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Sample records for rabi frequency renormalization

  1. Rabies

    MedlinePlus

    ... animals that can spread the rabies virus include: Foxes Skunks Very rarely, rabies has been transmitted without ... after being exposed to animals such as bats, foxes, and skunks. They may carry rabies. Call even ...

  2. Rabies

    MedlinePlus

    ... over 28 days. Most patients also receive a treatment called human rabies immunoglobulin (HRIG). This treatment is given the day ... even when no bite took place. Immunization and treatment for possible rabies are recommended for at least up to 14 ...

  3. Rabies

    MedlinePlus

    ... has rabies, quick treatment can prevent the illness. Animal Bites Rabies is very serious and can make ... important for someone who's been bitten by an animal to see a doctor. This is especially important ...

  4. Rabies

    MedlinePlus

    Rabies is a deadly animal disease caused by a virus. It can happen in wild animals, including ... of an infected animal. In people, symptoms of rabies include fever, headache and fatigue, then confusion, hallucinations ...

  5. Rabies

    MedlinePlus

    ... care. To help prevent rabies Vaccinate your pet. Rabies vaccines are available for dogs, cats and farm animals Don't let pets roam Don't approach stray animals. Animals with rabies might be aggressive and vicious, or tired and ...

  6. Resonance at the Rabi frequency in a superconducting flux qubit

    SciTech Connect

    Greenberg, Ya. S.; Il'ichev, E.; Oelsner, G.; Shevchenko, S. N.

    2014-10-15

    We analyze a system composed of a superconducting flux qubit coupled to a transmission-line resonator driven by two signals with frequencies close to the resonator's harmonics. The first strong signal is used for exciting the system to a high energetic state while a second weak signal is applied for probing effective eigenstates of the system. In the framework of doubly dressed states we showed the possibility of amplification and attenuation of the probe signal by direct transitions at the Rabi frequency. We present a brief review of theoretical and experimental works where a direct resonance at Rabi frequency have been investigated in superconducting flux qubits. The interaction of the qubit with photons of two harmonics has prospects to be used as a quantum amplifier (microwave laser) or an attenuator.

  7. Rabies.

    PubMed

    Burnett, Nark

    2013-01-01

    Rabies has been a scourge of mankind since antiquity. The name itself, ?rabies? is derived from the ancient Sanskrit rabhas meaning ?to do violence? and has been found described in medical writings several thousand years old. The rabies virus is an RNA virus of the family Rhabdoviridae (Greek for ?rod-shaped virus?), genus Lyssavirus (Lyssa being the Greek God of frenzy and rage). Rabies infections have a worldwide spread, with only a few, mostly island nations laying claim to being ?rabies free.? PMID:24049000

  8. [Rabies].

    PubMed

    Nishizono, Akira

    2009-02-01

    Rabies is a fetal viral encephalitis caused by the rabies virus, that is mainly transmitted through the saliva of infected domestic or wild animals. Rabies remains an important public health issue worldwide due to the prevalence of endemic dog rabies in developing countries. The epidemiological impact is particularly still high in Asian and African countries. In contrast, in the developed countries, including Japan, rabies is a re-emerging disease. The Lyssaviruses (types EBLV and ABL) and rabies virus infections via bats have recently emerged in Europe and the United States. Although the incubation period averages 1-3 months, there is no known treatment once the symptoms of rabies appear. On the basis of clinical manifestations, rabies can be classified into 2 types: furious and paralytic rabies. The former is characterized by the well-known symptoms of hydrophobia, aerophobia, and hypersalivation. However the latter type is likely to be misdiagnosed because of its similarity to Guillian-Barré syndrome and neuropsychiatric illnesses. Therefore, post-exposure treatment (PET) using a tissue-culture vaccine is the only way to prevent the disease. In the case of exposure to severe bites (WHO category III), rabies immunoglobulin (RIG) is essential for PET. Although the mechanism underlying the pathogenesis of rabies remains poorly understood, the recent technique of reverse genetics can be a useful tool for understanding rabies pathogenesis at a genetic level. Japan has been free of rabies for over 50 years because of the proper registration of domestic animals and control over their vaccinations. However, it is necessary to always remember that rabies is still a global burden as a representative of a re-emerging disease. PMID:19235463

  9. [Rabies].

    PubMed

    Ribadeau-Dumas, Florence; Dacheux, Laurent; Bourhy, Hervé

    2013-01-01

    Rabies virus, a neurotropic lyssavirus responsible for unavoidable fatal encephalitis, is transmitted by saliva of infected animals through bite, scratch or licking of broken skin or a mucous membrane. Infection can be prevented by timely prevention (wash for several minutes, antisepsis and vaccination completed by antirabies immunoglobulins [Ig] according to the severity of exposure). The 55,000 human deaths estimated annually worldwide result mainly from uncontrolled canine rabies in enzootic countries (particularly in Africa and in Asia), attributable to a lack of resources or interest for this disease. Bat rabies, henceforth first cause of human's rabies in many countries in America, affects a very small number of individuals but seems more difficult to control. Shortened vaccine protocols, rationalized use of Ig and development of products of substitution should enhance access of exposed patients to prevention. Finally, research on the biological cycle, the pathogeny and on escape of virus-induced mechanisms from the immune system should continue to pave the way for presently unknown treatments of clinical rabies. PMID:23351694

  10. Determination of transit time distribution and Rabi frequency by applying regularized inverse on Ramsey spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Young-Ho; Lee, Soo Heyong; Park, Sang Eon; Lee, Ho Seong; Kwon, Taeg Yong

    2007-04-23

    The authors report on a method to determine the Rabi frequency and transit time distribution of atoms that are essential for proper operation of atomic beam frequency standards. Their method, which employs alternative regularized inverse on two Ramsey spectra measured at different microwave powers, can be used for the frequency standards with short Ramsey cavity as well as long ones. The authors demonstrate that uncertainty in Rabi frequency obtained from their method is 0.02%.

  11. The effect of electric field maximum on the Rabi flopping and generated higher frequency spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, Yueping; Cui, Ni; Xiang, Yang; Li, Ruxin; Gong, Shangqing; Xu, Zhizhan

    2008-10-01

    We investigate the effect of the electric field maximum on the Rabi flopping and the generated higher frequency spectra properties by solving Maxwell Bloch equations without invoking any standard approximations. It is found that the maximum of the electric field will lead to carrier-wave Rabi flopping (CWRF) through reversion dynamics which will be more evident when the applied field enters the sub-one-cycle regime. Therefore, under the interaction of sub-one-cycle pulses, the Rabi flopping follows the transient electric field tightly through the oscillation and reversion dynamics, which is in contrast to the conventional envelope Rabi flopping. Complete or incomplete population inversion can be realized through the control of the carrier-envelope phase (CEP). Furthermore, the generated higher frequency spectra will be changed from distinct to continuous or irregular with the variation of the CEP. Our results demonstrate that due to the evident maximum behavior of the electric field, pulses with different CEP give rise to different CWRFs, and then different degree of interferences lead to different higher frequency spectral features.

  12. Renormalized scattering series for frequency domain waveform modelling of strong velocity contrasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakobsen, M.; Wu, R. S.

    2016-04-01

    An improved description of scattering and inverse scattering processes in reflection seismology may be obtained on the basis of a scattering series solution to the Helmoltz equation, which allows one to separately model primary and multiple reflections. However, the popular scattering series of Born is of limited seismic modelling value, since it is only garantied to converge if the global contrast is relatively small. For frequency domain waveform modelling of realistic contrasts, some kind of renormalization may be reguired. The concept of renormalization is normally associated with quantum field theory, where it is absolutely essential for the treatment of infinities in connection with observable quantities. However, the renormalization program is also highly relevant for classical systems, especially when there are interaction effects that acts across different length scales. In the scattering series of De Wolf, a renormalization of the Green functions is achieved by a split of the scattering potential operator into fore- and back-scattering parts; which leads to an effective reorganization and partially re-summation of the different terms in the Born series, so that their order better reflects the physics of reflection seismology. It has been demonstrated that the leading (single return) term in the De Wolf series (DWS) gives much more accurate results than the corresponding Born approximation, especially for models with high contrasts that lead to a large accumulation of phase changes in the forward direction. However, the higher-order terms in the DWS that are associated with internal multiples have not been studied numerically before. In this paper, we report from a systematic numerical investigation of the convergence properties of the DWS which is based on two new operator representations of the DWS. The first operator representation is relatively similar to the original scattering potential formulation, but more global and explicit in nature. The second

  13. Renormalized scattering series for frequency-domain waveform modelling of strong velocity contrasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakobsen, M.; Wu, R. S.

    2016-08-01

    An improved description of scattering and inverse scattering processes in reflection seismology may be obtained on the basis of a scattering series solution to the Helmoltz equation, which allows one to separately model primary and multiple reflections. However, the popular scattering series of Born is of limited seismic modelling value, since it is only guaranteed to converge if the global contrast is relatively small. For frequency-domain waveform modelling of realistic contrasts, some kind of renormalization may be required. The concept of renormalization is normally associated with quantum field theory, where it is absolutely essential for the treatment of infinities in connection with observable quantities. However, the renormalization program is also highly relevant for classical systems, especially when there are interaction effects that act across different length scales. In the scattering series of De Wolf, a renormalization of the Green's functions is achieved by a split of the scattering potential operator into fore- and backscattering parts; which leads to an effective reorganization and partially re-summation of the different terms in the Born series, so that their order better reflects the physics of reflection seismology. It has been demonstrated that the leading (single return) term in the De Wolf series (DWS) gives much more accurate results than the corresponding Born approximation, especially for models with high contrasts that lead to a large accumulation of phase changes in the forward direction. However, the higher order terms in the DWS that are associated with internal multiples have not been studied numerically before. In this paper, we report from a systematic numerical investigation of the convergence properties of the DWS which is based on two new operator representations of the DWS. The first operator representation is relatively similar to the original scattering potential formulation, but more global and explicit in nature. The second

  14. Collective strong coupling with homogeneous Rabi frequencies using a 3D lumped element microwave resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angerer, Andreas; Astner, Thomas; Wirtitsch, Daniel; Sumiya, Hitoshi; Onoda, Shinobu; Isoya, Junichi; Putz, Stefan; Majer, Johannes

    2016-07-01

    We design and implement 3D-lumped element microwave cavities that spatially focus magnetic fields to a small mode volume. They allow coherent and uniform coupling to electron spins hosted by nitrogen vacancy centers in diamond. We achieve large homogeneous single spin coupling rates, with an enhancement of more than one order of magnitude compared to standard 3D cavities with a fundamental resonance at 3 GHz. Finite element simulations confirm that the magnetic field distribution is homogeneous throughout the entire sample volume, with a root mean square deviation of 1.54%. With a sample containing 1017 nitrogen vacancy electron spins, we achieve a collective coupling strength of Ω = 12 MHz, a cooperativity factor C = 27, and clearly enter the strong coupling regime. This allows to interface a macroscopic spin ensemble with microwave circuits, and the homogeneous Rabi frequency paves the way to manipulate the full ensemble population in a coherent way.

  15. Critical Attractor and Universality in a Renormalization Scheme for Three Frequency Hamiltonian Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandre, C.; Jauslin, H. R.

    1998-12-01

    We study an approximate renormalization-group transformation to analyze the breakup of invariant tori for 3 degrees of freedom Hamiltonian systems. The scheme is implemented for the spiral mean torus. We find numerically that the critical surface is the stable manifold of a critical nonperiodic attractor. We compute scaling exponents associated with this fixed set, and find that they can be expected to be universal.

  16. Compensation of phonon-induced renormalization of vacuum Rabi splitting in large quantum dots: Towards temperature-stable strong coupling in the solid state with quantum dot-micropillars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopfmann, C.; Musiał, A.; Strauß, M.; Barth, A. M.; Glässl, M.; Vagov, A.; Strauß, M.; Schneider, C.; Höfling, S.; Kamp, M.; Axt, V. M.; Reitzenstein, S.

    2015-12-01

    We study experimentally the influence of temperature on the emission characteristics of quantum dot-micropillars in the strong coupling regime of cavity quantum electrodynamics (cQED). In particular, we investigate its impact on the vacuum Rabi splitting (VRS) and we address the important question of the temperature stability of the coherent coupling regime in a semiconductor system, which is relevant in view of both fundamental study and future applications. To study the temperature dependence we investigate an unprecedentedly large number of strong coupling cases (89) in a wide temperature range from 10 up to 50 K, which constitutes a good basis for statistical analysis. The experiment indicates a statistically significant increase of the VRS with temperature in contrast to an expected decrease of the VRS due to the dephasing induced by acoustic phonons. From the theoretical point of view, the phonon-induced renormalization of the VRS is calculated using a real-time path-integral approach for strongly confined quantum dots (QDs), which allows for a numerical exact treatment of the coupling between the QD and a continuum of longitudinal acoustic phonons. The absence of the expected decrease of the VRS with temperature in our experimental data can be attributed to a unique optical property of laterally extended I n0.4G a0.6As QDs used in this study. Their electronic structure facilitates an effective temperature-driven increase of the oscillator strength of the excitonic state by up to 40% in the given temperature range. This leads to enhanced light-matter interaction and overcompensates the phonon-related decrease of the VRS. The observed persistence of strong coupling in the presence of phonon-induced decoherence demonstrates the appealing possibility to counteract detrimental phonon effects in the cQED regime via engineering the electronic structure of QDs.

  17. Rabies (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... messages between the brain and the body. The rabies virus spreads through the nerves, first causing flu- ... to hallucinations, delirium, and insomnia. If left untreated, rabies is nearly always fatal.

  18. Learning about Bats and Rabies

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov . Rabies Rabies Homepage Share Compartir Learning about bats and rabies Most bats don t have rabies. ... is easily approached could very well be sick. Bats and human rabies in the United States Rabies ...

  19. Bat Rabies in Alberta 1979-1982

    PubMed Central

    Rosatte, Richard C.

    1985-01-01

    The infection rate among eight species of bats submitted for rabies diagnosis in Alberta during 1979-82 was 4.6%. Prevalence of rabies was greatest (24%) for hoary bats Lasiurus cinereus, while the big brown bat Eptesicus fuscus was the species in which rabies was most commonly diagnosed, and the species submitted most frequently for rabies diagnosis was the little brown bat Myotis lucifugus. The rabies infection rate among male hoary bats was significantly greater than in either sex of all other submitted species. The frequency of rabies diagnosis in hoary bats submitted during 1979-82 was also significantly higher than in those submitted between 1971 and 1978. There has been a significant decrease in the rabies prevalence or infection rate of little brown bats since 1971-78. PMID:17422507

  20. Rabies (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Rabies is an acute viral infection is transmitted to humans by a bite or by the exposure of broken skin to an infected animal's saliva. Immunization given early (preferably within 24 hours but certainly within 72 hours) can usually prevent the disease.

  1. Renormalized Lie perturbation theory

    SciTech Connect

    Rosengaus, E.; Dewar, R.L.

    1981-07-01

    A Lie operator method for constructing action-angle transformations continuously connected to the identity is developed for area preserving mappings. By a simple change of variable from action to angular frequency a perturbation expansion is obtained in which the small denominators have been renormalized. The method is shown to lead to the same series as the Lagrangian perturbation method of Greene and Percival, which converges on KAM surfaces. The method is not superconvergent, but yields simple recursion relations which allow automatic algebraic manipulation techniques to be used to develop the series to high order. It is argued that the operator method can be justified by analytically continuing from the complex angular frequency plane onto the real line. The resulting picture is one where preserved primary KAM surfaces are continuously connected to one another.

  2. Renormalized action improvements

    SciTech Connect

    Zachos, C.

    1984-01-01

    Finite lattice spacing artifacts are suppressed on the renormalized actions. The renormalized action trajectories of SU(N) lattice gauge theories are considered from the standpoint of the Migdal-Kadanoff approximation. The minor renormalized trajectories which involve representations invariant under the center are discussed and quantified. 17 references.

  3. Rabies: Questions and Answers

    MedlinePlus

    ... my child? Rabies is not common in dogs, cats, ferrets, and live- stock in the United States ... rabies isn't common in U.S. dogs and cats anymore, is there anything to worry about? Unfortunately, ...

  4. Rabies control and management.

    PubMed Central

    Nicholls, E. S.; Davies, J. W.

    1982-01-01

    Since the 1950s rabies has become a familiar threat in southern Canada. Periodic outbreaks remind us how slight our control over it is. Although new vaccines such as human diploid-cell rabies vaccine have greatly improved the management of rabies in humans, true control must be sought through knowledge of the disease in or wildlife. A guide to rabies prophylaxis in humans is presented, courtesy of the National Advisory Committee on Immunization. PMID:7074456

  5. Paralytic rabies in Swine.

    PubMed

    de Macedo Pessoa, Clarice Ricardo; Cristiny Rodrigues Silva, Maria Luana; de Barros Gomes, Albério Antônio; Isabel Estévez Garcia, Andrea; Honma Ito, Fumio; Eduardo Brandão, Paulo; Riet-Correa, Franklin

    2011-01-01

    Rabies transmitted by vampire bats was diagnosed in pigs with paralysis of the pelvic limbs. Diffuse non-suppurative encephalomyelitis, affecting mainly the spinal cord, was observed histologically. Despite the various diagnosis of rabies in pigs this is the first report of clinical signs and pathology of rabies transmitted by vampire bats. PMID:24031635

  6. Entanglement Renormalization and Wavelets.

    PubMed

    Evenbly, Glen; White, Steven R

    2016-04-01

    We establish a precise connection between discrete wavelet transforms and entanglement renormalization, a real-space renormalization group transformation for quantum systems on the lattice, in the context of free particle systems. Specifically, we employ Daubechies wavelets to build approximations to the ground state of the critical Ising model, then demonstrate that these states correspond to instances of the multiscale entanglement renormalization ansatz (MERA), producing the first known analytic MERA for critical systems. PMID:27104687

  7. Entanglement Renormalization and Wavelets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evenbly, Glen; White, Steven R.

    2016-04-01

    We establish a precise connection between discrete wavelet transforms and entanglement renormalization, a real-space renormalization group transformation for quantum systems on the lattice, in the context of free particle systems. Specifically, we employ Daubechies wavelets to build approximations to the ground state of the critical Ising model, then demonstrate that these states correspond to instances of the multiscale entanglement renormalization ansatz (MERA), producing the first known analytic MERA for critical systems.

  8. The analytic renormalization group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrari, Frank

    2016-08-01

    Finite temperature Euclidean two-point functions in quantum mechanics or quantum field theory are characterized by a discrete set of Fourier coefficients Gk, k ∈ Z, associated with the Matsubara frequencies νk = 2 πk / β. We show that analyticity implies that the coefficients Gk must satisfy an infinite number of model-independent linear equations that we write down explicitly. In particular, we construct "Analytic Renormalization Group" linear maps Aμ which, for any choice of cut-off μ, allow to express the low energy Fourier coefficients for |νk | < μ (with the possible exception of the zero mode G0), together with the real-time correlators and spectral functions, in terms of the high energy Fourier coefficients for |νk | ≥ μ. Operating a simple numerical algorithm, we show that the exact universal linear constraints on Gk can be used to systematically improve any random approximate data set obtained, for example, from Monte-Carlo simulations. Our results are illustrated on several explicit examples.

  9. Renormalized halo bias

    SciTech Connect

    Assassi, Valentin; Baumann, Daniel; Green, Daniel; Zaldarriaga, Matias E-mail: dbaumann@damtp.cam.ac.uk E-mail: matiasz@ias.edu

    2014-08-01

    This paper provides a systematic study of renormalization in models of halo biasing. Building on work of McDonald, we show that Eulerian biasing is only consistent with renormalization if non-local terms and higher-derivative contributions are included in the biasing model. We explicitly determine the complete list of required bias parameters for Gaussian initial conditions, up to quartic order in the dark matter density contrast and at leading order in derivatives. At quadratic order, this means including the gravitational tidal tensor, while at cubic order the velocity potential appears as an independent degree of freedom. Our study naturally leads to an effective theory of biasing in which the halo density is written as a double expansion in fluctuations and spatial derivatives. We show that the bias expansion can be organized in terms of Galileon operators which aren't renormalized at leading order in derivatives. Finally, we discuss how the renormalized bias parameters impact the statistics of halos.

  10. Human Rabies - Missouri, 2014.

    PubMed

    Pratt, P Drew; Henschel, Kathleen; Turabelidze, George; Grim, Autumn; Ellison, James A; Orciari, Lillian; Yager, Pamela; Franka, Richard; Wu, Xianfu; Ma, Xiaoyue; Wadhwa, Ashutosh; Smith, Todd G; Petersen, Brett; Shiferaw, Miriam

    2016-03-18

    On September 18, 2014, the Missouri Department of Health and Senior Services (MDHSS) was notified of a suspected rabies case in a Missouri resident. The patient, a man aged 52 years, lived in a rural, deeply wooded area, and bat sightings in and around his home were anecdotally reported. Exposure to bats poses a risk for rabies. After two emergency department visits for severe neck pain, paresthesia in the left arm, upper body tremors, and anxiety, he was hospitalized on September 13 for encephalitis of unknown etiology. On September 24, he received a diagnosis of rabies and on September 26, he died. Genetic sequencing tests confirmed infection with a rabies virus variant associated with tricolored bats. Health care providers need to maintain a high index of clinical suspicion for rabies in patients who have unexplained, rapidly progressive encephalitis, and adhere to recommended infection control practices when examining and treating patients with suspected infectious diseases. PMID:26985578

  11. Rabi nutations in a ferromagnetic film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capua, Amir; Rettner, Charles; Parkin, Stuart

    When electromagnetic radiation interacts with a two-level system, energy is transferred back and forth between the quantum system and the electromagnetic radiation at a rate defined by the Rabi frequency. This process takes place as long as coherence prevails, until steady state is reached. Rabi nutations have been observed in a variety of quantum systems (atomic vapors, semiconductors, superconducting qubits, etc.). Here, we observe Rabi nutations in an ultrathin ~10 Å perpendicularly magnetized CoFeB film. A hybrid ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) - time resolved magneto optical Kerr effect (TRMOKE) system is used for this observation. Namely, a strong optical pump pulse perturbs the precessing spin system after which a weak optical probe pulse is sent at different times to map its recovery until steady precessional motion is reached again. The responses at the different detunings of magnetic field away from resonance conditions readily indicate the occurrence of the Rabi nutations which are initiated by the pump arriving at t =0. Excellent agreement with the prediction given by the Rabi formula is found. The method we report presents a new approach to study dynamical phenomena in magnetic materials.

  12. Relating theories via renormalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadanoff, Leo P.

    2013-02-01

    The renormalization method is specifically aimed at connecting theories describing physical processes at different length scales and thereby connecting different theories in the physical sciences. The renormalization method used today is the outgrowth of 150 years of scientific study of thermal physics and phase transitions. Different phases of matter show qualitatively different behaviors separated by abrupt phase transitions. These qualitative differences seem to be present in experimentally observed condensed-matter systems. However, the "extended singularity theorem" in statistical mechanics shows that sharp changes can only occur in infinitely large systems. Abrupt changes from one phase to another are signaled by fluctuations that show correlation over infinitely long distances, and are measured by correlation functions that show algebraic decay as well as various kinds of singularities and infinities in thermodynamic derivatives and in measured system parameters. Renormalization methods were first developed in field theory to get around difficulties caused by apparent divergences at both small and large scales. However, no renormalization gives a fully satisfactory formulation of field theory. The renormalization (semi-)group theory of phase transitions was put together by Kenneth G. Wilson in 1971 based upon ideas of scaling and universality developed earlier in the context of phase transitions and of couplings dependent upon spatial scale coming from field theory. Correlations among regions with fluctuations in their order underlie renormalization ideas. Wilson's theory is the first approach to phase transitions to agree with the extended singularity theorem. Some of the history of the study of these correlations and singularities is recounted, along with the history of renormalization and related concepts of scaling and universality. Applications, particularly to condensed-matter physics and particle physics, are summarized. This note is partially a

  13. Rabies in Kazakhstan

    PubMed Central

    Sultanov, Akmetzhan A.; Abdrakhmanov, Sarsenbay K.; Abdybekova, Aida M.; Karatayev, Bolat S.; Torgerson, Paul R.

    2016-01-01

    Background Rabies is a neglected zoonotic disease. There is a sparsity of data on this disease with regard to the incidence of human and animal disease in many low and middle income countries. Furthermore, rabies results in a large economic impact and a high human burden of disease. Kazakhstan is a large landlocked middle income country that gained independence from the Soviet Union in 1991 and is endemic for rabies. Methodology/Principal Findings We used detailed public health and veterinary surveillance data from 2003 to 2015 to map where livestock rabies is occurring. We also estimate the economic impact and human burden of rabies. Livestock and canine rabies occurred over most of Kazakhstan, but there were regional variations in disease distribution. There were a mean of 7.1 officially recorded human fatalities due to rabies per year resulting in approximately 457 Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs). A mean of 64,289 individuals per annum underwent post exposure prophylaxis (PEP) which may have resulted in an additional 1140 DALYs annually. PEP is preventing at least 118 cases of human rabies each year or possibly as many as 1184 at an estimated cost of $1193 or $119 per DALY averted respectively. The estimated economic impact of rabies in Kazakhstan is $20.9 million per annum, with nearly half of this cost being attributed to the cost of PEP and the loss of income whilst being treated. A further $5.4 million per annum was estimated to be the life time loss of income for fatal cases. Animal vaccination programmes and animal control programmes also contributed substantially to the economic losses. The direct costs due to rabies fatalities of agricultural animals was relatively low. Conclusions/Significance This study demonstrates that in Kazakhstan there is a substantial economic cost and health impact of rabies. These costs could be reduced by modifying the vaccination programme that is now practised. The study also fills some data gaps on the epidemiology

  14. Travelers' Health: Rabies

    MedlinePlus

    ... Islands, Palau, Papua New Guinea, Pitcairn Islands, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Tahiti, Tokelau, Tonga, Tuvalu, Vanuatu, Wake Islands, Wallis and Futuna Antarctic Antarctica 1 Global surveillance efforts and ... A, Petrovic M, Solomon T, Fooks A. Death from rabies in a ...

  15. Rabies (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... mostly in developing countries where programs for vaccinating dogs against rabies don't exist. But the good ... vaccination programs in the United States, transmission from dogs to people is very rare. Outside the United ...

  16. Renormalization and plasma physics

    SciTech Connect

    Krommes, J.A.

    1980-02-01

    A review is given of modern theories of statistical dynamics as applied to problems in plasma physics. The derivation of consistent renormalized kinetic equations is discussed, first heuristically, later in terms of powerful functional techniques. The equations are illustrated with models of various degrees of idealization, including the exactly soluble stochastic oscillator, a prototype for several important applications. The direct-interaction approximation is described in detail. Applications discussed include test particle diffusion and the justification of quasilinear theory, convective cells, E vector x B vector turbulence, the renormalized dielectric function, phase space granulation, and stochastic magnetic fields.

  17. Excitation of terahertz nanoantennas by Rabi waves

    SciTech Connect

    Slepyan, G. Ya.; Yerchak, Y. D.; Maksimenko, S. A.; Hoffmann, A.; Bass, F. G.

    2011-10-03

    Theoretical model of quantum dot ring, strongly coupled with classical electromagnetic field, is developed. We demonstrate, that tunnel current in the QD-ring has low-frequency component, excited by Rabi waves, propagating into the ring, and the ring can be considered as a candidate for role of terahertz magnetic loop antenna. The low-frequency current is inspired by the asymmetry of electron tunneling.

  18. Two-electron Rabi oscillations in real-time time-dependent density-functional theory

    SciTech Connect

    Habenicht, Bradley F.; Tani, Noriyuki P.; Provorse, Makenzie R.; Isborn, Christine M.

    2014-11-14

    We investigate the Rabi oscillations of electrons excited by an applied electric field in several simple molecular systems using time-dependent configuration interaction (TDCI) and real-time time-dependent density-functional theory (RT-TDDFT) dynamics. While the TDCI simulations exhibit the expected single-electron Rabi oscillations at a single resonant electric field frequency, Rabi oscillations in the RT-TDDFT simulations are a two-electron process. The existence of two-electron Rabi oscillations is determined both by full population inversion between field-free molecular orbitals and the behavior of the instantaneous dipole moment during the simulations. Furthermore, the Rabi oscillations in RT-TDDFT are subject to an intensity threshold of the electric field, below which Rabi oscillations do not occur and above which the two-electron Rabi oscillations occur at a broad range of frequencies. It is also shown that at field intensities near the threshold intensity, the field frequency predicted to induce Rabi oscillations by linear response TDDFT only produces detuned Rabi oscillations. Instead, the field frequency that yields the full two-electron population inversion and Rabi oscillation behavior is shown to be the average of single-electron transition frequencies from the ground S{sub 0} state and the doubly-excited S{sub 2} state. The behavior of the two-electron Rabi oscillations is rationalized via two possible models. The first model is a multi-photon process that results from the electric field interacting with the three level system such that three level Rabi oscillations may occur. The second model suggests that the mean-field nature of RT-TDDFT induces paired electron propagation.

  19. Two-electron Rabi oscillations in real-time time-dependent density-functional theory.

    PubMed

    Habenicht, Bradley F; Tani, Noriyuki P; Provorse, Makenzie R; Isborn, Christine M

    2014-11-14

    We investigate the Rabi oscillations of electrons excited by an applied electric field in several simple molecular systems using time-dependent configuration interaction (TDCI) and real-time time-dependent density-functional theory (RT-TDDFT) dynamics. While the TDCI simulations exhibit the expected single-electron Rabi oscillations at a single resonant electric field frequency, Rabi oscillations in the RT-TDDFT simulations are a two-electron process. The existence of two-electron Rabi oscillations is determined both by full population inversion between field-free molecular orbitals and the behavior of the instantaneous dipole moment during the simulations. Furthermore, the Rabi oscillations in RT-TDDFT are subject to an intensity threshold of the electric field, below which Rabi oscillations do not occur and above which the two-electron Rabi oscillations occur at a broad range of frequencies. It is also shown that at field intensities near the threshold intensity, the field frequency predicted to induce Rabi oscillations by linear response TDDFT only produces detuned Rabi oscillations. Instead, the field frequency that yields the full two-electron population inversion and Rabi oscillation behavior is shown to be the average of single-electron transition frequencies from the ground S0 state and the doubly-excited S2 state. The behavior of the two-electron Rabi oscillations is rationalized via two possible models. The first model is a multi-photon process that results from the electric field interacting with the three level system such that three level Rabi oscillations may occur. The second model suggests that the mean-field nature of RT-TDDFT induces paired electron propagation. PMID:25399137

  20. Developments in rabies vaccines.

    PubMed

    Hicks, D J; Fooks, A R; Johnson, N

    2012-09-01

    The development of vaccines that prevent rabies has a long and distinguished history, with the earliest preceding modern understanding of viruses and the mechanisms of immune protection against disease. The correct application of inactivated tissue culture-derived vaccines is highly effective at preventing the development of rabies, and very few failures are recorded. Furthermore, oral and parenteral vaccination is possible for wildlife, companion animals and livestock, again using inactivated tissue culture-derived virus. However, rabies remains endemic in many regions of the world and causes thousands of human deaths annually. There also remain no means of prophylaxis for rabies once the virus enters the central nervous system (CNS). One reason for this is the poor immune response within the CNS to infection with rabies virus (RABV). New approaches to vaccination using modified rabies viruses that express components of the innate immune system are being applied to this problem. Preliminary reports suggest that direct inoculation of such viruses could trigger an effective anti-viral response and prevent a fatal outcome from RABV infection. PMID:22861358

  1. Developments in rabies vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Hicks, D J; Fooks, A R; Johnson, N

    2012-01-01

    The development of vaccines that prevent rabies has a long and distinguished history, with the earliest preceding modern understanding of viruses and the mechanisms of immune protection against disease. The correct application of inactivated tissue culture-derived vaccines is highly effective at preventing the development of rabies, and very few failures are recorded. Furthermore, oral and parenteral vaccination is possible for wildlife, companion animals and livestock, again using inactivated tissue culture-derived virus. However, rabies remains endemic in many regions of the world and causes thousands of human deaths annually. There also remain no means of prophylaxis for rabies once the virus enters the central nervous system (CNS). One reason for this is the poor immune response within the CNS to infection with rabies virus (RABV). New approaches to vaccination using modified rabies viruses that express components of the innate immune system are being applied to this problem. Preliminary reports suggest that direct inoculation of such viruses could trigger an effective anti-viral response and prevent a fatal outcome from RABV infection. PMID:22861358

  2. Multiphoton quantum Rabi oscillations in ultrastrong cavity QED

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garziano, Luigi; Stassi, Roberto; Macrı, Vincenzo; Kockum, Anton Frisk; Savasta, Salvatore; Nori, Franco

    2015-12-01

    When an atom is strongly coupled to a cavity, the two systems can exchange a single photon through a coherent Rabi oscillation. This process enables precise quantum-state engineering and manipulation of atoms and photons in a cavity, which play a central role in quantum information and measurement. Recently, a new regime of cavity QED was reached experimentally where the strength of the interaction between light and artificial atoms (qubits) becomes comparable to the atomic transition frequency or the resonance frequency of the cavity mode. Here we show that this regime can strongly modify the concept of vacuum Rabi oscillations, enabling multiphoton exchanges between the qubit and the resonator. We find that experimental state-of-the-art circuit-QED systems can undergo two- and three-photon vacuum Rabi oscillations. These anomalous Rabi oscillations can be exploited for the realization of efficient Fock-state sources of light and complex entangled states of qubits.

  3. Viewing Majorana Bound States by Rabi Oscillations

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhi; Liang, Qi-Feng; Yao, Dao-Xin; Hu, Xiao

    2015-01-01

    We propose to use Rabi oscillation as a probe to view the fractional Josepshon relation (FJR) associated with Majorana bound states (MBSs) expected in one-dimensional topological superconductors. The system consists of a quantum dot (QD) and an rf-SQUID with MBSs at the Josephson junction. Rabi oscillations between energy levels formed by MBSs are induced by ac gate voltage controlling the coupling between QD and MBS when the photon energy proportional to the ac frequency matches gap between quantum levels formed by MBSs and QD. As a manifestation of the Rabi oscillation in the whole system involving MBSs, the electron occupation on QD oscillates with time, which can be measured by charge sensing techniques. With Floquet theorem and numerical analysis we reveal that from the resonant driving frequency for coherent Rabi oscillation one can directly map out the FJR cos(πΦ/Φ0) as a signature of MBSs, with Φ the magnetic flux through SQUID and Φ0 = hc/2e the flux quantum. The present scheme is expected to provide a clear evidence for MBSs under intensive searching. PMID:26153250

  4. Viewing Majorana Bound States by Rabi Oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhi; Liang, Qi-Feng; Yao, Dao-Xin; Hu, Xiao

    2015-07-01

    We propose to use Rabi oscillation as a probe to view the fractional Josepshon relation (FJR) associated with Majorana bound states (MBSs) expected in one-dimensional topological superconductors. The system consists of a quantum dot (QD) and an rf-SQUID with MBSs at the Josephson junction. Rabi oscillations between energy levels formed by MBSs are induced by ac gate voltage controlling the coupling between QD and MBS when the photon energy proportional to the ac frequency matches gap between quantum levels formed by MBSs and QD. As a manifestation of the Rabi oscillation in the whole system involving MBSs, the electron occupation on QD oscillates with time, which can be measured by charge sensing techniques. With Floquet theorem and numerical analysis we reveal that from the resonant driving frequency for coherent Rabi oscillation one can directly map out the FJR cos(πΦ/Φ0) as a signature of MBSs, with Φ the magnetic flux through SQUID and Φ0 = hc/2e the flux quantum. The present scheme is expected to provide a clear evidence for MBSs under intensive searching.

  5. Digital Quantum Rabi and Dicke Models in Superconducting Circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mezzacapo, A.; Las Heras, U.; Pedernales, J. S.; Dicarlo, L.; Solano, E.; Lamata, L.

    2014-12-01

    We propose the analog-digital quantum simulation of the quantum Rabi and Dicke models using circuit quantum electrodynamics (QED). We find that all physical regimes, in particular those which are impossible to realize in typical cavity QED setups, can be simulated via unitary decomposition into digital steps. Furthermore, we show the emergence of the Dirac equation dynamics from the quantum Rabi model when the mode frequency vanishes. Finally, we analyze the feasibility of this proposal under realistic superconducting circuit scenarios.

  6. [Rabies in bats].

    PubMed

    Beranová, Kateřina; Zendulková, Dagmar

    2016-06-01

    Rabies is a zoonosis ending fatally in all mammals, including humans. Unlike the other mammals, this disease is usually not fatal in bats. Rabies is caused by lyssaviruses which are divided into several distinct phylogroups comprising 15 known viruses. It is believed that the original hosts of all lyssaviruses are bats. Classical rabies virus (RABV) occurs in bats across Americas and represents the major cause of rabies in humans and domestic animals there. European bat lyssavirus type 1 (EBLV-1) and European bat lyssavirus type 2 (EBLV-2) are the most frequently diagnosed lyssaviruses in Eurasia. The transmission of EBLV-1 and EBLV-2 from bats to other mammals is very rare. As of now, more detailed information is missing about the other Eurasian lyssaviruses - West Caucasian bat virus (WCBV), Bokeloh bat lyssavirus (BBLV), Aravan virus (ARAV), Irkut virus (IRKV), Khujand virus (KHUV) and Lleida virus. The lyssavirus most frequently found in Africa is Lagos bat virus (LBV). In Australia, only Australian bat lyssavirus (ABLV) has been demonstrated as yet. In the Czech Republic, a total of five cases of rabies in bats were confirmed between 1994 and 2015. Rabies can be transmitted from bats mainly by biting or scratching. Clinically ill bats suffer from nervous disorders or produce abnormal sounds. If rabies is suspected, laboratory tests are essential. Protection of human health is based on pre-exposure and/or post-exposure vaccination. However, the available vaccines do not protect against some newly identified lyssaviruses such as WCBV. Nevertheless, most bat species pose a minimal risk to humans. PMID:27450525

  7. Spatial and temporal distribution of rabies in northern Tanzania in the period of 1993-2002.

    PubMed

    Swai, E S; Moshy, W E; Kaaya, J E; Mtui, P F

    2010-01-01

    A retrospective study was carried out to investigate the occurrence and distribution patterns of rabies cases in northern Tanzania. Data on laboratory confirmed brain samples and associated case reports submitted to the Arusha Veterinary Investigation Centre, for a period of ten years (1993-2002) was retrieved and reviewed. A total of 98 suspected rabies brain specimens from different animal species and geographical areas were submitted and processed during the period under review. Rabies was confirmed using Fluorescent Antibody Technique test. Of the 98 brain specimens processed, 65 (66.3%) were confirmed to be rabies cases. Canine rabies accounted for 73.8% of the cases and was diagnosed in dogs (43), jackals (4) and hyenas (1). Rabies in wildlife accounted for 5 out of 48 canine confirmed cases. Most of the cases were from Arusha Municipality (20) followed by Arumeru (19), Ngorongoro (9) and Moshi (8) districts. Rabies positive cases in other animal species were in the following order of frequencies: bovine (9 out of 11); feline (5 out of 10); equine (1 out of 2); caprine (2 out of 2). One porcine brain specimen was rabies negative. The high proportion of rabies positive cases confirmed suggests the level of their endemicity in the northern regions of Tanzania. Moreover, the findings highlights the need for sustained surveillance and institution of control measures among dog population and awareness creation particularly among general public and children whom are at high risk of contracting rabies because of their close contact with dogs. PMID:20737833

  8. Multilogarithmic velocity renormalization in graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Anand; Kopietz, Peter

    2016-06-01

    We reexamine the effect of long-range Coulomb interactions on the quasiparticle velocity in graphene. Using a nonperturbative functional renormalization group approach with partial bosonization in the forward scattering channel and momentum transfer cutoff scheme, we calculate the quasiparticle velocity, v (k ) , and the quasiparticle residue, Z , with frequency-dependent polarization. One of our most striking results is that v (k ) ∝ln[Ck(α ) /k ] where the momentum- and interaction-dependent cutoff scale Ck(α ) vanishes logarithmically for k →0 . Here k is measured with respect to one of the charge neutrality (Dirac) points and α =2.2 is the strength of dimensionless bare interaction. Moreover, we also demonstrate that the so-obtained multilogarithmic singularity is reconcilable with the perturbative expansion of v (k ) in powers of the bare interaction.

  9. Renormalizing Entanglement Distillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waeldchen, Stephan; Gertis, Janina; Campbell, Earl T.; Eisert, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Entanglement distillation refers to the task of transforming a collection of weakly entangled pairs into fewer highly entangled ones. It is a core ingredient in quantum repeater protocols, which are needed to transmit entanglement over arbitrary distances in order to realize quantum key distribution schemes. Usually, it is assumed that the initial entangled pairs are identically and independently distributed and are uncorrelated with each other, an assumption that might not be reasonable at all in any entanglement generation process involving memory channels. Here, we introduce a framework that captures entanglement distillation in the presence of natural correlations arising from memory channels. Conceptually, we bring together ideas from condensed-matter physics—ideas from renormalization and matrix-product states and operators—with those of local entanglement manipulation, Markov chain mixing, and quantum error correction. We identify meaningful parameter regions for which we prove convergence to maximally entangled states, arising as the fixed points of a matrix-product operator renormalization flow.

  10. Rabies: 2015 Update.

    PubMed

    Burnett, Mark W

    2015-01-01

    Rabies is an almost universally fatal viral disease transmitted to humans primarily by bites and scratches from infected animals, and less commonly through other routes, including transplantation of infected organs, exposure to infected neural tissue, and possibly through airborne and aerosolized routes. This disease is endemic to all continents worldwide except Antarctica, and only a few islands elsewhere can be considered "rabies free." Special Operations Forces medical providers should be aware of this disease. Prevention and recognition of risk are key due to its extreme lethality. PMID:26360364

  11. Rabies vaccines and interferon

    PubMed Central

    Turner, G. S.

    1972-01-01

    Samples of Fermi, Semple, modified Semple, Duck embryo and tissue culture rabies vaccine were inoculated by different routes and in different doses into rabbits, mice and hamsters. The vaccines induced neither detectable interferon nor immediate protection against lethal challenge with CVS rabies virus. Under similar conditions, high but transient levels of interferon were induced in control animals of the same species with the polynucleotide complex Poly I.C. Hamsters but not mice were protected by Poly I.C.-induced interferon. No autointerference by vaccine with challenge virus was established. Vaccine-induced protection in mice was directly related to immune response. PMID:4506993

  12. Experimental rabies vaccines for humans

    PubMed Central

    McGettigan, James P

    2011-01-01

    Rabies remains a global public health threat that kills more than 55,000 people per year. Rabies disproportionately affects children and, therefore, is ranked the seventh most important infectious disease due to years lost. Prevention of human rabies is accomplished by controlling rabies in domestic and wild animals, including the use of vaccination programs. The usefulness of human rabies vaccines is hampered by high cost, complicated vaccination regimens and lack of compliance, especially in areas of Africa and Asia where human rabies infections are endemic. A single-dose vaccine would greatly benefit efforts to combat this global health threat. However, a single-dose vaccine based on current inactivated vaccines does not appear feasible and other approaches are needed. Technology has advanced since modern human rabies vaccines were developed over 40 years ago. In addition, our understanding of immunological principles that influence the outcome of vaccination has increased. This article describes the current status of inactivated rabies virus vaccines and recent developments arising from the use of reverse genetics technologies designed to develop replication-deficient or single-cycle live rabies virus-based vectors for use as a single-dose rabies vaccine for humans. PMID:20923268

  13. Experimental rabies vaccines for humans.

    PubMed

    McGettigan, James P

    2010-10-01

    Rabies remains a global public health threat that kills more than 55,000 people per year. Rabies disproportionately affects children and, therefore, is ranked the seventh most important infectious disease due to years lost. Prevention of human rabies is accomplished by controlling rabies in domestic and wild animals, including the use of vaccination programs. The usefulness of human rabies vaccines is hampered by high cost, complicated vaccination regimens and lack of compliance, especially in areas of Africa and Asia where human rabies infections are endemic. A single-dose vaccine would greatly benefit efforts to combat this global health threat. However, a single-dose vaccine based on current inactivated vaccines does not appear feasible and other approaches are needed. Technology has advanced since modern human rabies vaccines were developed over 40 years ago. In addition, our understanding of immunological principles that influence the outcome of vaccination has increased. This article describes the current status of inactivated rabies virus vaccines and recent developments arising from the use of reverse genetics technologies designed to develop replication-deficient or single-cycle live rabies virus-based vectors for use as a single-dose rabies vaccine for humans. PMID:20923268

  14. Bat rabies in Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Ellison, James A; Gilbert, Amy T; Recuenco, Sergio; Moran, David; Alvarez, Danilo A; Kuzmina, Natalia; Garcia, Daniel L; Peruski, Leonard F; Mendonça, Mary T; Lindblade, Kim A; Rupprecht, Charles E

    2014-01-01

    Rabies in bats is considered enzootic throughout the New World, but few comparative data are available for most countries in the region. As part of a larger pathogen detection program, enhanced bat rabies surveillance was conducted in Guatemala, between 2009 and 2011. A total of 672 bats of 31 species were sampled and tested for rabies. The prevalence of rabies virus (RABV) detection among all collected bats was low (0.3%). Viral antigens were detected and infectious virus was isolated from the brains of two common vampire bats (Desmodus rotundus). RABV was also isolated from oral swabs, lungs and kidneys of both bats, whereas viral RNA was detected in all of the tissues examined by hemi-nested RT-PCR except for the liver of one bat. Sequencing of the nucleoprotein gene showed that both viruses were 100% identical, whereas sequencing of the glycoprotein gene revealed one non-synonymous substitution (302T,S). The two vampire bat RABV isolates in this study were phylogenetically related to viruses associated with vampire bats in the eastern states of Mexico and El Salvador. Additionally, 7% of sera collected from 398 bats demonstrated RABV neutralizing antibody. The proportion of seropositive bats varied significantly across trophic guilds, suggestive of complex intraspecific compartmentalization of RABV perpetuation. PMID:25080103

  15. Bat Rabies in Guatemala

    PubMed Central

    Ellison, James A.; Gilbert, Amy T.; Recuenco, Sergio; Moran, David; Alvarez, Danilo A.; Kuzmina, Natalia; Garcia, Daniel L.; Peruski, Leonard F.; Mendonça, Mary T.; Lindblade, Kim A.; Rupprecht, Charles E.

    2014-01-01

    Rabies in bats is considered enzootic throughout the New World, but few comparative data are available for most countries in the region. As part of a larger pathogen detection program, enhanced bat rabies surveillance was conducted in Guatemala, between 2009 and 2011. A total of 672 bats of 31 species were sampled and tested for rabies. The prevalence of rabies virus (RABV) detection among all collected bats was low (0.3%). Viral antigens were detected and infectious virus was isolated from the brains of two common vampire bats (Desmodus rotundus). RABV was also isolated from oral swabs, lungs and kidneys of both bats, whereas viral RNA was detected in all of the tissues examined by hemi-nested RT-PCR except for the liver of one bat. Sequencing of the nucleoprotein gene showed that both viruses were 100% identical, whereas sequencing of the glycoprotein gene revealed one non-synonymous substitution (302T,S). The two vampire bat RABV isolates in this study were phylogenetically related to viruses associated with vampire bats in the eastern states of Mexico and El Salvador. Additionally, 7% of sera collected from 398 bats demonstrated RABV neutralizing antibody. The proportion of seropositive bats varied significantly across trophic guilds, suggestive of complex intraspecific compartmentalization of RABV perpetuation. PMID:25080103

  16. Memorial I.Rabi

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2011-04-25

    Le DG H.Schopper ainsi que Norman Ramsey et le DG de l'Unesco rendent hommage à Isidor Rabi, grand scientifique et humaniste (1929-1988).Cette rencontre est organisée ensemble avec le Cern et l'Unesco.

  17. Memorial I.Rabi

    SciTech Connect

    2006-11-01

    Le DG H.Schopper ainsi que Norman Ramsey et le DG de l'Unesco rendent hommage à Isidor Rabi, grand scientifique et humaniste (1929-1988).Cette rencontre est organisée ensemble avec le Cern et l'Unesco.

  18. Renormalization group functional equations

    SciTech Connect

    Curtright, Thomas L.; Zachos, Cosmas K.

    2011-03-15

    Functional conjugation methods are used to analyze the global structure of various renormalization group trajectories and to gain insight into the interplay between continuous and discrete rescaling. With minimal assumptions, the methods produce continuous flows from step-scaling {sigma} functions and lead to exact functional relations for the local flow {beta} functions, whose solutions may have novel, exotic features, including multiple branches. As a result, fixed points of {sigma} are sometimes not true fixed points under continuous changes in scale and zeroes of {beta} do not necessarily signal fixed points of the flow but instead may only indicate turning points of the trajectories.

  19. Renormalizing Entanglement Distillation.

    PubMed

    Waeldchen, Stephan; Gertis, Janina; Campbell, Earl T; Eisert, Jens

    2016-01-15

    Entanglement distillation refers to the task of transforming a collection of weakly entangled pairs into fewer highly entangled ones. It is a core ingredient in quantum repeater protocols, which are needed to transmit entanglement over arbitrary distances in order to realize quantum key distribution schemes. Usually, it is assumed that the initial entangled pairs are identically and independently distributed and are uncorrelated with each other, an assumption that might not be reasonable at all in any entanglement generation process involving memory channels. Here, we introduce a framework that captures entanglement distillation in the presence of natural correlations arising from memory channels. Conceptually, we bring together ideas from condensed-matter physics-ideas from renormalization and matrix-product states and operators-with those of local entanglement manipulation, Markov chain mixing, and quantum error correction. We identify meaningful parameter regions for which we prove convergence to maximally entangled states, arising as the fixed points of a matrix-product operator renormalization flow. PMID:26824532

  20. Neurological complications of rabies vaccines.

    PubMed

    Tullu, Millind S; Rodrigues, Sean; Muranjan, Mamta N; Bavdekar, Sandeep B; Kamat, Jaishree R; Hira, Priya R

    2003-02-01

    The rabies vaccines containing neural elements are used in some countries including India. We report three cases that presented with various neurological complications following the use of these vaccines. The presenting manifestations included those of encephalitis, radiculitis and acute inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy. These neurological complications are highlighted so that scientific evidence compels the community to discontinue the use of the neural tissue rabies vaccines. Newer generation cell culture rabies vaccines should be preferred over the neural tissue rabies vaccines for post-exposure prophylaxis. PMID:12626831

  1. Bat Rabies in Ontario

    PubMed Central

    Beauregard, M.; Stewart, R. C.

    1964-01-01

    Rabies has been diagnosed for the first time in the bat population of Ontario. In the course of a study involving 72 bats from 24 counties of the province, five big brown bats (E. fuscus) were found to be infected with rabies through the mouse inoculation test. At the present time, it does not look as if bats have been connected with the epizootic of sylvatic rabies in Ontario. La rage est apparue pour la première fois chez les chauves-souris en Ontario. Au cours d'une étude qui a porté sur 72 de ces animaux provenant de 24 comtés de la province, l'inoculation d'animaux de laboratoire a permis confirmer la présence de la maladie chez cinq grosses chauves-souris brunes (E. fuscus). A date, il ne semble toutefois pas que les chauves-souris soient impliquées dans l'épizootie de rage sylvatique qui sévit en Orntario. PMID:17649490

  2. Renormalization Group Tutorial

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, Thomas L.

    2004-01-01

    Complex physical systems sometimes have statistical behavior characterized by power- law dependence on the parameters of the system and spatial variability with no particular characteristic scale as the parameters approach critical values. The renormalization group (RG) approach was developed in the fields of statistical mechanics and quantum field theory to derive quantitative predictions of such behavior in cases where conventional methods of analysis fail. Techniques based on these ideas have since been extended to treat problems in many different fields, and in particular, the behavior of turbulent fluids. This lecture will describe a relatively simple but nontrivial example of the RG approach applied to the diffusion of photons out of a stellar medium when the photons have wavelengths near that of an emission line of atoms in the medium.

  3. Gutzwiller renormalization group

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Lanatà, Nicola; Yao, Yong -Xin; Deng, Xiaoyu; Wang, Cai -Zhuang; Ho, Kai -Ming; Kotliar, Gabriel

    2016-01-06

    We develop a variational scheme called the “Gutzwiller renormalization group” (GRG), which enables us to calculate the ground state of Anderson impurity models (AIM) with arbitrary numerical precision. Our method exploits the low-entanglement property of the ground state of local Hamiltonians in combination with the framework of the Gutzwiller wave function and indicates that the ground state of the AIM has a very simple structure, which can be represented very accurately in terms of a surprisingly small number of variational parameters. Furthermore, we perform benchmark calculations of the single-band AIM that validate our theory and suggest that the GRG mightmore » enable us to study complex systems beyond the reach of the other methods presently available and pave the way to interesting generalizations, e.g., to nonequilibrium transport in nanostructures.« less

  4. Gutzwiller renormalization group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanatà, Nicola; Yao, Yong-Xin; Deng, Xiaoyu; Wang, Cai-Zhuang; Ho, Kai-Ming; Kotliar, Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    We develop a variational scheme called the "Gutzwiller renormalization group" (GRG), which enables us to calculate the ground state of Anderson impurity models (AIM) with arbitrary numerical precision. Our method exploits the low-entanglement property of the ground state of local Hamiltonians in combination with the framework of the Gutzwiller wave function and indicates that the ground state of the AIM has a very simple structure, which can be represented very accurately in terms of a surprisingly small number of variational parameters. We perform benchmark calculations of the single-band AIM that validate our theory and suggest that the GRG might enable us to study complex systems beyond the reach of the other methods presently available and pave the way to interesting generalizations, e.g., to nonequilibrium transport in nanostructures.

  5. The Mad Fox Disease: Rabies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Rosanne

    One of a series of instructional materials produced by the Literacy Council of Alaska, this booklet provides information about the control of rabies. Using both simplified sentence structure and vocabulary, it describes how rabies may be spread, its symptoms, its treatment, and ways it can be prevented. (FL)

  6. Tensor Network Renormalization Yields the Multiscale Entanglement Renormalization Ansatz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evenbly, G.; Vidal, G.

    2015-11-01

    We show how to build a multiscale entanglement renormalization ansatz (MERA) representation of the ground state of a many-body Hamiltonian H by applying the recently proposed tensor network renormalization [G. Evenbly and G. Vidal, Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 180405 (2015)] to the Euclidean time evolution operator e-β H for infinite β . This approach bypasses the costly energy minimization of previous MERA algorithms and, when applied to finite inverse temperature β , produces a MERA representation of a thermal Gibbs state. Our construction endows tensor network renormalization with a renormalization group flow in the space of wave functions and Hamiltonians (and not merely in the more abstract space of tensors) and extends the MERA formalism to classical statistical systems.

  7. SAG-2 oral rabies vaccine.

    PubMed

    Schumacher, C L; Coulon, P; Lafay, F; Bénéjean, J; Aubert, M F; Barrat, J; Aubert, A; Flamand, A

    1993-12-01

    The live modified rabies virus vaccine strain SAG-2 was selected from SADBerne in a two step process employing anti-rabies glycoprotein monoclonal antibodies. The first two nucleotides coding for the amino acid in position 333 of the rabies glycoprotein are mutated. Arginine at position 333, which is associated with rabies pathogenicity, was substituted first by lysine and then by glutamic acid. The two nucleotide differences at position 333 in SAG-2 to any of six possible arginine triplets translated into excellent genetic stability and apathogenicity for adult mice, foxes, cats and dogs. The vaccination of foxes and dogs by the oral route provided protection against a lethal challenge with rabies virus. PMID:7777336

  8. Effective vaccination against rabies in puppies in rabies endemic regions

    PubMed Central

    Morters, M. K.; McNabb, S.; Horton, D. L.; Fooks, A. R.; Schoeman, J. P.; Whay, H. R.; Wood, J. L. N.; Cleaveland, S.

    2015-01-01

    In rabies endemic regions, a proportionally higher incidence of rabies is often reported in dogs younger than 12 months of age, which includes puppies less than 3 months of age; this presents a serious risk to public health. The higher incidence of rabies in young dogs may be the effect of low vaccination coverage in this age class, partly as a result of the perception that immature immune systems and maternal antibodies inhibit seroconversion to rabies vaccine in puppies less than three months of age. Therefore, to test this perception, the authors report the virus neutralising antibody titres from 27 dogs that were vaccinated with high quality, inactivated rabies vaccine aged three months of age and under as part of larger serological studies undertaken in Gauteng Province, South Africa, and the Serengeti District, Tanzania. All of these dogs seroconverted to a single dose of vaccine with no adverse reactions reported and with postvaccinal peak titres ranging from 2.0 IU/ml to 90.5 IU/ml. In light of these results, and the risk of human beings contracting rabies from close contact with puppies, the authors recommend that all dogs in rabies endemic regions, including those less than three months of age, are vaccinated with high quality, inactivated vaccine. PMID:26109286

  9. Regular exposure to rabies virus and lack of symptomatic disease in Serengeti spotted hyenas

    PubMed Central

    East, Marion L.; Hofer, Heribert; Cox, James H.; Wulle, Ulrich; Wiik, Harald; Pitra, Christian

    2001-01-01

    We report a previously unrecognized complexity to the ecology of rabies in wildlife. Rabies-specific virus-neutralizing antibodies in spotted hyenas, the most numerous large carnivore in the Serengeti ecosystem (Tanzania, East Africa), revealed a high frequency of exposure of 37.0% to rabies virus, and reverse transcriptase (RT) PCR demonstrated rabies RNA in 13.0% of hyenas. Despite this high frequency, exposure neither caused symptomatic rabies nor decreased survival among members of hyena social groups monitored for 9 to13 years. Repeated, intermittent presence of virus in saliva of 45.5% of seropositive hyenas indicated a “carrier” state. Rabies isolates from Serengeti hyenas differed significantly (8.5% sequence divergence) from those isolated from other Serengeti carnivores, suggesting that at least two separate strains circulate within the Serengeti carnivore community. This finding is consistent with the fact that exposure in hyenas increased with age and social status, following a pattern predicted by intraspecific age and social-status-dependent oral and bite contact rates. High seroprevalence of rabies, low basic reproductive rate of the virus (R0) of 1.9, a carrier state, and the absence of symptomatic rabies in a carnivore in an ecosystem with multihost and multistrain maintenance has not been previously demonstrated for rabies. Because of the substantial differences between the hyena viral isolates and those from canids and viverrids in the Serengeti, it is unlikely that spotted hyenas were the source of rabies virus that killed several African wild dog packs in the Serengeti ecosystem in the 1990s. PMID:11742089

  10. [Canine and human rabies in Conakry: epidemiology and preventive aspects].

    PubMed

    Youla, A S; Traore, F A; Sako, F B; Feda, R M; Emeric, M A

    2014-02-01

    In Guinea, stray dogs are present in large numbers in public places and around landfills. The objectives of this study were to determine the frequency of human exposure to rabies risk, the cases of human and canine rabies and to describe the epidemiological profile of the cases. This retrospective and descriptive study was conducted in health and veterinarian facilities within the city of Conakry. All records of patients admitted in these facilities because of animal bites and veterinary records for aggression by domestic animals from 2002 to 2012, so, during an 11-year period, were collected. During the study period, 7 994 people were concerned by domestic animal bites. Males were the most affected with 60.4% of all cases. Students represented the higher class with 36.0%, followed by workers (18%). The majority of injuries were to the lower limbs (54.4%). The dog has been implicated in the attacks in 98.8% of cases. Among the 2 916 biting dogs which were placed under observation, 14 developed clinical rabies. Among those assaulted, 11 cases of rabies were reported. From 7 994 victims of domestic animal bites, 2 634 received post-exposure prophylaxis and the dropout rate was 51%. Rabies is a real risk in Conakry. Provisions in terms of public health strategy must be taken to minimize it. PMID:24363015

  11. Cluster functional renormalization group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reuther, Johannes; Thomale, Ronny

    2014-01-01

    Functional renormalization group (FRG) has become a diverse and powerful tool to derive effective low-energy scattering vertices of interacting many-body systems. Starting from a free expansion point of the action, the flow of the RG parameter Λ allows us to trace the evolution of the effective one- and two-particle vertices towards low energies by taking into account the vertex corrections between all parquet channels in an unbiased fashion. In this work, we generalize the expansion point at which the diagrammatic resummation procedure is initiated from a free UV limit to a cluster product state. We formulate a cluster FRG scheme where the noninteracting building blocks (i.e., decoupled spin clusters) are treated exactly, and the intercluster couplings are addressed via RG. As a benchmark study, we apply our cluster FRG scheme to the spin-1/2 bilayer Heisenberg model (BHM) on a square lattice where the neighboring sites in the two layers form the individual two-site clusters. Comparing with existing numerical evidence for the BHM, we obtain reasonable findings for the spin susceptibility, the spin-triplet excitation energy, and quasiparticle weight even in coupling regimes close to antiferromagnetic order. The concept of cluster FRG promises applications to a large class of interacting electron systems.

  12. Integrability of the Rabi Model

    SciTech Connect

    Braak, D.

    2011-09-02

    The Rabi model is a paradigm for interacting quantum systems. It couples a bosonic mode to the smallest possible quantum model, a two-level system. I present the analytical solution which allows us to consider the question of integrability for quantum systems that do not possess a classical limit. A criterion for quantum integrability is proposed which shows that the Rabi model is integrable due to the presence of a discrete symmetry. Moreover, I introduce a generalization with no symmetries; the generalized Rabi model is the first example of a nonintegrable but exactly solvable system.

  13. Arctic Rabies – A Review

    PubMed Central

    Mørk, Torill; Prestrud, Pål

    2004-01-01

    Rabies seems to persist throughout most arctic regions, and the northern parts of Norway, Sweden and Finland, is the only part of the Arctic where rabies has not been diagnosed in recent time. The arctic fox is the main host, and the same arctic virus variant seems to infect the arctic fox throughout the range of this species. The epidemiology of rabies seems to have certain common characteristics in arctic regions, but main questions such as the maintenance and spread of the disease remains largely unknown. The virus has spread and initiated new epidemics also in other species such as the red fox and the racoon dog. Large land areas and cold climate complicate the control of the disease, but experimental oral vaccination of arctic foxes has been successful. This article summarises the current knowledge and the typical characteristics of arctic rabies including its distribution and epidemiology. PMID:15535081

  14. Novel vaccines to human rabies.

    PubMed

    Ertl, Hildegund C J

    2009-01-01

    Rabies, the most fatal of all infectious diseases, remains a major public health problem in developing countries, claiming the lives of an estimated 55,000 people each year. Most fatal rabies cases, with more than half of them in children, result from dog bites and occur among low-income families in Southeast Asia and Africa. Safe and efficacious vaccines are available to prevent rabies. However, they have to be given repeatedly, three times for pre-exposure vaccination and four to five times for post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP). In cases of severe exposure, a regimen of vaccine combined with a rabies immunoglobulin (RIG) preparation is required. The high incidence of fatal rabies is linked to a lack of knowledge on the appropriate treatment of bite wounds, lack of access to costly PEP, and failure to follow up with repeat immunizations. New, more immunogenic but less costly rabies virus vaccines are needed to reduce the toll of rabies on human lives. A preventative vaccine used for the immunization of children, especially those in high incidence countries, would be expected to lower fatality rates. Such a vaccine would have to be inexpensive, safe, and provide sustained protection, preferably after a single dose. Novel regimens are also needed for PEP to reduce the need for the already scarce and costly RIG and to reduce the number of vaccine doses to one or two. In this review, the pipeline of new rabies vaccines that are in pre-clinical testing is provided and an opinion on those that might be best suited as potential replacements for the currently used vaccines is offered. PMID:19787033

  15. Novel Vaccines to Human Rabies

    PubMed Central

    Ertl, Hildegund C. J.

    2009-01-01

    Rabies, the most fatal of all infectious diseases, remains a major public health problem in developing countries, claiming the lives of an estimated 55,000 people each year. Most fatal rabies cases, with more than half of them in children, result from dog bites and occur among low-income families in Southeast Asia and Africa. Safe and efficacious vaccines are available to prevent rabies. However, they have to be given repeatedly, three times for pre-exposure vaccination and four to five times for post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP). In cases of severe exposure, a regimen of vaccine combined with a rabies immunoglobulin (RIG) preparation is required. The high incidence of fatal rabies is linked to a lack of knowledge on the appropriate treatment of bite wounds, lack of access to costly PEP, and failure to follow up with repeat immunizations. New, more immunogenic but less costly rabies virus vaccines are needed to reduce the toll of rabies on human lives. A preventative vaccine used for the immunization of children, especially those in high incidence countries, would be expected to lower fatality rates. Such a vaccine would have to be inexpensive, safe, and provide sustained protection, preferably after a single dose. Novel regimens are also needed for PEP to reduce the need for the already scarce and costly RIG and to reduce the number of vaccine doses to one or two. In this review, the pipeline of new rabies vaccines that are in pre-clinical testing is provided and an opinion on those that might be best suited as potential replacements for the currently used vaccines is offered. PMID:19787033

  16. Human rabies--Wisconsin, 2010.

    PubMed

    2011-09-01

    In late December 2010, a male resident of Wisconsin, aged 70 years, sought treatment for progressive right shoulder pain, tremors, abnormal behavior, and dysphagia at an emergency department (ED). He was admitted for observation and treated with benzodiazepines and haloperidol, a neuroleptic, for presumed alcohol withdrawal syndrome. The next day, he had rhabdomyolysis, fever, and rigidity, and neuroleptic malignant syndrome was diagnosed. The neuroleptic was discontinued, but the patient's clinical status worsened, with encephalopathy, respiratory failure, acute renal failure requiring hemodialysis, and episodes of cardiac arrest. With continued clinical deterioration, additional causes were considered, including rabies. On hospital day 12, rabies virus antigens and nucleic acid were detected in the nuchal skin biopsy and rabies virus nucleic acid in saliva specimens sent to CDC. A rabies virus variant associated with silver-haired bats (Lasionycteris noctivagans) was identified. The patient died on hospital day 13. His spouse reported that they had been selling firewood, and bats had been present in the woodpile; however, the man had not reported a bat bite. Two relatives and five health-care workers potentially exposed to the man's saliva received postexposure prophylaxis. This case highlights the variable presentations of rabies and the ease with which a diagnosis of rabies can be missed in a clinically challenging patient with comorbidities. Clinicians should consider rabies in the differential diagnosis for patients with progressive encephalitis or neurologic illness of unknown etiology and caregivers should take precautions to avoid exposure to body fluids. Continued public education regarding risks for rabies virus exposure during interactions with wildlife, particularly bats, is important. PMID:21881547

  17. Control of rabies: epidemiology of rabies in Asia and development of new-generation vaccines for rabies.

    PubMed

    Sugiyama, Makoto; Ito, Naoto

    2007-09-01

    Rabies is an enzootic viral disease widespread throughout the world. Although it is a vaccine-preventable disease, the annual number of human deaths caused by rabies is estimated to be 32,000 in Asia. Phylogenetic analysis based on sequence data of the partial N gene of rabies viruses in Asia has shown that the viruses are divided into five genogroups, distributed in Middle East, South Asia, South East Asia, Malay, and Arctic regions. The genetic relationships among these rabies viruses agree basically with the results of previous studies. Meanwhile, new types of vaccines are being developed by applying gene manipulation techniques to rabies virus in order to overcome the disadvantages of current vaccines. This article reviews the molecular epidemiology of rabies in Asia and progress made in the development of new-generation rabies vaccines with the goal of elimination or control of rabies in Asia. PMID:17619057

  18. Rabies in skunks from Mexico.

    PubMed

    Aranda, M; López-de Buen, L

    1999-07-01

    An enzootic focus of rabies in skunks in Mexico is described. Fifty three wild animals including two badgers (Taxidea taxus), 32 bats (various species), one bobcat (Lynx rufus), two coatis (Nasua narica) three foxes (Urocyon cineroargenteus), one raccoon (Procyon lotor) and 12 skunks (see below) were tested for rabies by direct immunofluorescence assay from 1991 to 1997 in the central part of San Luis Potosi State, Mexico. Rabies occurrence was 21% of all tested mammals, with 19% in skunks and only 2% in other wild species (one bobcat). Skunks represented 23% of all mammals tested and had a rabies prevalence of 83%. Only 10 individuals were identified: three hog-nosed skunks (Conepatus leuconotus) and seven spotted skunks (Spilogale putorius). All were involved in human attacks; the spotted skunk attacks were inside bedrooms while people were sleeping, and the hog-nosed skunk attacks occurred outdoors. Skunk cases of rabies represented 40% of all rabies cases in 1997, and 100% of cases registered for wild animals in San Luis Potosi state. This situation constitutes an important public health problem and requires further epidemiological research to make the human population aware of the problem and to establish measures to limit further human attacks by rabid skunks. PMID:10479094

  19. Diabolical effects of rabies encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Alan C

    2016-02-01

    Rabies is an acute encephalomyelitis in humans and animals caused by rabies virus (RABV) infection. Because the neuropathological changes are very mild in rabies, it has been assumed that neuronal dysfunction likely explains the severe clinical disease. Recently, degenerative changes have been observed in neuronal processes (dendrites and axons) in experimental rabies. In vitro studies have shown evidence of oxidative stress that is caused by mitochondrial dysfunction. Recent work has shown that the RABV phosphoprotein (P) interacts with mitochondrial Complex I leading to overproduction of reactive oxygen species, which results in injury to axons. Amino acids at positions 139 to 172 of the P are critical in this process. Rabies vectors frequently show behavioral changes. Aggressive behavior with biting is important for transmission of the virus to new hosts at a time when virus is secreted in the saliva. Aggression is associated with low serotonergic activity in the brain. Charlton and coworkers performed studies in experimentally infected striped skunks with skunk rabies virus and observed aggressive behavioral responses. Heavy accumulation of RABV antigen was found in the midbrain raphe nuclei, indicating that impaired serotonin neurotransmission from the brainstem may account for the aggressive behavior. We now have an improved understanding of how RABV causes neuronal injury and how the infection results in behavioral changes that promote viral transmission to new hosts. PMID:25994917

  20. Renormalization group in internal space

    SciTech Connect

    Polonyi, J.; Sailer, K.

    2005-01-15

    Renormalization group in the internal space consists of the gradual change of the coupling constants. Functional evolution equations corresponding to the change of the mass or the coupling constant are presented in the framework of a scalar model. The evolution in the mass which yields the functional generalization of the Callan-Symanzik equation for the one-particle irreducible effective action is given in its renormalized, cutoff-independent form. The evolution of the coupling constant generates an evolution equation for the two-particle irreducible effective action.

  1. Dimensional renormalization: Ladders and rainbows

    SciTech Connect

    Delbourgo, R.; Kalloniatis, A.C.; Thompson, G.

    1996-10-01

    Renormalization factors are most easily extracted by going to the massless limit of the quantum field theory and retaining only a single momentum scale. We derive the factors and renormalized Green{close_quote}s functions to {ital all} orders in perturbation theory for rainbow graphs and vertex (or scattering) diagrams at zero momentum transfer, in the context of dimensional regularization, and we prove that the correct anomalous dimensions for those processes emerge in the limit {ital D}{r_arrow}4. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  2. Rabies: Diagnosis in Animals and Humans

    MedlinePlus

    ... a low probability of rabies such as dogs, cats, and ferrets, observation periods (10 days) may be ... 2008 Rabies in Domestic Animals, 1958-2008 Rabid Cats Reported in the United States, 2008 Rabid Dogs ...

  3. Renormalization in Coulomb gauge QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andraši, A.; Taylor, John C.

    2011-04-01

    In the Coulomb gauge of QCD, the Hamiltonian contains a non-linear Christ-Lee term, which may alternatively be derived from a careful treatment of ambiguous Feynman integrals at 2-loop order. We investigate how and if UV divergences from higher order graphs can be consistently absorbed by renormalization of the Christ-Lee term. We find that they cannot.

  4. Renormalization group in quantum mechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Polony, J.

    1996-12-01

    The running coupling constants are introduced in quantum mechanics and their evolution is described with the help of the renormalization group equation. The harmonic oscillator and the propagation on curved spaces are presented as examples. The Hamiltonian and the Lagrangian scaling relations are obtained. These evolution equations are used to construct low energy effective models. Copyright {copyright} 1996 Academic Press, Inc.

  5. Multi-photon transitions and Rabi resonance in continuous wave EPR.

    PubMed

    Saiko, Alexander P; Fedaruk, Ryhor; Markevich, Siarhei A

    2015-10-01

    The study of microwave-radiofrequency multi-photon transitions in continuous wave (CW) EPR spectroscopy is extended to a Rabi resonance condition, when the radio frequency of the magnetic-field modulation matches the Rabi frequency of a spin system in the microwave field. Using the non-secular perturbation theory based on the Bogoliubov averaging method, the analytical description of the response of the spin system is derived for all modulation frequency harmonics. When the modulation frequency exceeds the EPR linewidth, multi-photon transitions result in sidebands in absorption EPR spectra measured with phase-sensitive detection at any harmonic. The saturation of different-order multi-photon transitions is shown to be significantly different and to be sensitive to the Rabi resonance. The noticeable frequency shifts of sidebands are found to be the signatures of this resonance. The inversion of two-photon lines in some spectral intervals of the out-of-phase first-harmonic signal is predicted under passage through the Rabi resonance. The inversion indicates the transition from absorption to stimulated emission or vice versa, depending on the sideband. The manifestation of the primary and secondary Rabi resonance is also demonstrated in the time evolution of steady-state EPR signals formed by all harmonics of the modulation frequency. Our results provide a theoretical framework for future developments in multi-photon CW EPR spectroscopy, which can be useful for samples with long spin relaxation times and extremely narrow EPR lines. PMID:26295168

  6. Canine adenovirus based rabies vaccines.

    PubMed

    Tordo, N; Foumier, A; Jallet, C; Szelechowski, M; Klonjkowski, B; Eloit, M

    2008-01-01

    Adenovirus based vectors are very attractive candidates for vaccination purposes as they induce in mammalian hosts potent humoral, mucosal and cellular immune responses to antigens encoded by the inserted genes. We have generated E1-deleted and replication-competent recombinant canine type-2 adenoviruses expressing the rabies virus glycoprotein (G). The effectiveness of both vectors to express a native G protein has been characterized in vitro in permissive cell lines. We compared the humoral and cellular immune responses induced in mice by intramuscular injection of the recombinant canine adenovirus vectors with those induced by a human (Ad5) E1-deleted virus expressing the same rabies G protein. Humoral responses specific to the adenoviruses or the rabies glycoprotein antigens were studied. The influence of the mouse strain was observed using replication-competent canine adenovirus. A high level of rabies neutralizing antibody was observed upon i.m. inoculation, and 100% of mice survived lethal challenge. These results are very promising in the perspective of oral vaccine for dog rabies control. PMID:18634509

  7. Rabies Epidemiology and Control in Ecuador

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz-Prado, Esteban; Ponce-Zea, Jorge; Ramirez, Dario; Stewart-Ibarra, Anna M.; Armijos, Luciana; Yockteng, Jaime; Cárdenas, Washington B.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Describe the epidemiology and the control effort for rabies in Ecuador. Methods: This observational study included data from the Ecuadorian National Institute of Census and Statistics (INEC), and mortality and morbidity data reported by the Ministry of Public Health and the National Institute for Social Security. We conducted a phylogeny analyses to compare the N gene from the Challenge Virus Standard (CVS) vaccine strain used in Ecuador with published Cosmopolitan, Asian and Sylvatic strains. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to determine the significance of the data. Results: In 1996 Ecuador suffered the highest rate of rabies per capita in the Americas, with an incidence rate of 0.56 cases per 100 000 people per year. Human and canine rabies showed a sharp decline until 2012. Between 1994 and 2014, we found a correlation of 0.925 (p<0.01) between annual cases of dog and human rabies. In 2011, there was an epidemic of sylvatic rabies transmitted to people by vampire bats (Desmodus rotundus) in the Amazon region, specifically in Morona Santiago, leading to 11 fatalities. Phylogenetic analyses of the CVS vaccine N gene showed an association with urban canine rabies strains (the Cosmopolitan lineage and Asian strains), whereas sylvatic rabies, like those reported in the Amazon region, were found to be grouped in a different clade represented mainly by bat-derived strains. Conclusions: This study presents the first compilation of epidemiological data on rabies in Ecuador. The incidence of human and canine rabies, also known as urban rabies, has clearly decreased due to massive canine vaccination campaigns. Phylogenetic analysis of the prevailing vaccine used in the country showed a clear separation from bat-derived rabies, the source of recent rabies outbreaks. Efforts are ongoing to develop rabies vaccines that are highly specific to the rabies virus genotype circulating in the region, including sylvatic rabies. These efforts include the

  8. Renormalization Group Theory Technique and Subgrid Scale Closure for Fluid and Plasma Turbulence.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Ye.

    Renormalization group theory is applied to incompressible three-dimension Navier-Stokes turbulence so as to eliminate unresolvable small scales. The renormalized Navier-Stokes equation includes a triple nonlinearity with the eddy viscosity exhibiting a mild cusp behavior, in qualitative agreement with the test-field model results of Kraichnan. For the cusp behavior to arise, not only is the triple nonlinearity necessary but the effects of pressure must be incorporated in the triple term. Renormalization group theory is also applied to a model Alfven wave turbulence equation. In particular, the effect of small unresolvable subgrid scales on the large scales is computed. It is found that the removal of the subgrid scales leads to a renormalized response function. (i) This response function can be calculated analytically via the difference renormalization group technique. Strong absorption can occur around the Alfven frequency for sharply peaked subgrid frequency spectra. (ii) With the epsilon - expansion renormalization group approach, the Lorenzian wavenumber spectrum of Chen and Mahajan can be recovered for finite epsilon , but the nonlinear coupling constant still remains small, fully justifying the neglect of higher order nonlinearities introduced by the renormalization group procedure.

  9. Potential cost savings with terrestrial rabies control

    PubMed Central

    Recuenco, Sergio; Cherry, Bryan; Eidson, Millicent

    2007-01-01

    Background The cost-benefit of raccoon rabies control strategies such as oral rabies vaccination (ORV) are under evaluation. As an initial quantification of the potential cost savings for a control program, the collection of selected rabies cost data was pilot tested for five counties in New York State (NYS) in a three-year period. Methods Rabies costs reported to NYS from the study counties were computerized and linked to a human rabies exposure database. Consolidated costs by county and year were averaged and compared. Results Reported rabies-associated costs for all rabies variants totalled $2.1 million, for human rabies postexposure prophylaxes (PEP) (90.9%), animal specimen preparation/shipment to laboratory (4.7%), and pet vaccination clinics (4.4%). The proportion that may be attributed to raccoon rabies control was 37% ($784,529). Average costs associated with the raccoon variant varied across counties from $440 to $1,885 per PEP, $14 to $44 per specimen, and $0.33 to $15 per pet vaccinated. Conclusion Rabies costs vary widely by county in New York State, and were associated with human population size and methods used by counties to estimate costs. Rabies cost variability must be considered in developing estimates of possible ORV-related cost savings. Costs of PEPs and specimen preparation/shipments, as well as the costs of pet vaccination provided by this study may be valuable for development of more realistic scenarios in economic modelling of ORV costs versus benefits. PMID:17407559

  10. The ERA strain of rabies vaccine.

    PubMed

    Lawson, K F; Crawley, J F

    1972-10-01

    An antigenic extinction trial in cats showed that the ERA rabies vaccine had superior antigenic properties over Flury H.E.P. C.E.O. and killed tissue culture rabies vaccine. Dogs and cats on a duration of immunity study of ERA rabies vaccine were challenged with fox salivary gland "street" rabies virus. The results of this challenge show a duration of immunity of five years in dogs and four years in cats. Vaccination of dams in late pregnancy with ERA rabies vaccine resulted in transference of maternal antibody to the newborn, in both cattle and dogs. This maternally derived antibody interfered with the successful active immunization of the young calf. Calves free of antibodies for rabies could be successfully vaccinated as early as 17 days of age and were able to withstand a challenge with virulent "street" rabies virus two years later. PMID:4263912

  11. The ERA Strain of Rabies Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Lawson, K. F.; Crawley, J. F.

    1972-01-01

    An antigenic extinction trial in cats showed that the ERA rabies vaccine had superior antigenic properties over Flury H.E.P. C.E.O. and killed tissue culture rabies vaccine. Dogs and cats on a duration of immunity study of ERA rabies vaccine were challenged with fox salivary gland “street” rabies virus. The results of this challenge show a duration of immunity of five years in dogs and four years in cats. Vaccination of dams in late pregnancy with ERA rabies vaccine resulted in transference of maternal antibody to the newborn, in both cattle and dogs. This maternally derived antibody interfered with the successful active immunization of the young calf. Calves free of antibodies for rabies could be successfully vaccinated as early as 17 days of age and were able to withstand a challenge with virulent “street” rabies virus two years later. PMID:4263912

  12. Algebraic Lattices in QFT Renormalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borinsky, Michael

    2016-04-01

    The structure of overlapping subdivergences, which appear in the perturbative expansions of quantum field theory, is analyzed using algebraic lattice theory. It is shown that for specific QFTs the sets of subdivergences of Feynman diagrams form algebraic lattices. This class of QFTs includes the standard model. In kinematic renormalization schemes, in which tadpole diagrams vanish, these lattices are semimodular. This implies that the Hopf algebra of Feynman diagrams is graded by the coradical degree or equivalently that every maximal forest has the same length in the scope of BPHZ renormalization. As an application of this framework, a formula for the counter terms in zero-dimensional QFT is given together with some examples of the enumeration of primitive or skeleton diagrams.

  13. Algebraic Lattices in QFT Renormalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borinsky, Michael

    2016-07-01

    The structure of overlapping subdivergences, which appear in the perturbative expansions of quantum field theory, is analyzed using algebraic lattice theory. It is shown that for specific QFTs the sets of subdivergences of Feynman diagrams form algebraic lattices. This class of QFTs includes the standard model. In kinematic renormalization schemes, in which tadpole diagrams vanish, these lattices are semimodular. This implies that the Hopf algebra of Feynman diagrams is graded by the coradical degree or equivalently that every maximal forest has the same length in the scope of BPHZ renormalization. As an application of this framework, a formula for the counter terms in zero-dimensional QFT is given together with some examples of the enumeration of primitive or skeleton diagrams.

  14. BAT-BORNE RABIES IN LATIN AMERICA

    PubMed Central

    Escobar, Luis E.; Peterson, A. Townsend; Favi, Myriam; Yung, Verónica; Medina-Vogel, Gonzalo

    2015-01-01

    The situation of rabies in America is complex: rabies in dogs has decreased dramatically, but bats are increasingly recognized as natural reservoirs of other rabies variants. Here, bat species known to be rabies-positive with different antigenic variants, are summarized in relation to bat conservation status across Latin America. Rabies virus is widespread in Latin American bat species, 22.5%75 of bat species have been confirmed as rabies-positive. Most bat species found rabies positive are classified by the International Union for Conservation of Nature as “Least Concern”. According to diet type, insectivorous bats had the most species known as rabies reservoirs, while in proportion hematophagous bats were the most important. Research at coarse spatial scales must strive to understand rabies ecology; basic information on distribution and population dynamics of many Latin American and Caribbean bat species is needed; and detailed information on effects of landscape change in driving bat-borne rabies outbreaks remains unassessed. Finally, integrated approaches including public health, ecology, and conservation biology are needed to understand and prevent emergent diseases in bats. PMID:25651328

  15. Livestock rabies outbreaks in Shanxi province, China.

    PubMed

    Feng, Ye; Shi, Yanyan; Yu, Mingyang; Xu, Weidi; Gong, Wenjie; Tu, Zhongzhong; Ding, Laixi; He, Biao; Guo, Huancheng; Tu, Changchun

    2016-10-01

    Dogs play an important role in rabies transmission throughout the world. In addition to the severe human rabies situation in China, spillover of rabies virus from dogs in recent years has caused rabies outbreaks in sheep, cattle and pigs, showing that there is an increasing threat to other domestic animals. Two livestock rabies outbreaks were caused by dogs in Shanxi province, China from April to October in 2015, resulting in the deaths of 60 sheep, 10 cattle and one donkey. Brain samples from one infected bovine and the donkey were determined to be rabies virus (RABV) positive by fluorescent antibody test (FAT) and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The complete RABV N genes of the two field strains, together with those of two previously confirmed Shanxi dog strains, were amplified, sequenced and compared phylogenetically with published sequences of the N gene of RABV strains from Shanxi and surrounding provinces. All of the strains from Shanxi province grouped closely, sharing 99.6 %-100 % sequence identity, indicating the wide distribution and transmission of dog-mediated rabies in these areas. This is the first description of donkey rabies symptoms with phylogenetic analysis of RABVs in Shanxi province and surrounding regions. The result emphasizes the need for mandatory dog rabies vaccination and improved public education to eradicate dog rabies transmission. PMID:27422397

  16. Bat-borne rabies in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Escobar, Luis E; Peterson, A Townsend; Favi, Myriam; Yung, Verónica; Medina-Vogel, Gonzalo

    2015-01-01

    The situation of rabies in America is complex: rabies in dogs has decreased dramatically, but bats are increasingly recognized as natural reservoirs of other rabies variants. Here, bat species known to be rabies-positive with different antigenic variants, are summarized in relation to bat conservation status across Latin America. Rabies virus is widespread in Latin American bat species, 22.5%75 of bat species have been confirmed as rabies-positive. Most bat species found rabies positive are classified by the International Union for Conservation of Nature as "Least Concern". According to diet type, insectivorous bats had the most species known as rabies reservoirs, while in proportion hematophagous bats were the most important. Research at coarse spatial scales must strive to understand rabies ecology; basic information on distribution and population dynamics of many Latin American and Caribbean bat species is needed; and detailed information on effects of landscape change in driving bat-borne rabies outbreaks remains unassessed. Finally, integrated approaches including public health, ecology, and conservation biology are needed to understand and prevent emergent diseases in bats. PMID:25651328

  17. Rabies in South Asia: fighting for elimination.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Fazle-Rabbi; Basher, Ariful; Amin, Mohammad R; Hassan, Nazia; Patwary, Mohammad I

    2015-01-01

    South Asia is regarded as the hot spot for the tourist and travelers. Unfortunately, three big countries (India, Pakistan and Bangladesh) of this region belong to top five rabies endemic countries of the world. Around 55,000 people die of rabies every year globally and 45% of them belong to South and South East Asia. Countries are now working on the elimination of rabies by the year 2020. Elimination of animal rabies is the pivotal of controlling human rabies. Dog (primary source) registration, population control and mass vaccination are the different ways of eliminating animal rabies. Pre (for risk groups including travelers) and post-exposure vaccine is the core for controlling human rabies. Post-exposure vaccine consists of nerve tissue vaccine and tissue culture vaccine. Due to low antigenicity and post-vaccine neurological complications all countries of South Asia except Pakistan have phased out the production and use of nerve tissue vaccine. To reduce the cost intramuscular regimen is now largely replaced by intradermal regimen and equine rabies immunoglobulin will probably replace human immunoglobulin in future for category III animal bite. 'SAARC' took initiatives for rabies elimination through 'SAARC development fund' which would hopefully play a vital role in regional collaboration to make the region rabies free. PMID:25858305

  18. Quantum Rabi Model in Quantum Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedernales, Julen; Las Heras, Urtzi; Lamata, Lucas; Solano, Enrique

    We will discuss how to simulate a wide range of regimes of the Quantum Rabi Model (QRM) in quantum platforms as trapped ions and circuit QED. Directly accesible regimes of the QRM correspond to a very narrow set of values of the ratio between the coupling strength and the characteristic frequencies of the system, typically in the strong coupling regime or in the perturbative zone of the ultrastrong coupling regime. However, with analog and digital quantum simulation techniques we can access the most elusive regimes of the QRM. Recent theoretical developments have disclosed a plethora of physical phenomena appearing at these previously unexplored regimes of the QRM, making its experimental implementation timely and of high interest.

  19. Efficiency of Matricaria chamomilla CH12 and number of doses of rabies vaccine on the humoral immune response in cattle.

    PubMed

    de Souza Reis, Luis Souza; Frazatti-Gallina, Neuza Maria; de Lima Paoli, Rosana; Giuffrida, Rogerio; Albas, Avelino; Oba, Eunice; Pardo, Paulo Eduardo

    2008-12-01

    This study evaluated the effect of Matricaria chamomilla and vaccination frequency on cattle immunization against rabies. Four groups (n = 15 /group) were treated with or without Matricaria chamomilla CH12 and vaccinated with one or two doses of rabies vaccine (30 day interval). No effect of chamomile was found on cattle immunization against rabies; however, antibody titers were protective in cattle vaccinated twice, while 93.3% of cattle vaccinated only once had titers under 0.5 UI/ml after 60 days. In conclusion, the use of chamomile did not alter the humoral immune response in cattle, and two vaccine doses are suggested for achieving protective antibody titers. PMID:19043320

  20. Efficiency of Matricaria chamomilla CH12 and number of doses of rabies vaccine on the humoral immune response in cattle

    PubMed Central

    Frazatti-Gallina, Neuza Maria; de Lima Paoli, Rosana; Giuffrida, Rogerio; Albas, Avelino; Oba, Eunice; Pardo, Paulo Eduardo

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of Matricaria chamomilla and vaccination frequency on cattle immunization against rabies. Four groups (n = 15 /group) were treated with or without Matricaria chamomilla CH12 and vaccinated with one or two doses of rabies vaccine (30 day interval). No effect of chamomile was found on cattle immunization against rabies; however, antibody titers were protective in cattle vaccinated twice, while 93.3% of cattle vaccinated only once had titers under 0.5 UI/ml after 60 days. In conclusion, the use of chamomile did not alter the humoral immune response in cattle, and two vaccine doses are suggested for achieving protective antibody titers. PMID:19043320

  1. LETTER: Fisher renormalization for logarithmic corrections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenna, Ralph; Hsu, Hsiao-Ping; von Ferber, Christian

    2008-10-01

    For continuous phase transitions characterized by power-law divergences, Fisher renormalization prescribes how to obtain the critical exponents for a system under constraint from their ideal counterparts. In statistical mechanics, such ideal behaviour at phase transitions is frequently modified by multiplicative logarithmic corrections. Here, Fisher renormalization for the exponents of these logarithms is developed in a general manner. As for the leading exponents, Fisher renormalization at the logarithmic level is seen to be involutory and the renormalized exponents obey the same scaling relations as their ideal analogues. The scheme is tested in lattice animals and the Yang-Lee problem at their upper critical dimensions, where predictions for logarithmic corrections are made.

  2. Human rabies and rabies in vampire and nonvampire bat species, Southeastern Peru, 2007.

    PubMed

    Salmón-Mulanovich, Gabriela; Vásquez, Alicia; Albújar, Christian; Guevara, Carolina; Laguna-Torres, V Alberto; Salazar, Milagros; Zamalloa, Hernan; Cáceres, Marcia; Gómez-Benavides, Jorge; Pacheco, Victor; Contreras, Carlos; Kochel, Tadeusz; Niezgoda, Michael; Jackson, Felix R; Velasco-Villa, Andres; Rupprecht, Charles; Montgomery, Joel M

    2009-08-01

    After a human rabies outbreak in southeastern Peru, we collected bats to estimate the prevalence of rabies in various species. Among 165 bats from 6 genera and 10 species, 10.3% were antibody positive; antibody prevalence was similar in vampire and nonvampire bats. Thus, nonvampire bats may also be a source for human rabies in Peru. PMID:19751600

  3. Travel-Associated Rabies in Pets and Residual Rabies Risk, Western Europe.

    PubMed

    Ribadeau-Dumas, Florence; Cliquet, Florence; Gautret, Philippe; Robardet, Emmanuelle; Le Pen, Claude; Bourhy, Hervé

    2016-07-01

    In 2015, countries in western Europe were declared free of rabies in nonflying mammals. Surveillance data for 2001-2013 indicate that risk for residual rabies is not 0 because of pet importation from countries with enzootic rabies. However, the risk is so low (7.52 × 10(-10)) that it probably can be considered negligible. PMID:27314463

  4. Rabies direct fluorescent antibody test does not inactivate rabies or eastern equine encephalitis viruses.

    PubMed

    Jarvis, Jodie A; Franke, Mary A; Davis, April D

    2016-08-01

    An examination using the routine rabies direct fluorescent antibody test was performed on rabies or Eastern equine encephalitis positive mammalian brain tissue to assess inactivation of the virus. Neither virus was inactivated with acetone fixation nor the routine test, thus laboratory employees should treat all samples as rabies and when appropriate Eastern equine encephalitis positive throughout the whole procedure. PMID:27079827

  5. Travel-Associated Rabies in Pets and Residual Rabies Risk, Western Europe

    PubMed Central

    Cliquet, Florence; Gautret, Philippe; Robardet, Emmanuelle; Le Pen, Claude; Bourhy, Hervé

    2016-01-01

    In 2015, countries in western Europe were declared free of rabies in nonflying mammals. Surveillance data for 2001–2013 indicate that risk for residual rabies is not 0 because of pet importation from countries with enzootic rabies. However, the risk is so low (7.52 × 10−10) that it probably can be considered negligible. PMID:27314463

  6. Human Rabies and Rabies in Vampire and Nonvampire Bat Species, Southeastern Peru, 2007

    PubMed Central

    Salmón-Mulanovich, Gabriela; Vásquez, Alicia; Albújar, Christian; Guevara, Carolina; Laguna-Torres, Alberto; Salazar, Milagros; Zamalloa, Hernan; Cáceres, Marcia; Gómez-Benavides, Jorge; Pacheco, Victor; Contreras, Carlos; Kochel, Tadeusz; Niezgoda, Michael; Jackson, Felix R.; Velasco-Villa, Andres; Rupprecht, Charles

    2009-01-01

    After a human rabies outbreak in southeastern Peru, we collected bats to estimate the prevalence of rabies in various species. Among 165 bats from 6 genera and 10 species, 10.3% were antibody positive; antibody prevalence was similar in vampire and nonvampire bats. Thus, nonvampire bats may also be a source for human rabies in Peru. PMID:19751600

  7. [Rabies in Chile: 1989-2005].

    PubMed

    Favi C, Myriam; Rodríguez A, Luis; Espinosa M, Carla; Yung P, Verónica

    2008-04-01

    A retrospective epidemiological study about epidemiology of rabies in Chile between years 1989 and 2005 was done. A data base of 39793 national registries of rabies samples was analyzed by means of statistical packages. Out of 39793 analyzed cases, 719 bats, 7 dogs, 7 cats, 1 bovine and 1 human were positive to rabies throughout the 17 years of this study. The statistical analysis established a significant increase in the proportions of positivity in bats, with predominance of variant 4 between the reservoirs. Given the complexity of the wild cycle of the rabies in Chile, it is necessary to maintain a program control of rabies, directed to educate people for a responsible possession of domestic animals, due to the risk of rabies transmission from bat to the susceptible species. PMID:18425219

  8. Canine rabies ecology in southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Bingham, John

    2005-09-01

    Rabies is a widespread disease in African domestic dogs and certain wild canine populations. Canine rabies became established in Africa during the 20th century, coinciding with ecologic changes that favored its emergence in canids. I present a conceptual and terminologic framework for understanding rabies ecology in African canids. The framework is underpinned by 2 distinct concepts: maintenance and persistence. Maintenance encompasses the notion of indefinite transmission of infection within a local population and depends on an average transmission ratio > or =1. Maintenance in all local populations is inherently unstable, and the disease frequently becomes extinct. Persistence, the notion of long-term continuity, depends on the presence of rabies in > or =1 local population within the canine metapopulation at any time. The implications for understanding rabies ecology and control are reviewed, as are previous studies on rabies ecology in African canids. PMID:16229759

  9. [Ecological and epidemiologic aspects of the attacks by vampire bats and paralytic rabies in Argentina and analysis of the proposals carried out for their control].

    PubMed

    Delpietro, H A; Russo, R G

    1996-09-01

    The authors describe the ecology of attacks by vampire bats and the epidemiology of rabies (paralytic rabies) transmitted by these bats in Argentina, based on data obtained from an epidemiological vigilance programme conducted between 1984 and 1993. It was found that rabies spread rapidly among vampire bats, causing high mortality (over 50%); subsequently, the population recovered slowly due to the low reproductive rate. This explains the features of paralytic rabies, such as high mortality among affected populations, brief duration and subsequent recurrence. Paralytic rabies occurs throughout the year without evidence of seasonal occurrence and with no relationship to rainfall. This is because vampire bats remain active within their habitat, neither hibernating nor migrating. The problem created by vampire bats depends on the ecosystem of their habitat. In the livestock ecosystem, the bats are synanthropic and their population is abundant. They feed almost exclusively on livestock and attacks on human beings are sporadic. In this ecosystem, paralytic rabies is a serious economic problem because of its frequency and readiness to spread (41 separate outbreaks were recorded in addition to an epidemic). On the contrary, in the scarcely populated livestock ecosystem, the vampire but population is much smaller; they feed on various species of animals, and attacks on human beings are more common, but paralytic rabies occurs only sporadically (one isolated outbreak). For overall control of paralytic rabies, the authors recommend reduction of the vampire bat population to a safe level, in order to break the chain of rabies transmission and diminish attacks by bats. PMID:9376648

  10. Dynamical Fano-Like Interference between Rabi Oscillations and Coherent Phonons in a Semiconductor Microcavity System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshino, S.; Oohata, G.; Mizoguchi, K.

    2015-10-01

    We report on dynamical interference between short-lived Rabi oscillations and long-lived coherent phonons in CuCl semiconductor microcavities resulting from the coupling between the two oscillations. The Fourier-transformed spectra of the time-domain signals obtained from semiconductor microcavities by using a pump-probe technique show that the intensity of the coherent longitudinal optical phonon of CuCl is enhanced by increasing that of the Rabi oscillation, which indicates that the coherent phonon is driven by the Rabi oscillation through the Fröhlich interaction. Moreover, as the Rabi oscillation frequency decreases upon crossing the phonon frequency, the spectral profile of the coherent phonon changes from a peak to a dip with an asymmetric structure. The continuous wavelet transformation reveals that these peak and dip structures originate from constructive and destructive interference between Rabi oscillations and coherent phonons, respectively. We demonstrate that the asymmetric spectral structures in relation to the frequency detuning are well reproduced by using a classical coupled oscillator model on the basis of dynamical Fano-like interference.

  11. Dynamical Fano-Like Interference between Rabi Oscillations and Coherent Phonons in a Semiconductor Microcavity System.

    PubMed

    Yoshino, S; Oohata, G; Mizoguchi, K

    2015-10-01

    We report on dynamical interference between short-lived Rabi oscillations and long-lived coherent phonons in CuCl semiconductor microcavities resulting from the coupling between the two oscillations. The Fourier-transformed spectra of the time-domain signals obtained from semiconductor microcavities by using a pump-probe technique show that the intensity of the coherent longitudinal optical phonon of CuCl is enhanced by increasing that of the Rabi oscillation, which indicates that the coherent phonon is driven by the Rabi oscillation through the Fröhlich interaction. Moreover, as the Rabi oscillation frequency decreases upon crossing the phonon frequency, the spectral profile of the coherent phonon changes from a peak to a dip with an asymmetric structure. The continuous wavelet transformation reveals that these peak and dip structures originate from constructive and destructive interference between Rabi oscillations and coherent phonons, respectively. We demonstrate that the asymmetric spectral structures in relation to the frequency detuning are well reproduced by using a classical coupled oscillator model on the basis of dynamical Fano-like interference. PMID:26550752

  12. Broken selection rule in the quantum Rabi model

    PubMed Central

    Forn-Díaz, P.; Romero, G.; Harmans, C. J. P. M.; Solano, E.; Mooij, J. E.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the interaction between light and matter is very relevant for fundamental studies of quantum electrodynamics and for the development of quantum technologies. The quantum Rabi model captures the physics of a single atom interacting with a single photon at all regimes of coupling strength. We report the spectroscopic observation of a resonant transition that breaks a selection rule in the quantum Rabi model, implemented using an LC resonator and an artificial atom, a superconducting qubit. The eigenstates of the system consist of a superposition of bare qubit-resonator states with a relative sign. When the qubit-resonator coupling strength is negligible compared to their own frequencies, the matrix element between excited eigenstates of different sign is very small in presence of a resonator drive, establishing a sign-preserving selection rule. Here, our qubit-resonator system operates in the ultrastrong coupling regime, where the coupling strength is 10% of the resonator frequency, allowing sign-changing transitions to be activated and, therefore, detected. This work shows that sign-changing transitions are an unambiguous, distinctive signature of systems operating in the ultrastrong coupling regime of the quantum Rabi model. These results pave the way to further studies of sign-preserving selection rules in multiqubit and multiphoton models. PMID:27273346

  13. Broken selection rule in the quantum Rabi model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forn-Díaz, P.; Romero, G.; Harmans, C. J. P. M.; Solano, E.; Mooij, J. E.

    2016-06-01

    Understanding the interaction between light and matter is very relevant for fundamental studies of quantum electrodynamics and for the development of quantum technologies. The quantum Rabi model captures the physics of a single atom interacting with a single photon at all regimes of coupling strength. We report the spectroscopic observation of a resonant transition that breaks a selection rule in the quantum Rabi model, implemented using an LC resonator and an artificial atom, a superconducting qubit. The eigenstates of the system consist of a superposition of bare qubit-resonator states with a relative sign. When the qubit-resonator coupling strength is negligible compared to their own frequencies, the matrix element between excited eigenstates of different sign is very small in presence of a resonator drive, establishing a sign-preserving selection rule. Here, our qubit-resonator system operates in the ultrastrong coupling regime, where the coupling strength is 10% of the resonator frequency, allowing sign-changing transitions to be activated and, therefore, detected. This work shows that sign-changing transitions are an unambiguous, distinctive signature of systems operating in the ultrastrong coupling regime of the quantum Rabi model. These results pave the way to further studies of sign-preserving selection rules in multiqubit and multiphoton models.

  14. Broken selection rule in the quantum Rabi model.

    PubMed

    Forn-Díaz, P; Romero, G; Harmans, C J P M; Solano, E; Mooij, J E

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the interaction between light and matter is very relevant for fundamental studies of quantum electrodynamics and for the development of quantum technologies. The quantum Rabi model captures the physics of a single atom interacting with a single photon at all regimes of coupling strength. We report the spectroscopic observation of a resonant transition that breaks a selection rule in the quantum Rabi model, implemented using an LC resonator and an artificial atom, a superconducting qubit. The eigenstates of the system consist of a superposition of bare qubit-resonator states with a relative sign. When the qubit-resonator coupling strength is negligible compared to their own frequencies, the matrix element between excited eigenstates of different sign is very small in presence of a resonator drive, establishing a sign-preserving selection rule. Here, our qubit-resonator system operates in the ultrastrong coupling regime, where the coupling strength is 10% of the resonator frequency, allowing sign-changing transitions to be activated and, therefore, detected. This work shows that sign-changing transitions are an unambiguous, distinctive signature of systems operating in the ultrastrong coupling regime of the quantum Rabi model. These results pave the way to further studies of sign-preserving selection rules in multiqubit and multiphoton models. PMID:27273346

  15. Renormalized reaction and relaxation rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorbachev, Yuriy E.

    2016-06-01

    Impact of the non-equilibrium on the reaction and relaxation rates (called as generalized relaxation rates - GRR), for the spatially inhomogeneous gas mixture is considered. Discarding the assumption that the 'chemical' part of the collisional integral is a small correction to non-reactive part, the expression for the zero-order GRR is derived. They are represented as a renormalization of the traditional reaction and relaxation rates, which means mixing of all corresponding processes. Thus all reactions and relaxation processes are entangled.

  16. Renormalization in momentum dependent resummations

    SciTech Connect

    Jakovac, Antal

    2006-10-15

    At finite temperature and in nonequilibrium environments we have to resum perturbation theory to avoid infrared divergences. Since resummation shuffles the perturbative orders, renormalizability is a nontrivial issue. In this paper we demonstrate that one can modify any type of resummations--even if it is momentum dependent, or it resums higher point functions - in a way that it is renormalizable with the usual zero temperature counterterms. To achieve this goal we reformulate resummation in form of a renormalization scheme. We apply this technique to perform a 2PI resummation in the six dimensional cubic scalar model in equilibrium.

  17. Human rabies - Kentucky/Indiana, 2009.

    PubMed

    2010-04-01

    On October 19, 2009, clinicians from Kentucky contacted CDC regarding a suspected case of rabies in a man from Indiana aged 43 years. This report summarizes the patient's clinical presentation and course, the subsequent epidemiologic investigation, and, for the first time, provides infection control recommendations for personnel performing autopsies on decedents with confirmed or suspected rabies infection. Before the patient's death on October 20, a diagnosis of rabies was suspected based on the history of acute, progressive encephalitis with unknown etiology. Preliminary serology results on antemortem serum samples detected rabies virus-specific antibodies. Because local pathologists were concerned about the biosafety risk posed by infectious aerosols at autopsy and potential contamination of autopsy facilities, the Kentucky Department for Public Health (KDPH) asked CDC staff members to travel to Kentucky and perform an autopsy to confirm the diagnosis and assist with the epidemiologic investigation. Testing of autopsy samples was conducted at CDC and detected rabies virus antigens in brainstem and cerebellum. Rabies viral RNA was isolated and typed as a variant common to the tricolored bat (Perimyotis subflavus). Although rabies virus transmission from organ or tissue transplant has been documented rarely, transmission of rabies virus to persons performing autopsies has not been reported. Autopsies can be performed safely on decedents with confirmed or suspected rabies using careful dissection techniques, personal protective equipment, and other recommended precautions. PMID:20379132

  18. Rabies: Rare Human Infection - Common Questions.

    PubMed

    Willoughby, Rodney E

    2015-12-01

    Rabies is an acute, rapidly progressive encephalitis that is almost always fatal. Prophylaxis is highly effective but economics limits disease control. The mechanism of death from rabies is unclear. It is poorly cytopathic and poorly inflammatory. Rabies behaves like an acquired metabolic disorder. There may be a continuum of disease severity. History of animal bite is rare. The diagnosis is often missed. Intermittent encephalopathy, dysphagia, hydrophobia and aerophobia, and focal paresthesias or myoclonic jerks suggest rabies. Laboratory diagnosis is cumbersome but sensitive. Treatment is controversial but survivors are increasingly reported, with good outcomes in 4 of 8 survivors. PMID:26384549

  19. Rabies risk in raccoon dogs and foxes.

    PubMed

    Singer, A; Kauhala, K; Holmala, K; Smith, G C

    2008-01-01

    Raccoon dogs are seen as a new host for fox rabies in Europe. Disease spread in a community of species can change the epidemiology of the disease and calls for new disease control strategies. This study assesses the risk of a rabies outbreak, introduced to a community of foxes and raccoon dogs in Southern Finland, as an example of the reintroduction of rabies into rabies-free areas. Epidemiology is simulated with a two-species model, based on approaches for rabies in foxes and parameterised from recently published data on raccoon dog and fox ecology in Northeast Europe. The risk of the establishment of rabies was investigated. The effectiveness of vaccination control was estimated. Results show that rabies may not spread in a single species, when population densities are low, as in Finland. However, persistent epidemics are very likely in the species' community. The threshold density for a system of combined species decreases non-linearly, compared to the thresholds of each of the species. A behavioural factor that influences rabies epidemiology is raccoon dog hibernation, which may alter with climate change. Thus, the new host, the raccoon dog, has to be considered in defining new emergency control strategies for rabies free states in Europe. PMID:18634482

  20. Nonperturbative renormalization group study of the stochastic Navier-Stokes equation.

    PubMed

    Mejía-Monasterio, Carlos; Muratore-Ginanneschi, Paolo

    2012-07-01

    We study the renormalization group flow of the average action of the stochastic Navier-Stokes equation with power-law forcing. Using Galilean invariance, we introduce a nonperturbative approximation adapted to the zero-frequency sector of the theory in the parametric range of the Hölder exponent 4-2ε of the forcing where real-space local interactions are relevant. In any spatial dimension d, we observe the convergence of the resulting renormalization group flow to a unique fixed point which yields a kinetic energy spectrum scaling in agreement with canonical dimension analysis. Kolmogorov's -5/3 law is, thus, recovered for ε = 2 as also predicted by perturbative renormalization. At variance with the perturbative prediction, the -5/3 law emerges in the presence of a saturation in the ε dependence of the scaling dimension of the eddy diffusivity at ε = 3/2 when, according to perturbative renormalization, the velocity field becomes infrared relevant. PMID:23005533

  1. Parainfluenza Virus 5 Expressing the G Protein of Rabies Virus Protects Mice after Rabies Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ying; Chen, Zhenhai; Huang, Junhua

    2014-01-01

    Rabies remains a major public health threat around the world. Once symptoms appear, there is no effective treatment to prevent death. In this work, we tested a recombinant parainfluenza virus 5 (PIV5) strain expressing the glycoprotein (G) of rabies (PIV5-G) as a therapy for rabies virus infection: we have found that PIV5-G protected mice as late as 6 days after rabies virus infection. PIV5-G is a promising vaccine for prevention and treatment of rabies virus infection. PMID:25552723

  2. Atom-Molecule Rabi Oscillations in a Mott Insulator

    SciTech Connect

    Syassen, N.; Bauer, D. M.; Lettner, M.; Dietze, D.; Volz, T.; Duerr, S.; Rempe, G.

    2007-07-20

    We observe large-amplitude Rabi oscillations between an atomic and a molecular state near a Feshbach resonance. The experiment uses {sup 87}Rb in an optical lattice and a Feshbach resonance near 414 G. The frequency and amplitude of the oscillations depend on the magnetic field in a way that is well described by a two-level model. The observed density dependence of the oscillation frequency agrees with theoretical expectations. We confirmed that the state produced after a half-cycle contains exactly one molecule at each lattice site. In addition, we show that, for energies in a gap of the lattice band structure, the molecules cannot dissociate.

  3. Error estimates and specification parameters for functional renormalization

    SciTech Connect

    Schnoerr, David; Boettcher, Igor; Pawlowski, Jan M.; Wetterich, Christof

    2013-07-15

    We present a strategy for estimating the error of truncated functional flow equations. While the basic functional renormalization group equation is exact, approximated solutions by means of truncations do not only depend on the choice of the retained information, but also on the precise definition of the truncation. Therefore, results depend on specification parameters that can be used to quantify the error of a given truncation. We demonstrate this for the BCS–BEC crossover in ultracold atoms. Within a simple truncation the precise definition of the frequency dependence of the truncated propagator affects the results, indicating a shortcoming of the choice of a frequency independent cutoff function.

  4. RENORM predictions of diffraction at LHC confirmed

    SciTech Connect

    Goulianos, Konstantin

    2015-04-10

    The RENORM model predictions of diffractive, total, and total-inelastic cross sections at the LHC are confirmed by recent measurements. The predictions of several other available models are discussed, highlighting their differences from RENORM, mainly arising from the way rapidity gap formation, low- and high-mass diffraction, unitarization, and hadronization are implemented.

  5. Dynamical and anharmonic effects on the electron-phonon coupling and the zero-point renormalization of the electronic structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonius, G.; Poncé, S.; Lantagne-Hurtubise, E.; Auclair, G.; Gonze, X.; Côté, M.

    2015-08-01

    The renormalization of the band structure at zero temperature due to electron-phonon coupling is explored in diamond, BN, LiF, and MgO crystals. We implement a dynamical scheme to compute the frequency-dependent self-energy and the resulting quasiparticle electronic structure. Our calculations reveal the presence of a satellite band below the Fermi level of LiF and MgO. We show that the renormalization factor (Z ), which is neglected in the adiabatic approximation, can reduce the zero-point renormalization (ZPR) by as much as 40 % . Anharmonic effects in the renormalized eigenvalues at finite atomic displacements are explored with the frozen-phonon method. We use a nonperturbative expression for the ZPR, going beyond the Allen-Heine-Cardona theory. Our results indicate that high-order electron-phonon coupling terms contribute significantly to the zero-point renormalization for certain materials.

  6. Renormalization Group and Phase Transitions in Spin, Gauge, and QCD Like Theories

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yuzhi

    2013-08-01

    In this thesis, we study several different renormalization group (RG) methods, including the conventional Wilson renormalization group, Monte Carlo renormalization group (MCRG), exact renormalization group (ERG, or sometimes called functional RG), and tensor renormalization group (TRG).

  7. Laboratory Diagnosis of Human Rabies: Recent Advances

    PubMed Central

    Mani, Reeta Subramaniam; Madhusudana, Shampur Narayan

    2013-01-01

    Rabies, an acute progressive, fatal encephalomyelitis, transmitted most commonly through the bite of a rabid animal, is responsible for an estimated 61,000 human deaths worldwide. The true disease burden and public health impact due to rabies remain underestimated due to lack of sensitive laboratory diagnostic methods. Rapid diagnosis of rabies can help initiate prompt infection control and public health measures, obviate the need for unnecessary treatment/medical tests, and assist in timely administration of pre- or postexposure prophylactic vaccination to family members and medical staff. Antemortem diagnosis of human rabies provides an impetus for clinicians to attempt experimental therapeutic approaches in some patients, especially after the reported survival of a few cases of human rabies. Traditional methods for antemortem and postmortem rabies diagnosis have several limitations. Recent advances in technology have led to the improvement or development of several diagnostic assays which include methods for rabies viral antigen and antibody detection and assays for viral nucleic acid detection and identification of specific biomarkers. These assays which complement traditional methods have the potential to revolutionize rabies diagnosis in future. PMID:24348170

  8. Bat Rabies, Texas, 1996–2000

    PubMed Central

    Mayes, Bonny C.; Smith, Jean S.; Neill, Susan U.

    2004-01-01

    Bats submitted to the Texas Department of Health (1996–2000) were speciated and tested for rabies virus antigen by direct immunofluorescence microscopy. Antigenic analysis of rabies virus–positive specimens was performed with monoclonal antibodies against the nucleoprotein of the virus; atypical or unexpected results were confirmed by genetic analysis of nucleoprotein sequence. PMID:15200840

  9. Antemortem diagnosis and prevention of human rabies

    PubMed Central

    Madhusudana, Shampur Narayana; Sukumaran, Suja Moorlyath

    2008-01-01

    Human rabies still continues to be a significant health problem in India and other developing countries where dogs are the major vectors of transmission. Rabies in humans can present in two clinical forms, i.e., furious and paralytic. While diagnosis of furious rabies can be made based on the typical symptoms and signs, paralytic rabies poses a diagnostic dilemma to the neurologists who may encounter these cases in their practice. Although there are certain clinical features that distinguish this disease from other forms of Guillain-Barre syndromes, confirmation of diagnosis may require laboratory assistance. Conventional techniques such as antigen detection, antibody assays and virus isolation have limited success. The recently introduced molecular techniques show more promise in confirming the cases of paralytic rabies. There has not been much success in the treatment of confirmed rabies cases and recovery from rabies is extremely rare. Therefore, preventive measures of this dreaded disease after an exposure become extremely important. The present article reviews the current status of human rabies with regard to antemortem diagnosis, disease management and post-exposure prophylaxis. PMID:19966972

  10. The rabies situation in the Middle East.

    PubMed

    Seimenis, A

    2008-01-01

    Rabies is a public health problem of significant importance in the majority of Southern and Eastern Mediterranean and Middle Eastern countries. In some of these countries, there is a considerable death rate due to rabies. Dogs are the main source of human infection, while cats constitute the second most important group of domestic animals followed by cattle, sheep, goats, camels, donkeys and then wild animals. There are around 300 reported human cases in these regions annually, with several hundred thousand post-exposure treatments. Laboratory confirmation of rabies cases is not always performed. In most countries, there is one central rabies diagnosis laboratory with trained staff and the diagnosis capability of district laboratories is weak. Animal rabies control consists of the vaccination of dogs and cats, the elimination of stray animals, health education for the public, etc. Mass vaccination of dogs is not implemented, and the effective coverage rate is not exactly known. The elimination of stray dogs and other animals by shooting and poisoning is still implemented in certain countries, however, this has a minimal effect on rabies transmission. Certain countries of the Middle East region are facing increasing problems due to wildlife rabies, including Saudi Arabia, Oman, Yemen, Israel, Iran and Turkey. The red fox (Vulpes vulpes) and golden jackal (Canis aureus) are usually involved. Coordinated actions to confront the serious rabies public health and economic problems should be undertaken by affected countries, with the assistance of international organisations, under conditions that are suitable for each country. PMID:18634465

  11. Spatial control of rabies on heterogeneous landscapes.

    PubMed

    Russell, Colin A; Real, Leslie A; Smith, David L

    2006-01-01

    Rabies control in terrestrial wildlife reservoirs relies heavily on an oral rabies vaccine (ORV). In addition to direct ORV delivery to protect wildlife in natural habitats, vaccine corridors have been constructed to control the spread; these corridors are often developed around natural barriers, such as rivers, to enhance the effectiveness of vaccine deployment. However, the question of how to optimally deploy ORV around a river (or other natural barrier) to best exploit the barrier for rabies control has not been addressed using mathematical models. Given an advancing epidemic wave, should the vaccine be distributed on both sides of barrier, behind the barrier, or in front of it? Here, we introduce a new mathematical model for the dynamics of raccoon rabies on a spatially heterogeneous landscape that is both simple and realistic. We demonstrate that the vaccine should always be deployed behind a barrier to minimize the recurrence of subsequent epidemics. Although the oral rabies vaccine is sufficient to induce herd immunity inside the vaccinated area, it simultaneously creates a demographic refuge. When that refuge is in front of a natural barrier, seasonal dispersal from the vaccine corridor into an endemic region sustains epidemic oscillations of raccoon rabies. When the vaccine barrier creates a refuge behind the river, the low permeability of the barrier to host movement limits dispersal of the host population from the protected populations into the rabies endemic area and limits subsequent rabies epidemics. PMID:17183654

  12. Strategic model of national rabies control in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Cheong, Yeotaek; Kim, Bongjun; Lee, Ki Joong; Park, Donghwa; Kim, Sooyeon; Kim, Hyeoncheol; Park, Eunyeon; Lee, Hyeongchan; Bae, Chaewun; Oh, Changin; Park, Seung-Yong; Song, Chang-Seon; Lee, Sang-Won; Choi, In-Soo

    2014-01-01

    Rabies is an important zoonosis in the public and veterinary healthy arenas. This article provides information on the situation of current rabies outbreak, analyzes the current national rabies control system, reviews the weaknesses of the national rabies control strategy, and identifies an appropriate solution to manage the current situation. Current rabies outbreak was shown to be present from rural areas to urban regions. Moreover, the situation worldwide demonstrates that each nation struggles to prevent or control rabies. Proper application and execution of the rabies control program require the overcoming of existing weaknesses. Bait vaccines and other complex programs are suggested to prevent rabies transmission or infection. Acceleration of the rabies control strategy also requires supplementation of current policy and of public information. In addition, these prevention strategies should be executed over a mid- to long-term period to control rabies. PMID:24427765

  13. Strategic model of national rabies control in Korea.

    PubMed

    Cheong, Yeotaek; Kim, Bongjun; Lee, Ki Joong; Park, Donghwa; Kim, Sooyeon; Kim, Hyeoncheol; Park, Eunyeon; Lee, Hyeongchan; Bae, Chaewun; Oh, Changin; Park, Seung-Yong; Song, Chang-Seon; Lee, Sang-Won; Choi, In-Soo; Lee, Joong-Bok

    2014-01-01

    Rabies is an important zoonosis in the public and veterinary healthy arenas. This article provides information on the situation of current rabies outbreak, analyzes the current national rabies control system, reviews the weaknesses of the national rabies control strategy, and identifies an appropriate solution to manage the current situation. Current rabies outbreak was shown to be present from rural areas to urban regions. Moreover, the situation worldwide demonstrates that each nation struggles to prevent or control rabies. Proper application and execution of the rabies control program require the overcoming of existing weaknesses. Bait vaccines and other complex programs are suggested to prevent rabies transmission or infection. Acceleration of the rabies control strategy also requires supplementation of current policy and of public information. In addition, these prevention strategies should be executed over a mid- to long-term period to control rabies. PMID:24427765

  14. Human rabies--Indiana and California, 2006.

    PubMed

    2007-04-20

    Rabies is a viral infection that causes acute, progressive encephalitis and is considered to be universally fatal. However, during 2004, an unvaccinated Wisconsin patient received a new medical treatment and became the first documented survivor of rabies who had not received preexposure vaccination or postexposure prophylaxis (PEP), suggesting the possibility of successful future interventions. This report describes two recent patients with rabies who were treated using therapy similar to that used for the Wisconsin patient; both treatments were unsuccessful. The report also describes the concomitant epidemiologic investigations by the Indiana State Department of Health (ISDH), California Department of Health Services (CDHS), and CDC, and the local public health responses in Marshall County, Indiana, and San Joaquin and Alameda counties in California. The findings in this report underscore the continuing need for enhanced clinical awareness of possible rabies exposure to ensure prompt PEP and timely diagnosis of rabies, especially if treatment is attempted. PMID:17443120

  15. Vaccines for lyssaviruses other than rabies.

    PubMed

    Nel, Louis H

    2005-08-01

    Several new lyssaviruses have emerged in the past decade and it is likely that more remain to be discovered. There are six recognized genotypes of lyssavirus other than the rabies virus (genotype 1). All but one of these has been associated with human cases, with the resulting disease clinically similar to rabies. Rabies vaccines provide a means of pre- and postexposure prophylaxis against rabies and some of the other genotypes, but not all. Those that are crossprotected fall into phylogroup 1 of the genus, and those not protected in phylogroup 2. The crossprotection of phylogroup 1 viruses by rabies vaccines and the development of new, broader range or specific vaccines for phylogroup 2 viruses are reviewed. PMID:16117710

  16. Discrepancies in Data Reporting for Rabies, Africa

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Human rabies is an ancient disease but in modern times has primarily been associated with dog rabies–endemic countries of Asia and Africa. From an African perspective, the inevitable and tragic consequences of rabies require serious reflection of the factors that continue to drive its neglect. Established as a major disease only after multiple introductions during the colonial era, rabies continues to spread into new reservoirs and territories in Africa. However, analysis of reported data identified major discrepancies that are indicators of poor surveillance, reporting, and cooperation among national, international, and global authorities. Ultimately, the absence of reliable and sustained data compromises the priority given to the control of rabies. Appropriate actions and changes, in accordance to the One Health philosophy and including aspects such as synchronized, shared, and unified global rabies data reporting, will not only be necessary, but also should be feasible. PMID:23628197

  17. [Epidemiology of rabies virus and other lyssaviruses].

    PubMed

    Arai, Yohko T

    2005-12-01

    Rabies is a zoonosis that infects domestic and wild animals through close contacts with saliva from infected animals. The annual number of deaths worldwide caused by rabies is estimated approximately 55,000 by World Health Organization (WHO). There has been no indigenous rabies case in Japan since 1957; however, there was only one imported case, a traveler who was bitten by a stray dog in Nepal and died in 1970. Dogs in Asia and Africa remain the main reservoir and transmitter of rabies to humans. The others are mainly coyotes, foxes, jackals, mongooses, raccoons, skunks, wolves and bats. The efficacy of the current human and veterinary vaccines against emergent lyssaviruses should be evaluated because the newly discovered rabies-related viruses have been isolated from bats. PMID:16363690

  18. Program for the elimination of urban rabies in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Escobar Cifuentes, E

    1988-01-01

    The status of rabies in Latin America and the Caribbean is described. The probable evolution of rabies is described. The probable evolution of rabies is analyzed, especially with respect to the effect of urbanization in the large cities of the hemisphere and its possible impact on the epidemiology of urban rabies. Several alternatives for the control of rabies are discussed, as are the strategies for their implementation at the continental, subregional, and country levels. PMID:3206081

  19. Dynamic Rabi sidebands in laser-generated microplasmas: Tunability and control

    SciTech Connect

    Compton, R.; Filin, A.; Levis, R. J.; Romanov, D. A.

    2011-05-15

    Broadband, coherent radiation in the optical-frequency range is generated using microplasma channels in atmospheric gases in a pump-probe experiment. A microplasma medium is created in a gas by a focused intense femtosecond pump pulse. A picosecond probe pulse then interacts with this microplasma channel, producing broad, coherent sidebands that are associated with luminescence lines and are redshifted and blueshifted with respect to the laser carrier frequency. These sidebands originate from the induced Rabi oscillations between pairs of excited states that are coupled by the probe pulse. Thus the sideband radiation intensity tracks the microplasma evolution. The sidebands arise from broad and tunable Rabi shifts corresponding to varying values of the electric-field magnitude in the probe pulse. The {approx}10{sup 10} W cm{sup -2} probe beam creates a maximum sideband shift of >90 meV from the carrier frequency, resulting in an effective bandwidth of 200 meV. The sidebands can be tuned and controlled by the intensity and temporal profile of the probe pulse. The fact that the coherence is observed in a microplasma demonstrates that Rabi cycling is possible at high temperature with moderately high laser intensities as long as transitions close to the driving frequency ({Delta}{approx}2%{omega}{sub c}) are available. Plasma excitation combined with Rabi-shifting measurements also serves as a means to simultaneously extract quantitative ratios for the transition-dipole moments between multiple sets of highly excited states with transitions in the optical regime.

  20. Renormalization Group (RG) in Turbulence: Historical and Comparative Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhou, Ye; McComb, W. David; Vahala, George

    1997-01-01

    The term renormalization and renormalization group are explained by reference to various physical systems. The extension of renormalization group to turbulence is then discussed; first as a comprehensive review and second concentrating on the technical details of a few selected approaches. We conclude with a discussion of the relevance and application of renormalization group to turbulence modelling.

  1. Local renormalization group functions from quantum renormalization group and holographic bulk locality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakayama, Yu

    2015-06-01

    The bulk locality in the constructive holographic renormalization group requires miraculous cancellations among various local renormalization group functions. The cancellation is not only from the properties of the spectrum but from more detailed aspects of operator product expansions in relation to conformal anomaly. It is remarkable that one-loop computation of the universal local renormalization group functions in the weakly coupled limit of the super Yang-Mills theory fulfils the necessary condition for the cancellation in the strongly coupled limit in its SL(2, Z) duality invariant form. From the consistency between the quantum renormalization group and the holographic renormalization group, we determine some unexplored local renormalization group functions (e.g. diffusive term in the beta function for the gauge coupling constant) in the strongly coupled limit of the planar super Yang-Mills theory.

  2. Vacuum Rabi splitting and intracavity dark state in a cavity-atom system

    SciTech Connect

    Hernandez, Gessler; Zhang Jiepeng; Zhu Yifu

    2007-11-15

    We report experimental measurements of the transmission spectrum of an optical cavity coupled with cold Rb atoms. We observe the multiatom vacuum Rabi splitting of a composite cavity and atom system. When a coupling field is applied to the atoms and induces the resonant two-photon Raman transition with the cavity field in a {lambda}-type system, we observe a cavity transmission spectrum with two vacuum Rabi sidebands and a central peak representing the intracavity dark state. The central peak linewidth is significantly narrowed by the dark-state resonance and its position is insensitive to the frequency change of the empty cavity.

  3. Resolving the roles of immunity, pathogenesis, and immigration for rabies persistence in vampire bats.

    PubMed

    Blackwood, Julie C; Streicker, Daniel G; Altizer, Sonia; Rohani, Pejman

    2013-12-17

    Bats are important reservoirs for emerging infectious diseases, yet the mechanisms that allow highly virulent pathogens to persist within bat populations remain obscure. In Latin America, vampire-bat-transmitted rabies virus represents a key example of how such uncertainty can impede efforts to prevent cross-species transmission. Despite decades of agricultural and human health losses, control efforts have had limited success. To establish persistence mechanisms of vampire-bat-transmitted rabies virus in Latin America, we use data from a spatially replicated, longitudinal field study of vampire bats in Peru to parameterize a series of mechanistic transmission models. We find that single-colony persistence cannot occur. Instead, dispersal of bats between colonies, combined with a high frequency of immunizing nonlethal infections, is necessary to maintain rabies virus at levels consistent with field observations. Simulations show that the strong spatial component to transmission dynamics could explain the failure of bat culls to eliminate rabies and suggests that geographic coordination of control efforts might reduce transmission to humans and domestic animals. These findings offer spatial dynamics as a mechanism for rabies persistence in bats that might be important for the understanding and control of other bat-borne pathogens. PMID:24297874

  4. Resolving the roles of immunity, pathogenesis, and immigration for rabies persistence in vampire bats

    PubMed Central

    Blackwood, Julie C.; Streicker, Daniel G.; Altizer, Sonia; Rohani, Pejman

    2013-01-01

    Bats are important reservoirs for emerging infectious diseases, yet the mechanisms that allow highly virulent pathogens to persist within bat populations remain obscure. In Latin America, vampire-bat–transmitted rabies virus represents a key example of how such uncertainty can impede efforts to prevent cross-species transmission. Despite decades of agricultural and human health losses, control efforts have had limited success. To establish persistence mechanisms of vampire-bat–transmitted rabies virus in Latin America, we use data from a spatially replicated, longitudinal field study of vampire bats in Peru to parameterize a series of mechanistic transmission models. We find that single-colony persistence cannot occur. Instead, dispersal of bats between colonies, combined with a high frequency of immunizing nonlethal infections, is necessary to maintain rabies virus at levels consistent with field observations. Simulations show that the strong spatial component to transmission dynamics could explain the failure of bat culls to eliminate rabies and suggests that geographic coordination of control efforts might reduce transmission to humans and domestic animals. These findings offer spatial dynamics as a mechanism for rabies persistence in bats that might be important for the understanding and control of other bat-borne pathogens. PMID:24297874

  5. Rabi oscillation in a quantum cavity: Markovian and non-Markovian dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guimond, Pierre-Olivier; Roulet, Alexandre; Le, Huy Nguyen; Scarani, Valerio

    2016-02-01

    We investigate the Rabi oscillation of an atom placed inside a quantum cavity where each mirror is formed by a chain of atoms trapped near a one-dimensional waveguide. This proposal was studied previously with the use of Markov approximation, where the delay due to the finite travel time of light between the two cavity mirrors is neglected. We show that Rabi oscillation analogous to that obtained with high-finesse classical cavities is achieved only when this travel time is much larger than the time scale that characterizes the superradiant response of the mirrors. Therefore, the delay must be taken into account and the dynamics of the problem is inherently non-Markovian. Parameters of interest such as the Rabi frequency and the cavity loss rate due to photon leakage through the mirrors are obtained.

  6. Improved Monte Carlo Renormalization Group Method

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Gupta, R.; Wilson, K. G.; Umrigar, C.

    1985-01-01

    An extensive program to analyze critical systems using an Improved Monte Carlo Renormalization Group Method (IMCRG) being undertaken at LANL and Cornell is described. Here we first briefly review the method and then list some of the topics being investigated.

  7. Topological invariants and renormalization of Lorenz maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Luis; Sousa Ramos, J.

    2002-02-01

    We prove that the invariants of the topological semiconjugation of Lorenz maps with β-transformations remains constant on the renormalization archipelagoes and analyze how the dynamics on the archipelagoes depends on its structure.

  8. Rabies research in resource-poor countries.

    PubMed

    Wilde, Henry; Lumlertdacha, Boonlert

    2011-01-01

    Many cost-benefit/effective rabies research projects need to be carried out in less-developed canine-endemic regions. Among these are educational approaches directed at the public and governments. They would address effective primary wound care, availability, and proper use of vaccines and immunoglobulins, better reporting of rabies, final elimination of dangerous nerve tissue-derived vaccines, and the recognition that rabies is still expanding its geographic range. Such efforts could also reduce deaths in victims who had received no or less than adequate postexposure prophylaxis. There is a need for new technology in canine population control and sustainable vaccination. We have virtually no workable plans on how to control bat rabies, particularly that from hematophagous bats. Preexposure vaccination of villagers in vampire rabies-endemic regions may be one temporary solution. Current efforts to reduce further the time required and vaccine dose required for effective postexposure vaccination need to be encouraged. We still have incomplete understanding of the transport channels from inoculation site to rabies virus antibody generating cells. The minimum antigen dose required to achieve a consistently protective and lasting immune response has been established for intramuscular vaccine administration, but is only estimated for intradermal use. Greater knowledge may have clinical benefits, particularly in the application of intradermal reduced dose vaccination methods. Curing human rabies is still an unattained goal that challenges new innovative researchers. PMID:21601059

  9. Renormalization in Periodically Driven Quantum Dots.

    PubMed

    Eissing, A K; Meden, V; Kennes, D M

    2016-01-15

    We report on strong renormalization encountered in periodically driven interacting quantum dots in the nonadiabatic regime. Correlations between lead and dot electrons enhance or suppress the amplitude of driving depending on the sign of the interaction. Employing a newly developed flexible renormalization-group-based approach for periodic driving to an interacting resonant level we show analytically that the magnitude of this effect follows a power law. Our setup can act as a non-Markovian, single-parameter quantum pump. PMID:26824557

  10. Higher spin versus renormalization group equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sachs, Ivo

    2014-10-01

    We present a variation of earlier attempts to relate renormalization group equations to higher spin equations. We work with a scalar field theory in 3 dimensions. In this case we show that the classical renormalization group equation is a variant of the Vasiliev higher spin equations with Kleinians on AdS4 for a certain subset of couplings. In the large N limit this equivalence extends to the quantum theory away from the conformal fixed points.

  11. Information entropy of multi-qubit Rabi system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abo-Kahla, D. A. M.; Abdel-Aty, M.

    2015-09-01

    We consider quantum information entropy phenomenon for multi-qubit Rabi system. By introducing different measurements schemes, we establish the relation between information entropy approach and Von Neumann entropy. It is shown that the information entropy is more sensitive to the time development than the Von Neumann entropy. Furthermore, the suggested protocol exhibits excellent scaling of relevant characteristics, with respect to population dynamics, such that more accurate dynamical results may be obtained using information entropy due to variation of the frequency detuning and the coupling constant.

  12. Use of mouse anti-rabies monoclonal antibodies in postexposure treatment of rabies.

    PubMed Central

    Schumacher, C L; Dietzschold, B; Ertl, H C; Niu, H S; Rupprecht, C E; Koprowski, H

    1989-01-01

    Immunization of mice and hamsters with a cocktail of mouse MAbs specific for rabies virus nucleocapsid protein and glycoprotein protected animals not only when challenged with a lethal dose of rabies virus after immunization, but also in post-exposure situations. Hamsters treated with the MAb cocktail 3 h after virus inoculation were completely protected from lethal rabies virus infection, and 80% of the animals survived when the MAb cocktail was given 36 h after virus challenge. The potential usefulness of this MAb cocktail for the postexposure treatment of human rabies is discussed. PMID:2760222

  13. Experimental rabies in a great horned owl.

    PubMed

    Jorgenson, R D; Gough, P M; Graham, D L

    1976-07-01

    A great horned owl (Bubo virginianus) was fed the carcass of an experimentally infected rabid skunk. The bird developed antibody titer to rabies, detected by passive haemagglutination, 27 days after oral inoculation by ingestion. The owl suppressed the infection until corticosteroid administration, after which a maximum antibody titer was attained. Evidence of active rabies viral infection was seen by fluorescent antibody staining of oral swabs, corneal impression smears and histologic tissue smears, by suckling mouse inoculation of oral swab washings, and by transmission electron microcopy. No clinical signs of rabies virus infection were observed. PMID:16498892

  14. Can man be protected against rabies?

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, K. F.

    1954-01-01

    The literature dealing with the protection of man against rabies over the past 70 years in many parts of the world is reviewed, and the salient problems of our present state of knowledge analysed. The author discusses the measures currently in use for eliminating canine rabies by quarantine, regulation of the dog population, and—in particular—mass vaccination of dogs, with a detailed survey of the questions of immunological research which this method raises. Measures for suppressing the disease in other vectors are also described. It is concluded that, given effective education of the public and the widespread use of canine mass vaccination, human rabies is a preventable disease. PMID:13182607

  15. Euclidean Epstein-Glaser renormalization

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, Kai J.

    2009-10-15

    In the framework of perturbative algebraic quantum field theory recently developed by Brunetti, Duetsch, and Fredenhagen (http://arxiv.org/abs/0901.2038) I give a general construction of so-called Euclidean time-ordered products, i.e., algebraic versions of the Schwinger functions, for scalar quantum field theories on spaces of Euclidean signature. This is done by generalizing the recursive construction of time-ordered products by Epstein and Glaser, originally formulated for quantum field theories on Minkowski space [Epstein and Glaser, Ann. Inst. Henri Poincare 19, 211 (1973)]. An essential input of Epstein-Glaser renormalization is the causal structure of Minkowski space. The absence of this causal structure in the Euclidean framework makes it necessary to modify the original construction of Epstein and Glaser at two points. First, the whole construction has to be performed with an only partially defined product on (interaction) functionals. This is due to the fact that the fundamental solutions of the Helmholtz operator (-{delta}+m{sup 2}) of Euclidean quantum field theory have a unique singularity structure, i.e., they are unique up to a smooth part. Second, one needs to (re)introduce a (rather natural) 'Euclidean causality' condition for the recursion of Epstein and Glaser to be applicable.

  16. Euclidean Epstein-Glaser renormalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, Kai J.

    2009-10-01

    In the framework of perturbative algebraic quantum field theory recently developed by Brunetti, Dütsch, and Fredenhagen (http://arxiv.org/abs/0901.2038) I give a general construction of so-called Euclidean time-ordered products, i.e., algebraic versions of the Schwinger functions, for scalar quantum field theories on spaces of Euclidean signature. This is done by generalizing the recursive construction of time-ordered products by Epstein and Glaser, originally formulated for quantum field theories on Minkowski space [Epstein and Glaser, Ann. Inst. Henri Poincare 19, 211 (1973)]. An essential input of Epstein-Glaser renormalization is the causal structure of Minkowski space. The absence of this causal structure in the Euclidean framework makes it necessary to modify the original construction of Epstein and Glaser at two points. First, the whole construction has to be performed with an only partially defined product on (interaction) functionals. This is due to the fact that the fundamental solutions of the Helmholtz operator (-Δ+m2) of Euclidean quantum field theory have a unique singularity structure, i.e., they are unique up to a smooth part. Second, one needs to (re)introduce a (rather natural) "Euclidean causality" condition for the recursion of Epstein and Glaser to be applicable.

  17. From dynamical systems to renormalization

    SciTech Connect

    Menous, Frédéric

    2013-09-15

    In this paper we study logarithmic derivatives associated to derivations on completed graded Lie algebra, as well as the existence of inverses. These logarithmic derivatives, when invertible, generalize the exp-log correspondence between a Lie algebra and its Lie group. Such correspondences occur naturally in the study of dynamical systems when dealing with the linearization of vector fields and the non linearizability of a resonant vector fields corresponds to the non invertibility of a logarithmic derivative and to the existence of normal forms. These concepts, stemming from the theory of dynamical systems, can be rephrased in the abstract setting of Lie algebra and the same difficulties as in perturbative quantum field theory (pQFT) arise here. Surprisingly, one can adopt the same ideas as in pQFT with fruitful results such as new constructions of normal forms with the help of the Birkhoff decomposition. The analogy goes even further (locality of counter terms, choice of a renormalization scheme) and shall lead to more interactions between dynamical systems and quantum field theory.

  18. [Production of the monoclonal antibodies to the rabies virus nucleoprotein].

    PubMed

    Gribencha, S V; Kozlov, A Iu; Kostina, L V; Elakov, A L; Losich, M A; Tsibezov, V V; Zaberezhnyĭ, A D; Aliper, T I

    2013-01-01

    Five hybridomas secreting monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) for the nucleocapsid protein of the rabies virus were obtained through the fusion of the SP2/0 murine myeloma cells with splenocytes of BALB/c mice immunized with fixed rabies virus (CVS strain). All hybridomas secret MAbs of the IgG class that display different specificity to the nucleocapsids of rabies and rabies-related viruses. MAbs 2ell showed the specificity for the prevalent in Russia rabies viruses that are similar to commercially available anti-rabies conjugate. PMID:24640170

  19. Cattle rabies vaccination--A longitudinal study of rabies antibody titres in an Israeli dairy herd.

    PubMed

    Yakobson, Boris; Taylor, Nick; Dveres, Nelli; Rozenblut, Shira; Tov, Boris Even; Markos, Majid; Gallon, Nadav; Homer, David; Maki, Joanne

    2015-09-01

    In contrast to many regions of the world where rabies is endemic in terrestrial wildlife species, wildlife rabies has been controlled in Israel by oral rabies vaccination programs, but canine rabies is re-emerging in the northern area of the Golan Heights. From 2009 to 2014 there were 208 animal rabies cases in Israel; 96 (46%) were considered introduced primary cases in dogs, triggering 112 secondary cases. One third (37/112) of the secondary cases were in cattle. Rabies vaccination is voluntary for cattle in Israel, except those on public exhibit. Rabies vaccination schedules for cattle vary based on farm practices and perception of risk. In this study 59 cattle from a dairy farm which routinely vaccinates against rabies were assigned into six groups according to age and vaccination histories. Four groups contained adult cows which had received one previous rabies vaccination, one group of adults had received two previous vaccinations, and one group was unvaccinated calves. Serum samples were collected and the cows were vaccinated with a commercial rabies vaccine. Sera were again collected 39 days later and the calf group re-vaccinated and re-sampled 18 days later. Sera were analyzed for the presence of rabies virus neutralizing antibodies using the rapid immunofluorescent antibody test. Cattle with antibody titres ≥ 0.5 IU/ml were considered to be protected against rabies. Twenty-six of 27 adult cattle (96%) vaccinated once at less than five months old did not have protective titres. Sixty percent (6/10) cattle vaccinated once at around six months of age did have adequate titres. Cattle previously vaccinated twice (n=10; 100%) with an 18 month interval between inoculations, had protective titres and protective antibody titres following booster vaccination (n=51; 100%). The anamnestic response of cattle to a killed rabies vaccine was not affected by the time interval between vaccinations, which ranged from 12 to 36 months. These results suggest that calves from

  20. How Can You Prevent Rabies in Animals?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Share Compartir How can you prevent rabies in animals? There are several things you can do to ... properly cared for or vaccinated regularly. Finally, call animal control to remove all stray animals from your ...

  1. Rabies: What Care Will I Receive?

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2008 Rabies in Domestic Animals, 1958-2008 Rabid Cats Reported in the United States, 2008 Rabid Dogs ... Reported in the United States during 2009 Rabid Cats Reported in the United States during 2009 Rabid ...

  2. Rabies in the U.S.

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2008 Rabies in Domestic Animals, 1958-2008 Rabid Cats Reported in the United States, 2008 Rabid Dogs ... Reported in the United States during 2009 Rabid Cats Reported in the United States during 2009 Rabid ...

  3. Bat Rabies and Other Lyssavirus Infections

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Constantine, Denny G.; Blehert, David S.

    2009-01-01

    Bat Rabies and Other Lyssavirus Infections offers readers an overview of the virus variants that cause bat rabies, and geographical patterns in occurrence of this disease. The section Species Susceptibility describes infection rates and trends among bats, humans, and other animals. Disease Ecology considers the biological and environmental dynamics of the disease in various species of bats. Points to Ponder: Interspecies Interactions in Potential Bat Rabies Transmission Settings discusses the narrowing interface of bat colonies and human society and how humans and domestic animals play a role in transmission of bat rabies. Disease Prevention and Control outlines how to limit exposure to rabid bats and other animals. Appendixes include extensive tables of reported infections in bat species and in humans, and a glossary of technical terms is included. The author, Denny G. Constantine, helped define rabies infection in insect-eating bats and has investigated bat rabies ecology for more than half a century. He has authored more than 90 papers during the course of his career and is widely considered to be the world's foremost authority on the disease. Currently, Dr. Constantine is a public health officer emeritus and veterinary epidemiologist for the California Department of Health Services Viral and Rickettsial Disease Laboratory. Milt Friend, first director of the USGS National Wildlife Health Center, wrote the foreword. David Blehert, a USGS microbiologist who is investigating the emergence and causes of bat white-nose syndrome, edited the volume. Bat Rabies is intended for scholars and the general public. Dr. Constantine presents the material in a simple, straightforward manner that serves both audiences. The goal of the author is to increase people's understanding of both bat and disease ecology and also provide a balanced perspective on human risks pertaining to bat rabies.

  4. [Hematophagous bats as reservoirs of rabies].

    PubMed

    Scheffer, Karin Corrêa; Iamamoto, Keila; Asano, Karen Miyuki; Mori, Enio; Estevez Garcia, Andrea Isabel; Achkar, Samira M; Fahl, Williande Oliveira

    2014-04-01

    Rabies continues to be a challenge for public health authorities and a constraint to the livestock industry in Latin America. Wild and domestic canines and vampire bats are the main transmitter species and reservoirs of the disease. Currently, variations observed in the epidemiological profile of rabies, where the species of hematophagous bat Desmodus rotundus constitutes the main transmitting species. Over the years, knowledge has accumulated about the ecology, biology and behavior of this species and the natural history of rabies, which should lead to continuous development of methods of population control of d. Rotundus as well as prevention and diagnostic tools for rabies. Ecological relationships of this species with other hematophagous and non-hematophagous bats is unknown, and there is much room for improvement in reporting systems and surveillance, as well as creating greater awareness among the farming community. Understanding the impact of human-induced environmental changes on the rabies virus in bats should be cause for further investigation. This will require a combination of field studies with mathematical models and new diagnostic tools. This review aims to present the most relevant issues on the role of hematophagous bats as reservoirs and transmitters of the rabies virus. PMID:25123871

  5. Inactivation of rabies virus by hydrogen peroxide.

    PubMed

    Abd-Elghaffar, Asmaa A; Ali, Amal E; Boseila, Abeer A; Amin, Magdy A

    2016-02-01

    Development of safe and protective vaccines against infectious pathogens remains a challenge. Inactivation of rabies virus is a critical step in the production of vaccines and other research reagents. Beta-propiolactone (βPL); the currently used inactivating agent for rabies virus is expensive and proved to be carcinogenic in animals. This study aimed to investigate the ability of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) to irreversibly inactivate rabies virus without affecting its antigenicity and immunogenicity in pursuit of finding safe, effective and inexpensive alternative inactivating agents. H2O2 3% rapidly inactivated a Vero cell adapted fixed rabies virus strain designated as FRV/K within 2h of exposure without affecting its antigenicity or immunogenicity. No residual infectious virus was detected and the H2O2-inactivated vaccine proved to be safe and effective when compared with the same virus harvest inactivated with the classical inactivating agent βPL. Mice immunized with H2O2-inactivated rabies virus produced sufficient level of antibodies and were protected when challenged with lethal CVS virus. These findings reinforce the idea that H2O2 can replace βPL as inactivating agent for rabies virus to reduce time and cost of inactivation process. PMID:26731189

  6. Rabies control in South and Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Wilde, Henry; Khawplod, Pakamatz; Khamoltham, Thavatchai; Hemachudha, Thiravat; Tepsumethanon, Veera; Lumlerdacha, Boonlert; Mitmoonpitak, Channarong; Sitprija, Visith

    2005-03-18

    We have the knowledge and tools to eliminate the threat of canine rabies but this disease, nevertheless, remains a public health threat in many parts of the world. Lack of motivation by governments, cultural issues and inadequate funding remain barriers. This is amazing since the number of human rabies deaths worldwide is greater than that from polio, meningococcal meningitis, Japanese encephalitis, yellow fever, SARS, bird flue and other scourges that attract more attention. Safe and effective vaccines are now widely available. Reduced dose effective and less expensive post-exposure vaccination regimens have helped eliminate nerve tissue vaccines in Thailand, Philippines and Sri Lanka. India and Pakistan, the major users of dangerous nerve tissue derived Semple type vaccine, are now considering following suite. Immediate wound care and prompt use of a potent vaccine will save a majority of infected persons. Rabies immunoglobulin, injected into and around bite wounds, provides added safety for the severely exposed. The high cost of rabies immunoglobulin and tissue culture vaccines are remaining barriers, but new manufacturers and the use of intradermal vaccination schedules can reduce costs. Ultimately, it is the need to control rabies in dogs that must occupy most of our attention. The tools are available, but attitudes must change before they can be applied. There have been many new developments since publication of the last WHO rabies expert committee report in 1992 (new version in print)] and we will address those that have practical applicability. PMID:15755612

  7. Spatio-temporal Use of Oral Rabies Vaccines in Fox Rabies Elimination Programmes in Europe.

    PubMed

    Müller, Thomas F; Schröder, Ronald; Wysocki, Patrick; Mettenleiter, Thomas C; Freuling, Conrad M

    2015-01-01

    In Europe, the elimination of wildlife rabies using oral rabies vaccination [ORV] of foxes for more than 30 years has been a success story. Since a comprehensive review on the scope of the different oral rabies vaccine baits distributed across Europe has not been available yet, we evaluated the use of different vaccine baits over the entire period of ORV [1978-2014]. Our findings provide valuable insights into the complexity of ORV programs in terms of vaccine related issues. More than 10 oral vaccines against rabies were used over the past four decades. Depending on many factors, the extent to which oral rabies virus vaccines were used varied considerably resulting in huge differences in the number of vaccine doses disseminated in ORV campaigns as well as in large spatial and temporal overlaps. Although vaccine virus strains derived from the SAD rabies virus isolate were the most widely used, the success of ORV campaigns in Europe cannot be assigned to a single oral rabies virus vaccine alone. Rather, the successful elimination of fox rabies is the result of an interaction of different key components of ORV campaigns, i.e. vaccine strain, vaccine bait and strategy of distribution. PMID:26280895

  8. Spatio-temporal Use of Oral Rabies Vaccines in Fox Rabies Elimination Programmes in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Thomas F.; Schröder, Ronald; Wysocki, Patrick; Mettenleiter, Thomas C.; Freuling, Conrad M.

    2015-01-01

    In Europe, the elimination of wildlife rabies using oral rabies vaccination [ORV] of foxes for more than 30 years has been a success story. Since a comprehensive review on the scope of the different oral rabies vaccine baits distributed across Europe has not been available yet, we evaluated the use of different vaccine baits over the entire period of ORV [1978–2014]. Our findings provide valuable insights into the complexity of ORV programs in terms of vaccine related issues. More than 10 oral vaccines against rabies were used over the past four decades. Depending on many factors, the extent to which oral rabies virus vaccines were used varied considerably resulting in huge differences in the number of vaccine doses disseminated in ORV campaigns as well as in large spatial and temporal overlaps. Although vaccine virus strains derived from the SAD rabies virus isolate were the most widely used, the success of ORV campaigns in Europe cannot be assigned to a single oral rabies virus vaccine alone. Rather, the successful elimination of fox rabies is the result of an interaction of different key components of ORV campaigns, i.e. vaccine strain, vaccine bait and strategy of distribution. PMID:26280895

  9. Analysis of time series of cattle rabies cases in Minas Gerais, Brazil, 2006-2013.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Edna; Sáfadi, Thelma; Da Rocha, Christiane Maria Barcellos Magalhaes; Cardoso, Denis Lucio

    2015-04-01

    Vampire bats are potential transmitters of rabies in rural areas. Cattle rabies is relevant in the state of Minas Gerais due to the increasing cattle herds and geographical features of the area, which are favorable to bat populations. This study evaluated the occurrence of rabies in state cattle by analyzing the time series of monthly values, 2006-2012, describing some aspects of the areas and species affected. The study also pointed out the disease prediction for January-December 2013. We used monthly data of cases reported to the Continental Epidemiological Surveillance System (SIVCONT) of the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock, and Supply (MAPA), January 2006-March 2013. We also collected data on municipalities and other animal species affected by rabies for a descriptive analysis of the disease. The results indicate that cattle rabies is endemic in the State, with different intensities in different regions. The variables frequency of notifications and bat shelters had a positive and regular correlation (P = 0.035; r = 0.567) between them. With respect to data series, there was a fluctuation of the number of cases (5 to 29 cases per month) over 2006 and 2013, without trend or seasonality, although there would visually appear to be a downward trend. The results also suggest that the forecasting method is suitable for predicting future cases. Bovine species had the highest number of reporting, with 1007 cases (88.88 %), followed by equine species with 112 (9.89 %). The information provided by this study may help understand disease occurrence and find the most effective measures for rabies control in endemic areas. PMID:25698529

  10. Contractor renormalization group and the Haldane conjecture

    SciTech Connect

    Weinstein, Marvin

    2001-05-01

    The contractor renormalization group formalism (CORE) is a real-space renormalization group method which is the Hamiltonian analogue of the Wilson exact renormalization group equations. In an earlier paper [Phys. Rev. D 61, 034505 (2000)] I showed that the CORE method could be used to map a theory of free quarks and quarks interacting with gluons into a generalized frustrated Heisenberg antiferromagnet (HAF) and proposed using CORE methods to study these theories. Since generalizations of HAF's exhibit all sorts of subtle behavior which, from a continuum point of view, are related to topological properties of the theory, it is important to know that CORE can be used to extract this physics. In this paper I show that despite the folklore which asserts that all real-space renormalization group schemes are necessarily inaccurate, simple CORE computations can give highly accurate results even if one only keeps a small number of states per block and a few terms in the cluster expansion. In addition I argue that even very simple CORE computations give a much better qualitative understanding of the physics than naive renormalization group methods. In particular I show that the simplest CORE computation yields a first-principles understanding of how the famous Haldane conjecture works for the case of the spin-1/2 and spin-1 HAF.

  11. Current status of rabies and prospects for elimination.

    PubMed

    Fooks, Anthony R; Banyard, Ashley C; Horton, Daniel L; Johnson, Nicholas; McElhinney, Lorraine M; Jackson, Alan C

    2014-10-11

    Rabies is one of the most deadly infectious diseases, with a case-fatality rate approaching 100%. The disease is established on all continents apart from Antarctica; most cases are reported in Africa and Asia, with thousands of deaths recorded annually. However, the estimated annual figure of almost 60,000 human rabies fatalities is probably an underestimate. Almost all cases of human rabies result from bites from infected dogs. Therefore, the most cost-effective approach to elimination of the global burden of human rabies is to control canine rabies rather than expansion of the availability of human prophylaxis. Mass vaccination campaigns with parenteral vaccines, and advances in oral vaccines for wildlife, have allowed the elimination of rabies in terrestrial carnivores in several countries worldwide. The subsequent reduction in cases of human rabies in such regions advocates the multidisciplinary One Health approach to rabies control through the mass vaccination of dogs and control of canine populations. PMID:24828901

  12. Inactivation of rabies diagnostic reagents by gamma radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Gamble, W.C.; Chappell, W.A.; George, E.H.

    1980-11-01

    Treatment of CVS-11 rabies adsorbing suspensions and street rabies infected mouse brains with gamma radiation resulted in inactivated reagents that are safer to distribute and use. These irradiated reagents were as sensitive and reactive as the nonirradiated control reagents.

  13. Self-Consistency Requirements of the Renormalization Group for Setting the Renormalization Scale

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; Wu, Xing-Gang

    2012-08-07

    In conventional treatments, predictions from fixed-order perturbative QCD calculations cannot be fixed with certainty due to ambiguities in the choice of the renormalization scale as well as the renormalization scheme. In this paper we present a general discussion of the constraints of the renormalization group (RG) invariance on the choice of the renormalization scale. We adopt the RG based equations, which incorporate the scheme parameters, for a general exposition of RG invariance, since they simultaneously express the invariance of physical observables under both the variation of the renormalization scale and the renormalization scheme parameters. We then discuss the self-consistency requirements of the RG, such as reflexivity, symmetry, and transitivity, which must be satisfied by the scale-setting method. The Principle of Minimal Sensitivity (PMS) requires the slope of the approximant of an observable to vanish at the renormalization point. This criterion provides a scheme-independent estimation, but it violates the symmetry and transitivity properties of the RG and does not reproduce the Gell-Mann-Low scale for QED observables. The Principle of Maximum Conformality (PMC) satisfies all of the deductions of the RG invariance - reflectivity, symmetry, and transitivity. Using the PMC, all non-conformal {βRi}-terms (R stands for an arbitrary renormalization scheme) in the perturbative expansion series are summed into the running coupling, and one obtains a unique, scale-fixed, scheme-independent prediction at any finite order. The PMC scales and the resulting finite-order PMC predictions are both to high accuracy independent of the choice of initial renormalization scale, consistent with RG invariance.

  14. On the Hyperbolicity of Lorenz Renormalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martens, Marco; Winckler, Björn

    2014-01-01

    We consider infinitely renormalizable Lorenz maps with real critical exponent α > 1 of certain monotone combinatorial types. We prove the existence of periodic points of the renormalization operator, and that each map in the limit set of renormalization has an associated two-dimensional strong unstable manifold. For monotone families of Lorenz maps we prove that each infinitely renormalizable combinatorial type has a unique representative within the family. We also prove that each infinitely renormalizable map has no wandering intervals, is ergodic, and has a uniquely ergodic minimal Cantor attractor of measure zero.

  15. Novel formulations of CKM matrix renormalization

    SciTech Connect

    Kniehl, Bernd A.; Sirlin, Alberto

    2009-12-17

    We review two recently proposed on-shell schemes for the renormalization of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) quark mixing matrix in the Standard Model. One first constructs gauge-independent mass counterterm matrices for the up- and down-type quarks complying with the hermiticity of the complete mass matrices. Diagonalization of the latter then leads to explicit expressions for the CKM counterterm matrix, which are gauge independent, preserve unitarity, and lead to renormalized amplitudes that are non-singular in the limit in which any two quarks become mass degenerate. One of the schemes also automatically satisfies flavor democracy.

  16. Renormalized dissipation in plasmas with finite collisionality

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, S.E.; Carati, D.

    1995-05-01

    A nonlinear truncation procedure for Fourier-Hermite expansion of Boltzmann-type plasma equations is presented which eliminates fine velocity scale, taking into account its effect on coarser scales. The truncated system is then transformed back to (x, v) space which results in a renormalized Boltzmann equation. The resulting equation may allow for coarser velocity space resolution in kinetic simulations while reducing to the original Boltzmann equation when fine velocity scales are resolved. To illustrate the procedure, renormalized equations are derived for one dimensional electrostatic plasmas in which collisions are modeled by the Lenard-Bernstein operator.

  17. Perturbative renormalization of the electric field correlator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christensen, C.; Laine, M.

    2016-04-01

    The momentum diffusion coefficient of a heavy quark in a hot QCD plasma can be extracted as a transport coefficient related to the correlator of two colour-electric fields dressing a Polyakov loop. We determine the perturbative renormalization factor for a particular lattice discretization of this correlator within Wilson's SU(3) gauge theory, finding a ∼ 12% NLO correction for values of the bare coupling used in the current generation of simulations. The impact of this result on existing lattice determinations is commented upon, and a possibility for non-perturbative renormalization through the gradient flow is pointed out.

  18. Information geometry and the renormalization group.

    PubMed

    Maity, Reevu; Mahapatra, Subhash; Sarkar, Tapobrata

    2015-11-01

    Information theoretic geometry near critical points in classical and quantum systems is well understood for exactly solvable systems. Here, we show that renormalization group flow equations can be used to construct the information metric and its associated quantities near criticality for both classical and quantum systems in a universal manner. We study this metric in various cases and establish its scaling properties in several generic examples. Scaling relations on the parameter manifold involving scalar quantities are studied, and scaling exponents are identified. The meaning of the scalar curvature and the invariant geodesic distance in information geometry is established and substantiated from a renormalization group perspective. PMID:26651641

  19. Information geometry and the renormalization group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maity, Reevu; Mahapatra, Subhash; Sarkar, Tapobrata

    2015-11-01

    Information theoretic geometry near critical points in classical and quantum systems is well understood for exactly solvable systems. Here, we show that renormalization group flow equations can be used to construct the information metric and its associated quantities near criticality for both classical and quantum systems in a universal manner. We study this metric in various cases and establish its scaling properties in several generic examples. Scaling relations on the parameter manifold involving scalar quantities are studied, and scaling exponents are identified. The meaning of the scalar curvature and the invariant geodesic distance in information geometry is established and substantiated from a renormalization group perspective.

  20. [Anti-rabies antibody titers among subjects who received rabies post-exposure prophylaxis with foreign-made rabies vaccines at the beginning and followed with Japanese rabies vaccine].

    PubMed

    Takayama, Naohide; Suganuma, Akihiko; Kasai, Daisuke; Kurai, Daisuke

    2002-10-01

    Recently travelers who were bitten by possibly rabid animals in rabies endemic regions and returned to Japan have increased in number. About half of them received rabies post-exposure prophylaxis (RPEP) with one or more doses of foreign-made rabies vaccines (FRV) in the local medical institutions. FRV, however, are not available in Japan so we have to continue the RPEP with Japanese rabies vaccine (JRV). It has not been demonstrated that an anti-rabies antibody induced with JRV following Vero cell rabies vaccine (PVRV) or chick embryo cell rabies vaccine (PCEC) could be high enough to prevent clinical rabies. We examined anti-rabies antibody (ARA) titers among the subjects visited our vaccine clinic to receive RPEP and obtained results as follows: the ARA titers after a total of 5 doses of PCEC or PVRV and JRV were high enough to prevent clinical rabies as after 5 doses of JRV. However, ARA titers obtained after receiving one dose of PVRV and 2 doses of JRV seemed lower than those produced after one dose of PCEC and 2 doses of JRV or 3 doses of JRV. To accelerate antibody production, consequently, the simultaneous intradermal and subcutaneous injection method of rabies vaccine may be applied to those who were bitten in their hands or head by possibly rabid animals and received only one dose of PVRV in rabies endemic regions. PMID:12448848

  1. Rabies in marmosets (Callithrix jacchus), Ceará, Brazil.

    PubMed Central

    Favoretto, S. R.; de Mattos, C. C.; Morais, N. B.; Alves Araújo, F. A.; de Mattos, C. A.

    2001-01-01

    A new Rabies virus variant, with no close antigenic or genetic relationship to any known rabies variants found in bats or terrestrial mammals in the Americas, was identified in association with human rabies cases reported from the state of Ceará, Brazil, from 1991 to 1998. The marmoset, Callithrix jacchus acchus, was determined to be the source of exposure. PMID:11747745

  2. [WHO recommended pre-exposure prophylaxis for rabies using Japanese rabies vaccine].

    PubMed

    Yanagisawa, Naoki; Takayama, Naohide; Suganuma, Akihiko

    2008-09-01

    After severe exposure to suspected rabid animal, WHO recommends a complete vaccine series using a potent effective vaccine that meets WHO criteria, and administration of rabies immunoglobulin (RIG). RIG is not available globally, and is not marketed in Japan. If pre-exposure prophylaxis for rabies is given, RIG is unnecessary even after severe exposure. It is thus important to give pre-exposure prophylaxis for rabies to people who plan to go to rabies-endemic areas. In Japan, pre-exposure prophylaxis for rabies consists of 3 doses of cell-culture rabies vaccine. The first two doses are given 4 weeks apart, and the third dose is given 6-12 months after the first dose, all of which are injected subcutaneously (standard regimen). People who plan to travel abroad to rabies-endemic areas may know of their destinations only 1 or 2 months in advance at best. Therefore, it is virtually impossible to complete the 3 dose regimen for rabies in Japan. Pre-exposure prophylaxis recommended by WHO consists of 3 doses given intramuscularly on days 0, 7, and 28, making it possible to complete pre-exposure prophylaxis in one month. This WHO recommended pre-exposure prophylaxis using Japanese cell-cultured rabies vaccine (PCEC-K) has not been studied, so we elected to fill the gap using PCEC-K, administered based on the WHO recommendation and examined its efficacy and safety. Subjects were 26 healthy volunteers with no previous rabies vaccination giving oral and written consent. Vaccine was administered on days 0, 7, and 28, and rabies antibody levels were tested on days 7, 28, and 42. On day 7, every antibody level was negative. On day 28, antibody levels were between 0.7-3.5 EU/ mL, with the exception of 3 cases still negative. On day 42, all cases, including the 3 negative cases, exceeded 1.6 EU/mL, providing sufficient protection against rabies. This result was not inferior compared to the standard regimen. Local adverse effects such as erythema and pain were noted, but none were

  3. Rabies in a Dog Imported from Egypt with a Falsified Rabies Vaccination Certificate--Virginia, 2015.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, Julie R; Wallace, Ryan M; Gruszynski, Karen; Freeman, Marilyn Bibbs; Campbell, Colin; Semple, Shereen; Innes, Kristin; Slavinski, Sally; Palumbo, Gabriel; Bair-Brake, Heather; Orciari, Lillian; Condori, Rene E; Langer, Adam; Carroll, Darin S; Murphy, Julia

    2015-12-18

    Canine rabies virus variant has been eliminated in the United States and multiple other countries. Globally, however, dogs remain the principal source for human rabies infections. The World Health Organization recommends that when dogs cross international borders, national importing authorities should require an international veterinary certificate attesting that the animal did not show signs of rabies at the time of shipment, was permanently identified, vaccinated, or revaccinated, and had been subjected to a serologic test for rabies before shipment. On June 8, 2015, an adult female dog that had recently been picked up from the streets of Cairo, Egypt, and shipped by a U.S. animal rescue organization to the United States was confirmed to have rabies by the Virginia Department of General Services Division of Consolidated Laboratory Services (DCLS). This dog was part of a large shipment of dogs and cats from Egypt that rescue organizations had distributed to multiple states for adoption. During the investigation, public health officials learned that the rabies vaccination certificate used for entry of the rabid dog into the United States had intentionally been falsified to avoid exclusion of the dog from entry under CDC's current dog importation regulations. This report underscores the ongoing risk posed by U.S. importation of domestic animals that have not been adequately vaccinated against rabies. PMID:26678293

  4. Genetic engineering of live rabies vaccines.

    PubMed

    Morimoto, K; McGettigan, J P; Foley, H D; Hooper, D C; Dietzschold, B; Schnell, M J

    2001-05-14

    Rabies virus is not a single entity but consists of a wide array of variants that are each associated with different host species. These viruses differ greatly in the antigenic makeup of their G proteins, the primary determinant of pathogenicity and major inducer of protective immunity. Due to this diversity, existing rabies vaccines have largely been targeted to individual animal species. In this report, a novel approach to the development of rabies vaccines using genetically modified, reverse-engineered live attenuated rabies viruses is described. This approach entails the engineering of vaccine rabies virus containing G proteins from virulent strains and modification of the G protein to further reduce pathogenicity. Strategies employed included exchange of the arginine at position 333 for glutamine and modification of the cytoplasmic domain. The recombinant viruses obtained were non-neuroinvasive when administered via a peripheral route. The ability to confer protective immunity depended largely upon conservation of the G protein antigenic structure between the vaccine and challenge virus, as well as on the route of immunization. PMID:11348722

  5. Vampire bat rabies: ecology, epidemiology and control.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Nicholas; Aréchiga-Ceballos, Nidia; Aguilar-Setien, Alvaro

    2014-05-01

    Extensive surveillance in bat populations in response to recent emerging diseases has revealed that this group of mammals acts as a reservoir for a large range of viruses. However, the oldest known association between a zoonotic virus and a bat is that between rabies virus and the vampire bat. Vampire bats are only found in Latin America and their unique method of obtaining nutrition, blood-feeding or haematophagy, has only evolved in the New World. The adaptations that enable blood-feeding also make the vampire bat highly effective at transmitting rabies virus. Whether the virus was present in pre-Columbian America or was introduced is much disputed, however, the introduction of Old World livestock and associated landscape modification, which continues to the present day, has enabled vampire bat populations to increase. This in turn has provided the conditions for rabies re-emergence to threaten both livestock and human populations as vampire bats target large mammals. This review considers the ecology of the vampire bat that make it such an efficient vector for rabies, the current status of vampire-transmitted rabies and the future prospects for spread by this virus and its control. PMID:24784570

  6. Bat rabies in urban centers in Chile.

    PubMed

    de Mattos, C A; Favi, M; Yung, V; Pavletic, C; de Mattos, C C

    2000-04-01

    One hundred and five rabies isolates obtained from domestic animals and insectivorous bats in Chile between 1977 and 1998 were molecularly characterized by limited sequence analysis of their nucleoprotein genes. These isolates were compared with viruses isolated from known domestic and wildlife rabies reservoirs in the Americas to identify potential reservoirs of rabies in Chile. The phylogenetic analyses showed that none of the Chilean isolates segregated with viruses from the terrestrial reservoirs. No non-rabies lyssaviruses were found in this study. The Chilean samples were not related to viruses of the sylvatic cycle maintained by the common vampire bat (Desmodus rotundus) in Latin America. Five genetic variants were identified from insectivorous bats in Chile. The Brazilian free-tailed bat (Tadarida brasiliensis) was identified as the reservoir for the rabies genetic variant most frequently isolated in the country between 1977 and 1998. The close association of a group of viruses obtained from a domestic dog (Canis familiaris), Brazilian free-tailed bats, and a red bat (Lasiurus borealis) with viruses maintained by Lasiurus spp. in North America implicated species of this genus as the possible reservoirs of this particular genetic variant in Chile. Reservoirs for the other three variants remain unknown. PMID:10813604

  7. Vampire Bat Rabies: Ecology, Epidemiology and Control

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Nicholas; Aréchiga-Ceballos, Nidia; Aguilar-Setien, Alvaro

    2014-01-01

    Extensive surveillance in bat populations in response to recent emerging diseases has revealed that this group of mammals acts as a reservoir for a large range of viruses. However, the oldest known association between a zoonotic virus and a bat is that between rabies virus and the vampire bat. Vampire bats are only found in Latin America and their unique method of obtaining nutrition, blood-feeding or haematophagy, has only evolved in the New World. The adaptations that enable blood-feeding also make the vampire bat highly effective at transmitting rabies virus. Whether the virus was present in pre-Columbian America or was introduced is much disputed, however, the introduction of Old World livestock and associated landscape modification, which continues to the present day, has enabled vampire bat populations to increase. This in turn has provided the conditions for rabies re-emergence to threaten both livestock and human populations as vampire bats target large mammals. This review considers the ecology of the vampire bat that make it such an efficient vector for rabies, the current status of vampire-transmitted rabies and the future prospects for spread by this virus and its control. PMID:24784570

  8. Rabies in China: recommendations for control.

    PubMed Central

    Kureishi, A.; Xu, L. Z.; Wu, H.; Stiver, H. G.

    1992-01-01

    Reviewed are the results of 15 years' experience with rabies at You-An Infectious Disease Hospital, Beijing, China. The purpose of the study was to determine whether there are any epidemiological or clinical features of rabies that are unique to China and which might be important in developing a strategy to control it. During the period under study, 64 patients with rabies were admitted to You-An Hospital. Exposure to dogs was associated with 61 cases, two involving the handling of dog carcasses that were being prepared for meals. All of the exposures occurred in rural areas, and none of the patients received adequate prophylaxis. Patients with proximal sites of exposure and with severe injuries developed rabies after short incubation periods (P less than 0.05, and P less than 0.02, respectively). Failed vaccination was also associated with a short incubation period (P less than 0.05). Haematemesis occurred in 20 patients and was associated with shorter incubation periods (P less than 0.02), facial exposure sites (P = 0.021), and severe injuries (P = 0.047). A strategy to control rabies in China should include efforts to educate the public about handling the carcasses of stray dogs, in addition to the currently recommended strategy of controlling the dog population and of vaccinating domesticated animals. PMID:1394776

  9. Concepts in the pathogenesis of rabies

    PubMed Central

    Dietzschold, Bernhard; Li, Jianwei; Faber, Milosz; Schnell, Matthias

    2008-01-01

    Rabies is a zoonotic disease that remains an important public health problem worldwide and causes more than 70,000 human deaths each year. The causative agent of rabies is rabies virus (RV), a negative-stranded RNA virus of the rhabdovirus family. Neuroinvasiveness and neurotropism are the main features that define the pathogenesis of rabies. Although RV pathogenicity is a multigenic trait involving several elements of the RV genome, the RV glycoprotein plays a major role in RV pathogenesis by controlling the rate of virus uptake and trans-synaptic virus spread, and by regulating the rate of virus replication. Pathogenic street RV strains differ significantly from tissue culture-adapted RV strains in their neuroinvasiveness. Whereas street RV strains are highly neuroinvasive, most tissue culture-adapted RV strains have either no or only limited ability to invade the CNS from a peripheral site. The high neuroinvasiveness of pathogenic street RVs is, at least in part, due to their ability to evade immune responses and to conserve the structures of neurons. The finding that tissue culture-adapted RV strains replicate very fast and induce strong innate and adaptive immune responses opens new avenues for therapeutic intervention against rabies. PMID:19578477

  10. Immunoperoxidase inhibition assay for rabies antibody detection.

    PubMed

    Batista, H B C R; Lima, F E S; Maletich, D; Silva, A C R; Vicentini, F K; Roehe, L R; Spilki, F R; Franco, A C; Roehe, P M

    2011-06-01

    An immunoperoxidase inhibition assay (IIA) for detection of rabies antibodies in human sera is described. Diluted test sera are added to microplates with paraformaldehyde-fixed, CER cells infected with rabies virus. Antibodies in test sera compete with a rabies polyclonal rabbit antiserum which was added subsequently. Next, an anti-rabbit IgG-peroxidase conjugate is added and the reaction developed by the addition of the substrate 3-amino-9-ethylcarbazole (AEC). The performance of the assay was compared to that of the "simplified fluorescence inhibition microtest" (SFIMT), an established virus neutralization assay, by testing 422 human sera. The IIA displayed 97.6% sensitivity, 98% specificity and 97.6% accuracy (Kappa correlation coefficient=0.9). The IIA results can be read by standard light microscopy, where the clearly identifiable specific staining is visible in antibody-negative sera, in contrast to the absence of staining in antibody-positive samples. The assay does not require monoclonal antibodies or production of large amounts of virus; furthermore, protein purification steps or specialized equipment are not necessary for its performance. The IIA was shown to be suitable for detection of rabies antibodies in human sera, with sensitivity, specificity and accuracy comparable to that of a neutralization-based assay. This assay may be advantageous over other similar methods designed to detect rabies-specific binding antibodies, in that it can be easily introduced into laboratories, provided basic cell culture facilities are available. PMID:21458492

  11. Characterization of rabies virus isolates in Bolivia.

    PubMed

    Favi, Myriam; Nina, Aleida; Yung, Verónica; Fernández, Jorge

    2003-11-01

    In Latin America, rabies is still an important public health problem. Canine rabies, and wild animal rabies, especially transmitted by hematofagous and insectivorous bats, has become an emerging problem in the countries of this region. We received 363 samples with a laboratory-confirmed rabies diagnosis from Bolivia during l997-2001. From these, we could obtain 222 rabies virus isolates by intra-cerebral inoculation in mice. By antigenic characterization we could identify 147 isolates as variant 1, 2 isolates as variant 2, 3 isolates as variant 3, and 1 isolate as variant 5. Phylogenetic analysis of 84 isolates established that they segregated in 3 different branches, corresponding to 3 genetic variants, 78 isolates corresponding to antigenic variant 1 segregated in the same lineage as the antigenic variant 5, 2 isolates corresponding to antigenic variant 2 segregated in another lineage, and 3 isolates from antigenic variant 3 segregated in a different lineage.The genetic variant that mainly circulates in Bolivia is maintained in a cycle whose main reservoir are dogs, but it is not possible to discard the presence of other cycles, in which different species of bats or other wild mammals could be participating. PMID:14602205

  12. Oral rabies vaccination in north america: opportunities, complexities, and challenges.

    PubMed

    Slate, Dennis; Algeo, Timothy P; Nelson, Kathleen M; Chipman, Richard B; Donovan, Dennis; Blanton, Jesse D; Niezgoda, Michael; Rupprecht, Charles E

    2009-01-01

    Steps to facilitate inter-jurisdictional collaboration nationally and continentally have been critical for implementing and conducting coordinated wildlife rabies management programs that rely heavily on oral rabies vaccination (ORV). Formation of a national rabies management team has been pivotal for coordinated ORV programs in the United States of America. The signing of the North American Rabies Management Plan extended a collaborative framework for coordination of surveillance, control, and research in border areas among Canada, Mexico, and the US. Advances in enhanced surveillance have facilitated sampling of greater scope and intensity near ORV zones for improved rabies management decision-making in real time. The value of enhanced surveillance as a complement to public health surveillance was best illustrated in Ohio during 2007, where 19 rabies cases were detected that were critical for the formulation of focused contingency actions for controlling rabies in this strategically key area. Diverse complexities and challenges are commonplace when applying ORV to control rabies in wild meso-carnivores. Nevertheless, intervention has resulted in notable successes, including the elimination of an arctic fox (Vulpes lagopus) rabies virus variant in most of southern Ontario, Canada, with ancillary benefits of elimination extending into Quebec and the northeastern US. Progress continues with ORV toward preventing the spread and working toward elimination of a unique variant of gray fox (Urocyon cinereoargenteus) rabies in west central Texas. Elimination of rabies in coyotes (Canis latrans) through ORV contributed to the US being declared free of canine rabies in 2007. Raccoon (Procyon lotor) rabies control continues to present the greatest challenges among meso-carnivore rabies reservoirs, yet to date intervention has prevented this variant from gaining a broad geographic foothold beyond ORV zones designed to prevent its spread from the eastern US. Progress continues

  13. Human Rabies Post-Exposure Prophylaxis and Animal Rabies in Ontario, Canada, 2001-2012.

    PubMed

    Middleton, D; Johnson, K O; Rosatte, R C; Hobbs, J L; Moore, S R; Rosella, L; Crowcroft, N S

    2015-08-01

    In Ontario, Canada, the implementation of an annual rabies control programme in wildlife that began in 1989 resulted in a marked, steady decrease in the number of animal rabies cases. The number of animal rabies cases decreased from 1870 in 1989 to 183 in 2000 (Nunan et al., 2002 Emerg Infect Dis 8, 214). In our study period, the number of animal rabies cases continued to decrease from 210 in 2001 to 28 in 2012. The marked decrease in animal rabies cases since 1989 has resulted in a decrease in the risk of human infection. A concomitant decrease in the number of rabies post-exposure prophylaxis (RPEP) administered was anticipated but failed to occur. The mean rate of RPEP, 13.9 RPEP administered per 100,000 persons, from 2001-2012 was approximately the same as the rate in the 1990 s. Two possible reasons that the rate of RPEP administration has not decreased include strict adherence to RPEP recommendations and administration of RPEP when it is not recommended. A reduction in the number of RPEP administered, consistent with the decrease in the animal rabies cases, would provide some financial savings for the government. Ideally, an increased use of the risk assessment approach in keeping with recent guidelines, rather than adhering to previous prescriptive recommendations for RPEP administration, coupled with a continuing low incidence of animal rabies cases will result in decreased, and yet appropriate, use of RPEP. Consideration should be given to identify how guidelines could be revised to more effectively target high-risk exposures and reduce the administration of RPEP for instances in which the risk of rabies virus exposure is exceedingly low. PMID:25244148

  14. Renormalization group equations for the CKM matrix

    SciTech Connect

    Kielanowski, P.; Juarez W, S. R.; Montes de Oca Y, J. H.

    2008-12-01

    We derive the one loop renormalization group equations for the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) matrix for the standard model, its two Higgs extension, and the minimal supersymmetric extension in a novel way. The derived equations depend only on a subset of the model parameters of the renormalization group equations for the quark Yukawa couplings so the CKM matrix evolution cannot fully test the renormalization group evolution of the quark Yukawa couplings. From the derived equations we obtain the invariant of the renormalization group evolution for three models which is the angle {phi}{sub 2} of the unitarity triangle. For the special case of the standard model and its extensions with v{sub 1}{approx_equal}v{sub 2} we demonstrate that also the shape of the unitarity triangle and the Buras-Wolfenstein parameters {rho} and {eta} are conserved. The invariance of the angles of the unitarity triangle means that it is not possible to find a model in which the CKM matrix might have a simple, special form at asymptotic energies.

  15. Finite volume renormalization scheme for fermionic operators

    SciTech Connect

    Monahan, Christopher; Orginos, Kostas

    2013-11-01

    We propose a new finite volume renormalization scheme. Our scheme is based on the Gradient Flow applied to both fermion and gauge fields and, much like the Schr\\"odinger functional method, allows for a nonperturbative determination of the scale dependence of operators using a step-scaling approach. We give some preliminary results for the pseudo-scalar density in the quenched approximation.

  16. Renormalized Energy Concentration in Random Matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borodin, Alexei; Serfaty, Sylvia

    2013-05-01

    We define a "renormalized energy" as an explicit functional on arbitrary point configurations of constant average density in the plane and on the real line. The definition is inspired by ideas of Sandier and Serfaty (From the Ginzburg-Landau model to vortex lattice problems, 2012; 1D log-gases and the renormalized energy, 2013). Roughly speaking, it is obtained by subtracting two leading terms from the Coulomb potential on a growing number of charges. The functional is expected to be a good measure of disorder of a configuration of points. We give certain formulas for its expectation for general stationary random point processes. For the random matrix β-sine processes on the real line ( β = 1,2,4), and Ginibre point process and zeros of Gaussian analytic functions process in the plane, we compute the expectation explicitly. Moreover, we prove that for these processes the variance of the renormalized energy vanishes, which shows concentration near the expected value. We also prove that the β = 2 sine process minimizes the renormalized energy in the class of determinantal point processes with translation invariant correlation kernels.

  17. Renormalization for breakup of invariant tori

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apte, A.; Wurm, A.; Morrison, P. J.

    2005-01-01

    We present renormalization group operators for the breakup of invariant tori with winding numbers that are quadratic irrationals. We find the simple fixed points of these operators and interpret the map pairs with critical invariant tori as critical fixed points. Coordinate transformations on the space of maps relate these fixed points, and also induce conjugacies between the corresponding operators.

  18. Renormalization of the neutrino mass matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiu, S. H.; Kuo, T. K.

    2016-09-01

    In terms of a rephasing invariant parametrization, the set of renormalization group equations (RGE) for Dirac neutrino parameters can be cast in a compact and simple form. These equations exhibit manifest symmetry under flavor permutations. We obtain both exact and approximate RGE invariants, in addition to some approximate solutions and examples of numerical solutions.

  19. Renormalization of the quark mass matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiu, S. H.; Kuo, T. K.

    2016-05-01

    Using a set of rephasing-invariant variables, it is shown that the renormalization group equations for quark mixing parameters can be written in a form that is compact, in addition to having simple properties under flavor permutation. We also found approximate solutions to these equations if the quark masses are hierarchical or nearly degenerate.

  20. Lectures on renormalization and asymptotic safety

    SciTech Connect

    Nagy, Sandor

    2014-11-15

    A short introduction is given on the functional renormalization group method, putting emphasis on its nonperturbative aspects. The method enables to find nontrivial fixed points in quantum field theoretic models which make them free from divergences and leads to the concept of asymptotic safety. It can be considered as a generalization of the asymptotic freedom which plays a key role in the perturbative renormalization. We summarize and give a short discussion of some important models, which are asymptotically safe such as the Gross–Neveu model, the nonlinear σ model, the sine–Gordon model, and we consider the model of quantum Einstein gravity which seems to show asymptotic safety, too. We also give a detailed analysis of infrared behavior of such scalar models where a spontaneous symmetry breaking takes place. The deep infrared behavior of the broken phase cannot be treated within the framework of perturbative calculations. We demonstrate that there exists an infrared fixed point in the broken phase which creates a new scaling regime there, however its structure is hidden by the singularity of the renormalization group equations. The theory spaces of these models show several similar properties, namely the models have the same phase and fixed point structure. The quantum Einstein gravity also exhibits similarities when considering the global aspects of its theory space since the appearing two phases there show analogies with the symmetric and the broken phases of the scalar models. These results be nicely uncovered by the functional renormalization group method.

  1. Ecological and anthropogenic drivers of rabies exposure in vampire bats: implications for transmission and control.

    PubMed

    Streicker, Daniel G; Recuenco, Sergio; Valderrama, William; Gomez Benavides, Jorge; Vargas, Ivan; Pacheco, Víctor; Condori Condori, Rene E; Montgomery, Joel; Rupprecht, Charles E; Rohani, Pejman; Altizer, Sonia

    2012-09-01

    Despite extensive culling of common vampire bats in Latin America, lethal human rabies outbreaks transmitted by this species are increasingly recognized, and livestock rabies occurs with striking frequency. To identify the individual and population-level factors driving rabies virus (RV) transmission in vampire bats, we conducted a longitudinal capture-recapture study in 20 vampire bat colonies spanning four regions of Peru. Serology demonstrated the circulation of RV in vampire bats from all regions in all years. Seroprevalence ranged from 3 to 28 per cent and was highest in juvenile and sub-adult bats. RV exposure was independent of bat colony size, consistent with an absence of population density thresholds for viral invasion and extinction. Culling campaigns implemented during our study failed to reduce seroprevalence and were perhaps counterproductive for disease control owing to the targeted removal of adults, but potentially greater importance of juvenile and sub-adult bats for transmission. These findings provide new insights into the mechanisms of RV maintenance in vampire bats and highlight the need for ecologically informed approaches to rabies prevention in Latin America. PMID:22696521

  2. Ecological and anthropogenic drivers of rabies exposure in vampire bats: implications for transmission and control

    PubMed Central

    Streicker, Daniel G.; Recuenco, Sergio; Valderrama, William; Gomez Benavides, Jorge; Vargas, Ivan; Pacheco, Víctor; Condori Condori, Rene E.; Montgomery, Joel; Rupprecht, Charles E.; Rohani, Pejman; Altizer, Sonia

    2012-01-01

    Despite extensive culling of common vampire bats in Latin America, lethal human rabies outbreaks transmitted by this species are increasingly recognized, and livestock rabies occurs with striking frequency. To identify the individual and population-level factors driving rabies virus (RV) transmission in vampire bats, we conducted a longitudinal capture–recapture study in 20 vampire bat colonies spanning four regions of Peru. Serology demonstrated the circulation of RV in vampire bats from all regions in all years. Seroprevalence ranged from 3 to 28 per cent and was highest in juvenile and sub-adult bats. RV exposure was independent of bat colony size, consistent with an absence of population density thresholds for viral invasion and extinction. Culling campaigns implemented during our study failed to reduce seroprevalence and were perhaps counterproductive for disease control owing to the targeted removal of adults, but potentially greater importance of juvenile and sub-adult bats for transmission. These findings provide new insights into the mechanisms of RV maintenance in vampire bats and highlight the need for ecologically informed approaches to rabies prevention in Latin America. PMID:22696521

  3. Controlled tunneling-induced dephasing of Rabi rotations for high-fidelity hole spin initialization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ardelt, P.-L.; Simmet, T.; Müller, K.; Dory, C.; Fischer, K. A.; Bechtold, A.; Kleinkauf, A.; Riedl, H.; Finley, J. J.

    2015-09-01

    We report the subpicosecond initialization of a single heavy hole spin in a self-assembled quantum dot with >98.5 % fidelity and without external magnetic field. Using an optically addressable charge and spin storage device we tailor the relative electron and hole tunneling escape time scales from the dot and simultaneously achieve high-fidelity initialization, long hole storage times, and high-efficiency readout via a photocurrent signal. We measure electric-field-dependent Rabi oscillations of the neutral and charged exciton transitions in the ultrafast tunneling regime and demonstrate that tunneling-induced dephasing (TID) of excitonic Rabi rotations is the major source for the intensity damping of Rabi oscillations in the low Rabi frequency, low temperature regime. Our results are in very good quantitative agreement with quantum-optical simulations revealing that TID can be used to precisely measure tunneling escape times and extract changes in the Coulomb binding energies for different charge configurations of the quantum dot. Finally, we demonstrate that for subpicosecond electron tunneling escape, TID of a coherently driven exciton transition facilitates ultrafast hole spin initialization with near-unity fidelity.

  4. Critical mass renormalization in renormalized ϕ4 theories in two and three dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelissetto, Andrea; Vicari, Ettore

    2015-12-01

    We consider the O (N)-symmetric ϕ4 theory in two and three dimensions and determine the nonperturbative mass renormalization needed to obtain the ϕ4 continuum theory. The required nonperturbative information is obtained by resumming high-order perturbative series in the massive renormalization scheme, taking into account their Borel summability and the known large-order behavior of the coefficients. The results are in good agreement with those obtained in lattice calculations.

  5. Vampire bat-transmitted rabies in cattle.

    PubMed

    Arellano-Sota, C

    1988-01-01

    A short history of bovine paralytic rabies in the Americas is given. Based on information from the Animal Health Yearbook--a cooperative publication of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the World Health Organization (WHO), and the International Office of Epizootics (OIE)--a comparison is made of the epidemiology of the disease in 1968, 1978, and 1985. An important reduction in the number of cases of rabies was observed in some countries (Bolivia, Brazil, Guatemala, Mexico, Nicaragua, and Panama), mainly as a result of the use of effective vaccines that are now available and of the application of new technology to reduce the vampire bat population, the vector of the disease in cattle. The trials performed in Argentina and Mexico in the 1960s and 1970s provide enough evidence that many vaccines will protect cattle against bovine paralytic rabies. Results of these trials are presented. PMID:3206085

  6. Quantum Rabi Model with Trapped Ions

    PubMed Central

    Pedernales, J. S.; Lizuain, I.; Felicetti, S.; Romero, G.; Lamata, L.; Solano, E.

    2015-01-01

    We propose the quantum simulation of the quantum Rabi model in all parameter regimes by means of detuned bichromatic sideband excitations of a single trapped ion. We show that current setups can reproduce, in particular, the ultrastrong and deep strong coupling regimes of such a paradigmatic light-matter interaction. Furthermore, associated with these extreme dipolar regimes, we study the controlled generation and detection of their entangled ground states by means of adiabatic methods. Ion traps have arguably performed the first quantum simulation of the Jaynes-Cummings model, a restricted regime of the quantum Rabi model where the rotating-wave approximation holds. We show that one can go beyond and experimentally investigate the quantum simulation of coupling regimes of the quantum Rabi model that are difficult to achieve with natural dipolar interactions. PMID:26482660

  7. Bat Rabies in Canada 1963-1967

    PubMed Central

    Beauregard, M.

    1969-01-01

    Six hundred and twenty-eight insectivorous bats originating from seven provinces were submitted to this Institute for rabies diagnosis between August 1, 1963 and December 31, 1967. Brain tissue was examined by the fluorescent antibody technique and the mouse infectivity test was carried out with brain, salivary gland, interscapular adipose tissue and kidney samples. Rabies virus was detected in 44 bats, 29 of which were from Ontario, 12 from British Columbia and three from Manitoba. Most of the positive cases were diagnosed in summer months. Seven species were represented among the specimens found to be rabid; there were 32 big brown bats, three hoary bats, three silver-haired bats, two little brown bats, one eastern pipistrelle, one Keen myotis and one red bat. Another bat which was not identified also proved to be infected with rabies. PMID:4242773

  8. Quantum Rabi Model with Trapped Ions.

    PubMed

    Pedernales, J S; Lizuain, I; Felicetti, S; Romero, G; Lamata, L; Solano, E

    2015-01-01

    We propose the quantum simulation of the quantum Rabi model in all parameter regimes by means of detuned bichromatic sideband excitations of a single trapped ion. We show that current setups can reproduce, in particular, the ultrastrong and deep strong coupling regimes of such a paradigmatic light-matter interaction. Furthermore, associated with these extreme dipolar regimes, we study the controlled generation and detection of their entangled ground states by means of adiabatic methods. Ion traps have arguably performed the first quantum simulation of the Jaynes-Cummings model, a restricted regime of the quantum Rabi model where the rotating-wave approximation holds. We show that one can go beyond and experimentally investigate the quantum simulation of coupling regimes of the quantum Rabi model that are difficult to achieve with natural dipolar interactions. PMID:26482660

  9. Molecular characterization of rabies virus isolates from Trinidad.

    PubMed

    Wright, Arlette; Rampersad, Joanne; Ryan, Joseph; Ammons, David

    2002-06-20

    Bovine rabies continues to be a serious problem facing the cattle industry in South and Central America. Although Trinidad played an important role in originally demonstrating the link between bats and bovine rabies, relatively little is known about rabies in Trinidad, an island 7miles off the coast of Venezuela. In order to obtain a more complete understanding of bovine rabies in the region, we report herein on a study undertaken in Trinidad to characterize isolates of rabies virus obtained from infected cattle. A portion of the nucleotide sequence of the nucleoprotein gene from six rabies virus isolates collected from bovine rabies from the years 1997, 1998 and 2000 was determined and compared both to themselves and the nucleotide sequence of other South American isolates. Results indicate that there are at least two independently evolving variants of rabies virus in Trinidad. The nucleotide sequence of either variant failed to match completely the sequence of South American isolates. However, the lack of South American isolates from coastal regions facing Trinidad leaves undetermined the question of South American influence on rabies in Trinidad. The results of this study helps complete the picture of bovine rabies in the South American region and provide basic information required locally for the creation of an effective rabies control and eradication strategy. PMID:12034537

  10. The present and future of rabies vaccine in animals

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ha-Hyun; Lee, Kyung-Woo; Song, Jae-Young

    2013-01-01

    An effective strategy for preventing rabies consists of controlling rabies in the host reservoir with vaccination. Rabies vaccine has proven to be the most effective weapon for coping with this fatal viral zoonotic disease of warm-blooded animals, including human. Natural rabies infection of an individual is always associated with exposure to rabid animals, and the duration of clinical signs can vary from days to months. The incubation period for the disease depends on the site of the bite, severity of injury, and the amount of infecting virus at the time of exposure. The mortality of untreated cases in humans is 100%. Over the last 100 years, various rabies vaccines have been developed and used to prevent or control rabies in animals, such as modified live vaccine, inactivated rabies vaccine, and oral modified live vaccine. These have proved safe and efficacious worldwide. New-generation rabies vaccines, including recombinant rabies virus-based vaccines, vectored vaccines, DNA-based vaccines, and plant vaccines, have been explored to overcome the limitations of conventional rabies vaccines. This article discusses current and next-generation rabies vaccines in animals. PMID:23596586

  11. Molecular Epidemiology of Reemergent Rabies in Yunnan Province, Southwestern China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hai-Lin; Zhang, Yu-Zhen; Yang, Wei-Hong; Tao, Xiao-Yan; Li, Hao; Ding, Ji-Chao; Feng, Yun; Yang, Du-Juan; Zhang, Juan; He, Jiang; Shen, Xin-Xin; Wang, Li-Hua; Zhang, Yun-Zhi; Song, Miao

    2014-01-01

    Yunnan Province in China borders 3 countries (Vietnam, Laos, and Myanmar) in Southeast Asia. In the 1980s, a large-scale rabies epidemic occurred in this province, which subsided by the late 1990s. However, 3 human cases of rabies in 2000 indicated reemergence of the disease in 1 county. In 2012, rabies was detected in 77 counties; 663 persons died of rabies during this new epidemic. Fifty two rabies virus strains obtained during 2008–2012 were identified and analyzed phylogenetically by sequencing the nucleoprotein gene. Of the 4 clades identified, clades YN-A and YN-C were closely related to strains from neighboring provinces, and clade YN-B was closely related to strains from Southeast Asia, but formed a distinct branch. Rabies virus diversity might be attributed to dog movements among counties, provinces, and neighboring countries. These findings suggest that Yunnan Province is a focal point for spread of rabies between Southeast Asia and China. PMID:25144604

  12. Polaritonic Rabi and Josephson Oscillations

    PubMed Central

    Rahmani, Amir; Laussy, Fabrice P.

    2016-01-01

    The dynamics of coupled condensates is a wide-encompassing problem with relevance to superconductors, BECs in traps, superfluids, etc. Here, we provide a unified picture of this fundamental problem that includes i) detuning of the free energies, ii) different self-interaction strengths and iii) finite lifetime of the modes. At such, this is particularly relevant for the dynamics of polaritons, both for their internal dynamics between their light and matter constituents, as well as for the more conventional dynamics of two spatially separated condensates. Polaritons are short-lived, interact only through their material fraction and are easily detuned. At such, they bring several variations to their atomic counterpart. We show that the combination of these parameters results in important twists to the phenomenology of the Josephson effect, such as the behaviour of the relative phase (running or oscillating) or the occurence of self-trapping. We undertake a comprehensive stability analysis of the fixed points on a normalized Bloch sphere, that allows us to provide a generalized criterion to identify the Rabi and Josephson regimes in presence of detuning and decay. PMID:27452872

  13. Polaritonic Rabi and Josephson Oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahmani, Amir; Laussy, Fabrice P.

    2016-07-01

    The dynamics of coupled condensates is a wide-encompassing problem with relevance to superconductors, BECs in traps, superfluids, etc. Here, we provide a unified picture of this fundamental problem that includes i) detuning of the free energies, ii) different self-interaction strengths and iii) finite lifetime of the modes. At such, this is particularly relevant for the dynamics of polaritons, both for their internal dynamics between their light and matter constituents, as well as for the more conventional dynamics of two spatially separated condensates. Polaritons are short-lived, interact only through their material fraction and are easily detuned. At such, they bring several variations to their atomic counterpart. We show that the combination of these parameters results in important twists to the phenomenology of the Josephson effect, such as the behaviour of the relative phase (running or oscillating) or the occurence of self-trapping. We undertake a comprehensive stability analysis of the fixed points on a normalized Bloch sphere, that allows us to provide a generalized criterion to identify the Rabi and Josephson regimes in presence of detuning and decay.

  14. Large two-atom two-photon vacuum Rabi oscillations in a high-quality cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Pathak, P.K.; Agarwal, G.S.

    2004-10-01

    We predict a large cooperative effect involving two-atom two-photon vacuum Rabi oscillations in a high-quality cavity. The two-photon emission occurs as a result of simultaneous deexcitation of both atoms with two-photon resonance condition {omega}{sub 1}+{omega}{sub 2}{approx_equal}{omega}{sub a}+{omega}{sub b}, where {omega}{sub 1},{omega}{sub 2} are the atomic transition frequencies and {omega}{sub a},{omega}{sub b} are the frequencies of the emitted photons. The actual resonance condition depends on the vacuum Rabi couplings. The effect can be realized either with identical atoms in a bimodal cavity or with nonidentical atoms in a single-mode cavity.

  15. Induction of immune responses and protection in mice against rabies using a self-replicating RNA vaccine encoding rabies virus glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Saxena, Sonal; Sonwane, Arvind A; Dahiya, Shyam S; Patel, Chhabi Lal; Saini, Mohini; Rai, A; Gupta, Praveen K

    2009-04-14

    A self-replicating RNA vaccine encoding rabies virus glycoprotein gene was developed utilizing sindbis virus RNA replicon. The in vitro transcribed RNA (Sin-Rab-G RNA) was transfected in mammalian cells and analysed for self-replication and expression of rabies glycoprotein. To generate immune responses against rabies, mice were immunized with 10microg of Sin-Rab-G RNA and immune responses developed were compared with mice immunized with rabies DNA vaccine and commercial cell culture vaccine (Rabipur). The self-replicating rabies RNA vaccine generated cellular and humoral IgG responses similar to rabies DNA vaccine. On challenge with rabies virus CVS strain, rabies RNA vaccine conferred protection similar to rabies DNA vaccine. These results demonstrated that replicon-based self-replicating rabies RNA vaccine with 10microg dose was effective in inducing immune responses and protection similar to rabies DNA vaccine. PMID:19081687

  16. Fighting rabies in Africa: the Africa Rabies Expert Bureau (AfroREB).

    PubMed

    Dodet, Betty; Adjogoua, E V; Aguemon, A R; Amadou, O H; Atipo, A L; Baba, B A; Ada, S Bara; Boumandouki, P; Bourhy, H; Diallo, M K; Diarra, L; Diop, B M; Diop, S A; Fesriry, B; Gosseye, S; Hassar, M; Kingé, T; Kombila Nzamba, T E; Yandoko, E Nakouné; Nzengué, E; Ramahefalalao, E F; Ratsitorahina, M; Simpore, L; Soufi, A; Tejiokem, M; Thiombano, R; Tiembré, I; Traoré, A K; Wateba, M I

    2008-11-25

    Rabies experts from 14 francophone African countries met in Grand Bassam (Côte d'Ivoire), 10-13 March 2008. They presented the situation in their respective countries, acknowledging the lack of rabies awareness among the population, health care workers and health authorities. They recognized that infrastructure for the management of rabies exposure is scarce, modern vaccines are in limited quantity and immunoglobulins are lacking in most of their countries. They defined as a priority the need to have reliable figures on the disease burden, which is necessary for informed decision making and priority setting, and for applying for aid in controlling the disease. This meeting sealed the establishment of the Africa Rabies Expert Bureau (AfroREB). PMID:18617294

  17. Protective Effect of Different Anti-Rabies Virus VHH Constructs against Rabies Disease in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Terryn, Sanne; Francart, Aurélie; Lamoral, Sophie; Hultberg, Anna; Rommelaere, Heidi; Wittelsberger, Angela; Callewaert, Filip; Stohr, Thomas; Meerschaert, Kris; Ottevaere, Ingrid; Stortelers, Catelijne; Vanlandschoot, Peter; Kalai, Michael; Van Gucht, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Rabies virus causes lethal brain infection in about 61000 people per year. Each year, tens of thousands of people receive anti-rabies prophylaxis with plasma-derived immunoglobulins and vaccine soon after exposure. Anti-rabies immunoglobulins are however expensive and have limited availability. VHH are the smallest antigen-binding functional fragments of camelid heavy chain antibodies, also called Nanobodies. The therapeutic potential of anti-rabies VHH was examined in a mouse model using intranasal challenge with a lethal dose of rabies virus. Anti-rabies VHH were administered directly into the brain or systemically, by intraperitoneal injection, 24 hours after virus challenge. Anti-rabies VHH were able to significantly prolong survival or even completely rescue mice from disease. The therapeutic effect depended on the dose, affinity and brain and plasma half-life of the VHH construct. Increasing the affinity by combining two VHH with a glycine-serine linker into bivalent or biparatopic constructs, increased the neutralizing potency to the picomolar range. Upon direct intracerebral administration, a dose as low as 33 µg of the biparatopic Rab-E8/H7 was still able to establish an anti-rabies effect. The effect of systemic treatment was significantly improved by increasing the half-life of Rab-E8/H7 through linkage with a third VHH targeted against albumin. Intraperitoneal treatment with 1.5 mg (2505 IU, 1 ml) of anti-albumin Rab-E8/H7 prolonged the median survival time from 9 to 15 days and completely rescued 43% of mice. For comparison, intraperitoneal treatment with the highest available dose of human anti-rabies immunoglobulins (65 mg, 111 IU, 1 ml) only prolonged survival by 2 days, without rescue. Overall, the therapeutic benefit seemed well correlated with the time of brain exposure and the plasma half-life of the used VHH construct. These results, together with the ease-of-production and superior thermal stability, render anti-rabies VHH into valuable

  18. Protective effect of different anti-rabies virus VHH constructs against rabies disease in mice.

    PubMed

    Terryn, Sanne; Francart, Aurélie; Lamoral, Sophie; Hultberg, Anna; Rommelaere, Heidi; Wittelsberger, Angela; Callewaert, Filip; Stohr, Thomas; Meerschaert, Kris; Ottevaere, Ingrid; Stortelers, Catelijne; Vanlandschoot, Peter; Kalai, Michael; Van Gucht, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Rabies virus causes lethal brain infection in about 61000 people per year. Each year, tens of thousands of people receive anti-rabies prophylaxis with plasma-derived immunoglobulins and vaccine soon after exposure. Anti-rabies immunoglobulins are however expensive and have limited availability. VHH are the smallest antigen-binding functional fragments of camelid heavy chain antibodies, also called Nanobodies. The therapeutic potential of anti-rabies VHH was examined in a mouse model using intranasal challenge with a lethal dose of rabies virus. Anti-rabies VHH were administered directly into the brain or systemically, by intraperitoneal injection, 24 hours after virus challenge. Anti-rabies VHH were able to significantly prolong survival or even completely rescue mice from disease. The therapeutic effect depended on the dose, affinity and brain and plasma half-life of the VHH construct. Increasing the affinity by combining two VHH with a glycine-serine linker into bivalent or biparatopic constructs, increased the neutralizing potency to the picomolar range. Upon direct intracerebral administration, a dose as low as 33 µg of the biparatopic Rab-E8/H7 was still able to establish an anti-rabies effect. The effect of systemic treatment was significantly improved by increasing the half-life of Rab-E8/H7 through linkage with a third VHH targeted against albumin. Intraperitoneal treatment with 1.5 mg (2505 IU, 1 ml) of anti-albumin Rab-E8/H7 prolonged the median survival time from 9 to 15 days and completely rescued 43% of mice. For comparison, intraperitoneal treatment with the highest available dose of human anti-rabies immunoglobulins (65 mg, 111 IU, 1 ml) only prolonged survival by 2 days, without rescue. Overall, the therapeutic benefit seemed well correlated with the time of brain exposure and the plasma half-life of the used VHH construct. These results, together with the ease-of-production and superior thermal stability, render anti-rabies VHH into valuable

  19. A novel rabies vaccine based on a recombinant parainfluenza virus 5 expressing rabies virus glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhenhai; Zhou, Ming; Gao, Xiudan; Zhang, Guoqing; Ren, Guiping; Gnanadurai, Clement W; Fu, Zhen F; He, Biao

    2013-03-01

    Untreated rabies virus (RABV) infection leads to death. Vaccine and postexposure treatment have been effective in preventing RABV infection. However, due to cost, rabies vaccination and treatment have not been widely used in developing countries. There are 55,000 human death caused by rabies annually. An efficacious and cost-effective rabies vaccine is needed. Parainfluenza virus 5 (PIV5) is thought to contribute to kennel cough, and kennel cough vaccines containing live PIV5 have been used in dogs for many years. In this work, a PIV5-vectored rabies vaccine was tested in mice. A recombinant PIV5 encoding RABV glycoprotein (G) (rPIV5-RV-G) was administered to mice via intranasal (i.n.), intramuscular (i.m.), and oral inoculation. The vaccinated mice were challenged with a 50% lethal challenge dose (LD(50)) of RABV challenge virus standard 24 (CVS-24) intracerebrally. A single dose of 10(6) PFU of rPIV5-RV-G was sufficient for 100% protection when administered via the i.n. route. The mice vaccinated with a single dose of 10(8) PFU of rPIV5-RV-G via the i.m. route showed very robust protection (90% to 100%). Intriguingly, the mice vaccinated orally with a single dose of 10(8) PFU of rPIV5-RV-G showed a 50% survival rate, which is comparable to the 60% survival rate among mice inoculated with an attenuated rabies vaccine strain, recombinant LBNSE. This is first report of an orally effective rabies vaccine candidate in animals based on PIV5 as a vector. These results indicate that rPIV5-RV-G is an excellent candidate for a new generation of recombinant rabies vaccine for humans and animals and PIV5 is a potential vector for oral vaccines. PMID:23269806

  20. Post-exposure Treatment with Anti-rabies VHH and Vaccine Significantly Improves Protection of Mice from Lethal Rabies Infection

    PubMed Central

    Terryn, Sanne; Francart, Aurélie; Rommelaere, Heidi; Stortelers, Catelijne; Van Gucht, Steven

    2016-01-01

    Post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) against rabies infection consists of a combination of passive immunisation with plasma-derived human or equine immune globulins and active immunisation with vaccine delivered shortly after exposure. Since anti-rabies immune globulins are expensive and scarce, there is a need for cheaper alternatives that can be produced more consistently. Previously, we generated potent virus-neutralising VHH, also called Nanobodies, against the rabies glycoprotein that are effectively preventing lethal disease in an in vivo mouse model. The VHH domain is the smallest antigen-binding functional fragment of camelid heavy chain-only antibodies that can be manufactured in microbial expression systems. In the current study we evaluated the efficacy of half-life extended anti-rabies VHH in combination with vaccine for PEP in an intranasal rabies infection model in mice. The PEP combination therapy of systemic anti-rabies VHH and intramuscular vaccine significantly delayed the onset of disease compared to treatment with anti-rabies VHH alone, prolonged median survival time (35 versus 14 days) and decreased mortality (60% versus 19% survival rate), when treated 24 hours after rabies virus challenge. Vaccine alone was unable to rescue mice from lethal disease. As reported also for immune globulins, some interference of anti-rabies VHH with the antigenicity of the vaccine was observed, but this did not impede the synergistic effect. Post exposure treatment with vaccine and human anti-rabies immune globulins was unable to protect mice from lethal challenge. Anti-rabies VHH and vaccine act synergistically to protect mice after rabies virus exposure, which further validates the possible use of anti-rabies VHH for rabies PEP. PMID:27483431

  1. Post-exposure Treatment with Anti-rabies VHH and Vaccine Significantly Improves Protection of Mice from Lethal Rabies Infection.

    PubMed

    Terryn, Sanne; Francart, Aurélie; Rommelaere, Heidi; Stortelers, Catelijne; Van Gucht, Steven

    2016-08-01

    Post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) against rabies infection consists of a combination of passive immunisation with plasma-derived human or equine immune globulins and active immunisation with vaccine delivered shortly after exposure. Since anti-rabies immune globulins are expensive and scarce, there is a need for cheaper alternatives that can be produced more consistently. Previously, we generated potent virus-neutralising VHH, also called Nanobodies, against the rabies glycoprotein that are effectively preventing lethal disease in an in vivo mouse model. The VHH domain is the smallest antigen-binding functional fragment of camelid heavy chain-only antibodies that can be manufactured in microbial expression systems. In the current study we evaluated the efficacy of half-life extended anti-rabies VHH in combination with vaccine for PEP in an intranasal rabies infection model in mice. The PEP combination therapy of systemic anti-rabies VHH and intramuscular vaccine significantly delayed the onset of disease compared to treatment with anti-rabies VHH alone, prolonged median survival time (35 versus 14 days) and decreased mortality (60% versus 19% survival rate), when treated 24 hours after rabies virus challenge. Vaccine alone was unable to rescue mice from lethal disease. As reported also for immune globulins, some interference of anti-rabies VHH with the antigenicity of the vaccine was observed, but this did not impede the synergistic effect. Post exposure treatment with vaccine and human anti-rabies immune globulins was unable to protect mice from lethal challenge. Anti-rabies VHH and vaccine act synergistically to protect mice after rabies virus exposure, which further validates the possible use of anti-rabies VHH for rabies PEP. PMID:27483431

  2. Heminested PCR assay for detection of six genotypes of rabies and rabies-related viruses.

    PubMed Central

    Heaton, P R; Johnstone, P; McElhinney, L M; Cowley, R; O'Sullivan, E; Whitby, J E

    1997-01-01

    A heminested reverse transcriptase PCR (hnRT-PCR) protocol which is rapid and sensitive for the detection of rabies virus and rabies-related viruses is described. Sixty isolates from six of the seven genotypes of rabies and rabies-related viruses were screened successfully by hnRT-PCR and Southern blot hybridization. Of the 60 isolates, 93% (56 of 60) were positive by external PCR, while all isolates were detected by heminested PCR and Southern blot hybridization. We also report on a comparison of the sensitivity of the standard fluorescent-antibody test (FAT) for rabies antigen and that of hnRT-PCR for rabies viral RNA with degraded tissue infected with a genotype 1 virus. Results indicated that FAT failed to detect viral antigen in brain tissue that was incubated at 37 degrees C for greater than 72 h, while hnRT-PCR detected viral RNA in brain tissue that was incubated at 37 degrees C for 360 h. PMID:9350729

  3. Rabies virus glycoprotein variants display different patterns in rabies monosynaptic tracing

    PubMed Central

    Mori, Takuma; Morimoto, Kinjiro

    2014-01-01

    Rabies virus (RV) has been widely used to trace multi-synaptic neuronal circuits. The recent development of glycoprotein-deficient rabies virus (RV-ΔG) expressing various proteins has enabled analyzes of both the structure and function of neuronal circuits. The main advantage of RV-ΔG is its ability to trace monosynaptic circuits by the complementation of rabies virus glycoprotein (RVG), but it has the disadvantage of cytotoxicity. Several strain variants of RV have different biological characteristics, such as synaptic spreading and cytotoxicity, mainly due to amino acid mutations in RVG. We developed an improved protocol for the production of a highly attenuated strain of RV-ΔG and assessed whether RVG variants affect rabies monosynaptic tracing and the health of infected neurons. We demonstrated that (1) rabies monosynaptic tracing with RVG variants traced different subsets of presynaptic partners, (2) RVG of the attenuated strain also labeled astrocytes, and (3) the cytotoxicity of RV-ΔG did not depend on RVG but on RV-ΔG. These findings indicate that RVG variants are an important determinant of rabies monosynaptic tracing. PMID:24427117

  4. Rabies post-exposure prophylaxis for a child with severe allergic reaction to rabies vaccine.

    PubMed

    Fang, Yuan; Liu, Man-Qing; Chen, Li; Zhu, Zheng-Gang; Zhu, Ze-Rong; Hu, Quan

    2016-07-01

    Most adverse events (AEs) during the immunization of rabies vaccine were slight, there was little information about the allergic reaction induced by rabies vaccines and had to stop or change the immunization program. Here, we reported a case that a 4-year-old boy had category II exposure to rabies and showed severe allergic reaction after being immunized with lyophilized purified vero cell rabies vaccine (PVRV). After the anti-allergy therapy with hormone, allergy testing indicated medium allergy to egg and milk, and implied the allergic reaction most likely associated with animal-sourced gelatin in lyophilized PVRV. Therefore, a new immunization program with liquid PVRV without stabilizers under the Zegrab regimen (2-1-1) was enrolled at day 7 post-exposure. Although lower than the levels of normal <5 -year population at day 14 and 45, the neutralizing antibody (RVNA) titers of this boy showed adequate protective antibody (≥ 0.5 IU/ml), even after 365 d post-immunization. This study not only highlighted the importance of several types of rabies vaccines co-existing in the market, but also implied the necessary for doctors to fully understand the allergies history of patients prior to immunize rabies vaccine. PMID:26900624

  5. Current rabies vaccines and prophylaxis schedules: preventing rabies before and after exposure.

    PubMed

    Warrell, M J

    2012-01-01

    Travellers are probably the largest group in the general population to receive rabies pre-exposure prophylaxis. The dangerous consequences of the unavailability of rabies immune globulin in many countries could be ameliorated if pre-exposure rabies vaccination were practised more widely, especially in children, living in dog rabies enzootic countries. The WHO has recommended several different regimens for post-exposure prophylaxis, while individual countries decide on protocols for local use. Intramuscular regimens are expensive and waste vaccine. Although failure to receive vaccine is usually the due to the cost, the economical potential of intradermal vaccination has still not been realised 19 years after its introduction. The currently recommended 2-site intradermal post-exposure regimen is not economical for use in rural areas where 80% of Indian rabies deaths occur. Most countries using it demand higher potency vaccine, indicating that they do not have complete confidence in the method. This intradermal regimen has only been used where immunoglobulin is likely to be available for severely bitten patients. Increased intradermal doses are sometimes used for selected patients. Provision of economical rabies prophylaxis can be improved. Decisions to change recommendations should take account of the immunological, financial, practical and logistical aspects of dog bite treatment in remote areas. PMID:22342356

  6. Renormalization of the jet-quenching parameter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blaizot, Jean-Paul; Mehtar-Tani, Yacine

    2014-09-01

    We study the radiative processes that affect the propagation of a high energy gluon in a dense medium, such as a quark-gluon plasma. In particular, we investigate the role of the large double logarithmic corrections, ∼αsln2 L /τ0, that were recently identified in the study of p⊥-broadening by Liou, Mueller and Wu. We show that these large corrections can be reabsorbed in a renormalization of the jet quenching parameter controlling both momentum broadening and energy loss. We argue that the probabilistic description of these phenomena remains valid, in spite of the large non-locality in time of the radiative corrections. The renormalized jet-quenching parameter is enhanced compared to its standard perturbative estimate. As a particular consequence, the radiative energy loss scales with medium size L as L 2 + γ, with γ = 2√{αsNc / π }, as compared to the standard scaling in L2.

  7. Spectral renormalization group theory on nonspatial networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuncer, Asli; Erzan, Ayse

    We recently proposed a ``spectral renormalization group'' scheme, for non-spatial networks with no metric defined on them. We implemented the spectral renormalization group on two deterministic non-spatial networks without translational invariance, namely the Cayley tree and diamond lattice . The thermodynamic critical exponents for the Gaussian model are only functions of the spectral dimension, d ~. The Gaussian fixed point is stable with respect to a Ψ4 perturbation up to second order on these lattices with d ~ = 2 , the lower critical dimension for the Ising universality class. This is expected for the Cayley tree, but for the diamond lattice it is an indication that the perturbation expansion up to second order breaks down at d ~ = 2 , as it does for the Wilson scheme on the square lattice. On generalized diamond lattices, with 2 < d ~ < 4 , we find non-Gaussian fixed points with non-trivial exponents. For d ~ > 4 , the critical behavior is once again mean field.

  8. Renormalized vacuum polarization of rotating black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, Hugo R. C.

    2015-04-01

    Quantum field theory on rotating black hole spacetimes is plagued with technical difficulties. Here, we describe a general method to renormalize and compute the vacuum polarization of a quantum field in the Hartle-Hawking state on rotating black holes. We exemplify the technique with a massive scalar field on the warped AdS3 black hole solution to topologically massive gravity, a deformation of (2 + 1)-dimensional Einstein gravity. We use a "quasi-Euclidean" technique, which generalizes the Euclidean techniques used for static spacetimes, and we subtract the divergences by matching to a sum over mode solutions on Minkowski spacetime. This allows us, for the first time, to have a general method to compute the renormalized vacuum polarization, for a given quantum state, on a rotating black hole, such as the physically relevant case of the Kerr black hole in four dimensions.

  9. Renormalized Resonance Quartets in Dispersive Wave Turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Wonjung; Kovačič, Gregor; Cai, David

    2009-07-01

    Using the (1+1)D Majda-McLaughlin-Tabak model as an example, we present an extension of the wave turbulence (WT) theory to systems with strong nonlinearities. We demonstrate that nonlinear wave interactions renormalize the dynamics, leading to (i) a possible destruction of scaling structures in the bare wave systems and a drastic deformation of the resonant manifold even at weak nonlinearities, and (ii) creation of nonlinear resonance quartets in wave systems for which there would be no resonances as predicted by the linear dispersion relation. Finally, we derive an effective WT kinetic equation and show that our prediction of the renormalized Rayleigh-Jeans distribution is in excellent agreement with the simulation of the full wave system in equilibrium.

  10. Renormalization of gauge theories without cohomology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anselmi, Damiano

    2013-07-01

    We investigate the renormalization of gauge theories without assuming cohomological properties. We define a renormalization algorithm that preserves the Batalin-Vilkovisky master equation at each step and automatically extends the classical action till it contains sufficiently many independent parameters to reabsorb all divergences into parameter-redefinitions and canonical transformations. The construction is then generalized to the master functional and the field-covariant proper formalism for gauge theories. Our results hold in all manifestly anomaly-free gauge theories, power-counting renormalizable or not. The extension algorithm allows us to solve a quadratic problem, such as finding a sufficiently general solution of the master equation, even when it is not possible to reduce it to a linear (cohomological) problem.

  11. Epidemiological characteristics of human and animal rabies in Azerbaijan.

    PubMed

    Zeynalova, S; Shikhiyev, M; Aliyeva, T; Ismayilova, R; Wise, E; Abdullayev, R; Asadov, K; Rustamova, S; Quliyev, F; Whatmore, A M; Marshall, E S; Fooks, A R; Horton, D L

    2015-03-01

    The Caucasus is a region of geopolitical importance, in the gateway between Europe and Asia. This geographical location makes the region equally important in the epidemiology and control of transboundary infectious diseases such as rabies. Azerbaijan is the largest country in the Caucasus, and although rabies is notifiable and considered endemic, there is little information on the burden of human and animal rabies. Here, we describe a cross-disciplinary international collaboration aimed at improving rabies control in Azerbaijan. Partial nucleoprotein gene sequences were obtained from animal rabies cases for comparison with those from surrounding areas. Reported human and animal rabies cases between 2000 and 2010 were also reviewed and analysed by region and year. Comparison of rabies virus strains circulating in Azerbaijan demonstrates more than one lineage of rabies virus circulating concurrently in Azerbaijan and illustrates the need for further sample collection and characterization. Officially reported rabies data showed an increase in human and animal rabies cases, and an increase in animal bites requiring provision of post-exposure prophylaxis, since 2006. This is despite apparently consistent levels of dog vaccination and culling of stray dogs. PMID:24845953

  12. Human Rabies - Wyoming and Utah, 2015.

    PubMed

    Harrist, Alexia; Styczynski, Ashley; Wynn, DonRaphael; Ansari, Safdar; Hopkin, Justin; Rosado-Santos, Harry; Baker, JoDee; Nakashima, Allyn; Atkinson, Annette; Spencer, Melanie; Dean, Debbie; Teachout, Leslie; Mayer, Jeanmarie; Condori, Rene E; Orciari, Lillian; Wadhwa, Ashutosh; Ellison, James; Niezgoda, Michael; Petersen, Brett; Wallace, Ryan; Musgrave, Karl

    2016-01-01

    In September 2015, a Wyoming woman was admitted to a local hospital with a 5-day history of progressive weakness, ataxia, dysarthria, and dysphagia. Because of respiratory failure, she was transferred to a referral hospital in Utah, where she developed progressive encephalitis. On day 8 of hospitalization, the patient's family told clinicians they recalled that, 1 month before admission, the woman had found a bat on her neck upon waking, but had not sought medical care. The patient's husband subsequently had contacted county invasive species authorities about the incident, but he was not advised to seek health care for evaluation of his wife's risk for rabies. On October 2, CDC confirmed the patient was infected with a rabies virus variant that was enzootic to the silver-haired bat (Lasionycteris noctivagans). The patient died on October 3. Public understanding of rabies risk from bat contact needs to be improved; cooperation among public health and other agencies can aid in referring persons with possible bat exposure for assessment of rabies risk. PMID:27253630

  13. Renormalization Group in the Standard Model

    SciTech Connect

    Kielanowski, P.; Juarez W, S. R.

    2007-11-27

    We discuss two applications of the renormalization group method in the Standard Model. In the first one we present some theorems about the running of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix and show that the evolution depends on one function of energy only. In the second one we discuss the properties of the running of the Higgs potential and derive the limits for the Higgs mass.

  14. Entanglement renormalization and two dimensional string theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molina-Vilaplana, J.

    2016-04-01

    The entanglement renormalization flow of a (1 + 1) free boson is formulated as a path integral over some auxiliary scalar fields. The resulting effective theory for these fields amounts to the dilaton term of non-critical string theory in two spacetime dimensions. A connection between the scalar fields in the two theories is provided, allowing to acquire novel insights into how a theory of gravity emerges from the entanglement structure of another one without gravity.

  15. Renormalization group for non-relativistic fermions.

    PubMed

    Shankar, R

    2011-07-13

    A brief introduction is given to the renormalization group for non-relativistic fermions at finite density. It is shown that Landau's theory of the Fermi liquid arises as a fixed point (with the Landau parameters as marginal couplings) and its instabilities as relevant perturbations. Applications to related areas, nuclear matter, quark matter and quantum dots, are briefly discussed. The focus will be on explaining the main ideas to people in related fields, rather than addressing the experts. PMID:21646269

  16. Holographic entanglement renormalization of topological insulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Xueda; Cho, Gil Young; Lopes, Pedro L. S.; Gu, Yingfei; Qi, Xiao-Liang; Ryu, Shinsei

    2016-08-01

    We study the real-space entanglement renormalization group flows of topological band insulators in (2+1) dimensions by using the continuum multiscale entanglement renormalization ansatz (cMERA). Given the ground state of a Chern insulator, we construct and study its cMERA by paying attention, in particular, to how the bulk holographic geometry and the Berry curvature depend on the topological properties of the ground state. It is found that each state defined at different energy scale of cMERA carries a nonzero Berry flux, which is emanated from the UV layer of cMERA, and flows towards the IR. Hence, a topologically nontrivial UV state flows under the renormalization group to an IR state, which is also topologically nontrivial. On the other hand, we found that there is an obstruction to construct the exact ground state of a topological insulator with a topologically trivial IR state. That is, if we try to construct a cMERA for the ground state of a Chern insulator by taking a topologically trivial IR state, the resulting cMERA does not faithfully reproduce the exact ground state at all length scales.

  17. The renormalization group via statistical inference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bény, Cédric; Osborne, Tobias J.

    2015-08-01

    In physics, one attempts to infer the rules governing a system given only the results of imperfect measurements. Hence, microscopic theories may be effectively indistinguishable experimentally. We develop an operationally motivated procedure to identify the corresponding equivalence classes of states, and argue that the renormalization group (RG) arises from the inherent ambiguities associated with the classes: one encounters flow parameters as, e.g., a regulator, a scale, or a measure of precision, which specify representatives in a given equivalence class. This provides a unifying framework and reveals the role played by information in renormalization. We validate this idea by showing that it justifies the use of low-momenta n-point functions as statistically relevant observables around a Gaussian hypothesis. These results enable the calculation of distinguishability in quantum field theory. Our methods also provide a way to extend renormalization techniques to effective models which are not based on the usual quantum-field formalism, and elucidates the relationships between various type of RG.

  18. A shape dynamical approach to holographic renormalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomes, Henrique; Gryb, Sean; Koslowski, Tim; Mercati, Flavio; Smolin, Lee

    2015-01-01

    We provide a bottom-up argument to derive some known results from holographic renormalization using the classical bulk-bulk equivalence of General Relativity and Shape Dynamics, a theory with spatial conformal (Weyl) invariance. The purpose of this paper is twofold: (1) to advertise the simple classical mechanism, trading off gauge symmetries, that underlies the bulk-bulk equivalence of General Relativity and Shape Dynamics to readers interested in dualities of the type of AdS/conformal field theory (CFT); and (2) to highlight that this mechanism can be used to explain certain results of holographic renormalization, providing an alternative to the AdS/CFT conjecture for these cases. To make contact with the usual semiclassical AdS/CFT correspondence, we provide, in addition, a heuristic argument that makes it plausible that the classical equivalence between General Relativity and Shape Dynamics turns into a duality between radial evolution in gravity and the renormalization group flow of a CFT. We believe that Shape Dynamics provides a new perspective on gravity by giving conformal structure a primary role within the theory. It is hoped that this work provides the first steps toward understanding what this new perspective may be able to teach us about holographic dualities.

  19. The Physical Renormalization of Quantum Field Theories

    SciTech Connect

    Binger, Michael William.; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SLAC

    2007-02-20

    The profound revolutions in particle physics likely to emerge from current and future experiments motivates an improved understanding of the precise predictions of the Standard Model and new physics models. Higher order predictions in quantum field theories inevitably requires the renormalization procedure, which makes sensible predictions out of the naively divergent results of perturbation theory. Thus, a robust understanding of renormalization is crucial for identifying and interpreting the possible discovery of new physics. The results of this thesis represent a broad set of investigations in to the nature of renormalization. The author begins by motivating a more physical approach to renormalization based on gauge-invariant Green's functions. The resulting effective charges are first applied to gauge coupling unification. This approach provides an elegant formalism for understanding all threshold corrections, and the gauge couplings unify in a more physical manner compared to the usual methods. Next, the gauge-invariant three-gluon vertex is studied in detail, revealing an interesting and rich structure. The effective coupling for the three-gluon vertex, {alpha}(k{sub 1}{sup 2}, k{sub 2}{sup 2}, k{sub 3}{sup 2}), depends on three momentum scales and gives rise to an effective scale Q{sub eff}{sup 2}(k{sub 1}{sup 2}, k{sub 2}{sup 2}, k{sub 3}{sup 2}) which governs the (sometimes surprising) behavior of the vertex. The effects of nonzero internal masses are important and have a complicated threshold and pseudo-threshold structure. The pinch-technique effective charge is also calculated to two-loops and several applications are discussed. The Higgs boson mass in Split Supersymmetry is calculated to two-loops, including all one-loop threshold effects, leading to a downward shift in the Higgs mass of a few GeV. Finally, the author discusses some ideas regarding the overall structure of perturbation theory. This thesis lays the foundation for a comprehensive multi

  20. Salivary excretion of rabies virus by healthy vampire bats.

    PubMed

    Aguilar-Setien, A; Loza-Rubio, E; Salas-Rojas, M; Brisseau, N; Cliquet, F; Pastoret, P P; Rojas-Dotor, S; Tesoro, E; Kretschmer, R

    2005-06-01

    Salivary excretion of rabies virus was evaluated in 14 adult vampire bats (Desmodus rotundus) intramuscularly injected with a large dose (10(6) MICLD50) of vampire rabies virus variant CASS88. Saliva samples were obtained from surviving bats every other day for 30 days, then weekly for 2 months, and finally 1 and 2 years later. Rabies virus was isolated in murine neuroblastoma cells and in randomly selected cases by PCR. Rabies virus was not detected in the saliva of any of the 11 animals that succumbed (somewhat early) to rabies challenge, nor in the control bats. In contrast, virus was detected early, and only once (days 6, 6 and 21) in each of the three animals that survived rabies challenge and remained healthy for at least 2 years after challenge. At that time even vigorous dexamethasone and cyclosporine administration failed to provoke further viral excretion. PMID:15966107

  1. Salivary excretion of rabies virus by healthy vampire bats.

    PubMed Central

    Aguilar-Setien, A.; Loza-Rubio, E.; Salas-Rojas, M.; Brisseau, N.; Cliquet, F.; Pastoret, P. P.; Rojas-Dotor, S.; Tesoro, E.; Kretschmer, R.

    2005-01-01

    Salivary excretion of rabies virus was evaluated in 14 adult vampire bats (Desmodus rotundus) intramuscularly injected with a large dose (10(6) MICLD50) of vampire rabies virus variant CASS88. Saliva samples were obtained from surviving bats every other day for 30 days, then weekly for 2 months, and finally 1 and 2 years later. Rabies virus was isolated in murine neuroblastoma cells and in randomly selected cases by PCR. Rabies virus was not detected in the saliva of any of the 11 animals that succumbed (somewhat early) to rabies challenge, nor in the control bats. In contrast, virus was detected early, and only once (days 6, 6 and 21) in each of the three animals that survived rabies challenge and remained healthy for at least 2 years after challenge. At that time even vigorous dexamethasone and cyclosporine administration failed to provoke further viral excretion. PMID:15966107

  2. Therapeutic immune clearance of rabies virus from the CNS

    PubMed Central

    Hooper, D Craig; Roy, Anirban; Kean, Rhonda B; Phares, Timothy W; Barkhouse, Darryll A

    2011-01-01

    The long-held concept that rabies infection is lethal in humans once the causative rabies virus has reached the CNS has been called into question by the recent survival of a number of patients with clinical rabies. Studies in animal models provide insight into why survival from a rabies virus infection that has spread to the CNS is possible and the immune mechanisms involved. In the CNS, both innate mechanisms capable of inhibiting virus replication and the activity of infiltrating rabies virus-specific T and B cells with the capacity to clear the virus are required. Deficiencies in the induction of either aspect of rabies immunity can lead to lethal consequences but may be overcome by novel approaches to active and passive immunization. PMID:21686076

  3. Human rabies in Hong Kong: a case review.

    PubMed

    Wong, T W; Chan, P K; Fung, K P

    1987-10-01

    Five human rabies cases were reported in Hong Kong between 1980 and 1984. A review of their clinical data showed only 2 had a definite history of dog bite, while 3 were residents in the infected area. The human outbreak concurred with the epizootic of canine rabies. However, only two cases were diagnosed ante-mortem. Two cases were not even suspected as rabies until proven by post mortem pathological examination. Three of five cases presented as non-specific encephalitis. All the patients died, despite the administration of specific anti-rabies treatment in two cases. Close liaison between the clinician, epidemiologist and pathologist is essential in the management of suspected rabies. Though rabies control is the primary responsibility of the epidemiologist, surveillance data especially in respect of the occurrence of epizootics and human outbreaks as well as the area of infection should be useful to the clinician in patient management. PMID:3446009

  4. Regulatory systems for prevention and control of rabies, Japan.

    PubMed

    Takahashi-Omoe, Hiromi; Omoe, Katsuhiko; Okabe, Nobuhiko

    2008-09-01

    Japan is one of the few rabies-free countries. Although 3 imported cases of human rabies were seen in 1970 and 2006, no other cases have been reported for approximately 50 years. The elimination of rabies in Japan is attributed to not only its geographic isolation but also to effective prevention and control measures, such as registration and vaccination of domestic dogs, required quarantine of susceptible imported animals, and national plans of action based on scientific research. Countermeasures against rabies have been upgraded; an improved management system for domestic dogs under the amended Enforcement Regulations of the Rabies Prevention Law has been in effect since April 2007. The latest regulatory systems for preventing and controlling rabies provide an effective model for elimination of the disease worldwide. PMID:18760002

  5. A spatial model to forecast raccoon rabies emergence.

    PubMed

    Recuenco, Sergio; Blanton, Jesse D; Rupprecht, Charles E

    2012-02-01

    Although raccoons are widely distributed throughout North America, the raccoon rabies virus variant is enzootic only in the eastern United States, based on current surveillance data. This variant of rabies virus is now responsible for >60% of all cases of animal rabies reported in the United States each year. Ongoing national efforts via an oral rabies vaccination (ORV) program are aimed at preventing the spread of raccoon rabies. However, from an epidemiologic perspective, the relative susceptibility of naïve geographic localities, adjacent to defined enzootic areas, to support an outbreak, is unknown. In the current study, we tested the ability of a spatial risk model to forecast raccoon rabies spread in presumably rabies-free and enzootic areas. Demographic, environmental, and geographical features of three adjacent states (Ohio, West Virginia, and Pennsylvania), which include distinct raccoon rabies free, as well as enzootic areas, were modeled by using a Poisson Regression Model, which had been developed from previous studies of enzootic raccoon rabies in New York State. We estimated susceptibility to raccoon rabies emergence at the census tract level and compared the results with historical surveillance data. Approximately 70% of the disease-free region had moderate to very high susceptibility, compared with 23% in the enzootic region. Areas of high susceptibility for raccoon rabies lie west of current ORV intervention areas, especially in southern Ohio and western West Virginia. Predicted high susceptibility areas matched historical surveillance data. We discuss model implications to the spatial dynamics and spread of raccoon rabies, and its application for designing more efficient disease control interventions. PMID:21995266

  6. Renormalizing Operator-Stable Lagrangian Velocities for Microbial Dynamics Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cushman, J. H.; Park, M.

    2008-05-01

    In previous works we've developed upscaling methodologies for stable Levy Lagrangian velocities in fractal media. The renormalization tools were generalized central limit theorems which are equivalent to a renormalization group approach. Here we extend these ides to operator-stable Lagrangian velocities and apply the results to microbial dynamics in multi-scale geologic formations. Renormalized Fokker-Planck equations are presented at each scale.

  7. Sylvatic rabies and the perception of vampire bat activity in communities in the Ecuadorian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Romero-Sandoval, Natalia; Escobar, Natalia; Utzet, Mireia; Feijoo-Cid, Maria; Martin, Miguel

    2014-03-01

    An outbreak of sylvatic rabies was reported in indigenous communities located in the Ecuadorian Amazon in November 2011. The objective of this study was to analyze family dwelling characteristics and other sociodemographic factors associated with the perception of an increase in hematophagous bat bites in humans and domestic animals to assist the implementation of intervention policies in the region. A total of 381 households from communities covered by the outbreak response activities were surveyed. Despite being associated with poorer dwelling conditions, the possession of domestic animals is associated with the perception of an increase in bat bites among animals. Better dwelling conditions, use of protective measures, access to electricity, and no domestic animals are variables associated with the perception of a rise in attacks on humans. The analysis of perceptions of bite frequency is fundamental to improve the effectiveness of vaccination programs and strategies to promote the adoption of preventive measures against rabies among the population. PMID:24714956

  8. Rabies virus infects mouse and human lymphocytes and induces apoptosis.

    PubMed Central

    Thoulouze, M I; Lafage, M; Montano-Hirose, J A; Lafon, M

    1997-01-01

    Attenuated and highly neurovirulent rabies virus strains have distinct cellular tropisms. Highly neurovirulent strains such as the challenge virus standard (CVS) are highly neurotropic, whereas the attenuated strain ERA also infects nonneuronal cells. We report that both rabies virus strains infect activated murine lymphocytes and the human lymphoblastoid Jurkat T-cell line in vitro. The lymphocytes are more permissive to the attenuated ERA rabies virus strain than to the CVS strain in both cases. We also report that in contrast to that of the CVS strain, ERA viral replication induces apoptosis of infected Jurkat T cells, and cell death is concomitant with viral glycoprotein expression, suggesting that this protein has a role in the induction of apoptosis. Our data indicate that (i) rabies virus infects lymphocytes, (ii) lymphocyte infection with the attenuated rabies virus strain causes apoptosis, and (iii) apoptosis does not hinder rabies virus production. In contrast to CVS, ERA rabies virus and other attenuated rabies virus vaccines stimulate a strong immune response and are efficient live vaccines. The paradoxical finding that a rabies virus triggers a strong immune response despite the fact that it infects lymphocytes and induces apoptosis is discussed in terms of the function of apoptosis in the immune response. PMID:9311815

  9. A molecular epidemiological study of rabies in Cuba.

    PubMed

    Nadin-Davis, S A; Torres, G; Ribas, M De Los Angeles; Guzman, M; De La Paz, R Cruz; Morales, M; Wandeler, A I

    2006-12-01

    To investigate the emergence and current situation of terrestrial rabies in Cuba, a collection of rabies virus specimens was employed for genetic characterization. These data supported the monophyletic nature of all terrestrial rabies viruses presently circulating in Cuba but additionally delineated several distinct variants exhibiting limited spatial distribution which may reflect the history of rabies spread on the island. The strain of rabies currently circulating in Cuba, which emerged on the island in the early 20th century, has very close evolutionary ties to the Mexican dog type and is a member of the cosmopolitan lineage widely distributed during the colonial period. The Cuban rabies viruses, which circulate predominantly within the mongoose population, are phylogenetically distant from viruses circulating in mongooses in other parts of the world. These studies illustrate, at a global level, the adaptation of multiple strains of rabies to mongoose species which should be regarded as important wildlife hosts for rabies re-emergence. Given the recent emergence of human cases due to bat contact in Cuba, this study also included a single insectivorous bat specimen which was found to most closely resemble the rabies viruses known to circulate in Mexican vampire bats. PMID:16740188

  10. Virology, Immunology and Pathology of Human Rabies During Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Caicedo, Yolanda; Paez, Andres; Kuzmin, Ivan; Niezgoda, Michael; Orciari, Lillian A.; Yager, Pamela A.; Recuenco, Sergio; Franka, Richard; Velasco-Villa, Andres; Willoughby, Rodney E.

    2016-01-01

    Background Rabies is an acute fatal encephalitis caused by all members of the Lyssavirus genus. The first human rabies survivor without benefit of prior vaccination was reported from Milwaukee in 2005. We report a second unvaccinated patient who showed early recovery from rabies and then died accidentally during convalescence, providing an unparalleled opportunity to examine the histopathology as well as immune and virological correlates of early recovery from human rabies. Methods Case report, rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, indirect and direct fluorescent antibody assays, reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, phylogenetic reconstruction, isolation in tissue culture, pathology and immunohistochemistry. Results The 9 year old died 76 days after presenting with rabies of vampire bat phylogeny transmitted by cat bite. Antibody response in serum and cerebrospinal fluid was robust and associated with severe cerebral edema. No rabies virus was cultured at autopsy. Rabies virus antigen was atypical in size and distribution. Rabies virus genome was present in neocortex but absent in brainstem. Conclusions Clinical recovery was associated with detection of neutralizing antibody and clearance of infectious rabies virus in the central nervous system by 76 days but not clearance of detectable viral subcomponents such as nucleoprotein antigen or RNA in brain. PMID:25405805

  11. An epizootic of rabies in Maryland, 1982-84.

    PubMed Central

    Beck, A M; Felser, S R; Glickman, L T

    1987-01-01

    The number of reported rabid raccoons increased by 617 per cent in Maryland from 1982 to 1984. The per cent of raccoons that tested positive for rabies increased from 7.9 per cent in 1982 to 57 per cent in 1984. During this period of time, more than 74 per cent of human exposures to rabid animals involved raccoons. Reports of animal bites of humans, however, showed only a 2.6 per cent increase. The raccoon rabies epizootic has had significant public health impact in terms of human rabies postexposure prophylaxis and rabies control programs. PMID:3789236

  12. Current and future approaches to the therapy of human rabies.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Alan C

    2013-07-01

    Human rabies has traditionally been considered a uniformly fatal disease. However, recent decades have seen several instances in which individuals have developed clinical signs of rabies, but survived, usually with permanent neurologic sequelae. Most of these patients had received prophylactic rabies vaccine before the onset of illness. The best outcomes have been seen in patients infected with bat viruses, which appear to be less virulent for humans than strains associated with other rabies vectors. In 2003, an article by rabies experts suggested that survival might be improved through a combination of vaccine, anti-rabies immunoglobulin, antiviral drugs and the anesthetic ketamine, which had shown benefit in an animal model. One year later, a girl in Milwaukee who developed rabies after bat exposure was treated with some of these measures, plus a drug-induced (therapeutic) coma, and survived her illness with mild neurologic sequelae. Although the positive outcome in this case has been attributed to the treatment regimen, it more likely reflects the patient's own brisk immune response, as anti-rabies virus antibodies were detected at the time of hospital admission, even though she had not been vaccinated. This conclusion is supported by the failure of the "Milwaukee Protocol" to prevent death in numerous subsequent cases. Use of this protocol should therefore be discontinued. Future research should focus on the use of animal models to improve understanding of the pathogenesis of rabies and for the development of new therapeutic approaches. PMID:23369672

  13. Simple Approach to Renormalize the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa Matrix

    SciTech Connect

    Kniehl, Bernd A.; Sirlin, Alberto

    2006-12-01

    We present an on-shell scheme to renormalize the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) matrix. It is based on a novel procedure to separate the external-leg mixing corrections into gauge-independent self-mass and gauge-dependent wave function renormalization contributions, and to implement the on-shell renormalization of the former with nondiagonal mass counterterm matrices. Diagonalization of the complete mass matrix leads to an explicit CKM counterterm matrix, which automatically satisfies all the following important properties: it is gauge independent, preserves unitarity, and leads to renormalized amplitudes that are nonsingular in the limit in which any two fermions become mass degenerate.

  14. DNA-based immunisation against rabies and rabies-related viruses: towards multivalent vaccines.

    PubMed

    Perrin, P; Jacob, Y; Desmézières, E; Tordo, N

    2000-01-01

    Prototypes of multivalent DNA vaccines against lyssaviruses (LV: rabies and rabies-related viruses) and other viruses were developed using chimaeric LV glycoprotein (cLVG) DNA and cLVG DNA carrying foreign epitopes. cLVG is composed of the N-terminal half of an LV genotype (GT) containing antigenic site II, the C-terminal half of GT containing antigenic site III, as well as the transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains of the same or a different GT. Both antigenic sites induced virus neutralizing antibodies (VNAb). Foreign B and T cell epitopes inserted between the two halves of cLVG correspond to the B cell C3 neutralisation epitope of poliovirus VP1 protein and to the H2d CMH I restricted T cell epitope of the nucleoprotein of the lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV). In mice and dogs homogenous rabies virus G DNA induced protection against wild-type rabies virus whereas cLVG protected against lyssaviruses. cLVG DNA carrying foreign epitopes induced VNAb against LV and poliovirus and protection against LCMV. The results obtained clearly demonstrate the potential usefulness of cLVG for the development of multivalent vaccines against viral diseases, including rabies and zoonoses. PMID:11713814

  15. Rabies in a Thai child treated with the eight-site post-exposure regimen without rabies immune globulin.

    PubMed

    Sriaroon, Chakrapol; Daviratanasilpa, Svastijayi; Sansomranjai, Panuwong; Khawplod, Pakamatz; Hemachudha, Thiravat; Khamoltham, Thavatchai; Wilde, Henry

    2003-09-01

    We report the case of a 7-year-old Thai girl that was bitten by a dog. She received prompt wound care followed by eight-site intradermal post-exposure rabies schedule using purified chick embryo vaccine. Treatment followed WHO recommendations for desperate situations where no rabies immune globulin (RIG) is available. The patient died 15 days later with classical symptoms and signs of encephalitic rabies. PMID:12922076

  16. Observations of sylvatic rabies in Northern Argentina during outbreaks of paralytic cattle rabies transmitted by vampire bats (Desmodus rotundus).

    PubMed

    Delpietro, H A; Lord, R D; Russo, R G; Gury-Dhomen, F

    2009-10-01

    During rabies outbreaks in cattle (paralytic rabies) in Argentina associated with the common vampire bat Desmodus rotundus, rabies was observed in marsh deer (Blastocerus dichotomus), red brocket deer (Mazama americana), capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris), savanna fox (Cerdocyon thous), and great fruit-eating bat (Artibeus lituratus). Rabies could constitute a threat to the survival of marsh deer in places where they live in small groups, and infection of both great fruit-eating bats and savanna fox represent a risk for humans; both species exhibit aggressiveness and fury when infected. PMID:19901391

  17. Extreme-value distributions and renormalization group.

    PubMed

    Calvo, Iván; Cuchí, Juan C; Esteve, J G; Falceto, Fernando

    2012-10-01

    In the classical theorems of extreme value theory the limits of suitably rescaled maxima of sequences of independent, identically distributed random variables are studied. The vast majority of the literature on the subject deals with affine normalization. We argue that more general normalizations are natural from a mathematical and physical point of view and work them out. The problem is approached using the language of renormalization-group transformations in the space of probability densities. The limit distributions are fixed points of the transformation and the study of its differential around them allows a local analysis of the domains of attraction and the computation of finite-size corrections. PMID:23214531

  18. Rabies surveillance in the United States during 2004.

    PubMed

    Krebs, John W; Mandel, Eric J; Swerdlow, David L; Rupprecht, Charles E

    2005-12-15

    During 2004, 49 states and Puerto Rico reported 6,836 cases of rabies in nonhuman animals and 8 cases in human beings to the CDC, representing a 4.6% decrease from the 7,170 cases in nonhuman animals and 3 cases in human beings reported in 2003. Approximately 92% of the cases were in wildlife, and 8% were in domestic animals (compared with 91% and 9%, respectively, in 2003). Relative contributions by the major animal groups were as follows: 2,564 raccoons (37.5%), 1,856 skunks (27.1%), 1,361 bats (19.9%), 389 foxes (5.7%), 281 cats (4.1%), 115 cattle (1.7%), and 94 dogs (1.4%). Compared with the numbers of reported cases in 2003, cases in 2004 decreased among all groups, except bats, cattle, human beings, and "other domestics" (1 llama). Decreases in numbers of rabid raccoons during 2004 were reported by 12 of the 20 eastern states in which raccoon rabies was enzootic. In the East, Massachusetts reported the first cases of raccoon rabies detected beyond the Cape Cod oral rabies vaccine barrier. Along the western edge of the raccoon rabies epizootic (Ohio in the north and Tennessee in the south), cases of rabies were reported from unexpected new foci beyond oral rabies vaccine zones. On a national level, the number of rabies cases in skunks during 2004 decreased by 12.1% from the number reported in 2003. Once again, Texas reported the greatest number (n = 534) of rabid skunks and the greatest overall state total of rabies cases (913). Texas reported only 1 case of rabies in a dog that was infected with the dog/coyote rabies virus variant and only 22 cases associated with theTexas gray fox rabies virus variant (compared with 61 cases in 2003). The total number of cases of rabies reported nationally in foxes and raccoons declined 14.7% and 2.7%, respectively, during 2004. The 1,361 cases of rabies reported in bats during 2004 represented a 12.3% increase over the previous year's total of 1,212 cases for this group of mammals. Cases of rabies reported in cats, dogs

  19. Effective postexposure treatment of rabies-infected sheep with rabies immune globulin and vaccine.

    PubMed

    Blancou, J; Baltazar, R S; Molli, I; Stoltz, J F

    1991-06-01

    An experiment to assess the efficiency of the treatment recommended for humans after exposure to rabies was conducted in 68 sheep experimentally infected with a fox rabies virus. The infected sheep were divided into three groups and were given either a cell-culture vaccine (on the day of infection, then at day 3, 7, 14), human rabies immunoglobulin (26 IU kg-1 on the day of infection) or a combination of the vaccine immunoglobulin. The latter combination was the only treatment found to be effective in 100% of the animals, as 71% of the controls died. This model appears to be useful in assessing new regimens of postexposure treatment for humans as well as in the reconsideration of its feasibility, or validity, in animals. PMID:1887675

  20. [Evolution of TCM's knowledge on rabies].

    PubMed

    Li, Yong-Chen; Peng, Sheng-Quan

    2007-01-01

    The etiology of rabies is caused by the bite of a mad dog infected by non-seasonal pathogen with intoxicated viscerae, and its pathogenesis being heat and blood stasis inside the body. The evolution of the knowledge of rabies experienced a process of from the recognition of biting of a mad dog in the Sui-Tang Dynasties to the systematic manifestations of the central nervous system in the Ming-Qing Dynasties. The recognition in its diagnosis, therapeutic effects, and prognosis is in line with the diagnostic knowledge carried in modern Textbook of Infectious Diseases. It pays attention to the cleaning of the trauma, experiencing a process from sucking by the mouth, washing with water to washing with raw glycyrrhiza and urine, while the development of therapy evolved from a single-recipe-special-drug level to the patent prescription level. PMID:17580748

  1. Purified Rabies Vaccine (Suckling Rat Brain Origin)

    PubMed Central

    Lavender, J. F.

    1970-01-01

    A 10% suckling rat brain rabies vaccine free from encephalitogenic activity was prepared and inactivated with 1:8,000 beta-propiolactone (BPL), or ultraviolet light, or a combination of ultraviolet light and BPL, or 1% phenol. Potency was excellent in all samples, with the exception of the phenolized product which was marginal. A purified suckling rat brain (SRB) vaccine prepared by zonal centrifugation and inactivated with 1:8,000 BPL contained about 0.01 the amount of protein nitrogen of the unpurified 10% SRB vaccine. This purified product passed the National Institutes of Health potency test for rabies vaccine after administration of a quantity equivalent to a standard 10% brain suspension. PMID:5456012

  2. Photonic realization of the quantum Rabi model.

    PubMed

    Crespi, A; Longhi, S; Osellame, R

    2012-04-20

    We realize a photonic analog simulator of the quantum Rabi model, based on light transport in femtosecond-laser-written waveguide superlattices, which provides an experimentally accessible test bed to explore the physics of light-matter interaction in the deep strong coupling regime. Our optical setting enables us to visualize dynamical regimes not yet accessible in cavity or circuit quantum electrodynamics, such as the bouncing of photon number wave packets in parity chains of Hilbert space. PMID:22680717

  3. Clinical case of rabies in Bulgaria.

    PubMed

    Nenova, M; Gantcheva, T

    2001-01-01

    The history of a six-year-old girl, hospitalised in the Clinic of Infectious Diseases of the Medical University of Varna with diagnosed meningoencephalitis, obs. rabies, and epidemiological data of dog bite without adequate prophylaxis is presented. The clinical course was unusual: the symptoms of aero- and hydrophobia were not clearly demonstrated, choreic hyperkynesias, torsion seizures and high initial pleocytosis in cerebrospinal fluid were present. The pathological picture is described. Ethiological diagnosis was proven by immunofluorescence test of brain tissue. PMID:12078128

  4. Protection of mice from rabies by intranasal immunization with inactivated rabies virus.

    PubMed

    Yoneda, Atsushi; Tuchiya, Kotaro; Takashima, Yasuhiro; Arakawa, Takeshi; Tsuji, Naotoshi; Hayashi, Yoshihiro; Matsumoto, Yasunobu

    2008-01-01

    The mucosal immunization method is a needle-free alternative way of vaccination. This study evaluated the efficacy of mucosal immunization for rabies. Mice were intranasally administered five times with inactivated and concentrated rabies virus antigen (CRV) supplemented with or without cholera toxin (CT). The anti-rabies virus antibody titer of mice intranasally immunized with CRV plus CT (CRV/CT) was comparable to that of mice intraperitoneally immunized twice with the same amount of CRV. Virus neutralizing (VNA) titers of mice immunized intranasally with CRV/CT were slightly lower than those of intraperitoneally immunized mice. Both anti-rabies virus ELISA antibody and VNA titers of mice immunized with CRV without CT were significantly lower than those of mice immunized with CRV/CT. In mice intranasally immunized with CRV/CT, and intraperitoneally immunized mice, high levels of IgG(2a) antibody were detected, suggesting the activation of Th1-driven cellular immunity by the two ways of immunization. All immunized mice were challenged intracerebrally with a lethal dose of virulent rabies virus CVS strain. The survival rates of mice immunized with CRV/CT and CRV without CT were 67% and 17%, respectively, while the rate of intraperitoneally immunized mice was 100%. Antigen-specific whole IgG and IgG(2a), and VNA titers of survived mice were significantly higher than those of dead mice at the challenge day. These data suggest the possibility of intranasal immunization with inactivated antigen as a rabies vaccination strategy and the importance of a mucosal adjuvant such as CT. PMID:18256513

  5. Rabies vaccines: WHO position paper--recommendations.

    PubMed

    2010-10-18

    This article presents the WHO recommendations on the use of rabies vaccines excerpted from the recently published Rabies vaccines: WHO position paper. This document replaces the WHO position paper entitled Rabies vaccines WHO position paper published in the Weekly Epidemiological Record in December 2007. Footnotes to this paper provide a limited number of core references; their abstracts as well as a more comprehensive list of references may be found at http://www.who.int/immunization/documents/positionpapers/en/index.html. Grading tables which assess the quality of scientific evidence for key conclusions are also available through this link and are referenced in the position paper. In accordance with its mandate to provide guidance to Member States on health policy matters, WHO issues a series of regularly updated position papers on vaccines and combinations of vaccines against diseases that have an international public health impact. These papers are concerned primarily with the use of vaccines in large-scale immunization programmes; they summarize essential background information on diseases and vaccines, and conclude with WHO's current position on the use of vaccines in the global context. This updated paper reflects the recent recommendations of WHO's Strategic Advisory Group of Experts on immunization, or SAGE. PMID:20831913

  6. Current perspectives on rabies postexposure prophylaxis.

    PubMed

    Blaise, Agathe; Gautret, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Rabies is a zoonose affecting wild and domestic animals and transmitted to humans through bites or scratches, causing over 60,000 human deaths, annually. The disease results from the transmission of a neurotropic virus leading to invariably deadly encephalitis. The post-exposure prophylaxis consists of careful washing and disinfection of the wound, antibiotherapy and tetanus prophylaxis when needed. Furthermore, rabies vaccine and rabies immunoglobulin [RIG] administration should be applied according to the type of wound, and the animal involved, according to the WHO protocols that are regularly updated. Unfortunately it is sometimes difficult to obtain RIG in some countries due to their high cost, leading to suboptimal treatment and possible death. Also, observance can be weak, due to the number of repeated visits required with protocols [up to five visits over 28 days]. These limitations justify research on new vaccines which were not conclusive at the moment. New RIGs are under development, including a monoclonal antibody cocktail which is more promising in a near future. Finally, vaccination protocols are in the way of being shortened in given conditions. Further studies are needed to validate these new practices. PMID:25809623

  7. Mucosal adjuvants to improve wildlife rabies vaccination.

    PubMed

    Fry, Tricia; Van Dalen, Kaci; Hurley, Jerome; Nash, Paul

    2012-10-01

    RABORAL V-RG(®)a is a recombinant vaccine used in oral rabies vaccination (ORV) programs for wildlife in the United States. Vaccination rates for raccoons are substantially lower than vaccination rates for gray foxes and coyotes. Research suggests that the low viscosity of the oral vaccine may preclude animals from receiving an effective dose when biting into the vaccine bait delivery system. We evaluated the possibility of using two benign compounds, chitosan and N,N,N-trimethylated chitosan (TMC), to increase the viscosity of the vaccine and potentially act as adjuvants to improve the immune response in raccoons (Procyon lotor). Forty mildly sedated raccoons were orally vaccinated via needleless syringe with either RABORAL V-RG (n = 12), chitosan+RABORAL V-RG (n = 12), TMC+ RABORAL V-RG (n = 12), or no vaccine (n = 4), on day 0 and again on day 90. We collected sera every 2-4 wk for 4 mo and evaluated rabies virus-neutralizing antibodies (rVNA). Raccoons were considered responders if rVNA titers were ≥ 0.1 IU/mL. Eleven of 12 raccoons vaccinated with TMC+RABORAL V-RG responded after one dose of vaccine, as did eight of 12 vaccinated with RABORAL V-RG, and three of 12 vaccinated with chitosan+ RABORAL V-RG. Our results suggest that the inclusion of an adjuvant, such as TMC, could increase vaccine efficacy to aid in controlling rabies virus spread in wildlife reservoirs. PMID:23060506

  8. Rabi-Kounga field, Southern Gabon

    SciTech Connect

    Boeuf, M.G.A.

    1988-01-01

    The Rabi-Kounga field recently discovered by Shell onshore Gabon is located at 2/sup 0/S lat. in an area of central Africa covered by dense, uninhabited, primary rain forest, 140 km south of Port Gentil, the country's economic capital. The field lies mostly within the Sette Cama Block where Shell Gabon is operator on behalf of an association in which the partners are Shell, Gabon, Elf Gabon, and SNEA. As presently defined, the Rabi-Kounga field is 12 km long and 3-4 km wide, extending northward into the Dianongo Block operated by Elf Gabon for the same association. With an expectation of 1,300 million bbl(STOIP), it appears to be the largest oil accumulation discovered in Gabon. The hydrocarbons of the Rabi-Kounga accumulation are contained within the reservoir sands of the Gamba and Dentale Formations, which form part of a rift basin of Early Cretaceous age, the Dianongo basin. The cap rocks are late Aptian evaporitic deposits (Ezanga Formation). The salt deposits and their thin underlying clastics (Gamba Formation), which unconformably overlie the continental Dentale sequence, bear evidence of the first marine influence and reflect the phase of continental separation between Africa and South America. Post-salt sediments are fully marine, corresponding to a phase of sedimentary progradation. They are represented by carbonates and clastics that were deposited on a subsiding continental margin.

  9. Rabies vaccination at a virus-inoculated site as an alternative option to rabies immunoglobulin.

    PubMed

    Morimoto, Kinjiro; Khawplod, Pakamatz; Sato, Yuichiro; Virojanapirom, Phatthamon; Hemachudha, Thiravat

    2016-09-01

    Combined active and passive immunization has been established to be an optimal strategy for rabies post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP). Prompt administration of vaccine and rabies immunoglobulin (RIG) can reliably prevent the disease. However, RIG is unavailable and unaffordable in the majority of cases. On the basis of a model experiment using hamsters, we demonstrated that vaccine injection at the wound site in the same manner as administration of RIG provided protective efficacy that was not inferior to the current optimal PEP, a combination of vaccination and RIG. Further study is needed to determine whether it can replace the use of RIG. PMID:27270361

  10. Critical temperature and superfluid gap of the unitary Fermi gas from functional renormalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boettcher, Igor; Pawlowski, Jan M.; Wetterich, Christof

    2014-05-01

    We investigate the superfluid transition of the unitary Fermi gas by means of the functional renormalization group, aiming at quantitative precision. We extract Tc/μ=0.38(2) and Δ /μ=1.04(15) for the critical temperature and the superfluid gap at zero temperature, respectively, within a systematic improvement of the truncation for the effective average action. The key ingredient in comparison to previous approaches consists in the use of regulators which cut off both frequencies and momenta. We incorporate renormalization effects on both the bosonic and the fermionic propagators, include higher-order bosonic scattering processes, and investigate the regulator and specification parameter dependence for an error estimate. The ratio Δ /Tc=2.7(3) becomes less sensitive to the relative cutoff scale of bosons and fermions when improving the truncation. The techniques developed in this work are easily carried over to the cases of finite scattering length, lower dimensionality, and spin imbalance.

  11. Tensor networks and the numerical renormalization group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weichselbaum, Andreas

    2012-12-01

    The full-density-matrix numerical renormalization group has evolved as a systematic and transparent setting for the calculation of thermodynamical quantities at arbitrary temperatures within the numerical renormalization group (NRG) framework. It directly evaluates the relevant Lehmann representations based on the complete basis sets introduced by Anders and Schiller [Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.95.196801 95, 196801 (2005)]. In addition, specific attention is given to the possible feedback from low-energy physics to high energies by the explicit and careful construction of the full thermal density matrix, naturally generated over a distribution of energy shells. Specific examples are given in terms of spectral functions (fdmNRG), time-dependent NRG (tdmNRG), Fermi-golden-rule calculations (fgrNRG) as well as the calculation of plain thermodynamic expectation values. Furthermore, based on the very fact that, by its iterative nature, the NRG eigenstates are naturally described in terms of matrix product states, the language of tensor networks has proven enormously convenient in the description of the underlying algorithmic procedures. This paper therefore also provides a detailed introduction and discussion of the prototypical NRG calculations in terms of their corresponding tensor networks.

  12. Renormalization group analysis in nonrelativistic QCD for colored scalars

    SciTech Connect

    Hoang, Andre H.; Ruiz-Femenia, Pedro

    2006-01-01

    The velocity nonrelativistic QCD Lagrangian for colored heavy scalar fields in the fundamental representation of QCD and the renormalization group analysis of the corresponding operators are presented. The results are an important ingredient for renormalization group improved computations of scalar-antiscalar bound state energies and production rates at next-to-next-to-leading-logarithmic (NNLL) order.

  13. First Case of Human Rabies in Chile Caused by an Insectivorous Bat Virus Variant

    PubMed Central

    Favi, Myriam; Yung, Verónica; Chala, Evelyn; López, Luis R.

    2002-01-01

    The first human rabies case in Chile since 1972 occurred in March 1996 in a patient without history of known exposure. Antigenic and genetic characterization of the rabies isolate indicated that its reservoir was the insectivorous bat Tadarida brasiliensis. This is the first human rabies case caused by an insectivorous bat rabies virus variant reported in Latin America. PMID:11749754

  14. Complete genomic sequence of rabies virus from an ethiopian wolf.

    PubMed

    Marston, Denise A; Wise, Emma L; Ellis, Richard J; McElhinney, Lorraine M; Banyard, Ashley C; Johnson, Nicholas; Deressa, Asefa; Regassa, Fekede; de Lamballerie, Xavier; Fooks, Anthony R; Sillero-Zubiri, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    Ethiopian wolves are the rarest canid in the world, with only 500 found in the Ethiopian highlands. Rabies poses the most immediate threat to their survival, causing epizootic cycles of mass mortality. The complete genome sequence of a rabies virus (RABV) derived from an Ethiopian wolf during the most recent epizootic is reported here. PMID:25814597

  15. Genetic characterization of rabies field isolates from Venezuela.

    PubMed Central

    de Mattos, C A; de Mattos, C C; Smith, J S; Miller, E T; Papo, S; Utrera, A; Osburn, B I

    1996-01-01

    Twenty samples from cases of rabies in humans and domestic animals diagnosed in Venezuela between 1990 and 1994 and one sample from a vampire bat collected in 1976 were characterized by reactivity to monoclonal antibodies against the viral nucleoprotein and by patterns of nucleotide substitution in the nucleoprotein gene. Three antigenic variants were found: 1, 3, and 5. Antigenic variant 1 included all samples from dogs and humans infected by contact with rabid dogs. Unique substitutions permitted identification of two separate outbreaks of dog rabies in the Maracaibo Depression and Los Llanos region and in the Andean region of Venezuela. Samples from the vampire bat and two head of cattle were characterized as antigenic variant 3 and showed a nucleotide sequence homology of 96 to 98% to each other and to samples of vampire bat-associated rabies throughout Latin America. Ten of the remaining 12 samples were characterized as antigenic variant 5. Genetic studies indicated that 11 of these samples formed a highly homologous and distinctive group but were closely related to samples of vampire bat-associated rabies. The 12th sample of variant 5 (from a cat) showed only 78 to 80% genetic homology to samples of rabies associated with vampire bats. The application of antigenic and genetic typing to rabies surveillance in Latin America is essential to improve control programs. Recognition of the source of outbreaks of dog rabies and identification of wildlife species maintaining sylvatic cycles of rabies transmission permit better utilization of public health resources. PMID:8735118

  16. Complete Genome Sequences of Six South African Rabies Viruses.

    PubMed

    Sabeta, Claude; Phahladira, Baby; Marston, Denise A; Wise, Emma L; Ellis, Richard J; Fooks, Anthony R

    2015-01-01

    South African rabies viruses (RABVs) from dogs and jackals (canid viruses) are highly related and most likely originated from a single progenitor. RABV is the cause of most global human rabies cases. The complete genome sequences of 3 RABVs from South Africa and Zimbabwe are reported here. PMID:26430028

  17. Complete Genome Sequences of Six South African Rabies Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Phahladira, Baby; Marston, Denise A.; Wise, Emma L.; Ellis, Richard J.; Fooks, Anthony R.

    2015-01-01

    South African rabies viruses (RABVs) from dogs and jackals (canid viruses) are highly related and most likely originated from a single progenitor. RABV is the cause of most global human rabies cases. The complete genome sequences of 3 RABVs from South Africa and Zimbabwe are reported here. PMID:26430028

  18. Pivotal Role of Dogs in Rabies Transmission, China

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Xianchun; Luo, Ming; Zhang, Shuyi; Fooks, Anthony R.; Hu, Rongliang

    2005-01-01

    The number of dog-mediated rabies cases in China has increased exponentially; the number of human deaths has been high, primarily in poor, rural communities. We review the incidence of rabies in China based on data from 1950 and 2004, obtained mainly from epidemiologic bulletins published by the Chinese Ministry of Health. PMID:16485494

  19. Naturally acquired rabies in an armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus) in Texas.

    PubMed Central

    Leffingwell, L M; Neill, S U

    1989-01-01

    The first case of rabies in an armadillo is reported. The rabies fluorescent-antibody test and mouse inoculation procedure were used to substantiate the presence of the virus. The Centers for Disease Control authenticated our findings and was able to determine the source of infection by monoclonal antibody typing. PMID:2643619

  20. Molecular Characterization of Canine Rabies Virus, Mali, 2006–2013

    PubMed Central

    Traoré, Abdallah; Picard-Meyer, Evelyne; Mauti, Stephanie; Biarnais, Melanie; Balmer, Oliver; Samaké, Kassim; Kamissoko, Badian; Tembely, Saïdou; Sery, Amadou; Traoré, Abdel K.; Coulibaly, Amy P.; Robardet, Emmanuelle; Zinsstag, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    We genetically characterized 32 canine rabies viruses isolated in Mali during 2006–2013 and identified 3 subgroups that belonged to the Africa 2 lineage. We also detected subgroup F rabies virus. This information should be useful for development of mass vaccination campaigns for dogs and eventual large-scale control programs in this country. PMID:27089307

  1. Molecular Characterization of Canine Rabies Virus, Mali, 2006-2013.

    PubMed

    Traoré, Abdallah; Picard-Meyer, Evelyne; Mauti, Stephanie; Biarnais, Melanie; Balmer, Oliver; Samaké, Kassim; Kamissoko, Badian; Tembely, Saïdou; Sery, Amadou; Traoré, Abdel K; Coulibaly, Amy P; Robardet, Emmanuelle; Zinsstag, Jakob; Cliquet, Florence

    2016-05-01

    We genetically characterized 32 canine rabies viruses isolated in Mali during 2006-2013 and identified 3 subgroups that belonged to the Africa 2 lineage. We also detected subgroup F rabies virus. This information should be useful for development of mass vaccination campaigns for dogs and eventual large-scale control programs in this country. PMID:27089307

  2. To Rabi Hamiltonian through their Time Dependent Terms can be Reckons as Fractals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosary-Oyong, Se, Glory

    2016-03-01

    For light-matters interactions, ever replies by theLate HE. Mr. Prof M. Barmawi through Bose-Einstein condensates matter-waves ever retrieves [Boyce & DiPrima, 2015] instead of Richard Courant cq HE. Mr. Prof. Sudjoko Danusubroto's LKTM, Lustrum VI ITB, March 2, 1984. Follows ``Modified kernel to Quantum systems thorough Laplace inverse transformation'' whereas ``karyon'' in prokaryotes/eukaryotes meant as well as `kernel' , have been sought for `growth curve' & `potential of proton to other protons' the time dependent terms cos (ωt)exp[-iωot] whose integration y = sin ωt + c proves to be fractals h. 3 guided by Rabi Hamiltonian from Isidor Isaac Rabi,1944. Accompanying ``the Theory of Scale Relativity'' from Laurent Nottale/LUTH, the proofs of considerances whereas `time also are fractals', from Norways for Infra OMAN soughts a benchmark portfolio from Kjell Storvik, 2004: ``Socially Responsible Investment Strategies for the Norwegian Petroleum Fund'' whereas the Rabi frequency ? = 2 ɛ.deg/h can be relatively in comparisons expressed of capacitive [E.d/h]. Acknowledgment to HE. Mr. AUGUST PARENGKUAN if accepts 1995-2005 Invoicing & Fulfillments to ``KOMPAS'' cq the Prodi of Physics ITB.

  3. Quantum theory of Rabi sideband generation by forward four-wave mixing

    SciTech Connect

    Agarwal, G.S.; Boyd, R.W.

    1988-10-15

    The predictions of a quantum-mechanical theory of forward four-wave mixing in a homogeneously broadened system of two-level atoms are presented. In the limit of a very short interaction region, the predictions of this theory reproduce those of well-known theories for the spontaneous-emission spectrum of an atom in the presence of an intense laser field. More generally, the theory predicts how the emission spectrum is modified due to propagation effects for a medium of arbitrary length. For long propagation path lengths, the emitted radiation can be quite intense and has a spectrum that is strongly peaked at the Rabi sidebands of the incident laser frequency. The theory shows that Rabi sideband generation in the forward direction can be understood as parametric amplification of weak radiation emitted spontaneously at the Rabi sidebands. The quantum noise that initiates the four-wave-mixing process has contributions both from fluctuations in the incident vacuum radiation field and from fluctuations in the polarization of the atomic dipoles. Both contributions are important for the case of a radiatively broadened medium, although the material fluctuations make the dominant contribution for the case of a medium in which the broadening is largely collisional. Under certain conditions large amounts of squeezing in the radiated field are predicted.

  4. The Activity of Rabies Vaccines against Genetic Clusters of Rabies Virus Circulating at the Territory of Ukraine

    PubMed Central

    Ivanov, Mykola; Polupan, Ivan; Deryabin, Oleg

    2013-01-01

    Objective To identify the presence of genetic clusters of rabies virus at the territory of Ukraine and to determine the degree of activity of rabies vaccines against these genetic clusters. Introduction To develop and implement an effective program of rabies eradication in Ukraine in 2008 was founded the unique collection of samples of pathological materials confirmed as positive in rabies at the regional veterinary laboratories of Ukraine. The collection is constantly updated and to present moment it includes 1389 samples from all regions of Ukraine, selected from 17 animal species and humans. Methods Identification of the rabies virus in samples of pathological material for their further selection was carried out using the test developed by us which based on RT-PCR with primers complementary to the conservative fragments of the 5’-end of nucleoprotein gene of rabies virus. For the study of the street rabies virus isolates from the collection we use RT-PCR with the primers pair (509, 304) flanking the variable 3’-end part of nucleoprotein gene of the reference strain of rabies virus CVS (fragment in 377 bp). Studies of rabies vaccines activity were carried out with modified method of U.S. National Institutes of Health using rabies virus street isolates of both genetic clusters instead of the Challenge Virus Standard (CVS). All isolates of street rabies virus were inoculated in a dose of 5–50 LD50. The criteria for evaluation of protective activity of rabies vaccine was effective dose (− lg ED50). Results In molecular genetic studies with variant-specific primers we established the presence in Ukraine of two clusters of rabies virus. Clusters I circulates on the right bank of the Dnipro river (the largest water barrier that divides the country into eastern and western side), and cluster II – on the left bank of the Dnieper. The relationship of these variants with the epizootic situation was researched. For this purpose epizootological zoning of Ukraine

  5. Renewed Global Partnerships and Redesigned Roadmaps for Rabies Prevention and Control

    PubMed Central

    Lembo, Tiziana; Attlan, Michaël; Bourhy, Hervé; Cleaveland, Sarah; Costa, Peter; de Balogh, Katinka; Dodet, Betty; Fooks, Anthony R.; Hiby, Elly; Leanes, Fernando; Meslin, François-Xavier; Miranda, Mary Elizabeth; Müller, Thomas; Nel, Louis H.; Rupprecht, Charles E.; Tordo, Noël; Tumpey, Abbigail; Wandeler, Alexander; Briggs, Deborah J.

    2011-01-01

    Canine rabies, responsible for most human rabies deaths, is a serious global public health concern. This zoonosis is entirely preventable, but by focusing solely upon rabies prevention in humans, this “incurable wound” persists at high costs. Although preventing human deaths through canine rabies elimination is feasible, dog rabies control is often neglected, because dogs are not considered typical economic commodities by the animal health sector. Here, we demonstrate that the responsibility of managing rabies falls upon multiple sectors, that a truly integrated approach is the key to rabies elimination, and that considerable progress has been made to this effect. Achievements include the construction of global rabies networks and organizational partnerships; development of road maps, operational toolkits, and a blueprint for rabies prevention and control; and opportunities for scaling up and replication of successful programs. Progress must continue towards overcoming the remaining challenges preventing the ultimate goal of rabies elimination. PMID:21776359

  6. Renewed global partnerships and redesigned roadmaps for rabies prevention and control.

    PubMed

    Lembo, Tiziana; Attlan, Michaël; Bourhy, Hervé; Cleaveland, Sarah; Costa, Peter; de Balogh, Katinka; Dodet, Betty; Fooks, Anthony R; Hiby, Elly; Leanes, Fernando; Meslin, François-Xavier; Miranda, Mary Elizabeth; Müller, Thomas; Nel, Louis H; Rupprecht, Charles E; Tordo, Noël; Tumpey, Abbigail; Wandeler, Alexander; Briggs, Deborah J

    2011-01-01

    Canine rabies, responsible for most human rabies deaths, is a serious global public health concern. This zoonosis is entirely preventable, but by focusing solely upon rabies prevention in humans, this "incurable wound" persists at high costs. Although preventing human deaths through canine rabies elimination is feasible, dog rabies control is often neglected, because dogs are not considered typical economic commodities by the animal health sector. Here, we demonstrate that the responsibility of managing rabies falls upon multiple sectors, that a truly integrated approach is the key to rabies elimination, and that considerable progress has been made to this effect. Achievements include the construction of global rabies networks and organizational partnerships; development of road maps, operational toolkits, and a blueprint for rabies prevention and control; and opportunities for scaling up and replication of successful programs. Progress must continue towards overcoming the remaining challenges preventing the ultimate goal of rabies elimination. PMID:21776359

  7. [Rabies vaccines: Current status and prospects for development].

    PubMed

    Starodubova, E S; Preobrazhenskaia, O V; Kuzmenko, Y V; Latanova, A A; Yarygina, E I; Karpov, V L

    2015-01-01

    Rabies is an infectious disease among humans and animals that remains incurable, despite its longstanding research history. The only way to prevent the disease is prompt treatment, including vaccination as an obligatory component and administration of antirabies immunoglobulin as a supplement. Since the first antirabies vaccination performed in the 19th century, a large number of different rabies vaccines have been developed. Progress in molecular biology and biotechnology enabled the development of effective and safe technologies of vaccine production. Currently, new-generation vaccines are being developed based on recombinant rabies virus strains or on the production of an individual recombinant rabies antigen-glycoprotein (G protein), either as a component of nonpathogenic viruses, or in plants, or in the form of DNA vaccines. In this review, the main modern trends in the development of rabies vaccines have been discussed. PMID:26299857

  8. Probable Rabies Virus Transmission through Organ Transplantation, China, 2015

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Hang; Zhu, Wuyang; Zeng, Jun; He, Jianfeng; Liu, Kai; Li, Yu; Zhou, Shuwu; Mu, Di; Zhang, Kechun; Yu, Pengcheng; Li, Zhijian; Zhang, Meng; Chen, Xueqiong; Guo, Chun

    2016-01-01

    During July 2015, physicians at a hospital in Beijing, China, diagnosed rabies in 2 patients who had each received a kidney from a common organ donor who had died from acute progressive encephalitis of unknown cause. The patients had rabies incubation periods of 42 and 48 days. Altered mental status developed in both patients and progressively worsened to deep coma within 80 days after transplantation; both patients died. Two other transplant recipients received corneas but remained well after receiving timely rabies prophylaxis. An effective regulatory system for testing donors should be implemented to decrease the occurrence of donor-derived infectious diseases. In addition, health education should be improved to enhance public awareness of transplant-associated infectious diseases. Transplant recipients and other persons with exposure to organs or tissues from donors with rabies must be provided consistent health monitoring and follow-up, including rabies postexposure prophylaxis; any remaining organs and tissues must be quarantined and not transplanted. PMID:27331337

  9. The Cost of Canine Rabies on Four Continents.

    PubMed

    Anderson, A; Shwiff, S A

    2015-08-01

    We estimated the economic impacts of canine rabies in Latin America, Africa and Asia. Direct and indirect costs of rabies post-exposure prophylaxis, dog vaccination and control, rabies diagnostic testing and cattle mortality-related costs were accounted for. The number of human deaths was updated from previous estimates based on population growth, and the costs associated with the risk of human mortality were incorporated. We accounted for uncertainty associated with the parameter estimates using a Monte Carlo simulation and estimated that the global burden of canine rabies is approximately $124 billion annually. This result illustrates the potential benefits that could be realized if canine rabies was eliminated and provides an important benchmark against which the cost of any potential elimination campaign can be compared. PMID:24112194

  10. Rabies vaccines: where do we stand, where are we heading?

    PubMed

    Kaur, Manpreet; Garg, Rajni; Singh, Samer; Bhatnagar, Rakesh

    2015-03-01

    Rabies being the most lethal zoonotic, vaccine-preventable viral disease with worldwide distribution of reservoir wild animals presents unique challenges for its diagnosis, management and control. Although vaccines available are highly effective, which had played the key role in controlling rabies in North America, western Europe and in a number of Asian and Latin American countries, the requirement of multiple doses along with boosters, associated cost to reduce the incidence in wild animals and prophylactic human vaccination has remained a major impediment towards achieving the same goals in poorer parts of the world such as sub-Saharan Africa and southeast Asia. Current efforts to contain rabies worldwide are directed towards the development of more safe, cheaper and efficacious vaccines along with anti-rabies antibodies for post-exposure prophylaxis. The work presented here provides an overview of the advances made towards controlling the human rabies, particularly in last 10 years, and future perspective. PMID:25348036

  11. Probable Rabies Virus Transmission through Organ Transplantation, China, 2015.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Hang; Zhu, Wuyang; Zeng, Jun; He, Jianfeng; Liu, Kai; Li, Yu; Zhou, Shuwu; Mu, Di; Zhang, Kechun; Yu, Pengcheng; Li, Zhijian; Zhang, Meng; Chen, Xueqiong; Guo, Chun; Yu, Hongjie

    2016-08-01

    During July 2015, physicians at a hospital in Beijing, China, diagnosed rabies in 2 patients who had each received a kidney from a common organ donor who had died from acute progressive encephalitis of unknown cause. The patients had rabies incubation periods of 42 and 48 days. Altered mental status developed in both patients and progressively worsened to deep coma within 80 days after transplantation; both patients died. Two other transplant recipients received corneas but remained well after receiving timely rabies prophylaxis. An effective regulatory system for testing donors should be implemented to decrease the occurrence of donor-derived infectious diseases. In addition, health education should be improved to enhance public awareness of transplant-associated infectious diseases. Transplant recipients and other persons with exposure to organs or tissues from donors with rabies must be provided consistent health monitoring and follow-up, including rabies postexposure prophylaxis; any remaining organs and tissues must be quarantined and not transplanted. PMID:27331337

  12. Rabbit anti-rabies immunoglobulins production and evaluation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xinjian; Liu, Qiongqiong; Feng, Xiaomin; Tang, Qi; Wang, Zhongcan; Li, Suqing; Feng, Zhenqing; Zhu, Jin; Guan, Xiaohong

    2011-04-01

    Due to the disadvantages of human and equine rabies immunoglobulin, it is necessary to develop a substitute for HRIG and ERIG, especially for those people living in the developing countries. Because of higher affinity and lower immunogenicity of rabbit's immunoglobulins, anti-rabies immunoglobulins specific to rabies virus were produced in rabbits as a bioreactor, and had been characterized by ELISA, affinity assay, immunofluorescence assay (IFA), immunocytochemistry, rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test (RFFIT). ELISA, affinity assay and IFA showed that rabbit RIG (RRIG) bound specifically to rabies virions. RFFIT result showed that RRIG has neutralization activity. This result was confirmed in vivo in a Kunming mouse challenge model and the protection rate of the treatment with RRIG was higher (25%) than that offered by HRIG when mice were challenged with a lethal RV dose. Our results demonstrate that RRIG is safe and efficacious as a candidate drug to replace rabies immunoglobulin in post-exposure prophylaxis. PMID:21602780

  13. A Case of Fatal Serotonin Syndrome-Like Human Rabies Caused by Tricolored Bat-Associated Rabies Virus.

    PubMed

    Regunath, Hariharan; Chinnakotla, Bhavana; Rojas-Moreno, Christian; Salzer, William; Hughes, Natalie J; Sangha, Harbaksh

    2016-06-01

    Human rabies is a fatal disease, transmitted by saliva of infected animals, and the diagnosis requires a high index of suspicion. Very few cases are reported annually in the United States. We present a case of human rabies without a clear exposure history that masqueraded as serotonin syndrome. PMID:27001756

  14. Canine Rabies: A Looming Threat to Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Burgos-Cáceres, Sigfrido

    2011-01-01

    Simple Summary This review is guided by three questions: What is canine rabies? Why is it a looming threat to public health? Why should we care about canine rabies being a public health threat? It seeks to answer these questions and notes that canine rabies is viral zoonosis with dogs being the major vectors. The disease is a looming threat to public health because rabid dogs bite humans, resulting in thousands of deaths every year. We should care about this evolving situation because, in general, rabies is a neglected disease for which there are vaccines, preventive measures, post-exposure prophylaxis, and control protocols. Abstract Rabies is an acute, fatal viral disease that infects domestic and wild animals and is transmissible to humans. Worldwide, rabies kills over 55,000 people every year. The domestic dog plays a pivotal role in rabies transmission. Domestic dogs are not only part of our daily lives but also of our immediate surroundings, and this is reflected in the rise in pet dog ownership in developed and developing countries. This is important given that more frequent exposures and interactions at the animal-human interface increases the likelihood of contracting zoonotic diseases of companion animals. Despite existing vaccines and post-exposure prophylactic treatment, rabies remains a neglected disease that is poorly controlled throughout much of the developing world, particularly Africa and Asia, where most human rabies deaths occur. It is believed that with sustained international commitments, global elimination of rabies from domestic dog populations, the most dangerous vector to humans, is a realistic goal. PMID:26486619

  15. Development of combined vaccines for rabies and immunocontraception.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xianfu; Franka, Richard; Svoboda, Pavel; Pohl, Jan; Rupprecht, Charles E

    2009-11-27

    Rabies prevention and appropriate population management of free-ranging animals have an important role to play in the eventual elimination of rabies in dogs. An effective sterilant based on rabies vaccines has the potential to create a supportive measure of public acceptability and to reduce associated clinic visit costs. We inserted the coding sequence of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) into different locations within the rabies virus ERA glycoprotein (G) gene, and demonstrated that the amino terminus (N), antigenic site IIa, and the junction between the ecto- and cytoplasmic domains (C) of the G were suitable sites for GnRH insertion. The rescued recombinant rabies viruses ERA-N-GnRH and ERA-C-GnRH grew as well as the parental ERA virus, reaching 1x10(9)ffu/ml in cell culture. Insertion and expression of the GnRH were stable in the viruses after multiple passages in vitro. To increase immunogenicity of the GnRH peptide, two copies of GnRH, aligned in tandem, were fused to the N terminus of the G. The recombinant rabies virus ERA-N-2GnRH was recovered and grown to high titers in cell culture. All GnRH-carrying rabies viruses induced antibodies against GnRH in immunized mice and protected 100% of the animals after rabies virus challenge. The recombinant viruses reacted strongly with the serum from a GonaCon-immunized animal. The GnRH-carrying rabies viruses have significant potential in rabies and animal population control. PMID:19925954

  16. Molecular epidemiology of rabies epizootics in Colombia: evidence for human and dog rabies associated with bats.

    PubMed

    Páez, Andrés; Nũñez, Constanza; García, Clemencia; Bóshell, Jorge

    2003-04-01

    Three urban rabies outbreaks have been reported in Colombia during the last two decades, one of these is occurring in the Caribbean Region (northern Colombia), while the other two occurred almost simultaneously in Arauca (eastern Colombia) and in the Central Region and ended in 1997. In order to derive phylogenetic relationships between rabies viruses isolated in these three areas, 902 nt cDNA fragments encoding the cytoplasmic domain of protein G and a fragment of protein L were obtained by RT-PCR. These amplicons contained the G-L intergenic region and were sequenced to draw phylogenetic trees. Phylogenetic analysis showed three distinct groups of viruses in the study sample. Colombian genetic variant I viruses were isolated in both Arauca and the Central Region. These viruses are apparently extinct in Colombia. Colombian genetic variant II viruses were isolated in the Caribbean Region and are still being transmitted in that area. The third group of viruses consists of viruses isolated from two insectivorous bats, three domestic dogs and a human. According to sequence analysis, the data here indicate that the isolates in this third group are bat rabies virus variants. This finding is the first that associates bats to rabies in Colombian dogs and humans, showing an unsuspected vector threatening animal and public health. PMID:12655080

  17. Recombinant rabies virus expressing dog GM-CSF is an efficacious oral rabies vaccine for dogs

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhao; Ruan, Juncheng; Tang, Lijun; Jia, Ziming; Cui, Min; Zhao, Ling; Fu, Zhen F.

    2015-01-01

    Developing efficacious oral rabies vaccines is an important step to increase immunization coverage for stray dogs, which are not accessible for parenteral vaccination. Our previous studies have demonstrated that recombinant rabies virus (RABV) expressing cytokines/chemokines induces robust protective immune responses after oral immunization in mice by recruiting and activating dendritic cells (DCs) and B cells. To develop an effective oral rabies vaccine for dogs, a recombinant attenuated RABV expressing dog GM-CSF, designated as LBNSE-dGM-CSF was constructed and used for oral vaccination in a dog model. Significantly more DCs or B cells were activated in the peripheral blood of dogs vaccinated orally with LBNSE-dGM-CSF than those vaccinated with the parent virus LBNSE, particularly at 3 days post immunization (dpi). As a result, significantly higher levels of virus neutralizing antibodies (VNAs) were detected in dogs immunized with LBNSE-dGM-CSF than with the parent virus. All the immunized dogs were protected against a lethal challenge with 4500 MICLD50 of wild-type RABV SXTYD01. LBNSE-dGM-CSF was found to replicate mainly in the tonsils after oral vaccination as detected by nested RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. Taken together, our results indicate that LBNSE-dGM-CSF could be a promising oral rabies vaccine candidate for dogs. PMID:26436700

  18. Recombinant rabies virus expressing dog GM-CSF is an efficacious oral rabies vaccine for dogs.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ming; Wang, Lei; Zhou, Songqin; Wang, Zhao; Ruan, Juncheng; Tang, Lijun; Jia, Ziming; Cui, Min; Zhao, Ling; Fu, Zhen F

    2015-11-17

    Developing efficacious oral rabies vaccines is an important step to increase immunization coverage for stray dogs, which are not accessible for parenteral vaccination. Our previous studies have demonstrated that recombinant rabies virus (RABV) expressing cytokines/chemokines induces robust protective immune responses after oral immunization in mice by recruiting and activating dendritic cells (DCs) and B cells. To develop an effective oral rabies vaccine for dogs, a recombinant attenuated RABV expressing dog GM-CSF, designated as LBNSE-dGM-CSF was constructed and used for oral vaccination in a dog model. Significantly more DCs or B cells were activated in the peripheral blood of dogs vaccinated orally with LBNSE-dGM-CSF than those vaccinated with the parent virus LBNSE, particularly at 3 days post immunization (dpi). As a result, significantly higher levels of virus neutralizing antibodies (VNAs) were detected in dogs immunized with LBNSE-dGM-CSF than with the parent virus. All the immunized dogs were protected against a lethal challenge with 4500 MICLD50 of wild-type RABV SXTYD01. LBNSE-dGM-CSF was found to replicate mainly in the tonsils after oral vaccination as detected by nested RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. Taken together, our results indicate that LBNSE-dGM-CSF could be a promising oral rabies vaccine candidate for dogs. PMID:26436700

  19. Rabies-virus-glycoprotein-pseudotyped recombinant baculovirus vaccine confers complete protection against lethal rabies virus challenge in a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qunfeng; Yu, Fulai; Xu, Jinfang; Li, Yang; Chen, Huanchun; Xiao, Shaobo; Fu, Zhen F; Fang, Liurong

    2014-06-25

    Rabies virus has been an ongoing threat to humans and animals. Here, we developed a new strategy to generate a rabies virus vaccine based on a pseudotyped baculovirus. The recombinant baculovirus (BV-RVG/RVG) was pseudotyped with the rabies virus glycoprotein (RVG) and also simultaneously expressed another RVG under the control of the immediate early CMV promoter. In vitro, this RVG-pseudotyped baculovirus vector induced syncytium formation in insect cells and displayed more efficient gene delivery into mammalian cells. Mice immunized with BV-RVG/RVG developed higher levels of virus-neutralizing antibodies, and conferred 100% protection against rabies viral challenge. These data indicate that the RVG-pseudotyped baculovirus BV-RVG/RVG can be used as an alternative strategy to develop a safe and efficacious vaccine against the rabies virus. PMID:24793501

  20. Efficient implementation of the time renormalization group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vollmer, Adrian; Amendola, Luca; Catena, Riccardo

    2016-02-01

    The time renormalization group (TRG) is an effective method for accurate calculations of the matter power spectrum at the scale of the first baryonic acoustic oscillations. By using a particular variable transformation in the TRG formalism, we can reduce the 2D integral in the source term of the equations of motion for the power spectrum into a series of 1D integrals. The shape of the integrand allows us to precompute only 13 antiderivatives numerically, which can then be reused when evaluating the outer integral. While this introduces a few challenges to keep numerical noise under control, we find that the computation time for nonlinear corrections to the matter power spectrum decreases by a factor of 50. This opens up the possibility to use TRG for mass production as in Markov chain Monte Carlo methods. A fortran code demonstrating this new algorithm is publicly available.

  1. Functional renormalization group approach to noncollinear magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delamotte, B.; Dudka, M.; Mouhanna, D.; Yabunaka, S.

    2016-02-01

    A functional renormalization group approach to d -dimensional, N -component, noncollinear magnets is performed using various truncations of the effective action relevant to study their long distance behavior. With help of these truncations we study the existence of a stable fixed point for dimensions between d =2.8 and d =4 for various values of N focusing on the critical value Nc(d ) that, for a given dimension d , separates a first-order region for N Nc(d ) . Our approach concludes to the absence of a stable fixed point in the physical—N =2 ,3 and d =3 —cases, in agreement with the ɛ =4 -d expansion and in contradiction with previous perturbative approaches performed at fixed dimension and with recent approaches based on the conformal bootstrap program.

  2. Anomalies, equivalence and renormalization of cosmological frames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrero-Valea, Mario

    2016-05-01

    We study the question of whether two frames of a given physical theory are equivalent or not in the presence of quantum corrections. By using field theory arguments, we claim that equivalence is broken in the presence of anomalous symmetries in one of the frames. This is particularized to the case of the relation between the Einstein and Jordan frames in scalar-tensor theories used to describe early Universe dynamics. Although in this case a regularization that cancels the anomaly exists, the renormalized theory always develops a nonvanishing contribution to the S matrix that is present only in the Jordan frame, promoting the different frames to different physical theories that must be UV completed in a different way.

  3. Semihard processes with BLM renormalization scale setting

    SciTech Connect

    Caporale, Francesco; Murdaca, Beatrice; Papa, Alessandro

    2015-04-10

    We apply the BLM scale setting procedure directly to amplitudes (cross sections) of several semihard processes. It is shown that, due to the presence of β{sub 0}-terms in the NLA results for the impact factors, the obtained optimal renormalization scale is not universal, but depends both on the energy and on the process in question. We illustrate this general conclusion considering the following semihard processes: (i) inclusive production of two forward high-p{sub T} jets separated by large interval in rapidity (Mueller-Navelet jets); (ii) high-energy behavior of the total cross section for highly virtual photons; (iii) forward amplitude of the production of two light vector mesons in the collision of two virtual photons.

  4. Holographic trace anomaly and local renormalization group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajagopal, Srivatsan; Stergiou, Andreas; Zhu, Yechao

    2015-11-01

    The Hamilton-Jacobi method in holography has produced important results both at a renormalization group (RG) fixed point and away from it. In this paper we use the Hamilton-Jacobi method to compute the holographic trace anomaly for four- and six-dimensional boundary conformal field theories (CFTs), assuming higher-derivative gravity and interactions of scalar fields in the bulk. The scalar field contributions to the anomaly appear in CFTs with exactly marginal operators. Moving away from the fixed point, we show that the Hamilton-Jacobi formalism provides a deep connection between the holographic and the local RG. We derive the local RG equation holographically, and verify explicitly that it satisfies Weyl consistency conditions stemming from the commutativity of Weyl scalings. We also consider massive scalar fields in the bulk corresponding to boundary relevant operators, and comment on their effects to the local RG equation.

  5. Manifestly diffeomorphism invariant classical Exact Renormalization Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, Tim R.; Preston, Anthony W. H.

    2016-06-01

    We construct a manifestly diffeomorphism invariant Wilsonian (Exact) Renor-malization Group for classical gravity, and begin the construction for quantum gravity. We demonstrate that the effective action can be computed without gauge fixing the diffeo-morphism invariance, and also without introducing a background space-time. We compute classical contributions both within a background-independent framework and by perturbing around a fixed background, and verify that the results are equivalent. We derive the exact Ward identities for actions and kernels and verify consistency. We formulate two forms of the flow equation corresponding to the two choices of classical fixed-point: the Gaussian fixed point, and the scale invariant interacting fixed point using curvature-squared terms. We suggest how this programme may completed to a fully quantum construction.

  6. Renormalization group invariant of lepton Yukawa couplings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuyuki, Takanao

    2015-04-01

    By using quark Yukawa matrices only, we can construct renormalization invariants that are exact at the one-loop level in the standard model. One of them, Iq, is accidentally consistent with unity, even though quark masses are strongly hierarchical. We calculate a lepton version of the invariant Il for Dirac and Majorana neutrino cases and find that Il can also be close to unity. For the Dirac neutrino and inverted hierarchy case, if the lightest neutrino mass is 3.0 meV to 8.8 meV, an equality Iq=Il can be satisfied. These invariants are not changed even if new particles couple to the standard model particles, as long as those couplings are generation independent.

  7. Charge renormalization in nominally apolar colloidal dispersions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Daniel J.; Hollingsworth, Andrew D.; Grier, David G.

    2016-04-01

    We present high-resolution measurements of the pair interactions between dielectric spheres dispersed in a fluid medium with a low dielectric constant. Despite the absence of charge control agents or added organic salts, these measurements reveal strong and long-ranged repulsions consistent with substantial charges on the particles whose interactions are screened by trace concentrations of mobile ions in solution. The dependence of the estimated charge on the particles' radii is consistent with charge renormalization theory and, thus, offers insights into the charging mechanism in this interesting class of model systems. The measurement technique, based on optical-tweezer manipulation and artifact-free particle tracking, makes use of optimal statistical methods to reduce measurement errors to the femtonewton frontier while covering an extremely wide range of interaction energies.

  8. Neutrino anarchy and renormalization group evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brdar, Vedran; König, Matthias; Kopp, Joachim

    2016-05-01

    The observed pattern of neutrino mixing angles is in good agreement with the hypothesis of neutrino anarchy, which posits that nature has chosen the entries of the leptonic mixing matrix at random. In this paper we investigate how stable this conclusion is under renormalization group (RG) effects. Working in the simplest type-I seesaw model and two variants of the inverse seesaw model we study how the statistical distributions of the neutrino mixing parameters evolve between the grand unification scale and the electroweak scale. Especially in the inverse seesaw case we find significant distortions: Mixing angles tend to be smaller after RG running, and the Dirac C P phase tends to be closer to zero. The p -value describing the compatibility between the observed mixing angles and the anarchy hypothesis increases by 10%-20%. This illustrates that RG effects are highly relevant for quantitative studies of the anarchy scenario.

  9. Rabies: Knowledge and Practices Regarding Rabies in Rural Communities of the Brazilian Amazon Basin

    PubMed Central

    da Costa, Lanna Jamile Corrêa; Fernandes, Marcus Emanuel Barroncas

    2016-01-01

    Background The occurrence of outbreaks of human rabies transmitted by Desmodus rotundus in Brazil in 2004 and 2005 reinforced the need for further research into this zoonosis. Studies of knowledge and practices related to the disease will help to define strategies for the avoidance of new cases, through the identification of gaps that may affect the preventive practices. Methodology/Principal findings A semi-structured questionnaire was applied to 681 residents of twelve communities of northeastern Pará state involved in the 2004 and 2005 outbreaks mentioned above. The objective was to evaluate the local knowledge and practices related to the disease. We found a highly significant difference (p<0.0001) in the knowledge of rabies among education levels, indicating that education is a primary determinant of knowledge on this disease. More than half of the respondents (63%) recognized the seriousness of the zoonosis, and 50% were aware of the importance of bats for its transmission, although few individuals (11%) were familiar with the symptoms, and only 40% knew methods of prevention. Even so, 70% of pet owners maintained their animals vaccinated, and 52% of the respondents bitten by bats had received post-exposure vaccination. Most of the respondents (57%) reported being familiarized with rabies through informal discussions, and only a few (23%) mentioned public health agents as the source of their information. Conclusion/Significance We identified many gaps in the knowledge and practices of the respondents regarding rabies. This may be the result of the reduced participation of public health agents in the transfer of details about the disease. The lack of knowledge may be a direct determinant in the occurrence of new outbreaks. Given these findings, there is a clear need for specific educational initiatives involving the local population and the public health entities, with the primary aim of contributing to the prevention of rabies. PMID:26927503

  10. Use of rabies virus as a transneuronal tracer of neuronal connections: implications for the understanding of rabies pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Ugolini, G

    2008-01-01

    In neurosciences, rabies virus (CVS strain) has become a very powerful tool for studying multisynaptic neuronal connections, due to its ability to function as a self-replicating marker and to propagate exclusively between connected neurons by transneuronal transfer, which is strictly time-dependent. In this laboratory, transneuronal tracing studies of rabies virus propagation in primates and rodent models during the asymptomatic period have provided valuable information on rabies pathogenesis. We have shown that rabies virus propagates by fast axonal transport at similar speeds in primates and rodents, after inoculation into the peripheral or central nervous system (CNS). Intracellulartransport of rabies virus is preferentially addressed to neuronal dendrites rather than axons, since transneuronal transfer occurs only retrogradely, i.e., from dendrites of first infected neurons to presynaptic terminals of connected neurons. Rabies virus propagation occurs at chemical synapses, but not via gap junctions or local spread. The results of our studies show that rabies virus receptors have a ubiquitous distribution on neurons within the CNS. Conversely, in the peripheral nervous system, rabies virus receptors are present only on motor endings, since uptake is restricted to motor endplates and axons, whereas sensory and autonomic endings are not infected. Thus, after peripheral inoculations, motoneurons are the only gateway for rabies virus transmission to the CNS. Infection of sensory and autonomic neurons requires longer incubation times, since it reflects centrifugal propagation of rabies virus from the CNS to the periphery, i.e., it is the result of retrograde transneuronal transfer to sensory and autonomic terminals within the CNS. PMID:18634512

  11. A site-renormalized molecular fluid theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyer, Kippi M.; Perkyns, John S.; Pettitt, B. Montgomery

    2007-11-01

    The orientation-dependent pair distribution function for molecular fluids on site-site potentials is expanded in a topological analog of the diagrammatically proper site-site theory of liquids [D. Chandler et al., Mol. Phys. 46, 1335 (1982)]. The resulting functions are then used to diagrammatically renormalize the molecular fluid theory. A result is that the diagrammatically proper interaction site model theory is shown to be a linearized, minimal angular basis set approximation to this site-renormalized molecular theory. This framework is used to propose a new, exact, and proper closure to the diagrammatically proper interaction site model theory. The resulting equation system contains a bridge function expansion in the proper site-site theory. In addition, the construction of the theory is such that the molecular pair distribution function, in full dimensionality, is intrinsic to the theory. Furthermore, the theory is equivalent to the molecular Ornstein-Zernike treatment of site-site molecules in the basis set expansion of Blum and Torruella [J. Chem. Phys. 56, 303 (1971)]. A significant formal result of the theory is the demonstration that certain classes of diagrams which would otherwise be considered improper in the interaction site model formalism are included in the angular expansion of molecular interactions. Numerical results for several apolar homonuclear models and an apolar heteronuclear model are shown to quantitatively improve upon those of reference interaction site model and our recent proper variant with respect to simulation. Significant numerical results are that the various thermodynamic quantities obey the exact symmetries and sum rules within numerical error for the different sites in the heteronuclear case, even for the low order approximation used in this work, and the theory is independent of the so-called auxiliary site problem common to previous site-site theories.

  12. Hilbert space renormalization for the many-electron problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhendong; Chan, Garnet Kin-Lic

    2016-02-01

    Renormalization is a powerful concept in the many-body problem. Inspired by the highly successful density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) algorithm, and the quantum chemical graphical representation of configuration space, we introduce a new theoretical tool: Hilbert space renormalization, to describe many-electron correlations. While in DMRG, the many-body states in nested Fock subspaces are successively renormalized, in Hilbert space renormalization, many-body states in nested Hilbert subspaces undergo renormalization. This provides a new way to classify and combine configurations. The underlying wavefunction Ansatz, namely, the Hilbert space matrix product state (HS-MPS), has a very rich and flexible mathematical structure. It provides low-rank tensor approximations to any configuration interaction (CI) space through restricting either the "physical indices" or the coupling rules in the HS-MPS. Alternatively, simply truncating the "virtual dimension" of the HS-MPS leads to a family of size-extensive wave function Ansätze that can be used efficiently in variational calculations. We make formal and numerical comparisons between the HS-MPS, the traditional Fock-space MPS used in DMRG, and traditional CI approximations. The analysis and results shed light on fundamental aspects of the efficient representation of many-electron wavefunctions through the renormalization of many-body states.

  13. Renormalization group invariance and optimal QCD renormalization scale-setting: a key issues review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xing-Gang; Ma, Yang; Wang, Sheng-Quan; Fu, Hai-Bing; Ma, Hong-Hao; Brodsky, Stanley J.; Mojaza, Matin

    2015-12-01

    A valid prediction for a physical observable from quantum field theory should be independent of the choice of renormalization scheme—this is the primary requirement of renormalization group invariance (RGI). Satisfying scheme invariance is a challenging problem for perturbative QCD (pQCD), since a truncated perturbation series does not automatically satisfy the requirements of the renormalization group. In a previous review, we provided a general introduction to the various scale setting approaches suggested in the literature. As a step forward, in the present review, we present a discussion in depth of two well-established scale-setting methods based on RGI. One is the ‘principle of maximum conformality’ (PMC) in which the terms associated with the β-function are absorbed into the scale of the running coupling at each perturbative order; its predictions are scheme and scale independent at every finite order. The other approach is the ‘principle of minimum sensitivity’ (PMS), which is based on local RGI; the PMS approach determines the optimal renormalization scale by requiring the slope of the approximant of an observable to vanish. In this paper, we present a detailed comparison of the PMC and PMS procedures by analyzing two physical observables R e+e- and Γ(H\\to b\\bar{b}) up to four-loop order in pQCD. At the four-loop level, the PMC and PMS predictions for both observables agree within small errors with those of conventional scale setting assuming a physically-motivated scale, and each prediction shows small scale dependences. However, the convergence of the pQCD series at high orders, behaves quite differently: the PMC displays the best pQCD convergence since it eliminates divergent renormalon terms; in contrast, the convergence of the PMS prediction is questionable, often even worse than the conventional prediction based on an arbitrary guess for the renormalization scale. PMC predictions also have the property that any residual dependence on

  14. Rabi resonances in the {lambda} excitation scheme

    SciTech Connect

    Godone, Aldo; Micalizio, Salvatore; Levi, Filippo

    2002-12-01

    We consider the interaction of a three-level system with phase-modulated resonant fields in the {lambda} excitation scheme. We treat theoretically the case of a sinusoidal phase modulation, a phase step perturbation, and a stochastic phase modulation. The appearance of a Rabi resonance both in the spectrum of the optical transmitted signal (electromagnetically induced transparency) and in the spectrum of the microwave emission (coherent population trapping maser) is considered in detail. All the theoretical results are compared with the analogous ones reported for the two-level system and with our experimental observations obtained for the case of rubidium in a buffer gas.

  15. Rabies surveillance in the United States during 2006.

    PubMed

    Blanton, Jesse D; Hanlon, Cathleen A; Rupprecht, Charles E

    2007-08-15

    During 2006, 49 states and Puerto Rico reported 6,940 cases of rabies in animals and 3 cases in humans to the CDC, representing an 8.2% increase from the 6,417 cases in animals and 1 case in a human reported in 2005. Approximately 92% of the cases were in wildlife, and 8% were in domestic animals. Relative contributions by the major animal groups were as follows: 2,615 raccoons (37.7%), 1,692 bats (24.4%), 1,494 skunks (21.5%), 427 foxes (6.2%), 318 cats (4.6%), 82 cattle (1.2%), and 79 dogs (1.1%). Compared with numbers of reported cases in 2005, cases in 2006 increased among all groups except cattle. Increases in numbers of rabid raccoons during 2006 were reported by 11 of the 20 eastern states where raccoon rabies was enzootic, and reported cases increased by 3.2% overall, compared with 2005. On a national level, the number of rabies cases in skunks during 2006 increased by 6.1% from the number reported in 2005. Once again, Texas reported the greatest number (n = 351) of rabid skunks and the greatest overall state total of animal rabies cases (889). No cases of rabies associated with the dog/coyote rabies virus variant were reported. The last identified case of this canine rabies virus variant was identified in March 2004, along the US/Mexico border. With 2006 marking the second year of no apparent transmission of the dog/coyote variant, these findings from surveillance data support the contention that the canine rabies virus variant is no longer in circulation in the United States. Total number of cases of rabies reported nationally in foxes increased 13.6%, compared with 2005. Increases in the number of reported rabid foxes were attributable to greater numbers of foxes reported with the Arctic fox rabies virus variant in Alaska, the Texas gray fox rabies virus variant in Texas, and the raccoon rabies virus variant in Virginia. The 1,692 cases of rabies reported in bats represented a 14.5% increase, compared with numbers reported in 2005, making bats the second

  16. An Approximate KAM-Renormalization-Group Scheme for Hamiltonian Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandre, C.; Jauslin, H. R.; Benfatto, G.

    1999-01-01

    We construct an approximate renormalization scheme for Hamiltonian systems with two degrees of freedom. This scheme is a combination of Kolmogorov-Arnold-Moser (KAM) theory and renormalization-group techniques. It makes the connection between the approximate renormalization procedure derived by Escande and Doveil and a systematic expansion of the transformation. In particular, we show that the two main approximations, consisting in keeping only the quadratic terms in the actions and the two main resonances, keep the essential information on the threshold of the breakup of invariant tori.

  17. Nucleon-nucleon scattering within a multiple subtractive renormalization approach

    SciTech Connect

    Timoteo, V. S.; Frederico, T.; Delfino, A.; Tomio, Lauro

    2011-06-15

    We present a methodology to renormalize the nucleon-nucleon interaction in momentum space, using a recursive multiple subtraction approach that prescinds from a cutoff regularization, to construct the kernel of the scattering equation. The subtracted scattering equation is solved with the next-leading-order and next-to-next-leading-order interactions. The results are presented for all partial waves up to j=2, fitted to low-energy experimental data. In this renormalization group invariant approach, the subtraction energy emerges as a renormalization scale and the momentum associated with it comes to be about the QCD scale ({Lambda}{sub QCD}), irrespectively to the partial wave.

  18. Renormalization group improved Higgs inflation with a running kinetic term

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Fuminobu; Takahashi, Ryo

    2016-09-01

    We study a Higgs inflation model with a running kinetic term, taking account of the renormalization group evolution of relevant coupling constants. Specifically we study two types of the running kinetic Higgs inflation, where the inflaton potential is given by the quadratic or linear term potential in a frame where the Higgs field is canonically normalized. We solve the renormalization group equations at two-loop level and calculate the scalar spectral index and the tensor-to-scalar ratio. We find that, even if the renormalization group effects are included, the quadratic inflation is ruled out by the CMB observations, while the linear one is still allowed.

  19. [Technical guideline for human rabies prevention and control (2016)].

    PubMed

    Zhou, H; Li, Y; Chen, R F; Tao, X Y; Yu, P C; Cao, S C; Li, L; Chen, Z H; Zhu, W Y; Yin, W W; Li, Y H; Wang, C L; Yu, H J

    2016-02-10

    In order to promote the prevention and control programs on rabies in our country, to regulate the prevention and disposition of rabies and to reduce the deaths caused by rabies, the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention has organized a panel of experts, in the reference with Guidelines issued by WHO, American Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices, and the latest research progress from home and abroad, and compiled this document-"Technical Guidelines for Human Rabies Prevention and Control (2016)". The Guidelines conducted a systematic review on the etiology, clinical characteristics, laboratory diagnosis, epidemiology of rabies and provided evidence on varieties, mechanisms, effects, side-effects and security of rabies vaccine, as well as on other preparations on passive immunity of its kind, on methods related to prevention and disposition of exposure etc, finally to have come up with the recommendation on the above mentioned various techniques. The guidelines will be used by staff working on prevention and control of rabies from the Center for Disease Control and Prevention at all levels, from the departments of outpatient and divisions of infection and emergency control in all the medical institutions. The guideline will be updated and revised, following the research progress from home and abroad. PMID:26917506

  20. Antigenic and molecular characterization of rabies virus in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Cisterna, Daniel; Bonaventura, Romina; Caillou, Susana; Pozo, Oscar; Andreau, Maria Lidia; Fontana, Liliana Dalla; Echegoyen, Cristina; de Mattos, Carlos; de Mattos, Cecilia; Russo, Susana; Novaro, Laura; Elberger, Diana; Freire, María Cecilia

    2005-05-01

    The nucleoprotein genes of 54 human, domestic and wild animals rabies isolates obtained in Argentina between 1995 and 2002 were characterized using monoclonal antibodies and partial gene sequence analysis. The antigenic and genetic diversities of rabies virus in samples from bat and bat-related cases were studied, leading to the identification of five distinct genetic variants. Rabies viruses isolated from vampire bat related cases were very similar to each other, showing 98.9% overall similarity. Specific antigenic variants (AgV) were detected associated with different insectivorous bats species, in samples from Tadarida brasiliensis and Eumops patagonicus bats. In contrast, isolates from Myotis sp. and Histiotus sp. bats could not be matched to any antigenic type. Additionally, bat rabies cases were also detected in southern provinces previously considered rabies-free. Finally, two independent antigenic and genetic variants co-circulating in northern Argentina were found in isolates obtained from dogs and dog-related cases, suggesting two independent cycles of virus transmission. This is the first national coordinated study of antigenic as well as molecular epidemiology of rabies in Argentina. The information presented here will improve our knowledge about rabies epidemiology and therefore, will assist preventing fatal human cases. PMID:15763144

  1. Rabies surveillance in the United States during 2010.

    PubMed

    Blanton, Jesse D; Palmer, Dustyn; Dyer, Jessie; Rupprecht, Charles E

    2011-09-15

    During 2010, 48 states and Puerto Rico reported 6,154 rabid animals and 2 human rabies cases to the CDC, representing an 8% decrease from the 6,690 rabid animals and 4 human cases reported in 2009. Hawaii and Mississippi did not report any laboratory-confirmed rabid animals during 2010. Approximately 92% of reported rabid animals were wildlife. Relative contributions by the major animal groups were as follows: 2,246 raccoons (36.5%), 1,448 skunks (23.5%), 1,430 bats (23.2%), 429 foxes (6.9%), 303 cats (4.9%), 71 cattle (1.1 %), and 69 dogs (1.1 %). Compared with 2009, number of reported rabid animals decreased across all animal types with the exception of a 1 % increase in the number of reported rabid cats. Two cases of rabies involving humans were reported from Louisiana and Wisconsin in 2010. Louisiana reported an imported human rabies case involving a 19-year-old male migrant farm worker who had a history of a vampire bat (Desmodus rotundus) bite received while in Mexico. This represents the first human rabies case reported in the United States confirmed to have been caused by a vampire bat rabies virus variant. Wisconsin reported a human rabies case involving a 70-year-old male that was confirmed to have been caused by a rabies virus variant associated with tri-colored bats (Perimyotis subflavus). PMID:21916759

  2. Design and generation of recombinant rabies virus vectors

    PubMed Central

    Osakada, Fumitaka; Callaway, Edward M.

    2014-01-01

    Rabies viruses, negative-strand RNA viruses, infect neurons through axon terminals and spread transsynaptically in a retrograde direction between neurons. Rabies viruses whose glycoprotein (G) gene is deleted from the genome cannot spread across synapses. Complementation of G in trans, however, enables transsynaptic spreading of G-deleted rabies viruses to directly-connected, presynaptic neurons. Recombinant rabies viruses can encode genes of interest for labeling cells, controlling gene expression, and monitoring or manipulating neural activity. Cre-dependent or bridge-protein-mediated transduction and single-cell electroporation via EnvA/TVA or EnvB/TVB system allow cell-type-specific or single-cell-specific targeting. These rabies virus-based approaches permit the linking of connectivity to cell morphology and circuit function for particular cell types or single cells. Here we describe methods for construction of rabies viral vectors, recovery of G-deleted rabies viruses from cDNA, amplification of the viruses, pseudotyping them with EnvA or EnvB, and concentration and titration of the viruses. The entire protocol takes 6–8 weeks. PMID:23887178

  3. Applications of nanoparticles for DNA based rabies vaccine.

    PubMed

    Shah, Muhammad Ali A; Khan, Sajid Umar; Ali, Zeeshan; Yang, Haowen; Liu, Keke; Mao, Lanlan

    2014-01-01

    Rabies is a fatal encephalomyelitis. Most cases occur in developing countries and are transmitted by dogs. The cell culture vaccines as associated with high cost; therefore, have not replaced the unsafe brain-derived vaccines. In the developing countries these brain-derived rabies vaccines still can be seen in action. Moreover, there will be a need for vaccines against rabies-related viruses against which classical vaccines are not always effective. The worldwide incidence of rabies and the inability of currently used vaccination strategies to provide highly potent and cost-effective therapy indicate the need for alternate control strategies. DNA vaccines have emerged as the safest vaccines and best remedy for complicated diseases like hepatitis, HIV, and rabies. A number of recombinant DNA vaccines are now being developed against several diseases such as AIDS and malaria. Therefore, it can be a valuable alternative for the production of cheaper rabies vaccines against its larger spectrum of viruses. In this review we report published data on DNA-based immunization with sequences encoding rabies with special reference to nanotechnology. PMID:24730305

  4. Rabies virus infection of cultured rat sensory neurons.

    PubMed Central

    Lycke, E; Tsiang, H

    1987-01-01

    The axonal transport of rabies virus (challenge virus strain of fixed virus) was studied in differentiated rat embryonic dorsal root ganglion cells. In addition, we observed the attachment of rabies virus to neuronal extensions and virus production by infected neurons. A compartmentalized cell culture system was used, allowing infection and manipulation of neuronal extensions without exposing the neural soma to the virus. The cultures consisted of 60% large neuronal cells whose extensions exhibited neurofilament structures. Rabies virus demonstrated high binding affinity to unmyelinated neurites, as suggested by assays of virus adsorption and immunofluorescence studies. The rate of axoplasmic transport of virus was 12 to 24 mm/day, including the time required for internalization of the virus into neurites. The virus transport could be blocked by cytochalasin B, vinblastine, and colchicine, none of which negatively affected the production of virus in cells once the infection was established. It was concluded that, for the retrograde transfer of rabies virus by neurites from the periphery to the neuronal soma, the integrity of tubulin- and actin-containing structures is essential. The rat sensory neurons were characterized as permissive, moderately susceptible, but low producers of rabies virus. These neurons were capable of harboring rabies virus for long periods of time and able to release virus into the culture medium without showing any morphological alterations. The involvement of sensory neurons in rabies virus pathogenesis, both in viral transport and as a site for persistent viral infection, is discussed. Images PMID:2441076

  5. Preparation and identification of anti-rabies virus monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wen-juan; Li, Xiong; Wang, Li-hua; Shan, Hu; Cao, Lei; Yu, Peng-cheng; Tang, Qing; Liang, Guo-dong

    2012-06-01

    To provide a foundation for the development of rapid and specific methods for the diagnosis of rabies virus infection, anti-rabies virus monoclonal antibodies were prepared and rabies virus nucleoprotein and human rabies virus vaccine strain (PV strain) were used as immunogens to immunize 6-8 week old female BALB/c mice. Spleen cells and SP2/0 myeloma cells were fused according to conventional methods: the monoclonal cell strains obtained were selected using the indirect immunofluorescence test; this was followed by preparation of monoclonal antibody ascitic fluid; and finally, systematic identification of subclass, specificity and sensitivity was carried out. Two high potency and specific monoclonal antibodies against rabies virus were obtained and named 3B12 and 4A12, with ascitic fluid titers of 1:8000 and 1:10000, respectively. Both belonged to the IgG2a subclass. These strains secrete potent, stable and specific anti-rabies virus monoclonal antibodies, which makes them well suited for the development of rabies diagnosis reagents. PMID:22684471

  6. Molecular and mathematical modeling analyses of inter-island transmission of rabies into a previously rabies-free island in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Tohma, Kentaro; Saito, Mariko; Demetria, Catalino S; Manalo, Daria L; Quiambao, Beatriz P; Kamigaki, Taro; Oshitani, Hitoshi

    2016-03-01

    Rabies is endemic in the Philippines and dog bites are a major cause of rabies cases in humans. The rabies control program has not been successful in eliminating rabies because of low vaccination coverage among dogs. Therefore, more effective and feasible strategies for rabies control are urgently required in the country. To control rabies, it is very important to know if inter-island transmission can occur because rabies can become endemic once the virus is introduced in areas that previously had no reported cases. Our molecular epidemiological study suggests that inter-island transmission events can occur; therefore, we further investigated these inter-island transmission using phylogenetic and modeling approaches. We investigate inter-island transmission between Luzon and Tablas Islands in the Philippines. Phylogenetic analysis and mathematical modeling demonstrate that there was a time lag of several months to a year from rabies introduction to initial case detection, indicating the difficulties in recognizing the initial rabies introductory event. There had been no rabies cases reported in Tablas Island; however, transmission chain was sustained on this island after the introduction of rabies virus because of low vaccination coverage among dogs. Across the islands, a rabies control program should include control of inter-island dog transportation and rabies vaccination to avoid viral introduction from the outside and to break transmission chains after viral introduction. However, this program has not yet been completely implemented and transmission chains following inter-island virus transmission are still observed. Local government units try to control dog transport; however, it should be more strictly controlled, and a continuous rabies control program should be implemented to prevent rabies spread even in rabies-free areas. PMID:26656835

  7. SiGe quantum dots for fast hole spin Rabi oscillations

    SciTech Connect

    Ares, N.; Prager, A.; De Franceschi, S.; Golovach, V. N.; Zhang, J. J.; Glazman, L. I.; Schmidt, O. G.

    2013-12-23

    We report on hole g-factor measurements in three terminal SiGe self-assembled quantum dot devices with a top gate electrode positioned very close to the nanostructure. Measurements of both the perpendicular as well as the parallel g-factor reveal significant changes for a small modulation of the top gate voltage. From the observed modulations, we estimate that, for realistic experimental conditions, hole spins can be electrically manipulated with Rabi frequencies in the order of 100 MHz. This work emphasises the potential of hole-based nano-devices for efficient spin manipulation by means of the g-tensor modulation technique.

  8. Temporal evolution on MRI of successful treatment of rabies.

    PubMed

    Lu, Albert; Shah, Paarth; Shen, Peter; Lee, Paul; Nidecker, Anna E; Nundkumar, Anoop; Latchaw, Richard; Bobinski, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Rabies is a nearly uniformly fatal disease for individuals who develop clinical symptoms. We report a case of a patient with paralytic rabies who survived after being treated with what is now known as Milwaukee protocol. This is only the third known case of rabies survival after being treated with the protocol. We present sequential magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of the brain and lumbar spine throughout the course of her treatment. In doing so, we provide insight into the temporal evolution of MRI findings in the brain and lumbar spine. PMID:25956434

  9. Characterization of rabies virus from a human case in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Pant, G R; Horton, D L; Dahal, M; Rai, J N; Ide, S; Leech, S; Marston, D A; McElhinney, L M; Fooks, A R

    2011-04-01

    Rabies is endemic throughout most of Asia, with the majority of human cases transmitted by domestic dogs (Canis familiaris). Here, we report a case of rabies in a 12-year-old girl in the Lalitpur district of Nepal that might have been prevented by better public awareness and timely post-exposure prophylaxis. Molecular characterization of the virus showed 100% identity over a partial nucleoprotein gene sequence to previous isolates from Nepal belonging to the 'arctic-like' lineage of rabies virus. Sequence analysis of both partial nucleoprotein and glycoprotein genes showed differences in consensus sequence after passage in vitro but not after passage in vivo. PMID:21298457

  10. [The question of further rabies control in Germany].

    PubMed

    Schenzle, D

    1995-11-01

    By means of a mathematical model the question is considered whether and how rabies can be controlled in Germany by oral vaccination of foxes. The model shows that from the success obtained so far one should not yet assume to have rabies under control. Because immunization of foxes causes an increase in the fox population size, the number of available vaccine baits per fox decreases. Model calculations indicate, at least in some areas of Germany, it may be necessary to increase vaccine baits per area i order to reach and maintain a rabies free stage. PMID:8646999

  11. Controlling rabies through a multidisciplinary, public health system in Trujillo, La Libertad, Peru

    PubMed Central

    Seneschall, Charlotte; Luna-Farro, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Rabies remains endemic in Peru. In 1983, Latin America and the Caribbean promised to eliminate canine-transmitted rabies from the continent. This led to Peru introducing a multidisciplinary public health system for controlling and managing rabies across the country. The system consists of mass canine vaccination campaigns, post exposure prophylaxis and monitoring aggressor animals for signs of rabies. The Peruvian city of Trujillo, La Libertad, is an urban area where dogs are the principal reservoir for rabies. The disease burden of rabies in Trujillo, La Libertad is currently minimal, with no rabies cases in humans for over 10 years, and only three canine cases. No human deaths due to rabies have occurred for several decades. From this it can be inferred that antirabies systems such as this do have real effects in reducing cases of human rabies at a grass roots level. PMID:24392679

  12. The Pan-African Rabies Control Network (PARACON): A unified approach to eliminating canine rabies in Africa.

    PubMed

    Scott, T P; Coetzer, A; de Balogh, K; Wright, N; Nel, L H

    2015-12-01

    Even though Africa has the highest per capita death rate from rabies of any continent, and the disease is almost entirely transmitted by the bites of rabid dogs, there has been no coordinated pan-African approach to controlling canine rabies. In order to attain an inclusive and unified network, the Pan-African Rabies Control Network (PARACON) was established in 2014. By following the 'One Health' concept, which involves close coordination between animal and human health sectors across national, regional and continental levels, PARACON will provide a platform to facilitate and promote coordinated and sustainable control strategies and programmes. Meetings will take place at regular intervals and will be centred on the involvement by key focal persons from the medical and veterinary sectors. The inaugural meeting was held in South Africa in June, 2015 and was focused around interactive discussions and workshops, whilst updating country representatives on the tools available to aid them in developing and implementing sustainable rabies intervention strategies. Experts from various global organizations, institutions and industry participated in the discussions and shared their experience and expertise. The workshops focused on the latest format of the Rabies Blueprint platform (www.rabiesblueprint.com), which in the broadest sense assists with control and elimination campaigns, including educational and advocacy drives, improvement of surveillance and diagnosis and the systematic monitoring of progress. Together with the Stepwise Approach towards Rabies Elimination, the Blueprint is a planning tool to help countries free themselves from canine-transmitted rabies. PMID:26545712

  13. Molecular characterization of Korean rabies virus isolates

    PubMed Central

    Park, Young-Nam; Hong, Gyeong-Soo; Kang, Hee-Kyung; Oh, Yoon-I; Cho, Soo-Dong; Song, Jae-Young

    2011-01-01

    The nucleoprotein (N) and glycoprotein (G) of 11 Korean rabies virus (RABV) isolates collected from animals diagnosed with rabies between 2008 and 2009 were subjected to molecular and phylogenetic analyses. Six isolates originated from domestic animals (cattle and dogs) and five were obtained from wild free-ranging raccoon dogs. The similarities in the nucleotide sequences of the N gene among all Korean isolates ranged from 98.1 to 99.8%, while those of the G gene ranged from 97.9 to 99.3%. Based on the nucleotide analysis of the N and G genes, the Korean RABV isolates were confirmed as genotype I of Lyssavirus and classified into four distinct subgroups with high similarity. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the Korean isolates were most closely related to the non-Korean NeiMeng1025B and 857r strains, which were isolated from rabid raccoon dogs in Eastern China and Russia, respectively. These findings suggest that the Korean RABV isolates originated from a rabid raccoon dog in Northeastern Asia. Genetic analysis of the Korean RABV isolates revealed no substitutions at several antigenic sites, indicating that the isolates circulating in Korea may be pathogenic in several hosts. PMID:21368564

  14. Renormalization-group methods for the spectra of disordered chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robbins, Mark O.; Koiller, Belita

    1983-06-01

    A family of real-space renormalization techniques for calculating the Green's functions of disordered chains is developed and explored. The techniques are based on a recently proposed renormalization method which is rederived here and shown to be equivalent to a virtual-crystal approximation on a renormalized Hamiltonian. The derivation suggests how other conventional alloy methods can be coupled to the renormalization concept. Various examples are discussed. Short-range order in the occupation of alloy sites and very general disorder in the Hamiltonian-diagonal, off-diagonal, and environmental-are readily incorporated. The techniques are exact in the limits of high and low concentration and of complete short-range order and for the Lloyd model. All states are found to be localized, in agreement with exact treatments. Results for the alloy density of states are presented for various cases and compared to numerical simulations on long chains (105 atoms).

  15. Renormalization-scheme-invariant perturbation theory: Miracle or mirage

    SciTech Connect

    Chyla, J.

    1985-05-15

    A recently proposed solution to the renormalization-scheme ambiguity in perturbation theory is critically analyzed and shown to possess another kind of ambiguity closely related to the one it is supposed to cure.

  16. Renormalization and power counting of chiral nuclear forces

    SciTech Connect

    Long, Bingwei

    2013-08-01

    I discuss the progress we have made on modifying Weinberg's prescription for chiral nuclear forces, using renormalization group invariance as the guideline. Some of the published results are presented.

  17. Nonperturbative renormalization of scalar quantum electrodynamics in d=3

    SciTech Connect

    Dimock, J.

    2015-10-15

    For scalar quantum electrodynamics on a three-dimensional toroidal lattice with a fine lattice spacing, we consider the renormalization problem of choosing counter terms depending on the lattice spacing, so that the theory stays finite as the spacing goes to zero. We employ a renormalization group method which analyzes the flow of the mass and the vacuum energy as a problem in discrete dynamical systems. The main result is that counter terms can be chosen so that at the end of the iteration these quantities take preassigned values. No use is made of perturbation theory. The renormalization group transformations are defined with bounded fields, an approximation which can be justified in Balaban’s approach to the renormalization group.

  18. The renormalized Jellium model of colloidal suspensions with multivalent counterions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colla, Thiago E.; Levin, Yan

    2010-12-01

    An extension of the renormalized Jellium model which allows to study colloidal suspensions containing trivalent counterions is proposed. The theory is based on a modified Poisson-Boltzmann equation which incorporates the effects of counterion correlations near the colloidal surfaces using a new boundary condition. The renormalized charges, the counterion density profiles, and osmotic pressures can be easily calculated using the modified renormalized Jellium model. The results are compared with the ones obtained using the traditional Wigner-Seitz (WS) cell approximation also with a new boundary condition. We find that while the thermodynamic functions obtained within the renormalized Jellium model are in a good agreement with their WS counterpart, the effective charges predicted by the two theories can be significantly different.

  19. Renormalization of the Polyakov loop with gradient flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petreczky, P.; Schadler, H.-P.

    2015-11-01

    We use the gradient flow for the renormalization of the Polyakov loop in various representations. Using 2 +1 flavor QCD with highly improved staggered quarks and lattices with temporal extents of Nτ=6 , 8, 10 and 12 we calculate the renormalized Polyakov loop in many representations including fundamental, sextet, adjoint, decuplet, 15-plet, 24-plet and 27-plet. This approach allows for the calculations of the renormalized Polyakov loops over a large temperature range from T =116 MeV up to T =815 MeV , with small errors not only for the Polyakov loop in fundamental representation, but also for the Polyakov loops in higher representations. We compare our results with standard renormalization schemes and discuss the Casimir scaling of the Polyakov loops.

  20. Renormalization of the Brazilian chiral nucleon-nucleon potential

    SciTech Connect

    Da Rocha, Carlos A.; Timoteo, Varese S.

    2013-03-25

    In this work we present a renormalization of the Brazilian nucleon-nucleon (NN) potential using a subtractive method. We show that the exchange of correlated two pion is important for isovector channels, mainly in tensor and central potentials.

  1. Cohomologies of Configuration Spaces and Higher-Dimensional Polylogarithms in Renormalization Group Problems

    SciTech Connect

    Nikolov, Nikolay M.

    2010-06-17

    The deviation from commutativity of the renormalization and the action of all linear partial differential operators is the main source of the anomalies in quantum field theory, including the renormalization group action. This deviation is characterized by certain 'renormalization cocycles' that are related to cohomologies of the so called (ordered) configuration spaces. Cohomological differential equations that determine the renormalization cocycles up to the renormalization freedom are obtained. The solution of these equations requires introducing transcendental extensions related to higher-dimensional polylogarithms.

  2. Real-space renormalization in statistical mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Efrati, Efi; Wang, Zhe; Kolan, Amy; Kadanoff, Leo P.

    2014-04-01

    This review compares the conceptualization and practice of early real-space renormalization group methods with the conceptualization of more recent real-space transformations based on tensor networks. For specificity, it focuses upon two basic methods: the "potential-moving" approach most used in the period 1975-1980 and the "rewiring method" as it has been developed in the last five years. The newer method, part of a development called the tensor renormalization group, was originally based on principles of quantum entanglement. It is specialized for computing approximations for tensor products constituting, for example, the free energy or the ground state energy of a large system. It can attack a wide variety of problems, including quantum problems, which would otherwise be intractable. The older method is formulated in terms of spin variables and permits a straightforward construction and analysis of fixed points in rather transparent terms. However, in the form described here it is unsystematic, offers no path for improvement, and of unknown reliability. The new method is formulated in terms of index variables which may be considered as linear combinations of the statistical variables. Free energies emerge naturally, but fixed points are more subtle. Further, physical interpretations of the index variables are often elusive due to a gauge symmetry which allows only selected combinations of tensor entries to have physical significance. In applications, both methods employ analyses with varying degrees of complexity. The complexity is parametrized by an integer called χ (or D in the recent literature). Both methods are examined in action by using them to compute fixed points related to Ising models for small values of the complexity parameter. They behave quite differently. The old method gives a reasonably good picture of the fixed point, as measured, for example, by the accuracy of the measured critical indices. This happens at low values of χ, but there is no

  3. Renormalization in Coulomb-gauge QCD within the Lagrangian formalism

    SciTech Connect

    Niegawa, A.

    2006-08-15

    We study renormalization of Coulomb-gauge QCD within the Lagrangian, second-order, formalism. We derive a Ward identity and the Zinn-Justin equation, and, with the help of the latter, we give a proof of algebraic renormalizability of the theory. Through diagrammatic analysis, we show that, in the strict Coulomb gauge, g{sup 2}D{sup 00} is invariant under renormalization. (D{sup 00} is the time-time component of the gluon propagator.)

  4. Renormalization of curvature elastic constants for elastic and fluid membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ami, S.; Kleinert, H.

    1987-02-01

    We study the fluctuations of membranes with area and curvature elasticity and calculate the renormalization of the curvature elastic constants due to thermal fluctuations. For the mean curvature elastic constant the result is the same as obtained previously for “ideal membranes” which resist only to curvature deformations. The renormalization of the gaussian curvature, on the other hand, depends on the elastic contants. In an incompressible membrane, it is five times weaker than in an ideal membrane.

  5. Protection of Non-Human Primates against Rabies with an Adenovirus Recombinant Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Xiang, Z.Q.; Greenberg, L.; Ertl, H. C.; Rupprecht, C.E.

    2014-01-01

    Rabies remains a major neglected global zoonosis. New vaccine strategies are needed for human rabies prophylaxis. A single intramuscular immunization with a moderate dose of an experimental chimpanzee adenovirus (Ad) vector serotype SAd-V24, also termed AdC68, expressing the rabies virus glycoprotein, resulted in sustained titers of rabies virus neutralizing antibodies and protection against a lethal rabies virus challenge infection in a non-human primate model. Taken together, these data demonstrate the safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy of the recombinant Ad-rabies vector for further consideration in human clinical trials. PMID:24503087

  6. Protection of non-human primates against rabies with an adenovirus recombinant vaccine.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Z Q; Greenberg, L; Ertl, H C; Rupprecht, C E

    2014-02-01

    Rabies remains a major neglected global zoonosis. New vaccine strategies are needed for human rabies prophylaxis. A single intramuscular immunization with a moderate dose of an experimental chimpanzee adenovirus (Ad) vector serotype SAd-V24, also termed AdC68, expressing the rabies virus glycoprotein, resulted in sustained titers of rabies virus neutralizing antibodies and protection against a lethal rabies virus challenge infection in a non-human primate model. Taken together, these data demonstrate the safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy of the recombinant Ad-rabies vector for further consideration in human clinical trials. PMID:24503087

  7. DLA with two species: Renormalization-group method renormalization-group method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Fuxuan; Li, Houqiang; Liu, De; Lin, Libin

    1998-12-01

    In this paper, we have studied the structure of DLA with two species by using the kinetic real-space renormalization group method introduced by Wang. Following the RG rules and growth processor, We have gained the configuration of 2×2 cell, calculated the fractal dimensions, multifractal spectra, and free energy when different value of p are applied. And we studied the problem of phase transition with different value of p. Our results demonstrate that the change of p doesn't affect the fractal dimension, but can affect the multifractal spectrum and the phase transition.

  8. Rabies DNA vaccines for protection and therapeutic treatment.

    PubMed

    Lodmell, D L

    1999-02-01

    Rabies is a successful zoonotic disease that has persisted over time, achieving worldwide distribution in a variety of species. Annually, in developing countries with limited access to high-quality antirabies biologics, approximately 50,000 individuals and millions of animals die of rabies. Many of these countries continue to use vaccines produced in sheep, goat or suckling mouse brain, with ultraviolet light or phenol inactivation of the virus. Although there are several efficacious rabies vaccines derived from cultured cells, such as the human diploid cell vaccine, they are costly to produce and prohibitively expensive for developing countries. DNA vaccines offer a new and powerful approach for the generation of needed vaccines. They are stable, inexpensive to produce, easy to construct and induce a full spectrum of long-lasting humoral and cellular immune responses. This review concerns the present state of rabies DNA vaccines, and addresses the technology that may enhance their therapeutic efficacy. PMID:15992067

  9. Community Survey after Rabies Outbreaks, Flagstaff, Arizona, USA

    PubMed Central

    Blanton, Jesse D.; Holman, Robert C.; Callinan, Laura S.; Baty, Steven; Phillips, Randy; Callahan, Michael; Levy, Craig; Komatsu, Ken; Sunenshine, Rebecca; Bergman, David L.; Rupprecht, Charles E.

    2012-01-01

    Flagstaff, Arizona, USA, experienced notable outbreaks of rabies caused by a bat rabies virus variant in carnivore species in 2001, 2004, 2005, 2008, and 2009. The most recent epizootic involved transmission among skunk and fox populations and human exposures. Multiple, wide-ranging control efforts and health communications outreach were instituted in 2009, including a household survey given to community members. Although the Flagstaff community is knowledgeable about rabies and the ongoing outbreaks in general, gaps in knowledge about routes of exposure and potential hosts remain. Future educational efforts should include messages on the dangers of animal translocation and a focus on veterinarians and physicians as valuable sources for outreach. These results will be useful to communities experiencing rabies outbreaks as well as those at current risk. PMID:22607999

  10. Vaccinating the vampire bat Desmodus rotundus against rabies.

    PubMed

    Almeida, M F; Martorelli, L F A; Aires, C C; Barros, R F; Massad, E

    2008-11-01

    The objective of this study was to extend the previous work of indirect oral rabies immunization of vampire bats (Desmodus rotundus) maintained in captivity, which demonstrated the immunogenicity of the V-RG vaccine (Vaccinia-Rabies Glycoprotein) and indicated that although the results had been encouraging, a new method for concentrating the vaccine should be tested in order to avoid vaccine loss and increase the survival proportion of bats after rabies challenge. In this study, three groups of seven bats each were tested with vaccine concentrated by ultrafiltration through a cellulose membrane. The vaccine was homogenized in Vaseline paste and applied to the back of one vector bat, which was then reintroduced into its group. A dose of 10(5.0) MICLD(50) rabies virus was used by intramuscular route to challenge the bats postvaccination. The survival proportion in the three groups after the challenge was 71.4%, 71.4% and 100%. PMID:18761044

  11. Immunization against Rabies with Plant-Derived Antigen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Modelska, Anna; Dietzschold, Bernard; Sleysh, N.; Fu, Zhen Fang; Steplewski, Klaudia; Hooper, D. Craig; Koprowski, Hilary; Yusibov, Vidadi

    1998-03-01

    We previously demonstrated that recombinant plant virus particles containing a chimeric peptide representing two rabies virus epitopes stimulate virus neutralizing antibody synthesis in immunized mice. We show here that mice immunized intraperitoneally or orally (by gastric intubation or by feeding on virus-infected spinach leaves) with engineered plant virus particles containing rabies antigen mount a local and systemic immune response. After the third dose of antigen, given intraperitoneally, 40% of the mice were protected against challenge infection with a lethal dose of rabies virus. Oral administration of the antigen stimulated serum IgG and IgA synthesis and ameliorated the clinical signs caused by intranasal infection with an attenuated rabies virus strain.

  12. What Is the Rabies Risk for My Pet?

    MedlinePlus

    ... as having been exposed to rabies. Unvaccinated dogs, cats, and ferrets exposed to a rabid animal should ... on a case-by-case basis. Dogs and cats that are currently vaccinated are kept under observation ...

  13. What Are the Signs and Symptoms of Rabies?

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2008 Rabies in Domestic Animals, 1958-2008 Rabid Cats Reported in the United States, 2008 Rabid Dogs ... Reported in the United States during 2009 Rabid Cats Reported in the United States during 2009 Rabid ...

  14. Rabies Exposure: When Should I Seek Medical Attention?

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2008 Rabies in Domestic Animals, 1958-2008 Rabid Cats Reported in the United States, 2008 Rabid Dogs ... Reported in the United States during 2009 Rabid Cats Reported in the United States during 2009 Rabid ...

  15. Rabies: What If I Receive Treatment Outside the United States?

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2008 Rabies in Domestic Animals, 1958-2008 Rabid Cats Reported in the United States, 2008 Rabid Dogs ... Reported in the United States during 2009 Rabid Cats Reported in the United States during 2009 Rabid ...

  16. Community survey after rabies outbreaks, Flagstaff, Arizona, USA.

    PubMed

    McCollum, Andrea M; Blanton, Jesse D; Holman, Robert C; Callinan, Laura S; Baty, Steven; Phillips, Randy; Callahan, Michael; Levy, Craig; Komatsu, Ken; Sunenshine, Rebecca; Bergman, David L; Rupprecht, Charles E

    2012-06-01

    Flagstaff, Arizona, USA, experienced notable outbreaks of rabies caused by a bat rabies virus variant in carnivore species in 2001, 2004, 2005, 2008, and 2009. The most recent epizootic involved transmission among skunk and fox populations and human exposures. Multiple, wide-ranging control efforts and health communications outreach were instituted in 2009, including a household survey given to community members. Although the Flagstaff community is knowledgeable about rabies and the ongoing outbreaks in general, gaps in knowledge about routes of exposure and potential hosts remain. Future educational efforts should include messages on the dangers of animal translocation and a focus on veterinarians and physicians as valuable sources for outreach. These results will be useful to communities experiencing rabies outbreaks as well as those at current risk. PMID:22607999

  17. Typing of the rabies virus in Chile, 2002-2008.

    PubMed

    Yung, V; Favi, M; Fernandez, J

    2012-12-01

    In Chile, dog rabies has been controlled and insectivorous bats have been identified as the main rabies reservoir. This study aimed to determine the rabies virus (RABV) variants circulating in the country between 2002 and 2008. A total of 612 RABV isolates were tested using a panel with eight monoclonal antibodies against the viral nucleoprotein (N-mAbs) for antigenic typing, and a product of 320-bp of the nucleoprotein gene was sequenced from 99 isolates. Typing of the isolates revealed six different antigenic variants but phylogenetic analysis identified four clusters associated with four different bat species. Tadarida brasiliensis bats were confirmed as the main reservoir. This methodology identified several independent rabies enzootics maintained by different species of insectivorous bats in Chile. PMID:22458941

  18. Immunization against rabies with plant-derived antigen

    PubMed Central

    Modelska, Anna; Dietzschold, Bernard; Sleysh, N.; Fu, Zhen Fang; Steplewski, Klaudia; Hooper, D. Craig; Koprowski, Hilary; Yusibov, Vidadi

    1998-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that recombinant plant virus particles containing a chimeric peptide representing two rabies virus epitopes stimulate virus neutralizing antibody synthesis in immunized mice. We show here that mice immunized intraperitoneally or orally (by gastric intubation or by feeding on virus-infected spinach leaves) with engineered plant virus particles containing rabies antigen mount a local and systemic immune response. After the third dose of antigen, given intraperitoneally, 40% of the mice were protected against challenge infection with a lethal dose of rabies virus. Oral administration of the antigen stimulated serum IgG and IgA synthesis and ameliorated the clinical signs caused by intranasal infection with an attenuated rabies virus strain. PMID:9482911

  19. Renormalization of stochastic lattice models: basic formulation.

    PubMed

    Haselwandter, Christoph A; Vvedensky, Dimitri D

    2007-10-01

    We describe a general method for the multiscale analysis of stochastic lattice models. Beginning with a lattice Langevin formulation of site fluctuations, we derive stochastic partial differential equations by regularizing the transition rules of the model. Subsequent coarse graining is accomplished by calculating renormalization-group (RG) trajectories from initial conditions determined by the regularized atomistic models. The RG trajectories correspond to hierarchies of continuum equations describing lattice models over expanding length and time scales. These continuum equations retain a quantitative connection over different scales, as well as to the underlying atomistic dynamics. This provides a systematic method for the derivation of continuum equations from the transition rules of lattice models for any length and time scales. As an illustration we consider the one-dimensional (1D) Wolf-Villain (WV) model [Europhys. Lett. 13, 389 (1990)]. The RG analysis of this model, which we develop in detail, is generic and can be applied to a wide range of conservative lattice models. The RG trajectory of the 1D WV model shows a complex crossover sequence of linear and nonlinear stochastic differential equations, which is in excellent agreement with kinetic Monte Carlo simulations of this model. We conclude by discussing possible applications of the multiscale method described here to other nonequilibrium systems. PMID:17994944

  20. Applying Renormalization Group Techniques to Nuclear Reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eldredge, Zachary; Bogner, Scott; Nunes, Filomena

    2013-10-01

    Nuclear reactions are commonly used to explore the physics of unstable nuclei. Therefore, it is important that accurate, computationally favorable methods exist to describe them. Reaction models often make use of effective nucleon-nucleus potentials (optical potentials) which fit low-energy scattering data and include an imaginary component to account for the removal of flux from the elastic channel. When describing reactions in momentum space, the coupling between low- and high-momentum states can pose a technical challenge. We would like potentials which allow us to compute low-momentum interactions without including highly virtual momentum states. A solution to this problem is to apply renormalization group (RG) techniques to produce a new effective potential in which high and low momentum degrees of freedom are decoupled, so that we need only consider momenta below some cutoff. This poster will present results relating to an implementation of RG techniques on optical potentials, including complex potentials and spin-orbit effects. We show that our evolved optical potentials reproduce bound states and scattering phase shifts without the inclusion of any momenta above a selected cutoff, and compare new potentials to old ones to examine the effect of transformation.

  1. Polarizable Embedding Density Matrix Renormalization Group.

    PubMed

    Hedegård, Erik D; Reiher, Markus

    2016-09-13

    The polarizable embedding (PE) approach is a flexible embedding model where a preselected region out of a larger system is described quantum mechanically, while the interaction with the surrounding environment is modeled through an effective operator. This effective operator represents the environment by atom-centered multipoles and polarizabilities derived from quantum mechanical calculations on (fragments of) the environment. Thereby, the polarization of the environment is explicitly accounted for. Here, we present the coupling of the PE approach with the density matrix renormalization group (DMRG). This PE-DMRG method is particularly suitable for embedded subsystems that feature a dense manifold of frontier orbitals which requires large active spaces. Recovering such static electron-correlation effects in multiconfigurational electronic structure problems, while accounting for both electrostatics and polarization of a surrounding environment, allows us to describe strongly correlated electronic structures in complex molecular environments. We investigate various embedding potentials for the well-studied first excited state of water with active spaces that correspond to a full configuration-interaction treatment. Moreover, we study the environment effect on the first excited state of a retinylidene Schiff base within a channelrhodopsin protein. For this system, we also investigate the effect of dynamical correlation included through short-range density functional theory. PMID:27537835

  2. Quark lepton complementarity and renormalization group effects

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, Michael A.; Smirnov, Alexei Yu.

    2006-12-01

    We consider a scenario for the quark-lepton complementarity relations between mixing angles in which the bimaximal mixing follows from the neutrino mass matrix. According to this scenario in the lowest order the angle {theta}{sub 12} is {approx}1{sigma} (1.5 degree sign -2 degree sign ) above the best fit point coinciding practically with the tribimaximal mixing prediction. Realization of this scenario in the context of the seesaw type-I mechanism with leptonic Dirac mass matrices approximately equal to the quark mass matrices is studied. We calculate the renormalization group corrections to {theta}{sub 12} as well as to {theta}{sub 13} in the standard model (SM) and minimal supersymmetric standard model (MSSM). We find that in a large part of the parameter space corrections {delta}{theta}{sub 12} are small or negligible. In the MSSM version of the scenario, the correction {delta}{theta}{sub 12} is in general positive. Small negative corrections appear in the case of an inverted mass hierarchy and opposite CP parities of {nu}{sub 1} and {nu}{sub 2} when leading contributions to {theta}{sub 12} running are strongly suppressed. The corrections are negative in the SM version in a large part of the parameter space for values of the relative CP phase of {nu}{sub 1} and {nu}{sub 2}: {phi}>{pi}/2.

  3. Nonperturbative Renormalization Group Approach to Polymerized Membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Essafi, Karim; Kownacki, Jean-Philippe; Mouhanna, Dominique

    2014-03-01

    Membranes or membrane-like materials play an important role in many fields ranging from biology to physics. These systems form a very rich domain in statistical physics. The interplay between geometry and thermal fluctuations lead to exciting phases such flat, tubular and disordered flat phases. Roughly speaking, membranes can be divided into two group: fluid membranes in which the molecules are free to diffuse and thus no shear modulus. On the other hand, in polymerized membranes the connectivity is fixed which leads to elastic forces. This difference between fluid and polymerized membranes leads to a difference in their critical behaviour. For instance, fluid membranes are always crumpled, whereas polymerized membranes exhibit a phase transition between a crumpled phase and a flat phase. In this talk, I will focus only on polymerized phantom, i.e. non-self-avoiding, membranes. The critical behaviour of both isotropic and anisotropic polymerized membranes are studied using a nonperturbative renormalization group approach (NPRG). This allows for the investigation of the phase transitions and the low temperature flat phase in any internal dimension D and embedding d. Interestingly, graphene behaves just as a polymerized membrane in its flat phase.

  4. A recombinant rabies virus expressing vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein fails to protect against rabies virus infection

    PubMed Central

    Foley, Heather D.; McGettigan, James P.; Siler, Catherine A.; Dietzschold, Bernhard; Schnell, Matthias J.

    2000-01-01

    To investigate the importance of the rabies virus (RV) glycoprotein (G) in protection against rabies, we constructed a recombinant RV (rRV) in which the RV G ecto- and transmembrane domains were replaced with the corresponding regions of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) glycoprotein (rRV-VSV-G). We were able to recover rRV-VSV-G and found that particle production was equal to rRV. However, the budding of the chimeric virus was delayed and infectious titers were reduced 10-fold compared with the parental rRV strain containing RV G. Biochemical analysis showed equal replication rates of both viruses, and similar amounts of wild-type and chimeric G were present in the respective viral particles. Additional studies were performed to determine whether the immune response against rRV-VSV-G was sufficient to protect against rabies. Mice were primed with rRV or rRV-VSV-G and challenged with a pathogenic strain of RV 12 days later. Similar immune responses against the internal viral proteins of both viruses indicated successful infection. All mice receiving the rRV vaccine survived the challenge, whereas immunization with rRV-VSV-G did not induce protection. The results confirm the crucial role of RV G in an RV vaccine. PMID:11114165

  5. Use of latex agglutination test to determine rabies antibodies in production of rabies antisera in horses.

    PubMed

    Saengseesom, Wachiraporn; Kasempimolporn, Songsri; Akesowan, Surasak; Ouisuwan, Suraseha; Sitprija, Visith

    2010-11-01

    A therapeutic anti-rabies immunoglobulin for human use has been produced mainly in horses. The presently available seroneutralization test, the rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test (RFFIT), is laborious and rather difficult to carry out in horse farms. This study was undertaken to develop a simple latex agglutination test (LAT) for determining rabies antibodies in horse sera. LAT was validated by testing a total of 468 horse serum samples characterized by RFFIT. Of these, 253 of 260 samples with antibody titers of less than 100 IU/ml had agglutination score of 1+, whereas 174 of 208 samples with antibody titers equal to or greater than 100 IU/ml had agglutination scores of 2-4+. Results of LAT correlated with those of RFFIT (r = 0.87, p < 0.0001). LAT has the advantages of being rapid, simple to perform, easy to interpret, and applicable as an on-site testing tool for the estimation of rabies antibodies in horses. PMID:21329315

  6. New approaches to the development of live attenuated rabies vaccines.

    PubMed

    Dietzschold, Bernhard; Schnell, Matthias J

    2002-04-01

    In the United States, extensive reservoirs of the rabies virus exist in many diverse wild animal species, which continue to pose a serious risk of lethal infection of humans and cause an economic burden exceeding $1 billion annually. Previous experience with rabies control in foxes in Europe has clearly demonstrated that oral immunization with live vaccines is the only practical approach to eradicate rabies in free-ranging animals. However, unlike Europe where vulpine rabies was the only major reservoir, the Americas harbor a variety of species including raccoons, skunks, coyotes, and bats that serve as the primary reservoirs of rabies. Each of these animal reservoirs carries an antigenically distinct virus variant. The currently available modified-live rabies virus vaccines have either safety problems or do not induce sufficient protective immunity in particular wildlife species. Therefore, there is a need for the development of new live rabies virus vaccines that are very safe and highly effective in particular wildlife species. Based on previous observations indicating that the potency of a vaccine is significantly increased if the G protein of the vaccine strain is identical to that of the target virus, we have used a reverse genetics approach to engineer viruses that contain G proteins from virus strains associated with relevant wildlife species. Furthermore, because our recent data also indicate that the pathogenicity of a particular rabies virus strain is inversely proportional to its ability to induce apoptosis and that low-level apoptosis-inducing ability is associated with low anti-viral immune responses, we inserted genes encoding pro-apoptotic proteins to stimulate immunity or otherwise interfere with viral pathogenesis into these recombinant viruses to enhance their efficacy and safety. PMID:12031103

  7. A generic rabies risk assessment tool to support surveillance.

    PubMed

    Ward, Michael P; Hernández-Jover, Marta

    2015-06-01

    The continued spread of rabies in Indonesia poses a risk to human and animal populations in the remaining free islands, as well as the neighbouring rabies-free countries of Timor Leste, Papua New Guinea and Australia. Here we describe the development of a generic risk assessment tool which can be used to rapidly determine the vulnerability of rabies-free islands, so that scarce resources can be targeted to surveillance activities and the sensitivity of surveillance systems increased. The tool was developed by integrating information on the historical spread of rabies, anthropological studies, and the opinions of local animal health experts. The resulting tool is based on eight critical parameters that can be estimated from the literature, expert opinion, observational studies and information generated from routine surveillance. In the case study presented, results generated by this tool were most sensitive to the probability that dogs are present on private and fishing boats and it was predicted that rabies-infection (one infected case) might occur in a rabies-free island (upper 95% prediction interval) with a volume of 1000 boats movements. With 25,000 boat movements, the median of the probability distribution would be equal to one infected case, with an upper 95% prediction interval of six infected cases. This tool could also be used at the national-level to guide control and eradication plans. An initial recommendation from this study is to develop a surveillance programme to determine the likelihood that boats transport dogs, for example by port surveillance or regularly conducted surveys of fisherman and passenger ferries. However, the illegal nature of dog transportation from rabies-infected to rabies-free islands is a challenge for developing such surveillance. PMID:25466214

  8. STUDIES ON THE PATHOGENESIS OF RABIES IN INSECTIVOROUS BATS

    PubMed Central

    Sulkin, S. Edward; Krutzsch, Philip H.; Allen, Rae; Wallis, Craig

    1959-01-01

    Studies on the pathogenesis of rabies in two species of experimentally infected insectivorous Chiroptera, the Mexican free-tailed bat (Tadarida mexicana), a quasi hibernator, and the little brown bat (Myotis lucifugus), a deep hibernator, provided evidence that brown adipose tissue may serve as an extraneural site for storage and multiplication of rabies virus. Although the Mexican free-tailed bat proved to be relatively insusceptible to experimental rabies infection, virus was demonstrated in the brown fat of 22 per cent of those animals shown to be infected by viral assay in white Swiss mice. Rabies infection in this species was most evident 20 to 40 days after intramuscular inoculation of virus. Rabies virus was found to be widely distributed in the little brown myotis 9 to 26 days following inoculation and virus concentrations in some of the tissues approached the level of the stock mouse brain virus suspension used in inoculating these bats. The shorter incubation period and higher virus titers in the tissues assayed reflect the increased susceptibility of Myotis lucifugus as compared with the Mexican free-tailed bat. Virus was demonstrated in the brown fat of 30 per cent of the experimentally infected Myotis. In the experimentally infected Myotis lucifugus and in the Syrian hamster which is highly susceptible to rabies infection, rabies virus was isolated more frequently from the brown fat than from the salivary gland indicating that in a susceptible host brown adipose tissue may be as frequent a site of viral proliferation as salivary gland. Since rabies virus was found to persist for long periods of time in the brown fat of experimentally infected bats and was occasionally demonstrated in this tissue alone, it is suggested that brown adipose tissue provides a mechanism by which these animals may serve as reservoirs for this agent in nature. The possibility that similar mechanisms may be involved in the maintenance of other viral agents during interepidemic

  9. Identification of a Role for Nucleolin in Rabies Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Oksayan, S.; Nikolic, J.; David, C. T.; Blondel, D.; Jans, D. A.

    2014-01-01

    Rabies virus replicates in the cytoplasm of host cells, but rabies virus phosphoprotein (P-protein) undergoes active nucleocytoplasmic trafficking. Here we show that the largely nuclear P-protein isoform P3 can localize to nucleoli and forms specific interactions with nucleolin. Importantly, depletion of nucleolin expression inhibits viral protein expression and infectious virus production by infected cells. This provides the first evidence that lyssaviruses interact with nucleolin and that nucleolin is important to lyssavirus infection. PMID:25428867

  10. Identification of a role for nucleolin in rabies virus infection.

    PubMed

    Oksayan, S; Nikolic, J; David, C T; Blondel, D; Jans, D A; Moseley, G W

    2015-02-01

    Rabies virus replicates in the cytoplasm of host cells, but rabies virus phosphoprotein (P-protein) undergoes active nucleocytoplasmic trafficking. Here we show that the largely nuclear P-protein isoform P3 can localize to nucleoli and forms specific interactions with nucleolin. Importantly, depletion of nucleolin expression inhibits viral protein expression and infectious virus production by infected cells. This provides the first evidence that lyssaviruses interact with nucleolin and that nucleolin is important to lyssavirus infection. PMID:25428867

  11. Predictive qualitative risk model of bovine rabies occurrence in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Braga, Guilherme Basseto; Grisi-Filho, José Henrique Hildebrand; Leite, Bruno Meireles; de Sena, Elaine Fátima; Dias, Ricardo Augusto

    2014-03-01

    Bovine rabies remains endemic in Brazil and despite control efforts, the disease still spreads insidiously. The main vector is the hematophagous bat, Desmodus rotundus. The present work aimed to create a predictive qualitative model of the occurrence of bovine rabies in each municipality in 25 of the 27 Brazilian States. The risk of rabies transmission from bats to bovine was estimated using decision-tree models of receptivity and vulnerability. Questionnaires, which covered a number of questions related to the surveillance of possible risk factors, such as bovine rabies outbreaks in the previous year, the presence of bat roosts, bat rabies positivity and environmental changes, were sent to the local veterinary units of each State. The bovine density and geomorphologic features were obtained from national databases and geographic information systems. Of the 433 municipalities presenting bovine rabies outbreaks in 2010, 178 (41.1%) were classified by the model as high risk, 212 (49.0%) were classified as moderate risk, 25 (5.8%) were classified as low risk, whereas the risk was undetermined in 18 municipalities (4.1%). An ROC curve was built to determine if the risk evaluated by the model could adequately discriminate between municipalities with and without rabies occurrence in future years. The risk estimator for the year 2011 was classified as moderately accurate. In the future, these models could allow the targeting of rabies control efforts, with the adoption of control measures directed to the higher risk locations and the optimization of the field veterinary staff deployment throughout the country. Additionally, efforts must be made to encourage continuous surveillance of risk factors. PMID:24433635

  12. Estimating the Global Burden of Endemic Canine Rabies

    PubMed Central

    Hampson, Katie; Coudeville, Laurent; Lembo, Tiziana; Sambo, Maganga; Kieffer, Alexia; Attlan, Michaël; Barrat, Jacques; Blanton, Jesse D.; Briggs, Deborah J.; Cleaveland, Sarah; Costa, Peter; Freuling, Conrad M.; Hiby, Elly; Knopf, Lea; Leanes, Fernando; Meslin, François-Xavier; Metlin, Artem; Miranda, Mary Elizabeth; Müller, Thomas; Nel, Louis H.; Recuenco, Sergio; Rupprecht, Charles E.; Schumacher, Carolin; Taylor, Louise; Vigilato, Marco Antonio Natal; Zinsstag, Jakob; Dushoff, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Background Rabies is a notoriously underreported and neglected disease of low-income countries. This study aims to estimate the public health and economic burden of rabies circulating in domestic dog populations, globally and on a country-by-country basis, allowing an objective assessment of how much this preventable disease costs endemic countries. Methodology/Principal Findings We established relationships between rabies mortality and rabies prevention and control measures, which we incorporated into a model framework. We used data derived from extensive literature searches and questionnaires on disease incidence, control interventions and preventative measures within this framework to estimate the disease burden. The burden of rabies impacts on public health sector budgets, local communities and livestock economies, with the highest risk of rabies in the poorest regions of the world. This study estimates that globally canine rabies causes approximately 59,000 (95% Confidence Intervals: 25-159,000) human deaths, over 3.7 million (95% CIs: 1.6-10.4 million) disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) and 8.6 billion USD (95% CIs: 2.9-21.5 billion) economic losses annually. The largest component of the economic burden is due to premature death (55%), followed by direct costs of post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP, 20%) and lost income whilst seeking PEP (15.5%), with only limited costs to the veterinary sector due to dog vaccination (1.5%), and additional costs to communities from livestock losses (6%). Conclusions/Significance This study demonstrates that investment in dog vaccination, the single most effective way of reducing the disease burden, has been inadequate and that the availability and affordability of PEP needs improving. Collaborative investments by medical and veterinary sectors could dramatically reduce the current large, and unnecessary, burden of rabies on affected communities. Improved surveillance is needed to reduce uncertainty in burden estimates and to

  13. Assessing safety and immunogenicity of post-exposure prophylaxis following interchangeability of rabies vaccines in humans.

    PubMed

    Ravish, Hardanahalli S; Sudarshan, Mysore K; Madhusudana, Shampur N; Annadani, Rachana R; Narayana, Doddabele H Ashwath; Belludi, Ashwin Y; Anandaiah, Gangaboraiah; Vijayashankar, Veena

    2014-01-01

    Rabies post exposure prophylaxis with cell culture vaccines by either intramuscular route or intradermal route spans over a period of one month. World Health Organization recommends completing post exposure prophylaxis against rabies with the same cell culture or embryonated egg rabies vaccine and with same route of administration and any deviation from this shall be an exception. In the present study, the safety and immunogenicity of rabies post-exposure prophylaxis was studied prospectively in 90 animal bite cases that had interchangeability of rabies vaccines either by route of administration or brand/type and such changes had occurred due to logistical/financial problems. Among them, 47 had change in route of administration from intramuscular to intradermal or vice versa and 43 had change in the brand/type of cell culture rabies vaccine. All of them had category III rabies exposure and received equine rabies immunoglobulin along with the rabies vaccine. None of the study subjects had any adverse reactions. The rabies virus neutralizing antibody titers was assessed by rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test and all the vaccinees had titers ≥0.5 IU per mL on day 14 which is considered as adequate for protection against rabies. Thus, the present study showed that, rabies post-exposure prophylaxis was safe and immunogenic despite changes in the route of administration and brand/type of rabies vaccine. PMID:24584134

  14. Assessing safety and immunogenicity of post-exposure prophylaxis following interchangeability of rabies vaccines in humans

    PubMed Central

    Ravish, Hardanahalli S; Sudarshan, Mysore K; Madhusudana, Shampur N; Annadani, Rachana R; Narayana, Doddabele H Ashwath; Belludi, Ashwin Y; Anandaiah, Gangaboraiah; Vijayashankar, Veena

    2014-01-01

    Rabies post exposure prophylaxis with cell culture vaccines by either intramuscular route or intradermal route spans over a period of one month. World Health Organization recommends completing post exposure prophylaxis against rabies with the same cell culture or embryonated egg rabies vaccine and with same route of administration and any deviation from this shall be an exception. In the present study, the safety and immunogenicity of rabies post-exposure prophylaxis was studied prospectively in 90 animal bite cases that had interchangeability of rabies vaccines either by route of administration or brand/type and such changes had occurred due to logistical/financial problems. Among them, 47 had change in route of administration from intramuscular to intradermal or vice versa and 43 had change in the brand/type of cell culture rabies vaccine. All of them had category III rabies exposure and received equine rabies immunoglobulin along with the rabies vaccine. None of the study subjects had any adverse reactions. The rabies virus neutralizing antibody titers was assessed by rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test and all the vaccinees had titers ≥0.5 IU per mL on day 14 which is considered as adequate for protection against rabies. Thus, the present study showed that, rabies post-exposure prophylaxis was safe and immunogenic despite changes in the route of administration and brand/type of rabies vaccine. PMID:24584134

  15. Evolutionary History of Rabies in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Hayman, David T. S.; Johnson, Nicholas; Horton, Daniel L.; Hedge, Jessica; Wakeley, Philip R.; Banyard, Ashley C.; Zhang, Shoufeng; Alhassan, Andy; Fooks, Anthony R.

    2011-01-01

    Rabies virus (RABV) is enzootic throughout Africa, with the domestic dog (Canis familiaris) being the principal vector. Dog rabies is estimated to cause 24,000 human deaths per year in Africa, however, this estimate is still considered to be conservative. Two sub-Saharan African RABV lineages have been detected in West Africa. Lineage 2 is present throughout West Africa, whereas Africa 1a dominates in northern and eastern Africa, but has been detected in Nigeria and Gabon, and Africa 1b was previously absent from West Africa. We confirmed the presence of RABV in a cohort of 76 brain samples obtained from rabid animals in Ghana collected over an eighteen-month period (2007–2009). Phylogenetic analysis of the sequences obtained confirmed all viruses to be RABV, belonging to lineages previously detected in sub-Saharan Africa. However, unlike earlier reported studies that suggested a single lineage (Africa 2) circulates in West Africa, we identified viruses belonging to the Africa 2 lineage and both Africa 1 (a and b) sub-lineages. Phylogeographic Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo analysis of a 405 bp fragment of the RABV nucleoprotein gene from the 76 new sequences derived from Ghanaian animals suggest that within the Africa 2 lineage three clades co-circulate with their origins in other West African countries. Africa 1a is probably a western extension of a clade circulating in central Africa and the Africa 1b virus a probable recent introduction from eastern Africa. We also developed and tested a novel reverse-transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay for the detection of RABV in African laboratories. This RT-LAMP was shown to detect both Africa 1 and 2 viruses, including its adaptation to a lateral flow device format for product visualization. These data suggest that RABV epidemiology is more complex than previously thought in West Africa and that there have been repeated introductions of RABV into Ghana. This analysis highlights the

  16. Poxvirus-vectored vaccines for rabies--a review.

    PubMed

    Weyer, Jacqueline; Rupprecht, Charles E; Nel, Louis H

    2009-11-27

    Oral rabies vaccination of target reservoir species has proved to be one of the pillars of successful rabies elimination programs. The use of live attenuated rabies virus vaccines has been extensive but several limitations hamper its future use. A recombinant vaccinia-rabies vaccine has also been successfully used for the oral vaccination of several species. Nevertheless, its lack of efficacy in certain important rabies reservoirs and concerns on the use of this potent live virus as vaccine carrier (vector) impair the expansion of its use for new target species and new areas. Several attenuated and host-restricted poxvirus alternatives, which supposedly offer enhanced safety, have been investigated. Once again, efficacy in certain target species and innocuity through the oral route remain major limitations of these vaccines. Alternative recombinant vaccines using adenovirus as an antigen delivery vector have been extensively investigated and may provide an important addition to the currently available oral rabies vaccine repertoire, but are not the primary subject of this review. PMID:19925953

  17. A rapid immunochromatographic test strip for detecting rabies virus antibody.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hualei; Feng, Na; Yang, Songtao; Wang, Chengyu; Wang, Tiecheng; Gao, Yuwei; Su, Jianqing; Zheng, Xuexing; Hou, Xiaoqiang; Huang, Hainan; Yang, Ruimei; Zou, Xiaohuan; Huang, Geng; Xia, Xianzhu

    2010-12-01

    An immunochromatographic test strip (ICTS) for detecting antibodies to rabies virus was developed, using colloidal gold particles labeled with rabies virus glycoprotein as the tracer. The assay was evaluated using sera from dogs immunized with various commercial rabies vaccines, or from dogs in the clinics and sera from dogs immunized with vaccines against pathogens other than rabies virus, and negative sera from a wide variety of animal sources, including dogs, mice, and cats which had never been vaccinated. The ICTS was found to be highly specific for antibodies against rabies virus, with a detection limit of 0.5IU/ml as measured by the fluorescent antibody virus neutralization (FAVN) test. Compared with the FAVN test, the specificity and sensitivity of ICTS were 98.2% and 90.4%, respectively. There was an excellent agreement between results obtained by the ICTS and FAVN tests (kappa=0.888). Strips stored at 4°C in a plastic bag with a desiccant retained their specificity and sensitivity for at least 15 months, and strips stored at ambient temperature remained stable for 12 months. The immunochromatographic test strip may therefore be useful for clinical laboratories lacking specialized equipment and for diagnosis in the field for rapid detection of rabies virus-specific antibodies. PMID:20837065

  18. Role of oxidative stress in rabies virus infection.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Alan C; Kammouni, Wafa; Fernyhough, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies in an experimental model of rabies indicated that there are major structural changes in the brain involving neuronal processes that are associated with severe clinical disease. Cultured adult mouse dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons are a good in vitro model for studying the mechanisms involved in rabies virus-induced degeneration of neurites (axons) because, unlike other neuronal cell types, these neurons are fairly permissive to rabies virus infection. DRG neurons infected with the challenge virus standard-11 (CVS) strain of rabies virus show axonal swellings and immunostaining for 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE), indicating evidence of lipid peroxidation associated with oxidative stress, and also reduced axonal growth in comparison with mock-infected DRG neurons. Treatment with the antioxidant N-acetyl cysteine prevented the reduction in axonal outgrowth that occurred with CVS infection. The axonal swellings with 4-HNE-labeled puncta were found to be associated with aggregations of actively respiring mitochondria. We postulate that rabies virus infection likely induces mitochondrial dysfunction resulting in oxidative stress and degenerative changes involving neuronal processes. This mitochondrial dysfunction may be the result of either direct or indirect effects of the virus on the mitochondrial electron-transport chain or it may occur through other mechanisms. Further investigations are needed to gain a better understanding of the basic mechanisms involved in the oxidative damage associated with rabies virus infection. This information may prove helpful in the design of future therapeutic effects for this dreaded ancient disease. PMID:21601046

  19. Host and viral ecology determine bat rabies seasonality and maintenance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    George, D.B.; Webb, C.T.; Farnsworth, Matthew L.; O'Shea, T.J.; Bowen, R.A.; Smith, D.L.; Stanley, T.R.; Ellison, L.E.; Rupprecht, C.E.

    2011-01-01

    Rabies is an acute viral infection that is typically fatal. Most rabies modeling has focused on disease dynamics and control within terrestrial mammals (e.g., raccoons and foxes). As such, rabies in bats has been largely neglected until recently. Because bats have been implicated as natural reservoirs for several emerging zoonotic viruses, including SARS-like corona viruses, henipaviruses, and lyssaviruses, understanding how pathogens are maintained within a population becomes vital. Unfortunately, little is known about maintenance mechanisms for any pathogen in bat populations. We present a mathematical model parameterized with unique data from an extensive study of rabies in a Colorado population of big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) to elucidate general maintenance mechanisms. We propose that life history patterns of many species of temperate-zone bats, coupled with sufficiently long incubation periods, allows for rabies virus maintenance. Seasonal variability in bat mortality rates, specifically low mortality during hibernation, allows long-term bat population viability. Within viable bat populations, sufficiently long incubation periods allow enough infected individuals to enter hibernation and survive until the following year, and hence avoid an epizootic fadeout of rabies virus. We hypothesize that the slowing effects of hibernation on metabolic and viral activity maintains infected individuals and their pathogens until susceptibles from the annual birth pulse become infected and continue the cycle. This research provides a context to explore similar host ecology and viral dynamics that may explain seasonal patterns and maintenance of other bat-borne diseases.

  20. Modeling the geographic spread of rabies in China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jing; Zou, Lan; Jin, Zhen; Ruan, Shigui

    2015-05-01

    In order to investigate how the movement of dogs affects the geographically inter-provincial spread of rabies in Mainland China, we propose a multi-patch model to describe the transmission dynamics of rabies between dogs and humans, in which each province is regarded as a patch. In each patch the submodel consists of susceptible, exposed, infectious, and vaccinated subpopulations of both dogs and humans and describes the spread of rabies among dogs and from infectious dogs to humans. The existence of the disease-free equilibrium is discussed, the basic reproduction number is calculated, and the effect of moving rates of dogs between patches on the basic reproduction number is studied. To investigate the rabies virus clades lineages, the two-patch submodel is used to simulate the human rabies data from Guizhou and Guangxi, Hebei and Fujian, and Sichuan and Shaanxi, respectively. It is found that the basic reproduction number of the two-patch model could be larger than one even if the isolated basic reproduction number of each patch is less than one. This indicates that the immigration of dogs may make the disease endemic even if the disease dies out in each isolated patch when there is no immigration. In order to reduce and prevent geographical spread of rabies in China, our results suggest that the management of dog markets and trades needs to be regulated, and transportation of dogs has to be better monitored and under constant surveillance. PMID:26020234

  1. Modeling the Geographic Spread of Rabies in China

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jing; Zou, Lan; Jin, Zhen; Ruan, Shigui

    2015-01-01

    In order to investigate how the movement of dogs affects the geographically inter-provincial spread of rabies in Mainland China, we propose a multi-patch model to describe the transmission dynamics of rabies between dogs and humans, in which each province is regarded as a patch. In each patch the submodel consists of susceptible, exposed, infectious, and vaccinated subpopulations of both dogs and humans and describes the spread of rabies among dogs and from infectious dogs to humans. The existence of the disease-free equilibrium is discussed, the basic reproduction number is calculated, and the effect of moving rates of dogs between patches on the basic reproduction number is studied. To investigate the rabies virus clades lineages, the two-patch submodel is used to simulate the human rabies data from Guizhou and Guangxi, Hebei and Fujian, and Sichuan and Shaanxi, respectively. It is found that the basic reproduction number of the two-patch model could be larger than one even if the isolated basic reproduction number of each patch is less than one. This indicates that the immigration of dogs may make the disease endemic even if the disease dies out in each isolated patch when there is no immigration. In order to reduce and prevent geographical spread of rabies in China, our results suggest that the management of dog markets and trades needs to be regulated, and transportation of dogs has to be better monitored and under constant surveillance. PMID:26020234

  2. A sensitive in vitro assay for the detection of residual viable rabies virus in inactivated rabies vaccines.

    PubMed

    Takayama-Ito, Mutsuyo; Nakamichi, Kazuo; Kinoshita, Hitomi; Kakiuchi, Satsuki; Kurane, Ichiro; Saijo, Masayuki; Lim, Chang-Kweng

    2014-01-01

    Rabies is a viral disease transmitted through bites from rabid animals and can be prevented by vaccines. Clinically used rabies vaccines are prepared from inactivated rabies viruses grown in cell cultures or embryonated eggs. In Japan and across the world, tests that confirm complete inactivation, such as the in vivo suckling mouse assay, in which suckling mice are intracerebrally inoculated with vaccine products, are required for quality control. In this study, we developed a novel cell-based immunofluorescence assay that does not require mice for testing rabies vaccine inactivation for human use. The sensitivity of this cell-based in vitro assay was 5.7 times that of the in vivo suckling mouse assay, with a detection limit of one focus forming units per ml of test sample. This newly developed in vitro assay may replace the established in vivo suckling mouse assay for confirming viral vaccine inactivation. PMID:24321529

  3. Frequency-modulated excitation of potassium atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Xianzhou; Jiang, Hongmin; Rao, Jianguo; Li, Baiwen

    2003-08-01

    A time-dependent perturbation method is proposed to study the properties of the frequency-modulated excitation of a potassium atom. Rabi oscillations in the absence of a modulation, square-wave oscillations in the presence of slow modulation, and radio-frequency multiphoton resonances in the presence of fast modulation have been calculated using this method. The numerical results are in excellent agreement with those of the experiment; novel explanations have been given to understand some of the experimental results.

  4. Remark on the subtractive renormalization of the quadratically divergent scalar mass

    SciTech Connect

    Fujikawa, Kazuo

    2011-05-15

    The quadratically divergent scalar mass is subtractively renormalized unlike other divergences which are multiplicatively renormalized. We reexamine some technical aspects of the subtractive renormalization, in particular, the mass-independent renormalization of massive {lambda}{phi}{sup 4} theory with higher derivative regularization. We then discuss an unconventional scheme to introduce the notion of renormalization point {mu} to the subtractive renormalization in a theory defined by a large fixed cutoff M. The resulting renormalization group equation generally becomes inhomogeneous, but it is transformed to be homogeneous. The renormalized scalar mass consists of two components in this scheme, one with the ordinary anomalous dimension and the other which is proportional to the renormalization scale {mu}. This scheme interpolates between the theory defined by dimensional regularization and the theory with unsubtracted quadratic divergences.

  5. Duality and holographic renormalization group flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halmagyi, Nicholas

    This thesis contains a detailed study of holographic renormalization group flows in An quiver gauge theories. The flows considered are two fold. Firstly I consider flows generated by mass terms for the adjoint chiral superfields, these flows have conformal fixed point in the ultraviolet as well as the infrared. Two well known flows in this class are the Pilch-Warner flow and the Klebanov-Witten flow, which as deformations of the UV theory lie in the untwisted sector and twisted sector respectively. There is also known to be flows which mix the twisted and untwisted sectors. We study this whole family of flows using field theory methods combined with their M-theory construction. In particular I elaborate on the duality group which acts on this whole family of flows and a subgroup of the full duality group is identified directly in the field theory as Seiberg duality. The structure of the long sought after IIB supergravity solution to the Klebanov-Witten flow is provided, the entire flow is a metric on the singular conifold which we provide up to the solution of one non-linear p.d.e. Further, the IIB string is solved in the Penrose limit of the Pilch-Warner solution. Secondly, we consider flows which are confining in the infrared the same duality group which acts on this RG-flows mentioned above, also acts of this family of flows. A certain universal behaviour is discovered on this large family of flows and is attributed to certain properties of the affine Weyl group.

  6. Tensor hypercontraction. II. Least-squares renormalization.

    PubMed

    Parrish, Robert M; Hohenstein, Edward G; Martínez, Todd J; Sherrill, C David

    2012-12-14

    The least-squares tensor hypercontraction (LS-THC) representation for the electron repulsion integral (ERI) tensor is presented. Recently, we developed the generic tensor hypercontraction (THC) ansatz, which represents the fourth-order ERI tensor as a product of five second-order tensors [E. G. Hohenstein, R. M. Parrish, and T. J. Martínez, J. Chem. Phys. 137, 044103 (2012)]. Our initial algorithm for the generation of the THC factors involved a two-sided invocation of overlap-metric density fitting, followed by a PARAFAC decomposition, and is denoted PARAFAC tensor hypercontraction (PF-THC). LS-THC supersedes PF-THC by producing the THC factors through a least-squares renormalization of a spatial quadrature over the otherwise singular 1∕r(12) operator. Remarkably, an analytical and simple formula for the LS-THC factors exists. Using this formula, the factors may be generated with O(N(5)) effort if exact integrals are decomposed, or O(N(4)) effort if the decomposition is applied to density-fitted integrals, using any choice of density fitting metric. The accuracy of LS-THC is explored for a range of systems using both conventional and density-fitted integrals in the context of MP2. The grid fitting error is found to be negligible even for extremely sparse spatial quadrature grids. For the case of density-fitted integrals, the additional error incurred by the grid fitting step is generally markedly smaller than the underlying Coulomb-metric density fitting error. The present results, coupled with our previously published factorizations of MP2 and MP3, provide an efficient, robust O(N(4)) approach to both methods. Moreover, LS-THC is generally applicable to many other methods in quantum chemistry. PMID:23248986

  7. Tensor hypercontraction. II. Least-squares renormalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parrish, Robert M.; Hohenstein, Edward G.; Martínez, Todd J.; Sherrill, C. David

    2012-12-01

    The least-squares tensor hypercontraction (LS-THC) representation for the electron repulsion integral (ERI) tensor is presented. Recently, we developed the generic tensor hypercontraction (THC) ansatz, which represents the fourth-order ERI tensor as a product of five second-order tensors [E. G. Hohenstein, R. M. Parrish, and T. J. Martínez, J. Chem. Phys. 137, 044103 (2012)], 10.1063/1.4732310. Our initial algorithm for the generation of the THC factors involved a two-sided invocation of overlap-metric density fitting, followed by a PARAFAC decomposition, and is denoted PARAFAC tensor hypercontraction (PF-THC). LS-THC supersedes PF-THC by producing the THC factors through a least-squares renormalization of a spatial quadrature over the otherwise singular 1/r12 operator. Remarkably, an analytical and simple formula for the LS-THC factors exists. Using this formula, the factors may be generated with O(N^5) effort if exact integrals are decomposed, or O(N^4) effort if the decomposition is applied to density-fitted integrals, using any choice of density fitting metric. The accuracy of LS-THC is explored for a range of systems using both conventional and density-fitted integrals in the context of MP2. The grid fitting error is found to be negligible even for extremely sparse spatial quadrature grids. For the case of density-fitted integrals, the additional error incurred by the grid fitting step is generally markedly smaller than the underlying Coulomb-metric density fitting error. The present results, coupled with our previously published factorizations of MP2 and MP3, provide an efficient, robust O(N^4) approach to both methods. Moreover, LS-THC is generally applicable to many other methods in quantum chemistry.

  8. [Molecular epidemiology of rabies epizootics in Colombia, 1994-2002: evidence of human and canine rabies associated with chiroptera].

    PubMed

    Páez, Andrés; Nuñez, Constanza; García, Clemencia; Boshell, Jorge

    2003-03-01

    Three urban rabies outbreaks have been reported in Colombia during the last two decades, one of which is ongoing in the Caribbean region (northern Colombia). The earlier outbreaks occurred almost simultaneously in Arauca (eastern Colombia) and in the Central region, ending in 1997. Phylogenetic relationships among rabies viruses isolated from the three areas were based on a comparison of cDNA fragments coding for the endodomain of protein G and a fragment of L protein obtained by RT-PCR. The sequenced amplicons which included the G-L intergenic region contained 902 base pairs. Phylogenetic analysis showed three distinct groups of viruses. Colombian genetic variant I viruses were isolated only from Arauca and the Central region, but are now apparently extinct. Colombian genetic variant II viruses were isolated in the Caribbean region and are still being transmitted in that area. The third group of bat rabies variants were isolated from two insectivorous bats, three domestic dogs and a human. This associates bat rabies virus with rabies in Colombian dogs and humans, and indicates bats to be a rabies reservoir of public health significance. PMID:12696396

  9. Population structure of two rabies hosts relative to the known distribution of rabies virus variants in Alaska.

    PubMed

    Goldsmith, Elizabeth W; Renshaw, Benjamin; Clement, Christopher J; Himschoot, Elizabeth A; Hundertmark, Kris J; Hueffer, Karsten

    2016-02-01

    For pathogens that infect multiple species, the distinction between reservoir hosts and spillover hosts is often difficult. In Alaska, three variants of the arctic rabies virus exist with distinct spatial distributions. We tested the hypothesis that rabies virus variant distribution corresponds to the population structure of the primary rabies hosts in Alaska, arctic foxes (Vulpes lagopus) and red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) to possibly distinguish reservoir and spillover hosts. We used mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence and nine microsatellites to assess population structure in those two species. mtDNA structure did not correspond to rabies virus variant structure in either species. Microsatellite analyses gave varying results. Bayesian clustering found two groups of arctic foxes in the coastal tundra region, but for red foxes it identified tundra and boreal types. Spatial Bayesian clustering and spatial principal components analysis identified 3 and 4 groups of arctic foxes, respectively, closely matching the distribution of rabies virus variants in the state. Red foxes, conversely, showed eight clusters comprising two regions (boreal and tundra) with much admixture. These results run contrary to previous beliefs that arctic fox show no fine-scale spatial population structure. While we cannot rule out that the red fox is part of the maintenance host community for rabies in Alaska, the distribution of virus variants appears to be driven primarily by the arctic fox. Therefore, we show that host population genetics can be utilized to distinguish between maintenance and spillover hosts when used in conjunction with other approaches. PMID:26661691

  10. Rabies virus quasispecies: implications for pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Morimoto, K; Hooper, D C; Carbaugh, H; Fu, Z F; Koprowski, H; Dietzschold, B

    1998-03-17

    Passage of the mouse-adapted rabies virus strain CVS-24 (where CVS is challenge virus standard) in BHK cells results in the rapid selection of a dominant variant designated CVS-B2c that differs genotypically and phenotypically from the dominant variant CVS-N2c present in mouse-brain- or neuroblastoma-cell-passaged CVS-24. The glycoprotein of CVS-B2c has 10 amino acid substitutions compared with that of CVS-N2c. Because CVS-B2c can be reproducibly selected in BHK cells, it is likely to be a conserved minor subpopulation of CVS-24. CVS-N2c is more neurotropic in vitro and in vivo than CVS-B2c, which replicates more readily in nonneuronal cells in vitro and in vivo. These characteristics appear to be relevant to the pathogenicity of the two variants. CVS-N2c is more pathogenic for adult mice than CVS-B2c. In contrast, CVS-B2c is more pathogenic for neonatal mice. These differences in pathogenicity are reflected in the selection pattern when mixtures of CVS-N2c and CVS-B2c were used to infect neonatal and adult mice. Although CVS-N2c was highly selected in adult mice, no selection for either variant was seen in neonates, suggesting that certain aspects of development, such as maturation of the nervous and immune systems, may contribute to the selection process. We speculate that the existence of different variants within a rabies virus strain may facilitate the virus in overcoming barriers to its spread, both within the host and between species. PMID:9501231

  11. Rabies virus quasispecies: Implications for pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Morimoto, Kinjiro; Hooper, D. Craig; Carbaugh, Heather; Fu, Zhen Fang; Koprowski, Hilary; Dietzschold, Bernhard

    1998-01-01

    Passage of the mouse-adapted rabies virus strain CVS-24 (where CVS is challenge virus standard) in BHK cells results in the rapid selection of a dominant variant designated CVS-B2c that differs genotypically and phenotypically from the dominant variant CVS-N2c present in mouse-brain- or neuroblastoma-cell-passaged CVS-24. The glycoprotein of CVS-B2c has 10 amino acid substitutions compared with that of CVS-N2c. Because CVS-B2c can be reproducibly selected in BHK cells, it is likely to be a conserved minor subpopulation of CVS-24. CVS-N2c is more neurotropic in vitro and in vivo than CVS-B2c, which replicates more readily in nonneuronal cells in vitro and in vivo. These characteristics appear to be relevant to the pathogenicity of the two variants. CVS-N2c is more pathogenic for adult mice than CVS-B2c. In contrast, CVS-B2c is more pathogenic for neonatal mice. These differences in pathogenicity are reflected in the selection pattern when mixtures of CVS-N2c and CVS-B2c were used to infect neonatal and adult mice. Although CVS-N2c was highly selected in adult mice, no selection for either variant was seen in neonates, suggesting that certain aspects of development, such as maturation of the nervous and immune systems, may contribute to the selection process. We speculate that the existence of different variants within a rabies virus strain may facilitate the virus in overcoming barriers to its spread, both within the host and between species. PMID:9501231

  12. Semi-classical and quantum Rabi models: in celebration of 80 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braak, Daniel; Chen, Qing-Hu; Batchelor, Murray T.; Solano, Enrique

    2016-07-01

    This is an introduction to the special issue collection of articles on Semi-classical and quantum Rabi models to be published in J. Phys. A: Mathematical and Theoretical to mark the 80th anniversary of the Rabi model.

  13. Reemerging Rabies and Lack of Systemic Surveillance in People’s Republic of China

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Rongliang; Zhang, Yongzhen; Dong, Guanmu; Rupprecht, Charles E.

    2009-01-01

    Rabies is a reemerging disease in China. The high incidence of rabies leads to numerous concerns: a potential carrier-dog phenomenon, undocumented transmission of rabies virus from wildlife to dogs, counterfeit vaccines, vaccine mismatching, and seroconversion testing in patients after their completion of postexposure prophylaxis (PEP). These concerns are all scientifically arguable given a modern understanding of rabies. Rabies reemerges periodically in China because of high dog population density and low vaccination coverage in dogs. Mass vaccination campaigns rather than depopulation of dogs should be a long-term goal for rabies control. Seroconversion testing after vaccination is not necessary in either humans or animals. Human PEP should be initiated on the basis of diagnosis of biting animals. Reliable national systemic surveillance of rabies-related human deaths and of animal rabies prevalence is urgently needed. A laboratory diagnosis–based epidemiologic surveillance system can provide substantial information about disease transmission and effective prevention strategies. PMID:19751575

  14. Current and future tools for global canine rabies elimination.

    PubMed

    Franka, Richard; Smith, Todd G; Dyer, Jessie L; Wu, Xianfu; Niezgoda, Michael; Rupprecht, Charles E

    2013-10-01

    Even though rabies is almost uniformly fatal, it is readily preventable with currently available tools. Vaccination is highly efficacious for the pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) of rabies in humans and animals, and prompt postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) with vaccine and rabies immune globulin (RIG) can reliably prevent disease in humans. However, access to these tools and knowledge of their proper use are often limited, especially in impoverished, rabies-enzootic countries with the highest disease burden. In the absence of reliable diagnostic capacity and risk assessments, vaccines and RIG are often administered inappropriately, leading to chronic supply shortages and otherwise preventable deaths. Rather than focusing solely on human prophylaxis, it is more cost-effective over the long term to eliminate canine rabies in its natural terrestrial reservoirs. Because more than 99% of human rabies deaths result from dog bites, prevention efforts should focus on dogs. A versatile "One Health" strategy for canine rabies elimination should aim to create sustainable herd immunity in dogs, using proven vaccination strategies at the local level, coupled with community education and humane population management. Such strategies have succeeded in both developed and developing countries, and can be adapted to any locality. Numerous examples in Africa, Asia, and Latin America have shown that community-based, locally guided vaccination and education programs, based on a shared vision and long-term commitment, can eliminate canine rabies. Such programs should have specific goals and measurable outcomes, and should be conducted under the guidance of supportive governments, in collaboration with international partners and nongovernmental organizations. In addition to currently available tools, rabies prevention can be augmented by new dose-sparing human vaccine schedules, alternative routes of vaccine administration, monoclonal antibodies as an alternative to RIG, sensitive and

  15. Implementation of an Intersectoral Program to Eliminate Human and Canine Rabies: The Bohol Rabies Prevention and Elimination Project

    PubMed Central

    Lapiz, Stella Marie D.; Miranda, Mary Elizabeth G.; Garcia, Romulo G.; Daguro, Leonida I.; Paman, Meydalyn D.; Madrinan, Frederick P.; Rances, Polizena A.; Briggs, Deborah J.

    2012-01-01

    Background The province of Bohol, located in the Visayas islands region in the Philippines has a human population of 1.13 million and was the 4th highest region for human rabies deaths in the country, averaging 10 per year, prior to the initiation of the Bohol Rabies Prevention and Elimination Project (BRPEP). Aims The BRPEP was initiated in 2007 with the goal of building a sustainable program that would prevent human rabies by eliminating rabies at its source, in dogs, by 2010. This goal was in line with the Philippine National Rabies Program whose objective is to eliminate rabies by 2020. Methods The intersectoral BRPEP was launched in 2007 and integrated the expertise and resources from the sectors of agriculture, public health and safety, education, environment, legal affairs, interior and local government. The program included: increasing local community involvement; implementing dog population control; conducting mass dog vaccination; improving dog bite management; instituting veterinary quarantine; and improving diagnostic capability, surveillance and monitoring. Funding was secured from the national government, provincial, municipal and village units, dog owners, NGOs, the regional office of the WHO, the UBS Optimus Foundation, and the Global Alliance for Rabies Control. The BRPEP was managed by the Bohol Rabies Prevention and Eradication Council (BRPEC) under the jurisdiction of the Governor of Bohol. Parallel organizations were created at the municipal level and village level. Community volunteers facilitated the institution of the program. Dog population surveys were conducted to plan for sufficient resources to vaccinate the required 70% of the dogs living in the province. Two island-wide mass vaccination campaigns were conducted followed by “catch up” vaccination campaigns. Registration of dogs was implemented including a small fee that was rolled back into the program to maintain sustainability. Children were educated by introducing rabies

  16. Spatially dependent Rabi oscillations: An approach to sub-diffraction-limited coherent anti-Stokes Raman-scattering microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Beeker, Willem P.; Lee, Chris J.; Boller, Klaus-Jochen; Gross, Petra; Cleff, Carsten; Fallnich, Carsten; Offerhaus, Herman L.; Herek, Jennifer L.

    2010-01-15

    We present a theoretical investigation of coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) that is modulated by periodically depleting the ground-state population through Rabi oscillations driven by an additional control laser. We find that such a process generates optical sidebands in the CARS spectrum and that the frequency of the sidebands depends on the intensity of the control laser light field. We show that analyzing the sideband frequency upon scanning the beams across the sample allows one to spatially resolve emitter positions where a spatial resolution of 65 nm, which is well below the diffraction limit, can be obtained.

  17. Establishment of a Canine Rabies Burden in Haiti through the Implementation of a Novel Surveillance Program

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, Ryan M; Reses, Hannah; Franka, Richard; Dilius, Pierre; Fenelon, Natael; Orciari, Lillian; Etheart, Melissa; Destine, Apollon; Crowdis, Kelly; Blanton, Jesse D; Francisco, Calvin; Ludder, Fleurinord; Del Rio Vilas, Victor; Haim, Joseph; Millien, Max

    2015-01-01

    The Republic of Haiti is one of only several countries in the Western Hemisphere in which canine rabies is still endemic. Estimation methods have predicted that 130 human deaths occur per year, yet existing surveillance mechanisms have detected few of these rabies cases. Likewise, canine rabies surveillance capacity has had only limited capacity, detecting only two rabid dogs per year, on average. In 2013, Haiti initiated a community-based animal rabies surveillance program comprised of two components: active community bite investigation and passive animal rabies investigation. From January 2013 –December 2014, 778 rabies suspect animals were reported for investigation. Rabies was laboratory-confirmed in 70 animals (9%) and an additional 36 cases were identified based on clinical diagnosis (5%), representing an 18-fold increase in reporting of rabid animals compared to the three years before the program was implemented. Dogs were the most frequent rabid animal (90%). Testing and observation ruled out rabies in 61% of animals investigated. A total of 639 bite victims were reported to the program and an additional 364 bite victims who had not sought medical care were identified during the course of investigations. Only 31% of people with likely rabies exposures had initiated rabies post-exposure prophylaxis prior to the investigation. Rabies is a neglected disease in-part due to a lack of surveillance and understanding about the burden. The surveillance methods employed by this program established a much higher burden of canine rabies in Haiti than previously recognized. The active, community-based bite investigations identified numerous additional rabies exposures and bite victims were referred for appropriate medical care, averting potential human rabies deaths. The use of community-based rabies surveillance programs such as HARSP should be considered in canine rabies endemic countries. PMID:26600437

  18. Intravitam Diagnosis of Human Rabies by PCR Using Saliva and Cerebrospinal Fluid

    PubMed Central

    Crepin, P.; Audry, L.; Rotivel, Y.; Gacoin, A.; Caroff, C.; Bourhy, H.

    1998-01-01

    An optimized reverse transcription (RT)-PCR protocol for the intravitam detection of rabies virus genomic RNA was tested with clinical samples obtained from 28 patients suspected of having rabies, 9 of whom were confirmed to have had rabies by postmortem examination. RT-PCR using saliva combined with an immunofluorescence assay performed with skin biopsy samples allowed detection of rabies in the nine patients. PMID:9542950

  19. Hole concentration and phonon renormalization in Ca-doped YBa_2Cu_3Oy (6.76<= y <= 7.00)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hewitt, Kevin C.; Chen, Xiaoke K.; Roch, Carles; Chrzanowski, Janusz; Irwin, John C.; Altendorf, Eric H.; Liang, Ruixing; Bonn, Doug; Hardy, Walter

    2003-03-01

    In order to access the overdoped regime of the YBa_2Cu_3Oy phase diagram, 2 % Ca is substituted for Y in YBa_2Cu_3Oy ( y = 7.00,6.93,6.88,6.76). Raman scattering studies have been carried out on these four single crystals. Measurements of the superconductivity-induced renormalization in frequency (Δ ω) and linewidth (Δ 2γ) of the 340 cm-1 B_1g phonon demonstrate that the magnitude of the renormalization is directly related to the hole concentration (p), and not simply the oxygen content. The changes in Δ ω with p imply that the superconducting gap (Δ_max) decreases monotonically with increasing hole concentration in the overdoped regime, and Δ ω falls to zero in the underdoped regime. The linewidth renormalization Δ 2γ is negative in the underdoped regime, crossing over at optimal doping to a positive value in the overdoped state.

  20. Rabies Virus Maintained by Dogs in Humans and Terrestrial Wildlife, Ceará State, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    de Mattos, Cecília C.; de Morais, Nélio B.; Carrieri, Maria Luíza; Rolim, Benedito N.; Silva, Lucia M.; Rupprecht, Charles E.; Durigon, Edison L.; de Mattos, Carlos A.

    2006-01-01

    Rabies viruses circulating in Ceará, Brazil, were identified by molecular analysis to be related to variants maintained by dogs, bats, and other wildlife. Most of these viruses are associated with human rabies cases. We document the emergence of a rabies virus variant responsible for an independent epidemic cycle in the crab-eating fox (Cerdocyon thous). PMID:17326958

  1. 77 FR 49409 - Oral Rabies Vaccine Trial; Availability of an Environmental Assessment and Finding of No...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-16

    ... rabies in the United States. On July 9, 2012, we published in the Federal Register (77 FR 40322- 40323... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Oral Rabies Vaccine Trial; Availability of an Environmental... with the proposed field trial to test the safety and efficacy of an experimental oral rabies...

  2. Anti-rabies virus IgM in serum and cerebrospinal fluid from rabid dogs.

    PubMed

    Tingpalapong, M; Hoke, C H; Ward, G S; Burke, D S; Elwell, M R; Lohytyothin, S; Saisombat, S

    1986-12-01

    An anti-rabies IgM antibody capture radio immunoassay was used to test serum and cerebrospinal fluid from 37 dogs held in quarantine for suspicion of rabies. Rabies was confirmed in dogs that died by mouse inoculation and subsequent examination of mouse brains by fluorescent antibody technique to detect rabies antigen. The mean counts per minute (CPM) of iodinated anti-rabies gamma globulin coupled IgM rabies antibody in CSF and serum from rabid dogs were significantly higher than in CSF and serum from non-rabid dogs. Mean CPM from rabid dogs was greater in CSF than in sera, in contrast with non-rabid dogs, from which mean cpm was higher in sera than CSF, suggesting that antibody may have been synthesized in the CSF. To evaluate this test further, a dog was infected by rabies virus, and serial serum and CSF specimens were collected until the time of death. IgM anti-rabies antibody developed in the CSF and serum 29 days following infection, and rose just before the dog died of rabies on day 34. The rabies MAC RIA is potentially useful as a diagnostic method in quarantined dogs with rabies-like illness. Perhaps more importantly, it may be applied to better understand the immunopathogenicity of rabies. PMID:3576284

  3. Renormalization of stochastic lattice models: epitaxial surfaces.

    PubMed

    Haselwandter, Christoph A; Vvedensky, Dimitri D

    2008-06-01

    We present the application of a method [C. A. Haselwandter and D. D. Vvedensky, Phys. Rev. E 76, 041115 (2007)] for deriving stochastic partial differential equations from atomistic processes to the morphological evolution of epitaxial surfaces driven by the deposition of new material. Although formally identical to the one-dimensional (1D) systems considered previously, our methodology presents substantial additional technical issues when applied to two-dimensional (2D) surfaces. Once these are addressed, subsequent coarse-graining is accomplished as before by calculating renormalization-group (RG) trajectories from initial conditions determined by the regularized atomistic models. Our applications are to the Edwards-Wilkinson (EW) model [S. F. Edwards and D. R. Wilkinson, Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 381, 17 (1982)], the Wolf-Villain (WV) model [D. E. Wolf and J. Villain, Europhys. Lett. 13, 389 (1990)], and a model with concurrent random deposition and surface diffusion. With our rules for the EW model no appreciable crossover is obtained for either 1D or 2D substrates. For the 1D WV model, discussed previously, our analysis reproduces the crossover sequence known from kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) simulations, but for the 2D WV model, we find a transition from smooth to unstable growth under repeated coarse-graining. Concurrent surface diffusion does not change this behavior, but can lead to extended transient regimes with kinetic roughening. This provides an explanation of recent experiments on Ge(001) with the intriguing conclusion that the same relaxation mechanism responsible for ordered structures during the early stages of growth also produces an instability at longer times that leads to epitaxial breakdown. The RG trajectories calculated for concurrent random deposition and surface diffusion reproduce the crossover sequences observed with KMC simulations for all values of the model parameters, and asymptotically always approach the fixed point corresponding

  4. Renormalization of stochastic lattice models: Epitaxial surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haselwandter, Christoph A.; Vvedensky, Dimitri D.

    2008-06-01

    We present the application of a method [C. A. Haselwandter and D. D. Vvedensky, Phys. Rev. E 76, 041115 (2007)] for deriving stochastic partial differential equations from atomistic processes to the morphological evolution of epitaxial surfaces driven by the deposition of new material. Although formally identical to the one-dimensional (1D) systems considered previously, our methodology presents substantial additional technical issues when applied to two-dimensional (2D) surfaces. Once these are addressed, subsequent coarse-graining is accomplished as before by calculating renormalization-group (RG) trajectories from initial conditions determined by the regularized atomistic models. Our applications are to the Edwards-Wilkinson (EW) model [S. F. Edwards and D. R. Wilkinson, Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 381, 17 (1982)], the Wolf-Villain (WV) model [D. E. Wolf and J. Villain, Europhys. Lett. 13, 389 (1990)], and a model with concurrent random deposition and surface diffusion. With our rules for the EW model no appreciable crossover is obtained for either 1D or 2D substrates. For the 1D WV model, discussed previously, our analysis reproduces the crossover sequence known from kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) simulations, but for the 2D WV model, we find a transition from smooth to unstable growth under repeated coarse-graining. Concurrent surface diffusion does not change this behavior, but can lead to extended transient regimes with kinetic roughening. This provides an explanation of recent experiments on Ge(001) with the intriguing conclusion that the same relaxation mechanism responsible for ordered structures during the early stages of growth also produces an instability at longer times that leads to epitaxial breakdown. The RG trajectories calculated for concurrent random deposition and surface diffusion reproduce the crossover sequences observed with KMC simulations for all values of the model parameters, and asymptotically always approach the fixed point corresponding

  5. Clinical management and humoral immune responses to rabies post-exposure prophylaxis among three patients who received solid organs from a donor with rabies

    PubMed Central

    Vora, N.M.; Orciari, L.A.; Niezgoda, M.; Selvaggi, G.; Stosor, V.; Lyon, G.M.; Wallace, R.M.; Gabel, J.; Stanek, D.R.; Jenkins, P.; Shiferaw, M.; Yager, P.; Jackson, F.; Hanlon, C.A.; Damon, I.; Blanton, J.D.; Recuenco, S.; Franka, R.

    2015-01-01

    Background The rabies virus causes a fatal encephalitis and can be transmitted through organ transplantation. In 2013, a man developed rabies 18 months after receiving a kidney from a donor with rabies, who was not known to have been infected when the organs were procured. Three additional persons who received organs from the same donor (liver, kidney, heart), all of whom were not vaccinated for rabies before transplantation, received rabies post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) with rabies immune globulin and 5 doses of rabies vaccine as soon as the diagnosis of rabies was made in the donor (18 months after their transplant surgeries). We describe their clinical management. Methods As the 3 recipients were all on immunosuppressive medications, post-vaccination serologic testing was performed using the rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test to measure rabies virus neutralizing antibodies (RVNAs). An acceptable antibody response to administration of rabies vaccine was defined as detection of RVNAs at a concentration ≥0.1 IU/mL from a serum specimen collected ≥7 days after the fifth vaccine dose. Results All 3 recipients demonstrated an acceptable antibody response despite their immunosuppressed states. More than 36 months have passed since their transplant surgeries, and all 3 recipients have no evidence of rabies. Conclusions The survival of 3 previously unvaccinated recipients of solid organs from a donor with rabies is unexpected. Although the precise factors that led to their survival remain unclear, our data suggest that PEP can possibly enhance transplant safety in settings in which donors are retrospectively diagnosed with rabies. PMID:25851103

  6. The ab-initio density matrix renormalization group in practice

    SciTech Connect

    Olivares-Amaya, Roberto; Hu, Weifeng; Sharma, Sandeep; Yang, Jun; Chan, Garnet Kin-Lic; Nakatani, Naoki

    2015-01-21

    The ab-initio density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) is a tool that can be applied to a wide variety of interesting problems in quantum chemistry. Here, we examine the density matrix renormalization group from the vantage point of the quantum chemistry user. What kinds of problems is the DMRG well-suited to? What are the largest systems that can be treated at practical cost? What sort of accuracies can be obtained, and how do we reason about the computational difficulty in different molecules? By examining a diverse benchmark set of molecules: π-electron systems, benchmark main-group and transition metal dimers, and the Mn-oxo-salen and Fe-porphine organometallic compounds, we provide some answers to these questions, and show how the density matrix renormalization group is used in practice.

  7. Renormalization group and the superconducting susceptibility of a Fermi liquid

    SciTech Connect

    Parameswaran, S. A.; Sondhi, S. L.; Shankar, R.

    2010-11-15

    A free Fermi gas has, famously, a superconducting susceptibility that diverges logarithmically at zero temperature. In this paper we ask whether this is still true for a Fermi liquid and find that the answer is that it does not. From the perspective of the renormalization group for interacting fermions, the question arises because a repulsive interaction in the Cooper channel is a marginally irrelevant operator at the Fermi liquid fixed point and thus is also expected to infect various physical quantities with logarithms. Somewhat surprisingly, at least from the renormalization group viewpoint, the result for the superconducting susceptibility is that two logarithms are not better than one. In the course of this investigation we derive a Callan-Symanzik equation for the repulsive Fermi liquid using the momentum-shell renormalization group, and use it to compute the long-wavelength behavior of the superconducting correlation function in the emergent low-energy theory. We expect this technique to be of broader interest.

  8. Emergent geometry from field theory: Wilson's renormalization group revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Ki-Seok; Park, Chanyong

    2016-06-01

    We find a geometrical description from a field theoretical setup based on Wilson's renormalization group in real space. We show that renormalization group equations of coupling parameters encode the metric structure of an emergent curved space, regarded to be an Einstein equation for the emergent gravity. Self-consistent equations of local order-parameter fields with an emergent metric turn out to describe low-energy dynamics of a strongly coupled field theory, analogous to the Maxwell equation of the Einstein-Maxwell theory in the AdSd +2 /CFTd +1 duality conjecture. We claim that the AdS3 /CFT2 duality may be interpreted as Landau-Ginzburg theory combined with Wilson's renormalization group, which introduces vertex corrections into the Landau-Ginzburg theory in the large-Ns limit, where Ns is the number of fermion flavors.

  9. Renormalization of massless Feynman amplitudes in configuration space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolov, Nikolay M.; Stora, Raymond; Todorov, Ivan

    2014-05-01

    A systematic study of recursive renormalization of Feynman amplitudes is carried out both in Euclidean and in Minkowski configuration spaces. For a massless quantum field theory (QFT), we use the technique of extending associate homogeneous distributions to complete the renormalization recursion. A homogeneous (Poincaré covariant) amplitude is said to be convergent if it admits a (unique covariant) extension as a homogeneous distribution. For any amplitude without subdivergences — i.e. for a Feynman distribution that is homogeneous off the full (small) diagonal — we define a renormalization invariant residue. Its vanishing is a necessary and sufficient condition for the convergence of such an amplitude. It extends to arbitrary — not necessarily primitively divergent — Feynman amplitudes. This notion of convergence is finer than the usual power counting criterion and includes cancellation of divergences.

  10. Rabies virus pathogenesis in relationship to intervention with inactivated and attenuated rabies vaccines.

    PubMed

    Franka, Richard; Wu, Xianfu; Jackson, Felix R; Velasco-Villa, Andres; Palmer, Dustyn P; Henderson, Heather; Hayat, Wajid; Green, Douglas B; Blanton, Jesse D; Greenberg, Lauren; Rupprecht, Charles E

    2009-11-27

    Despite progress in vaccine development in the past century the mechanisms behind immune responses elicited by rabies biologics or via natural infection remain largely unknown. In this study, we compared protection elicited by standard, early, or delayed prophylaxis with a reduced number of vaccine doses using inactivated and live-attenuated vaccines. Two-month-old Syrian hamsters, 4-week-old ICR mice or adult rhesus macaques were inoculated with canine rabies virus variants. Thereafter, prophylaxis was initiated 6h, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 or 7 days post-exposure (p.e.). One or several doses of inactivated (HDCV), or reverse genetically attenuated (live), or gamma-irradiated (inactivated)-ERAG333 vaccines were administered intramuscularly. The dynamics of virus spread were measured over time in the rodent models. Rabies virus reached the spinal cord at day 4 and brain at day 6 p.e. All hamsters succumbed in groups in which live ERAG333 was delayed until days 5 and 6 p.e. However, 78%, 44%, 56% and 22% of hamsters survived when one dose of live ERAG333 was administered 6h, 1, 2, 3, and 4 days p.e., respectively. Similarly, 67% survived when inactivated ERAG333 was administered at 24h p.e. All hamsters succumbed when standard prophylaxis (the Essen regimen) was delayed until days 3-6, but 67% and 33% of hamsters survived when PEP began 1 or 2 days p.e., respectively. Macaques were protected by one dose of attenuated ERAG333 at 24h p.e. The highly attenuated (live) and inactivated ERAG333 vaccines elicited potent protective immune responses, even when prophylaxis initiation was delayed. When 2-5 doses of commercial vaccine and HRIG were administered according to the Essen scheme, 89-100% of the animals survived. Reduced vaccine schedules provided efficacious intervention, regardless of the total number of vaccine doses administered. PMID:19925945

  11. Intracellular Spread of Rabies Virus Is Reduced in the Paralytic Form of Canine Rabies Compared to the Furious Form

    PubMed Central

    Shuangshoti, Shanop; Thorner, Paul Scott; Teerapakpinyo, Chinachote; Thepa, Nisachol; Phukpattaranont, Pornchai; Intarut, Nirun; Lumlertdacha, Boonlert; Tepsumethanon, Veera; Hemachudha, Thiravat

    2016-01-01

    Studies of the furious and paralytic forms of canine rabies at the early stage of disease have shown a more rapid viral colonization of the cerebral hemispheres in the furious form, as measured by viral antigen within neuronal cell bodies and viral RNA levels. Measurement of cellular processes separate from neuronal cell body provides a visual record of the spread of rabies virus which occurs across synapses. In this study, the amount of rabies viral antigen within cell processes was quantitatively assessed by image analysis in a cohort of naturally rabies infected non-vaccinated dogs (5 furious and 5 paralytic) that were sacrificed shortly after developing illness. Measurements were taken at different levels of the spinal cord, brain stem, and cerebrum. Results were compared to the amount of rabies viral antigen in neuronal cell bodies. Generally, the amount of rabies viral antigen in cell processes decreased in a rostral direction, following the pattern for the amount of rabies viral antigen in neuronal cell bodies and the percentage of involved cell bodies. However, there was a delay in cell process involvement following cell body involvement, consistent with replication occurring in the cell body region and subsequent transport out to cell processes. Greater amounts of antigen were seen in cell processes in dogs with the furious compared to paralytic form, at all anatomic levels examined. This difference was even evident when comparing (1) neurons with similar amounts of antigen, (2) similar percentages of involved neurons, and (3) anatomic levels that showed 100% positive neurons. These findings suggest that intracellular transport of the virus may be slower in the paralytic form, resulting in slower viral propagation. Possible mechanisms might involve host-specific differences in intracellular virus transport. The latter could be cytokine-mediated, since previous studies have documented greater inflammation in the paralytic form. PMID:27253394

  12. Intracellular Spread of Rabies Virus Is Reduced in the Paralytic Form of Canine Rabies Compared to the Furious Form.

    PubMed

    Shuangshoti, Shanop; Thorner, Paul Scott; Teerapakpinyo, Chinachote; Thepa, Nisachol; Phukpattaranont, Pornchai; Intarut, Nirun; Lumlertdacha, Boonlert; Tepsumethanon, Veera; Hemachudha, Thiravat

    2016-06-01

    Studies of the furious and paralytic forms of canine rabies at the early stage of disease have shown a more rapid viral colonization of the cerebral hemispheres in the furious form, as measured by viral antigen within neuronal cell bodies and viral RNA levels. Measurement of cellular processes separate from neuronal cell body provides a visual record of the spread of rabies virus which occurs across synapses. In this study, the amount of rabies viral antigen within cell processes was quantitatively assessed by image analysis in a cohort of naturally rabies infected non-vaccinated dogs (5 furious and 5 paralytic) that were sacrificed shortly after developing illness. Measurements were taken at different levels of the spinal cord, brain stem, and cerebrum. Results were compared to the amount of rabies viral antigen in neuronal cell bodies. Generally, the amount of rabies viral antigen in cell processes decreased in a rostral direction, following the pattern for the amount of rabies viral antigen in neuronal cell bodies and the percentage of involved cell bodies. However, there was a delay in cell process involvement following cell body involvement, consistent with replication occurring in the cell body region and subsequent transport out to cell processes. Greater amounts of antigen were seen in cell processes in dogs with the furious compared to paralytic form, at all anatomic levels examined. This difference was even evident when comparing (1) neurons with similar amounts of antigen, (2) similar percentages of involved neurons, and (3) anatomic levels that showed 100% positive neurons. These findings suggest that intracellular transport of the virus may be slower in the paralytic form, resulting in slower viral propagation. Possible mechanisms might involve host-specific differences in intracellular virus transport. The latter could be cytokine-mediated, since previous studies have documented greater inflammation in the paralytic form. PMID:27253394

  13. Rabies surveillance in the United States during 2009.

    PubMed

    Blanton, Jesse D; Palmer, Dustyn; Rupprecht, Charles E

    2010-09-15

    During 2009, 49 states and Puerto Rico reported 6,690 rabid animals and 4 human rabies cases to the CDC, representing a 2.2% decrease from the 6,841 rabid animals and 2 human cases reported in 2008. Approximately 92% of reported rabid animals were wildlife. Relative contributions by the major animal groups were as follows: 2,327 (34.8%) raccoons, 1,625 (24.3%) bats, 1,603 (24.0%) skunks, 504 (75%) foxes, 300 (4.5%) cats, 81 (1.2%) dogs, and 74 (1.1%) cattle. Compared with 2008, numbers of rabid raccoons and bats that were reported decreased, whereas numbers of rabid skunks, foxes, cats, cattle, dogs, and horses that were reported increased. Fewer rabid raccoons, compared with 2008, were reported by 12 of the 20 eastern states where raccoon rabies is enzootic, and number of rabid raccoons decreased by 2.6% overall nationally. Despite a 10% decrease in the number of rabid bats that were reported and a decrease in the total number of bats submitted for testing, bats were the second most commonly submitted animal, behind cats, during 2009. The number of rabid skunks that were reported increased by 0.9% overall. The proportion of rabid skunks in which infection was attributed to the raccoon rabies virus variant decreased from 473% in 2008 to 40.9% in 2009, resulting in a 12.7% increase in the number of rabid skunks infected with a skunk rabies virus variant. The number of rabid foxes increased 11.0% overall from the previous year. Four cases of rabies involving humans were reported from Texas, Indiana, Virginia, and Michigan. The Texas case represented the first presumptive abortive human rabies case, with the patient recovering after the onset of symptoms without intensive care. The Indiana and Michigan cases were associated with bat rabies virus variants. The human rabies case in Virginia was associated with a canine rabies virus variant acquired during the patient's travel to India. PMID:20839985

  14. Advancements in web-database applications for rabies surveillance

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Protection of public health from rabies is informed by the analysis of surveillance data from human and animal populations. In Canada, public health, agricultural and wildlife agencies at the provincial and federal level are responsible for rabies disease control, and this has led to multiple agency-specific data repositories. Aggregation of agency-specific data into one database application would enable more comprehensive data analyses and effective communication among participating agencies. In Québec, RageDB was developed to house surveillance data for the raccoon rabies variant, representing the next generation in web-based database applications that provide a key resource for the protection of public health. Results RageDB incorporates data from, and grants access to, all agencies responsible for the surveillance of raccoon rabies in Québec. Technological advancements of RageDB to rabies surveillance databases include 1) automatic integration of multi-agency data and diagnostic results on a daily basis; 2) a web-based data editing interface that enables authorized users to add, edit and extract data; and 3) an interactive dashboard to help visualize data simply and efficiently, in table, chart, and cartographic formats. Furthermore, RageDB stores data from citizens who voluntarily report sightings of rabies suspect animals. We also discuss how sightings data can indicate public perception to the risk of racoon rabies and thus aid in directing the allocation of disease control resources for protecting public health. Conclusions RageDB provides an example in the evolution of spatio-temporal database applications for the storage, analysis and communication of disease surveillance data. The database was fast and inexpensive to develop by using open-source technologies, simple and efficient design strategies, and shared web hosting. The database increases communication among agencies collaborating to protect human health from raccoon rabies

  15. Autocorrelations from the transfer-matrix density-matrix renormalization-group method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naef, F.; Wang, X.; Zotos, X.; von der Linden, W.

    1999-07-01

    Extending the transfer-matrix density-matrix renormalization-group algorithm, we are able to calculate imaginary time spin autocorrelations with high accuracy (absolute error <10-6) over a wide temperature range (0<βJ<20). After analytic continuation using the rules of probability theory along with the entropic prior (MaxEnt), we obtain real frequency spectra for the XY model, the isotropic Heisenberg, and the gapped Heisenberg-Ising model. Available exact results in some limits allow for a critical evaluation of the quality of answers expected from this procedure. We find that high-precision data are still insufficient for resolving specific line shapes such as low-frequency divergences. However, the method is appropriate for identifying low-temperature gaps and peak positions.

  16. Peripheral NN scattering from subtractive renormalization of chiral interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Batista, E. F.; Szpigel, S.; Timóteo, V. S.

    2014-11-11

    We apply five subtractions in the Lippman-Schwinger (LS) equation in order to perform a non-perturbative renormalization of chiral N3LO nucleon-nucleon interactions. Here we compute the phase shifts for the uncoupled peripheral waves at renormalization scales between 0.1 fm{sup −1} and 1 fm{sup −1}. In this range, the results are scale invariant and provide an overall good agreement with the Nijmegen partial wave analysis up to at least E{sub lab} = 150 MeV, with a cutoff at Λ = 30 fm{sup −1}.

  17. Renormalizations and Wandering Jordan Curves of Rational Maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Guizhen; Peng, Wenjuan; Tan, Lei

    2016-05-01

    We realize a dynamical decomposition for a post-critically finite rational map which admits a combinatorial decomposition. We split the Riemann sphere into two completely invariant subsets. One is a subset of the Julia set consisting of uncountably many Jordan curve components. Most of them are wandering. The other consists of components that are pullbacks of finitely many renormalizations, together with possibly uncountably many points. The quotient action on the decomposed pieces is encoded by a dendrite dynamical system. We also introduce a surgery procedure to produce post-critically finite rational maps with wandering Jordan curves and prescribed renormalizations.

  18. Renormalizations and Wandering Jordan Curves of Rational Maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Guizhen; Peng, Wenjuan; Tan, Lei

    2016-04-01

    We realize a dynamical decomposition for a post-critically finite rational map which admits a combinatorial decomposition. We split the Riemann sphere into two completely invariant subsets. One is a subset of the Julia set consisting of uncountably many Jordan curve components. Most of them are wandering. The other consists of components that are pullbacks of finitely many renormalizations, together with possibly uncountably many points. The quotient action on the decomposed pieces is encoded by a dendrite dynamical system. We also introduce a surgery procedure to produce post-critically finite rational maps with wandering Jordan curves and prescribed renormalizations.

  19. Dimension-5 C P -odd operators: QCD mixing and renormalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, Tanmoy; Cirigliano, Vincenzo; Gupta, Rajan; Mereghetti, Emanuele; Yoon, Boram

    2015-12-01

    We study the off-shell mixing and renormalization of flavor-diagonal dimension-five T - and P -odd operators involving quarks, gluons, and photons, including quark electric dipole and chromoelectric dipole operators. We present the renormalization matrix to one loop in the MS ¯ scheme. We also provide a definition of the quark chromoelectric dipole operator in a regularization-independent momentum-subtraction scheme suitable for nonperturbative lattice calculations and present the matching coefficients with the MS ¯ scheme to one loop in perturbation theory, using both the naïve dimensional regularization and 't Hooft-Veltman prescriptions for γ5.

  20. Nonlinear Reynolds stress models and the renormalization group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubinstein, Robert; Barton, J. Michael

    1990-01-01

    The renormalization group is applied to derive a nonlinear algebraic Reynolds stress model of anisotropic turbulence in which the Reynolds stresses are quadratic functions of the mean velocity gradients. The model results from a perturbation expansion that is truncated systematically at second order with subsequent terms contributing no further information. The resulting turbulence model applied to both low and high Reynolds number flows without requiring wall functions or ad hoc modifications of the equations. All constants are derived from the renormalization group procedure; no adjustable constants arise. The model permits inequality of the Reynolds normal stresses, a necessary condition for calculating turbulence-driven secondary flows in noncircular ducts.

  1. Renormalized dissipation in the nonconservatively forced Burgers equation

    SciTech Connect

    Krommes, J.A.

    2000-01-19

    A previous calculation of the renormalized dissipation in the nonconservatively forced one-dimensional Burgers equation, which encountered a catastrophic long-wavelength divergence approximately [k min]-3, is reconsidered. In the absence of velocity shear, analysis of the eddy-damped quasi-normal Markovian closure predicts only a benign logarithmic dependence on kmin. The original divergence is traced to an inconsistent resonance-broadening type of diffusive approximation, which fails in the present problem. Ballistic scaling of renormalized pulses is retained, but such scaling does not, by itself, imply a paradigm of self-organized criticality. An improved scaling formula for a model with velocity shear is also given.

  2. Renormalization Group Reduction of Non Integrable Hamiltonian Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Stephan I. Tzenov

    2002-05-09

    Based on Renormalization Group method, a reduction of non integratable multi-dimensional Hamiltonian systems has been performed. The evolution equations for the slowly varying part of the angle-averaged phase space density and for the amplitudes of the angular modes have been derived. It has been shown that these equations are precisely the Renormalization Group equations. As an application of the approach developed, the modulational diffusion in one-and-a-half degrees of freedom dynamical system has been studied in detail.

  3. Screening of heterogeneous surfaces: charge renormalization of Janus particles.

    PubMed

    Boon, N; Carvajal Gallardo, E; Zheng, S; Eggen, E; Dijkstra, M; van Roij, R

    2010-03-17

    Nonlinear ionic screening theory for heterogeneously charged spheres is developed in terms of a mode decomposition of the surface charge. A far-field analysis of the resulting electrostatic potential leads to a natural generalization of charge renormalization from purely monopolar to dipolar, quadrupolar, etc, including 'mode couplings'. Our novel scheme is generally applicable to large classes of surface heterogeneities, and is explicitly applied here to Janus spheres with differently charged upper and lower hemispheres, revealing strong renormalization effects for all multipoles. PMID:21389438

  4. On the renormalization of the Gibbons-Hawking boundary term

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobson, Ted; Satz, Alejandro

    2014-03-01

    The bulk (Einstein-Hilbert) and boundary (Gibbons-Hawking) terms in the gravitational action are generally renormalized differently when integrating out quantum fluctuations. The former is affected by nonminimal couplings, while the latter is affected by boundary conditions. We use the heat kernel method to analyze this behavior for a nonminimally coupled scalar field, the Maxwell field, and the graviton field. Allowing for Robin boundary conditions, we examine in which cases the renormalization preserves the ratio of boundary and bulk terms required for the effective action to possess a stationary point. The implications for field theory and black hole entropy computations are discussed.

  5. Exogenous interferon prolongs survival of rabies infected mice.

    PubMed

    Mehta, S; Roy, S; Mukherjee, S; Yadav, N; Patel, N; Chowdhary, A

    2015-09-01

    Rabies is an acute viral infection that causes encephalomyelitis in almost all warm blooded animals and is invariably fatal once the clinical signs appear. The present study was carried out to assess the effect of recombinant human interferon alpha (rhIFN α-2A) treatment on the survival of rabies infected mice and its correlation with cytokines expression. The gene expression of TNF-α and IL-6 was measured by SYBR Green Real Time PCR for two groups-"Pre-exposure" (mice were inoculated with rhIFN α-2A prior to rabies infection) and "Post-exposure" (mice were inoculated with rhIFN α-2A post rabies virus infection). Delayed mortality was observed in interferon treated infected groups. In addition, statistically significant decrease (P < 0.0001) in the expression of TNF-α and IL-6 was observed, both in the pre-exposure and post-exposure groups. These findings indicate that modulation of cytokine secretion using exogenous biologicals such as rhIFN may offer novel therapeutic approaches to treat diseases such as rabies. PMID:26396983

  6. Antigenic Diversity and Distribution of Rabies Virus in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Velasco-Villa, Andrés; Gómez-Sierra, Mauricio; Hernández-Rodríguez, Gustavo; Juárez-Islas, Victor; Meléndez-Félix, Alejandra; Vargas-Pino, Fernando; Velázquez-Monroy, Oscar; Flisser, Ana

    2002-01-01

    Rabies remains a public health problem in the Americas because of the great diversity of wild reservoirs that maintain the virus in nature. Here we report the antigenic characterization of 254 rabies viruses isolated from 148 nonreservoir and 106 reservoir hosts collected in 27 states of Mexico. Nine out of 11 antigenic variants previously reported in the United States were detected in Mexico by using the limited panel of monoclonal antibodies donated by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Some rabies virus variants were isolated from their natural reservoirs, which were also taxonomically identified. Terrestrial reservoirs included stray dogs with V1, Urocyon cineroargenteus (gray foxes) with V7, and two subspecies of Spilogale putorius (spotted skunks) with different viral variants (V8 and V10). Aerial hosts included Tadarida brasiliensis mexicana and Desmodus rotundus, which harbored V9 and V4 and harbored V11, respectively. All variants, with the exception of V9, were isolated from nonreservoir hosts, while V3, V4, and V5 were not isolated from their natural reservoirs but only from livestock. Rabies virus antigenic typing allowed us to determine rabies reservoirs and their distribution in Mexico, data which will probably improve prevention and control of the illness in humans and in the reservoir hosts. PMID:11880422

  7. Outbreak of human rabies in the Peruvian jungle.

    PubMed

    Lopez, A; Miranda, P; Tejada, E; Fishbein, D B

    1992-02-15

    Transmission of rabies to man by vampire bats has been known for 60 years but there have been few reports of the features of rabies transmitted in this way. These aspects of the disease were investigated during an outbreak in Peru in early 1990. Between Jan 1 and April 30, 1990, 29 (5%) of 636 residents of the two rural communities in the Amazon Jungle in Peru acquired an illness characterised by hydrophobia, fever, and headache and died shortly thereafter. A census in one of the two towns revealed that the proportion affected was significantly higher for 5-14 year olds (17%) than for other age-groups (p less than 10(-5). Interviews conducted with 23 of the patients or their families revealed that 22 (96%) had a history of bat bite, compared with 66 (22%) of 301 community members who remained healthy (p less than 10(-6). A rabies virus strain identical to those isolated from vampire bats (Desmodus rotundus) was isolated from the brain of the only person on whom necropsy could be done. Because of the extreme isolation of this and other communities affected by bat-transmitted rabies, preventive measures should be directed at decreasing the risk of nocturnal exposure to bats by bat proofing dwellings or use of mosquito nets and at prompt wound care. Rabies pre-exposure or postexposure vaccination is clearly indicated, but may not be feasible in these isolated populations. PMID:1346669

  8. Experimental rabies infection in haematophagous bats Desmodus rotundus.

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, M. F.; Martorelli, L. F. A.; Aires, C. C.; Sallum, P. C.; Durigon, E. L.; Massad, E.

    2005-01-01

    In order to determine the susceptibility and serum neutralizing antibody response of Desmodus rotundus to rabies virus, bats were inoculated with a virus isolated from a naturally infected haematophagous bat. Bats were divided into four groups of 10 animals each. Dilutions of rabies virus containing 100, 1000, 10,000 and 100,000 MICLD50 (lethal dose 50% for mice inoculated by the intracerebral route) were administrated in the pectoral muscle. The presence of rabies virus was detected in brain and salivary glands by fluorescent antibody, mouse inoculation and RT-PCR. The observed mortality for each virus dose was 0, 20, 20 and 60% respectively. Serum neutralizing antibodies were tested for by the rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test, and antibody titres greater than 0.5 IU/ml were found in 53% of bats 30 days after virus inoculation. Resistance to infection was seen in bats that developed low or no detectable antibody response as well as in bats with high titres. Among the 10 bats that died of rabies, eight showed signs of paralytic rabies and two bats showed no clinical signs. PMID:15962559

  9. Efficacy of Favipiravir (T-705) in Rabies Postexposure Prophylaxis

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Kentaro; Noguchi, Kazuko; Komeno, Takashi; Furuta, Yousuke; Nishizono, Akira

    2016-01-01

    Rabies is a fatal encephalitis caused by rabies virus (RABV), and no antiviral drugs for RABV are currently available. We report for the first time the efficacy of favipiravir (T-705) against RABV in vitro and in vivo. T-705 produced a significant, 3–4 log10 reduction in the multiplication of street and fixed RABV strains in mouse neuroblastoma Neuro-2a cells, with half-maximal inhibitory concentrations of 32.4 µM and 44.3 µM, respectively. T-705 significantly improved morbidity and mortality among RABV-infected mice when orally administered at a dose of 300 mg/kg/day for 7 days, beginning 1 hour after inoculation. T-705 significantly reduced the rate of virus positivity in the brain. Furthermore, the effectiveness of T-705 was comparable to that of equine rabies virus immunoglobulin for postexposure prophylaxis. Collectively, our results suggest that T-705 is active against RABV and may serve as a potential alternative to rabies immunoglobulin in rabies postexposure prophylaxis. PMID:26655300

  10. Efficacy of Favipiravir (T-705) in Rabies Postexposure Prophylaxis.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Kentaro; Noguchi, Kazuko; Komeno, Takashi; Furuta, Yousuke; Nishizono, Akira

    2016-04-15

    Rabies is a fatal encephalitis caused by rabies virus (RABV), and no antiviral drugs for RABV are currently available. We report for the first time the efficacy of favipiravir (T-705) against RABV in vitro and in vivo. T-705 produced a significant, 3-4 log10 reduction in the multiplication of street and fixed RABV strains in mouse neuroblastoma Neuro-2a cells, with half-maximal inhibitory concentrations of 32.4 µM and 44.3 µM, respectively. T-705 significantly improved morbidity and mortality among RABV-infected mice when orally administered at a dose of 300 mg/kg/day for 7 days, beginning 1 hour after inoculation. T-705 significantly reduced the rate of virus positivity in the brain. Furthermore, the effectiveness of T-705 was comparable to that of equine rabies virus immunoglobulin for postexposure prophylaxis. Collectively, our results suggest that T-705 is active against RABV and may serve as a potential alternative to rabies immunoglobulin in rabies postexposure prophylaxis. PMID:26655300

  11. [Immune efficacy of rabies virus glycoprotein expressed by baculovirus vector].

    PubMed

    Chen, Qi; Zhang, Shou-Feng; Liu, Ye; Fu, Yun-Hong; Sun, Cheng-Long; Yang, Yang; Gong, Ting; Song, Fei-Fei; Hu, Rong-Liang

    2012-09-01

    To construct a recombinant baculovirus expressing glycoprotein (GP) of RV SRV9 strain and test the immunological efficacy in mice, open reading frame of rabies virus GP gene of SRV9 strain was cloned into the shuttle vector Bacmid to construct the recombinant shuttle plasmid Bacmid-G and transfection was performed into S f9 cells with the recombinant shuttle plasmid. CPE appeared in cell cultures was identified by electronmicroscopy. Western-blot, IFA and immunity tests in mice were performed to identify the immunoreactivity and immunogenicity of the expression products. Our results showed a recombinant baculovirus expressing GP protein of rabies virus SRV9 was obtained. The expression products possessed a favorable immunogenicity and fall immunized mice could develop 100% protective level of anti-rabies neutralizing antibody. In conclusion, The SRV9 glycoprotein expressed by the recombinant baculovirus in this study had good immunogenicity and could induce anti-rabies neutralizing antibody, which laid the foundation of further development of rabies subunit vaccine. PMID:23233923

  12. Customized online and onsite training for rabies-control officers

    PubMed Central

    Bourhy, Hervé; Troupin, Cécile; Faye, Ousmane; Meslin, François-Xavier; Abela-Ridder, Bernadette; Sall, Amadou Alpha

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Problem It is difficult to deliver adequate training for people working in rabies control in low and middle-income countries. Popular e-learning systems for low-income settings are not well suited to developing and testing practical skills, including laboratory methods. Approach We customized training in rabies control methods for African professionals and students from different disciplines. Trainees participated in preparatory online sessions, evaluations and exercises before and after a 12-day workshop. Trainees and mentors continued to interact through an online forum up to one year after the workshop. Local setting In Africa, 15 000 deaths from rabies occur each year due to a lack of awareness, inaccessibility of post-exposure prophylaxis, inadequate or absent canine rabies-control programmes and lack of governmental financial support. Relevant changes Thirty two trainees – working in health departments, hospitals, veterinary stations and research institutes – were selected to participate; 28 completed the course and passed the final evaluation. Pilot rabies investigation programmes were developed, and two manuscripts submitted for publication. An online forum facilitated further progress for a year after the workshop. Lessons learnt A combination of customized online and onsite training is suitable for teaching disease-control personnel in low-income countries. Participation in this course enabled trainees to advocate for the development of national disease-control strategies. Mentoring is needed to develop a strong network of experts in similar settings. PMID:26170509

  13. Assessment of fox control in areas of wildlife rabies

    PubMed Central

    Bögel, K.; Moegle, H.; Steck, F.; Krocza, W.; Andral, L.

    1981-01-01

    This paper describes a technique for the analysis of the interaction between rabies control measures and the annual turnover of a fox population. The basic conditions are deduced from data on the turnover of a steady fox population, which have been found to be representative for large parts of central Europe. These conditions, together with field data on the critical density for rabies transmission and the recovery of reduced fox populations, provide a model for the prediction and evaluation of various measures of rabies control. The method is simplified by the introduction of a semigraphical procedure using the relative density of a reduced fox population, defined as the ratio of the actual population density to that of a non-reduced population. Simulation of epidemics and control measures over consecutive population cycles shows the limited effect of population control in a rabies-free area and demonstrates the questionable impact of measures that reduce a regular fox population by less than 40%, even when such reduction is effected annually. The method is easy to apply in the field and helps in assessing a number of disease and service indicators, as well as ecological factors in the planning and evaluation of comprehensive rabies control programmes. PMID:6972818

  14. Surveillance and control of rabies in La Reunion, Mayotte, and Madagascar

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Mayotte and La Reunion islands are currently free of animal rabies and surveillance is performed by the French Human and Veterinary Public Health Services. However, dog rabies is still enzootic in Madagascar with 4 to 10 confirmed human cases each year. The number of antirabies medical centres in Madagascar is still scarce to provide easy access to the local population for post-exposure rabies prophylaxis. Furthermore, stray dog populations are considerable and attempts to control rabies by mass campaigns of dog vaccination have not received sufficient attention from the national health authorities. To address these challenges, an expanded program to control rabies needs to be initiated by the Malagasy authorities. PMID:24016204

  15. The protective role of humoral neutralizing antibody in the NIH potency test for rabies vaccines.

    PubMed

    Wunderli, P S; Shaddock, J H; Schmid, D S; Miller, T J; Baer, G M

    1991-09-01

    Intraperitoneal vaccination of mice with rabies vaccine results in both dosage-dependent rabies virus neutralizing antibody titres and protection from lethal intracerebral (i.c.) challenge with fixed strain CVS rabies virus. Pre-exposure adoptive intravenous transfer of naive or immune cells did not significantly protect naive Balb/c mice from lethal i.c. CVS challenge, but immune serum and anti-rabies glycoprotein monoclonal antibodies (individually and in combination) did confer significant protection when administered before or up to 24 h after lethal i.c. rabies virus challenge. PMID:1950097

  16. PATHOLOGY AND MOLECULAR DETECTION OF RABIES VIRUS IN FERRET BADGERS ASSOCIATED WITH A RABIES OUTBREAK IN TAIWAN.

    PubMed

    Chiou, Hue-Ying; Jeng, Chian-Ren; Wang, Hurng-Yi; Inoue, Satoshi; Chan, Fang-Tse; Liao, Jiunn-Wang; Chiou, Ming-Tang; Pang, Victor Fei

    2016-01-01

    Until Rabies virus (RABV) infection in Taiwan ferret badgers (TWFB; Melogale moschata subaurantiaca) was diagnosed in mid-June 2013, Taiwan had been considered rabies free for >50 yr. Although rabies has also been reported in ferret badgers in China, the pathologic changes and distribution of viral antigens of ferret badger-associated rabies have not been described. We performed a comprehensive pathologic study and molecular detection of rabies virus in three necropsied rabid TWFBs and evaluated archival paraffin-embedded tissue blocks of six other TWFBs necropsied during 2004 and 2012. As in other RABV-infected species, the characteristic pathologic changes in TWFBs were nonsuppurative meningoencephalomyelitis, ganglionitis, and the formation of typical intracytoplasmic Negri bodies, with the brain stem most affected. There was also variable spongiform degeneration, primarily in the perikaryon of neurons and neuropil, in the cerebral cortex, thalamus, and brain stem. In nonnervous system tissues, representative lesions included adrenal necrosis and lymphocytic interstitial sialadenitis. Immunohistochemical staining and fluorescent antibody test demonstrated viral antigens in the perikaryon of the neurons and axonal or dendritic processes throughout the nervous tissue and in the macrophages in various tissues. Similar to raccoons (Procyon lotor) and skunks (Mephitidae), the nervous tissue of rabid TWFBs displayed widely dispersed lesions, RABV antigens, and large numbers of Negri bodies. We traced the earliest rabid TWFB case back to 2004. PMID:26560756

  17. Feasibility of reducing rabies immunoglobulin dosage for passive immunization against rabies: results of In vitro and In vivo studies.

    PubMed

    Madhusudana, Shampur Narayan; Ashwin, Belludi Yajaman; Sudarshan, Sampada

    2013-09-01

    Passive immunization is a crucial parameter for prevention of human rabies. Presently as World Health Organization (WHO) strongly advocates local infiltration of rabies immunoglobulin in and around the bite wound, we feel that there is no basis for calculating the dose of immunoglobulin based on body weight. Keeping this in view we conducted both in vitro and in vivo studies to know whether the dose of immunoglobulin can be reduced and still obtain complete neutralization of the virus. In vitro neutralization studies were conducted using CVS strain of virus and BHK 21 cells. In vivo experiments were conducted in 4 weeks old Swiss albino mice by initial challenge with CVS followed by infiltration with increasing dilutions of either human rabies immunoglobulin (HRIG) and equine rabies immunoglobulin (ERIG). In vitro studies showed that a dose of 100 FFD 50 of CVS was neutralized by increasing dilution of both HRIG and ERIG and 100% neutralization was observed with HRIG and ERIG in as low quantities as 0.025 IU. In mice studies there was 100% survival of mice infiltrated with 0.025 IU of both HRIG and ERIG compared with 100% mortality in mice infiltrated with normal saline. These results suggest that it is possible to reduce the dose of rabies immunoglobulins by at least 16 times the presently advocated dose. These findings needs to be further evaluated using larger animal models and street viruses prevalent in nature but cannot serve as recommendations for use of RIG for passive immunization in humans. PMID:23792347

  18. Renormalization Group Analysis of the Stability of Turbulent Flows in Porous Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avramenko, A. A.; Dmitrenko, N. P.; Tyrinov, A. I.

    2016-06-01

    The concept of renormalization groups for modeling the parameters of flow in porous media is considered. An algorithm for the renormalization of the equations from the k-ɛ model of turbulence is given. An expression is obtained for the coefficient of renormalized viscosity. Based on the model developed, conditions of the turbulent flow instability in a porous medium have been analyzed.

  19. Rabies DNA vaccines for protection and therapeutic treatment.

    PubMed

    Ertl, Hildegund C J

    2003-07-01

    DNA vaccines have shown efficacy in preclinical animal models in preventing or even treating a variety of diseases caused by infectious agents, malignancies or immunological disorders. One of the main perceived advantages of DNA vaccines for use in less developed countries is their low cost. Nevertheless, in general, immune responses elicited by DNA vaccines are less potent than those induced by traditional vaccines or second generation viral recombinant vaccines, and their efficacy in human Phase I trials has been disappointing. DNA vaccines have shown good efficacy in preventing rabies in some experimental animal models; their performance in postexposure treatment has been less impressive. Considering that rabies is nearly always fatal, efficacious vaccines are available and treatment in most cases is initiated after exposure, the development of current DNA vaccines to rabies for use in humans is, at the current time, not appropriate. PMID:12831368

  20. Driving Rabi oscillations at the giant dipole resonance in xenon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pabst, Stefan; Wang, Daochen; Santra, Robin

    2015-11-01

    Free-electron lasers (FELs) produce short and very intense light pulses in the XUV and x-ray regimes. We investigate the possibility to drive Rabi oscillations in xenon with an intense FEL pulse by using the unusually large dipole strength of the giant dipole resonance (GDR). The GDR decays within less than 30 as due to its position, which is above the 4 d ionization threshold. We find that intensities around 1018W /cm2 are required to induce Rabi oscillations with a period comparable to the lifetime. The pulse duration should not exceed 100 as because xenon will be fully ionized within a few lifetimes. Rabi oscillations reveal themselves also in the photoelectron spectrum in the form of Autler-Townes splittings extending over several tens of electronvolts.

  1. New steps in the control of canine rabies in India.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, H K; Gurbuxani, J P; Cliquet, F; Pattnaik, B; Patil, S S; Regnault, A; Begouen, H; Guiot, A L; Sood, R; Mahl, P; Singh, R; Picard, E; Aubert, M F A; Barrat, J; Meslin, F X

    2008-01-01

    In India, about 20,000 people die of rabies every year. The dog is the main reservoir and transmitter of the disease. A pilot rabies control programme was launched in five Indian federal states in February, 2007. This initiative is led by the Animal Welfare Board of India (AWBI) federating many animal welfare organizations and the Ministry of Agriculture. It aims at creating a "Rabies Free India." The programme combines parenteral vaccination of accessible owned and stray dogs, spaying/neutering followed by parenteral vaccination and oral vaccination of inaccessible dogs. The freeze-dried vaccine SAG2, including the bait casing, was registered in India following successful evaluation of vaccine-bait safety and efficacy (by survival after virulent challenge) in captive Indian stray dogs in the Bhopal High Security Animal Disease Laboratory. Furthermore, bait acceptance was tested under both experimental and field conditions. PMID:18634476

  2. Epidemiology and molecular virus characterization of reemerging rabies, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Cheryl; Sartorius, Benn; Sabeta, Claude; Zulu, Gugulethu; Paweska, Janusz; Mogoswane, Mamokete; Sutton, Chris; Nel, Louis H; Swanepoel, Robert; Leman, Patricia A; Grobbelaar, Antoinette A; Dyason, Edwin; Blumberg, Lucille

    2007-12-01

    The incidence of dog rabies in Limpopo Province, South Africa, increased from 5 cases in 2004 to 100 in 2006. Human rabies had last been confirmed in 1981, but investigations instituted after an index case was recognized in February 2006 identified 21 confirmed, 4 probable, and 5 possible human cases between August 5, 2005, and December 31, 2006. Twelve of these case-patients were identified retrospectively because the diagnosis of rabies was not considered: 6 of these patients consulted a traditional healer, 6 had atypical manifestations with prominent abdominal symptoms, and 6 of 7 patients tested had elevated liver enzyme activity. Molecular genetic analysis indicated that outbreak virus strains were most closely related to recent canine strains from southern Zimbabwe. Delayed recognition of the human cases may have resulted from decreased clinical suspicion after many years of effective control of the disease and the occurrence of atypical clinical presentations. PMID:18258039

  3. Vacuum Rabi spectra of a single quantum emitter.

    PubMed

    Ota, Yasutomo; Ohta, Ryuichi; Kumagai, Naoto; Iwamoto, Satoshi; Arakawa, Yasuhiko

    2015-04-10

    We report the observation of the vacuum Rabi splitting of a single quantum emitter by measuring its direct spontaneous emission into free space. We use a semiconductor quantum dot inside a photonic crystal nanocavity, in conjunction with an appropriate cavity design and filtering with a polarizer and an aperture, enabling the extraction of the inherently weak emitter's signal. The emitter's vacuum Rabi spectra exhibit clear differences from those measured by detecting the cavity photon leakage. Moreover, we observe an asymmetric vacuum Rabi spectrum induced by interference between the emitter and cavity detection channels. Our observations lay the groundwork for accessing various cavity quantum electrodynamics phenomena that manifest themselves only in the emitter's direct spontaneous emission. PMID:25910123

  4. Distemper in raccoons and foxes suspected of having rabies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Habermann, R.T.; Herman, C.M.; Williams, F.P., Jr.

    1958-01-01

    1) Twenty-one raccoons and 3 red foxes were collected from areas where suspected rabies occurred. All were found to be nonrabid. 2) Distemper was diagnosed in 14 of the 21 raccoons by demonstrating intracytoplasmic and intranuclear inclusions in the brain and visceral tissues. Two of the 3 foxes were considered to have distemper; the clinical signs were typical and mouse inoculation tests were negative for rabies. 3) Deaths of the other 7 raccoons were attributed to: leishmaniasis 1, gastritis 1, bronchopneumonia 1, parasitism 2, car injury 1; 1 showed no significant lesions. The death of 1 fox was attributed to parasitism. 4) Distemper may be a frequent cause of death in raccoons and foxes, in epizootics which simulate rabies.

  5. Human Rabies in the WHO Southeast Asia Region: Forward Steps for Elimination

    PubMed Central

    Gongal, Gyanendra; Wright, Alice E.

    2011-01-01

    There are eleven Member States in the WHO southeast Asia region (Bangladesh, Bhutan, Democratic People's Republic of Korea, India, Indonesia, Maldives, Myanmar, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Timor-Leste) of which eight are endemic for rabies. More than 1.4 billion people in the Region are at risk of rabies infection, and approximately 45% of worldwide rabies deaths occur in Asia. Dog bites account for 96% of human rabies cases. Progress in preventing human rabies through control of the disease in dogs has been slow due to various factors. Innovative control tools and techniques have been developed and standardized in recent years. The introduction of cost-effective intradermal rabies vaccination regimens in Asian countries has increased the availability and affordability of postexposure prophylaxis. Elimination of rabies is not possible without regional and intersectoral cooperation. Considering the importance of consolidating achievements in rabies control in Member countries, the WHO Regional Office for southeast Asia has developed a regional strategy for elimination of human rabies transmitted by dogs in the Region. They have committed to provide technical leadership, to advocate national health authorities to develop major stakeholder consensus for a comprehensive rabies elimination programme, and to implement national strategies for elimination of human rabies. PMID:21991437

  6. Natural Rabies Infection in a Domestic Fowl (Gallus domesticus): A Report from India

    PubMed Central

    Baby, Julie; Mani, Reeta Subramaniam; Abraham, Swapna Susan; Thankappan, Asha T.; Pillai, Prasad Madhavan; Anand, Ashwini Manoor; Madhusudana, Shampur Narayan; Ramachandran, Jayachandran; Sreekumar, Sachin

    2015-01-01

    Background Rabies is a fatal encephalitis caused by viruses belonging to the genus Lyssavirus of the family Rhabdoviridae. It is a viral disease primarily affecting mammals, though all warm blooded animals are susceptible. Experimental rabies virus infection in birds has been reported, but naturally occurring infection of birds has been documented very rarely. Principal Findings The carcass of a domestic fowl (Gallus domesticus), which had been bitten by a stray dog one month back, was brought to the rabies diagnostic laboratory. A necropsy was performed and the brain tissue obtained was subjected to laboratory tests for rabies. The brain tissue was positive for rabies viral antigens by fluorescent antibody test (FAT) confirming a diagnosis of rabies. Phylogenetic analysis based on nucleoprotein gene sequencing revealed that the rabies virus strain from the domestic fowl belonged to a distinct and relatively rare Indian subcontinent lineage. Significance This case of naturally acquired rabies infection in a bird species, Gallus domesticus, being reported for the first time in India, was identified from an area which has a significant stray dog population and is highly endemic for canine rabies. It indicates that spill over of infection even to an unusual host is possible in highly endemic areas. Lack of any clinical signs, and fewer opportunities for diagnostic laboratory testing of suspected rabies in birds, may be the reason for disease in these species being undiagnosed and probably under-reported. Butchering and handling of rabies virus- infected poultry may pose a potential exposure risk. PMID:26201090

  7. Spatio-temporal pattern of sylvatic rabies in the Sultanate of Oman, 2006-2010.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Muhammad Hammad; Ward, Michael P; Body, Mohammed; Al-Rawahi, Abdulmajeed; Wadir, Ali Awlad; Al-Habsi, Saif; Saqib, Muhammad; Ahmed, Mohammed Sayed; Almaawali, Mahir Gharib

    2013-07-01

    Rabies was first reported in the Sultanate of Oman is 1990. We analysed passive surveillance data (444 samples) collected and reported between 2006 and 2010. During this period, between 45 and 75% of samples submitted from suspect animals were subsequently confirmed (fluorescent antibody test, histopathology and reverse transcription PCR) as rabies cases. Overall, 63% of submitted samples were confirmed as rabies cases. The spatial distribution of species-specific cases were similar (centred in north-central Oman with a northeast-southwest distribution), although fox cases had a wider distribution and an east-west orientation. Clustering of cases was detected using interpolation, local spatial autocorrelation and scan statistical analysis. Several local government areas (wilayats) in north-central Oman were identified where higher than expected numbers of laboratory-confirmed rabies cases were reported. For fox rabies, more clusters (local spatial autocorrelation analysis) and a larger clustered area (scan statistical analysis) were detected. In Oman, monthly reports of fox rabies cases were highly correlated (rSP>0.5) with reports of camel, cattle, sheep and goat rabies. The best-fitting ARIMA model included a seasonality component. Fox rabies cases reported 6 months previously best explained rabies reported cases in other animal species. Despite likely reporting bias, results suggest that rabies exists as a sylvatic cycle of transmission in Oman and an opportunity still exists to prevent establishment of dog-mediated rabies. PMID:23375085

  8. Molecular Epidemiology of Rabies Viruses Circulating in Two Rabies Endemic Provinces of Laos, 2011–2012: Regional Diversity in Southeast Asia

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Kamruddin; Phommachanh, Phouvong; Vorachith, Phengphet; Matsumoto, Takashi; Lamaningao, Pheophet; Mori, Daisuke; Takaki, Minako; Douangngeun, Bounlom; Khambounheuang, Bounkhouang; Nishizono, Akira

    2015-01-01

    Background Although rabies is endemic in Laos, genetic characterization of the viruses in this country is limited. There are growing concerns that development in the region may have increased transport of dog through Laos for regional dog meat consumption, and that this may cause spillover of the viruses from dogs brought here from other countries. This study was therefore undertaken to evaluate the current rabies situation and the genetic characteristics of rabies viruses currently circulating in Laos. Methods We determined the rate of rabies-positive samples by analyzing data from animal samples submitted to the Lao Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry’s National Animal Health Centre rabies laboratory from 2004 through 2011. Twenty-three rabies-positive samples were used for viral genetic characterization. Full genome sequencing was performed on two rabies viruses. Results Rabies-positive samples increased substantially from 40.5% in 2004 to 60.2% in 2009 and continued at this level during the study period. More than 99% of the samples were from dogs, followed by cats and monkeys. Phylogenetic analyses showed that three rabies virus lineages belonging to the Southeast Asian cluster are currently circulating in Laos; these are closely related to viruses from Thailand, Cambodia and Vietnam. Lineages of the circulating Laos rabies viruses diverged from common ancestors as recently as 44.2 years and as much as 55.3 years ago, indicating periodic virus invasions. Conclusion There is an increasing trend of rabies in Laotian animals. Similar to other rabies-endemic countries, dogs are the main viral reservoir. Three viral lineages closely related to viruses from neighboring countries are currently circulating in Laos. Data provide evidence of periodic historic exchanges of the viruses with neighboring countries, but no recent invasion. PMID:25825907

  9. Protection of non-human primates against rabies with an adenovirus recombinant vaccine

    SciTech Connect

    Xiang, Z.Q.; Greenberg, L.; Ertl, H.C.; Rupprecht, C.E.

    2014-02-15

    Rabies remains a major neglected global zoonosis. New vaccine strategies are needed for human rabies prophylaxis. A single intramuscular immunization with a moderate dose of an experimental chimpanzee adenovirus (Ad) vector serotype SAd-V24, also termed AdC68, expressing the rabies virus glycoprotein, resulted in sustained titers of rabies virus neutralizing antibodies and protection against a lethal rabies virus challenge infection in a non-human primate model. Taken together, these data demonstrate the safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy of the recombinant Ad-rabies vector for further consideration in human clinical trials. - Highlights: • Pre-exposure vaccination with vaccine based on a chimpanzee derived adenovirus protects against rabies. • Protection is sustained. • Protection is achieved with single low-dose of vaccine given intramuscularly. • Protection is not affected by pre-existing antibodies to common human serotypes of adenovirus.

  10. The serological response of young dogs to the Flury LEP strain of rabies virus vaccine.

    PubMed

    Aghomo, H O; Oduye, O O; Rupprecht, C E

    1990-01-01

    The serological response of puppies from Nigeria to live Flury low egg passage (LEP) rabies vaccine was determined. Two sets of puppies were used: one set from rabies-vaccinated bitches and another set from non-vaccinated bitches. Puppies were vaccinated intramuscularly with Flury LEP strain rabies vaccine and serially bled from the 4th week to the 30th week. Serum rabies virus neutralizing antibodies (VNA) were measured by a modified rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test (RFFIT). Puppies from non-vaccinated bitches responded well to vaccination after the 4th week and through to the 10th week of age, showing a progressive increase in VNA. In contrast, puppies from vaccinated bitches responded well to rabies vaccination only at 10 weeks of age, although detectable maternal rabies VNA and rabies anti-ribonucleoprotein (RNP) antibodies had decreased by 6 weeks post partum. PMID:2247948

  11. Rabi multi-sector reservoir simulation model

    SciTech Connect

    Bruijnzeels, C.; O`Halloran, C.

    1995-12-31

    To ensure optimum ultimate recovery of the 46 meter thick oil rim of the Rabi Field in Gabon, a full field simulation model was required. Due to it`s size and complexity, with local cusping, coning and geological circumstances dominating individual well behavior, a single full field model would be too large for existing hardware. A method was developed to simulate the full field with 5 separate sector models, whilst allowing the development in one sector model to have an effect on the boundary conditions of another sector. In this manner, the 13 x 4.5 km field could be simulated with a horizontal well spacing down to 175 meter. This paper focuses on the method used to attach single 3-phase tank cells to a sector simulation grid in order to represent non-simulated parts of the field. It also describes the history matching methodology and how to run a multisector model in forecasting mode. This method can be used for any reservoir, where size and complexity require large reservoir simulation models that normally could not be modeled within the constraints of available computer facilities. Detailed studies can be conducted on specific parts of a field, whilst allowing for dynamic flow and pressure effects caused by the rest of the field.

  12. Oral Rabies Vaccine Design for Expression in Plants.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ankit; Saxena, Gauri; Verma, Praveen C

    2016-01-01

    Vaccination is the sensitization process of the immune system against any pathogen. Generally, recombinant subunit vaccines are considered safer than attenuated vaccines. As whole pathogenic organisms are used in the immunization process, the attenuated vaccines are considered more risky than subunit vaccines. Rabies is the oldest known zoonosis which spreads through a neurotropic Lyssavirus primarily mediated through infected canine bites. Rabies causes worldwide loss of more than 60,000 human lives every year. Animal vaccination is equally important to check the transmission of rabies into humans. Rabies oral vaccination can be a good alternative where multiple booster and priming regimens are required while the painful vaccination process can continue for long durations. Introduction of oral vaccines was made to ease the discomfort associated with the mode of introduction of conventional vaccines into the body. Although the rabies oral vaccine can substantially reduce the cost of vaccination in the developing countries, mass immunization programs need larger quantities of vaccines which should be delivered at nominal cost. Expression of recombinant antigen proteins in E. coli is often not viable because of lack of post-translational modifications and folding requirements. Though yeast and insect cell line expression systems have post-translational processing and modifications, significantly different immunological response against their post-translational modification pattern limits their deployment as an expression system. As an alternative, plants are emerging as a promising system to express and deliver wide range of functionally active biopharmaceutical product at lower cost for mass immunization programs. As generation of vaccine antigenic proteins in plant systems are cheaper, the strategy will benefit developing countries where this disease causes thousands of deaths every year. In this chapter, we will discuss about our efforts toward development of oral

  13. Imported Human Rabies Cases Worldwide, 1990–2012

    PubMed Central

    Carrara, Philippe; Parola, Phillipe; Brouqui, Phillipe; Gautret, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Sixty cases of human rabies in international travelers were reviewed from 1990–2012. A significant proportion of the cases were observed in migrants or their descendants when emigrating from their country of origin or after a trip to visit friends and relatives or for other reasons (43.3%). The cases were not necessarily associated with long-term travel or expatriation to endemic countries; moreover, cases were observed in travelers after short trips of two weeks or less. A predominance of male patients was observed (75.0%). The proportion of children was low (11.7%). Cases from India and Philippines were frequent (16 cases/60). In a significant proportion of cases (51.1%), diagnosis was challenging, with multiple missed diagnoses and transfers from ward to ward before the final diagnosis of rabies. Among the 28 patients whose confirmed diagnosis was obtained ante-mortem, the mean time between hospitalization and diagnosis was 7.7 days (median time: 6.0 days, range 2–30) including four cases with a diagnosis delayed by 15 or more days. In five cases, a patient traveled through one or more countries before ultimately being hospitalized. Three factors played a role in delaying the diagnosis of rabies in a number of cases: (i) a low index of suspicion for rabies in countries where the disease has been eradicated for a long time or is now rare, (ii) a negative history of animal bites or exposure to rabies, and (iii) atypical clinical presentation of the disease. Clinical symptomatology of rabies is complex and commonly confuses physicians. Furthermore, failure in diagnosing imported cases in more developed countries is most likely related to the lack of medical familiarity with even the typical clinical features of the disease. PMID:23658853

  14. Duration of serum antibody response to rabies vaccination in horses.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Alison M; Watson, Johanna L; Brault, Stephanie A; Edman, Judy M; Moore, Susan M; Kass, Philip H; Wilson, W David

    2016-08-15

    OBJECTIVE To investigate the impact of age and inferred prior vaccination history on the persistence of vaccine-induced antibody against rabies in horses. DESIGN Serologic response evaluation. ANIMALS 48 horses with an undocumented vaccination history. PROCEDURES Horses were vaccinated against rabies once. Blood samples were collected prior to vaccination, 3 to 7 weeks after vaccination, and at 6-month intervals for 2 to 3 years. Serum rabies virus-neutralizing antibody (RVNA) values were measured. An RVNA value of ≥ 0.5 U/mL was used to define a predicted protective immune response on the basis of World Health Organization recommendations for humans. Values were compared between horses < 20 and ≥ 20 years of age and between horses inferred to have been previously vaccinated and those inferred to be immunologically naïve. RESULTS A protective RVNA value (≥ 0.5 U/mL) was maintained for 2 to 3 years in horses inferred to have been previously vaccinated on the basis of prevaccination RVNA values. No significant difference was evident in response to rabies vaccination or duration of protective RVNA values between horses < 20 and ≥ 20 years of age. Seven horses were poor responders to vaccination. Significant differences were identified between horses inferred to have been previously vaccinated and horses inferred to be naïve prior to the study. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE A rabies vaccination interval > 1 year may be appropriate for previously vaccinated horses but not for horses vaccinated only once. Additional research is required to confirm this finding and characterize the optimal primary dose series for rabies vaccination. PMID:27479286

  15. Pairing renormalization and regularization within the local density approximation

    SciTech Connect

    Borycki, P.J.; Dobaczewski, J.; Nazarewicz, W.; Stoitsov, M.V.

    2006-04-15

    We discuss methods used in mean-field theories to treat pairing correlations within the local density approximation. Pairing renormalization and regularization procedures are compared in spherical and deformed nuclei. Both prescriptions give fairly similar results, although the theoretical motivation, simplicity, and stability of the regularization procedure make it a method of choice for future applications.

  16. SU(3) renormalization group study on parallel computer AP1000

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akemi, K.; de Forcrand, Ph.; Fujisaki, M.; Hashimoto, T.; Hege, H. C.; Hioki, S.; Makino, J.; Miyamura, O.; Nakamura, A.; Okada, M.; Stamatescu, I. O.; Tago, Y.; Takaishi, T.; QCD TARO (QCD on Thousand cell ARay processorOmnipurpose) Collaboration

    We report results of a Monte Crlo renormalization group study with b = 2 blocking on a 34 4 lattice in progress. Δβ at β = 6.8 is consistent with previously obtained values at a large β and is smaller than the two-loop asymptotic value.

  17. Systematic renormalization of the effective theory of Large Scale Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akbar Abolhasani, Ali; Mirbabayi, Mehrdad; Pajer, Enrico

    2016-05-01

    A perturbative description of Large Scale Structure is a cornerstone of our understanding of the observed distribution of matter in the universe. Renormalization is an essential and defining step to make this description physical and predictive. Here we introduce a systematic renormalization procedure, which neatly associates counterterms to the UV-sensitive diagrams order by order, as it is commonly done in quantum field theory. As a concrete example, we renormalize the one-loop power spectrum and bispectrum of both density and velocity. In addition, we present a series of results that are valid to all orders in perturbation theory. First, we show that while systematic renormalization requires temporally non-local counterterms, in practice one can use an equivalent basis made of local operators. We give an explicit prescription to generate all counterterms allowed by the symmetries. Second, we present a formal proof of the well-known general argument that the contribution of short distance perturbations to large scale density contrast δ and momentum density π(k) scale as k2 and k, respectively. Third, we demonstrate that the common practice of introducing counterterms only in the Euler equation when one is interested in correlators of δ is indeed valid to all orders.

  18. RENORMALIZATION OF POLYAKOV LOOPS IN FUNDAMENTAL AND HIGHER REPRESENTATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    KACZMAREK,O.; GUPTA, S.; HUEBNER, K.

    2007-07-30

    We compare two renormalization procedures, one based on the short distance behavior of heavy quark-antiquark free energies and the other by using bare Polyakov loops at different temporal entent of the lattice and find that both prescriptions are equivalent, resulting in renormalization constants that depend on the bare coupling. Furthermore these renormalization constants show Casimir scaling for higher representations of the Polyakov loops. The analysis of Polyakov loops in different representations of the color SU(3) group indicates that a simple perturbative inspired relation in terms of the quadratic Casimir operator is realized to a good approximation at temperatures T{approx}>{Tc}, for renormalized as well as bare loops. In contrast to a vanishing Polyakov loop in representations with non-zero triality in the confined phase, the adjoint loops are small but non-zero even for temperatures below the critical one. The adjoint quark-antiquark pairs exhibit screening. This behavior can be related to the binding energy of glue-lump states.

  19. Renormalization Group Flows, Cycles, and c-Theorem Folklore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curtright, Thomas L.; Jin, Xiang; Zachos, Cosmas K.

    2012-03-01

    Monotonic renormalization group flows of the “c” and “a” functions are often cited as reasons why cyclic or chaotic coupling trajectories cannot occur. It is argued here, based on simple examples, that this is not necessarily true. Simultaneous monotonic and cyclic flows can be compatible if the flow function is multivalued in the couplings.

  20. Renormalization of NN Interaction with Relativistic Chiral Two Pion Exchange

    SciTech Connect

    Higa, R; Valderrama, M Pavon; Arriola, E Ruiz

    2007-06-14

    The renormalization of the NN interaction with the Chiral Two Pion Exchange Potential computed using relativistic baryon chiral perturbation theory is considered. The short distance singularity reduces the number of counter-terms to about a half as those in the heavy-baryon expansion. Phase shifts and deuteron properties are evaluated and a general overall agreement is observed.

  1. Renormalization constants for 2-twist operators in twisted mass QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Alexandrou, C.; Constantinou, M.; Panagopoulos, H.; Stylianou, F.; Korzec, T.

    2011-01-01

    Perturbative and nonperturbative results on the renormalization constants of the fermion field and the twist-2 fermion bilinears are presented with emphasis on the nonperturbative evaluation of the one-derivative twist-2 vector and axial-vector operators. Nonperturbative results are obtained using the twisted mass Wilson fermion formulation employing two degenerate dynamical quarks and the tree-level Symanzik improved gluon action. The simulations have been performed for pion masses in the range of about 450-260 MeV and at three values of the lattice spacing a corresponding to {beta}=3.9, 4.05, 4.20. Subtraction of O(a{sup 2}) terms is carried out by performing the perturbative evaluation of these operators at 1-loop and up to O(a{sup 2}). The renormalization conditions are defined in the RI{sup '}-MOM scheme, for both perturbative and nonperturbative results. The renormalization factors, obtained for different values of the renormalization scale, are evolved perturbatively to a reference scale set by the inverse of the lattice spacing. In addition, they are translated to MS at 2 GeV using 3-loop perturbative results for the conversion factors.

  2. Holographic renormalization of 3D minimal massive gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alishahiha, Mohsen; Qaemmaqami, Mohammad M.; Naseh, Ali; Shirzad, Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    We study holographic renormalization of 3D minimal massive gravity using the Chern-Simons-like formulation of the model. We explicitly present Gibbons- Hawking term as well as all counterterms needed to make the action finite in terms of dreibein and spin-connection. This can be used to find correlation functions of stress tensor of holographic dual field theory.

  3. Landau Renormalizations of Superfluid Density in the Heavy-Fermion Superconductor CeCoIn5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shu, Lei; MacLaughlin, D. E.; Varma, C. M.; Bernal, O. O.; Ho, P.-C.; Fukuda, R. H.; Shen, X. P.; Maple, M. B.

    2014-10-01

    The formation of heavy-fermion bands can occur by means of the conversion of a periodic array of local moments into itinerant electrons via the Kondo effect and the huge consequent Fermi-liquid renormalizations. Leggett predicted for liquid He3 that Fermi-liquid renormalizations change in the superconducting state, leading to a temperature dependence of the London penetration depth Λ quite different from that in BCS theory. Using Leggett's theory, as modified for heavy fermions, it is possible to extract from the measured temperature dependence of Λ in high quality samples both Landau parameters F0s and F1s; this has never been accomplished before. A modification of the temperature dependence of the electronic specific heat Cel, related to that of Λ, is also expected. We have carefully determined the magnitude and temperature dependence of Λ in CeCoIn5 by muon spin relaxation rate measurements to obtain F0s=36±1 and F1s=1.2±0.3, and we find a consistent change in the temperature dependence of Cel. This, the first determination of F1s with a value ≪F0s in a heavy-fermion compound, tests the basic assumption of the theory of heavy fermions, that the frequency dependence of the self-energy is much more important than its momentum dependence.

  4. Nonequilibrium dynamics of active matter with correlated noise: A dynamical renormalization group study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kachan, Devin; Levine, Alex; Bruinsma, Robijn

    2014-03-01

    Biology is rife with examples of active materials - soft matter systems driven into nonequilibrium steady states by energy input at the micro scale. For example, solutions of active micron scale swimmers produce active fluids showing phenomena reminiscent of turbulent convection at low Reynolds number; cytoskeletal networks driven by endogenous molecular motors produce active solids whose mechanics and low frequency strain fluctuations depend sensitively on motor activity. One hallmark of these systems is that they are driven at the micro scale by temporally correlated forces. In this talk, we study how correlated noise at the micro scale leads to novel long wavelength and long time scale dynamics at the macro scale in a simple model system. Specifically, we study the fluctuations of a ϕ4 scalar field obeying model A dynamics and driven by noise with a finite correlation time τ. We show that the effective dynamical system at long length and time scales is driven by white noise with a renormalized amplitude and renormalized transport coefficients. We discuss the implications of this result for a broad class of active matter systems driven at the micro scale by colored noise.

  5. Emergence of a sylvatic enzootic formosan ferret badger-associated rabies in Taiwan and the geographical separation of two phylogenetic groups of rabies viruses.

    PubMed

    Tsai, K J; Hsu, W C; Chuang, W C; Chang, J C; Tu, Y C; Tsai, H J; Liu, H F; Wang, F I; Lee, S H

    2016-01-15

    Taiwan had been declared rabies-free in humans and domestic animals for five decades until July 2013, when surprisingly, three Formosan ferret badgers (FB) were diagnosed with rabies. Since then, a variety of wild carnivores and other wildlife species have been found dead, neurologically ill, or exhibiting aggressive behaviors around the island. To determine the affected animal species, geographic areas, and environments, animal bodies were examined for rabies by direct fluorescent antibody test (FAT). The viral genomes from the brains of selected rabid animals were sequenced for the phylogeny of rabies viruses (RABV). Out of a total of 1016 wild carnivores, 276/831 (33.2%) Formosan FBs were FAT positive, with occasional biting incidents in 1 dog and suspected spillover in 1 house shrew. All other animals tested, including dogs, cats, bats, mice, house shrews, and squirrels, were rabies-negative. The rabies was badger-associated and confined to nine counties/cities in sylvatic environments. Phylogeny of nucleoprotein and glycoprotein genes from 59 Formosan FB-associated RABV revealed them to be clustered in two distinct groups, TWI and TWII, consistent with the geographic segregation into western and eastern Taiwan provided by the Central Mountain Range and into northern rabies-free and central-southern rabies-affected regions by a river bisecting western Taiwan. The unique features of geographic and genetic segregation, sylvatic enzooticity, and FB-association of RABV suggest a logical strategy for the control of rabies in this nation. PMID:26711025

  6. Comparison of antibody response to a non-adjuvanted, live canarypox-vectored recombinant rabies vaccine and a killed, adjuvanted rabies vaccine in Eld's deer (Rucervus eldi thamin).

    PubMed

    Marrow, Judilee C; Padilla, Luis R; Hayek, Lee-Ann C; Bush, Mitch; Murray, Suzan

    2014-06-01

    Captive Eld's deer (Rucervus eldi thamin) were evaluated for the presence of rabies virus-neutralizing antibodies using a rapid fluorescent focus inhibition after vaccination with either a live canarypox-vectored recombinant rabies vaccine or a killed monovalent rabies vaccine. Twelve deer were vaccinated with 1.0 ml of killed, adjuvanted, monovalent rabies vaccine at 5-33 mo of age then annually thereafter, and 14 deer were vaccinated with 1.0 ml nonadjuvanted, live canarypox-vectored rabies vaccine at 3-15 mo of age then annually thereafter. Banked serum was available or collected prospectively from deer at 6 mo and 1 yr after initial vaccination, then collected annually. Rabies virus-neutralizing antibodies considered adequate (>0.5 IU/ml) were present in 20/34 samples vaccinated with canarypox-vectored rabies vaccine and in 12/14 samples vaccinated with killed adjuvanted rabies vaccine. Poor seroconversion was noted in deer less than 6 mo of age vaccinated with the canarypox-vectored rabies vaccine. PMID:25000692

  7. No adverse effects of simultaneous vaccination with the immunocontraceptive GonaCon and a commercial rabies vaccine on rabies virus neutralizing antibody production in dogs.

    PubMed

    Bender, Scott C; Bergman, David L; Wenning, Krista M; Miller, Lowell A; Slate, Dennis; Jackson, Felix R; Rupprecht, Charles E

    2009-11-27

    Parenteral vaccination campaigns are integral to the elimination of canine rabies. To maximize herd immunity in dogs, immunocontraception provided at the time of rabies vaccination should reduce fecundity and dog abundance. GonaCon has been used successfully as an immunocontraceptive in a variety of mammals, and by inference, the dog would be an ideal candidate for testing. As an initial step in evaluating a combination-vaccination program, we assessed the effects of GonaCon on rabies virus neutralizing antibody production in dogs after administration of a veterinary rabies vaccine. Eighteen feral/free ranging dogs were included in this initial study: six were given GonaCon only, six were given rabies vaccination only, and six received GonaCon and rabies vaccination. Antibody levels were evaluated over 82 days. The use of the immunocontraceptive GonaCon did not affect the ability of dogs to seroconvert in response to the rabies vaccine. Thus, GonaCon provides a potential immunocontraceptive for use in combination with rabies vaccine to increase herd immunity and address dog population over abundance to better manage rabies. PMID:19925955

  8. Taming the beast: rabies control in the cradle of mankind.

    PubMed

    D'Amico, Gianluca; Mihalca, Andrei D; Domşa, Cristian; Albrechtová, Katerina; Sándor, Attila D; Modrý, David

    2013-05-01

    Between 2006 and 2012, a rabies control programme has been conducted in the area of Lake Turkana in northern Kenya. Spatial data obtained for this project were analysed with the aim of assessing the importance of dog home ranges with the view of possible overlapping between dog populations from adjacent localities. In contrast to our expectation of the maximum home ranges of dogs in the harsh semi-desert environment, the results provided by geographical information system (GIS) analysis showed that in 14 out of 16 localities considered for the study, the dog populations were fully isolated from each other. The data obtained should be helpful for designing rabies control strategies. PMID:23733302

  9. On the existence of monodromies for the Rabi model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carneiro da Cunha, Bruno; Carvalho de Almeida, Manuela; Rabelo de Queiroz, Amílcar

    2016-05-01

    We discuss the existence of monodromies associated with the singular points of the eigenvalue problem for the Rabi model. The complete control of the full monodromy data requires the taming of the Stokes phenomenon associated with the unique irregular singular point. The monodromy data, in particular, the composite monodromy, are written in terms of the parameters of the model via the isomonodromy method and the τ function of the Painlevé V. These data provide a systematic way to obtain the quantized spectrum of the Rabi model.

  10. Use of rabies vaccines after reconstitution and storage.

    PubMed

    Khawplod, Pakamatz; Tantawichien, Tanpetch; Wilde, Henry; Limusanno, Sukunya; Tantawichien, Terapong; Saikasem, Apinya; Raksakate, Somsri

    2002-02-01

    Storing freshly reconstituted purified chick embryo rabies vaccine at 4 degrees C for 1 week allowed use of <1 ampoule of 1.0 mL for 1 patient for day 0, 3, and 7 immunizations, representing considerable savings in vaccine and also possibly allowing use of this cost-saving regimen in centers that see <1 rabies-exposed patient daily. The 90-day booster dose mandated in the current intradermal regimen may not be necessary if the day 28 dose is doubled, eliminating 1 clinic visit at no additional cost in vaccine. PMID:11774089

  11. Human rabies: a reemerging disease in Costa Rica?

    PubMed

    Badilla, Xiomara; Pérez-Herra, Victor; Quirós, Ligia; Morice, Ana; Jiménez, Edwin; Sáenz, Elizabeth; Salazar, Fernando; Fernández, Rodrigo; Orciari, Lillian; Yager, Pamela; Whitfield, Sylvia; Rupprecht, Charles E

    2003-06-01

    Two human rabies cases caused by a bat-associated virus variant were identified in September 2001 in Costa Rica, after a 31-year absence of the disease in humans. Both patients lived in a rural area where cattle had a high risk for bat bites, but neither person had a definitive history of being bitten by a rabid animal. Characterization of the rabies viruses from the patients showed that the reservoir was the hematophagous Vampire Bat, Desmodus rotundus, and that a sick cat was the vector. PMID:12781014

  12. Human Rabies: A Reemerging Disease in Costa Rica?

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Herra, Victor; Quirós, Ligia; Morice, Ana; Jiménez, Edwin; Sáenz, Elizabeth; Salazar, Fernando; Fernández, Rodrigo; Orciari, Lillian; Yager, Pamela; Whitfield, Sylvia; Rupprecht, Charles E.

    2003-01-01

    Two human rabies cases caused by a bat-associated virus variant were identified in September 2001 in Costa Rica, after a 31-year absence of the disease in persons. Both patients lived in a rural area where cattle had a high risk for bat bites, but neither person had a definitive history of being bitten by a rabid animal. Characterization of the rabies viruses from the patients showed that the reservoir was the hematophagous Vampire Bat, Desmodus rotundus, and that a sick cat was the vector. PMID:12781014

  13. [Expression and characterization of rabies virus nucleoprotein in baculovirus].

    PubMed

    Cao, Lei; Tang, Qing; Tao, Xiao-yan; Huang, Ying; Du, Jia-liang; Zhang, Shou-feng; Hu, Rong-liang

    2010-09-01

    To construct a recombinant expression plasmid Bacmid-N containing the N gene of Rabies Virus, the N gene of RV CVS-11 strain was cloned into the baculovirus shuttle vector (Bacmid). Recombinant Baculovirus AcMNPV-N (P1 Viral stock) was obtained by transfecting the Bacmid-N into the insect cell line of Sf9. The expressed nucleoprotein was identified and analysised by ELISA, FA, SDS-PAGE and Western blot assays. The results showed that the NP protein was expressed intracellularly and had a good antigenicity, which would be potentially used for further study on the diagnostic reagent of rabies virus detection. PMID:21043133

  14. Bat Rabies in British Columbia 1971-1985

    PubMed Central

    Prins, Bert; Loewen, Ken

    1988-01-01

    Rabies virus was demonstrated in 99 of 1154 bats submitted from British Columbia between 1971 and 1985. Rabies was diagnosed in seven species including big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus), the latter accounting for 51% of all positive cases. Colonial species represented 92.9% of all identified bats and 87.7% of all rabid cases. Most bats were submitted from the more densely populated areas of the province, and submissions and positive cases both peaked in the month of August. Daytime activity and inability to fly were the most common behaviors reported in rabid bats. PMID:17422945

  15. Inverted pendulum state of a polariton Rabi oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voronova, N. S.; Elistratov, A. A.; Lozovik, Yu. E.

    2016-07-01

    Exciton-photon beats known as polariton Rabi oscillations in semiconductor microcavities are usually excited by short pulses of light. We consider a different pumping scheme, assuming a cw pumping of the Rabi oscillator from an exciton reservoir. We account for the initial pulse of light setting the phase, exciton decay due to exciton-phonon and exciton-exciton scattering, photon leakage, and blueshift of the exciton resonance due to interactions. We find nontrivial stationary solutions reminiscent of the Kapitza pendulum, where polaritons are accumulated at the upper branch while the lower branch empties.

  16. Molecular diversity of rabies viruses associated with bats in Mexico and other countries of the Americas.

    PubMed

    Velasco-Villa, Andrés; Orciari, Lillian A; Juárez-Islas, Víctor; Gómez-Sierra, Mauricio; Padilla-Medina, Irma; Flisser, Ana; Souza, Valeria; Castillo, Amanda; Franka, Richard; Escalante-Mañe, Maribel; Sauri-González, Isaias; Rupprecht, Charles E

    2006-05-01

    Bat rabies and its transmission to humans and other species in Mexico were investigated. Eighty-nine samples obtained from rabid livestock, cats, dogs, and humans in Mexico were studied by antigenic typing and partial sequence analysis. Samples were further compared with enzootic rabies associated with different species of bats in the Americas. Patterns of nucleotide variation allowed the definition of at least 20 monophyletic clusters associated with 9 or more different bat species. Several lineages associated with distinctive antigenic patterns were found in rabies viruses related to rabies in vampire bats in Mexico. Vampire bat rabies virus lineages associated with antigenic variant 3 are widely spread from Mexico to South America, suggesting these lineages as the most likely ancestors of vampire bat rabies and the ones that have been moved by vampire bat populations throughout the Americas. Rabies viruses related to Lasiurus cinereus, Histiotus montanus, and some other not yet identified species of the genus Lasiurus were found circulating in Mexico. Long-range dissemination patterns of rabies are not necessarily associated with migratory bat species, as in the case of rabies in Desmodus rotundus and Histiotus montanus. Human rabies was associated with vampire bat transmission in most cases, and in one case, rabies transmission from free-tailed bats was inferred. The occurrence of rabies spillover from bats to domestic animals was also demonstrated. Genetic typing of rabies viruses allowed us to distinguish trends of disease dissemination and to address, in a preliminary fashion, aspects of the complex evolution of rabies viruses in different host-reservoir species. PMID:16672396

  17. Molecular Diversity of Rabies Viruses Associated with Bats in Mexico and Other Countries of the Americas

    PubMed Central

    Velasco-Villa, Andrés; Orciari, Lillian A.; Juárez-Islas, Víctor; Gómez-Sierra, Mauricio; Padilla-Medina, Irma; Flisser, Ana; Souza, Valeria; Castillo, Amanda; Franka, Richard; Escalante-Mañe, Maribel; Sauri-González, Isaias; Rupprecht, Charles E.

    2006-01-01

    Bat rabies and its transmission to humans and other species in Mexico were investigated. Eighty-nine samples obtained from rabid livestock, cats, dogs, and humans in Mexico were studied by antigenic typing and partial sequence analysis. Samples were further compared with enzootic rabies associated with different species of bats in the Americas. Patterns of nucleotide variation allowed the definition of at least 20 monophyletic clusters associated with 9 or more different bat species. Several lineages associated with distinctive antigenic patterns were found in rabies viruses related to rabies in vampire bats in Mexico. Vampire bat rabies virus lineages associated with antigenic variant 3 are widely spread from Mexico to South America, suggesting these lineages as the most likely ancestors of vampire bat rabies and the ones that have been moved by vampire bat populations throughout the Americas. Rabies viruses related to Lasiurus cinereus, Histiotus montanus, and some other not yet identified species of the genus Lasiurus were found circulating in Mexico. Long-range dissemination patterns of rabies are not necessarily associated with migratory bat species, as in the case of rabies in Desmodus rotundus and Histiotus montanus. Human rabies was associated with vampire bat transmission in most cases, and in one case, rabies transmission from free-tailed bats was inferred. The occurrence of rabies spillover from bats to domestic animals was also demonstrated. Genetic typing of rabies viruses allowed us to distinguish trends of disease dissemination and to address, in a preliminary fashion, aspects of the complex evolution of rabies viruses in different host-reservoir species. PMID:16672396

  18. Public Health Responses to Reemergence of Animal Rabies, Taiwan, July 16-December 28, 2013.

    PubMed

    Huang, Angela Song-En; Chen, Wan-Chin; Huang, Wan-Ting; Huang, Shih-Tse; Lo, Yi-Chun; Wei, Sung-Hsi; Kuo, Hung-Wei; Chan, Pei-Chun; Hung, Min-Nan; Liu, Yu-Lun; Mu, Jung-Jung; Yang, Jyh-Yuan; Liu, Ding-Ping; Chou, Jih-Haw; Chuang, Jen-Hsiang; Chang, Feng-Yee

    2015-01-01

    Taiwan had been free of indigenous human and animal rabies case since canine rabies was eliminated in 1961. In July 2013, rabies was confirmed among three wild ferret-badgers, prompting public health response to prevent human rabies cases. This descriptive study reports the immediate response to the reemergence of rabies in Taiwan. Response included enhanced surveillance for human rabies cases by testing stored cerebrospinal fluids (CSF) from patients with encephalitides of unknown cause by RT-PCR, prioritizing vaccine use for postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) during periods of vaccine shortage and subsequent expansion of PEP, surveillance of animal bites using information obtained from vaccine application, roll out of preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) with vaccine stock restoration, surveillance for adverse events following immunization (AEFI), and ensuring surge capacity to respond to general public inquiries by phone and training for healthcare professionals. Enhanced surveillance for human rabies found no cases after testing 205 stored CSF specimens collected during January 2010-July 2013. During July 16 to December 28, 2013, we received 8,241 rabies PEP application; 6,634 (80.5%) were consistent with recommendations. Among the 6,501 persons who received at least one dose of rabies vaccine postexposure, 4,953 (76.2%) persons who were bitten by dogs; only 59 (0.9%) persons were bitten by ferret-badgers. During the study period, 6,247 persons received preexposure prophylaxis. There were 23 reports of AEFI; but no anaphylaxis, Guillain-Barré syndrome, or acute disseminated encephalomyelitis were found. During the study period, there were 40,312 calls to the Taiwan Centers for Disease Control hotline, of which, 8,692 (22%) were related to rabies. Recent identification of rabies among ferret-badgers in a previously rabies-free country prompted rapid response. To date, no human rabies has been identified. Continued multifaceted surveillance and interministerial

  19. Public Health Responses to Reemergence of Animal Rabies, Taiwan, July 16–December 28, 2013

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Angela Song-En; Chen, Wan-Chin; Huang, Wan-Ting; Huang, Shih-Tse; Lo, Yi-Chun; Wei, Sung-Hsi; Kuo, Hung-Wei; Chan, Pei-Chun; Hung, Min-Nan; Liu, Yu-Lun; Mu, Jung-Jung; Yang, Jyh-Yuan; Liu, Ding-Ping; Chou, Jih-Haw; Chuang, Jen-Hsiang; Chang, Feng-Yee

    2015-01-01

    Taiwan had been free of indigenous human and animal rabies case since canine rabies was eliminated in 1961. In July 2013, rabies was confirmed among three wild ferret-badgers, prompting public health response to prevent human rabies cases. This descriptive study reports the immediate response to the reemergence of rabies in Taiwan. Response included enhanced surveillance for human rabies cases by testing stored cerebrospinal fluids (CSF) from patients with encephalitides of unknown cause by RT-PCR, prioritizing vaccine use for postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) during periods of vaccine shortage and subsequent expansion of PEP, surveillance of animal bites using information obtained from vaccine application, roll out of preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) with vaccine stock restoration, surveillance for adverse events following immunization (AEFI), and ensuring surge capacity to respond to general public inquiries by phone and training for healthcare professionals. Enhanced surveillance for human rabies found no cases after testing 205 stored CSF specimens collected during January 2010–July 2013. During July 16 to December 28, 2013, we received 8,241 rabies PEP application; 6,634 (80.5%) were consistent with recommendations. Among the 6,501persons who received at least one dose of rabies vaccine postexposure, 4,953 (76.2%) persons who were bitten by dogs; only 59 (0.9%) persons were bitten by ferret-badgers. During the study period, 6,247 persons received preexposure prophylaxis. There were 23 reports of AEFI; but no anaphylaxis, Guillain-Barré syndrome, or acute disseminated encephalomyelitis were found. During the study period, there were 40,312 calls to the Taiwan Centers for Disease Control hotline, of which, 8,692 (22%) were related to rabies. Recent identification of rabies among ferret-badgers in a previously rabies-free country prompted rapid response. To date, no human rabies has been identified. Continued multifaceted surveillance and interministerial

  20. Chimeric rabies virus-like particles containing membrane-anchored GM-CSF enhances the immune response against rabies virus.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hongtao; Qi, Yinglin; Wang, Hualei; Zheng, Xuexing; Gao, Yuwei; Li, Nan; Yang, Songtao; Xia, Xianzhu

    2015-03-01

    Rabies remains an important public health threat in most developing countries. To develop a more effective and safe vaccine against rabies, we have constructed a chimeric rabies virus-like particle (VLP), which containing glycoprotein (G) and matrix protein (M) of rabies virus (RABV) Evelyn-Rokitnicki-Abelseth (ERA) strain, and membrane-anchored granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), and it was named of EVLP-G. The immunogenicity and protective efficacy of EVLP-G against RABV were evaluated by intramuscular administration in a mouse model. The EVLP-G was successfully produced in insect cells by coinfection with three recombinant baculoviruses expressing G, M, and GM-CSF, respectively. The membrane-anchored GM-CSF possesses a strong adjuvant activity. More B cells and dendritic cells (DCs) were recruited and/or activated in inguinal lymph nodes in mice immunized with EVLP-G. EVLP-G was found to induce a significantly increased RABV-specific virus-neutralizing antibody and elicit a larger and broader antibody subclass responses compared with the standard rabies VLP (sRVLP, consisting of G and M). The EVLP-G also elicited significantly more IFN-γ- or IL-4-secreting CD4+ and CD8+ T cells than the sRVLP. Moreover, the immune responses induced by EVLP-G protect all vaccinated mice from lethal challenge with RABV. These results suggest that EVLP-G has the potential to be developed as a novel vaccine candidate for the prevention and control of animal rabies. PMID:25768031

  1. Chimeric Rabies Virus-Like Particles Containing Membrane-Anchored GM-CSF Enhances the Immune Response against Rabies Virus

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Hongtao; Qi, Yinglin; Wang, Hualei; Zheng, Xuexing; Gao, Yuwei; Li, Nan; Yang, Songtao; Xia, Xianzhu

    2015-01-01

    Rabies remains an important public health threat in most developing countries. To develop a more effective and safe vaccine against rabies, we have constructed a chimeric rabies virus-like particle (VLP), which containing glycoprotein (G) and matrix protein (M) of rabies virus (RABV) Evelyn-Rokitnicki-Abelseth (ERA) strain, and membrane-anchored granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), and it was named of EVLP-G. The immunogenicity and protective efficacy of EVLP-G against RABV were evaluated by intramuscular administration in a mouse model. The EVLP-G was successfully produced in insect cells by coinfection with three recombinant baculoviruses expressing G, M, and GM-CSF, respectively. The membrane-anchored GM-CSF possesses a strong adjuvant activity. More B cells and dendritic cells (DCs) were recruited and/or activated in inguinal lymph nodes in mice immunized with EVLP-G. EVLP-G was found to induce a significantly increased RABV-specific virus-neutralizing antibody and elicit a larger and broader antibody subclass responses compared with the standard rabies VLP (sRVLP, consisting of G and M). The EVLP-G also elicited significantly more IFN-γ- or IL-4-secreting CD4+ and CD8+ T cells than the sRVLP. Moreover, the immune responses induced by EVLP-G protect all vaccinated mice from lethal challenge with RABV. These results suggest that EVLP-G has the potential to be developed as a novel vaccine candidate for the prevention and control of animal rabies. PMID:25768031

  2. Numerical Calculation of Scaling Exponents of Percolation Process in the Framework of Renormalization Group Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adzhemyan, L. Ts.; Hnatič, M.; Kompaniets, M.; Lučivjanský, T.; Mižišin, L.

    2016-02-01

    The renormalization group theory is used to the study of the directed bond percolation (Gribov process) near its second-order phase transition between absorbing and active state. We present a numerical calculation of the renormalization group functions in the ɛ-expansion where ɛ is the deviation from the upper critical dimension dc = 4. Within this procedure anomalous dimensions γ are expressed in terms of irreducible renormalized Feynman diagrams and thus the calculation of renormalization constants could be entirely skipped. The renormalization group is included by means of the R operation, and for computational purposes we choose the null momentum subtraction scheme.

  3. Control and prevention of rabies in animals: paradigm shifts.

    PubMed

    Rupprecht, C E; Hanlon, C A; Slate, D

    2006-01-01

    Animal management is the keystone of any modern programme for the prevention and control of rabies. Historically, "animal control" for local elimination of disease was largely equated with population reduction. However, with relatively few exceptions, culling alone has not led to effective control of rabies. In most documented examples of effective control of rabies in the 20th century, an integrated management approach was used that included public education, responsible stewardship of animal populations, manipulation of the population carrying capacity of the local habitat, and vaccination strategies. Globally, the greatest burden on human health that is attributable to this zoonosis is caused by uncontrolled rabies in dogs. Where political willingness, biomedical infrastructure, and economic stability permit the sustained use of control measures (e.g. stray animal removal and mandatory parenteral vaccination), canine rabies has been significantly suppressed and even eliminated over large geographical areas. Examples include many island nations, most of North America, Europe, and increasingly in South America. Despite the effectiveness of such proven control techniques, however, their implementation in parts of Asia, Africa, and elsewhere has been limited, primarily because of a lack of dedicated resources and intersectoral cooperation, and also because of the burden of high-density populations of dogs. Implementation is often complicated by cultural and social factors, e.g. reluctance to cull apparently ownerless, nuisance animals that are suspected to have been exposed to rabies, partly on the basis of religious beliefs). Attempts to modify animal fertility (such as the encouragement of voluntary spay-neuter programmes or individual chemical contraception, and the extension of such actions to animals in the community) may provide ancillary support in line with other traditional methods of control of canine rabies. With the identification of complex situations

  4. A Functional Generalization of the Field-Theoretical Renormalization Group Approach for the Single-Impurity Anderson Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freire, Hermann; Corrêa, Eberth

    2012-02-01

    We apply a functional implementation of the field-theoretical renormalization group (RG) method up to two loops to the single-impurity Anderson model. To achieve this, we follow a RG strategy similar to that proposed by Vojta et al. (in Phys. Rev. Lett. 85:4940, 2000), which consists of defining a soft ultraviolet regulator in the space of Matsubara frequencies for the renormalized Green's function. Then we proceed to derive analytically and solve numerically integro-differential flow equations for the effective couplings and the quasiparticle weight of the present model, which fully treat the interplay of particle-particle and particle-hole parquet diagrams and the effect of the two-loop self-energy feedback into them. We show that our results correctly reproduce accurate numerical renormalization group data for weak to slightly moderate interactions. These results are in excellent agreement with other functional Wilsonian RG works available in the literature. Since the field-theoretical RG method turns out to be easier to implement at higher loops than the Wilsonian approach, higher-order calculations within the present approach could improve further the results for this model at stronger couplings. We argue that the present RG scheme could thus offer a possible alternative to other functional RG methods to describe electronic correlations within this model.

  5. Spatial and temporal trends of bat-borne rabies in Chile.

    PubMed

    Escobar, L E; Restif, O; Yung, V; Favi, M; Pons, D J; Medina-Vogel, G

    2015-05-01

    In Chile, while dog rabies has decreased markedly over the last 30 years, bat rabies is still reported frequently. In order to shed new light on the spatiotemporal trends of these reports, we analysed active and passive data from years 1985 and 2012, which included 61 076 samples from 289 counties of Chile. We found that from 1994 to 2012, more than 15 000 bat samples were submitted for diagnostics through passive surveillance, 9·5% of which tested positive for rabies. By contrast, the prevalence of infection was only ~0·4% among the nearly 12 000 bat samples submitted through active surveillance. We found that the prevalence of dog rabies dropped steadily over the same period, with just a single confirmed case since 1998. None of the 928 samples from wild animals, other than bats, were positive for rabies. Although there has been only one confirmed case of human rabies in Chile since 1985, and a single confirmed case in a dog since 1998, bats remain a reservoir for rabies viruses. While active surveillance indicates that rabies prevalence is low in bat colonies, the high proportion of positive bats submitted through passive surveillance is a concern. To prevent human rabies, local public health agencies should increase research on the basic ecology of bats and the role of stray dogs and cats as potential rabies amplifiers. PMID:25166219

  6. Purified equine rabies immune globulin: a safe and affordable alternative to human rabies immune globulin.

    PubMed Central

    Wilde, H.; Chomchey, P.; Punyaratabandhu, P.; Phanupak, P.; Chutivongse, S.

    1989-01-01

    Reported are the results of a retrospective study of 3156 patients who were treated at the Queen Saovabha Memorial Institute, Bangkok, with equine rabies immune globulin (ERIG). Only 51 patients (1.6%) exhibited serum-sickness-like reactions, none of which persisted for more than a week, and only 8 of these patients (15%) were treated with a short course of steroids. One patient, whose skin test was negative, had an immediate anaphylactic reaction to ERIG that responded to parenteral therapy with epinephrine and hydrocortisone sodium succinate. Serum-sickness-like reactions were more frequent among females and over 21-year-olds but were exceedingly rare (0.086%) among children under 10 years of age. PMID:2633888

  7. Rabies virus phosphoprotein interacts with ribosomal protein L9 and affects rabies virus replication.

    PubMed

    Li, Youwen; Dong, Wanyu; Shi, Yuejun; Deng, Feng; Chen, Xi; Wan, Chunyun; Zhou, Ming; Zhao, Ling; Fu, Zhen F; Peng, Guiqing

    2016-01-15

    Rabies virus is a highly neurotropic virus that can cause fatal infection of the central nervous system in warm-blooded animals. The RABV phosphoprotein (P), an essential cofactor of the virus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, is required for virus replication. In this study, the ribosomal protein L9, which has functions in protein translation, is identified as P-interacting cellular factor using phage display analysis. Direct binding between the L9 and P was confirmed by protein pull-down and co-immunoprecipitation analyses. It was further demonstrated that L9 translocates from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, where it colocalizes with P in cells infected with RABV or transfected with P gene. RABV replication was reduced with L9 overexpression and enhanced with L9 knockdown. Thus, we propose that during RABV infection, P binds to L9 that translocates from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, inhibiting the initial stage of RABV transcription. PMID:26655239

  8. Predictive Spatial Dynamics and Strategic Planning for Raccoon Rabies Emergence in Ohio

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Rabies is an important public health concern in North America because of recent epidemics of a rabies virus variant associated with raccoons. The costs associated with surveillance, diagnostic testing, and post-exposure treatment of humans exposed to rabies have fostered coordinated efforts to control rabies spread by distributing an oral rabies vaccine to wild raccoons. Authorities have tried to contain westward expansion of the epidemic front of raccoon-associated rabies via a vaccine corridor established in counties of eastern Ohio, western Pennsylvania, and West Virginia. Although sporadic cases of rabies have been identified in Ohio since oral rabies vaccine distribution in 1998, the first evidence of a significant breach in this vaccine corridor was not detected until 2004 in Lake County, Ohio. Herein, we forecast the spatial spread of rabies in Ohio from this breach using a stochastic spatial model that was first developed for exploratory data analysis in Connecticut and next used to successfully hind-cast wave-front dynamics of rabies spread across New York. The projections, based on expansion from the Lake County breach, are strongly affected by the spread of rabies by rare, but unpredictable long-distance translocation of rabid raccoons; rabies may traverse central Ohio at a rate 2.5-fold greater than previously analyzed wildlife epidemics. Using prior estimates of the impact of local heterogeneities on wave-front propagation and of the time lag between surveillance-based detection of an initial rabies case to full-blown epidemic, specific regions within the state are identified for vaccine delivery and expanded surveillance effort. PMID:15737065

  9. Predictive spatial dynamics and strategic planning for raccoon rabies emergence in Ohio.

    PubMed

    Russell, Colin A; Smith, David L; Childs, James E; Real, Leslie A

    2005-03-01

    Rabies is an important public health concern in North America because of recent epidemics of a rabies virus variant associated with raccoons. The costs associated with surveillance, diagnostic testing, and post-exposure treatment of humans exposed to rabies have fostered coordinated efforts to control rabies spread by distributing an oral rabies vaccine to wild raccoons. Authorities have tried to contain westward expansion of the epidemic front of raccoon-associated rabies via a vaccine corridor established in counties of eastern Ohio, western Pennsylvania, and West Virginia. Although sporadic cases of rabies have been identified in Ohio since oral rabies vaccine distribution in 1998, the first evidence of a significant breach in this vaccine corridor was not detected until 2004 in Lake County, Ohio. Herein, we forecast the spatial spread of rabies in Ohio from this breach using a stochastic spatial model that was first developed for exploratory data analysis in Connecticut and next used to successfully hind-cast wave-front dynamics of rabies spread across New York. The projections, based on expansion from the Lake County breach, are strongly affected by the spread of rabies by rare, but unpredictable long-distance translocation of rabid raccoons; rabies may traverse central Ohio at a rate 2.5-fold greater than previously analyzed wildlife epidemics. Using prior estimates of the impact of local heterogeneities on wave-front propagation and of the time lag between surveillance-based detection of an initial rabies case to full-blown epidemic, specific regions within the state are identified for vaccine delivery and expanded surveillance effort. PMID:15737065

  10. Surveillance of Human Rabies by National Authorities--A Global Survey.

    PubMed

    Taylor, L H; Knopf, L

    2015-11-01

    Effective prevention of deaths due to human rabies is currently hampered by a lack of understanding of the scale of the problem, and the distribution of both animal and human cases across countries, regions and continents. Unfortunately, despite the severity of the disease, accurate data on which to assess these questions and to prioritize and direct public health interventions are not available for many parts of the world. This survey sought to understand the current global situation regarding the surveillance of human rabies. Data were collected from 91 countries across all continents and all categories of human rabies risk, generating the most complete and representative global data set currently available. Respondents were asked key questions about whether human rabies was a notifiable disease, how the surveillance system for human rabies operated and whether the respondent considered that the surveillance system was working effectively. Across the 91 countries from which data were collated, human rabies was a notifiable disease in all but eight. Despite international guidance, surveillance systems were very varied. Even where rabies is a notifiable disease, many countries had surveillance system judged to be ineffective, almost all of these being high and moderate rabies risk countries in Africa and Asia. Overall, 41% of the population covered by this survey (around 2.5 billion people) live in countries where there is no or ineffective rabies surveillance. The lack of robust surveillance is hindering rabies control efforts. However, whilst worldwide rabies surveillance would be improved if rabies were notifiable in all countries, many other challenges to the implementation of effective global human rabies surveillance systems remain. PMID:25683444

  11. Rabies in a 10-week-old puppy.

    PubMed

    White, Jennifer; Taylor, Susan M; Wolfram, Kathrin L; O'Conner, Brendan P

    2007-09-01

    A 10-week-old, male, border collie-cross puppy was examined for an acute onset of unilateral vestibular signs. Neurologic deterioration was rapid over the next 12 hours and the puppy was euthanized. Rabies was diagnosed by histopathologic and immunohistochemical examination. PMID:17966334

  12. Serological responses of coyotes to two commercial rabies vaccines.

    PubMed

    Knowlton, F F; Roetto, M; Briggs, D

    2001-10-01

    Between August 1993 and September 1994 we documented serological responses of coyotes (Canis latrans) vaccinated with two commercial rabies vaccines licensed for use in domestic dogs. Serologic responses were documented by testing for rabies virus neutralizing antibodies with the rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test (RFFIT) at 30, 90, 180, 270, and 365 days post-vaccination. All coyotes vaccinated with Imrab 3 (Rhone-Merieux, Inc.), and 75% of those vaccinated with Dura-Rab 3 (Immunovet, Inc.) seroconverted, as evidenced by the presence of antirabies antibody titers > or = 1:5 in one or more of the five post-vaccination samples. The percent of coyotes showing a titer > or = 1:5 was generally greater and titer levels appeared higher and more persistent among animals vaccinated with Imrab 3 than Dura-Rab 3. Presence of titers via RFFIT tests demonstrates the antibodies produced in coyotes by these rabies vaccines functionally bind and neutralize rabies virus in vitro, but these results do not constitute a demonstration of protection required for licensure for use in coyotes. PMID:11763743

  13. [Interferon inducing activity of rabies cell culture vaccine in humans].

    PubMed

    Atanasiu, P; Yokota, Y; Gamet, A

    1979-01-01

    Rabies cell culture vaccines are able to induce circulating interferon in human sera. In 8/15 cases a low peak of interferon appears in the serum about 8 h after the vaccination. The inhibition has been considered as due to interferon because of the resistance to pH 2 and lack of activity on other animal species. PMID:39484

  14. Rabies vaccine preserved by vaporization is thermostable and immunogenic*

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Todd G.; Siirin, Marina; Wu, Xianfu; Hanlon, Cathleen A.; Bronshtein, Victor

    2015-01-01

    A rabies vaccine that is thermostable over a range of ambient environmental temperatures would be highly advantageous, especially for tropical regions with challenging cold-chain storage where canine rabies remains enzootic resulting in preventable human mortality. Live attenuated rabies virus (RABV) strain ERAg333 (R333E) was preserved by vaporization (PBV) in a dry, stable foam. RABV stabilized using this process remains viable for at least 23 months at 22°C, 15 months at 37°C, and 3 hours at 80°C. An antigen capture assay revealed RABV PBV inactivated by irradiation contained similar levels of antigen as a commercial vaccine. Viability and antigen capture testing confirmed that the PBV process stabilized RABV with no significant loss in titer or antigen content. Live attenuated and inactivated RABV PBV both effectively induced RABV neutralizing antibodies and protected mice from peripheral rabies virus challenge. These results demonstrate that PBV is an efficient method for RABV stabilization. PMID:25812841

  15. Bat-transmitted human rabies outbreaks, Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    da Rosa, Elizabeth S T; Kotait, Ivanete; Barbosa, Taciana F S; Carrieri, Maria L; Brandão, Paulo E; Pinheiro, Amiraldo S; Begot, Alberto L; Wada, Marcelo Y; de Oliveira, Rosely C; Grisard, Edmundo C; Ferreira, Márcia; Lima, Reynaldo J da Silva; Montebello, Lúcia; Medeiros, Daniele B A; Sousa, Rita C M; Bensabath, Gilberta; Carmo, Eduardo H; Vasconcelos, Pedro F C

    2006-08-01

    We describe 2 bat-transmitted outbreaks in remote, rural areas of Portel and Viseu Municipalities, Pará State, northern Brazil. Central nervous system specimens were taken after patients' deaths and underwent immunofluorescent assay and histopathologic examination for rabies antigens; also, specimens were injected intracerebrally into suckling mice in an attempt to isolate the virus. Strains obtained were antigenically and genetically characterized. Twenty-one persons died due to paralytic rabies in the 2 municipalities. Ten rabies virus strains were isolated from human specimens; 2 other cases were diagnosed by histopathologic examination. Isolates were antigenically characterized as Desmodus rotundus variant 3 (AgV3). DNA sequencing of 6 strains showed that they were genetically close to D. rotundus-related strains isolated in Brazil. The genetic results were similar to those obtained by using monoclonal antibodies and support the conclusion that the isolates studied belong to the same rabies cycle, the virus variants found in the vampire bat D. rotundus. PMID:16965697

  16. Identification of New Rabies Virus Variant in Mexican Immigrant

    PubMed Central

    Messenger, Sharon L.; Orciari, Lillian A.; Niezgoda, Michael; Blanton, Jesse D.; Fukagawa, Chris; Rupprecht, Charles E.

    2008-01-01

    A novel rabies virus was identified after death in a man who had immigrated from Oaxaca, Mexico, to California, USA. Despite the patient’s history of exposure to domestic and wild carnivores, molecular and phylogenetic characterizations suggested that the virus originated from insectivorous bats. Enhanced surveillance is needed to elucidate likely reservoirs. PMID:19046517

  17. RABIES SURVEILLANCE AMONG BATS IN TENNESSEE, USA, 1996-2010.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Amy T; McCracken, Gary F; Sheeler, Lorinda L; Muller, Lisa I; O'Rourke, Dorcas; Kelch, William J; New, John C

    2015-10-01

    Rabies virus (RABV) infects multiple bat species in the Americas, and enzootic foci perpetuate in bats principally via intraspecific transmission. In recent years, bats have been implicated in over 90% of human rabies cases in the US. In Tennessee, two human cases of rabies have occurred since 1960: one case in 1994 associated with a tricolored bat (Perimyotis subflavus) RABV variant and another in 2002 associated with the tricolored/silver-haired bat (P. subflavus/Lasionycteris noctivagans) RABV variant. From 1996 to 2010, 2,039 bats were submitted for rabies testing in Tennessee. Among 1,943 bats in satisfactory condition for testing and with a reported diagnostic result, 96% (1,870 of 1,943) were identified to species and 10% (196 of 1,943) were rabid. Big brown (Eptesicus fuscus), tricolored, and eastern red (Lasiurus borealis) bats comprised 77% of testable bat submissions and 84% of rabid bats. For species with five or more submissions during 1996-2010, the highest proportion of rabid bats occurred in hoary (Lasiurus cinereus; 46%), unspecified Myotis spp. (22%), and eastern red (17%) bats. The best model to predict rabid bats included month of submission, exposure history of submission, species, and sex of bat. PMID:26251992

  18. Antigenic and molecular characterization of bat rabies virus in Europe.

    PubMed

    Bourhy, H; Kissi, B; Lafon, M; Sacramento, D; Tordo, N

    1992-09-01

    The predominant role of Eptesicus serotinus in the epizootic of bat rabies in Europe was further outlined by the first isolation of the rabies virus from this species in France. The distribution of the virus was studied in naturally infected E. serotinus bats at the time of death and suggested that the papillae of the tongue and the respiratory mucosa may play a role in virus production and excretion. The analysis of 501 French rabies virus isolates from various animal species by antinucleocapsid monoclonal antibodies indicated that transmission of the disease from bats to terrestrial animals is unlikely. The antigenic profile of two isolates from French bats corresponded to that of European bat lyssavirus type 1 (EBL1). Comparisons of 12 different isolates from bats with antinucleocapsid and antiglycoprotein monoclonal antibodies and by direct sequencing of the polymerase chain reaction amplification product of the N gene indicated that EBL1, EBL2, Duvenhage virus (serotype 4 of lyssavirus), and the European fox rabies virus (serotype 1) are phylogenetically distant. They formed four tight genetic clusters named genotypes. EBL1 was shown to be antigenically and genetically more closely related to Duvenhage virus than to EBL2. We propose that EBL1 and EBL2 constitute two distinct genotypes which further serologic characterization will probably classify as new serotypes. We also report a simple method for the rapid characterization of EBL based on the digestion of the polymerase chain reaction product of the N gene by three restriction endonucleases. PMID:1401009

  19. Overwintering of Rabies Virus in Silver Haired Bats (Lasionycteris noctivagans).

    PubMed

    Davis, April D; Morgan, Shannon M D; Dupuis, Michelle; Poulliott, Craig E; Jarvis, Jodie A; Franchini, Rhianna; Clobridge, Anne; Rudd, Robert J

    2016-01-01

    Silver-haired bats, (Lasionycteris noctivagans) are semi-colonial, migratory tree bats that have infrequent contact with humans. Despite the species rarity, the L. noctivagans rabies variant is the most commonly reported rabies virus variant (RABV) in domestically acquired human rabies cases in the US. Unlike big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) and little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus), L. noctivagans are not considered true hibernators. It is unknown if RABV can overwinter in hibernating L. noctivagans or is only maintained in members of this taxa that migrate to warmer climates. To better understand RABV overwintering in this species, L. noctivagans were inoculated intramuscularly with either a homologous RABV (L. noctivagans Virus 1) or one of two heterologous RABV (Eptesicus fuscus Virus 2 and Myotis lucifugus Virus 1). Five days following inoculation, L. noctivagans were placed in a hibernation chamber for 6 weeks. Our results demonstrate that rabies virus can overwinter in L. noctivagans yet the incubation period was extended 6 weeks when compared to bats maintained at ambient temperatures. Additionally, we found that the longer the incubation period, the greater the viral dissemination to the salivary glands. Similar to our previous studies, L. noctivagans were most susceptible to a homologous variant. In summary, we found that RABV incubation is extended following a subcutaneous exposure or maintenance in hibernation and longer incubation times increase dissemination and potential for transmission. PMID:27195489

  20. Overwintering of Rabies Virus in Silver Haired Bats (Lasionycteris noctivagans)

    PubMed Central

    Davis, April D.; Morgan, Shannon M. D.; Dupuis, Michelle; Poulliott, Craig E.; Jarvis, Jodie A.; Franchini, Rhianna; Clobridge, Anne; Rudd, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    Silver-haired bats, (Lasionycteris noctivagans) are semi-colonial, migratory tree bats that have infrequent contact with humans. Despite the species rarity, the L. noctivagans rabies variant is the most commonly reported rabies virus variant (RABV) in domestically acquired human rabies cases in the US. Unlike big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) and little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus), L. noctivagans are not considered true hibernators. It is unknown if RABV can overwinter in hibernating L. noctivagans or is only maintained in members of this taxa that migrate to warmer climates. To better understand RABV overwintering in this species, L. noctivagans were inoculated intramuscularly with either a homologous RABV (L. noctivagans Virus 1) or one of two heterologous RABV (Eptesicus fuscus Virus 2 and Myotis lucifugus Virus 1). Five days following inoculation, L. noctivagans were placed in a hibernation chamber for 6 weeks. Our results demonstrate that rabies virus can overwinter in L. noctivagans yet the incubation period was extended 6 weeks when compared to bats maintained at ambient temperatures. Additionally, we found that the longer the incubation period, the greater the viral dissemination to the salivary glands. Similar to our previous studies, L. noctivagans were most susceptible to a homologous variant. In summary, we found that RABV incubation is extended following a subcutaneous exposure or maintenance in hibernation and longer incubation times increase dissemination and potential for transmission. PMID:27195489