the infant. Gasless laparoscopy, using abdominal wall elevation, may be particularly useful in very small patients. PMID:7472984

  3. Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Killoran, James, Ed.

    1984-01-01

    This journal issue addresses the issue of testing in the social studies classroom. The first article, "The Role of Testing" (Bragaw), focuses on the need for tests to reflect the objectives of the study completed. The varying functions of pop quizzes, weekly tests, and unit tests are explored. "Testing Thinking Processes" (Killoran, Zimmer, and…

  4. Transgenic rabbit that expresses a functional human lipoprotein (a)

    DOEpatents

    Rouy, Didier; Duverger, Nicolas; Emmanuel, Florence; Denefle, Patrice; Houdebine, Louis-Marie; Viglietta, Celine; Rubin, Edward M.; Hughes, Steven D.

    2003-01-01

    A transgenic rabbit which has in its genomic DNA sequences that encode apolipoprotein (a) and apolipoprotein B polypeptides which are capable of combining to produce lipoprotein (a), a process for creating such a rabbit, and the use of the rabbit to identify compounds which are effective in the treatment of human diseases which are associated with, induced and/or exacerbated by Lp(a) expression.

  5. Pharmacological vascular reactivity in isolated hypercholesterolemic rabbit ciliary artery.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Hitoshi; Uga, Shigekazu; Mashimo, Kimiyo; Yoshitomi, Takeshi; Kusanagi, Masahiko; Shimizu, Kimiya

    2004-04-01

    We have investigated functional and morphological changes occurring in the wall of the hypercholesterolemic rabbit ciliary artery. A mutant rabbit with hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis was created by serial breeding. Ciliary arteries from hypercholesterolemic, age-matched control and young control rabbits' eyes were mounted in a myograph system. The effects of phenylephrine (PE), carbachol and electrical field stimulation on this artery were investigated using isometric tension recording methods. The arteries were also examined morphologically. PE caused dose-dependent contraction in young control, age-matched control and hypercholesterolemic rabbits. The EC(50) values were 1.0 microm (0.2-2.1, n = 6), 1.4 microm (0.4-2.4, n = 6) and 4.7 microm (1.8-7.7, n = 8) in the young, age-matched controls and in the Kurosawa and Kusanagi-hypercholesterolemic (KHC) rabbits, respectively. The EC(50) values of the KHC rabbit were significantly different from those of control. Electrical field stimulation evoked contraction only in the control rabbits. On the other hand, electrical field stimulation evoked relaxation when the ciliary artery was pre-contracted by 10 microm histamine in each type of rabbit equally. Carbachol also induced approximately equal dose-dependent relaxation after pre-contraction. The morphological findings of KHC rabbit ciliary artery revealed irregular contours on the internal elastic lamina and deformation of the shape of the medial smooth muscle cells with irregularity in size and widening of the intercellular spaces. However, the endothelial cells were well preserved. Compared with the ciliary artery, typical atherosclerotic changes existed in the intima, not the media, in the KHC rabbit aorta. In the hypercholesterolemic rabbit ciliary artery, the vasoconstricting function was reduced but vasodilatation was well preserved. Morphological findings supported this. The pharmacological vascular reactivity in the hypercholesterolemic rabbit ciliary artery is quite different from that of the large arteries. PMID:15037115

  6. Lack of effectiveness of ofloxacin against experimental syphilis in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Une, T; Nakajima, R; Otani, T; Katami, K; Osada, Y; Otani, M

    1987-09-01

    Ofloxacin, a new pyridone-carboxylic acid derivative, was evaluated in experimental syphilis in rabbits in comparison with penicillin G. Experimental syphilis was established by intradermal injection of Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum Nichols. Ten days after infection, the dermal lesions were characterized by syphilitic papula accompanied with central necrosis. These animals were subsequently treated either with ofloxacin twice a day at an oral dose of 10 mg/kg or with penicillin G once a day at an intramuscular dose of 10,000 U/kg for 21 consecutive days. In penicillin G-treated animals, the dermal lesions became smaller as early as day 3 of treatment and almost disappeared during the therapy. In marked contrast to remarkable efficacy of penicillin G was further development of the lesions in ofloxacin-treated animals, showing no difference in pathological manifestations as compared to untreated animals. The results of nontreponemal serologic test correlated well with the response of animals to treatment. PMID:3325066

  7. Characterization of a rabbit polyclonal antibody against threonine-AMPylation

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Yi-Heng; Chuang, Trinette; Ball, Haydn L.; Luong, Phi; Li, Yan; Flores-Saaib, Ruben D.; Orth, Kim

    2014-01-01

    An antibody against the posttranslational modification AMPylation was produced using a peptide corresponding to human Rac1 switch I region with AMPylated threonine-35 residue as an antigen. The resulting rabbit antiserum was tested for its abilities to recognize AMPylated proteins by western blot and immunoprecipitation. The antiserum is highly specific for threonine-AMPylated proteins and weakly recognizes tyrosine-AMPylated proteins. Depletion of serum with modified protein abolished its activity against tyrosine-AMPylated proteins. The antiserum also recognized native proteins with modification in an immunoprecipitation experiment. Interactions of the antiserum could be inhibited by competition with AMP but not with GMP or UMP. This antiserum had potential utility for the identification of unknown AMPylated proteins. PMID:21185336

  8. Human Handling Promotes Compliant Behavior in Adult Laboratory Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Swennes, Alton G; Alworth, Leanne C; Harvey, Stephen B; Jones, Carolyn A; King, Christopher S; Crowell-Davis, Sharon L

    2011-01-01

    Routine laboratory procedures can be stressful for laboratory animals. We wanted to determine whether human handling of adult rabbits could induce a degree of habituation, reducing stress and facilitating research-related manipulation. To this end, adult New Zealand white rabbits were handled either frequently or minimally. After being handled over 3 wk, these rabbits were evaluated by novel personnel and compared with minimally handled controls. Evaluators subjectively scored the rabbits for their relative compliance or resistance to being scruffed and removed from their cages, being transported to a treatment room, and their behavior at all stages of the exercise. Upon evaluation, handled rabbits scored significantly more compliant than nontreated controls. During evaluation, behaviors that the rabbits displayed when they were approached in their cages and while being handled outside their cages were recorded and compared between study groups. Handled rabbits displayed behavior consistent with a reduction in human-directed fear. This study illustrates the potential for handling to improve compliance in laboratory procedures and reduce fear-related behavior in laboratory rabbits. Such handling could be used to improve rabbit welfare through the reduction of stress and exposure to novel stimuli. PMID:21333162

  9. Rabbit haemorrhagic disease: are Australian rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) evolving resistance to infection with Czech CAPM 351 RHDV?

    PubMed

    Elsworth, P G; Kovaliski, J; Cooke, B D

    2012-11-01

    Rabbit haemorrhagic disease is a major tool for the management of introduced, wild rabbits in Australia. However, new evidence suggests that rabbits may be developing resistance to the disease. Rabbits sourced from wild populations in central and southeastern Australia, and domestic rabbits for comparison, were experimentally challenged with a low 60 ID50 oral dose of commercially available Czech CAPM 351 virus - the original strain released in Australia. Levels of resistance to infection were generally higher than for unselected domestic rabbits and also differed (0-73% infection rates) between wild populations. Resistance was lower in populations from cooler, wetter regions and also low in arid regions with the highest resistance seen within zones of moderate rainfall. These findings suggest the external influences of non-pathogenic calicivirus in cooler, wetter areas and poor recruitment in arid populations may influence the development rate of resistance in Australia. PMID:22244198

  10. Assessment of the rabbit as a wildlife reservoir of bovine viral diarrhea virus: serological analysis and generation of trans-placentally infected offspring

    PubMed Central

    Grant, Dawn M.; Dagleish, Mark P.; Bachofen, Claudia; Boag, Brian; Deane, David; Percival, Ann; Zadoks, Ruth N.; Russell, George C.

    2015-01-01

    Eradication of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is ongoing in many European countries and is based on removal of persistently infected (PI) cattle. In this context, low-level risks, including alternative reservoirs of infection, may become more important as the number of BVDV-free herds increases. Alternative reservoirs include livestock, such as sheep and goats, as well as wildlife, including deer and rabbits. Due to the extensive nature of the beef industry in Scotland, where an eradication program started in 2010, contact between cattle and alternative reservoir hosts is common. Seroprevalence to BVDV in rabbit populations can be high. In addition, rabbits can be infected with BVDV by natural routes, indicating that they could be a wildlife reservoir of infection. We analyzed the potential risk to livestock from rabbit populations in the UK by two approaches. First, ∼260 serum samples from free-ranging wild rabbits in Scotland and northern England were tested for BVDV-specific antibodies by ELISA. Only three samples exhibited low level BVDV-specific reactivity, suggesting that BVDV infection of rabbits was not frequent. Second, rabbits were challenged with BVDV at day 7 or 12 of pregnancy. This did not lead to any clinical signs in the infected animals or obvious increases in abortion or stillbirth in the infected dams. Samples from the dams, placental material and ∼130 offspring were tested by BVDV-specific RT-PCR and antibody ELISA. Positive PCR results in the placentas and in the tissues and body fluids of rabbits up to 10 days old showed that trans-placental infection of rabbits with BVDV had occurred. Many of the offspring had BVDV-specific antibodies. These data support the view that a wildlife reservoir of BVDV in rabbit poses a small but non-zero risk of re-infection for BVDV-free cattle herds. Rabbits are susceptible to infection with BVDV but only a small proportion of free-living rabbits in the UK appear to have been infected. PMID:26441927

  11. Assessment of the rabbit as a wildlife reservoir of bovine viral diarrhea virus: serological analysis and generation of trans-placentally infected offspring.

    PubMed

    Grant, Dawn M; Dagleish, Mark P; Bachofen, Claudia; Boag, Brian; Deane, David; Percival, Ann; Zadoks, Ruth N; Russell, George C

    2015-01-01

    Eradication of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is ongoing in many European countries and is based on removal of persistently infected (PI) cattle. In this context, low-level risks, including alternative reservoirs of infection, may become more important as the number of BVDV-free herds increases. Alternative reservoirs include livestock, such as sheep and goats, as well as wildlife, including deer and rabbits. Due to the extensive nature of the beef industry in Scotland, where an eradication program started in 2010, contact between cattle and alternative reservoir hosts is common. Seroprevalence to BVDV in rabbit populations can be high. In addition, rabbits can be infected with BVDV by natural routes, indicating that they could be a wildlife reservoir of infection. We analyzed the potential risk to livestock from rabbit populations in the UK by two approaches. First, ∼260 serum samples from free-ranging wild rabbits in Scotland and northern England were tested for BVDV-specific antibodies by ELISA. Only three samples exhibited low level BVDV-specific reactivity, suggesting that BVDV infection of rabbits was not frequent. Second, rabbits were challenged with BVDV at day 7 or 12 of pregnancy. This did not lead to any clinical signs in the infected animals or obvious increases in abortion or stillbirth in the infected dams. Samples from the dams, placental material and ∼130 offspring were tested by BVDV-specific RT-PCR and antibody ELISA. Positive PCR results in the placentas and in the tissues and body fluids of rabbits up to 10 days old showed that trans-placental infection of rabbits with BVDV had occurred. Many of the offspring had BVDV-specific antibodies. These data support the view that a wildlife reservoir of BVDV in rabbit poses a small but non-zero risk of re-infection for BVDV-free cattle herds. Rabbits are susceptible to infection with BVDV but only a small proportion of free-living rabbits in the UK appear to have been infected. PMID:26441927

  12. Complete genomic sequences of rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus G1 strains isolated in the European rabbit original range.

    PubMed

    Abrantes, Joana; Lopes, Ana M; Esteves, Pedro J

    2012-12-01

    The complete genomic sequences of rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) strains isolated in 1995 (CB137) and 2006 (CB194) from wild European rabbits from Portugal are described. The strains were isolated in the original range of the European rabbit and assigned to genogroup 1 (G1), which is known to have persisted only in the Iberian Peninsula. ORF2 of isolate CB137 might encode a shorter minor structural protein, VP10. PMID:23166278

  13. Molecular dynamics studies on the NMR and X-ray structures of rabbit prion proteins.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiapu; Zhang, Yuanli

    2014-02-01

    Prion diseases, traditionally referred to as transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs), are invariably fatal and highly infectious neurodegenerative diseases that affect a wide variety of mammalian species, manifesting as scrapie in sheep and goats, bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE or mad-cow disease) in cattle, chronic wasting disease in deer and elk, and Creutzfeldt-Jakob diseases, Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker syndrome, fatal familial insomnia, and kulu in humans, etc. These neurodegenerative diseases are caused by the conversion from a soluble normal cellular prion protein (PrP(C)) into insoluble abnormally folded infectious prions (PrP(Sc)), and the conversion of PrP(C) to PrP(Sc) is believed to involve conformational change from a predominantly α-helical protein to one rich in β-sheet structure. Such a conformational change may be amenable to study by molecular dynamics (MD) techniques. For rabbits, classical studies show that they have a low susceptibility to be infected by PrP(Sc), but recently it was reported that rabbit prions can be generated through saPMCA (serial automated Protein Misfolding Cyclic Amplification) in vitro and the rabbit prion is infectious and transmissible. In this paper, we first do a detailed survey on the research advances of rabbit prion protein (RaPrP) and then we perform MD simulations on the NMR and X-ray molecular structures of rabbit prion protein wild-type and mutants. The survey shows to us that rabbits were not challenged directly in vivo with other known prion strains and the saPMCA result did not pass the test of the known BSE strain of cattle. Thus, we might still look rabbits as a prion resistant species. MD results indicate that the three α-helices of the wild-type are stable under the neutral pH environment (but under low pH environment the three α-helices have been unfolded into β-sheets), and the three α-helices of the mutants (I214V and S173N) are unfolded into rich β-sheet structures under the same pH environment. In addition, we found an interesting result that the salt bridges such as ASP201-ARG155, ASP177-ARG163 contribute greatly to the structural stability of RaPrP. PMID:24184221

  14. Seroprevalences of Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum in Pet Rabbits in Japan

    PubMed Central

    SALMAN, Doaa; OOHASHI, Eiji; MOHAMED, Adel Elsayed Ahmed; ABD EL-MOTTELIB, Abd El-Raheem; OKADA, Tadashi; IGARASHI, Makoto

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The potential contamination of Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum oocysts in the human environment is a concern from the public health viewpoint. However, estimation of their seroprevalences in humans cannot be performed in a manner that distinguishes between oocysts and tissue cysts as a source of infection. Rabbits are considered popular pet animals in Japan that can acquire natural infections by the aforementioned parasites only through the ingestion of oocysts. Therefore, this study was conducted to estimate the seroprevalences of T. gondii and N. caninum in pet rabbits in Japan as an indicator of the possible oocyst contamination in the environment surrounding human beings. Serum samples of 337 rabbits were examined by different serological methods. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays were performed to measure the titer of IgG and IgM antibodies. Samples revealed to be seropositive by ELISA were further analyzed by a latex agglutination test, Western blotting and an indirect immunofluorescence assay. The rates of seropositivity for T. gondii were 0.89% (3/337) and 0.29% (1/337) in IgG and IgM ELISA, respectively. SAG1 and SAG2 were detected as major antigens by the positive rabbit sera in Western blotting associated with strong staining observed by IFA in T. gondii tachyzoites. Regarding N. caninum, none of the serum samples showed a specific reaction in both Western blotting and the IFA. The results of this study indicate low seroprevalences of toxoplasmosis and neosporosis in pet rabbits in Japan, suggesting low oocyst contamination in the human environment. PMID:24584081

  15. Seroprevalences of Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum in pet rabbits in Japan.

    PubMed

    Salman, Doaa; Oohashi, Eiji; Mohamed, Adel Elsayed Ahmed; Abd El-Mottelib, Abd El-Raheem; Okada, Tadashi; Igarashi, Makoto

    2014-06-01

    The potential contamination of Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum oocysts in the human environment is a concern from the public health viewpoint. However, estimation of their seroprevalences in humans cannot be performed in a manner that distinguishes between oocysts and tissue cysts as a source of infection. Rabbits are considered popular pet animals in Japan that can acquire natural infections by the aforementioned parasites only through the ingestion of oocysts. Therefore, this study was conducted to estimate the seroprevalences of T. gondii and N. caninum in pet rabbits in Japan as an indicator of the possible oocyst contamination in the environment surrounding human beings. Serum samples of 337 rabbits were examined by different serological methods. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays were performed to measure the titer of IgG and IgM antibodies. Samples revealed to be seropositive by ELISA were further analyzed by a latex agglutination test, Western blotting and an indirect immunofluorescence assay. The rates of seropositivity for T. gondii were 0.89% (3/337) and 0.29% (1/337) in IgG and IgM ELISA, respectively. SAG1 and SAG2 were detected as major antigens by the positive rabbit sera in Western blotting associated with strong staining observed by IFA in T. gondii tachyzoites. Regarding N. caninum, none of the serum samples showed a specific reaction in both Western blotting and the IFA. The results of this study indicate low seroprevalences of toxoplasmosis and neosporosis in pet rabbits in Japan, suggesting low oocyst contamination in the human environment. PMID:24584081

  16. +Gz-induced post-cholecystectomy syndrome in rabbit model by using a telemetric method

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Yalin; Zhao, Gang; Li, Yifeng; Wen, Dongqing; Zhang, Hui; He, Xiaojun; Zhen, Yuying; Zhang, Hongyi

    2015-01-01

    Aviation-related mechanism may exist in the post-cholecystectomy syndrome (PCS) of aircrew patients. The aim of this study was to test this hypothesis on vivo rabbit model and to explore the mechanism by using a novel telemetric method. We constructed a bile duct-to-intestinal bridge bypass on 30 rabbits, with a telemetry implant attached to the Oddi’s sphincter. Then a telemetric recording system was used to record the biliary pressure fluctuation through the subcutaneous bridge and the changes of electromyography of the Oddi’s sphincter under different +Gz acceleration. Self-control comparison was made before and after cholecystectomy. The fully implantable device was very well accepted by rabbits and the data could reflect the real experimental environment simultaneously. Biliary pressure in common bile duct increased accordingly with +Gz acceleration increased, but bile secretion didn’t change. Although +Gz acceleration could increase the frequency of burst of spike potentials in the Oddi’s sphincter, the frequency didn’t change with the +Gz acceleration increased, and the spike activity didn’t change obviously before cholecystectomy. After cholecystectomy, the biliary pressure in common bile duct remained high in 12 rabbits (40%) under +Gz exposure, and the pressure value didn’t change as the +Gz acceleration increased. The long-time changes in electromyography of the Oddi’s sphincter were observed in the same 12 rabbits, with symptoms of PCS developed in 9 of them. +Gz exposure is an important external factor leading to the biliary physiology disorder, and it may induce PCS in some aircrew patients with individual susceptibility, which means gallbladder maybe a dominant factor in regulating the biliary physiology in theses aircrew patients. PMID:26064268

  17. Novel retro-inverso peptide inhibitor reverses angiotensin receptor autoantibody-induced hypertension in the rabbit.

    PubMed

    Li, Hongliang; Kem, David C; Zhang, Ling; Huang, Bing; Liles, Campbell; Benbrook, Alexandria; Gali, Hariprasad; Veitla, Vineet; Scherlag, Benjamin J; Cunningham, Madeleine W; Yu, Xichun

    2015-04-01

    Activating autoantibodies to the angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) have been implicated in hypertensive disorders. We investigated whether AT1R antibodies produced in immunized rabbits will activate AT1R and contribute to hypertension by a direct contractile effect on the vasculature and whether they can be blocked by a novel decoy peptide. A multiple antigenic peptide containing the AT1R epitope AFHYESQ, which is the receptor-binding epitope of AT1R-activating autoantibodies, was used to immunize 6 rabbits. AT1R antibody activity was analyzed in AT1R-transfected cells, and their contractile effects were assayed using isolated perfused rat cremaster resistance arterioles. A retro-inverso D-amino acid epitope-mimetic peptide was tested for AT1R antibody inhibition in vitro and in vivo. All immunized animals produced high AT1R antibody titers and developed elevated blood pressure. No changes in measured blood chemistry values were observed after immunization. Rabbit anti-AT1R sera induced significant AT1R activation in transfected cells and vasoconstriction in the arteriole assay, both of which were blocked by losartan and the retro-inverso D-amino acid peptide. A single intravenous bolus injection of the retro-inverso d-amino acid peptide (1 mg/kg) into immunized rabbits dropped the mean arterial pressure from 122±11 to 82±6 mm Hg. Rabbit anti-AT1R sera partially suppressed angiotensin II-induced contraction of isolated rat cremaster arterioles, and the pressor response to angiotensin II infusion was attenuated in immunized animals. In conclusion, AT1R-activating autoantibodies and the retro-inverso d-amino acid peptide, respectively, have important etiologic and therapeutic implications in hypertensive subjects who harbor these autoantibodies. PMID:25691619

  18. Absence of beneficial effects on rabbit sperm cell cryopreservation by several antioxidant agents.

    PubMed

    Maya-Soriano, M J; Taberner, E; Sabés-Alsina, M; Piles, M; Lopez-Bejar, M

    2015-02-01

    The generation of reactive oxygen species associated with cryopreservation could be responsible for mammalian sperm damage and the limitable value of stored semen in artificial insemination. The aim of this study was to assess several antioxidant agents supplemented in a commercial freezing extender (Gent B®) in order to improve post-thaw rabbit sperm quality. Ejaculates of 26 New Zealand White rabbit bucks were collected, evaluated and frozen using a conventional protocol. Antioxidant agents were tested at different concentrations: bovine serum albumin (BSA; 5, 30 or 60 mg/ml), retinol (RO; 50, 100 or 200 μM) and retinyl (RI; 0.282 or 2.82 μg/ml). Per cent viability, morphological abnormalities and intact acrosomes were determined using eosin-nigrosin staining. Motility and progressivity were analyzed by computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA). In general, all sperm quality parameters were negatively affected by the cryopreservation process, the largest effect seen was for total motility. The addition of antioxidant agents did not improve thaw sperm quality. Furthermore, for RI groups a significant decrease in sperm quality parameters was recorded. In conclusion, rabbit sperm quality is negatively affected by the cryopreservation process. To our knowledge this report is the first using these antioxidants to supplement rabbit freezing extender. BSA and RO at concentrations used in the study did not improve sperm quality parameters after thawing, whereas RI supplementation appeared to be toxic. More studies are required to find the appropriate antioxidants necessary and their most effective concentrations to improve rabbit post-thaw sperm quality. PMID:23965603

  19. MaxEPA fish oil enhances cholesterol-induced intimal foam cell formation in rabbits.

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, K. A.; Adelstein, R.

    1990-01-01

    In this study, the cholesterol-fed rabbit model was used to test the hypothesis that fish oil supplementation can influence the initiation and development of atherosclerotic lesions. Rabbits were fed one of two diets for a period of 30 days: a nonatherogenic diet with corn oil as the sole fat source, or an atherogenic diet containing beef tallow and cholesterol. In addition, animals received a daily supplement of either MaxEPA fish oil or corn oil (0.5 ml/kg body weight). Terminal blood samples were drawn and the cholesterol and triglyceride levels determined for both plasma and very low-density (VLDL), intermediate-density (IDL), low-density (LDL), and high-density (HDL) lipoproteins. Thiobarbituric acid-reacting substance (TBARS), an indicator of lipid peroxidation, was measured in the plasma samples. Besides these biochemical parameters of atherogenesis, the number of intimal foam cells in the descending thoracic aorta of each animal was determined by microscopic examination of the vessels en face. In rabbits fed the nonatherogenic diet, fish oil supplementation did not significantly affect any of the biochemical parameters that were measured. In contrast, fish oil supplementation of the atherogenic diet led to a significant increase in the LDL- and HDL-cholesterol as well as the HDL-triglyceride levels. Plasma TBARS also increased more than four times. Morphologic analysis of the vessels from rabbits fed the atherogenic diet indicated that fish oil supplementation led to a threefold increase in the number of intimal foam cells, a result that may be linked to increases in both LDL-cholesterol and plasma TBARS. The results of these experiments do not support the hypothesis that dietary fish oil will inhibit the initiation or progression of lesion formation in the cholesterol-fed rabbit. PMID:2221018

  20. Antithrombotic and Antiatherosclerotic Properties of Olive Oil and Olive Pomace Polar Extracts in Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Tsantila, Nektaria; Karantonis, Haralabos C.; Perrea, Despina N.; Theocharis, Stamatios E.; Iliopoulos, Dimitrios G.; Antonopoulou, Smaragdi; Demopoulos, Constantinos A.

    2007-01-01

    Olive oil polar lipid (OOPL) extract has been reported to inhibit atherosclerosis development on rabbits. Olive pomace polar lipid (PPL) extract inhibits PAF activity in vitro and the most potent antagonist has been identified as a glycerylether-sn-2-acetyl glycolipid with common structural characteristics with the respective potent antagonist of OOPL. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of PPL on early atherosclerosis development on rabbits and to compare it with the antiatherosclerotic effect of OOPL. OOPL and PPL inhibition potency, towards both PAF action and PAF binding, was tested in vitro on washed rabbit platelets. Consequently, rabbits were divided into three groups (A, B, and C). All groups were fed atherogenic diet for 22 days. Atherogenic diets in groups B and C were enriched with OOPL and PPL, respectively. At the end of the experimental time, rabbits were euthanized and aortic samples were examined histopathologically. OOPL and PPL inhibited PAF-induced aggregation, as well as specific PAF binding, with PPL being more potent. Free and bound PAF levels and PAF-AH activity were significantly elevated at the end of the experimental time. Plasma total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and triglycerides levels were also found increased. Groups B and C exhibited significantly increased values of EC50 compared to group A. Histopathological examination revealed that the development of early atherosclerosis lesions in groups B and C were significantly inhibited compared to group A. Significant differences were noted in the early atherosclerosis lesions between groups B and C, thus indicating that PPL exhibit its anti-atherosclerotic activity by blocking PAF receptor. Specific PAF antagonists with similar in vitro and in vivo bioactivity to those that have been previously reported in OOPL exist in PPL. PMID:18253466

  1. Pathology of experimental African trypanosomiasis in rabbits infected with Trypanosoma rhodesiense.

    PubMed

    Nagle, R B; Dong, S; Guillot, J M; McDaniel, K M; Lindsley, H B

    1980-11-01

    The pathologic response of New Zealand White rabbits to experimental infection with Trypanosoma rhodesiense is described. Autopsies of 18 rabbits killed from 30-44 days after infection revealed focal perivascular inflammation of the ears, eyes and testes. Examination by electron microscopy revealed extravascular trypanosomes in the dermis of the ear and interstitium of testes. Deposits of IgG, IgM and C3 were in renal glomeruli associated with glomerular hypercellularity; proteinuria was present as evidenced by an increase in tubular hyaline droplets. There was marked hyperplasia of lymph nodes and spleen with generalized increase in the number of macrophage and plasma cells. In contrast there was thymic atrophy. The findings suggest an immunologic host response associated with severe localized vascular injury. PMID:7446810

  2. Developmental toxicity studies of caprolactam in the rat and rabbit.

    PubMed

    Gad, S C; Robinson, K; Serota, D G; Colpean, B R

    1987-10-01

    Caprolactam was evaluated for developmental toxicity potential in both rats and rabbits by the oral route. In rats dosed on days 6-15 of gestation with 100, 500 or 1000 mg/kg/day of caprolactam, the maternal survival rate was significantly lower in the high-dose group and implantation efficiencies were slightly lower in the 100 and 1000 mg/groups (but not the 500 mg/kg) than in the control. The incidence of fetal death was comparable for all groups, and the incidence of fetal viability was considerably lower in the high-dose group (but not the mid or low) than in the control group. Visceral anomalies and one visceral variant were observed in one 100 mg/kg and one 500 mg/kg pup, respectively. The anomalies included exencephaly, an incomplete left eyelid, microphthalmia (right), and a protruding tongue. No skeletal anomalies were observed. It was concluded that caprolactam at levels up to at least 500 mg/kg of body weight produced no teratogenic effects in the Fischer 344 rats. In rabbits receiving 50, 150 or 250 mg/kg caprolactam on days 6-28 of gestation, the pregnancy rate in all groups was at least 80%. The numbers of corpora lutea, live and dead fetuses, resorptions, the sex ratio and the pre- and post-implantation losses were not significantly different among the test and control groups. The incidence of major malformations and of minor skeletal anomalies was unaffected by treatment with caprolactam. Maternal weights were depressed in the group receiving 250 mg/kg. Treatment of a separate group with a positive control substance (6-aminonicotinamide) resulted in significantly (P less than 0.001) increased incidences of major malformations, minor visceral anomalies and minor skeletal anomalies. Maternal toxicity in terms of mortality was observed in pregnant rabbits treated with caprolactam at a dose of 250 mg/kg/day. Fetotoxicity was evidenced by lower fetal weights at the 150 and 250 mg/kg/day levels, and an increased incidence of thirteenth ribs was observed at the 250 mg/kg/day dose level. Neither embryotoxicity nor teratogenicity occurred at any dose level. PMID:3680848

  3. A Century of Shope Papillomavirus in Museum Rabbit Specimens

    PubMed Central

    Escudero Duch, Clara; Williams, Richard A. J.; Timm, Robert M.; Perez-Tris, Javier; Benitez, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Sylvilagus floridanus Papillomavirus (SfPV) causes growth of large horn-like tumors on rabbits. SfPV was described in cottontail rabbits (probably Sylvilagus floridanus) from Kansas and Iowa by Richard Shope in 1933, and detected in S. audubonii in 2011. It is known almost exclusively from the US Midwest. We explored the University of Kansas Natural History Museum for historical museum specimens infected with SfPV, using molecular techniques, to assess if additional wild species host SfPV, and whether SfPV occurs throughout the host range, or just in the Midwest. Secondary aims were to detect distinct strains, and evidence for strain spatio-temporal specificity. We found 20 of 1395 rabbits in the KU collection SfPV symptomatic. Three of 17 lagomorph species (S. nuttallii, and the two known hosts) were symptomatic, while Brachylagus, Lepus and eight additional Sylvilagus species were not. 13 symptomatic individuals were positive by molecular testing, including the first S. nuttallii detection. Prevalence of symptomatic individuals was significantly higher in Sylvilagus (1.8%) than Lepus. Half of these specimens came from Kansas, though new molecular detections were obtained from Jalisco—Mexico’s first—and Nebraska, Nevada, New Mexico, and Texas, USA. We document the oldest lab-confirmed case (Kansas, 1915), pre-dating Shope’s first case. SfPV amplification was possible from 63.2% of symptomatic museum specimens. Using multiple methodologies, rolling circle amplification and, multiple isothermal displacement amplification in addition to PCR, greatly improved detection rates. Short sequences were obtained from six individuals for two genes. L1 gene sequences were identical to all previously detected sequences; E7 gene sequences, were more variable, yielding five distinct SfPV1 strains that differing by less than 2% from strains circulating in the Midwest and Mexico, between 1915 and 2005. Our results do not clarify whether strains are host species specific, though they are consistent with SfPV specificity to genus Sylvilagus. PMID:26147570

  4. Poikilocytosis in Rabbits: Prevalence, Type, and Association with Disease

    PubMed Central

    Christopher, Mary M.; Hawkins, Michelle G.; Burton, Andrew G.

    2014-01-01

    Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) are a popular companion animal, food animal, and animal model of human disease. Abnormal red cell shapes (poikilocytes) have been observed in rabbits, but their significance is unknown. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence and type of poikilocytosis in pet rabbits and its association with physiologic factors, clinical disease, and laboratory abnormalities. We retrospectively analyzed blood smears from 482 rabbits presented to the University of California-Davis Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital from 1990 to 2010. Number and type of poikilocytes per 2000 red blood cells (RBCs) were counted and expressed as a percentage. Acanthocytes (>3% of RBCs) were found in 150/482 (31%) rabbits and echinocytes (>3% of RBCs) were found in 127/482 (27%) of rabbits, both healthy and diseased. Thirty-three of 482 (7%) rabbits had >30% acanthocytes and echinocytes combined. Mild to moderate (>0.5% of RBCs) fragmented red cells (schistocytes, microcytes, keratocytes, spherocytes) were found in 25/403 (6%) diseased and 0/79 (0%) healthy rabbits (P = 0.0240). Fragmentation and acanthocytosis were more severe in rabbits with inflammatory disease and malignant neoplasia compared with healthy rabbits (P<0.01). The % fragmented cells correlated with % polychromasia, RDW, and heterophil, monocyte, globulins, and fibrinogen concentrations (P<0.05). Echinocytosis was significantly associated with renal failure, azotemia, and acid-base/electrolyte abnormalities (P<0.05). Serum cholesterol concentration correlated significantly with % acanthocytes (P<0.0001), % echinocytes (P = 0.0069), and % fragmented cells (P = 0.0109), but correlations were weak (Spearman ρ <0.02). These findings provide important insights into underlying pathophysiologic mechanisms that appear to affect the prevalence and type of naturally-occurring poikilocytosis in rabbits. Our findings support the need to carefully document poikilocytes in research investigations and in clinical diagnosis and to determine their diagnostic and prognostic value. PMID:25402479

  5. Comparative Immunogenicity in Rabbits of the Polypeptides Encoded by the 5' Terminus of Hepatitis C Virus RNA.

    PubMed

    Sominskaya, Irina; Jansons, Juris; Dovbenko, Anastasija; Petrakova, Natalia; Lieknina, Ilva; Mihailova, Marija; Latyshev, Oleg; Eliseeva, Olesja; Stahovska, Irina; Akopjana, Inara; Petrovskis, Ivars; Isaguliants, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies on the primate protection from HCV infection stressed the importance of immune response against structural viral proteins. Strong immune response against nucleocapsid (core) protein was difficult to achieve, requesting further experimentation in large animals. Here, we analyzed the immunogenicity of core aa 1-173, 1-152, and 147-191 and of its main alternative reading frame product F-protein in rabbits. Core aa 147-191 was synthesized; other polypeptides were obtained by expression in E. coli. Rabbits were immunized by polypeptide primes followed by multiple boosts and screened for specific anti-protein and anti-peptide antibodies. Antibody titers to core aa 147-191 reached 10(5); core aa 1-152, 5 × 10(5); core aa 1-173 and F-protein, 10(6). Strong immunogenicity of the last two proteins indicated that they may compete for the induction of immune response. The C-terminally truncated core was also weakly immunogenic on the T-cell level. To enhance core-specific cellular response, we immunized rabbits with the core aa 1-152 gene forbidding F-protein formation. Repeated DNA immunization induced a weak antibody and sustained proliferative response of broad specificity confirming a gain of cellular immunogenicity. Epitopes recognized in rabbits overlapped those in HCV infection. Our data promotes the use of rabbits for the immunogenicity tests of prototype HCV vaccines. PMID:26609538

  6. Binding of antiglaucomatous drugs to synthetic melanin and their hypotensive effects on pigmented and nonpigmented rabbit eyes.

    PubMed

    Nagata, A; Mishima, H K; Kiuchi, Y; Hirota, A; Kurokawa, T; Ishibashi, S

    1993-01-01

    The binding of ocular hypotensive drugs to synthetic melanin was studied spectrophotometrically in vitro. The ocular hypotensive effects of the drugs, namely, timolol, befunolol, carteolol, pilocarpine, epinephrine, prostaglandin A2, F2 alpha and E2, also were compared in vivo on eyes of pigmented and albino rabbits. At an initial concentration of 10(-4) M, each of the three beta-blockers exhibited a binding rate of 80-85% as compared to only 40% for pilocarpine and 50% for epinephrine. Almost none of the prostaglandins were found to bind to synthetic melanin. Topically applied, 0.5% timolol and 3% pilocarpine significantly lowered the intraocular pressure in albino but not in pigmented rabbits. Epinephrine (1%) caused a significant reduction in the intraocular pressure both in albino and pigmented rabbits; however, the maximum reduction was greater in albino than in pigmented rabbits. Intraocular pressure was reduced to the same extent and with a similar time-course in both albino and pigmented rabbits by 0.02% prostaglandin A2, F2 alpha and E2. These findings show that several ocular hypotensive drugs bind to melanin and suggest that this process can modify the extent of their pharmacological effects when tested in a single dose, or the time-course of their effects when used to treat chronic conditions. PMID:8100592

  7. Comparative Immunogenicity in Rabbits of the Polypeptides Encoded by the 5′ Terminus of Hepatitis C Virus RNA

    PubMed Central

    Sominskaya, Irina; Jansons, Juris; Dovbenko, Anastasija; Petrakova, Natalia; Lieknina, Ilva; Mihailova, Marija; Latyshev, Oleg; Eliseeva, Olesja; Stahovska, Irina; Akopjana, Inara; Petrovskis, Ivars; Isaguliants, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies on the primate protection from HCV infection stressed the importance of immune response against structural viral proteins. Strong immune response against nucleocapsid (core) protein was difficult to achieve, requesting further experimentation in large animals. Here, we analyzed the immunogenicity of core aa 1–173, 1–152, and 147–191 and of its main alternative reading frame product F-protein in rabbits. Core aa 147–191 was synthesized; other polypeptides were obtained by expression in E. coli. Rabbits were immunized by polypeptide primes followed by multiple boosts and screened for specific anti-protein and anti-peptide antibodies. Antibody titers to core aa 147–191 reached 105; core aa 1–152, 5 × 105; core aa 1–173 and F-protein, 106. Strong immunogenicity of the last two proteins indicated that they may compete for the induction of immune response. The C-terminally truncated core was also weakly immunogenic on the T-cell level. To enhance core-specific cellular response, we immunized rabbits with the core aa 1–152 gene forbidding F-protein formation. Repeated DNA immunization induced a weak antibody and sustained proliferative response of broad specificity confirming a gain of cellular immunogenicity. Epitopes recognized in rabbits overlapped those in HCV infection. Our data promotes the use of rabbits for the immunogenicity tests of prototype HCV vaccines. PMID:26609538

  8. Osteostatin-loaded onto mesoporous ceramics improves the early phase of bone regeneration in a rabbit osteopenia model.

    PubMed

    Lozano, Daniel; Trejo, Cynthia G; Gómez-Barrena, Enrique; Manzano, Miguel; Doadrio, Juan C; Salinas, Antonio J; Vallet-Regí, María; García-Honduvilla, Natalio; Esbrit, Pedro; Buján, Julia

    2012-07-01

    Parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) is an important modulator of bone formation. Recently, we reported that PTHrP (107-111) (osteostatin) coating onto mesoporous ceramics confers osteogenic activity to these materials. Bone repair is dramatically compromised in osteopenia/osteoporosis. Thus, we examined the efficacy of unmodified and organically modified SBA15 ceramics loaded with osteostatin in promoting bone repair in an osteoporotic rabbit model. Osteoporosis was induced in New Zealand rabbits by methylprednisolone administration, and healthy rabbits were used as controls. Tested materials were implanted into a femoral cavitary defect, and animals were sacrificed at 2 weeks post-implantation. At this time, implants were encapsulated by a variable layer of fibrotic tissue with no evidence of inflammation. Similarly to observations in normal rabbits, both types of osteostatin-loaded bioceramics induced tissue regeneration associated with increased staining for PCNA, Runx2, osteopontin, and/or vascular endothelial growth factor in osteoporotic rabbits. Our present findings demonstrate that these osteostatin-bearing bioceramics increase the early repair response not only in normal bone but also in osteoporotic bone after a local injury. PMID:22414621

  9. Interspecies differences in the metabolism of methotrexate: An insight into the active site differences between human and rabbit aldehyde oxidase.

    PubMed

    Choughule, Kanika V; Joswig-Jones, Carolyn A; Jones, Jeffrey P

    2015-08-01

    Several drug compounds have failed in clinical trials due to extensive biotransformation by aldehyde oxidase (AOX) (EC 1.2.3.1). One of the main reasons is the difficulty in scaling clearance for drugs metabolised by AOX, from preclinical species to human. Using methotrexate as a probe substrate, we evaluated AOX metabolism in liver cytosol from human and commonly used laboratory species namely guinea pig, monkey, rat and rabbit. We found that the metabolism of methotrexate in rabbit liver cytosol was several orders of magnitude higher than any of the other species tested. The results of protein quantitation revealed that the amount of AOX1 in human liver was similar to rabbit liver. To understand if the observed differences in activity were due to structural differences, we modelled rabbit AOX1 using the previously generated human AOX1 homology model. Molecular docking of methotrexate into the active site of the enzyme led to the identification of important residues that could potentially be involved in substrate binding and account for the observed differences. In order to study the impact of these residue changes on enzyme activity, we used site directed mutagenesis to construct mutant AOX1 cDNAs by substituting nucleotides of human AOX1 with relevant ones of rabbit AOX1. AOX1 mutant proteins were expressed in Escherichia coli. Differences in the kinetic properties of these mutants have been presented in this study. PMID:26032640

  10. Teratologic evaluation of ethylene glycol monobutyl ether in Fischer 344 rats and New Zealand white rabbits following inhalation exposure.

    PubMed Central

    Tyl, R W; Millicovsky, G; Dodd, D E; Pritts, I M; France, K A; Fisher, L C

    1984-01-01

    Timed-pregnant Fischer 344 rats and New Zealand White rabbits were exposed to ethylene glycol monobutyl ether vapors by inhalation on gestational days 6 through 15 (rats) or 6 through 18 (rabbits) at concentrations of 0, 25, 50, 100 or 200 ppm. The animals were sacrificed on gestational day 21 (rats) or 29 (rabbits). In rats, exposure to 200 or 100 ppm resulted in maternal toxicity (clinical signs, decreased body weight and weight gain, decreased absolute and relative organ weights, decreased food and water consumption and evidence of anemia), embryotoxicity (increased number of totally resorbed litters and decreased number of viable implantations per litter) and fetotoxicity (reductions in skeletal ossification). No increase in fetal malformations was observed in any exposure group relative to controls. At 50 or 25 ppm, there was no maternal, embryo or fetal toxicity (including malformations) in rats. In rabbits, exposure to 200 ppm resulted in maternal toxicity (apparent exposure-related increases in deaths and abortions, clinical signs, decreased weight during exposure and reduced gravid uterine weight at sacrifice) and embryotoxicity (reduced number of total and viable implantations per litter). No treatment-related fetotoxicity was seen. No treatment-related increased in fetal malformations or variations were seen at any exposure concentration tested. There was no evidence of maternal, embryo, or fetal toxicity (including malformations) at 100, 50 or 25 ppm in rabbits. PMID:6499818

  11. Coding of Electric Pulse Trains Presented through Cochlear Implants in the Auditory Midbrain of Awake Rabbit: Comparison with Anesthetized Preparations

    PubMed Central

    Hancock, Kenneth E.; Nam, Sung-Il; Delgutte, Bertrand

    2014-01-01

    Cochlear implant (CI) listeners show limits at high frequencies in tasks involving temporal processing such as rate pitch and interaural time difference discrimination. Similar limits have been observed in neural responses to electric stimulation in animals with CI; however, the upper limit of temporal coding of electric pulse train stimuli in the inferior colliculus (IC) of anesthetized animals is lower than the perceptual limit. We hypothesize that the upper limit of temporal neural coding has been underestimated in previous studies due to the confound of anesthesia. To test this hypothesis, we developed a chronic, awake rabbit preparation for single-unit studies of IC neurons with electric stimulation through CI. Stimuli were periodic trains of biphasic pulses with rates varying from 20 to 1280 pulses per second. We found that IC neurons in awake rabbits showed higher spontaneous activity and greater sustained responses, both excitatory and suppressive, at high pulse rates. Maximum pulse rates that elicited synchronized responses were approximately two times higher in awake rabbits than in earlier studies with anesthetized animals. Here, we demonstrate directly that anesthesia is a major factor underlying these differences by monitoring the responses of single units in one rabbit before and after injection of an ultra-short-acting barbiturate. In general, the physiological rate limits of IC neurons in the awake rabbit are more consistent with the psychophysical limits in human CI subjects compared with limits from anesthetized animals. PMID:24381283

  12. TeBG- and CBG-bound steroid hormones in rabbits are available for influx into uterus in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Chaudhuri, G.; Steingold, K.A.; Pardridge, W.M.; Judd, H.L. )

    1988-01-01

    The metabolic clearance rate (MCR) of gonadal or adrenal steroid hormones in rabbits often does not bear the expected inverse relationship with hormone binding to testosterone-binding globulin (TeBG) or corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG). This suggests TeBG or CBG may not impede steroid hormone delivery to tissues. The effects of rabbit plasma proteins on the influxes of {sup 3}H-labeled steroids from the circulation into the rabbit uterus were measured in vivo using a tissue sampling single-injection technique. In the absence of plasma proteins, estradiol (E{sub 2}) and testosterone (T) were freely diffusible through the uterine microvasculature (i.e., extraction >80%). The extractions of dihydrostestosterone (DHT) and corticosterone (B) ranged from 60 to 72%, while that of cortisol (F) was reduced at 40%. Rabbit serum exerted no inhibition of the influxes of the steroids tested. The influxes of T and B greatly exceeded the rates that would be expected if only the free and albumin-bound fractions estimated in vitro were diffusible in vivo. However, the extraction of ({sup 3}H)corticosteroid-binding globulin or bovine ({sup 3}H)albumin were low, consistent with little, if any, extravascular uptake of the plasma proteins. The results indicate both albumin-bound and globulin-bound steroid hormone are available for transport into the uterus in the rabbit in vivo without significant exodus of the plasma protein, per se.

  13. Removal of Nonspecific Antiproteinases from Serum of Rabbits Hyperimmunized Against Micrococcus and Staphylococcus Proteinases

    PubMed Central

    Scherer, R. K.; Brown, R. W.

    1972-01-01

    The naturally occurring (nonspecific) proteinase inhibitor which occurs in the alpha globulin fraction of immune rabbit serum was separated from specific staphylococcal and micrococcal antiproteinases by treatment of the antiserum with 2-ethoxy-6-9-diaminacridine. The 2-ethoxy-6-9-diaminacridine-treated serum could then be used to classify these bacterial proteinases by testing directly on casein agar without prior electrophoresis of the serum. Images PMID:5066560

  14. Evaluation of a Novel Silicate Substituted Hydroxyapatite Bone Graft Substitute in a Rabbit Posterolateral Fusion Model

    PubMed Central

    Fredericks, Douglas C.; Petersen, Emily B.; Sahai, Nikhil; Corley, Katherine Gibson N.; DeVries, Nicole; Grosland, Nicole M.; Smucker, Joseph D.

    2013-01-01

    Study Design/Setting Randomized, controlled study in a laboratory setting. Blinded observations/assessment of study outcomes. Objective The purpose of this study is to determine the performance characteristics of a novel silicate-substituted hydroxyapatite bone graft substitute (BGS), SiCaP EP (Baxter Healthcare/ ApaTech, Elstree, UK), in a stand-alone mode, a stand-alone with bone marrow aspirate (BMA) mode, and an extender mode with iliac crest autograft (ICBG) in a rabbit posterolateral spine fusion model. The investigational BGS is compared to a standard iliac crest autograft (ICBG) control. Summary of Background Data The rabbit posterolateral fusion model is an established environment for testing of fusion efficacy. It offers the opportunity to obtain radiographic, histological, and biomechanical data on novel bone graft substitutes. Methods One hundred and twenty rabbits were entered into the study with 116 used for analysis. Bilateral posterolateral lumbar intertransverse fusions were performed at L5-L6. The lateral two thirds of the transverse processes were decorti cated and covered with graft material in the following five groups: ICBG, SiCaP EP stand-alone, SiCaP EP with BMA (1:0.5 by volume), and SiCaP EP with ICBG (1:3 by volume). Rabbits were necropsied at 4, 8, and 12-week time points and fusion rate, quantity, and quality was evaluated based on manual palpation, mechanical stiffness testing, pqCT, and histological assessment. Results SiCaP EP, ICBG+SiCaP EP (3:1), and SiCaP EP+BMA (1:0.5) compare favorably to iliac crest autologous bone by multiple metrics in this rabbit posterolateral fusion model. Fusion efficacy via manual palpation and mechanical stiffness testing metrics indicate that all SiCaP EP groups had similar group-to-group performance, and were not significantly different than the ICBG control at each time period evaluated. Conclusions In this commonly used rabbit posterolateral fusion model, SiCaP EP utilized as a stand-alone, as a stand-alone with BMA, and as an autograft (ICBG) extender produces results that are clinically and radiographically similar to ICBG. PMID:24027457

  15. Determination of toxicity in rabbits and corresponding detection of monofluoroacetate in four Palicourea (Rubiaceae) species from the Amazonas state, Brazil.

    PubMed

    de L Carvalho, Fabricio K; Cook, Daniel; Lee, Stephen T; Taylor, Charlotte M; Soares Oliveira, Jefferson Bruno; Riet-Correa, Franklin

    2016-01-01

    Numerous monofluoroacetate (MFA)-containing plants in Brazil cause sudden death syndrome precipitated by exercise in livestock, which is characterized by loss of balance, ataxia, labored breathing, muscle tremors, and recumbence leading to death. Four species of Palicourea collected at six farms were tested for the presence of MFA and their toxicity to rabbits. Palicourea longiflora and Palicourea barraensis contained MFA and caused sudden death in the rabbits. Palicourea croceoides and Palicourea nitidella did not contain MFA and were not toxic to rabbits. P. longiflora and P. barraensis were collected at three farms with a history of sudden death in their cattle. This is the first report of toxicity in regard to these two species. PMID:26603601

  16. Allergens of mammalian origin. II. Characterization of allergens extracted from rat, mouse, guinea pig, and rabbit pelts.

    PubMed

    Ohman, J L; Lowell, F C; Bloch, K J

    1975-01-01

    Aqueous extracts prepared from lyophilized, defatted rat, mouse, guinea pig, and rabbit pelts elicited intense wheal-and-flare responses in the skin of a high proportion of patients who were clinically sensitive to these animals. The major allergens in each extract were nondialyzable. Skin test reactions to rat, mouse, and guinea pig serum were common in patients allergic to these animals. The fractions of rat, mouse, and rabbit pelt extract showing maximum allergenic activity contained proteins with the electrophoretic mobility of serum albumin. Fractions of guinea pig pelt extract with maximum allergenic activity were of prealbumin mobility and contained little stainable protein. On Sephadex G-100 gel filtration, most allergen from rat, mouse, and guinea pig pelt extracts was recovered in fractions containing proteins with a molecular weight range of 10,000 to 25,000 daltons. Allergen in rabbit pelt extract had a slightly higher molecular weight range of 18,000 to 38,000 daltons. PMID:162912

  17. Temporal Changes of Microarchitectural and Mechanical Parameters of Cancellous Bone in the Osteoporotic Rabbit

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Xin-Xin; Xu, Chao; Wang, Fa-Qi; Feng, Ya-Fei; Zhao, Xiong; Yan, Ya-Bo; Lei, Wei

    2015-01-01

    This study was aimed at elucidating the temporal changes of microarchitectural and mechanical parameters of cancellous bone in the osteoporotic rabbit model induced by ovariectomy (OVX) combined with glucocorticoid (GC) administration. Osteoporotic (OP) group received bilateral OVX combined with injections of GC, while sham group only received sham operation. Cancellous bone quality in vertebrae and femoral condyles in each group was assessed by DXA, μCT, nanoindentation, and biomechanical tests at pre-OVX and 4, 6, and 8 weeks after injection. With regard to femoral condyles, nanoindentation test could detect significant decline in tissue modulus and hardness at 4 weeks. However, BMD and microarchitecture of femoral condylar cancellous bone changed significantly at 6 weeks. In vertebrae, BMD, microarchitecture, nanoindentation, and biomechanical tests changed significantly at 4 weeks. Our data demonstrated that temporal changes of microarchitectural and mechanical parameters of cancellous bone in the osteoporotic rabbit were significant. The temporal changes of cancellous bone in different anatomical sites might be different. The nanoindentation method could detect the changes of bone quality at an earlier stage at both femoral condyle and vertebra in the osteoporotic rabbit model than other methods (μCT, BMD). PMID:25918705

  18. Neuroendocrinology of maternal behavior in the rabbit.

    PubMed

    González-Mariscal, G

    2001-09-01

    Rabbit maternal behavior consists of building an underground nest of straw and body hair during late pregnancy and displaying, with circadian periodicity, a single 3-min nursing bout/day across lactation. Estrogen, androgen, progesterone, and prolactin regulate specific aspects of nest-building and promote the onset of maternal responsiveness. However, the maintenance of this behavior relies on stimuli from the litter: by preventing mother/young contact at parturition or during early lactation maternal responsiveness is altered or abolished. The brain areas controlling the expression of nest-building and nursing were investigated by implanting estradiol, locating the distribution of estrogen and prolactin receptors, quantifying the expression of immediate-early genes, and lesioning structures of the olfactory system. These studies revealed that: (a) estrogen receptor-alpha, alpha, present in the preoptic region, may mediate the stimulation of nest-building by estradiol; (b) prolactin binding sites, located mainly in periventricular structures, are more abundant in late pregnancy and early lactation; (c) the number of FOS-immunoreactive neurons increases in the lateral septum, but not in the mediobasal hypothalamus, following nursing; (d) the accessory olfactory bulb tonically inhibits the expression of maternal behavior because its removal promotes maternal responsiveness in virgins, which are otherwise unresponsive to daily pup exposure. In summary, rabbits rely on the same hormonal and extrahormonal factors that stimulate maternal behavior in other mammals, yet the way in which such factors promote elaborate nest-building and the unfailing display of circadian nursing is unique to rabbits and warrants future investigation. PMID:11534972

  19. A Probability Analysis of Historical Pregnancy and Fetal Data from Dutch Belted and New Zealand White Rabbit Strains from Embryo-Fetal Development Studies.

    PubMed

    Posobiec, Lorraine M; Cox, Estella M; Solomon, Howard M; Lewis, Elise M; Wang, Kai-Fen; Stanislaus, Dinesh

    2016-04-01

    Embryo-fetal development (EFD) studies, typically in pregnant rats and rabbits, are conducted prior to enrolling females of reproductive age in clinical trials. Common rabbit strains used are the New Zealand White (NZW) and Dutch Belted (DB). As fetal abnormalities can occur in all groups, including controls, Historical Control Data (HCD) is compiled using data from control groups of EFD studies, and is used along with each study's concurrent control group to help determine whether fetal abnormalities are caused by the test article or are part of background incidences. A probability analysis was conducted on 2014 HCD collected at Charles River Inc., Horsham PA on Covance NZW, Covance DB, and Charles River (CR) NZW rabbits. The analysis was designed to determine the probability of 2 or 3 out of a group of 22 does aborting their litter or of having a fetal abnormality by chance. Results demonstrate that pregnancy parameters and fetal observations differ not only between strains, but between sources of rabbits of the same strain. As a result the probability of these observations occurring by chance in two or three litters was drastically different. Although no one single strain is perfect, this analysis highlights the need to appreciate the inherent differences in pregnancy and fetal abnormalities between strains, and points out that an apparent isolated increased incidence of an observation in one strain will not necessarily be test-article related in another strain. A robust HCD is critical for interpretation of EFD rabbit studies, regardless of the rabbit strain used. PMID:27038066

  20. "This Delightfull Garden": "Rabbit Hill" and the Pastoral Tradition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Anne Devereaux

    1997-01-01

    Contends that Robert Lawson's children's book "Rabbit Hill" (1944) falls within the genre of pastoral literature, in the tradition of Edmund Spenser's "Faerie Queen." Examines the history of the genre and finds reasons for classifying Lawson's book as pastoral. Cites classic elements in "Rabbit Hill." Gives five questions for stimulating student…

  1. Cutaneous lymphomas in European pet rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus).

    PubMed

    Ritter, J M; von Bomhard, W; Wise, A G; Maes, R K; Kiupel, M

    2012-09-01

    Cutaneous lymphoma is a common skin neoplasm of pet rabbits in Europe but is rarely reported in pet rabbits in North America. These neoplasms have not been previously characterized, nor has the cause for the apparent predilection for cutaneous lymphoma in European pet rabbits compared with North American pet rabbits been investigated. In this retrospective study, the authors morphologically and immunohistochemically characterized 25 cutaneous lymphomas in European pet rabbits according to the World Health Organization classification. Tumors were classified as diffuse large B cell lymphomas, with 14 lymphomas exhibiting a centroblastic/centrocytic subtype and 11 tumors exhibiting a T cell-rich B cell subtype. To investigate a potential viral etiology of these lymphomas, 3 diffuse large B cell and 3 T cell-rich B cell lymphomas were evaluated by polymerase chain reaction for retroviral and herpesviral genes. Neither virus was detected. In contrast to other domestic animals, cutaneous lymphomas in European pet rabbits were highly pleomorphic and frequently contained multinucleated giant cells. Unexpectedly, the second most common subtype was T cell-rich B cell lymphoma, a subtype that is rare in species other than horses. Based on a limited number of samples, there was no support for a viral etiology that would explain the higher incidence of lymphoma in European pet rabbits compared with American pet rabbits. Further investigation into genetic and extrinsic factors associated with the development of these tumors is warranted. PMID:22308233

  2. NATURAL BESNOITIA SP. INFECTION IN DOMESTIC RABBITS FROM ARGENTINA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Besnoitia spp. are apicomplexan coccidian parasites affecting several species of mammals and cold-blooded animals in several countries. Besnoitia sp. tissue cysts were seen in several tissues of five rabbits from a rabbit breeder in La Plata, Argentina. Bradyzoites released from macroscopic tissue...

  3. Surgical Management of Ear Diseases in Rabbits.

    PubMed

    Csomos, Rebecca; Bosscher, Georgia; Mans, Christoph; Hardie, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Otitis externa and media are frequently diagnosed disorders in rabbits and are particularly common in lop-eared breeds because of the specific anatomy of the ear canal. Medical management for otitis externa and media often provides only a temporary improvement in clinical signs. Surgery by means of partial or total ear canal ablation (PECA or TECA) combined with lateral bulla osteotomy (LBO) represents a feasible approach that is well tolerated and provides a good clinical outcome. Short-term complications associated with PECA/TECA-LBO include facial nerve paralysis and vestibular disease. PMID:26611929

  4. Kinetics of befunolol reductase from rabbit liver.

    PubMed

    Nozaki, Y; Imamura, Y; Otagiri, M

    1990-01-01

    The kinetic mechanism for the reduction of befunolol catalyzed by befunolol reductase from rabbit liver was investigated. From the initial velocity analysis, product inhibition and coenzyme binding studies, the reduction of befunolol was found to proceed through an ordered Bi Bi mechanism, in which beta-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate, reduced form (NADPH) binds to the enzyme firstly and NADP+ leaves lastly. NADPH bound to the free enzyme at a molar ratio of 1:1. Furthermore, the result of dead-end inhibition by Cibacron blue F3GA, a nucleotide analogue which binds to many enzymes, was consistent with the ordered Bi Bi mechanism for the enzyme. PMID:2186874

  5. A Ribosome Dissociation Factor from Rabbit Reticulocytes

    PubMed Central

    Lubsen, Nicolette H.; Davis, Bernard D.

    1972-01-01

    A ribosome dissociation factor has been detected in an extract of ribosomal particles from rabbit reticulocytes. This factor dissociates free ribosomes from reticulocytes and also from Escherichia coli; it does not dissociate ribosomes complexed with peptidyl-tRNA and mRNA. The reaction appears to be stoichiometric rather than catalytic; it reaches completion in one minute at 37C, but is very slow at 0C, and it is antagonized and reversed by Mg++. Reticulocyte dissociation factor thus closely resembles that from E. coli. However, the activity has been found primarily associated with the native large subunits rather than the small subunits in lysates. PMID:4551141

  6. Cytochrome p-450: localization in rabbit lung.

    PubMed

    Serabjit-Singh, C J; Wolf, C R; Philpot, R M; Plopper, C G

    1980-03-28

    Cytochrome P-450-dependent monooxygenase systems, which metabolize endogenous as well as foriegn compounds, are found in hepatic and several extrahepatic tissues of mammals, including humans. A form of cytochrome P-450 is localized in the nonciliated bronchiolar epithelial cells (Clara cells) of the small airways of rabbit lung. The apparent high concentration of the cytochrome in this pulmonary cell type compared to liver may be an important determinant in the susceptibility of the lung to a number of toxic chemicals that undergo metabolic activation. PMID:6767272

  7. Parasites of cottontail rabbits of southern Illinois.

    PubMed

    Lepitzki, D A; Woolf, A; Bunn, B M

    1992-12-01

    Fifteen species of parasites including Haemaphysalis leporispalustris, Ixodes dentatus, Amblyomma americanum, Cediopsylla simplex, Odontopsyllus multispinosus, Cuterebra sp., Obeliscoides cuniculi, Trichostrongylus calcaratus, Trichostrongylus affinis, Longistriata noviberiae, Dermatoxys veligera, Trichuris sp., Mosgovoyia sp., Taenia pisiformis, and Hasstilesia tricolor as well as coccidia oocysts were collected from 96 cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus) confined to a pen in southern Illinois in 1983 and 1984. The diversity of parasites and the intensities of infections were similar to published reports on free-ranging populations. Most variations in parasite abundances were attributable to season. Few lesions were seen in association with parasitism. PMID:1491303

  8. Transgenic rabbits as therapeutic protein bioreactors and human disease models.

    PubMed

    Fan, Jianglin; Watanabe, Teruo

    2003-09-01

    Genetically modified laboratory animals provide a powerful approach for studying gene expression and regulation and allow one to directly examine structure-function and cause-and-effect relationships in pathophysiological processes. Today, transgenic mice are available as a research tool in almost every research institution. On the other hand, the development of a relatively large mammalian transgenic model, transgenic rabbits, has provided unprecedented opportunities for investigators to study the mechanisms of human diseases and has also provided an alternative way to produce therapeutic proteins to treat human diseases. Transgenic rabbits expressing human genes have been used as a model for cardiovascular disease, AIDS, and cancer research. The recombinant proteins can be produced from the milk of transgenic rabbits not only at lower cost but also on a relatively large scale. One of the most promising and attractive recombinant proteins derived from transgenic rabbit milk, human alpha-glucosidase, has been successfully used to treat the patients who are genetically deficient in this enzyme. Although the pronuclear microinjection is still the major and most popular method for the creation of transgenic rabbits, recent progress in gene targeting and animal cloning has opened new avenues that should make it possible to produce transgenic rabbits by somatic cell nuclear transfer in the future. Based on a computer-assisted search of the studies of transgenic rabbits published in the English literature here, we introduce to the reader the achievements made thus far with transgenic rabbits, with emphasis on the application of these rabbits as human disease models and live bioreactors for producing human therapeutic proteins and on the recent progress in cloned rabbits. PMID:12951161

  9. An Appreciation for the Rabbit Ladderlike Modeling of Radiation-induced Lung Injury with High-energy X-Ray

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Xiang-Ming; Hu, Chun-Hong; Hu, Xiao-Yun; Yao, Xuan-Jun; Qian, Ping-Yan; Zhou, Ju-Ying; Guo, Jian; Lerner, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Background: To evaluate the utility of rabbit ladderlike model of radiation-induced lung injury (RILI) for the future investigation of computed tomography perfusion. Methods: A total of 72 New Zealand rabbits were randomly divided into two groups: 36 rabbits in the test group were administered 25 Gy of single fractionated radiation to the whole lung of unilateral lung; 36 rabbits in the control group were sham-radiated. All rabbits were subsequently sacrificed at 1, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72 h, and 1, 2, 4, 8,1 6, 24 weeks after radiation, and then six specimens were extracted from the upper, middle and lower fields of the bilateral lungs. The pathological changes in these specimens were observed with light and electron microscopy; the expression of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-a) and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) in local lung tissue was detected by immunohistochemistry. Results: (1) Radiation-induced lung injury occurred in all rabbits in the test group. (2) Expression of TNF-a and TGF-β1 at 1 h and 48 h after radiation, demonstrated a statistically significant difference between the test and control groups (each P < 0.05). (3) Evaluation by light microscopy demonstrated statistically significant differences between the two groups in the following parameters (each P < 0.05): thickness of alveolar wall, density of pulmonary interstitium area (1 h after radiation), number of fibroblasts and fibrocytes in interstitium (24 h after radiation). The test group metrics also correlated well with the time of postradiation. (4) Evaluation by electron microscopy demonstrated statistically significant differences in the relative amounts of collagen fibers at various time points postradiation in the test group (P < 0.005), with no significant differences in the control group (P > 0.05). At greater than 48 h postradiation the relative amount of collagen fibers in the test groups significantly differ from the control groups (each P < 0.05), correlating well with the time postradiation (r = 0.99318). Conclusions: A consistent and reliable rabbit model of RILI can be generated in gradient using 25 Gy of high-energy X-ray, which can simulate the development and evolution of RILI. PMID:26063366

  10. Parathyroid allotransplantation in rabbits without cultivation

    PubMed Central

    Can, Ismail; Aysan, Erhan; Yucesan, Emrah; Sayitoglu, Muge; Ozbek, Ugur; Ercivan, Merve; Atasoy, Hakan; Buyukpinarbasili, Nur; Muslumanoglu, Mahmut

    2014-01-01

    Permanent hypoparathyroidism is a serious clinical situation. Allotransplantation of the parathyroid cells is relatively new approach to treatment. Non-cultivated allotransplantation in rabbits is not tried before. In this research parathyroidectomy was performed in six female New Zealand white rabbits. After division of surgically removed tissues into two, cryopreservation after cell isolation was done. Non-cultivated cross allotransplantation was performed under immunosuppression. Serum calcium and phosphorus levels were observed 15 days and histopathological analyses of the transplanted parathyroid tissues were studied. Significant changes in serum calcium and phosphorus levels during the experiment were observed (p=0.001 for both). Calcium levels which were significantly dropped to 6.66±0.7 mg/dL after parathyroidectomy and progressively increased up to 15.98±1.25 mg/dL at the end of the experiment (p=0.004). Phosphorus levels which were increased to 9.38±0.63 mg/dL after parathyroidectomy and stabilized to 4.46±1.06 mg/dL at the end of the experiment (p=0.007). All allotransplanted parathyroid tissues showed normal tissue architecture without evidence of cellular rejection. In conclusion allotransplantation of the parathyroid tissues without cultivation may be considered as an alternative and safe approach for the treatment of permanent hypoparathyroidism. PMID:24482717

  11. Pathology of congenital syphilis in rabbits.

    PubMed Central

    Froberg, M K; Fitzgerald, T J; Hamilton, T R; Hamilton, B; Zarabi, M

    1993-01-01

    We have developed a model for congenital syphilis in the rabbit. This report provides additional information on newborn tissue pathology in animals that were infected in utero. A total of 35 pregnancies were evaluated, each containing 6 to 12 newborns. In the infected group, the mortality was approximately 50%; of the live newborns, half appeared normal and half were hyperreflexic, weak, and runty. Gross pathology in the sickly newborns was quite prevalent and involved enlarged spleens with isolated spots of necrosis; enlarged livers that were overtly congested and hemorrhagic and had numerous granular, white spots; and brains with hemorrhage in the occipital area. Histopathology was apparent in different tissues. Lymphocytes, plasma cells, and vacuolated macrophages were prominent in livers, spleens, brains, and bones. A few actively motile treponemes were visualized by dark-field microscopy within extracts of spleen and within cerebrospinal fluid. Low numbers of treponemes were also demonstrated in sections of brain and liver by using the Warthin-Starry silver stain technique. Blood hematocrits were decreased, and extramedullary hematopoiesis was prominent within spleens and livers; this is consistent with anemia. This rabbit model exhibits many of the same pathologic features commonly found in human congenital syphilis. Images PMID:8406873

  12. Assessing Ulcerative Pododermatitis of Breeding Rabbits.

    PubMed

    Rosell, Joan M; de la Fuente, L Fernando

    2013-01-01

    Rabbits in conventional farms are housed in wire net cages with mesh floors to separate them from droppings. In time, lacerations appear on the legs of adult rabbits causing ulcerative pododermatitis or sore hocks, a severe health and welfare problem. Pain causes behavioral changes; productivity is reduced and the most seriously affected animals die or are culled. In this study we evaluated the attention producers have given to this problem and its prevention by installing footrests in cages. We made 2,331 visits to 664 commercial farms in Spain and Portugal between 2001 and 2012, and evaluated morbidity by examining 105,009 females and 10,722 males. The study highlights that the rate of farms with footrests increased from 27.8% in 2001 to 75.2% in 2012. Prevalence of sore hocks in does in 2001 was 11.4%, decreasing to 6.3% in 2012; prevention of ulcerative pododermatitis was associated (P < 0.001) with the presence of footrests. Overall, prevalence was 4.87 ± 0.26 on farms with footrests and 13.71 ± 0.32 without (P < 0.01). PMID:26487404

  13. Increased virulence of Rabbit Haemorrhagic Disease Virus associated with genetic resistance in wild Australian rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus)

    PubMed Central

    Elsworth, Peter; Cooke, Brian D.; Kovaliski, John; Sinclair, Ronald; Holmes, Edward C.; Strive, Tanja

    2015-01-01

    The release of myxoma virus (MYXV) and Rabbit Haemorrhagic Disease Virus (RHDV) in Australia with the aim of controlling overabundant rabbits has provided a unique opportunity to study the initial spread and establishment of emerging pathogens, as well as their co-evolution with their mammalian hosts. In contrast to MYXV, which attenuated shortly after its introduction, rapid attenuation of RHDV has not been observed. By studying the change in virulence of recent field isolates at a single field site we show, for the first time, that RHDV virulence has increased through time, likely because of selection to overcome developing genetic resistance in Australian wild rabbits. High virulence also appears to be favoured as rabbit carcasses, rather than diseased animals, are the likely source of mechanical insect transmission. These findings not only help elucidate the co-evolutionary interaction between rabbits and RHDV, but reveal some of the key factors shaping virulence evolution. PMID:25146599

  14. Apraclonidine effects on ocular responses to YAG laser irradiation to the rabbit iris

    SciTech Connect

    Sugiyama, K.; Kitazawa, Y.; Kawai, K. )

    1990-04-01

    Apraclonidine (p-aminoclonidine) ophthalmic solution effectively reduces the rise in intraocular pressure (IOP) following anterior segment laser surgery. We tested the effect of topical 0.5% apraclonidine on intraocular pressure and on protein and prostaglandin (PG) E2 concentrations in aqueous humor following Q-switched Nd:YAG laser irradiation to the iris of albino rabbits, at an energy level of 2 to 200 mJ. IOP was measured prior to and for 24 hr after irradiation. Aqueous humor was withdrawn before and 1 hr after laser irradiation for determining protein (Lowry method) and PGE2 (radioimmunoassay). Four to seven rabbits were used for each experiment. The increase in IOP and protein concentration following laser irradiation was demonstrated to be dependent on the amount of laser energy. Apraclonidine completely abolished the IOP rise, and significantly reduced the elevation of protein content. Apraclonidine failed to affect the increase in PGE2.

  15. Seroprevalence of antibodies to Encephalitozoon cuniculi and Toxoplasma gondii in farmed domestic rabbits in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Ashmawy, K I; Abuakkada, S S; Awad, A M

    2011-08-01

    Rabbit sera from ten commercial farms representing three provinces in Northern Egypt (Behera, Alexandria and Khafr El-Sheikh) were submitted to serological screening for Encephalitozoon cuniculi using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and for Toxoplasma gondii using an indirect hemagglutination test. Antibodies against E. cuniculi were detected in 36/240 (15%) sera examined while antibodies against T. gondii showed a seroprevalence of 22/194 (11.34%). Both infections were detected in all of the examined farms. These results are of epidemiological relevance and public health importance because of the recognized susceptibility of humans to E. cuniculi and T. gondii infections; therefore, routine screening examinations of farm rabbits are advised considering the zoonotic potential of these parasites. PMID:20887397

  16. A simple method of infecting rabbits with Bovine herpesvirus 1 and 5.

    PubMed

    Valera, A R; Pidone, C L; Massone, A R; Quiroga, M A; Riganti, J G; Corva, S G; Galosi, C M

    2008-06-01

    This report describes an alternative technique to inoculate rabbits and to reproduce infection by Bovine herpesvirus 1 and 5. First, the nostrils are anaesthetized by aspersion with local anaesthetic. A few seconds later, and after proving the insensitivity of the zone, the rabbits are put on their back legs with their nostrils upwards and the inoculum is introduced slowly into each nostril by using disposable droppers. Clinical signs, viral isolation from nasal swabs, histological lesions found, positive polymerase chain reaction and antibodies production confirm the infection. This very simple and bloodless technique, where the animals are exposed to minor distress, may be useful for evaluating the virulence of BoHV-1 and BoHV-5 strains, to study the establishment of latent virus infection and to test the potential of experimental vaccines or properties of antiviral drugs. It may be also suitable for experimental infection with other respiratory viruses in this animal model. PMID:18423632

  17. Comparative study of different mechanical models for identification of viscoelastic parameters of cryopreserved rabbit carotid arteries.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Gang; Zheng, Yu-xuan; Yu, Fei; Liu, Zhi-feng; Lei, Dong; Gao, Da-yong

    2008-01-01

    To characterize quantitatively the viscoelastic behaviors of cryopreserved rabbit carotid arteries, five mechanical models (a standard linear model, and four generalized Maxwell models) were comparatively applied. Specific aim of this study was to test the validity of these models to simulate the stress relaxation behaviors of the cryopreserved arteries and to find a best-fit model for identification of viscoelastic parameters. Non-linear curve fittings were applied to the stress-relaxation data measured with dynamic mechanical thermal analyzer (DMTA IV; Rheometric. Scientific Inc.; Piscataway, NJ, USA), it was found that 5-element model (generalized Maxwell body composed of an elastic element and two Kelvin body) could provide satisfactory description of the cryopreserved rabbit carotid arteries. PMID:19137190

  18. Hypothyroidism Affects Vascularization and Promotes Immune Cells Infiltration into Pancreatic Islets of Female Rabbits.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Castelán, Julia; Martínez-Gómez, Margarita; Castelán, Francisco; Cuevas, Estela

    2015-01-01

    Thyroidectomy induces pancreatic edema and immune cells infiltration similarly to that observed in pancreatitis. In spite of the controverted effects of hypothyroidism on serum glucose and insulin concentrations, the number and proliferation of Langerhans islet cells as well as the presence of extracellular matrix are affected depending on the islet size. In this study, we evaluated the effect of methimazole-induced hypothyroidism on the vascularization and immune cells infiltration into islets. A general observation of pancreas was also done. Twelve Chinchilla-breed female adult rabbits were divided into control (n = 6) and hypothyroid groups (n = 6, methimazole, 0.02% in drinking water for 30 days). After the treatment, rabbits were sacrificed and their pancreas was excised, histologically processed, and stained with Periodic Acid-Schiff (PAS) or Masson's Trichrome techniques. Islets were arbitrarily classified into large, medium, and small ones. The external and internal portions of each islet were also identified. Student-t-test and Mann-Whitney-U test or two-way ANOVAs were used to compare variables between groups. In comparison with control rabbits, hypothyroidism induced a strong infiltration of immune cells and a major presence of collagen and proteoglycans in the interlobular septa. Large islets showed a high vascularization and immune cells infiltration. The present results show that hypothyroidism induces pancreatitis and insulitis. PMID:26175757

  19. Hypothyroidism Affects Vascularization and Promotes Immune Cells Infiltration into Pancreatic Islets of Female Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Castelán, Julia; Martínez-Gómez, Margarita; Castelán, Francisco; Cuevas, Estela

    2015-01-01

    Thyroidectomy induces pancreatic edema and immune cells infiltration similarly to that observed in pancreatitis. In spite of the controverted effects of hypothyroidism on serum glucose and insulin concentrations, the number and proliferation of Langerhans islet cells as well as the presence of extracellular matrix are affected depending on the islet size. In this study, we evaluated the effect of methimazole-induced hypothyroidism on the vascularization and immune cells infiltration into islets. A general observation of pancreas was also done. Twelve Chinchilla-breed female adult rabbits were divided into control (n = 6) and hypothyroid groups (n = 6, methimazole, 0.02% in drinking water for 30 days). After the treatment, rabbits were sacrificed and their pancreas was excised, histologically processed, and stained with Periodic Acid-Schiff (PAS) or Masson's Trichrome techniques. Islets were arbitrarily classified into large, medium, and small ones. The external and internal portions of each islet were also identified. Student-t-test and Mann-Whitney-U test or two-way ANOVAs were used to compare variables between groups. In comparison with control rabbits, hypothyroidism induced a strong infiltration of immune cells and a major presence of collagen and proteoglycans in the interlobular septa. Large islets showed a high vascularization and immune cells infiltration. The present results show that hypothyroidism induces pancreatitis and insulitis. PMID:26175757

  20. Innervation of the rabbit cardiac ventricles.

    PubMed

    Pauziene, Neringa; Alaburda, Paulius; Rysevaite-Kyguoliene, Kristina; Pauza, Audrys G; Inokaitis, Hermanas; Masaityte, Aiste; Rudokaite, Gabriele; Saburkina, Inga; Plisiene, Jurgita; Pauza, Dainius H

    2016-01-01

    The rabbit is widely used in experimental cardiac physiology, but the neuroanatomy of the rabbit heart remains insufficiently examined. This study aimed to ascertain the architecture of the intrinsic nerve plexus in the walls and septum of rabbit cardiac ventricles. In 51 rabbit hearts, a combined approach involving: (i) histochemical acetylcholinesterase staining of intrinsic neural structures in total cardiac ventricles; (ii) immunofluorescent labelling of intrinsic nerves, nerve fibres (NFs) and neuronal somata (NS); and (iii) transmission electron microscopy of intrinsic ventricular nerves and NFs was used. Mediastinal nerves access the ventral and lateral surfaces of both ventricles at a restricted site between the root of the ascending aorta and the pulmonary trunk. The dorsal surface of both ventricles is supplied by several epicardial nerves extending from the left dorsal ganglionated nerve subplexus on the dorsal left atrium. Ventral accessing nerves are thicker and more numerous than dorsal nerves. Intrinsic ventricular NS are rare on the conus arteriosus and the root of the pulmonary trunk. The number of ventricular NS ranged from 11 to 220 per heart. Four chemical phenotypes of NS within ventricular ganglia were identified, i.e. ganglionic cells positive for choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), and biphenotypic, i.e. positive for both ChAT/nNOS and for ChAT/tyrosine hydroxylase. Clusters of small intensely fluorescent cells are distributed within or close to ganglia on the root of the pulmonary trunk, but not on the conus arteriosus. The largest and most numerous intrinsic nerves proceed within the epicardium. Scarce nerves were found near myocardial blood vessels, but the myocardium contained only a scarce meshwork of NFs. In the endocardium, large numbers of thin nerves and NFs proceed along the bundle of His and both its branches up to the apex of the ventricles. The endocardial meshwork of fine NFs was approximately eight times denser than the myocardial meshwork. Adrenergic NFs predominate considerably in all layers of the ventricular walls and septum, whereas NFs of other neurochemical phenotypes were in the minority and their amount differed between the epicardium, myocardium and endocardium. The densities of NFs positive for nNOS and ChAT were similar in the epicardium and endocardium, but NFs positive for nNOS in the myocardium were eight times more abundant than NFs positive for ChAT. Potentially sensory NFs positive for both calcitonin gene-related peptide and substance P were sparse in the myocardial layer, but numerous in epicardial nerves and particularly abundant within the endocardium. Electron microscopic observations demonstrate that intrinsic ventricular nerves have a distinctive morphology, which may be attributed to remodelling of the peripheral nerves after their access into the ventricular wall. In conclusion, the rabbit ventricles display complex structural organization of intrinsic ventricular nerves, NFs and ganglionic cells. The results provide a basic anatomical background for further functional analysis of the intrinsic nervous system in the cardiac ventricles. PMID:26510903

  1. Quantitative assessment of rabbit alveolar macrophage function by chemiluminescence

    SciTech Connect

    Brennan, P.C.; Kirchner, F.R.

    1985-08-01

    Rabbit alveolar macrophages (RAM) were cultured for 24 hr with concentrations ranging from 3 to 12 ..mu..g/ml of vanadium oxide (V/sub 2/O/sub 5/), a known cytotoxic agent, or with high-molecular-weight organic by-products from coal gasification processes. After culture the cells were harvested and tested for functional capacity using three types of indicators: (1) luminol-amplified chemiluminescence (CL), which quantitatively detects photon emission due to respiratory burst activity measured in a newly designed instrument with standardized reagents; (2) the reduction of nitro blue tetrazolium-saturated polyacrylamide beads, a semiquantitative measure of respiratory burst activity; and (3) phagocytic efficiency, defined as percentage of cells incorporating immunoglobulin-coated polyacrylamide beads. Chemiluminescence declined linearly with increasing concentrations of V/sub 2/O/sub 5/ over the dose range tested. Dye reduction and phagocytic efficiency similarly decreased with increasing V/sub 2/O/sub 5/ concentration, but were less sensitive indicators of functional impairment than CL as measured by the amount required to reduce the response to 50% of untreated cells. The effect of coal gasification condensates on RAM function varied, but in general these test also indicated that the CL response was the most sensitive indicator.

  2. Proteomic analysis of regenerated rabbit lenses reveal crystallin expression characteristic of adult rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xialin; Zhang, Min; Liu, Yuhua; Challa, Pratap; Gonzalez, Pedro

    2008-01-01

    Purpose To explore lens crystallin characteristics and morphology of rabbit regenerated lenses in comparison with wild type natural lenses by means of proteomic analysis and histological assay. Methods The lens regeneration model of the New Zealand rabbit was established, and lens regeneration was observed by slit lamp examination and photography. A histological assay was evaluated under light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Protein samples of regenerated lenses were collected from experimental rabbit eyes 2, 4, and 16 weeks after surgery. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) was performed. Image analyses was done using the ImageMaster 2D Elite 3.01 software package. The protein spots were trypsinized and identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry. Results Lens regeneration began in the periphery of the capsule bag about one to two weeks after the surgery and proceeded to regenerate toward the center. The regenerated lens appeared spherical in shape with a fairly translucent cortical structure and a nuclear opacity. Histological findings showed that the remnant lens epithelial cells differentiate at the lens capsule equator and new lens fibers form in a concentric pattern in a manner similar to that observed in natural lenses. However, TEM showed morphological changes in the epithelial cells of the regenerated lenses as compared with natural lenses. 2-D electrophoresis revealed that the patterns of protein spots from regenerated lenses (two weeks, four weeks, and 16 weeks) were analogous to those of 16-week-old natural lenses but were substantially different from those of two-week-old natural lenses, particularly when the two-week-old regenerated lenses were compared with the two-week-old natural lenses. Conclusions Proteomic analysis revealed that crystallin expression in regenerated rabbit lenses was analogous to that of natural lenses of adult rabbits but was different from that of very young rabbits (two weeks old), and TEM revealed the presence of morphological changes in the epithelial cells of regenerated lenses. These results suggest that the regrowth of lens materials in the lens capsule after endocapsular phacoemulsification might actually represent the regeneration of “mature” lens substances, which have led us to the conclusion that the regenerative process does not exactly mimic embryonic development. PMID:19098996

  3. Development of an interlocked nail for segmental defects in the rabbit tibia.

    PubMed

    LeCronier, David J; Papakonstantinou, John S; Gheevarughese, Vineetha; Beran, Casey D; Walter, Norman E; Atkinson, Patrick J

    2012-04-01

    Previous animal models have been developed to study intramedullary nailing for challenging segmental defects in the tibia. In large animals, interlocked nail fixation created a stable environment suitable to study new bone growth technologies placed in the defect. To our knowledge, there are no comparable interlocked tibial defect models for the rabbit in which new technologies could be evaluated. Such a model would be helpful since the rabbit is a popular initial model for orthopedic research studies owing to its wide availability and low cost. While numerous studies have nailed the rabbit tibia, all were non-locked implants that allowed some degree of instability between the fracture fragments. In addition, the non-locked nails were constructed of stainless steel, whereas human nails are increasingly made from titanium alloy. In the current study, an interlocked titanium nail was developed for the rabbit tibia. It was implanted in cadaver tibiae and subjected to fatigue cycling in combined compression and bending at physiologic levels to 21,061 cycles. This duration is estimated to represent 12 weeks of gait by the animal. Before and after fatigue cycling, monotonic testing was performed in compression and bending at physiologic levels. The intact contralateral limbs served as controls. All limbs completed the cycling; the instrumented limbs exhibited interfragmentary cyclic strain amplitudes during fatigue (616 +/- 139 micro-strain), which was significantly greater than the control limbs (136 +/- 35 microstrain). Monotonic strain amplitudes for the test limbs in bending and compression were 4839 +/- 1028 and 542 +/- 122 microstrain, respectively; corresponding values for the control bones were 407 +/- 118 and 95 +/- 38 microstrain, respectively. These data are similar to those presented in prior studies in larger bone models. The current study presents one method for interlocked nail fixation for this complex tibial shaft fracture in a small animal. PMID:22611873

  4. Seroprevalence of toxoplasma gondii infection in domestic rabbits in Durango State, Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Toxoplasma gondii infection in rabbits is of public health importance because rabbit meat is consumed by humans, and rabbits are preyed upon by cats that then shed environmentally resistant oocysts. Antibodies to T. gondii were determined in 429 domestic rabbits in Durango State, Mexico using the mo...

  5. Bone formation in rabbit's leg muscle after autologous transplantation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells expressing human bone morphogenic protein-2

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Licheng; Lei, Guang-Hua; Yi, Han-Wen; Sheng, Pu-yi

    2014-01-01

    Background: To test whether autologous transplantation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) expressing human bone morphogenic protein-2 (hBMP-2) can produce bone in rabbit leg muscles. Materials and Methods: MSCs were isolated from BM of the iliac crest of rabbits and then infected with lentiviral vectors (LVs) bearing hBMP-2 and green fluorescent protein under the control of the cytomegalovirus (immediate early promoter). Differentiation of transduced MSCs to osteoblasts in vitro was evaluated with an alkaline phosphatase activity assay and immuohistochemistry against osteoblast specific markers. MSCs expressing hBMP-2 were placed in an absorbable gelatin sponge, which was then transplanted into the gastrocnemius of rabbits from which MSCs were isolated. Bone formation was examined by X-ray and histological analysis. Results: LVs efficiently mediated hBMP-2 gene expression in rabbit BM-MSCs. Ectopic expression of hBMP in these MSCs induced osteoblastic differentiation in vitro. Bone was formed after the MSCs expressing hBMP-2 were transplanted into rabbit muscles. Conclusion: Ectopic expression of hBMP-2 in rabbit MSCs induces them to differentiate into osteoblasts in vitro and to form a bone in vivo. PMID:25143636

  6. Shiga toxin 2-induced intestinal pathology in infant rabbits is A-subunit dependent and responsive to the tyrosine kinase and potential ZAK inhibitor imatinib.

    PubMed

    Stone, Samuel M; Thorpe, Cheleste M; Ahluwalia, Amrita; Rogers, Arlin B; Obata, Fumiko; Vozenilek, Aimee; Kolling, Glynis L; Kane, Anne V; Magun, Bruce E; Jandhyala, Dakshina M

    2012-01-01

    Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are a major cause of food-borne illness worldwide. However, a consensus regarding the role Shiga toxins play in the onset of diarrhea and hemorrhagic colitis (HC) is lacking. One of the obstacles to understanding the role of Shiga toxins to STEC-mediated intestinal pathology is a deficit in small animal models that perfectly mimic human disease. Infant rabbits have been previously used to study STEC and/or Shiga toxin-mediated intestinal inflammation and diarrhea. We demonstrate using infant rabbits that Shiga toxin-mediated intestinal damage requires A-subunit activity, and like the human colon, that of the infant rabbit expresses the Shiga toxin receptor Gb(3). We also demonstrate that Shiga toxin treatment of the infant rabbit results in apoptosis and activation of p38 within colonic tissues. Finally we demonstrate that the infant rabbit model may be used to test candidate therapeutics against Shiga toxin-mediated intestinal damage. While the p38 inhibitor SB203580 and the ZAK inhibitor DHP-2 were ineffective at preventing Shiga toxin-mediated damage to the colon, pretreatment of infant rabbits with the drug imatinib resulted in a decrease of Shiga toxin-mediated heterophil infiltration of the colon. Therefore, we propose that this model may be useful in elucidating mechanisms by which Shiga toxins could contribute to intestinal damage in the human. PMID:23162799

  7. Effect of a 5-lipoxygenase inhibitor and leukotriene antagonist (PF 5901) on PAF-induced airway responses in neonatally immunized rabbits.

    PubMed Central

    Herd, C. M.; Donigi-Gale, D.; Shoupe, T. S.; Page, C. P.

    1992-01-01

    1. Aerosol administration of platelet activating factor (PAF) (80 micrograms ml-1 for 60 min) to neonatally immunized rabbits caused bronchoconstriction which was far in excess of that produced by a comparable aerosol of bovine serum albumin (BSA), the carrier molecule for PAF. Bronchoconstriction of a similar magnitude was elicited by PAF in immunized, sham-immunized and normal rabbits. 2. Aerosol administration of PAF to immunized rabbits induced enhanced airway responsiveness to inhaled histamine in all animals tested, 24 h and 72 h after exposure. In not all cases had airways responsiveness returned to basal levels at 1 week following PAF challenge. In contrast, following exposure of immunized rabbits to BSA, no significant changes in airway responsiveness to histamine were evident at any of the measured time points. 3. A significant increase in the total number of inflammatory cells recovered in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid was determined 24 h and 72 h following PAF exposure in immunized rabbits. This was associated with a significant increase in the number of neutrophils and eosinophils. Similar changes were observed following exposure of PAF to normal and sham-immunized rabbits. No change in the total number of inflammatory cells was obtained in BAL after BSA challenge to immunized rabbits; however, neutrophil numbers were significantly increased. 4. PF 5901, a specific inhibitor of the 5-lipoxygenase pathway of arachidonic acid metabolism and a leukotriene D4 antagonist, at a dose of 10 mg (direct intratracheal administration) significantly inhibited the airway resistance (RL) component of the bronchoconstriction induced by PAF in neonatally-immunized rabbits.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1467833

  8. First reporting of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) ST398 in an industrial rabbit holding and in farm-related people.

    PubMed

    Agnoletti, Fabrizio; Mazzolini, Elena; Bacchin, Cosetta; Bano, Luca; Berto, Giacomo; Rigoli, Roberto; Muffato, Giovanna; Coato, Paola; Tonon, Elena; Drigo, Ilenia

    2014-05-14

    Livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) has been described in food-producing animals and farm or slaughterhouse workers involved in the primary industrial production of swine, bovine and poultry. This communication describes the first case of LA-MRSA (ST398, spa types t034 and t5210) occurring in rabbits raised intensively for meat production and involving farm workers or their family members. In 2012-2013, in a study involving 40 rabbit industrial holdings in Italy, one farm was found to have rabbits colonized or infected with MRSA. Four farm workers and one of their relatives were found to be carrying MRSA. In this case holding, rabbits, people and the holding environment were further investigated and followed up by a second sampling five months later. MRSA was found in 48% (11/23) and 25% (15/59) of the rabbits carrying S. aureus at first and second samplings, respectively. Five months after first detection, some farm workers or family members were still MRSA carriers. Surface samples (2/10) and air samples (2/3) were contaminated with MRSA. Air samples yielded MRSA counts of 5 and 15CFU/m(3). MRSA from rabbits and people collected at first sampling were spa types t034 and t5210 belonging to ST398. The MRSA isolates from rabbits and persons tested at second sampling were t034 and t5210, but spa types t1190 and t2970 were also detected in MRSA isolates from rabbits. Tracing the epidemiological pattern earlier may prevent further spread of LA-MRSA in these food producing animals. PMID:24602406

  9. In vivo gene delivery of XIAP protects against myocardial apoptosis and infarction following ischemia/reperfusion in conscious rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Song-Jung; Kuklov, Alex; Crystal, George J.

    2011-01-01

    Aims We tested the hypothesis that an in vivo gene delivery of the pro-survival protein XIAP (X-chromosome linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein) protects against myocardial apoptosis and infarction following ischemia/reperfusion. Main Methods Nineteen rabbits were chronically instrumented with an hydraulic occluder placed around the circumflex coronary artery. Adenovirus harboring XIAP (Ad.XIAP; 1×1010 pfu/ml) or β-galactosidase (5×109 pfu/ml), as a control, was constructed and transfected into the heart using a catheter place into the left ventricle accompanied by cross-clamping. 1-2 weeks after gene delivery, myocardial ischemia was induced by a 30-min occlusion followed by reperfusion for four days. Protein expression was determined by Western blot and Apoptosis (% of myocytes) was quantified by TUNEL staining. Key Findings Myocardial infarct size, expressed as a fraction of the area at risk, was reduced in Ad.XIAP (n=5) compared to control (n=7) rabbits (21±3% vs. 30±2%, p<0.05). Apoptosis was reduced in Ad.XIAP rabbits compared to control rabbits (2.96±0.68% vs. 8.98±1.84%, p<0.01). This was associated with an approximate 60% decrease in the cleaved caspase-3 level in Ad.XIAP rabbits compared to control rabbits. Significances The current findings demonstrate that overexpression of XIAP via in vivo delivery in an adenovirus can reduce both myocardial apoptosis and infarction following ischemia/reperfusion, at least in part, due to the ability of XIAP to inhibit caspase-3. These findings confirm previous work suggesting a link between myocardial apoptosis and infarction i.e., anti-apoptotic therapy was effective in reducing myocardial infarct size. PMID:21277870

  10. Direct in vivo injection of 131I-GMS and its distribution and excretion in rabbit

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yu; Wan, Yi; Luo, Dong-Hui; Duan, Li-Geng; Li, Lin; Xia, Chuan-Qin; Chen, Xiao-Li

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To explore the distribution and metabolism of 131I-gelatin microspheres (131I-GMSs) in rabbits after direct injection into rabbits’ livers. METHODS: Twenty-eight healthy New Zealand rabbits were divided into seven groups, with four rabbits per group. Each rabbit’s hepatic lobes were directly injected with 41.336 ± 5.106 MBq 131I-GMSs. Each day after 131I-GMSs administration, 4 rabbits were randomly selected, and 250 μL of serum was collected for γ count. Hepatic and thyroid functions were tested on days 1, 4, 8, 16, 24, 32, 48 and 64 after 131I-GMSs administration. Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) was taken for each group on days 0, 1, 4, 8, 16, 24, 32, 48, 64 after 131I-GMSs administration. A group of rabbits were sacrificed respectively on days 1, 4, 16, 24, 32, 48, 64 after 131I-GMSs administration. Their livers were taken out for histological examination. RESULTS: After 131I-GMSs administration, the nuclide was collected in the hepatic area with microspheres. The radiation could be detected on day 48 after 131I-GMSs administration, and radiography could be seen in thyroid areas in SPECT on days 4, 8, 16 and 24. One day after 131I-GMSs administration, the liver function was damaged but recovered 4 d later. Eight days after 131I-GMSs administration, the levels of free triiodothyronine and free thyroxin were reduced, which restored to normal levels on day 16. Histological examination showed that the microspheres were degraded to different degrees at 24, 32 and 48 d after 131I-GMSs administration. The surrounding parts of injection points were in fibrous sheathing. No microspheres were detected in histological examination on day 64 after 131I-GMSs administration. CONCLUSION: Direct in vivo injection of 131I-GMSs is safe in rabbits. It may be a promising method for treatment of malignant tumors. PMID:20440852

  11. Ultrasonographic analysis versus histopathologic evaluation of carotid advanced atherosclerotic stenosis in an experimental rabbit model.

    PubMed

    Mehrad, Hossein; Mokhtari-Dizaji, Manijhe; Ghanaati, Hossein; Shahbazfar, Amir-Ali; Salehnia, Mojdeh

    2012-08-01

    Advanced carotid atherosclerosis with severe stenosis (>70%) is a major clinical risk factor for ischemic stroke. Our ability to test new protocols for the treatment of atherosclerotic stenosis in humans is limited for obvious ethical reasons; therefore, a suitable animal model is required. The aim of this study was to generate an easily reproducible and inexpensive experimental rabbit carotid model of advanced atherosclerosis with morphological similarities to the human disease and the subsequent assessment of the reliability of B-mode ultrasound technology in the study of lumen area stenosis in this model. Briefly, New Zealand white rabbits underwent primary perivascular cold injury at the right common carotid artery followed by a 1.5% cholesterol-rich diet injury for eight weeks. All of the rabbits' arteries were imaged by B-mode ultrasound weekly, after which the rabbits were sacrificed, and their vessels were processed for histopathology. Ultrasound longitudinal view images from three cardiac cycles were processed by a new computerized analyzing method based on dynamic programming and maximum gradient algorithm for measurement of instantaneous changes in arterial wall thickness and lumen diameter in sequential ultrasound images. Histopathology results showed progressive changes, from the lipid-laden cells and fibrous connective tissue proliferation in neointimal layer, up to the fibro-lipid plaque formation, resulting in vessel wall thickening, remodeling and lumen stenosis. The B-mode ultrasound images and the histologic measurements showed an increase in the mean wall thickness and the lumen area stenosis within eight weeks. Quantitative and morphometric analysis of the mean wall thickness and the lumen area stenosis percentage showed a significant correlation between the B-mode ultrasound and the histological measurements at each time point (R = 0.989 and R = 0.995, p < 0.05, respectively). In conclusion, we successfully produced advanced atherosclerosis in the rabbit carotid artery that is similar to the condition seen in patients. This condition in rabbits can be properly assessed by B-mode ultrasound image processing. PMID:22698512

  12. Use of allicin as feed additive to enhance vaccination capacity of Clostridium perfringens toxoid in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Abu El Hammed, Waleed; Soufy, Hamdy; El-Shemy, Ahmed; Nasr, Soad M; Dessouky, Mohamed I

    2016-04-12

    The present study assessed the efficacy of Clostridium perfringens (C. perfringens) toxoid and/or allicin - as feed additive - in rabbits for preventing or minimizing the severity of infection with locally isolated strain of C. perfringens type A. Serum biochemical, immunological and pathological investigations were also done. One hundred rabbits of 6 weeks of age were divided into five equal groups (G1-G5). G1 were kept as normal control. G2 was allocated for C. perfringens type A infection. G3 was vaccinated with C. perfringens toxoid at zero time and then with a booster dose at the 3rd week of the experimental period. G4 was treated with allicin 20% added to the ration (200mg/kg ration) all over the experimental period. G5 was vaccinated with C. perfringens toxoid at the zero time then with a booster dose at the 3rd week of the experiment period, and treated with allicin 20% from the zero time till the end of the experiment. At the 4th week, G2, G3, G4 and G5 were challenged orally (5ml) and subcutaneously (2ml) with 24h cooked meat broth containing 1×10(7)colony-forming units/ml of C. perfringens type A strain. Blood and tissue samples were collected from all groups post-vaccination then post-challenge for biochemical analysis, serum neutralization test and histopathological examinations. Results revealed that rabbits treated with both allicin and toxoid vaccine demonstrated high level of antitoxin titre post-challenge, improved liver and kidney functions, and reduced morbidity and mortality rates and the severity of histopathological changes associated with challenge of rabbits with C. perfringens type A strain. In conclusion, vaccination of rabbits with C. perfringens toxoid combined with allicin 20% gave better protection, enhanced immune response and had no adverse effects on the general health conditions against C. perfringens type A infection compared to rabbits vaccinated with C. perfringens toxoid only. PMID:26973070

  13. The Effect of Intravitreal Azithromycin on the Albino Newborn Rabbit Retina

    PubMed Central

    Cam, Duygu; Saatci, Ali Osman; Micili, Serap Cilaker; Ergur, Bekir Ugur; Karabag, Revan Yildirim; Durak, Ismet; Berk, Ayse Tulin

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the effect of intravitreal azithromycin on the retina in a newborn rabbit model. Methods: Twelve, two-week old New Zealand albino rabbits were divided into two groups (six in each). The right eyes of six rabbits received 0.75 mg (0.05 mL) azithromycin and the right eyes of the remaining six rabbits 1.5 mg (0.1 mL) azithromycin intravitreally. Left eyes were served as the control and received the same volume of saline. All eyes were enucleated at the third postinjection week. Retinal histology was examined by light microscopy. Apoptosis of the retinal cells was further evaluated by immunohistochemical staining for caspase-3 and in situ terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated biotin-deoxyuridine triphosphate nick-end labeling (TUNEL) of DNA fragments. Results: Light microscopy demonstrated no retinal abnormalities in all eyes. However, retinal nuclear DNA fragmentation was evident in both study groups (33.6% with 1.5 mg and 21.4% with 0.75 mg azithromycin) with the TUNEL method. TUNEL staining ratio was statistically higher only in the second group treated with 1.5 mg azithromycin when compared to the control group (p=0.01 Mann Whitney U test). The ratio of caspase-3 positive cells in the two study groups was 21.5% and 20.2%, respectively. Caspase-3 staining ratio was statistically higher in both study groups when compared to the control eyes (p=0.00, p=0.00 respectively). The difference of TUNEL staining ratio between the two study groups was statistically significant (p=0.028), but there were no statistically significant differences in the two study groups by caspase-3 staining (p=0.247). Conclusion: In newborn rabbits, intravitreal azithromycin injection resulted in an apoptotic activity in the photoreceptor, bipolar and ganglion cells. Immunohistochemical analysis suggested that doses of 0.75 mg and 1.5 mg azithromycin, administered intravitreally might be toxic to the newborn rabbit retina. PMID:27014381

  14. Health survey of 167 pet rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) in Finland.

    PubMed

    Mäkitaipale, J; Harcourt-Brown, F M; Laitinen-Vapaavuori, O

    2015-10-24

    Only a limited amount of information is available about health status of pet rabbits. The aim of this study was to obtain data about the health status of pet rabbits considered healthy by the owners in Finland. Physical examination and lateral abdominal and lateral skull radiography were performed on 167 pet rabbits of which 118 (70.7 per cent) had abnormal findings in at least one examination. The most common findings were acquired dental disease (n=67, 40.1 per cent), vertebral column deformities and degenerative lesions (n=52, 31.1 per cent), skin disorders (n=28, 16.8 per cent) and eye disorders (n=12, 7.2 per cent). Vertebral column angulating deformities were significantly more common in dwarf lop rabbits (P≤0.001). The prevalence of health disorders was significantly higher in rabbits over three years of age of which 51 (82.3 per cent) had findings in at least one examination (P<0.05). Rabbits as prey animals hide their illness, which cause difficulties to owners to recognise health problems. Because of the high prevalence of clinical and radiological findings in apparently healthy pet rabbits, regular physical examinations are advised, especially for animals over three years old. PMID:26475828

  15. Welfare Impacts of Pindone Poisoning in Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus)

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Penny; Brown, Samantha; Arrow, Jane

    2016-01-01

    Simple Summary The nature and duration of the effects of pindone poisoning in rabbits were evaluated through observational monitoring of affected animals and necropsy. Using the resulting data in a formal assessment framework, the welfare impacts of pindone poisoning were ranked as relatively higher than other vertebrate toxic agents currently used for rabbit control. Abstract Control methods used to manage unwanted impacts of the European rabbit in Australia and New Zealand include the use of toxic bait containing the anticoagulant pindone. Towards increased certainty in evaluating the animal welfare impacts of pindone poisoning in rabbits, we recorded behavioral and post-mortem data from rabbits which ingested lethal quantities of pindone bait in a laboratory trial. Pindone poisoning in rabbits resulted in welfare compromise, primarily through functional impairments related to internal haemorrhage over a maximum duration of 7 days. Applying this data to a formal assessment framework for ranking animal welfare impacts indicated that pindone had relatively high severity and also duration of welfare impacts in comparison to other rabbit control methods. PMID:26927192

  16. Morphological and functional events associated to weaning in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Bivolarski, B L; Vachkova, E G

    2014-02-01

    It is acknowledged that the most critical period of rabbit post natal development comprises the first 10-15 days after weaning, when the animals are most susceptible to gastrointestinal infections and at greatest risk of a fatal outcome. Detailed information on rabbits' weaning is provided. The advantages and disadvantages of early weaning (under 23 days of age) are summarised. Regardless of the numerous reports, the effects of early weaning on the growth and development of bunnies and the physiological status of rabbit does are contradictory. The morphological changes in rabbit digestive tract related to weaning - development of intestinal mucosa, height of villi, crypt depth and villus height to crypt depth ratio - are described in detail. The review also goes over several functional changes in rabbits' organism during weaning: blood cholesterol, triglycerides, α-amylase, lysozyme, complement, triiodothyronine and thyroxine concentrations, and the time course of epidermal growth factor in the milk of lactating does. Based on published research reports, both ours and of other authors, we suggest that from a physiological point of view, the early weaning of rabbits is not fully justified at present. Nevertheless, the increasing market demand for rabbit meat makes early weaning an attractive alternative for farmers and necessitates further studies on the optimisation of weaning in this species. PMID:23432458

  17. Evaluation of Eye Irritation Potential of Solid Substance with New 3D Reconstructed Human Cornea Model, MCTT HCE(TM).

    PubMed

    Jang, Won-Hee; Jung, Kyoung-Mi; Yang, Hye-Ri; Lee, Miri; Jung, Haeng-Sun; Lee, Su-Hyon; Park, Miyoung; Lim, Kyung-Min

    2015-07-01

    The eye irritation potential of drug candidates or pharmaceutical ingredients should be evaluated if there is a possibility of ocular exposure. Traditionally, the ocular irritation has been evaluated by the rabbit Draize test. However, rabbit eyes are more sensitive to irritants than human eyes, therefore substantial level of false positives are unavoidable. To resolve this species difference, several three-dimensional human corneal epithelial (HCE) models have been developed as alternative eye irritation test methods. Recently, we introduced a new HCE model, MCTT HCE(TM) which is reconstructed with non-transformed human corneal cells from limbal tissues. Here, we examined if MCTT HCE(TM) can be employed to evaluate eye irritation potential of solid substances. Through optimization of washing method and exposure time, treatment time was established as 10 min and washing procedure was set up as 4 times of washing with 10 mL of PBS and shaking in 30 mL of PBS in a beaker. With the established eye irritation test protocol, 11 solid substances (5 non-irritants, 6 irritants) were evaluated which demonstrated an excellent predictive capacity (100% accuracy, 100% specificity and 100% sensitivity). We also compared the performance of our test method with rabbit Draize test results and in vitro cytotoxicity test with 2D human corneal epithelial cell lines. PMID:26157556

  18. In vivo behavior of detergent-solubilized purified rabbit thrombomodulin on intravenous injection into rabbits

    SciTech Connect

    Ehrlich, H.J.; Esmon, N.L.; Bang, N.U. )

    1990-02-01

    Thrombomodulin is a thrombin endothelial cell membrane receptor. The thrombomodulin-thrombin complex rapidly activates protein C resulting in anticoagulant activity. We investigated the anticoagulant effects and pharmacokinetic behavior of detergent-solubilized purified rabbit thrombomodulin labeled with iodine 125 when intravenously injected into rabbits. Thrombomodulin half-life (t1/2) was determined by tracking the 125I-radiolabeled protein and the biologic activity as determined by the prolongation of the activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) and thrombin clotting time (TCT). When 200 micrograms/kg 125I-thrombomodulin was injected into rabbits, the APTT and TCT were immediately prolonged, whereas no effect on the prothrombin time was seen. In vitro calibration curves enabled us to convert the prolongations of the clotting times into micrograms per milliliter thrombomodulin equivalents. The best fit (r greater than 0.99) for the disappearance curves was provided by a two-compartment model with mean t1/2 alpha (distribution phase) of 18 minutes for 125I, 12 minutes for APTT, and 20 minutes for TCT, and mean t1/2 beta (elimination phase) of 385 minutes for 125I, 460 for APTT, and 179 for TCT. The administration of two doses of endotoxin (50 micrograms/kg) 24 hours apart did not accelerate the turnover rate of 125I-thrombomodulin as measured by the disappearance of 125I from the circulation. Thus, detergent-solubilized purified thrombomodulin administered intravenously circulates in a biologically active form for appreciable time periods.

  19. Pancreas tumor model in rabbit imaged by perfusion CT scans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunn, Jason; Tichauer, Kenneth; Moodie, Karen; Kane, Susan; Hoopes, Jack; Stewart, Errol E.; Hadway, Jennifer; Lee, Ting-Yim; Pereira, Stephen P.; Pogue, Brian W.

    2013-03-01

    The goal of this work was to develop and validate a pancreas tumor animal model to investigate the relationship between photodynamic therapy (PDT) effectiveness and photosensitizer drug delivery. More specifically, this work lays the foundation for investigating the utility of dynamic contrast enhanced blood perfusion imaging to be used to inform subsequent PDT. A VX2 carcinoma rabbit cell line was grown in the tail of the pancreas of three New Zealand White rabbits and approximately 3-4 weeks after implantation the rabbits were imaged on a CT scanner using a contrast enhanced perfusion protocol, providing parametric maps of blood flow, blood volume, mean transit time, and vascular permeability surface area product.

  20. Rabbit behavioral model of marijuana psychoactivity in humans.

    PubMed

    Consroe, P; Fish, B S

    1981-08-01

    In a genetically unique colony of tetrahydrocannabinol-seizure susceptible (THC-SS) rabbits, nonfatal convulsions are elicited by delta 9THC, the major psychoactive ingredient of marijuana. The major characteristics of cannabinoid-produced psychoactivity (the "high") in humans, e.g., dose-effect relationships, specificity of response to only psychoactive cannabinoids, tolerance development, EEG correlates, and delta 9THC-cannabidiol interactive effects, are also characteristics of cannabinoid-induced behavioral convulsions in the rabbits. Because of these and other theoretical and practical considerations, it is hypothesized that the THC-SS rabbit represents a novel laboratory animal model of marijuana-induced psychoactivity in humans. PMID:6270517

  1. Characterization of the rabbit intestinal fructose transporter (GLUT5).

    PubMed Central

    Miyamoto, K; Tatsumi, S; Morimoto, A; Minami, H; Yamamoto, H; Sone, K; Taketani, Y; Nakabou, Y; Oka, T; Takeda, E

    1994-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that the jejunal/kidney-type facilitative glucose transporter (GLUT5) functions as a high-affinity D-fructose transporter. However, its precise role in the small intestine is not clear. In an attempt to identify the fructose transporter in the small intestine, we measured fructose uptake in Xenopus oocytes expressing jejunal mRNA from five species (rat, mouse, rabbit, hamster and guinea-pig). Only jejunal mRNA from the rabbit significantly increased fructose uptake. We also cloned a rabbit GLUT5 cDNA from a jejunal library The predicted amino acid sequence of the 487-residue rabbit GLUT5 showed 72.3 and 67.1% identity with human and rat GLUT5 respectively. Northern-blot analysis revealed GLUT5 transcripts in rabbit duodenum, jejunum and, to a lesser extent, kidney. After separation of rabbit jejunal mRNA on a sucrose density gradient, the fractions that conferred D-fructose transport activity in oocytes also hybridized with rabbit GLUT5 cDNA. Hybrid depletion of jejunal mRNA with a GLUT5 antisense oligonucleotide markedly inhibited the mRNA-induced fructose uptake in oocytes. Immunoblot analysis indicated that GLUT5 (49 kDa) is located in the brush-border membrane of rabbit intestinal epithelial cells. Xenopus oocytes injected with rabbit GLUT5 cRNA exhibited fructose uptake activity with a Km of 11 mM for D-fructose. D-Fructose transport by GLUT5 was significantly inhibited by D-glucose and D-galactose. D-Fructose uptake in brush-border membrane vesicles shows a Km similar to that of GLUT5, but was not inhibited by D-glucose or D-galactose. Finally, cytochalasin B photolabelled a 49 kDa protein in rabbit brush-border-membrane preparations that was immunoprecipitated by antibodies to GLUT5. Our results suggest that GLUT5 functions as a fructose transporter in rabbit small intestine. However, biochemical properties of fructose transport in Xenopus oocytes injected with GLUT5 cRNA differed from those in rabbit jejunal vesicles. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:7980458

  2. Antebrachial chondrodysplasia in New Zealand white rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus).

    PubMed

    Pulker, T; Carstens, A; Williams, J

    2011-09-01

    Rabbits obtained from a South African rabbit breeder exhibited deformities of the distal forelimbs. The clinical, radiological and histological presentation of mid-antebrachial valgus formation (a.k.a distal foreleg curvature) in these rabbits was consistent with an autosomal recessive trait associated with a chondrodystrophic lesion of the distal ulna epiphysis 1st described in the 1960s. The impact this might have on South African farming enterprises and laboratory facilities has not been established, but the heritability and welfare implications of this condition make it a concern. Mildly affected animals can adapt to the deformity with some housing adjustments, but severely affected animals may require humane euthanasia. PMID:22332303

  3. Primo Vessel Stressed by Lipopolysaccharide in Rabbits.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hye-Rie; Rho, Min-Suk; Hong, Ye-Ji; Ha, Yae-Eun; Kim, Ji-Young; Noh, Young-Il; Park, Do-Young; Kim, Chang-Kyu; Kim, Eun-Jung; Jang, In-Ho; Kang, Suk-Yun; Lee, Sang-Suk

    2015-12-01

    For tracking the primo vascular system, we observed the primo vessels in vivo in situ using the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) response in the lymphatic vessels of a rabbit. Injection of LPS (200 μg/kg) into the lymph nodes resulted in greatly stained primo vessels, which were swollen in some cases. We were able to obtain comparative images through alcian blue and diaminobenzidine staining, which clearly showed different morphologies of the primo vessels. The mechanism causing the response of the primo vessels to the injected LPS is still unclear; however, these results might be a first attempt at giving an explanation of the function of the primo vascular system and identifying the changes in the structure and function of the primo vascular system in response to an external stimulus such as an injection of LPS. PMID:26742914

  4. Isobaric gas counterdiffusion in rabbit eye.

    PubMed

    Cowley, J R; Lambertsen, C J

    1979-07-01

    The superficial isobaric gas counterdiffusion phenomenon, which produces dermal lesions and lethal gas embolism, was investigated at sea level and 2 ATA for effects on the eye of the New Zealand White rabbit. The animals breathed an N2O-O2 mixture by mask and were surrounded by a He environment. There was no gas lesion formation in the conjunctiva or cornea and no gas bubble formation in the anterior compartment of the eye in any of the experimental animals, even at the maximal 8-h exposure. In contrast to the eye, the skin of these animals showed progressive gas-filled lesions after 3 h at 1 ATA. Reasons for the relative insensitivity of the structures of the eye to the counter-diffusion process are discussed. PMID:468664

  5. Agglutination of Staphylococcus aureus by Rabbit Sera

    PubMed Central

    Forsgren, Arne; Forsum, Urban

    1972-01-01

    Of 137 Staphylococcus aureus strains, 87 agglutinated in normal rabbit serum. The agglutination was shown to be caused by the Fc-part of immunoglobulin G (IgG). F(ab1)2-fragments of IgG and immunoglobulin M (IgM) in corresponding concentrations were unreactive. The agglutinating strains had a high or moderate content of protein A. Strains with a low content of protein A and protein A-negative mutants did not agglutinate. The importance of the reaction between the Fc part of IgG and protein A for serotyping of S. aureus is demonstrated. Two alternative methods for serotyping S. aureus are suggested, using either F(ab1)2 fragments of IgG or intact IgM. Images PMID:4564678

  6. The neurochemical maturation of the rabbit cerebellum.

    PubMed Central

    Lossi, L; Ghidella, S; Marroni, P; Merighi, A

    1995-01-01

    The immunocytochemical distribution of several neuronal and glial antigens was investigated in the cerebellum of the developing and adult rabbit. Neurofilament positive neurons appeared at embryonic day (E) 25. Purkinje cells transiently expressed neurofilament polypeptides from postnatal day (P) 0 to 15. At later postnatal ages, staining was localised to the parallel fibres, the axonal arbors of the basket cells and fibres of the white matter. Neuron specific enolase (NSE) immunoreactivity was first detected at E25. At P0 Purkinje cells were positive and their staining intensity increased up to P25. From P30 to adulthood virtually all cells in the molecular and Purkinje cell layers were stained. Scattered PGP 9.5-immunoreactive neurons appeared in the cerebellar anlage at P25. Purkinje and Golgi cells were labelled by P0. Synaptophysin immunoreactivity was first observed at P0 in the form of a fine punctate reaction surrounding the perikarya and proximal dendrites of Purkinje cells. By P10, it became particularly intense within the cerebellar glomeruli of the granular layer. Neurons of the deep cerebellar nuclei expressed NSE and PGP 9.5 starting from E25. GFAP and S-100 immunoreactivities were first detected at P10. GFAP-immunopositive astrocytes progressively increased in number up to adulthood. S-100-immunoreactive glial cells were detected throughout the white and grey matter. Bergmann glial cells and their fibres were strongly immunoreactive. Vimentin positive glial cells and fibres were first observed at E15 and persisted up to adulthood. Double labelling experiments using a monoclonal antibody against the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), a cyclin synthesised by mitotic cells, showed that neuronal and/or glial polypeptides are expressed only by fully differentiated postmitotic cells. These results indicate that major events in the neurochemical maturation of the rabbit cerebellum occur during the first month after birth, when the same pattern of the adult animal is attained. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:8586569

  7. Correlated firing in rabbit retinal ganglion cells.

    PubMed

    DeVries, S H

    1999-02-01

    A ganglion cell's receptive field is defined as that region on the retinal surface in which a light stimulus will produce a response. While neighboring ganglion cells may respond to the same stimulus in a region where their receptive fields overlap, it generally has been assumed that each cell makes an independent decision about whether to fire. Recent recordings from cat and salamander retina using multiple electrodes have challenged this view of independent firing by showing that neighboring ganglion cells have an increased tendency to fire together within +/-5 ms. However, there is still uncertainty about which types of ganglion cells fire together, the mechanisms that produce coordinated spikes, and the overall function of coordinated firing. To address these issues, the responses of up to 80 rabbit retinal ganglion cells were recorded simultaneously using a multielectrode array. Of the 11 classes of rabbit ganglion cells previously identified, coordinated firing was observed in five. Plots of the spike train cross-correlation function suggested that coordinated firing occurred through two mechanisms. In the first mechanism, a spike in an interneuron diverged to produce simultaneous spikes in two ganglion cells. This mechanism predominated in four of the five classes including the ON brisk transient cells. In the second mechanism, ganglion cells appeared to activate each other reciprocally. This was the predominant pattern of correlated firing in OFF brisk transient cells. By comparing the receptive field profiles of ON and OFF brisk transient cells, a peripheral extension of the OFF brisk transient cell receptive field was identified that might be produced by lateral spike spread. Thus an individual OFF brisk transient cell can respond both to a light stimulus directed at the center of its receptive field and to stimuli that activate neighboring OFF brisk transient cells through their receptive field centers. PMID:10036288

  8. Radioimmunoassay of metallothionein in rabbit, rat, mouse, Chinese hamster, and human cells.

    PubMed

    Leibrandt, M E; Koropatnick, J; Harris, J F; Cherian, M G

    1991-09-01

    We describe a competitive, solid-phase radioimmunoassay for metallothionein, which employs a rabbit antiserum directed against rat MT-2 to detect metallothionein (MT) from several different species (rabbit, mouse, rat, Chinese hamster, and human). The lower limit of detection of the assay for rat MT-2 was 0.7 ng; for rabbit MT-2 it was 2 ng. The method is capable of measuring both isoforms of MT (MT-1 and MT-2). When MT levels in rat and mouse tissues were estimated with this RIA and the silver-saturation method, both assays gave the same pattern of MT induction in control and cadmium-treated animals. Both methods measured high levels of MT in human liver samples. Chinese hamster ovary cells induced with cadmium also showed elevated MT expression. The detectability of MTs from a broad range of species is facilitated by the use of solid-phase MT, which has an avidity for the antiserum similar to that of the MT in the tested sample. PMID:1720645

  9. Knee joint transplantation combined with surgical angiogenesis in rabbits – a new experimental model

    PubMed Central

    Kremer, Thomas; Giusti, Guilherme; Friedrich, Patricia F.; Willems, Wouter; Bishop, Allen T.; Giessler, Goetz A.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Purpose We have previously described a means to maintain bone allotransplant viability, without long-term immune modulation, replacing allogenic bone vasculature with autogenous vessels. A rabbit model for whole knee joint transplantation was developed and tested using the same methodology, initially as an autotransplant. Materials/Methods Eight New Zealand White rabbit knee joints were elevated on a popliteal vessel pedicle to evaluate limb viability in a non-survival study. Ten additional joints were elevated and replaced orthotopically in a fashion identical to allotransplantation, obviating only microsurgical repairs and immunosuppression. A superficial inferior epigastric facial (SIEF) flap and a saphenous arteriovenous (AV) bundle were introduced into the femur and tibia respectively, generating a neoangiogenic bone circulation. In allogenic transplantation, this step maintains viability after cessation of immunosuppression. Sixteen weeks later, x-rays, microangiography, histology, histomorphometry and biomechanical analysis were performed. Results Limb viability was preserved in the initial 8 animals. Both soft tissue and bone healing occurred in 10 orthotopic transplants. Surgical angiogenesis from the SIEF flap and AV bundle was always present. Bone and joint viability was maintained, with demonstrable new bone formation. Bone strength was less than the opposite side. Arthrosis and joint contractures were frequent. Conclusion We have developed a rabbit knee joint model and evaluation methods suitable for subsequent studies of whole joint allotransplantation. PMID:22113889

  10. Bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cells are involved in aneurysm repair in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Fang, Xinggen; Zhao, Rui; Wang, Kuizhong; Li, Zifu; Yang, Penfei; Huang, Qinghai; Xu, Yi; Hong, Bo; Liu, Jianmin

    2012-09-01

    Endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) are believed to be involved in aneurysmal repair and remodeling. The aim of this study was to test this hypothesis and, if true, explore how EPC contribute to aneurysm repair in a rabbit model of elastase-induced carotid aneurysm. Rabbits were divided randomly into an in situ carotid EPC transfusion group (ISCT group, n=5), and an intravenous EPC transfusion group (IVT group, n=5). Autologous EPC were double-labeled with Hoechst 33342 and 5,6-carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester before injection into the animals in either the carotid artery (ISCT group) or marginal ear veins (IVT group). Three weeks later, labeled cells in the aneurysms were observed with respect to location, adhesion, and growth to detect signs of aneurysm repair. Labeled EPC were detected within the neointima in all five aneurysms in the ISCT group and in three of the five aneurysms in the IVT group, but there was no endothelial growth in the aneurysmal neointima in either group. These results show that bone marrow-derived EPC are involved in the process of aneurysm repair in this rabbit model. PMID:22789632

  11. Encephalitozoon cuniculi: Grading the Histological Lesions in Brain, Kidney, and Liver during Primoinfection Outbreak in Rabbits.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Tovar, Luis E; Nevárez-Garza, Alicia M; Trejo-Chávez, Armando; Hernández-Martínez, Carlos A; Hernández-Vidal, Gustavo; Zarate-Ramos, Juan J; Castillo-Velázquez, Uziel

    2016-01-01

    This is the first confirmed report of Encephalitozoon cuniculi (E. cuniculi) in farm meat rabbits located in Northern Mexico. Eighty young rabbits exhibited clinical signs of this zoonotic emerging disease, like torticollis, ataxia, paresis, circling, and rolling. Samples of brain, kidney, and liver were examined for histology lesions. For the first time the lesions caused by E. cuniculi were graded according to their severity (I, II, and III) and the size of the granulomas (Types A, B, and C). The main cerebral injuries were Grade III, coinciding with the presence of Type C granulomas. The cerebral lesions were located in the cortex, brain stem, and medulla. The renal lesions were also Grade III distributed throughout cortex and renal medulla, with no granuloma formation. The involvement of hypersensitivity Types III and IV is suggested. All of the rabbits were seropositive to E. cuniculi by CIA testing, suggesting that this zoonotic and emerging pathogen is widely distributed among animals intended for human consumption. We believe this work could be used as a guide when examining E. cuniculi and will provide direction to confirm the diagnosis of this pathogen. PMID:27022485

  12. Encephalitozoon cuniculi: Grading the Histological Lesions in Brain, Kidney, and Liver during Primoinfection Outbreak in Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Tovar, Luis E.; Nevárez-Garza, Alicia M.; Trejo-Chávez, Armando; Hernández-Martínez, Carlos A.; Zarate-Ramos, Juan J.; Castillo-Velázquez, Uziel

    2016-01-01

    This is the first confirmed report of Encephalitozoon cuniculi (E. cuniculi) in farm meat rabbits located in Northern Mexico. Eighty young rabbits exhibited clinical signs of this zoonotic emerging disease, like torticollis, ataxia, paresis, circling, and rolling. Samples of brain, kidney, and liver were examined for histology lesions. For the first time the lesions caused by E. cuniculi were graded according to their severity (I, II, and III) and the size of the granulomas (Types A, B, and C). The main cerebral injuries were Grade III, coinciding with the presence of Type C granulomas. The cerebral lesions were located in the cortex, brain stem, and medulla. The renal lesions were also Grade III distributed throughout cortex and renal medulla, with no granuloma formation. The involvement of hypersensitivity Types III and IV is suggested. All of the rabbits were seropositive to E. cuniculi by CIA testing, suggesting that this zoonotic and emerging pathogen is widely distributed among animals intended for human consumption. We believe this work could be used as a guide when examining E. cuniculi and will provide direction to confirm the diagnosis of this pathogen. PMID:27022485

  13. Erythropoietin augments bone formation in a rabbit posterolateral spinal fusion model.

    PubMed

    Rlfing, Jan Hendrik Duedal; Bendtsen, Michael; Jensen, Jonas; Stiehler, Maik; Foldager, Casper Bindzus; Hellfritzsch, Michel Bach; Bnger, Cody

    2012-07-01

    We tested the hypothesis that erythropoietin (EPO) enhances bone formation after posterolateral spinal fusion (PLF) in a rabbit model. Thirty-four adult rabbits underwent posterolateral intertransverse arthrodesis at the L5-L6 level using 2.0 g autograft per side. The animals were randomly divided into two groups receiving subcutaneous daily injections of either EPO or saline for 20 days. Treatment commenced 2 days preoperatively. Hemoglobin was monitored at baseline and 2, 4, and 6 weeks after fusion surgery. After euthanasia 6 weeks postoperatively, manual palpation, radiographic, and histomorphometric examinations were performed. Bone volume of the fusion mass was estimated by CT after 6 weeks. EPO increased bone fusion volume to 3.85 ccm (3.66-4.05) compared with 3.26 ccm (2.97-3.55) in the control group (p<0.01). EPO treatment improved vascularization of the fusion mass and increased hemoglobin levels (p<0.01). Fusion rate tended to be higher in the EPO group based on manual palpation, CT, and radiographic examinations. For the first time EPO has shown to augment bone formation after autograft PLF in a rabbit model. Increased vascularization provides a partial explanation for the efficacy of EPO as a bone autograft enhancer. PMID:22144136

  14. Spirulina improves antioxidant status by reducing oxidative stress in rabbits fed a high-cholesterol diet.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mi Yeon; Cheong, Sun Hee; Lee, Jeung Hee; Kim, Min Ji; Sok, Dai-Eun; Kim, Mee Ree

    2010-04-01

    The beneficial effect of Spirulina (Spirulina platensis) on tissue lipid peroxidation and oxidative DNA damage was tested in the hypercholesterolemic New Zealand White rabbit model. After hypercholesterolemia was induced by feeding a high cholesterol (0.5%) diet (HCD) for 4 weeks, then HCD supplemented with 1% or 5% Spirulina (SP1 or SP5, respectively) was provided for an additional 8 weeks. Spirulina supplementation significantly reduced the increased lipid peroxidation level in HCD-fed rabbits, and levels recovered to control values. Oxidative stress biomarkers such as glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and glutathione S-transferase were significantly improved in the liver and red blood cells of rabbits fed SP1. Furthermore, SP5 induced antioxidant enzyme activity by 3.1-fold for glutathione, 2.5-fold for glutathione peroxidase, 2.7-fold for glutathione reductase, and 2.3-fold for glutathione S-transferase in liver, compared to the HCD group. DNA damage in lymphocytes was significantly reduced in both the SP1 and SP5 groups, based on the comet assay. Findings from the present study suggest that dietary supplementation with Spirulina may be useful to protect the cells from lipid peroxidation and oxidative DNA damage. PMID:20210608

  15. Rabbit CD200R binds host CD200 but not CD200-like proteins from poxviruses

    PubMed Central

    Akkaya, Munir; Kwong, Lai-Shan; Akkaya, Erdem; Hatherley, Deborah; Barclay, A. Neil

    2016-01-01

    CD200 is a widely distributed membrane protein that gives inhibitory signals through its receptor (CD200R) on myeloid cells. CD200 has been acquired by herpesviruses where it has been shown to interact with host CD200R and downmodulate the immune system. It has been hypothesized that poxviruses have acquired CD200; but the potential orthologues show less similarity to their hosts. Myxoma virus M141 protein is a potential CD200 orthologue with a potent immune modulatory function in rabbits. Here, we characterized the rabbit CD200, CD200R and tested the CD200-like sequences for binding CD200R. No binding could be detected using soluble recombinant proteins, full length protein expressed on cells or myxoma virus infected cells. Finally, using knockdown models, we showed that the inhibitory effect of M141 on RAW 264.7 cells upon myxoma virus infection is not due to CD200R. We conclude that the rabbit poxvirus CD200-like proteins cause immunomodulation without utilizing CD200R. PMID:26590792

  16. Shikonin inhibits inflammatory responses in rabbit chondrocytes and shows chondroprotection in osteoarthritic rabbit knee.

    PubMed

    Li, Feng; Yin, Zhanhai; Zhou, Bing; Xue, Fei; Yang, Wei; Chang, Ruimiao; Ma, Kaige; Qiu, Yusheng

    2015-12-01

    Shikonin, a natural product from Lithospermum erythrorhizon, exerts a wide range of anti-inflammatory actions both in vitro and in vivo. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have long been considered as the major catabolic enzymes involved in osteoarthritis (OA) cartilage erosion. Here, we investigated the anti-inflammatory and effects of shikonin on MMPs in both IL-1β induced rabbit chondrocytes and the experimental rabbit OA model induced by anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) transection and evaluated the potential involvement of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) in the processes. In vitro, rabbit chondrocytes were cultured and pretreated with shikonin (0, 1, 5, 10μM) for 1h (h) with or without IL-1β (10ng/ml) for 24h. The expression of MMPs (MMP-1, MMP-3 and MMP-13) and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) at mRNA and protein levels were determined by quantitative real-time PCR and ELISA respectively. NF-κB related signaling molecules were investigated by Western blotting. In vivo study, the effects of shikonin on MMPs and TIMP-1 were determined at the gene level and the cartilage damage was evaluated at the histological level after the rabbits sacrificed. We found that shikonin significantly reversed the elevated expression of MMP-1, MMP-3 and MMP-13 and the reduced expression of TIMP-1 at both gene and protein levels in IL-1β induced chondrocytes. Additionally, the reduction of IκBα and the activation of NF-κB p65 induced by IL-1β were subsided by shikonin in rabbit chondrocytes. In vivo, both the cartilage damage and the elevated expression of MMP-1, MMP-3 and MMP-13 and the decreased expression of TIMP-1 were ameliorated in shikonin intra-articular injection knees compared to vehicle knees. Our findings indicated that shikonin have anti-inflammatory and chondro-protective effects and may be a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of OA. PMID:26395917

  17. Antioxidants attenuate atherosclerotic plaque development in a balloon-denuded and -radiated hypercholesterolemic rabbit

    SciTech Connect

    Leborgne, Laurent; Fournadjiev, Jana; Pakala, Rajbabu; Dilcher, Christian; Cheneau, Edouard; Wolfram, Roswitha; Hellinga, David; Seaborn, Rufus; O'Tio, Fermin; Waksman, Ron

    2003-03-01

    Background: Oxidation of lipoproteins is considered to be a key contributor to atherogenesis. Antioxidants are potential antiatherogenic agents because they can inhibit lipoprotein oxidation. Radiation has been shown to increase oxidative stress leading to increased atherogenesis. This study is designed to test the potential of antioxidants to inhibit atherosclerotic plaque progression in balloon-denuded and -radiated rabbits. Methods and Results: Two groups of New Zealand white rabbits (n=36) were fed with 1% cholesterol diet (control diet) or with 1% cholesterol diet containing a mixture of various antioxidants for 1 week. Iliac arteries in all the animals were balloon denuded and continued to fed with 0.15% cholesterol diet or 0.15% cholesterol diet containing antioxidants (antioxidant diet). Four weeks after balloon denudation one iliac artery in 12 animals from each group was radiated and all the animals were continued to be fed with the same diet. Four weeks after radiation animals were sacrificed and morphometric analysis of iliac arteries (n=12) in nonradiated and radiated animals were performed. Plaque area (PA) in the rabbits that were fed with cholesterol diet is 0.2{+-}0.12 mm{sup 2}, and it is increased by 2.75-fold (P<.05) in the radiated arteries of animals fed with cholesterol diet. Plaque area in the animals fed with antioxidant diet is 50% less then the one in the animals fed with cholesterol diet. Similarly, plaque area in radiated arteries of the animals fed with antioxidant diet is 50% less then the animals fed with cholesterol diet. Conclusion: Antioxidants significantly attenuate atherosclerotic plaque progression in balloon-injured and -radiated hypercholesterolemic rabbits.

  18. Effects of various decellularization methods on histological and biomechanical properties of rabbit tendons

    PubMed Central

    XING, SHUXING; LIU, CONG; XU, BING; CHEN, JIANCHANG; YIN, DONGFENG; ZHANG, CHUNHAO

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of various decellularization methods on the histological and biomechanical properties of rabbit tendons. In total, six chemical reagents, including 1% t-octyl-phenoxypolyethoxyethanol (Triton-X 100), 0.5% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), 1% tri-n-butyl phosphate (TnBP), 1% Triton-X 100 + 0.5% SDS, 1% TnBP + 0.5% SDS and 1% TnBP + 1% Triton-X 100, were used on rabbit semitendinosus muscles and flexor digitorum tendons for 24 h to remove cells. Hematoxylin and eosin staining was applied for histological observation, while tension testing was used for biomechanical studies. The effects of the various decellularization methods on the histological structure and biomechanical properties of rabbit tendons were evaluated. A group of fresh tendons treated with phosphate-buffered saline served as controls. The various decellularization methods resulted in different effects on the tendons. All the treatment groups exhibited a decrease in tendon biomechanical properties, but no statistically significant differences were observed among the experimental groups. The extensibility of the 1% TnBP-treated group was found to be greater than that of the other groups; however, the difference was not statistically significant. Histologically, the 1% TnBP + 0.5% SDS treatment was shown to have the least impact on the rabbit tendon structure, with good decellularization and no clear cellular remnants observed. The 1% Triton-X 100 + 0.5% SDS treatment had a pronounced effect on the tendon collagen structure and a number of collagen ruptures were observed. Overall, 1% TnBP + 0.5% SDS was found to be the most effective compared with the other treatments, as this treatment preserved the tendon collagen structure while completely removing the cells. Tendons treated with 1% TnBP + 0.5% SDS were histologically similar to normal tendon tissue and biomechanically similar to the tendons in the control group. PMID:25009631

  19. A rabbit humerus model of plating and nailing osteosynthesis with and without Staphylococcus aureus osteomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Arens, D; Wilke, M; Calabro, L; Hackl, S; Zeiter, S; Zderic, I; Richards, R G; Moriarty, T F

    2015-01-01

    The local mechanical environment at a fracture is known to influence biological factors such as callus formation, immune cell recruitment and susceptibility to infection. Infection models incorporating a fracture are therefore required to evaluate prevention and treatment of infection after osteosynthesis. The aim of this study was to create humane, standardised and repeatable preclinical models of implant-related bone infection after osteosynthesis in the rabbit humerus. Custom-designed interlocked intramedullary nails and commercially available locking plates were subjected to biomechanical evaluation in cadaveric rabbit humeri; a 10-week in vivo healing study; a dose response study with Staphylococcus aureus over 4 weeks; and finally, a long-term infection of 10 weeks in the plate model.Outcome measures included biomechanical testing, radiography, histology, haematology and quantitative bacteriology. Both implants offered similar biomechanical stability in cadaveric bones, and when applied in the in vivo study, resulted in complete radiographic and histological healing and osteotomy closure within 10-weeks. As expected in the infection study, higher bacterial doses led to an increasing infection rate. In both infected groups, there was a complete lack of osteotomy closure at 4 weeks. C-reactive protein (CRP), lymphocyte: granulocyte ratio and weight loss were increased in infected animals receiving IM nails in comparison with non-inoculated equivalents, although this was less evident in the plate group. In the 10-week infection group, healing does not occur in the plated rabbits. We have successfully developed a rabbit model that is suitable for further studies, particularly those looking into preventative strategies for post-traumatic implant-related osteomyelitis. PMID:26388617

  20. Oxytocin mediates the estrogen-dependent contractile activity of endothelin-1 in human and rabbit epididymis.

    PubMed

    Filippi, Sandra; Morelli, Annamaria; Vignozzi, Linda; Vannelli, Gabriella Barbara; Marini, Mirca; Ferruzzi, Pietro; Mancina, Rosa; Crescioli, Clara; Mondaini, Nicola; Forti, Gianni; Ledda, Fabrizio; Maggi, Mario

    2005-08-01

    Epididymis is a sex steroid (androgen + estrogen)-sensitive duct provided with spontaneous motility, allowing sperm transport. We previously reported that the oxytocin (OT) receptor (OTR) mediates an estrogen-dependent increase in epididymal contractility. Because endothelin (ET)-1 also regulates epididymal motility, we tested its sex steroid dependence in a rabbit model. We demonstrated that estrogens up-regulate responsiveness to ET-1, which is reduced by blocking aromatase activity (letrozole, 2.5 mg/kg) or by triptorelin (2.9 mg/kg)-induced hypogonadism, whereas it is fully restored by estradiol valerate (3.3 mg/kg weekly) but not by testosterone enanthate (30 mg/kg weekly). However, changing sex steroid milieu did not affect either ET-1, its receptor gene, or protein expression. Two structurally distinct OTR-antagonists [(d(CH2)5(1), Tyr(Me)(2), Orn(8))-OT and atosiban] almost completely abolished ET-1 contractility, without competing for [125I]ET-1 binding, suggesting that OT/OTR partially mediates ET-1 action. Immunohistochemical studies in human and rabbit epididymis demonstrated that both OT and its synthesis-associated protein, neurophysin I, are expressed in the epithelial cells facing the muscular layer, suggesting local OT production. Quantitative RT-PCR demonstrated a high abundance of OT transcripts in human epididymis. OT transcript was also originally detected and partially sequenced in rabbit epididymis. To verify whether ET-1 regulates OT release, we used rabbit epididymal epithelial cell cultures. These cells expressed a high density of [125I]ET-1 binding sites and responded to ET-1 with a dose-dependent OT release. Hence, we propose that an ET-1-induced OT/OTR system activation underlies the estrogen-dependent hyperresponsiveness to ET-1. These local sources might promote the spontaneous motility necessary for sperm transport. PMID:15860558

  1. Immunoproteomic Identification of In Vivo-Produced Propionibacterium acnes Proteins in a Rabbit Biofilm Infection Model

    PubMed Central

    Achermann, Yvonne; Tran, Bao; Kang, Misun; Harro, Janette M.

    2015-01-01

    Propionibacterium acnes is well-known as a human skin commensal but can also act as an invasive pathogen causing implant-associated infections. In order to resolve these types of P. acnes infections, the implants must be removed, due to the presence of an established biofilm that is recalcitrant to antibiotic therapy. In order to identify those P. acnes proteins produced in vivo during a biofilm infection, we established a rabbit model of implant-associated infection with this pathogen. P. acnes biofilms were anaerobically grown on dextran beads that were then inoculated into the left tibias of rabbits. At 4 weeks postinoculation, P. acnes infection was confirmed by radiograph, histology, culture, and PCR. In vivo-produced and immunogenic P. acnes proteins were detected on Western blot using serum samples from rabbits infected with P. acnes after these bacterial proteins were separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Those proteins that bound host antibodies were then isolated and identified by tandem mass spectrometry. Radiographs and histology demonstrated a disruption in the normal bone architecture and adherent biofilm communities in those animals with confirmed infections. A total of 24 immunogenic proteins were identified; 13 of these proteins were upregulated in both planktonic and biofilm modes, including an ABC transporter protein. We successfully adapted a rabbit model of implant-associated infection for P. acnes to identify P. acnes proteins produced during a chronic biofilm-mediated infection. Further studies are needed to evaluate the potential of these proteins for either a diagnostic test or a vaccine to prevent biofilm infections caused by P. acnes. PMID:25694647

  2. Photodynamic therapy for implanted VX2 tumor in rabbit brains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Fei; Feng, Hua; Lin, Jiangkai; Zhu, Gang; Chen, Zhi; Li, Cong-yan

    2005-07-01

    To evaluate the therapeutic effect and the safety of single photodynamic therapy (PDT) with hematoporphyrin derivative produced in China, 60 New Zealand adult rabbits with VX2 tumor implanted into the brain were divided randomly into non-PDT-group and PDT-group. 36 rabbits of the PDT-group were performed photodynamic therapy. The survival time, neurological deteriorations, intracranial pressure (ICP), histology, pathology, tumor volume and brain water content were measured. Other 12 rabbits were received hematoporphyrin derivative and light irradiation of the normal brain. The ICP, histology, pathology, and brain water content were measured. The result indicated that Simple PDT may elongate the average survival time of the rabbits with VX2 tumors significantly; kill tumor cells; cause transient brain edema and increase ICP, but it is safe to be used in treating brain tumor.

  3. Bottom's Semiology: The Duck-Rabbit and Magritte's Pipe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berthoff, Ann E.

    1993-01-01

    Explores how a dyadic understanding of perception cancels the validity it might have as a model for the linguistic process. Discusses commonly misunderstood exhibits in the gallery of perception studies--the duck-rabbit and Magritte's pipe. (RS)

  4. Effects of nickel dust on rabbit alveolar epitheliium

    SciTech Connect

    Johansson, A.; Camner, P.

    1980-08-01

    Eight male rabbits were exposed to metallic nickel dust, during 1 month (5 days/week, 6 h/day) at a concentration of 1.7 mg/m/sup 3/ (SD 0.5), about 40% of which was respirable. Morphometric measurements on the lungs of exposed rabbits showed about a twofold increase in volume density of type II alveolar epithelial cells compared to eight controls. This increment was about the same as the average increase in phospholipids in the lung parenchyma of the rabbits described elsewhere. The volume density of lamellar bodies within the cytoplasm of the type II cell was not significantly increased. Large amounts of laminated structures, resembling those in the alveolar type II cells, were also found free in the alveoli in the exposed rabbits.

  5. Reevaluation of lipolytic activity of growth hormone in rabbit adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Barenton, B; Batifol, V; Combarnous, Y; Dulor, J P; Durand, P; Vezinhet, A

    1984-07-18

    The lipolytic activities of porcine pituitary fractions and purified growth hormone (GH) from human (h), porcine (p), ovine (o) and rabbit (Rb) origin as well as ovine placental lactogen (oPL), were compared to that of ACTH on rabbit adipocytes. All the GH preparations and oPL were equivalent in inhibiting the binding of labelled oGH to liver plasma membranes from pregnant rabbits. ACTH, and to a lesser extent porcine pituitary fractions and hGH, stimulated free fatty acid production by isolated adipocytes. The sensitivity of the adipocytes to these factors was increased when adenosine deaminase was added to the incubation medium. But, RbGH, pGH, oGH and oPL had no effect. We conclude that GH is not directly involved in the control of lipolysis in rabbit adipocytes and that the effect of hGH is rather due to a contamination of this preparation by other pituitary factors. PMID:6331444

  6. Pygmy Rabbit Surveys on State Lands in Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hagar, Joan; Lienkaemper, George

    2007-01-01

    Introduction The pygmy rabbit (Brachylagus idahoensis) is classified by the federal government as a species of concern (i.e., under review by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service for consideration as a candidate for listing as threatened or endangered under the Endangered Species Act) because of its specialized habitat requirements and evidence of declining populations. The Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) lists pygmy rabbits as 'sensitive-vulnerable,' meaning that protective measures are needed if sustainable populations are to be maintained over time (Oregon Natural Heritage Program, 2001). The Oregon Natural Heritage Program considers this species to be threatened with extirpation from Oregon. Pygmy rabbits also are a species of concern in all the other states where they occur (NatureServe, 2004). The Washington population, known as the Columbia Basin pygmy rabbit, was listed as endangered by the federal government in 2003. Historically, pygmy rabbits have been collected from Deschutes, Klamath, Crook, Lake, Grant, Harney, Baker, and Malheur Counties in Oregon. However, the geographic range of pygmy rabbit in Oregon may have decreased in historic times (Verts and Carraway, 1998), and boundaries of the current distribution are not known. Not all potentially suitable sites appear to be occupied, and populations are susceptible to rapid declines and local extirpation (Weiss and Verts, 1984). In order to protect and manage remaining populations on State of Oregon lands, Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife needs to identify areas currently occupied by pygmy rabbits, as well as suitable habitats. The main objective of this survey was document to presence or absence of pygmy rabbits on state lands in Malheur, Harney, Lake, and Deschutes counties. Knowledge of the location and extent of pygmy rabbit populations can provide a foundation for the conservation and management of this species in Oregon. The pygmy rabbit is just one of a suite of species of concern associated with sagebrush habitats in the Great Basin. Because information on habitat and distribution of many species is scarce, a secondary goal of the rabbit surveys was to list all other vertebrate species encountered on surveyed sites. This information may be useful in directing future studies aimed at specific taxa.

  7. Novel picornavirus in domestic rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus var. domestica).

    PubMed

    Pankovics, Péter; Boros, Ákos; Bíró, Hunor; Horváth, Katalin Barbara; Phan, Tung Gia; Delwart, Eric; Reuter, Gábor

    2016-01-01

    Picornaviruses (family Picornaviridae) are small, non-enveloped viruses with positive sense, single-stranded RNA genomes. The numbers of the novel picornavirus species and genera are continuously increasing. Picornaviruses infect numerous vertebrate species from fish to mammals, but have not been identified in a member of the Lagomorpha order (pikas, hares and rabbits). In this study, a novel picornavirus was identified in 16 (28.6%) out of 56 faecal samples collected from clinically healthy rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus var. domestica) in two (one commercial and one family farms) of four rabbit farms in Hungary. The 8364 nucleotide (2486 amino acid) long complete genome sequence of strain Rabbit01/2013/HUN (KT325852) has typical picornavirus genome organization with type-V IRES at the 5'UTR, encodes a leader (L) and a single 2A(H-box/NC) proteins, contains a hepatitis-A-virus-like cis-acting replication element (CRE) in the 2A, but it does not contain the sequence forming a "barbell-like" secondary structure in the 3'UTR. Rabbit01/2013/HUN has 52.9%, 52% and 57.2% amino acid identity to corresponding proteins of species Aichivirus A (genus Kobuvirus): to murine Kobuvirus (JF755427) in P1, to canine Kobuvirus (JN387133) in P2 and to feline Kobuvirus (KF831027) in P3, respectively. The sequence and phylogenetic analysis indicated that Rabbit01/2013/HUN represents a novel picornavirus species possibly in genus Kobuvirus. This is the first report of detection of picornavirus in rabbit. Further study is needed to clarify whether this novel picornavirus plays a part in any diseases in domestic or wild rabbits. PMID:26588888

  8. Bone response to machined and resorbable blast material titanium implants: an experimental study in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Piattelli, Maurizio; Scarano, Antonio; Paolantonio, Michele; Iezzi, Giovanna; Petrone, Giovanna; Piattelli, Adriano

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the present study was a comparison of implants' responses to a machined surface and to a surface sandblasted with hydroxyapatite (HA) particles (resorbable blast material [RBM]). Threaded machined and RBM, grade 3, commercially pure, titanium, screw-shaped inplants were used in this study. Twenty-four New Zealand white mature male rabbits were used. The inplants were inserted into the articular femoral knee joint according to a previously described technique. Each rabbit received 2 inplants, 1 test (RBM) and 1 control (machined). A total of 48 implants (24 control and 24 test) were inserted. The rabbits were anesthetized with intramuscular injections of fluanisone (0.7 mg/ kg body weight) and diazepam (1.5 mg/kg b.wt.), and local anesthesia was given using 1 mL of 2% lidocaine/adrenalin solution. Two rabbits died in the postoperative course. Four animals were euthanatized with an overdose of intravenous pentobarbital after 1, 2, 3, and 4 weeks; 6 rabbits were euthanatized after 8 weeks. A total of 44 implants were retrieved. The specimens were processed with the Precise 1 Automated System to obtain thin ground sections. A total of 3 slides were obtained for each implant. The slides were stained with acid and basic fuchsin and toluidine blue. The slides were observed in normal transmitted light under a Leitz Laborlux microscope, and histomorphometric analysis was performed. With the machined implants, it was possible to observe the presence of bone trabeculae near the implant surface at low magnification. At higher magnification many actively secreting alkaline phosphatasepositive (ALP+) osteoblasts were observed. In many areas, a not yet mineralized matrix was present. After 4 to 8 weeks, mature bone appeared in direct contact with the implant surface, but in many areas a not yet mineralized osteoid matrix was interposed between the mineralized bone and implant surface. In the RBM implants, many ALP+ osteoblasts were present and in direct contact with the implant surface. In other areas of the implant perimeter it was possible to observe the formation of an osteoid matrix directly on the implant surface. Mature bone with few marrow spaces was present after 4 to 8 weeks. Beginning in the third week, a statistically significant difference (P < .001) was found in the bone-implant contact percentages in machined and RBM implants. It must be stressed that these results have been obtained in a passive, nonloaded situation. PMID:12498456

  9. A Complete Handbook on Backyward and Commercial Rabbit Production = Sa Kalusugan ng Bayan Rabbit Ang Alagaan. Appropriate Technologies for Development. Reprint R-41.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sicwaten, Juan B.; Stahl, Diane

    This handbook on rabbit raising, prepared for use by Peace Corps volunteers, attempts to share information gained by rabbit raisers in the Philippines along with information gathered from academic sources. The manual provides step-by-step information on how to begin and carry out a program of rabbit production. The 15 sections of the guide cover…

  10. Experimental oral and ocular Encephalitozoon cuniculi infection in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Jeklova, E; Leva, L; Kovarcik, K; Matiasovic, J; Kummer, V; Maskova, J; Skoric, M; Faldyna, M

    2010-10-01

    Encephalitozoon cuniculi is an obligate intracellular pathogen that has a wide host distribution, but primarily affects rabbits. The aim of this study was to characterize both the cell-mediated and the antibody response in rabbits after experimental infection using 2 different infection routes: oral and ocular. SPF rabbits were infected with low (10³ spores) and high (10⁷ spores) infection doses. Monitored parameters included clinical signs, detection of spores in urine, antibody response detected with ELISA, and cell-mediated immunity detected by antigen-driven lymphocyte proliferation. At week 13 post-infection, half of the rabbits in each group were suppressed by intramuscular administration of dexamethasone. At week 18 post-infection, animals were euthanized. Clinical signs were mild with exacerbation after immunosuppression. Spores in urine and antigen-specific cell-mediated immunity were detected from weeks 5 and 4 post-infection, respectively. Specific IgM was detected 1 week after infection, and IgG antibodies followed 1 week later in rabbits infected with the high dose. Immunological responses were dose dependent. The authors can conclude that both oral and ocular experimental infection with E. cuniculi resulted in an immune response of the infected animals. Rabbits could be used as an experimental model for the study of ocular microsporidiosis. PMID:20602854

  11. Rabbit haemorrhagic disease: virus persistence and adaptation in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Schwensow, Nina I; Cooke, Brian; Kovaliski, John; Sinclair, Ron; Peacock, David; Fickel, Joerns; Sommer, Simone

    2014-01-01

    In Australia, the rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) has been used since 1996 to reduce numbers of introduced European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) which have a devastating impact on the native Australian environment. RHDV causes regular, short disease outbreaks, but little is known about how the virus persists and survives between epidemics. We examined the initial spread of RHDV to show that even upon its initial spread, the virus circulated continuously on a regional scale rather than persisting at a local population level and that Australian rabbit populations are highly interconnected by virus-carrying flying vectors. Sequencing data obtained from a single rabbit population showed that the viruses that caused an epidemic each year seldom bore close genetic resemblance to those present in previous years. Together, these data suggest that RHDV survives in the Australian environment through its ability to spread amongst rabbit subpopulations. This is consistent with modelling results that indicated that in a large interconnected rabbit meta-population, RHDV should maintain high virulence, cause short, strong disease outbreaks but show low persistence in any given subpopulation. This new epidemiological framework is important for understanding virus–host co-evolution and future disease management options of pest species to secure Australia's remaining natural biodiversity. PMID:25553067

  12. Ketone body metabolism during pregnancy in the rabbit.

    PubMed

    Jean-Blain, C; Durix, A

    1985-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test the effect of lipid store mobilization on changes in ketone body metabolism in pregnant rabbits. Related blood parameters were studied in pregnant animals fed either ad libitum or submitted between days 21 of gestation and parturition first to 50% food restriction for 4 days and then to a complete fast. Ketogenesis from oleate, butyrate and endogenous substrates was measured on days 0, 8, 18 and 28 of gestation in isolated liver cells prepared from females fasted for 48 h. In the does fed ad libitum, the concentration of non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) was higher than in non-pregnant animals and then increased about 2-fold in the last week before term. Total ketone body concentrations increased slightly but significantly from day 27 until term. In the same period, glycemia decreased significantly. No variations were observed in lactate, alanine and total amino acid concentrations. Food restriction on days 21 to 24 induced a quick rise in the plasma concentrations of NEFA, ketone bodies and glycerol. Further fasting resulted in the development of hyperketonemia which was more than 3 times that observed during prolonged fasting in non-pregnant rabbits. There was no further increase in plasma NEFA level after day 27 of gestation. Food restriction and fasting decreased only the plasma level of total amino acids but had no significant effect on plasma concentrations of lactate and alanine. In isolated liver cells, a marked and significant increase in the rate of ketogenesis from oleate, butyrate and endogenous substrates was noted on day 28 of gestation in comparison with the preceding periods. It is concluded that ketonemia was enhanced in late gestation, particularly with restricted feeding or in fasted animals; this enhancement was partly related to the increase of plasma NEFA concentrations and partly to the enhancement of hepatic ketogenesis in the mothers. The fact that the rate of hepatic ketogenesis was increased equally with butyrate and oleate indicated that it could not be explained by a modification of acylcarnitine transferase activity as butyrate directly crosses the mitochondrial membrane without using this pathway. PMID:4023398

  13. Measurement of rabbit eardrum vibration through stroboscopic digital holography

    SciTech Connect

    De Greef, Daniël; Dirckx, Joris J. J.

    2014-05-27

    In this work, we present a setup for high-power single shot stroboscopic digital holography and demonstrate it in an application on rabbit eardrum vibration measurement. The setup is able to make full-field time-resolved measurements of vibrating surfaces with a precision in the nanometer range in a broad frequency range. The height displacement of the measured object is visualized over the entire surface as a function of time. Vibration magnitude and phase maps can be extracted from these data, the latter proving to be very useful to reveal phase delays across the surface. Such deviations from modal motion indicate energy losses due to internal damping, in contrast to purely elastic mechanics. This is of great interest in middle ear mechanics and finite element modelling. In our setup, short laser pulses are fired at selected instants within the surface vibration period and are recorded by a CCD camera. The timing of the pulses and the exposure of the camera are synchronized to the vibration phase by a microprocessor. The high-power frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser produces pulses containing up to 5 mJ of energy, which is amply sufficient to record single-shot holograms. As the laser pulse length is 8 ns and the smallest time step of the trigger electronics is 1 μs, vibration measurements of frequencies up to 250 kHz are achievable through this method, provided that the maximum vibration amplitude exceeds a few nanometers. In our application, middle ear mechanics, measuring frequencies extend from 5 Hz to 20 kHz. The experimental setup will be presented, as well as results of measurements on a stretched circular rubber membrane and a rabbit's eardrum. Two of the challenges when measuring biological tissues, such as the eardrum, are low reflectivity and fast dehydration. To increase reflectivity, a coating is applied and to counteract the undesirable effects of tissue dehydration, the measurement setup and software have been optimized for speed without compromising on the quality. Results of a repeatability test will be presented as well. Since the method measures the membrane motion as a function of time in small time steps, we do not only measure vibration amplitude like in time-average holography, but we can also measure non-linear elastic and transient behaviour. In conclusion, the combination of good spatial, depth and time resolution with the fast data acquisition and very wide frequency range make our technique applicable in a number of fields, including biological tissue vibrations.

  14. Studies on the regenerated carotid sinus nerve of the rabbit.

    PubMed

    Ponte, J; Sadler, C L

    1989-03-01

    1. The central end of the distally cut left carotid sinus nerve was sutured to the tunica media of the external carotid artery, 1 cm cranial to the carotid bifurcation, in nineteen rabbits. The carotid body was removed in fourteen of these rabbits but left in situ in the remaining five. After 56-165 days of recovery a neuroma was identified at the site of the suture. Ventilatory reflexes mediated by both sinus nerves were tested and afferent activity recorded from the regenerated nerve. 2. Ventilatory reflex responses to hypoxia and sodium cyanide were abolished on sectioning the right sinus nerve, whilst the hypercapnic response was maintained. 3. Electrical stimulation of the regenerated sinus nerve caused hypotension and hyperventilation. These responses were attenuated compared to stimulation of the right sinus nerve. 4. A level of afferent activity equivalent to that found in non-regeneration experiments was recorded from all regenerated sinus nerves. Whole-nerve afferent activity was modulated by changes in carotid sinus blood pressure but not by changes in Pa,O2, Pa,CO2 (arterial O2 and CO2 pressures) or intracarotid injection of sodium cyanide. 5. A minimum of thirty single afferent fibres was identified in each experiment, the vast majority of which were mechanoreceptors. In only nine experiments were chemoreceptor fibres found and only twelve chemoreceptor fibres (1.7% of total) were identified in these nine experiments. In ten experiments no chemoreceptor fibres could be found. Leaving the carotid body in situ increased the incidence of chemoreceptive preparations. A small number of fibres unresponsive to mechanical stimulation and asphyxia was also identified. 6. The responses of regenerated chemoreceptor fibres to physiological and pharmacological stimuli were generally similar to those found in control carotid body preparations. Fibres unresponsive to mechanical stimulation and asphyxia did not respond to sodium cyanide, dopamine or isoprenaline; some of these fibres were excited by nicotine. 7. The receptive fields of mechanosensitive fibres were localized on or up to 2 cm away from the neuroma. Surface application of 20-40 microliters sodium cyanide (200 micrograms ml-1) was used to localize the receptive fields of seven of the twelve chemoreceptor fibres. All seven were localized to the site of the carotid body. 8. The neuroma and site of the carotid body were examined under light and electron microscopy. Glomus tissue was absent from the neuroma but was found at the site of the carotid body. 9. In conclusion, recovery of chemoreceptor function after carotid sinus nerve section appears to be associated with reinnervation of glomus tissue. PMID:2795484

  15. Measurement of rabbit eardrum vibration through stroboscopic digital holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Greef, Daniël; Dirckx, Joris J. J.

    2014-05-01

    In this work, we present a setup for high-power single shot stroboscopic digital holography and demonstrate it in an application on rabbit eardrum vibration measurement. The setup is able to make full-field time-resolved measurements of vibrating surfaces with a precision in the nanometer range in a broad frequency range. The height displacement of the measured object is visualized over the entire surface as a function of time. Vibration magnitude and phase maps can be extracted from these data, the latter proving to be very useful to reveal phase delays across the surface. Such deviations from modal motion indicate energy losses due to internal damping, in contrast to purely elastic mechanics. This is of great interest in middle ear mechanics and finite element modelling. In our setup, short laser pulses are fired at selected instants within the surface vibration period and are recorded by a CCD camera. The timing of the pulses and the exposure of the camera are synchronized to the vibration phase by a microprocessor. The high-power frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser produces pulses containing up to 5 mJ of energy, which is amply sufficient to record single-shot holograms. As the laser pulse length is 8 ns and the smallest time step of the trigger electronics is 1 μs, vibration measurements of frequencies up to 250 kHz are achievable through this method, provided that the maximum vibration amplitude exceeds a few nanometers. In our application, middle ear mechanics, measuring frequencies extend from 5 Hz to 20 kHz. The experimental setup will be presented, as well as results of measurements on a stretched circular rubber membrane and a rabbit's eardrum. Two of the challenges when measuring biological tissues, such as the eardrum, are low reflectivity and fast dehydration. To increase reflectivity, a coating is applied and to counteract the undesirable effects of tissue dehydration, the measurement setup and software have been optimized for speed without compromising on the quality. Results of a repeatability test will be presented as well. Since the method measures the membrane motion as a function of time in small time steps, we do not only measure vibration amplitude like in time-average holography, but we can also measure non-linear elastic and transient behaviour. In conclusion, the combination of good spatial, depth and time resolution with the fast data acquisition and very wide frequency range make our technique applicable in a number of fields, including biological tissue vibrations.

  16. Spasmolytic effects of Scrophularia nodosa extract on isolated rabbit intestine.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Mansoor; Muhammad, Noor; Mehjabeen; Jahan, Noor; Ahmad, Manzoor; Obaidullah; Qureshi, Mahmood; Jan, Syed Umar

    2012-01-01

    Scrophularia nodosa (figwort), an indigenous medicinal plant grows in moist and cultivated waste ground. It contains saponins, cardioactive glycosides, flavonoids, resin, sugar and organic acids. It is traditionally used for anti-inflammatory purpose and in skin disorders. It has diuretic and cardiac stimulant properties. The present studies were carried out on crude extract of Scrophularia nodosa and its n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and aqueous fractions. During phytochemical studies seven known compounds of flavonoid nature were isolated from the chloroform fraction of crude extract of S. nodosa. The structures of these compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic (UV, IR, Mass (EIMS, HREIMS) and NMR ((1)H-NMR, (13)C-NMR, DEPT, and (1)H-(1)H, COSY, HMQC, HMBC and NOESY) techniques. Compound 1 was identified as 5, 4`-hydroxy-3, 6, 7-trimethoxyflavone, compound 2 as 5-hydroxy-3,6,7,4'-tetramethoxyflavone, compound 3 as Centaurein, compound 4 as 5-hydroxy-7,8,2',3',4'-pentamethoxyflavone (Serpyllin), compound 5 as Kaempferol 7-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside, compound 6 as sakuranetin 4'-O (6''-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl)-β-D-glucopyranoside (Vitexoside) and compound 7 as Spinoside. Crude extract and its fractions were tested on isolated rabbit intestine (in vitro) for their effects. The results of crude extract and its fractions in different doses showed the decrease in normal movement of the smooth muscles of rabbit intestine (jejunum). The chloroform fraction showed maximum relaxant effect (77.37%) at 15mg/ml dose and aqueous fraction showed 38.56% spasmogenic response which was not present in the crude extract. Further study was carried out on different fractions to investigate the possible mechanism of action of S. nodosa extract. For this purpose spasmolytic effect of different fractions were compared with agonist and antagonist activities of standard drugs including adrenaline, atropine andacetylcholine (1x10(-2), 1x10(-4) and 10(-6) M conc.). It is concluded that the chemical constituents present in S. nodosa having spasmolytic action are possibly acting through muscarinic receptors. PMID:22186340

  17. Quantitative Analysis of Disc Degeneration Using Axial T2 Mapping in a Percutaneous Annular Puncture Model in Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Chai, Jee Won; Lee, Joon Woo; Kim, Su-Jin; Hong, Sung Hwan

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate T2 relaxation time change using axial T2 mapping in a rabbit degenerated disc model and determine the most correlated variable with histologic score among T2 relaxation time, disc height index, and Pfirrmann grade. Materials and Methods Degenerated disc model was made in 4 lumbar discs of 11 rabbits (n = 44) by percutaneous annular puncture with various severities of an injury. Lumbar spine lateral radiograph, MR T2 sagittal scan and MR axial T2 mapping were obtained at baseline and 2 weeks and 4 weeks after the injury in 7 rabbits and at baseline and 2 weeks, 4 weeks, and 6 weeks after the injury in 4 rabbits. Generalized estimating equations were used for a longitudinal analysis of changes in T2 relaxation time in degenerated disc model. T2 relaxation time, disc height index and Pfirrmann grade were correlated with the histologic scoring of disc degeneration using Spearman's rho test. Results There was a significant difference in T2 relaxation time between uninjured and injured discs after annular puncture. Progressive decrease in T2 relaxation time was observed in injured discs throughout the study period. Lower T2 relaxation time was observed in the more severely injured discs. T2 relaxation time showed the strongest inverse correlation with the histologic score among the variables investigated (r = -0.811, p < 0.001). Conclusion T2 relaxation time measured with axial T2 mapping in degenerated discs is a potential method to assess disc degeneration. PMID:26798222

  18. Effects of single-dose morning and evening administration of pravastatin on antioxidant markers in cholesterol-fed rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Kamal, Sahar Mohamed

    2011-01-01

    Background Accurate timing of statin administration is considered important to obtain the best hypolipidemic effect. Pravastatin is one of the currently prescribed hepatic 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors, and was chosen in this study to evaluate its antioxidant effect when administered as a single daily dose in the morning versus evening in cholesterol-fed rabbits. Methods This 12-week study was performed in New Zealand rabbits, divided into four groups (n = 6 each), ie, normocholesterolemic controls; cholesterol 1% diet, nontreated ; cholesterol 1% diet treated with pravastatin in the morning; and cholesterol 1% diet treated with pravastatin in the evening. Plasma total cholesterol levels, superoxide dismutase enzyme levels in erythrocyte lysates, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance content, catalase, and glutathione enzyme activity in liver homogenates from the tested rabbits were measured. Results Both morning and evening treatment with pravastatin significantly improved all the measured antioxidant markers in comparison with nontreated cholesterol-fed rabbits. However, results obtained with evening dosing were better than with morning dosing. Conclusion The antioxidant profile of pravastatin is better when the drug is administered in the evening rather than in the morning.

  19. Effect of shigella enterotoxin 1 (ShET1) on rabbit intestine in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Fasano, A; Noriega, F R; Liao, F M; Wang, W; Levine, M M

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Shigella enterotoxin 1 is a novel enterotoxin elaborated by Shigella flexneri 2a that causes fluid accumulation in rabbit ileal loops and a rise in short circuit current in Ussing chambers. AIMS: To gain insights into the mechanism of action of shigella enterotoxin 1. METHODS: Supernatants from genetically engineered clones either overexpressing shigella enterotoxin 1 or producing deletion mutants of the toxin were tested in rabbit ileum both in vitro and in vivo. RESULTS: In rabbit ileum shigella enterotoxin 1 induced an irreversible rise in short circuit current that was not mediated by any of the recognised intracellular mediators of secretion. Deletion of 90% of the A subunit of the holotoxin ablated its enterotoxicity. In the in vivo perfusion model, the toxin induced a time dependent decrease in water absorption, whereas no changes were detected in the segment perfused with supernatants obtained from the deletion mutant. Finally, partially purified toxin induced a dose dependent increment in short circuit current that reached its plateau at a toxin concentration of 4 x 10(-6) M. CONCLUSIONS: Shigella enterotoxin 1 induces a time and dose dependent intestinal secretion in the rabbit animal model, suggesting that it may be responsible for the watery phase of Shigella flexneri 2a infection. Images PMID:9176079

  20. Infection of rabbits with R29 strain of bovine immunodeficiency virus: virulence, immunosuppression, and progressive mesenteric lymphadenopathy.

    PubMed

    Kalvatchev, Z; Walder, R; Perez, F; Garzaro, D; Barrios, M

    1998-01-01

    To assess the value of bovine immunodeficiency virus (BIV) infection as a model for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in man, we studied the impairment of certain immunologic functions in New Zealand white rabbits experimentally infected with an uncloned virulent isolate of the virus, BIV R29. Serum samples were tested by Western blot for the presence and persistence of antibody production. The T- and B-lymphocyte function was studied by evaluation of the blastogenic responsiveness to concanavalin A (Con A) and to dextran sulfate (DxS). All infected rabbits seroconverted to BIV antigens within 2 to 4 weeks postinfection (p.i.) The BIV was isolated from the peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) of 13 of 17 rabbits (77%) early in the infection and also from 5 of 17 hyperplastic mesenteric lymph nodes (29%) and 10 of 17 spleens (59%) during the chronic stage of infection. Seven of 17 BIV-infected rabbits (41%) developed marked immunodepression 2 to 5 months p.i., and later, 5 exhibited a rapidly progressive disease with anorexia, weight loss, neurologic impairment, splenomegaly, and mesenteric lymphadenopathy. These data underline the value of the BIV model for studying HIV pathogenesis in vivo and the development of interventional strategies for AIDS. PMID:9918407

  1. Development and partial metabolic characterization of a dietary cholesterol-resistant colony of rabbits

    SciTech Connect

    Overturf, M.L.; Smith, S.A.; Hewett-Emmett, D.; Loose-Mitchell, D.S.; Soma, M.R.; Gotto, A.M. Jr.; Morrisett, J.D. )

    1989-02-01

    A colony of New Zealand white rabbits has been developed which, when fed a cholesterol-supplemented diet, exhibit unusual resistance to hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis, disorders usually observed in normal cholesterol-fed rabbits. When resistant rabbits (RT) were fed a normal low cholesterol diet (ND), their plasma lipoprotein patterns were significantly different from those of normal rabbits (NR) fed the same diet. The low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c)/high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) ratio and LDL-c/very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-c) ratio were lower in the resistant rabbits. The hydrated density of HDL of the normal-responsive rabbits was greater than that of the resistant rabbits. LDL from resistant rabbits contained a lower proportion of esterified cholesterol and protein than LDL from normal rabbits. Peripheral mononuclear cells from resistant rabbits bound about 30% more {sup 125}I-labeled rabbit LDL than mononuclear cells from normal rabbits. These results demonstrate that the plasma cholesterol levels of these animals is at least partly under genetic control and that compositional differences exist between the major plasma lipoprotein classes of normal and resistant rabbits even during the ingestion of low-cholesterol diet. The results indicate that at least a part of the difference in the cholesterolemic responses between the two rabbit groups is due to an enhanced LDL uptake by the mononuclear cells, and presumably by other somatic cells of the resistant group.

  2. Differences in usability of rabbit IgG and chicken IgY after clean-up and impact on gold labelling properties.

    PubMed

    Rudolf, Judith; Führer, Manuela; Galler, Brigitte; Ansari, Parisa; Hasenhindl, Christoph; Baumgartner, Sabine

    2009-10-31

    For the application of antibodies in rapid test systems such as Lateral Flow Devices (LFD) antibodies have to be coupled to coloured particles for immediate readability of the test system. In this work colloidal gold was selected for conjugation to the antibodies. Polyclonal rabbit antibodies were chosen for the development of Lateral Flow Devices for the detection of bovine alpha-casein. For antibody comparison chicken egg yolk IgY and sheep IgG were additionally used. Rabbit and chicken antibodies were purified from rabbit sera and egg yolk using affinity chromatography and alternatively ammonium sulphate precipitation, Sheep IgG was commercially obtained. In the course of colloidal gold sol titration experiments differences not only between antibody species but also between differently purified rabbit IgG were observed. While affinity purified rabbit IgG was not able to stabilise colloidal gold particles, antibodies obtained by ammonium sulphate precipitation resulted in a stable gold conjugate suitable for application in Lateral Flow Assays. This work compares and discusses the impact of antibody pre-treatment on further conjugation capacity. PMID:19699744

  3. Phosphoinositide metabolism and metabolism-contraction coupling in rabbit aorta

    SciTech Connect

    Coburn, R.F.; Baron, C.; Papadopoulos, M.T. )

    1988-12-01

    The authors tested a hypothesis that metabolism-contraction coupling in vascular smooth muscle is controlled by the rate of delivery of energy to ATP-dependent reactions in the inositol phospholipid transduction system that generate second messengers exerting control on smooth muscle force. Rabbit aorta was contracted by norepinephrine (NOR) under conditions of normoxia and hypoxia, and changes in inositol phospholipid pool sizes and metabolic flux rates (J{sub F}) were determined. J{sub F} was determined by labeling free cytosolic myo-inositol by incubation of unstimulated muscle with myo-({sup 3}H)inositol and then measuring rates of incorporation of this isotope into inositol phospholipids and inositol phosphates when the muscle was activated by NOR. J{sub F} measured during maintenance of NOR-induced force was markedly inhibited during hypoxia to 40-50% of that determined during normoxia; rates of increases in inositol phosphate radioactivities were similarly depressed during NOR activation under hypoxia. The hypoxia-induced decrease in J{sub F} was associated with four- to fivefold increase in phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PIP) total pool size, suggesting PIP kinase was inhibited and rate limiting. These data suggest that activation of inositol phospholipid metabolism, which generates inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP{sub 3}) and diacylglycerol, is blunted under conditions where aerobic energy production is inhibited. Data are consistent with rate-limiting effects of decreased ATP delivery, or decreased phosphate potential, on PIP kinase and reactions that control resynthesis of phosphatidylinositol.

  4. Estrogen formation by the ovary of the rabbit embryo.

    PubMed

    Milewich, L; George, F W; Wilson, J D

    1977-01-01

    The conversion of [1,2,6,7-3H]- testosterone to radioactive estradiol was assessed in tissue slices of 18 different tissues from rabbit embryos that varied in age from 16 to 29 days gestation. Significant rates of estradiol synthesis were demonstrated only in ovaries [4.2 +/- 0.7 (mean +/- SEM) pmol/h/mg) protein], placenta (0.7 +/- 0.2 pmol/h/mg protein) and brain (0.3 +/- 0.1 pmol/h/mg protein). Estradiol formation was undetectable in day 16 gonads of both sexes and in tests at all ages examined, but by day 18 it was demonstrable in ovaries and rose rapidly to reach a level of 6 pmol/h/mg protein by day 19. The time of appearance of the enzymatic capacity to convert testosterone to estradiol in the ovary is similar to the onset of the enzymatic capacity to form testosterone by the fetal testis, suggesting that the acquisition of the enzymatic activies that allow specific endocrine function by these two tissues may be regulated by the same or similar factors during embryonic development. PMID:830538

  5. Toxicity of metallic ions and oxides to rabbit alveolar macrophages

    SciTech Connect

    Labedzka, M.; Gulyas, H.; Schmidt, N.; Gercken, G. )

    1989-04-01

    The effects of soluble compounds and oxides of As, Cd, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Sb, Sn, V, and Zn on oxidative metabolism and membrane integrity of rabbit alveolar macrophages were studied by 24-hr in vitro exposure. Oxidative metabolism induced by phagocytosis of opsonized zymosan was measured by H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and O{sub 2}{sup {minus}} release and by chemiluminescence in the presence of luminol. Membrane integrity was estimated by extracellular LDH activity. Metallic ions and oxides inhibited the release of active oxygen species. Cd(II), As(III), and V(V) were the most toxic elements as measured by all investigated parameters. Cu(II) decreased O{sub 2}{sup {minus}} release and chemiluminescence effectively but H{sub 2}O{sub 2} release and membrane integrity less. Chemiluminescence was decreased strongly by Hg(II) while O{sub 2}{sup {minus}} and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} release were depressed moderately. Zn(II) and Sb(III) compounds caused medium toxicity and the tested Sn, Ni, and Pb compounds showed only faint toxic effects.

  6. Simulated airplane flight increases plasma lactate in fetal rabbits.

    PubMed

    Schumacher, B; Olson, G L; Saade, G R; Ou, C N; Sutton, T E; Moise, K J; Fife, C E

    1999-01-01

    We studied the effect of 9 h of simulated airplane cabin conditions at cruising altitude (8,000 feet; inspired oxygen equivalent to 15% O2 at sea level) on fetal plasma lactate in near-term pregnant rabbits. Controls (n = 19) spent 9 h at sea level (21% O2). Study group I (n = 21) experienced airplane cabin conditions. Study group II (n = 17) was studied at 8,000 feet with the inspired O2 concentration normalized to sea level. Study group III (n = 19) remained at sea level breathing 15% O2. Before ending each exposure, fetal blood sampling for lactate was performed under ultrasound guidance. Maternal lactates were obtained before and after sampling fetuses. Wilcoxon signed rank test, analysis of variance, and Bonferroni's method were used as appropriate. P < 0.05 denoted statistical significance. Study group I (altitude/hypoxia) had higher fetal lactates than controls (sea level/normoxia) and study group II (altitude/normoxia). Fetal lactates in study group I (altitude/hypoxia) were higher than in study group III (sea level/hypoxia). Maternal lactates were lower after fetal sampling. Fetal lactic acidemia was observed after 9 h of airplane cabin conditions. This was attributed to the combined effect of the lowered oxygen concentration and the decrease in atmospheric pressure. PMID:10372425

  7. The carotid sinus baroreceptor reflex in conscious rabbits.

    PubMed Central

    Faris, I B; Iannos, J; Jamieson, G G; Ludbrook, J

    1980-01-01

    1. A method is described for altering the pressure across the wall of the carotid sinus in conscious rabbits by enclosing the carotid bifurcation in a rigid, fluid-filled capsule. The extracapsular arterial baroreceptors were denervated. 2. The baroreceptor--heart rate reflex, elicited by injecting vasoactive drugs or inflating aortic and vena caval cuffs, was used to test the new method. The function of the carotid sinus was shown to be unaffected by enclosure in the capsule. Denervation of the extracapsular baroreceptors reduced the gain of the baroreceptor--heart rate reflex two- to threefold. 3. The characteristics of the carotid baroreceptor reflex were studied in sixteen animals by the capsule method. Median estimates of maximum gain, and the range over which blood pressure changed, were 1.1 mmHg/mmHg and 57 mmHg respectively. There was good agreement between duplicate estimates made 1--20 days apart. 4. There was only a weak association between the effects on blood pressure and heart rate of altering carotid sinus transmural pressure. Autonomic blockade of the heart, so that its rate was fixed, did not reduce the gain or range of blood pressure change. PMID:7359409

  8. Model of cerebral palsy in the perinatal rabbit.

    PubMed

    Tan, Sidhartha; Drobyshevsky, Alexander; Jilling, Tamas; Ji, Xinhai; Ullman, Lauren M; Englof, Ila; Derrick, Matthew

    2005-12-01

    Perinatal brain injury results in one of the highest burdens of disease in view of the lifelong consequences and is of enormous cost to society. This makes it imperative to develop better animal models that mimic the human condition. Many neurodevelopmental deficits, such as cerebral palsy, are believed to be a result of prenatal hypoxia-ischemia in humans. Fetal global hypoxia-ischemia is most commonly a consequence of acute placental insufficiency. Our laboratory has modeled in utero sustained and repetitive hypoxia-ischemia in the pregnant rabbit to mimic the insults of abruptio placenta and labor, respectively. Sustained hypoxia-ischemia at 70% (22 days' gestation) and 79% (25 days' gestation) and repetitive hypoxia-ischemia at 90% gestation (28 days' gestation) caused stillbirths and multiple deficits in the postnatal survivors. The deficits included impairment in multiple tests of spontaneous locomotion, reflex motor activity, motor responses to olfactory stimuli, and the coordination of suck and swallow. Hypertonia was observed in the 22 and 25 days' gestation survivors but not in the 28 days' gestation group. Hypertonic survivors were artificially fed and found to have the motor deficits persist for at least 11 postnatal days. A spectrum of brain abnormalities is found on magnetic resonance imaging. This is the first animal model to mimic cerebral palsy. The findings also suggest a window of vulnerability during brain development when the injury results in hypertonia in newborn pups. PMID:16417845

  9. Causes of mortality in breeding rabbits.

    PubMed

    Rosell, J M; de la Fuente, L F

    2016-05-01

    In this study we determined mortality in breeding rabbits on 505 commercial farms in Spain during 2006-2014. We obtained our information by carrying out 3278 visits to 490 doe farms (127 also with males), and 877 visits to farms with males, including 132 visits to 15 artificial insemination (AI) centres. The median size of the farms was 769 does (minimum to maximum: 80-9000 does) and 44 males (minimum to maximum: 10-800 males). AI was used on 85% of the 490 doe farms. Females were serviced at 11 days postpartum on 75% of the farms. The mean Monthly Mortality Risk (MMR%) and 95% Binomial confidence interval (CI) in does were 2.82 (2.71-2.93%), and 1.87 (1.41-2.33%) in bucks, over a population of 2,641,709 females and 90,316 males at risk, in the course of the 9-year study; during the 42-day cycle, MMR% was 3.78 (3.67-3.89%). There were 9547 cohorts of females; 41.5% of the does were pregnant and lactating simultaneously, 28.1% only lactating, 17.4% only pregnant and 13% empty and not lactating. The MMR% of does during the last week of pregnancy was 7.05 (6.63-7.47%) and 4.26 (3.90-4.62%) during the 1st week of lactation. Our diagnoses were based on the macroscopic post-mortem examinations performed by a veterinarian on 2065 female rabbits found dead and 368 moribund-euthanized does. In the total 2433 on-farm necropsies on does and 55 males, we found alterations of the respiratory tract compatible with death in 0.70 (0.64-0.76%) MMR% in does, 0.88 (0.56-1.20%) in bucks; and digestive tract in 0.31 (0.27-0.35%) enteritis-diarrhoea, 0.11 (0.09-0.13%) mucoid enteropathy in does and 0.34 (0.14-0.54%) and 0.07 (0-0.16%) in males, respectively. Other primary causes of death were septicaemia, MMR% 0.23 (0.20-0.26%) in does, and 0.10 (0-0.22%) in males, viral haemorrhagic disease 0.22 (0.19-0.25%) in does, and 0.17 (0.03-0.31%) in bucks, metritis, pyometra, or both, 0.21 (0.19-0.25%), and uterine torsion, 0.20 (0.18-0.22%); 1.2 (1.01-1.39%) in the last week of pregnancy. The median age of 2087/2433 necropsied does was 2 parities (minimum to maximum: 1-34 parities) and the mean 3.9. Some changes in housing, feeding and management, to improve breeding rabbit health, are highlighted. PMID:27094141

  10. Validation of serum IGF-I as a biomarker to monitor the bioactivity of exogenous growth hormone agonists and antagonists in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Bielohuby, Maximilian; Zarkesh-Esfahani, Sayyed Hamid; Manolopoulou, Jenny; Wirthgen, Elisa; Walpurgis, Katja; Toghiany Khorasgani, Mohaddeseh; Aghili, Zahra Sadat; Wilkinson, Ian Robert; Hoeflich, Andreas; Thevis, Mario; Ross, Richard J; Bidlingmaier, Martin

    2014-11-01

    The development of new growth hormone (GH) agonists and growth hormone antagonists (GHAs) requires animal models for pre-clinical testing. Ideally, the effects of treatment are monitored using the same pharmacodynamic marker that is later used in clinical practice. However, intact rodents are of limited value for this purpose because serum IGF-I, the most sensitive pharmacodynamic marker for the action of GH in humans, shows no response to treatment with recombinant human GH and there is little evidence for the effects of GHAs, except when administered at very high doses or when overexpressed. As an alternative, more suitable model, we explored pharmacodynamic markers of GH action in intact rabbits. We performed the first validation of an IGF-I assay for the analysis of rabbit serum and tested precision, sensitivity, linearity and recovery using an automated human IGF-I assay (IDS-iSYS). Furthermore, IGF-I was measured in rabbits of different strains, age groups and sexes, and we monitored IGF-I response to treatment with recombinant human GH or the GHA Pegvisomant. For a subset of samples, we used LC-MS/MS to measure IGF-I, and quantitative western ligand blot to analyze IGF-binding proteins (IGFBPs). Although recovery of recombinant rabbit IGF-I was only 50% in the human IGF-I assay, our results show that the sensitivity, precision (1.7-3.3% coefficient of variation) and linearity (90.4-105.6%) were excellent in rabbit samples. As expected, sex, age and genetic background were major determinants of IGF-I concentration in rabbits. IGF-I and IGFBP-2 levels increased after single and multiple injections of recombinant human GH (IGF-I: 28622 versus 43426 ng/ml; P<0.01) and were highly correlated (P<0.0001). Treatment with the GHA lowered IGF-I levels from the fourth injection onwards (P<0.01). In summary, we demonstrated that the IDS-iSYS IGF-I immunoassay can be used in rabbits. Similar to rodents, rabbits display variations in IGF-I depending on sex, age and genetic background. Unlike in rodents, the IGF-I response to treatment with recombinant human GH or a GHA closely mimics the pharmacodynamics seen in humans, suggesting that rabbits are a suitable new model to test human GH agonists and antagonists. PMID:25239917

  11. Morphology and neurochemistry of rabbit iris innervation.

    PubMed

    He, Jiucheng; Bazan, Haydee E P

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to map the entire nerve architecture and sensory neuropeptide content of the rabbit iris. Irises from New Zealand rabbits were stained with antibodies against neuronal-class βIII-tubulin, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and substance P (SP), and whole-mount images were acquired to build a two-dimensional view of the iridal nerve architecture. After taking images in time-lapse mode, we observed thick nerves running in the iris stroma close to the anterior epithelia, forming four to five stromal nerve rings from the iris periphery to the pupillary margin and sub-branches that connected with each other, constituting the stromal nerve plexus. In the anterior side, fine divisions derivated from the stromal nerves, forming a nerve network-like structure to innervate the superficial anterior border layer, with the pupillary margin having the densest innervation. In the posterior side, the nerve bundles ran along with the pupil dilator muscle in a radial pattern. The morphology of the iris nerves on both sides changed with pupil size. To obtain the relative content of the neuropeptides in the iris, the specimens were double stained with βIII-tubulin and CGRP or SP antibodies. Relative nerve fiber densities for each fiber population were assessed quantitatively by computer-assisted analysis. On the anterior side, CGRP-positive nerve fibers constituted about 61%, while SP-positive nerves constitute about 30.5%, of the total nerve content, which was expressed as βIII tubulin-positive fibers. In addition, in the anterior stroma of the collarette region, there were non-neuronal cells that were positive for SP. On the posterior side, CGRP-positive nerve fibers were about 69% of total nerve content, while SP constituted only up to 20%. Similarly, in the trigeminal ganglia (TG), the number of CGRP-positive neurons significantly outnumbered those that were positive for SP. Also, all the SP-positive neurons were labeled with CGRP. This is the first study to provide a two-dimensional whole mount and a cross-sectional view of the entire iris nerve architecture. Considering the anatomical location, the high expression of CGRP and SP suggests that these neuropeptides may play a role in the pathogenesis of anterior uveitis, glaucoma, cataracts and chronic ocular pain. PMID:25752697

  12. Hippocampus responds to auditory change in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Ruusuvirta, T; Astikainen, P; Wikgren, J; Nokia, M

    2010-09-29

    Any change or novelty in the auditory environment is potentially important for survival. The cortex has been implicated in the detection of auditory change whereas the hippocampus has been associated with the detection of auditory novelty. Local field potentials (LFPs) were recorded from the CA1 area of the hippocampus in waking rabbits. In the oddball condition, a rare tone of one frequency (deviant) randomly replaced a repeated tone of another frequency (standard). In the equal-probability condition, the standard was replaced by a set of tones of nine different frequencies in order to remove the repetitive auditory background of the deviant (now labelled as control-deviant) while preserving its temporal probability. In the oddball condition, evoked potentials at 36-80 ms post-stimulus were found to have greater amplitude towards negative polarity for the deviant relative to the standard. No significant differences in response amplitudes were observed between the control-deviant and the standard. These findings suggest that the hippocampus plays a role in auditory change detection. PMID:20600633

  13. Rabbit tumor necrosis factor: mechanism of action.

    PubMed Central

    Ruff, M R; Gifford, G E

    1981-01-01

    Rabbit tumor necrosis factor (TNF) was examined for effects on normal and transformed cells in culture. Several assays for killing of L-929 cell targets were developed, and their sensitivities were compared. Normal cells were not killed by TNF, and the discrimination between normal and transformed cells was shown not to be due to a cell cycle-dependent mechanism. TNF killing of L-929 cells was delayed for 10 to 12 h and thereafter showed concentration and time-dependent increases in cytolysis. Actinomycin D or cycloheximide treatment of L-929 cells resulted in an enhancement of the rate of cell killing as well as a shortening of the preceding lag period. TNF killing of L-929 cells was temperature dependent; cells were considerably more resistant to lysis at 25 degrees C and showed enhanced killing at 39 degrees C as compared to 37 degrees C controls. The slope of the dose curve showed less than single-hit kinetics. A model for cell killing whose general features incorporate both the specificity and catalytic properties of an enzymatic reaction is proposed for TNF action. PMID:7216452

  14. Heterogeneity of ouabain receptors in rabbit heart

    SciTech Connect

    Lai, R.K.Y.

    1987-01-01

    Using cardiac microsomes prepared from sodium-loaded rabbit hearts, present studies demonstrated the existence of two types of ouabain receptors based on /sup 3/H-ouabain association and dissociation experiments. One receptor type is characterized by an association half-life of 0.43 min and a dissociation half-life of 16.4 min. The other receptor type is characterized by an association half-life of 6.12 min and a dissociation half-life of 9.8 min. In the presence of 5 x 10/sup -4/ M erythrosin B (an inhibitor of the high affinity ouabain binding in rat brain tissue), Scatchard analysis indicates the presence of two populations of ouabain receptors. One population is the high affinity, high capacity site which can be inhibited by erythrosin B and is associated with the classic Na/sup +/, K/sup +/-ATPase. The other site is the low affinity, low capacity site which is not affected by erythrosin B and is associated with the slow binding component.

  15. Prosthetic replacement of the rabbit medial meniscus.

    PubMed

    Messner, K; Gillquist, J

    1993-09-01

    Implants of polyurethane-coated polyester (Dacron), polyurethane-coated PTFE (Teflon), or uncoated PTFE were used to substitute the medial rabbit meniscus, and were observed over a 3-month period. Joint mechanics were similar for sham-operation, meniscectomy, or substitution with a coated implant. Joints with an uncoated PTFE prosthesis tended to be less compliant and to show greater load dissipation during relaxation. Cartilage indentation showed softening with all alternatives compared to sham-operation. Ingrowth into the prosthesis periphery was best with the PTFE implants. Both types of coated prosthesis retained their original shape, in contrast to the uncoated prostheses. To the naked eye the cartilage appeared unaffected only after sham-operation or implantation of a coated PTFE prosthesis. Osteophyte formation was common with all alternatives except sham-operation. We conclude that replacement of the medial meniscus with coated prostheses, especially the PTFE, was better than meniscectomy or using the uncoated prosthesis. However, cartilage softening and osteophyte formation indicate that joint mechanics were not restored to normal. PMID:8126015

  16. Mass Transport Properties of the Rabbit Aortic Wall

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Emma L.; Bazigou, Eleni; Sowinski, Piotr S. J.; Weinberg, Peter D.

    2015-01-01

    Uptake of circulating macromolecules by the arterial wall may be a critical step in atherogenesis. Here we investigate the age-related changes in patterns of uptake that occur in the rabbit. In immature aortas, uptake was elevated in a triangle downstream of branch ostia, a region prone to disease in immature rabbits and children. By 16-22 months, uptake was high lateral to ostia, as is lesion prevalence in mature rabbits and young adults. In older rabbits there was a more upstream pattern, similar to the disease distribution in older people. These variations were predominantly caused by the branches themselves, rather than reflecting larger patterns within which the branches happened to be situated (as may occur with patterns of haemodynamic wall shear stress). The narrow streaks of high uptake reported in some previous studies were shown to be post mortem artefacts. Finally, heparin (which interferes with the NO pathway) had no effect on the difference in uptake between regions upstream and downstream of branches in immature rabbits but reversed the difference in older rabbits, as does inhibiting NO synthesis directly. Nevertheless, examination of uptake all around the branch showed that changes occurred at both ages and that they were quite subtle, potentially explaining why inhibiting NO has only minor effects on lesion patterns in mature rabbits and contradicting the earlier conclusion that mechanotransduction pathways change with age. We suggest that recently-established changes in the patterns of haemodynamic forces themselves are more likely to account for the age-dependence of uptake patterns. PMID:25781997

  17. Detection of the new emerging rabbit haemorrhagic disease type 2 virus (RHDV2) in Sicily from rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) and Italian hare (Lepus corsicanus).

    PubMed

    Camarda, A; Pugliese, N; Cavadini, P; Circella, E; Capucci, L; Caroli, A; Legretto, M; Mallia, E; Lavazza, A

    2014-12-01

    Rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV), a member of the genus Lagovirus, causes rabbit haemorrhagic disease (RHD), a fatal hepatitis of rabbits, not previously reported in hares. Recently, a new RHDV-related virus emerged, called RHDV2. This lagovirus can cause RHD in rabbits and disease and mortality in Lepus capensis (Cape hare). Here we describe a case of RHDV2 infection in another hare species, Lepus corsicanus, during a concurrent RHD outbreak in a group of wild rabbits. The same RHDV2 strain infected rabbits and a hare, also causing a RHD-like syndrome in the latter. Our findings confirmed the capability of RHDV2 to infect hosts other than rabbits and improve the knowledge about the epidemiology and the host range of this new lagovirus. PMID:25458493

  18. Barium can replace calcium in calmodulin-dependent contractions of skinned renal arteries of the rabbit.

    PubMed

    Kreye, V A; Hofmann, F; Mühleisen, M

    1986-03-01

    Renal arteries of the rabbit were chemically skinned using Triton X-100. In EGTA-buffered solutions containing calmodulin and ATP, small strips of the skinned preparations were found to develop contractile force which was dependent on the concentrations of either free calcium or of free barium. However, a 220 times greater concentration of barium than of calcium was necessary for comparable effects. Quantitatively, the response to barium was dependent on the concentration of calmodulin added to the test solutions. The contractile effect of barium was partly antagonized by the calmodulin antagonist, trifluoperazine. PMID:3960707

  19. A small-molecule factor XIa inhibitor produces antithrombotic efficacy with minimal bleeding time prolongation in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Wong, Pancras C; Crain, Earl J; Watson, Carol A; Schumacher, William A

    2011-08-01

    BMS-262084 is a 4-carboxy-2-azetidinone-containing irreversible inhibitor of FXIa, which is selective over other coagulation proteases. We evaluated the in vitro and in vivo properties of BMS-262084 in rabbits. Studies were conducted in arteriovenous-shunt thrombosis (AVST), venous thrombosis (VT), electrolytic-mediated carotid arterial thrombosis (ECAT) and cuticle bleeding time (BT) models. BMS-262084 was infused IV from 1 h before thrombus induction or cuticle transection to the end of the experiment. In vitro, BMS-262084 prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) with EC(2x) (concentration required to double aPTT) of 10.6 μM in rabbit plasma, and did not prolong prothrombin time (PT), thrombin time (TT) and HepTest. In vivo, BMS-262084 produced dose-dependent antithrombotic effects in rabbits with antithrombotic ED(50) (dose that reduced thrombus weight or increased blood flow by 50% of the control) in AVST, VT and ECAT of 0.4, 0.7 and 1.5 mg/kg/h IV, respectively. BMS-262084 increased ex vivo aPTT dose-dependently without changes in PT and TT. The antithrombotic effect of BMS-262084 was significantly correlated with its ex vivo aPTT, supporting the use of ex vivo aPTT as a pharmacodynamic biomarker. BMS-262084 did not alter ex vivo rabbit platelet aggregation to ADP and collagen. BT (fold-increase) determined at 3 and 10 mg/kg/h of BMS-262084 were 1.17 ± 0.04 and 1.52 ± 0.07*, respectively (*P < 0.05 vs. control). This study demonstrated that BMS-262084 prevented experimental thrombosis at doses with low BT effects in rabbits, and suggests that a small molecule FXIa inhibitor may represent a promising antithrombotic therapy. PMID:21614454

  20. Transplantation of cultured rabbit retinal epithelium to rabbit retina using a closed-eye method.

    PubMed

    Lopez, R; Gouras, P; Brittis, M; Kjeldbye, H

    1987-07-01

    We have developed a closed-eye technique for transplanting cultured rabbit retinal epithelial cells to Bruch's membrane of the rabbit. A glass micropipette containing a suspension of 3H-thymidine-labeled, cultured retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells is inserted through a pars plana incision and positioned adjacent to the neural retina. A jet stream from the pipette is used to make a small retinal hole and bleb detachment. Patches of host retinal epithelium lift off with the neural retina, creating areas of bare Bruch's membrane. The cell suspension is injected into the subretinal space, and labeled cells can be seen attached to Bruch's membrane as early as 1 hr later. The neural retina spontaneously reattaches within 24 to 48 hr, bringing photoreceptor outer segments in direct contact with the transplanted cells. Phagocytosis of outer segment material by transplanted cells can be seen as early as 24 hr after surgery. This closed-eye technique offers an advantage over the open-sky method used previously in that it allows for reattachment of the neural retina and at least a partial return of function in the transplanted retinal epithelium. PMID:3596991

  1. Effect of dynamic hydrostatic pressure on rabbit intervertebral disc cells.

    PubMed

    Kasra, Mehran; Goel, Vijay; Martin, James; Wang, Shea-Tien; Choi, Woosung; Buckwalter, Joseph

    2003-07-01

    The pathogenesis of vibration-induced disorders of intervertebral disc at the cellular level is largely unknown. The objective of this study was to establish a method to investigate the ranges of constructive and destructive hydrostatic loading frequencies and amplitudes in preventing or inducing extracellular disc matrix degradation. Using a hydraulic chamber, normal rabbit intervertebral disc cells were tested under dynamic hydrostatic loading. Monolayer cultures of disc outer annulus cells and 3-dimensional (3-D) alginate cultures of disc nucleus pulposus cells were tested. Effects of different loading amplitudes (3-D culture, 0-3 MPa; monolayer, 0-1.7 MPa) and frequencies (1-20 Hz) on disc collagen and protein metabolism were investigated by measuring 3H-proline-labeled proteins associated with the cells in the extracellular matrix and release of 3H-proline-labeled molecules into culture medium. High frequency and high amplitude hydrostatic stress stimulated collagen synthesis in cultures of outer annulus cells whereas the lower amplitude and frequency hydrostatic stress had little effect. For the same loading duration and repetition, neither treatment significantly affected the relative amount of protein released from the cell layers, indicating that protein degradation and stability were unaffected. In the 3-D nucleus culture, higher amplitude and frequency increased synthesis rate and lowered degradation. In this case, loading amplitude had a stronger influence on cell response than that of loading frequency. Considering the ranges of loading amplitude and frequency used in this study, short-term application of high loading amplitudes and frequencies was beneficial in stimulation of protein synthesis and reduction of protein degradation. PMID:12798057

  2. Immunization with viruslike particles induces long-term protection of rabbits against challenge with cottontail rabbit papillomavirus.

    PubMed

    Christensen, N D; Reed, C A; Cladel, N M; Han, R; Kreider, J W

    1996-02-01

    Rabbits were immunized with recombinant baculovirus-produced virus-like particles (VLPs) of cottontail rabbit papillomavirus (CRPV) to determine whether these antigens could induce long-term protection against experimental challenge with CRPV. Infectious CRPV and human papillomavirus type 11 L1 VLPs were used as positive and negative control immunogens, respectively. Three groups of immunized animals were challenged with 10-fold serial dilutions of infectious CRPV at 2 weeks, 6 months, and 12 months after immunizations. Antibody titers in serum reached 1:10,000 immediately after the final booster immunization and then decayed to 1:150 at 6 months and 1:100 at 12 months in unchallenged rabbits. Serum neutralization titers followed similar kinetics. Papillomas grew on control-immunized rabbits at sites challenged with 10(-1) (100% of sites), 10(-2) (96% of sites), 10(-3) (63% of sites), and 10(-4) (13% of sites) dilutions of virus. At 2 weeks after CRPV L1 VLP immunizations, the rabbits were completely protected against virus challenge. At both 6 and 12 months after CRPV L1 VLP immunizations, strong protection was also observed. In the last two groups, three of seven rabbits were completely protected and only 4 of 14 or 29% of sites challenged with 10(-1 dilution of virus grew papillomas. Papillomas growing at these four sites were also reduced in size (3.5 +/- 0.7 mm) at 50 days postchallenge compared with sites challenged with 10(-1) dilution on control-immunized rabbits (13.2 +/- 4.2 mm). The results demonstrate that strong and long-lasting protection against experimental challenge with papillomaviruses can be achieved with VLP immunogens. PMID:8551636

  3. Multi-event capture-recapture modeling of host-pathogen dynamics among European rabbit populations exposed to myxoma and Rabbit Hemorrhagic Disease Viruses: common and heterogeneous patterns.

    PubMed

    Santoro, Simone; Pacios, Isa; Moreno, Sacramento; Bertó-Moran, Alejandro; Rouco, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Host-pathogen epidemiological processes are often unclear due both to their complexity and over-simplistic approaches used to quantify them. We applied a multi-event capture-recapture procedure on two years of data from three rabbit populations to test hypotheses about the effects on survival of, and the dynamics of host immunity to, both myxoma virus and Rabbit Hemorrhagic Disease Virus (MV and RHDV). Although the populations shared the same climatic and management conditions, MV and RHDV dynamics varied greatly among them; MV and RHDV seroprevalences were positively related to density in one population, but RHDV seroprevalence was negatively related to density in another. In addition, (i) juvenile survival was most often negatively related to seropositivity, (ii) RHDV seropositives never had considerably higher survival, and (iii) seroconversion to seropositivity was more likely than the reverse. We suggest seropositivity affects survival depending on trade-offs among antibody protection, immunosuppression and virus lethality. Negative effects of seropositivity might be greater on juveniles due to their immature immune system. Also, while RHDV directly affects survival through the hemorrhagic syndrome, MV lack of direct lethal effects means that interactions influencing survival are likely to be more complex. Multi-event modeling allowed us to quantify patterns of host-pathogen dynamics otherwise difficult to discern. Such an approach offers a promising tool to shed light on causative mechanisms. PMID:24708296

  4. Multi-event capture–recapture modeling of host–pathogen dynamics among European rabbit populations exposed to myxoma and Rabbit Hemorrhagic Disease Viruses: common and heterogeneous patterns

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Host–pathogen epidemiological processes are often unclear due both to their complexity and over-simplistic approaches used to quantify them. We applied a multi-event capture–recapture procedure on two years of data from three rabbit populations to test hypotheses about the effects on survival of, and the dynamics of host immunity to, both myxoma virus and Rabbit Hemorrhagic Disease Virus (MV and RHDV). Although the populations shared the same climatic and management conditions, MV and RHDV dynamics varied greatly among them; MV and RHDV seroprevalences were positively related to density in one population, but RHDV seroprevalence was negatively related to density in another. In addition, (i) juvenile survival was most often negatively related to seropositivity, (ii) RHDV seropositives never had considerably higher survival, and (iii) seroconversion to seropositivity was more likely than the reverse. We suggest seropositivity affects survival depending on trade-offs among antibody protection, immunosuppression and virus lethality. Negative effects of seropositivity might be greater on juveniles due to their immature immune system. Also, while RHDV directly affects survival through the hemorrhagic syndrome, MV lack of direct lethal effects means that interactions influencing survival are likely to be more complex. Multi-event modeling allowed us to quantify patterns of host–pathogen dynamics otherwise difficult to discern. Such an approach offers a promising tool to shed light on causative mechanisms. PMID:24708296

  5. Influence of Staphylococcus aureus antibody on experimental endocarditis in rabbits.

    PubMed Central

    Greenberg, D P; Ward, J I; Bayer, A S

    1987-01-01

    To evaluate the potential protective benefit of antibody to whole cells of Staphylococcal aureus for the prevention of endocarditis, the rabbit endocarditis model was used. Methicillin-sensitive (17A) and methicillin-resistant (173) S. aureus strains were evaluated in rabbits with or without indwelling intracardiac catheters. All immunized rabbits developed significant homologous agglutinating antibody titers (the mean reciprocal titers were 15,300 to strain 17A and 1,150 to strain 173). After challenge, virtually no significant differences were observed between immunized and unimmunized animals with respect to (i) incidence of endocarditis, (ii) concentration of bacteria in infected vegetations, (iii) incidence of metastatic renal abscesses, or (iv) concentrations of bacteria in infected kidneys. The clearance of homologous S. aureus strains from blood cultures was similar for immunized and unimmunized animals at 10 to 90 min after intravenous challenge. In vivo adherence of homologous S. aureus strains to aortic valves and vegetations was similar in immunized and unimmunized animals when evaluated at 30 and 90 min postchallenge. Even without catheterization, the incidence of bacteremia and renal abscesses was the same in immunized and unimmunized rabbits. Whole-cell-induced S. aureus antibody did not prevent or modify any stage in the development of endocarditis in rabbits. PMID:3679543

  6. Safety of Microbubbles and Transcranial Ultrasound in Rabbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Culp, William C.; Brown, Aliza T.; Hennings, Leah; Lowery, John; Culp, Benjamin C.; Erdem, Eren; Roberson, Paula; Matsunaga, Terry O.

    2007-05-01

    The object of this study was to evaluate the safety of large doses of microbubbles and ultrasound administered to the head of rabbits as if they were receiving acute stroke therapy of a similar nature. Materials and Methods: Female New Zealand White rabbits were used, N=24, in three groups 1] n=4 control (no treatment), 2] n=10 bubble control (ultrasound plus aspirin), and 3] n=10 target group (ultrasound plus aspirin plus MRX-815 microbubbles). Group 3 was infused with IV bubbles over 1 hour at 0.16cc/kg. Ultrasound was delivered to the dehaired side of the head during bubble infusion and for 1 additional hour at 0.8 W/cm2 20% pulsed wave. Rabbits survived for 22 to 24 hours, were imaged with computerized tomography and 3 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging including contrast studies, and sacrificed. Tetrazolium (TTC) and Hematoxylin and Eosin (H&E) sections were made for pathological examination. Results: All 24 animals showed absence of bleeding, endothelial damage, EKG abnormalities, stroke, blood-brain-barrier breakdown, or other acute abnormalities. CT and MRI showed no bleeding or signs of stroke, but two animals had mild hydrocephalus. The EKGs showed normal variation in QTc. Rabbit behavior was normal in all. Minimal chronic inflammation unrelated to the study was seen in 5. Two animals were excluded because of protocol violations and replaced during the study. Conclusion: The administered dose of microbubbles and ultrasound demonstrated no detrimental effects on the healthy rabbit animal model.

  7. Lipoic acid prevents steroid-induced osteonecrosis in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Lu, Bang-Bao; Li, Kang-Hua

    2012-06-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate in vivo effects of lipoic acid (LA) in preventing steroid-induced osteonecrosis and the possible pathway in a rabbit model. Sixty rabbits were divided into 2 groups: rabbits were intraperitoneally injected with LA aqueous solution at 36 mg/kg of body weight per day for 4 weeks in Group A and rabbits were injected with physiologic saline (PS) as a control in Group B. At 2 weeks after starting treatment, they were intramuscularly injected once with 20 mg/kg of methylprednisolone acetate (MPSL). The femora were histopathologically examined for the presence of osteonecrosis. The plasma levels of total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), glutathione (GSH), endothelin (ET) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were assayed at 2 weeks after the injection of MPSL. The incidence of osteonecrosis was significantly higher in Group B (73.1%) than in Group A (20.8%). The GSH level was higher in Group A than in Group B after the LA injection. The plasma MDA and ET levels were lower in Group A than in Group B at 2 weeks after the MPSL administration. Lipoic acid can prevent the development of steroid-induced osteonecrosis in rabbits. Inhibited oxidative stress and amendment of vascular endothelial dysfunction is a possible mechanism for this effect. PMID:21431293

  8. In vivo determination of arterial collagen synthesis in atherosclerotic rabbits

    SciTech Connect

    Opsahl, W.P.; DeLuca, D.J.; Ehrhart, L.A.

    1986-03-01

    Collagen and non-collagen protein synthesis rates were determined in vivo in tissues from rabbits fed a control or atherogenic diet supplemented with 2% peanut oil and 0.25% cholesterol for 4 months. Rabbits received a bolus intravenous injection of L-(/sup 3/H)-proline (1.0 mCi/kg) and unlabeled L-proline (7 mmoles/kg) in 0.9% NaCl. Plasma proline specific activity decreased only 20% over 5 hr and was similar to the specific activity of free proline in tissues. Thoracic aortas from atherosclerotic rabbits exhibited raised plaques covering at least 75% of the surface. Thoracic intima plus a portion of the media (TIM) was separated from the remaining media plus adventitia (TMA). Dry delipidated weight, total collagen content, and collagen as a percent of dry weight were increased significantly in the TIM of atherosclerotic rabbits. Collagen synthesis rates and collagen synthesis as a percent of total protein synthesis were likewise increased both in the TIM and in the abdominal aortas. No differences from controls either in collagen content or collagen synthesis rates were observed in the TMA, lung or skin. These results demonstrate for the first time in vivo that formation of atherosclerotic plaques is associated with increased rates of collagen synthesis. Furthermore, as previously observed with incubations in vitro, collagen synthesis was elevated to a greater extent than noncollagen protein synthesis in atherosclerotic aortas from rabbits fed cholesterol plus peanut oil.

  9. Intestinal cytochrome P450 and response to rifampicin in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, T; Okada, K; Nagata, K; Yamazoe, Y

    2000-03-01

    Properties of cytochrome P450 (P450) in rabbit intestines have been investigated to assess the possibility of an experimental model for human intestinal oxidation of drugs. Significant amounts of P450 and cytochrome b5 and activities of NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase were detected in microsomes from rabbit duodenal, jejunal, ileac and colon mucosa. All the small intestinal fractions mediated phenytoin, dextromethorphan and testosterone oxidations. Several P450 forms belonging to the CYP1A, CYP2C, CYP2D and CYP3A, but not CYP2B and CYP2E, subfamilies were detected in these tissues by Western blotting. A good correlation was observed between immunodetectable levels of CYP3A and activities of testosterone 6beta-hydroxylation. Small intestine, but not colon, CYP3A levels were increased by the pretreatment of rabbits with rifampicin (50 mg/kg for 4 days, p.o.). The extent of the increase was similar between duodena and livers. These properties of rabbit intestinal P450s were comparable to those of human intestine. These phenomena suggest the possibility that the rabbit is a beneficial in vivo model for the assessment of drug interaction occurring at the first pass of drugs ingested. PMID:10887954

  10. A transgenic rabbit model for human hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Marian, Ali J.; Wu, Yun; Lim, Do-Sun; McCluggage, Meghan; Youker, Keith; Yu, Qun-tao; Brugada, Ramon; DeMayo, Francesco; Quinones, Miguel; Roberts, Robert

    1999-01-01

    Certain mutations in genes for sarcomeric proteins cause hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). We have developed a transgenic rabbit model for HCM caused by a common point mutation in the β-myosin heavy chain (MyHC) gene, R400Q. Wild-type and mutant human β-MyHC cDNAs were cloned 3′ to a 7-kb murine β-MyHC promoter. We injected purified transgenes into fertilized zygotes to generate two lines each of the wild-type and mutant transgenic rabbits. Expression of transgene mRNA and protein were confirmed by Northern blotting and 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis followed by immunoblotting, respectively. Animals carrying the mutant transgene showed substantial myocyte disarray and a 3-fold increase in interstitial collagen expression in their myocardia. Mean septal thicknesses were comparable between rabbits carrying the wild type transgene and their nontransgenic littermates (NLMs) but were significantly increased in the mutant transgenic animals. Posterior wall thickness and left ventricular mass were also increased, but dimensions and systolic function were normal. Premature death was more common in mutant than in wild-type transgenic rabbits or in NLMs. Thus, cardiac expression of β-MyHC-Q403 in transgenic rabbits induced hypertrophy, myocyte and myofibrillar disarray, interstitial fibrosis, and premature death, phenotypes observed in humans patients with HCM due to β-MyHC-Q403. J. Clin. Invest. 104:1683–1692 (1999). PMID:10606622

  11. Intrinsic connectivity of neural networks in the awake rabbit.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, Matthew P; Weiss, Craig; Procissi, Daniel; Disterhoft, John F; Wang, Lei

    2016-04-01

    The way in which the brain is functionally connected into different networks has emerged as an important research topic in order to understand normal neural processing and signaling. Since some experimental manipulations are difficult or unethical to perform in humans, animal models are better suited to investigate this topic. Rabbits are a species that can undergo MRI scanning in an awake and conscious state with minimal preparation and habituation. In this study, we characterized the intrinsic functional networks of the resting New Zealand White rabbit brain using BOLD fMRI data. Group independent component analysis revealed seven networks similar to those previously found in humans, non-human primates and/or rodents including the hippocampus, default mode, cerebellum, thalamus, and visual, somatosensory, and parietal cortices. For the first time, the intrinsic functional networks of the resting rabbit brain have been elucidated demonstrating the rabbit's applicability as a translational animal model. Without the confounding effects of anesthetics or sedatives, future experiments may employ rabbits to understand changes in neural connectivity and brain functioning as a result of experimental manipulation (e.g., temporary or permanent network disruption, learning-related changes, and drug administration). PMID:26774609

  12. Creating a Long-Term Diabetic Rabbit Model

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jianpu; Wan, Rong; Mo, Yiqun; Zhang, Qunwei; Sherwood, Leslie C.; Chien, Sufan

    2010-01-01

    This study was to create a long-term rabbit model of diabetes mellitus for medical studies of up to one year or longer and to evaluate the effects of chronic hyperglycemia on damage of major organs. A single dose of alloxan monohydrate (100 mg/kg) was given intravenously to 20 young New Zealand White rabbits. Another 12 age-matched normal rabbits were used as controls. Hyperglycemia developed within 48 hours after treatment with alloxan. Insulin was given daily after diabetes developed. All animals gained some body weight, but the gain was much less than the age-matched nondiabetic rabbits. Hyperlipidemia, higher blood urea nitrogen and creatinine were found in the diabetic animals. Histologically, the pancreas showed marked beta cell damage. The kidneys showed significantly thickened afferent glomerular arterioles with narrowed lumens along with glomerular atrophy. Lipid accumulation in the cytoplasm of hepatocytes appeared as vacuoles. Full-thickness skin wound healing was delayed. In summary, with careful management, alloxan-induced diabetic rabbits can be maintained for one year or longer in reasonably good health for diabetic studies. PMID:21234414

  13. Creating a long-term diabetic rabbit model.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianpu; Wan, Rong; Mo, Yiqun; Zhang, Qunwei; Sherwood, Leslie C; Chien, Sufan

    2010-01-01

    This study was to create a long-term rabbit model of diabetes mellitus for medical studies of up to one year or longer and to evaluate the effects of chronic hyperglycemia on damage of major organs. A single dose of alloxan monohydrate (100 mg/kg) was given intravenously to 20 young New Zealand White rabbits. Another 12 age-matched normal rabbits were used as controls. Hyperglycemia developed within 48 hours after treatment with alloxan. Insulin was given daily after diabetes developed. All animals gained some body weight, but the gain was much less than the age-matched nondiabetic rabbits. Hyperlipidemia, higher blood urea nitrogen and creatinine were found in the diabetic animals. Histologically, the pancreas showed marked beta cell damage. The kidneys showed significantly thickened afferent glomerular arterioles with narrowed lumens along with glomerular atrophy. Lipid accumulation in the cytoplasm of hepatocytes appeared as vacuoles. Full-thickness skin wound healing was delayed. In summary, with careful management, alloxan-induced diabetic rabbits can be maintained for one year or longer in reasonably good health for diabetic studies. PMID:21234414

  14. The binding of jacalin with rabbit immunoglobulin G.

    PubMed

    Kabir, S; Ahmed, I S; Daar, A S

    1995-08-01

    Rabbit immunoglobulin G (IgG) was subjected to affinity chromatography on a column of jacalin-Sepharose 4B. While the majority of IgG molecules did not bind, a small fraction, representing about 25% of the total IgG applied, bound to jacalin-Sepharose 4B. The binding of rabbit IgG to jacalin was further evidenced by ELISA performed on jacalin coated microtitre plates. While the jacalin-retained IgG fraction displayed strong binding, the unretained fraction did not demonstrate any detectable binding. Upon SDS-PAGE, both the jacalin retained and unretained rabbit IgG fractions displayed identical protein profiles. Upon protein blotting it was demonstrated that jacalin binding sites were located only on the heavy chain of IgG. These results suggest that rabbit IgG molecules are heterogeneous with respect to their glycosylation patterns. A small fraction of rabbit IgG molecules binds jacalin and the process is probably mediated through O-linked oligosaccharides present on the heavy chain of IgG. PMID:8543337

  15. Toward an Animal Model of the Human Tear Film: Biochemical Comparison of the Mouse, Canine, Rabbit, and Human Meibomian Lipidomes

    PubMed Central

    Butovich, Igor A.; Lu, Hua; McMahon, Anne; Eule, J. Corinna

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. Secretions that are produced by meibomian glands (also known as meibum) are a major source of lipids for the ocular surface of humans and animals alike. Many animal species have been evaluated for their meibomian lipidomes. However, there have been a very small number of studies in which the animals were compared with humans side by side. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare meibum collected from humans and three typical laboratory animals, canines, mice, and rabbits, for their meibomian lipid composition in order to determine which animal species most resembles humans. Methods. High pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) and gas-liquid chromatography (GLC) in combination with mass spectrometry were used to evaluate lipidomes of all tested species. Results. Among three tested animal species, mice were found to be the closest match to humans in terms of their meibomian lipidomes, while canines were the second closest species. The lipids of these three species were close to each other structurally and, for most lipid classes, quantitatively. The rabbit meibomian lipidome, on the other hand, was vastly different from lipidomes of all other tested species. Interestingly, a previously described class of lipids, acylated omega-hydroxy fatty acids (OAHFA), was found to be present in every tested species as the major amphiphilic component of meibum. Conclusions. Our side by side comparison of the rabbit and the human meibum demonstrated their vast differences. Thus, the rabbit seems to be a poor animal model of the human tear film, at least when studying its biochemistry and biophysics. PMID:22918629

  16. Regulation of Na-Cl absorption in rabbit proximal colon in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Sellin, J.H.; De Siognie, R.

    1987-01-01

    Ion transport in rabbit proximal colon (PC) in vitro is dominated by a Na-Cl cotransport system stimulated by epinephrine. To further characterize the regulation of Na-Cl transport, the authors tested the effects of specific adrenergic agonists on ion fluxes under short-circuit conditions. Additionally, they tested the effects of the transport inhibitors bumetanide, furosemide, and 4-acetamido-4'-isothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid (SITS). Basal Na and Cl absorption were essentially nil. The ..cap alpha../sub 2/-agonist clonidine significantly increased net Na and Cl absorption. The ..cap alpha../sub 1/-agonist phenylephrine and the ..beta..-agonist isoproterenol did not alter ion transport. The ..cap alpha../sub 2/-blocker yohimbine (YOH) had a complex, concentration-dependent effect. Propranolol (10/sup -5/ M) and pracozin (10/sup -6/ M) did not significantly alter either basal or stimulated ion transport. Neither bumetanide (10/sup -6/ or 10/sup -4/ M) nor furosemide (10/sup -4/ M) blocked epinephrine-stimulated Na absorption. SITS (10/sup -4/ M) and removal of mucosal K did not have a significant effect on ion transport. Conclusions: 1) Na-Cl cotransport in rabbit PC is primarily under ..cap alpha../sub 2/-adrenergic control, 2) YOH at high concentrations acts as an agonist in PC, 3) ..cap alpha../sub 2/-adrenergic agonists stimulate Na-Cl absorption in both rabbit ileum and PC. In PC, however, the process is electrically quiet and therefore does not appear to be associated with electrogenic HCO/sub 3/ secretion as found in ileum, 4) the lack of effect of bumetanide, furosemide, and 0 K on Na transport suggests that a single Na-Cl (or Na-K-2Cl) carrier is not involved in Na-Cl cotransport in proximal colon.

  17. Assessment of SiCaP-30 in a Rabbit Posterolateral Fusion Model with Concurrent Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Smucker, Joseph D.; Petersen, Emily B.; Al-Hili, Ali; Nepola, James V.; Fredericks, Douglas C.

    2015-01-01

    Chemotherapy derivatives of the rabbit posterolateral fusion model are considered a challenging environment in which to test bone graft materials. The purpose of this study was to determine the performance characteristics of SiCaP-30 as a bone graft substitute relative to autograft (iliac crest bone graft [ICBG]), Actifuse ABX and β-Tricalcium Phosphate-Bioactive Glass-Type I Collagen (βTCP-BG) in a rabbit posterolateral spine fusion model with concurrent chemotherapy treatment This was a randomized, controlled study in a laboratory setting with blinded assessment of fusion by manual palpation and flexibility testing. Sixty rabbits were entered into the study with 45 used for analysis. Chemotherapeutic agents, doxorubicin and cis-platin (2.5 mg/kg), were administered one week prior to surgery, and one, two and three weeks post surgery. Bilateral posterolateral lumbar intertransverse process fusions were performed at L5-L6. The lateral two thirds of the transverse processes were decorticated and covered with 3cc/side of one of the following graft materials: autologous ICBG, Actifuse ABX (ApaTech Ltd, UK), Vitoss BA (Orthovita, USA) or SiCaP-30 (ApaTech Ltd., UK). Animals were euthanized 12 weeks post surgery. The ICBG group had a 45% (5/11) manual palpation fusion rate and correlated with motion analysis fusion results of 36% (4/11). The Actifuse ABX group had a 33% (4/12) manual palpation fusion rate and a motion analysis fusion rate of 25% (3/12). No motion segments in the Vitoss BA group (0/11) showed any signs of fusion. The SiCaP-30 group demonstrated a statistically higher manual palpation and motion analysis fusion rate of 82% (9/11; p<0.05) and produced superior bone formation compared with Actifuse ABX and βTCP-BG. PMID:26361457

  18. Effects of exposure to a mobile phone on testicular function and structure in adult rabbit.

    PubMed

    Salama, Nader; Kishimoto, Tomoteru; Kanayama, Hiro-omi

    2010-02-01

    The accumulating effects of exposure to electromagnetic radiation emitted by a conventional mobile phone (standby position) on the testicular function and structure are not yet fully investigated. To study these effects longitudinally, a total of 24 adult male rabbits were randomly and equally divided into three groups. Rabbits in the first (phone) group were exposed, in specially designed cages, to radio frequency emitted from the mobile phone (800 MHz) in a standby position opposite to that of testes for 8 h daily for 12 weeks. The second group consisted of the stress controls which were kept in the same kind of cages to appreciate any cage-induced anxiety. The third group included the ordinary controls which were kept in the conventional roomy cages. Semen analysis and sperm function tests (viability, hypo-osmotic swelling and acridine orange) were conducted weekly. Histological testicular sections and serum total testosterone were also evaluated. A drop in the sperm concentration appeared in the phone group at week 6. This became statistically significant at week 8, compared with the two control (stress and ordinary) groups (133, 339 and 356 x 106/mL, respectively) and to the initial sperm count (341 x 106/mL) of this group. Motile sperm population showed similarity amongst the three study groups until week 10 when it declined significantly, and thereafter in the phone and stress control groups, with more significant decline in the phone animals (50, 61 and 72.4%, respectively). Histological examination showed also a significant decrease in the diameter of seminiferous tubules in the phone group vs. the stress and ordinary controls (191 microm vs. 206 and 226 microm, respectively). The other study points did not show any difference. In conclusion, low intensity pulsed radio frequency emitted by a conventional mobile phone kept in the standby position could affect the testicular function and structure in the adult rabbit. PMID:19076254

  19. Assessment of SiCaP-30 in a Rabbit Posterolateral Fusion Model with Concurrent Chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Smucker, Joseph D; Petersen, Emily B; Al-Hili, Ali; Nepola, James V; Fredericks, Douglas C

    2015-01-01

    Chemotherapy derivatives of the rabbit posterolateral fusion model are considered a challenging environment in which to test bone graft materials. The purpose of this study was to determine the performance characteristics of SiCaP-30 as a bone graft substitute relative to autograft (iliac crest bone graft [ICBG]), Actifuse ABX and ?-Tricalcium Phosphate-Bioactive Glass-Type I Collagen (?TCP-BG) in a rabbit posterolateral spine fusion model with concurrent chemotherapy treatment This was a randomized, controlled study in a laboratory setting with blinded assessment of fusion by manual palpation and flexibility testing. Sixty rabbits were entered into the study with 45 used for analysis. Chemotherapeutic agents, doxorubicin and cis-platin (2.5 mg/kg), were administered one week prior to surgery, and one, two and three weeks post surgery. Bilateral posterolateral lumbar intertransverse process fusions were performed at L5-L6. The lateral two thirds of the transverse processes were decorticated and covered with 3cc/side of one of the following graft materials: autologous ICBG, Actifuse ABX (ApaTech Ltd, UK), Vitoss BA (Orthovita, USA) or SiCaP-30 (ApaTech Ltd., UK). Animals were euthanized 12 weeks post surgery. The ICBG group had a 45% (5/11) manual palpation fusion rate and correlated with motion analysis fusion results of 36% (4/11). The Actifuse ABX group had a 33% (4/12) manual palpation fusion rate and a motion analysis fusion rate of 25% (3/12). No motion segments in the Vitoss BA group (0/11) showed any signs of fusion. The SiCaP-30 group demonstrated a statistically higher manual palpation and motion analysis fusion rate of 82% (9/11; p<0.05) and produced superior bone formation compared with Actifuse ABX and ?TCP-BG. PMID:26361457

  20. Long-Term Exposure of Lead Acetate on Rabbit Renal Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Karimfar, Mohammad Hassan; Bargahi, Afshar; Moshtaghi, Darab; Farzadinia, Parviz

    2016-01-01

    Background: Lead has been widely used in different industries for ages. It is one of the heavy metals, highly poisonous even at low doses, and has biochemical, physiological and behavioral side effects on human and animals. It has been shown that lead has toxic effects on different tissues such as neural and genitourinary tissues, cardiovascular systems and blood. Therefore, high attention has been paid to its environmental pollutions. Objectives: Although many histological and biochemical studies have reported about the effects of lead on the renal tissue, there are a few studies about the ultrastructure and morphometric effects of lead on the kidney. Hence, the aim of this study was the evaluation of morphology and morphometrics of rabbit renal urinary barrier ultrastructure following long-term exposure to lead acetate. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 20 male New Zealand rabbits were divided into control and test groups (10 in each). The test group was injected intraperitoneally with chronic dose (8.5 mg/kg of body weight) of lead acetate and for the control group the same volume of normal saline was used, every other day for 10 weeks. After anesthetizing, the biopsies of renal tissues were taken for light and electron microscopic morphometric and morphologic analyses. Results: Long-term exposure to lead acetate caused histopathology effects including dilatation, congestion, nuclei heterochromatic effects, increase in diameter of renal tubules and urinary barrier thickness in rabbit renal tissue. Conclusions: Quantitative and qualitative results of long-term lead acetate exposure showed many histopathology side-effects, especially in the urinary barrier. PMID:27195142

  1. The length of productive life can be modified through selection: an experimental demonstration in the rabbit.

    PubMed

    Larzul, C; Ducrocq, V; Tudela, F; Juin, H; Garreau, H

    2014-06-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the feasibility of selecting for functional longevity in rabbits, defined as an ability to delay involuntary culling. Functional longevity was measured as the total number of AI performed after the first kindling. Breeding values were estimated using a discrete survival model. Male parents were selected on the basis of their progeny test results, and the efficiency of selection was estimated in the second generation, as was the correlated response on reproduction traits. A total of 48 males were progeny tested, based on the longevity of 10 daughters bred in 2 different farms. Based on their estimated genetic merit, 5 "high longevity" (HL) and 5 "low longevity" (LL) males were selected divergently and produced a new generation (5 bucks/sires and 10 daughters/bucks). A difference in longevity (+0.75 AI, i.e., 32 d) was observed between the 2 lines. In farm 1, the differences were mainly due to culling (26% in the LL line vs. 14% in the HL line) whereas mortality was similar in the 2 lines. In farm 2, mortality and culling were both higher in the LL line than in the HL line (33 vs. 15% and 19 vs. 7%, respectively). There was no difference between the 2 lines in terms of the reproduction traits recorded for each kindling. Nevertheless, because of the difference in the litter number between the 2 lines, the sum of young rabbits born alive per doe over her lifetime and the sum of young rabbits weaned per doe were higher in the HL line (+5 kits; P < 0.01). Selection for functional longevity using survival analysis is feasible for modifying lifetime reproduction traits. PMID:24867929

  2. Human Umbilical Cord Blood Cells Ameliorate Motor Deficits in Rabbits in a Cerebral Palsy Model.

    PubMed

    Drobyshevsky, Alexander; Cotten, C Michael; Shi, Zhongjie; Luo, Kehuan; Jiang, Rugang; Derrick, Matthew; Tracy, Elizabeth T; Gentry, Tracy; Goldberg, Ronald N; Kurtzberg, Joanne; Tan, Sidhartha

    2015-01-01

    Cerebral palsy (CP) has a significant impact on both patients and society, but therapy is limited. Human umbilical cord blood cells (HUCBC), containing various stem and progenitor cells, have been used to treat various brain genetic conditions. In small animal experiments, HUCBC have improved outcomes after hypoxic-ischemic (HI) injury. Clinical trials using HUCBC are underway, testing feasibility, safety and efficacy for neonatal injury as well as CP. We tested HUCBC therapy in a validated rabbit model of CP after acute changes secondary to HI injury had subsided. Following uterine ischemia at 70% gestation, we infused HUCBC into newborn rabbit kits with either mild or severe neurobehavioral changes. Infusion of high-dose HUCBC (5 × 10(6) cells) dramatically altered the natural history of the injury, alleviating the abnormal phenotype including posture, righting reflex, locomotion, tone, and dystonia. Half the high dose showed lesser but still significant improvement. The swimming test, however, showed that joint function did not restore to naïve control function in either group. Tracing HUCBC with either MRI biomarkers or PCR for human DNA found little penetration of HUCBC in the newborn brain in the immediate newborn period, suggesting that the beneficial effects were not due to cellular integration or direct proliferative effects but rather to paracrine signaling. This is the first study to show that HUCBC improve motor performance in a dose-dependent manner, perhaps by improving compensatory repair processes. PMID:25791742

  3. Mix-breeding with HEV-infected swine induced inapparent HEV infection in SPF rabbits.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lin; Wang, Lin; Xia, Junke; Zhang, Yulin; Zeng, Hang; Liu, Peng; Zou, Qinghua; Wang, Ling; Zhuang, Hui

    2016-04-01

    Studies have shown that swine HEV (sHEV) and rabbit HEV (rHEV) can experimentally infect rabbits and swine, respectively. However, no published data have documented isolating sHEV strains from rabbits in natural environment so far. To clarify the possibility of natural cross-species transmission of sHEV to rabbits, the pigs with HEV infection were farmed along with SPF rabbits in the same enclosed space. Five of 10 rabbits had seroconversion for anti-HEV antibody from the third week after mix-breeding. However, HEV RNA remained undetectable in feces, serum, liver and bile of the ten rabbits; and no obvious elevation of ALT was observed. The results possibly suggested that sHEV might lead to an inapparent infection of SPF rabbits by fecal-oral route. J. Med. Virol. 88:681-685, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26334930

  4. Junctional complexes in the preimplantation rabbit embryo.

    PubMed

    Hastings, R A; Enders, A C

    1975-01-01

    The morphology and development of junctional complexes between blastomeres of the preimplantation rabbit embryo were investigated using several approaches. Electron microscopic examination of embryos stained en bloc with uranyl acetate, and the study of junction permeability using horseradish peroxidase and lanthanum nitrate provided information on structure, intermembrane spacing and permeability of the junctional complexes. In addition, the freeze fracture technique was used with day 5 and day 6 blastocysts, since the large size of these embryos facilitated use of this method. These experiments showed that although rudimentary junctions were present between blastomeres of the early cleavage stages, effective tight junctions were not present until the blastocyst stage. Electron microscopic examination of thin sections revealed apical foci of membrane approximation or "fusion" between trophoblast cells by day 4. Freeze fracturing revealed a lattice of interconnecting ridges (on the A face) and grooves (on the B face) in the apical region between trophoblast cells of the day 5 blastocyst. This lattice formed a continuous band along the apical margin of each cell, and therefore constituted a zonula occludens. The zonula occludens of the day 5 blastocyst averages 2-3 ridges per lattice, while day 6 blastocysts had lattices that averaged 5-6 ridges. Also seen in the freeze fracture replicas from the day 5 and day 6 blastocysts were local accumulations of intramembranous particles on the A face. These particles were often observed in aggregates similar to those of previously described gap junctions. It could not be determined whether these small regions of particles were true gap junctions or a possible primitive form of gap junction because the complementary pitted surfaces (B face pits) were not demonstrated. PMID:45878

  5. Immunohistochemical study of rabbit choroidal innervation.

    PubMed

    Ramírez, J M; Triviño, A; De Hoz, R; Ramírez, A I; Salazar, J J; García-Sánchez, J

    1999-04-01

    Immunocytochemical methods with antibodies to the light (68 kDa), medium (160 kDa), and heavy (200 kDa) chain subunits of the neurofilament triplet have been used to visualize neuronal structures in rabbit choroids. Choroidal nerve fibers were present in the suprachoroid and vascular laminae and absent in the choriocapillary layer. These fibers may be classified as perivascular and intervascular. Perivascular fibers surround all arterial and venous blood vessels and form a network; these fibers were labeled with the three NF antibodies, although they were more easily visualized with anti NF-160 and anti NF-200 than anti NF-68. Intervascular fibers formed two groups. The first group consisted of fibers situated between the blood vessels and parallel to the blood vessel wall surface (paravascular fibers); these fibers were better observed using anti NF-160 and NF-200 than anti NF-68. The second group consisted of fibers which travel the entire length of the choroid until they reach the nerve plexus of the ciliary body (long tract fibers). The plexus was observed with anti NF-68, anti NF-160 and anti NF-200; however, the long tract fibers were more clearly visualized with anti NF-160 and anti NF-200 than with anti NF-68. Two types of choroidal cell were also labeled: ganglion cells and melanocytes. Ganglion cells are small, scarce neurons situated in the peripheral choroid; they were labeled with anti NF-160 and anti NF-200. The melanocytes were only labeled with anti NF-200 and they were the only non neuronal structure visualized using antibodies against neurofilaments. PMID:10343839

  6. Reacquisition of eyeblink classical conditioning following large cerebellar cortical lesions in Dutch belted rabbits.

    PubMed

    Clark, R E; Lavond, D G

    1994-03-31

    The effects of cerebellar lesions on a classically conditioned eyeblink response was examined using Dutch Belted rabbits as subjects. Results confirmed our previous findings, using New Zealand White rabbits, that cerebellar cortical lesions do not abolish conditioned responding if the interpositus is intact. However, unlike our previous studies using New Zealand White rabbits, Dutch Belted rabbits failed to reach a pre-lesion level of performance. These results suggest a possible important strain difference in this paradigm. PMID:8031490

  7. UTILIZATION OF THE RABBIT ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGE AND CHINESE HAMSTER OVARY CELL FOR EVALUATION OF THE TOXICITY OF PARTICULATE MATERIALS. II. PARTICLES FROM COAL-RELATED PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rabbit alveolar macrophage (RAM) and Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells were used in vitro tests to evaluate the toxicity of particulate effluents from coal gasification, fluidized-bed combustion, and conventional coal combustion. Evaluation of the cytotoxicity of nine samples fro...

  8. [Legitimate animal husbandry of domestic rabbits: new concepts for the breeding and raising of laboratory and meat rabbits].

    PubMed

    Stauffacher, M

    1992-01-01

    The commercial breeding of rabbits in individual cages presents a number of problems with respect to animal protection legislation. These problems are first presented in an overview of the subject. Starting from the behaviour shown by domestic rabbits in a richly structured near-to-nature enclosure, a new concept for keeping breeding groups is presented. In the housing system for breeding groups (4-5 does, one buck, plus young until weaned) which is then developed, the main characteristics of near-to-nature surroundings required for normal behaviour are replaced by manageable artificial substitutes. The individual components of the housing system and the spatial arrangements are described and discussed. Ethological examination of group breeding has shown that this housing system is both more suitable to the requirements of the rabbits themselves and more in the interest of breeders than the present commercial cage system. However, since cages will certainly remain the most important means of housing laboratory and fattening rabbits in the medium term, the ethological requirements for keeping domestic rabbits in cages will also be discussed. PMID:1555520

  9. Characterization of two novel casein transcripts in rabbit mammary gland.

    PubMed Central

    Dawson, S P; Wilde, C J; Tighe, P J; Mayer, R J

    1993-01-01

    Two clones were isolated from a cDNA library corresponding to mRNAs which accumulate in mid-lactating (14 day) rabbit mammary gland and characterized by DNA sequencing. The two clones sequenced corresponded to two novel casein transcripts (pBRM5 and pBRM42). Relative mRNA abundances for the two clones were assessed by dot-blot analysis. Phylogenetic analysis and comparison of both pBRM5 and pBRM42 with other members of the casein family revealed that the rabbit may be unique among mammals in expressing two alpha s2-casein genes. The presence of two alpha s2-casein genes in the rabbit may be the result of a relatively recent intergenic duplication event. Images Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:8280077

  10. Mandibular Fracture and Necrotizing Sialometaplasia in a Rabbit

    PubMed Central

    Villano, Jason S; Cooper, Timothy K

    2013-01-01

    A 7-mo-old female New Zealand white rabbit presented with hemorrhage of the gingiva surrounding a loose lower right incisor. Antemortem conventional radiographs revealed only a small bone fragment adjacent to the left mandible's body. In light of a provisional diagnosis of mandibular fracture, the rabbit was euthanized. Postmortem radiographs of the disarticulated mandible demonstrated mandibular symphyseal fracture and comminuted fracture of the ramus and body of the left mandible. According to histopathology, the left submandibular salivary gland had necrotizing sialometaplasia, a nonneoplastic condition of the salivary glands that is caused by ischemic infarction. Although rabbits have been used as animal models of mandibular fracture and necrotizing sialometaplasia, no nonexperimental case of such conditions had been reported previously. PMID:23561940

  11. Actinobacterial Flora in Feces of Healthy Cottontail Rabbits (Sylvilagus auduboni).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu; Tan, Hongming; Deng, Qingli; Cao, Lixiang

    2015-03-01

    Most known antibiotics from bacteria are produced by Actinobacteria. However, little is known about the community structure and diversity of fecal actinobacteria from rabbit feces. To investigate the actinobacterial community structure in rabbit feces, different actinobacterial-specific primer sets were used to amplify the overlap regions of 16S rRNA genes from the same DNA. At the genus level, 12 actinobacterial genera were detected by the L and S libraries. Arthrobacter, Brachybacterium, Dietzia, Leucobacter, Microbacterium, Promicromonospora and Rhodococcus were detected by L and S libraries. The Nocardioides, Streptomyces and Williamsia were only detected by L library; the Oerskovia and Brevibacterium were only detected by S library. The results indicated that rabbit feces contain diverse nonpathogenic actinobacterial taxa and PCR primer sets could underestimate the actinobacterial diversity besides the DNA extract efficiency. PMID:25424303

  12. Rabbit MSTN gene polymorphisms and genetic effect analysis.

    PubMed

    Qiao, X B; Xu, K Y; Li, B; Luan, X; Xia, T; Fan, X Z

    2014-01-01

    We analyzed meat samples of nine pure lines of rabbit and its 37 hybrid combinations by sequencing and single-strand conformation polymorphism techniques to explore genetic polymorphisms of all the three exon regions and part of the 5'-regulatory region of the myostatin (MSTN) gene. Thus, we detected a single nucleotide mutation (T?C) on the 476 locus of the 5'-regulatory region, but no mutation sites were detected in the exon areas. The correlation analysis showed that the mutation had some favorable genetic effects, and it resulted in increased liver weight, carcass weight, forelegs weight, back and waist weight, ham weight, and tare weight, whereas it decreased muscle drip loss and cooking loss (P < 0.05). These results suggest that the mutations in the upstream regulatory region of the MSTN gene are beneficial to the rabbit soma development, and the mutations can be used as molecular markers for the selection of the meat quality of rabbits. PMID:24782047

  13. Formation of the blood-testis barrier in the rabbit.

    PubMed

    Sun, E L; Gondos, B

    1986-01-01

    The time of establishment of the blood-testis barrier in the rabbit was studied by electron microscopy using lanthanum nitrate. This electron-dense tracer was present in the intercellular spaces in all regions of the seminiferous cords in 7- to 9-week-old animals. In 10- and 11-week-old rabbits, the penetration of lanthanum nitrate was restricted to the basal region of the seminiferous cords. Closer examination revealed the presence of numerous tight junctions between adjacent Sertoli cells. The morphological appearance of these junctions was similar to those described previously in other mammals. Entry of the tracer substance was restricted at these junctions. Pachytene germ cells, which reside beyond the junctions, were never surrounded by the tracer. Based on our observations it was concluded that the blood-testis barrier in the rabbit is formed between the 9th and 10th postnatal week, and that it is functionally effective by the 10th week. PMID:2420463

  14. Pulmonary vascular disease in a rabbit a high altitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heath, Donald; Williams, David; Rios-Datenz, Jaime; Gosney, John

    1990-03-01

    A male weanling rabbit of the New Zealand White strain, born and living at an altitude of 3800 m in La Paz, Bolivia, developed right ventricular hypertrophy. This was found to be associated with growth of vascular smooth muscle cells in the intima of pulmonary arterioles, and contrasted with muscularization of the walls of pulmonary arterioles, without extension into the intima, found in a healthy, high-altitude control rabbit of the same strain. A low-altitude control showed no such muscularization. It is concluded that alveolar hypoxia, acting directly or through an intermediate agent, is a growth factor for vascular smooth muscle cells in pulmonary arterioles. This is the first report of pulmonary vascular disease due to high altitude in rabbits.

  15. Isolation of viable Toxoplasma gondii from guinea fowl (Numida meleagris) and rabbits from Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Toxoplasma gondii was isolated from a feral guinea fowl (Numida meleagris) and domestic rabbits from Brazil for the first time. Serum and brains from 10 guinea fowl and 21 rabbits from Brazil were examined for T. gondii infection. Antibodies to T. gondii were found in 2 of 10 fowl and 2 of 21 rabbit...

  16. 7 CFR 70.56 - Grading requirements of poultry and rabbits identified with official identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Grading requirements of poultry and rabbits identified... AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) VOLUNTARY GRADING OF POULTRY PRODUCTS AND RABBIT PRODUCTS Grading of Poultry Products and Rabbit Products Identifying and Marking Products § 70.56...

  17. 9 CFR 3.61 - Primary enclosures used to transport live rabbits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... live rabbits. 3.61 Section 3.61 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... and Transportation of Rabbits Transportation Standards § 3.61 Primary enclosures used to transport live rabbits. No person subject to the Animal Welfare regulations shall offer for transportation...

  18. 7 CFR 70.56 - Grading requirements of poultry and rabbits identified with official identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Grading requirements of poultry and rabbits identified... AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) VOLUNTARY GRADING OF POULTRY PRODUCTS AND RABBIT PRODUCTS Grading of Poultry Products and Rabbit Products Identifying and Marking Products § 70.56...

  19. 9 CFR 354.141 - Issuance and disposition of rabbits inspection certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Issuance and disposition of rabbits... PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION VOLUNTARY INSPECTION OF RABBITS AND EDIBLE PRODUCTS THEREOF Inspection Certificates § 354.141 Issuance and disposition of rabbits...

  20. 9 CFR 354.141 - Issuance and disposition of rabbits inspection certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Issuance and disposition of rabbits... PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION VOLUNTARY INSPECTION OF RABBITS AND EDIBLE PRODUCTS THEREOF Inspection Certificates § 354.141 Issuance and disposition of rabbits...

  1. 9 CFR 354.141 - Issuance and disposition of rabbits inspection certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Issuance and disposition of rabbits... PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION VOLUNTARY INSPECTION OF RABBITS AND EDIBLE PRODUCTS THEREOF Inspection Certificates § 354.141 Issuance and disposition of rabbits...

  2. 7 CFR 70.56 - Grading requirements of poultry and rabbits identified with official identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Grading requirements of poultry and rabbits identified... AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) VOLUNTARY GRADING OF POULTRY PRODUCTS AND RABBIT PRODUCTS Grading of Poultry Products and Rabbit Products Identifying and Marking Products § 70.56...

  3. 9 CFR 3.61 - Primary enclosures used to transport live rabbits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... live rabbits. 3.61 Section 3.61 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... and Transportation of Rabbits Transportation Standards § 3.61 Primary enclosures used to transport live rabbits. No person subject to the Animal Welfare regulations shall offer for transportation...

  4. 7 CFR 70.56 - Grading requirements of poultry and rabbits identified with official identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grading requirements of poultry and rabbits identified... AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) VOLUNTARY GRADING OF POULTRY PRODUCTS AND RABBIT PRODUCTS Grading of Poultry Products and Rabbit Products Identifying and Marking Products § 70.56...

  5. 7 CFR 70.56 - Grading requirements of poultry and rabbits identified with official identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Grading requirements of poultry and rabbits identified... AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) VOLUNTARY GRADING OF POULTRY PRODUCTS AND RABBIT PRODUCTS Grading of Poultry Products and Rabbit Products Identifying and Marking Products § 70.56...

  6. 9 CFR 3.61 - Primary enclosures used to transport live rabbits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... live rabbits. 3.61 Section 3.61 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... and Transportation of Rabbits Transportation Standards § 3.61 Primary enclosures used to transport live rabbits. No person subject to the Animal Welfare regulations shall offer for transportation...

  7. 9 CFR 3.61 - Primary enclosures used to transport live rabbits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... live rabbits. 3.61 Section 3.61 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... and Transportation of Rabbits Transportation Standards § 3.61 Primary enclosures used to transport live rabbits. No person subject to the Animal Welfare regulations shall offer for transportation...

  8. 9 CFR 354.141 - Issuance and disposition of rabbits inspection certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Issuance and disposition of rabbits... PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION VOLUNTARY INSPECTION OF RABBITS AND EDIBLE PRODUCTS THEREOF Inspection Certificates § 354.141 Issuance and disposition of rabbits...

  9. 9 CFR 3.61 - Primary enclosures used to transport live rabbits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... live rabbits. 3.61 Section 3.61 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... and Transportation of Rabbits Transportation Standards § 3.61 Primary enclosures used to transport live rabbits. No person subject to the Animal Welfare regulations shall offer for transportation...

  10. 9 CFR 354.141 - Issuance and disposition of rabbits inspection certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Issuance and disposition of rabbits... PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION VOLUNTARY INSPECTION OF RABBITS AND EDIBLE PRODUCTS THEREOF Inspection Certificates § 354.141 Issuance and disposition of rabbits...

  11. Development of a Zealand white rabbit deposition model to study inhalation anthrax.

    PubMed

    Asgharian, Bahman; Price, Owen; Kabilan, Senthil; Jacob, Richard E; Einstein, Daniel R; Kuprat, Andrew P; Corley, Richard A

    2016-02-01

    Despite using rabbits in several inhalation exposure experiments to study diseases such as anthrax, there is a lack of understanding regarding deposition characteristics and fate of inhaled particles (bio-aerosols and viruses) in the respiratory tracts of rabbits. Such information allows dosimetric extrapolation to humans to inform human outcomes. The lung geometry of the New Zealand white rabbit (referred to simply as rabbits throughout the article) was constructed using recently acquired scanned images of the conducting airways of rabbits and available information on its acinar region. In addition, functional relationships were developed for the lung and breathing parameters of rabbits as a function of body weight. The lung geometry and breathing parameters were used to extend the existing deposition model for humans and several other species to rabbits. Evaluation of the deposition model for rabbits was made by comparing predictions with available measurements in the literature. Deposition predictions in the lungs of rabbits indicated smaller deposition fractions compared to those found in humans across various particle diameter ranges. The application of the deposition model for rabbits was demonstrated by extrapolating deposition predictions in rabbits to find equivalent human exposure concentrations assuming the same dose-response relationship between the two species. Human equivalent exposure concentration levels were found to be much smaller than those for rabbits. PMID:26895308

  12. THERMOREGULATORY RESPONSES OF THE RABBIT TO CENTRAL NEURAL INJECTION OF SULFOLANE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Systemic exposure of the rabbit to sulfolane results in hypothermia; however, the mechanism of this thermoregulatory effect is unknown. his study was designed to determine the thermoregulatory effects of sulfolane on the central nervous system (CNs) of the rabbit. ale rabbits wer...

  13. Potential penetration of topical ranibizumab (Lucentis) in the rabbit eye

    PubMed Central

    Chen, J J; Ebmeier, S E; Sutherland, W M; Ghazi, N G

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To assess ranibizumab (Lucentis) penetration into the retina after topical administration in a rabbit model. Methods Ranibizumab was topically applied to the right eye of rabbits according to three regimens: every 2 h (q2hr), four times daily (qid), and twice daily (bid). Intraocular penetration of ranibizumab was assessed at 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days following initiation of drops. At each time point, the anterior chambers, vitreous cavities, and blood of one of the rabbits from each subgroup were sampled for ranibizumab detection using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and both eyes were then enucleated for ranibizumab detection in the retina by confocal immunohistochemistry (CI). Another group of rabbits received intravitreal ranibizumab and was similarly sampled for comparison. Results CI showed ranibizumab staining in the right retina after 7 and 14 days of q2hr topical administration in two out of four experiments. No ranibizumab was detected in the left retina at any of the sampling time points. ELISA was positive in the vitreous of the right eye at 14 and 21 days in the q2hr treated rabbits in one out of four experiments. No ranibizumab was detected in the qid and bid subgroups. CI and ELISA of the aqueous and vitreous were consistently positive in the intravitreal group. Mild ranibizumab levels were detected in the blood in both the topical and intravitreal groups. Conclusions Topically applied ranibizumab can be detected in the retina following high-frequency administration in a rabbit model. A trans-scleral route of penetration is suggested. PMID:21921952

  14. Arterial peculiarities of the thoracolumbar spinal cord in rabbit.

    PubMed

    Mazensky, D; Danko, J; Petrovova, E; Mechirova, E; Prokes, M

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the arterial blood supply of the thoracolumbar spinal cord in rabbit. The study was carried out on twenty adult New Zealand white rabbits. Ten rabbits were used in the corrosion technique and ten rabbits in the dissection technique. After the killing, the vascular network was perfused with saline. Batson's corrosion casting kit no. 17 © was used as a casting medium. After polymerisation of the medium, in ten rabbits the maceration was carried out in KOH solution, and in ten other rabbits, formaldehyde was injected by the dissection technique into the vertebral canal. We found high variability of segmental arteries supplying blood to the spinal cord. There are 12 intercostal arteries and 1 costo-abdominal artery. Dorsal branches arising from the dorsal surface of the aorta thoracica were found as follows: in 70% of the cases, 9 pairs were present; in 20% of the cases 8 pairs; and in 10% of the cases 10 pairs. The paired arteriae lumbales were present in 6 pairs in 90% of the cases and in 5 pairs in 10% of the cases. On the dorsal surface of spinal cord, we found two irregular longitudinal arteries in 70% of the cases, no longitudinal arteries in 20% of the cases and three irregular longitudinal arteries in 10% of the cases receiving dorsal branches of rami spinales. Among the dorsal branches observed in the thoracic region, 60.5% were left-sided, 39.5% right-sided and in the lumbar region, 52.5% were left-sided and 47.5% right-sided. PMID:23952724

  15. Renal handling of guanidino compounds in rat and rabbit.

    PubMed Central

    Levillain, O; Marescau, B; De Deyn, P P

    1997-01-01

    1. Guanidino compounds (GCs) have been quantified in different mammalian tissues such as brain, liver, muscle and kidney. The high anatomical heterogeneity of the kidney suggests that GCs could be unevenly distributed along the corticopapillary axis of the kidney in different species. 2. This study was designed to quantify twelve GCs in the different zones of rat and rabbit kidney. The kidneys were sliced and pieces of seven definite zones were weighed and homogenized for further GC extraction. GCs were determined by liquid chromatography. 3. The results indicate that: (1) GCs were unevenly distributed along rat and rabbit kidney; (2) qualitative and quantitative studies proved that each GC shows a particular distribution pattern along the corticopapillary axis for a given species; (3) in rats, alpha-keto-delta-guanidinovaleric acid, guanidinosuccinic acid, creatinine (CTN), methylguanidine and to a lesser extent gamma-guanidinobutyric acid increased steeply along the inner medulla in parallel to urea, whereas in rabbits, most of the GCs reached a plateau in the inner medulla and remained constant at this level; (4) gamma-guanidinobutyric acid was specifically found in the rat kidney; (5) argininic acid was higher in rabbit compared with rat kidney; (6) significantly higher levels of homoarginine were found in all zones of the rat kidney compared with the rabbit kidney. 4. The results suggest that: (1) GCs are mostly localized within the nephron segments; (2) an accumulation of GCs in the inner medulla might be explained either by a recycling process or by an intracellular storage as has been reported for urea, amino acids and organic osmolytes; (3) some GCs might be synthesized in nephron segments as reported for arginine (Arg) and guanidinoacetic acid (GAA); (4) several metabolic pathways of the GCs seemed to differ between rat and rabbit; (5) except for creatine, CTN, Arg and GAA, it seems unlikely that GCs might significantly increase the intracellular osmolality. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:9080382

  16. Contrasting Effects of Climate Change on Rabbit Populations through Reproduction

    PubMed Central

    Tablado, Zulima; Revilla, Eloy

    2012-01-01

    Background Climate change is affecting many physical and biological processes worldwide. Anticipating its effects at the level of populations and species is imperative, especially for organisms of conservation or management concern. Previous studies have focused on estimating future species distributions and extinction probabilities directly from current climatic conditions within their geographical ranges. However, relationships between climate and population parameters may be so complex that to make these high-level predictions we need first to understand the underlying biological processes driving population size, as well as their individual response to climatic alterations. Therefore, the objective of this study is to investigate the influence that climate change may have on species population dynamics through altering breeding season. Methodology/Principal Findings We used a mechanistic model based on drivers of rabbit reproductive physiology together with demographic simulations to show how future climate-driven changes in breeding season result in contrasting rabbit population trends across Europe. In the Iberian Peninsula, where rabbits are a native species of high ecological and economic value, breeding seasons will shorten and become more variable leading to population declines, higher extinction risk, and lower resilience to perturbations. Whereas towards north-eastern countries, rabbit numbers are expected to increase through longer and more stable reproductive periods, which augment the probability of new rabbit invasions in those areas. Conclusions/Significance Our study reveals the type of mechanisms through which climate will cause alterations at the species level and emphasizes the need to focus on them in order to better foresee large-scale complex population trends. This is especially important in species like the European rabbit whose future responses may aggravate even further its dual keystone/pest problematic. Moreover, this approach allows us to predict not only distribution shifts but also future population status and growth, and to identify the demographic parameters on which to focus to mitigate global change effects. PMID:23152836

  17. Bisphenol A Exposure Enhances Atherosclerosis in WHHL Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Chao; Ning, Bo; Waqar, Ahmed Bilal; Niimi, Manabu; Li, Shen; Satoh, Kaneo; Shiomi, Masashi; Ye, Ting; Dong, Sijun; Fan, Jianglin

    2014-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an environmental endocrine disrupter. Excess exposure to BPA may increase susceptibility to many metabolic disorders, but it is unclear whether BPA exposure has any adverse effects on the development of atherosclerosis. To determine whether there are such effects, we investigated the response of Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic (WHHL) rabbits to 400-µg/kg BPA per day, administered orally by gavage, over the course of 12 weeks and compared aortic and coronary atherosclerosis in these rabbits to the vehicle group using histological and morphometric methods. In addition, serum BPA, cytokines levels and plasma lipids as well as pathologic changes in liver, adipose and heart were analyzed. Moreover, we treated human umbilical cord vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and rabbit aortic smooth muscle cells (SMCs) with different doses of BPA to investigate the underlying molecular mechanisms involved in BPA action(s). BPA treatment did not change the plasma lipids and body weights of the WHHL rabbits; however, the gross atherosclerotic lesion area in the aortic arch was increased by 57% compared to the vehicle group. Histological and immunohistochemical analyses revealed marked increases in advanced lesions (37%) accompanied by smooth muscle cells (60%) but no significant changes in the numbers of macrophages. With regard to coronary atherosclerosis, incidents of coronary stenosis increased by 11% and smooth muscle cells increased by 73% compared to the vehicle group. Furthermore, BPA-treated WHHL rabbits showed increased adipose accumulation and hepatic and myocardial injuries accompanied by up-regulation of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and inflammatory and lipid metabolism markers in livers. Treatment with BPA also induced the expression of ER stress and inflammation related genes in cultured HUVECs. These results demonstrate for the first time that BPA exposure may increase susceptibility to atherosclerosis in WHHL rabbits. PMID:25333893

  18. The rabbit as an infection model for equine proliferative enteropathy.

    PubMed

    Sampieri, Francesca; Allen, Andrew L; Pusterla, Nicola; Vannucci, Fabio A; Antonopoulos, Aphroditi J; Ball, Katherine R; Thompson, Julie; Dowling, Patricia M; Hamilton, Don L; Gebhart, Connie J

    2013-04-01

    The objective of this study was to demonstrate the susceptibility of rabbits to Lawsonia intracellularis obtained from a case of clinical equine proliferative enteropathy (EPE). This is a preliminary step toward developing a rabbit infection model for studying pathogenesis and therapy of EPE in horses. Nine does were equally assigned to 3 groups. Animals in 2 groups (Group 1 and Group 2) were orally inoculated with different doses of cell-cultured L. intracellularis. Controls (Group 3) were sham-inoculated. Feces and blood were collected before the rabbits were infected and at 7, 14, and 21 days post-infection (DPI). Serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) titers were measured using an immunoperoxidase monolayer assay (IPMA) and fecal samples were analyzed with quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). A doe from each group was euthanized at 7, 14, and 21 DPI for collection and evaluation of intestinal samples. Tissues were stained by routine hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) method and immunohistochemistry (IHC) with L. intracellularis-specific mouse monoclonal antibody. At 14 DPI, serologic responses were detected in both infected groups, which maintained high titers through to 21 DPI. Lawsonia intracellularis DNA was detected in the feces of Group 2 on 7 DPI and in both infected groups on 14 DPI. Gross lesions were apparent in Group 1 and Group 2 on 14 DPI. Immunohistochemistry confirmed L. intracellularis antigen within cells of rabbits in Group 1 and Group 2 on 7, 14, and 21 DPI. No lesions, serologic response, shedding, or IHC labeling were found in Group 3 rabbits. This study describes an EPE rabbit model that simulates natural infection, as typical lesions, immune response, and fecal shedding were present. PMID:24082402

  19. The rabbit as an infection model for equine proliferative enteropathy

    PubMed Central

    Sampieri, Francesca; Allen, Andrew L.; Pusterla, Nicola; Vannucci, Fabio A.; Antonopoulos, Aphroditi J.; Ball, Katherine R.; Thompson, Julie; Dowling, Patricia M.; Hamilton, Don L.; Gebhart, Connie J.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to demonstrate the susceptibility of rabbits to Lawsonia intracellularis obtained from a case of clinical equine proliferative enteropathy (EPE). This is a preliminary step toward developing a rabbit infection model for studying pathogenesis and therapy of EPE in horses. Nine does were equally assigned to 3 groups. Animals in 2 groups (Group 1 and Group 2) were orally inoculated with different doses of cell-cultured L. intracellularis. Controls (Group 3) were sham-inoculated. Feces and blood were collected before the rabbits were infected and at 7, 14, and 21 days post-infection (DPI). Serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) titers were measured using an immunoperoxidase monolayer assay (IPMA) and fecal samples were analyzed with quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). A doe from each group was euthanized at 7, 14, and 21 DPI for collection and evaluation of intestinal samples. Tissues were stained by routine hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) method and immunohistochemistry (IHC) with L. intracellularis-specific mouse monoclonal antibody. At 14 DPI, serologic responses were detected in both infected groups, which maintained high titers through to 21 DPI. Lawsonia intracellularis DNA was detected in the feces of Group 2 on 7 DPI and in both infected groups on 14 DPI. Gross lesions were apparent in Group 1 and Group 2 on 14 DPI. Immunohistochemistry confirmed L. intracellularis antigen within cells of rabbits in Group 1 and Group 2 on 7, 14, and 21 DPI. No lesions, serologic response, shedding, or IHC labeling were found in Group 3 rabbits. This study describes an EPE rabbit model that simulates natural infection, as typical lesions, immune response, and fecal shedding were present. PMID:24082402

  20. Associations of passerine birds, rabbits, and ticks with Borrelia miyamotoi and Borrelia andersonii in Michigan, U.S.A.

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Wild birds contribute to maintenance and dissemination of vectors and microbes, including those that impact human, domestic animal, and wildlife health. Here we elucidate roles of wild passerine birds, eastern cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus), and Ixodes dentatus ticks in enzootic cycles of two spirochetes, Borrelia miyamotoi and B. andersonii in a region of Michigan where the zoonotic pathogen B. burgdorferi co-circulates. Methods Over a four-year period, wild birds (n = 19,631) and rabbits (n = 20) were inspected for tick presence and ear tissue was obtained from rabbits. Samples were tested for Borrelia spirochetes using nested PCR of the 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer region (IGS) and bidirectional DNA sequencing. Natural xenodiagnosis was used to implicate wildlife reservoirs. Results Ixodes dentatus, a tick that specializes on birds and rabbits and rarely bites humans, was the most common tick found, comprising 86.5% of the 12,432 ticks collected in the study. The relapsing fever group spirochete B. miyamotoi was documented for the first time in ticks removed from wild birds (0.7% minimum infection prevalence; MIP, in I. dentatus), and included two IGS strains. The majority of B. miyamotoi-positive ticks were removed from Northern Cardinals (Cardinalis cardinalis). Borrelia andersonii infected ticks removed from birds (1.6% MIP), ticks removed from rabbits (5.3% MIP), and rabbit ear biopsies (5%) comprised twelve novel IGS strains. Six species of wild birds were implicated as reservoirs for B. andersonii. Frequency of I. dentatus larval and nymphal co-feeding on birds was ten times greater than expected by chance. The relatively well-studied ecology of I. scapularis and the Lyme disease pathogen provides a context for understanding how the phenology of bird ticks may impact B. miyamotoi and B. andersonii prevalence and host associations. Conclusions Given the current invasion of I. scapularis, a human biting species that serves as a bridge vector for Borrelia spirochetes, human exposure to B. miyamotoi and B. andersonii in this region may increase. The presence of these spirochetes underscores the ecological complexity within which Borrelia organisms are maintained and the need for diagnostic tests to differentiate among these organisms. PMID:23057837

  1. Stannous chloride induces alterations in enzyme activities, lipid peroxidation and histopathology in male rabbit: antioxidant role of vitamin C.

    PubMed

    El-Demerdash, F M; Yousef, M I; Zoheir, Malak A

    2005-12-01

    Stannous chloride (SnCl2) is widely used in daily human life to conserve soft drinks, in food manufacturing and biocidal preparations. It had genotoxicity, immunotoxicity, neurotoxicity and oxidative stress. Therefore, the present experiment was carried out to determine the effectiveness of l-ascorbic acid (AA) in alleviating the toxicity of SnCl2 on some enzyme activities and oxidative damage in male New Zealand white rabbits. Six rabbits per group were assigned to 1 of 4 treatment groups: 0 mg AA and 0 mg SnCl2/kg BW (control); 40 mg AA/kg BW; 20 mg SnCl2/kg BW (1/500 LD50); 20 mg SnCl2 plus 40 mg AA/kg BW. Rabbits were orally administered the respective doses every other day for 12 weeks. Liver and kidney specimens were processed for histopathologic studies. Results obtained showed that SnCl2 significantly (P < 0.05) induced free radicals in rabbit liver, testes, kidney, lung, brain and heart. While, the activity of glutathione S-transferase (GST) and the level of sulfhydryl groups (SH-group) were decreased (P < 0.05) in all tested organs except brain and heart. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activity was increased (P < 0.05) in liver and decreased in testes, but alanine aminotransferase (ALT) did not change. The activities of alkaline phosphatase (AlP) and acid phosphatase (AcP) were decreased (P < 0.05) in liver, testes, kidney and lung. Also, the activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) was significantly decreased in brain and plasma of rabbits treated with SnCl2 compared to control group. Histopathologic studies showed marked changes in hepatocytes as well as proliferation of duct epithelium, dilatation and congestion of blood vessels as well as mononuclear inflammatory infiltrate. The kidney were also severely affected by SnCl2 the Bowman's space was increased, with infiltration of renal parenchyma by mononuclear inflammatory infiltrate and changes in cells lining convoluted tubule. Ascorbic acid alone significantly decreased the levels of free radicals, and increased the activity of GST and the levels of SH groups in tested organs except brain and heart. While, the rest of the tested parameters were not affected. Results showed that AA alleviated the harmful effects of SnCl2. This was proved histopathologically by the great improvement in liver and kidney histology where hepatocytes retained normal architecture with mild dilatation and congestion of blood vessels. Bowman's space of kidney was almost normal, with normal lining of proximal and distal convoluted tubules. In conclusion AA could be effective in the protection against stannous chloride toxicity. PMID:16051410

  2. Effects of OsteoKing on osteoporotic rabbits.

    PubMed

    Dai, Lifen; Wu, Haiying; Yu, Shan; Zhao, Hongbin; Xue, Lanjie; Xu, Ming; Shen, Zhiqiang; Hu, Min

    2015-07-01

    Heng-Gu-Gu-Shang-Yu-He-Ji, also known as OsteoKing, is used as a herbal Traditional Chinese Medicine for the treatment of bone disease, including femoral head necrosis and osteoarthritis. However, whether OsteoKing has anti-osteoporotic properties has remained to be elucidated. The purpose of the present study was therefore to investigate the effects of OsteoKing on ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis in rabbits. Female New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into an ovariectomized (OVX) group and a sham-surgery group. The rabbits in the OVX group were subjected to an ovariectomy, while the rabbits in the sham group were subjected to the removal of an area of fat near the two ovaries. Bone mineral density, mechanical properties, serum biochemical parameters and micro-architecture were examined at 150 days post-OVX to characterize the experimental animal model. Once the osteoporotic rabbit model had been established, the rabbits in the OVX group were divided into the following groups: Model group, nilestriol group and 300 and 600 mg/kg OsteoKing groups, containing 16 rabbits in each group. OsteoKing and nilestriol were administered orally. The bone mineral density, mechanical properties, serum biochemical parameters, histology and micro-architecture were examined using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometric analysis, mechanical assessments, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, histopathological evaluation and micro-computerized tomography examination following 60 days and 120 days of treatment, respectively. Treatment with OsteoKing led to an elevation in the bone mineral density of the vertebra and serum phosphorus levels, reduced serum concentrations of osteocalcin, procollagen type I N-terminal peptide, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b and cross-linked N-telopeptide of type I collagen, improved mechanical properties (maximum load, stiffness and energy absorption capacity), and micro-architecture of the lumbar vertebra in the OVX osteoporotic rabbit model following treatment for 120 days. In conclusion, it was demonstrated that OsteoKing is effective in the prevention of estrogen deficiency-associated bone loss and may be a promising drug for the treatment of post-menopausal osteoporosis. PMID:25815520

  3. Effects of OsteoKing on osteoporotic rabbits

    PubMed Central

    DAI, LIFEN; WU, HAIYING; YU, SHAN; ZHAO, HONGBIN; XUE, LANJIE; XU, MING; SHEN, ZHIQIANG; HU, MIN

    2015-01-01

    Heng-Gu-Gu-Shang-Yu-He-Ji, also known as OsteoKing, is used as a herbal Traditional Chinese Medicine for the treatment of bone disease, including femoral head necrosis and osteoarthritis. However, whether OsteoKing has anti-osteoporotic properties has remained to be elucidated. The purpose of the present study was therefore to investigate the effects of OsteoKing on ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis in rabbits. Female New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into an ovariectomized (OVX) group and a sham-surgery group. The rabbits in the OVX group were subjected to an ovariectomy, while the rabbits in the sham group were subjected to the removal of an area of fat near the two ovaries. Bone mineral density, mechanical properties, serum biochemical parameters and micro-architecture were examined at 150 days post-OVX to characterize the experimental animal model. Once the osteoporotic rabbit model had been established, the rabbits in the OVX group were divided into the following groups: Model group, nilestriol group and 300 and 600 mg/kg OsteoKing groups, containing 16 rabbits in each group. OsteoKing and nilestriol were administered orally. The bone mineral density, mechanical properties, serum biochemical parameters, histology and micro-architecture were examined using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometric analysis, mechanical assessments, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, histopathological evaluation and micro-computerized tomography examination following 60 days and 120 days of treatment, respectively. Treatment with OsteoKing led to an elevation in the bone mineral density of the vertebra and serum phosphorus levels, reduced serum concentrations of osteocalcin, procollagen type I N-terminal peptide, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b and cross-linked N-telopeptide of type I collagen, improved mechanical properties (maximum load, stiffness and energy absorption capacity), and micro-architecture of the lumbar vertebra in the OVX osteoporotic rabbit model following treatment for 120 days. In conclusion, it was demonstrated that OsteoKing is effective in the prevention of estrogen deficiency-associated bone loss and may be a promising drug for the treatment of post-menopausal osteoporosis. PMID:25815520

  4. Phase separation of X-irradiated lenses of rabbit

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, J.I.; Giblin, F.J.; Reddy, V.N.; Benedek, G.B.

    1982-02-01

    The phase separation temperature (Tcat) was studied as a function of time (age) after the administration of a single dose of radiation (2000 rad), which induces cataract in the rabbit lens. In the normal unirradiated lens, Tcat decreases linearly with age at a rate (DTcat/dt) approximately 2.2 degrees/week. In the irradiated lens, Tcat initially decreases with age much less than the normal lens, then rises sharply with age at the time of the appearance of opacity in the living rabbit eye. We suggest that the phase separation temperature may serve as a sensitive and early indicator of cataractogenic processes in the lens.

  5. High dietary cholesterol facilitates classical conditioning of the rabbits nictitating membrane response

    PubMed Central

    SCHREURS, BERNARD G.; SMITH-BELL, CARRIE A.; DARWISH, DEYA S.; STANKOVIC, GORAN; SPARKS, D. LARRY

    2011-01-01

    Studies have shown that modifying dietary cholesterol may improve learning and that serum cholesterol levels can be positively correlated with cognitive performance. Rabbits fed a 0, 0.5, 1 or 2% cholesterol diet for eight weeks and 0.12ppm copper added to their drinking water received trace and then delay classical conditioning pairing tone with corneal air puff during which movement of the nictitating membrane (NM) across the eye was monitored. We found that the level of classical conditioning and conditioning-specific reflex modification (CRM) as well as the number of beta amyloid-labeled neurons in the cortex and hippocampus were a function of the concentration of cholesterol in the diet. The data provide support for the idea that dietary cholesterol may facilitate learning and memory. PMID:17539481

  6. Elemental and configural processing of odour mixtures in the newborn rabbit.

    PubMed

    Coureaud, Gérard; Hamdani, Younes; Schaal, Benoist; Thomas-Danguin, Thierry

    2009-08-01

    The processing of odour mixtures by young organisms is poorly understood. Recently, the perception of an AB mixture, known to engage configural perception in adult humans, was suggested also to be partially configural in newborn rabbits. In particular, pups did not respond to AB after they had learned A or B. However, two alternative hypotheses might be suggested to explain this result: the presence in the mixture of a novel odorant that inhibits the response to the learned stimulus, and the unevenness of the sensory and cognitive processes engaged during the conditioning and the behavioural testing. We conducted four experiments to explore these alternative hypotheses. In experiment 1, the learning of A or B ended in responses to mixtures including a novel odorant (AC or BC). Experiment 2 pointed to the absence of overshadowing. Therefore, a novelty effect cannot explain the non-response to AB after the learning of A or B. In experiment 3, pups having learned A or B in AC or BC did not respond to AB. However, they generalized odour information acquired in AB to AC or BC in experiment 4. Thus, the balancing of the perceptual tasks between the conditioning and retention test does not enhance the response to the AB mixture. To sum up, the present experiments give concrete support to the partially configural perception of specific odour mixtures by newborn rabbits. PMID:19648396

  7. Coleopterofauna found on fresh and frozen rabbit carcasses in Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Mise, K M; Corrêa, R C; Almeida, L M

    2013-08-01

    Many arthropod species are associated with carrion and some of them can be used as forensic indicators in murder investigations to estimate the time of death. Different physical conditions of cadavers may influence the fauna and the importance of freezing and thawing is unknown. The present paper sought to survey the Coleoptera species encountered in frozen and fresh rabbit carcasses, at a forest in Curitiba, Brazil. Four rabbit carcasses, two of them fresh and the other frozen were used. The coleopterofauna was sampled daily, and analyzed using non-parametric tests. A total of 666 beetles were sampled, belonging to 28 species in 10 families. Most of the beetles captured were larvae of Oxelytrum spp. (433) which are known to be necrophagous. The two frozen carcasses accounted for most of the beetles (338 and 180) in comparison with the two fresh carcasses (103 and 45). The tests were based on the most abundant species. Oxelytrum spp. median differed significantly between carcasses (H = 12.47844; p = 0.0059). The two fresh carcasses differed significantly (U = 190.0; p = 0.00019), but there was no significant difference between the frozen carcasses (U = 336.0; p = 0.29755). The data indicate that the freezing process prevents certain species to colonize carcasses, in this case with the dominance of species of Oxelytrum. These data also indicate that careful attention is necessary before using frozen carcasses in forensic entomology studies. PMID:24212695

  8. Effect of enamel matrix derivative (Emdogain) on bone defects in rabbit tibias.

    PubMed

    Cornelini, Roberto; Scarano, Antonio; Piattelli, Maurizio; Andreana, Sebastiano; Covani, Ugo; Quaranta, Alessandro; Piattelli, Adriano

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of an enamel matrix derivative (Emdogain, Biora, AB, Malmö, Sweden) on bone healing. Ten New Zealand rabbits, weighing about 2.5 kg, were used. One 8-mm bone defect was created in each tibia. The defect on the right leg was filled with Emdogain, whereas the defect on the opposite leg was left unfilled as control. A total of 20 defects were created. Five rabbits each were killed at 4 and 8 weeks with an overdose of Tanax. Block sections containing the defects were retrieved and the specimens processed for light microscopy examination. The slides were stained with acid and basic fuchsin and toluidine blue. Histologically, no differences were noted in both groups at each observation period; in the test group, remnants of the implanted Emdogain were not present at 4 weeks. Newly formed bone was detectable in both groups at all observation times. At 8 weeks, both groups showed mature bone, and in the test group the material implanted was not visible. No inflammatory cells were visible in both groups. In conclusion, our results indicate that Emdogain implanted in bone defects is fully resorbed after 4 to 8 weeks and does not adversely affect bone formation. PMID:15119455

  9. Pulmonary effects of inhaled zinc oxide in human subjects, guinea pigs, rats, and rabbits

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, T.; Chen, L.C.; Fine, J.M.; Schlesinger, R.B.; Su, W.Y.; Kimmel, T.A.; Amdur, M.O. )

    1992-08-01

    Occupational exposure to freshly formed zinc oxide (ZnO) particles (less than 1.0 micron aerodynamic diameter) produces a well-characterized response known as metal fume fever. An 8-hr threshold limit value (TLV) of 5 mg/m3 has been established to prevent adverse health effects because of exposure to ZnO fumes. Because animal toxicity studies have demonstrated pulmonary effects near the current TLV, the present study examined the time course and dose-response of the pulmonary injury produced by inhaled ZnO in guinea pigs, rats, rabbits, and human volunteers. The test animals were exposed to 0, 2.5, or 5.0 mg/m3 ZnO for up to 3 hr and their lungs lavaged. Both the lavage fluid and recovered cells were examined for evidence of inflammation or altered cell function. The lavage fluid from guinea pigs and rats exposed to 5 mg/m3 had significant increases in total cells, lactate dehydrogenase, beta-glucuronidase, and protein content. These changes were greatest 24 hr after exposure. Guinea pig alveolar macrophage function was depressed as evidenced by in vitro phagocytosis of opsonized latex beads. Significant changes in lavage fluid parameters were also observed in guinea pigs and rats exposed to 2.5 mg/m3 ZnO. In contrast, rabbits showed no increase in biochemical or cellular parameters following a 2-hr exposure to 5 mg/m3 ZnO. Differences in total lung burden of ZnO, as determined in additional animals by atomic absorption spectroscopy, appeared to account for the observed differences in species responses. Although the lungs of guinea pigs and rats retained approximately 20% and 12% of the inhaled dose, respectively, rabbits retained only 5%.

  10. A Chitosan-Based Sinus Sealant for Reduction of Adhesion Formation in Rabbit and Sheep Models

    PubMed Central

    Medina, Jennifer G.; Steinke, John W.; Das, Subinoy

    2013-01-01

    Objective Chronic sinusitis is the most prevalent chronic disease in the United States in adults aged 18 to 44 years, with approximately 250,000 operations performed annually. Although often successful, sinus surgery fails in greater than 15% of patients. Adhesion formation is a common complication and cause for subsequent revision surgery. Here, the authors evaluate a sprayable chitosan/starch-based sinus sealant and demonstrate its ability to reduce adhesion formation both in vitro and in 2 animal models. Study Design Randomized, controlled, animal trials. Setting Academic medical center (fibroblast experiments) and animal laboratories (sheep and rabbit studies). Subjects and Methods This sinus sealant was applied to human cultured fibroblasts obtained from surgically removed polyps to examine its ability to inhibit fibroblast migration and proliferation. The sinus sealant was applied to New Zealand White rabbits (n = 20) in an established cecal-sidewall abrasion model and to sheep (n = 10) in a sinus surgical adhesion model to examine its ability to reduce adhesion formation. Results This sinus sealant inhibited migration and proliferation of human cultured fibroblasts and reduced the total adhesion score from 4.9 to 0.3 for a total reduction of 94% (95th percentile confidence interval [CI], 78%, 100%; P < .001) in a well-established rabbit cecal-sidewall model commonly used for adhesion testing. Moreover, this sealant reduced adhesion formation from 80% to 10% for a total reduction of 70% (95th percentile CI, 57%, 93%; P = .003) in a sheep sinus adhesion surgical model. Conclusion This chitosan-based sealant demonstrates promise for reducing adhesion formation in sinus surgery. PMID:22492298

  11. Comparative Analysis of Methods to Induce Myocardial Infarction in a Closed-Chest Rabbit Model

    PubMed Central

    Isorni, Marc-Antoine; Casanova, Amaury; Piquet, Julie; Bellamy, Valérie; Pignon, Charly; Puymirat, Etienne; Menasche, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To develop a rabbit model of closed-chest catheter-induced myocardial infarction. Background. Limitations of rodent and large animal models justify the search for clinically relevant alternatives. Methods. Microcatheterization of the heart was performed in 47 anesthetized 3-4 kg New Zealand rabbits to test five techniques of myocardial ischemia: free coils (n = 4), interlocking coils (n = 4), thrombogenic gelatin sponge (n = 4), balloon occlusion (n = 4), and alcohol injection (n = 8). In order to limit ventricular fibrillation, an antiarrhythmic protocol was implemented, with beta-blockers/amiodarone before and xylocaine infusion during the procedure. Clinical, angiographic, and echographic data were gathered. End points included demonstration of vessel occlusion (TIMI flow grades 0 and 1 on the angiogram), impairment of left ventricular function at 2 weeks after procedure (by echocardiography), and pathologically confirmed myocardial infarction. Results. The best arterial access was determined to be through the right carotid artery. The internal mammary guiding catheter 4-Fr was selected as the optimal device for selective intracoronary injection. Free coils deployed prematurely and tended to prolapse into the aorta. Interlocking coils did not deploy completely and failed to provide reliable results. Gelatin sponge was difficult to handle, adhered to the catheter, and could not be clearly visualized by fluoroscopy. Balloon occlusion yielded inconsistent results. Alcohol injection was the most efficient and reproducible method for inducing myocardial infarction (4 out of 6 animals), the extent of which could be fine-tuned by using a coaxial balloon catheter as a microcatheter (0.52 mm) to achieve a superselective injection of 0.2 mL of alcohol. This approach resulted in a 20% decrease in LVEF and infarcted myocardium was confirmed histologically. Conclusions. By following a stepwise approach, a minimally invasive, effective, and reproducible rabbit model of catheter-induced myocardial infarction has been developed which addresses the limitations of rodent experiments while avoiding the logistical and cost issues associated with large animal models. PMID:26504843

  12. Noise-induced Outer Hair Cells' Dysfunction and Cochlear Damage in Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Moussavi-Najarkola, S A; Khavanin, A; Mirzaei, R; Salehnia, M; Muhammadnejad, A; Akbari, M

    2012-01-01

    Background Outer hair cells' (OHCs') dysfunctions as the extent of temporary and permanent threshold shifts (TTS and PTS) and cochlear damage were assessed in rabbits exposed to continuous noise Methods Twelve New Zealand white rabbits were studied in noise (N) (n=6; exposed to continuous noise; 95 dB SPL, 500-8000 Hz for 8 h per day during 5 consecutive days) and control (C) (n=6; not exposed to noise). OHCs' functions were assessed by distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) level (Ldp) measurements in different periods and comparing TTS and PTS. Animals were anaesthetized by CO2; cochleae were extracted, fixed in 10% formaldehyde for 48 hours, decalcified by 10% nitric acid for 24 hours, and dehydrated, embedded, sectioned 5 µm thickness and stained by Hematoxylin and Eosin for light microscopy. Results The most and least Ldp or TTS or PTS were related to 5888.50 Hz and 588.00 Hz respectively in noise subjected rabbits (P<0.05). TTS and PTS were decreased up to 17.79 dB and to 16.01 dB respectively. TTS were more than PTS over all test frequencies, especially at 5888.50 Hz (P<0.05). Ldp or TTS or PTS were found to be equal across ears (P>0.05). Severely vacuolated OHCs, pyknotic IHCs, swollen SC, and slightly thickened BM were found. Conclusion Continuous noise extensively led to OHCs' dysfunctions as decreased Ldp (both TTS and PTS) and highly damage to cochlea. PMID:23285417

  13. Fecal Nitrogen Concentration as a Nutritional Quality Indicator for European Rabbit Ecological Studies

    PubMed Central

    Gil-Jiménez, Esperanza; Villamuelas, Miriam; Serrano, Emmanuel; Delibes, Miguel; Fernández, Néstor

    2015-01-01

    Measuring the quality of the nutritional resources available to wild herbivores is critical to understanding trophic regulation processes. However, the direct assessment of dietary nutritional characteristics is usually difficult, which hampers monitoring nutritional constraints in natural populations. The feeding ecology of ruminant herbivores has been often assessed by analyzing fecal nitrogen (FN) concentrations, although this method has been less evaluated in other taxa. This study analyzed the suitability of FN as an indicator of ingesta quality in the European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus), which is a keystone lagomorph species in Mediterranean ecosystems and of great conservation interest. Firstly, domestic O. cuniculus were used to evaluate under experimental conditions the accuracy of total FN and the metabolic FN as diet quality indicators of forages with characteristics similar to those available under natural conditions. Secondly, the accuracy of Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) to calculate FN was tested using partial least squares regression. Thirdly, a pilot field study was conducted to monitor FN dynamics from wild O. cuniculus in three different habitats during wet and drought periods. A strong association was found between diet type and total FN and metabolic FN (Pseudo-R2 ≥ 0.89). It was also found that NIRS calibrations were accurate for depicting nitrogen concentrations (R2 > 0.98 between NIRS and chemical results). Finally, the seasonal FN dynamics measured in the field were consistent with current knowledge on vegetation dynamics and forage limitations in the three habitats. The results support the use of NIRS methods and FN indices as a reliable and affordable approach to monitoring the nutritional quality of rabbit habitats. Potential applications include the assessment of the mechanistic relationships between resource limitations and population abundance, e.g., in relation to natural drought cycles and to habitat interventions aimed at reinforcing rabbit populations. PMID:25893872

  14. Monoclonal antibodies against rabbit mammary prolactin receptors. Specific antibodies to the hormone binding domain

    SciTech Connect

    Katoh, M.; Djiane, J.; Kelly, P.A.

    1985-09-25

    Three monoclonal antibodies (M110, A82, and A917) were obtained by fusing myeloma cells and spleen cells from mice immunized with partially purified rabbit mammary gland prolactin (PRL) receptors. All 3 antibodies were capable of complete inhibition of SVI-ovine prolactin (oPRL) binding to rabbit mammary PRL receptors in either particulate or soluble form. M110 showed slightly greater potency than oPRL in competing for SVI-oPRL binding. These antibodies also inhibited PRL binding to microsomal fractions from rabbit liver, kidney, adrenal, ovary, and pig mammary gland, although A82 showed poor inhibition in pig mammary gland. There was no cross-reaction of any of the 3 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) for the other species tested: human (T-47D breast cancer cells) and rat (liver, ovary). In order to confirm that these antibodies are specific to the binding domain, antibodies were purified, iodinated, and binding characteristics were investigated. SVI-M110 and SVI-A82 binding was completely inhibited by lactogenic hormones, whereas nonlactogenic hormones did not cross-react. Competition of 125I-M110 by oPRL was comparable to that of SVI-oPRL by unlabeled oPRL, while SVI-A917 binding was only partially competed (30-60%) by lactogenic hormones. Tissue and species specificity of labeled antibody binding paralleled results of binding inhibition experiments using 125I-oPRL. In addition, A82 and A917 completely inhibited 125I-M110 binding. In contrast, 125I-A82 binding was stimulated by A917 and 125I-A917 binding was stimulated by A82.

  15. Metabolomics Reveals Metabolic Alterations by Intrauterine Growth Restriction in the Fetal Rabbit Brain

    PubMed Central

    van Vliet, Erwin; Eixarch, Elisenda; Illa, Miriam; Arbat-Plana, Ariadna; González-Tendero, Anna; Hogberg, Helena T.; Zhao, Liang; Hartung, Thomas; Gratacos, Eduard

    2013-01-01

    Background Intrauterine Growth Restriction (IUGR) due to placental insufficiency occurs in 5–10% of pregnancies and is a major risk factor for abnormal neurodevelopment. The perinatal diagnosis of IUGR related abnormal neurodevelopment represents a major challenge in fetal medicine. The development of clinical biomarkers is considered a promising approach, but requires the identification of biochemical/molecular alterations by IUGR in the fetal brain. This targeted metabolomics study in a rabbit IUGR model aimed to obtain mechanistic insight into the effects of IUGR on the fetal brain and identify metabolite candidates for biomarker development. Methodology/Principal Findings At gestation day 25, IUGR was induced in two New Zealand rabbits by 40–50% uteroplacental vessel ligation in one horn and the contralateral horn was used as control. At day 30, fetuses were delivered by Cesarian section, weighed and brains collected for metabolomics analysis. Results showed that IUGR fetuses had a significantly lower birth and brain weight compared to controls. Metabolomics analysis using liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-QTOF-MS) and database matching identified 78 metabolites. Comparison of metabolite intensities using a t-test demonstrated that 18 metabolites were significantly different between control and IUGR brain tissue, including neurotransmitters/peptides, amino acids, fatty acids, energy metabolism intermediates and oxidative stress metabolites. Principle component and hierarchical cluster analysis showed cluster formations that clearly separated control from IUGR brain tissue samples, revealing the potential to develop predictive biomarkers. Moreover birth weight and metabolite intensity correlations indicated that the extent of alterations was dependent on the severity of IUGR. Conclusions IUGR leads to metabolic alterations in the fetal rabbit brain, involving neuronal viability, energy metabolism, amino acid levels, fatty acid profiles and oxidative stress mechanisms. Overall findings identified aspargine, ornithine, N-acetylaspartylglutamic acid, N-acetylaspartate and palmitoleic acid as potential metabolite candidates to develop clinical biomarkers for the perinatal diagnosis of IUGR related abnormal neurodevelopment. PMID:23724060

  16. Modeling the effect of population dynamics on the impact of rabbit hemorrhagic disease.

    PubMed

    Calvete, Carlos

    2006-08-01

    The European wild rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) is a staple prey species in Mediterranean ecosystems. The arrival and subsequent spread of rabbit hemorrhagic disease throughout southwestern Europe, however has caused a decline in rabbit numbers, leading to considerable efforts to enhance wild rabbit populations, especially through habitat management. Because rabbit population dynamics depend on habitat suitability and changes in habitat structure and composition subsequent to habitat management, I evaluated the effects of population dynamics on the long-term impact of rabbit hemorrhagic disease on rabbit populations. I used an age-structured model with varying degrees of population productivity and turnover and different habitat carrying capacities, and I assumed the existence of a unique, highly pathogenic virus. My results suggest that disease impact may be highly dependent on habitat carrying capacity and rabbit population dynamics, and the model provided some insight into the current abundance of wild rabbits in different locations in southwestern Europe. The highest disease impact was estimated for populations located in habitats with low to medium carrying capacity In contrast, disease impact was lower in high-density populations in habitats with high carrying capacity, corresponding to a lower mean age of rabbit infection and a resulting lower mortality from rabbit hemorrhagic disease. The outcomes of the model suggest that management strategies to help rabbit populations recover should be based on improving habitats to their maximum carrying capacity and increasing rabbit population productivity. In contrast, the use of strategies based on temporary increases in rabbit density, including vaccination campaigns, translocations, and temporal habitat improvements at medium carrying capacities, may increase disease impact, resulting in short-term decreases in rabbit population density. PMID:16922239

  17. A novel AAT-deletion mutation in the coding sequence of the BCO2 gene in yellow-fat rabbits.

    PubMed

    Strychalski, Janusz; Brym, Paweł; Czarnik, Urszula; Gugołek, Andrzej

    2015-11-01

    The carcasses of yellow-fat rabbits may be attractive to modern consumers, because they have a relatively high content of biologically active compounds. One of the main candidate genes associated with the yellow-fat trait is β-carotene 9',10'-oxygenase (BCO2). This study is the first report of the novel AAT-deletion mutation at codon 248 of the BCO2 gene, which has been found in homozygous yellow-fat rabbits. The deletion mutation, located at the beginning of exon 6, results in the absence of asparagine in protein. We also developed a PCR-RFLP test that supports intravital genotyping of indel polymorphism based on genomic DNA. PMID:26002694

  18. Comparison of peri-implant bone formation around injection-molded and machined surface zirconia implants in rabbit tibiae.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hong-Kyun; Woo, Kyung Mi; Shon, Won-Jun; Ahn, Jin-Soo; Cha, Seunghee; Park, Young-Seok

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare osseointegration and surface characteristics of zirconia implants made by the powder injection molding (PIM) technique against those made by the conventional milling procedure in rabbit tibiae. Surface characteristics of 2 types of implants were evaluated. Sixteen rabbits received 2 types of external hex implants with similar geometry, either machined zirconia implants or PIM zirconia implants, in the tibiae. Removal torque tests and histomorphometric analyses were performed. The roughness of the PIM zirconia implants was higher than that of machined zirconia implants. The PIM zirconia implants exhibited significantly higher bone-implant contact and removal torque values than the machined zirconia implants (p<0.001). The osseointegration of the PIM zirconia implant is promising, and PIM, using the roughened mold etching technique, can produce substantially rougher surfaces on zirconia implants. PMID:26235717

  19. Comparative Analysis of USA300 Virulence Determinants in a Rabbit Model of Skin and Soft Tissue Infection

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Scott D.; Malachowa, Natalia; Whitney, Adeline R.; Braughton, Kevin R.; Gardner, Donald J.; Long, Dan; Wardenburg, Juliane Bubeck; Schneewind, Olaf; Otto, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) infections are frequently associated with strains harboring genes encoding Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL). The role of PVL in the success of the epidemic CA-MRSA strain USA300 remains unknown. Here we developed a skin and soft tissue infection model in rabbits to test the hypothesis that PVL contributes to USA300 pathogenesis and compare it with well-established virulence determinants: alpha-hemolysin (Hla), phenol-soluble modulin-alpha peptides (PSM?), and accessory gene regulator (Agr). The data indicate that Hla, PSM?, and Agr contribute to the pathogenesis of USA300 skin infections in rabbits, whereas a role for PVL could not be detected. PMID:21849291

  20. Application of control measures against viral haemorrhagic disease of rabbits in the Czech and Slovak Federal Republic.

    PubMed

    Rodák, L; Smíd, B; Valícek, L

    1991-06-01

    The first outbreaks of viral haemorrhagic disease (VHD) of rabbits were reported from eastern Slovakia in 1987. In 1988, the infection spread throughout the Czech and Slovak Federal Republic. Electron microscopy was used by the Veterinary Research Institute in Brno to diagnose the disease during the early stage of infection. At present, the regional laboratories of the veterinary investigation services use the haemagglutination and the direct immunofluorescence tests as the principal methods to demonstrate the causal agent. Indirect immunofluorescence and immunoperoxidase techniques have been developed to demonstrate VHD virus, while the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) has been used to detect antibodies. Diagnostic kits, allowing a wide use of these methods, are now available commercially. Two types of inactivate vaccines were developed and produced in 1988 and 1989. VHD is controlled by vaccination of exposed rabbit colonies. This is accompanied by other preventive and protective measures, directed by district veterinary officers following instructions from federal authorities. PMID:1760589

  1. Efficacy of Caltropis procera and Ficus sycomorus extracts in treating MRSA (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus)-keratitis in rabbit

    PubMed Central

    Sayed, Waiel F.; Salem, Wesam M. A.; Haridy, Mohie A. M.; Hassan, Ne'mat H.

    2015-01-01

    MRSA-induced keratitis in rabbit was used to evaluate the therapeutic effect of F. sycomorus leaves and C. procera latex extracts. Within the 6 rabbit groups tested, group 1 received sterilized saline, while other groups (2 to 6) received 100 μl of intrastromal injections of 1.5×103 colony forming unit (cfu) ml-1 of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). After 12 hours, groups 3 to 6 also received chloramphenicol, aqueous extract of C. procera latex, aqueous and alcoholic extracts of F. sycomorus leaves, respectively 3 times daily for 12 successive days. The tested extracts inhibited MRSA growth in vitro (i.e. on culture medium). Colony counts in cornea discs from groups 3 to 6 were significantly reduced (P ≤ 0.001) compared to group 2 (untreated). Clinical signs of keratitis were observed on group 2 until the end of experiment. In groups 3 to 6, gradual recovery was observed and signs disappeared by the 12th DPI (days post inoculation). Only mild symptoms persisted in group 5 (aqueous extract of leaves). In group 3 and 5, cornea, iris, ciliary body and conjunctiva showed mild leukocytic infiltration and depigmentation of melanin cells while recovery of cornea and iris was observed in groups 4 and 6. In conclusion, the used extracts have potential therapeutic effects on MRSA-induced keratitis in rabbit. PMID:26648824

  2. Thrombogenicity is not reduced when heparin and phospholipid bonded circuits are used in a rabbit model of extracorporeal circulation.

    PubMed

    Meinhardt, Jürgen P; Annich, Gail M; Miskulin, Judiann; Kawai, Toshinori; Ashton, Brian A; Bartlett, Robert H

    2003-01-01

    In an effort to better mimic the thromboresistive nature of vascular endothelium, extracorporeal circuits bonded with heparin or phospholipids were developed. Using no systemic heparinization, these circuits were compared with standard poly(vinyl)chloride (PVC) (Tygon) in a rabbit model of extracorporeal circulation (ECC). Control circuits were run with and without systemic heparinization and used as comparison groups against the test circuits. Two New Zealand White rabbits were used per study: One was used as the platelet donor for 111Indium platelet labeling; the other animal was placed on bicaval ECC for 4 hours. Circuits (heparin coated n = 6, phospholipid coated n = 8, nonheparinized controls n = 14, heparinized controls n = 18) consisted of 1 m of tubing, two downsizing connectors, and two venous cannulae. ECC blood flow was at least 75 ml/min. Platelet and fibrinogen measurements were made hourly, and circuit dosimetry was performed at the end of the study or on circuit thrombosis. Thrombosis of the circuit occurred in one heparin coated, two phospholipid coated, and eight nonheparinized control circuits. None of the heparinized control circuits thrombosed. There was no significant difference between the groups with regard to platelet count or platelet adhesion. Test circuits exhibited preservation of fibrinogen levels. In this rabbit model of ECC, circuits coated with heparin or phospholipids appeared to preserve fibrinogen levels but did not reduce platelet adhesion or consumption. PMID:12918580

  3. Apparent effect of rabbit endogenous lentivirus type K acquisition on retrovirus restriction by lagomorph Trim5?s

    PubMed Central

    Yap, Melvyn W.; Stoye, Jonathan P.

    2013-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that rabbit endogenous lentivirus type K (RELIK) could play a role in shaping the evolution of TRIM5?, the susceptibility of viruses containing the RELIK capsid (CA) to TRIM5 restriction was evaluated. RELIK CA-containing viruses were susceptible to the TRIM5?s from Old World monkeys but were unaffected by most ape or New World monkey factors. TRIM5?s from various lagomorph species were also isolated and tested for anti-retroviral activity. The TRIM5?s from both cottontail rabbit and pika restrict a range of retroviruses, including HIV-1, HIV-2, FIV, EIAV and N-MLV. TRIM5?s from the European and cottontail rabbit, which have previously been found to contain RELIK, also restricted RELIK CA-containing viruses, whereas a weaker restriction was observed with chimeric TRIM5? containing the B30.2 domain from the pika, which lacks RELIK. Taken together, these results could suggest that the pika had not been exposed to exogenous RELIK and that endogenized RELIK might exert a selective pressure on lagomorph TRIM5?. PMID:23938750

  4. Evaluation of an ELISA using recombinant Ssλ20ΔB3 antigen for the serological diagnosis of Sarcoptes scabiei infestation in domestic and wild rabbits.

    PubMed

    Casais, Rosa; Millán, Javier; Rosell, Joan Maria; Dalton, Kevin P; Prieto, José Miguel

    2015-12-15

    An ELISA, based on the Sarcoptes scabiei Ssλ20ΔB3 inmunodominant antigen, was evaluated for the detection of antibodies to S. scabiei in experimentally infested (n=10), farm (n=109), and wild (n=78) rabbit sera. The S. scabiei antigen Ssλ20ΔB3, a major structural protein present over the entire mite's body, was produced as a recombinant protein in Escherichia coli and purified for its use in the ELISA. The resulting ELISA showed, in experimentally infested domestic rabbits, detectable specific antibody responses (IgG) above the cut off level from week three post-infestation indicating that the assay is able to detect positive rabbits very early during the course of the infestation. The ELISA was validated on a panel of 109 domestic breeding rabbit sera collected from 26 Spanish farms, of which 41 were obtained from rabbits with skin lesions compatible with sarcoptic mange, 26 with skin lesions compatible with psoroptic mange, and 42 from unexposed individuals from mange-free farms. The ELISA in this group was characterized by 95% sensitivity, 97% specificity, and a high degree of repeatability. In the psoroptic mange compatible lesions group, included in the study as control group for cross-reactivity with the closely related mite Psoroptes cuniculi, cross-reacting antibodies to Ssλ20ΔB3 S. scabiei antigen were detected in 42.30% of the rabbit sera. However, mean% OD values of the sarcoptic-mange group (55.61 ± 39.20%) were significantly higher (p<0.001) than OD values of the psoroptic-mange (3.64% ± 5.4%) and also of the free-mange (0.21% ± 0.67%) groups. In addition, the ELISA was also evaluated in serum samples obtained from both naturally infested and non-infested wild rabbits from Mallorca Island. The sensitivity of the assay for this group was 100% (4 out of the 4 rabbits with sarcoptic mange compatible lesions and presence of S. scabiei mites were seropositive) and the specificity was 90% (67 out of 74 wild rabbits without detectable mange lesions were seronegative). Although, the total number of tested samples from experimentally infested, farm and wild rabbits was limited, our study showed that the ELISA is able to differentiate between infested and non-infested animals in all tested groups with very high sensitivity and specificity indicating that recombinant Ssλ20ΔB3 is a reliable diagnostic antigen. This assay might be a cost-effective tool for detecting the presence of mangy animals and therefore helping prevent spread of mange among domestic rabbits, reducing potential transmission from female breeding rabbits to other farms, and detecting infestation with sarcoptic mange in the wild. PMID:26276579

  5. 7 CFR 70.13 - Ready-to-cook poultry and rabbits and specified poultry food products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Ready-to-cook poultry and rabbits and specified... PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) VOLUNTARY GRADING OF POULTRY PRODUCTS AND RABBIT PRODUCTS Grading of Poultry Products and Rabbit Products General § 70.13 Ready-to-cook poultry and rabbits and...

  6. 7 CFR 70.52 - Prerequisites to packaging ready-to-cook poultry or rabbits identified with consumer grademarks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... rabbits identified with consumer grademarks. 70.52 Section 70.52 Agriculture Regulations of the Department... RABBIT PRODUCTS Grading of Poultry Products and Rabbit Products Identifying and Marking Products § 70.52 Prerequisites to packaging ready-to-cook poultry or rabbits identified with consumer grademarks. The...

  7. 7 CFR 70.13 - Ready-to-cook poultry and rabbits and specified poultry food products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Ready-to-cook poultry and rabbits and specified... PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) VOLUNTARY GRADING OF POULTRY PRODUCTS AND RABBIT PRODUCTS Grading of Poultry Products and Rabbit Products General § 70.13 Ready-to-cook poultry and rabbits and...

  8. 7 CFR 70.52 - Prerequisites to packaging ready-to-cook poultry or rabbits identified with consumer grademarks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... rabbits identified with consumer grademarks. 70.52 Section 70.52 Agriculture Regulations of the Department... RABBIT PRODUCTS Grading of Poultry Products and Rabbit Products Identifying and Marking Products § 70.52 Prerequisites to packaging ready-to-cook poultry or rabbits identified with consumer grademarks. The...

  9. 7 CFR 70.52 - Prerequisites to packaging ready-to-cook poultry or rabbits identified with consumer grademarks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... rabbits identified with consumer grademarks. 70.52 Section 70.52 Agriculture Regulations of the Department... RABBIT PRODUCTS Grading of Poultry Products and Rabbit Products Identifying and Marking Products § 70.52 Prerequisites to packaging ready-to-cook poultry or rabbits identified with consumer grademarks. The...

  10. 7 CFR 70.52 - Prerequisites to packaging ready-to-cook poultry or rabbits identified with consumer grademarks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... rabbits identified with consumer grademarks. 70.52 Section 70.52 Agriculture Regulations of the Department... RABBIT PRODUCTS Grading of Poultry Products and Rabbit Products Identifying and Marking Products § 70.52 Prerequisites to packaging ready-to-cook poultry or rabbits identified with consumer grademarks. The...

  11. 7 CFR 70.52 - Prerequisites to packaging ready-to-cook poultry or rabbits identified with consumer grademarks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... rabbits identified with consumer grademarks. 70.52 Section 70.52 Agriculture Regulations of the Department... RABBIT PRODUCTS Grading of Poultry Products and Rabbit Products Identifying and Marking Products § 70.52 Prerequisites to packaging ready-to-cook poultry or rabbits identified with consumer grademarks. The...

  12. 7 CFR 70.13 - Ready-to-cook poultry and rabbits and specified poultry food products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ready-to-cook poultry and rabbits and specified... PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) VOLUNTARY GRADING OF POULTRY PRODUCTS AND RABBIT PRODUCTS Grading of Poultry Products and Rabbit Products General § 70.13 Ready-to-cook poultry and rabbits and...

  13. 7 CFR 70.13 - Ready-to-cook poultry and rabbits and specified poultry food products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Ready-to-cook poultry and rabbits and specified... PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) VOLUNTARY GRADING OF POULTRY PRODUCTS AND RABBIT PRODUCTS Grading of Poultry Products and Rabbit Products General § 70.13 Ready-to-cook poultry and rabbits and...

  14. 7 CFR 70.13 - Ready-to-cook poultry and rabbits and specified poultry food products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Ready-to-cook poultry and rabbits and specified... PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) VOLUNTARY GRADING OF POULTRY PRODUCTS AND RABBIT PRODUCTS Grading of Poultry Products and Rabbit Products General § 70.13 Ready-to-cook poultry and rabbits and...

  15. Feasibility and efficacy of a remote real-time wireless ECG monitoring and stimulation system for management of ventricular arrhythmia in rabbits with myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhi-Wen; Gou, Kai; Luo, Zhang-Yuan; Li, Wei; Zhang, Wen-Zan; Li, Yi-Gang

    2014-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the feasibility of continuous remote monitoring, and the induction and termination of malignant ventricular arrhythmias (VAs) by a novel implantable electronic cardiovascular device (IECD) system in rabbits with myocardial infarction (MI). The IECD was implanted and MI was induced by ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery in 20 adult rabbits. Internet-based remote electrocardiogram (ECG) monitoring and ventricular stimulation were conducted in remote locations with internet access. The voltage amplitudes of the stimulation signals were recorded synchronously by remote and surface ECG. Programmed stimulation with regular stimuli and regular stimuli with an added extra stimulus were performed prior to and following the MI surgery to induce and terminate VAs. IECD implantation and MI surgery, as well as qualified remote and bidirectional signal communications between the implanted IECD and extracorporeal system, were successfully achieved in 18 rabbits. The voltage of the stimulation signals recorded by the remote and surface ECGs showed a good correlation with the stimulation current (remote ECG, r=0.972 and surface ECG, r=0.988; P<0.001). Sustained ventricular tachycardia (VT) was induced in five rabbits (5/20, 25%) prior to MI induction and in 12 rabbits (12/16, 75%) following MI induction. Of the 17 induced VTs, 16 were successfully terminated by remote ventricular stimulation. The novel IECD system provides qualified remote wireless ECG monitoring and possesses the potential to induce and terminate VAs by remote ventricular pacing in this rabbit model of MI. Thus, this model of MI may be used to test the efficacy of novel drugs and devices for the management of VAs. PMID:24944622

  16. Non-clinical safety evaluation of single and repeated intramuscular administrations of MAGE-A3 Cancer Immunotherapeutic in rabbits and cynomolgus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Destexhe, Eric; Grosdidier, Emilie; Baudson, Nathalie; Forster, Roy; Gerard, Catherine; Garçon, Nathalie; Segal, Lawrence

    2015-07-01

    The MAGE-A3 recombinant protein combined with AS15 immunostimulant (MAGE-A3 Cancer Immunotherapeutic) is under development by GlaxoSmithKline for the treatment of lung cancer and melanoma. We performed non-clinical safety studies evaluating potential local and systemic toxic effects induced by MAGE-A3 Cancer Immunotherapeutic in rabbits (study 1) and cynomolgus monkeys (study 2). Animals were allocated to two groups to receive a single (rabbits) or 25 repeated (every 2 weeks) injections (monkeys) of MAGE-A3 Cancer Immunotherapeutic (treatment groups) or saline (control groups). All rabbits were sacrificed 3 days post-injection and monkeys 3 days following last injection (3/5 per gender per group) or after a 3-month treatment-free period (2/5 per gender per group). Local and systemic reactions and MAGE-A3-specific immune responses (monkeys) were assessed. Macroscopic and microscopic (for rabbits, injection site only) post-mortem examinations were performed on all animals. No systemic toxicity or unscheduled mortalities were recorded. Single (rabbits) and repeated (monkeys; up to four times at the same site) injections were well tolerated. Following five to seven repeated injections, limb circumferences increased up to 26% (5 h post-injection), but returned to normal after 1-8 days. Three days after the last injection, enlargements of iliac, popliteal, axillary and inguinal lymph nodes, and increased incidence or severity of mononuclear inflammatory cell infiltrates was observed in injected muscles of treated monkeys. No treatment-related macroscopic findings were recorded after the treatment-free period. MAGE-A3-specific antibody and T-cell responses were raised in all treated monkeys, confirming test item exposure. Single or repeated intramuscular injections of MAGE-A3 Cancer Immunotherapeutic were well tolerated in rabbits and monkeys. PMID:25219328

  17. Decreased Expression of Surfactant Protein Genes Is Associated with an Increased Expression of Forkhead Box M1 Gene in the Fetal Lung Tissues of Premature Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Hahn, Won-Ho; Chang, Ji-Young; Lee, Kyung Suk

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Recently, Forkhead box M1 (FoxM1) was reported to be correlated with lung maturation and expression of surfactant proteins (SPs) in mice models. However, no study has been conducted in rabbit lungs despite their high homology with human lungs. Thus, we attempted to investigate serial changes in the expressions of FoxM1 and SP-A/B throughout lung maturation in rabbit fetuses. Materials and Methods Pregnant New Zealand White rabbits were grouped according to gestational age from 5 days before to 2 days after the day of expected full term delivery (F5, F4, F3, F2, F1, F0, P1, and P2). A total of 64 fetuses were enrolled after Cesarean sections. The expressions of mRNA and proteins of FoxM1 and SP-A/B in fetal lung tissue were tested by quantitative reverse-transcriptase real-time PCR and Western blot. Furthermore, their correlations were analyzed. Results The mRNA expression of SP-A/B showed an increasing tendency positively correlated with gestational age, while the expression of FoxM1 mRNA and protein decreased from F5 to F0. A significant negative correlation was found between the expression levels of FoxM1 and SP-A/B (SP-A: R=-0.517, p=0.001; SP-B: R=-0.615, p<0.001). Conclusion Preterm rabbits demonstrated high expression of FoxM1 mRNA and protein in the lungs compared to full term rabbits. Also, the expression of SP-A/B was inversely related with serial changes in FoxM1 expression. This is the first report to suggest an association between FoxM1 and expression of SP-A/B and lung maturation in preterm rabbits. PMID:24142647

  18. Perception of odor blending mixtures in the newborn rabbit.

    PubMed

    Coureaud, Gérard; Thomas-Danguin, Thierry; Le Berre, Elodie; Schaal, Benoist

    2008-09-01

    In adult mammals, the processing of complex odor mixtures is elemental or configural. Here, we challenged these processes in newborn rabbits, in evaluating their perception of a binary odor mixture for which perceptual blending occurs in humans. This model of newborn animal was interesting since general questions remain on how odor cues are processed in immature organisms, and since rabbit pups present abilities of rapid odor learning. In the present study, we first demonstrated (Exp. 1) that rabbit pups rapidly acquired the odor of the binary mixture through associative conditioning (when the mammary pheromone was used as unconditioned stimulus). Then, we compared how they responded to the mixture, its components and the mammary pheromone, after they had learned the mixture or one of its constituents. After they had learned the odor of the mixture, they responded to its odor and the odor of its constituents (Exp. 2). However, after they had learned one constituent's odor, they responded to this odor but not to the mixture's odor (Exp. 3). The response to the mixture appeared nevertheless when pups successively acquired the odor of the two components (Exp. 4). Therefore, both elemental and configural processing of the mixture seem to be displayed by rabbit pups, suggesting that neonatal perception of a simple odor mixture may involve more than the perception of its constituents. PMID:18586286

  19. Anatomical variation of arterial supply to the rabbit stomach

    PubMed Central

    IKEGAMI, Reona; TANIMOTO, Yoshimasa; KISHIMOTO, Miori; SHIBATA, Hideshi

    2015-01-01

    Gastric stasis is common in rabbits, and gastrotomy may be performed to cure this pathological condition. Detailed descriptions of the arterial supply to the stomach are essential for this surgical operation, but published descriptions are limited. Here, we investigated anatomical variations of the arterial supply to the stomach in 43 New Zealand White rabbits by injecting colored latex into arteries. We observed that the left gastric artery that arose as the second branch from the celiac artery provided 1–3 parietal and 1–3 visceral branches to the stomach, with various branching patterns depending on the case. In 34 of 43 cases, the left gastric artery ended upon entering the gastric wall at the lesser curvature, whereas in the remaining cases, the artery continued as the hepatic artery without entering the gastric wall. The right gastric artery that branched off from the gastroduodenal artery also supplied the lesser curvature sinistrally but did not anastomose with the left gastric artery. In 40 cases, the hepatic artery provided 1–4 pyloric branches. In the fundic region, the short gastric arteries arose from the splenic artery and varied in number from 2 to 6. The right and left gastroepiploic arteries anastomosed to give 2–7 branches to the greater curvature. The results showed that many variations occurred in the arteries supplying the rabbit stomach, suggesting that such variations should be considered when performing veterinary surgical treatments in rabbits. PMID:26615866

  20. Otoplasty Outcomes With Different Suture Materials in a Rabbit Model.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Benjamin A; Hong, Paul

    2016-03-01

    Otoplasty is a commonly performed procedure to correct prominent ears. Many different otoplasty techniques have been described but there is no gold standard technique. As well, many different suture materials are used in otoplasty but studies directly comparing different sutures materials are lacking. An otoplasty outcome study with Nylon and Mersilene (2 of the most commonly used sutures in otoplasty) sutures was conducted using a rabbit model. Each rabbit ear was randomized to receive a Mustardé-type horizontal mattress suture with either 4-0 clear Nylon (N = 12 ears) or 4-0 Mersilene sutures (N = 12 ears). Two weeks after surgery, the auricular bend angle was measured with a finger goniometer and histologic analysis with hematoxylin and eosin staining was performed on the rabbit auricular cartilage. Overall, there was no significant difference in the mean bend angle between the 2 groups (Nylon: 135.8°, SD = 22.7° and Mersilene: 143.2°, SD = 19.7°; P = 0.559). Also, no qualitative difference was observed on histologic analysis between the 2 suture groups. In the current rabbit model study, both Nylon and Mersilene sutures performed well and no significant differences were noted. PMID:26967081

  1. [Preliminary study of rabbit experiment modality for evaluating cardiac fatigue].

    PubMed

    Yan, Xiaobo; Luo, Linmei; Liu, Leichu; Xiao, Shouzhong; Deng, Suyuan; Xiang, Lingli; Zhang, Cong

    2013-04-01

    This paper presents a preliminary study of rabbit experiment modality incorporating a new indicator for evaluating cardiac function changes, providing a basis for subsequent study of cardiac fatigue. Using only biochemical indicators, such as troponins, is difficult to make a distinction between exercise-induced cardiac fatigue (EICF) and exercise-induced cardiac damage (EICD). Therefore, some new indicators are needed to evaluate cardiac fatigue synthetically. In our study, we used New Zealand white rabbits to conduct a multi-step swimming experiments with load. We made the rabbits reach an exhaustive state to evaluate whether the amplitude ratio of the first to second heart sound (S1/S2) and heart rate (HR) during the exhaustive exercise would be decreased and whether they would be able to recover after the exhaustive exercise for 24 hours. During the first phase of swimming, S1/S2 and HR were increased, and then decreased at exhaustive state. They were recovered after the exhaustive exercise for 24 hours. Overloading led to deaths of three rabbis, and new phenomena from overloading and related to this kind of death were observed. The experiments proved that Multi-steps swimming experiments with loads by using New Zealand white rabbit is useful for studying cardiac fatigue and premonition of sudden cardiac death. PMID:23858749

  2. Anatomical variation of arterial supply to the rabbit stomach.

    PubMed

    Ikegami, Reona; Tanimoto, Yoshimasa; Kishimoto, Miori; Shibata, Hideshi

    2016-05-01

    Gastric stasis is common in rabbits, and gastrotomy may be performed to cure this pathological condition. Detailed descriptions of the arterial supply to the stomach are essential for this surgical operation, but published descriptions are limited. Here, we investigated anatomical variations of the arterial supply to the stomach in 43 New Zealand White rabbits by injecting colored latex into arteries. We observed that the left gastric artery that arose as the second branch from the celiac artery provided 1-3 parietal and 1-3 visceral branches to the stomach, with various branching patterns depending on the case. In 34 of 43 cases, the left gastric artery ended upon entering the gastric wall at the lesser curvature, whereas in the remaining cases, the artery continued as the hepatic artery without entering the gastric wall. The right gastric artery that branched off from the gastroduodenal artery also supplied the lesser curvature sinistrally but did not anastomose with the left gastric artery. In 40 cases, the hepatic artery provided 1-4 pyloric branches. In the fundic region, the short gastric arteries arose from the splenic artery and varied in number from 2 to 6. The right and left gastroepiploic arteries anastomosed to give 2-7 branches to the greater curvature. The results showed that many variations occurred in the arteries supplying the rabbit stomach, suggesting that such variations should be considered when performing veterinary surgical treatments in rabbits. PMID:26615866

  3. Postnatal development of the rabbit caecal microbiota composition and activity.

    PubMed

    Combes, Sylvie; Michelland, Rory Julien; Monteils, Valrie; Cauquil, Laurent; Souli, Vincent; Tran, Ngoc Uyen; Gidenne, Thierry; Fortun-Lamothe, Laurence

    2011-09-01

    This study describes the development of the rabbit caecum microbiota and its metabolic activities from the neonatal (day 2) until the subadult period (day 70). The caecal microbiota was analysed using 16S rRNA gene approaches coupled with capillary electrophoresis single-stranded conformation polymorphism (CE-SSCP) and qPCR. At day 2, rabbits harboured population levels up to 8.4, 7.2 and 7.4 log(10) copy number g(-1) full caecum of the total bacteria, Bacteroides-Prevotella and Firmicutes groups, respectively. These populations reached their maximum levels from day 14 for Firmicutes groups (10.8 log(10) copy number g(-1) caecal content) and day 21 (11.4 and 10.7 log(10) copy number g(-1) caecal content of the total bacteria and the Bacteroides-Prevotella group, respectively). The archaeal population could be detected only from day 7 onwards (5.5 log(10) copy number g(-1) full caecum) and reached its maximum level at day 35 (7.4 log(10) copy number g(-1) caecal content). Similarity analysis, diversity calculation and quantitative evaluation of the stability of bacterial community CE-SSCP profiles provided some evidence that the caecal microbiota develops progressively from a simple and unstable community after birth into a complex and climax community in subadult rabbits. Meanwhile, the microbial activity evolved with the progressive decrease of the propionate/butyrate ratio towards a rabbit-specific value <1. PMID:21658088

  4. Immunodissection and culture of rabbit cortical collecting tubule cells

    SciTech Connect

    Spielman, W.S.; Sonnenburg, W.K.; Allen, M.L.; Arend, L.J.; Gerozissis, K.; Smith, W.L.

    1986-08-01

    A mouse monoclonal antibody designated IgG3 (rct-30) has been prepared that reacts specifically with an antigen on the surface of all cells comprising the cortical and medullary rabbit renal collecting tubule including the arcades. Plastic culture dishes coated with IgG3 (rct-30) were used to isolate collecting tubule cells from collagenase dispersions of rabbit renal cortical cells by immunoadsorption. Typically, 10W rabbit cortical collecting tubule (RCCT) cells were obtained from 5 g of renal cortex (2 kidneys). Between 20 and 30% of the RCCT cells were rea