Science.gov

Sample records for rabbit knees comparative

  1. Advantages of Pure Platelet-Rich Plasma Compared with Leukocyte- and Platelet-Rich Plasma in Treating Rabbit Knee Osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Yin, Wen-Jing; Xu, Hai-Tao; Sheng, Jia-Gen; An, Zhi-Quan; Guo, Shang-Chun; Xie, Xue-Tao; Zhang, Chang-Qing

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Concentrated leukocytes in leukocyte- and platelet-rich plasma (L-PRP) may deliver increased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines to activate the NF-κB signaling pathway, to counter the beneficial effects of growth factors on osteoarthritic cartilage. However, to date no relevant studies have substantiated that in vivo. MATERIAL AND METHODS Autologous L-PRP and pure platelet-rich plasma (P-PRP) were prepared, measured for componential composition, and injected intra-articularly after 4, 5, and 6 weeks post-anterior cruciate ligament transection. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) was injected intraperitoneally to inhibit NF-κB activation. All rabbits were sacrificed after 8 weeks postoperative. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays were performed to determine interleukin 1β (IL-1β) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) concentrations in the synovial fluid, Indian ink staining was performed for gross morphological assessment, and hematoxylin and eosin staining and toluidine blue staining were performed for histological assessment. RESULTS Compared with L-PRP, P-PRP injections achieved better outcomes regarding the prevention of cartilage destruction, preservation of cartilaginous matrix, and reduction of IL-1β and PGE2 concentrations. CAPE injections reversed the increased IL-1β and PGE2 concentrations in the synovial fluid after L-PRP injections and improved the outcome of L-PRP injections to a level similar to P-PRP injections, while they had no influence on the therapeutic efficacy of P-PRP injections. CONCLUSIONS Concentrated leukocytes in L-PRP may release increased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines to activate the NF-κB signaling pathway, to counter the beneficial effects of growth factors on osteoarthritic cartilage, and finally, result in a inferior efficacy of L-PRP to P-PRP for the treatment of osteoarthritis. PMID:27086145

  2. Advantages of Pure Platelet-Rich Plasma Compared with Leukocyte- and Platelet-Rich Plasma in Treating Rabbit Knee Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Wen-Jing; Xu, Hai-Tao; Sheng, Jia-Gen; An, Zhi-Quan; Guo, Shang-Chun; Xie, Xue-Tao; Zhang, Chang-Qing

    2016-01-01

    Background Concentrated leukocytes in leukocyte- and platelet-rich plasma (L-PRP) may deliver increased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines to activate the NF-κB signaling pathway, to counter the beneficial effects of growth factors on osteoarthritic cartilage. However, to date no relevant studies have substantiated that in vivo. Material/Methods Autologous L-PRP and pure platelet-rich plasma (P-PRP) were prepared, measured for componential composition, and injected intra-articularly after 4, 5, and 6 weeks post-anterior cruciate ligament transection. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) was injected intraperitoneally to inhibit NF-κB activation. All rabbits were sacrificed after 8 weeks postoperative. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays were performed to determine interleukin 1β (IL-1β) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) concentrations in the synovial fluid, Indian ink staining was performed for gross morphological assessment, and hematoxylin and eosin staining and toluidine blue staining were performed for histological assessment. Results Compared with L-PRP, P-PRP injections achieved better outcomes regarding the prevention of cartilage destruction, preservation of cartilaginous matrix, and reduction of IL-1β and PGE2 concentrations. CAPE injections reversed the increased IL-1β and PGE2 concentrations in the synovial fluid after L-PRP injections and improved the outcome of L-PRP injections to a level similar to P-PRP injections, while they had no influence on the therapeutic efficacy of P-PRP injections. Conclusions Concentrated leukocytes in L-PRP may release increased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines to activate the NF-κB signaling pathway, to counter the beneficial effects of growth factors on osteoarthritic cartilage, and finally, result in a inferior efficacy of L-PRP to P-PRP for the treatment of osteoarthritis. PMID:27086145

  3. A new method to measure post-traumatic joint contractures in the rabbit knee.

    PubMed

    Hildebrand, Kevin A; Holmberg, Michael; Shrive, Nigel

    2003-12-01

    extension (flexion contracture) was demonstrated for the experimental knees using the new methodology where the maximum extension was 35 deg +/- 9 deg, compared to the unoperated knee maximum extension of 11 deg +/- 7 deg, 10 or 12 weeks after the immobilization was discontinued. The custom gripping device coupled to a materials testing machine will serve as a measurement test for future studies characterizing a rabbit knee model of post-traumatic joint contractures. PMID:14986415

  4. Comparative repair capacity of knee osteochondral defects using regenerated silk fiber scaffolds and fibrin glue with/without autologous chondrocytes during 36 weeks in rabbit model.

    PubMed

    Kazemnejad, Somaieh; Khanmohammadi, Manijeh; Mobini, Sahba; Taghizadeh-Jahed, Masoud; Khanjani, Sayeh; Arasteh, Shaghayegh; Golshahi, Hannaneh; Torkaman, Giti; Ravanbod, Roya; Heidari-Vala, Hamed; Moshiri, Ali; Tahmasebi, Mohammad-Naghi; Akhondi, Mohammad-Mehdi

    2016-06-01

    The reconstruction capability of osteochondral (OCD) defects using silk-based scaffolds has been demonstrated in a few studies. However, improvement in the mechanical properties of natural scaffolds is still challengeable. Here, we investigate the in vivo repair capacity of OCD defects using a novel Bombyx mori silk-based composite scaffold with great mechanical properties and porosity during 36 weeks. After evaluation of the in vivo biocompatibility and degradation rate of these scaffolds, we examined the effectiveness of these fabricated scaffolds accompanied with/without autologous chondrocytes in the repair of OCD lesions of rabbit knees after 12 and 36 weeks. Moreover, the efficiency of these scaffolds was compared with fibrin glue (FG) as a natural carrier of chondrocytes using parallel clinical, histopathological and mechanical examinations. The data on subcutaneous implantation in mice showed that the designed scaffolds have a suitable in vivo degradation rate and regenerative capacity. The repair ability of chondrocyte-seeded scaffolds was typically higher than the scaffolds alone. After 36 weeks of implantation, most parts of the defects reconstructed by chondrocytes-seeded silk scaffolds (SFC) were hyaline-like cartilage. However, spontaneous healing and filling with a scaffold alone did not eventuate in typical repair. We could not find significant differences between quantitative histopathological and mechanical data of SFC and FGC. The fabricated constructs consisting of regenerated silk fiber scaffolds and chondrocytes are safe and suitable for in vivo repair of OCD defects and promising for future clinical trial studies. PMID:26822846

  5. A novel total knee arthroplasty infection model in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Craig, Matthew R; Poelstra, Kornelis A; Sherrell, J Christopher; Kwon, Michael S; Belzile, Etienne L; Brown, Thomas E

    2005-09-01

    Infection of biomaterial implants is an expensive and devastating complication of orthopaedic surgery historically ranging from less than 1% in primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA) to 10% in revision TKA. An in vivo animal model was developed to test the efficacy of innovative therapies for the prevention of biomaterial centered infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteria (MRSA). Twenty-two New Zealand White rabbits were used in this study. After proper anesthesia, a stainless-steel screw with a high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) washer was cemented in a defect created in the intra-articular, non-articulating portion of the lateral femoral condyle of each knee. After closure of the joint capsule, each knee was inoculated with 0, 10(2), 10(3), or 10(4) colony forming units (CFU) of MRSA. Animals were sacrificed after 7 days at which time joint aspirate, tissues and biomaterial samples were examined for evidence of infection. A total of 42 knees were used for analysis. When saline was injected into the knee, 0/10 of the knees demonstrated evidence of biomaterial centered infection (with the contralateral knee receiving 10(4)CFU MRSA). Four of 10 knees developed a biomaterial centered infection when 10(2)CFU MRSA was introduced. Seven out of 10 knees developed a biomaterial centered infection when either 10(3) or 10(4)CFU MRSA was injected. No evidence of septicemia (positive blood cultures) was found in any animal. This rabbit knee model utilizes commonly employed inexpensive orthopaedic implant materials in an in vivo milieu and provides an effective method for the evaluation of treatments for biomaterial centered infections. PMID:15927441

  6. Shikonin inhibits inflammatory responses in rabbit chondrocytes and shows chondroprotection in osteoarthritic rabbit knee.

    PubMed

    Li, Feng; Yin, Zhanhai; Zhou, Bing; Xue, Fei; Yang, Wei; Chang, Ruimiao; Ma, Kaige; Qiu, Yusheng

    2015-12-01

    Shikonin, a natural product from Lithospermum erythrorhizon, exerts a wide range of anti-inflammatory actions both in vitro and in vivo. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have long been considered as the major catabolic enzymes involved in osteoarthritis (OA) cartilage erosion. Here, we investigated the anti-inflammatory and effects of shikonin on MMPs in both IL-1β induced rabbit chondrocytes and the experimental rabbit OA model induced by anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) transection and evaluated the potential involvement of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) in the processes. In vitro, rabbit chondrocytes were cultured and pretreated with shikonin (0, 1, 5, 10μM) for 1h (h) with or without IL-1β (10ng/ml) for 24h. The expression of MMPs (MMP-1, MMP-3 and MMP-13) and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) at mRNA and protein levels were determined by quantitative real-time PCR and ELISA respectively. NF-κB related signaling molecules were investigated by Western blotting. In vivo study, the effects of shikonin on MMPs and TIMP-1 were determined at the gene level and the cartilage damage was evaluated at the histological level after the rabbits sacrificed. We found that shikonin significantly reversed the elevated expression of MMP-1, MMP-3 and MMP-13 and the reduced expression of TIMP-1 at both gene and protein levels in IL-1β induced chondrocytes. Additionally, the reduction of IκBα and the activation of NF-κB p65 induced by IL-1β were subsided by shikonin in rabbit chondrocytes. In vivo, both the cartilage damage and the elevated expression of MMP-1, MMP-3 and MMP-13 and the decreased expression of TIMP-1 were ameliorated in shikonin intra-articular injection knees compared to vehicle knees. Our findings indicated that shikonin have anti-inflammatory and chondro-protective effects and may be a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of OA. PMID:26395917

  7. Intra-articular Duration of Durolane™ after Single Injection into the Rabbit Knee

    PubMed Central

    Edsman, Katarina; Hjelm, Roland; Lärkner, Helena; Nord, Lars I.; Karlsson, Anders; Wiebensjö, Åsa; Höglund, A. Urban; Kenne, Anne Helander; Näsström, Jacques

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the present study was to investigate the intra-articular duration of Durolane™ in a rabbit model to allow comparison between Durolane™ residence time and data reported for other hyaluronic acid products as well as native hyaluronic acid. Design: 14C-labeled Durolane™ was manufactured by labeling the cross-linker used for stabilization. A single injection of approximately 0.3 mL 14C-labeled Durolane™ was administered intra-articularly in both knee joints of male New Zealand White rabbits. At days 1, 2, 3, 7, 28, 60, 96, and 120 after injection, the knee joints of 4 animals were collected, and the radioactivity of the remaining gel was measured. The obtained data were fitted by exponential models to calculate the half-life of the gel. Two additional rabbits were used for histology of the joint 127 days after the injection. Results: The elimination of 14C-labeled Durolane™ followed first-order kinetics with an apparent half-life of approximately 32 days. Histology showed no morphological changes in the knee joints. Conclusions: This study shows that Durolane™ has a half-life of 32 days in the rabbit knee joint, which is much longer compared to literature data on hyaluronic acid and other modified hyaluronic acid products. PMID:26069596

  8. The Basic Science of Continuous Passive Motion in Promoting Knee Health: A Systematic Review of Studies in a Rabbit Model

    PubMed Central

    Knapik, Derrick M.; Harris, Joshua D.; Pangrazzi, Garett; Griesser, Michael J.; Siston, Robert A.; Agarwal, Sudha; Flanigan, David C.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To determine whether the basic science evidence supports the use of continuous passive motion (CPM) after articular cartilage injury in the knee. Methods A systematic review was performed identifying and evaluating studies in animal models that focused on the basic science of CPM of the knee. Databases included in this review were PubMed, Biosis Previews, SPORTDiscus, PEDro, and EMBASE. All functional, gross anatomic, histologic, and histochemical outcomes were extracted and analyzed. Results Primary outcomes of CPM analyzed in rabbit animal models (19 studies) included histologic changes in articular cartilage (13 studies), biomechanical changes and nutrition of intra-articular tissue (3 studies), and anti-inflammatory biochemical changes (3 studies). Nine studies specifically examined osteochondral defects, 6 of which used autogenous periosteal grafts. Other pathologies included were antigen-induced arthritis, septic arthritis, medial collateral ligament reconstruction, hemarthrosis, and chymopapain-induced proteoglycan destruction. In comparison to immobilized knees, CPM therapy led to decreased joint stiffness and complications related to adhesions while promoting improved neochondrogenesis with formation and preservation of normal articular cartilage. CPM was also shown to create a strong anti-inflammatory environment by effectively clearing harmful, inflammatory particles from within the knee. Conclusions Current basic science evidence from rabbit studies has shown that CPM for the knee significantly improves motion and biological properties of articular cartilage. This may be translated to potentially improved outcomes in the management of articular cartilage pathology of the knee. Clinical Relevance If the rabbit model is relevant to humans, CPM may contribute to improved knee health by preventing joint stiffness, preserving normal articular tissue with better histologic and biologic properties, and improving range of motion as compared with joint

  9. Magnetic resonance knee arthrography. Enhanced contrast by gadolinium complex in the rabbit and in humans.

    PubMed

    Engel, A

    1990-01-01

    This study contains the fundamentals and the technique of the intraarticular application of an MRI contrast agent in connection with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI arthrography). It also presents the resulting clinical relevance for knee joint diagnostics. The significance of MRI arthrography is linked above all to the central question of whether or not it is possible to depict the hyaline cartilage, its surface and its thickness with the help of MRI arthrography. MRI arthrography was used for in vitro examinations of rabbit knee joint cartilage and human joint cartilage. The in vivo application was carried out in 73 patients. Apart from the metric evaluation and the assessment of the information content of the MRI image, the corresponding histologic sections were made in 20 knee joints in order to compare the cartilage surface and the thickness of the cartilage with the results in the MRI image. The optimum amount of contrast agent for visualization was determined, the uptake and clearance of the contrast agent from the cartilage were assessed, and trace elements from the cartilage were also analyzed. The examination showed that the molecular structure of the contrast agent (gadolinium-DTPA) does not prevent the uptake of the contrast agent into the matrix of the hyaline cartilage. But this process is reversible. Thus, 14 hours after the intraarticular application of the contrast agent no measurable traces of gadolinium-DTPA could be established. The intraarticular application of the contrast agent also made it possible to achieve a constant and reproducible visualization of all joint structures. This affected mainly the surface of the hyaline cartilage. The best imaging quality was achieved with intraarticular application of 30 to 40 mL of a 2 mmolar solution of gadolinium-DTPA. The technique used for the intraarticular application is the same as for the common procedures of knee joint aspiration. The clinical importance of MRI arthrography lies in the fact that

  10. Rotational knee strain resulting in patellar dislocation. An experimental study in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Finsterbush, A

    1982-09-01

    The right lower extremities of 64 young rabbits were immobilized by a plaster spica. The animals developed a gait pattern, which included internal tibial rotation and adduction of the left (unimmobilized) tibia. Twenty-one of the animals developed medial patellar dislocation in the unimmobilized lower extremity. The mechanism of the patellar dislocation in this experimental model was possibly overstretching of the lateral colateral ligament and the lateral side of the joint capsule, associated with medial rotation of the tibia and the tibial tubercle. The direction of patellar pull when gliding inferiorly during knee flexion was shifted medially, resulting in patellar dislocation and secondarily, in formation of an exostosis under the displaced patella. Hip arthrodesis in humans, as a course of rotational instability of the contralateral knee, resembles some aspects of this experimental condition. PMID:7105585

  11. Ketamine attenuates osteoarthritis of the knee via modulation of inflammatory responses in a rabbit model

    PubMed Central

    LU, WEI; WANG, LIN; WO, CHUNXIN; YAO, JING

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the efficacy of ketamine in attenuating osteoarthritis (OA) and modulating the expression of inflammatory mediators. A rabbit OA model was established by knee immobilization using plaster bandages. After six weeks, rabbits were randomly allocated into four groups (n=6/group): Normal saline, Ket60, Ket100, and Ket200 and twice a week for four weeks the rabbits received an intra-articular injection of saline, or 60, 100 or 200 µmol/l ketamine, respectively. One week after the final injection, samples of synovial membrane, synovial fluid and articular cartilage were isolated. The pathological changes were assessed by general observation, hematoxylin and eosin staining and Alcian blue/periodic-acid Schiff staining. Cartilage pathology was assessed using Mankin's scoring system. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-10 levels in the synovial fluid were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. The nuclear factor (NF)-κB p65 subunit expression level in cartilage samples was determined by immunohistochemistry. OA was characterized by morphological changes in the articular surface, cartilage lesions, infiltration of inflammatory cells and a significantly increased Mankin's score. Elevated TNF-α and reduced IL-10 levels in the synovial fluid, along with increased p65 expression levels in the cartilage were observed in OA rabbits. Intra-articular injection of ketamine ameliorated the pathological characteristics of OA, reduced the Mankin's score, decreased TNF-α and NF-κB p65 expression levels, and increased the level of IL-10 expression in a dose-dependent manner. Thus is was demonstrated that Ketamine suppresses the inflammatory response in OA by modulating inflammatory mediator expression levels in a rabbit model of OA. PMID:27109206

  12. Ketamine attenuates osteoarthritis of the knee via modulation of inflammatory responses in a rabbit model.

    PubMed

    Lu, Wei; Wang, Lin; Wo, Chunxin; Yao, Jing

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the efficacy of ketamine in attenuating osteoarthritis (OA) and modulating the expression of inflammatory mediators. A rabbit OA model was established by knee immobilization using plaster bandages. After six weeks, rabbits were randomly allocated into four groups (n=6/group): Normal saline, Ket60, Ket100, and Ket200 and twice a week for four weeks the rabbits received an intra‑articular injection of saline, or 60, 100 or 200 µmol/l ketamine, respectively. One week after the final injection, samples of synovial membrane, synovial fluid and articular cartilage were isolated. The pathological changes were assessed by general observation, hematoxylin and eosin staining and Alcian blue/periodic‑acid Schiff staining. Cartilage pathology was assessed using Mankin's scoring system. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)‑α and interleukin (IL)‑10 levels in the synovial fluid were measured by enzyme‑linked immunosorbent assays. The nuclear factor (NF)‑κB p65 subunit expression level in cartilage samples was determined by immunohistochemistry. OA was characterized by morphological changes in the articular surface, cartilage lesions, infiltration of inflammatory cells and a significantly increased Mankin's score. Elevated TNF‑α and reduced IL-10 levels in the synovial fluid, along with increased p65 expression levels in the cartilage were observed in OA rabbits. Intra‑articular injection of ketamine ameliorated the pathological characteristics of OA, reduced the Mankin's score, decreased TNF‑α and NF‑κB p65 expression levels, and increased the level of IL‑10 expression in a dose-dependent manner. Thus is was demonstrated that Ketamine suppresses the inflammatory response in OA by modulating inflammatory mediator expression levels in a rabbit model of OA. PMID:27109206

  13. Differential proteomics of the synovial membrane between bilateral and unilateral knee osteoarthritis in surgery‑induced rabbit models.

    PubMed

    Liu, Weilin; He, Jian; Lin, Ruhui; Liang, Jie; Luo, Qinglu

    2016-09-01

    The present study investigated the differential proteomics of synovial membranes between bilateral and unilateral anterior cruciate ligament transection (ACLT) in rabbits with knee osteoarthritis (KOA), in order to elucidate the pathological biomarkers of different degrees of KOA. A total of 6 New Zealand rabbits were randomly divided into groups A and B (three rabbits per group). The two groups were subjected to bilateral and unilateral ACLT, respectively. A total of 6 weeks following surgery, proteins were extracted from the knee joint synovial membranes of KOA rabbits and were separated by two‑dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The differentially expressed proteins in the OA synovial membranes were selected for further analysis by linear ion trap‑Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry. Ten protein spots were identified to be different between the synovial membranes of the bilateral and unilateral KOA rabbits. Protein disulfide‑isomerase and creatine kinase M‑type were identified in the unilateral KOA rabbit synovial membranes. Serum albumin (three spots), lumican, α‑2‑HS‑glycoprotein and three uncharacterized proteins were identified in the synovial membranes of the bilateral KOA rabbits. The differential proteomic expression demonstrated the different biomarkers associated with bilateral and unilateral KOA, and indicated that spontaneous and secondary KOA require diverse methods of treatment; thus the underlying mechanism of KOA requires further investigation. PMID:27430254

  14. Comparative quantitative monitoring of rabbit haemorrhagic disease viruses in rabbit kittens

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Only one strain (the Czech CAPM-v351) of rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) has been released in Australia and New Zealand to control pest populations of the European rabbit O. cuniculus. Antigenic variants of RHDV known as RHDVa strains are reportedly replacing RHDV strains in other parts of the world, and Australia is currently investigating the usefulness of RHDVa to complement rabbit biocontrol efforts in Australia and New Zealand. RHDV efficiently kills adult rabbits but not rabbit kittens, which are more resistant to RHD the younger they are and which may carry the virus without signs of disease for prolonged periods. These different infection patterns in young rabbits may significantly influence RHDV epidemiology in the field and hence attempts to control rabbit numbers. Methods We quantified RHDV replication and shedding in 4–5 week old rabbits using quantitative real time PCR to assess their potential to shape RHDV epidemiology by shedding and transmitting virus. We further compared RHDV-v351 with an antigenic variant strain of RHDVa in kittens that is currently being considered as a potential RHDV strain for future release to improve rabbit biocontrol in Australia. Results Kittens were susceptible to infection with virus doses as low as 10 ID50. Virus growth, shedding and transmission after RHDVa infection was found to be comparable or non-significantly lower compared to RHDV. Virus replication and shedding was observed in all kittens infected, but was low in comparison to adult rabbits. Both viruses were shed and transmitted to bystander rabbits. While blood titres indicated that 4–5 week old kittens mostly clear the infection even in the absence of maternal antibodies, virus titres in liver, spleen and mesenteric lymph node were still high on day 5 post infection. Conclusions Rabbit kittens are susceptible to infection with very low doses of RHDV, and can transmit virus before they seroconvert. They may therefore play an important

  15. Responses of bone and joint blood vessels in cats and rabbits to electrical stimulation of nerves supplying the knee.

    PubMed Central

    Ferrell, W R; Khoshbaten, A; Angerson, W J

    1990-01-01

    1. Experiments were performed to assess the extent to which knee joint blood flow in cats and rabbits is affected by electrical stimulation of the nerve supply to the knee. 2. Absolute changes in blood flow were measured using the radiolabelled microsphere (approximately 15 microns) technique whilst relative changes in blood flow were assessed using laser Doppler flowmetry. 3. Despite deep general anaesthesia, sympathetic nerve fibres innervating cat knee joint blood vessels showed marked 'tone'. 4. Blood flow to the joint capsule (synovium and overlying fibrous and areolar tissues) was substantially reduced (by approximately 90% in the cat and approximately 45% in the rabbit) during electrical stimulation of the articular nerve supply. 5. The percentage change in the laser Doppler flowmeter signal did not differ significantly from the percentage change in blood flow measured by microsphere technique. 6. Blood vessels in the cancellous bone of the distal femur (condyles) and proximal tibia (plateau) appear to be innervated by vasoconstrictor fibres which reach their effectors via the articular nerves. However, the cortical bone and red marrow of the diaphysis of the femur do not receive such innervation. 7. The potency of the vasoconstrictor influences acting on joint blood vessels could be of relevance in the pathogenesis of inflammatory joint diseases. PMID:2100317

  16. Synovial capillary distribution in relation to altered pressure and permeability in knees of anaesthetized rabbits.

    PubMed Central

    Levick, J R; McDonald, J N

    1989-01-01

    1. The hydraulic conductance of the synovial lining of the rabbit knee increases greatly at intra-articular pressures (IAP) above 9 cmH2O. A structural cause was sought by fixing synovium in situ at less than or equal to 5 cmH2O IAP (ten animals) or 25 cmH2O IAP (five animals) and examining histological sections morphometrically. 2. The synovial lining was found to be a highly deformable sheet of very vascular connective tissue, with 47 x 10(3)-73 X 10(3) capillaries per cm2 section. 150-260 cm2 endothelial surface per cm3 tissue and a vascular volume of 2.4-5.7%. 3. The thickness of the lining averaged 14-19 microns at low IAP and was reduced at high IAP; in suprapatellar synovium, where changes were most marked, thickness fell by 24-47%. The loose subsynovial space expanded. 4. The average distance separating capillary near-edges from the joint cavity approximately halved from 3.75 and 7.47 microns at low IAP (harmonic and arithmetical means respectively) to 1.82 and 3.35 microns at high IAP. Capillaries remained patent and their number density did not change significantly at high IAP. 5. It is concluded that a reduction in the extravascular path length for fluid exchange contributes to the increase synovial conductance at high IAP, but the path length changes were not sufficient to account fully for the conductance changes. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 4 PMID:2621638

  17. Changes in glycosaminoglycan concentration and synovial permeability at raised intra-articular pressure in rabbit knees.

    PubMed Central

    Price, F M; Levick, J R; Mason, R M

    1996-01-01

    1. When intra-articular pressure is raised to pathological values (> 9 cmH2O) by saline, the hydraulic conductance of the synovial lining increases manyfold. The increase at 25 cmH2O is only partially accounted for by stretching of the tissue and has been ascribed to washout and/or dilution of interstitial matrix biopolymers. This suggestion was tested in this study by sampling synovium from control joints (rabbit knees) and from joints perfused with saline to 25 cmH2O, and analysing them quantitatively for collagen, chondroitin sulphate, heparan sulphate and hyaluronan. 2. Pressure and trans-synovial flow measurements showed that in samples taken at 25 cmH2O the conductance of the synovial lining had increased by a factor of 5.23 +/- 1.5 (mean +/- S.E.M.) over the conductance at low pressures (just above atmospheric pressure). 3. The tissue concentrations of collagen and the sulphated glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) were reduced by similar amounts after perfusion to 25 cmH2O, namely to 62.8-70.4% of control. The hyaluronan concentration by contrast was not significantly reduced (106% of control). 4. The reduction in collagen concentration (fixed material) indicated increased interstitial hydration. The closely similar reduction in sulphated GAGs indicated that dilution rather than washout of these components was occurring. The hyaluronan results could be explained by synthesis in vivo at a rate of > or = 91 micrograms h-1 (ml synovium)-1 (possibly a non-basal rate under the conditions of the experiment, i.e. raised pressure and a stretched hydrated membrane). 5. Because interstitial hydraulic drag is related to biopolymer concentration by a power function, the overall matrix dilution observed here was more than sufficient to explain the rise in synovial lining hydraulic conductance at 25 cmH2O when taken in conjunction with stretching of the synovial lining (increased area, reduced thickness). PMID:8887785

  18. The Effect of Hydroxycamptothecin on Wound Healing Following Reduction of the Knee Intra-Articular Adhesion in Rabbits.

    PubMed

    Yan, Lianqi; Sun, Yu; Li, Xiaolei; Liang, Yuan; Zhu, Gengyao; Wang, Jingcheng; Xiao, Tao

    2015-09-01

    Topical application of 10-hydroxycamptothecin (HCPT) can reduce intra-articular scar adhesion after knee surgery, but the effect of HCPT on wound healing has not yet been elucidated. The study investigates the effect of the topical application of HCPT on wound healing after knee surgery in rabbits. Forty New Zealand white rabbits were divided into five groups: 2.0, 1.0, 0.5, and 0.1 mg/ml HCPT groups and control group. Approximately 10 mm × 10 mm of the cortical bone was removed from both sides of the femoral condyle, and the underneath of the cancellous bone was exposed. HCPT in various concentrations or saline was applied to the decorticated sites. Two weeks after surgery, the intra-articular adhesion was evaluated by Masson's trichrome staining. The blood vessel density and the fibroblast counting were evaluated by hematoxylin-eosin staining. The Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression was evaluated by immunohistochemical staining and mRNA measurement. The recovery of all rabbits was stable after surgery. Topical application of HCPT could reduce intra-articular adhesion after 2 weeks. The blood vessel density, the number of fibroblast, and the level of VEGF expression in 2.0 and 1.0 mg/ml HCPT groups were lower than those of 0.5 mg/ml HCPT group, 0.1 mg/ml HCPT group, and the control group. However, there was no difference in multiple parameters between 1.0 and 2.0 mg/ml HCPT groups. Topical application of HCPT could reduce intra-articular scar adhesion in rabbits, but HCPT with concentrations above 1.0 mg/ml may affect the wound healing process by inhibiting the angiogenesis and fibroblast proliferation. PMID:25724440

  19. Metabolic and structural changes in newly synthesized proteoglycans induced by implantation of a polyethylene sheet in the rabbit knee joint.

    PubMed

    Ribault, D; Garcia, F; Riera, H; Mritovic, D R

    1993-07-01

    A sheet of polyethylene was surgically implanted in a rabbit right patello-femoral joint and changes in the structure and chemical composition of newly synthesized articular cartilage proteoglycans (PGs) were studied 1 month after surgery. The articular cartilage from implanted and sham-operated control knee joints was labeled in vitro with 3H-glycine and 35S-SO4 and then extracted with 4 M guanidinium chloride (GuHCl) solution. Labeled extracts were analyzed by dissociative CsCl gradient centrifugation and by Sepharose CL-2B column chromatography. The labeled glycosaminoglycan side chains were analyzed by Sephadex G-200 column chromatography and specific enzymatic digestions. Compared with sham-operation, the trochlear articular cartilage of operated joints incorporated more 35S-SO4 and 3H-glycine into newly synthesized PGs and proteins. It also synthesized a higher proportion of extractable, hydrodynamically large and high density 35S-PG monomers with increased proportion of molecules, able to interact with exogeneous hyaluronan (HA). The fibro-cartilagenous 'osteo-chondrophytic' spurs, compared with trochlear hyaline articular cartilages, incorporated less 35S-SO4 and 3H-glycine and synthesized less extractable high density 35S-PG monomers able to interact with exogenous HA. Their 35S-GAG side chains were more heterogeneous and segregated into three distinct peaks as shown by Sephadex G-200 column chromatography. The results of the present studies demonstrate that, in response to the implant, there was an increase in the biosynthetic capacity of chondrocytes which synthetized larger PG monomers able to interact wih HA. PMID:15449426

  20. Glycosaminoglycan concentration in synovium and other tissues of rabbit knee in relation to synovial hydraulic resistance.

    PubMed

    Price, F M; Levick, J R; Mason, R M

    1996-09-15

    1. The hydraulic resistance of the synovial lining of a joint, a key coupling coefficient in synovial fluid turnover, is thought to depend on the concentration of biopolymers (glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) and collagen) in the synovial intercellular spaces, because these polymers create hydraulic drag. The primary aim of this study was to obtain microscopically separated, milligram samples of the very thin synovium from eight rabbit knees, and to analyse these quantitatively for GAGs (chondroitin sulphate, heparan sulphate and hyaluronan) and collagen to allow comparison with published hydraulic resistance data. Synovial fluid and femoral cartilage were also studied. 2. Synovium comprised 73 +/- 3% water by weight (mean +/- S.E.M.). Of the 270 mg solid per gram of wet tissue, protein formed 136 mg (by automated amino acid analysis), and of this 94 mg was collagen by hydroxyproline analysis. From the collagen mass and fibril volume fraction (0.153 of tissue by morphometry), fibrillar specific volume was calculated to be 1.43 ml per gram of molecular collagen, and fibril water content 47% by volume. 3. The concentration of chondroitin 4-sulphate (C4S) plus chondroitin 6-sulphate (C6S), measured by capillary zone electrophoresis was 0.55 mg per gram of synovium--much greater than in synovial fluid (0.04 mg g-1) and much less than in cartilage (27.8 mg g-1). The C4S/C6S ratio in synovium (7.3) differed from that in cartilage (0.7), indicating that different proteoglycans predominated in synovium. The heparan sulphate concentration, assayed by radioactive Ruthenium Red binding, was 0.92 mg per gram of synovium (synovial fluid, 0.08 mg g-1; cartilage, 0.72 mg g-1). 4. In contrast to sulphated GAGs, the hyaluronan concentration was highest in synovial fluid (3.53 mg g-1; biotinylated G1 domain binding assay). The concentration in synovial interstitium was only 0.56 mg g-1 (corrected for interstitial volume fraction, 0.66), even though there is open contact between synovial

  1. OSTEOCHONDRAL INTERFACE REGENERATION OF THE RABBIT KNEE WITH MACROSCOPIC GRADIENTS OF BIOACTIVE SIGNALS

    PubMed Central

    Dormer, Nathan H.; Singh, Milind; Zhao, Liang; Mohan, Neethu; Berkland, Cory J.; Detamore, Michael S.

    2011-01-01

    To date, most interfacial tissue engineering approaches have utilized stratified designs, in which there are two or more discrete layers comprising the interface. Continuously-graded interfacial designs, where there is no discrete transition from one tissue type to another, are gaining attention as an alternative to stratified designs. Given that osteochondral regeneration holds the potential to enhance cartilage regeneration by leveraging the healing capacity of the underlying bone, we endeavored to introduce a continuously graded approach to osteochondral regeneration. The purpose of this study was thus to evaluate the performance of a novel gradient-based scaffolding approach to regenerate osteochondral defects in the New Zealand White rabbit femoral condyle. Bioactive plugs were constructed from poly(d,l-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microspheres with a continuous gradient transition between cartilage-promoting and bone-promoting growth factors. At six and 12 weeks of healing, results suggested that the implants provided support for the neo-synthesized tissue, and the gradient in bioactive signaling may have been beneficial for bone and cartilage regeneration compared to the blank control implant, as evidenced by histology. In addition, the effects of pre-seeding gradient scaffolds with umbilical cord mesenchymal stromal cells (UCMSCs) from the Wharton’s jelly of New Zealand White rabbits were evaluated. Results indicated that there may be regenerative benefits to pre-localizing UCMSCs within scaffold interiors. The inclusion of bioactive factors in a gradient-based scaffolding design is a promising new treatment strategy for defect repair in the femoral condyle. PMID:22009693

  2. Comparative Study on Strength of Knee Joint Using Various Material Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zhengzhi; Ding, Zhiwei; Liu, Zishun; Swaddiwudhipong, Somsak; Tan, Yi Min; Lee, Kevin

    2012-06-01

    In this study, we adopt different material models to study the strength and stiffness of menisci of the knee joint using finite element method. The three-dimensional (3-D) knee joint finite element model is constructed based on the Magnetic Resonance (MR) images of a human knee joint, and the strength of menisci is analyzed under a specific vertical loading case. In this paper we categorize and implement three types of appropriate material properties, namely isotropic linearly elastic, transversely isotropic elastic and isotropic hyperelastic for menisci of the knee joint. Different strain energy models are also studied and compared under hyperelastic category. The comparative study demonstrates that the hyperelastic model with Ogden form is more appropriate in modeling menisci of the knee joint. By referring to the test data of different material properties from earlier studies by various researchers, we hope to provide a comparative study leading to appropriate menisci material models and properties for finite element analyses of knee joint structures.

  3. Glycosaminoglycan concentration in synovium and other tissues of rabbit knee in relation to synovial hydraulic resistance.

    PubMed Central

    Price, F M; Levick, J R; Mason, R M

    1996-01-01

    1. The hydraulic resistance of the synovial lining of a joint, a key coupling coefficient in synovial fluid turnover, is thought to depend on the concentration of biopolymers (glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) and collagen) in the synovial intercellular spaces, because these polymers create hydraulic drag. The primary aim of this study was to obtain microscopically separated, milligram samples of the very thin synovium from eight rabbit knees, and to analyse these quantitatively for GAGs (chondroitin sulphate, heparan sulphate and hyaluronan) and collagen to allow comparison with published hydraulic resistance data. Synovial fluid and femoral cartilage were also studied. 2. Synovium comprised 73 +/- 3% water by weight (mean +/- S.E.M.). Of the 270 mg solid per gram of wet tissue, protein formed 136 mg (by automated amino acid analysis), and of this 94 mg was collagen by hydroxyproline analysis. From the collagen mass and fibril volume fraction (0.153 of tissue by morphometry), fibrillar specific volume was calculated to be 1.43 ml per gram of molecular collagen, and fibril water content 47% by volume. 3. The concentration of chondroitin 4-sulphate (C4S) plus chondroitin 6-sulphate (C6S), measured by capillary zone electrophoresis was 0.55 mg per gram of synovium--much greater than in synovial fluid (0.04 mg g-1) and much less than in cartilage (27.8 mg g-1). The C4S/C6S ratio in synovium (7.3) differed from that in cartilage (0.7), indicating that different proteoglycans predominated in synovium. The heparan sulphate concentration, assayed by radioactive Ruthenium Red binding, was 0.92 mg per gram of synovium (synovial fluid, 0.08 mg g-1; cartilage, 0.72 mg g-1). 4. In contrast to sulphated GAGs, the hyaluronan concentration was highest in synovial fluid (3.53 mg g-1; biotinylated G1 domain binding assay). The concentration in synovial interstitium was only 0.56 mg g-1 (corrected for interstitial volume fraction, 0.66), even though there is open contact between synovial

  4. Site-dependent biomechanical responses of chondrocytes in the rabbit knee joint.

    PubMed

    Fick, J M; Ronkainen, A; Herzog, W; Korhonen, R K

    2015-11-26

    Biomechanical responses of chondrocytes were determined in specific locations within the superficial zone of patellar, femoral groove, femoral condyle and tibial plateau cartilages obtained from female New Zealand White rabbits. A confocal laser scanning microscope combined with a custom indentation system was utilized for experimentation. Changes in cell volumes and dimensions (i.e. cell height, width and depth) due to loading, global, local axial and transverse strains were determined for each site. Tissue composition and structure was analysed at each indentation site with digital densitometry, polarized light microscopy and Fourier transform infrared imaging spectroscopy. Patellar cells underwent greater volume decreases (compared to femoral groove cells; p<0.05) primarily due to greater decreases in cell height (p<0.05), consistent with greater levels of both global and local axial strains (p<0.05). Lateral condyle cells underwent greater volume decreases (compared to lateral plateau cells; p<0.05) primarily due to greater decreases in cell height, consistent with greater levels of tissue strains (p<0.05). Medial condyle cells underwent smaller volume decreases (compared to medial plateau cells; p<0.05) primarily due to elevated cell expansions in the depth direction, which was consistent with greater levels of minor transverse strains (p<0.05). Site-dependent differences in collagen orientation angles agreed conceptually with the observed cell dimensional changes. Chondrocyte biomechanical responses were highly site-dependent and corresponded primarily with the orientation of the collagen fibrils. The observed differences were thought to be due to the different biomechanical loading conditions at each site. PMID:26601568

  5. Multidimensional visualization of healthy and sensitized rabbit knee tissues by means of confocal microscopy.

    PubMed

    Rudys, Romualdas; Bagdonas, Saulius; Kirdaitė, Gailutė; Papečkienė, Jurga; Rotomskis, Ričardas

    2015-05-01

    This study combines several fluorescence detection methods to distinguish structural features of the synovium and cartilage tissues and to visualize the localization of endogenous porphyrins in the sensitized tissues. Specimens of synovium and cartilage tissues obtained from rabbits with antigen-induced monoarthritis after intra-articular 5-aminolevulinic acid methyl ester injection and those from healthy rabbits were investigated ex vivo by means of fluorescence spectroscopy, fluorescence intensity, and lifetime microscopy. The presence of endogenous porphyrins was confirmed with the fluorescence spectra measured on sliced sensitized specimens. Application of the lifetime-gating method on fast fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy images, allowed separate visualization of tissue structures possessing different average lifetimes. The presence of the structures has been validated by histopathological imaging based on conventional rapid hematoxylin–eosin staining of the specimens. The fluorescence lifetime of endogenous protoporphyrin IX has been assessed and employed for visualization of sensitized tissues. PMID:25672969

  6. Multidimensional visualization of healthy and sensitized rabbit knee tissues by means of confocal microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudys, Romualdas; Bagdonas, Saulius; Kirdaitė, Gailutė; Papečkienė, Jurga; Rotomskis, Ričardas

    2015-05-01

    This study combines several fluorescence detection methods to distinguish structural features of the synovium and cartilage tissues and to visualize the localization of endogenous porphyrins in the sensitized tissues. Specimens of synovium and cartilage tissues obtained from rabbits with antigen-induced monoarthritis after intra-articular 5-aminolevulinic acid methyl ester injection and those from healthy rabbits were investigated ex vivo by means of fluorescence spectroscopy, fluorescence intensity, and lifetime microscopy. The presence of endogenous porphyrins was confirmed with the fluorescence spectra measured on sliced sensitized specimens. Application of the lifetime-gating method on fast fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy images, allowed separate visualization of tissue structures possessing different average lifetimes. The presence of the structures has been validated by histopathological imaging based on conventional rapid hematoxylin-eosin staining of the specimens. The fluorescence lifetime of endogenous protoporphyrin IX has been assessed and employed for visualization of sensitized tissues.

  7. [An experimental study on the replacement of the anterior cruciate ligament of the rabbit's knee using an augmented substitute].

    PubMed

    Kitsuda, M

    1993-04-01

    The mechanical properties of a reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) using an augmented substitute were investigated in rabbits' knees. After total resection of the ACL, 25 knees were reconstructed with a patellar tendon alone (nonaugmented group) and 25 with a patella tendon augmented by a Leeds-Keio artificial ligament (augmented group). The rabbits were sacrificed for biomechanical testing at 0, 4, 8, 12 and 24 weeks, respectively, after operation. In the augmented group, the mean ultimate load was 48.8% of the original ACL load at 4 weeks, and this gradually increased to 65.6% at 8 weeks. That of the twenty-four-week specimens was restored to 71% of the original ACL load. In the nonaugmented group, the mean ultimate load decreased to 9.3% at 8 weeks, but increased to 37.5% at 24 weeks. The mean static stiffness in the augmented group was higher than in the nonaugmented group at all time periods. The differences between the augmented and nonaugmented groups were statistically significant in the 8 to 12 week period (p < 0.01). Tan delta values, exhibiting the magnitude of viscosity in a viscoelastic material, in the augmented group were significantly higher than those in the nonaugmented group at 8 weeks (p < 0.05) and 12 weeks (p < 0.01). The mean tan delta in the augmented group decreased to 0.08 +/- 0.04 at 24 weeks, but the values were higher than those of the original ACL. The mean dynamic elastic modulus in the augmented group was higher than in the nonaugmented group at all time periods. The difference between the augmented and nonaugmented groups was statistically significant in the 8th week (p < 0.05). The values of dynamic elastic modulus in both groups were increased at 24 weeks: 96.4 MPa in the augmented group, and 77.5 MPa in the nonaugmented group. It was demonstrated that the augmented ligaments used for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction had greater strength and static stiffness than the patellar tendon autograft. As for

  8. The influence of hydrostatic pressure on trans-synovial fluid movement and on capsular expansion in the rabbit knee.

    PubMed

    Levick, J R

    1979-04-01

    1. The flow of Ringer solution or paraffin oil from an infusion reservoir into the cavity of the knee (stifle) joint was measured in anesthetized rabbits, as intraarticular pressure was progressively elevated from its intrinsic slightly subatmospheric value to +25 cm H2O. 2. Paraffin oil did not penetrate the tissues lining the joint cavity, yet a continuous flow of oil occurred into the joint at pressures over +2 cm H2O. It was concluded that the joint investment behaved as a visco-elastic tissue. 3. Trans-synovial flow of Ringer solution was calculated by correcting the observed inflow for visco-elastic expansion of the joint capsule. At intra-articular pressures +2 to +9 cm H2O, trans-synovial flow increased at an average rate of 0.49 microliter min-1.cm H2O-1. The hydraulic conductivity of the synovium was therefore similar to that of subcutaneous connective tissue. At around +9 cm H2O, the 'breaking pressure', the slope of the pressure-flow relationship increased by almost sixfold to 2.81 microliter min-1.cm H2O-1. 4. Changes in joint visco-elasticity, synovial surface area, blood pressure, colloid osmotic pressure of plasma and of joint fluid, and inflammation were excluded as explanations of the marked increase in rate of fluid absorption, which is tentatively attributed to increases in synovial hydraulic conductivity. Some physiological and clinical implications of the data are discussed. PMID:458708

  9. Systematic Characterization and Comparative Analysis of the Rabbit Immunoglobulin Repertoire

    PubMed Central

    Lavinder, Jason J.; Hoi, Kam Hon; Reddy, Sai T.; Wine, Yariv; Georgiou, George

    2014-01-01

    Rabbits have been used extensively as a model system for the elucidation of the mechanism of immunoglobulin diversification and for the production of antibodies. We employed Next Generation Sequencing to analyze Ig germline V and J gene usage, CDR3 length and amino acid composition, and gene conversion frequencies within the functional (transcribed) IgG repertoire of the New Zealand white rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus). Several previously unannotated rabbit heavy chain variable (VH) and light chain variable (VL) germline elements were deduced bioinformatically using multidimensional scaling and k-means clustering methods. We estimated the gene conversion frequency in the rabbit at 23% of IgG sequences with a mean gene conversion tract length of 59±36 bp. Sequencing and gene conversion analysis of the chicken, human, and mouse repertoires revealed that gene conversion occurs much more extensively in the chicken (frequency 70%, tract length 79±57 bp), was observed to a small, yet statistically significant extent in humans, but was virtually absent in mice. PMID:24978027

  10. International Comparative Evaluation of Knee Replacement with Fixed or Mobile Non-Posterior-Stabilized Implants

    PubMed Central

    Namba, Robert; Graves, Stephen; Robertsson, Otto; Furnes, Ove; Stea, Susanna; Puig-Verdié, Lluis; Hoeffel, Daniel; Cafri, Guy; Paxton, Elizabeth; Sedrakyan, Art

    2014-01-01

    Background: Mobile-bearing total knee prostheses were designed to reduce wear and improve implant survivorship following total knee arthroplasty. However, the benefit of mobile-bearing total knee arthroplasty remains unproven. Both mobile-bearing and fixed-bearing total knee arthroplasty implants are available in posterior-stabilized and non-posterior-stabilized designs. With the latter, the implant does not recreate the function of the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) with a posterior-stabilizing cam mechanism. The purpose of the present study was to compare mobile-bearing, non-posterior-stabilized devices with fixed-bearing, non-posterior-stabilized devices used in total knee arthroplasty through a novel multinational study design. Methods: Through the use of a distributed health data network, primary total knee arthroplasties performed for osteoarthritis from 2001 to 2010 were identified from six national and regional total joint arthroplasty registries. Multivariate meta-analysis was performed with use of linear mixed models, with the primary outcome of interest being revision for any reason. Survival probabilities and their standard errors were extracted from each registry for each unique combination of the covariates. Results: A total of 319,616 patients (60% female) underwent non-posterior-stabilized total knee arthroplasty. A fixed-bearing, non-posterior-stabilized design was used in 258,190 (81%) of the knees and a mobile-bearing, non-posterior-stabilized design in 61,426 (19%) of the knees. Sixty-nine percent of the patients who received a fixed-bearing implant were over sixty-five years of age, compared with 63% of those who received a mobile-bearing implant. Mobile-bearing designs had a higher risk of revision, with a hazard ratio of 1.43 (95% confidence interval, 1.36 to 1.51; p < 0.001). Conclusions: Previous comparisons of mobile-bearing and fixed-bearing total knee arthroplasty outcomes have been inconclusive. The current study utilized an advanced

  11. In vivo prompt gamma neutron activation analysis for the screening of boron-10 distribution in a rabbit knee: a simulation study.

    PubMed

    Zhu, X; Clackdoyle, R; Shortkroff, S; Yanch, J

    2008-05-21

    Boron neutron capture synovectomy (BNCS) is under development as a potential treatment modality for rheumatoid arthritis (RA). RA is characterized by the inflammation of the synovium (the membrane lining articular joints), which leads to pain and a restricted range of motion. BNCS is a two-part procedure involving the injection of a boronated compound directly into the diseased joint followed by irradiation with a low-energy neutron beam. The neutron capture reactions taking place in the synovium deliver a local, high-linear energy transfer (LET) dose aimed at destroying the inflamed synovial membrane. For successful treatment via BNCS, a boron-labeled compound exhibiting both high synovial uptake and long retention time is necessary. Currently, the in vivo uptake behavior of potentially useful boronated compounds is evaluated in the knee joints of rabbits in which arthritis has been induced. This strategy involves the sacrifice and dissection of a large number of animals. An in vivo (10)B screening approach is therefore under investigation with the goal of significantly reducing the number of animals needed for compound evaluation via dissection studies. The 'in vivo prompt gamma neutron activation analysis' (IVPGNAA) approach uses a narrow neutron beam to irradiate the knee from several angular positions following the intra-articular injection of a boronated compound whose uptake characteristics are unknown. A high-purity germanium detector collects the 478 keV gamma photons produced by the (10)B capture reactions. The (10)B distribution in the knee is then reconstructed by solving a system of simultaneous equations using a weighted least squares algorithm. To study the practical feasibility of IVPGNAA, simulation data were generated with the Monte Carlo N-particle transport code. The boron-containing region of a rabbit knee was partitioned into 8 compartments, and the (10)B prompt gamma signals were tallied from 16 angular positions. Results demonstrate that for

  12. In vivo prompt gamma neutron activation analysis for the screening of boron-10 distribution in a rabbit knee: a simulation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, X.; Clackdoyle, R.; Shortkroff, S.; Yanch, J.

    2008-05-01

    Boron neutron capture synovectomy (BNCS) is under development as a potential treatment modality for rheumatoid arthritis (RA). RA is characterized by the inflammation of the synovium (the membrane lining articular joints), which leads to pain and a restricted range of motion. BNCS is a two-part procedure involving the injection of a boronated compound directly into the diseased joint followed by irradiation with a low-energy neutron beam. The neutron capture reactions taking place in the synovium deliver a local, high-linear energy transfer (LET) dose aimed at destroying the inflamed synovial membrane. For successful treatment via BNCS, a boron-labeled compound exhibiting both high synovial uptake and long retention time is necessary. Currently, the in vivo uptake behavior of potentially useful boronated compounds is evaluated in the knee joints of rabbits in which arthritis has been induced. This strategy involves the sacrifice and dissection of a large number of animals. An in vivo 10B screening approach is therefore under investigation with the goal of significantly reducing the number of animals needed for compound evaluation via dissection studies. The 'in vivo prompt gamma neutron activation analysis' (IVPGNAA) approach uses a narrow neutron beam to irradiate the knee from several angular positions following the intra-articular injection of a boronated compound whose uptake characteristics are unknown. A high-purity germanium detector collects the 478 keV gamma photons produced by the 10B capture reactions. The 10B distribution in the knee is then reconstructed by solving a system of simultaneous equations using a weighted least squares algorithm. To study the practical feasibility of IVPGNAA, simulation data were generated with the Monte Carlo N-particle transport code. The boron-containing region of a rabbit knee was partitioned into 8 compartments, and the 10B prompt gamma signals were tallied from 16 angular positions. Results demonstrate that for this

  13. A comparative study of articular cartilage thickness in the stifle of animal species used in human pre-clinical studies compared to articular cartilage thickness in the human knee.

    PubMed

    Frisbie, D D; Cross, M W; McIlwraith, C W

    2006-01-01

    Histological measurements of the thickness of non-calcified and calcified cartilage, as well as the subchondral bone plate in five locations on the femoral trochlea and medial femoral condyles of species were used in preclinical studies of articular cartilage and compared to those of the human knee. Cadaver specimens were obtained of six human knees, as well as six equine, six goat, six dog, six sheep and six rabbit stifle joints (the animal equivalent of the human knee). Specimens were taken from the lateral trochlear ridge, medial trochlear ridge and medial femoral condyle. After histopathological processing, the thickness of non-calcified and calcified cartilage layers, as well as the subchondral bone plate, was measured. Average articular cartilage thickness over five locations were 2.2-2.5 mm for human, 0.3 mm for rabbit, 0.4-0.5 mm for sheep, 0.6-1.3 mm for dog, 0.7-1.5 mm for goat and 1.5-2 mm for horse. The horse provides the closest approximation to humans in terms of articular cartilage thickness, and this approximation is considered relevant in pre-clinical studies of cartilage healing. PMID:16971996

  14. Time-dependence of the pressure-volume relationship in the synovial cavity of the rabbit knee.

    PubMed Central

    Knight, A D; Levick, J R

    1983-01-01

    The pressure-volume curve of the synovial cavity of the rabbit knee has been determined by the infusion of a non-absorbable oil into the joint space. Pressure (greater than 3 cm H2O) at a given volume decayed as a curvilinear function of time. In consequence, a plot of volume against pressure immediately after a volume increment (the immediate compliance curve) was steeper than a plot of volume against pressure after 5-20 min (the delayed compliance curve) above atmospheric pressure. Similarly, the compliance curve for a rapidly expanded joint was steeper than the compliance curve for the opposite, slowly expanded joint. Observations 2 and 3 indicated that the joint investment was visco-elastic. Pressure at a given volume during aspiration of the expanded joint was always less than pressure at the same volume during infusion. This hysteresis was substantial, the mean energy dissipation being about 37%. Pressure at a given volume increased as a function of time during aspiration, but the pressure recovery was less pronounced than pressure decay during infusion. When the cycle of infusion and aspiration was repeated, the pressure-volume hysteresis loop was displaced progressively towards the volume axis. Observations 5 and 6 were attributed to plasticity of the joint investment. It is concluded that intra-articular pressure at a given volume depends on the rate of change of volume, the direction of change, and the previous history of the joint. The relevance of these properties to fluid dynamics in other interstitial compartments, in arthritic human joints, and to the neurophysiology of mechanoreceptors in the joint investment is discussed. PMID:6875872

  15. A randomised controlled trial comparing skin closure in total knee arthroplasty in the same knee: nylon sutures versus skin staples

    PubMed Central

    Iamthanaporn, K.; Hongnaparak, T.; Tangtrakulwanich, B.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Nylon sutures and skin staples are used commonly in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) surgical wound closure. However, there is no study that compares the wound healing efficacy and patient satisfaction scores of both techniques in the same knee. Methods We randomised 70 patients who underwent primary TKA into two groups. In one group of 34 patients, the skin at the upper half of the wound was closed with skin staples and the lower half of the wound was closed with simple interrupted nylon sutures. In the other group of 36 patients, the skin at the upper half of the wound was closed with nylon stitches and the lower half of the wound was closed with skin staples. We recorded the wound closure time, pain score at the time of stitch removal, wound complication rate, patient satisfaction score, and the Hollander wound evaluation score at the post-operative periods of five days, 14 days, six weeks, three months, and six months. Each half wound was analysed separately. Results The mean patient body mass index was 26.8 kg/m2 (standard deviation 6.3). A total of 70 nylon stitched wounds and 70 skin stapled wounds were analysed. There were no significant differences in wound complication rates, patient satisfaction score, and the Hollander wound evaluation score between both types of wounds (p > 0.05). The wound closure time for skin stapled wounds was significantly lower than the nylon stitched wounds (p < 0.001). However, the skin stapled wounds had a significantly higher pain score at the time of stitch removal (p < 0.001). Conclusion Skin staples and nylon stitches had comparable results with respect to wound healing and patient satisfaction in TKA wound closure in non-obese patients. The benefit of skin staples over nylon stitches was a decrease in operative time, but was more painful upon removal. Cite this article: V. Yuenyongviwat. A randomised controlled trial comparing skin closure in total knee arthroplasty in the same knee: nylon sutures versus skin

  16. The effects of bepridil compared with calcium antagonists on rat and rabbit aorta.

    PubMed

    Winslow, E; Farmer, S; Martorana, M; Marshall, R J

    1986-11-19

    The vasodilator (relaxant) action of the antianginal agent bepridil was compared with that of drugs known to either block membrane calcium channels, to be calmodulin antagonists or to inhibit intracellular calcium flux using rat and rabbit aortic strips. IC50 values were obtained for relaxation of tonic contractions induced by either potassium (K+) or phenylephrine (PE). The order of relaxant specificity against K+ compared with PE in both rabbit and rat tissue preparations was nisoldipine = nifedipine greater than diltiazem greater than verapamil greater than bepridil greater than PrMDI greater than W7 greater than TFP greater than phentolamine. The ratio for flunarizine equalled that of bepridil in rabbit and that of verapamil in rat. The calmodulin antagonist TFP showed additional alpha-adrenoceptor blocking properties. Analysis of concentration response curves to the antagonists together with PE/K+ ratios revealed a different profile for each drug tested on rabbit aorta. The range of PE/K+ ratios was much wider in rabbit compared to rat. The results suggest that, with the method used, rabbit aortic strips offer a simple technique for drug profiling and allows a clearer differentiation between membrane active and intracellularly acting drugs than does rat aorta. The profile of bepridil resembled more that of intracellularly acting drugs suggesting that intracellular actions (possibly calmodulin inhibition) may play a substantial role in its dilator actions on vascular smooth muscle. PMID:3493158

  17. The effect of a biphasic injectable bone substitute on the interface strength in a rabbit knee prosthesis model

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In joint prosthetic surgery, various methods are used to provide implant stability. We used an injectable bone substitute, composed of calcium sulfate/hydroxyapatite, as bone defect filler to stabilize a tibia prosthesis in an experimental rabbit model. The aim of the study was to investigate and compare the stability of prosthetic fixation with and without the use of an injectable bone substitute. Methods Sixteen rabbits were used and the tibia prostheses were implanted bilaterally, one side with the prosthesis alone and the other side with the prosthesis and calcium sulfate/hydroxyapatite (Cerament™). The rabbits were randomly divided into two groups and euthanized after 6 and 12 weeks, respectively. The prosthesis was extracted measuring the pull-out force in an Instron tester, and the bone surrounding the former prosthesis site was analyzed by histology, histomorphometry, and micro-computed tomography. Results At 6 weeks no difference in maximum pull-out force was found between the prostheses fixed with or without Cerament™. At 12 weeks the maximum pull-out force for the prostheses with Cerament™ was significantly higher than that for the prostheses without Cerament™ (p = 0.04). The maximum pull-out force at 12 weeks was significantly higher than that at 6 weeks for the prostheses fixed with Cerament™ (p = 0.03) but not for the prostheses without. Conclusion We conclude that early prosthesis-bone interface strength is not influenced by a bone substitute. However, during remodeling, the bone substitute might provide improved mechanical support for the prosthesis. The results support further studies of the use of injectable calcium sulfate/hydroxyapatite in fixation of prosthetic joint implants. PMID:23899023

  18. How does surgery compare with advanced intra-articular therapies in knee osteoarthritis: current thoughts

    PubMed Central

    Wehling, Peter; Moser, Carsten; Maixner, William

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of osteoarthritis (OA) management are to reduce pain and inflammation, slow cartilage degradation, improve function and reduce disability. Current strategies for managing knee OA include nonpharmacological interventions, oral pharmacological treatments, localized intra-articular injections, and surgery. It has become evident that the inflammatory response is a key contributor to the development and progression of knee OA. Signaling pathways involving growth factors and cytokines are being investigated for the development of new therapies that target the underlying biological processes causing the disease. This concept of ‘molecular orthopedics’ enables more patient-centered diagnostic and treatment strategies. In contrast to other conservative therapies, which ultimately only address OA symptoms, intra-articular injections, in particular autologous conditioned serum (ACS), provide benefits that have the potential to outweigh those of established pharmacological treatments and surgery. Surgery has historically been considered the final solution for treatment of knee OA, both by treating physicians and by patients; however, there are increasing concerns regarding the lack of randomized clinical trials providing evidence to support this opinion. Intra-articular injection of ACS has demonstrated efficacy as a treatment for knee OA in a number of studies, with a very low rate of adverse events and side effects, compared with surgery. Treatment with ACS utilizes the release of anti-inflammatory cytokines and regenerative growth factors to support the natural healing processes in the knee, and has the potential to provide a valuable alternative to surgical intervention. PMID:27247634

  19. Comparative study of hamstring and quadriceps strengthening treatments in the management of knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Al-Johani, Ahmed H; Kachanathu, Shaji John; Ramadan Hafez, Ashraf; Al-Ahaideb, Abdulaziz; Algarni, Abdulrahman D; Meshari Alroumi, Abdulmohesn; Alanezi, Aqeel M

    2014-06-01

    [Purpose] Osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee is the most common form of joint disease. It is one of the major causes of impaired function that reduces quality of life (QOL) worldwide. The purpose of this study was to compare exercise treatments for hamstring and quadriceps strength in the management of knee osteoarthritis. [Subjects and Methods] Forty patients with OA knee, aged 50-65 years were divided into 2 groups. The first group (57.65±4.78 years) received hot packs and performed strengthening exercises for the quadriceps and hamstring, and stretching exercises for the hamstring. The second group (58.15±5.11 years) received hot packs and performed strengthening exercises for only the quadriceps, and stretching exercise for the hamstring. Outcome measures were the WOMAC (Western Ontario and McMaster Universities OA index questionnaire), Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) assessment of pain, the Fifty-Foot Walk Test (FWS), and Handheld dynamometry. [Results] There was a significant difference between the groups. The first group showed a more significant result than the second group. [Conclusion] Strengthening of the hamstrings in addition to strengthening of the quadriceps was shown to be beneficial for improving subjective knee pain, range of motion and decreasing the limitation of functional performance of patients with knee osteoarthritis. PMID:25013274

  20. Virulence and pathogenesis of the MSW and MSD strains of Californian myxoma virus in European rabbits with genetic resistance to myxomatosis compared to rabbits with no genetic resistance.

    PubMed

    Silvers, L; Inglis, B; Labudovic, A; Janssens, P A; van Leeuwen, B H; Kerr, P J

    2006-04-25

    The pathogenesis of two Californian strains of myxoma virus (MSW and MSD) was examined in European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) that were either susceptible to myxomatosis (laboratory rabbits) or had undergone natural selection for genetic resistance to myxomatosis (Australian wild rabbits). MSW was highly lethal for both types of rabbits with average survival times of 7.3 and 9.4 days, respectively, and 100% mortality. Classical clinical signs of myxomatosis were not present except in one rabbit that survived for 13 days following infection. Previously described clinical signs of trembling and shaking were observed in laboratory but not wild rabbits. Despite the high resistance of wild rabbits to myxomatosis caused by South American strains of myxoma virus, the MSW strain was of such high virulence that it was able to overcome resistance. The acute nature of the infection, relatively low viral titers in the tissues and destruction of lymphoid tissues, suggested that death was probably due to an acute and overwhelming immunopathological response to the virus. No virus was found in the brain. The MSD strain was attenuated compared to previously published descriptions and therefore was only characterized in laboratory rabbits. It is concluded that Californian MSW strain of myxoma virus is at the extreme end of a continuum of myxoma virus virulence but that the basic pathophysiology of the disease induced is not broadly different to other strains of myxoma virus. PMID:16442580

  1. Minimally Invasive Total Knee Arthroplasty: A Comparative Study to the Standard Approach

    PubMed Central

    Dabboussi, Naji; Sakr, Mazen; Girard, Julien; Fakih, Riad

    2012-01-01

    Background: Minimally invasive surgery has gained popularity over the past several years. Early results have shown better functional outcome with early recovery and rapid rehabilitation. Aim: Evaluation of the short-term clinical and functional outcome of minimally invasive surgery total knee arthroplasty (MIS-TKA) compared with the traditional total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Materials and Methods: During 2009, all cases scheduled for primary TKA through the modified mini-mid-vastus approach (MIS group) were studied. This group included 40 knees and was compared to a cohort control group of similar number of patients (40 knees) that underwent the procedure through the standard conventional technique (standard group). Results: Patients in the MIS group showed significant decrease in postoperative pain, blood loss in first 24 hours, and in hospital stay. Furthermore, they achieved motion considerably faster than the standard group with earlier return of quadriceps function and greater early flexion. Conclusion: This study proved that MIS-TPA has the ability to couple the benefits of less invasive surgical approach. PMID:22408753

  2. Limited femoral navigation versus conventional intramedullary femoral jig based instrumentation for achieving optimal restoration of mechanical axis post total knee arthroplasty: a prospective comparative study of 200 knees.

    PubMed

    Shah, Nilen A; Patil, Hitendra G; Dhawale, Amol S; Khedkar, Bipin M

    2015-04-01

    A prospective comparative study was conducted to compare the mechanical axis post total knee arthroplasty (TKA) between two groups: In the first group of 100 knees (ASM group) Articular Surface Mounted navigation system was used to guide the distal femoral cut. In the second group of 100 knees (JIG group) conventional intramedullary femoral jig was used. The postoperative mechanical axis of the leg was within 3° of neutral alignment in 90% of the TKA in the ASM group (mean 178.12°) as compared to 74% in the JIG group (mean 177.02°). This difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). The data presented show that the use of limited femoral navigation leads to more accurate restoration of mechanical axis alignment when compared to conventional intramedullary femoral jigs. PMID:25466168

  3. Contributions of the lymphatic and microvascular systems to fluid absorption from the synovial cavity of the rabbit knee.

    PubMed

    Levick, J R

    1980-09-01

    1. The trans-synovial flow (Qs) of Ringer solution from the cavity of immobile knee (stifle) joints was determined in anaesthetized rabbits when intra-articular hydrostatic pressure (PJ) was elevated in steps from 2 to 25 cm H2O. 2. It has been demonstrated previously (Levick, 1978) that slope DQs/dPJ shows an abrupt sixfold increase at a 'breaking point' (PB) around 9 . 5 cm H2O, rising from a mean of 0 . 49 microliter.min-1 cm H2O-1 (PJ less than PB) to 2 . 81 microliter.min-1 cm H2O-1 (PJ greater than PB). 3. Perforation of the synovial intima by an intra-articular cannula increased dQs/dPJ below breaking pressure and thus largely abolished the breaking point phenomenon, indicating that the phenomenon might be simulated by a break-down in synovial resistance to flow. 4. Ligation of the femoral lymph trunks draining the joint did not significantly alter the relationship between Qs and PJ. The slope dQs/dPJ was 0 . 60 +/- 0 . 17 microliter.min-1 cm H2O-1 (mean +/- S.E.) below a breaking pressure of 8 . 8--10.5 cm H2O, and 2 . 90 +/- 0 . 64 microliter.min-1 cm H2O-1 above breaking pressure. Thus changes in synovial lymph flow did not explain the breaking point phenomenon. 5. Interruption of synovial blood flow by vascular clamps or by killing the animal reduced, but did not abolish fluid absorption; nor was the breaking point phenomenon abolished. Slope dQs/dPJ increased from 0 . 37 +/- 0 . 06 microliter.min-1 cm H2O-1 below breaking point (10 . 5 +/- 1 . 0 cm H2O) to between 1 . 82 and 0 . 96 +/- 0 . 15 microliter.min-1 cm H2O-1 above breaking pressure. Fluid accumulated in extra-synovial interstitial spaces. 6. When the synovial intima was divested of its surrounding tissues, lymphatic and vascular supplies by extensive dissection, the denuded synovium still showed a marked increase in hydraulic conductivity at normal breaking pressures. The breaking point phenomenon was therefore not caused by changes in extra-synovial interstitial pressure or compliance. 7. It

  4. Comparative Effectiveness of Tai Chi Versus Physical Therapy for Knee Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chenchen; Schmid, Christopher H.; Iversen, Maura D.; Harvey, William F.; Fielding, Roger A.; Driban, Jeffrey B.; Price, Lori Lyn; Wong, John B.; Reid, Kieran F.; Rones, Ramel; McAlindon, Timothy

    2016-01-01

    Background Few remedies effectively treat long-term pain and disability from knee osteoarthritis. Studies suggest that Tai Chi alleviates symptoms, but no trials have directly compared Tai Chi with standard therapies for osteoarthritis. Objective To compare Tai Chi with standard physical therapy for patients with knee osteoarthritis. Design Randomized, 52-week, single-blind comparative effectiveness trial. (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01258985) Setting An urban tertiary care academic hospital. Patients 204 participants with symptomatic knee osteoarthritis (mean age, 60 years; 70% women; 53% white). Intervention Tai Chi (2 times per week for 12 weeks) or standard physical therapy (2 times per week for 6 weeks, followed by 6 weeks of monitored home exercise). Measurements The primary outcome was Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) score at 12 weeks. Secondary outcomes included physical function, depression, medication use, and quality of life. Results At 12 weeks, the WOMAC score was substantially reduced in both groups (Tai Chi, 167 points [95% CI, 145 to 190 points]; physical therapy, 143 points [CI, 119 to 167 points]). The between-group difference was not significant (24 points [CI, −10 to 58 points]). Both groups also showed similar clinically significant improvement in most secondary outcomes, and the benefits were maintained up to 52 weeks. Of note, the Tai Chi group had significantly greater improvements in depression and the physical component of quality of life. The benefit of Tai Chi was consistent across instructors. No serious adverse events occurred. Limitation Patients were aware of their treatment group assignment, and the generalizability of the findings to other settings remains undetermined. Conclusion Tai Chi produced beneficial effects similar to those of a standard course of physical therapy in the treatment of knee osteoarthritis. Primary Funding Source National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health of

  5. Knee Joint Distraction Compared to Total Knee Arthroplasty for Treatment of End Stage Osteoarthritis: Simulating Long-Term Outcomes and Cost-Effectiveness

    PubMed Central

    van der Woude, J. A. D.; Nair, S. C.; Custers, R. J. H.; van Laar, J. M.; Kuchuck, N. O.; Lafeber, F. P. J. G.; Welsing, P. M. J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective In end-stage knee osteoarthritis the treatment of choice is total knee arthroplasty (TKA). An alternative treatment is knee joint distraction (KJD), suggested to postpone TKA. Several studies reported significant and prolonged clinical improvement of KJD. To make an appropriate decision regarding the position of this treatment, a cost-effectiveness and cost-utility analysis from healthcare perspective for different age and gender categories was performed. Methods A treatment strategy starting with TKA and a strategy starting with KJD for patients of different age and gender was simulated. To extrapolate outcomes to long-term health and economic outcomes a Markov (Health state) model was used. The number of surgeries, QALYs, and treatment costs per strategy were calculated. Costs-effectiveness is expressed using the cost-effectiveness plane and cost-effectiveness acceptability curves. Results Starting with KJD the number of knee replacing procedures could be reduced, most clearly in the younger age categories; especially revision surgery. This resulted in the KJD strategy being dominant (more effective with cost-savings) in about 80% of simulations (with only inferiority in about 1%) in these age categories when compared to TKA. At a willingness to pay of 20.000 Euro per QALY gained, the probability of starting with KJD to be cost-effective compared to starting with a TKA was already found to be over 75% for all age categories and over 90–95% for the younger age categories. Conclusion A treatment strategy starting with knee joint distraction for knee osteoarthritis has a large potential for being a cost-effective intervention, especially for the relatively young patient. PMID:27171268

  6. Outcome in primary cemented total knee arthroplasty with or without drain: A prospective comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Kęska, Rafał; Paradowski, T Przemysław; Witoński, Dariusz

    2014-01-01

    Background: Suction drain insertion is a common practice in orthopedic surgery, especially after joint arthroplasty to prevent the formation of a hematoma. Theoretically the use of a drain should diminish the volume of hematoma; however the literature has conflicting data. Some authors state that drainage evacuates fluid from a limited area only and can be a cause of infection due to retrograde migration of bacteria. It can also impair the early postoperative rehabilitation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical outcome (especially postoperative pain) and intake of analgesics in patients who had undergone primary cemented total knee arthroplasty (TKA) with or without a postoperative drain. Materials and Methods: A prospective comparative study of 108 consecutive patients (121 knees) was conducted. They were divided into two groups: A study group, with no drainage and a control group with drain inserted at the end of surgery. A total of 121 patients were recruited into two groups. A study group consisted of 59 knees, in which we did not use drainage after TKA and a control group with 62 knees, in which drain was inserted post surgery. Both groups were comparable in terms of preoperative characteristics. The indication for TKA was osteoarthritis (n = 105) and rheumatoid arthritis (n = 16). Results: In patients without drainage we observed lower need for opioids, higher blood loss on the 1st postoperative day and a lower need for change of dressings. There were no statistically significant differences in terms of total blood loss, hidden blood loss, transfusion rate, range of motion, length of hospital stay or incidence of complications between the two groups. In 1 year observation there were no differences in clinical outcome between the two groups. Conclusions: The present study conclude that there is no rationale for the use of drain after primary TKA. There are benefits in terms of lower opioid intake, lower blood loss on the first postoperative day

  7. Exercise in children with joint hypermobility syndrome and knee pain: a randomised controlled trial comparing exercise into hypermobile versus neutral knee extension

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Knee pain in children with Joint Hypermobility Syndrome (JHS) is traditionally managed with exercise, however the supporting evidence for this is scarce. No trial has previously examined whether exercising to neutral or into the hypermobile range affects outcomes. This study aimed to (i) determine if a physiotherapist-prescribed exercise programme focused on knee joint strength and control is effective in reducing knee pain in children with JHS compared to no treatment, and (ii) whether the range in which these exercises are performed affects outcomes. Methods A prospective, parallel-group, randomised controlled trial conducted in a tertiary hospital in Sydney, Australia compared an 8 week exercise programme performed into either the full hypermobile range or only to neutral knee extension, following a minimum 2 week baseline period without treatment. Randomisation was computer-generated, with allocation concealed by sequentially numbered opaque sealed envelopes. Knee pain was the primary outcome. Quality of life, thigh muscle strength, and function were also measured at (i) initial assessment, (ii) following the baseline period and (iii) post treatment. Assessors were blinded to the participants’ treatment allocation and participants blinded to the difference in the treatments. Results Children with JHS and knee pain (n=26) aged 7-16 years were randomly assigned to the hypermobile (n=12) or neutral (n=14) treatment group. Significant improvements in child-reported maximal knee pain were found following treatment, regardless of group allocation with a mean 14.5 mm reduction on the visual analogue scale (95% CI 5.2 – 23.8 mm, p=0.003). Significant differences between treatment groups were noted for parent-reported overall psychosocial health (p=0.009), specifically self-esteem (p=0.034), mental health (p=0.001) and behaviour (p=0.019), in favour of exercising into the hypermobile range (n=11) compared to neutral only (n=14). Conversely, parent

  8. Elevated corticospinal excitability in patellar tendinopathy compared with other anterior knee pain or no pain.

    PubMed

    Rio, E; Kidgell, D; Moseley, G L; Cook, J

    2016-09-01

    Anterior knee pain (AKP) is a frequent clinical presentation in jumping athletes and may be aggravated by sustained sitting, stair use, and loading of the quadriceps. Corticospinal activation of the quadriceps in athletes with AKP has not yet been investigated, but is important in guiding efficacious treatment. This cross-sectional study assessed corticospinal excitability (CSE) of the quadriceps in jumping athletes using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Groups consisted of Control (no knee pain); patellar tendinopathy (PT) [localized inferior pole pain on single-leg decline squat (SLDS)]; and other AKP (nonlocalized pain around the patella). SLDS (numerical score of pain 0-10), Victorian Institute of Sport Assessment Patellar tendon (VISA-P), maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC), active motor threshold (AMT), CSE, and Mmax were tested. Twenty nine athletes participated; control n = 8, PT n = 11, AKP n = 10. There were no group differences in age (P = 0.23), body mass index (P = 0.16), MVIC (P = 0.38) or weekly activity (P = 0.22). PT had elevated CSE compared with controls and other AKP (P < 0.001), but no differences were detected between AKP and controls (P = 0.47). CSE appears to be greater in PT than controls and other AKP. An improved understanding of the corticospinal responses in different sources of knee pain may direct better treatment approaches. PMID:26369282

  9. Analgesia for total knee arthroplasty: a meta-analysis comparing local infiltration and femoral nerve block

    PubMed Central

    Mei, ShuYa; Jin, ShuQing; Chen, ZhiXia; Ding, XiBing; Zhao, Xiang; Li, Quan

    2015-01-01

    Patients frequently experience postoperative pain after a total knee arthroplasty; such pain is always challenging to treat and may delay the patient's recovery. It is unclear whether local infiltration or a femoral nerve block offers a better analgesic effect after total knee arthroplasty. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials to compare local infiltration with a femoral nerve block in patients who underwent a primary unilateral total knee arthroplasty. We searched Pubmed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library through December 2014. Two reviewers scanned abstracts and extracted data. The data collected included numeric rating scale values for pain at rest and pain upon movement and opioid consumption in the first 24 hours. Mean differences with 95% confidence intervals were calculated for each end point. A sensitivity analysis was conducted to evaluate potential sources of heterogeneity. While the numeric rating scale values for pain upon movement (MD-0.62; 95%CI: -1.13 to -0.12; p=0.02) in the first 24 hours differed significantly between the patients who received local infiltration and those who received a femoral nerve block, there were no differences in the numeric rating scale results for pain at rest (MD-0.42; 95%CI:-1.32 to 0.47; p=0.35) or opioid consumption (MD 2.92; 95%CI:-1.32 to 7.16; p=0.18) in the first 24 hours. Local infiltration and femoral nerve block showed no significant differences in pain intensity at rest or opioid consumption after total knee arthroplasty, but the femoral nerve block was associated with reduced pain upon movement. PMID:26375568

  10. COMPARATIVE MACROSCOPIC STUDY OF OSTEOCHONDRAL DEFECTS PRODUCED IN FEMURS OF RABBITS REPAIRED WITH BIOPOLYMER GEL CANE SUGAR

    PubMed Central

    de Albuquerque, Paulo Cezar Vidal Carneiro; dos Santos, Saulo Monteiro; de Andrade Aguiar, José Lamartine; Filho, Nicodemus Pontes; de Mello, Roberto José Vieira; Costa, Mariana Lúcia Correia Ramos; de Albuquerque Olbertz, Clarissa Miranda Carneiro; de Souza Almeida, Tarciana Mendonça; da Silva Santos, Alessandro Henrique; da Silva, Joacil Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To study the surface, coloring, consistency, continuity and healing of osteochondral defects produced in the femoral condyles of rabbits and filled with sugar cane biopolymer gel (SCBG), after 90, 120 and 180 days, and in comparison with a control group. Method: Sixteen adult New Zealand white rabbits aged 6 to 7 months, weighing between 2 and 2.5 kg and without locomotor system abnormalities were studied. In all the animals, a defect was made in the femoral condyles of the right and left knees, measuring 3.2 mm in diameter and 4 mm in depth, using a trephine. The animals were divided into two groups: study group formed by the right knees, in which the medial and lateral condyles received implants of SCBG; and control group formed by the left knees, in which the medial and lateral condyles were allowed to heal naturally. The knees were assessed 90, 120 and 180 days after the operation. After the animals had been sacrificed, the anatomical specimens were resected and placed in Bouin's solution. They were then photographed with a Nikon Coolpix 5400® coupled to a Nikon SM2800® stereoscopic loupe, to analyze the surface, coloring, consistency, continuity and healing. Results: The results were evaluated using the chi-square test. There were no significant differences in the macroscopic assessments of healing between the study and control groups. Conclusion: With regard to the surface, coloring, consistency, continuity and healing of the defects, the macroscopic appearance of the tissue repaired with SCBG was similar to that of the control group. PMID:27027057

  11. Comparative evaluation of the aphrodisiac efficacy of sildenafil and Carpolobia lutea root extract in male rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Dare, Ayobami; Salami, Shakiru Ademola; Kunle-Alabi, Olufadekemi Tolulope; Akindele, Opeyemi Oreofe; Raji, Yinusa

    2015-01-01

    Aims: In spite of the folkloric use of the root of Carpolobia lutea as a sexual stimulant in man, there has been limited scientific proof of its efficacy. This study compares the efficacy of methanol extract of C. lutea root (MECLR) and sildenafil on the sexual activity of male rabbits. Methods: 20 adult male rabbits were grouped into four of five rabbits each. Groups 1-4 were treated orally for 28 days with 2 ml/kg 1% Tween-20 (vehicle), 40 mg/kg MECLR, 80 mg/kg MECLR, and 0.5 mg/kg sildenafil citrate (SC), respectively. Sexual activities of males from each group were assessed by cohabiting them with sexually receptive female at estrus on days 0, 1, 3, and 5 using digital camera mounted on mating arena. Serum testosterone and nitric oxide concentration of the corpora cavernosa homogenates were also determined. Results: MECLR caused a dose-dependent significant increase in mount frequency, intromission frequency and ejaculatory latency (EL) while it reduced mount latency, intromission latency and post EL (similar to SC) when compared with the control. MECLR also caused significant increase in nitric oxide concentration in corpora cavernosa but no change in serum testosterone concentration. Conclusions: Results suggest that MECLR enhances male sexual activity possibly by augmenting nitric oxide concentration. This study thus provides a novel scientific rationale for the use of C. lutea in the management of penile erectile dysfunction and impaired libido. PMID:26649235

  12. Comparing the Effects of Lovastatin and Cornus Mas Fruit on Fibrinogen Level in Hypercholesterolemic Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Asgary, Sedigheh; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud; Adelnia, Azadeh; Kazemi, Somayeh; Shamsi, Fatemeh

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND Atherosclerosis, which is a result of gradual deposition of lipids in the lower part of blood vessel endothelium, is the leading cause of mortality and morbidity around the world. It has been proved that some inflammatory blood markers such as fibrinogen can predict the risk for cardiovascular disease conditions, not only in cardiovascular patients, but also in those who do not have any manifestations of the atherosclerotic development. In this study, the effect of cornus mas l. was evaluated on fibrinogen of hypercholesterolemic rabbits and it was also compared with lovastatin drug. METHODS In this study, 25 New Zealand adult male rabbits were randomly divided into five groups of five. They were treated for 60 days by 5 different diets, namely basic, high cholesterol, regular plus 1 g/kgBW cornus mas L. powder, high cholesterol plus 1 g/kgBW cornus mas L. powder, and high cholesterol plus 10 mg/kgBW lovastatin. At the beginning and at the end of this period, blood samples were collected from the rabbits and their serum fibrinogen levels were measured. RESULTS Cornus mas L. powder and lovastatin significantly decreased fibrinogen levels in comparison with high cholesterol group (P < 0.05). Furthermore cornus mas L. powder could reduce the fibrinogen level more than lovastatin (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION The results indicated that consumption of cornus mas L. might be beneficial in atherosclerotic patients due to its reducing effects on fibrinogen. PMID:22577405

  13. Alternative bearings in total knee arthroplasty: risk of early revision compared to traditional bearings

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background and purpose There is no substantial clinical evidence for the superiority of alternative bearings in total knee arthroplasty (TKA). We compared the short-term revision risk in alternative surface bearing knees (oxidized zirconium (OZ) femoral implants or highly crosslinked polyethylene (HXLPE) inserts) with that for traditional bearings (cobalt-chromium (CoCR) on conventional polyethelene (CPE)). The risk of revision with commercially available HXLPE inserts was also evaluated. Methods All 62,177 primary TKA cases registered in a Total Joint Replacement Registry between April 2001 and December 2010 were retrospectively analyzed. The endpoints for the analysis were all-cause revisions, septic revisions, or aseptic revisions. Bearing surfaces were categorized as OZ-CPE, CoCr-HXLPE, or CoCr-CPE. HXLPE inserts were stratified according to brand name. Confounding was addressed using propensity score weights. Marginal Cox-regression models adjusting for surgeon clustering were used. Results The proportion of females was 62%. Average age was 68 (SD 9.3) years, and median follow-up time was 2.8 (IQR 1.2–4.9) years. After adjustments, the risks of all-cause, aseptic, and septic revision with CoCr-HXLPE and OZ-CPE bearings were not statistically significantly higher than with traditional CoCr-CPE bearings. No specific brand of HXLPE insert was associated with a higher risk of all-cause, aseptic, or septic revision compared to CoCr-CPE. Interpretation At least in the short term, none of the alternative knee bearings evaluated (CoCr-HXLPE or OZ-CPE) had a greater risk of all-cause, aseptic, and septic revision than traditional CoCr-CPE bearings. PMID:23485105

  14. Knee joint position sense of roller hockey players: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Venâncio, João; Lopes, Diogo; Lourenço, Joaquim; Ribeiro, Fernando

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to compare knee joint position sense of roller hockey players with an age-matched group of non-athletes. Forty-three male participants voluntarily participated in this cross-sectional study: 21 roller hockey players (mean age: 23.2 ± 4.2 years old, mean weight: 81.8 ± 9.8 kg, mean height: 180.5 ± 4.1 cm) and 22 age-matched non-athletes (mean age: 23.7 ± 3.9 years old, mean weight: 85.0 ± 6.2 kg, mean height: 181.5 ± 5.0 cm). Knee joint position sense of the dominant limb was evaluated using a technique of open-kinetic chain and active knee positioning. Joint position sense was reported using absolute, relative and variable angular errors. The main results indicated that the group of roller hockey players showed significantly lower absolute (2.4 ± 1.2º vs. 6.5 ± 3.2º, p ≤ 0.001) and relative (1.7 ± 2.1º vs. 5.8 ± 4.4º, p ≤ 0.001) angular errors in comparison with the non-athletes group. In conclusion, the results from this present study suggest that proprioceptive acuity, assessed by measuring joint position sense, is increased in roller hockey players. The enhanced proprioception of the roller hockey players could contribute to injury prevention and improved performance during sporting activities. PMID:27111126

  15. Three-dimensional bioprinting of multilayered constructs containing human mesenchymal stromal cells for osteochondral tissue regeneration in the rabbit knee joint.

    PubMed

    Shim, Jin-Hyung; Jang, Ki-Mo; Hahn, Sei Kwang; Park, Ju Young; Jung, Hyuntae; Oh, Kyunghoon; Park, Kyeng Min; Yeom, Junseok; Park, Sun Hwa; Kim, Sung Won; Wang, Joon Ho; Kim, Kimoon; Cho, Dong-Woo

    2016-03-01

    The use of cell-rich hydrogels for three-dimensional (3D) cell culture has shown great potential for a variety of biomedical applications. However, the fabrication of appropriate constructs has been challenging. In this study, we describe a 3D printing process for the preparation of a multilayered 3D construct containing human mesenchymal stromal cells with a hydrogel comprised of atelocollagen and supramolecular hyaluronic acid (HA). This construct showed outstanding regenerative ability for the reconstruction of an osteochondral tissue in the knee joints of rabbits. We found that the use of a mechanically stable, host-guest chemistry-based hydrogel was essential and allowed two different types of extracellular matrix (ECM) hydrogels to be easily printed and stacked into one multilayered construct without requiring the use of potentially harmful chemical reagents or physical stimuli for post-crosslinking. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to validate the potential of a 3D printed multilayered construct consisting of two different ECM materials (atelocollagen and HA) for heterogeneous tissue regeneration using an in vivo animal model. We believe that this 3D printing-based platform technology can be effectively exploited for regeneration of various heterogeneous tissues as well as osteochondral tissue. PMID:26844597

  16. Total Knee Arthroplasty in Morbidly Obese Patients Treated with Bariatric Surgery: A Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Severson, Erik P.; Singh, Jasvinder A.; Browne, James A.; Trousdale, Robert T.; Sarr, Michael; Lewallen, David G.

    2012-01-01

    Our objective was to compare outcomes (anesthesia time, total operative time, tourniquet time, duration of hospital stay, 90-day complication rate and transfusion rates) of patients with total knee arthroplasty (TKA) who underwent bariatric surgery before or after TKA. One-hundred-twenty-five patients were included: TKA before bariatric surgery (group 1; n=39); TKA within two years of bariatric surgery (group 2; n=25); and TKA more than 2 years after bariatric surgery (group 3; n=61). Patients with TKA more than 2 years after bariatric surgery had shorter anesthesia, total operative and tourniquet times than other groups; differences were significant between groups. Ninety-day complication and transfusion rates approached but did not meet statistical significance. Ninety-day complication rates and duration of hospital stay did not differ significantly between the three groups. PMID:22554730

  17. Bioactive glass in cavitary bone defects: a comparative experimental study in rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Camargo, André Ferrari de França; Baptista, André Mathias; Natalino, Renato; de Camargo, Olavo Pires

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To compare bioactive glass and autograft regarding their histomorphometric characteristics. METHODS: The authors conducted a prospective case-control experimental study on animals in order to compare the histomorphometric characteristics of bioactive glass versus autograft. Eight rabbits underwent surgery in which a cavitary defect was created in both proximal femurs. One side was filled with bioactive glass granules and the other, with autograft grafted from the contralateral side. The sides were randomized. Fourteen days after surgery, the animals were euthanized. RESULTS: Histologic analysis revealed that bone neoformation was equivalent among the two groups and the osteoblasts cell-count was higher in the femurs treated with bioactive glass. The osteocytes cell-count, however, was lower. The similarity in bone formation between both groups was consistent to literature findings. CONCLUSION: Bioactive glass is similar to autograft regarding bone neoformation in this animal model of cavitary bone defects. Level of Evidence III, Case-Control Study. PMID:26327802

  18. Comparing the mechanical properties of the porcine knee meniscus when hydrated in saline versus synovial fluid.

    PubMed

    Lakes, Emily H; Kline, Courtney L; McFetridge, Peter S; Allen, Kyle D

    2015-12-16

    As research progresses to find a suitable knee meniscus replacement, accurate in vitro testing becomes critical for feasibility and comparison studies of mechanical integrity. Within the knee, the meniscus is bathed in synovial fluid, yet the most common hydration fluid in laboratory testing is phosphate buffered saline (PBS). PBS is a relatively simple salt solution, while synovial fluid is a complex non-Newtonian fluid with multiple lubricating factors. As such, PBS may interact with meniscal tissue differently than synovial fluid, and thus, the hydration fluid may be an important factor in obtaining accurate results during in vitro testing. To evaluate these effects, medial porcine menisci were used to evaluate tissue mechanics in tension (n=11) and compression (n=15). In all tests, two samples from the same meniscus were taken, where one sample was hydrated in PBS and the other was hydrated in synovial fluid. Statistical analysis revealed no significant differences between the mean mechanical properties of samples tested in PBS compared to synovial fluid; however, compressive testing revealed the variability between samples was significantly reduced if samples were tested in synovial fluid. For example, the compressive Young׳s Modulus was 12.69±7.49MPa in PBS versus 12.34±4.27MPa in synovial fluid. These results indicate testing meniscal tissue in PBS will largely not affect the mean value of the mechanical properties, but performing compression testing in synovial fluid may provide more consistent results between samples and assist in reducing sample numbers in some experiments. PMID:26592438

  19. In vivo kinematics of knee prostheses patients during level walking compared with the ISO force-controlled simulator standard

    PubMed Central

    Ngai, Valentina; Schwenke, Thorsten; Wimmer, Markus A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Differences between wear-scar features of simulator-tested and retrieved tibial total knee replacement (TKR) liners have been reported. This disagreement may result from differences between in vivo kinematic profiles and those defined by the standard. Purpose To determine the knee kinematics of a TKR subject group during level walking and compare them with the motion profiles produced by a wear test conducted according to the force-controlled knee wear testing ISO 14243-1 (ISO-1)standard. Methods Ten patients with a posterior cruciate ligament-retaining TKR design were gait tested using the point cluster technique (PCT) to obtain flexion-extension (FE) rotation, anterior-posterior (AP) translation and internal-external (IE) rotation motions during a complete cycle of level walking. Motion data were directly compared against the output kinematics from the wear test. Results The subjects exhibited a FE rotation pattern similar to the output from ISO-1; however had higher midstance knee flexion angles. For both AP translation and IE rotation, the standard profiles had significantly smaller total ranges of motion than seen in vivo, with noticeably different patterns of motions. Conclusions For this particular implant design, significant differences were found in both the pattern and magnitudes of in vivo motion during level walking compared with the ISO-1 standard. PMID:19908427

  20. Toxicokinetics of perfluorooctane sulfonate in rabbits under environmentally realistic exposure conditions and comparative assessment between mammals and birds.

    PubMed

    Tarazona, J V; Rodríguez, C; Alonso, E; Sáez, M; González, F; San Andrés, M D; Jiménez, B; San Andrés, M I

    2016-01-22

    This article describes the toxicokinetics of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) in rabbits under low repeated dosing, equivalent to 0.085μg/kg per day, and the observed differences between rabbits and chickens. The best fitting for both species was provided by a simple pseudo monocompartmental first-order kinetics model, regulated by two rates, and accounting for real elimination as well as binding of PFOS to non-exchangeable structures. Elimination was more rapid in rabbits, with a pseudo first-order dissipation half-life of 88 days compared to the 230 days observed for chickens. By contrast, the calculated assimilation efficiency for rabbits was almost 1, very close to full absorption, significantly higher than the 0.66 with confidence intervals of 0.64 and 0.68 observed for chickens. The results confirm a very different kinetics than that observed in single-dose experiments confirming clear dose-related differences in apparent elimination rates in rabbits, as previously described for humans and other mammals; suggesting the role of a capacity-limited saturable process resulting in different kinetic behaviours for PFOS in high dose versus environmentally relevant low dose exposure conditions. The model calculations confirmed that the measured maximum concentrations were still far from the steady state situation, and that the different kinetics between birds and mammals should may play a significant role in the biomagnifications assessment and potential exposure for humans and predators. For the same dose regime, the steady state concentration was estimated at about 36μg PFOS/L serum for rabbits, slightly above one-half of the 65μg PFOS/L serum estimated for chickens. The toxicokinetic parameters presented here can be used for higher-tier bioaccumulation estimations of PFOS in rabbits and chickens as starting point for human health exposure assessments and as surrogate values for modeling PFOS kinetics in wild mammals and bird in exposure assessment of predatory

  1. Comparative Phylodynamics of Rabbit Hemorrhagic Disease Virus in Australia and New Zealand

    PubMed Central

    Eden, John-Sebastian; Kovaliski, John; Duckworth, Janine A.; Swain, Grace; Mahar, Jackie E.; Strive, Tanja

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The introduction of rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) into Australia and New Zealand during the 1990s as a means of controlling feral rabbits is an important case study in viral emergence. Both epidemics are exceptional in that the founder viruses share an origin and the timing of their release is known, providing a unique opportunity to compare the evolution of a single virus in distinct naive populations. We examined the evolution and spread of RHDV in Australia and New Zealand through a genome-wide evolutionary analysis, including data from 28 newly sequenced RHDV field isolates. Following the release of the Australian inoculum strain into New Zealand, no subsequent mixing of the populations occurred, with viruses from both countries forming distinct groups. Strikingly, the rate of evolution in the capsid gene was higher in the Australian viruses than in those from New Zealand, most likely due to the presence of transient deleterious mutations in the former. However, estimates of both substitution rates and population dynamics were strongly sample dependent, such that small changes in sample composition had an important impact on evolutionary parameters. Phylogeographic analysis revealed a clear spatial structure in the Australian RHDV strains, with a major division between those viruses from western and eastern states. Importantly, RHDV sequences from the state where the virus was first released, South Australia, had the greatest diversity and were diffuse throughout both geographic lineages, such that this region was likely a source population for the subsequent spread of the virus across the country. IMPORTANCE Most studies of viral emergence lack detailed knowledge about which strains were founders for the outbreak or when these events occurred. Hence, the human-mediated introduction of rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) into Australia and New Zealand from known starting stocks provides a unique opportunity to understand viral evolution

  2. Is the use of computer navigation in total knee arthroplasty improving implant positioning and function? A comparative study of 198 knees operated at a Norwegian district hospital

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There are few Scandinavian studies on the effect of computer assisted orthopedic surgery (CAOS) in total knee arthroplasty (TKA), compared to conventional technique (CON), and there is little information on effects in pain and function scores. This retrospective study has evaluated the effects of CAOS on radiological parameters and pain, function and quality of life after primary TKA. Methods 198 primary TKAs were operated by one surgeon in two district hospitals; 103 CAOS and 95 CON. The groups were evaluated based on 3 months post-operative radiographs and a questionnaire containing the knee osteoarthritis outcome score (KOOS), the EQ-5D index score and a visual analogue scale (VAS) two years after surgery. Multiple linear regression method was used to investigate possible impact from exposure (CON or CAOS). Results On hip-knee-ankle radiographs, 20% of measurements were > ±3° of neutral in the CAOS group and 25% in the CON group (p = 0.37). For the femoral component, the number was 5% for CAOS and 18% for CON (p < 0.01). For the tibial component, the difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.58). In the sagittal plane, the surgeon tended to apply more femoral flexion and more posterior tibial slope with CAOS. We observed no statistically or clinically significant difference in KOOS score, VAS or ∆EQ-5D (all p values >0.05), but there was a trend towards better scores for CAOS. Operation time was 3 minutes longer for CON (p = 0.37). Conclusions CAOS can improve radiological measurements in primary TKA, and makes it possible to adjust component placement to the patient’s anatomy. Over-all, the two methods are equal in pain, function and quality-of-life scores. PMID:24228727

  3. Comparative biochemical responses and antioxidant activities of the rabbit urinary bladder to whole grapes versus resveratrol.

    PubMed

    Francis, Johdi-Ann; Leggett, Robert E; Schuler, Catherine; Levin, Robert M

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study is to compare the antioxidant activity of a whole-grape suspension with the antioxidant activity or pure resveratrol on the effect of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) on malondialdehyde (MDA) generation, choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) activity, calcium ATPase activity, and sarcoendoplasmic reticular ATPase (SERCA) of the male rabbit urinary bladder. MDA was used as a model for the effect of H2O2 on lipid peroxidation. ChAT, SERCA, and calcium ATPase were evaluated based on their importance in urinary bladder physiology and pathology. Four male rabbit bladders were used. Each bladder was separated into muscle and mucosa, frozen under liquid nitrogen and stored at -80 °C for biochemical evaluation. The effect of H2O2 on the enzymes listed above was determined in the presence and absence of either resveratrol or a whole-grape suspension. (1) Resveratrol was significantly more effective than the grape suspension at protecting the bladder muscle and mucosa against peroxidation as quantitated by MDA formation. (2) The grape suspension was significantly more effective at protecting ChAT activity against oxidative stress of the muscle than resveratrol. (3) Neither the grape suspension nor resveratrol were particularly effective at protecting the bladder muscle or mucosa calcium ATPase or SERCA against oxidative stress. (4) ChAT was significantly more sensitive to oxidative stress than either calcium ATPase or SERCA. These data support the idea that the grape suspension protects the mitochondria and nerve terminals to a significantly greater degree than resveratrol which suggests that the activities of the grape suspension are due to the combination of active components found in the grape suspension and not just resveratrol alone. PMID:26354548

  4. Better survival of hybrid total knee arthroplasty compared to cemented arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Petursson, Gunnar; Fenstad, Anne Marie; Havelin, Leif Ivar; Gøthesen, Øystein; Lygre, Stein Håkon Låstad; Röhrl, Stephan M; Furnes, Ove

    2015-01-01

    Background and purpose — There have been few comparative studies on total knee replacement (TKR) with cemented tibia and uncemented femur (hybrid TKR). Previous studies have not shown any difference in revision rate between cemented and hybrid fixation, but these studies had few hybrid prostheses. We have evaluated the outcome of hybrid TKR based on data from the Norwegian Arthroplasty Register (NAR). Patients and methods — We compared 4,585 hybrid TKRs to 20,095 cemented TKRs with risk of revision for any cause as the primary endpoint. We included primary TKRs without patella resurfacing that were reported to the NAR during the years 1999–2012. To minimize the possible confounding effect of prosthesis brands, only brands that were used both as hybrids and cemented in more than 200 cases were included. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and Cox regression analysis were done with adjustment for age, sex, and preoperative diagnosis. To include death as a competing risk, cumulative incidence function estimates were calculated. Results — Estimated survival at 11 years was 94.3% (95% CI: 93.9–94.7) in the cemented TKR group and 96.3% (CI: 95.3–97.3) in the hybrid TKR group. The adjusted Cox regression analysis showed a lower risk of revision in the hybrid group (relative risk = 0.58, CI: 0.48–0.72, p < 0.001). The hybrid group included 3 brands of prostheses: LCS classic, LCS complete, and Profix. Profix hybrid TKR had lower risk of revision than cemented TKR, but the LCS classic and LCS complete did not. Kaplan-Meier estimated survival at 11 years was 96.8% (CI: 95.6–98.0) in the hybrid Profix group and 95.2% (CI: 94.6–95.8) in the cemented Profix group. Mean operating time was 17 min longer in the cemented group. Interpretation — Survivorship of the hybrid TKR at 11 years was better than that for cemented TKR, or the same, depending on the brand of prosthesis. Hybrid fixation appears to be a safe and time-efficient alternative to cemented fixation in

  5. A Comparative Study of Retinal Function in Rabbits after Panretinal Selective Retina Therapy versus Conventional Panretinal Photocoagulation

    PubMed Central

    Park, Young Gun; Kang, Seungbum; Brinkmann, Ralf; Roh, Young-Jung

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. This study evaluates functional changes in electroretinographic findings after selective retina therapy (SRT) compared to panretinal photocoagulation (PRP) in rabbits. Methods. The right eyes of 12 Chinchilla rabbits received 200 laser treatment spots. The right eyes of six rabbits received SRT (SRT group), whereas the other six animals were treated using PRP on the right eye (PRP group). The eyes were investigated using full-field ERG 1 hour and 3 weeks after treatment. Histologic exam to assess the tissue response of lasers was performed on 3 weeks. Results. No significant changes in the mean ROD or CR b-wave amplitudes of the SRT lesions were evident, compared to baseline, 1 h after laser treatment (p = 0.372 and 0.278, resp.). In addition, the OPs and 30 Hz flickers of the SRT lesions were not significantly altered (p = 0.17 and 0.243, resp.). At 3 weeks, similar results were found. Comparing the two groups, the ROD b-wave amplitude was reduced in the PRP and SRT groups to 60.04 ± 4.2% and 92.32 ± 6.43% of baseline (p < 0.001). Histologically, there was no visible photoreceptor alterations on week 3. Conclusions. SRT in rabbit eyes induced less functional loss than PRP in both rod-mediated retinal function and cone-mediated retinal function. In addition, SRT irradiated eyes had no functional loss compared to its control. PMID:26525905

  6. Comparative Pharmacokinetics of Continuous and Conventional Intrathecal Amphotericin B in Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Min; Ma, An De; Wang, Li; Li, Guo Liang; Qiu, Ai Zhu; Pan, Zhi Yong; Wang, Yuan Yuan; Liu, Xiao Jia

    2012-01-01

    We previously reported a new effective therapy, continuous intrathecal amphotericin B (AMB), for the treatment of cryptococcal meningitis, which had fewer side effects and complications than conventional intrathecal AMB. In this study, the pharmacokinetics of continuous intrathecal administration and conventional intrathecal AMB were compared in rabbits, providing a pharmacokinetic basis for the use of continuous intrathecal AMB therapy. The AMB concentration in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), sampled via an inserted cisterna magna catheter, was determined by a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry assay. The results revealed significant pharmacokinetic differences between the two groups. In the continuous intrathecal group (0.15 mg/kg/24 h), the concentration of AMB peaked 7.01 μg/ml at 4 h and then decreased to a stable level of 1.0 to 1.34 μg/ml, with no neurological impairments, while in the conventional intrathecal group (0.015 mg/kg), the drug concentration reached a peak of 3.41 μg/ml at 1 h and then decreased progressively, with fever and neurological impairments, including convulsion and paralysis. The pharmacokinetic results indicated that the continuous intrathecal AMB is a more effective and safe therapy than the conventional intrathecal AMB, with comparatively rational pharmacokinetics and fewer neurological impairments. PMID:22850516

  7. Endometrial laser ablation in rabbits: A comparative study of three laser types

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenberg, C.; Tadir, Y.; Braslavsky, D.; Fisch, B.; Karni, Z.; Ovadia, J. )

    1990-01-01

    Endometrial laser ablation is one of the alternatives to hysterectomy in cases of intractable uterine bleeding. It is currently performed using the Nd:YAG laser at 1.06 microns. The aim of this study was to compare the tissue effect of three types of laser irradiation (Nd:YAG laser at 1.06 and 1.32 microns and holmium laser at 2.12 microns) on the rabbit endometrium. Crater formation, coagulation necrosis, and muscle necrosis were evaluated at the time of ablation, as well as at 1 week and 4 weeks postablation. The results were assessed by determining the depth and width of the affected portion in the uterine wall (lumen to serosa). It was shown that Nd:YAG laser at 1.32 microns caused more generalized and extended effects as compared with the other laser types examined. Endometrial regeneration was faster after ablation by the Nd:YAG laser at 1.06 microns and the holmium laser than by the Nd:YAG laser at 1.32 microns. The widest range of ablation energy (defined as that causing ablation without muscle damage) was achieved by applying the holmium laser. Further evaluation of the holmium laser for this indication is recommended.

  8. Comparative aspects and sex differentiation of plasma sulfamethazine elimination and metabolite formation in rats, rabbits, dwarf goats, and cattle.

    PubMed

    Witkamp, R F; Yun, H I; van't Klooster, G A; van Mosel, J F; van Mosel, M; Ensink, J M; Noordhoek, J; van Miert, A S

    1992-10-01

    Plasma disposition and urinary recovery of sulfamethazine (SMZ), its N4-acetylated metabolite (N4AcSMZ), and 2 of its hydroxylated metabolites--5-hydroxysulfamethazine (5OHSMZ) and 6-hydroxymethylsulfamethazine (6CH2OHSMZ)--were determined in either sex of 4 animal species: rats, dwarf goats, rabbits, and cattle. Rats, rabbits, and dwarf goats had significant (P < 0.01) sex difference in SMZ plasma clearance. Male rats had higher plasma clearance than did female rats, and excreted higher amounts of the hydroxy metabolites and lower amounts of N4AcSMZ. The N4AcSMZ metabolite was predominant in plasma and urine of rabbits. Male rabbits had higher plasma clearance than did female rabbits, but differences in metabolite profile were not apparent. With regard to plasma SMZ elimination, the situation in goats was opposite to that in rats. Male goats had considerably lower clearance than did female goats. This was associated with a lower hydroxylation rat in males. Plasma half-life of SMZ in cows was lower than that in bulls, probably because of a smaller distribution volume in cows. Compared with elimination via urine, elimination via milk was negligible in cows. Significant differences in metabolite profiles were not found between bulls and cows. Similar to those in rats and mice, hormone-dependent xenobiotic metabolic pathways may exist in other species. Depending on species and xenobiotic compound residue concentrations of xenobiotics, their metabolites, or both may differ with sex of the animal, or may be altered after treatment with anabolic hormones. PMID:1456529

  9. [Ambroxol, comparative studies of pharmacokinetics and biotransformation in rat, rabbit, dog and man (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Hammer, R; Bozler, G; Jauch, R; Koss, F W; Hadamovsky, H

    1978-01-01

    Pharmacokinetics and biotransformation of trans-4-(2-amino-3,5-dibromo-benzylamino)cyclohexanol hydrochloride (ambroxol, NA 872 Cl) was studied using the 14C-labelled compound. Absorption after oral administration was found to be fast and complete. Elimination half-life of radioactivity in the blood was estimated as 20--25 h in rat, dog and man and as 2 h only in rabbit. This apparent elimination half-life is governed by the disposition of acidic metabolites of NA 872. In man and rabbit radioactivity is excreted almost completely into the urine, whereas in rat and dog biliary excretion is also observed. Routes of biotransformation are similar in all 4 species. NA 872 is metabolized by phase I reactions to NA 873 and finally to dibromoanthranilic acid. Phase II reactions with the parent compound and metabolites are observed mainly in man and rabbit. PMID:581988

  10. A Randomized controlled trial comparing patellar retention versus patellar resurfacing in primary total knee arthroplasty: 5–10 year follow-up

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The primary purpose of this randomized controlled trial (RCT) was to compare knee-specific outcomes (stiffness, pain, function) between patellar retention and resurfacing up to 10 years after primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Secondarily, we compared re-operation rates. Methods 38 subjects with non-inflammatory arthritis were randomized at primary TKA surgery to receive patellar resurfacing (n = 21; Resurfaced group) or to retain their native patella (n = 17; Non-resurfaced group). Evaluations were performed preoperatively, one, five and 10 years postoperatively by an evaluator who was blinded to group allocation. Self-reported knee-specific stiffness, pain and function, the primary outcomes, were measured by the Western Ontario McMaster Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC). Revision rate was determined at each evaluation and through hospital record review. Results 30 (88%) and 23 (72%) of available subjects completed the five and 10-year review respectively. Knee-specific scores continued to improve for both groups over the 10-years, despite diminishing overall health with no significant group differences seen. All revisions occurred within five years of surgery (three Non-resurfaced subjects; one Resurfaced subject) (p = 0.31). Two revisions in the Non-resurfaced group were due to persistent anterior knee pain. Conclusions We found no differences in knee-specific results between groups at 5–10 years postoperatively. The Non-resurfaced group had two revisions due to anterior knee pain similar to rates reported in other studies. Knee-specific results provide useful postoperative information and should be used in future studies comparing patellar management strategies. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT01500252 PMID:22676495

  11. Cost-effectiveness analysis of arthroscopic surgery compared with non-operative management for osteoarthritis of the knee

    PubMed Central

    Marsh, Jacquelyn D; Birmingham, Trevor B; Giffin, J Robert; Isaranuwatchai, Wanrudee; Hoch, Jeffrey S; Feagan, Brian G; Litchfield, Robert; Willits, Kevin; Fowler, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine the cost-effectiveness of arthroscopic surgery in addition to non-operative treatments compared with non-operative treatments alone in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA). Design, setting and participants We conducted an economic evaluation alongside a single-centre, randomised trial among patients with symptomatic, radiographic knee OA (KL grade ≥2). Interventions Patients received arthroscopic debridement and partial resection of degenerative knee tissues in addition to optimised non-operative therapy, or optimised non-operative therapy only. Main outcome measures Direct and indirect costs were collected prospectively over the 2-year study period. The effectiveness outcomes were the Western Ontario McMaster Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). Cost-effectiveness was estimated using the net benefit regression framework considering a range of willingness-to-pay values from the Canadian public payer and societal perspectives. We calculated incremental cost-effectiveness ratios and conducted sensitivity analyses using the extremes of the 95% CIs surrounding mean differences in effect between groups. Results 168 patients were included. Patients allocated to arthroscopy received partial resection and debridement of degenerative meniscal tears (81%) and/or articular cartilage (97%). There were no significant differences between groups in use of non-operative treatments. The incremental net benefit was negative for all willingness-to-pay values. Uncertainty estimates suggest that even if willing to pay $400 000 to achieve a clinically important improvement in WOMAC score, or ≥$50 000 for an additional QALY, there is <20% probability that the addition of arthroscopy is cost-effective compared with non-operative therapies only. Our sensitivity analysis suggests that even when assuming the largest treatment effect, the addition of arthroscopic surgery is not economically attractive compared with non

  12. Comparative capacity of orally administered amoxicillin and parenterally administered penicillin-streptomycin to protect rabbits against experimentally induced streptococcal endocarditis.

    PubMed Central

    Pujadas, R; Escriva, E; Jane, J; Fernandez, F; Fava, P; Garau, J

    1986-01-01

    A single-intramuscular-dose immunization regimen with a penicillin G-streptomycin combination was compared with three oral-dose amoxicillin regimens for the capacity to prevent Streptococcus sanguis infections of experimentally induced valvular heart lesions in rabbits. Challenge doses of 10(4), 10(6), and 10(8) CFU of a strain of S. sanguis equally susceptible to penicillin and amoxicillin were used in this study. Measured by recovery of test organisms from endocardial lesions, the lowest concentration of these inocula was infective for 60% of the recipients; the two higher-concentration inocula were infective for all recipients. The penicillin G-streptomycin combination provided complete protection against infection with inocula of all sizes. A single-oral-dose amoxicillin regimen (50 mg/kg of body weight) prevented endocarditis when rabbits were challenged with 10(4) CFU, but protection diminished with increasing inoculum concentrations. Similar results were achieved when five oral doses of amoxicillin (8.5 mg/kg of body weight) added at 8-h intervals were included in the single-oral-dose regimen. In contrast, when rabbits received two oral doses of amoxicillin (50 mg/kg of body weight) with a 10-h interval between doses, prophylaxis was fully effective with even the highest inoculum concentration. PMID:3729348

  13. Incidence and Risk Factors for Falling in Patients after Total Knee Arthroplasty Compared to Healthy Elderly Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Matsumoto, Hiromi; Okuno, Makoto; Nakamura, Tatsuhiko; Yamamoto, Kichizo; Osaki, Mari; Hagino, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Background It is possible that patients who have undergone total knee arthroplasty (TKA) are at a high risk of falling. However, there are insufficient data to confirm the incidence and risk factors for falling in patients after TKA compared with healthy elderly counterparts. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the incidence and risk factors for falling in patients after TKA compared to the age- and gender-matched healthy elderly. Methods Subjects who underwent TKA consisted of 252 patients over 60 years of age. Controls were 150 healthy elderly individuals over 60 years of age living independently in the community. A self-administered questionnaire was mailed to patients after TKA and a similar questionnaire was distributed to the controls by investigators during the town-sponsored healthy aging program. The questionnaire included questions for ambulatory ability, functional status in daily living, knee pain, other joint pain and information on falls. Results Self-administered questionnares were returned by 192 of the 252 patients (76.1%) and 146 of the 150 controls (97.3%). Age and gender matching was performed for respondents between 70 and 80 years of age. There were 81 patients and 80 controls who fulfilled the inclusion criteria, and all of them agreed to participate. In the previous year, 34 of the 81 patients (38.2%) fell. The incidence of falls was significantly higher in patients than controls (23.8%, P = 0.041). In controls, ability to stand up from a chair without using the arms and restriction from joining social activities due to knee pain showed the strongest association with recent falls. In patients, self-reported kyphosis showed the strongest association with recent falls. Conclusion Patients after TKA are more likely to fall than the general Japanese population. Kyphosis showed the strongest association with recent falls in patients after TKA, which was different from the results obtained in the healthy elderly. PMID:25901101

  14. Rabbit Neonates and Human Adults Perceive a Blending 6-Component Odor Mixture in a Comparable Manner

    PubMed Central

    Sinding, Charlotte; Thomas-Danguin, Thierry; Chambault, Adeline; Béno, Noelle; Dosne, Thibaut; Chabanet, Claire; Schaal, Benoist; Coureaud, Gérard

    2013-01-01

    Young and adult mammals are constantly exposed to chemically complex stimuli. The olfactory system allows for a dual processing of relevant information from the environment either as single odorants in mixtures (elemental perception) or as mixtures of odorants as a whole (configural perception). However, it seems that human adults have certain limits in elemental perception of odor mixtures, as suggested by their inability to identify each odorant in mixtures of more than 4 components. Here, we explored some of these limits by evaluating the perception of three 6-odorant mixtures in human adults and newborn rabbits. Using free-sorting tasks in humans, we investigated the configural or elemental perception of these mixtures, or of 5-component sub-mixtures, or of the 6-odorant mixtures with modified odorants' proportion. In rabbit pups, the perception of the same mixtures was evaluated by measuring the orocephalic sucking response to the mixtures or their components after conditioning to one of these stimuli. The results revealed that one mixture, previously shown to carry the specific odor of red cordial in humans, was indeed configurally processed in humans and in rabbits while the two other 6-component mixtures were not. Moreover, in both species, such configural perception was specific not only to the 6 odorants included in the mixture but also to their respective proportion. Interestingly, rabbit neonates also responded to each odorant after conditioning to the red cordial mixture, which demonstrates their ability to perceive elements in addition to configuration in this complex mixture. Taken together, the results provide new insights related to the processing of relatively complex odor mixtures in mammals and the inter-species conservation of certain perceptual mechanisms; the results also revealed some differences in the expression of these capacities between species putatively linked to developmental and ecological constraints. PMID:23341948

  15. Organic matter and macromineral digestibility in domestic rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) as compared to other hindgut fermenters.

    PubMed

    Hagen, K B; Tschudin, A; Liesegang, A; Hatt, J-M; Clauss, M

    2015-12-01

    It is generally assumed that animal species differ in physiological characteristics of their digestive tract. Because investigating digestive processes is often labour-intensive, requiring lengthy adaptation and collection periods, comparisons are often made on the basis of data collated from different studies. We added a new data set on dietary crude fibre (CF) and macromineral (Na, K, Ca, P, Mg) composition and apparent digestibility (aD) of organic matter (OM) and macrominerals in rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus; a total of 180 measurements with 12 individuals and 10 different diets) to a literature data collection for rodents and domestic horses (Equus caballus). Significant negative relationships between dietary CF and aD OM were obtained, but the significant difference in digestive efficiency between rabbits and guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) reported from studies where both species had been investigated under identical conditions were not detectable in the larger data collection. However, the 95% confidence interval of the negative slope of the CF-aD OM relationship did not overlap between domestic horses on the one hand, and rabbits and guinea pigs on the other hand, indicating a less depressing effect of CF in horses. Akaike's information criterion indicated that aD of a macromineral did not only depend on its concentration in the diet, but also on the individual and various other diet characteristics and the presence of other macrominerals, indicating complex interactions. The data indicate similar mechanisms in the absorption of macrominerals amongst rabbits, rodents and horses, with the exception of Na and K in guinea pigs and Ca in chinchillas (Chinchilla laniger) that should be further corroborated. In particular, the occurrence of high aD Ca in hindgut fermenters, regardless of whether they employ a digestive strategy of coprophagy or whether they have fossorial habits, suggests that this peculiarity might represent an adaptation to hindgut

  16. Comparative study on isokinetic capacity of knee and ankle joints by functional injury

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Kyoungkyu; Seo, Byoung-Do; Lee, Sang-Ho

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] To collect basic data for exercise programs designed to enhance functional knee and ankle joint stability based on isokinetic measurement and muscle strength evaluations in normal and impaired functional states. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-four subjects were randomly assigned to the athlete group and the control group (n = 12 each). Data were collected of isokinetic knee extensor and flexor strength at 60°/sec, 180°/sec, and 240°/sec and ankle plantar and dorsiflexor strength at 30°/sec and 120°/sec. [Results] Significant intergroup differences were observed in peak torque of the right extensors at 60°/sec, 180°/sec, and 240°/sec and the right flexors at 240°/sec. Significant differences were observed in peak torque/body weight in the right extensors at 60°/sec, 180°/sec, and 240°/sec and in the right flexors at 180°/sec and 240°/sec. Significant peak torque differences were noted in the left ankle joint dorsiflexor at 30°/sec and 120°/sec, right plantar flexor at 120°/sec, left plantar flexor at 30°/sec, left dorsiflexor at 30°/sec and 120°/sec, and right dorsiflexor at 120°/sec. [Conclusion] Isokinetic evaluation stimulates muscle contraction at motion-dependent speeds and may contribute to the development of intervention programs to improve knee and ankle joint function and correct lower-extremity instability. PMID:26957768

  17. Comparative Study of Bone Repair Using Porous Hydroxyapatite/ β-Tricalcium Phosphate and Xenograft Scaffold in Rabbits with Tibia Defect

    PubMed Central

    Bagher, Zohreh; Rajaei, Farzad; Shokrgozar, Mohammadali

    2012-01-01

    Background: Bone tissue engineering requires materials that are biocompatible, mechanically suited for bone function, integrated with the host skeleton, and support osteoinduction of the implanted cells for new bone formation. The aim of this study was to compare the osteogenic potential of xenograft with hydroxyapatite/β- tricalcium phosphate (HA/β-TCP) scaffold. Methods: New Zealand rabbits (n = 9) were divided into 3 groups. Osteoblast cells were originally isolated from rabbit iliac crest and cultured in DMEM/F12. After creating a critical-sized defect (2 × 3 cm) in rabbit tibia bone, the defect was filled with an implant of HA/TCP with osteoblasts and xenograft in the hole of left (as control) and right tibia, respectively. The new bone formation and the development of bone union within the defect were evaluated by x-ray images and eosine and hematoxylin staining at 4, 8, and 12 weeks post-operation. Results: The bone partially formed in both groups was filled with osteoblast cultured on porous implants at 4 weeks. Over time, progressive bone regeneration was observed inside the pores. Moreover, a progressive vascular ingrowth and progressive integration with the host bone were obvious in xenograft when compared to HA/β-TCP. A good integration between the xenograft implants and the bone was observed radiographically and confirmed by histological section. Conclusion: The result showed that the bone defect can be repaired using both synthetic and xenograft implants. However, the xenograft showed a better osteointegration as compared to HA/β-TCP scaffold. PMID:22562028

  18. Comparative pharmacokinetics of (/sup 65/Zn)zinc sulfate and (/sup 65/Zn)zinc pantothenate injected intravenously in rabbits

    SciTech Connect

    Guillard, O.; Courtois, P.; Murai, P.; Ducassou, D.; Reiss, D.

    1984-11-01

    The pharmacokinetics of zinc sulfate were compared with those of a new zinc salt, pantothenate, in rabbits. Each salt was administered at a dosage of 3.3 microCi of zinc-65/kg of body weight. The measured pharmacokinetics of the two compounds responded to a two-compartment open model. The urinary elimination of the two salts was similar, as was their localization in the skin and fur, but zinc pantothenate was fixed by the liver to a lesser extent than was zinc sulfate.

  19. Comparative metabolism of 14C-labeled apixaban in mice, rats, rabbits, dogs, and humans.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Donglu; He, Kan; Raghavan, Nirmala; Wang, Lifei; Mitroka, James; Maxwell, Brad D; Knabb, Robert M; Frost, Charles; Schuster, Alan; Hao, Feng; Gu, Zheming; Humphreys, W Griffith; Grossman, Scott J

    2009-08-01

    The metabolism and disposition of [(14)C]apixaban, a potent, reversible, and direct inhibitor of coagulation factor Xa, were investigated in mice, rats, rabbits, dogs, and humans after a single oral administration and in incubations with hepatocytes. In plasma, the parent compound was the major circulating component in mice, rats, dogs, and humans. O-Demethyl apixaban sulfate (M1) represented approximately 25% of the parent area under the time curve in human plasma. This sulfate metabolite was present, but in lower amounts relative to the parent, in plasma from mice, rats, and dogs. Rabbits showed a plasma metabolite profile distinct from that of other species with apixaban as a minor component and M2 (O-demethyl apixaban) and M14 (O-demethyl apixaban glucuronide) as prominent components. The fecal route was a major elimination pathway, accounting for >54% of the dose in animals and >46% in humans. The urinary route accounted for <15% of the dose in animals and 25 to 28% in humans. Apixaban was the major component in feces of every species and in urine of all species except rabbit. M1 and M2 were common prominent metabolites in urine and feces of all species as well as in bile of rats and humans. In vivo metabolite profiles showed quantitative differences between species and from in vitro metabolite profiles, but all human metabolites were found in animal species. After intravenous administration of [(14)C]apixaban to bile duct-cannulated rats, the significant portion (approximately 22%) of the dose was recovered as parent drug in the feces, suggesting direct excretion of the drug from gastrointestinal tracts of rats. Overall, apixaban was effectively eliminated via multiple elimination pathways in animals and humans, including oxidative metabolism, and direct renal and intestinal excretion. PMID:19420130

  20. Comparative Analysis of Methods to Induce Myocardial Infarction in a Closed-Chest Rabbit Model

    PubMed Central

    Isorni, Marc-Antoine; Casanova, Amaury; Piquet, Julie; Bellamy, Valérie; Pignon, Charly; Puymirat, Etienne; Menasche, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To develop a rabbit model of closed-chest catheter-induced myocardial infarction. Background. Limitations of rodent and large animal models justify the search for clinically relevant alternatives. Methods. Microcatheterization of the heart was performed in 47 anesthetized 3-4 kg New Zealand rabbits to test five techniques of myocardial ischemia: free coils (n = 4), interlocking coils (n = 4), thrombogenic gelatin sponge (n = 4), balloon occlusion (n = 4), and alcohol injection (n = 8). In order to limit ventricular fibrillation, an antiarrhythmic protocol was implemented, with beta-blockers/amiodarone before and xylocaine infusion during the procedure. Clinical, angiographic, and echographic data were gathered. End points included demonstration of vessel occlusion (TIMI flow grades 0 and 1 on the angiogram), impairment of left ventricular function at 2 weeks after procedure (by echocardiography), and pathologically confirmed myocardial infarction. Results. The best arterial access was determined to be through the right carotid artery. The internal mammary guiding catheter 4-Fr was selected as the optimal device for selective intracoronary injection. Free coils deployed prematurely and tended to prolapse into the aorta. Interlocking coils did not deploy completely and failed to provide reliable results. Gelatin sponge was difficult to handle, adhered to the catheter, and could not be clearly visualized by fluoroscopy. Balloon occlusion yielded inconsistent results. Alcohol injection was the most efficient and reproducible method for inducing myocardial infarction (4 out of 6 animals), the extent of which could be fine-tuned by using a coaxial balloon catheter as a microcatheter (0.52 mm) to achieve a superselective injection of 0.2 mL of alcohol. This approach resulted in a 20% decrease in LVEF and infarcted myocardium was confirmed histologically. Conclusions. By following a stepwise approach, a minimally invasive, effective, and reproducible

  1. Knee pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... the front of your knee around the kneecap Torn ligament. An anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury, or ... into your knee, swelling, or an unstable knee. Torn cartilage (a meniscus tear ). Pain felt on the ...

  2. Comparative Effects of Periarticular Multimodal Drug Injection and Single-Shot Femoral Nerve Block on Pain Following Total Knee Arthroplasty and Factors Influencing Their Effectiveness

    PubMed Central

    Nakagawa, Shuji; Inoue, Hiroaki; Kan, Hiroyuki; Hino, Manabu; Ichimaru, Shohei; Ikoma, Kazuya; Fujiwara, Hiroyoshi; Amaya, Fumimasa; Sawa, Teiji; Kubo, Toshikazu

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study compared the analgesic effects of local infiltration analgesia (LIA) and femoral nerve block (FNB) after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) and assessed factors associated with analgesia obtained by these two methods. Materials and Methods Study subjects included 66 patients (72 knees) who underwent TKA for osteoarthritis of the knee. Pain visual analogue scale (VAS), the amount of analgesics used, number of days to achieve 90° of flexion of the knee joint, date of initiating parallel-bar walking, range of motion of the knee joint at discharge, and adverse events were investigated. Results The VAS scores did not differ significantly between two groups, whereas the amount of analgesics used was significantly lower in the LIA group. Preoperative flexion contracture was significantly more severe in the LIA group with high VAS compared with low VAS. No serious adverse event occurred in the LIA or FNB group. Conclusions The lower analgesic usage in the LIA group than the FNB group indicates that the analgesic effect of LIA was greater than that of singleshot FNB after TKA. There were no serious complications in either group. The postoperative analgesic effect of LIA was smaller in patients with severe than less severe preoperative flexion contracture. PMID:27595078

  3. Knee Bracing: What Works?

    MedlinePlus

    MENU Return to Web version Knee Bracing: What Works? Knee Bracing: What Works? What are knee braces? Knee braces are supports ... have arthritis in their knees. Do knee braces work? Maybe. Companies that make knee braces claim that ...

  4. Comparative analysis of rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus strains originating from outbreaks in the Russian Federation.

    PubMed

    Burmakina, Galina; Malogolovkina, Nina; Lunitsin, Andrey; Titov, Ilya; Tsybanov, Sodnom; Malogolovkin, Alexander

    2016-07-01

    Since the first introduction of rabbit hemorrhagic disease (RHD) in 1986, disease outbreaks have been continuously reported in different regions of Russia. Despite extensive vaccination, sporadic RHD cases are still reported. Here, we examine eleven RHDV strains originating from disease outbreaks occurring between 2003 and 2012 and one widely used vaccine strain. Notable phenotypic and genetic heterogeneity among RHDV strains was observed. The RHDV strains Tambov-2010, Perm-2010, Manihino-09 showed different hemagglutinating activity (HA) at 4 °C and room temperature. While all RHDV field strains were identified as hemagglutinating virulent viruses of the RHDVa variant, the vaccine strain was assigned as a "classical" RHDV. These data indicate that since 2003, RHDVa has become the predominant variant circulating in Russia. PMID:27094306

  5. Cost savings associated with the use of the Ho:YAG laser in knee arthroscopy: a comparative retrospective review of 140 conventional and laser-assisted procedures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Michael D.

    1994-09-01

    The impact of using the 2.1 micrometers Ho:YAG laser in orthopaedic surgery has not been fully investigated, especially as to what affect it may have on an employee's return to work and normal activities. In this retrospective review of 140 patients who underwent arthroscopic surgery at our facility, there were found to be significant decreases in time on crutches and time off from work when laser-assisted knee arthroscopies were compared to procedures where conventional mechanical or motorized instruments were used. The patients who had laser-assisted knee arthroscopies discontinued use of crutches 5 days earlier than the conventional group and returned to work 10 days earlier than their counterparts who had undergone conventional arthroscopic surgery. The ability to return to work more quickly translates into significant cost savings for employers who otherwise would have to replace the worker with temporary help, pay overtime, or face lost productivity due to an employee's absence following arthroscopic knee surgery.

  6. Recombinant saphenous vein 5-HT1B receptors of the rabbit: comparative pharmacology with human 5-HT1B receptors.

    PubMed

    Wurch, T; Palmier, C; Colpaert, F C; Pauwels, P J

    1997-01-01

    1. The rabbit recombinant saphenous vein 5-hydroxytryptamine1B (r 5-HT1B) receptor stably transfected in rat C6-glial cells was characterized by measuring adenosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate (cycle AMP) formation upon exposure to various 5-HT receptor ligands. The effects of agonists and antagonists were compared with their effects determined previously at the human cloned 5-HT1B (h 5-HT1B) receptor under similar experimental conditions. 2. Intact C6-glial cells expressing rb HT1B receptors exhibited [3H]-5-carboxamidotryptamine (5-CT) binding sites with a Kd of 0.80 +/- 0.13 nM and a Bmax between 225 to 570 fmol mg-1 protein. The binding affinities of a series of 5-HT receptor ligands determined in a membrane preparation with [3H]-5-CT or [3H]-N-[4-methoxy-3-(4-methylpiperazin-1-yl)phenyl]-3-methyl-4-(-4 -pyridyl) benzamide (GR 125,743) were similar. With the exception of ketanserin, ligand affinities were comparable to those determined at the clones h 5-HT1B receptor site. 3. rb 5-HT1B receptors were negatively coupled to cyclic AMP formation upon stimulation with 5-HT agonists. Of the several 5-HT agonists tested, 5-CT was the most potent, the potency rank order being: 5-CT > 5-HT > zolmitriptan > naratriptan > rizatriptan > sumatriptan > R (+)-8-(hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)tetralin (8-OH-DPAT). The maximal responses of these agonists were similar to those induced by 5-HT. The potency of these agonists showed a positive correlation (r2 = 0.87; P < 0.002) with their potency at the cloned h 5-HT1B receptor subtype. 4. 2'-Methyl-4-(5-methyl-[1,2,4]oxadiazol-3-yl)-biphenyl-4-carboxylic acid [4-methoxy-e-(4-methyl-piperazin-1-yl)-phenyl]-amide (GR 127,935), methiothepin and ketanserin each behaved as silent, competitive antagonists at rb 5HT1B receptors; pKB values were 8.41, 8.32 and 7.05, respectively when naratriptan was used as an agonist. These estimates accorded with their binding affinities and the potencies found on 5-HT and/or sumatriptan

  7. A FUNCTIONAL AND ROENTGENOGRAPHIC PRELIMINARY COMPARATIVE STUDY USING METAL-BACKED AND ALL-POLYETHYLENE TIBIAL COMPONENTS IN TOTAL KNEE ARTHROPLASTY

    PubMed Central

    de Andrade, Marco Antônio Percope; dos Santos, Juliano Rodrigues; Gonzaga, Luiz Gustavo Alves; Silva, Guilherme Moreira Abreu e

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To describe and clinically and radiographically compare patients who underwent total knee arthroplasty (TKA) with all-polyethylene (ALP) and metal-backed (MTB) tibial implants. Methods: Patients who underwent TKA between January 1988 and December 2004 were grouped according to the type of implant received: all-polyethylene or metal-backed. Sixty patients came for evaluations, totaling 82 operated knees. Among these, 22 patients had undergone TKA only with ALP (12 unilateral and 10 bilateral cases), 33 patients only with MTB (26 unilateral and 7 bilateral cases) and five patients underwent TKA with ALP in one knee and MTB in the other. The knees were divided thus: group 1, 37 knees with ALP; and group 2, 45 knees with MTB. Results: There were no differences in clinical or functional evaluations between the groups. The mean radiolucency in the femur was 0.838 mm for the patients in group 1 and 0.356 mm for the patients in group 2 (p = 0.049). For the tibia, in the AP view, there was a mean value of 2.703 mm for group 1 and 0.733 mm for group 2 (p = 0.000). In the lateral view, the mean values for osteolysis was 0.405 mm for group 1 and 0.200 mm for group 2 (p = 0.074). Conclusions: There were no differences between the groups in the functional and clinical evaluations. However, greater radiolucency was observed in the arthroplasties with ALP, both in the femur in the lateral view and in the tibia in the AP view. Level of evidence IV – case series study. PMID:27022556

  8. Pain Control after Total Knee Arthroplasty: Comparing Intra-Articular Local Anesthetic Injection with Femoral Nerve Block

    PubMed Central

    Kao, Shengchin; Lee, Hungchen; Cheng, Chihwen; Lin, Chingfeng; Tsai, Hsini

    2015-01-01

    Background. Direct intra-articular injection of low doses of local anesthetic (IALA) after closure of the joint capsule remains controversial for pain control after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Methods. A retrospective study comparing patients receiving IALA with high doses (0.5% bupivacaine 60 mL) of local anesthetics or FNB in addition to intravenous patient-controlled analgesia with opioids for pain management after TKA was conducted. The primary end point was to compare the analgesic efficacy and early ambulation between the two groups. Results. No significant differences between the two groups in pain intensity, cumulative opioid consumption, incidences of opioid-related side effects, the time interval from the end of operation to the first time the patient could walk assisted with a walker postoperatively, and postoperative hospital stay were identified. Three patients in the IALA group but none in the FNB group walked within 12 hours after the end of operation. Summary. IALA with high doses of local anesthetics provides comparable analgesic efficacy as single-shot FNB after TKA and might be associated with earlier ambulation than FNB postoperatively. PMID:26064937

  9. Outcome of Unicompartmental Knee Arthroplasty: A Systematic Review of Comparative Studies between Fixed and Mobile Bearings Focusing on Complications

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Young-Bong; Gujarathi, Manan Ramesh

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this systematic review is to collate results of studies comparing fixed and mobile bearing unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA), focusing on complications and timing for reoperations. Out of 723 results derived from PubMed, EMBASE and Cochrane database search engines on bearings in arthroplasty, 10 studies comparing clinical results of fixed bearings to mobile bearings in UKA were found eligible for analysis. The reoperation rate was calculated using a novel method such as reoperations per hundred component years, and the causes of specific reoperations were investigated. The overall reoperation rate per hundred component years was similar between the mobile bearings (1.392) and fixed bearings (1.377); however, mobile bearings were more susceptible to reoperations in cases with aseptic loosening (0.393>0.255), progression of arthritis (0.428>0.357) and implant dislocation (0.286>0). The overall incidence of complications is similar for fixed and mobile bearing designs in UKA. The discussion on complications presented above may assist surgeons in their choice of bearing design. PMID:26389066

  10. Outcome of Unicompartmental Knee Arthroplasty: A Systematic Review of Comparative Studies between Fixed and Mobile Bearings Focusing on Complications.

    PubMed

    Ko, Young-Bong; Gujarathi, Manan Ramesh; Oh, Kwang-Jun

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this systematic review is to collate results of studies comparing fixed and mobile bearing unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA), focusing on complications and timing for reoperations. Out of 723 results derived from PubMed, EMBASE and Cochrane database search engines on bearings in arthroplasty, 10 studies comparing clinical results of fixed bearings to mobile bearings in UKA were found eligible for analysis. The reoperation rate was calculated using a novel method such as reoperations per hundred component years, and the causes of specific reoperations were investigated. The overall reoperation rate per hundred component years was similar between the mobile bearings (1.392) and fixed bearings (1.377); however, mobile bearings were more susceptible to reoperations in cases with aseptic loosening (0.393>0.255), progression of arthritis (0.428>0.357) and implant dislocation (0.286>0). The overall incidence of complications is similar for fixed and mobile bearing designs in UKA. The discussion on complications presented above may assist surgeons in their choice of bearing design. PMID:26389066

  11. Comparative study of extended versus short term thromboprophylaxis in patients undergoing elective total hip and knee arthroplasty in Indian population

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Velu; Kumar, Ratheesh; Singh, Bikram Kumar; Sharma, Ajay; Joshi, Gururaj R; Pathak, Kamal

    2013-01-01

    Background: Postoperative thromboprophylaxis with low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) for an extended period of 4 weeks is now preferred over short term thromboprophylaxis in patients undergoing total hip/knee arthroplasty (THA/TKA). However, most of the data demonstrating the efficacy and safety of extended thromboprophylaxis and short term thromboprophylaxis is from clinical trials done in the West. In India, the data of the incidence of venous thromboembolism (VTE) following THA/TKA has been conflicting and the duration has not been clearly defined. The aim of the study was to evaluate and compare the efficacy of extended thromboprophylaxis over short term thromboprophylaxis in Indian patients undergoing elective THA/TKA surgeries. Materials and Methods: A prospective arm of 197 consecutive patients undergoing elective THA/TKA surgeries who were administered extended thromboprophylaxis for 4 weeks was compared with a historical group of 795 patients who were administered short term thromboprophylaxis for only 7-11 days. In both groups, LMWH (enoxaparin) was used in a dose of 40 mg subcutaneously, in addition to mechanical thromboprophylaxis. Primary efficacy endpoint was objectively confirmed venous thromboembolism (VTE). The presence of DVT was confirmed by a combination of pretest scoring, D-dimer, and Color Doppler Flow Imaging (CDFI) of deep veins of the legs, and pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE) was confirmed by ventilation perfusion (V/Q) scan or pulmonary angiography. Fisher's exact test and t test were used for the statistical analysis. The baseline confounding factors were compared between the two groups using t test for comparing the means for continuous data and Fisher's exact test for categorical data. Results: In the prospective arm, only 1 patient developed symptomatic PTE compared to 26 (3.27%) cases of VTE (20 cases of PTE and 6 cases of DVT) in the retrospective group. Conclusion: Extended thromboprophylaxis (for 4 weeks) was found to be more

  12. Knee Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... cartilage, a tough, elastic material that helps absorb shock and allows the knee joint to move smoothly. ... The two menisci in each knee act as shock absorbers, cushioning the lower part of the leg ...

  13. Knee Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... Sprains A sprain means you've stretched or torn a ligament. Common knee sprains usually involve damage ... A strain means you've partly or completely torn a muscle or tendon. With knee strains, you ...

  14. Knee Replacement

    MedlinePlus

    ... doctor may recommend it if you have knee pain and medicine and other treatments are not helping you anymore. When you have a total knee replacement, the surgeon removes damaged cartilage and bone ...

  15. Bicompartmental knee arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Giachino, Matteo; Risitano, Salvatore; Atzori, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is the most worldwide practiced surgery for knee osteoarthritis and its efficacy is mightily described by literature. Concerns about the invasiveness of TKA let the introduction of segmental resurfacing of the joint for younger patients with localized osteoarthritis. Bone stock sparing and ligaments preservation are the essence of both unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA) and bicompartmental knee arthroplasty (BKA). Advantages related to BKA are the respect of knee biomechanics, lower complications rates, shorter hospital stay, faster rehabilitation. Moreover, in case of failure of the first implant the conversion to TKA is undemanding and can be compared to a standard prosthesis. Our experience suggest that BKA is a reliable technique in selected cases and especially younger people with higher functional requests can favourably profit from it. Although those results are encouraging, we still need further prospective, randomized, long-term studies to finally assess BKA indications and outcomes. PMID:26855941

  16. Bicompartmental knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Sabatini, Luigi; Giachino, Matteo; Risitano, Salvatore; Atzori, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is the most worldwide practiced surgery for knee osteoarthritis and its efficacy is mightily described by literature. Concerns about the invasiveness of TKA let the introduction of segmental resurfacing of the joint for younger patients with localized osteoarthritis. Bone stock sparing and ligaments preservation are the essence of both unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA) and bicompartmental knee arthroplasty (BKA). Advantages related to BKA are the respect of knee biomechanics, lower complications rates, shorter hospital stay, faster rehabilitation. Moreover, in case of failure of the first implant the conversion to TKA is undemanding and can be compared to a standard prosthesis. Our experience suggest that BKA is a reliable technique in selected cases and especially younger people with higher functional requests can favourably profit from it. Although those results are encouraging, we still need further prospective, randomized, long-term studies to finally assess BKA indications and outcomes. PMID:26855941

  17. To Cement or Not? Two-Year Results of a Prospective, Randomized Study Comparing Cemented Vs. Cementless Total Knee Arthroplasty (TKA).

    PubMed

    Fricka, Kevin B; Sritulanondha, Supatra; McAsey, Craig J

    2015-09-01

    The optimal mode of fixation in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is a subject of debate. We enrolled 100 TKA patients randomized to cemented or cementless fixation. Knee Society Scores (KSS), Oxford scores and pain visual analog scales (VAS) were collected pre-operatively and post-operatively. Two-year follow-up was obtained for 93 patients. The mean VAS trended higher for the cementless group at 4 months (P=0.06). At 2 years, the KSS functional scores, Oxford scores, and self-reported questions for satisfaction, less pain and better function were similar but the cemented group had higher KSS clinical scores (96.4 vs. 92.3, P=0.03). More radiolucencies were seen in cementless knees (P<0.001). The cementless group had one revision for instability and one cemented knee was revised for infection. Cementless TKA showed equivalent survivorship (revision for any reason as the endpoint) compared to cemented TKA at this early follow-up. Close monitoring of radiolucencies is important with continued follow-up. PMID:26118567

  18. Comparative Analysis of Single-Species and Polybacterial Wound Biofilms Using a Quantitative, In Vivo, Rabbit Ear Model

    PubMed Central

    Seth, Akhil K.; Geringer, Matthew R.; Hong, Seok J.; Leung, Kai P.; Galiano, Robert D.; Mustoe, Thomas A.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The recent literature suggests that chronic wound biofilms often consist of multiple bacterial species. However, without appropriate in vivo, polybacterial biofilm models, our understanding of these complex infections remains limited. We evaluate and compare the effect of single- and mixed-species biofilm infections on host wound healing dynamics using a quantitative, in vivo, rabbit ear model. Methods Six-mm dermal punch wounds in New Zealand rabbit ears were inoculated with Staphylococcus aureus strain UAMS-1, Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain PAO1, or both, totaling 10∧6 colony-forming units/wound. Bacterial proliferation and maintenance in vivo were done using procedures from our previously published model. Wounds were harvested for histological measurement of wound healing, viable bacterial counts using selective media, or inflammatory cytokine (IL-1β, TNF-α) expression via quantitative reverse-transcription PCR. Biofilm structure was studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). For comparison, biofilm deficient mutant UAMS-929 replaced strain UAMS-1 in some mixed-species infections. Results Bacterial counts verified the presence of both strains UAMS-1 and PAO1 in polybacterial wounds. Over time, strain PAO1 became predominant (p<0.001). SEM showed colocalization of both species within an extracellular matrix at multiple time-points. Compared to each monospecies infection, polybacterial biofilms impaired all wound healing parameters (p<0.01), and increased expression of IL-1β and TNF-α (p<0.05). In contrast, mixed-species infections using biofilm-deficient mutant UAMS-929 instead of wild-type strain UAMS-1 showed less wound impairment (p<0.01) with decreased host cytokine expression (p<0.01), despite a bacterial burden and distribution comparable to that of mixed-wild-type wounds. Conclusions This study reveals that mixed-species biofilms have a greater impact on wound healing dynamics than their monospecies counterparts. The increased

  19. Comparative analysis of rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) and new RHDV2 virus antigenicity, using specific virus-like particles.

    PubMed

    Bárcena, Juan; Guerra, Beatriz; Angulo, Iván; González, Julia; Valcárcel, Félix; Mata, Carlos P; Castón, José R; Blanco, Esther; Alejo, Alí

    2015-01-01

    In 2010 a new Lagovirus related to rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) emerged in France and has since rapidly spread throughout domestic and wild rabbit populations of several European countries. The new virus, termed RHDV2, exhibits distinctive genetic, antigenic and pathogenic features. Notably, RHDV2 kills rabbits previously vaccinated with RHDV vaccines. Here we report for the first time the generation and characterization of RHDV2-specific virus-like particles (VLPs). Our results further confirmed the differential antigenic properties exhibited by RHDV and RHDV2, highlighting the need of using RHDV2-specific diagnostic assays to monitor the spread of this new virus. PMID:26403184

  20. Tranexamic Acid Reduces Hidden Blood Loss in Patients Undergoing Total Knee Arthroplasty: A Comparative Study and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Guang-Ping; Jia, Xu-Feng; Xiang, Zhou; Ji, Yong; Wu, Guo-Yong; Tang, Yi; Li, Jian; Zhang, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Background To explore the efficacy of tranexamic acid (TXA) on reducing hidden blood loss (HBL) in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) by conducting a comparative study and meta-analysis. Material/Methods A total of 108 patients underwent TKA was equally distributed to experimental and control groups. The only difference between two groups was the administrations of 15 mg of TXA mixed in 100 mL normal saline for experimental group and 100 mL of normal saline for control group. The volumes of blood loss, red blood loss (RBL) were recorded, calculated and analyzed. Stata 12.0 software was applied for data analysis. Results The intraoperative and postoperative blood loss volume in experimental group were remarkably reduced compared with those in control group (intraoperative: 105.1±12.1 mL vs. 185.5±20.3 mL, P<0.001; postoperative: 220.7±16.8 mL vs. 290.5±22.4 mL, P<0.001). Accordingly, the control group had significantly higher transfusion rate than experimental group (3.7% vs.25.9%, P=0.001). Our results also found that both the measured and hidden RBL were obviously reduced in experimental group compared with control group (measured RBL: 96.9±11.8 mL vs. 135.2±13.5 mL, P<0.001; hidden RBL: 170.8±37.2 mL vs. 364.2±41.5 mL, P<0.001). Furthermore, meta-analysis confirmed that TXA can notably decrease HBL (SMD=2.68, 95%CI=1.55~3.80, P<0.001). Conclusions TXA can significantly reduce the intraoperative and postoperative blood loss and HBL, therefore decreasing the transfusion need in TKA. PMID:26961597

  1. Short-term efficacy of calcium fructoborate on subjects with knee discomfort: a comparative, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical study

    PubMed Central

    Pietrzkowski, Zbigniew; Phelan, Michael J; Keller, Robert; Shu, Cynthia; Argumedo, Ruby; Reyes-Izquierdo, Tania

    2014-01-01

    Calcium fructoborate (CFB) at a dose of 110 mg twice per day was previously reported to improve knee discomfort during the first 14 days of treatment. In this study, 60 participants with self-reported knee discomfort were randomized into two groups receiving CFB or placebo. Initial levels of knee discomfort were evaluated by Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC) and McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ) scores at the beginning of the study and also at 7 and 14 days after treatment. Results showed that supplementation with CFB significantly improved knee discomfort in the study subjects; significant reductions of mean within-subject change in WOMAC and MPQ scores were observed for the CFB group compared to the placebo group at both 7 and 14 days after treatment. Estimated treatment differences for the MPQ score were −5.8 (P=0.0009) and −8.9 (P<0.0001) at Day 7 and 14, respectively. Estimated differences for the WOMAC score were −5.3 (P=0.06) and −13.73 (P<0.0001) at Day 7 and 14, respectively. Negative values indicate greater reductions in reported discomfort. On both Day 7 and Day 14, the trend was toward greater improvement in the CFB group. The placebo group did not exhibit any change in the WOMAC and MPQ scores. In conclusion, supplementation with 110 mg CFB twice per day was associated with improving knee discomfort during the 2 weeks of intake. PMID:24940052

  2. Combined effect of subchondral drilling and hyaluronic acid with/without diacerein in full-thickness articular cartilage lesion in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Suwannaloet, Wanwisa; Laupattarakasem, Wiroon; Sukon, Peerapol; Ong-Chai, Siriwan; Laupattarakasem, Pisamai

    2012-01-01

    The osteochondral healing potential of hyaluronic acid (HA) plus diacerein was evaluated in subchondral-drilling- (SCD-) induced fibrocartilage generation in rabbits. A full-thickness chondral defect was created along the patellar groove of both knees and then SCD was subsequently performed only in the left knee. A week later, the rabbits were allocated into 3 groups to receive weekly intra-articular (IA) injection for 5 weeks with normal saline solution (NSS) (group 1) or with HA (group 2 and group 3). Starting at the first IA injection, rabbits were also gavaged daily for 9 weeks with NSS (group 1 and group 2) or with diacerein (group 3). The animals were then sacrificed for evaluation. The newly formed tissue in SCD lesions showed significantly better histological grading scale and had higher content of type II collagen in HA-treated group compared to NSS control. In addition, adding oral diacerein to HA injection enhanced healing potential of HA. PMID:22666105

  3. Comparative morphology of the lateral meniscus of the knee in primates.

    PubMed Central

    Le Minor, J M

    1990-01-01

    The morphology of the lateral meniscus has been studied in a series of 316 non-human primates, representative of 43 genera. The lateral meniscus has a crescentic shape in Prosimii, in Platyrrhinii (New World monkeys) and in Pongo pygmaeus. The lateral meniscus is disc-shaped, with a central foramen, in Catarrhinii (Old World monkeys), in Hylobates, in Gorilla and in Pan Troglodytes. In man, the lateral meniscus has a crescentic shape. Discoid lateral menisci are reported as anomalies in man; their origin has given rise to much discussion, but the comparative data favour a phylogenetic origin. The posterior fasciculus (Wrisberg's ligament) of the posterior menisco-femoral ligament is always present and large in all non-human primates; in man, it may be absent and seems to be a regressive structure. On the other hand, the anterior fasciculus (Humphry's ligament) exists only in man and seems to be a progressive structure. The posterior menisco-tibial attachments are weak or non-existent in non-human primates, but they are well-developed in man. The evolutionary development of these characters can be related to human bipedal locomotion. The lateral meniscus in some Prosimii contains one or two intramensical ossicles (lunulae). These structures are absent or very rare in all other primate groups. In man, intrameniscal ossicles are extremely unusual; their origin, phylogenetic or post-traumatic is controversial, but comparative data favour, at least in some cases, the persistence of an ancestral character. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:2123845

  4. Platelet-rich plasma increases transforming growth factor-beta1 expression at graft-host interface following autologous osteochondral transplantation in a rabbit model

    PubMed Central

    Boakye, Lorraine A; Ross, Keir A; Pinski, John M; Smyth, Niall A; Haleem, Amgad M; Hannon, Charles P; Fortier, Lisa A; Kennedy, John G

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To explore the effect of platelet-rich plasma on protein expression patterns of transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-β1) in cartilage following autologous osteochondral transplantation (AOT) in a rabbit knee cartilage defect model. METHODS: Twelve New Zealand white rabbits received bilateral AOT. In each rabbit, one knee was randomized to receive an autologous platelet rich plasma (PRP) injection and the contralateral knee received saline injection. Rabbits were euthanized at 3, 6 and 12 wk post-operatively. Articular cartilage sections were stained with TGF-β1 antibody. Histological regions of interest (ROI) (left, right and center of the autologous grafts interfaces) were evaluated using MetaMorph. Percentage of chondrocytes positive for TGF-β1 was then assessed. RESULTS: Percentage of chondrocytes positive for TGF-β1 was higher in PRP treated knees for selected ROIs (left; P = 0.03, center; P = 0.05) compared to control and was also higher in the PRP group at each post-operative time point (P = 6.6 × 10-4, 3.1 × 10-4 and 7.3 × 10-3 for 3, 6 and 12 wk, respectively). TGF-β1 expression was higher in chondrocytes of PRP-treated knees (36% ± 29% vs 15% ± 18%) (P = 1.8 × 10-6) overall for each post-operative time point and ROI. CONCLUSION: Articular cartilage of rabbits treated with AOT and PRP exhibit increased TGF-β1 expression compared to those treated with AOT and saline. Our findings suggest that adjunctive PRP may increase TGF-β1 expression, which may play a role in the chondrogenic effect of PRP in vivo. PMID:26716092

  5. Focused Low-intensity Pulsed Ultrasound Affects Extracellular Matrix Degradation via Decreasing Chondrocyte Apoptosis and Inflammatory Mediators in a Surgically Induced Osteoarthritic Rabbit Model.

    PubMed

    Jia, Lang; Chen, Jinyun; Wang, Yan; Zhang, Yu; Chen, Wenzhi

    2016-01-01

    We investigated whether focused low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (FLIPUS) affects extracellular matrix (ECM) production in osteoarthritic (OA) rabbits by decreasing chondrocyte apoptosis and pro-inflammatory mediators. An OA model using New Zealand White rabbits (N = 30) and 30 normal rabbits were randomized into three groups (2-, 4- and 8-wk groups; n = 10 knees each). A knee from each rabbit was randomly selected to receive FLIPUS and the other knee received a sham treatment as a control. Another 30 normal rabbits were blank controls. We measured ECM degradation, joint effusion volume and levels of prostaglandin E2 and nitric oxide. Also, ratios of chondrocyte proliferation and apoptosis were calculated. Compared with sham stimulation, FLIPUS attenuated release of type II collagen and proteoglycans and reduced chondrocyte apoptosis as well as total joint effusion volume and significantly alleviated OA-induced accretion of prostaglandin E2 and nitric oxide in the synovial fluid. FLIPUS application promoted ECM production in OA through down regulation inflammatory mediators, joint effusion volume and chondrocyte apoptosis. PMID:26403700

  6. Twelve Year Outcomes of Oxinium Total Knee Arthroplasty Compared to the Same Cobalt Chrome Prosthesis

    PubMed Central

    Vertullo, Christopher; Lewis, Peter; Graves, Stephen; Kelly, Lan; Myers, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Alternative bearings surfaces to Cobalt Chrome (Co-Cr), such as Oxidised have been introduced in an attempt to reduce polyethylene wear and hence decrease TKA loosening and lysis. While non-comparative reports have been described as promising, no short or long term clinical studies exists showing the superiority of Oxinium on a polyethylene bearing surfaces. In this study, we investigate the long-term outcomes of Oxinium and Co-Cr TKR in a “like for like” or matched cohort analysis of the Genesis II design (Smith & Nephew, Memphis, TN, USA). Using data from a large national joint replacement registry we selected cohorts that used only the cruciate retaining design, with the same method of fixation and polyethylene type, differing only in the femoral component bearing surfaces. Our primary hypothesis was that Oxinium TKA would have a lower cumulative percent revision than the same Co-Cr prosthesis at 12 years for all causes of revision. Our secondary hypothesis was that Oxinium TKA would have a lower loosening/ lysis rate and lower rate of non-infective revision than the same Co-Cr prosthesis at 12 years. Methods: Cumulative percent revision and revision diagnosis data were obtained from the Australian Orthopaedic Association National Joint Replacement Registry (AOANJRR) from 1 September 1999, until 31 December 2013. Results: At 12 years the cumulative percent revision of the Co-Cr Genesis II of 4.8 % (95%: CI 4.2, 5.4) for all causes was not statistically different to the Oxinium Genesis II CPR of 7.7 % (95%: CI 6.2, 9.5) (For the entire period, Hazard Ratio = 1.09 (95%: CI 0.92, 1.29), p = 0.329). The CPR for all causes was not different in the under 55 years old age group (Figure 3) (HR= 1.06 (0.68, 1.66) p=0.798).). Subgroup analysis of the CPR for loosening /lysis in both groups overall was not different (HR= 0.87 (95%: CI 0.61, 1.26), p = 0.461) Subgroup analysis of all causes of revisions excluding infection in both groups overall was not

  7. A New Method for Xenogeneic Bone Graft Deproteinization: Comparative Study of Radius Defects in a Rabbit Model

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Pengfei; Sun, Rongxin; Wang, Long; Zhou, Jialin; Wan, Lifei; Zhou, Tianjian; Hu, Yihe

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives Deproteinization is an indispensable process for the elimination of antigenicity in xenograft bones. However, the hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) deproteinized xenograft, which is commonly used to repair bone defect, exhibits limited osteoinduction activity. The present study was designed to develop a new method for deproteinization and compare the osteogenic capacities of new pepsin deproteinized xenograft bones with those of conventional H2O2 deproteinized ones. Methods Bones were deproteinized in H2O2 or pepsin for 8 hours. The morphologies were compared by HE staining. The content of protein and collagen I were measured by the Kjeldahl method and HPLC-MS, respectively. The physical properties were evaluated by SEM and mechanical tests. For in vivo study, X-ray, micro-CT and HE staining were employed to monitor the healing processes of radius defects in rabbit models transplanted with different graft materials. Results Compared with H2O2 deproteinized bones, no distinct morphological and physical changes were observed. However, pepsin deproteinized bones showed a lower protein content, and a higher collagen content were preserved. In vivo studies showed that pepsin deproteinized bones exhibited better osteogenic performance than H2O2 deproteinized bones, moreover, the quantity and quality of the newly formed bones were improved as indicated by micro-CT analysis. From the results of histological examination, the newly formed bones in the pepsin group were mature bones. Conclusions Pepsin deproteinized xenograft bones show advantages over conventional H2O2 deproteinized bones with respect to osteogenic capacity; this new method may hold potential clinical value in the development of new biomaterials for bone grafting. PMID:26719896

  8. Disposal rabbit

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, L.C.; Trammell, D.R.

    1983-10-12

    A disposable rabbit for transferring radioactive samples in a pneumatic transfer system comprises aerated plastic shaped in such a manner as to hold a radioactive sample and aerated such that dissolution of the rabbit in a solvent followed by evaporation of the solid yields solid waste material having a volume significantly smaller than the original volume of the rabbit.

  9. Disposable rabbit

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, Leroy C.; Trammell, David R.

    1986-01-01

    A disposable rabbit for transferring radioactive samples in a pneumatic transfer system comprises aerated plastic shaped in such a manner as to hold a radioactive sample and aerated such that dissolution of the rabbit in a solvent followed by evaporation of the solid yields solid waste material having a volume significantly smaller than the original volume of the rabbit.

  10. Comparative effectiveness of a complex Ayurvedic treatment and conventional standard care in osteoarthritis of the knee – study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    -effectiveness continuum. Discussion This trial is the first to compare the effectiveness of a complex Ayurvedic intervention with a complex conventional intervention in a Western medical setting in patients with knee osteoarthritis. During the trial design, aspects of efficacy and effectiveness were discussed. The resulting design is a compromise between rigor and pragmatism. Trial registration NCT01225133 PMID:23701973

  11. Comparative Immunogenicity in Rabbits of the Polypeptides Encoded by the 5' Terminus of Hepatitis C Virus RNA.

    PubMed

    Sominskaya, Irina; Jansons, Juris; Dovbenko, Anastasija; Petrakova, Natalia; Lieknina, Ilva; Mihailova, Marija; Latyshev, Oleg; Eliseeva, Olesja; Stahovska, Irina; Akopjana, Inara; Petrovskis, Ivars; Isaguliants, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies on the primate protection from HCV infection stressed the importance of immune response against structural viral proteins. Strong immune response against nucleocapsid (core) protein was difficult to achieve, requesting further experimentation in large animals. Here, we analyzed the immunogenicity of core aa 1-173, 1-152, and 147-191 and of its main alternative reading frame product F-protein in rabbits. Core aa 147-191 was synthesized; other polypeptides were obtained by expression in E. coli. Rabbits were immunized by polypeptide primes followed by multiple boosts and screened for specific anti-protein and anti-peptide antibodies. Antibody titers to core aa 147-191 reached 10(5); core aa 1-152, 5 × 10(5); core aa 1-173 and F-protein, 10(6). Strong immunogenicity of the last two proteins indicated that they may compete for the induction of immune response. The C-terminally truncated core was also weakly immunogenic on the T-cell level. To enhance core-specific cellular response, we immunized rabbits with the core aa 1-152 gene forbidding F-protein formation. Repeated DNA immunization induced a weak antibody and sustained proliferative response of broad specificity confirming a gain of cellular immunogenicity. Epitopes recognized in rabbits overlapped those in HCV infection. Our data promotes the use of rabbits for the immunogenicity tests of prototype HCV vaccines. PMID:26609538

  12. Comparative Immunogenicity in Rabbits of the Polypeptides Encoded by the 5′ Terminus of Hepatitis C Virus RNA

    PubMed Central

    Sominskaya, Irina; Jansons, Juris; Dovbenko, Anastasija; Petrakova, Natalia; Lieknina, Ilva; Mihailova, Marija; Latyshev, Oleg; Eliseeva, Olesja; Stahovska, Irina; Akopjana, Inara; Petrovskis, Ivars; Isaguliants, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies on the primate protection from HCV infection stressed the importance of immune response against structural viral proteins. Strong immune response against nucleocapsid (core) protein was difficult to achieve, requesting further experimentation in large animals. Here, we analyzed the immunogenicity of core aa 1–173, 1–152, and 147–191 and of its main alternative reading frame product F-protein in rabbits. Core aa 147–191 was synthesized; other polypeptides were obtained by expression in E. coli. Rabbits were immunized by polypeptide primes followed by multiple boosts and screened for specific anti-protein and anti-peptide antibodies. Antibody titers to core aa 147–191 reached 105; core aa 1–152, 5 × 105; core aa 1–173 and F-protein, 106. Strong immunogenicity of the last two proteins indicated that they may compete for the induction of immune response. The C-terminally truncated core was also weakly immunogenic on the T-cell level. To enhance core-specific cellular response, we immunized rabbits with the core aa 1–152 gene forbidding F-protein formation. Repeated DNA immunization induced a weak antibody and sustained proliferative response of broad specificity confirming a gain of cellular immunogenicity. Epitopes recognized in rabbits overlapped those in HCV infection. Our data promotes the use of rabbits for the immunogenicity tests of prototype HCV vaccines. PMID:26609538

  13. Histopathology of diode and argon laser lesions in rabbit retina. A comparative study

    SciTech Connect

    Brancato, R.; Pratesi, R.; Leoni, G.; Trabucchi, G.; Vanni, U.

    1989-07-01

    Argon lasers are the most frequently used laser source for retinal photocoagulation. These are expensive, bulky and low-efficiency devices. In contrast, diode semiconductor lasers have a number of characteristics that make them attractive for medical application: compact size, high electrical-to-optical efficiency, and long operating lifetime. Comparable irradiance lesions (about 120 Wcm2), ophthalmoscopically similar to those obtained therapeutically in humans, were obtained by a diode and an argon laser. Twenty-four hours after the treatment, a study of these lesions was made by light and electron microscopy. Argon irradiations resulted in damage to both the inner and the outer retinal layers, while the diode laser radiation produced damage to the outer retina and choroid. A sufficient diode laser light passed into the choroid to induce small vessel occlusions and/or edema. The histological characteristics of the lesions produced by the two lasers suggest the use of the diode lasers, as well as argon lasers, in the treatment of retinal and subretinal pathologies.

  14. Knee arthroscopy - series (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... knee problems such as: a torn knee disc (meniscus) a damaged knee bone (patella) a damaged ligament ... surgeon can see the ligaments, the knee disc (meniscus), the knee bone (patella), the lining of the ...

  15. Are patients more satisfied and have better functional outcome after bilateral total knee arthroplasty as compared to total hip arthroplasty and unilateral total knee arthroplasty surgery? A two-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Lim, Jason Beng Teck; Chou, Andrew Chia Chen; Chong, Hwei Chi; Lo, Ngai Nung; Chia, Shi-lu; Tay, Keng Jin Darren; Yeo, Seng Jin

    2015-12-01

    This study aims to review the quality of life and physical improvement achieved by total joint arthroplasty surgery, namely unilateral TKA, bilateral TKA and THA. We hypothesize that patients who undergo bilateral TKA should have greater improvement in patient-reported outcome measures, as compared to patients who had unilateral TKA, and their outcomes may be comparable to that of THA. We analyzed prospectively collected data of all patients who underwent unilateral TKA, bilateral TKA and THA (5291, 187 and 529 patients respectively) for end-stage osteoarthritis at a tertiary hospital during the 5-year period. Patients who underwent bilateral TKA had a greater degree of improvement in SF-36 and Knee Society Scores as compared to unilateral TKA at 6 months and 2 years follow-up. Bilateral TKA had the highest proportion of patients who were satisfied and had expectations met by surgery. PMID:26790791

  16. Five-year results of a randomised controlled trial comparing mobile and fixed bearings in total knee replacement.

    PubMed

    Breeman, S; Campbell, M K; Dakin, H; Fiddian, N; Fitzpatrick, R; Grant, A; Gray, A; Johnston, L; MacLennan, G S; Morris, R W; Murray, D W

    2013-04-01

    There is conflicting evidence about the merits of mobile bearings in total knee replacement, partly because most randomised controlled trials (RCTs) have not been adequately powered. We report the results of a multicentre RCT of mobile versus fixed bearings. This was part of the knee arthroplasty trial (KAT), where 539 patients were randomly allocated to mobile or fixed bearings and analysed on an intention-to-treat basis. The primary outcome measure was the Oxford Knee Score (OKS) plus secondary measures including Short Form-12, EuroQol EQ-5D, costs, cost-effectiveness and need for further surgery. There was no significant difference between the groups pre-operatively: mean OKS was 17.18 (sd 7.60) in the mobile-bearing group and 16.49 (sd 7.40) in the fixed-bearing group. At five years mean OKS was 33.19 (sd 16.68) and 33.65 (sd 9.68), respectively. There was no significant difference between trial groups in OKS at five years (-1.12 (95% confidence interval -2.77 to 0.52) or any of the other outcome measures. Furthermore, there was no significant difference in the proportion of patients with knee-related re-operations or in total costs. In this appropriately powered RCT, over the first five years after total knee replacement functional outcomes, re-operation rates and healthcare costs appear to be the same irrespective of whether a mobile or fixed bearing is used. PMID:23539700

  17. Knee stability, athletic performance and sport-specific tasks in non-professional soccer players after ACL reconstruction: comparing trans-tibial and antero-medial portal techniques

    PubMed Central

    Tudisco, Cosimo; Bisicchia, Salvatore; Cosentino, Andrea; Chiozzi, Federica; Piva, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background a wrong position of bone tunnels, in particular on the femur, is one of the most frequent causes of a failed anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. Several studies demonstrated that drilling the femoral tunnel through the antero-medial portal (AMP) allows a more anatomical placement on the lateral femoral condyle and higher knee stability, compared to trans-tibial (TT) technique. The aim of this study was to retrospectively evaluate two groups of soccer players operated on for ACL reconstruction according to either one of these two techniques. Methods two groups of non-professional soccer players operated on for a single bundle ACL reconstruction with hamstrings autograft using either a TT (20 patients) or an AMP (23 patients) technique were retrospectively evaluated with KT-1000 arthrometer, manual pivot shift test, isokinetic test, the incremental treadmill-running test, athletic and sport specific tasks, and knee scores (IKDC, Lysholm and KOOS). Results the AMP group showed better results at pivot shift test and KOOS, but lower flexion angles at single leg squat test. There were no differences in all the other considered outcomes. Conclusions the better rotational stability of the knee achieved in AMP group did not lead to significantly better clinical and functional results in our patients. Level of evidence III. Treatment study Case-control study. PMID:26605191

  18. A pilot study comparing the efficacy of radiofrequency and microwave diathermy in combination with intra-articular injection of hyaluronic acid in knee osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Kenji; Hashimoto, Sanshiro; Kurosaki, Hiromasa; Kato, Kazuo; Majima, Tokifumi; Shindo, Yasuhiro; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Mochizuki, Yusuke; Takai, Shinro

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to compare the efficacy of radiofrequency diathermy with that of microwave diathermy in combination with intra-articular injection of hyaluronic acid into the knee of patients with osteoarthritis (OA). [Subjects] A total of 17 patients with knee OA were enrolled. The participants were randomly divided into two groups: a radiofrequency diathermy group (RF group, 9 subjects), and a microwave diathermy group (MW group, 8 subjects). [Methods] Subjects received radiofrequency or microwave thermal therapy 3 times at 1-week intervals. Intra-articular injection of hyaluronic acid was administered 10 min before every thermal therapy session. The outcome was evaluated using the Japan Orthopaedic Association (JOA) and the Lequesne Index (LI) at baseline, at weeks 1 (1 week after the first thermal therapy) and 3 (1 week after the last thermal therapy). [Results] The JOA scale increased significantly after three sessions of thermal therapy in the RF group, while no significant increase was observed in the MW group. LI decreased significantly after 3 weeks in the RF group. In the MW group, there was no significant difference in LI between the two time points. [Conclusion] This study revealed that symptom relief in patients with knee OA was greater with radiofrequency diathermy than with microwave diathermy with concurrent use of hyaluronic acid injection, presumably due to the different heating characteristics of the two methods. PMID:27065540

  19. In vivo efficacy of moxifloxacin compared with cloxacillin and vancomycin in a Staphylococcus aureus rabbit arthritis experimental model.

    PubMed

    Grossi, Olivier; Caillon, Jocelyne; Arvieux, Cedric; Jacqueline, Cedric; Bugnon, Denis; Potel, Gilles; Hamel, Antoine

    2007-09-01

    We investigated the efficacies of moxifloxacin, cloxacillin, and vancomycin in a rabbit model of Staphylococcus aureus arthritis. No significant difference between therapeutic regimens was observed after a 7-day treatment. Oral moxifloxacin could be a suitable alternative to standard parenteral therapy for S. aureus arthritis. PMID:17576849

  20. Similar cellular migration patterns from niches in intervertebral disc and in knee-joint regions detected by in situ labeling: an experimental study in the New Zealand white rabbit

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Potential stem cell niches (SNs) were recently reported in intervertebral discs (IVDs) and knee joints (KJs) in different mammals (located adjacent to the epiphyseal plate; EP). The aim here was to examine further possible cellular migration and migration directions of cells originating from niches possibly involved in regeneration of cartilaginous tissues in the IVD and in the KJ regions in adult mammals. Methods In total, 33 rabbits were used in studies A through C. A. IVD cells were sorted; fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) by size (forward scatter; ≤10 μm or >10 μm or GDF5+ cells (anti-GDF5 antibody). Sorted cells, labeled with cell tracer (carboxyfluorescein-diacetate-succinimidyl ester; CDFA-SE) were applied on IVD explants in vitro. Migrating cells/distance was evaluated by fluorescence- and confocal-microscopy (FC). B. DNA labeling was performed with BrdU (oral administration). Animals were killed (14 to 56 days), KJs collected, and BrdU+ cells visualized with immunohistochemistry (IHC)/anti-BrdU antibody in SN and articular cartilage (AC). C. Cell tracer: (Fe-nanoparticles: Endorem) were injected into SNs of IVDs (LI-LV) and KJs (tibia). Animals were killed after 2 to 6 weeks. Fe-labeled cells were traced by ferric-iron staining (Prussian blue reaction; Mallory method). Results A. GDF5+ cells and ≤10-μm cells displayed the best migration capability in IVD explants. GDF5+ cells were detected at a tissue depth of 1,300 μm (16 days). B. BrdU+ cells were observed in early time points in niches of KJs, and at later time points in AC, indicating a gradual migration of cells. C. Fe+ cells were detected in IVDs; in annulus fibrosus (AF) in 11 of 12 animals and in nucleus pulposus (NP) in two of 12 animals. In AC (tibia), Fe+ cells were detected in six of 12 animals. In the potential migration route (PMR), from niches toward the IVD, Fe+ cells (three of 12 animals) and in PMR toward AC (KJs) (six of 12 animals) were detected

  1. [Cemented total knee replacement: comparative study between the use or not of tourniquet on the inmediate results].

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-García, J A; Sierra-Pérez, M; García-Velazco, R A; Salas-Mora, C A; Cisneros-González, V M

    2016-01-01

    Comparison of immediate postoperative results of patients undergoing cemented total knee arthroplasty with and without ischemia. Observational, cross-sectional, retrospective, analytical, single-center study that included 180 patients who underwent total knee arthroplasty from 2011 to 2014: 120 without ischemia, 60 with ischemia. Mean age was 70 years with SD ± 7. Criteria to assess the immediate postoperative results include intraoperative bleeding, hemoglobin differential and pain. Exclusion criteria comprised patients being treated at a pain clinic, those on anticoagulants, with a history of bleeding disorders, psychiatric conditions, kidney failure or those intolerant to NSAIDs. In total knee arthroplasty without ischemia there is better pain control (p = 0.026). The hemoglobin differential and intraoperative bleeding were less with ischemia (p = 0.008). 32.8% of patients required blood transfusion, but no statistically significant relationship was established with the use or non-use of ischemia (p = 0.301). The most commonly reported pain was within a VAS of 0-3; 62.2% of cases reported mild pain. Mean hemoglobin differential was 3.7 with SD ± 1.3 with a range from 0 to 7.4. Patients in whom no ischemia was used during the surgical procedure experienced less pain. There was less bleeding and hemoglobin differential with the use of ischemia. However, this did not result in a statistically significant difference in the need for blood transfusion. The use of ischemia with caution and according to the surgeons preference is recommended. PMID:27627771

  2. A rabbit maxillary sinus model with simultaneous customized-implant placement: Comparative microscopic analysis for the evaluation of surface-treated implants.

    PubMed

    Park, Sang-Hyun; Choi, Hyunmin; Lee, Sang-Bae; Zhang, Chenghao; Otgonbold, Jamiyandori; Cho, Jang-Gi; Han, Jin Soo

    2015-08-01

    We describe the use of a rabbit maxillary sinus model, characterized by thin osseous tissue and low bone density, for the evaluation of surface-treated implants by histologically and histomorphometrically comparing the osseointegration patterns depending on the surface treatment methods. Twenty rabbits were randomly assigned to two groups of 10 animals, one receiving 5 × 3 mm customized implants (machined, MA or sandblasted and acid etched, SLA) placed in sinus and the other receiving implants placed in a tibia. Histological observation of the implant placed in sinus shows relatively more active new bone formation, characterized by trabecular bone pattern underneath the cortical bone in sinus as compared with that in tibia. Histomorphometric analysis in the rabbits receiving implants in a tibia, the NBIC (%) associated with the SLA surface implant was greater than that associated with the MA implant at 2 weeks (55.63 ± 8.65% vs. 47.87 ± 10.01%; P > 0.05) and at 4 weeks (61.76 ± 9.49% vs. 42.69 ± 10.97%; P < 0.05). Among rabbits receiving implants in a sinus, the NBIC (%) associated with the SLA surface implant was significantly greater than that associated with the MA surface implant both at 2 weeks (37.25 ± 7.27% vs. 20.98 ± 6.42%; P < 0.05) and at 4 weeks (48.82 ± 6.77% vs. 31.51 ± 9.14%; P < 0.05). As a result, we suggest that the maxillary sinus model is an appropriate animal model for assessing surface-treated implants and may be utilized for the evaluation of surface-treated implants in poor bone quality environment. Microsc. Res. Tech. 78:697-706, 2015. PMID:26085304

  3. A clinically relevant BTX-A injection protocol leads to persistent weakness, contractile material loss, and an altered mRNA expression phenotype in rabbit quadriceps muscles.

    PubMed

    Fortuna, Rafael; Vaz, Marco A; Sawatsky, Andrew; Hart, David A; Herzog, Walter

    2015-07-16

    Botulinum toxin type-A (BTX-A) injections have become a common treatment modality for patients suffering from muscle spasticity. Despite its benefits, BTX-A treatments have been associated with adverse effects on target muscles. Currently, application of BTX-A is largely based on clinical experience, and research quantifying muscle structure following BTX-A treatment has not been performed systematically. The purpose of this study was to evaluate strength, muscle mass, and contractile material six months following a single or repeated (2 and 3) BTX-A injections into the quadriceps femoris of New Zealand white rabbits. Twenty three skeletally mature rabbits were divided into four groups: experimental group rabbits received 1, 2, or 3 injections at intervals of 3 months (1-BTX-A, 2-BTX-A, 3-BTX-A, respectively) while control group rabbits received volume-matched saline injections. Knee extensor strength, quadriceps muscle mass, and quadriceps contractile material of the experimental group rabbits were expressed as a percentage change relative to the control group rabbits. One-way ANOVA was used to determine group differences in outcome measures (α=0.05). Muscle strength and contractile material were significantly reduced in experimental compared to control group rabbits but did not differ between experimental groups. Muscle mass was the same in experimental BTX-A and control group rabbits. We concluded from these results that muscle strength and contractile material do not fully recover within six months of BTX-A treatment. PMID:26087882

  4. Bone formation with deproteinized bovine bone mineral or biphasic calcium phosphate in the presence of autologous platelet lysate: comparative investigation in rabbit.

    PubMed

    Chakar, Carole; Naaman, Nada; Soffer, Emmanuel; Cohen, Nicolas; El Osta, Nada; Petite, Hervé; Anagnostou, Fani

    2014-01-01

    Bone substitutes alone or supplemented with platelet-derived concentrates are widely used to promote bone regeneration but their potency remains controversial. The aim of this study was, therefore, to compare the regenerative potential of preparations containing autologous platelet lysate (APL) and particles of either deproteinized bovine bone mineral (DBBM) or biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP), two bone substitutes with different resorption patterns. Rabbit APL was prepared by freeze-thawing a platelet suspension. Critical-size defects in rabbit femoral condyle were filled with DBBM or DBBM+APL and BCP or BCP+APL. Rabbits were sacrificed after six weeks and newly formed bone and residual implanted material were evaluated using nondemineralized histology and histomorphometry. New bone was observed around particles of all fillers tested. In the defects filled with BCP, the newly formed bone area was greater (70%; P < 0.001) while the residual material area was lower (60%; P < 0.001) than that observed in those filled with DBBM. New bone and residual material area of defects filled with either APL+DBBM or APL+BCP were similar to those observed in those filled with the material alone. In summary, osteoconductivity and resorption of BCP were greater than those of DBBM, while APL associated with either DBBM or BCP did not have an additional benefit. PMID:24982676

  5. Knee arthroscopy

    MedlinePlus

    ... is cartilage that cushions the space between the bones in the knee. Surgery is done to repair or remove it. Torn or damaged anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) or posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) Torn or damaged collateral ligament Swollen (inflamed) or ...

  6. Runner's Knee

    MedlinePlus

    ... Over the summer he bought a pair of running shoes and took up jogging. He started with ... bending the knee — when walking, kneeling, squatting, or running, for example. Walking or running downhill or even ...

  7. Knee Injuries and Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    Your knee joint is made up of bone, cartilage, ligaments and fluid. Muscles and tendons help the knee joint move. When any of these structures is hurt or diseased, you have knee problems. Knee problems can cause pain and difficulty ...

  8. Comparing the Predictive Value of Task Performance and Task-Specific Sensitivity During Physical Function Testing Among People With Knee Osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Wideman, Timothy H; Edwards, Robert R; Finan, Patrick H; Haythornthwaite, Jennifer A; Smith, Michael T

    2016-05-01

    Study Design Cross-sectional cohort. Background Knee osteoarthritis (OA) is a leading cause of pain and mobility restriction. Past research has advocated the use of brief, functional tasks to evaluate these restrictions, such as the six-minute-walk test and the timed up-and-go test. Typically, only task performance (ie, walking distance, completion time) is used to inform clinical practice. Recent research, however, suggests that individual variance in how people feel while completing these tasks (ie, task sensitivity) might also have important clinical value. Objective To compare the predictive value of task performance and task-specific sensitivity in determining OA-related physical function (measured by the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index) and pain-related interference (measured by the Multidimensional Pain Inventory). Methods One hundred eight participants with chronic knee OA completed the six-minute-walk test and the timed up-and-go test, and reported levels of discomfort and affective response (mood) associated with each test. Results In separate regression models, both task performance and task-specific sensitivity predicted OA-related physical function and pain-related interference. A final regression model including all significant predictors showed that task-specific sensitivity (specifically, post-six-minute-walk discomfort) emerged as a unique predictor of both outcomes. Conclusion These findings highlight the value of a novel clinical assessment strategy for patients with knee OA. While clinicians commonly focus on how patients perform on standardized functional tasks, these results highlight the value of also considering levels of posttask sensitivity. Measures of task-specific sensitivity relate to Maitland's concept of pain irritability, which may be a useful framework for future research on sensitizing factors and pain-related disability. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2016;46(5):346-356. Epub 21 Mar 2016. doi:10

  9. Knee Dislocations

    PubMed Central

    Schenck, Robert C.; Richter, Dustin L.; Wascher, Daniel C.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Traumatic knee dislocation is becoming more prevalent because of improved recognition and increased exposure to high-energy trauma, but long-term results are lacking. Purpose: To present 2 cases with minimum 20-year follow-up and a review of the literature to illustrate some of the fundamental principles in the management of the dislocated knee. Study Design: Review and case reports. Methods: Two patients with knee dislocations who underwent multiligamentous knee reconstruction were reviewed, with a minimum 20-year follow-up. These patients were brought back for a clinical evaluation using both subjective and objective measures. Subjective measures include the following scales: Lysholm, Tegner activity, visual analog scale (VAS), Short Form–36 (SF-36), International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC), and a psychosocial questionnaire. Objective measures included ligamentous examination, radiographic evaluation (including Telos stress radiographs), and physical therapy assessment of function and stability. Results: The mean follow-up was 22 years. One patient had a vascular injury requiring repair prior to ligament reconstruction. The average assessment scores were as follows: SF-36 physical health, 52; SF-36 mental health, 59; Lysholm, 92; IKDC, 86.5; VAS involved, 10.5 mm; and VAS uninvolved, 2.5 mm. Both patients had excellent stability and were functioning at high levels of activity for their age (eg, hiking, skydiving). Both patients had radiographic signs of arthritis, which lowered 1 subject’s IKDC score to “C.” Conclusion: Knee dislocations have rare long-term excellent results, and most intermediate-term studies show fair to good functional results. By following fundamental principles in the management of a dislocated knee, patients can be given the opportunity to function at high levels. Hopefully, continued advances in the evaluation and treatment of knee dislocations will improve the long-term outcomes for these patients in the

  10. The Healing Effect of Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Full-thickness Femoral Articular Cartilage Defects of Rabbit

    PubMed Central

    Mehrabani, D.; Babazadeh, M.; Tanideh, N.; Zare, S.; Hoseinzadeh, S.; Torabinejad, S.; Koohi-Hosseinabadi, O.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Articular cartilage defect can lead to degradation of subchondral bone and osteoarthritis (OA). Objective: To determine the healing effect of transplantation of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (Ad-MSCs) in full-thickness femoral articular cartilage defects in rabbit. Methods: 12 rabbits were equally divided into cell-treated and control groups. In cell-treated group, 2×106 cells of third passage suspended in 1 mL of DMEM was injected into articular defect. The control group just received 1 mL of DMEM. Dulbecco’s modified Eagles medium (DMEM) supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS), 1% penicillin and streptomycin and 2 mM L-glutamine were used for cell culture. To induce cartilage defect, 4 mm articular cartilage full-thickness defect was created in the knee. For histological evaluation in each group (H&E, safranin-O and toluidine blue), 3 rabbits were sacrificed 4 weeks and 3 animals, 8 weeks after cell transplantation. Results: In cell therapy group post-transplantation, no abnormal gross findings were noticed. Neo-formed tissues in cell-treated groups were translucent with a smooth and intact surface and less irregularity. In cell-treated group after 8 weeks post-transplantation, the overall healing score of experimental knees were superior when compared to other groups. Conclusion: We showed that Ad-MSCs, as an available and non-invasive produced source of cells, could be safely administered in knee osteochondral defects. PMID:26576262

  11. Efficacy and immunogenicity of single-dose AdVAV intranasal anthrax vaccine compared to anthrax vaccine absorbed in an aerosolized spore rabbit challenge model.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Vyjayanthi; Andersen, Bo H; Shoemaker, Christine; Sivko, Gloria S; Tordoff, Kevin P; Stark, Gregory V; Zhang, Jianfeng; Feng, Tsungwei; Duchars, Matthew; Roberts, M Scot

    2015-04-01

    AdVAV is a replication-deficient adenovirus type 5-vectored vaccine expressing the 83-kDa protective antigen (PA83) from Bacillus anthracis that is being developed for the prevention of disease caused by inhalation of aerosolized B. anthracis spores. A noninferiority study comparing the efficacy of AdVAV to the currently licensed Anthrax Vaccine Absorbed (AVA; BioThrax) was performed in New Zealand White rabbits using postchallenge survival as the study endpoint (20% noninferiority margin for survival). Three groups of 32 rabbits were vaccinated with a single intranasal dose of AdVAV (7.5 × 10(7), 1.5 × 10(9), or 3.5 × 10(10) viral particles). Three additional groups of 32 animals received two doses of either intranasal AdVAV (3.5 × 10(10) viral particles) or intramuscular AVA (diluted 1:16 or 1:64) 28 days apart. The placebo group of 16 rabbits received a single intranasal dose of AdVAV formulation buffer. All animals were challenged via the inhalation route with a targeted dose of 200 times the 50% lethal dose (LD50) of aerosolized B. anthracis Ames spores 70 days after the initial vaccination and were followed for 3 weeks. PA83 immunogenicity was evaluated by validated toxin neutralizing antibody and serum anti-PA83 IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). All animals in the placebo cohort died from the challenge. Three of the four AdVAV dose cohorts tested, including two single-dose cohorts, achieved statistical noninferiority relative to the AVA comparator group, with survival rates between 97% and 100%. Vaccination with AdVAV also produced antibody titers with earlier onset and greater persistence than vaccination with AVA. PMID:25673303

  12. Efficacy and Immunogenicity of Single-Dose AdVAV Intranasal Anthrax Vaccine Compared to Anthrax Vaccine Absorbed in an Aerosolized Spore Rabbit Challenge Model

    PubMed Central

    Krishnan, Vyjayanthi; Andersen, Bo H.; Shoemaker, Christine; Sivko, Gloria S.; Tordoff, Kevin P.; Stark, Gregory V.; Zhang, Jianfeng; Feng, Tsungwei; Duchars, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    AdVAV is a replication-deficient adenovirus type 5-vectored vaccine expressing the 83-kDa protective antigen (PA83) from Bacillus anthracis that is being developed for the prevention of disease caused by inhalation of aerosolized B. anthracis spores. A noninferiority study comparing the efficacy of AdVAV to the currently licensed Anthrax Vaccine Absorbed (AVA; BioThrax) was performed in New Zealand White rabbits using postchallenge survival as the study endpoint (20% noninferiority margin for survival). Three groups of 32 rabbits were vaccinated with a single intranasal dose of AdVAV (7.5 × 107, 1.5 × 109, or 3.5 × 1010 viral particles). Three additional groups of 32 animals received two doses of either intranasal AdVAV (3.5 × 1010 viral particles) or intramuscular AVA (diluted 1:16 or 1:64) 28 days apart. The placebo group of 16 rabbits received a single intranasal dose of AdVAV formulation buffer. All animals were challenged via the inhalation route with a targeted dose of 200 times the 50% lethal dose (LD50) of aerosolized B. anthracis Ames spores 70 days after the initial vaccination and were followed for 3 weeks. PA83 immunogenicity was evaluated by validated toxin neutralizing antibody and serum anti-PA83 IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). All animals in the placebo cohort died from the challenge. Three of the four AdVAV dose cohorts tested, including two single-dose cohorts, achieved statistical noninferiority relative to the AVA comparator group, with survival rates between 97% and 100%. Vaccination with AdVAV also produced antibody titers with earlier onset and greater persistence than vaccination with AVA. PMID:25673303

  13. Comparative studies for ciprofloxacin hydrochloride pre-formed gels and thermally triggered (in situ) gels: in vitro and in vivo appraisal using a bacterial keratitis model in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Abdelkader, Hamdy; Mansour, Heba F

    2015-06-01

    This article reports on comparative in vitro characterization and in vivo evaluation of pre-formed cellulose-based gels, methylcellulose (MC) and carboxymethylcellulose sodium (CMC) and in situ gel-forming Pluronic F127 (PL) for ocular delivery of ciprofloxacin hydrochloride (Cipro) by using a bacterial keratitis model and histological corneal examination. Drug-polymer interactions were studied employing thermal analysis. Further, different concentrations (1-3% w/w or 10-30% w/w) of gels depending on the nature of the polymer used were prepared, characterized for clarity, pH, rheology and in vitro release. Selected gel formulations were evaluated for ocular delivery to Staphylococcus aureus-infected rabbit corneas; and ocular toxicity through histological examination of the cornea. The results demonstrated no Cipro-polymers physicochemical interactions and pseudoplastic flow for all gels used at 35 °C. Both polymer concentrations and drug solubility in the gels are dominantly the rate-determining factors for in vitro drug release. The corneal healing rate for all gel-based formulations was significantly faster (p < 0.05) than that for Cipro solution-treated rabbits. PL-based gel induced significant swelling/edema of the corneal stroma, compared with MC- and CMC-based gels. In conclusion, cellulose-based polymers have superior ocular tolerability/dramatically less irritant; and superior efficacy with more convenient administration compared with PL and Cipro solution, respectively. PMID:24392945

  14. Cementless total knee arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Risitano, Salvatore; Sabatini, Luigi; Giachino, Matteo; Agati, Gabriele; Massè, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Interest for uncemented total knee arthroplasty (TKA) has greatly increased in recent years. This technique, less used than cemented knee replacement in the last decades, sees a revival thanks an advance in prosthetic design, instrumentation and operative technique. The related literature in some cases shows conflicting data on survival and on the revision’s rate, but in most cases a success rate comparable to cemented TKA is reported. The optimal fixation in TKA is a subject of debate with the majority of surgeons favouring cemented fixation. PMID:27162779

  15. Comparative nuclear magnetic resonance studies of diffusional water permeability of red blood cells from different species. V--Rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus).

    PubMed

    Benga, G; Matei, H; Borza, T; Poruţiu, D; Lupşe, C

    1993-10-01

    1. The diffusional water permeability (Pd) of rabbit red blood cell (RBC) membrane has been monitored by a doping nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) technique on control cells and following inhibition with p-chloromercuribenzene sulfonate (PCMBS). 2. The values of Pd were around 6.3 x 10(-3) cm/sec at 15 degrees C, 7.0 x 10(-3) cm/sec at 20 degrees C, 8.0 x 10(-3) cm/sec at 25 degrees C, 9.1 x 10(-3) cm/sec at 30 degrees C and 10.7 x 10(-3) cm/sec at 37 degrees C. 3. Systematic studies on the effects of PCMBS on water diffusion indicated that the maximal inhibition was reached in 15 min at 37 degrees C with 0.5 mM PCMBS. 4. The values of maximal inhibition were around 71-74% at all temperatures. 5. The basal permeability to water was estimated as 1.6 x 10(-3) cm/sec at 15 degrees C, 2.0 x 10(-3) cm/sec at 20 degrees C, 2.4 x 10(-3) cm/sec at 25 degrees C, 2.6 x 10(-3) cm/sec at 30 degrees C, and 3.1 x 10(-3) cm/sec at 37 degrees C. 6. The activation energy of water diffusion was around 18 kJ/mol and increased to 27 kcal/mol after incubation with PCMBS in conditions of maximal inhibition of water diffusion. 7. The membrane polypeptide electrophoretic pattern of rabbit RBCs has been compared with its human counterpart. 8. The rabbit membrane contained a higher amount of spectrin (bands 1 and 2), while the band 6 (glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase) was markedly less intense.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8243057

  16. An Open Randomized Trial Comparing the Effects of Oral NSAIDs Versus Steroid Intra-Articular Infiltration in Congestive Osteoarthritis of the Knee

    PubMed Central

    Dieu-Donné, Ouédraogo; Théodore, Ouédraogo; Joëlle, Zabsonré/Tiendrébéogo; Pierre, Dionou; Smaïla, Ouédraogo; Christian, Compaoré; Fulgence, Kaboré; Joseph, Drabo Youssouf

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To compare the efficacy on pain and joint function of NSAIDs versus steroid intra-articular infiltration in congestive knee osteoarthritis. Patients and Methods: Open randomized study comparing a series of patients treated with NSAIDs for 21 days and another who received steroid intra-articular infiltration (SIAI) spaced at every 7 days. The visual analog scale was used for the weekly assessment of spontaneous pain and pain when walking. Lequesne functional pain scale was used to assess the functional impact of knee osteoarthritis. Results: Seventy patients were enrolled, including 35 in the NSAID arm and 35 in SIAI arm. Forty-nine (70%) had stage III of Kellgren and Lawrance scale. On admission, the average pain intensity was 50.46 ± 30.93 in the NSAID arm and 60.92 ± 30 in SIAI arm (p = 0.0189). At the end of follow-up, pain intensity was 6.72 ± 13 in NSAIDs patients and 17.80 ± 21 in SIAI one (p = 0.001). The average intensity of pain on walking was 64.41 ± 22.61. It was 53.33 ± 22.31 in NSAID’s against 74.85 ± 17.55 in SIAI patients (P <0.0001). At the end of the treatment, they were respectively 19.11 ± 11.37, and 35 ± 30.69 (P = 0.0085). Conclusion: Corticosteroid injections have a short efficacy compared to NSAIDs. Prescribing NSAIDs should consider the cons-indications, comorbidities and their deleterious digestive, renal, and cardiovascular effect. PMID:27006727

  17. Experimental Embolization of Rabbit Renal Arteries to Compare the Effects of Poly L-Lactic Acid Microspheres With and Without Epirubicin Release Against Intraarterial Injection of Epirubicin

    SciTech Connect

    Fujiwara, Kazuhisa; Hayakawa, Katsumi; Nagata, Yasushi; Hiraoka, Masahiro; Nakamura, Tatsuo; Shimizu, Yoshihiko; Ikada, Yoshito

    2000-03-15

    Purpose: We performed a basic investigation using white rabbits of the sustained release and embolizing effects of poly L-lactic acid microspheres (PLA) to determine their usefulness for chemoembolization.Methods: Fifteen male Japanese white rabbits were used. Sustained release of an embolizing material, EPI-PLA was accomplished with 1 mg of PLA containing 0.03 mg of epirubicin hydrochloride (EPI). Embolization with 50 mg of PLA (total dose of EPI 1.5 mg) was performed after the renal artery of the rabbits was selected (Chemo-TAE group). A group in which a bolus of 1.5 mg EPI alone was injected through the renal artery (TAI group) was established as a control group. Furthermore, a group in which embolization was performed with 50 mg of PLA alone (TAE group) was also established. These three groups, each consisting of five rabbits, were compared.Results: Blood EPI levels were serially measured. The blood EPI level in the TAI group rapidly reached a peak more than 30 min after injection, then decreased to almost zero 24 hr after injection. In the Chemo-TAE group, the blood EPI level was transiently increased 30 min after embolization, but remained low thereafter until 24 hr after embolization. EPI levels in kidney tissue isolated 24 hr after embolization were measured. In the Chemo-TAE group, the tissue EPI level was significantly higher than that in the TAI group. When isolated kidneys were macroscopically and histologically examined, atrophy of the entire embolized kidney, as well as infarction and necrosis in the renal cortex, were observed in both the TAE group and the Chemo-TAE group. However, there were no such findings in the TAI group. The area of the infarction in the renal cortex did not significantly differ between the Chemo-TAE group and the TAE group; however, there was vascular injury in the Chemo-TAE group and none in the TAE group.Conclusion: It was demonstrated that EPI-PLA, a chemoembolizing material, maintained high local concentrations of the

  18. Experimental embolization of rabbit renal arteries to compare the effects of poly L-lactic acid microspheres with and without epirubicin release against ntraarterial injection of epirubicin

    SciTech Connect

    Fujiwara, Kazuhisa; Hayakawa, Katsumi; Nagata, Yasushi; Hiraoka, Masahiro; Nakamura, Tatsuo; Shimizu, Yoshihiko; Ikada, Yoshito

    2000-05-15

    Purpose: We performed a basic investigation using white rabbits of the sustained release and embolizing effects of poly L-lactic acid microspheres (PLA) to determine their usefulness for chemoembolization.Methods: Fifteen male Japanese white rabbits were used. Sustained release of an embolizing material, EPI-PLA was accomplished with l m g of PLA containing 0.03 mg of epirubicin hydrochloride (EPI). Embolization with 50 mg of PLA (total dose of EPI l.5 mg) was performed after the renal artery of the rabbits was selected (Chemo-TAE group). A group in which a bolus of 1.5 mg EPI alone was injected through the renal artery (TAI group) was established as a control group. Furthermore, a group in which embolization was performed with 50 mg of PLA alone (TAE group) was also established. These three groups, each consisting of five rabbits, were compared.Results: Blood EPI levels were serially measured. The blood EPI level in the TAI group rapidly reached a peak more than 30 min after injection, then decreased to almost zero 24 hr after injection. In the Chemo-TAE group, the blood EPI level was transiently increased 30 min after embolization, but remained low thereafter until 24 hr after embolization. EPI levels in kidney tissue isolated 24 hr after embolization were measured. In the Chemo-TAE group, the tissue EPI level was significantly higher than that in the TAI group. When isolated kidneys were macroscopically and histologically examined, atrophy of the entire embolized kidney, as well as infarction and necrosis in the renal cortex, were observed in both the TAE group and the Chemo-TAE group. However, there were no such findings in the TAI group. The area of the infarction in the renal cortex did not significantly differ between the Chemo-TAE group and the TAE group; however, there was vascular injury in the Chemo-TAE group and none in the TAE group.Conclusion: It was demonstrated that EPI-PLA, a chemo-embolizing material, maintained high local concentrations of the

  19. A comparative microstructural study of vitamin-E blended and infused highly crosslinked UHMWPE for total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Puppulin, Leonardo; Leto, Andrea; Hasegawa, Masahiro; Pezzotti, Giuseppe

    2014-11-01

    The impact of adding antioxidant vitamin-E (α-tocopherol) to the microstructure of ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) for total knee arthroplasty has been studied in detail by means of Raman microprobe spectroscopy. Three tibial insert samples prepared by different manufacturing methods were investigated, as follows: (A) a sample manufactured without blending with vitamin E which did not receive any irradiation dose after consolidation but underwent final sterilization in ethylene oxide (EtO); (B) a sample blended with 0.3 wt% of α-tocopherol, an isomer of vitamin E, and manufactured as sample (A); and, (C) a sample in which vitamin E was diffused after being irradiated with 100 kGy dose of γ-ray. Clear microstructural differences were observed in terms of phase contents (i.e., amorphous, crystalline, and intermediate phase fraction), molecular orientation, and the degree of anisotropy between the investigated tibial plates. Vitamin E in the starting resin promoted chain mobility leading to reorganization of the molecular chains. The spectroscopic characterizations helps to rationalize the complex effect of vitamin-E on the UHMWPE microstructure and gives useful information on how significantly any single step of the manufacturing procedures might affect the mechanical properties of the final orthopedic component. PMID:25151446

  20. Imageless computer assisted versus conventional total knee replacement. A Bayesian meta-analysis of 23 comparative studies.

    PubMed

    Brin, Yaron S; Nikolaou, Vassilios S; Joseph, Lawrence; Zukor, David J; Antoniou, John

    2011-03-01

    We have undertaken a meta-analysis of the English literature, to assess the component alignment outcomes after imageless computer assisted (CAOS) total knee arthroplasty (TKA) versus conventional TKA. We reviewed 23 publications that met the inclusion criteria. Results were summarised via a Bayesian hierarchical random effects meta-analysis model. Separate analyses were conducted for prospective randomised trials alone, as well as for all randomised and observational studies. In 20 papers (4,199 TKAs) we found a reduction in outliers rate of approximately 80% in limb mechanical axis when operated with the CAOS. For the coronal femoral and tibial implants positions, the analysis included 3,058 TKAs. The analysis for the femoral implant showed a reduction in outliers rate of approximately 87% and for the tibial implant a reduction in outliers rate of approximately 80%. Imageless navigation when performing TKA improves component orientation and postoperative limb alignment. The clinical significance of these findings though has to be proven in the future. PMID:20376440

  1. [Jumper's knee].

    PubMed

    Hagner, W; Sosnowski, S; Kaziński, W; Frankowski, S

    1993-01-01

    A series of 30 athletes aged about 16 years on an average, exposed to activities putting a strain on the patellar tendon during training has been examined. They were involved in competitive sports for 3 years on an average. In 27 per cent of them jumpers knee symptoms have been found. PMID:7671664

  2. Knee motion variability in patients with knee osteoarthritis: the effect of self-reported instability

    PubMed Central

    Gustafson, Jonathan A.; Robinson, Megan E.; Fitzgerald, G. Kelley; Tashman, Scott; Farrokhi, Shawn

    2015-01-01

    Background Knee osteoarthritis has been previously associated with a stereotypical knee-stiffening gait pattern and reduced knee joint motion variability due to increased antagonist muscle co-contractions and smaller utilized arc of motion during gait. However, episodic self-reported instability may be a sign of excessive motion variability for a large subgroup of patients with knee osteoarthritis. The objective of this work was to evaluate the differences in knee joint motion variability during gait in patients with knee osteoarthritis with and without self-reported instability compared to a control group of older adults with asymptomatic knees. Methods Forty-three subjects, 8 with knee osteoarthritis but no reports of instability (stable), 11 with knee osteoarthritis and self-reported instability (unstable), and 24 without knee osteoarthritis or instability (control) underwent Dynamic Stereo X-ray analysis during a decline gait task on a treadmill. Knee motion variability was assessed using parametric phase plots during the loading response phase of decline gait. Findings The stable group demonstrated decreased sagittal-plane motion variability compared to the control group (p=0.04), while the unstable group demonstrated increased sagittal-plane motion variability compared to the control (p=0.003) and stable groups (p<0.001). The unstable group also demonstrated increased anterior-posterior joint contact point motion variability for the medial tibiofemoral compartment compared to the control (p=0.03) and stable groups (p=0.03). Interpretation The finding of decreased knee motion variability in patients with knee osteoarthritis without self-reported instability supports previous research. However, presence of self-reported instability is associated with increased knee motion variability in patients with knee osteoarthritis and warrants further investigation. PMID:25796536

  3. Treatment of antigen-induced arthritis in rabbits with dysprosium-165-ferric hydroxide macroaggregates

    SciTech Connect

    Zuckerman, J.D.; Sledge, C.B.; Shortkroff, S.; Venkatesan, P.

    1989-01-01

    Dysprosium-165-ferric hydroxide macroaggregates (/sup 165/Dy-FHMA) was used as an agent of radiation synovectomy in an antigen-induced arthritis model in New Zealand white rabbits. Animals were killed up to 6 months after treatment. /sup 165/Dy-FHMA was found to have a potent but temporary antiinflammatory effect on synovium for up to 3 months after treatment. Treated knees also showed significant preservation of articular cartilage architecture and proteoglycan content compared with untreated controls, but only during the first 3 months after treatment. In animals killed 3 and 6 months after treatment there were only minimal differences between the treated and untreated knees, indicating that the antiinflammatory effects on synovial tissue and articular cartilage preservation were not sustained.

  4. Comparative Study on Functional Effects of Allotransplantation of Bone Marrow Stromal Cells and Adipose Derived Stromal Vascular Fraction on Tendon Repair: A Biomechanical Study in Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Behfar, Mehdi; Javanmardi, Sara; Sarrafzadeh-Rezaei, Farshid

    2014-01-01

    Objective Tendon never returns to its complete biological and mechanical properties after repair. Bone marrow and, recently, adipose tissue have been used as sources of mesenchymal stem cells which have been proven to enhance tendon healing. In the present study, we compared the effects of allotransplantation of bone marrow derived mesenchymal stromal cells (BMSCs) and adipose derived stromal vascular fraction (SVF) on tendon mechanical properties after experimentally induced flexor tendon transection. Materials and Methods In this experimental study, we used 48 adult male New Zealand white rabbits. Twelve of rabbits were used as donors of bone marrow and adipose tissue, the rest were divided into control and treatment groups. The injury model was a unilateral complete transection of the deep digital flexor tendon. Immediately after suture repair, 4×106cells of either fresh SVF from enzymatic digestion of adipose tissue or cultured BMSCs were intratendinously injected into tendon stumps in the treatment groups. Controls received phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). Immobilization with a cast was continued for two weeks after surgery. Animals were sacrificed three and eight weeks after surgery and tendons underwent mechanical evaluations. The differences among the groups were analyzed using the analysis of variance (ANOVA) test followed by Tukey’s multiple comparisons test. Results Stromal cell transplantation resulted in a significant increase in ultimate and yield loads, energy absorption, and stress of repairs compared to the controls. However, there were no statistically significant changes detected in terms of stiffness. In comparison, we observed no significant differences at the third week between SVF and BMSCs treated tendons in terms of all load related properties. However, at the eighth week SVF transplantation resulted in significantly increased energy absorption, stress and stiffness compared to BMSCs. Conclusion The enhanced biomechanical properties of

  5. Four-Strand Core Suture Improves Flexor Tendon Repair Compared to Two-Strand Technique in a Rabbit Model

    PubMed Central

    Beyersdoerfer, Sascha Tobias; Vollmar, Brigitte; Mittlmeier, Thomas; Gierer, Philip

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. This study was designed to investigate the influence of the amount of suture material on the formation of peritendinous adhesions of intrasynovial flexor tendon repairs. Materials and Methods. In 14 rabbits, the flexor tendons of the third and the fourth digit of the right hind leg were cut and repaired using a 2- or 4-strand core suture technique. The repaired tendons were harvested after three and eight weeks. The range of motion of the affected toes was measured and the tendons were processed histologically. The distance between the transected tendon ends, the changes in the peritendinous space, and cellular and extracellular inflammatory reaction were quantified by different staining. Results. A 4-strand core suture resulted in significantly less gap formation. The 2-strand core suture showed a tendency to less adhesion formation. Doubling of the intratendinous suture material was accompanied by an initial increase in leukocyte infiltration and showed a greater amount of formation of myofibroblasts. From the third to the eighth week after flexor tendon repair, both the cellular and the extracellular inflammation decreased significantly. Conclusion. A 4-strand core suture repair leads to a significantly better tendon healing process with less diastasis between the sutured tendon ends despite initially pronounced inflammatory response. PMID:27446949

  6. Measurement of blood flow to the tibial diaphysis using 11-microns radioactive microspheres. A comparative study in the adult rabbit

    SciTech Connect

    Triffitt, P.D.; Gregg, P.J. )

    1990-09-01

    The commonly used size of microsphere for bone blood flow estimation is 15 microns, because it has appeared to be the smallest size that is not subject to significant nonentrapment in bone. Soft-tissue studies suggest that it is microspheres of 9-10 microns or less that pass through peripheral tissues and give low calculated flows, whereas many vessels passing into and within cortical bone are less than 15 microns in diameter. We have therefore performed a comparison between microspheres approximately 15 and 11 microns in average size. Blood flows to the cortex and marrow of the tibial diaphysis, and to the skeletal muscle of the anterior compartment, were obtained in six adult New Zealand White rabbits by the reference sample technique, injecting microspheres of 16.5 +/- 0.1 microns and 11.3 +/- 0.1 microns simultaneously. The calculated cortical flows averaged 2.07 and 2.51 ml/min/100 g, respectively, and the marrow flows 26.63 and 24.92 ml/min/100 g. Mean skeletal muscle flows were 15.57 and 14.54 ml/min/100 g, respectively. There were no significant differences between the calculated flows for the two sizes of microsphere. Thus, the smaller microspheres do not appear by this method to be subject to significant nonentrapment, and they are therefore suitable for blood flow measurement in these tissues.

  7. A comparative study of the safety and efficacy effect of 5-fluorouracil or mitomycin C mounted biological delivery membranes in a rabbit model of glaucoma filtration surgery

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Zhihong; Li, Shuning; Wang, Ningli; Liu, Wanshun; Liu, Wen

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the potential usage of biological delivery membranes containing mitomycin C (MMC) or 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) in the construction of glaucoma-filtering blebs, and to evaluate their safety and efficacy. Methods Chitosan was selected as the biological membrane carrier to prepare sustained-released membranes. Twelve micrograms of 5-FU or MMC was covalently conjugated onto the membranes by solvent volatilization. Rabbits underwent glaucoma filtration surgery and were randomly allocated into one of the four treatment regimens: glaucoma filtration operation with no implantation of chitosan membrane group (as control), drug-free chitosan membrane implantation group (blank/placebo group), membrane containing 5-FU treatment group (5-FU group), and membrane containing MMC treatment group (MMC group). Each group consisted of 12 rabbits. Intraocular pressure (IOP) was measured and evaluated over a 28-day period follow-up preoperatively, then after surgery on days 1, 3, 5, 7, 14, 21, and 28 by Tono-Pen. The aqueous humor was analyzed in each experimental and control groups at days 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, and 20 after operation. Bleb survival and anterior segment were examined with a slit lamp microscope and photographed simultaneously. Two rabbits from each group were killed on day 28 and eight eye samples obtained for histopathological study. Corneas and lenses were examined by transmission and scanning electron microscopy. Results Both 5-FU and MMC significantly prolonged bleb survival compared with control groups. The filtering bleb’s survival period was significantly more prolonged in the MMC and 5-FU groups (maintained 14 days) than the other two groups (maintained 7 days). Significantly lower IOP was observed within the control, blank, and 5-FU groups after surgery on day 14 compared with that before operation, with F-values of 6.567, 11.426, and 13.467, respectively (P < 0.01). The most significant lower IOP was recorded in the MMC group on day 28

  8. Safety and efficacy of photodynamic therapy using BCECF-AM compared to mitomycin C in controlling post-operative fibrosis in a rabbit model of subscleral trabeculectomy

    PubMed Central

    Said, Azza Mohamed Ahmed; Zaki, Rania Gamal Eldin; Mohamed, Thanaa Helmy; Salman, Manal Ibraheem

    2016-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the safety and efficacy of cellular photoablation using BCECF-AM [2′, 7′-bis-(2-carboxyethyl)-5-(and-6)-carboxyfluorescein, acetoxymethyl ester mixed isomers] as a method to control postoperative fibrosis in subscleral trabeculectomy (SST) compared to mitomycin C (MMC) in a rabbit model. METHODS A comparative prospective case-control animal study was conducted. Fourteen rabbits were subjected to SST with intraoperative use of wound modulating agents (MMC or BCECF-AM) of the right eye (study groups I and II respectively) and SST without use of intraoperative wound modulating agents for the left eye (control group II). Two rabbits 4 eyes were considered as control group I with no surgical intervention. BCECF-AM was injected subconjunctivally 30min before surgery followed by intraoperative illumination with diffuse blue light for 10min. Antifibrotic efficacy was established by clinical response and histological examination. Clinical response was assessed by measuring intraocular pressure (IOP) at day 1, 3, 5, 7, 14, 21 postoperatively. Success was defined by >20.0% reduction in IOP from the preoperative values without anti-glaucoma medications. RESULTS The mean percentage of reduction was 35.0% in the study group I with only one eye (14.3%) had 12.5% reduction. The mean percentage of reduction was 28.0 % in the study group II with two eyes (28.6%) in study group II had 14.2% reduction each. Regarding the control group II, the mean percentage of reduction was 14.3 % with 64.3% eyes had <20.0% reduction. There was a highly statistically significant difference between each of the study groups (right eyes) and the corresponding control group II (left eyes) as regards the mean postoperative IOP values started from day 5 in both study groups and this highly significant difference remained so till the end of the follow up period. Histologically, MMC treated blebs showed thinning of conjunctival epithelium with marked reduction of the goblet cells relative

  9. The Anti-calcification Effect of Dithiobispropionimidate, Carbodiimide and Ultraviolet Irradiation Cross-linking Compared to Glutaraldehyde in Rabbit Implantation Models

    PubMed Central

    Park, Samina; Kim, Soo Hwan; Lim, Hong-Gook; Lim, Cheong

    2013-01-01

    Background Glutaraldehyde (GA) is a widely used cross-linking agent for improving mechanical properties and resistance to enzymatic degradation of collagenous tissue, but it has several drawbacks such as calcification and cytotoxicity. The aim of this study was to find the alternative effective cross-linking methods to GA. Materials and Methods Bovine pericardium was processed with GA with ethanol+octanol and glycine detoxification, and polyethylene glycol (PG) space filler, dimethyl 3,3'-dithiobispropionimidate (DTBP), 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide (EDC) treatment, and the physical fixation of ultraviolet irradiation were done. The biologic material properties of variously treated pericardial tissues were assessed by biochemical, mechanical and histological tests. Treated pericardial tissues were also implanted subcutaneously or intramuscularly into the rabbit for 10 weeks to assess the xenoreactive antibody response of immunoglobulin G and M, their anti-calcification effect. Results The biochemical and mechanical properties of EDC fixed pericardial tissues were comparable to the GA fixed tissue. The cytotoxicity was lowest in space filler treated GA fixed group. In rabbit subcutaneous or intramuscular implantation models, decellularization, space filler, EDC treatment group showed significantly lower calcium content than GA only and DTBP treatment group (p<0.05, analysis of variance). The titer of anti Galα1-3Galβ1-4GlcNAc-R antibodies did not change in the postimplantation serial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Hematoxylin and eosin and von Kossa staining showed that decellularization, space filler, EDC, and ultraviolet treatment had less inflammatory cell infiltration and calcium deposits. Conclusion The decellularization process, PG filler, and EDC treatments are good alternative cross-linking methods compared to GA only fixation and primary amine of DTBP treatment for cardiovascular xenograft preservation in terms of the collagen cross

  10. Differential Diagnosis of Axillary Inflammatory and Metastatic Lymph Nodes in Rabbit Models by Using Diffusion-Weighted Imaging: Compared with Conventional Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Qian; Zhang, Yunting; Yu, Chunshui; Bai, Renju; Sun, Haoran

    2012-01-01

    Objective This experiment aims to determine the diagnostic value of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in the differentiation of axillary inflammatory lymph nodes from metastatic lymph nodes in rabbit models in comparison with conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Materials and Methods Conventional MRI and DWI were performed at 4 weeks after successful inoculation into the forty female New Zealand white rabbits' mammary glands. The size-based and signal-intensity-based criteria and the relative apparent diffusion coefficient (rADC) value were compared between the axillary inflammatory lymph nodes and metastatic lymph nodes, with histopathological findings as the reference standard. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was performed to evaluate the diagnostic performance of the aforementioned criteria and rADC value in differentiating the axillary inflammatory lymph nodes from metastatic lymph nodes. Results Thirty-two axillary inflammatory lymph nodes and 46 metastatic ones were successfully isolated and taken into pathological analysis. The differences of the aforementioned criteria between the two groups were not statistically significant (p > 0.05). However, the rADC value of the inflammatory lymph nodes (0.9 ± 0.14) was higher than that of metastatic ones (0.7 ± 0.18), with significant difference (p = 0.016). When the rADC value was chosen as 0.80, the area under the ROC curve is greater than all other criteria, and the sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value for differentiating two groups were 86.2%, 79.3%, 81.2%, 84.2%, and 85.6%, respectively. Conclusion Diffusion-weighted imaging is a promising new technique for differentiating axillary inflammatory lymph nodes from metastatic lymph nodes. Compared with routine magnetic resonance sequences, DWI could provide more useful physiological and functional information for diagnosis. PMID:22778568

  11. Osteogenic differentiation of CD271+ cells from rabbit bone marrow cultured on three phase PCL/TZ-HA bioactive scaffolds: comparative study with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs)

    PubMed Central

    Colosimo, Alessia; Rofani, Cristina; Ciraci, Elisa; Salerno, Aurelio; Oliviero, Maria; Maio, Ernesto Di; Iannace, Salvatore; Netti, Paolo A; Velardi, Francesco; Berardi, Anna C

    2015-01-01

    Tissue engineering is one of the major challenges of orthopedics and trauma surgery for bone regeneration. Biomaterials filled with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are considered the most promising approach in bone tissue engineering. Furthermore, our previous study showed that the multi-phase poly [ε-caprolactone]/thermoplastic zein-hydroxyapatite (PCL/TZ-HA) biomaterials improved rabbit (r) MSCs adhesion and osteoblast differentiation, thus demonstrating high potential of this bioengineered scaffold for bone regeneration. In the recent past, CD271 has been applied as a specific selective marker for the enrichment of MSCs from bone marrow (BM-MSCs). In the present study, we aimed at establishing whether CD271-based enrichment could be an efficient method for the selection of rBM-MSCs, displaying higher ability in osteogenic differentiation than non-selected rBM-MSCs in an in vitro system. CD271+ cells were isolated from rabbit bone marrow and were compared with rMSCs in their proliferation rate and osteogenic differentiation capability. Furthermore, rCD271+ cells were tested in their ability to adhere, proliferate and differentiate into osteogenic lineage, while growing on PCL/TZ-HA scaffolds, in comparison to rMSCs. Our result demonstrate that rCD271+ cells were able to adhere, proliferate and differentiate into osteoblasts when cultured on PCL/TZ-HA scaffolds in significantly higher levels as compared to rMSCs. Based on these findings, CD271 marker might serve as an optimal alternative MSCs selection method for the potential preclinical and clinical application of these cells in bone tissue regeneration. PMID:26550238

  12. Knee joint replacement - series (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... than 3 blocks because of knee pain Loose knee prosthesis Some knee fractures ... an incision over the affected knee. The patella (knee cap) is moved ... helps the prosthesis to adhere better. The two parts of the ...

  13. Knee microfracture surgery

    MedlinePlus

    Cartilage regeneration - knee ... Three types of anesthesia may be used for knee arthroscopy surgery: Medicine to relax you, and shots of painkillers to numb the knee Spinal (regional) anesthesia General anesthesia (you will be ...

  14. Knee CT scan

    MedlinePlus

    CAT scan - knee; Computed axial tomography scan - knee; Computed tomography scan - knee ... Saunders; 2015:chap 93. Shaw AS, Prokop M. Computed tomography. In: Adam A, Dixon AK, Gillard JH, Schaefer- ...

  15. Knee pain (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... front of the knee can be due to bursitis, arthritis, or softening of the patella cartilage as ... knee. Overall knee pain can be due to bursitis, arthritis, tears in the ligaments, osteoarthritis of the ...

  16. Knee joint replacement

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002974.htm Knee joint replacement To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Knee joint replacement is a surgery to replace a knee ...

  17. Comparison of the effects of mitomycin C and 10-hydroxycamptothecin on an experimental intraarticular adhesion model in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaolei; Yan, Lianqi; Wang, Jingcheng; Sun, Yu; Wang, Qiang; Lu, Zhihua; Wang, Qi; Liu, Zhengdong; Hu, Jinlong

    2013-03-01

    The study was to compare the preventive effects of the local application of mitomycin C (MMC) and 10-hydroxycamptothecin (HCPT) on reducing intraarticular adhesion after knee surgery in rabbit model. Thirty-six New-Zealand rabbits were randomly and equally divided into three groups: MMC, HCPT and control group. Approximately 10 mm × 10 mm of the cortical bone was removed from both sides of left femoral condyle and the cancellous bone underneath was exposed. The exposed decorticated areas were covered with cotton pads soaked with MMC (0.1mg/ml), HCPT (0.1mg/ml) and physiological saline for 10 min. The left knee joint was then fixed in the fully flexed position with a Kirschner wire for 4 weeks after surgery. The rabbits were killed after 4 weeks and multiple parameters including the macroscopic evaluation, the hydroxyproline content, the histological evaluation and the fibroblast counts were used to evaluate the effect of MMC and HCPT on preventing intraarticular adhesion. The results showed that weak fibrous adhesions were found around the decorticated areas in MMC group and moderate intraarticular adhesions were found in HCPT group. However, there were severe fibrous adhesions around the decorticated areas in control group. The hydroxyproline contents and the fibroblast numbers of MMC and HCPT group were significantly less than those of control group. In conclusion, our data showed that topical application of MMC and HCPT could prevent intraarticular adhesion after knee surgery in rabbit model, but MMC had a better preventive effect than that of HCPT. PMID:23422876

  18. A randomised controlled trial comparing three analgesia regimens following total knee joint replacement: continuous femoral nerve block, intrathecal morphine or both.

    PubMed

    Olive, D J; Barrington, M J; Simone, S A; Kluger, R

    2015-07-01

    This randomised controlled trial compared three analgesia regimens following primary unilateral total knee joint replacement: continuous femoral nerve block (CFNB), intrathecal morphine (ITM), and both. The primary outcome was pain ratings over the first 24 hours. Secondary outcomes included morphine consumption, nausea, pruritus and sedation ratings, oxygen saturation (SpO2) ratings, and ability to mobilise postoperatively. All patients received a spinal anaesthetic and a postoperative patient-controlled morphine pump. Patients were randomised to receive CFNB, ITM, or both. In patients with no CFNB, the use of ITM was blinded. Eighty-one patients were randomised and there were no withdrawals. At 24 hours, the ITM-only group had higher pain ratings than either of the other groups (P=0.04 versus CFNB, P=0.01 versus combination). In the 18 to 24 hour period, the ITM group used more morphine than either of the other groups. There were no statistically significant differences in pain ratings or morphine consumption at earlier time intervals. The ITM group were less likely to be able to sit out of bed on day one. Patients who received ITM were more likely to have pruritus. There were no statistically significant differences in nausea, SpO₂or sedation ratings. This study showed that a CFNB resulted in reduced pain and was also associated with less morphine consumption and improved mobilisation at 24 hours compared to ITM. This study did not show any statistically significant differences between CFNB alone and CFNB+ITM. PMID:26099756

  19. Telerehabilitation after total knee replacement in Italy: cost-effectiveness and cost-utility analysis of a mixed telerehabilitation-standard rehabilitation programme compared with usual care

    PubMed Central

    Fusco, Francesco; Turchetti, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To assess cost-effectiveness and cost utility of telerehabilitation (TR) versus standard rehabilitation (SR) after total knee replacement (TKR). Design Markov decision modelling of cost-effectiveness and cost-utility analysis based on patient-level and secondary data sources employing Italian National Health Service (NHS; Ita-NHS) and Society perspectives. Setting Primary care units (PCUs) in Italy. Participants Patients discharged after TKR. Interventions Mixed SR-TR service (10 face-to-face sessions and 10 telesessions) versus SR (20 face-to-face sessions) Primary and secondary outcome measures The incremental cost per additional knee flexion range of motion (ROM) and per QALY gained by SR-TR compared with SR. Second, we considered the probability of being cost-effective and the probability of being more effective and less expensive. Results TR appears to be the cost-effective in the base case and in all of the considered scenarios, but is no longer more effective and less expensive if transportation costs are excluded. Comparing SR-TR with SR, the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) adopting the Ita-NHS perspective for the base case was −€117/ROM gained. The cost-effectiveness probability for SR-TR was 0.98 (ceiling ratio: €50/ROM), while the joint probability of being more effective and less expensive was 0.87. Assuming that TR would increase health-related quality of life (HRQOL) utilities by 2.5%, the ICER adopting Ita-NHS perspective is −€960/QALY (cost-effectiveness probability: 1; ceiling ratio: €30 000/QALY). All the performed sensitivity analyses did not change the conclusions, but if transportation costs were excluded, the probability for SR-TR of being more clinically effective and less expensive reduced to 0.56. Conclusions The analysis suggested SR-TR to be cost-effective, even less expensive and more effective if the PCUs provide ambulance transportations. However, the uncertainty related to TR costs, HRQOL and long

  20. Intracranial volume in craniosynostotic rabbits.

    PubMed

    Mooney, M P; Burrows, A M; Wigginton, W; Singhal, V K; Losken, H W; Smith, T D; Dechant, J; Towbin, A; Cooper, G M; Towbin, R; Siegel, M I

    1998-05-01

    Although craniosynostosis alters brain growth direction resulting in compensatory changes in the neurocranium, it has been suggested that such compensations occur with little reduction in intracranial volume (ICV). This hypothesis was tested in a rabbit model with nonsyndromic, familial coronal suture synostosis. Cross-sectional three-dimensional computed tomographic head scans were obtained from 79 rabbits (25 normal, 28 with delayed-onset synostosis, and 26 with early-onset synostosis) at 25, 42, and 126 days of age. Intracranial contents were reconstructed and indirect ICV was calculated. Results revealed that by 25 days of age the intracranial contents from early-onset synostosed rabbit skulls showed rostral (anterior) constrictions and a "beaten copper" morphology in the parietal and temporal regions compared with the other two groups. These deformities increased in severity with age. Quantitatively, ICV was significantly reduced (P < 0.05) by 7% in rabbits with early-onset synostosis compared with both control rabbits and rabbits with delayed-onset synostosis at 25 days of age. By 126 days of age, ICV in rabbits with synostosis was significantly reduced (p < 0.05) by 11% in early-onset synostosis and by 8% in delayed-onset synostosis compared with normal rabbits. Results suggest that in rabbits with uncorrected craniosynostosis, compensatory changes in the neurocranium were not adequate to allow normal expansion of the neurocapsular matrix. Further research is needed to determine if ICV reduction is correlated with cerebral atrophy or cerebral spinal fluid (i.e., ventricular or subarachnoid) space compression in this model. PMID:9693554

  1. BIORESORBABLE POLYMERIC MENISCAL PROSTHESIS: STUDY IN RABBITS

    PubMed Central

    Cardoso, Tulio Pereira; de Rezende Duek, Eliana Aparecida; Amatuzzi, Marco Martins; Caetano, Edie Benedito

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To induce growth of a neomeniscus into the pores of a prosthesis in order to protect the knee joint cartilage. Methods: 70 knees of 35 New Zealand rabbits were operated. The rabbits were five to seven months old, weighed 2 to 3.8 kilograms, and 22 were male and 13 were female. Each animal underwent medial meniscectomy in both knees during a single operation. A bioabsorbable polymeric meniscal prosthesis composed of 70% polydioxanone and 30% L-lactic acid polymer was implanted in one side. The animals were sacrificed after different postoperative time intervals. The femoral condyles and neomeniscus were subjected to histological analysis. Histograms were used to measure the degradation and absorption of the prosthesis, the growth of meniscal tissue in the prosthesis and the degree of degradation of the femoral condyle joint cartilage. Results: The data obtained showed that tissue growth histologically resembling a normal meniscus occurred, with gradual absorption of the prosthesis, and the percentages of chondrocytes on the control side and prosthesis side. Conclusion: Tissue growth into the prosthesis pores that histologically resembled the normal rabbit meniscus was observed. The joint cartilage of the femoral condyles on the prosthesis side presented greater numbers of chondrocytes in all its layers. PMID:27022549

  2. Active knee motion after cruciate ligament rupture. Stereoradiography.

    PubMed

    Kärrholm, J; Selvik, G; Elmqvist, L G; Hansson, L I

    1988-04-01

    In 10 patients with an old injury of the anterior cruciate ligament, the three-dimensional movements of the knee joint were studied when the patients flexed their knees. Tibial motions were recorded using roentgen stereophotogrammetric analysis. Internal rotation and adduction of the tibia were reduced in the injured knees when compared with the intact knees; during flexion of the knee joint, the tibial intercondylar eminence occupied a more lateral and posterior position on the injured side. Our results may indicate that the knee joint is continuously exposed to abnormal stresses when the anterior cruciate ligament is torn. PMID:3364185

  3. Use of technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate and gallium-67 citrate scans after intraarticular injection of Staphylococcus aureus into knee joints of rabbits with chronic antigen-induced arthritis

    SciTech Connect

    Mahowald, M.L.; Raskind, J.R.; Peterson, L.; Gerding, D.; Raddatz, D.A.; Shafer, R.

    1986-08-01

    Numerous clinical studies have questioned the ability of radionuclide scans to differentiate septic from aseptic joint inflammation. A clinical study may not be able to document an underlying disease process or duration of infection and, thus, may make conclusions about the accuracy of scan interpretations open to debate. In this study, the Dumonde-Glynn model of antigen-induced arthritis in rabbits was used as the experimental model to study technetium and gallium scans in Staphylococcus aureus infection of arthritic and normal joints. Gallium scans were negative in normal rabbits, usually negative in antigen-induced arthritis, but positive in septic arthritis. The bone scan was usually negative in early infection but positive in late septic arthritis, a finding reflecting greater penetration of bacteria into subchondral bone because of the underlying inflammatory process.

  4. Are periprosthetic tissue reactions observed after revision of total disc replacement comparable to the reactions observed after total hip or knee revision surgery?

    PubMed Central

    Punt, Ilona M.; Austen, Shennah; Cleutjens, Jack P.M.; Kurtz, Steven M.; ten Broeke, René H.M.; van Rhijn, Lodewijk W.; Willems, Paul C.; van Ooij, André

    2011-01-01

    Study design Comparative study. Objective To compare periprosthetic tissue reactions observed after total disc replacement (TDR), total hip arthroplasty (THA) and total knee arthroplasty (TKA) revision surgery. Summary of background data Prosthetic wear debris leading to particle disease, followed by osteolysis, is often observed after THA and TKA. Although the presence of polyethylene (PE) particles and periprosthetic inflammation after TDR has been proven recently, osteolysis is rarely observed. The clinical relevance of PE wear debris in the spine remains poorly understood. Methods Number, size and shape of PE particles, as well as quantity and type of inflammatory cells in periprosthetic tissue retrieved during Charité TDR (n=22), THA (n=10) and TKA (n=4) revision surgery were compared. Tissue samples were stained with hematoxylin/eosin and examined by using light microscopy with bright field and polarized light. Results After THA, large numbers of PE particles <6 µm were observed, which were mainly phagocytosed by macrophages. The TKA group had a broad size range with many larger PE particles and more giant cells. In TDR, the size range was similar to that observed in TKA. However, the smallest particles were the most prevalent with 75% of the particles being <6 µm, as seen in revision THA. In TDR, both macrophages and giant cells were present with a higher number of macrophages. Conclusions Both small and large PE particles are present after TDR revision surgery compatible with both THA and TKA wear patterns. The similarities between periprosthetic tissue reactions in the different groups may give more insight in the clinical relevance of PE particles and inflammatory cells in the lumbar spine. The current findings may help to improve TDR design as applied from technologies previously developed in THA and TKA with the goal of a longer survival of TDR. PMID:21336235

  5. Approximation of the functional kinematics of posterior stabilised total knee replacements using a two-dimensional sagittal plane patello-femoral model: comparing model approximation to in vivo measurement.

    PubMed

    Van Duren, Bernard; Pandit, Hemant; Murray, David; Gill, Harinderjit

    2015-08-01

    Previous in vivo studies have observed that current designs of posterior stabilised (PS) total knee replacements (TKRs) may be ineffective in restoring normal kinematics in Late flexion. Computer-based models can prove a useful tool in improving PS knee replacement designs. This study investigates the accuracy of a two-dimensional (2D) sagittal plane model capable of predicting the functional sagittal plane kinematics of PS TKR implanted knees against direct in vivo measurement. Implant constraints are often used as determinants of anterior-posterior tibio-femoral positioning. This allowed the use of a patello-femoral modelling approach to determine the effect of implant constraints. The model was executed using motion simulation software which uses the constraint force algorithm to achieve a solution. A group of 10 patients implanted with Scorpio PS implants were recruited and underwent fluoroscopic imaging of their knees. The fluoroscopic images were used to determine relative implant orientation using a three-dimensional reconstruction method. The determined relative tibio-femoral orientations were then input to the model. The model calculated the patella tendon angles (PTAs) which were then compared with those measured from the in vivo fluoroscopic images. There were no significant differences between the measured and calculated PTAs. The average root mean square error between measured and modelled ranged from 1.17° to 2.10° over the flexion range. A sagittal plane patello-femoral model could conceivably be used to predict the functional 2D kinematics of an implanted knee joint. This may prove particularly useful in optimising PS designs. PMID:24559039

  6. Repeated open endotracheal suctioning causes gradual desaturation but does not exacerbate lung injury compared to closed endotracheal suctioning in a rabbit model of ARDS

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Although endotracheal suctioning induces alveolar derecruitment during mechanical ventilation, it is not clear whether repeated endotracheal suctioning exacerbates lung injuries. The present study aimed to determine whether repeated open endotracheal suctioning (OS) exacerbates lung injury compared to closed endotracheal suctioning (CS) during mechanical ventilation in an animal model of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Methods Briefly, thirty six Japanese white rabbits were initially ventilated in pressure-controlled mode with a constant tidal volume (6 mL/kg). Then, lung injury was induced by repeated saline lavage. The rabbits were divided into four groups, namely: a) OS; b) CS; c) control with ARDS only; d) and healthy control (HC) without ARDS. Animals in all the groups were then ventilated with positive end expiratory pressure (PEEP) at 10 cm H2O. CS was performed using 6 French-closed suctioning catheters connected to endotracheal tube under the following conditions: a) a suctioning time and pressure of 10 sec and 140 mm Hg, respectively; and b) a suction depth of 2 cm (length of adapter) plus tracheal tube. OS was performed using the same conditions described for CS, except the ventilator was disconnected from the animals. Each endotracheal suctioning was performed at an interval of 30 min. Results PaO2/FIO2 (P/F) ratio for CS, control and HC groups remained at >400 for 6 hours, whereas that of the OS group progressively declined to 300 (p < 0.05), with each suctioning. However, no difference was observed either in lung injury score (histology) or in the expression pattern of inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6) after 6 hours between the OS and CS groups in the circulatory as well as the pulmonary tissues. Conclusions Progressive arterial desaturation under conditions of repeated endotracheal suctioning is greater in OS than in CS time-dependently. However, OS does not exacerbate lung injury

  7. Histological and biochemical characteristics of the rabbit anterior cruciate ligament in comparison to potential autografts.

    PubMed

    Hoyer, Mariann; Meier, Carola; Kohl, Benjamin; Lohan, Anke; Kokozidou, Maria; Schulze-Tanzil, Gundula

    2016-08-01

    Tissue engineering of an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) implant with ACL cells requires detailed analysis of the tissue characteristics that should be mimicked. Therefore, we studied the histological and biochemical properties of rabbit derived ACLs in comparison to other knee-associated tendons that are used as autografts in men. Rabbit derived ACLs and Musculus (M.) semimembranosus, M. semitendinosus tendons and patellar ligaments were explanted from adult New Zealand white rabbits and analyzed histologically for tissue organization (e.g. cellularity, nuclear shapes, elastic fibers), total collagen and sulfated glycosaminoglycan (sGAG) contents. Gene expression analysis was performed for the main extracellular matrix (ECM) components type I collagen, decorin and the glycoprotein tenomodulin. The ACLs had a dimension of 1.39x0.39x0.1 cm in situ. They were characterized by high sGAG content in comparison to the other tendons/ligaments, whereas the total collagen content did not differ. ACLs possessed higher cellularity and lower feret diameter of the cell nuclei compared with the investigated rabbit-derived tendons. In ACLs long elastic fibers were observed. Concerning the gene expression level, lower transcription of tenomodulin was detected in the ACL compared with the other tendons, without significant difference in the decorin gene expression. The M. semitendinosus tendon had a significantly higher type I collagen expression than the ACL and the other investigated tendons. This phenotypical characterization of the lapine ACL presented in this study provides some key standards to evaluate tissue engineered ACL constructs to be tested in the rabbit model. PMID:26791991

  8. STUDIES ON TREPONEMA PALLIDUM AND SYPHILIS : III. THE INDIVIDUAL FLUCTUATIONS IN VIRULENCE AND COMPARATIVE VIRULENCE OF TREPONEMA PALLIDUM STRAINS PASSED THROUGH RABBITS.

    PubMed

    Zinsser, H; Hopkins, J G; McBurney, M

    1916-03-01

    1. As regards these strains, at least, there is no consistent change, either increase or decrease, of rabbit pathogenicity during progressive rabbit passage. 2. There is no difference in pathogenicity between these different strains, although some of them were isolated from condylomata, some from chancres, one from a mucous patch, and one by Nichols from the nervous system. 3. We do not believe that there is any consistency of difference in speed of incubation between these various strains. 4. We think that the nature of the lesion produced by any individual strain, and the incubation time as well, are dependent upon the fortuitous factors incident to the nature of the material used, the technique of injection, and the size of rabbit in which the injection is made. As to the tendency to generalize possessed by one strain or another, we are not prepared to make a statement. We have not inspected as carefully as we might all our rabbits in regard to the more obscure syphilitic lesions such as small nodules on the eyebrows, nodules on the nasal bones, and internal lesions of the eye. As a matter of fact, we have noticed three cases of keratitis, probably syphilitic, and a number of preputial metastases, we have seen occasional nodules about the anus, and in one case a peritonitis in the fluid of which living treponemata were found on examination. There has not been in our series an extensive number of generalizations. We attribute this largely to the fact that all the studies here recorded were made on rabbits intratesticularly inoculated. It appears from the writings of other investigators that intravenous and intracardial injection of rabbits leads to a more extensive metastatic or general distribution. Two of the few rabbits inoculated intravenously showed testicular lesions. A series of rabbits intracerebrally inoculated through trephine openings showed nothing definite on autopsy, though one of them showed interference with reflexes and rigidity of the limbs for

  9. Comparative assessment of the effectiveness and tolerability of lornoxicam 8 mg BID and diclofenac 50 mg TID in adult indian patients with osteoarthritis of the hip or knee: A 4-week, double-blind, randomized, comparative, multicenter study

    PubMed Central

    Goregaonkar, Arvind; Mathiazhagan, K.J.; Shah, Ravindra R.; Kapoor, Paramjeet Singh; Taneja, Praveen; Sharma, Akhilesh; Bolmall, Chandrashekhar; Baliga, Vidyagauri P.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Reports of cardiovascular adverse events (AEs) associated with the use of cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors for the treatment of osteoarthritis (OA) have prompted the quest for a better-tolerated NSAID. Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness and tolerability of lornoxicam 8 mg BID and diclofenac 50 mg TID in adult Indian patients with OA of the hip or knee. Methods: This 4-week, double-blind, randomized, comparative, multicenter study was undertaken to compare oral lornoxicam and diclofenac in patients with OA. Patients who met the selection criteria were enrolled consecutively from the outpatient clinics of each of the participating hospitals in India. Participants completed the Western Ontario and McMasters Individual Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC-OA), WOMAC Composite Index (WOMAC-CI) (for pain, stiffness, and physical function), and a 10-cm visual analog scale (VAS) (0–10 where 0 = no pain and 10 = worst possible pain or severe or excruciating pain) at each study visit (weeks 0 [baseline], 2, and 4 [or at early termination]). Patients' and physicians' global assessments of arthritis control were measured at each study visit when laboratory and clinical AEs were also monitored. The primary end points were the WOMAC-OA, the WOMAC-CI, and VAS scores for pain among the patients who completed the study. Results: Of the 273 patients (159 men, 114 women; mean [SD] age, 44.73 [10.72] years; range, 28–68 years) enrolled in the study, 13 (7 in the lornoxicam group and 6 in the diclofenac group) were lost to follow-up and their effectiveness and tolerability results were not included in the study analysis. Over the 4-week study period, both drugs provided significant (P < 0.05) sustained relief of OA symptoms compared with baseline. Compared with baseline, the mean pain score (WOMAC-CI) decreased 90.6% (13.88 [4.47] vs 1.30 [1.49]; P < 0.05) in the lornoxicam group and 88.9% (14.15 [4.56] vs 1.57 [1.49]; P < 0.05) in the diclofenac group

  10. Knee arthroscopy - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100117.htm Knee arthroscopy - series To use the sharing features on ... 5 out of 5 Normal anatomy Overview The knee is a complex joint made up of the ...

  11. Knee braces - unloading

    MedlinePlus

    ... most people talk about the arthritis in their knees, they are referring to a type of arthritis ... is caused by wear and tear inside your knee joints. Cartilage, the firm, rubbery tissue that cushions ...

  12. Partial knee replacement - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100225.htm Partial knee replacement - series To use the sharing features on ... A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Knee Replacement A.D.A.M., Inc. is accredited ...

  13. Osteotomy of the knee

    MedlinePlus

    ... is not affected unless you have had a knee injury in the past. Osteotomy surgery works by shifting ... M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Arthritis Knee Injuries and Disorders Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A. ...

  14. Knee joint replacement

    MedlinePlus

    The results of a total knee replacement are often excellent. The operation relieves pain for most people. Most people do not need help walking after they fully recover. Most artificial knee joints last 10 ...

  15. Partial knee replacement

    MedlinePlus

    Most people recover quickly and have much less pain than they did before surgery. People who have a partial knee replacement recover faster than those who have a total knee replacement. Many people are able to walk ...

  16. Knee joint replacement - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100088.htm Knee joint replacement - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing ... of 4 Overview The knee is a complex joint. It contains the distal end of the femur ( ...

  17. Development of the Occupational Activities Knee Scale.

    PubMed

    Styron, Joseph F; Singer, Mendel E; Barsoum, Wael K

    2010-06-01

    A primary concern of many knee surgery patients is their ability to return to work following surgery, but it is often difficult to predict the practicality of returning due to a job's unclear knee demands. A cross-sectional study of employed patients and general population participants was conducted. Study participants were asked if their job required nine separate tasks and if their job had low, moderate, or high physical demands. The relative risk of each task placing high demands on the knee was calculated, and those risk ratios were summated to calculate a scaled score. The scaled score accurately distinguishes the levels of job demands with each reported level of job demands having a significantly higher mean scaled score than the level below it (p < 0.0001). The Occupational Activities Knee Scale offers occupational and health care providers greater precision in comparing the physical requirements of jobs for knee surgery patients. PMID:21141686

  18. [Revision after unicompartmental knee arthroplasty].

    PubMed

    Mohr, G; Martin, J; Clarius, M

    2014-10-01

    Unicompartmental arthroplasty is an efficient and approved treatment option of unicompartmental arthritis of the knee, being performed with increasing frequency worldwide. Compared to total knee replacement, there are several advantages such as faster recovery, lower blood loss, better functional outcome and lower infection rates. However, higher revision rates are a frequent argument against the use of unicompartmental arthroplasty. The following article gives an overview of failure mechanisms and strategies for revision arthroplasty. This article is based on a selective literature review including PubMed and relevant print media. Our own clinical experience is considered as well. PMID:25209015

  19. Anterior cruciate ligament surgery in the rabbit

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Various methods regarding allograft knee replacements have been described. The animal models, which are generally used for this purpose include sheep, dogs, goats, and pigs, and accrue significant costs for study protocols. The authors herein describe an efficient and cost-effective model to study either native or tissue-engineered allografts for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) replacement in a New Zealand rabbit model with the potential for transgenic and cell migration studies. Methods ACL reconstructions were performed in rabbits under general anesthesia. For fresh allograft implantations, two animals were operated in parallel. Each right extensor digitorum longus tendon was harvested and prepared for implantation. After excision of the ACL, tibial and femoral bone tunnels were created to implant each graft in the native ACL position. Results During a 2-year period, the authors have successfully undertaken this surgery in 61 rabbits and have not noticed any major complications attributed to this surgical technique. In addition, the authors have observed fast recovery in the animals postoperatively. Conclusion The authors recommend this surgical procedure as an excellent model for the study of knee surgery. PMID:23957941

  20. The effect of in situ freezing on rabbit patellar tendon. A histologic, biochemical, and biomechanical analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graf, B. K.; Fujisaki, K.; Vanderby, R. Jr; Vailas, A. C.

    1992-01-01

    Cell necrosis has been well documented as one of the many changes that occur in autogenous tendon when it is used to reconstruct the anterior cruciate ligament. The purpose of this experiment was to isolate cell necrosis as a variable and study its effect on the patellar tendon. To accomplish this, both knees of 25 New Zealand White rabbits were operated on. In one knee, a 5-mm wide band of patellar tendon was subjected to two rapid freeze-thaw cycles, while the other knee underwent sham surgery. Histologic evaluation showed a zone of necrosis at 2 and 4 weeks with cellular repopulation complete at 8 weeks. patellar tendon cross-sectional area was 0.118 cm2 at 8 weeks for the frozen specimens compared to 0.102 cm2 for the sham-operated controls. This difference was significant at the P = 0.025 level. Mechanical testing at 4 and 8 weeks revealed no significant changes in tendon length, maximum load, or stiffness. The collagen content was also unchanged at both 4 and 8 weeks.

  1. Knee braces - unloading

    MedlinePlus

    ... is caused by wear and tear inside your knee joints. Cartilage, the firm, rubbery tissue that cushions all of your bones and joints, lets the bones glide over one another. If ... the knee become weaker. Over time, your whole knee becomes ...

  2. Gait Using Pneumatic Brace for End-Stage Knee Osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Kapadia, Bhaveen H; Cherian, Jeffrey Jai; Starr, Roland; Chughtai, Morad; Mont, Michael A; Harwin, Steven F; Bhave, Anil

    2016-04-01

    More than 20 million individuals in the United States are affected by knee osteoarthritis (OA), which can lead to altered biomechanics and excessive joint loading. The use of an unloader pneumatic brace with extension assist has been proposed as a nonoperative treatment modality that may improve gait mechanics and correct knee malalignment. We assessed the following parameters in patients who have knee OA treated with and without a brace: (1) changes in temporospatial parameters in gait; (2) knee range of motion, knee extension at heel strike, and foot placement; (3) knee joint moments and impulse; and (4) changes in dynamic stiffness and rate of change of knee flexion during midstance to terminal stance. This 2:1 prospective, randomized, single-blinded trial evaluated 36 patients (24 brace and 12 matching). OA knee patients were randomized to receive either a pneumatic unloader brace or a standard nonoperative treatment regimen as the matching cohort for a 3-month period. They underwent evaluation of gait parameters using a three-dimensional gait analysis system at their initial appointment and at 3 months follow-up. All the testing, pre- and postbracing were performed without wearing the brace to examine for retained effects. Treatment with the brace led to significant improvements versus standard treatment in various gait parameters. Patients in the brace group had improvements in walking speed, knee extension at heel strike, total range of motion, knee joint forces, and rate of knee flexion from midstance to terminal stance when compared with the matching cohort. Knee OA patients who used a pneumatic unloader brace for 3 months for at least 3 hours per day had significant improvements various gait parameters when compared with a standard nonoperative therapy cohort. Braced patients demonstrated gait-modifying affects when not wearing the brace. These results are encouraging and suggest that this device represents a promising treatment modality for knee OA that

  3. Kinematic Analysis of a Posterior-stabilized Knee Prosthesis

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Zhi-Xin; Wen, Liang; Qu, Tie-Bing; Hou, Li-Li; Xiang, Dong; Bin, Jia

    2015-01-01

    Background: The goal of total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is to restore knee kinematics. Knee prosthesis design plays a very important role in successful restoration. Here, kinematics models of normal and prosthetic knees were created and validated using previously published data. Methods: Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging scans of a healthy, anticorrosive female cadaver were used to establish a model of the entire lower limbs, including the femur, tibia, patella, fibula, distal femur cartilage, and medial and lateral menisci, as well as the anterior cruciate, posterior cruciate, medial collateral, and lateral collateral ligaments. The data from the three-dimensional models of the normal knee joint and a posterior-stabilized (PS) knee prosthesis were imported into finite element analysis software to create the final kinematic model of the TKA prosthesis, which was then validated by comparison with a previous study. The displacement of the medial/lateral femur and the internal rotation angle of the tibia were analyzed during 0–135° flexion. Results: Both the output data trends and the measured values derived from the normal knee's kinematics model were very close to the results reported in a previous in vivo study, suggesting that this model can be used for further analyses. The PS knee prosthesis underwent an abnormal forward displacement compared with the normal knee and has insufficient, or insufficiently aggressive, “rollback” compared with the lateral femur of the normal knee. In addition, a certain degree of reverse rotation occurs during flexion of the PS knee prosthesis. Conclusions: There were still several differences between the kinematics of the PS knee prosthesis and a normal knee, suggesting room for improving the design of the PS knee prosthesis. The abnormal kinematics during early flexion shows that the design of the articular surface played a vital role in improving the kinematics of the PS knee prosthesis. PMID:25591565

  4. Patient directed self management of pain (PaDSMaP) compared to treatment as usual following total knee replacement: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In 2009, 665 patients underwent total knee replacements (TKRs) at the Norfolk and Norwich University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust (NNUH), representing nearly 1% of the national total. Pain control following the operation can be poor, and this can cause poor mobilization and potential long-term adverse events. Although high levels of pain are not associated with patient dissatisfaction, brief periods of pain may lead to neuronal remodeling and sensitization. Patient controlled oral analgesia (PCOA) may improve pain relief; however, the evidence to date has been inconclusive. Patient directed self management of pain (PaDSMaP) is a single center randomized controlled trial, which aims to establish if patient self-medication improves, or is equivalent to, treatment as usual and to create an educational package to allow implementation elsewhere. Methods/design Patients eligible for a TKR will be recruited and randomized in the outpatient clinic. All patients will undergo their operations according to normal clinical practice but will be randomized into two groups. Once oral medication has commenced, one group will have pain relief administered by nursing staff in the usual way (treatment as usual; TAU), whilst the second group will self manage their pain medication (patient directed self management of pain; PaDSMaP). Those recruited for self-medication will undergo a training program to teach the use of oral analgesics according to the World Health Organization (WHO) pain cascade and how to complete the study documentation. The primary endpoint of the trial is the visual analogue scale (VAS) pain score at 3 days or discharge, whichever is sooner. The follow-up time is 6 weeks with a planned trial period of 3 years. The secondary objectives are satisfaction with the management of patient pain post-operatively whilst an inpatient after primary TKR; overall pain levels and pain on mobilization; satisfaction with pain management information provided; global

  5. Asymmetric loading and bone mineral density at the asymptomatic knees of subjects with unilateral hip osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Shakoor, Najia; Dua, Anisha; Thorp, Laura; Mikolaitis, Rachel A.; Wimmer, Markus A.; Foucher, Kharma C.; Fogg, Louis F.; Block, Joel A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective The contralateral knee of those with unilateral endstage hip OA is known to be at greater risk for endstage knee OA compared to the ipsilateral, same side knee. Likewise, in endstage hip OA, this contralateral knee is known to have increased dynamic joint loads compared to the ipsilateral knee. Here, we study a population with unilateral hip OA, who are asymptomatic at the knees, for early asymmetries in knee loading. Methods Data from 62 subjects with unilateral hip OA were evaluated. Subjects underwent gait analyses for evaluation of dynamic knee loads as well as dual energy X-ray absorptiometry for evaluation of bone mineral density (BMD) at both knees. Differences between knees were compared. Results Peak dynamic knee loads were significantly higher at the contralateral knee compared to the ipsilateral knee (2.46±0.71 vs 2.23±0.81 %BW*ht, p=0.029). Similarly, medial compartment tibial BMD was significantly higher at the contralateral knee compared to the ipsilateral knee (0.897±0.208 vs 0.854±0.206 gm/c2, p=0.033). Interestingly, there was a direct correlation between contralteral:ipsilateral dynamic knee load and contralateral:ipsilateral medial compartment tibial BMD (Spearman’s rho= 0.287, p=0.036). Conclusions This study demonstrates that at the contralateral knees of patients with unilateral hip OA, which are at higher risk of developing progressive symptomatic OA compared to the ipsilateral knees, loading and structural asymmetries appear early in the disease course, while the knees are still asymptomatic. These early biomechanical asymmetries may have corresponding long term consequences, providing further support for the potential role of loading in OA onset and progression. PMID:22127702

  6. A comparative 18F-FDG PET/CT imaging of experimental Staphylococcus aureus osteomyelitis and Staphylococcus epidermidis foreign-body-associated infection in the rabbit tibia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background 18F-FDG-PET imaging has emerged as a promising method in the diagnosis of chronic osteomyelitis commonly due to Staphylococcus aureus. The inaccuracy of 18 F-FDG-PET in the detection of periprosthetic joint infections may be related to the predominance of low-virulent S. epidermidis strains as the causative pathogen. We have compared the18F-FDG-PET characteristics of S. aureus osteomyelitis and foreign-body-associated S. epidermidis infections under standardized laboratory conditions. Methods Twenty-two rabbits were randomized into three groups. In group 1, a localized osteomyelitis model induced with a clinical strain of S. aureus was applied. In groups 2 and 3, a foreign-body-associated infection model induced with a clinical or laboratory strain of S. epidermidis was applied. A small block of bone cement was surgically introduced into the medullary cavity of the proximal tibia followed by peri-implant injection of S. aureus (1 × 105 CFU/mL) or one of the two S. epidermidis (1 × 109 CFU/mL) strains with an adjunct injection of aqueous sodium morrhuate. In group 1, the cement block was surgically removed at 2 weeks but left in place in groups 2 and 3 in order to mimic foreign-body-associated S. epidermidis infections. At 8 weeks, the animals were imaged using 18 F-FDG PET/CT. The presence of bacterial infection was confirmed by cultures, and the severity of bone infections was graded by means of radiography, peripheral quantitative CT, and semi-quantitative histology. Results The S. aureus strain caused constantly culture-positive osteomyelitis. The clinical S. epidermidis strain resulted in foreign-body-associated infections, while the laboratory S. epidermidis strain (ATCC 35983) induced only occasionally culture-positive infections. There was a correlation (r = 0.645; P = 0.013) between semi-quantitative score of leukocyte infiltration and the 18 F-FDG uptake in animals with positive cultures. Standardized uptake value

  7. Evaluation of the soft tissue biocompatibility of MgCa0.8 and surgical steel 316L in vivo: a comparative study in rabbits

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Recent studies have shown the potential suitability of magnesium alloys as biodegradable implants. The aim of the present study was to compare the soft tissue biocompatibility of MgCa0.8 and commonly used surgical steel in vivo. Methods A biodegradable magnesium calcium alloy (MgCa0.8) and surgical steel (S316L), as a control, were investigated. Screws of identical geometrical conformation were implanted into the tibiae of 40 rabbits for a postoperative follow up of two, four, six and eight weeks. The tibialis cranialis muscle was in direct vicinity of the screw head and thus embedded in paraffin and histologically and immunohistochemically assessed. Haematoxylin and eosin staining was performed to identify macrophages, giant cells and heterophil granulocytes as well as the extent of tissue fibrosis and necrosis. Mouse anti-CD79α and rat anti-CD3 monoclonal primary antibodies were used for B- and T-lymphocyte detection. Evaluation of all sections was performed by applying a semi-quantitative score. Results Clinically, both implant materials were tolerated well. Histology revealed that a layer of fibrous tissue had formed between implant and overlying muscle in MgCa0.8 and S316L, which was demarcated by a layer of synoviocyte-like cells at its interface to the implant. In MgCa0.8 implants cavities were detected within the fibrous tissue, which were surrounded by the same kind of cell type. The thickness of the fibrous layer and the amount of tissue necrosis and cellular infiltrations gradually decreased in S316L. In contrast, a decrease could only be noted in the first weeks of implantation in MgCa0.8, whereas parameters were increasing again at the end of the observation period. B-lymphocytes were found more often in MgCa0.8 indicating humoral immunity and the presence of soluble antigens. Conversely, S316L displayed a higher quantity of T-lymphocytes. Conclusions Moderate inflammation was detected in both implant materials and resolved to a minimum

  8. Modelling and Analysis on Biomechanical Dynamic Characteristics of Knee Flexion Movement under Squatting

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jianping; Tao, Kun; Li, Huanyi; Wang, Chengtao

    2014-01-01

    The model of three-dimensional (3D) geometric knee was built, which included femoral-tibial, patellofemoral articulations and the bone and soft tissues. Dynamic finite element (FE) model of knee was developed to simulate both the kinematics and the internal stresses during knee flexion. The biomechanical experimental system of knee was built to simulate knee squatting using cadaver knees. The flexion motion and dynamic contact characteristics of knee were analyzed, and verified by comparing with the data from in vitro experiment. The results showed that the established dynamic FE models of knee are capable of predicting kinematics and the contact stresses during flexion, and could be an efficient tool for the analysis of total knee replacement (TKR) and knee prosthesis design. PMID:25013852

  9. Viral infections of rabbits.

    PubMed

    Kerr, Peter J; Donnelly, Thomas M

    2013-05-01

    Viral diseases of rabbits have been used historically to study oncogenesis (e.g. rabbit fibroma virus, cottontail rabbit papillomavirus) and biologically to control feral rabbit populations (e.g. myxoma virus). However, clinicians seeing pet rabbits in North America infrequently encounter viral diseases although myxomatosis may be seen occasionally. The situation is different in Europe and Australia, where myxomatosis and rabbit hemorrhagic disease are endemic. Advances in epidemiology and virology have led to detection of other lapine viruses that are now recognized as agents of emerging infectious diseases. Rabbit caliciviruses, related to rabbit hemorrhagic disease, are generally avirulent, but lethal variants are being identified in Europe and North America. Enteric viruses including lapine rotavirus, rabbit enteric coronavirus and rabbit astrovirus are being acknowledged as contributors to the multifactorial enteritis complex of juvenile rabbits. Three avirulent leporid herpesviruses are found in domestic rabbits. A fourth highly pathogenic virus designated leporid herpesvirus 4 has been described in Canada and Alaska. This review considers viruses affecting rabbits by their clinical significance. Viruses of major and minor clinical significance are described, and viruses of laboratory significance are mentioned. PMID:23642871

  10. A comparative study of red and blue light-emitting diodes and low-level laser in regeneration of the transected sciatic nerve after an end to end neurorrhaphy in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Takhtfooladi, Mohammad Ashrafzadeh; Sharifi, Davood

    2015-12-01

    This study aimed at evaluating the effects of red and blue light-emitting diodes (LED) and low-level laser (LLL) on the regeneration of the transected sciatic nerve after an end-to-end neurorrhaphy in rabbits. Forty healthy mature male New Zealand rabbits were randomly assigned into four experimental groups: control, LLL (680 nm), red LED (650 nm), and blue LED (450 nm). All animals underwent the right sciatic nerve neurotmesis injury under general anesthesia and end-to-end anastomosis. The phototherapy was initiated on the first postoperative day and lasted for 14 consecutive days at the same time of the day. On the 30th day post-surgery, the animals whose sciatic nerves were harvested for histopathological analysis were euthanized. The nerves were analyzed and quantified the following findings: Schwann cells, large myelinic axons, and neurons. In the LLL group, as compared to other groups, an increase in the number of all analyzed aspects was observed with significance level (P < 0.05). This finding suggests that postoperative LLL irradiation was able to accelerate and potentialize the peripheral nerve regeneration process in rabbits within 14 days of irradiation. PMID:26415928

  11. Kinematic analysis of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction in total knee arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hua-Wei; Ni, Ming; Zhang, Guo-Qiang; Li, Xiang; Chen, Hui; Zhang, Qiang; Chai, Wei; Zhou, Yong-Gang; Chen, Ji-Ying; Liu, Yu-Liang; Cheng, Cheng-Kung; Wang, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Background: This study aims to retain normal knee kinematics after knee replacement surgeries by reconstructing anterior cruciate ligament during total knee arthroplasty. Method: We use computational simulation tools to establish four dynamic knee models, including normal knee model, posterior cruciate ligament retaining knee model, posterior cruciate ligament substituting knee model, and anterior cruciate ligament reconstructing knee model. Our proposed method utilizes magnetic resonance images to reconstruct solid bones and attachments of ligaments, and assemble femoral and tibial components according representative literatures and operational specifications. Dynamic data of axial tibial rotation and femoral translation from full-extension to 135 were measured for analyzing the motion of knee models. Findings: The computational simulation results show that comparing with the posterior cruciate ligament retained knee model and the posterior cruciate ligament substituted knee model, reconstructing anterior cruciate ligament improves the posterior movement of the lateral condyle, medial condyle and tibial internal rotation through a full range of flexion. The maximum posterior translations of the lateral condyle, medial condyle and tibial internal rotation of the anterior cruciate ligament reconstructed knee are 15.3 mm, 4.6 mm and 20.6 at 135 of flexion. Interpretation: Reconstructing anterior cruciate ligament in total knee arthroplasty has been approved to be an more efficient way of maintaining normal knee kinematics comparing to posterior cruciate ligament retained and posterior cruciate ligament substituted total knee arthroplasty. PMID:27347334

  12. Lack of antibodies to human heart tissue in sera of rhesus monkeys immunized with Streptococcus mutans antigens and comparative study with rabbit antisera.

    PubMed Central

    Bergmeier, L A; Lehner, T

    1983-01-01

    Immunization of rabbits and rhesus monkeys with Streptococcus mutans whole cells, cell walls, and defined streptococcal antigens (SAs) SA I/II, SA I, and SA II resulted in high antibody titers to SA I/II (10(-4) to 10(-6)) when tested by the solid-phase radioimmunoassay. Cross-reactive antibodies to heart homogenates (HH) were not elicited in rhesus monkeys. A few rabbits immunized with cell wall or SA II preparation in Freund complete adjuvant followed by the incomplete adjuvant yielded low antibody titers (up to 10(-2)) to the HH. The specificity of the putative heart cross-reactive antibodies was tested by immunoadsorption with related and unrelated antigens. Whereas antibody to SA I/II showed specific adsorption with SA I/II but not with HH, immunoglobulin G, or the unrelated antigens, antibody to HH seemed to have been adsorbed with all of the related and unrelated antigens. There was no evidence for the development of heart cross-reactive antibodies on immunization of rhesus monkeys or rabbits with SA I/II and aluminium hydroxide or Freund incomplete adjuvant, administered by the subcutaneous or intramuscular route in doses of up to 13 mg of the immunogen. PMID:6852912

  13. Lack of Axial Rotation in Mobile-bearing Knee Designs

    PubMed Central

    Komistek, Richard D.; Zingde, Sumesh M.; Sheridan, Kate C.; Mahfouz, Mohamed R.

    2008-01-01

    It has often been assumed rotational kinematics are improved with mobile-bearing TKA designs as the terms mobile-bearing and rotating platform imply. We tested this assumption by assessing the in vivo axial rotation magnitudes and patterns of 527 knees implanted with 12 different mobile-bearing TKA designs. Implants were grouped and compared by type—posterior stabilized (PS), posterior cruciate retaining (PCR), and posterior cruciate sacrificing (PCS)—and by specific design. We hypothesized all three mobile-bearing types (PS, PCR, and PCS) would achieve greater than 10° average axial rotation and we would find no differences in axial rotation between types. Only 14% of PS knees, 3% of PCS knees, and 17% of PCR knees attained greater than 10° axial rotation when measured from 0° to 90°. The percentage of PCS knees with greater than 10° axial rotation was less compared with the other two groups. Axial rotation averaged 4.3°, 2.5°, and 3.8° for the PS, PCS, and PCR knees, respectively. Incidences of reverse rotation were observed in 17% of PS knees, 32% of PCS knees, and 28% of PCR knees. Compared with the PCS group, the PS group achieved greater average axial rotation and had a lower percentage of knees displaying incidences of reverse rotation. The data refuted the hypotheses. PMID:18581194

  14. Knee extension and flexion: MR delineation of normal and torn anterior cruciate ligaments

    SciTech Connect

    Niitsu, Mamoru; Ikeda, Kotaroh; Fukubayashi, Tohru; Anno, Izumi; Itai, Yuji

    1996-03-01

    Our goal was to assess the effect of joint position of semiflexed and extended knees in MR delineation of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). With a mobile knee brace and a flexible surface coil, the knee joint was either fully extended or bent to a semiflexed position (average 45{degrees} of flexion) within the magnet bore. Sets of oblique sagittal MR images were obtained for both extended and flexed knee positions. Thirty-two knees with intact ACLs and 43 knees with arthroscopically proven ACL tears were evaluated. Two observers compared paired MR images of both extended and flexed positions and rated them by a relative three point scale. Anatomic correlation in MR images was obtained by a cadaveric knee with incremental flexion. The MR images of flexed knees were more useful than of extended knees in 53% of the case reviews of femoral attachments and 36% of reviews of midportions of normal ACLs. Compared with knee extensions, the MR images for knee flexion provided better clarity in 48% of reviews of disrupted sites and 52% of residual bundles of torn ACLs. Normal ACL appeared taut in the knee extension and lax in semiflexion. Compared with MR images of knees in extension, MR images of knees in flexion more clearly delineate the femoral side of the ligament with wider space under the intercondylar roof and with decreased volume-averaging artifacts, providing superior visualization of normal and torn ACLs. 13 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Plastinated Knee Specimens: A Novel Educational Tool

    PubMed Central

    Neha; Lalwani, Sanjeev; Dhingra, Renu

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: During the routine dissection of knee joints in an anatomy dissection hall, it was observed that the specimens had deteriorated overtime, due to their repeated handling and the use of high concentrations of formalin for their fixation. In order to stop their further deterioration, we decided to plastinate these specimens. Thus, the present study was undertaken to prepare plastinated knee specimens from old embalmed cadavers and to compare them with freshly fixed, plastinated specimens. Objectives: 1. To plastinate old embalmed and fresh formalin fixed knee regions. 2. To demonstrate the extra and the intracapsular structures around both the plastinated knee regions. 3. To compare their morphological features in terms of their colours, dilatation and flexibility. Methods: A total of 15 knee joint specimens from among fresh formalin (5-8%) fixed (group I) and old embalmed bodies (group II) were collected, washed and plastinated by using the standard S-10 silicon technique and they were compared for their colours, dilatation and flexibility. Results: All the plastinated specimens showed an accurate reproduction of the tissue details that were comparable to those of the natural unfixed specimens. A comparison among the two groups showed a significant difference in terms of the colour, dilatation and the flexibility of the specimens. The plastinated knee joint specimens from group I were of good quality, with negligible shrinkage, more flexibility and well preserved morphologies. Conclusion: Plastinated knee specimens can serve as an excellent educational tool for the undergraduate and postgraduate students of anatomy, radiology and orthopaedics, as they are dry, odourless and nontoxic, with a good structural preservation and a higher instructional value. The fresh knee regions, when they were plastinated, were aesthetically superior in terms of their colours, dilatation and flexibility, thus making them ideal for teaching and hands-on experiences. PMID

  16. Adipose derived mesenchymal stem cell therapy in the treatment of isolated knee chondral lesions: design of a randomised controlled pilot study comparing arthroscopic microfracture versus arthroscopic microfracture combined with postoperative mesenchymal stem cell injections

    PubMed Central

    Freitag, Julien; Ford, Jon; Bates, Dan; Boyd, Richard; Hahne, Andrew; Wang, Yuanyuan; Cicuttini, Flavia; Huguenin, Leesa; Norsworthy, Cameron; Shah, Kiran

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The management of intra-articular chondral defects in the knee remains a challenge. Inadequate healing in areas of weight bearing leads to impairment in load transmission and these defects predispose to later development of osteoarthritis. Surgical management of full thickness chondral defects include arthroscopic microfracture and when appropriate autologous chondrocyte implantation. This latter method however is technically challenging, and may not offer significant improvement over microfracture. Preclinical and limited clinical trials have indicated the capacity of mesenchymal stem cells to influence chondral repair. The aim of this paper is to describe the methodology of a pilot randomised controlled trial comparing arthroscopic microfracture alone for isolated knee chondral defects versus arthroscopic microfracture combined with postoperative autologous adipose derived mesenchymal stem cell injections. Methods and analysis A pilot single-centre randomised controlled trial is proposed. 40 participants aged 18–50 years, with isolated femoral condyle chondral defects and awaiting planned arthroscopic microfracture will be randomly allocated to a control group (receiving no additional treatment) or treatment group (receiving postoperative adipose derived mesenchymal stem cell treatment). Primary outcome measures will include MRI assessment of cartilage volume and defects and the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score. Secondary outcomes will include further MRI assessment of bone marrow lesions, bone area and T2 cartilage mapping, a 0–10 Numerical Pain Rating Scale, a Global Impression of Change score and a treatment satisfaction scale. Adverse events and cointerventions will be recorded. Initial outcome follow-up for publication of results will be at 12 months. Further annual follow-up to assess long-term differences between the two group will occur. Ethics and dissemination This trial has received prospective ethics approval through

  17. Comparable TNF-alpha, IFN-gamma and GM-CSF production by purified normal marrow CD3 cells in response to horse anti-lymphocyte and rabbit antithymocyte globulin.

    PubMed

    Piaggio, G; Podestá, M; Pitto, A; Pittaluga, G B; Isaza, A; Benvenuto, F; Bruno, B; Bacigalupo, A

    1998-04-01

    In vitro priming of T cell with horse antilymphocyte globulin (HALG) results in cytokine release, and this has been associated with its clinical efficacy in patients with severe aplastic anaemia (SAA). Rabbit antithymocyte globulin (RATG) has been studied less extensively. In this study we compare the in vitro priming effect of HALG and RATG on purified normal marrow T cells: end-points of the study were 1) levels of TNF-alpha (TNF-alpha), IFN-gamma (IFN-gamma) GM-CSF in T cell supernatants, and 2) effect of T cell supernatants on colony formation with or without exogenous GM-CSF TNF-alpha, IFN-gamma and GM-CSF levels were comparable for HALG, RATG and phytohaemagglutinin (PHA). T cell supernatants showed comparable enhancement of colony formation in the presence of recombinant human GM-CSF (rhGM-CSF) and supported colony forming unit granulomacrophage (CFU-GM) growth in the absence of growth factor. This study shows that horse and rabbit derived ALG/ATG and PHA have a comparable in vitro priming effect on T cells: both agents should probably be tested for their clinical efficacy in SAA patients. PMID:9579877

  18. Comparative characteristics of the morphology of rabbit lymph nodes after implantation of porous titanium with composite nanocoating and hydroxyapatite particles embedded into pores.

    PubMed

    Makarova, E B; Kiselyova, N S; Smetankina, M A; Bliznets, D G; Rubstein, A P; Krokhina, N B

    2011-08-01

    We studied changes of microarchitectonics of lymph nodes in mature rabbits in response to introduction of bioimplants based on porous titanium with carbon-containing nanocoating or nanocoating with hydroxyapatite embedded into pores. Moderate local reactivity of the lymphoid system was observed in animals with implants coated with carbon-containing films within 30 days after surgery. In animals with nanocoated implants containing hydroxyapatite, the immune response was more pronounced. Introduction of implants led to activation of cellular and humoral mechanisms of immunity in animals of both groups. PMID:22448374

  19. A comparison of the biomechanical effects of valgus knee braces and lateral wedged insoles in patients with knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Jones, Richard K; Nester, Christopher J; Richards, Jim D; Kim, Winston Y; Johnson, David S; Jari, Sanjiv; Laxton, Philip; Tyson, Sarah F

    2013-03-01

    Increases in the external knee adduction moment (EKAM) have been associated with increased mechanical load at the knee and progression of knee osteoarthritis. Valgus knee braces and lateral wedged insoles are common approaches to reducing this loading; however no study has directly compared the biomechanical and clinical effects of these two treatments in patients with medial tibiofemoral osteoarthritis. A cross-over randomised design was used where each intervention was worn by 28 patients for a two week period. Pre- and post-intervention gait kinematic/kinetic data and clinical outcomes were collected to evaluate the biomechanical and clinical effects on the knee joint. The valgus knee brace and the lateral wedged insole significantly increased walking speed, reduced the early stance EKAM by 7% and 12%, and the knee adduction angular impulse by 8.6 and 16.1% respectively. The lateral wedged insole significantly reduced the early stance EKAM compared to the valgus knee brace (p=0.001). The valgus knee brace significantly reduced the knee varus angle compared to the baseline and lateral wedged insole. Improvements in pain and function subscales were comparable for the valgus knee brace and lateral wedged insole. There were no significant differences between the two treatments in any of the clinical outcomes; however the lateral wedged insoles demonstrated greater levels of acceptance by patients. This is the first study to biomechanically compare these two treatments, and demonstrates that given the potential role of knee loading in osteoarthritis progression, that both treatments reduce this but lateral wedge insoles appear to have a greater effect. PMID:22920242

  20. Usefulness of the Korean Knee Score for Evaluation of the Results of Total Knee Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jin Kyu; Shim, Ji-Hoon; Chung, Kyu-Sung

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The Korean Knee score (KKS) was designed to reflect the floor-sitting lifestyle that necessitates high knee flexion. The purpose of this study is to assess whether the KKS reflects the floor-sitting lifestyle more accurately than the previously developed Knee Society clinical rating system. In addition, the presence of ceiling effects was compared between the two rating systems. Materials and Methods Eighty-one consecutive patients (120 knees) who were assessed regularly after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) on an outpatient basis between January 2012 and December 2012 were enrolled. All patients were asked to complete a questionnaire to assess the Knee Society Knee score (KSKS), Knee Society Function score (KSFS), and KKS. Results At the final follow-up, the mean KSKS, KSFS, and KKS were 91.2, 86.0, and 70.1, respectively, and the scores were similar between the ≥125° maximum flexion group and <125° maximum flexion group. However, the 'floor life' subdomain score of the KKS was significantly higher in the >125° maximum flexion group (15.13 vs. 11.24, p=0.001). The number of cases with the highest possible score was 24 (20%) for the KSKS and 47 (39%) for the KSFS, whereas none of the cases obtained the highest possible KKS. According to the standard deviation method, more substantial ceiling effects were present in the KSKS (83 cases, 69.1%) and KSFS (67 cases, 55.8%) than in the KKS (23 cases, 19.2%). Conclusions Although, the KKS was effective in reducing the ceiling effect, it demonstrated limited improvement in assessing the ability to perform high knee flexion after TKA. However, the 'floor life' subdomain of KSS appeared to be valid for evaluating high flexion of the knee. PMID:25750889

  1. Cryopreservation of rabbit semen: comparing the effects of different cryoprotectants, cryoprotectant-free vitrification, and the use of albumin plus osmoprotectants on sperm survival and fertility after standard vapor freezing and vitrification.

    PubMed

    Rosato, Maria Pina; Iaffaldano, Nicolaia

    2013-02-01

    best recovery of DNA-intact sperm was recorded for BSA plus sucrose compared with semen vitrified without osmoprotectants (P < 0.05). Finally, the cryodiluent combinations BSA/sucrose and BSA/trehalose were compared in an insemination trial. Rabbit does were inseminated with fresh semen (N = 56), semen conventionally cryopreserved in the BSA-based cryodiluents containing 0.1 M sucrose or trehalose (N = 56 per group), or semen vitrified in the presence of 0.25 M sucrose or trehalose (N = 8 per group). Fertility rates and live born kids were similar for semen cryopreserved with BSA/sucrose (77% and 7.6) compared with fresh semen (84% and 8.1) and significantly higher than the figures recorded for the conventionally frozen semen in the BSA/trehalose group (52% and 6.1; P ≤ 0.05). In contrast, only one doe inseminated with semen vitrified in the presence of BSA/sucrose became pregnant, though no kids were delivered. The conclusions to be drawn from our study are: (1) incubation times and concentration toxicities established for the main permeable CPAs used for conventional freezing of rabbit sperm indicated that DMSO 10% was the least damaging; (2) CPA-free vitrification of rabbit semen led to a low or null sperm cryosurvival; and (3) enriching the freezing medium with BSA plus adequate amounts of sucrose or trehalose can improve the cryosurvival of rabbit sperm after conventional freezing or vitrification. In our working conditions, BSA/sucrose was more effective than BSA/trehalose at preserving the in vivo fertilization capacity of rabbit sperm cryopreserved using the standard procedure. PMID:23218394

  2. Repair of experimentally produced defects in rabbit articular cartilage by autologous chondrocyte transplantation

    SciTech Connect

    Grande, D.A.; Pitman, M.I.; Peterson, L.; Menche, D.; Klein, M.

    1989-01-01

    Using the knee joints of New Zealand White rabbits, a baseline study was made to determine the intrinsic capability of cartilage for healing defects that do not fracture the subchondral plate. A second experiment examined the effect of autologous chondrocytes grown in vitro on the healing rate of these defects. To determine whether any of the reconstituted cartilage resulted from the chondrocyte graft, a third experiment was conducted involving grafts with chondrocytes that had been labeled prior to grafting with a nuclear tracer. Results were evaluated using both qualitative and quantitative light microscopy. Macroscopic results from grafted specimens displayed a marked decrease in synovitis and other degenerative changes. In defects that had received transplants, a significant amount of cartilage was reconstituted (82%) compared to ungrafted controls (18%). Autoradiography on reconstituted cartilage showed that there were labeled cells incorporated into the repair matrix.

  3. Comparative effects of vinpocetine and 8-Br-cyclic GMP on the contraction and /sup 45/Ca-fluxes in the rabbit aorta

    SciTech Connect

    Chiu, P.J.; Tetzloff, G.; Ahn, H.S.; Sybertz, E.J.

    1988-07-01

    Vinpocetine is a highly specific inhibitor of calmodulin-dependent phosphodiesterase (CaM-PDE) with an IC50 of 19 microM and produces a significant accumulation of cyclic GMP but not cyclic AMP in rabbit aorta. In isolated rabbit aortic strips, vinpocetine (0.01 and 0.1 mM) inhibited the contraction and /sup 45/Ca uptake due to both phenylephrine (1 microM) and KCl (40 mM), whereas 8-Br-cyclic GMP (0.1-1mM) selectively impaired phenylephrine-induced responses. Furthermore, the KCl-stimulated /sup 45/Ca efflux in normal Ca2+ buffer, which reflects elevated cytosolic Ca2+, was greatly diminished by vinpocetine but not by 8-Br-cyclic GMP. However, phenylephrine-induced /sup 45/Ca efflux and contraction in Ca2+-free buffer, which reflect Ca2+ release from intracellular sites, were similarly inhibited by both vinpocetine and 8-Br-cyclic GMP. The results suggest that vinpocetine may effect vasodilatation through blockade of the slow channel and selective inhibition of CaM-PDE in the vascular smooth muscle.

  4. Abnormal loading of the major joints in knee osteoarthritis and the response to knee replacement.

    PubMed

    Metcalfe, Andrew; Stewart, Caroline; Postans, Neil; Barlow, David; Dodds, Alexander; Holt, Cathy; Whatling, Gemma; Roberts, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Knee osteoarthritis is common and patients frequently complain that they are 'overloading' the joints of the opposite leg when they walk. However, it is unknown whether moments or co-contractions are abnormal in the unaffected joints of patients with single joint knee osteoarthritis, or how they change following treatment of the affected knee. Twenty patients with single joint medial compartment knee osteoarthritis were compared to 20 asymptomatic control subjects. Gait analysis was performed for normal level gait and surface EMG recordings of the medial and lateral quadriceps and hamstrings were used to investigate co-contraction. Patients were followed up 12 months post-operatively and the analysis was repeated. Results are presented for the first 14 patients who have attended follow-up. Pre-operatively, adduction moment impulses were elevated at both knees and the contra-lateral hip compared to controls. Co-contraction of hamstrings and quadriceps was elevated bilaterally. Post-operatively, moment waveforms returned to near-normal levels at the affected knee and co-contraction fell in the majority of patients. However, abnormalities persisted in the contra-lateral limb with partial or no recovery of both moment waveforms and co-contraction in the majority. Patients with knee osteoarthritis do experience abnormal loads of their major weight bearing joints bilaterally, and abnormalities persist despite treatment of the affected limb. Further treatment may be required if we are to protect the other major joints following joint arthroplasty. PMID:22841587

  5. Odanacatib Restores Trabecular Bone of Skeletally Mature Female Rabbits With Osteopenia but Induces Brittleness of Cortical Bone: A Comparative Study of the Investigational Drug With PTH, Estrogen, and Alendronate.

    PubMed

    Khan, Mohd Parvez; Singh, Atul Kumar; Singh, Abhishek Kumar; Shrivastava, Pragya; Tiwari, Mahesh Chandra; Nagar, Geet Kumar; Bora, Himangshu Kousik; Parameswaran, Venkitanarayanan; Sanyal, Sabyasachi; Bellare, Jayesh R; Chattopadhyay, Naibedya

    2016-03-01

    Cathepsin K (CK), a lysosomal cysteine protease, is highly expressed in mature osteoclasts and degrades type 1 collagen. Odanacatib (ODN) is a selective and reversible CK inhibitor that inhibits bone loss in preclinical and clinical studies. Although an antiresorptive, ODN does not suppress bone formation, which led us to hypothesize that ODN may display restorative effect on the osteopenic bones. In a curative study, skeletally mature New Zealand rabbits were ovarectomized (OVX) and after induction of bone loss were given a steady-state exposure of ODN (9 mM/d) for 14 weeks. Sham-operated and OVX rabbits treated with alendronate (ALD), 17b-estradiol (E2), or parathyroid hormone (PTH) served as various controls. Efficacy was evaluated by assessing bone mineral density (BMD), bone microarchitecture (using micro-computed tomography), fluorescent labeling of bone, and biomechanical strength. Skeletal Ca/P ratio was measured by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with X-ray microanalysis, crystallinity by X-ray diffraction, and bone mineral density distribution (tissue mineralization) by backscattered SEM. Between the sham and ODN-treated osteopenic groups, lumbar and femur metaphyseal BMD, Ca/P ratio, trabecular microstructure and geometric indices, vertebral compressive strength, trabecular lining cells, cortical parameters (femoral area and thickness and periosteal deposition), and serum P1NP were largely comparable. Skeletal improvements in ALD-treated or E2-treated groups fell significantly short of the sham/ODN/PTH group. However, the ODN group displayed reduced ductility and enhanced brittleness of central femur, which might have been contributed by higher crytallinity and tissue mineralization. Rabbit bone marrow stromal cells expressed CK and when treated with ODN displayed increased formation of mineralized nodules and decreased apoptosis in serum-deficient medium compared with control. In vivo, ODN did not suppress remodeling but inhibited osteoclast activity

  6. Preventing Knee Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... to tearing. Growth Plate Injuries, Fractures, and Dislocations Knee fractures rarely occur in childhood sports, but with any ... is the bump on the front of the knee where the patellar tendon attaches. Fractures to the growth plate in this area often ...

  7. Correlation of Adrenomedullin Concentrations with Knee Osteoarthritis Grade

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Linghua; Huang, Ruokun; Ma, Dezhang; Cheng, Wenjun; Feng, Wei; Xing, Danmou; Kan, Wusheng; Xiao, Zhihong

    2016-01-01

    Background Adrenomedullin, a recently identified myokine, has an anti-inflammatory effect. Therefore, we aimed to assess the correlation of adrenomedullin concentrations with the presence and grade of severity of knee osteoarthritis (OA). Material/Methods We recruited 187 knee OA patients and 109 healthy subjects. The severity of OA was evaluated using the Kellgren-Lawrence grading system. Results Compared with the control group, the knee OA group revealed markedly higher adrenomedullin concentrations. Serum and synovial fluid (SF) adrenomedullin concentrations increased with increased KL grades. Conclusions Serum and SF adrenomedullin concentrations show a correlation with the severity of knee OA. PMID:27495944

  8. Correlation of Adrenomedullin Concentrations with Knee Osteoarthritis Grade.

    PubMed

    Liu, Linghua; Huang, Ruokun; Ma, Dezhang; Cheng, Wenjun; Feng, Wei; Xing, Danmou; Kan, Wusheng; Xiao, Zhihong

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Adrenomedullin, a recently identified myokine, has an anti-inflammatory effect. Therefore, we aimed to assess the correlation of adrenomedullin concentrations with the presence and grade of severity of knee osteoarthritis (OA). MATERIAL AND METHODS We recruited 187 knee OA patients and 109 healthy subjects. The severity of OA was evaluated using the Kellgren-Lawrence grading system. RESULTS Compared with the control group, the knee OA group revealed markedly higher adrenomedullin concentrations. Serum and synovial fluid (SF) adrenomedullin concentrations increased with increased KL grades. CONCLUSIONS Serum and SF adrenomedullin concentrations show a correlation with the severity of knee OA. PMID:27495944

  9. Evaluation of total knee mechanics using a crouching simulator with a synthetic knee substitute.

    PubMed

    Lowry, Michael; Rosenbaum, Heather; Walker, Peter S

    2016-05-01

    Mechanical evaluation of total knees is frequently required for aspects such as wear, strength, kinematics, contact areas, and force transmission. In order to carry out such tests, we developed a crouching simulator, based on the Oxford-type machine, with novel features including a synthetic knee including ligaments. The instrumentation and data processing methods enabled the determination of contact area locations and interface forces and moments, for a full flexion-extension cycle. To demonstrate the use of the simulator, we carried out a comparison of two different total knee designs, cruciate retaining and substituting. The first part of the study describes the simulator design and the methodology for testing the knees without requiring cadaveric knee specimens. The degrees of freedom of the anatomic hip and ankle joints were reproduced. Flexion-extension was obtained by changing quadriceps length, while variable hamstring forces were applied using springs. The knee joint was represented by three-dimensional printed blocks on to which the total knee components were fixed. Pretensioned elastomeric bands of realistic stiffnesses passed through holes in the block at anatomical locations to represent ligaments. Motion capture of the knees during flexion, together with laser scanning and computer modeling, was used to reconstruct contact areas on the bearing surfaces. A method was also developed for measuring tibial component interface forces and moments as a comparative assessment of fixation. The method involved interposing Tekscan pads at locations on the interface. Overall, the crouching machine and the methodology could be used for many different mechanical measurements of total knee designs, adapted especially for comparative or parametric studies. PMID:26802075

  10. Muscle Impairments in Patients With Knee Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Alnahdi, Ali H.; Zeni, Joseph A.; Snyder-Mackler, Lynn

    2012-01-01

    Context: Muscle impairments associated with knee osteoarthritis (OA) are the primary underlying cause of functional limitations. Understanding the extent of muscle impairments, its relationship with physical function and disease progression, and the evidence behind exercise therapy that targets muscle impairments is crucial. Evidence Acquisition: An electronic search for relevant articles using MEDLINE and CINHAL databases up to September 2011 was performed. In addition to the electronic search, retrieved articles were searched manually for relevant studies. Results: Quadriceps, hamstrings, and hip muscles are significantly impaired in subjects with knee OA compared with age-matched controls. Muscle strength, especially quadriceps, is a major determinant of both performance-based and self-reported physical function. Whether stronger quadriceps is protective against knee OA onset and progression is not clear. Exercise therapy, including global and targeted resistance training, is effective in reducing pain and improving function in subjects with knee OA. Conclusions: Subjects with knee OA have significant muscle impairments. These muscle impairments affect physical function and should be targeted in therapy. Further research is needed to explore the relationship between quadriceps strength and knee OA initiation and progression and to determine the optimal exercise prescription that augments outcomes in this patient population. PMID:23016099

  11. [Arthritis of the Medial Knee Joint Compartment].

    PubMed

    Matziolis, G; Röhner, E

    2015-10-01

    23 % of all persons older than 65 years suffer from osteoarthritis of the medial compartment of the knee joint, a very common situation in orthopaedic practice 1. As a result of the demographic trend the number of patients is expected to increase in the future. Based on specific joint biomechanics and kinematics the medial knee joint compartment is more frequently affected than the lateral. Only an understanding of the functional anatomy and underlying pathology allows a critical evaluation of different available conservative and operative treatment options. This article gives an overview of diagnostic and therapeutic strategies of osteoarthritis of the medial knee joint. Frequently performed surgeries, e.g. high tibial osteotomy (HTO), unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA) and total knee arthroplasty (TKA) will be presented in a comparative manner. The actual scientific evidence will be given with the goal of an evidence based therapy that is adopted to stage and pathology of osteoarthritis of the medial compartment of the knee joint. PMID:26451864

  12. Treating Osteoarthritis of the Knee

    MedlinePlus

    ... osteotomy may need knee replacement surgery in the future. Arthroplasty is also called joint or knee replacement therapy. A surgeon removes the part of the knee damaged by osteoarthritis and replaces it with an artificial joint made from metals and plastic. All or part of the knee joint may ...

  13. Effect of femoral component design on unresurfaced patellas in knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Whiteside, Leo A; Nakamura, Takashi

    2003-05-01

    Three total knee designs were evaluated to test the hypothesis that femoral component design affects the clinical and mechanical functions of the unresurfaced patella after total knee arthroplasty. Patients with the Ortholoc II, Advantim, and Profix femoral components were followed up for as many as 14 years and revision rate, anterior knee pain, and generalized knee pain were compared. A laboratory protocol was devised to evaluate pressure in the patellofemoral joint of knees from cadavers with a pressure-sensitive transducer using the same three designs at various degrees of knee flexion. Thirty Ortholoc II knee components were followed up for 14 years. Nineteen patients (63%) had severe anterior knee pain and 15 patients (50%) had reoperation to resurface the patella within 2 years. Two hundred one patients (222 knees) with Advantim components were followed up for 10 years and 305 patients (330 knees) with Profix components were followed up for 5 years. No patients with these two knee designs had severe anterior knee pain or reoperation for patellar resurfacing. A significantly higher rate of mild anterior knee pain was seen in the patients with Advantim components than in the patients with Profix components. No apparent relationship was seen between the severity of patellar wear found at the time of surgery and the incidence of anterior knee pain. Patients with rheumatoid arthritis receiving either the Advantim or Profix knee component performed as well as patients with osteoarthritis when the patella was not resurfaced. Pressure was significantly higher in the patellofemoral joints of the laboratory knee specimens with Ortholoc II components than in the specimens with either the Advantim or Profix components. The specimens with Advantim components had significantly higher pressure than did the specimens with normal knees, and the specimens with Profix components differed little from those with normal knees. PMID:12771830

  14. Cysticercosis in laboratory rabbits.

    PubMed

    Owiny, J R

    2001-03-01

    There are no data on the current incidence of Taenia pisiformis in laboratory rabbits. Two cases of cysticercosis most likely due to T. pisiformis in laboratory rabbits (intermediate host) are presented. Both rabbits had no contact with dogs (final host); their caretakers did not work with dogs, and these caretakers changed into facility scrubs and wore gloves when working with the rabbits. Rabbit 1 may have been infected after being fed hay at our facility. In light of the life cycle of the parasite and the history of rabbit 2, it potentially could have been infected prior to arrival at our facility. There have been only three cases of tapeworm cysts in rabbits in our facility (average daily census, 250) during the last 10 years (incidence, < 1%). This report indicates that although cysticercosis is rare in laboratory rabbits, one should always be aware of such incidental findings. Although it may not produce overt illness in the rabbit, hepatic migration could adversely affect the outcome of some experimental procedures PMID:11300689

  15. A morphometric and biomechanic comparison of titanium implants inserted in rabbit cortical and cancellous bone.

    PubMed

    Sennerby, L; Thomsen, P; Ericson, L E

    1992-01-01

    The removal torques for screw-shaped pure titanium implants inserted in rabbit tibia and the femoral part of the knee joint and the tissue response to these implants, as quantitated with light microscopic morphometry on ground sections, were compared after 6 weeks, 3 months, and 6 months. The bone surrounding the femoral intra-articular implants was mostly cancellous, while cortical bone was formed around the tibial implants. The torque needed to remove the intra-articular implants increased with time, but there was no such increase for the tibial implants. At 6 weeks, significantly less torque was needed to remove the intra-articular implants in spite of the fact that significantly more bone was found in the threads of these implants as compared with the tibial implants. When calculating the amount of bone in threads situated in the cortical and subchondral passage, more was found in the threads of the tibial implants, which corresponded to the higher removal torque. Additional light microscopic observations on implants unscrewed after 12 months in rabbit tibia indicated that rupture occurred between the implant surface and calcified bone. Findings indicate that the resistance to unscrewing is dependent on the amount of compact bone surrounding a titanium implant. PMID:1398826

  16. Surgical and Functional Outcomes in Patients Undergoing Total Knee Replacement With Patient-Specific Implants Compared With “Off-the-Shelf” Implants

    PubMed Central

    Schwarzkopf, Ran; Brodsky, Merrick; Garcia, Giancarlo A.; Gomoll, Andreas H.

    2015-01-01

    Background Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) instrumentation and implant designs have been evolving, with one of the current innovations being patient-specific implants (PSIs). Purpose To evaluate whether there is a significant difference in surgical time, intraoperative blood loss, postoperative range of motion, and length of stay between PSI and conventional TKA. Study Design Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods A consecutive series of 621 TKA patients, 307 with PSIs and 314 with conventional implants, was reviewed. Differences in estimated blood loss, length of stay, range of motion, and surgical time/tourniquet time between the 2 cohorts were analyzed. Results Linear regression analysis demonstrated that PSI decreased estimated blood loss by 44.72 mL (P < .01), decreased length of stay by 0.39 days (P < .01), decreased postoperative range of motion by 3.90° (P < .01), and had a negligible difference on surgical and tourniquet time. Conclusion The use of PSI is associated with decreased estimated blood loss, decreased length of stay, decreased range of motion, and no discernible difference in surgical or tourniquet time, all of which are unlikely to be clinically significant. PMID:26673037

  17. Advanced concepts in knee arthrodesis

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Jennifer H; Conway, Janet D

    2015-01-01

    The aim is to describe advanced strategies that can be used to diagnose and treat complications after knee arthrodesis and to describe temporary knee arthrodesis to treat infected knee arthroplasty. Potential difficult complications include nonunited knee arthrodesis, limb length discrepancy after knee arthrodesis, and united but infected knee arthrodesis. If a nonunited knee arthrodesis shows evidence of implant loosening or failure, then bone grafting the nonunion site as well as exchange intramedullary nailing and/or supplemental plate fixation are recommended. If symptomatic limb length discrepancy cannot be satisfactorily treated with a shoe lift, then the patient should undergo tibial lengthening over nail with a monolateral fixator or exchange nailing with a femoral internal lengthening device. If a united knee arthrodesis is infected, the nail must be removed. Then the surgeon has the option of replacing it with a long, antibiotic cement-coated nail. The authors also describe temporary knee arthrodesis for infected knee arthroplasty in patients who have the potential to undergo insertion of a new implant. The procedure has two goals: eradication of infection and stabilization of the knee. A temporary knee fusion can be accomplished by inserting both an antibiotic cement-coated knee fusion nail and a static antibiotic cement-coated spacer. These advanced techniques can be helpful when treating difficult complications after knee arthrodesis and treating cases of infected knee arthroplasty. PMID:25793160

  18. Pathological Knee Joint Motion Analysis By High Speed Cinephotography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumann, Jurg U.

    1985-02-01

    The use of cinephotography for evaluation of disturbed knee joint function was compared in three groups of patients. While a sampling rate of 50 images per second was adequate for patients with neuromuscular disorders, a higher frequency of around 300 i.p.s. is necessary in osteoarthritis and ligamentous knee joint injuries, but the task of digitizing is prohibitive unless automated.

  19. Robotic control in knee joint replacement surgery.

    PubMed

    Davies, B L; Rodriguez y Baena, F M; Barrett, A R W; Gomes, M P S F; Harris, S J; Jakopec, M; Cobb, J P

    2007-01-01

    A brief history of robotic systems in knee arthroplasty is provided. The place of autonomous robots is then discussed and compared to more recent 'hands-on' robotic systems that can be more cost effective. The case is made for robotic systems to have a clear justification, with improved benefits compared to those from cheaper navigation systems. A number of more recent, smaller, robot systems for knee arthroplasty are also described. A specific example is given of an active constraint medical robot, the ACROBOT system, used in a prospective randomized controlled trial of unicondylar robotic knee arthroplasty in which the robot was compared to conventional surgery. The results of the trial are presented together with a discussion of the need for measures of accuracy to be introduced so that the efficacy of the robotic surgery can be immediately identified, rather than have to wait for a number of years before long-term clinical improvements can be demonstrated. PMID:17315770

  20. Advantage of Minimal Anterior Knee Pain and Long-term Survivorship of Cemented Single Radius Posterior-Stabilized Total Knee Arthroplasty without Patella Resurfacing

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Hyung-Min; Baek, Ji-Hoon; Ko, Young-Bong

    2015-01-01

    Background The single radius total knee prosthesis was introduced with the advantage of reduced patellar symptoms; however, there is no long-term follow-up study of the same. The purpose of this study was to determine the survival rate of single radius posterior-stabilized total knee arthroplasty and patellofemoral complication rates in a consecutive series. Methods Seventy-one patients (103 knees) who underwent arthroplasty without patellar resurfacing using a single radius posterior-stabilized total knee prosthesis were followed up for a minimum 10 years. Clinical evaluation using Knee Society knee and function scores and radiologic evaluation were performed at regular intervals. Anterior knee pain as well as patellofemoral complications were evaluated with a simple questionnaire. The Kaplan-Meier product-limit method was used to estimate survival. Results Seventeen patients (23 knees) were excluded due to death (12 knees) or lost to follow-up (11 knees). Of the 80 knees enrolled, all femoral components and 78 tibial components were well fixed without loosening at final follow-up. Two revisions were performed because of tibial component loosening and periprosthetic joint infection. One patient with tibial component loosening refused to have revision surgery. No obvious tibial insert polyethylene wear was observed. The survivorships at 132 months were 96.7% using revision or pending revision as end points. Anterior knee pain was present in 6 patients (6 knees, 7.5%) at the latest follow-up. No patellofemoral complication requiring revision was encountered. Conclusions The single radius posterior-stabilized total knee prosthesis demonstrated an excellent minimum 10-year survivorship. The low rates of implant loosening and 7.5% of anterior knee pain as a patellofemoral complication are comparable with those reported for other modern total knee prosthesis. PMID:25729519

  1. Rates of change and Sensitivity to Change in Cartilage Morphology in Healthy Knees and in Knees with Mild, Moderate, and End Stage Radiographic Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Eckstein, Felix; Nevitt, Michael; Gimona, Alberto; Picha, Kristen; Lee, Jennifer H; Davies, Richard Y; Dreher, Donatus; Benichou, Olivier; Le Graverand, Marie-Pierre Hellio; Hudelmaier, Martin; Maschek, Susanne; Wirth, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study the longitudinal rate of (and sensitivity to) change of knee cartilage thickness across defined stages of radiographic osteoarthritis (ROA), specifically healthy knees and knees with end-stage ROA. Methods One knee of 831 Osteoarthritis Initiative (OAI) participants was examined: 112 healthy, without ROA or risk factors for knee OA, and 719 ROA knees: 310 calculated Kellgren Lawrence [cKLG] grade 2, 300 cKLG3, and 109 cKLG4. Subregional change in thickness was assessed after segmentation of weight-bearing femorotibial cartilage at baseline and at one year from coronal MRI. Regional and ordered values (OV) of change were compared by baseline ROA status. Results Healthy knees displayed small changes in plates and subregions (±0.7%; standardized response mean [SRM] ±0.15), with OVs being symmetrically distributed around zero. In cKLG2 knees, changes in cartilage thickness were small (≤1%; minimal SRM -0.22) and not significantly different from healthy knees. Knees with cKLG3 showed substantial loss of cartilage thickness (up to -2.5%; minimal SRM -0.35), with OV changes being significantly (p<0.05) greater than those in healthy knees. cKLG4 knees displayed the largest rate of loss across ROA grades (up to -3.9%; minimal SRM -0.51), with OV changes also significantly (p<0.05) greater than in healthy knees. Conclusion MRI-based cartilage thickness showed high rates of loss in knees with moderate and end-stage ROA, and small rates (indistinguishable from healthy knees) in mild ROA. From the perspective of sensitivity to change, end-stage ROA knees need not be excluded from longitudinal studies using MRI cartilage morphology as an endpoint. PMID:20957657

  2. A multicentre, pragmatic, parallel group, randomised controlled trial to compare the clinical and cost-effectiveness of three physiotherapy-led exercise interventions for knee osteoarthritis in older adults: the BEEP trial protocol (ISRCTN: 93634563)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Exercise is consistently recommended for older adults with knee pain related to osteoarthritis. However, the effects from exercise are typically small and short-term, likely linked to insufficient individualisation of the exercise programme and limited attention to supporting exercise adherence over time. The BEEP randomised trial aims to improve patients’ short and long-term outcomes from exercise. It will test the overall effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of two physiotherapy-led exercise interventions (Individually Tailored Exercise and Targeted Exercise Adherence) to improve the individual tailoring of, and adherence to exercise, compared with usual physiotherapy care. Methods/design Based on the learning from a pilot study (ISRCTN 23294263), the BEEP trial is a multi-centre, pragmatic, parallel group, individually randomised controlled trial, with embedded longitudinal qualitative interviews. 500 adults in primary care, aged 45 years and over with knee pain will be randomised to 1 of 3 treatment groups delivered by fully trained physiotherapists in up to 6 NHS services. These are: Usual Physiotherapy Care (control group consisting of up to 4 treatment sessions of advice and exercise), Individually Tailored Exercise (an individualised, supervised and progressed lower-limb exercise programme) or Targeted Exercise Adherence (supporting patients to adhere to exercise and to engage in general physical activity over the longer-term). The primary outcomes are pain and function as measured by the Western Ontario and McMaster Osteoarthritis index. A comprehensive range of secondary outcomes are also included. Outcomes are measured at 3, 6 (primary outcome time-point), 9, 18 and 36 months. Data on adverse events will also be collected. Semi-structured, qualitative interviews with a subsample of 30 participants (10 from each treatment group) will be undertaken at two time-points (end of treatment and 12 to 18 months later) and analysed thematically

  3. Leukocyte and Platelet Rich Plasma (L-PRP) Versus Leukocyte and Platelet Rich Fibrin (L-PRF) For Articular Cartilage Repair of the Knee: A Comparative Evaluation in an Animal Model

    PubMed Central

    Kazemi, Davoud; Fakhrjou, Ashraf

    2015-01-01

    Background: Articular cartilage injuries of the knee are among the most debilitating injuries leading to osteoarthritis due to limited regenerative capability of cartilaginous tissue. The use of platelet concentrates containing necessary growth factors for cartilage healing has recently emerged as a new treatment method. Objectives: The efficacy of two types of different platelet concentrates were compared in the treatment of acute articular cartilage injuries of the knee in an animal model. Materials and Methods: Eighteen adult Iranian mixed breed male dogs were used to conduct this experimental study. Full thickness articular cartilage defects (diameter 6 mm, depth 5 mm) were created in the weight bearing area of femoral condyles of both hind limbs in all dogs (n = 72). Twelve dogs were randomly selected to receive treatment and their right and left hind limb defects were treated by L-PRP and L-PRF implantation respectively, while no treatment was undertaken in six other dogs as controls. The animals were euthanized at 4, 16 and 24 weeks following surgery and the resultant repair tissue was investigated macroscopically and microscopically. At each sampling time, 4 treated dogs and 2 control dogs were euthanized, therefore 8 defects per group were evaluated. Results: Mean macroscopic scores of the treated defects were higher than the controls at all sampling times with significant differences (P < 0.05) observed between L-PRF treated and control defects (10.13 vs. 8.37) and L-PRP treated and control defects (10 vs. 8.5) at 4 and 16 weeks, respectively. A similar trend in mean total microscopic scores was observed with a significant difference (P < 0.05) between L-PRP treated and control defects at 4 (9.87 vs. 7.62) and 16 (13.38 vs. 11) weeks. No significant difference was observed between the platelet concentrate treated defects in either mean macroscopic scores or mean total microscopic scores. Conclusions: Both L-PRP and L-PRF could be used to effectively

  4. Knee kinetics during walking at different speeds in people who have undergone total knee replacement.

    PubMed

    McClelland, Jodie A; Webster, Kate E; Feller, Julian A; Menz, Hylton B

    2010-06-01

    Previous research suggests that most people who have undergone total knee replacement (TKR) walk with a sagittal knee moment profile and peak knee moments that are different from normal. However, most previous research has consisted of small samples of patients with prostheses that are no longer in use. The aim of this study was to compare the peak knee moments and patterns of the moment waveforms of walking at different speeds between a large cohort of TKR patients with the Genesis-II PS prosthesis (Smith and Nephew, Memphis, USA) and matched control participants. Forty patients 12months following TKR and 40 control participants were assessed during walking at self-selected comfortable and fast speeds using motion analysis. Individual sagittal plane knee moment graphs were assessed for the presence of a biphasic pattern. Peak sagittal and coronal plane knee moments were compared between groups using a univariate ANOVA with walking speed as a covariate. A biphasic moment pattern was present in 87% and 92% of TKR patients when walking at comfortable and fast speeds, respectively. The knee flexor (p<0.001 at both speeds), extensor (p=0.004 at comfortable speed and p<0.001 at fast speed) and adductor (p<0.001 at both speeds) moments were reduced in the TKR patients. The high proportion of TKR patients with biphasic moment patterns was unexpected, but suggests that modern prostheses can result in more normal outcomes. Nonetheless, the peak knee moments of patients were reduced compared to controls. Although these reductions may be beneficial to the survival of the prosthesis, these abnormalities may also indicate suboptimal functional outcome from TKR. PMID:20510613

  5. Allogeneic Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Combination with Hyaluronic Acid for the Treatment of Osteoarthritis in Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Chiang, En-Rung; Ma, Hsiao-Li; Wang, Jung-Pan; Liu, Chien-Lin; Chen, Tain-Hsiung; Hung, Shih-Chieh

    2016-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-based therapies may aid in the repair of articular cartilage defects. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of intraarticular injection of allogeneic MSCs in an in vivo anterior cruciate ligament transection (ACLT) model of osteoarthritis in rabbits. Allogeneic bone marrow-derived MSCs were isolated and cultured under hypoxia (1% O2). After 8 weeks following ACLT, MSCs suspended in hyaluronic acid (HA) were injected into the knees, and the contralateral knees were injected with HA alone. Additional controls consisted of a sham operation group as well as an untreated osteoarthritis group. The tissues were analyzed by macroscopic examination as well as histologic and immunohistochemical methods at 6 and 12 weeks post-transplantation. At 6 and 12 weeks, the joint surface showed less cartilage loss and surface abrasion after MSC injection as compared to the tissues receiving HA injection alone. Significantly better histological scores and cartilage content were observed with the MSC transplantation. Furthermore, engraftment of allogenic MSCs were evident in surface cartilage. Thus, injection of the allogeneic MSCs reduced the progression of osteoarthritis in vivo. PMID:26915044

  6. Biomechanical analysis of knee and trunk in badminton players with and without knee pain during backhand diagonal lunges.

    PubMed

    Lin, Cheng-Feng; Hua, Shiang-Hua; Huang, Ming-Tung; Lee, Hsing-Hsan; Liao, Jen-Chieh

    2015-01-01

    The contribution of core neuromuscular control to the dynamic stability of badminton players with and without knee pain during backhand lunges has not been investigated. Accordingly, this study compared the kinematics of the lower extremity, the trunk movement, the muscle activation and the balance performance of knee-injured and knee-uninjured badminton players when performing backhand stroke diagonal lunges. Seventeen participants with chronic knee pain (injured group) and 17 healthy participants (control group) randomly performed two diagonal backhand lunges in the forward and backward directions, respectively. This study showed that the injured group had lower frontal and horizontal motions of the knee joint, a smaller hip-shoulder separation angle and a reduced trunk tilt angle. In addition, the injured group exhibited a greater left paraspinal muscle activity, while the control group demonstrated a greater activation of the vastus lateralis, vastus medialis and medial gastrocnemius muscle groups. Finally, the injured group showed a smaller distance between centre of mass (COM) and centre of pressure, and a lower peak COM velocity when performing the backhand backward lunge tasks. In conclusion, the injured group used reduced knee and trunk motions to complete the backhand lunge tasks. Furthermore, the paraspinal muscles contributed to the lunge performance of the individuals with knee pain, whereas the knee extensors and ankle plantar flexor played a greater role for those without knee pain. PMID:25574707

  7. Astroviruses in Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Moschidou, Paschalina; Pinto, Pierfrancesco; Catella, Cristiana; Desario, Constantina; Larocca, Vittorio; Circella, Elena; Bànyai, Krisztian; Lavazza, Antonio; Magistrali, Chiara; Decaro, Nicola; Buonavoglia, Canio

    2011-01-01

    By screening rabbits with enterocolitis or enteritis complex and asymptomatic rabbits, we identified a novel astrovirus. The virus was distantly related (19.3%–23.7% aa identity) in the capsid precursor to other mammalian astroviruses within the Mamastrovirus genus. By using real-time reverse transcription PCR, with specific primers and probes and targeting a conserved stretch in open reading frame 1b, we found rabbit astrovirus in 10 (43%) of 23 samples from animals with enteric disease and in 25 (18%) of 139 samples from asymptomatic animals in Italy during 2005–2008. The mean and median titers in the positive animals were 102× and 103× greater, respectively, in the symptomatic animals than in the asymptomatic animals. These findings support the idea that rabbit astroviruses should be included in the diagnostic algorithm of rabbit enteric disease and animal experiments to increase information obtained about their epidemiology and potential pathogenic role. PMID:22172457

  8. Tourniquetless Total Knee Arthroplasty

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    Tourniquetless Total Knee Arthroplasty You must have Javascript enabled in your web browser. View Program Transcript Click Here to view the OR-Live, Inc. Privacy Policy and Legal Notice © 2010 OR- ...

  9. Knee arthroscopy - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... is cartilage that cushions the space between the bones in the knee. Surgery is done to repair or remove it. Torn or damaged anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) or posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) Inflamed or damaged lining of the joint. This ...

  10. Knee arthroscopy - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... knee arthroscopy). You may have been checked for: Torn meniscus. Meniscus is cartilage that cushions the space ... Surgery is done to repair or remove it. Torn or damaged anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) or posterior ...

  11. Knee MRI scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... magnetic resonance imaging) scan uses energy from strong magnets to create pictures of the knee joint and ... in your eyes) Because the MRI contains strong magnets, metal objects are not allowed into the room ...

  12. Anterior knee pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... places extra stress on the kneecap (such as running, jumping or twisting, skiing, or playing soccer). You ... noticeable with: Deep knee bends Going down stairs Running downhill Standing up after sitting for awhile

  13. Total Knee Replacement

    MedlinePlus

    ... as anti- inflammatory medications, cortisone injections, lubricating injections, physical therapy, or other surgeries A knee that has become ... your function. Other treatment options — including medications, injections, physical therapy, or other types of surgery — will also be ...

  14. Taking care of your new knee joint

    MedlinePlus

    Knee arthroplasty - precautions; Knee replacement - precautions ... After you have knee replacement surgery , you will need to be careful about how you move your knee, especially for the first few months after ...

  15. Kinematic and dynamic analysis of an anatomically based knee joint.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kok-Meng; Guo, Jiajie

    2010-05-01

    This paper presents a knee-joint model to provide a better understanding on the interaction between natural joints and artificial mechanisms for design and control of rehabilitation exoskeletons. The anatomically based knee model relaxes several commonly made assumptions that approximate a human knee as engineering pin-joint in exoskeleton design. Based on published MRI data, we formulate the kinematics of a knee-joint and compare three mathematical approximations; one model bases on two sequential circles rolling a flat plane; and the other two are mathematically differentiable ellipses-based models with and without sliding at the contact. The ellipses-based model taking sliding contact into accounts shows that the rolling-sliding ratio of a knee-joint is not a constant but has an average value consistent with published measurements. This knee-joint kinematics leads to a physically more accurate contact-point trajectory than methods based on multiple circles or lines, and provides a basis to derive a knee-joint kinetic model upon which the effects of a planar exoskeleton mechanism on the internal joint forces and torque during flexion can be numerically investigated. Two different knee-joint kinetic models (pin-joint approximation and anatomically based model) are compared against a condition with no exoskeleton. The leg and exoskeleton form a closed kinematic chain that has a significant effect on the joint forces in the knee. Human knee is more tolerant than pin-joint in negotiating around a singularity but its internal forces increase with the exoskeleton mass-to-length ratio. An oversimplifying pin-joint approximation cannot capture the finite change in the knee forces due to the singularity effect. PMID:20189182

  16. Reading Knee-Deep

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jewett, Pamela

    2007-01-01

    Freire told his audience at a seminar at the University of Massachusetts, "You need to read knee-deep in texts, for deeper than surface meanings, and you need to know the words to be able to do it" (quoted in Cleary, 2003). In a children's literature class, fifteen teachers and I traveled along a path that moved us toward reading knee-deep as we…

  17. Dashboard (in the) knee.

    PubMed

    Patel, M S; Qureshi, A A; Green, T P

    2015-03-01

    We present the case of a 19-year-old individual presenting to an orthopaedic outpatient clinic several months following a dashboard knee injury during a road traffic accident with intermittent mechanical symptoms. Despite unremarkable examination findings and normal magnetic resonance imaging, the patient was identified subsequently as having an intra-articular plastic foreign body consistent with a piece of dashboard on arthroscopic knee assessment, the retrieval of which resulted in a complete resolution of symptoms. PMID:25723676

  18. Relationship of Buckling and Knee Injury to Pain Exacerbation in Knee Osteoarthritis: A Web-Based Case-Crossover Study

    PubMed Central

    Zobel, Isabelle; Erfani, Tahereh; Bennell, Kim L; Makovey, Joanna; Metcalf, Ben; March, Lyn; Zhang, Yuqing; Eckstein, Felix

    2016-01-01

    Background Knee osteoarthritis (OA) is one of the most frequent causes of limited mobility and diminished quality of life. Pain is the main symptom that drives individuals with knee OA to seek medical care and a recognized antecedent to disability and eventually joint replacement. Evidence shows that patients with symptomatic OA experience fluctuations in pain severity. Mechanical insults to the knee such as injury and buckling may contribute to pain exacerbation. Objective Our objective was to examine whether knee injury and buckling (giving way) are triggers for exacerbation of pain in persons with symptomatic knee OA. Methods We conducted a case-crossover study, a novel methodology in which participants with symptomatic radiographic knee OA who have had knee pain exacerbations were used as their own control (self-matched design), with all data collected via the Internet. Participants were asked to log-on to the study website and complete an online questionnaire at baseline and then at regular 10-day intervals for 3 months (control periods)—a total of 10 questionnaires. They were also instructed to go to the website and complete pain exacerbation questionnaires when they experienced an isolated incident of knee pain exacerbation (case periods). A pain exacerbation “case” period was defined as an increase of ≥2 compared to baseline. At each contact the pain exacerbation was designated a case period, and at all other regular 10-day contacts (control periods) participants were asked about knee injuries during the previous 7 days and knee buckling during the previous 2 days. The relationship of knee injury and buckling to the risk of pain exacerbation was examined using conditional logistic regression models. Results The analysis included 157 participants (66% women, mean age: 62 years, mean BMI: 29.5 kg/m2). Sustaining a knee injury was associated with experiencing a pain exacerbation (odds ratio [OR] 10.2, 95% CI 5.4, 19.3) compared with no injury. Knee

  19. In-vitro Assessment of Knee MRI in the Presence of Metal Implants Comparing MAVRIC-SL and Conventional FSE Sequences at 1.5 and 3 Tesla Field Strength

    PubMed Central

    Liebl, Hans; Heilmeier, Ursula; Lee, Sonia; Nardo, Lorenzo; Patsch, Janina; Schuppert, Christopher; Han, Misung; Rondak, Ina-Christine; Banerjee, Suchandrima; Koch, Kevin; Link, Thomas M.; Krug, Roland

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE To assess lesion detection and artifact size reduction of a MAVRIC-SEMAC hybrid sequence (MAVRIC-SL) compared to standard sequences at 1.5T and 3T in porcine knee specimens with metal hardware. METHODS Artificial cartilage and bone lesions of defined size were created in the proximity of titanium and steel screws with 2.5 mm diameter in 12 porcine knee specimens and were imaged at 1.5T and 3T MRI with MAVRIC-SL PD and STIR, standard FSE T2 PD and STIR and fat-saturated T2 FSE sequences. Three radiologists blinded to the lesion locations assessed lesion detection rates on randomized images for each sequence using ROC. Artifact length and width were measured. RESULTS Metal artifact sizes were largest in the presence of steel screws at 3T (FSE T2 FS: 28.7cm2) and 1.5T (16.03cm2). MAVRIC-SL PD and STIR reduced artifact sizes at both 3T (1.43cm2; 2.46cm2) and 1.5T (1.16cm2; 1.59cm2) compared to FS T2 FSE sequences (27.57cm2; 13.20cm2). At 3T, ROC derived AUC values using MAVRIC-SL sequences were significantly higher compared to standard sequences (MAVRIC-PD: 0.87, versus FSE-T2-FS: 0.73 (p=0.025); MAVRIC- STIR: 0.9 versus T2-STIR: 0.78 (p=0.001) and versus FSE-T2-FS: 0.73 (p=0.026)). Similar values were observed at 1.5T. Comparison of 3T and 1.5T showed no significant differences (MAVRIC-SL PD: p=0.382; MAVRIC-SL STIR: p=0.071. CONCLUSION MAVRIC-SL sequences provided superior lesion detection and reduced metal artifact size at both 1.5T and 3T compared to conventionally used FSE sequences. No significant disadvantage was found comparing MAVRIC-SL at 3T and 1.5T, though metal artifacts at 3T were larger. PMID:24912802

  20. Chondroprotective activity of N-acetylglucosamine in rabbits with experimental osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Shikhman, A; Amiel, D; D'Lima, D; Hwang, S; Hu, C; Xu, A; Hashimoto, S; Kobayashi, K; Sasho, T; Lotz, M

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To examine the therapeutic efficacy of N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) in rabbits with experimental osteoarthritis (OA). Methods: Experimental OA was induced in rabbits by anterior cruciate ligament transection (ACLT). In the first study, rabbits (six in each group) received intramuscular injections of GlcNAc or normal saline three times a week starting 1 week postoperatively. In the second study, rabbits (eight in each group) were injected intra-articularly with GlcNAc (either once or twice a week) or normal saline. In the third study, rabbits (seven in each group) were injected intra-articularly twice a week with either GlcNAc, hyaluronan, or normal saline. Animals were killed 8 weeks after ACLT for macroscopic and histological assessment of the knee joints. Results: Intramuscular administration of GlcNAc in rabbits with experimental knee OA did not show chondroprotective effects but showed mild anti-inflammatory activity. In contrast, intra-articular administration of GlcNAc twice a week reduced cartilage degradation. Additionally, intra-articular GlcNAc also suppressed synovitis. Once a week intra-articular injections of GlcNAc did not demonstrate therapeutic efficacy. The chondroprotective efficacy of GlcNAc was better than that of viscosupplementation treatment with hyaluronan. Conclusion: Intra-articular GlcNAc has chondroprotective and anti-inflammatory activity in experimental OA. PMID:15608304

  1. An ultrasound biomicroscopic and water jet ultrasound indentation method for detecting the degenerative changes of articular cartilage in a rabbit model of progressive osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuexiang; Huang, Yan-Ping; Liu, Aijun; Wan, Wenbo; Zheng, Yong-Ping

    2014-06-01

    It is important to assess the early degeneration of articular cartilage associated with osteoarthritis (OA) for early intervention and treatment planning. Previously, we have developed a high frequency ultrasound and water jet indentation method for the morphologic, acoustic and mechanical assessment of articular cartilage, using the enzymatic digestion as a model of osteoarthritic degeneration. No naturally degenerated articular cartilage has been tested with the developed method. In this study, we aimed to determine the usefulness of the developed method for detecting the natural degeneration of articular cartilage in a standard surgical model of OA in rabbits. Forty adult New Zealand white female rabbits were used in this study, which included 30 experimental rabbits undergoing the right anterior cruciate ligament transection surgery and 10 control rabbits. At the 3rd, 6th, and 9th week post-surgery, 10 experimental rabbits were sacrificed, respectively, for assessment of the knee cartilage quality. The cartilage at the medial and lateral femoral condyles and tibial plateaus (four points) was measured by the high frequency ultrasound biomicroscopy, the water jet ultrasound indentation and a contact mechanical indentation test before a histopathologic analysis for grading of degeneration severity. Measured parameters were compared among different groups classified either by post-surgery time or by histopathologic grade. The results showed a general trend of increase for ultrasound roughness index and a general trend of decrease for integrated reflection coefficient, stiffness coefficient from water-jet indentation and Young's modulus (E) from the mechanical indentation with the increase of post-surgery time. Comparisons among groups with different histopathologic grades showed similar trend with the increase of degeneration severity. The water jet ultrasound indentation method was demonstrated to be an effective method to measure the mechanical properties of the

  2. Introduction of total knee arthroplasty in Lithuania

    PubMed Central

    Stucinskas, Justinas; Robertsson, Otto; Wingstrand, Hans

    2009-01-01

    Background and purpose We have previously reported that the first 10 years of hip arthroplasty in Lithuania resulted in a higher cumulative revision rate than that observed in Sweden. We thus compared the corresponding results after introduaction of total knee replacement in Lithuania. Methods The 10-year revision rate for the first 595 primary ScanKnee arthroplasties inserted in Klaipeda, Lithuania, was compared to that for the first 1,280 ScanKnee primary arthroplasties inserted in Sweden. As in the hip replacement study, only patients with osteoarthritis (OA) were included. Primary knee arthroplasties without patellar resurfacing were included, and the endpoint was revision for any reason other than addition of a patellar component. Results We found that the cumulative revision rate was not statistically significantly different between the groups. The revision pattern was different, however, and we observed 24 isolated patellar component additions in Sweden, but none in Klaipeda. Interpretation Contrary to the results of our previous hip arthroplasty study, the cumulative revision rate after total knee arthroplasty was similar in the two groups. This suggests that compared to hip arthroplasty, the outcome of total knee arthroplasty was less dependent on surgical experience. The large difference regarding isolated patellar component additions may be explained by long-term accumulation of severe OA cases in Lithuania. To patients subject to a newly introduced surgical treatment offering great improvement in quality of life, patellofemoral pain may be a minor problem. Furthermore, patellar problems may not have seemed particularly relevant for the surgeons, considering the disability of other patients waiting to be treated. PMID:19297790

  3. Knee alignment in professional tennis players.

    PubMed

    Maquirriain, Javier

    2002-01-01

    This study determined lower-limb alignment and knee geometry in professional tennis players and compared the data with those from nonathletic individuals. Twenty-four radiographs from 12 asymptomatic players (mean age: 23.4+/-3.8 years) were prospectively studied. The three angles most useful for describing limb alignment and knee geometry in the coronal plane were measured: hip-knee-ankle, condylar-hip, and plateau-ankle. The condylar-plateau angle, frontal foot rotation angle, and the relationship between the mechanical axis and tibial plateau also were calculated. Varus limb alignment was predominant and the mechanical axis passed medially through the knee center; there was increased valgus inclination of the distal femur, varus angulation of the tibial plateau, near parallel alignment of the joint, and exaggerated external foot rotation. Hip-knee-ankle, condylar-hip, plateau-ankle, and frontal foot rotation angles were significantly different (P<.05, two-tailed t test) from previously reported angles of nonathletic individuals. Variations, probably due to repetitive dynamic demands imposed on lower limbs from an early age, seem to involve both femoral condyles and proximal tibial metaphyses, maintaining normal parallel joint alignment. PMID:11829331

  4. Arthrodiatasis for management of knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Aly, Tarek A; Hafez, Kamal; Amin, Osama

    2011-08-01

    Osteoarthritic disease is the result of mechanical and biological events that destabilize the normal processes of degradation and synthesis of articular cartilage chondrocytes, extracellular matrix, and subchondral bone. Osteoarthritis of the knee can cause symptoms ranging from mild to disabling. Initial management of most patients should be nonoperative, but because of the progressive nature of the disease, many patients with osteoarthritis of the knee eventually benefit from operative treatment. Various procedures have been described for treatment of the osteoarthritic knee, ranging from arthroscopic lavage and debridement to total knee arthroplasty. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical results of distraction arthroplasty combined with arthroscopic lavage and drilling of cartilage defects for treatment of osteoarthritis of the knee. Nineteen patients (15 women and 4 men; age range, 39-65 years) were operated on. Pre- and postoperative findings were compared. A control group comprising 42 patients treated with only arthroscopic procedures was evaluated for comparison. Follow-up ranged from 3 to 5 years. Results were evaluated both clinically and radiologically postoperatively and throughout the follow-up period. Clinically, pain and walking capacity improved in most patients. Radiologically, joint space widening and improvement of the tibiofemoral angle was noted in nearly all patients. PMID:21815573

  5. Cooling Does Not Affect Knee Proprioception

    PubMed Central

    Ozmun, John C.; Thieme, Heather A.; Ingersoll, Christopher D.; Knight, Kenneth L.

    1996-01-01

    The effect of cooling on proprioception of the knee has not been studied extensively. In this study, we investigated the movement reproduction (timing and accuracy) aspect of proprioception. Subjects were tested under two conditions: a 20-minute application of ice and control. Proprioceptive accuracy and timing were measured by passively moving the knee, then comparing the subject's active reproduction of the passive movement. Subjects were blindfolded, then tested in three sectors of the knee's range of motion: 90° to 60°, 60° to 30°, and 30° to full extension. Ice application had no apparent effect on the subject's ability to perform accurate movement reproductions in the sectors tested. However, accuracy of the subject's final angle reproduction varied between the sectors as did the total time of the movement. One possible explanation for the difference between sectors is that different receptors are active at different points in the knee's range of motion. We conclude that cooling the knee joint for 20 minutes does not have an adverse effect on proprioception. PMID:16558379

  6. Hepatitis E Virus in Farmed Rabbits, Wild Rabbits and Petting Farm Rabbits in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Burt, Sara A; Veltman, Jorg; Hakze-van der Honing, Renate; Schmitt, Heike; van der Poel, Wim H M

    2016-09-01

    Rabbits have been suggested as a zoonotic source of Hepatitis E virus. Phylogenetic analysis of HEV isolates from farmed, wild and pet rabbits in the Netherlands (23, 0, and 60 % respectively) showed them to be grouped amongst published rabbit HEV sequences and distinct from most human isolates. Dutch rabbits are unlikely to be a zoonotic source. PMID:27147250

  7. Interpolation function for approximating knee joint behavior in human gait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toth-Taşcǎu, Mirela; Pater, Flavius; Stoia, Dan Ioan

    2013-10-01

    Starting from the importance of analyzing the kinematic data of the lower limb in gait movement, especially the angular variation of the knee joint, the paper propose an approximation function that can be used for processing the correlation among a multitude of knee cycles. The approximation of the raw knee data was done by Lagrange polynomial interpolation on a signal acquired using Zebris Gait Analysis System. The signal used in approximation belongs to a typical subject extracted from a lot of ten investigated subjects, but the function domain of definition belongs to the entire group. The study of the knee joint kinematics plays an important role in understanding the kinematics of the gait, this articulation having the largest range of motion in whole joints, in gait. The study does not propose to find an approximation function for the adduction-abduction movement of the knee, this being considered a residual movement comparing to the flexion-extension.

  8. Cement or cementless fixation in total knee arthroplasty?

    PubMed

    Rand, J A

    1991-12-01

    A prospectively studied group of 59 knees with cementless fixation were compared to a retrospectively studied but matched group of 59 knees with cement fixation using a Press Fit Condylar prosthesis. The only significant preoperative difference between the patient groups was mean age; the cemented group was on average nine years older than the cementless group (p less than 0.0001). At an average of 2.8 years after surgery, there were no significant differences in knee scores between the two groups. Radiolucent lines adjacent to the tibial component were similar in both groups. The complication rate of 20% in the cementless knees was higher than the 12% rate in the cemented knees; this was primarily related to polyethylene wear of metal-backed patellar components. Cement or cementless fixation of this prosthesis appears to provide equivalent early results. PMID:1959287

  9. The elephant knee joint: morphological and biomechanical considerations

    PubMed Central

    Weissengruber, G E; Fuss, F K; Egger, G; Stanek, G; Hittmair, K M; Forstenpointner, G

    2006-01-01

    Elephant limbs display unique morphological features which are related mainly to supporting the enormous body weight of the animal. In elephants, the knee joint plays important roles in weight bearing and locomotion, but anatomical data are sparse and lacking in functional analyses. In addition, the knee joint is affected frequently by arthrosis. Here we examined structures of the knee joint by means of standard anatomical techniques in eight African (Loxodonta africana) and three Asian elephants (Elephas maximus). Furthermore, we performed radiography in five African and two Asian elephants and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in one African elephant. Macerated bones of 11 individuals (four African, seven Asian elephants) were measured with a pair of callipers to give standardized measurements of the articular parts. In one Asian and three African elephants, kinematic and functional analyses were carried out using a digitizer and according to the helical axis concept. Some peculiarities of healthy and arthrotic knee joints of elephants were compared with human knees. In contrast to those of other quadruped mammals, the knee joint of elephants displays an extended resting position. The femorotibial joint of elephants shows a high grade of congruency and the menisci are extremely narrow and thin. The four-bar mechanism of the cruciate ligaments exists also in the elephant. The main motion of the knee joint is extension–flexion with a range of motion of 142°. In elephants, arthrotic alterations of the knee joint can lead to injury or loss of the cranial (anterior) cruciate ligament. PMID:16420379

  10. THE ROLE OF FIBRIN GLUE AND SUTURE ON THE FIXATION OF ULTRA FROZEN PRESERVED MENISCUS TRANSPLANTATION IN RABBITS

    PubMed Central

    Reckers, Leandro José; Fagundes, Djalma José; Pozo Raymundo, José Luiz; Granata Júnior, Geraldo Sérgio de Mello; Moreira, Márcia Bento; Paiva, Vanessa Carla; Negrini Fagundes, Anna Luiza; Cohen, Moises

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the ability of fibrin adhesive in promoting the meniscus fixation within two, four and eight weeks compared to the conventional soft-tissue suture technique. Materials and Methods: 36 right medial menisci of rabbits preserved at negative 73° Celsius for 30 days were transplanted to animals of the same sample and fixed with soft-tissue suture or fibrin glue. After 2, 4 or 8 weeks, the appearance of the menisci and the quality of fixation were macroscopically checked and evaluated by a scoring system. The findings were subjected to the statistical study of variance analysis (p ≤ 0.05%). Results: The deep-frozen meniscus preservation maintained the integrity of the meniscus transplant, and, macroscopically, there was no significant reduction of the length of the meniscus in all post-transplant periods (p = 0.015). The menisci fixed with fibrin showed slight changes in color and surface roughness. There were no signs of rejection or infection in both groups. Suture fixation scoring was superior (p = 0.015) in all periods (80% of total fixation) as compared to the setting promoted by fibrin (20% of total fixation). Conclusion: The homologous transplantation of the meniscus of rabbits experienced various degrees of integration to the knee according to the fixation method; the surgical soft tissues suturing technique was shown to be superior in the evaluation of scores compared to the fixation with fibrin adhesive. PMID:27004186