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Sample records for racial em perspectiva

  1. Killin'em with kindness: "The porter" and Hemingway's racial cauldron.

    PubMed

    Dudley, Marc

    2010-01-01

    "The Porter" brings us close to the nightmare plaguing white America's collective imagination during the 20th century's formative years, when white and black collided and racial definition conflated. Hemingway's piece about a young white boy, his father, and the African-American porter who serves them on an overnight train trip is an exploration of 20th century American race relations. Initially, Hemingway pushes the reader to see the world through the young boy's eyes, through the bifurcated lens of racial stereotype. But through the black porter's intervention, the reader comes to recognize that the lens of racial stereotype is imperfect, faulty even, and that notions of white supremacy and the color line are dangerous illusions. PMID:20658775

  2. "Racializing" Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatt-Echeverria, Beth; Urrieta, Luis, Jr.

    2003-01-01

    In an effort to explore how racial and class oppressions intersect, the authors use their autobiographical narratives to depict cultural and experiential continuity and discontinuity in growing up white working class versus Chicano working class. They specifically focus on "racializing class" due to the ways class is often used as a copout by…

  3. Breaking Down Racial Isolation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Lloyd A.

    1989-01-01

    Describes the "Across the Lines" project involving an interchange between students and teachers of two racially isolated schools in the Hartford (Connecticut) area. A racial mix of 50/50 was achieved through planned science museum visits, randomly paired pen pals, and an MCI electronic mail connection between schools. (MLH)

  4. Racial resentment and smoking.

    PubMed

    Samson, Frank L

    2015-02-01

    Racial resentment (also known as symbolic racism) is among the most widely tested measures of contemporary prejudice in political science and social psychological research over the past thirty years. Proponents argue that racial resentment reflects anti-black emotion obtained through pre-adult socialization. In light of affect-based models of substance use, this paper examined the association between racial resentment and smoking in a national sample of non-Hispanic white, black, and Hispanic respondents. Data come from the 2012 American National Election Study, which contained two measures of smoking. The results of ordinal logistic regression models indicate a positive association between racial resentment and smoking among non-Hispanic whites (N = 2133) that is not present among blacks (N = 693) or Hispanics (N = 660). Models controlled for age, education, income, gender, political ideology, region, and mode of interview. Furthermore, analyses indicated that a measure of race-related affect, admiration and sympathy towards blacks, partially mediated the association between racial resentment and smoking. For non-Hispanic whites, racial resentment appears to constitute a risk factor for smoking. Future studies should further specify the conditions linking substance use to the race-related affective component of racial resentment. PMID:25562312

  5. Using Racial Identity Theory To Explore Racial Mistrust and Interracial Contact among Asian Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohatsu, Eric L.; Dulay, Michael; Lam, Cynthia; Concepcion, William; Perez, Patricia; Lopez, Cynthia; Euler, Jennie

    2000-01-01

    Examines the use of racial identity attitudes as predictors of racial mistrust of African Americans and other racial contact variables among Asian Americans. Results of study reveal that racial identity attitudes significantly predicted racial mistrust, overall group impression, four racial stereotypes, and two quality of racial contact variables…

  6. Fall 1972 University Racial Census.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Glenwood C., Jr.; Sedlacek, William E.

    This document reports the results of the fall 1972 racial census at the University of Maryland. Only new freshmen, transfer students, and readmitted students filled out the racial census cards. All returning students constituted the data base of the student body. By adding new and deleting old racial census cards, counts could be made. Results of…

  7. Racial Inequality in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Troyna, Barry, Ed.

    Contributors to this book are united in their commitment to combating racial inequality in education and in outlining the extent and manner in which racism and its associated practices have become embedded in the institutional and sociopolitical structures of the United Kingdom. The following chapters are included: (1) "A Conceptual Overview of…

  8. Parental racial socialization profiles: Association with demographic factors, racial discrimination, childhood socialization, and racial identity

    PubMed Central

    White-Johnson, Rhonda L.; Ford, Kahlil R.; Sellers, Robert M.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines patterns of racial socialization practices in a sample of 212 African American mothers. We investigate the relation between parent profiles of racial socialization messages with child and parent demographic factors and race-related experiences, as well as parent racial identity attitudes. Using latent class analyses, we identified three patterns of parent-reported racial socialization experiences: Multifaceted, Low Race Salience, and Unengaged. In general, our findings indicate that mothers in the Multifaceted profile were more educated, experienced more racial discrimination, and talked about race during their childhood more than mothers in the Unengaged profile. The Multifaceted profile also differed from the Low Race Salience and Unengaged profiles on several racial identity dimensions. While the patterned approach used in this study lends itself to a more complex study of racial socialization in future research, it also highlights the associations between parent's race-relevant experiences and the messages they communicate to their children about race. PMID:20438162

  9. When Parties become Racialized: Deconstructing Racially Themed Parties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Gina A.; Johnston, Marc P.; Garibay, Juan C.; Herrera, Felisha A.; Giraldo, Luis G.

    2011-01-01

    Racially themed parties are all-too-common occurrences on college campuses. Using critical race theory as a lens, this article provides a contemporary overview of these events and deconstructs these incidents as examples of overt forms of racism often emanating from subtle, everyday occurrences of covert racism or racial microaggressions.…

  10. Exploring Teachers' Racial Attitudes in a Racially Transitioning Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frankenberg, Erica

    2012-01-01

    The growing diversity of America's public school enrollment makes it essential that all teachers be prepared for teaching students from diverse backgrounds. This paper explores the racial attitudes of teachers, specifically probing whether, and if so how, they may differ across schools of different student racial contexts. In particular, this…

  11. Interaction Effects of Campus Racial Composition and Student Racial Identification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abu-Ghazaleh, Nabil; Hoffman, John L.

    2016-01-01

    Drawing upon a sample of 13,025 students who attended the nine majority minority colleges of the Los Angeles Community College District, this study examined the interaction effects of the racial composition of the colleges on student persistence. Special attention was given to variables that paired students' race to the racial demography of the…

  12. Facilitating Dialogues about Racial Realities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quaye, Stephen John

    2014-01-01

    Background/Context: Facilitating dialogues about racial issues in higher education classroom settings continues to be a vexing problem facing postsecondary educators. In order for students to discuss race with their peers, they need skilled facilitators who are knowledgeable about racial issues and able to support students in these difficult…

  13. Statement on Addressing Racial Harassment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of Student Personnel Administrators, Inc.

    This short document is a statement by the National Association of Student Personnel Administrators Board of Directors on racial harassment and colleges' and universities' responsibilities to create an environment where such acts are unacceptable. The statement defines racial harassment and asserts the educational community's need to stand against…

  14. Testing Cross's Revised Racial Identity Model: An Examination of the Relationship between Racial Identity and Internalized Racialism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cokley, Kevin O.

    2002-01-01

    Study tests Cross's revised racial identity model. The relationship between racial identity attitudes and internalized racialism was examined in 153 African American college students attending a historically Black university. Findings indicated that the pre-encounter racial identity attitudes of miseducation and self-hatred, and immersion-emersion…

  15. Influences on Counselor Race Preferences: Distinguishing Black Racial Attitudes from Black Racial Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Tara M.; Leach, Mark M.; Levy, Jacob J.; Nicholson, Bonnie C.; Johnson, James D.

    2008-01-01

    The authors examined differential contributions of Black racial identity and racial attitudes toward Whites in determining counselor preferences. Results indicated that racial attitudes accounted for a significant portion of the variance in same-race counselor preference. In addition, Black racial attitudes were distinguished from racial identity…

  16. A Longitudinal Examination of Racial Identity and Racial Discrimination among African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seaton, Eleanor K.; Yip, Tiffany; Sellers, Robert M.

    2009-01-01

    This study tested the longitudinal association between perceptions of racial discrimination and racial identity among a sample of 219 African American adolescents, aged 14 to 18. Structural equation modeling was used to test relations between perceptions of racial discrimination and racial identity dimensions, namely, racial centrality, private…

  17. Racial Prejudice, Interracial Contact, and Personality Variables.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, J. William; And Others

    1984-01-01

    This study examined the relationship of childrens' racial prejudice to child's race, interracial contact, grade, sex, intelligence, locus of control, anxiety, and self-concept. Five facets of racial prejudice were examined: a total index of racial prejudice, dating and marriage, school, social relationships, and racial interactions in restaurants.…

  18. Essentializing race: its implications on racial categorization.

    PubMed

    Chao, Melody Manchi; Hong, Ying-yi; Chiu, Chi-yue

    2013-04-01

    Racial classification has drawn increasing attention in public discourse; it intertwines with issues related to racialized perceptions. However, few social psychological studies have systematically examined racial categorization processes and their implications for interracial relations. In 5 studies, we investigated the role of racial essentialism in influencing several important psychological aspects of racial categorization. Results linked the belief in racial essentialism to an increased tendency to engage in race-based categorization (Studies 1-3) and greater sensitivity in discerning racial group membership (Studies 4-5). These results are discussed in terms of their implications for understanding and managing interracial relations in the United States. PMID:23397967

  19. Racial Identity and Racial Treatment of Mexican Americans

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz, Vilma; Telles, Edward

    2013-01-01

    How racial barriers play in the experiences of Mexican Americans has been hotly debated. Some consider Mexican Americans similar to European Americans of a century ago that arrived in the United States with modest backgrounds but were eventually able to participate fully in society. In contrast, others argue that Mexican Americans have been racialized throughout U.S. history and this limits their participation in society. The evidence of persistent educational disadvantages across generations and frequent reports of discrimination and stereotyping support the racialization argument. In this paper, we explore the ways in which race plays a role in the lives of Mexican Americans by examining how education, racial characteristics, social interactions, relate to racial outcomes. We use the Mexican American Study Project, a unique data set based on a 1965 survey of Mexican Americans in Los Angeles and San Antonio combined with surveys of the same respondents and their adult children in 2000, thereby creating a longitudinal and intergenerational data set. First, we found that darker Mexican Americans, therefore appearing more stereotypically Mexican, report more experiences of discrimination. Second, darker men report much more discrimination than lighter men and than women overall. Third, more educated Mexican Americans experience more stereotyping and discrimination than their less-educated counterparts, which is partly due to their greater contact with Whites. Lastly, having greater contact with Whites leads to experiencing more stereotyping and discrimination. Our results are indicative of the ways in which Mexican Americans are racialized in the United States. PMID:24307918

  20. Racial Discrimination in College Football.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregg, Jones A.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Reports on a research study investigating racial discrimination in college football. In particular, the study focuses on the concept of stacking, which is the disproportional allocation of players to central and noncentral team positions based on race or ethnicity. (RKM)

  1. Neighborhood Schools and Racial Segregation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelleher, Daniel T.

    1975-01-01

    Neighborhood school concept and racially segregated residential patterns account for most of the segregation in American public schools today. The focus of this article will be to explain the reasons for residential segregation. (Author/RK)

  2. Racial Discrimination and Racial Socialization as Predictors of African American Adolescents’ Racial Identity Development using Latent Transition Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Seaton, Eleanor K.; Yip, Tiffany; Morgan-Lopez, Antonio; Sellers, Robert M.

    2013-01-01

    The current study examined perceptions of racial discrimination and racial socialization on racial identity development among 566 African American adolescents over three years. Latent class analyses were used to estimate identity statuses (Diffuse, Foreclosed, Moratorium and Achieved). The probabilities of transitioning from one stage to another were examined with latent transition analyses to determine the likelihood of youth progressing, regressing or remaining constant. Racial socialization and perceptions of racial discrimination were examined as covariates to assess the association with changes in racial identity status. The results indicated that perceptions of racial discrimination were not linked to any changes in racial identity. Youth who reported higher levels of racial socialization were less likely to be in Diffuse or Foreclosed compared to the Achieved group. PMID:21875184

  3. Racial identity and reflected appraisals as influences on Asian Americans' racial adjustment.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, A N; Helms, J E

    2001-08-01

    J. E. Helms's (1990) racial identity psychodiagnostic model was used to examine the contribution of racial identity schemas and reflected appraisals to the development of healthy racial adjustment of Asian American university students (N = 188). Racial adjustment was operationally defined as collective self-esteem and awareness of anti-Asian racism. Multiple regression analyses suggested that racial identity schemas and reflected appraisals were significantly predictive of Asian Americans' racial adjustment. Implications for counseling and future research are discussed. PMID:11506069

  4. The limits of racial prejudice

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    The racial segregation of romantic networks has been documented by social scientists for generations. However, because of limitations in available data, we still have a surprisingly basic idea of the extent to which this pattern is generated by actual interpersonal prejudice as opposed to structural constraints on meeting opportunities, how severe this prejudice is, and the circumstances under which it can be reduced. I analyzed a network of messages sent and received among 126,134 users of a popular online dating site over a 2.5-mo period. As in face-to-face interaction, online exchanges are structured heavily by race. Even when controlling for regional differences in meeting opportunities, site users—especially minority site users—disproportionately message other users from the same racial background. However, this high degree of self-segregation peaks at the first stage of contact. First, users from all racial backgrounds are equally likely or more likely to cross a racial boundary when reciprocating than when initiating romantic interest. Second, users who receive a cross-race message initiate more new interracial exchanges in the future than they would have otherwise. This effect varies by gender, racial background, and site experience; is specific to the racial background of the original sender; requires that the recipient replied to the original message; and diminishes after a week. In contrast to prior research on relationship outcomes, these findings shed light on the complex interactional dynamics that—under certain circumstances—may amplify the effects of racial boundary crossing and foster greater interracial mixing. PMID:24191008

  5. The limits of racial prejudice.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Kevin

    2013-11-19

    The racial segregation of romantic networks has been documented by social scientists for generations. However, because of limitations in available data, we still have a surprisingly basic idea of the extent to which this pattern is generated by actual interpersonal prejudice as opposed to structural constraints on meeting opportunities, how severe this prejudice is, and the circumstances under which it can be reduced. I analyzed a network of messages sent and received among 126,134 users of a popular online dating site over a 2.5-mo period. As in face-to-face interaction, online exchanges are structured heavily by race. Even when controlling for regional differences in meeting opportunities, site users-especially minority site users-disproportionately message other users from the same racial background. However, this high degree of self-segregation peaks at the first stage of contact. First, users from all racial backgrounds are equally likely or more likely to cross a racial boundary when reciprocating than when initiating romantic interest. Second, users who receive a cross-race message initiate more new interracial exchanges in the future than they would have otherwise. This effect varies by gender, racial background, and site experience; is specific to the racial background of the original sender; requires that the recipient replied to the original message; and diminishes after a week. In contrast to prior research on relationship outcomes, these findings shed light on the complex interactional dynamics that-under certain circumstances-may amplify the effects of racial boundary crossing and foster greater interracial mixing. PMID:24191008

  6. Racial Identity and Depressive Symptoms among Black Emerging Adults: The Moderating Effects of Neighborhood Racial Composition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurd, Noelle M.; Sellers, Robert M.; Cogburn, Courtney D.; Butler-Barnes, Sheretta T.; Zimmerman, Marc A.

    2013-01-01

    In the current study, we explored patterns of change in Black emerging adults' racial identity beliefs during the transition to adulthood, assessed neighborhood racial composition effects on Black emerging adults' racial identity beliefs, and tested the moderating effects of neighborhood racial composition on the associations between Black…

  7. Ethnic Identification and Perception of Racial Harmony.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egginton, Everett

    1980-01-01

    Reports on a study of White and minority middle school and high school students' perceptions of racial tension and harmony in classrooms and schools in Louisville, Kentucky, following court-ordered busing to achieve racial desegregation. (EF)

  8. Exploring Asian American racial identity.

    PubMed

    Chen, Grace A; Lephuoc, Paul; Guzmán, Michele R; Rude, Stephanie S; Dodd, Barbara G

    2006-07-01

    In this study the authors used cluster analysis to create racial identity profiles for a sample of Asian Americans using the People of Color Racial Identity Attitudes Scale (PCRIAS). A four-cluster solution was chosen: each cluster corresponded to one PCRIAS subscale and was named accordingly. Scores on the Asian American Racism-Related Stress Inventory and the Color-Blind Racial Attitudes Scale were compared across clusters. As expected, the Dissonance and Immersion clusters were characterized by relatively high racism-related stress and low levels of color-blind attitudes; the Conformity cluster showed roughly the opposite pattern. Surprisingly, the Internalization cluster showed a pattern similar to that for Conformity and thus may reflect "pseudoindependence" as discussed by Helms. PMID:16881750

  9. Friendship in School: Gender and Racial Homophily.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shrum, Wesley; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Analyzes development of racial and gender homophily in a population of elementary and secondary school children in a bi-racial southern community. Using sociometric friendship nominations to examine changes in racial and gender segregation and preference, the results suggest that for these major variables the relationship between homophily and…

  10. The Complexity of African American Racial Identification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders Thompson, Vetta L.

    2001-01-01

    Interviewed adult African Americans regarding four parameters of racial identification (psychological, physical, cultural, and sociopolitical). Results indicated generally high levels of racial identification across participants, though scores varied across parameters. The highest level of racial identification was obtained on the cultural…

  11. Emotions and White Racial Identity Status Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Matthew P.; Carter, Robert T.

    2014-01-01

    Relationships between emotional states and White racial identity status attitudes (Helms, 1984, 1990) were tested on a sample of 286 White students. The stimulus was a vignette in which one condition involved explicit racial information and one did not. Participants rated baseline and posttest emotions and completed the White Racial Identity…

  12. Profiling and Racial Profiling: An Interactive Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semple, Philip

    2013-01-01

    Racial Profiling has been recognized as a serious problem that affects many segments of our society and is especially notable in law enforcement. Governments and police services have pronounced that racial profiling is not acceptable and will not be tolerated. They have gone to great lengths in trying to eradicate racial profiling through…

  13. Cultural humility and racial microaggressions in counseling.

    PubMed

    Hook, Joshua N; Farrell, Jennifer E; Davis, Don E; DeBlaere, Cirleen; Van Tongeren, Daryl R; Utsey, Shawn O

    2016-04-01

    Racial microaggressions may contribute to poor counseling outcomes in racial/ethnic minority clients. The present study examined the occurrence of racial microaggressions in counseling using a large and diverse sample and explored the association between perceived cultural humility of the counselor and racial microaggressions. Racial/ethnic minority participants (N = 2,212) answered questions about the frequency and impact of racial microaggressions in counseling and the characteristics of their counselor. The majority of clients (81%) reported experiencing at least 1 racial microaggression in counseling. Participants most commonly reported racial microaggressions involving denial or lack of awareness of stereotypes and bias and avoidance of discussing cultural issues. There were few differences in racial microaggression frequency or impact based on client race/ethnicity and counselor race/ethnicity. Racially matched clients viewed racial microaggressions as more impactful than did clients who were not racially matched. Client-perceived cultural humility of the counselor was associated with fewer microaggressions experienced in counseling. We conclude by discussing limitations, areas for future research, and implications for counseling. PMID:27078198

  14. Racially Biased Policing: Determinants of Citizen Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weitzer, Ronald; Tuch, Steven A.

    2005-01-01

    The current controversy surrounding racial profiling in America has focused renewed attention on the larger issue of racial bias by the police. Yet little is known about the extent of police racial bias and even less about public perceptions of the problem. This article analyzes recent national survey data on citizens' views of and reported…

  15. Decomposing School Resegregation: Social Closure, Racial Imbalance, and Racial Isolation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fiel, Jeremy E.

    2013-01-01

    Today's typical minority student attends school with fewer whites than his counterpart in 1970. This apparent resegregation of U.S. schools has sparked outrage and debate. Some blame a rollback of desegregation policies designed to distribute students more evenly among schools; others blame the changing racial composition of the student…

  16. Confronting Racial and Religious Tensions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wessler, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    When a community's demographics change quickly in terms of racial, religious, or ethnic makeup, Wessler notes, tension surfaces. Schools are the likeliest place for these kinds of tensions to openly come to a head. Schools can't always avoid conflicts among students who feel mutual prejudice and suspicion. But schools can address simmering…

  17. The Racial Academic Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Toneka M.

    2008-01-01

    Closing the racial academic achievement gap is a problem that must be solved in order for future society to properly function. Minorities including African-American and Latino students' standardized test scores are much lower than white students. By the end of fourth grade, African American, Latino, and poor students of all races are two years…

  18. Racial variations in obstetric practice.

    PubMed

    Cauchi, M N

    1986-05-01

    This study involves a retrospective analysis of 453 pregnant persons, with the aim of comparing certain disorders of pregnancy as well as infant and placental parameters in various racial groups within the same community. Significant variations were seen in the mean age of the patients, age at first pregnancy, frequency distribution of first pregnancy, infant weight as well as gravida: parity ratio. There was a 3-fold increase in incidence of preeclampsia in the Australian-born population compared to other racial groups. Mild anaemias (haemoglobin less than 11.5 g/dl) were found in up to 61% of the Australian-born population compared to 32% of the other racial groups; however, more significant degrees of anaemia were more commonly found in certain ethnic groups (e.g. Greek 16%, Italian 15%, Australian-born 6%). These studies emphasize that overall incidence studies in a polyglot population can have very limited meaning, and that greater attention must be paid to the actual racial variations within a population. PMID:3464247

  19. Racial Inequity in Special Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Losen, Daniel J., Ed.; Orfield, Gary, Ed.

    This collection of papers discusses issues related to the overidentification of minority students in special education. After a "Foreword" (Senator James M. Jeffords) and an introduction, "Racial Inequality in Special Education" (Daniel J. Losen and Gary Orfield), 11 chapters include: (1) "Community and School Predictors…

  20. Reflections of a "Racial Queer"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang-Ross, Aurora

    2010-01-01

    In this article, I reflect on my personal experiences of racial queerness. In an effort to speak my secrets, I explore my identity production as a Multiracial person by critically examining my positionality throughout various key stages in my life. I present Multiracial microaggressions--those accumulated moments that underscore my racial…

  1. Environmental Racial Inequality in Detroit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downey, Liam

    2006-01-01

    This study uses industrial pollution data from the Environmental Protection Agency's Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) and tract-level demographic data from the 2000 U.S. census to determine whether environmental racial inequality existed in the Detroit metropolitan area in the year 2000. This study differs from prior environmental inequality…

  2. Racial identities, racial enactments, and normative unconscious processes.

    PubMed

    Layton, Lynne

    2006-01-01

    The author surveys various views of racial and ethnic identity, and proposes a model of thinking about identity aimed at capturing both its oppressive and its facilitating character. To further elaborate the dual nature of identity, she discusses the way that inequities in the social world, and the ideologies that sustain them, produce narcissistic wounds that are then enacted consciously and unconsciously by both patient and therapist. A variety of such enactments are presented in a summary of the author's work with an Asian American patient, during which she began to recognize unconscious racial and cultural underpinnings of some of the ways she has thought about certain "basics" of psychoanalytic practice: dependence, independence, happiness, and love. PMID:16482967

  3. A Longitudinal Examination of Racial Identity and Racial Discrimination Among African American Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Seaton, Eleanor K.; Yip, Tiffany; Sellers, Robert M.

    2009-01-01

    This study tested the longitudinal association between perceptions of racial discrimination and racial identity among a sample of 219 African American adolescents, aged 14 to 18. Structural equation modeling was used to test relations between perceptions of racial discrimination and racial identity dimensions, namely racial centrality, private regard, and public regard at three time points. The results indicated that perceived racial discrimination at Time 1 was negatively linked to public regard at Time 2. Nested analyses using age were conducted and perceptions of racial discrimination at Time 2 were negatively linked to private regard at Time 3 among older adolescents. The findings imply that perceived racial discrimination is linked to negative views that the broader society has of African Americans. PMID:19467000

  4. The Importance of History in the Racial Inequality and Racial Inequity in Education: New Orleans as a Case Example

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsons, Eileen Carlton; Turner, Kea

    2014-01-01

    Racial equality and racial equity in U.S. education has been elusive although decades of education reform have them as goals. Current discourse advocate colorblind and post-racial solutions to racial inequality and racial inequity in education; these solutions implicate presentism, a view that exclusively circumscribes the existence of present-day…

  5. Unpacking Racial Socialization: Considering Female African American Primary Caregivers' Racial Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scottham, Krista Maywalt; Smalls, Ciara P.

    2009-01-01

    The relationship between female African American primary caregivers' racial identity and their racial socialization emphases was examined. Three components of racial identity were evaluated: (1) the importance of race to the self-concept (centrality), (2) affective feelings toward group membership (private regard), and (3) perceptions of how group…

  6. Racial Ideological Beliefs and Racial Discrimination Experiences as Predictors of Academic Engagement among African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smalls, Ciara; White, Rhonda; Chavous, Tabbye; Sellers, Robert

    2007-01-01

    Adolescents' understandings of their social identities and related personal experiences influence their adaptations and responses within domains in which those identities are salient. The authors explore associations of racial identity beliefs regarding how Blacks should act, think, and behave (racial ideologies) and racial discrimination…

  7. Racial Identity Matters: The Relationship between Racial Discrimination and Psychological Functioning in African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sellers, Robert M.; Copeland-Linder, Nikeea; Martin, Pamela P.; Lewis, R. L'Heureux

    2006-01-01

    This study examines the interrelationships among racial discrimination, racial identity, and psychological functioning in a sample of 314 African American adolescents. Racial discrimination was associated with lower levels of psychological functioning as measured by perceived stress, depressive symptomatology, and psychological well-being.…

  8. The Influence of Racial Identity Profiles on the Relationship between Racial Discrimination and Depressive Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banks, Kira Hudson; Kohn-Wood, Laura P.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the association between racial identity profiles, discrimination, and mental health outcomes. African American college students (N = 194) completed measures of racial discrimination, racial identity, college hassles, and depressive symptoms. Four meaningful profiles emerged through a cluster analysis of seven dimensions of…

  9. Conquering racial disparities in perinatal outcomes.

    PubMed

    Willis, Earnestine; McManus, Patricia; Magallanes, Norma; Johnson, Sheri; Majnik, Amber

    2014-12-01

    Infant mortality rate (IMR) is a reference indicator for societal health status. Trend analysis of IMR highlights 2 challenges to overcome in the United States: (1) US IMR is higher than most industrialized countries and (2) there are persistent racial/ethnic disparities in birth outcomes, especially for blacks. Racial/ethnic infant mortality disparities result from the complex interplay of adverse social, economic, and environmental exposures. In this article, racial/ethnic disparities are discussed, highlighting trends, the role of epigenetics in understanding mechanisms, key domains of community action planning, and programs and policies addressing the racial gaps in adverse birth outcomes. PMID:25459778

  10. Direct-to-Consumer Racial Admixture Tests and Beliefs About Essential Racial Differences

    PubMed Central

    Phelan, Jo C.; Link, Bruce G.; Zelner, Sarah; Yang, Lawrence H.

    2015-01-01

    Although at first relatively disinterested in race, modern genomic research has increasingly turned attention to racial variations. We examine a prominent example of this focus—direct-to-consumer racial admixture tests—and ask how information about the methods and results of these tests in news media may affect beliefs in racial differences. The reification hypothesis proposes that by emphasizing a genetic basis for race, thereby reifying race as a biological reality, the tests increase beliefs that whites and blacks are essentially different. The challenge hypothesis suggests that by describing differences between racial groups as continua rather than sharp demarcations, the results produced by admixture tests break down racial categories and reduce beliefs in racial differences. A nationally representative survey experiment (N = 526) provided clear support for the reification hypothesis. The results suggest that an unintended consequence of the genomic revolution may be to reinvigorate age-old beliefs in essential racial differences. PMID:25870464

  11. Transgressive and Negotiated White Racial Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowley, Ryan M.

    2016-01-01

    This critical case study investigated the experiences of six White preservice teachers as they learned about race and racism during the first semester of an urban-focused teacher preparation program. The author identified two broad themes of "transgressive White racial knowledge" and "negotiated White racial knowledge" to…

  12. Confronting Racial Hatred to Make Schools Safer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soukamneuth, Sengsouvanh

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the author talks about how to confront racial tensions that sometimes arise among students from different racial groups. Here, the author presents a four-year study conducted by the Social Policy Research Associates, funded in part by Carnegie Corporation of New York, on school-based strategies for addressing intergroup relations…

  13. Educational Strategies to Increase Racial Tolerance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchignani, Norman

    This paper reviews the effectiveness and practicality of various educational approaches for increasing racial tolerance and calls for developing strategies that have been formally evaluated to avoid the waste of time and limited resources. The first section discusses the racial inadequacies of most programs which purport to affect racial…

  14. Vision and the End of Racial Preferences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clegg, Roger

    2008-01-01

    Are we facing the end of racial preferences in America? Mr. Clegg thinks we probably are, and examines the role demographics, law, attraction, and vision may play in their demise. What makes preferences still attractive to so many people? Do most Americans share a vision that includes the continued use of racial preferences? Mr. Clegg offers a…

  15. Racialized Subjects in a Colour Blind School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lagermann, Laila Colding

    2013-01-01

    In this paper I examine processes of racialization in a school in Copenhagen, Denmark. On the basis of the data produced in 2009, which is part of a larger study, I investigate themes of race as a difference-making and constituting category for subjective (human) becoming and racialization as contingent and negotiated processes (Butler, 1997). As…

  16. The Racial Context of the Holocaust.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milton, Sybil

    1991-01-01

    Documents the systematic extermination of Jews, Gypsies, Blacks, and the handicapped by the Nazis between 1933 and 1945. Notes eugenic and racial measures such as forced sterilization of mulatto and handicapped children were used. Discusses Nazi policies of deportations and mass murder. Identifies need for research to explain the racial context of…

  17. Examining Racial Microaggressions in Rehabilitation Counselor Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cartwright, Brenda Y.; Washington, Robin D.; McConnell, L. Robert

    2009-01-01

    This research extends the Constantine et al. (2008) study which identified racial microaggressions against Black faculty working in counseling and counseling psychology programs. Semi-structured interviews and qualitative analyses were used to: (1) ascertain the existence of racial microaggressions among African American faculty employed in…

  18. Measuring Racial Balance. Research Memorandum No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lefkowitz, Ben; D'Esopo, Tony

    The purpose of this research memorandum is to describe a means of measuring racial balance and to apply the measure to the distribution of public school population in San Francisco. The measure is derived from the definition that full integration would be achieved if each school had exactly the citywide racial mixture of students. The racial…

  19. Neighborhood Racial Isolation, Disorder and Obesity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Virginia W.; Hillier, Amy E.; Mehta, Neil K.

    2009-01-01

    Recent research suggests that racial residential segregation may be detrimental to health. This study investigates the influence of neighborhood racial isolation on obesity and considers the role of neighborhood disorder as a mediator in this relationship. For the city of Philadelphia, we find that residence in a neighborhood with high black…

  20. Assessing Racial Attitudes in Jury Selection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayo, Clara; Bromley, Stephanie

    This paper examines the current state of voir dire procedures (the process in which prospective jurors are questioned about possible prejudgment or bias) used to detect racial attitudes in court cases involving black defendants and compares voir dire questions allowed and disallowed by the court. Data based upon an assessment of racial attitudes…

  1. English Teachers' Racial Literacy Knowledge and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skerrett, Allison

    2011-01-01

    This article examines how secondary English teachers in two racially diverse schools--one in Massachusetts, USA, the other in Ontario, Canada--described their knowledge of and practices for teaching about race and racism. The extent and quality of teachers' racial literacy knowledge and practice were considered in light of the literature on racial…

  2. Racial and Ethnic Identities in American Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yin, Robert K.

    The investigation of race relations, of social problems related to race and ethnicity, and of different racial and social groups, all presume prior information about the definition of racial or ethnic group identity, about the formation, maintenance, and dissolution of such identities, and about the importance of such identities in American…

  3. Racial Equality. To Protect These Rights Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Laughlin

    A historical review of racial discrimination against Negroes is the scope of this volume, part of a series of six volumes which explore the basic American rights. These include due process of law, freedom of speech and religious freedom. This volume traces the development of racial equality in the legal system, explores the controversies and…

  4. Racial Disparity in Minnesota's Child Protection System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Erik P.; Clark, Sonja; Donald, Matthew; Pedersen, Rachel; Pichotta, Catherine

    2007-01-01

    Minnesota has been recognized by several studies as a state with a significant amount of racial disparity in its child protection system. This study, using 2001 data from Minnesota's Social Services Information Service, was conducted to determine at which of the six decision points in Minnesota's child welfare system racial disparities are…

  5. Student Perceptions of Institutional Racial Climate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mabokela, Reitumetse Obakeng

    2001-01-01

    Examines the attitudes and perceptions of black and white students at two historically white South African universities regarding various aspects of transformation occurring on campus, focusing on the racial climate. Student surveys and interviews indicate that all students perceive racial conflict on campus, though there are significant…

  6. Associations of racial discrimination and parental discrimination coping messages with African American adolescent racial identity.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Bridget L; Macon, Tamarie A; Mustafaa, Faheemah N; Bogan, Erin D; Cole-Lewis, Yasmin; Chavous, Tabbye M

    2015-06-01

    Research links racial identity to important developmental outcomes among African American adolescents, but less is known about the contextual experiences that shape youths' racial identity. In a sample of 491 African American adolescents (48% female), associations of youth-reported experiences of racial discrimination and parental messages about preparation for racial bias with adolescents' later racial identity were examined. Cluster analysis resulted in four profiles of adolescents varying in reported frequency of racial discrimination from teachers and peers at school and frequency of parental racial discrimination coping messages during adolescents' 8th grade year. Boys were disproportionately over-represented in the cluster of youth experiencing more frequent discrimination but receiving fewer parental discrimination coping messages, relative to the overall sample. Also examined were clusters of adolescents' 11th grade racial identity attitudes about the importance of race (centrality), personal group affect (private regard), and perceptions of societal beliefs about African Americans (public regard). Girls and boys did not differ in their representation in racial identity clusters, but 8th grade discrimination/parent messages clusters were associated with 11th grade racial identity cluster membership, and these associations varied across gender groups. Boys experiencing more frequent discrimination but fewer parental coping messages were over-represented in the racial identity cluster characterized by low centrality, low private regard, and average public regard. The findings suggest that adolescents who experience racial discrimination but receive fewer parental supports for negotiating and coping with discrimination may be at heightened risk for internalizing stigmatizing experiences. Also, the findings suggest the need to consider the context of gender in adolescents' racial discrimination and parental racial socialization. PMID:25300508

  7. Moisturizing Different Racial Skin Types

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Victor W.; Longaker, Michael T.; Yang, George P.

    2014-01-01

    The skin is a complex organ involved in thermoregulation, gas exchange, protection against pathogens, and barrier function to maintain proper hydration. When dry, the ability for skin to execute these tasks becomes impaired. Dry skin affects almost everyone as we age, but it is also dependent on external factors, such as dry climate, colder temperatures, and repeated washing. In addition, increasing evidence has shown racial variability in the physiological properties of skin, which directly impacts water content of the stratum corneum and sensitivity to exogenously applied agents. A multitude of products have been developed to treat dry skin, and as a group, moisturizers have been designed to either impart or restore hydration in the stratum corneum. Given the large number of moisturizers presently available, depending on individual components, several different mechanisms may be employed to promote skin hydration. As there exists dramatic racial variability in skin properties, certain moisturizers may thus be more effective in some and less effective in others to treat the common condition of dry skin. PMID:25013536

  8. Neighborhood Racial Composition, Racial Discrimination, and Depressive Symptoms in African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Lambert, Sharon F.; Evans, Michele K.; Zonderman, Alan B.

    2015-01-01

    While evidence indicates that experienced racial discrimination is associated with increased depressive symptoms for African Americans, there is little research investigating predictors of experienced racial discrimination. This paper examines neighborhood racial composition and sociodemographic factors as antecedents to experienced racial discrimination and resultant levels of depressive symptoms among African American adults. The sample included 505 socioeconomically-diverse African American adults from Baltimore, MD. Study data were obtained via self-report and geocoding of participant addresses based on 2010 census data. Study hypotheses were tested using multiple pathways within a longitudinal Structural Equation Model. Experienced racial discrimination was positively associated with age and sex such that older individuals and males experienced increased levels of racial discrimination. In addition, the percentage of White individuals residing in a neighborhood was positively associated with levels of experienced racial discrimination for African American neighborhood residents. Experienced racial discrimination was positively associated with later depressive symptoms. Neighborhood-level contextual factors such as neighborhood racial composition and individual differences in sociodemographic characteristics appear to play an important role in the experience of racial discrimination and the etiology of depression in African American adults. PMID:24969707

  9. Neighborhood racial composition, racial discrimination, and depressive symptoms in African Americans.

    PubMed

    English, Devin; Lambert, Sharon F; Evans, Michele K; Zonderman, Alan B

    2014-12-01

    While evidence indicates that experienced racial discrimination is associated with increased depressive symptoms for African Americans, there is little research investigating predictors of experienced racial discrimination. This paper examines neighborhood racial composition and sociodemographic factors as antecedents to experienced racial discrimination and resultant levels of depressive symptoms among African American adults. The sample included 505 socioeconomically-diverse African American adults from Baltimore, MD. Study data were obtained via self-report and geocoding of participant addresses based on 2010 census data. Study hypotheses were tested using multiple pathways within a longitudinal Structural Equation Model. Experienced racial discrimination was positively associated with age and sex such that older individuals and males experienced increased levels of racial discrimination. In addition, the percentage of White individuals residing in a neighborhood was positively associated with levels of experienced racial discrimination for African American neighborhood residents. Experienced racial discrimination was positively associated with later depressive symptoms. Neighborhood-level contextual factors such as neighborhood racial composition and individual differences in sociodemographic characteristics appear to play an important role in the experience of racial discrimination and the etiology of depression in African American adults. PMID:24969707

  10. The Effect of Post-Racial Theory on Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Christopher A.

    2012-01-01

    The proliferation of post-racial theory (PRT) in both social and political spheres of dominant American hegemony has illustrated a desire among academic circles to move past race and racial categories in social analysis. However, absent within post-racial rhetoric is critical language on how to abolish racism and racial inequality. (Samad 2009) It…

  11. Teaching the Psychosocial Subject: White Students and Racial Privilege

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ambrosio, John

    2014-01-01

    This inquiry poses the question: How can white college students be induced or incited into recognizing themselves as racially marked and privileged people? The author examines white resistance to racial self-understanding by analyzing the relation between white racial identity development theory, appeals to racial discourses and themes, and the…

  12. Racial Group Concept and Self-Esteem in Black Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Maxine L.

    The relationship of racial group concepts (racial preference and racial attitudes) to general and specific self-esteem in black children was examined in this study. A secondary purpose of this study was to assess the validity of Nobles' (1973) theory that racial group attitudes influence the black American's concept of "self." The subjects were…

  13. Racial Prejudice in College Students: A Cross-Sectional Examination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gassner, Breanna; McGuigan, William

    2014-01-01

    Racial prejudice is based upon negative preconceived notions of select racial groups with the assumption that all members of a particular racial group can be categorized with the same negative characteristics. Social categorization allows for quick sorting of individuals into racial groups saturated with a common flavor. Allport's Principle…

  14. Challenging a culture of racial equivalence.

    PubMed

    Song, Miri

    2014-03-01

    We live at a time when our understandings and conceptualizations of 'racism' are often highly imprecise, broad, and used to describe a wide range of racialized phenomena. In this article, I raise some important questions about how the term racism is used and understood in contemporary British society by drawing on some recent cases of alleged racism in football and politics, many of which have been played out via new media technologies. A broader understanding of racism, through the use of the term 'racialization', has been helpful in articulating a more nuanced and complex understanding of racial incidents, especially of people's (often ambivalent) beliefs and behaviours. However, the growing emphasis upon 'racialization' has led to a conceptualization of racism which increasingly involves multiple perpetrators, victims, and practices without enough consideration of how and why particular interactions and practices constitute racism as such. The trend toward a growing culture of racial equivalence is worrying, as it denudes the idea of racism of its historical basis, severity and power. These frequent and commonplace assertions of racism in the public sphere paradoxically end up trivializing and homogenizing quite different forms of racialized interactions. I conclude that we need to retain the term 'racism', but we need to differentiate more clearly between 'racism' (as an historical and structured system of domination) from the broader notion of 'racialization'. PMID:24697716

  15. A moderated mediation model: racial discrimination, coping strategies, and racial identity among Black adolescents.

    PubMed

    Seaton, Eleanor K; Upton, Rachel; Gilbert, Adrianne; Volpe, Vanessa

    2014-01-01

    This study examined a moderated mediation model among 314 Black adolescents aged 13-18. The model included general coping strategies (e.g., active, distracting, avoidant, and support-seeking strategies) as mediators and racial identity dimensions (racial centrality, private regard, public regard, minority, assimilationist, and humanist ideologies) as moderators of the relation between perceived racial discrimination and depressive symptoms. Moderated mediation examined if the relation between perceived racial discrimination and depressive symptoms varied by the mediators and moderators. Results revealed that avoidant coping strategies mediated the relation between perceptions of racial discrimination and depressive symptoms. The results indicated that avoidant coping strategies mediated the relation between perceived racial discrimination and depressive symptoms among youth with high levels of the minority/oppressive ideology. PMID:23668685

  16. Racial Disparity in Police Contacts

    PubMed Central

    Crutchfield, Robert D.; Haggerty, Kevin P.; McGlynn, Anne; Catalano, Richard F.

    2013-01-01

    Criminologists agree the race disparity in arrests cannot be fully explained by differences in criminal behavior. We examine social environment factors that may lead to racial differences in police contact in early adolescence, including family, peers, school, and community. Data are from 331 8th-grade students. Blacks were almost twice as likely as Whites to report a police contact. Blacks reported more property crime but not more violent crime than Whites. Police contacts were increased by having a parent who had been arrested, a sibling involved in criminal activity, higher observed reward for negative behavior, having school disciplinary actions, and knowing adults who engaged in substance abuse or criminal behavior. Race differences in police contacts were partially attributable to more school discipline. PMID:24363956

  17. Racial disparities in hate crime reporting.

    PubMed

    Zaykowski, Heather

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the influence of the victim's race in reporting hate crimes to the police. Data from the National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) concentrated incident-level files (1992-2005) were used to (a) analyze how the victim's race influences the likelihood of reporting and (b) explore differences between reporting racial hate crimes and non-racial hate crimes. Controlling for other demographic and incident characteristics, the results indicate that minority victimizations are less likely to be reported for both racial and nonracial hate crimes; however, the magnitude of this effect was greater for racial hate crimes. Failure to report to the police has serious consequences for the victim and the criminal justice system. Implications and suggestions for further research are discussed. PMID:20565008

  18. Neighborhood Racial Isolation, Disorder and Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Virginia W.; Hillier, Amy E.; Mehta, Neil K.

    2010-01-01

    Recent research suggests that racial residential segregation may be detrimental to health. This study investigates the influence of neighborhood racial isolation on obesity and considers the role of neighborhood disorder as a mediator in this relationship. For the city of Philadelphia, we find that residence in a neighborhood with high black racial isolation is associated with a higher body mass index and higher odds of obesity among women, but not men, highlighting important sex differences in the influence of neighborhood structure on health. Furthermore, the influence of high racial isolation on women’s weight status is mediated, in part, by the physically disordered nature of such neighborhoods. Disorder of a more social nature (as measured by incident crime) is not associated with weight status. PMID:20179775

  19. RACIAL RESIDENTIAL SEGREGATION AND ADVERSE BIRTH OUTCOMES

    EPA Science Inventory

    INTRODUCTION. The disparity between black and white women's adverse birth outcomes has been subject to much investigation, yet the factors underlying its persistence remain elusive, which has encouraged research on neighborhood-level influences, including racial residential segr...

  20. Racial Earnings Differentials and Performance Pay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heywood, John S.; O'Halloran, Patrick L.

    2005-01-01

    A comparative analysis between output-based payment and time rates payment is presented. It is observed that racial or gender earnings discrimination is more likely in time rates payment and supervisory evaluations.

  1. Race talk: the psychology of racial dialogues.

    PubMed

    Sue, Derald Wing

    2013-11-01

    Constructive dialogues on race have been proposed as a means to heal racial and ethnic divides, reduce prejudice and misinformation, increase racial literacy, and foster improved race relations. Studies on the psychology of racial dialogues indicate social and academic norms that dictate against race talk between White Americans and persons of color: (a) the politeness protocol, (b) the academic protocol, and (c) the color-blind protocol. These protocols discourage race talk and allow society to enter into a conspiracy of silence regarding the detrimental impact oppression plays on persons of color. Facilitating difficult dialogues on race requires educators to recognize what makes such discussions difficult. For people of color, engaging in race talk exposes them to microaggressions that invalidate and assail their racial/ethnic identities. For Whites, honest discussions are impeded by fears of appearing racist, of realizing their racism, of acknowledging White privilege, and of taking responsibility to combat racism. PMID:24320648

  2. Racial Gaps in Homicide Victim Rates Changing

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus/news/fullstory_158081.html Racial Gaps in Homicide Victim Rates Changing Biggest declines seen for Hispanics ... 2016 THURSDAY, March 31, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Overall homicide victim rates in the United States fell between ...

  3. The Impact of African American Parents' Racial Discrimination Experiences and Perceived Neighborhood Cohesion on their Racial Socialization Practices.

    PubMed

    Saleem, Farzana T; English, Devin; Busby, Danielle R; Lambert, Sharon F; Harrison, Aubrey; Stock, Michelle L; Gibbons, Frederick X

    2016-07-01

    Parental racial socialization is a parenting tool used to prepare African American adolescents for managing racial stressors. While it is known that parents' racial discrimination experiences affect the racial socialization messages they provide, little is known about the influence of factors that promote supportive and communal parenting, such as perceived neighborhood cohesion. In cohesive neighborhoods, neighbors may help parents address racial discrimination by monitoring youth and conveying racial socialization messages; additionally, the effect of neighborhood cohesion on parents' racial socialization may differ for boys and girls because parents socialize adolescents about race differently based on expected encounters with racial discrimination. Therefore, the current study examines how parents' perception of neighborhood cohesion and adolescents' gender moderate associations between parents' racial discrimination experiences and the racial socialization messages they deliver to their adolescents. Participants were a community sample of 608 African American adolescents (54 % girls; mean age = 15.5) and their primary caregivers (86 % biological mothers; mean age = 42.0). Structural equation modeling indicated that parental racial discrimination was associated with more promotion of mistrust messages for boys and girls in communities with low neighborhood cohesion. In addition, parental racial discrimination was associated with more cultural socialization messages about racial pride and history for boys in neighborhoods with low neighborhood cohesion. The findings suggest that parents' racial socialization messages are influenced by their own racial discrimination experiences and the cohesiveness of the neighborhood; furthermore, the content of parental messages delivered varies based on adolescents' gender. PMID:27189721

  4. Critical Race Theory, Racial Microaggressions, and Campus Racial Climate for Latina/o Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yosso, Tara J.; Smith, William A.; Ceja, Miguel; Solorzano, Daniel G.

    2009-01-01

    In this article, Tara Yosso, William Smith, Miguel Ceja, and Daniel Solorzano expand on their previous work by employing critical race theory to explore and understand incidents of racial microaggressions as experienced by Latina/o students at three selective universities. The authors explore three types of racial microaggressions--interpersonal…

  5. Comparison of Tolerance of White Graduates of Racially Integrated and Racially Segregrated Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merritt, Ray

    1983-01-01

    Tested the hypothesis that White graduates of racially integrated schools (N=42) would be more tolerant than White graduates of racially segregated schools (N=49) by comparing the groups on the Dogmatism Scale. Results showed the integrated school graduates were more tolerant on the Belief-Disbelief dimension but not on total dogmatism.…

  6. The Racial Stress of Membership: Development of the Faculty Inventory of Racialized Experiences in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Sherry; Stevenson, Howard C.

    2013-01-01

    Research on the experience of faculty of color in predominately White independent schools (PWIS) is limited. This study explored faculty of varying racial backgrounds and their initiation of, interactions with, and stress reactions to racial conflicts within the school settings using an online survey. Several measures were developed according to…

  7. Examination of the Link between Parental Racial Socialization Messages and Racial Ideology among Black College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barr, Simone C.; Neville, Helen A.

    2008-01-01

    The relations between racial socialization and color-blind racial beliefs (i.e., the denial, distortion, or minimization of racism) among 153 Black American college students, including 34 college student-parent dyads, were examined. Findings from open-ended data indicate that participants identified receiving both protective (i.e., messages about…

  8. Campus Racial Climate Perceptions and Overall Sense of Belonging among Racially Diverse Women in STEM Majors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Dawn R.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the contributions of campus racial climate perceptions and other college environments to overall sense of belonging among racially diverse women in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) majors. The sample included 1,722 women from the 2004 National Study of Living-Learning Programs. Using a conceptual…

  9. An Exploration of the Relationship between Racial Identity Attitudes and the Perception of Racial Bias.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jefferson, Stephen D.; Caldwell, Robert

    2002-01-01

    Explored the relationship between specific theories of racial identity attitudes and the asymmetry hypothesis. Surveys of African American college students indicated that people who strongly endorsed an Africentric perspective attributed more racial bias to white than to African American characters described as discriminating against others not of…

  10. A Moderated Mediation Model: Racial Discrimination, Coping Strategies, and Racial Identity among Black Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seaton, Eleanor K.; Upton, Rachel; Gilbert, Adrianne; Volpe, Vanessa

    2014-01-01

    This study examined a moderated mediation model among 314 Black adolescents aged 13-18. The model included general coping strategies (e.g., active, distracting, avoidant, and support-seeking strategies) as mediators and racial identity dimensions (racial centrality, private regard, public regard, minority, assimilationist, and humanist ideologies)…

  11. More Diverse Yet Less Tolerant? How the Increasingly Diverse Racial Landscape Affects White Americans' Racial Attitudes.

    PubMed

    Craig, Maureen A; Richeson, Jennifer A

    2014-03-13

    Recent Census Bureau projections indicate that racial/ethnic minorities will comprise over 50% of the U.S. population by 2042, effectively creating a so-called "majority-minority" nation. Across four experiments, we explore how presenting information about these changing racial demographics influences White Americans' racial attitudes. Results reveal that exposure to the changing demographics evokes the expression of greater explicit and implicit racial bias. Specifically, Whites exposed to the racial demographic shift information preferred interactions/settings with their own ethnic group over minority ethnic groups; expressed more negative attitudes toward Latinos, Blacks, and Asian Americans; and expressed more automatic pro-White/anti-minority bias. Perceived threat to Whites' societal status mediated the effects of the racial shift information on explicit racial attitudes. These results suggest that rather than ushering in a more tolerant future, the increasing diversity of the nation may instead yield intergroup hostility. Implications for intergroup relations and media framing of the racial shift are discussed. PMID:24625658

  12. When are Racial Disparities in Education the Result of Racial Discrimination? A Social Science Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mickelson, Roslyn Arlin

    2003-01-01

    Synthesizes the social science research on racially correlated disparities in education, focusing on biological determinism (behavioral genetics); social structure (e.g., reproduction theory and resistance theory); school organization and opportunities to learn (e.g., resources, racial composition, and tracking); family background (financial,…

  13. Strategies for managing impressions of racial identity in the workplace.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Laura Morgan; Cha, Sandra E; Kim, Sung Soo

    2014-10-01

    This article deepens understanding of the workplace experiences of racial minorities by investigating racial identity-based impression management (RIM) by Asian American journalists. Racial centrality, directly or indirectly, predicted the use of 4 RIM strategies (avoidance, enhancement, affiliation, and racial humor). Professional centrality also predicted strategy use, which was related to life satisfaction and perceived career success. By shedding light on proactive strategies that individuals use to influence colleagues' impressions of their racial identity, we contribute to research on diversity in organizations, impression management, and racial identity. PMID:25090148

  14. Racial residential segregation: a fundamental cause of racial disparities in health.

    PubMed Central

    Williams, D. R.; Collins, C.

    2001-01-01

    Racial residential segregation is a fundamental cause of racial disparities in health. The physical separation of the races by enforced residence in certain areas is an institutional mechanism of racism that was designed to protect whites from social interaction with blacks. Despite the absence of supportive legal statutes, the degree of residential segregation remains extremely high for most African Americans in the United States. The authors review evidence that suggests that segregation is a primary cause of racial differences in socioeconomic status (SES) by determining access to education and employment opportunities. SES in turn remains a fundamental cause of racial differences in health. Segregation also creates conditions inimical to health in the social and physical environment. The authors conclude that effective efforts to eliminate racial disparities in health must seriously confront segregation and its pervasive consequences. PMID:12042604

  15. Racial Attitudes, Physician-Patient Talk Time Ratio, and Adherence in Racially Discordant Medical Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Hagiwara, Nao; Penner, Louis A.; Gonzalez, Richard; Eggly, Susan; Dovidio, John F.; Gaertner, Samuel L.; West, Tessa; Albrecht, Terrance L.

    2013-01-01

    Physician racial bias and patient perceived discrimination have each been found to influence perceptions of and feelings about racially discordant medical interactions. However, to our knowledge, no studies have examined how they may simultaneously influence the dynamics of these interactions. This study examined how (a) non-Black primary care physicians’ explicit and implicit racial bias and (b) Black patients’ perceived past discrimination affected physician-patient talk time ratio (i.e., the ratio of physician to patient talk time) during medical interactions and the relationship between this ratio and patients’ subsequent adherence. We conducted a secondary analysis of self-report and video-recorded data from a prior study of clinical interactions between 112 low-income, Black patients and their 14 non-Black physicians at a primary care clinic in the Midwestern United States between June, 2006 and February, 2008. Overall, physicians talked more than patients; however, both physician bias and patient perceived past discrimination affected physician-patient talk time ratio. Non-Black physicians with higher levels of implicit, but not explicit, racial bias had larger physician-patient talk time ratios than did physicians with lower levels of implicit bias, indicating that physicians with more negative implicit racial attitudes talked more than physicians with less negative racial attitudes. Additionally, Black patients with higher levels of perceived discrimination had smaller physician-patient talk time ratios, indicating that patients with more negative racial attitudes talked more than patients with less negative racial attitudes. Finally, smaller physician-patient talk time ratios were associated with less patient subsequent adherence, indicating that patients who talked more during the racially discordant medical interactions were less likely to adhere subsequently. Theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed in the context of

  16. Racial attitudes, physician-patient talk time ratio, and adherence in racially discordant medical interactions.

    PubMed

    Hagiwara, Nao; Penner, Louis A; Gonzalez, Richard; Eggly, Susan; Dovidio, John F; Gaertner, Samuel L; West, Tessa; Albrecht, Terrance L

    2013-06-01

    Physician racial bias and patient perceived discrimination have each been found to influence perceptions of and feelings about racially discordant medical interactions. However, to our knowledge, no studies have examined how they may simultaneously influence the dynamics of these interactions. This study examined how (a) non-Black primary care physicians' explicit and implicit racial bias and (b) Black patients' perceived past discrimination affected physician-patient talk time ratio (i.e., the ratio of physician to patient talk time) during medical interactions and the relationship between this ratio and patients' subsequent adherence. We conducted a secondary analysis of self-report and video-recorded data from a prior study of clinical interactions between 112 low-income, Black patients and their 14 non-Black physicians at a primary care clinic in the Midwestern United States between June, 2006 and February, 2008. Overall, physicians talked more than patients; however, both physician bias and patient perceived past discrimination affected physician-patient talk time ratio. Non-Black physicians with higher levels of implicit, but not explicit, racial bias had larger physician-patient talk time ratios than did physicians with lower levels of implicit bias, indicating that physicians with more negative implicit racial attitudes talked more than physicians with less negative racial attitudes. Additionally, Black patients with higher levels of perceived discrimination had smaller physician-patient talk time ratios, indicating that patients with more negative racial attitudes talked more than patients with less negative racial attitudes. Finally, smaller physician-patient talk time ratios were associated with less patient subsequent adherence, indicating that patients who talked more during the racially discordant medical interactions were less likely to adhere subsequently. Theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed in the context of

  17. Racial Healthcare Disparities: A Social Psychological Analysis.

    PubMed

    Penner, Louis A; Hagiwara, Nao; Eggly, Susan; Gaertner, Samuel L; Albrecht, Terrance L; Dovidio, John F

    2013-01-01

    Around the world, members of racial/ethnic minority groups typically experience poorer health than members of racial/ethnic majority groups. The core premise of this article is that thoughts, feelings, and behaviors related to race and ethnicity play a critical role in healthcare disparities. Social psychological theories of the origins and consequences of these thoughts, feelings, and behaviors offer critical insights into the processes responsible for these disparities and suggest interventions to address them. We present a multilevel model that explains how societal, intrapersonal, and interpersonal factors can influence ethnic/racial health disparities. We focus our literature review, including our own research, and conceptual analysis at the intrapersonal (the race-related thoughts and feelings of minority patients and non-minority physicians) and interpersonal levels (intergroup processes that affect medical interactions between minority patients and non-minority physicians). At both levels of analysis, we use theories of social categorization, social identity, contemporary forms of racial bias, stereotype activation, stigma, and other social psychological processes to identify and understand potential causes and processes of health and healthcare disparities. In the final section, we identify theory-based interventions that might reduce ethnic/racial disparities in health and healthcare. PMID:25197206

  18. Racial disparities in participation in biomedical research.

    PubMed Central

    Kressin, N. R.; Meterko, M.; Wilson, N. J.

    2000-01-01

    To determine whether minority patients were less likely to participate in biomedical research, perceive positive benefits from such participation, or to recommend research participation to other patients, an observational study was conducted. Sociodemographic and survey data were collected from 5436 users of Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) Ambulatory Care, which included questions about veterans' research participation and related attitudes. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were performed to determine if there were racial differences in the outcomes of interest, controlling for relevant sociodemographic factors. Bivariate and multivariate analyses indicated that there were no racial differences in self-reported research participation, but minority veterans were more likely to perceive a positive effect of research and less likely to recommend research to other veterans. However, subgroup analyses indicated that, of those veterans having negative attitudes about research, minority and less educated veterans were disproportionately represented. In the VA system, racial differences in research participation may dissipate because many sociodemographic factors are controlled. Although we did not observe consistent racial differences in research participation or attitudes, the fact that minority veterans were disproportionately represented among the group with the most negative attitudes about research suggests that further research is necessary to fully understand the racial dynamics of research participation in the VA. PMID:10800293

  19. Racial Healthcare Disparities: A Social Psychological Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Penner, Louis A.; Hagiwara, Nao; Eggly, Susan; Gaertner, Samuel L.; Albrecht, Terrance L.; Dovidio, John F.

    2014-01-01

    Around the world, members of racial/ethnic minority groups typically experience poorer health than members of racial/ethnic majority groups. The core premise of this article is that thoughts, feelings, and behaviors related to race and ethnicity play a critical role in healthcare disparities. Social psychological theories of the origins and consequences of these thoughts, feelings, and behaviors offer critical insights into the processes responsible for these disparities and suggest interventions to address them. We present a multilevel model that explains how societal, intrapersonal, and interpersonal factors can influence ethnic/racial health disparities. We focus our literature review, including our own research, and conceptual analysis at the intrapersonal (the race-related thoughts and feelings of minority patients and non-minority physicians) and interpersonal levels (intergroup processes that affect medical interactions between minority patients and non-minority physicians). At both levels of analysis, we use theories of social categorization, social identity, contemporary forms of racial bias, stereotype activation, stigma, and other social psychological processes to identify and understand potential causes and processes of health and healthcare disparities. In the final section, we identify theory-based interventions that might reduce ethnic/racial disparities in health and healthcare. PMID:25197206

  20. Racial/Ethnic Workplace Discrimination

    PubMed Central

    Chavez, Laura J.; Ornelas, India J.; Lyles, Courtney R.; Williams, Emily C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Experiences of discrimination are associated with tobacco and alcohol use, and work is a common setting where individuals experience racial/ethnic discrimination. Few studies have evaluated the association between workplace discrimination and these behaviors, and none have described associations across race/ethnicity. Purpose To examine the association between workplace discrimination and tobacco and alcohol use in a large, multistate sample of U.S. adult respondents to the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey Reactions to Race Module (2004–2010). Methods Multivariable logistic regression analyses evaluated cross-sectional associations between self-reported workplace discrimination and tobacco (current and daily smoking) and alcohol use (any and heavy use, and binge drinking) among all participants and stratified by race/ethnicity, adjusting for relevant covariates. Data were analyzed in 2013. Results Among respondents, 70,080 completed the workplace discrimination measure. Discrimination was more common among black non-Hispanic (21%), Hispanic (12%), and other race respondents (11%) than white non-Hispanics (4%) (p<0.001). In the total sample, discrimination was associated with current smoking (risk ratio [RR]=1.32, 95% CI=1.19, 1.47), daily smoking (RR=1.41, 95% CI=1.24, 1.61), and heavy drinking (RR=1.11, 95% CI=1.01, 1.22), but not binge or any drinking. Among Hispanics, workplace discrimination was associated with increased heavy and binge drinking, but not any alcohol use or smoking. Workplace discrimination among black non-Hispanics and white Non-Hispanics was associated with increased current and daily smoking, but not alcohol outcomes. Conclusions Workplace discrimination is common, associated with smoking and alcohol use, and merits further policy attention given the impact of these behaviors on morbidity and mortality. PMID:25441232

  1. Examining Post-Racial Ideology in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baber, Lorenzo DuBois

    2015-01-01

    Despite traditional notions of meritocracy, higher education has a long history of exclusionary practices. This chapter explores connections between such practices and racial ideology in the United States, including the recent concept of "post-racialism."

  2. Racial conceptions in the global south.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Warwick

    2014-12-01

    What happens to twentieth-century race science when we relocate it to the Global South? North Atlantic debates have dominated the conceptual history of race. Yet there is suggestive evidence of a "southern" or antipodean racial distinctiveness. We can find across the Southern Hemisphere greater interest in racial plasticity, environmental adaptation, mixing or miscegenation, and blurring of racial boundaries; endorsement of biological absorption of indigenous populations; and consent to the formation of new or blended races. Once we recognize the Global South as a site of knowledge making, and not just data extraction, the picture of race science in the twentieth century changes. Once situated, or displaced, the conventional North Atlantic history of race science in the twentieth century comes to seem exceptional--and no longer normative. PMID:25665385

  3. Racial Socialization, Racial Identity, and Academic Attitudes Among African American Adolescents: Examining the Moderating Influence of Parent-Adolescent Communication.

    PubMed

    Tang, Sandra; McLoyd, Vonnie C; Hallman, Samantha K

    2016-06-01

    A significant gap remains in our understanding of the conditions under which parents' racial socialization has consequences for adolescents' functioning. The present study used longitudinal data to examine whether the frequency of communication between African American parents and adolescents (N = 504; 49 % female) moderates the association between parent reports of racial socialization (i.e., cultural socialization and preparation for bias) at 8th grade and adolescent reports of racial identity (perceived structural discrimination, negative public regard, success-oriented centrality) at 11th grade, and in turn, academic attitudes and perceptions. Parents' racial socialization practices were significant predictors of multiple aspects of adolescents' racial identity in families with high levels of communication, but they did not predict any aspects of adolescents' racial identity in families with low levels of communication. Results highlight the importance of including family processes when examining the relations between parents' racial socialization and adolescents' racial identity and academic attitudes and perceptions. PMID:26369349

  4. Addressing Racial Awareness and Color-Blindness in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diggles, Kimberly

    2014-01-01

    Racial awareness is a critical foundation to racial sensitivity, and it is a necessity for future professionals who want to be prepared to succeed in an increasingly diverse society. Several factors have been shown to influence racial awareness in professionals including their own race, their personal experience with racism, and the amount/quality…

  5. Reduction of Racial Prejudice in Student Affairs Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi-Pearson, Catherine; Castillo, Linda; Maples, Mary Finn

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the impact of gender, race, intergroup contact, and diversity training on racial prejudice of student affairs professionals. Diversity training and race of participants were statistically significant contributors to change in racial prejudice. Findings suggest that racial prejudice decreases as diversity training increases.…

  6. John Dewey's Racialized Visions of the Student and Classroom Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Margonis, Frank

    2009-01-01

    John Dewey's willingness to endorse a remedial form of education for African American students offers us a rare glimpse of the racial assumptions underlying Dewey's educational philosophy. By considering a variety of clues--Dewey's silences on racial equality, his understanding of race and racial progress, and his respective prescriptions for…

  7. Percent Black and Racial Hostility: An Old Assumption Reexamined

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giles, Michael W.

    1977-01-01

    Examines the theory that a high concentration of Black people in a given population will create negative racial attitudes within that population. A research study finds that this relationship holds only for southern respondents. Outside the South, racial attitudes appear to be largely insensitive to racial concentration. (Author/AV)

  8. Urbanism and Racial Attitudes: A Test of Some Urban Theories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Thomas C.

    1984-01-01

    National survey data are used to test the relationship between urbanism and racial attitudes among Whites, and a liberalizing effect of urbanism is found. It appears that urbanism liberalizes racial attitudes by increasing equal-status, cooperative, and relatively personal contact between members of racial subcultures. (Author/RDN)

  9. Racial and Ego Identity Development in Black Caribbean College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez, Delida

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the relationships between racial identity attitudes and ego identity statuses among 255 Black Caribbean college students in the Northeast United States. Findings indicated that racial identity attitudes were predictive of ego identity statuses. Specifically, preencounter racial identity attitudes were predictive of lower scores…

  10. Schools as Racial Spaces: Understanding and Resisting Structural Racism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blaisdell, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    Analyzing schools as racial spaces can help researchers examine the role of teachers in the perpetuation of structural racism in schools. Based on ethnographic and autoethnographic work, this article offers examples of schools as racial spaces, spaces where whiteness controlled access. It also highlights four teachers who pursued racial equity in…

  11. Racial and Ethnic Backlash in College Peer Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalton, Jon C.

    1991-01-01

    Reviews racial bias and racial intolerance among college students during the late 1980s. Asserts that campus bias-related indents are predictable outcomes of increasingly self-interested values and limited personal experience with racial and ethnic diversity. Discusses the need to create more opportunities for contact and interaction among…

  12. Social Equity Theory and Racial-Ethnic Achievement Gaps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKown, Clark

    2013-01-01

    In the United States, racial-ethnic differences on tests of school readiness and academic achievement continue. A complete understanding of the origins of racial-ethnic achievement gaps is still lacking. This article describes social equity theory (SET), which proposes that racial-ethnic achievement gaps originate from two kinds of social process,…

  13. The Serious Games of Racial Accounting in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Martha Irene

    2011-01-01

    Educational disparities are frequently framed in racial comparisons that are based on data generated by sorting and counting racial subgroups. Our reliance on these data, and the sorting and counting mechanisms entailed therein, is fundamental to debates about racial inequalities. What is largely ignored in achievement gap discourse is how racial…

  14. Tasseography: Reading Post-Racial Resistance to Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houston, Akil

    2011-01-01

    This article focuses on developing a progressive philosophy of praxis that challenges, what the author argues is, a post-racial resistance to teaching about racial injustice. Post-racial resistance to teaching can lead to forms of enlightened racism and sexism in the classroom. In this essay, the author develops and extends the use of the metaphor…

  15. Promise and Dilemma: Perspectives on Racial Diversity and Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowe, Eugene Y., Jr., Ed.

    The essays and commentaries in this volume on racial diversity and higher education are grouped into three parts. The first offers a broad perspective and an historical review of the complex history of the United States' effort to achieve racial diversity; the second notes empirical studies of the extent of racial disparities in academic…

  16. ADVISORY COMMITTEE ON RACIAL IMBALANCE AND EDUCATION. INTERIM REPORT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ADVISORY COMMITTEE ON RACIAL IMBALANCE AND EDUCATION

    RACIAL IMBALANCE HAMPERS THE FULLEST ACADEMIC AND VOCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT OF THOSE AFFECTED BY IT AND IMPAIRS ADEQUATE PREPARATION FOR THE DUTIES OF AMERICAN CITIZENSHIP. THE PRACTICAL DEFINITION OF A RACIALLY IMBALANCE SCHOOL WAS ONE IN WHICH COMPOSITION OF THE SCHOOL POPULATION IS SHARPLY OUT OF BALANCE WITH THE RACIAL COMPOSITION OF THE SOCIETY…

  17. Exploring the Emotional Correlates of White Racial Identity Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Matthew Philip

    2010-01-01

    Given sources such as autobiography, theory, and research, there is reason to believe that there are emotional consequences to White people's racial outlooks. White racial identity theory (Helms, 1990) describes how various emotions could be related to White people's psychological orientation to their racial group. Yet little empirical evidence…

  18. The Neoliberal Racial Project: The Tiger Mother and Governmentality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhee, Jeong-eun

    2013-01-01

    Combining the conceptual approach of racial formation and racial projects with the Foucauldian concept of governmentality, Jeong-eun Rhee theorizes the "neoliberal racial project" (NRP) and examines contemporary meanings and operations of race and racism in relation to neoliberalism. She analyzes Amy Chua's popular parenting memoir,…

  19. Racialized Space: Framing Latino and Latina Experience in Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barajas, Heidi Lasley; Ronnkvist, Amy

    2007-01-01

    Background: Educational research shows differences in experience, access, and outcomes across racial groups with some groups advantaged and others disadvantaged. One of the concepts used to explain racial differences, racialization, is a taken-for-granted term that is yet to be fully defined in the context of the school. We differentiate the term…

  20. Even More Racially Isolated than before: Problematizing the Vision for "Diversity" in a Racially Mixed High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welton, Anjalé D.

    2013-01-01

    Background/Context: The term racial diversity is interchangeably used in the literature with other terms such as racially mixed, integration, and desegregation in reference to policies to design and practices to implement racially heterogeneous communities, districts, and schools. Scholarship that promotes the democratic potential of racially…

  1. Perceived Racial Discrimination and Self-Esteem in African American Youth: Racial Socialization as a Protective Factor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris-Britt, April; Valrie, Cecelia R.; Kurtz-Costes, Beth; Rowley, Stephanie J.

    2007-01-01

    Racial socialization was examined as a protective factor that might buffer African American youth from the negative effects of perceived racial discrimination. Two types of racial socialization were examined: messages about race pride and preparation for bias. One hundred twenty-eight eighth-grade African American students participated in the…

  2. Racial and ethnic socialization as moderators of racial discrimination and school adjustment of adopted and nonadopted Korean American adolescents.

    PubMed

    Seol, Kyoung Ok; Yoo, Hyung Chol; Lee, Richard M; Park, Ji Eun; Kyeong, Yena

    2016-04-01

    This study investigated the roles of racial and ethnic socialization in the link between racial discrimination and school adjustment among a sample of 233 adopted Korean American adolescents from White adoptive families and 155 nonadopted Korean American adolescents from immigrant Korean families. Adopted Korean American adolescents reported lower levels of racial discrimination, racial socialization, and ethnic socialization than nonadopted Korean American adolescents. However, racial discrimination was negatively related to school belonging and school engagement, and ethnic socialization was positively related to school engagement for both groups. Racial socialization also had a curvilinear relationship with school engagement for both groups. A moderate level of racial socialization predicted positive school engagement, whereas low and high levels of racial socialization predicted negative school engagement. Finally, ethnic socialization moderated the link between racial discrimination and school belonging, which differed between groups. In particular, ethnic socialization exacerbated the relations between racial discrimination and school belonging for adopted Korean American adolescents, whereas ethnic socialization buffered this link for nonadopted Korean American adolescents. The findings illustrate the complex relationship between racial and ethnic socialization, racial discrimination, and school adjustment. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26479418

  3. Racial Discrimination, Ethnic-Racial Socialization, and Crime: A Micro-Sociological Model of Risk and Resilience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burt, Callie Harbin; Simons, Ronald L.; Gibbons, Frederick X.

    2012-01-01

    Dominant theoretical explanations of racial disparities in criminal offending overlook a key risk factor associated with race: interpersonal racial discrimination. Building on recent studies that analyze race and crime at the micro-level, we specify a social psychological model linking personal experiences with racial discrimination to an…

  4. Raising Ethnic-Racial Consciousness: The Relationship between Intergroup Dialogues and Adolescents' Ethnic-Racial Identity and Racism Awareness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aldana, Adriana; Rowley, Stephanie J.; Checkoway, Barry; Richards-Schuster, Katie

    2012-01-01

    Empirical evidence shows that intergroup dialogue programs promote changes in ethnic-racial identity and racism awareness among college students. Expanding on this research, this study examines the effects of intergroup dialogues on adolescents' racial consciousness. Self-reports of 147 adolescents (13-19 years old), of various racial and ethnic…

  5. Racial(ized) Identity, Ethnic Identity, and Afrocentric Values: Conceptual and Methodological Challenges in Understanding African American Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cokley, Kevin O.

    2005-01-01

    A survey of the literature reveals that there is conceptual confusion and inconsistent and sometimes inappropriate usage of the terms racial identity, ethnic identity, and Afrocentric values. This study explored the extent to which Black racial(ized) identity attitudes were related to ethnic identity and Afrocentric cultural values. Two hundred…

  6. The Significance of Post-Racial Ideology, Black Political Struggle, and Racial Literacy for Brazilian Anti-Racist Education Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Da Costa, Alexandre Emboaba

    2016-01-01

    This paper furthers current analysis of anti-racist, critical multicultural, and decolonial educational reforms in Brazil through a focus on the significant role played by post-racial ideology, black politics, and racial literacy in policy design and implementation. The paper first details the ways in which post-racial commonsense and anti-black…

  7. The Constitutionality of Reverse Racial Discrimination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ely, John Hart

    1974-01-01

    In discussing the Defunis v. Odegaard case and the busing issue in reference to reverse race discrimination, the author concludes that measures that favor racial minorities pose a difficult moral question that should be left to the states. (Author/PG)

  8. Measuring Racial Disparity in Child Welfare

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Terry V.; Putnam-Hornstein, Emily; Magruder, Joseph; Needell, Barbara

    2008-01-01

    Overrepresentation of certain racial/ethnic groups in the foster care system is one of the most troubling and challenging issues in child welfare today. In response, many states have started reporting outcomes by race and ethnicity to identify disproportionately high rates of system contact. The identification of disproportional representation is…

  9. Validating the Cross Racial Identity Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandiver, Beverly J.; Cross, William E., Jr.; Worrell, Frank C.; Fhagen-Smith, Peony E.

    2002-01-01

    Validation work on the Cross Racial Identity Scale (CRIS; B. J. Vandiver et al., 2000) is described in 2 studies using African American college students. In Study 1, an exploratory factor analysis supported the presence of 6 CRIS subscales. In Study 2, confirmatory factor analysis provided support for a 2-factor higher order model of the 6 CRIS…

  10. The Racial Trajectory of the Western Hero.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saxton, Alexander

    1984-01-01

    Argues that the frequently negative representations of racial or ethnic minorities in American film are related to the ideology embodied in the "Western Hero." Focuses on ideology and race relations in Cooper's "Leatherstocking Tales" and three films: "The Vanishing American" (1925); "Bad Day at Black Rock" (1954); and "The Deer Hunter" (1978).…

  11. Black Canadians' Coping Responses to Racial Discrimination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joseph, Justine; Kuo, Ben C. H.

    2009-01-01

    On the basis of a cultural coping framework, the present study examined coping responses to racial discrimination among 190 Black Canadians. The study assessed the respondents' coping with both general (i.e., problem- and emotion-focused coping) and Africultural coping strategies (i.e., spiritual-centered, collective, and ritual-centered coping)…

  12. Achieving Racial Integration Through Movement Oriented Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheffers, John T.F.; And Others

    This study evaluated the city of Boston's Magnet Movement Athletics Program, which brought together inner city children with suburban children in a movement oriented program designed to facilitate racial harmony and the growth of positive interracial attitudes. Four hundred seventh and eighth grade black, white, and oriental children underwent a…

  13. Teaching for Critical Literacy and Racial Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffy, John W.

    2008-01-01

    Eminent African American historian Carter G. Woodson in his book "The Miseducation of the Negro," published a generation before the "Brown v. Board of Education" decision, concerned himself not with the racial composition of classrooms and schools, but with the curricula taught both in the schools and the larger culture. Certainly Woodson…

  14. Discipline Policies, Successful Schools, and Racial Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Losen, Daniel J.

    2011-01-01

    In March of 2010, Secretary of Education Arne Duncan delivered a speech that highlighted racial disparities in school suspension and expulsion and that called for more rigorous civil rights enforcement in education. He suggested that students with disabilities and Black students, especially males, were suspended far more often than their White…

  15. Healing the Hidden Wounds of Racial Trauma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardy, Kenneth V.

    2013-01-01

    This article examines racial trauma and highlights strategies for healing and transformation to support the disproportionate number of children and youth of color who fail in school and become trapped in the pipelines of treatment, social service, and justice systems. The difficulty in meeting the needs of these children and youth is failing to…

  16. The Racial Crisis in American Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altbach, Philip G., Ed.; Lomotey, Kofi, Ed.

    This collection of essays addresses the need for continued research in race-related issues on college campuses. The book examines the causes and the impact of campus racial tensions by studying some key university case studies and by investigating some of the underlying elements of the crisis. Essays and their authors are as follows: "The Racial…

  17. Assessing Racial Attitudes in a University Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fang, Wei Li; And Others

    Although the University of Virginia is a state-supported institution, only eight percent of the students are black and less than one percent of the faculty are black. During the summer of 1986, an ad hoc committee of students, faculty, and administrators was formed, with the goal of increasing racial and multi-cultural awareness and improving race…

  18. Barbie.com and Racial Identity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buddington, Steve A.

    This study explored how black second grade girls racially identified themselves. Ten students worked on laptop computers at home to design a Barbie doll that looked like them and a Barbie doll that they liked best. Parents completed sociodemographic questionnaires and narratives. The questionnaires examined gender, skin shade, income, marital…

  19. White Men's Racial Others

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lensmire, Timothy J.

    2014-01-01

    Background/Context: Increasingly, researchers and educators have argued that alternative conceptions of Whiteness and White racial identity are needed because current conceptions have undermined, rather than strengthened, our critical pedagogies with White people. Grounded in critical Whiteness studies, and drawing especially on the writings of…

  20. "Jena Six": Case Study in Racial Tensions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, Lesli A.

    2007-01-01

    This article reports the racial tensions in Jena, Louisiana. On Aug. 31, 2006, school leaders in Jena, Louisiana, arrived to find two nooses hanging from an oak tree on the campus of Jena High School. The events since that incident--including the beating of a white student and resulting criminal charges against six black schoolmates that have…

  1. Henri Hubert, racial science and political myth.

    PubMed

    Strenski, I

    1987-10-01

    Henri Hubert developed early Durkheimian critiques of racial sciences such as anthroposociology from his perspective as an archeologist, historian, and ethnographer of primitive European religions. His major works on the "primitive" Celts and Germans continue these critiques of racism. But Hubert also engaged in the political mythologizing of French national identity by trading in the republican myth of "celtisme." PMID:3312403

  2. Is Racial Segregation Changing in Charter Schools?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jin; Lubienski, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    Charter schools embody the theoretical potential to promote integration since they can draw students from across district boundaries that often reflect segregated residential patterns. While a number of studies have examined overall racial composition of charter schools, virtually no attention has been paid to how charter school enrollment…

  3. African American Males Navigate Racial Microaggressions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hotchkins, Bryan K.

    2016-01-01

    Background/Context: High school educational environments find Black males experience systemic racial microaggressions in the form of discipline policies, academic tracking and hegemonic curriculum (Allen, Scott, & Lewis, 2013). Black males in high school are more likely than their White male peers to have high school truancies and be viewed as…

  4. Uncovering Racial Bias in Nursing Fundamentals Textbooks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrne, Michelle M.

    2001-01-01

    The portrayal of African Americans in nursing fundamentals textbooks was analyzed, resulting in 11 themes in the areas of history, culture, and physical assessment. Few African American leaders were included, and racial bias and stereotyping were apparent. Differences were often discussed using Eurocentric norms, and language tended to minimize…

  5. Totalitarian Tendencies - Racial Polarization, 1912-1940.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Robert I.

    The purpose of this curricular unit intended for use at the secondary level is to provide an explanation for racial polarization by reviewing some of the violent developments in 20th century America as they affected Blacks. Main points and concepts are outlined for the teacher, beginning with a consideration of the hopes of Blacks during the…

  6. Enhancing Theory Courses with Racially Inclusive Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bramlett-Solomon, Sharon; Liebler, Carol M.

    1999-01-01

    Offers a blueprint that instructors of mass media theory courses can adopt to expose students to racially inclusive research in order to encourage students to explore and employ relevant theories when probing media and race questions. Offers examples of inclusive media research, examining six prominent theories: selective-perception theory,…

  7. Social and Racial Correlates of Russian Roulette

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stack, Steven; Wasserman, Ira

    2008-01-01

    The epidemiology of a neglected form of suicidal behavior, Russian roulette, is addressed. Also tested is an explanation of racial differences based on the opportunity theory of deviant behavior related to the availability of revolvers, necessary weapons with which to play Russian roulette. Data refer to 15 cases of Russian roulette found through…

  8. Priming unconscious racial stereotypes about adolescent offenders.

    PubMed

    Graham, Sandra; Lowery, Brian S

    2004-10-01

    Two studies examined unconscious racial stereotypes of decision makers in the juvenile justice system. Police officers (Experiment 1) and juvenile probation officers (Experiment 2) were subliminally exposed to words related to the category Black or to words neutral with respect to race. In a presumably unrelated task, officers read 2 vignettes about a hypothetical adolescent who allegedly committed either a property crime (shoplifting from a convenience store) or an interpersonal crime (assaulting a peer). The race of the offender was left unstated and the scenarios were ambiguous about the causes of the crime. Respondents rated the hypothetical offender on a number of traits (e.g., hostility and immaturity) and made judgments about culpability, expected recidivism, and deserved punishment. They also completed a self-report measure of conscious attitudes about race. As hypothesized, officers in the racial prime condition reported more negative trait ratings, greater culpability, and expected recidivism, and they endorsed harsher punishment than did officers in the neutral condition. The effects of the racial primes were not moderated by consciously held attitudes about African Americans. The implications of the findings for racial disparity in the juvenile justice system and for changing unconscious stereotypes were discussed. PMID:15638206

  9. To Imagine and Pursue Racial Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desmond, Matthew; Emirbayer, Mustafa

    2012-01-01

    At the conclusion of many courses on race and racism, students, having learned, some for the first time, about the existence, origins, and complex dimensions of racial domination in America, are left pondering their next steps. "What is to be done?" many ask. "And what, exactly, is it that we want?" Important as they are, these questions too often…

  10. Ethnic Identification and Perception of Racial Harmony.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egginton, Everett

    The primary objective of the court-mandated busing plan in Jefferson County (Kentucky) is to promote racially integrated schools and classrooms. The numerous protests since 1975 in Louisville over court-mandated busing are evidence of a low level of intercultural understanding and tolerance. This paper seeks to probe a source of the…

  11. Racial and Ethnic Stereotypes and Bullying Victimization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peguero, Anthony A.; Williams, Lisa M.

    2013-01-01

    Bullying is a serious problem within the U.S. school system. Prior research suggests that victimization is stratified by race and ethnicity. However, few studies consider factors that may moderate this relationship. This article extends research on this topic by considering whether stereotypes moderate bullying among racial and ethnic youth. Youth…

  12. Revising the White Racial Consciousness Development Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Sang Min; Puig, Ana; Pasquarella-Daley, Lauren; Denny, George; Rai, Ann Allen; Dallape, Aprille; Parker, Woodrow Max

    2007-01-01

    This article describes the revision of the White Racial Consciousness Development Scale (D. Claney & W. M. Parker, 1989). A multistage approach including item generation, item refinement and selection, and evaluation of score validity and reliability was used to test construction and validation. Implications for theory, practice, and future…

  13. Speech Patterns and Racial Wage Inequality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grogger, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    Speech patterns differ substantially between whites and many African Americans. I collect and analyze speech data to understand the role that speech may play in explaining racial wage differences. Among blacks, speech patterns are highly correlated with measures of skill such as schooling and AFQT scores. They are also highly correlated with the…

  14. Is racial bias malleable? Whites' lay theories of racial bias predict divergent strategies for interracial interactions.

    PubMed

    Neel, Rebecca; Shapiro, Jenessa R

    2012-07-01

    How do Whites approach interracial interactions? We argue that a previously unexamined factor-beliefs about the malleability of racial bias-guides Whites' strategies for difficult interracial interactions. We predicted and found that those who believe racial bias is malleable favor learning-oriented strategies such as taking the other person's perspective and trying to learn why an interaction is challenging, whereas those who believe racial bias is fixed favor performance-oriented strategies such as overcompensating in the interaction and trying to end the interaction as quickly as possible. Four studies support these predictions. Whether measured (Studies 1, 3, and 4) or manipulated (Study 2), beliefs that racial bias is fixed versus malleable yielded these divergent strategies for difficult interracial interactions. Furthermore, beliefs about the malleability of racial bias are distinct from related constructs (e.g., prejudice and motivations to respond without prejudice; Studies 1, 3, and 4) and influence self-reported (Studies 1-3) and actual (Study 4) strategies in imagined (Studies 1-2) and real (Studies 3-4) interracial interactions. Together, these findings demonstrate that beliefs about the malleability of racial bias influence Whites' approaches to and strategies within interracial interactions. PMID:22564011

  15. Social Status Correlates of Reporting Racial Discrimination and Gender Discrimination among Racially Diverse Women

    PubMed Central

    Ro, Annie E.; Choi, Kyung-Hee

    2009-01-01

    The growing body of research on discrimination and health indicates a deleterious effect of discrimination on various health outcomes. However, less is known about the sociodemographic correlates of reporting racial discrimination and gender discrimination among racially diverse women. We examined the associations of social status characteristics with lifetime experiences of racial discrimination and gender discrimination using a racially-diverse sample of 754 women attending family planning clinics in Northern California (11.4% African American, 16.8% Latina, 10.1% Asian and 61.7% Caucasian). A multivariate analysis revealed that race, financial difficulty and marital status were significantly correlated with higher reports of racial discrimination, while race, education, financial difficulty and nativity were significantly correlated with gender discrimination scores. Our findings suggest that the social patterning of perceiving racial discrimination is somewhat different from that of gender discrimination. This has implications in the realm of discrimination research and applied interventions, as different forms of discrimination may have unique covariates that should be accounted for in research analysis or program design. PMID:19485231

  16. Impulsivity moderates the association between racial discrimination and alcohol problems.

    PubMed

    Latzman, Robert D; Chan, Wing Yi; Shishido, Yuri

    2013-12-01

    Alcohol use among university students is a serious public health concern, particularly among minority students who may use alcohol to cope with experiences of racial discrimination. Although the impact of racial discrimination on alcohol use has been well-established, individual differences in factors that may act to either attenuate or exacerbate the negative effects of racial discrimination are largely unknown. One potentially fruitful individual differences trait that has repeatedly been found to predict alcohol problems is the multidimensional personality trait of impulsivity. Nonetheless, the ways in which various aspects of impulsivity interact with racial discrimination is yet unknown. The current study, therefore, examined the joint and interactive contribution of racial discrimination and impulsivity in the prediction of alcohol consumption among racial minority university students. Participants included 336 Black/African-American and Asian/Asian-American university students. Results revealed both racial discrimination and impulsivity to be significantly associated with alcohol problems. Further, individuals' responses to racial discrimination were not uniform. Specifically, the association between racial discrimination and alcohol problems was moderated by lack of Premeditation; racial discrimination was most strongly predictive of alcohol problems for those who reported low level of premeditation. Findings from the present study highlight the importance of investigating risk factors for alcohol problems across multiple levels of the ecology as individual personality traits appear to relate to how one might respond to the experience of racial discrimination. PMID:24051137

  17. Discrimination, Racial Identity, and Cytokine Levels Among African American Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Brody, Gene H.; Yu, Tianyi; Miller, Gregory E.; Chen, Edith

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Low-grade inflammation, measured by circulating levels of cytokines, is a pathogenic mechanism for several chronic diseases of aging. Identifying factors related to inflammation among African American youths may yield insights into mechanisms underlying racial disparities in health. The purpose of the study was to determine whether (a) reported racial discrimination from ages 17 to 19 forecast heightened cytokine levels at age 22, and (b) this association is lower for youths with positive racial identities. Methods A longitudinal research design was used with a community sample of 160 African Americans who were 17 at the beginning of the study. Discrimination and racial identity were measured with questionnaires, and blood was drawn to measure basal cytokine levels. Ordinary least squares regression analyses were used to examine the hypotheses. Results After controlling for socioeconomic risk, life stress, depressive symptoms, and body mass index, racial discrimination (β = .307, p < .01), racial identity (β = −.179, p < .05), and their interaction (β = −.180, p < .05) forecast cytokine levels. Youths exposed to high levels of racial discrimination evinced elevated cytokine levels 3 years later. This association was not significant for young adults with positive racial identities. Conclusions High levels of interpersonal racial discrimination and the development of a positive racial identity operate jointly to determine low-grade inflammation levels that have been found to forecast chronic diseases of aging, such as coronary disease and stroke. PMID:25907649

  18. Gender and racial differences in mathematical performance.

    PubMed

    Hall, C W; Davis, N B; Bolen, L M; Chia, R

    1999-12-01

    The authors examined gender and racial differences in mathematics performance among 5th- and 8th-grade students in the United States. Math performance was assessed by scores on the math-concepts and math-computation sections of the California Achievement Test (CTB/McGraw-Hill, 1986) given at the end of the previous year. There were no significant gender differences, but in both grades, the White students scored significantly higher than the Black students. The racial differences were more pronounced in the scores for concepts than in the scores for computation. Responses to a parent questionnaire showed significant relationships between parents' self-reported math anxiety, parents' most advanced math course, and parents' education level in relation to the child's math performance. Differences in these relationships suggest that, although parents' beliefs and attitudes about math influence their child's math performance, the relationship is complex and may vary with race. PMID:10646303

  19. Racial Diversity and Change in Metropolitan Neighborhoods*

    PubMed Central

    Farrell, Chad R.; Lee, Barrett A.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the changing racial diversity and structure of metropolitan neighborhoods. We consider three alternative perspectives about localized racial change: that neighborhoods are bifurcating along a white/nonwhite color line, fragmenting into homogeneous enclaves, or integrating white, black, Latino, and Asian residents into diverse residential environments. To assess hypotheses drawn from these perspectives, we develop a hybrid methodology (incorporating the entropy index and majority-rule criteria) that offers advantages over previous typological efforts. Our analysis of 1990–2000 census tract data for the 100 largest U.S. metropolitan areas finds that most neighborhoods are becoming more diverse and that members of all groups have experienced increasing exposure to neighborhood diversity. However, white populations tend to diminish rapidly in the presence of multiple minority groups and there has been concomitant white growth in low-diversity neighborhoods. Latino population dynamics have emerged as a primary force driving neighborhood change in a multi-group context. PMID:21691412

  20. Racial microaggressions and the Asian American experience.

    PubMed

    Sue, Derald Wing; Bucceri, Jennifer; Lin, Annie I; Nadal, Kevin L; Torino, Gina C

    2007-01-01

    Racial microaggressions were examined through a focus group analysis of 10 self-identified Asian American participants using a semistructured interview and brief demographic questionnaire. Results identified 8 major microaggressive themes directed toward this group: (a) alien in own land, (b) ascription of intelligence, (c) exoticization of Asian women, (d) invalidation of interethnic differences, (e) denial of racial reality, (f) pathologizing cultural values/communication styles, (g) second class citizenship, and (h) invisibility. A ninth category, "undeveloped incidents/responses" was used to categorize microaggressions that were mentioned by only a few members. There were strong indications that the types of subtle racism directed at Asian Americans may be qualitatively and quantitatively different from other marginalized groups. Implications are discussed. PMID:17227179

  1. Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Breastfeeding

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Katherine M.; Queenan, John T.; Schulkin, Jay

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This article's aim is to review the literature on racial and ethnic disparities in breastfeeding rates and practices, address barriers to breastfeeding among minority women, conduct a systematic review of breastfeeding interventions, and provide obstetrician-gynecologists with recommendations on how they can help increase rates among minority women. In order to do so, the literature of racial and ethnic disparities in breastfeeding rates and barriers among minority women was reviewed, and a systematic review of breastfeeding interventions among minority women on PubMed and MEDLINE was conducted. Racial and ethnic minority women continue to have lower breastfeeding rates than white women and are not close to meeting the Healthy People 2020 goals. Minority women report many barriers to breastfeeding. Major efforts are still needed to improve breastfeeding initiation and duration rates among minority women in the United States. Obstetrician-gynecologists have a unique opportunity to promote and support breastfeeding through their clinical practices and public policy, and their efforts can have a meaningful impact on the future health of the mother and child. PMID:25831234

  2. Racial and ethnic disparities in breastfeeding.

    PubMed

    Jones, Katherine M; Power, Michael L; Queenan, John T; Schulkin, Jay

    2015-05-01

    This article's aim is to review the literature on racial and ethnic disparities in breastfeeding rates and practices, address barriers to breastfeeding among minority women, conduct a systematic review of breastfeeding interventions, and provide obstetrician-gynecologists with recommendations on how they can help increase rates among minority women. In order to do so, the literature of racial and ethnic disparities in breastfeeding rates and barriers among minority women was reviewed, and a systematic review of breastfeeding interventions among minority women on PubMed and MEDLINE was conducted. Racial and ethnic minority women continue to have lower breastfeeding rates than white women and are not close to meeting the Healthy People 2020 goals. Minority women report many barriers to breastfeeding. Major efforts are still needed to improve breastfeeding initiation and duration rates among minority women in the United States. Obstetrician-gynecologists have a unique opportunity to promote and support breastfeeding through their clinical practices and public policy, and their efforts can have a meaningful impact on the future health of the mother and child. PMID:25831234

  3. Racial Differences in CT Phenotypes in COPD

    PubMed Central

    Hansel, Nadia N.; Washko, George R.; Foreman, Marilyn G.; Han, MeiLan K.; Hoffman, Eric A.; DeMeo, Dawn L.; Barr, R. Graham; Van Beek, Edwin J.R.; Kazerooni, Ella A.; Wise, Robert A.; Brown, Robert H.; Black-Shinn, Jennifer; Hokanson, John E.; Hanania, Nicola A.; Make, Barry; Silverman, Edwin K.; Crapo, James D.; Dransfield, Mark T.

    2015-01-01

    Background Whether African Americans (AA) are more susceptible to COPD than non-Hispanic Whites (NHW) and whether racial differences in disease phenotype exist is controversial. The objective is to determine racial differences in the extent of emphysema and airway remodeling in COPD. Methods First, 2,500 subjects enrolled in the COPDGene study were used to evaluate racial differences in quantitative CT (QCT) parameters of % emphysema, air trapping and airway wall thickness. Independent variables studied included race, age, gender, education, BMI, pack-years, smoking status, age at smoking initiation, asthma, previous work in dusty job, CT scanner and center of recruitment. Results Of the 1,063 subjects with GOLD Stage II-IV COPD, 200 self-reported as AA. AAs had a lower mean % emphysema (13.1 % vs. 16.1%, p = 0.005) than NHW and proportionately less emphysema in the lower lung zones. After adjustment for covariates, there was no statistical difference by race in air trapping or airway wall thickness. Measured QCT parameters were more predictive of poor functional status in NHWs compared to AAs. Conclusions AAs have less emphysema than NHWs but the same degree of airway disease. Additional factors not easily assessed by current QCT techniques may account for the poor functional status in AAs. PMID:23413893

  4. Racial Disparities in Early Criminal Justice Involvement

    PubMed Central

    Crutchfield, Robert D.; Skinner, Martie L.; Haggerty, Kevin P.; McGlynn, Anne; Catalano, Richard F.

    2010-01-01

    Criminologists have long reported the existence of racial disparity in the criminal justice system, but the important question is why. While some argue that observed differences are a consequence of more criminal behavior among minorities, the weight of the evidence indicates that this is but a partial explanation. In this paper we study data from a sample of juveniles to examine how racial differences in early police contact, and important social environments—family, school, and neighborhoods—affect later contact and arrests, controlling for self-reported delinquency. We find that early (in middle school) contact with police is an important predictor of later (high school) arrests. Also we found that, in addition to being male and living in a low-income family, children who have parents who have a history of arrest, who have experienced school disciplinary actions, who have delinquent peers, and who are in networks with deviant adults are more likely to have problems with law enforcement. These factors help to explain racial differences in police contacts and arrests. PMID:20190860

  5. The racial foundations of whites' support for child saving.

    PubMed

    Pickett, Justin T; Chiricos, Ted; Gertz, Marc

    2014-03-01

    Scholars emphasize that attitudes toward rehabilitation and views about punitive polices are distinct phenomena with seemingly unique etiologies. However, few existing studies examine the sources of public views about juvenile rehabilitation, or "child saving," and none engage a measure of racial attitudes. At the same time, recent theoretical work implicates racial concerns as a central foundation of public opinion about youth justice. This paper thus provides the first assessment of whether whites' perceptions of the racial makeup of delinquents and animosities toward blacks are associated with their views about juvenile rehabilitation. Findings show that whites who more strongly associate delinquency with blacks and those who are racially resentful both tend to be less supportive-in absolute and relative terms-of rehabilitation. The results also suggest that contextual threat moderates the effect of racial typification of delinquency, but not that of racial resentment, on whites' views about rehabilitation. PMID:24468433

  6. Racial microaggressions and daily well-being among Asian Americans.

    PubMed

    Ong, Anthony D; Burrow, Anthony L; Fuller-Rowell, Thomas E; Ja, Nicole M; Sue, Derald Wing

    2013-04-01

    Although epidemiological studies and community surveys of Asian Americans have found that lifetime occurrences of racial discrimination are associated with increased risk for psychological morbidity, little is known about how exposure to racial discrimination is patterned in everyday life. Extrapolating from previous qualitative research (Sue, Bucceri, Lin, Nadal, & Torino, 2007), this study presents data on the prevalence and psychological correlates of everyday racial microaggressions that reflect the Asian American experience. Measures of positive affect, negative affect, somatic symptoms, and racial microaggressions were completed by 152 Asian Americans each day for up to 14 consecutive days. Approximately 78% of participants reported some form of racial microaggression within the 2-week study period. Multilevel analyses indicated that elevations in daily microaggressions, as well as greater microaggressions on average, predicted increases in somatic symptoms and negative affect. Implications of these findings for racial microaggression research and clinical practice are discussed. PMID:23421777

  7. Racial segregation and maternal smoking during pregnancy: a multilevel analysis using the racial segregation interaction index.

    PubMed

    Yang, Tse-Chuan; Shoff, Carla; Noah, Aggie J; Black, Nyesha; Sparks, Corey S

    2014-04-01

    Drawing from both the place stratification and ethnic enclave perspectives, we use multilevel modeling to investigate the relationships between women's race/ethnicity (i.e., non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, Asian, and Hispanic) and maternal smoking during pregnancy, and examine if these relationships are moderated by racial segregation in the continental United States. The results show that increased interaction with whites is associated with increased probability of maternal smoking during pregnancy, and racial segregation moderates the relationships between race/ethnicity and maternal smoking. Specifically, living in a less racially segregated area is related to a lower probability of smoking during pregnancy for black women, but it could double and almost triple the probability of smoking for Asian women and Hispanic women, respectively. Our findings provide empirical evidence for both the place stratification and ethnic enclave perspectives. PMID:24602968

  8. Racial segregation and maternal smoking during pregnancy: a multilevel analysis using the racial segregation interaction index

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Tse-Chuan; Shoff, Carla; Noah, Aggie J.; Black, Nyesha; Sparks, Corey S.

    2014-01-01

    Drawing from both the place stratification and ethnic enclave perspectives, we use multilevel modeling to investigate the relationships between women’s race/ethnicity (i.e., non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, Asian, and Hispanic) and maternal smoking during pregnancy; and examine if these relationships are moderated by racial segregation in the continental United States. The results show that increased interaction with whites is associated with increased probability of maternal smoking during pregnancy for Asian and Hispanic mothers. In addition, racial segregation moderates the relationships between race/ethnicity and maternal smoking. Specifically, living in a less racially segregated area is related to a lower probability of smoking during pregnancy for black women, but it could double and almost triple the probability of smoking for Asian women and Hispanic women, respectively. Our findings provide empirical evidence for both the place stratification and ethnic enclave perspectives. PMID:24602968

  9. Racial identification, racial discrimination, and substance use vulnerability among African American young adults.

    PubMed

    Stock, Michelle L; Gibbons, Frederick X; Walsh, Laura A; Gerrard, Meg

    2011-10-01

    Two studies examined racial identity (RI) as a protective factor against substance use cognitions among African American young adults who either envisioned or experienced racial discrimination. In Study 1, participants envisioned a discrimination or nondiscrimination scenario, and then their willingness to use drugs and an indirect measure of substance use were assessed. Discrimination was associated with higher levels of use cognitions among participants with low levels of RI. In Study 2, participants were excluded or included in an online game (Cyberball) by White peers and then engaged in an RI-affirmation or control writing task. Participants attributed this exclusion to racial discrimination. Excluded participants who did not affirm their RI reported the highest levels of substance use cognitions, especially if they had engaged in higher levels of previous substance use. These findings highlight the importance of RI among Black young adults and the impact of discrimination on health behaviors. PMID:21628598

  10. Racial Identification, Racial Discrimination, and Substance Use Vulnerability Among African American Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Stock, Michelle L.; Gibbons, Frederick X.; Walsh, Laura A.; Gerrard, Meg

    2016-01-01

    Two studies examined racial identity (RI) as a protective factor against substance use cognitions among African American young adults who either envisioned or experienced racial discrimination. In Study 1, participants envisioned a discrimination or nondiscrimination scenario, and then their willingness to use drugs and an indirect measure of substance use were assessed. Discrimination was associated with higher levels of use cognitions among participants with low levels of RI. In Study 2, participants were excluded or included in an online game (Cyberball) by White peers and then engaged in an RI-affirmation or control writing task. Participants attributed this exclusion to racial discrimination. Excluded participants who did not affirm their RI reported the highest levels of substance use cognitions, especially if they had engaged in higher levels of previous substance use. These findings highlight the importance of RI among Black young adults and the impact of discrimination on health behaviors. PMID:21628598

  11. Neighborhood Foreclosures, Racial/Ethnic Transitions, and Residential Segregation

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Matthew; Crowder, Kyle; Spring, Amy

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we use data on virtually all foreclosure events between 2005 and 2009 to calculate neighborhood foreclosure rates for nearly all block groups in the United States to assess the impact of housing foreclosures on neighborhood racial/ethnic change and on broader patterns of racial residential segregation. We find that the foreclosure crisis was patterned strongly along racial lines: black, Latino, and racially integrated neighborhoods had exceptionally high foreclosure rates. Multilevel models of racial/ethnic change reveal that foreclosure concentrations were linked to declining shares of whites and expanding shares of black and Latino residents. Results further suggest that these compositional shifts were driven by both white population loss and minority growth, especially from racially mixed settings with high foreclosure rates. To explore the impact of these racially selective migration streams on patterns of residential segregation, we simulate racial segregation assuming that foreclosure rates remained at their 2005 levels throughout the crisis period. Our simulations suggest that the foreclosure crisis increased racial segregation between blacks and whites by 1.1 dissimilarity points, and between Latinos and whites by 2.2 dissimilarity points. PMID:26120142

  12. Racial science, geopolitics, and empires: paradoxes of power.

    PubMed

    Tilley, Helen

    2014-12-01

    Scholars interested in the history of racial science continue to puzzle over the ways in which such ideas endure. This essay takes up a variant on this theme by considering how critiques of ideas about racial purity and hierarchies, expressed at the Universal Races Congress of 1911, were part of a larger intellectual project that simultaneously under- mined ideas of fixed racial types and bolstered identity categories defined in racial terms. Efforts to destabilize racial science in the early decades of the twentieth century often went hand in glove with burgeoning critiques of "white" and European domination in different parts of the world. This essay shines the spotlight on the paradoxical nature of these processes. While anthropologists helped to spearhead attempts to deconstruct mainstream pillars of racial science, they also left the door open for its reconstitution by refusing to reject classificatory schemes by group. And though global conversations about race and science tended to generate more cosmopolitan and egalitarian views, the very act of bringing together people from different places had the unintended effect of reinforcing racial identities and idioms, especially in the context of challenges to colonial rule. Finally, even as state building within empires ensured that racial taxonomies proliferated on the ground, imperial bureaucrats often avoided promoting racial science and research because such endeavors were a divisive force in transnational management. PMID:25665384

  13. The Relation of Racial Identity, Ethnic Identity, and Racial Socialization to Discrimination-Distress: A Meta-Analysis of Black Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Debbiesiu L.; Ahn, Soyeon

    2013-01-01

    This meta-analysis synthesized the results of 27 studies examining the relations of racial identity, ethnic identity, and racial socialization to discrimination-distress for Black Americans. The purpose was to uncover which constructs connected to racial identity, ethnic identity, and racial socialization most strongly correlate with racial…

  14. Racial microstressors, racial self-concept, and depressive symptoms among male African Americans during the transition to adulthood.

    PubMed

    Kogan, Steven M; Yu, Tianyi; Allen, Kimberly A; Brody, Gene H

    2015-04-01

    Racial discrimination is a pervasive stressor that can undermine mental health among African American youth and young adults. Several studies identify links between racial discrimination and depressive symptoms; however, this research base does not focus on male African American youth who experience significant racism-related stress during the transition to young adulthood. Moreover, few prospective studies consider significant confounding variables that affect exposure to and perception of discriminatory treatment. In response to this need, we examined the effect of exposure to racial discrimination from ages 16 to 18 on depressive symptoms among male African Americans at age 20. Racial self-concept, one's sense of positivity about one's race, was examined as a mediator and self-control as a moderator. Hypotheses were tested with 222 participants, age 16 at baseline and age 20 at the endpoint. Participants provided self-report data at five time points. Exposure to racial discrimination from ages 16 to 18 predicted depressive symptoms at age 20, net of confounding influences. Racial self-concept mediated this effect. Self-control moderated the influence of discrimination on racial self-concept. This study underscores the salience of racial discrimination in the development of depressive symptoms among African American male youth and the clinical utility of interventions targeting racial pride and self-control. PMID:25344920

  15. An Investigation of Student Roles within Small, Racially Mixed Science Groups: A Racial Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsons, Eileen R. C.; Tran, Lynn Uyen; Gomillion, Crystall Travis

    2008-01-01

    Achievement disparities among racial groups attest to the elusiveness of the "science for all" goal, an emphasis of reform efforts in the USA. One popular approach to making science accessible to all is group work. The study investigated roles attained by five African American and six European-American eighth graders working in small, racially…

  16. Puerto-Ricans: A Multi-Racial Group in a Bi-Racial Country.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Clara E.

    The question of race among Puerto Ricans in the United States in the 20th century is explored in this paper. The multiracial character of Puerto Ricans is examined by reviewing Puerto Rico's migration history. Eighteen major works written between 1917 and 1971 on Puerto Ricans are reviewed to discern common racial themes. The methodology of the…

  17. The Impact and Racial Identity on Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulzac, Anica Camela

    2012-01-01

    Research has shown that academic achievement among racial minority groups, particularly African Americans, and the majority Caucasian group is profoundly disproportionate. A number of variables have been shown to influence the academic achievement of students, such as stereotype threat, racial identity, and academic self-concept (Awad, 2007;…

  18. Racial/Ethnic and Gender Diversity in Nursing Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Regional Education Board, Atlanta, GA. Council on Collegiate Education for Nursing.

    This report provides an overview of activities to increase racial/ethnic and gender diversity in nursing and nursing education. Data are from a survey on gender diversity completed by 193 nursing education administrators in the 16 Southern Regional Education Board (SREB) states and the District of Columbia and a survey about the racial/ethnic…

  19. Racial Microaggressions as a Tool for Critical Race Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pérez Huber, Lindsay; Solorzano, Daniel G.

    2015-01-01

    This conceptual article utilizes critical race theory (CRT) to explain how everyday forms of racism--racial microaggressions--emerge in the everyday experiences of People of Color. We provide a framework for understanding and analyzing racial microaggressions that demonstrates how everyday racist events are systemically mediated by…

  20. Racial Differences in Congregation-Based Political Activism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, R. Khari

    2006-01-01

    This study employs a resource mobilization model to explain racial differences in congregation-based political activism. The fewer resources (i.e., members, income, clergy leadership, civic ties) that black congregations possess relative to white congregations largely accounts for racial differences in congregation-based lobbying and protest…

  1. Promoting Racial and Ethnic Diversity among Canadian Academic Librarians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kandiuk, Mary

    2014-01-01

    This study examines racial and ethnic diversity among Canadian academic librarians and discusses the findings of a nationwide survey. The survey posed questions related to equity plans and programs as well as recruitment practices for academic librarians from equity-seeking groups with a focus on Aboriginal and visible/racial minority librarians.…

  2. Ambivalent White Racial Identities: Fear and an Elusive Innocence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lensmire, Timothy J.

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the complex social production of white racial identity. Specifically, the author theorizes white people's fear of people of color and make a case for conceiving of white racial identities as profoundly ambivalent. Drawing from a larger ethnographic interview study conducted in a small, rural, white community in the Midwest of…

  3. Miles to Go before We Sleep: Racial Inequities in Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, David R.

    2012-01-01

    Large, pervasive, and persistent racial inequalities exist in the onset, courses, and outcomes of illness. A comprehensive understanding of the patterning of racial disparities indicates that racism in both its institutional and individual forms remains an important determinant. There is an urgent need to build the science base that would identify…

  4. Campus Racial Climate Policies: The View from the Bottom Up.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Michelle Hughes; Anderson, Rick; Cannon, Julie Harms; Perez, Eduardo; Moore, Helen A.

    1998-01-01

    Reviews debates over campus multicultural goals from the perspectives of university officials and 433 students. The role of campus experiences and diverse racial/ethnic and socioeconomic backgrounds in shaping these opinions was considered. Findings demonstrate important patterns in student policy attitudes linked to racial/ethnic status.…

  5. Development of racial-ethnic identity among First Nation children.

    PubMed

    Corenblum, Barry

    2014-03-01

    Elements of racial-ethnic identity, often found among adolescents from racial-ethnic minority groups, have their origins in middle childhood and pre-adolescence. The present study explored the developmental trajectory of some of those components among Native Canadian children living on relatively remote First Nation communities. Children and young adolescents (N = 414,209 female) between the ages of 6-11 completed measures assessing their level of racial-ethnic identity, concrete operational thought, implicit and explicit self-esteem, implicit and explicit in-group attitudes, and the importance of their racial-ethnic identity each year for 5 years. Consistent with predictions from cognitive developmental theory, trajectory modeling revealed significant increases over time in explicit and implicit in-group attitudes, level of concrete operational thought and the importance of children's racial-ethnic identity. However, level of racial-ethnic identity remained unchanged over time. The results are discussed in terms of cognitive-developmental theory, and the influence of living in a racially homogeneous environment on the development of racial-ethnic identity among minority group children. Studies are also suggested for future research. PMID:23982921

  6. Racial/Ethnic Disparities in ADHD Diagnosis by Kindergarten Entry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Paul L.; Hillemeier, Marianne M.; Farkas, George; Maczuga, Steve

    2014-01-01

    Background: Whether and to what extent racial/ethnic disparities in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) diagnosis occur by kindergarten entry is currently unknown. We investigated risk factors associated with an ADHD diagnosis by kindergarten entry generally, and specifically whether racial/ethnic disparities in ADHD diagnosis occur by…

  7. The Relationship between African American Enculturation and Racial Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cokley, Kevin; Helm, Katherine

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated how predictive the Cross Racial Identity Scale (CRIS; B. J. Vandiver, W. E. Cross, F. C. Worrell, & P. Fhagen-Smith, 2002), a measure of Black racial identity, was of African American cultural practices, beliefs, and attitudes (i.e., enculturation) as measured by the African American Acculturation Scale-33 (H. Landrine & E.…

  8. White Racial Identity and Attitudes toward People with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sciarra, Daniel; Chang, Tai; McLean, Ron; Wong, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    This empirical study investigated the relationship between racial identity and attitudes toward people with disabilities. Results indicate that higher statuses of racial identity correlate positively while lower and more racist-oriented statuses correlate negatively with attitudes toward people with disabilities. The study supports the notion that…

  9. Rethinking Multicultural Education: Teaching for Racial and Cultural Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Au, Wayne, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    Since the 1980s, "Rethinking Schools" magazine has been renowned for its commitment to racial equality in education. Now, "Rethinking Multicultural Education: Teaching for Racial and Cultural Justice" has collected the best Rethinking Schools articles that deal with race and culture. "Rethinking Multicultural Education" moves beyond a simplistic…

  10. "The Biscuit Eater": Racial Stereotypes, 1939-1972

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kliman, Bernice W.

    1978-01-01

    The story "The Biscuit Eater" and the two films made from it can be used as a paradigm of the image of blacks in works made by whites. However, unlike those of 1940, reviewers of the 1972 Disney film were critical of every racially insensitive nuance, representing progress in racial awareness. (Author/GC)

  11. White Racial Identity Statuses as Predictors of White Privilege Awareness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hays, Danica G.; Chang, Catherine Y.; Havice, Pamela

    2008-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between White privilege awareness and White racial identity development for 197 counseling trainees. Results indicated that 3 of J. E. Helms's (1984, 1990, 1995) White racial identity statuses (i.e., Contact, Reintegration, and Immersion/Emersian) significantly predicted White privilege awareness. Implications…

  12. Racial and Ethnic Differences in the Desire to Marry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South, Scott J.

    1993-01-01

    Used data from over 2,000 respondents to explore racial, ethnic, and gender differences in desire to marry. African Americans were significantly less desiring of marriage than whites; racial difference among men was significantly larger than difference among women. Compared to nonhispanic whites of same gender, Hispanic men were more likely,…

  13. Racial Identity Development of Mixed Race College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Helen Diamond

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the factors that influence mixed race college students' choice of racial identity. This study also explored whether or not there are any differences among each of the racial identity groups' perceptions of institutional support for mixed race college students. The theoretical framework of this…

  14. Measuring Latinos: Racial vs. Ethnic Classification and Self-Understandings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hitlin, Steven; Brown, J. Scott; Elder, Glen H., Jr.

    2007-01-01

    The measurement of Hispanics in the 2000 U.S. Census significantly skews the racial identification of the Hispanic population in America. The literature on racial and ethnic identification, however, lacks serious engagement with the social psychology of self-identification. We draw on social identity theory to demonstrate how the process of…

  15. Racial Transformation and the Changing Nature of Segregation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orfield, Gary; Lee, Chungmei

    2006-01-01

    This report is about the changing patterns of segregation in American public schools through the 2003-2004 school year. It begins by examining the transformation of racial composition in the nation's schools, the dynamic patterns of segregation and desegregation of all racial groups in regions, states, and districts by using data from 1968 until…

  16. RACIAL AND ETHNIC APPROACHES TO COMMUNITY HEALTH (REACH)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Racial and Ethnic Approaches to Community Health (REACH) 2010 is the cornerstone of CDC's efforts to eliminate racial and ethnic disparities in health. Launched in 1999, REACH 2010 is designed to eliminate disparities in the following six priority areas: cardiovascular disease, i...

  17. Changing Patterns of Suburban Racial Composition, 1970-1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stahura, John M.

    1988-01-01

    The increase in Black suburbanization during the 1960s and 70s is examined in the context of racial changes in earlier decades. A sample of 1,114 suburbs are examined, and regional differences between the North and South are described. Racial change occurred with greater relative frequency than in previous decades. (Author/VM)

  18. Integration or fragmentation? Racial diversity and the American future.

    PubMed

    Lichter, Daniel T

    2013-04-01

    Over the next generation or two, America's older, largely white population will increasingly be replaced by today's disproportionately poor minority children. All future growth will come from populations other than non-Hispanic whites as America moves toward a majority-minority society by 2043. This so-called Third Demographic Transition raises important implications about changing racial boundaries in the United States, that is, about the physical, economic, and sociocultural barriers that separate different racial and ethnic groups. America's racial transformation may place upward demographic pressure on future poverty and inequality as today's disproportionately poor and minority children grow into adult roles. Racial boundaries will be reshaped by the changing meaning of race and ethnicity, shifting patterns of racial segregation in neighborhoods and the workplace, newly integrating (or not) friendship networks, and changing rates of interracial marriage and childbearing. The empirical literature provides complicated lessons and offers few guarantees that growing racial diversity will lead to a corresponding breakdown in racial boundaries-that whites and minorities will increasingly share the same physical and social spaces or interact as coequals. How America's older population of elected officials and taxpayers responds today to America's increasingly diverse population will provide a window to the future, when today's children successfully transition (or not) into productive adult roles. Racial and ethnic inclusion will be reshaped by changing ethnoracial inequality, which highlights the need to invest in children-now. PMID:23440733

  19. African American Acculturation and Black Racial Identity: A Preliminary Investigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pope-Davis, Donald B.; Liu, William M.; Ledesma-Jones, Shannon; Nevitt, Jonathan

    2000-01-01

    Examines the relationship between acculturation and racial identity among African Americans. One hundred eighty-seven African American students completed the Black Racial Identity Attitude Scale and the African American Acculturation Scale (AAAS). Acculturation was associated with three of the five AAAS subscales: Dissonance, Immersion, and…

  20. Racial Microaggressions in Everyday Life: Implications for Clinical Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sue, Derald Wing; Capodilupo, Christina M.; Torino, Gina C.; Bucceri, Jennifer M.; Holder, Aisha M. B.; Nadal, Kevin L.; Esquilin, Marta

    2007-01-01

    Racial microaggressions are brief and commonplace daily verbal, behavioral, or environmental indignities, whether intentional or unintentional, that communicate hostile, derogatory, or negative racial slights and insults toward people of color. Perpetrators of microaggressions are often unaware that they engage in such communications when they…

  1. White University Students' Racial Affect : Understanding the Antiracist Type

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kordesh, Kathleen S.; Spanierman, Lisa B.; Neville, Helen A.

    2013-01-01

    Prior quantitative research using the Psychosocial Costs of Racism to Whites scale (PCRW; Spanierman & Heppner, 2004) identified five racial affect types among White undergraduate students. To better understand the Antiracist type, the most racially aware and sensitive among the five types, the authors of the present study conducted two focus…

  2. Racial Prejudice and Locational Equilibrium in an Urban Area.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yinger, John

    Racial prejudice is said to influence strongly the locational decisions of households in urban areas. This paper introduces racial prejudice into a model of an urban area and derives several results about residential location. A previously developed long-run model of an urban area adds a locational dimension to a model of the housing market under…

  3. Efficacy of School Integration Policies in Reducing Racial Polarization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koslin, Sandra; And Others

    This paper summarizes the work of Riverside Research Institute (RRI) in the racial balance area during the past several years. Working under contract to the New York State Education Department, and with grant support from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, RRI has been developing racial attitude measures for use in the…

  4. Racial Inequality and the Social Reconstructionists at Teachers College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Mary Rose; Murrow, Sonia E.

    2013-01-01

    Historians of education have probed into the involvement of Social Reconstructionists' with issues of racial justice and have argued explicitly that Social Reconstructionists, while "interested" in racial problems during the Depression, actually did little to carefully study the role of race or race relations in America. The authors found that…

  5. Exorcising the Racism Phantasm: Racial Realism in Educational Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blaisdell, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    Based on a 3-year ethnographic project at a public elementary school in North Carolina, this article discusses how the concept of racial realism can be useful to researchers trying to live up to the goals of critical race studies in school-based research. Racial realism maintains that racism is a permanent aspect of U.S. society and schools. A…

  6. Racial Bias in the Classroom: Can Teachers Reach All Children?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leiding, Darlene

    2006-01-01

    The accelerating demographic and economic changes within our society, the deepening racial divide, and the elusive quest for equality and justice make multicultural education and understanding the culturally diverse student imperative. The gap between the rich and poor has widened, visible signs of the racial crisis have become stark, and the rate…

  7. A Multiyear National Profile of Racial Disparity in Autism Identification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Travers, Jason C.; Tincani, Matt; Krezmien, Michael P.

    2013-01-01

    Disproportionate representation of racially diverse students in special education is a well-documented problem, yet few studies have systematically evaluated disproportionate representation of diverse students with autism. This study examined disproportionate representation of racially diverse students with autism by determining risk and…

  8. Asian Americans and Racial Identity: Dealing with Racism and Snowballs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alvarez, Alvin N.; Kimura, Erin F.

    2001-01-01

    Utilizes Helms's People of Color racial identity model as the theoretical basis for a case conceptualization involving a fictional Asian American male client coping with racism. Explores counseling strategies in light of the influence of racial identity statuses and cultural variables on the counseling process. (Contains 38 references.) (GCP)

  9. Racial & Ethnic Diversity in Higher Education. ASHE Reader Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Caroline Sotello Viernes, Ed.; Garcia, Mildred, Ed.; Nora, Amaury, Ed.; Rendon, Laura I., Ed.

    This text is a resource on racial and ethnic diversity for faculty and students in higher education. It is organized in sections related to the history of racial and ethnic diversity in higher education, curriculum and teaching, students, faculty, administration, leadership and governance, and research issues. The chapters are: (1) "History of…

  10. Racial-Ethnic Identity and Adjustment in Canadian Indigenous Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gfellner, Barbara M.; Armstrong, Helen D.

    2013-01-01

    This study supported associations between three theoretically driven conceptualizations of racial and ethnic identity (REI; Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure; Multidimensional Racial Identity Measure; Bicultural Identity Measure) and with adaptive functioning among Canadian indigenous adolescents in middle school to high school. Age differences…

  11. Social Reasoning about Racial Exclusion in Intimate and Nonintimate Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Killen, Melanie; Stangor, Charles; Price, B. Sefton; Horn, Stacey; Sechrist, Gretchen B.

    2004-01-01

    This research investigated the contextual nature of decisions about racial exclusion by analyzing why individuals might be willing to accept members of other racial groups into some types of social relationships but nevertheless exclude them from other types of relationships. Our analysis examined the underlying reasoning processes used to make…

  12. White Racial Framing Related to Public School Financing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgerald, Terence

    2015-01-01

    In the 21st century, U.S. Blacks in public schools experience disenfranchisement, as did their ancestral predecessors in the 19th and 20th centuries. This research utilizes the "White Racial Frame," which essentially encompasses the cognitive racialized false stereotypes and beliefs Whites hold regarding people of color (Feagin, 2010).…

  13. The Relationship between Racial Identity Development and Multicultural Counseling Competency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vinson, Teraesa S.; Neimeyer, Greg J.

    2000-01-01

    Incoming doctoral students (n=65 European Americans; n=22 People of Color) completed a battery of tests considering the relationship between racial identity development and multicultural counseling competency. Analysis determined that more advanced levels of racial identity development generally correlated with higher levels of multicultural…

  14. The Development of a Measure of Racial Attitudes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sedlacek, William E.; Brooks, Glenwood C., Jr.

    As the present tools for assessing attitudes of white toward blacks are methodologically flawed, a Situational Attitude Scale (S.A.S.) was developed. Such a test both provides a racial context and makes psychological withdrawal difficult. Ten personal and social situations with some relevance to a racial response were created. For each situation…

  15. Racial Microaggressions and Daily Well-Being among Asian Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ong, Anthony D.; Burrow, Anthony L.; Fuller-Rowell, Thomas E.; Ja, Nicole M.; Sue, Derald Wing

    2013-01-01

    Although epidemiological studies and community surveys of Asian Americans have found that lifetime occurrences of racial discrimination are associated with increased risk for psychological morbidity, little is known about how exposure to racial discrimination is patterned in everyday life. Extrapolating from previous qualitative research (Sue,…

  16. Campland: Racial Segregation of Roma in Italy. Country Reports Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cahn, Claude; Carlisle, Kathryn D.; Fregoli, Claudia; Kiuranov, Deyan; Petrova, Dimitrina

    This report addresses racial segregation and human rights abuses against Roma in Italy, focusing on: "Anti-Gypsyism in Italy"; "Roma in Italy: Racial Segregation"; "Abuses by Police and Judicial Authorities" (e.g., abusive raids and evictions, abusive use of firearms, torture and physical abuse, discriminatory targeting of Roma by police, theft by…

  17. Strategy to Modify Racial Attitudes in Black and White Preschoolers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chamberlin-Robinson, Charlynn

    This paper reports on a procedure designed to alter racial bias in preschool children. Sixty 5- and 6-year-old black and white children initially displaying baseline bias (as assessed with a modified version of the Preschool Racial Attitude Measure) were taught to respond neutrally by manipulating those cues related to social perception (i.e.,…

  18. Effects of racial diversity on complex thinking in college students.

    PubMed

    Antonio, Anthony Lising; Chang, Mitchell J; Hakuta, Kenji; Kenny, David A; Levin, Shana; Milem, Jeffrey F

    2004-08-01

    An experiment varying the racial (Black, White) and opinion composition in small-group discussions was conducted with college students (N = 357) at three universities to test for effects on the perceived novelty of group members' contributions to discussion and on participants' integrative complexity. Results showed that racial and opinion minorities were both perceived as contributing to novelty. Generally positive effects on integrative complexity were found when the groups had racial- and opinion-minority members and when members reported having racially diverse friends and classmates. The findings are discussed in the context of social psychological theories of minority influence and social policy implications for affirmative action. The research supports claims about the educational significance of race in higher education, as well as the complexity of the interaction of racial diversity with contextual and individual factors. PMID:15270993

  19. Racial and ethnic disparities in mental illness stigma.

    PubMed

    Rao, Deepa; Feinglass, Joseph; Corrigan, Patrick

    2007-12-01

    The present study sought to examine whether racial/ethnic differences exist in stigmatizing attitudes towards people with mental illness among community college students. Multiple regression models were used to investigate racial/ethnic differences in students' perceived dangerousness and desire for segregation from persons with mental illness both before and after participation in an antistigma intervention. At baseline, African Americans and Asians perceived people with mental illness as more dangerous and wanted more segregation than Caucasians, and Latinos perceived people with mental illness as less dangerous and wanted less segregation than Caucasians. Similar patterns emerged postintervention, except that Asians' perceptions changed significantly such that they tended to perceive people with mental illness as least dangerous of all the racial/ethnic groups. These findings suggest that racial/ethnic background may help to shape mental illness stigma, and that targeting antistigma interventions to racial/ethnic background of participants may be helpful. PMID:18091196

  20. The challenge of racial difference: skills for clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Proctor, E K; Davis, L E

    1994-05-01

    Just as racial injustice negatively affects the plight of minorities in society, racial tensions impede professional helping. Often, the racially dissimilar social worker and client approach each other with little understanding of each other's social realities and with unfounded assumptions. Unfortunately, professionals find it difficult to acknowledge such differences or their effect on their relationships. Yet the fruitfulness of the helping encounter often depends on the ability to develop and invest in a trusting relationship. This article identifies the societal roots of the stresses associated with cross-racial relationships. Three concerns commonly experienced by clients whose workers are racially different are identified: (1) Is the helper a person of goodwill? (2) Is the helper trained and skilled? (3) Is the help offered valid and meaningful for me and my social reality? Case vignettes are used to illustrate how each concern is typically mishandled. The importance of successfully managing each concern is stressed, and skills for successful management are illustrated. PMID:8209290

  1. Mismatched racial identities, colourism, and health in Toronto and Vancouver.

    PubMed

    Veenstra, Gerry

    2011-10-01

    Using original telephone survey data collected from adult residents of Toronto (n = 685) and Vancouver (n = 814) in 2009, I investigate associations between mental and physical health and variously conceived racial identities. An 'expressed racial identity' is a self-identification with a racial grouping that a person will readily express to others when asked to fit into official racial classifications presented by Census forms, survey researchers, insurance forms, and the like. Distinguishing between Asian, Black, South Asian, and White expressed racial identities, I find that survey respondents expressing Black identity are the most likely to report high blood pressure or hypertension, a risk that is slightly attenuated by socioeconomic status, and that respondents expressing Asian identity are the most likely to report poorer self-rated mental health and self-rated overall health, risks that are not explained by socioeconomic status. I also find that darker-skinned Black respondents are more likely than lighter-skinned Black respondents to report poor health outcomes, indicating that colourism, processes of discrimination which privilege lighter-skinned people of colour over their darker-skinned counterparts, exists and has implications for well-being in Canada as it does in the United States. Finally, 'reflected racial identity' refers to the racial identity that a person believes that others tend to perceive him or her to be. I find that expressed and reflected racial identities differ from one another for large proportions of self-expressed Black and South Asian respondents and relatively few self-expressed White and Asian respondents. I also find that mismatched racial identities correspond with relatively high risks of various poor health outcomes, especially for respondents who consider themselves White but believe that others tend to think they are something else. I conclude by presenting a framework for conceptualizing multifaceted suites of racial

  2. Racial/Ethnic Differences in Cardiovascular Symptoms in Four Major Racial/Ethnic Groups of Midlife Women: A Secondary Analysis.

    PubMed

    Im, Eun-Ok; Ham, Ok Kyung; Chee, Eunice; Chee, Wonshik

    2015-01-01

    Ethnic minority midlife women frequently do not recognize cardiovascular symptoms that they experience during the menopausal transition. Racial/ethnic differences in cardiovascular symptoms are postulated as a plausible reason for their lack of knowledge and recognition of the symptoms. The purpose of this study was to explore racial/ethnic differences in midlife women's cardiovascular symptoms and to determine the factors related to these symptoms in each racial/ethnic group. This was a secondary analysis of the data from a larger study among 466 participants, collected from 2006 to 2011. The instruments included questions on background characteristics, health and menopausal status, and the Cardiovascular Symptom Index for Midlife Women. The data were analyzed using inferential statistics, including Poisson regression and logistic regression analyses. Significant racial/ethnic differences were observed in the total numbers and total severity scores of cardiovascular symptoms (p < .01). Non-Hispanic Asians had significantly lower total numbers and total severity scores compared to other racial/ethnic groups (p < .05). The demographic and health factors associated with cardiovascular symptoms were somewhat different in each racial/ethnic group. Further studies are needed about possible reasons for the racial/ethnic differences and the factors associated with cardiovascular symptoms in each racial/ethnic group. PMID:25826460

  3. Classroom Observations of Teacher-Child Relationships among Racially Symmetrical and Racially Asymmetrical Teacher-Child Dyads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, H.; Gol-Guven, M.; Bagnato, S. J.

    2012-01-01

    Literature suggests that teachers are more likely to have conflictual relationship with children from racially/ethnically diverse background in comparison to white children. One may argue that children from racially/ethnically diverse background may be at disadvantage because the teacher-child relationship in early childhood is a significant…

  4. Racial/Ethnic Differences in Cardiovascular Symptoms in Four Major Racial/Ethnic Groups of Midlife Women: A Secondary Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Im, Eun-Ok; Ham, Ok Kyung; Chee, Eunice; Chee, Wonshik

    2015-01-01

    Ethnic minority midlife women frequently do not recognize cardiovascular symptoms that they experience during the menopausal transition. Racial/ethnic differences in cardiovascular symptoms are postulated as a plausible reason for their lack of knowledge and recognition of the symptoms. The purpose of this study was to explore racial/ethnic differences in midlife women’s cardiovascular symptoms and to determine the factors related to these symptoms in each racial/ethnic group. This was a secondary analysis of the data from a larger study among 466 participants, collected from 2006 to 2011. The instruments included questions on background characteristics, health and menopausal status and the Cardiovascular Symptom Index for Midlife Women. The data were analyzed using inferential statistics, including Poisson regression and logistic regression analyses. Significant racial/ethnic differences were observed in the total numbers and total severity scores of cardiovascular symptoms (p<0.01). Non-Hispanic Asians had significantly lower total numbers and total severity scores compared to other racial/ethnic groups (p<0.05). The demographic and health factors associated with cardiovascular symptoms were somewhat different in each racial/ethnic group. Further studies are needed about possible reasons for the racial/ethnic differences and the factors associated with cardiovascular symptoms in each racial/ethnic group. PMID:25826460

  5. Developing Cross-Racial Self-Efficacy: A Longitudinal Examination of the Role of Cross-Racial Mastery Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liang, Christopher T. H.; Prince, Jessica K.

    2008-01-01

    A social-cognitive model for the development of cross-racial self-efficacy was developed and tested in a longitudinal study involving a racially and culturally diverse sample of undergraduate students (N = 879). Multiple group analyses indicated that the model fit equally well for men and women and for White students and ethnic minority students.…

  6. The Effects of Positive Portrayals of Black Television Characters on Black Children's Racial Attitudes, Self-Perception, and Racial Identification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonvillain, Jocelyn F.; Huston, Aletha C.

    Children's perceptions and attitudes about racial groups are often affected by the information they receive from the view of their parents, their peers, their schools, and the mass media. A study was designed to examine the effects of positive portrayals of black television characters on black children's racial attitudes, self-perception, and…

  7. Racial Diversity, Student Religiosity, and School Choice: An Empirical Case Study of Multi-Racial Religious Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reichard, Joshua D.

    2014-01-01

    This article comprises an empirical case study of student religiosity in the context of urban school choice. The purpose of this study was to compare student religiosity in a racially diverse religious private school to determine whether religious faith is a unifying factor across racial categories. Insofar as school choice has been called…

  8. Sociocultural Factors and School Engagement among African American Youth: The Roles of Racial Discrimination, Racial Socialization, and Ethnic Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dotterer, Aryn M.; McHale, Susan M.; Crouter, Ann C.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the links between racial discrimination and school engagement and the roles of racial socialization and ethnic identity as protective factors in those linkages in a sample of 148, sixth through twelfth grade African American adolescents from working and middle-class two-parent families. In home interviews, youth described…

  9. Part II: Multisystemic Therapy--Addressing Racial Disparity and Its Effectiveness with Families from Diverse Racial and Ethnic Backgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Painter, Kirstin; Scannapieco, Maria

    2009-01-01

    Disparities in health and mental health care delivered to racial and ethnic minorities became a focus of national policy following reports of the Institute of Medicine (IOM, 2002) and the Surgeon General (USDHHS, 2001). The Surgeon General (USDHHS, 2001) reported racial and ethnic minorities experience disparities in availability and quality of…

  10. A Cross-Cultural Examination of Racial Identity and Racial Preference of Preschool Children in the West Indies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gopaul-McNicol, Sharon-Ann

    1995-01-01

    Investigated the racial attitudes of 302 preschool children in the West Indies whose racial preference was tested using black and white Cabbage Patch dolls. Standard Clark doll questions, plus four researcher-supplied questions, were individually administered. Findings show that 71.9 percent of the children chose to play with a white doll,…

  11. Pride and Prejudice: Racial Contacts Mediating the Change of In-Group and Out-Group Racial Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Ji

    2012-01-01

    Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Freshmen dataset, this study examined how students' within- and between-group racial contacts mediated the change of in-group and out-group racial perceptions across White, Black, Latino, and Asian students. This study was grounded in intergroup contact theory and employed multi-trait multi-method…

  12. Making Cross-Racial Therapy Work: A Phenomenological Study of Clients' Experiences of Cross-Racial Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Doris F.; Berk, Alexandra

    2009-01-01

    A phenomenological and consensual qualitative study of clients' lived experiences of cross-racial therapy was conducted to enhance the understanding of whether, how, and under what conditions race matters in the therapy relationship. The sample consisted of 16 racial and/or ethnic minority clients who received treatment from 16 White, European…

  13. Racial Battle Fatigue and the "Mis"Education of Black Men: Racial Microaggressions, Societal Problems, and Environmental Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, William A.; Hung, Man; Franklin, Jeremy D.

    2011-01-01

    Black men's lives are racialized contradictions, They are told that contemporary educational and professional institutions--particularly historically White institutions (HWls)--are places where, through hard work, they can achieve the so-called American dream. However, for far too many Black men, HWIs represent racial climates that are replete…

  14. Racial stereotypes impair flexibility of emotional learning.

    PubMed

    Dunsmoor, Joseph E; Kubota, Jennifer T; Li, Jian; Coelho, Cesar A O; Phelps, Elizabeth A

    2016-09-01

    Flexibility of associative learning can be revealed by establishing and then reversing cue-outcome discriminations. Here, we used functional MRI to examine whether neurobehavioral correlates of reversal-learning are impaired in White and Asian volunteers when initial learning involves fear-conditioning to a racial out-group. For one group, the picture of a Black male was initially paired with shock (threat) and a White male was unpaired (safe). For another group, the White male was a threat and the Black male was safe. These associations reversed midway through the task. Both groups initially discriminated threat from safety, as expressed through skin conductance responses (SCR) and activity in the insula, thalamus, midbrain and striatum. After reversal, the group initially conditioned to a Black male exhibited impaired reversal of SCRs to the new threat stimulus (White male), and impaired reversals in the striatum, anterior cingulate cortex, midbrain and thalamus. In contrast, the group initially conditioned to a White male showed successful reversal of SCRs and successful reversal in these brain regions toward the new threat. These findings provide new evidence that an aversive experience with a racial out-group member impairs the ability to flexibly and appropriately adjust fear expression towards a new threat in the environment. PMID:27107298

  15. Exploring Student Affairs Professionals' Experiences with the Campus Racial Climate at a Hispanic Serving Institution (HSI)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Gina A.

    2016-01-01

    Although we know that people experience the campus racial climate differently based on their racial/ethnic identity, less is known about how they perceive the climate based on the racial/ethnic diversity of their institution and specifically within their department. Instead, the campus racial climate has largely been studied at Predominantly White…

  16. Racial Socialization in Transracial Adoptive Families: Does It Help Adolescents Deal with Discrimination Stress?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leslie, Leigh A.; Smith, Jocelyn R.; Hrapczynski, Katie M.; Riley, Debbie

    2013-01-01

    Racial socialization protects minority adolescents from stress associated with racial discrimination. The process of racial socialization, however, may be challenging in transracial adoptive families. White parents may struggle with preparing their children for discrimination and fostering the development of racial pride. Thus, transracially…

  17. The Adverse Impact of Racial Microaggressions on College Students' Self-Esteem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nadal, Kevin L.; Wong, Yinglee; Griffin, Katie E.; Davidoff, Kristin; Sriken, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Racial microaggressions are subtle (often unintentional or unconscious) forms of racial discrimination that negatively affect victims' mental health. Utilizing an undergraduate student sample (N = 225), the current study examined the relationship between racial microaggressions and self-esteem. Results indicate that racial microaggressions…

  18. It Just Happens: Colorblind Ideology and Undergraduate Explanations of Racial Interaction on Campus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Regine; Sweeney, Kathryn; Welcher, Adria

    2014-01-01

    This article examines student perceptions of racial segregation on campus in terms of interaction across racial groups. Theories of colorblind racial ideology are used to interpret data from 14 group interviews focusing on 1.) the degree to which cross-group interaction is desired, 2.) perceptions of racial separation among students at a…

  19. Racial Battle Fatigue for Latina/o Students: A Quantitative Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franklin, Jeremy D.; Smith, William A.; Hung, Man

    2014-01-01

    Previous literature demonstrates that as a result of racial microaggressions and hostile campus racial climates, Latina/o students often state they experience psychological, physiological, and behavioral stress responses during and after racialized incidents on campuses. The purpose of this study is to quantitatively test the racial battle fatigue…

  20. From Racial Stereotyping and Deficit Discourse toward a Critical Race Theory in Teacher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solorzano, Daniel G.; Yosso, Tara J.

    2001-01-01

    Examines connections between critical race theory (CRT) and its application to the concepts of race, racial bias, and racial stereotyping in teacher education. Defines CRT, then discusses racism and stereotyping, racial stereotypes in the media, and racial stereotypes in professional environments, noting the effects on minority students. Presents…

  1. Who We'll Live with: Neighborhood Racial Composition Preferences of Whites, Blacks and Latinos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Valerie A.; Emerson, Michael O.; Klineberg, Stephen L.

    2011-01-01

    The debate about racial residential preferences has two open questions. First, are neighborhood racial preferences truly racial, or is race a proxy for socioeconomic factors? Second, are in-group or out-group preferences more salient? Using the Houston Area Survey, we employ a factorial experiment to assess the effect of racial composition on…

  2. Racially diverse classrooms: effects of classroom racial composition on interracial peer relationships.

    PubMed

    Barth, Joan M; McDonald, Kristina L; Lochman, John E; Boxmeyer, Carolyn; Powell, Nicole; Dillon, Casey; Sallee, Meghann

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the interactive effects that a child's race and the racial composition of a classroom have on a variety of sociometric measures. Sociometric nominations were collected from 872 fifth-grade students (48% male, 48% Black) who were in classrooms that ranged from nearly all Black to nearly all White students. Hierarchical Linear Modeling analyses indicated that the race of the child, the race of the rater, and the classroom race composition each impacted sociometric nominations. Results suggest that schools that are more balanced in the distribution of Black and White students might promote more positive interracial peer relationships. However, opportunities to be highly liked and to be perceived as a leader might be greatest in a school in which the child is in the clear racial majority. PMID:23889015

  3. Reducing Racial Health Care Disparities: A Social Psychological Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Penner, Louis A.; Blair, Irene V.; Albrecht, Terrance L.; Dovidio, John F.

    2015-01-01

    Large health disparities persist between Black and White Americans. The social psychology of intergroup relations suggests some solutions to health care disparities due to racial bias. Three paths can lead from racial bias to poorer health among Black Americans. First is the already well-documented physical and psychological toll of being a target of persistent discrimination. Second, implicit bias can affect physicians’ perceptions and decisions, creating racial disparities in medical treatments, although evidence is mixed. The third path describes a less direct route: Physicians’ implicit racial bias negatively affects communication and the patient–provider relationship, resulting in racial disparities in the outcomes of medical interactions. Strong evidence shows that physician implicit bias negatively affects Black patients’ reactions to medical interactions, and there is good circumstantial evidence that these reactions affect health outcomes of the interactions. Solutions focused on the physician, the patient, and the health care delivery system; all agree that trying to ignore patients’ race or to change physicians’ implicit racial attitudes will not be effective and may actually be counterproductive. Instead, solutions can minimize the impact of racial bias on medical decisions and on patient–provider relationships. PMID:25705721

  4. Assessing Racial Microaggression Distress in a Diverse Sample.

    PubMed

    Torres-Harding, Susan; Turner, Tasha

    2015-12-01

    Racial microaggressions are everyday subtle or ambiguous racially related insults, slights, mistreatment, or invalidations. Racial microaggressions are a type of perceived racism that may negatively impact the health and well-being of people of color in the United States. This study examined the reliability and validity of the Racial Microaggression Scale distress subscales, which measure the perceived stressfulness of six types of microaggression experiences in a racially and ethnically diverse sample. These subscales exhibited acceptable to good internal consistency. The distress subscales also evidenced good convergent validity; the distress subscales were positively correlated with additional measures of stressfulness due to experiencing microaggressions or everyday discrimination. When controlling for the frequency of one's exposure to microaggression incidents, some racial/ethnic group differences were found. Asian Americans reported comparatively lower distress and Latinos reporting comparatively higher distress in response to Foreigner, Low-Achieving, Invisibility, and Environmental microaggressions. African Americans reported higher distress than the other groups in response to Environmental microaggressions. Results suggest that the Racial Microaggressions Scale distress subscales may aid health professionals in assessing the distress elicited by different types of microaggressions. In turn, this may facilitate diagnosis and treatment planning in order to provide multiculturally competent care for African American, Latino, and Asian American clients. PMID:25237154

  5. Neural basis of disgust perception in racial prejudice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yunzhe; Lin, Wanjun; Xu, Pengfei; Zhang, Dandan; Luo, Yuejia

    2015-12-01

    Worldwide racial prejudice is originated from in-group/out-group discrimination. This prejudice can bias face perception at the very beginning of social interaction. However, little is known about the neurocognitive mechanism underlying the influence of racial prejudice on facial emotion perception. Here, we examined the neural basis of disgust perception in racial prejudice using a passive viewing task and functional magnetic resonance imaging. We found that compared with the disgusted faces of in-groups, the disgusted faces of out-groups result in increased amygdala and insular engagement, positive coupling of the insula with amygdala-based emotional system, and negative coupling of the insula with anterior cingulate cortex (ACC)-based regulatory system. Furthermore, machine-learning algorithms revealed that the level of implicit racial prejudice could be predicted by functional couplings of the insula with both the amygdala and the ACC, which suggests that the insula is largely involved in racially biased disgust perception through two distinct neural circuits. In addition, individual difference in disgust sensitivity was found to be predictive of implicit racial prejudice. Taken together, our results suggest a crucial role of insula-centered circuits for disgust perception in racial prejudice. PMID:26417673

  6. Racial Discrimination, John Henryism, and Depression Among African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Hudson, Darrell L.; Neighbors, Harold W.; Geronimus, Arline T.; Jackson, James S.

    2016-01-01

    Evidence from previous studies indicates that racial discrimination is significantly associated with depression and that African Americans with higher levels of socioeconomic status (SES) report greater exposure to racial discrimination compared to those with lower SES levels. Coping strategies could alter the relationship between racial discrimination and depression among African Americans. This study first examined whether greater levels of SES were associated with increased reports of racial discrimination and ratings of John Henryism, a measure of high-effort coping, among African Americans. Second, we examined whether high-effort coping moderated the relationship between racial discrimination and depression. Data were drawn from the National Survey of American Life Reinterview (n = 2,137). Analyses indicated that greater levels of education were positively associated with racial discrimination (p < .001) and increased levels of racial discrimination were positively related to depression (p < .001), controlling for all sociodemographic factors. Greater levels of John Henryism were associated with increased odds of depression but there was no evidence to suggest that the relationship between discrimination and depression was altered by the effects of John Henryism. PMID:16259481

  7. [Racial mix of the panamanian population].

    PubMed

    Arias, Tomás D; Castro, Edgardo; Ruiz, Edward; Barrantes, Ramiro; Jorge-Nebert, Lucía

    2002-01-01

    The racial admixture of a target population can be ascertained by quantifying the contribution to the genetic pool of each of its components (ancestral populations), which could be two, three or more. The racial admixture is of importance for the understanding of results derived from biomedical and anthropological studies. The main objective of this investigation is to determine the population frequencies of genetic systems ABO and Rh and to use these data to calculate the racial admixture of the country and of each sample province, fitting a trihybrid model. To achieve this, the Krieger method, implemented by the computer program Mistura 3, was applied to phenotypic data of systems ABO and Rh in a sample of 4,202 subjects born in seven provinces. In the general population of Panama, 38.72% of genes from the genetic pool have an African origin, 35.87%, an Amerindian origin and 25.40%, a Caucasian origin. In the province of Cocle we found a contribution of 16.47% of African genes, 55.25% of Amerindian genes and 28.28% of Caucasian genes. The province of Colon presents 69.34% of African genes, 25.00% of Amerindian genes and 5.65% of Caucasian genes. In contrast, Chiriquí presents 5.56% of African genes, 50.63% of Amerindian genes and 43.80% of Caucasian genes. The province of Herrera is characterized by the following proportions: 58.45% African genes, 28.44% Amerindian genes and 13.11% Caucasian genes. In the province of Los Santos there is a 62.29% African contribution, a 14.35% Amerindian contribution and a 22.72% Caucasian one. In the province of Panama there is a 57.01%, 26.25% and 16.74% contribution of African, Amerindian and Caucasian genes, respectively. Finally, in Veraguas a contribution of 18.59% of African genes, 44.29% of Amerindian genes and 37.12% of Caucasian genes was found. PMID:16737193

  8. The effect of context on responses to racially ambiguous faces: changes in perception and evaluation

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Reactions to individuals who possess features associated with multiple racial groups may be particularly susceptible to external contextual influences, leading to meaningfully different racial perceptions and judgments in different situations. In the present study, we found that an extrinsic race-label cue not only changed evaluative associations activated by a racially ambiguous face, but also changed quickly occurring neural responses sensitive to racial perception. Behaviorally, prototypical Black faces and racially ambiguous faces labeled as Black activated more negative implicit associations than prototypical White faces and racially ambiguous faces labeled as White. Neurally, prototypical faces and racially ambiguous faces cued with the same race elicited similar responses. Specifically, prototypical Black and racially ambiguous faces labeled as Black elicited larger P200s but smaller N200s than prototypical White and racially ambiguous faces labeled as White. These results show that racial perception can be changed by an external cue and this, in turn, influences subsequent evaluative reactions. PMID:25344946

  9. The effect of context on responses to racially ambiguous faces: changes in perception and evaluation.

    PubMed

    Willadsen-Jensen, Eve; Ito, Tiffany A

    2015-07-01

    Reactions to individuals who possess features associated with multiple racial groups may be particularly susceptible to external contextual influences, leading to meaningfully different racial perceptions and judgments in different situations. In the present study, we found that an extrinsic race-label cue not only changed evaluative associations activated by a racially ambiguous face, but also changed quickly occurring neural responses sensitive to racial perception. Behaviorally, prototypical Black faces and racially ambiguous faces labeled as Black activated more negative implicit associations than prototypical White faces and racially ambiguous faces labeled as White. Neurally, prototypical faces and racially ambiguous faces cued with the same race elicited similar responses. Specifically, prototypical Black and racially ambiguous faces labeled as Black elicited larger P200s but smaller N200s than prototypical White and racially ambiguous faces labeled as White. These results show that racial perception can be changed by an external cue and this, in turn, influences subsequent evaluative reactions. PMID:25344946

  10. Understanding and Addressing Racial Disparities in Health Care

    PubMed Central

    Williams, David R.; Rucker, Toni D.

    2000-01-01

    Racial disparities in medical care should be understood within the context of racial inequities in societal institutions. Systematic discrimination is not the aberrant behavior of a few but is often supported by institutional policies and unconscious bias based on negative stereotypes. Effectively addressing disparities in the quality of care requires improved data systems, increased regulatory vigilance, and new initiatives to appropriately train medical professionals and recruit more providers from disadvantaged minority backgrounds. Identifying and implementing effective strategies to eliminate racial inequities in health status and medical care should be made a national priority. PMID:11481746

  11. Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Men's Health: Examining Psychosocial Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Brown, Tyson H; Hargrove, Taylor W; Griffith, Derek M

    2015-01-01

    This study uses data from the Health and Retirement Study and an approach informed by the Biopsychosocial Model of Racism as a Stressor to examine the extent to which socioeconomic status, stressors, discrimination, and neighborhood conditions are mechanisms underlying racial/ethnic disparities in functional limitations among men. Results reveal that racial/ethnic differences in socioeconomic status, stressors, discrimination, and neighborhood conditions-individually and collectively-account for a substantial proportion of racial/ethnic disparities in functional limitations. Findings suggest that the social determinants of health for men of color need to be more seriously considered in investigations of and efforts to address health disparities. PMID:26291191

  12. Social and racial correlates of Russian roulette.

    PubMed

    Stack, Steven; Wasserman, Ira

    2008-08-01

    The epidemiology of a neglected form of suicidal behavior, Russian roulette, is addressed. Also tested is an explanation of racial differences based on the opportunity theory of deviant behavior related to the availability of revolvers, necessary weapons with which to play Russian roulette. Data refer to 15 cases of Russian roulette found through a search of the medical examiner's suicide files (N = 1,412) and 75 matched controls who suicided by a gunshot to the head. The results support an opportunity perspective: 80% of the Russian roulette victims were African American compared to 30.7% of the controls. Further, among the controls, Blacks were three times more likely than Whites to use revolvers in suicides, a pattern indicating Blacks' greater access to revolvers. Russian roulette victims were entirely male, significantly younger, and less apt to be married than the control group. PMID:18724791

  13. Colorectal Cancer Screening in 3 Racial Groups

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Kimberly M.; Dickinson, Stephanie L.; DeGraffinreid, Cecilia R.; Tatum, Cathy M.; Paskett, Electra D.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To understand predictors of colorectal cancer (CRC) screening in African Americans, European Americans, and Native Americans as these groups differ in CRC incidence and mortality. Methods Participants were surveyed for knowledge, beliefs, and behaviors related to CRC. Results Predictive regression modeling found, after adjusting for race, CRC risk, and CRC worry, the odds of screening within guidelines were increased for men, those receiving doctor’s recommendation, those with polyp/tumor history, those under 70, those with more knowledge about CRC, and those with fewer barriers to screening. CRC screening rates did not differ by race. Conclusions These results reiterate the importance of knowledge, barriers, and physician recommendation for CRC screening in all racial groups. PMID:17555381

  14. Social influence effects on automatic racial prejudice.

    PubMed

    Lowery, B S; Hardin, C D; Sinclair, S

    2001-11-01

    Although most research on the control of automatic prejudice has focused on the efficacy of deliberate attempts to suppress or correct for stereotyping, the reported experiments tested the hypothesis that automatic racial prejudice is subject to common social influence. In experiments involving actual interethnic contact, both tacit and expressed social influence reduced the expression of automatic prejudice, as assessed by two different measures of automatic attitudes. Moreover, the automatic social tuning effect depended on participant ethnicity. European Americans (but not Asian Americans) exhibited less automatic prejudice in the presence of a Black experimenter than a White experimenter (Experiments 2 and 4), although both groups exhibited reduced automatic prejudice when instructed to avoid prejudice (Experiment 3). Results are consistent with shared reality theory, which postulates that social regulation is central to social cognition. PMID:11708561

  15. Intergroup time bias and racialized social relations.

    PubMed

    Vala, Jorge; Pereira, Cícero Roberto; Oliveira Lima, Marcus Eugênio; Leyens, Jacques-Philippe

    2012-04-01

    Within the framework of intergroup relations, the authors analyzed the time people spent evaluating ingroup and outgroup members. They hypothesized that White participants take longer to evaluate White targets than Black targets. In four experiments, White participants were slower to form impressions of White than of Black people; that is, they showed an intergroup time bias (ITB). In Study 1 (N = 60), the ITB correlated with implicit prejudice and homogeneity. Study 2 (N = 60) showed that the ITB was independent of the type of trait in question (nonstereotypical vs. stereotypical). Study 3 (N = 100) demonstrated that ITB correlates with racism measured 3 months beforehand, is independent of motivation to control prejudice, and is not an epiphenomenon of homogeneity. In Study 4 (N = 40) participants not only showed the ITB in a racialized social context but also displayed it following a minimal group manipulation. PMID:22143309

  16. Research Among Racial and Cultural Minorities: An Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montero, Darrel

    1977-01-01

    This paper suggests ways in which social scientists, while being sensitive to and meeting the needs of the community under study, can contribute to the fund of knowledge regarding racial and cultural minorities. (Author)

  17. Disparities in Healthcare for Racial, Ethnic, and Sexual Minorities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Joshua C.; Rocco, Tonette S.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter situates healthcare as a concern for the field of adult education through a critique of disparities in access to healthcare, quality of care received, and caregiver services for racial, ethnic, and sexual minorities.

  18. The Role of Physiognomy in the Development of Racial Awareness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorce, James F.

    1979-01-01

    Investigates Black and White children's development of the concept of race, the visual cues each group uses to distinguish races and the relation of children's racial awareness to their residence in an integrated or segregated community. (BH)

  19. Physicians' ethical responsibilities in addressing racial and ethnic healthcare disparities.

    PubMed Central

    Bostick, Nathan; Morin, Karine; Benjamin, Regina; Higginson, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    Patients belonging to racial and ethnic minority populations continue to receive lesser-quality healthcare relative to other patients, even when controlling for relevant demographic variables. Such disparities represent a significant challenge for physicians who are ethically committed to serving all patients equally, irrespective of personal characteristics. Accordingly, this report explores the ethical obligations of individual physicians and the medical profession as they pertain to racial and ethnic disparities in healthcare. To address these disparities, the AMA Council on Ethical and Judicial Affairs recommends that physicians customize the provision of medial care to meet the needs and preferences of individual patients. Moreover, physicians must learn to recognize racial and ethnic healthcare disparities and critically examine their own practices to ensure that inappropriate considerations do not affect clinical judgment. Physicians can also work to eliminate racial and ethnic healthcare disparities by encouraging diversity within the profession, continuing to investigate healthcare disparities, and supporting the development of appropriate quality measures. PMID:16916132

  20. An fMRI investigation of racial paralysis

    PubMed Central

    Mason, Malia F.; Vandello, Joseph A.; Biga, Andrew; Dyer, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    We explore the existence and underlying neural mechanism of a new norm endorsed by both black and white Americans for managing interracial interactions: “racial paralysis’, the tendency to opt out of decisions involving members of different races. We show that people are more willing to make choices—such as who is more intelligent, or who is more polite—between two white individuals (same-race decisions) than between a white and a black individual (cross-race decisions), a tendency which was evident more when judgments involved traits related to black stereotypes. We use functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine the mechanisms underlying racial paralysis, to examine the mechanisms underlying racial paralysis, revealing greater recruitment of brain regions implicated in socially appropriate behavior (ventromedial prefrontal cortex), conflict detection (anterior cingulate cortex), deliberative processing (dorsolateral prefrontal cortex), and inhibition (ventrolateral prefrontal cortex). We also discuss the impact of racial paralysis on the quality of interracial relations. PMID:22267521

  1. Dancing with Bigotry: The Poisoning of Racial and Ethnic Identities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartolome, Lilia I.; Macedo, Donaldo P.

    1997-01-01

    Analysis of issues and messages in the mass media and news events demonstrates the dynamics of ethnic and racial relations in the United States. The politics of racism are an unacknowledged part of mainstream ideology, thought, and action. (SK)

  2. Moving beyond Racial and Ethnic Diversity at HBCUs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, John Michael, Jr.

    2015-01-01

    This chapter emphasizes the importance of going beyond racial and ethnic diversity at HBCUs to include other forms of diversity such as socioeconomic status, sexual orientation, and international status.

  3. Racial Differences in Nitric Oxide-Dependent Vasorelaxation

    PubMed Central

    Mata-Greenwood, Eugenia; Chen, Dong-Bao

    2008-01-01

    Along with the growing heterogeneity of the American population, ethnic/racial disparity is becoming a clear health issue in the United States. The awareness of ethnic/racial disparities has been growing because of considerable data gathered from recent clinical and epidemiological studies. These studies have highlighted the importance of addressing these differences in the diagnosis and treatment of various diseases potentially according to race. It is becoming particularly clear that there is a 2- to 3-fold racial difference in certain cardiovascular diseases (eg, preeclampsia) associated with dysfunctional nitric oxide–mediated vasodilation. In this review, the authors summarize the current literature on racial disparities in nitric oxide–mediated vasodilation in relation to cardiovascular health with an emphasis on vascular nitric oxide bioavailability as a balance between production via endothelial nitric oxide synthase and degradation through reactive oxygen species. The major hypotheses postulated on the biological basis of these differences are also highlighted. PMID:18212350

  4. Ironic effects of racial bias during interracial interactions.

    PubMed

    Shelton, J Nicole; Richeson, Jennifer A; Salvatore, Jessica; Trawalter, Sophie

    2005-05-01

    Previous research has suggested that Blacks like White interaction partners who make an effort to appear unbiased more than those who do not. We tested the hypothesis that, ironically, Blacks perceive White interaction partners who are more racially biased more positively than less biased White partners, primarily because the former group must make more of an effort to control racial bias than the latter. White participants in this study completed the Implicit Association Test (IAT) as a measure of racial bias and then discussed race relations with either a White or a Black partner. Whites' IAT scores predicted how positively they were perceived by Black (but not White) interaction partners, and this relationship was mediated by Blacks' perceptions of how engaged the White participants were during the interaction. We discuss implications of the finding that Blacks may, ironically, prefer to interact with highly racially biased Whites, at least in short interactions. PMID:15869700

  5. Racial/ethnic residential segregation and cardiovascular disease risk

    PubMed Central

    Kershaw, Kiarri N.; Albrecht, Sandra S.

    2015-01-01

    A growing body of research has examined whether racial/ethnic residential segregation contributes to health disparities, but recent findings in the literature, particularly with respect to cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, have not been summarized. This review provides an overview of findings from studies of racial/ethnic residential segregation of non-Hispanic blacks and Hispanics with CVD risk published between January 2011 and July 2014. The majority of studies of black segregation showed higher segregation was related to higher CVD risk, although relationships were less clear for certain outcomes. Relationships among Hispanics were more mixed and appeared to vary widely by factors such as gender, country of origin, racial identity, and acculturation. Implications for research on racial/ethnic disparities in CVD and lingering gaps in the literature are discussed as well. PMID:25893031

  6. Neighborhood Selection and the Social Reproduction of Concentrated Racial Inequality

    PubMed Central

    SAMPSON, ROBERT J.; SHARKEY, PATRICK

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we consider neighborhood selection as a social process central to the reproduction of racial inequality in neighborhood attainment. We formulate a multilevel model that decomposes multiple sources of stability and change in longitudinal trajectories of achieved neighborhood income among nearly 4,000 Chicago families followed for up to seven years wherever they moved in the United States. Even after we adjust for a comprehensive set of fixed and time-varying covariates, racial inequality in neighborhood attainment is replicated by movers and stayers alike. We also study the emergent consequences of mobility pathways for neighborhood-level structure. The temporal sorting by individuals of different racial and ethnic groups combines to yield a structural pattern of flows between neighborhoods that generates virtually nonoverlapping income distributions and little exchange between minority and white areas. Selection and racially shaped hierarchies are thus mutually constituted and account for an apparent equilibrium of neighborhood inequality. PMID:18390289

  7. Use of Racial Data Faces an Uncertain Future in California.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hebel, Sara

    2003-01-01

    Describes how proponents of a measure to limit the collection of racial data say the information is divisive and useless; opponents say the law would have adverse effects on college access and research. (EV)

  8. Racial fantasies and the primal scene of miscegenation.

    PubMed

    Calvo, Luz

    2008-02-01

    The primal scene, theorized by Freud in his case history of the Wolf Man, is a fantasy scenario thoroughly embedded in social relations. While pursuing his analysis of oedipal structures in the Wolf Man's case history, Freud overlooked social relations, downplaying the importance of racial and class difference in the Wolf Man's sexual etiology. In this essay, I trace the circulation of two fantasy structures: 'the primal scene of miscegenation' and 'A black man is being beaten,' both of which structure desire in both Freud 's era and our own. I interpret Fanon's work on racial subjectivity alongside Freud 's theory of fantasy to elucidate the interconnected nature of racial and sexual difference in both Freud and Fanon's theories. The racial fantasies proposed in this essay have application to clinical settings, where they may structure transference and countertransference. PMID:18290791

  9. Racial/Ethnic disparities in depression and its theoretical perspectives.

    PubMed

    Kim, Minjeong

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this review is to look at racial/ethnic disparities in the diagnosis of depression and its treatment and to explain the dynamics and causes of these racial/ethnic disparities in depression by looking at several theories, such as perceived racism, cultural competency, and other theories. Perceived racism is that the perceptions of an environmental stimulus as being racist affects the coping responses of ethnic/racial minorities, which alters psychological and physiological stress responses, and finally affects health outcomes negatively. A lower level of cultural competence can lead to health disparities. In addition, lower socioeconomic status and health care providers' beliefs and behaviors about patients' race/ethnicity and class can affect depressive symptoms as well as diagnosis and treatment. In order to reduce these racial/ethnic disparities in depression, diverse interventions should be developed to improve depression outcomes for ethnic minority populations based on these theoretical perspectives. PMID:23801269

  10. Smoking Rates Still High in Some Racial Groups, CDC Reports

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160256.html Smoking Rates Still High in Some Racial Groups, CDC ... lot of progress in getting Americans to stop smoking, some groups still have high smoking rates, a ...

  11. Person categorization and automatic racial stereotyping effects on weapon identification.

    PubMed

    Jones, Christopher R; Fazio, Russell H

    2010-08-01

    Prior stereotyping research provides conflicting evidence regarding the importance of person categorization along a particular dimension for the automatic activation of a stereotype corresponding to that dimension. Experiment 1 replicated a racial stereotyping effect on object identification and examined whether it could be attenuated by encouraging categorization by age. Experiment 2 employed socially complex person stimuli and manipulated whether participants categorized spontaneously or by race. In Experiment 3, the distinctiveness of the racial dimension was manipulated by having Black females appear in the context of either Black males or White females. The results indicated that conditions fostering categorization by race consistently produced automatic racial stereotyping and that conditions fostering nonracial categorization can eliminate automatic racial stereotyping. Implications for the relation between automatic stereotype activation and dimension of categorization are discussed. PMID:20693386

  12. An Exploratory Examination of the Associations among Racial and Ethnic Discrimination, Racial Climate, and Trauma-Related Symptoms in a College Student Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pieterse, Alex L.; Carter, Robert T.; Evans, Sarah A.; Walter, Rebecca A.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we examined the association among perceptions of racial and/or ethnic discrimination, racial climate, and trauma-related symptoms among 289 racially diverse college undergraduates. Study measures included the Perceived Stress Scale, the Perceived Ethnic Discrimination Questionnaire, the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder…

  13. Interracial Contact and Racial Constancy: A Multi-Site Study of Racial Intergroup Bias in 3-5 Year Old Anglo-British Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutland, Adam; Cameron, Lindsey; Bennett, Laura; Ferrell, Jennifer

    2005-01-01

    This paper examined the influence of interracial contact and racial constancy on the racial intergroup bias of young Anglo-British children. This multi-site study was conducted in areas of Great Britain that varied in terms of racial diversity. The study also investigated whether preschool children express bias on positive, but not negative,…

  14. The Role of Mothers' and Adolescents' Perceptions of Ethnic-Racial Socialization in Shaping Ethnic-Racial Identity among Early Adolescent Boys and Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Diane; Hagelskamp, Carolin; Way, Niobe; Foust, Monica D.

    2009-01-01

    The current study examined relationships between adolescents' and mothers' reports of ethnic-racial socialization and adolescents' ethnic-racial identity. The sample included 170 sixth graders (49% boys, 51% girls) and their mothers, all of whom identified as Black, Puerto Rican, Dominican, or Chinese. Two dimensions of ethnic-racial socialization…

  15. Racially and ethnically diverse schools and adolescent romantic relationships.

    PubMed

    Strully, Kate

    2014-11-01

    Focusing on romantic relationships, which are often seen as a barometer of social distance, this analysis investigates how adolescents from different racial-ethnic and gender groups respond when they attend diverse schools with many opportunities for inter-racial-ethnic dating. Which groups respond by forming inter-racial-ethnic relationships, and which groups appear to "work around" opportunities for inter-racial-ethnic dating by forming more same-race-ethnicity relationships outside of school boundaries? Most prior studies have analyzed only relationships within schools and, therefore, cannot capture a potentially important way that adolescents express preferences for same-race-ethnicity relationships or work around constraints from other groups' preferences. Using the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, I find that, when adolescents are in schools with many opportunities for inter-racial-ethnic dating, black females and white males are most likely to form same-race-ethnicity relationships outside of the school; whereas Hispanic males and females are most likely to date across racial-ethnic boundaries within the school. PMID:25848670

  16. Racially and Ethnically Diverse Schools and Adolescent Romantic Relationships*

    PubMed Central

    Strully, Kate

    2015-01-01

    Focusing on romantic relationships, which are often seen as a barometer of social distance, this analysis investigates how adolescents from different racial-ethnic and gender groups respond when they attend diverse schools with many opportunities for inter-racial-ethnic dating. Which groups respond by forming inter-racial-ethnic relationships, and which groups appear to “work around” opportunities for inter-racial-ethnic dating by forming more same-race-ethnicity relationships outside of school boundaries? Most prior studies have analyzed only relationships within schools and, therefore, cannot capture a potentially important way that adolescents express preferences for same-race-ethnicity relationships and/or work around constraints from other groups’ preferences. Using the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, I find that, when adolescents are in schools with many opportunities for inter-racial-ethnic dating, black females and white males are most likely to form same-race-ethnicity relationships outside of the school; whereas Hispanic males and females are most likely to date across racial-ethnic boundaries within the school. PMID:25848670

  17. Does Racial Isolation in School Lead to Long-Term Disadvantages? Labor Market Consequences of High School Racial Composition.

    PubMed

    Gamoran, Adam; Barfels, Sarah; Collares, Ana Cristina

    2016-01-01

    School racial composition has modest effects on test score gaps, but evidence of a longer-term impact is scarce. Perpetuation theory suggests that blacks who attend schools with higher proportions of white classmates may have better job outcomes. Multilevel analyses of two national longitudinal surveys reveal no effects of high school racial composition on occupational status, employment, or annual earnings for blacks or whites. For other minority groups, attending schools with more whites impedes occupational advancement. For all groups, however, school racial composition predicts workplace racial composition: Whites who attend high schools with higher proportions of white students have higher proportions of white coworkers, while nonwhites who attend schools with higher proportions of whites have fewer same-race coworkers. The findings are modest in size but robust to alternative specifications, and sensitivity analyses support a causal interpretation for same-race coworkers. These results support perpetuation theory for workplace composition but not for stratification outcomes. PMID:27017708

  18. Closing the achievement gap: the association of racial climate with achievement and behavioral outcomes.

    PubMed

    Mattison, Erica; Aber, Mark S

    2007-09-01

    This study investigated the relationship between school racial climate and students' self-reports of academic and discipline outcomes, including whether racial climate mediated and/or moderated the relationship between race and outcomes. Using the Racial Climate Survey-High School Version (M. Aber et al., unpublished), data were gathered from African American (n = 382) and European American students (n = 1456) regarding their perceptions of racial climate. About 18% of the respondents were low-income and approximately 50% were male. Positive perceptions of the racial climate were associated with higher student achievement and fewer discipline problems. Further, race moderated the relationship between racial climate and both achievement and discipline outcomes. Finally, racial differences in students' grades and discipline outcomes were associated with differences in perceptions of racial climate. Results suggest careful attention should be given to the racial climate of secondary schools, particularly for adolescents who perceive schools as unfair. PMID:17587175

  19. Young children's racial awareness and affect and their perceptions about mothers' racial affect in a multiracial context.

    PubMed

    Lam, Virginia; Guerrero, Silvia; Damree, Natasha; Enesco, Ileana

    2011-11-01

    There is a substantial literature documenting pre-schoolers' racial awareness and affect from multiracial societies in North America and a fast-growing body of work from societies that are or were once more racially homogeneous. However, studies in Britain, a racially diverse society, on this developmental period have been curiously rare. This study examined racial awareness and affect of 125 White, Black, and Asian 3--to 5-year-olds in London. Children were tested on cognitive level, person description and classification, race labelling and matching, self-categorization and asked about their racial preference and rejection and inferences about their mothers' preference and rejection. Children were least likely to use race versus other categorical cues to spontaneously describe or classify others, even though the majority correctly sorted others by race labels, matched them to drawings, and categorized themselves by race. With age and increasing cognitive level, children described and categorized others by race more and improved in race matching. White children from age 4 preferred White peers and inferred that their mothers would prefer White children at age 5. Children's own preference and inference about mothers are related. Children did not show race-based rejection, but boys inferred that their mothers would prefer White children and reject Black children. The findings are discussed in relation to racial salience between contexts, previous research, and theories. PMID:21199507

  20. Racial Discrimination, Ethnic-Racial Socialization, and Crime: A Micro-sociological Model of Risk and Resilience

    PubMed Central

    Burt, Callie Harbin; Simons, Ronald L.; Gibbons, Frederick X.

    2013-01-01

    Dominant theoretical explanations of racial disparities in criminal offending overlook a key risk factor associated with race: interpersonal racial discrimination. Building on recent studies that analyze race and crime at the micro-level, we specify a social psychological model linking personal experiences with racial discrimination to an increased risk of offending. We add to this model a consideration of an adaptive facet of African American culture: ethnic-racial socialization, and explore whether two forms—cultural socialization and preparation for bias—provide resilience to the criminogenic effects of interpersonal racial discrimination. Using panel data from several hundred African American male youth from the Family and Community Health Study, we find that racial discrimination is positively associated with increased crime in large part by augmenting depression, hostile views of relationships, and disengagement from conventional norms. Results also indicate that preparation for bias significantly reduces the effects of discrimination on crime, primarily by reducing the effects of these social psychological mediators on offending. Cultural socialization has a less influential but beneficial effect. Finally, we show that the more general parenting context within which preparation for bias takes place influences its protective effects. PMID:24058204

  1. Racial Segregation and the American Foreclosure Crisis.

    PubMed

    Rugh, Jacob S; Massey, Douglas S

    2010-10-01

    Although the rise in subprime lending and the ensuing wave of foreclosures was partly a result of market forces that have been well-identified in the literature, in the United States it was also a highly racialized process. We argue that residential segregation created a unique niche of poor minority clients who were differentially marketed risky subprime loans that were in great demand for use in mortgage-backed securities that could be sold on secondary markets. We test this argument by regressing foreclosure actions in the top 100 U.S. metropolitan areas on measures of black, Hispanic, and Asian segregation while controlling for a variety of housing market conditions, including average creditworthiness, the extent of coverage under the Community Reinvestment Act, the degree of zoning regulation, and the overall rate of subprime lending. We find that black residential dissimilarity and spatial isolation are powerful predictors of foreclosures across U.S. metropolitan areas. In order to isolate subprime lending as the causal mechanism whereby segregation influences foreclosures, we estimate a two-stage least squares model that confirms the causal effect of black segregation on the number and rate of foreclosures across metropolitan areas. In the United States segregation was an important contributing cause of the foreclosure crisis, along with overbuilding, risky lending practices, lax regulation, and the bursting of the housing price bubble. PMID:25308973

  2. Racial Segregation and the American Foreclosure Crisis

    PubMed Central

    Rugh, Jacob S.; Massey, Douglas S.

    2013-01-01

    Although the rise in subprime lending and the ensuing wave of foreclosures was partly a result of market forces that have been well-identified in the literature, in the United States it was also a highly racialized process. We argue that residential segregation created a unique niche of poor minority clients who were differentially marketed risky subprime loans that were in great demand for use in mortgage-backed securities that could be sold on secondary markets. We test this argument by regressing foreclosure actions in the top 100 U.S. metropolitan areas on measures of black, Hispanic, and Asian segregation while controlling for a variety of housing market conditions, including average creditworthiness, the extent of coverage under the Community Reinvestment Act, the degree of zoning regulation, and the overall rate of subprime lending. We find that black residential dissimilarity and spatial isolation are powerful predictors of foreclosures across U.S. metropolitan areas. In order to isolate subprime lending as the causal mechanism whereby segregation influences foreclosures, we estimate a two-stage least squares model that confirms the causal effect of black segregation on the number and rate of foreclosures across metropolitan areas. In the United States segregation was an important contributing cause of the foreclosure crisis, along with overbuilding, risky lending practices, lax regulation, and the bursting of the housing price bubble. PMID:25308973

  3. Biological conceptions of race and the motivation to cross racial boundaries.

    PubMed

    Williams, Melissa J; Eberhardt, Jennifer L

    2008-06-01

    The present studies demonstrate that conceiving of racial group membership as biologically determined increases acceptance of racial inequities (Studies 1 and 2) and cools interest in interacting with racial outgroup members (Studies 3-5). These effects were generally independent of racial prejudice. It is argued that when race is cast as a biological marker of individuals, people perceive racial outgroup members as unrelated to the self and therefore unworthy of attention and affiliation. Biological conceptions of race therefore provide justification for a racially inequitable status quo and for the continued social marginalization of historically disadvantaged groups. PMID:18505316

  4. Racial dialogues: challenges faculty of color face in the classroom.

    PubMed

    Sue, Derald Wing; Rivera, David P; Watkins, Nicole L; Kim, Rachel H; Kim, Suah; Williams, Chantea D

    2011-07-01

    Research on the experiences of faculty of color in predominantly White institutions (PWIs) suggests that they often experience the campus climate as invalidating, alienating, and hostile. Few studies, however, have actually focused on the classroom experiences of faculty of color when difficult racial dialogues occur. Using Consensually Qualitative Research, eight faculty of color were interviewed about their experiences in the classroom when racially tinged topics arose. Three major findings emerged. First, difficult racial dialogues were frequently instigated by the presence of racial microaggressions delivered toward students of color or the professor. Dialogues on race were made more difficult when the classrooms were diverse, when heated emotions arose, when there was a strong fear of self-disclosure, and when racial perspectives differed. Second, all faculty experienced an internal struggle between balancing their own values and beliefs with an attempt to remain objective. This conflict was often described as exhausting and energy-depleting. Third, faculty of color described both successful and unsuccessful strategies in facilitating difficult dialogues on race that arose in the course of their teaching. These findings have major implications for how PWIs can develop new programs, policies, and practices that will aid and support colleagues of color. PMID:21787066

  5. Racial disparities in survival among injured drivers.

    PubMed

    Haskins, Amy E; Clark, David E; Travis, Lori L

    2013-03-01

    Prior studies on racial and ethnic disparities in survival after motor vehicle crashes have examined only population-based death rates or have been restricted to hospitalized patients. In the current study, we examined 3 components of crash survival by race/ethnicity: survival overall, survival to reach a hospital, and survival among those hospitalized. Nine years of data (from 2000 through 2008) from the National Automotive Sampling System Crashworthiness Data System were used to examine white non-Hispanic, black non-Hispanic, and Hispanic drivers aged ≥ 15 years with serious injuries (injury severity scores of ≥ 9). By using multivariable logistic regression, we found that a driver's race/ethnicity was not significantly associated with overall survival after being injured in a crash (for blacks, odds ratio (OR) = 0.69, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.36, 1.32; for Hispanics, OR = 1.00, 95% CI: 0.59, 1.72), and blacks and Hispanics were equally likely to survive to be treated at a hospital compared with whites (for blacks, OR = 1.00, 95% CI: 0.52, 1.93; for Hispanics, OR = 1.13, 95% CI: 0.71, 1.79). However, among patients who were treated at a hospital, blacks were 50% less likely to survive 30 days compared with whites (OR = 0.50, 95% CI: 0.33, 0.76). The disparity in survival after serious traffic injuries among blacks appears to occur after hospitalization, not in prehospital survival. PMID:23371352

  6. Racial Disparities in Survival Among Injured Drivers

    PubMed Central

    Haskins, Amy E.; Clark, David E.; Travis, Lori L.

    2013-01-01

    Prior studies on racial and ethnic disparities in survival after motor vehicle crashes have examined only population-based death rates or have been restricted to hospitalized patients. In the current study, we examined 3 components of crash survival by race/ethnicity: survival overall, survival to reach a hospital, and survival among those hospitalized. Nine years of data (from 2000 through 2008) from the National Automotive Sampling System Crashworthiness Data System were used to examine white non-Hispanic, black non-Hispanic, and Hispanic drivers aged ≥15 years with serious injuries (injury severity scores of ≥9). By using multivariable logistic regression, we found that a driver's race/ethnicity was not significantly associated with overall survival after being injured in a crash (for blacks, odds ratio (OR) = 0.69, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.36, 1.32; for Hispanics, OR = 1.00, 95% CI: 0.59, 1.72), and blacks and Hispanics were equally likely to survive to be treated at a hospital compared with whites (for blacks, OR = 1.00, 95% CI: 0.52, 1.93; for Hispanics, OR = 1.13, 95% CI: 0.71, 1.79). However, among patients who were treated at a hospital, blacks were 50% less likely to survive 30 days compared with whites (OR = 0.50, 95% CI: 0.33, 0.76). The disparity in survival after serious traffic injuries among blacks appears to occur after hospitalization, not in prehospital survival. PMID:23371352

  7. School Desegregation and Racial Cleavage, 1954-1970: A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carithers, Martha W.

    1970-01-01

    Reviews the empirical studies dealing with school desegregation and racial cleavage which have appeared since the 1954 Supreme Court decision. Focuses on patterns and consequences of interracial association, and attitude change relevant to racial cleavage. (DM)

  8. U.S. Health Report Card Finds Racial, Ethnic Disparities Persist

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158534.html U.S. Health Report Card Finds Racial, Ethnic Disparities Persist But infant ... 2016 WEDNESDAY, April 27, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- A report card on Americans' health finds that racial and ...

  9. Factor Analysis of the Quay-Peterson Behavior Problem Checklist Across Racially Different Exceptional Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gajar, Anna Helen; Hale, Robert L.

    1982-01-01

    The factor structure of the Quay-Peterson Behavior Problem Checklist was investigated across racial backgrounds of 358 American children in order to determine the instrument's efficacy in measuring personality dimensions in racially different exceptional children. (Author/MP)

  10. The Everyday Implications of Ethnic-Racial Identity Processes: Exploring Variability in Ethnic-Racial Identity Salience Across Situations.

    PubMed

    Douglass, Sara; Wang, Yijie; Yip, Tiffany

    2016-07-01

    Given the social and developmental relevance of ethnicity-race during adolescence, it is important to understand the meaning of ethnic-racial identity in adolescents' everyday lives. The current study considered how individual differences in ethnic-racial identity exploration (i.e., the extent to which individuals have explored their ethnicity-race), and commitment (i.e., the extent which they have a clear sense of what it means to them) influenced variability versus stability in the awareness of ethnicity-race in a given situation (i.e., salience), and how this variability is related to mood in that situation. Within an ethnic/racially diverse sample of 395 adolescents (M age = 15; 63 % female; 12 % Black, 26 % Latino, 34 % Asian, 23 % White), results indicated that ethnic-racial identity exploration was unrelated to variability in salience, while commitment promoted stability in salience across situations. Further, among adolescents who were generally very aware of their ethnicity-race, increases in situational salience were related to decreased negative and anxious mood. Among adolescents who were generally not aware of their ethnicity-race, increases in situational salience were related to increased positive and decreased negative mood. Implications for understanding the developmental and everyday experiences of ethnic-racial identity are discussed. PMID:26662047

  11. Sociocultural Factors and School Engagement among African American Youth: The Roles of Racial Discrimination, Racial Socialization and Ethnic Identity

    PubMed Central

    Dotterer, Aryn M.; McHale, Susan M.; Crouter, Ann C.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the links between racial discrimination and school engagement and the roles of racial socialization and ethnic identity as protective factors in those linkages in a sample of 148, 6th through 12th grade African American adolescents from working and middle class two-parent families. In home interviews youth described their ethnic identity, discrimination experiences at school, and school engagement (school bonding, school grades, school self-esteem), and parents rated their racial socialization practices. Analyses revealed that discrimination was negatively related to school self-esteem and school bonding. Racial socialization had additive effects on school self-esteem and school bonding, but did not moderate the discrimination -- school engagement association. For boys, ethnic identity had additive effects on school bonding, but for girls, ethnic identity moderated the relation between discrimination and school bonding: When girls experienced more discrimination and had lower ethnic identity, they reported lower school bonding. Discrimination, racial socialization, and ethnic identity were not related to school grades. PMID:27134516

  12. Reverse deterrence in racial profiling: increased transgressions by nonprofiled whites.

    PubMed

    Hackney, Amy A; Glaser, Jack

    2013-10-01

    A controlled experiment tested the possibility that racial profiling-disproportionate scrutiny of a minority racial group by sanctioned authorities-would have a "reverse deterrent" effect on the illicit behavior of members of a nonprofiled majority group. Research participants given a task involving extremely difficult anagrams were given the opportunity to cheat. White participants randomly assigned to a condition in which two Black confederates were obtrusively singled out for scrutiny by the study administrator cheated more than Whites in a White-profiling condition and a no-profiling control condition, and more than Black participants in all three conditions. Black participants cheated at comparable levels across the three experimental conditions. The effect of the profiling of Blacks was consequently a net increase in cheating. The results indicate that racial profiling may be counterproductive. PMID:23772918

  13. Racial differences in hypertension: implications for high blood pressure management.

    PubMed

    Lackland, Daniel T

    2014-08-01

    The racial disparity in hypertension and hypertension-related outcomes has been recognized for decades with African Americans with greater risks than Caucasians. Blood pressure levels have consistently been higher for African Americans with an earlier onset of hypertension. Although awareness and treatment levels of high blood pressure have been similar, racial differences in control rates are evident. The higher blood pressure levels for African Americans are associated with higher rates of stroke, end-stage renal disease and congestive heart failure. The reasons for the racial disparities in elevated blood pressure and hypertension-related outcomes risk remain unclear. However, the implications of the disparities of hypertension for prevention and clinical management are substantial, identifying African American men and women with excel hypertension risk and warranting interventions focused on these differences. In addition, focused research to identify the factors attributed to these disparities in risk burden is an essential need to address the evidence gaps. PMID:24983758

  14. Children Associate Racial Groups with Wealth: Evidence from South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Olson, Kristina R.; Shutts, Kristin; Kinzler, Katherine D.; Weisman, Kara G.

    2012-01-01

    Group-based social hierarchies exist in nearly every society, yet little is known about whether children understand that they exist. The present studies investigated whether 3- to 10-year-old children (N=84) in South Africa associate higher-status racial groups with higher levels of wealth, one indicator of social status. Children matched higher-value belongings with White people more often than with multiracial or Black people and with multiracial people more often than with Black people, thus showing sensitivity to the de facto racial hierarchy in their society. There were no age-related changes in children’s tendency to associate racial groups with wealth differences. The implications of these results are discussed in light of the general tendency for people to legitimize and perpetuate the status quo. PMID:22860510

  15. Social equity theory and racial-ethnic achievement gaps.

    PubMed

    McKown, Clark

    2013-01-01

    In the United States, racial-ethnic differences on tests of school readiness and academic achievement continue. A complete understanding of the origins of racial-ethnic achievement gaps is still lacking. This article describes social equity theory (SET), which proposes that racial-ethnic achievement gaps originate from two kinds of social process, direct and signal influences, that these two kinds of processes operate across developmental contexts, and that the kind of influence and the setting in which they are enacted change with age. Evidence supporting each of SET's key propositions is discussed in the context of a critical review of research on the Black-White achievement gap. Specific developmental hypotheses derived from SET are described, along with proposed standards of evidence for testing those hypotheses. PMID:23240908

  16. Racially conditional donation: the example of umbilical cord blood.

    PubMed

    Komesaroff, Paul A; Kerridge, Ian H; Stewart, Cameron; Samuel, Gabrielle; Lipworth, Wendy; Jordens, Christopher F C

    2012-03-01

    While direction of donated tissue to family members has long been accepted, direction to members of specific racial groups has been opposed, on the basis that it is discriminatory and contrary to the ethos the institution of organ donation seeks to promote. It has, however, recently been proposed that racially conditional donation may provide a useful--and ethically acceptable--way to address the social inequalities and injustices experienced by certain cultural groups. This article examines the ethical, legal and cultural arguments for and against racially conditional donation, concluding that the practice is more likely to undermine the values of equity and justice than to promote them and that it may also lead to other unfavourable personal and social outcomes. PMID:22558904

  17. Racial Differences in Allergic Sensitization: Recent Findings and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Wegienka, Ganesa; Johnson, Christine Cole; Zoratti, Edward; Havstad, Suzanne

    2016-01-01

    Racial disparities are present in many facets of health and disease. Allergy and asthma are no exceptions. Secondary results from cross-sectional and cohort studies have provided information on the scope of racial disparities in allergic sensitization in the United States. African American/Black individuals tend to be sensitized more frequently than White individuals. Little is known about rates in other race groups. Genetics are unlikely to be the sole or major cause of the observed differences. Home dust allergen and endotoxin levels cannot explain the differences. Studies that have been designed to specifically address the sources of these racial disparities are needed. A “Multilevel Framework” that considers the roles of the individual, family and community presents an excellent approach to guide design of future studies of the causes of these disparities. Understanding the causes of the disparities could lead to interventions that would improve the health of all individuals. PMID:23435599

  18. Racial Residential Segregation and Disparities in Obesity among Women.

    PubMed

    Bower, Kelly M; Thorpe, Roland J; Yenokyan, Gayane; McGinty, E Emma E; Dubay, Lisa; Gaskin, Darrell J

    2015-10-01

    The high rate of obesity among black women in the USA is a significant public health problem. However, there is limited research on the relationship between racial residential segregation and disparities in obesity, and the existing evidence is limited and results are mixed. This study examines the relationship between racial residential segregation and obesity among black and white women. We conducted this cross-sectional study by joining data from the 1999-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey with data from the 2000 US Census. Multilevel logistic regression models found that for every one-point increase in the black isolation index, there was a 1.06 (95 % confidence interval (CI) = 1.01, 1.11) times higher odds of obesity for black women. In order to address the disparately high rates of obesity among black women, health policies need to address the economic, political, and social forces that produce racially segregated neighborhoods. PMID:26268731

  19. Are hysterectomies necessary? Racial-ethnic differences in women's attitudes.

    PubMed

    Dillaway, Heather E

    2016-01-01

    There is a dearth of comparative information about how women from diverse social locations think about, talk about, and experience the various types of reproductive aging. In this article I analyze racial-ethnic differences in attitudes toward surgically induced menopause (hysterectomy) utilizing data from an interview study of 130 menopausal women. African American women in this study were more suspect of doctors' initial offers of hysterectomies than European American women, with the former group of interviewees still fearing a legacy of racial-ethnic discrimination within medical institutions. Only after seeking a second opinion or finding a trustworthy doctor did African American women feel comfortable accepting a hysterectomy. European American interviewees were not as wary as their African American counterparts and sometimes reported wishing for a hysterectomy. I argue that attitudes toward hysterectomy must be contextualized within women's experiences of racial-ethnic oppression and privilege to be fully understood. PMID:27045199

  20. Excess success for three related papers on racial bias.

    PubMed

    Francis, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    Three related articles reported that racial bias altered perceptual experience and influenced decision-making. These findings have been applied to training programs for law enforcement, and elsewhere, to mitigate racial bias. However, a statistical analysis of each of the three articles finds that the reported experimental results should be rare, even if the theoretical ideas were correct. The analysis estimates that the probability of the reported experimental success for the articles is 0.003, 0.048, and 0.070, respectively. These low probabilities suggest that similar future work is unlikely to produce as successful outcomes and indicates that readers should be skeptical about the validity of the reported findings and their theoretical implications. The reported findings should not be used to guide policies related to racial bias, and new experimental work is needed to judge the merit of the theoretical ideas. PMID:25983701

  1. School diversity and racial discrimination among African-American adolescents.

    PubMed

    Seaton, Eleanor K; Douglass, Sara

    2014-04-01

    The study presented here examined school context as a moderator in the relation between daily perceptions of racial discrimination and depressive symptoms. The sample included 75 Black adolescents who completed daily surveys for 14 days. The results indicated that approximately 97% of adolescents reported experiencing at least one discriminatory experience over the 2-week period. During the daily diary period, the 2-week average was 26 discriminatory experiences with a daily average of 2.5 discriminatory events. The results indicated perceptions of racial discrimination were linked to increased depressive symptoms on the following day. This relation was apparent for Black youth attending predominantly Black and White high schools, but not for Black youth attending schools with no clear racial majority. PMID:24773002

  2. Intergroup anxiety effects on implicit racial evaluation and stereotyping.

    PubMed

    Amodio, David M; Hamilton, Holly K

    2012-12-01

    How does intergroup anxiety affect the activation of implicit racial evaluations and stereotypes? Given the common basis of social anxiety and implicit evaluative processes in memory systems linked to classical conditioning and affect, we predicted that intergroup anxiety would amplify implicit negative racial evaluations. Implicit stereotyping, which is associated primarily with semantic memory systems, was not expected to increase as a function of intergroup anxiety. This pattern was observed among White participants preparing to interact with Black partners, but not those preparing to interact with White partners. These findings shed new light on how anxiety, often elicited in real-life intergroup interactions, can affect the operation of implicit racial biases, suggesting that intergroup anxiety has more direct implications for affective and evaluative forms of implicit bias than for implicit stereotyping. These findings also support a memory-systems model of the interplay between emotion and cognition in the context of social behavior. PMID:22775128

  3. Do experiences of racial discrimination predict cardiovascular disease among African American Men? The moderating role of internalized negative racial group attitudes

    PubMed Central

    Lincoln, Karen D; Adler, Nancy E; Syme, S. Leonard

    2010-01-01

    Studies examining associations between racial discrimination and cardiovascular health outcomes have been inconsistent, with some studies finding the highest risk of hypertension among African Americans who report no discrimination. A potential explanation of the latter is that hypertension and other cardiovascular problems are fostered by internalization and denial of racial discrimination. To explore this hypothesis, the current study examines the role of internalized negative racial group attitudes in linking experiences of racial discrimination and history of cardiovascular disease among African American men. We predicted a significant interaction between reported discrimination and internalized negative racial group attitudes in predicting cardiovascular disease. Weighted logistic regression analyses were conducted among 1216 African American men from the National Survey of American Life (NSAL; 2001– 2003). We found no main effect of racial discrimination in predicting history of cardiovascular disease. However, agreeing with negative beliefs about Blacks was positively associated with cardiovascular disease history, and also moderated the effect of racial discrimination. Reporting racial discrimination was associated with higher risk of cardiovascular disease among African American men who disagreed with negative beliefs about Blacks. However, among African American men who endorsed negative beliefs about Blacks, the risk of cardiovascular disease was greatest among those reporting no discrimination. Findings suggest that racial discrimination and the internalization of negative racial group attitudes are both risk factors for cardiovascular disease among African American men. Furthermore, the combination of internalizing negative beliefs about Blacks and the absence of reported racial discrimination appear to be associated with particularly poor cardiovascular health. Steps to address racial discrimination as well as programs aimed at developing a positive

  4. Hate Crimes on Campus: Racial/Ethnic Diversity and Campus Safety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stotzer, Rebecca L.; Hossellman, Emily

    2012-01-01

    Colleges and universities across the US have prioritized minority enrollments in their recruitment strategies, but theories offer to possible outcomes of increasing diversity on campus--increased racial harmony or increased racial tension. This study examines the impact of racial diversity on the reported number of hate crimes that occur on…

  5. When Race Enters the Room: Improving Leadership and Learning through Racial Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horsford, Sonya Douglass

    2014-01-01

    This article explains (a) why racial literacy--an understanding of the origins and function of race in US schools and society--is essential to the work of educational leaders, and (b) how educational leaders can improve their leadership through racial literacy. It introduces the concept of racial literacy as a first step to improving school…

  6. Racial Socialization of Biracial Youth: Maternal Messages and Approaches to Address Discrimination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rollins, Alethea; Hunter, Andrea G.

    2013-01-01

    We explored how mothers of biracial youth prepare their children to navigate diverse racial ecologies and experiences of racism and discrimination. A qualitative thematic analysis was used to identify racial socialization messages mothers used and emergent racial socialization approaches. Mothers of biracial youth engaged in the full range of…

  7. Analyzing Anti-Asian Prejudice from a Racial Identity and Color-Blind Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohatsu, Eric L.; Victoria, Rodolfo; Lau, Andrew; Flores, Michelle; Salazar, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine to what extent both racial identity and color-blind racial attitudes help explain anti-Asian prejudice across different socioracial groups. Participants of color from a culturally diverse West Coast university were surveyed (N = 260). Hierarchical regression analyses showed that resistance racial identity…

  8. Racial Identity, Maternal Support, and Psychological Distress among African American Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard; Zimmerman, Marc A.; Bernat, Debra Hilkene; Sellers, Robert M.; Notaro, Paul C.

    2002-01-01

    This study investigated the role of racial identity and maternal support in reducing psychological distress among African American twelfth-graders. Results provided little support for a direct association between racial identity or maternal support and depressive symptoms and anxiety within a multivariate context. Influence of racial identity and…

  9. Preparing the Underprepared: An Analysis of Racial Disparities in Postsecondary Mathematics Remediation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bahr, Peter Riley

    2010-01-01

    In this study, I examine racial disparities in successful remediation in math. I first quantify a previously unidentified racial gap in successful remediation and then seek to explain this gap through a set of mediating and moderating variables. In addition, I test the relative efficacy of remediation across racial groups. (Contains 6 tables and 5…

  10. Unspoken Rules of Engagement: Navigating Racial Microaggressions in the Academic Terrain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rollock, Nicola

    2012-01-01

    Racial microaggressions are brief, everyday interactions that send denigrating messages to people of color because they belong to a racially minoritised group. Compared to more overt forms of racism, racial microaggressions are subtle and insidious, often leaving the victim confused, distressed and frustrated and the perpetrator oblivious of the…

  11. Racial Differences in IQ Revisited: A Synthesis of Nearly a Century of Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.; Daley, Christine E.

    2001-01-01

    Outlines eight premises of individuals who believe racial differences influence mental ability (e.g., IQ tests accurately measure mental ability and IQ tests are equally valid across racial, ethnic, and cultural groups), challenging the classicist model of intelligence on which hereditarian assumptions of racial disparity are based. Refutes each…

  12. Racial and Disability Identity: Implications for the Career Counseling of African Americans with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mpofu, Elias; Harley, Debra A.

    2006-01-01

    Racial and disability identities are separate issues, yet they both contribute to the multiple social identities that influence career counseling outcomes for persons of color with disabilities. Few studies have examined the effects of racial and disability identity on the career outcomes of members of this group. This article discusses racial and…

  13. The What, the Why, and the How: A Review of Racial Microaggressions Research in Psychology

    PubMed Central

    Derthick, Annie O.; David, E. J. R.; Saw, Anne; Okazaki, Sumie

    2016-01-01

    Since the publication of Sue et al. (Am Psychol 62:271–286, 2007a, b) seminal article, there has been an enormous scholarly interest in psychology on this construct of racial microaggressions—subtle everyday experiences of racism. In this paper, we provide a review of racial microaggressions research literature in psychology since 2007, following the publication of the first comprehensive taxonomy of racial microaggressions, which provided a conceptual framework and directions for research related to racial microaggressions. However, our review suggests that important conceptual and methodological issues remain to be addressed in the three domains: (1) what are racial microaggressions and who do they impact; (2) why are racial microaggressions important to examine; and (3) how are racial microaggressions currently studied and how might we improve the methodologies used to study racial microaggressions. We propose recommendations to further facilitate racial microaggressions research, improve the scientific rigor of racial microaggressions research, and contribute toward a more complete and sophisticated understanding of the concept and consequences of racial microaggressions—a construct that is undoubtedly salient and psychologically relevant among many members of racial minority groups. PMID:26913088

  14. Racial Primes and Black Misandry on Historically White Campuses: Toward Critical Race Accountability in Educational Administration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, William A.; Yosso, Tara J.; Solorzano, Daniel G.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Racial primes are an outgrowth and inculcation of a well-structured, highly developed, racially conservative, "race-neutral" or "color-blind" racial socialization process in which children learn race-specific stereotypes about African Americans and other race/ethnic groups. As they get older, they continue to receive--both involuntary…

  15. Latino Immigrants and the U.S. Racial Order: How and where Do They Fit In?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frank, Reanne; Redstone Akresh, Ilana; Bo Lu,

    2010-01-01

    How do Latino immigrants in the United States understand existing racial categories? And how does the existing U.S. racial order influence this understanding? Using data from the New Immigrant Survey (NIS), our analysis points to changes in how the U.S. racial order might operate in the future. We find that most Latino immigrants recognize the…

  16. Relationships among Perceived Racial Stress, Intolerance of Uncertainty, and Worry in a Black Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rucker, LaTanya S.; West, Lindsey M.; Roemer, Lizabeth

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships among chronic worry, perceived racial stress, and intolerance of uncertainty in a sample of adults who racially identify as Black. Intolerance of uncertainty has been associated with worry and generalized anxiety disorder in predominantly White samples. Given that racial stress is likely…

  17. Racial Identity, Social Context, and Race-Related Social Cognition in African Americans during Middle Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowley, Stephanie J.; Burchinal, Margaret R.; Roberts, Joanne E.; Zeisel, Susan A.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the effect of changes in racial identity, cross-race friendships, same-race friendships, and classroom racial composition on changes in race-related social cognition from 3rd to 5th grade for 73 African American children. The goal of the study was to determine the extent to which preadolescent racial identity and social context…

  18. A Status Quo of Segregation: Racial and Economic Imbalance in New Jersey Schools, 1989-2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flaxman, Greg

    2013-01-01

    New Jersey has a curious status regarding school desegregation. It has had the nation's most venerable and strongest state law prohibiting racially segregated schooling and requiring racial balance in the schools whenever feasible. Yet, it simultaneously has had one of the worst records of racially imbalanced schools. Against the legal and…

  19. Racial Identity, Self-Esteem, and Academic Achievement: Too Much Interpretation, Too Little Supporting Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lockett, Charles T.; Harrell, Jules P.

    2003-01-01

    To examine the relationship between racial identity, self-esteem, and academic achievement, this study administered the Racial Identity Attitude Scale, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and a background questionnaire to African American students from a historically black college. Results showed that the unique effect of racial identity on academic…

  20. Racial Attitudes among Asian and European American College Students: A Cross-Cultural Examination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Timothy B.; Bowman, Raquel; Hsu, Sungti

    2007-01-01

    College campuses are becoming increasingly racially diverse and may provide an optimal setting for the reduction of racial stereotypes and prejudices perpetuated in society. To better understand racism among college students, this study evaluated the attitudes of Asian and White European Americans toward several racial out-groups. Participants…

  1. Physiologic Responses to Racial Rejection Images among Young Adults from African-American Backgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiang, Lisa; Blumenthal, Terry D.; Carlson, Erika N.; Lawson, Yolanda N.; Shell, J. Clark

    2009-01-01

    Physiologic reactivity to racially rejecting images was assessed in 35 young adults (10 males, 25 female) from African-American backgrounds using the startle probe paradigm. In a laboratory setting, participants viewed 16 images depicting racial rejection, racial acceptance, nonracial negative, and nonracial positive themes. While viewing these…

  2. Implicit Racial Biases in Preschool Children and Adults from Asia and Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qian, Miao K.; Heyman, Gail D.; Quinn, Paul C.; Messi, Francoise A.; Fu, Genyue; Lee, Kang

    2016-01-01

    This research used an Implicit Racial Bias Test to investigate implicit racial biases among 3- to 5-year-olds and adult participants in China (N = 213) and Cameroon (N = 257). In both cultures, participants displayed high levels of racial biases that remained stable between 3 and 5 years of age. Unlike adults, young children's implicit racial…

  3. Racial Perceptions of Young Children: A Review of Literature Post-1999

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cristol, Dean; Gimbert, Belinda

    2008-01-01

    It has been argued that intervention strategies designed to reduce racial prejudice in young children have been based on weak theoretical models of racial stereotyping and prejudice with little effect on the reduction of racial bias. This paper examines the social-cognitive and intergroup scholarship post-Bigler ("J Soc Issues 55"(4), 687-705,…

  4. Oxytocin receptor gene and racial ingroup bias in empathy-related brain activity.

    PubMed

    Luo, Siyang; Li, Bingfeng; Ma, Yina; Zhang, Wenxia; Rao, Yi; Han, Shihui

    2015-04-15

    The human brain responds more strongly to racial ingroup than outgroup individuals' pain. This racial ingroup bias varies across individuals and has been attributed to social experiences. What remains unknown is whether the racial ingroup bias in brain activity is associated with a genetic polymorphism. We investigated genetic associations of racial ingroup bias in the brain activity to racial ingroup and outgroup faces that received painful or non-painful stimulations by scanning A/A and G/G homozygous of the oxytocin receptor gene polymorphism (OXTR rs53576) using functional MRI. We found that G/G compared to A/A individuals showed stronger activity in the anterior cingulate and supplementary motor area (ACC/SMA) in response to racial ingroup members' pain, whereas A/A relative to G/G individuals exhibited greater activity in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) in response to racial outgroup members' pain. Moreover, the racial ingroup bias in ACC/SMA activity positively predicted participants' racial ingroup bias in implicit attitudes and NAcc activity to racial outgroup individuals' pain negatively predicted participants' motivations to reduce racial outgroup members' pain. Our results suggest that the two variants of OXTR rs53576 are associated with racial ingroup bias in brain activities that are linked to implicit attitude and altruistic motivation, respectively. PMID:25637390

  5. Racial Microaggressions in the Workplace: A Critical Race Analysis of the Experiences of African American Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeCuir-Gunby, Jessica T.; Gunby, Norris W., Jr.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of racial microaggressions, racial/ethnic identity, and coping, as they relate to job satisfaction. We found that the experiencing of racial microaggressions negatively affects job satisfaction and that educators in higher education contexts often engage in detachment coping. Job satisfaction was…

  6. Development and Validation of the Adolescent Racial and Ethnic Socialization Scale (ARESS) in African American Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Tiffany L.; Krishnakumar, Ambika

    2007-01-01

    Racial and ethnic socialization are an integral part of African American parenting strategies. Varied conceptualizations and operationalizations of racial and ethnic socialization exist within the literature with limited evidence of the validity of existing measures. The purpose of this study is to develop a comprehensive definition of racial and…

  7. Coloring outside the Lines: Racial Segregation in Public Schools and Their Attendance Boundaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saporito, Salvatore; Sohoni, Deenesh

    2006-01-01

    Scholars have debated whether students' enrollment in private schools changes levels of racial segregation across urban school districts. The authors examine this issue by comparing the actual racial composition of schools with the racial composition of school-aged children living in the corresponding attendance areas. They do so by linking maps…

  8. Construction and Initial Validation of the Color-Blind Racial Attitudes Scale (CoBRAS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neville, Helen A.; Lilly, Roderick L.; Duran, Georgia; Lee, Richard M.; Browne, LaVonne

    2000-01-01

    Describes development of a conceptually grounded scale to assess cognitive aspects of color-blind racial attitudes. Factor analysis suggests that the 3-factor model is a good fit of data. States that CoBRAS was positively related to other indexes of racial attitudes indicating that greater endorsement of color-blind racial attitudes was related to…

  9. The Marginalized "Model" Minority: An Empirical Examination of the Racial Triangulation of Asian Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Jun; Lee, Jennifer C.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we propose a shift in race research from a one-dimensional hierarchical approach to a multidimensional system of racial stratification. Building upon Claire Kim's (1999) racial triangulation theory, we examine how the American public rates Asians relative to blacks and whites along two dimensions of racial stratification: racial…

  10. Enhancing Campus Climates for Racial/Ethnic Diversity: Educational Policy and Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurtado, Sylvia; Milem, Jeffrey F.; Clayton-Pedersen, Alma R.; Allen, Walter R.

    1998-01-01

    Summarizes research findings on campus racial climate according to a four-dimensional model: (1) an institutions' historical legacy of inclusion/exclusion of various racial/ethnic groups; (2) structural diversity, or numerical representations of various racial/ethnic groups; (3) psychological climate (perceptions, attitudes among groups); and (4)…

  11. Reducing implicit racial preferences: II. Intervention effectiveness across time.

    PubMed

    Lai, Calvin K; Skinner, Allison L; Cooley, Erin; Murrar, Sohad; Brauer, Markus; Devos, Thierry; Calanchini, Jimmy; Xiao, Y Jenny; Pedram, Christina; Marshburn, Christopher K; Simon, Stefanie; Blanchar, John C; Joy-Gaba, Jennifer A; Conway, John; Redford, Liz; Klein, Rick A; Roussos, Gina; Schellhaas, Fabian M H; Burns, Mason; Hu, Xiaoqing; McLean, Meghan C; Axt, Jordan R; Asgari, Shaki; Schmidt, Kathleen; Rubinstein, Rachel; Marini, Maddalena; Rubichi, Sandro; Shin, Jiyun-Elizabeth L; Nosek, Brian A

    2016-08-01

    Implicit preferences are malleable, but does that change last? We tested 9 interventions (8 real and 1 sham) to reduce implicit racial preferences over time. In 2 studies with a total of 6,321 participants, all 9 interventions immediately reduced implicit preferences. However, none were effective after a delay of several hours to several days. We also found that these interventions did not change explicit racial preferences and were not reliably moderated by motivations to respond without prejudice. Short-term malleability in implicit preferences does not necessarily lead to long-term change, raising new questions about the flexibility and stability of implicit preferences. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27454041

  12. Racial Differences in Adolescents' Answering Questions About Suicide.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Laura M; Lowry, Lynda S; Wuensch, Karl L

    2015-01-01

    The present purpose was to examine racial differences in response rate and serious behavioral suicide risk based on the national Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance Survey (YRBS). Data from 15,245 adolescents (YRBS, 2011) were included. Survey items pertaining to making suicidal plans and attempting suicide were included. Significant differences in responding and content emerged, especially with regard to suicide attempts. Racial minority adolescents are at elevated risk for serious suicidal behaviors and are more likely to omit items pertaining to suicide attempts. African American adolescents rarely reported having attempted suicide, but they also frequently failed to respond to that question. PMID:26083790

  13. Racial microaggressions and difficult dialogues on race in the classroom.

    PubMed

    Sue, Derald Wing; Lin, Annie I; Torino, Gina C; Capodilupo, Christina M; Rivera, David P

    2009-04-01

    A qualitative study supports the observation that difficult dialogues on race and racism are often triggered by racial microaggressions that make their appearance in classroom encounters or educational activities and materials. Difficult dialogues are filled with strong powerful emotions that may prove problematic to both students and teachers. When poorly handled by teachers, difficult dialogues can assail the personal integrity of students of color while reinforcing biased worldviews of White students. The success or failure of facilitating difficult dialogues on race is intimately linked to the characteristics and actions of instructors and their ability to recognize racial microaggressions. Implications regarding specific education and training recommendations are presented. PMID:19364205

  14. I Also Said, "White Racial Identity Influences White Researchers."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helms, Janet E.

    1993-01-01

    Responds to earlier article by Mio and Iwamasa (1992) on white researchers investigating ethnic-minority populations and other cross-cultural issues. Briefly summarizes theory of white racial identity development as conceptualized by Helms and suggests some ways in which white scholar's stages might influence her or his scholarship endeavors.…

  15. School Choice and Segregation: "Tracking" Racial Equity in Magnet Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Tomeka M.

    2014-01-01

    Three arguments regarding racial equity have arisen in the school choice debate. Choice advocates charge that choice will improve access to quality schools for disadvantaged minority students (Chubb & Moe 1990; Coons & Sugarman, 1978; Godwin & Kemerer, 2002; Viteritti, 1999). Critics argue that choice is unlikely to benefit minority…

  16. Teacher Turnover: An Issue of Workgroup Racial Diversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sohn, Kitae

    2009-01-01

    One neglected aspect of the teacher labor supply is a recent increase in the proportion of minority teachers. Using the Schools and Staffing Survey and the Teacher Follow-up Survey, one can estimate the relationship between workgroup racial diversity and the turnover of White teachers. This approach finds that young White teachers are more likely…

  17. Socializing Respect and Knowledge in a Racially Integrated Science Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solis, Jorge; Kattan, Shlomy; Baquedano-Lopez, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    In this article we examine the socialization of respect in a racially integrated science classroom in Northern California that employed a character education program called Tribes. We focus on the ways scripts derived from this program are enacted during Community Circle activities and how breaches to these scripts and the norms of respectful…

  18. Academic Freedom and Racial Injustice: South Africa's Former "Open Universities"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Y.; Taylor, R.

    2010-01-01

    The article critically re-interrogates three high profile cases of white racism at South Africa's former "open universities" to highlight the way in which existing debates around academic freedom fail to come to terms with questions of racial injustice after apartheid. The cases covered are the Makgoba affair at Wits, the Mamdani affair at the…

  19. The Concerns about Counseling Racial Minority Clients Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wei, Meifen; Chao, Ruth Chu-Lien; Tsai, Pei-Chun; Botello-Zamarron, Raquel

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and validate the Concerns about Counseling Racial Minority Clients (CCRMC) scale among counselor trainees. Sample 1 was used for an exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis. Four factors were identified, Managing Cultural Differences ([alpha] = 0.82), Offending or Hurting Clients…

  20. Sustained Dialogue: How Students Are Changing Their Own Racial Climate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Priya Narayan

    2006-01-01

    Across American campuses, racial tension and other issues of diversity remain a major challenge. The majority of this country's institutions demonstrate that they value and promote diversity through efforts in affirmative action, minority student and faculty recruitment, minority retention, administration of special scholarships, diversity Web…

  1. Preschool Children's Understanding of Racial Cues in Drawings and Photographs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guerrero, Silvia; Enesco, Ileana; Lago, Oliva; Rodriguez, Purificacion

    2010-01-01

    Studies of the development of racial awareness have used--albeit asystematically--stimuli of varying degrees of realism (dolls, drawings, photographs). Although researchers have weighed the advantages and disadvantages of using one or the other type of material with young children, there are no empirical studies that determine whether the nature…

  2. Color and Physiognomy as Variables in Racial Misidentification Among Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gitter, A. G.; Satow, Yoichi

    This study investigated racial misidentification among children through the manipulation of two independent variables: skin color and physiognomy. Eighty 4- to 6-year-old children enrolled in Head Start Centers made up the sample. Color slides of three dolls each, with each set identical except for color and physiognomy, were used as stimuli…

  3. The Obama Era: A Post-Racial Society?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lum, Lydia

    2009-01-01

    With Barack Obama ensconced as the nation's first Black president, plenty of voices in the national conversation are trumpeting America as a post-racial society--that race matters much less than it used to, that the boundaries of race have been overcome, that racism is no longer a big problem. In this article, longtime scholars whose life's work…

  4. Building Racial Literacy in First-Year Composition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sealey-Ruiz, Yolanda

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to present a case for building racial literacy in students. The author offers support for her argument by foregrounding a three-month study she conducted in her community college first-year composition (FYC) classroom. She hopes that this article will contribute to the growing body of research that emphasizes the…

  5. The Ecology of Racial Discrimination in Housing: An Exploratory Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galster, George C.

    1987-01-01

    The spatial variation in racial housing market discrimination is investigated. Findings show that all-white areas and areas which are gaining in black residents have higher discrimination rates than black areas with stable populations. Housing agents discriminate when they fear losing business from prejudiced white clients. (VM)

  6. Racial Preferences and Scarce Resources: Implications of the Bakke Case.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griswold, Erwin N.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    A statement, three commentaries, and a panel discussion address the legal implications of results of the Bakke case concerning racial preference in college admission. Implications in areas other than education are examined. Available from Wash. Univ. School of Law, St. Louis, MO 63130. (MSE)

  7. Racial-Ethnic Biases, Time Pressure, and Medical Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stepanikova, Irena

    2012-01-01

    This study examined two types of potential sources of racial-ethnic disparities in medical care: implicit biases and time pressure. Eighty-one family physicians and general internists responded to a case vignette describing a patient with chest pain. Time pressure was manipulated experimentally. Under high time pressure, but not under low time…

  8. Racial Differences in Exposure and Reactivity to Daily Family Stressors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cichy, Kelly E.; Stawski, Robert S.; Almeida, David M.

    2012-01-01

    Using data from the National Study of Daily Experiences, the authors examined racial differences in exposure and reactivity to daily stressors involving family members. Respondents included African American and European American adults age 34 to 84 (N = 1,931) who participated in 8 days of daily interviews during which they reported on daily…

  9. Neighborhood Integration: Racial Differences among Social Psychological Indicators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Widgery, Robin N.

    Research in 37 neighborhoods in Flint, Michigan, investigated the association between the extent of racial integration in a neighborhood and residents' satisfaction with, awareness of, and attitudes toward various aspects of neighborhood and community life. The influence of demographic factors was also examined. The degree of neighborhood…

  10. Howard Beach Youth: A Study of Racial and Ethnic Attitudes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lichter, Linda S.; Lichter, S. Robert

    This assessment of the climate of racial and ethnic attitudes in Howard Beach (New York) was conducted at John Adams High School, the public school attended by the greatest number of high school children in the Howard Beach community. The survey of 1,217 students was administered in December, 1986, several weeks before the incident in which a…

  11. Academic, Racial and Mathematics Identities of African American College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, A'kilah Tienda

    2011-01-01

    This mixed-methods study examined the experiences of African American community college mathematics students' in the Nyame Scholars Program at Promise Community College. The purpose of the study was to identify through narrative analysis what aspects of the program impact students' racial, academic, and mathematics identities. A comparison group…

  12. Racial Regard as a Predictor for Hazing Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ester, Joyce Cryzant

    2009-01-01

    The practice of requiring others to engage in activities that humiliate, degrade, abuses, and/or endangers them in order to join an organization is becoming increasingly prevalent on college campuses and beyond. These activities have resulted in physical and emotional scars are well as lead to deaths. Using Racial Identity Theory and Social…

  13. Racism, College, and the Power of Words: Racial Microaggressions Reconsidered

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minikel-Lacocque, Julie

    2013-01-01

    Based on interview data from a collective case study, this article uses current notions of racial microaggressions to explore this "subtle" racism through the voices of six Latino/a students as they transition to a predominantly White university. Using critical race theory as a framework, I argue for greater understanding and increased use of the…

  14. Urbanism, Region, and Tolerance Revisited: The Case of Racial Prejudice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuch, Steven A.

    1987-01-01

    Using prejudice toward blacks as the outcome measure, analysis of national survey data for 1972 and 1985 indicates that: urbanites and non-Southerners are more racially tolerant than their non-urban and Southern counterparts; the net effects of urbanism on tolerance have increased over time while region effects have decreased; and urban to…

  15. Racial Mismatch in the Classroom: Beyond Black-White Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGrady, Patrick B.; Reynolds, John R.

    2013-01-01

    Previous research demonstrates that students taught by teachers of the same race and ethnicity receive more positive behavioral evaluations than students taught by teachers of a different race/ethnicity. Many researchers view these findings as evidence that teachers, mainly white teachers, are racially biased due to preferences stemming from…

  16. Stimulus Predifferentiation and Racial Attitude Change in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Phyllis A.

    The purposes of this study were (1) to investigate the possibility that children's racial attitudes could be modified by means of stimulus predifferentiation training, (2) to assess the developmental implications of such training, and (3) to assess the relative sensitivity of two different attitude measures to such manipulation. Subjects were 96…

  17. Race Salience and Essentialist Thinking in Racial Stereotype Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pauker, Kristin; Ambady, Nalini; Apfelbaum, Evan P.

    2010-01-01

    The authors explored the emergence and antecedents of racial stereotyping in 89 children ages 3-10 years. Children completed a number of matching and sorting tasks, including a measure designed to assess their knowledge and application of both positive and negative in-group and out-group stereotypes. Results indicate that children start to apply…

  18. Educating and Developing Leaders of Racially Diverse Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrd, Marilyn

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses the need to address issues emerging from racial differences in the workplace under the heading of leadership development. Traditionally leadership development centers on creating models of leadership, describing what constitutes effective leadership, and identifying skills and competencies that will improve the capacity to…

  19. The Racialistic Incidents Inventory: Measuring Awareness of Racialism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen-Claiborne, Joyce G.; Taylor, Jerome

    The Racialistic Incidents Inventory (RII) was developed to measure individual awareness of eight types of racialistic incidents. Racialistic incidents were defined as situations in which behaviors or attitudes are directed toward a particular racial/ethnic group; these may reflect racist or nonracist attitudes. The typology of incidents was…

  20. Racial disparities in preterm births. The role of urogenital infections.

    PubMed Central

    Fiscella, K

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the impact of urogenital infections on the racial gap between black and white women in preterm birth rates. METHODS: A computer-assisted search of the medical literature was conducted through MEDLINE aided by a manual bibliographic search of published articles and relevant books. Estimates of the relative risk for preterm birth were extracted from published studies for the following infections: N. gonorrhea, syphilis, trichomoniasis, Chlamydia trachomatis, Group B streptococcal vaginal colonization, asymptomatic bacteriuria, genital mycoplasmas, and bacterial vaginosis. Estimates of the prevalence among black and white women by race for each of these infections were extracted from published studies. The attributable risk for preterm birth for selected infections was then calculated for the black and white populations and the impact on the racial gap in preterm births was estimated. RESULTS: Only bacterial vaginosis and bacteriuria appear to be established risk factors for preterm births. Significantly higher rates of bacterial vaginosis among black women may account for nearly 30% of the racial gap in preterm births. Higher rates of bacteriuria among black women may account for roughly 5% of the gap. CONCLUSION: Although these findings are limited by the reliability of published estimates of prevalence and relative risk for these infections, treatment of infections during pregnancy, particularly bacterial vaginosis, offers hope for reducing the racial gap in preterm births. Images p104-a p110-a PMID:8606905

  1. Structure of Racial Attitudes in White Middle Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lerner, Richard M.; Knapp, John R.

    1976-01-01

    The study used three response-latitude format methods of Lerner et al. (1974) along with the item and forced-choice procedures of Lerner and Knapp (1976) to adequately ascertain the method independence of racial attitude assessment, and to ascertain appropriate inferences to be made about the structure of such attitudes in White adolescents. (RC)

  2. A Disrupting Darkness: Youth Resistance as Racial Wisdom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paperson, La

    2011-01-01

    This article considers what resistance accomplishes for a peer group of young women of color attending an urban high school in 2001, and from a perspective 10 years later in 2011. Their resistance is deeply racial yet troubles categorical race, nurtures new solidarities through old ethnicities, and sustains a network with important material value…

  3. Racializing and Concretizing Gramsci in Contemporary Adult Education Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookfield, Stephen

    2004-01-01

    This response to Mayo's book emphasizes its Gramscian aspects and explores two dimensions not addressed in the original. The first is Cornel West's attempt to racialize Gramsci and examine how his ideas might serve the interests of African-Americans. The second is Michael Newman and Ian Baptiste's exploration of the partisan, directive role of…

  4. Children Associate Racial Groups with Wealth: Evidence from South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Kristina R.; Shutts, Kristin; Kinzler, Katherine D.; Weisman, Kara G.

    2012-01-01

    Group-based social hierarchies exist in nearly every society, yet little is known about whether children understand that they exist. The present studies investigated whether 3- to 10-year-old children (N = 84) in South Africa associate higher status racial groups with higher levels of wealth, one indicator of social status. Children matched higher…

  5. The Neighborhood Context of Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Arrest

    PubMed Central

    KIRK, DAVID S.

    2008-01-01

    This study assesses the role of social context in explaining racial and ethnic disparities in arrest, with a focus on how distinct neighborhood contexts in which different racial and ethnic groups reside explain variations in criminal outcomes. To do so, I utilize a multilevel, longitudinal research design, combining individual-level data with contextual data from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN). Findings reveal that black youths face multiple layers of disadvantage relative to other racial and ethnic groups, and these layers work to create differences in arrest. At the family level, results show that disadvantages in the form of unstable family structures explain much of the disparities in arrest across race and ethnicity. At the neighborhood level, black youths tend to reside in areas with both significantly higher levels of concentrated poverty than other youths as well as lower levels of collective efficacy than white youths. Variations in neighborhood tolerance of deviance across groups explain little of the arrest disparities, yet tolerance of deviance does influence the frequency with which a crime ultimately ends in an arrest. Even after accounting for relevant demographic, family, and neighborhood-level predictors, substantial residual arrest differences remain between black youths and youths of other racial and ethnic groups. PMID:18390291

  6. Urban Inequality and Racial Differences in Risk for Violent Victimization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Like, Toya Z.

    2011-01-01

    Past research has shown that racial inequality in urban areas--Black and White residential segregation and economic inequality--is associated with increased levels of homicide offending and that victimization among Blacks yet serves as a protection mechanism against such violence among Whites. However, few studies have considered alternative…

  7. 'Racial Matching' in Fostering: The Challenge to Social Work Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhodes, Penny J.

    This book presents a case study of the introduction of a new policy of 'racial matching' in foster care, the matching of foster child and family on the basis of culture and race, and reviews the policy's implications for the recruitment of black foster caregivers. The report describes how the issue arose on the social work agenda, and how it was…

  8. Gender and Racial Gaps in Earnings among Recent College Graduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Liang

    2008-01-01

    Using a nationally representative sample of baccalaureate graduates from 1993 (B&B 93/97/03), I explore factors that contribute to the gender and racial gap in earnings among recent college graduate. Results indicate that college major remains the most significant factor in accounting for the gender gap in pay. Female graduates are still left…

  9. Stigma and Racial/Ethnic HIV Disparities: Moving toward Resilience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Earnshaw, Valerie A.; Bogart, Laura M.; Dovidio, John F.; Williams, David R.

    2013-01-01

    Prior research suggests that stigma plays a role in racial/ethnic health disparities. However, there is limited understanding about the mechanisms by which stigma contributes to HIV-related disparities in risk, incidence and screening, treatment, and survival and what can be done to reduce the impact of stigma on these disparities. We introduce…

  10. Stigma and Racial/Ethnic HIV Disparities: Moving Toward Resilience

    PubMed Central

    Earnshaw, Valerie A.; Bogart, Laura M.; Dovidio, John F.; Williams, Davird R.

    2013-01-01

    Prior research suggests that stigma plays a role in racial/ethnic health disparities. However, there is limited understanding about the mechanisms by which stigma contributes to HIV-related disparities in risk, incidence and screening, treatment, and survival and what can be done to reduce the impact of stigma on these disparities. We introduce the Stigma and HIV Disparities Model to describe how societal stigma related to race and ethnicity is associated with racial/ethnic HIV disparities via its manifestations at the structural level (e.g., residential segregation) as well as the individual level among perceivers (e.g., discrimination) and targets (e.g., internalized stigma). We then review evidence of these associations. Because racial/ethnic minorities at risk of and living with HIV often possess multiple stigmas (e.g., HIV-positive, substance use), we adopt an intersectionality framework and conceptualize interdependence among co-occurring stigmas. We further propose a resilience agenda and suggest that intervening on modifiable strength-based moderators of the association between societal stigma and disparities can reduce disparities. Strengthening economic and community empowerment and trust at the structural level, creating common ingroup identities and promoting contact with people living with HIV among perceivers at the individual level, and enhancing social support and adaptive coping among targets at the individual level can improve resilience to societal stigma and ultimately reduce racial/ethnic HIV disparities. PMID:23688090

  11. (Mixed) Race Matters: Racial Theory, Classification, and Campus Climate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wann, Chelsea Guillermo

    2013-01-01

    As the expanding post-civil rights multiracial population is likely to transform the demographics of American colleges and universities, its perceived growth is also misused to advance neo-conservative agendas and post-racial views about the declining significance of race. Politicized issues around multiraciality frame and impact the campus…

  12. Reexamination of Young Children's Racial Attitudes and Skin Tone Preferences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Phillip; Hernandez-Reif, Maria

    2009-01-01

    This study continues the line of research on children's racial preferences that dates to Kenneth and Mamie Clark's classic research that revealed that Black children preferred White dolls and attributed more positive characteristics to White dolls than to Black dolls. In the current research, the authors examined Black and White preschool…

  13. One Struggle through Individualism: Toward an Antiracist White Racial Identity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Croteau, James M.

    1999-01-01

    Understanding the collective versus individualistic viewpoint is important to understanding racism in America. The author applies lessons learned in dealing with homophobia to the matter of racism. Forming for oneself a white version of racial identity is the key to white's active personal involvement and identification with being anti-racist.…

  14. Blacks and Whites: An Experiment in Racial Indicators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flax, Michael J.

    This report deals with the question of racial equality, and attempts to present a balanced view of recent trends. The method of the report is to present indicator data for both blacks and whites over the period 1960 to 1968, relating to measurable social and economic matters. The data address such issues as: (1) comparisons of the levels of…

  15. Developing Principals as Racial Equity Leaders: A Mixed Method Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raskin, Candace F.; Krull, Melissa; Thatcher, Roberta

    2015-01-01

    This article will present information and research on how a college of education is intentionally developing principals to lead with confidence and racial competence. The nation's student achievement research is sobering: our current school systems widen already existing gaps between white students and students of color, (Darling-Hammond, L. 2004,…

  16. Helping or Hurting: Are Adolescent Intervention Programs Minimizing Racial Inequality?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Rachael

    2011-01-01

    In 1965, appalled by the racial disparity with respect to access to higher education, the federal government implemented the Higher Education Act. After more than 40 years of programmatic intervention, gaps persist. As such, this study analyzes two of the three original HEA programs--Upward Bound and Talent Search--focusing on race/ethnicity and…

  17. Psychiatric Inpatient MMPI Profiles: An Exploration for Potential Racial Bias.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Mark E.; Brems, Christiane

    1990-01-01

    Examined presence of racial bias in Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory's (MMPI) use with 22 Black and 22 White inpatient psychiatric patients. Found no statistically or clinically significant differences between 2 races on MMPI. Suggests that differences in previous studies may be attributable to variables other than race. (Author/PVV)

  18. Racial Counternarratives and Latina Epistemologies in Relational Organizing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonilla, Christopher Milk

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the perceptions and actions of working-class Latina family leaders as they promote their epistemological values during the community organizing of a "huerta" (vegetable garden) in an urban bilingual school. I focus on how their racial counternarratives are embedded in the intersected oppression of their local context…

  19. A Harassing Climate? Sexual Harassment and Campus Racial Climate Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundy-Wagner, Valerie; Winkle-Wagner, Rachelle

    2013-01-01

    In this conceptual paper, the authors discuss how research about sexual harassment and campus racial climates for undergraduate students is relegated to separate silos. Drawing on intersectionality and critical race feminist frameworks, the authors juxtapose these strands of research with attention to ethnicity/race and gender, highlighting how…

  20. Perceived Gender and Racial/Ethnic Barriers to STEM Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grossman, Jennifer M.; Porche, Michelle V.

    2014-01-01

    This mixed-methods study examined urban adolescents' perceptions of gender and racial/ethnic barriers to STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) success, and their meaning-making and coping regarding these experiences. The sample includes surveys from 1024 high school-aged students and interviews from 53 students. Logistic…

  1. Research on Racial Issues in American Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Christine I.

    This review of racial issues in American higher education identifies the quest for community amid diversity as the major challenges facing colleges and universities today. The literature reviewed is organized into three parts: (1) the demographics of equity and access in higher education; (2) the legacy of racism in higher education; and (3) the…

  2. Immigration and the New Racial Diversity in Rural America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lichter, Daniel T.

    2012-01-01

    This article highlights the new racial and ethnic diversity in rural America, which may be the most important but least anticipated population shift in recent demographic history. Ethnoracial change is central to virtually every aspect of rural America over the foreseeable future: agro-food systems, community life, labor force change, economic…

  3. Genetic counselors’ implicit racial attitudes and their relationship to communication

    PubMed Central

    Schaa, Kendra L; Roter, Debra L; Biesecker, Barbara B; Cooper, Lisa A; Erby, Lori H

    2015-01-01

    Objective Implicit racial attitudes are thought to shape interpersonal interactions and may contribute to health care disparities. This study explored the relationship between genetic counselors’ implicit racial attitudes and their communication during simulated genetic counseling sessions. Methods A nationally representative sample of genetic counselors completed a web-based survey that included the Race Implicit Association Test (IAT). A subset of these counselors (n=67) had participated in an earlier study in which they were video recorded counseling Black, Hispanic and non-Hispanic White simulated clients (SC) about their prenatal or cancer risks. The counselors’ IAT scores were related to their session communication through robust regression modeling. Results Genetic counselors showed a moderate to strong pro-White bias on the Race IAT (M=0.41, SD=0.35). Counselors with stronger pro-White bias were rated as displaying lower levels of positive affect (p<.05) and tended to use less emotionally responsive communication (p<.10) when counseling minority SCs. When counseling White SCs, pro-White bias was associated with lower levels of verbal dominance during sessions (p<.10). Stronger pro-White bias was also associated with more positive ratings of counselors’ nonverbal effectiveness by White SCs. Conclusions Implicit racial bias is associated with negative markers of communication in minority client sessions and may contribute to racial disparities in processes of care related to genetic services. PMID:25622081

  4. Racial Diversity in the Schools: A Necessary Evil?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markowitz, Linda; Puchner, Laurel

    2014-01-01

    White teachers see racial diversity in the schools as a "necessary evil." Common beliefs are that (1) Black students are saved by nurturing White teachers and well-behaved White children; and (2) White students learn from "disadvantaged" Black children the dual lesson of empathy and gratitude. A pilot project in the fall of…

  5. School Choice and Educational Opportunity: Rationales, Outcomes and Racial Disparities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ben-Porath, Sigal

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the rationales for school choice, and the significance of choice mechanisms for racial disparities in educational opportunities and outcomes. It identifies tensions between liberty-based rationales and equality-based rationales, and surveys research findings on the outcomes of school choice policies, especially with regard to…

  6. Immigration and the New Racial Diversity in Rural America*

    PubMed Central

    Lichter, Daniel T.

    2012-01-01

    This article highlights the new racial and ethnic diversity in rural America, which may be the most important but least anticipated population shift in recent demographic history. Ethnoracial change is central to virtually every aspect of rural America over the foreseeable future: agro-food systems, community life, labor force change, economic development, schools and schooling, demographic change, intergroup relations, and politics. The goal here is to plainly illustrate how America’s racial and ethnic transformation has emerged as an important dimension of ongoing U.S. urbanization and urbanism, growing cultural and economic heterogeneity, and a putative “decline in community” in rural America. Rural communities provide a natural laboratory for better understanding the implications of uneven settlement and racial diversity, acculturation, and economic and political incorporation among Hispanic newcomers. This article raises the prospect of a new racial balkanization and outlines key impediments to full incorporation of Hispanics into rural and small town community life. Immigration and the new ethnoracial diversity will be at the leading edge of major changes in rural community life as the nation moves toward becoming a majority-minority society by 2042. PMID:26478602

  7. The Common Experience of "Otherness:" Ethnic and Racial Minority Faculty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadao, Kathleen C.; Johnsrud, Linda K.

    1998-01-01

    A study identified commonalities in the experiences of ethnic and racial minority faculty members at a predominantly white research university in Hawai'i. Despite the heterogeneity of minority faculty, common experiences include (1) the bicultural stance cultivated; (2) ethnocentrism perceived; (3) and discriminatory behavior experienced. The…

  8. Race Bending: "Mixed" Youth Practicing Strategic Racialization in California

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollock, Mica

    2004-01-01

    As more U.S. youth claim "mixed" heritages, some adults are proposing to erase race words altogether from the nation's inequality analysis. Yet such proposals, as detailed ethnography shows, ignore the complex realities of continuing racialized practice. At an urban California high school in the 1990s, "mixed" youth strategically employed simple…

  9. 12. THE DIVISION OF STOCKHAM'S WORKFORCE FELL MOSTLY ALONG RACIAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. THE DIVISION OF STOCKHAM'S WORKFORCE FELL MOSTLY ALONG RACIAL BOUNDARIES. THESE WHITE COLLAR WORKERS TYPIFIED THE MAKEUP OF ENGINEERING, ACCOUNTING, SALES, AND SUPERVISORY STAFFS OF THE FIRM CA. 1950. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  10. Promising or Potentially Harmful? Suburban School Responses to Racial Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayscue, Jennifer B.

    2016-01-01

    Over the last several decades, suburban schools have become increasingly more diverse and now must respond to racial change, so that they can successfully educate an increasingly more diverse and multiracial student body. This article analyzes interview responses of administrators, teachers, and staff at 19 schools in six diversifying suburban…

  11. Racial and Ethnic Identity. Psychological Development and Creative Expression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Herbert W., Ed.; And Others

    Racial and ethnic identity must be understood as an important determinant of the creative process and social dynamics, as well as understood as individual psychology. This collection of papers examines identity issues in the following chapters: (1) "Roots and Routes: Black Identity as an Outernational Project" (Paul Gilroy); (2) "Identity as…

  12. Gender and Racial Bias in Juvenile Computer Books.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Kay; Bishop, Jennifer

    2000-01-01

    This action research study looks at a sample of 30 juvenile computer books from the past 30 years and analyzes the illustrations for evidence of gender and racial bias as well as career depiction. Examines the gender of authors and illustrators and discusses library media implications. (Author/LRW)

  13. Racial Presentation in Children's Comics: No Laughing Matter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bidmead, Pat; Leicester, Mal

    2001-01-01

    Explored the nature and degree of racial bias in comics for children of all ages. Results revealed a visual bias against black groups in five key areas (numerical inclusion, suggested level of intellectual capacity, cultural stereotyping, and negative historical and geographic presentation). Black characters were not shown in leadership or hero…

  14. The Existence of Implicit Racial Bias in Nursing Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzsimmons, Kathleen A.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the existence of implicit racial bias in nursing faculty using the Implicit Association Test (IAT). It was conducted within a critical race theory framework where race was seen as a permanent, pervasive, and systemic condition, not an individual process. The study was fueled by data showing continued disparate academic and…

  15. Psychoanalytic Ethnography and the Transformation of Racially Wounded Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanfield, John H., II

    2006-01-01

    This paper first defines race and related dehumanizing experiences and then explores the history of the study of Blacks in ethnography and in psychoanalysis before addressing the primary focus: psychoanalytical ethnography. Psychoanalytical ethnography is valuable for transforming racially wounded communities into vibrant open communities through…

  16. Facing Race: 2006 Legislative Report Card on Racial Equity. California

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krajcer, Menachem; Johnson, Tammy

    2006-01-01

    This Legislative Report Card assesses how California's governor and Legislature have handled bills it says affected racial inequities--or might have if they had been signed into law. The report examines an eclectic collection of bills that addressed the minimum wage, the creation of a single-payer health care system and other issues in education,…

  17. Asian American Educational Goals: Racial Barriers and Cultural Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Yung-Lung; Fouad, Nadya A.

    2013-01-01

    Educational success among Asian American students has often been misunderstood as an occupational development separate from any experience of racism. However, several theorists have suggested that racial barriers in occupational mobility correlate with educational pursuits. Therefore, this research aims to examine the direct effect of perceived…

  18. Patterns of Racial-Ethnic Exclusion by Internet Daters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robnett, Belinda; Feliciano, Cynthia

    2011-01-01

    Using data from 6070 U.S. heterosexual internet dating profiles, this study examines how racial and gender exclusions are revealed in the preferences of black, Latino, Asian and white online daters. Consistent with social exchange and group positions theories, the study finds that whites are least open to out-dating and that, unlike blacks, Asians…

  19. Racial Differences in Men's Attitudes about Women's Gender Roles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blee, Kathleen M.; Tickamyer, Ann R.

    1995-01-01

    African American and white men's attitudes toward gender roles, changes in gender role attitude, and maternal and life course influences on gender role attitude are examined. Findings indicate that there are racial differences in attitude, that attitudes change over time, and that individual status and life course processes influence attitudes.…

  20. Neighborhood Matters: Racial Socialization of African American Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caughy, Margaret O'Brien; Nettles, Saundra Murray; O'Campo, Patricia J.; Lohrfink, Kimberly Fraleigh

    2006-01-01

    Differences in racial socialization practices and their effects were examined in a sample of 241 African American 1st graders (average age 6.59 years) living in an urban area. Child outcomes included cognitive development, receptive language skills, and child problem behavior. The cultural environment of the home was associated with higher…

  1. Campus Racial Politics and a "Rhetoric of Injury"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoang, Haivan V.

    2009-01-01

    If college writing faculty wish to prepare students to engage in civic forums, then how might we prepare students to write and speak amid racial politics on our campuses? This article explores the college student discourse that shaped an interracial conflict at a public California university in 2002 and questions the "rhetoric of injury" informing…

  2. Racial Differences in High School Math Track Assignment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballon, Estela Godinez

    2008-01-01

    Curriculum tracking continues as an entrenched part of schooling despite a substantial amount of research that shows educational advantages for college-track students and disadvantages for non-college-track students. This study examined racial/ethnic differences in the odds of being in the college and honors math tracks in high school and was…

  3. Racial Discrimination and Asian Mental Health: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Debbiesiu L.; Ahn, Soyeon

    2011-01-01

    Although research on racial discrimination and mental health has proliferated, findings are varied and dispersed. This study explored the critical question of how Asians, in particular, deal with discrimination and how this relates to Asian mental health. With 99 correlations from 23 independent studies, the overall relationship between racial…

  4. Perspective taking combats automatic expressions of racial bias.

    PubMed

    Todd, Andrew R; Bodenhausen, Galen V; Richeson, Jennifer A; Galinsky, Adam D

    2011-06-01

    Five experiments investigated the hypothesis that perspective taking--actively contemplating others' psychological experiences--attenuates automatic expressions of racial bias. Across the first 3 experiments, participants who adopted the perspective of a Black target in an initial context subsequently exhibited more positive automatic interracial evaluations, with changes in automatic evaluations mediating the effect of perspective taking on more deliberate interracial evaluations. Furthermore, unlike other bias-reduction strategies, the interracial positivity resulting from perspective taking was accompanied by increased salience of racial inequalities (Experiment 3). Perspective taking also produced stronger approach-oriented action tendencies toward Blacks (but not Whites; Experiment 4). A final experiment revealed that face-to-face interactions with perspective takers were rated more positively by Black interaction partners than were interactions with nonperspective takers--a relationship that was mediated by perspective takers' increased approach-oriented nonverbal behaviors (as rated by objective, third-party observers). These findings indicate that perspective taking can combat automatic expressions of racial biases without simultaneously decreasing sensitivity to ongoing racial disparities. PMID:21381852

  5. State Survey on Racial and Ethnic Classifications. Statistical Analysis Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carey, Nancy; Rowand, Cassandra; Farris, Elizabeth

    The State Survey on Racial and Ethnic Classifications was conducted for the National Center for Education Statistics and the Office for Civil Rights in the U.S. Department of Education as part of the research associated with the comprehensive review of an Office of Management and Budget (OMB) directive on race and ethnic standards for federal…

  6. Racial Variation in the Effect of Incarceration on Neighborhood Attainment

    PubMed Central

    Massoglia, Michael; Firebaugh, Glenn; Warner, Cody

    2013-01-01

    Each year, more than 700,000 convicted offenders are released from prison and reenter neighborhoods across the country. Prior studies have found that minority ex-inmates tend to reside in more disadvantaged neighborhoods than do white ex-inmates. However, because these studies do not control for pre-prison neighborhood conditions, we do not know how much (if any) of this racial variation is due to arrest and incarceration, or if these observed findings simply reflect existing racial residential inequality. Using a nationally representative dataset that tracks individuals over time, we find that only whites live in significantly more disadvantaged neighborhoods after prison than prior to prison. Blacks and Hispanics do not, nor do all groups (whites, blacks, and Hispanics) as a whole live in worse neighborhoods after prison. We attribute this racial variation in the effect of incarceration to the high degree of racial neighborhood inequality in the United States: because white offenders generally come from much better neighborhoods, they have much more to lose from a prison spell. In addition to advancing our understanding of the social consequences of the expansion of the prison population, these findings demonstrate the importance of controlling for preprison characteristics when investigating the effects of incarceration on residential outcomes. PMID:24367134

  7. Racial Differences in Attitudes toward Direct Reference Political Advertising.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Thomas F.; Surlin, Stuart H.

    Random telephone surveys in a northern and a southern city were initiated to determine attitudes toward "informative" and "direct reference" mass media political advertisements. Responses were organized in regional, social, and racial categories. The results quantified reactions to the two types of political messages of blacks and whites from…

  8. Racial Socialization and Girls' Adjustment: How Mothers Promote Healthy Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gyamfi, Phyllis; O'Connor, Lisa

    This study identified the associations between maternal racial socialization practices and child developmental outcomes by examining the effect of poverty, maternal temperament, positive affect, and social support on socialization. The sample included 51 8- and 9-year-old African American girls of various socioeconomic levels from the Girls'…

  9. Racial Differences in Eighth Grade Students' Identification with Academics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Joshua S.; Estudillo, Antonio G.; Kang, Hyunchang

    2011-01-01

    Having a positive attitude about school, valuing school, and being intrinsically motivated is associated with higher grades, graduation, and college attendance. However, the literature reveals that these characteristics and attitudes are not uniform across race, class, and gender. The purpose of the current study was to examine racial differences…

  10. From Black to Biracial: Transforming Racial Identity among Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korgen, Kathleen Odell

    This book describes the transformation in the racial self-identification of Americans who have both an African American and a white parent. Using data from extensive research and interviews, the book examines how the transformation has its roots in the historical and cultural transitions in U.S. society since the civil rights era. Chapter 1,…

  11. New Perspectives; A Bibliography of Racial, Ethnic and Feminist Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haller, Elizabeth S., Comp.; And Others

    This is an annotated bibliography compiled to help school personnel locate resources to develop effective school programs which support sex equality and ethnic/racial pluralism. It is an update of "American Diversity" (1969,1971) and of "Images of Women" (1973). The bibliography is divided into two parts: Part I includes entries for the major…

  12. Racial and Ethnic Differences: Sociocultural and Contextual Explanations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chao, Ruth K.; Otsuki-Clutter, Michiko

    2011-01-01

    With the increasing focus on racial and ethnic diversity in studies of adolescence, this review highlights trends in this research over the past decade. Not only is the sheer number of studies incorporating diverse youth increasing, this research has penetrated many areas of the study of adolescence. Some of this research has attempted to…

  13. Know Your Role: Black College Students, Racial Identity, and Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Dafina-Lazarus

    2015-01-01

    This article is a report of a critical constructivist study of racial identity and performance among 13 Black, traditional-age students enrolled at three different colleges, two historically Black and one predominantly White. The study's approach understood identity to be socially constructed and reliant upon community affirmation and…

  14. Regulating Racial Harassment on Campus: A Legal Compendium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hustoles, Thomas P., Ed.; Connolly, Walter B., Jr., Ed.

    The purpose of this compendium is to provide tools for college and university counsel and administrators to consider their institution's approach concerning the balance of First Amendment values with the harm caused by racial harassment. Section I examines the development of the University of Michigan's initial policy broadly regulating…

  15. Virtual Black Spaces: An Anthropological Exploration of African American Online Communities' Racial and Political Agency amid Virtual Universalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heyward, Kamela S.

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation examines the strategic practice of virtual racial embodiment, as a case study of African Americans attempting to complicate current constructions of race and social justice in new media. I suggest that dominant racial constructions online teeter between racial stereotypes and the absence of race. Virtual racial classification and…

  16. Color-blind racial ideology: theory, training, and measurement implications in psychology.

    PubMed

    Neville, Helen A; Awad, Germine H; Brooks, James E; Flores, Michelle P; Bluemel, Jamie

    2013-09-01

    Synthesizing the interdisciplinary literature, we characterize color-blind racial ideology (CBRI) as consisting of two interrelated domains: color-evasion (i.e., denial of racial differences by emphasizing sameness) and power-evasion (i.e., denial of racism by emphasizing equal opportunities). Mounting empirical data suggest that the color-evasion dimension is ineffective and in fact promotes interracial tension and potential inequality. CBRI may be conceived as an ultramodern or contemporary form of racism and a legitimizing ideology used to justify the racial status quo. Four types of CBRI are described: denial of (a) race, (b) blatant racial issues, (c) institutional racism, and (d) White privilege. We discuss empirical findings suggesting a relationship between CBRI and increased racial prejudice, racial anger, and racial fear. Implications for education, training, and research are provided. PMID:24016116

  17. Racial Differences in Three Major NHL Subtypes: Descriptive Epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Danhui; Ma, Shuangge

    2014-01-01

    Background NHL (non-Hodgkin lymphoma) consists of over 60 subtypes, ranging from slow-growing to very aggressive. The three largest subtypes are DLBCL (diffuse large B-cell lymphoma), FL (follicular lymphoma), and CLL/SLL (chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma). For each subtype, different racial groups have different presentations, etiologies, and prognosis patterns. Methods SEER (Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results) data on DLBCL, FL, and CLL/SLL patients diagnosed between 1992 and 2010 were analyzed. Racial groups studied included NHW (non-Hispanic whites), HW (Hispanic whites), blacks, and API (Asians and Pacific Islanders). Patient characteristics, age-adjusted incidence rate, and survival were compared across races. Stratification and multivariate analysis were conducted. Results There are significant racial differences for patients’ characteristics, including gender, age at diagnosis, stage, lymph site, and age, and the patterns vary across subtypes. NHWs have the highest incidence rates for all three subtypes, followed by HWs (DLBCL and FL) and blacks (CLL/SLL). The dependence of the incidence rate on age and gender varies across subtypes. For all three subtypes, NHWs have the highest five-year relative survival rates, followed by HWs. When stratified by stage, racial difference is significant in multiple multivariate Cox regression analyses. Conclusions Racial differences exist among DLBCL, FL, and CLL/SLL patients in the U.S. in terms of characteristics, incidence, and survival. The patterns vary across subtypes. More data collection and analysis are needed to more comprehensively describe and interpret the across-race and subtype differences. PMID:25560974

  18. Racial Bias in Neural Empathic Responses to Pain

    PubMed Central

    Contreras-Huerta, Luis Sebastian; Baker, Katharine S.; Reynolds, Katherine J.; Batalha, Luisa; Cunnington, Ross

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that perceiving the pain of others activates brain regions in the observer associated with both somatosensory and affective-motivational aspects of pain, principally involving regions of the anterior cingulate and anterior insula cortex. The degree of these empathic neural responses is modulated by racial bias, such that stronger neural activation is elicited by observing pain in people of the same racial group compared with people of another racial group. The aim of the present study was to examine whether a more general social group category, other than race, could similarly modulate neural empathic responses and perhaps account for the apparent racial bias reported in previous studies. Using a minimal group paradigm, we assigned participants to one of two mixed-race teams. We use the term race to refer to the Chinese or Caucasian appearance of faces and whether the ethnic group represented was the same or different from the appearance of the participant' own face. Using fMRI, we measured neural empathic responses as participants observed members of their own group or other group, and members of their own race or other race, receiving either painful or non-painful touch. Participants showed clear group biases, with no significant effect of race, on behavioral measures of implicit (affective priming) and explicit group identification. Neural responses to observed pain in the anterior cingulate cortex, insula cortex, and somatosensory areas showed significantly greater activation when observing pain in own-race compared with other-race individuals, with no significant effect of minimal groups. These results suggest that racial bias in neural empathic responses is not influenced by minimal forms of group categorization, despite the clear association participants showed with in-group more than out-group members. We suggest that race may be an automatic and unconscious mechanism that drives the initial neural responses to observed pain in

  19. Beyond Post-Racial Narratives: Barack Obama and the (Re)shaping of Racial Memory in US Schools and Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, William L.; Brown, Anthony L.

    2014-01-01

    Drawing from the work of "cultural memory" and "racial formation theory" (Omi and Winant 1994) we explore the ascension of Barack Obama as an illustration of how "race" is understood and remembered. This article focuses on the public media discourse of the 2012 Obama re-election to illustrate how the narrative morphed…

  20. Increasing Ethical Sensitivity to Racial and Gender Intolerance in Schools: Development of the REST (Racial Ethical Sensitivity Test).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brabeck, Mary M.; McCubbin, Laurie; Rogers, Lauren A.; Ting, Kathleen; Warner, Chris; Sirin, Selcuk; Weaver, Monica

    An effort to develop a measure of ethical sensitivity to acts of racial and gender intolerance that occur in school settings is described. The rationale and theory on which the instrument is based is derived from the work of J. Rest (1983) that outlines four psychological components of morality: (1) ethical sensitivity; (2) moral judgment; (3)…

  1. Making cross-racial therapy work: A phenomenological study of clients’ experiences of cross-racial therapy

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Doris F.; Berk, Alexandra

    2010-01-01

    A phenomenological/consensual qualitative study of clients’ lived experiences of cross-racial therapy was conducted to enhance our understanding of whether, how, and under what conditions race matters in the therapy relationship. The sample consisted of 16 racial/ethnic minority clients who received treatment from 16 White, European American therapists across a range of treatment settings. Participants who reported a satisfying experience of cross-racial therapy (n=8) were examined in relation to gender- and in most cases, race/ethnicity-matched controls (n=8) who reported an overall unsatisfying experience. Therapy satisfaction was assessed during the screening process and confirmed during the research interview. Therapy narratives were analyzed using consensual qualitative research to identify the client, therapist, and relational factors that distinguished satisfied from unsatisfied cases. Findings reveal substantial differences at the level of individual characteristics and relational processes, providing evidence of both universal (etic) as well as culture/context-specific (emic) aspects of healing relationships. Recommendations for facilitating positive alliance formation in cross-racial therapy are provided based on clients’ descriptions of facilitative conditions in the therapy relationship. PMID:20414342

  2. Beyond and below racial homophily: ERG models of a friendship network documented on Facebook.

    PubMed

    Wimmer, Andreas; Lewis, Kevin

    2010-09-01

    A notable feature of U.S. social networks is their high degree of racial homogeneity, which is often attributed to racial homophily--the preference for associating with individuals of the same racial background. The authors unpack racial homogeneity using a theoretical framework that distinguishes between various tie formation mechanisms and their effects on the racial composition of networks, exponential random graph modeling that can disentangle these mechanisms empirically, and a rich new data set based on the Facebook pages of a cohort of college students. They first show that racial homogeneity results not only from racial homophily proper but also from homophily among coethnics of the same racial background and from balancing mechanisms such as the tendency to reciprocate friendships or to befriend the friends of friends, which both amplify the homogeneity effects of homophily. Then, they put the importance of racial homophily further into perspective by comparing its effects to those of other mechanisms of tie formation. Balancing, propinquity based on coresidence, and homophily regarding nonracial categories (e.g., students from "elite" backgrounds or those from particular states) all influence the tie formation process more than does racial homophily. PMID:21563364

  3. Can Racial Disparity in Health between Black and White Americans Be Attributed to Racial Disparities in Body Weight and Socioeconomic Status?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahng, Sang Kyoung

    2010-01-01

    Few studies have examined to what extent racial disparities in chronic health conditions (CHCs) are attributable to racial differences in body weight (measured as body mass index [BMI]) and socioeconomic status (SES) among older adults. To address this gap, using longitudinal data from the Health and Retirement Study, the current study examined…

  4. A Test of Stability and Construct Validity of the Black Racial Identity Attitude Scale, Form B (RIAS-B) and the White Racial Identity Attitude Scale (WRIAS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemon, Rochelle L.; Waehler, Charles A.

    1996-01-01

    Found that the test-retest reliabilities of two measures--(RIAS-B) and (WRIAS)--imply that racial identity may reflect more state characteristics (conditions or events) than trait characteristics (stable). Measures of self-derogation, self-esteem, and ethnic identity were also correlated with the racial identity scales. (RJM)

  5. Psychometric properties of scores on three Black racial identity scales.

    PubMed

    Simmons, Crystal; Worrell, Frank C; Berry, Jane M

    2008-09-01

    In this study, we examined the internal consistency and the structural validity of scores on the African Self-Consciousness Scale (ASCS), the Multidimensional Inventory of Black Identity (MIBI), and the Cross Racial Identity Scale (CRIS). Participants consisted of 225 African American college students--75 attending predominantly White institutions (PWIs) and 150 attending historically Black colleges and universities (HBCUs). Internal consistency estimates were above .60 for scores on one ASCS subscale, six MIBI subscales, and six CRIS subscales. Exploratory factor analytic procedures supported a two-factor structure for ASCS scores, a five-factor structure for MIBI scores, and a six-factor structure for CRIS scores. Implications for Black racial identity and scale development are discussed. PMID:18362185

  6. Miles to Go Before We Sleep: Racial Inequities in Health

    PubMed Central

    Williams, David R.

    2013-01-01

    Large, pervasive and persistent racial inequalities exist in the onset, course and outcomes of illness. A comprehensive understanding of the patterning of racial disparities indicates that racism in both its institutional and individual forms remains an important determinant. Despite our extensive knowledge of the magnitude, trends and determinants of these social inequalities in health, there is still much that we need to learn about the forces that drive them. There is also an even greater opportunity to build the science base that would identify how to trigger the conditions that would facilitate needed societal change, and identify the optimal interventions that would confront and dismantle the societal conditions that create and sustain health inequalities. PMID:22940811

  7. Race Salience and Essentialist Thinking in Racial Stereotype Development

    PubMed Central

    Pauker, Kristin; Ambady, Nalini; Apfelbaum, Evan P.

    2010-01-01

    The authors explored the emergence and antecedents of racial stereotyping in 89 children ages 3–10 years. Children completed a number of matching and sorting tasks, including a measure designed to assess their knowledge and application of both positive and negative in-group and out-group stereotypes. Results indicate that children start to apply stereotypes to the out-group starting around 6 years of age. Controlling for a number of factors, two predictors contributed significantly towards uniquely explaining the use of these stereotypes: race salience (i.e., seeing and organizing by race) and essentialist thinking (i.e., believing that race cannot change). These results provide insight into how and when real-world interventions aimed at altering the acquisition of racial stereotypes may be implemented. PMID:21077865

  8. Racial differences in adolescent coping and self-esteem.

    PubMed

    Chapman, P L; Mullis, R L

    2000-06-01

    Racial differences in coping strategies and self-esteem were examined for 361 male and female adolescents in Grades 7-12. Coping strategies were assessed with the Adolescent Coping Orientation for Problem Experiences (J. M. Patterson & H. I. McCubbin, 1986). Self-esteem was assessed by the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory (S. Coopersmith, 1987). Multivariate analysis revealed racial differences in adolescent coping strategies of ventilating feelings, seeking diversions, developing self-reliance, avoiding problems, seeking spiritual support, investing in close friends, engaging in demanding activities, solving family problems, and relaxing. In particular, African American adolescents reported using diversions, self-reliance, spiritual support, close friends, demanding activities, family problems, and relaxation more frequently than Caucasian adolescents did. Implications for professionals and recommendations for future research are discussed. PMID:10851678

  9. Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Pediatric Mental Health

    PubMed Central

    Alegria, Margarita; Vallas, Melissa; Pumariega, Andres

    2010-01-01

    Disparities remain in mental health status and care for racial and ethnic minority youth, despite national attention to disparity reduction. This paper offers a comprehensive picture of the status of pediatric disparities, by addressing the major areas affecting minority youth mental health, including: prevention of problems, need for services, access to care, mental health treatment types and treatment outcomes. It addresses relevant factors in the family, community and socioeconomic context, and describes various local and national programs that aim to tackle the obstacles and fill the gaps in high quality care for racial/ethnic minority youth. It concludes by offering recommendations for improvement which acknowledge the importance of understanding preferences and attitudes towards treatment, ensuring that screening and diagnosis is appropriate to minority youth, and ensuring that evidence-based programs are available at multiple levels to best service children and succeed in addressing their needs. PMID:21056345

  10. Racialized masculinities and the new homonormativity in LOGO's Noah's Arc.

    PubMed

    Yep, Gust A; Elia, John P

    2012-01-01

    Examining the relationship between neoliberalism, race, and gender performance, this article provides an analysis of Noah's Arc, a popular LOGO television series in the United States. More specifically, it focuses on the intricate relationship between specific forms of racialized masculinities and the new homonormativity in this show. This article is divided into six sections. First, an overview of the LOGO series is provided. Next, gay, lesbian, and queer visibility in mainstream U.S. popular culture and the new homonormativity are examined. Third, the relationship between race and masculinity is discussed. Next, a close reading and analysis of the show is provided. Fifth, an exploration of how representations of Noah's Arc queers and "quares" Black masculinity in U.S. culture is undertaken. Finally, some concluding thoughts on representations of racialized masculinities and homonormativity in this popular television series are offered. PMID:22925051

  11. Quality of care and racial health disparities: a strategic overview.

    PubMed

    Chassin, Mark R; Anderson, Rebecca M

    2008-01-01

    Substantial racial and ethnic disparities in health and health care exist in the United States. The Department of Health Policy at the Mount Sinai School of Medicine has developed a strategy for reducing those disparities that builds upon its quality improvement experience. This article discusses the utility of applying quality improvement principles to the development of interventions to eliminate underuse of effective treatments and reduce the disparities that may arise from this quality problem. We present a conceptual model of racial disparities in health and our underuse hypothesis. Parallels between our disparities research strategy and six sigma quality improvement methods are described. Finally, the article provides an example of how we have been able to successfully implement proven-effective health improvement programs in the Harlem community even after grant funding has ended. PMID:18306237

  12. The provision of racially aware healthcare services in prisons.

    PubMed

    Tysoe, Elizabeth

    In a report published in 2005 the Inspectorate of Prisons explored the fact that many black and minority ethnic (BME) prisoners have poor perceptions of their treatment in all areas of prison life. It also attempted to identify barriers that still exist to delivering race equality in prisons and examined the extent to which prison healthcare departments are providing a racially aware health service that assesses and meets individual needs. PMID:16826944

  13. Racial Disparities Among Lung Cancer Patients Recommended Operative Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Farjah, Farhood; Wood, Douglas E.; Yanez, N. David; Vaughan, Thomas L.; Symons, Rebecca Gaston; Krishnadasan, Bahirathan; Flum, David R.

    2009-01-01

    Hypothesis Healthcare system/provider biases and differences in patient characteristics are thought to be prevailing factors underlying racial disparities. The influence of these factors on the receipt of care would likely be mitigated among patients recommended optimal therapy. We hypothesized that there would be no significant evidence of racial disparities among early-stage lung cancer patients recommended surgical therapy. Design Retrospective cohort study. Patients and Setting Patients within the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End-Results-Medicare database diagnosed with stage I or II lung cancer between 1992 and 2002 (follow-up through 2005). Main Outcome Measures Receipt of lung resection and overall survival. Results Among 17,739 patients recommended surgical therapy—mean (SD) age 75 (5) years, 89% white, 6% black—blacks less frequently underwent resection compared to whites (69% versus 83%, p<0.001). After adjustment, black race was associated with a lower odds of receiving surgical therapy (OR 0.43, 99% CI 0.36-0.52). Unadjusted 5-year survival rates were lower for blacks compared to whites (36% versus 42%, p<0.001). After adjustment, there was no significant association between race and death (HR 1.03, 99% CI 0.92-1.14) despite a 14% difference in receipt of optimal therapy. Conclusions Even among patients recommend surgical therapy, blacks underwent lung resection less often then whites. Unexpectedly, racial differences in the receipt of optimal therapy did not appear to affect outcomes. These findings suggest that distrust, beliefs and perceptions about lung cancer and its treatment, and limited access to care (despite insurance) might have a more dominant role in perpetuating racial disparities than previously recognized. PMID:19153319

  14. Racial disparities in outcomes after spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Lad, Shivanand P; Umeano, Odera A; Karikari, Isaac O; Somasundaram, Aravind; Bagley, Carlos A; Gottfried, Oren N; Isaacs, Robert E; Ugiliweneza, Beatrice; Patil, Chirag G; Huang, Kevin; Boakye, Maxwell

    2013-03-15

    Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) is an acute trauma to the neural elements resulting in temporary or permanent sensory and motor deficit. Studies have indicated that although 66% of SCI occur in Caucasians, there are a growing number of other racial groups affected by SCI. Furthermore, there has been a lack of research concerning racial disparities in outcomes following SCI. As such, a retrospective analysis using the National Trauma Data Bank (NTDB) from 2000 to 2009 was performed. African Americans, Caucasians, Hispanics, Asians, and Native Americans were included in the study. We calculated adjusted odds ratios (OR) to examine the relationship between racial backgrounds and mortality, length of intensive care unit (ICU) stay, length of hospital stay, in-hospital complications, and patient disposition. Our results showed that significant differences were found in length of hospital stay, with African American and Hispanic populations having longer hospital stays than Caucasian and Asians. For all type complications, African Americans (OR 1.228, confidence interval [CI] 1.11-1.356) and Native Americans (OR 1.618, CI 1.083-2.419) were more likely than Caucasian and Hispanic patients to have in-hospital complications. For disposition status, African Americans (OR 0.844, CI 0.730-0.976) and Asians (OR 0.475, CI 0.297-0.760) were much less likely than Caucasians or Hispanic populations to be discharged to an acute rehabilitation program. The results from this large-scale study (n=18,671) demonstrate a number of racial disparities following SCI at the national level, including rate of complications, length of stay, and disposition to acute rehabilitation centers. This should raise awareness to cultural differences but also serve as an opportunity to reduce gaps in care across ethnicities for this universally life-altering condition. PMID:23113561

  15. Measuring trends in racial/ ethnic health care disparities.

    PubMed

    Lê Cook, Benjamin; McGuire, Thomas G; Zuvekas, Samuel H

    2009-02-01

    Monitoring disparities over time is complicated by the varying disparity definitions applied in the literature. This study used data from the 1996-2005 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS) to compare trends in disparities by three definitions of racial/ethnic disparities and to assess the influence of changes in socioeconomic status (SES) among racial/ethnic minorities on disparity trends. This study prefers the Institute of Medicine's (IOM) definition, which adjusts for health status but allows for mediation of racial/ethnic disparities through SES factors. Black-White disparities in having an office-based or outpatient visit and medical expenditure were roughly constant and Hispanic-White disparities increased for office-based or outpatient visits and for medical expenditure between 1996-1997 and 2004-2005. Estimates based on the independent effect of race/ethnicity were the most conservative accounting of disparities and disparity trends, underlining the importance of the role of SES mediation in the study of trends in disparities. PMID:18796581

  16. Extracted facial feature of racial closely related faces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liewchavalit, Chalothorn; Akiba, Masakazu; Kanno, Tsuneo; Nagao, Tomoharu

    2010-02-01

    Human faces contain a lot of demographic information such as identity, gender, age, race and emotion. Human being can perceive these pieces of information and use it as an important clue in social interaction with other people. Race perception is considered the most delicacy and sensitive parts of face perception. There are many research concerning image-base race recognition, but most of them are focus on major race group such as Caucasoid, Negroid and Mongoloid. This paper focuses on how people classify race of the racial closely related group. As a sample of racial closely related group, we choose Japanese and Thai face to represents difference between Northern and Southern Mongoloid. Three psychological experiment was performed to study the strategies of face perception on race classification. As a result of psychological experiment, it can be suggested that race perception is an ability that can be learn. Eyes and eyebrows are the most attention point and eyes is a significant factor in race perception. The Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was performed to extract facial features of sample race group. Extracted race features of texture and shape were used to synthesize faces. As the result, it can be suggested that racial feature is rely on detailed texture rather than shape feature. This research is a indispensable important fundamental research on the race perception which are essential in the establishment of human-like race recognition system.

  17. Racial and Ethnic Diversity in Grounded Theory Research

    PubMed Central

    Draucker, Claire Burke; Al-Khattab, Halima; Hines, Dana D.; Mazurczyk, Jill; Russell, Anne C.; Stephenson, Pam Shockey; Draucker, Shannon

    2014-01-01

    National initiatives in the United States call for health research that addresses racial/ethnic disparities. Although grounded theory (GT) research has the potential to contribute much to the understanding of the health experiences of people of color, the extent to which it has contributed to health disparities research is unclear. In this article we describe a project in which we reviewed 44 GT studies published in Qualitative Health Research within the last five years. Using a framework proposed by Green, Creswell, Shope, and Clark (2007), we categorized the studies at one of four levels based on the status and significance afforded racial/ethnic diversity. Our results indicate that racial/ethnic diversity played a primary role in five studies, a complementary role in one study, a peripheral role in five studies, and an absent role in 33 studies. We suggest that GT research could contribute more to health disparities research if techniques were developed to better analyze the influence of race/ethnicity on health-related phenomena. PMID:26401523

  18. More eyes on the prize: variability in White Americans' perceptions of progress toward racial equality.

    PubMed

    Brodish, Amanda B; Brazy, Paige C; Devine, Patricia G

    2008-04-01

    Much recent research suggests that Whites and non-Whites think differently about issues of race in contemporary America. For example, Eibach and Ehrlinger (2006) recently demonstrated that Whites perceive that more progress toward racial equality has been made as compared to non-Whites. The authors of this article sought to extend Eibach and Ehrlinger's analysis. To this end, they found that differences in Whites' and non-Whites' perceptions of racial progress can be explained by the reference points they use for understanding progress toward racial equality (Study 1). Furthermore, they demonstrated that there is variability in White people's perceptions of racial progress that can be explained by self-reported racial prejudice (Studies 1 and 2). Finally, they demonstrated that White people's perceptions of racial progress predict reactions to affirmative action (Study 2). Implications for better understanding intergroup relations and reactions to social policies are discussed. PMID:18216209

  19. Congregational Size and Attitudes towards Racial Inequality among Church Attendees in America

    PubMed Central

    Cobb, Ryon J.; Dougherty, Kevin D.; Park, Jerry Z.; Perry, Samuel L.

    2016-01-01

    Research suggests that congregational characteristics are associated with the racial attitudes of American churchgoers. This study examines the relationship between congregational size and beliefs about the Black/White socioeconomic gap among religious adherents. Method Drawing upon data from the General Social Survey and the National Congregations Study, we fit binary logistic regression models to estimate the association between congregational size and Americans’ explanations of Black/White economic inequality. Results Findings reveal that attendees of larger congregations are less likely than attendees of smaller congregations to explain racial inequality as the result of the racial discrimination. The likelihood of explaining racial inequality in terms of personal motivation does not vary by congregation size. Conclusion Despite the growing diversity in larger congregations in America, such congregations may steer attendees’ views about racial inequality away from systemic/structural factors, which may attenuate the ability of such congregations to bridge racial divisions. PMID:27429797

  20. Implicit Racial Biases in Preschool Children and Adults From Asia and Africa.

    PubMed

    Qian, Miao K; Heyman, Gail D; Quinn, Paul C; Messi, Francoise A; Fu, Genyue; Lee, Kang

    2016-01-01

    This research used an Implicit Racial Bias Test to investigate implicit racial biases among 3- to 5-year-olds and adult participants in China (N = 213) and Cameroon (N = 257). In both cultures, participants displayed high levels of racial biases that remained stable between 3 and 5 years of age. Unlike adults, young children's implicit racial biases were unaffected by the social status of the other-race groups. Also, unlike adults, young children displayed overt explicit racial biases, and these biases were dissociated from their implicit biases. The results provide strong evidence for the early emergence of implicit racial biases and point to the need to reduce them in early childhood. PMID:26435128

  1. PERCEIVED RACIAL DISCRIMINATION AMONG HOME HEALTH AIDES: EVIDENCE FROM A NATIONAL SURVEY.

    PubMed

    Lee, Doohee; Muslin, Ivan; McInerney, Marjorie

    2016-01-01

    Home health aides are one of our essential human resources in the U.S. long-term care industry but understanding whether home health aides experience racial discrimination in the workplace and, if so, which personal/organizational factors are associated at the national level has been unnoticed. Using a nationally representative sample (n=3377), we attempt to investigate the association between racial discrimination and personal and organizational factors. The study found the 13.5% prevalence rate of racial discrimination. The study findings from multiple regression analysis reveal that black home care aides are more likely than white aides to experience racial discrimination in the workplace, suggesting that racial disparity may be an additional barrier to our home health care industry. National chain affiliation and low income were also found to be associated with perceived racial discrimination. PMID:27079055

  2. Parental racial socialization as a moderator of the effects of racial discrimination on educational success among African American adolescents.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ming-Te; Huguley, James P

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated whether parental racial socialization practices moderated the relation between racial discrimination in school and adolescents' educational outcomes. Using data from a longitudinal study of an economically diverse sample of 630 African American adolescents (mean age=14.5) from a major East Coast metropolis, the results revealed that cultural socialization attenuated the effect of teacher discrimination on grade point average (GPA) and educational aspirations, as well as the effect of peer discrimination on GPA. Also, preparation for bias and cultural socialization interacted to make unique contributions to African American adolescents' educational outcomes. Finally, there was some evidence that teacher discrimination was more detrimental to the academic engagement of African American males than females. Implications for research and practice are discussed. PMID:22717004

  3. Racial and ethnic disparities in assisted reproductive technology access and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Molly; Fujimoto, Victor

    2016-05-01

    Infertility is a global problem affecting all ethnic, racial, and religious groups. Nevertheless, only a minority of the U.S. population has access to treatment. Additionally, for those who do engage in treatment, outcomes are disparate among various ethnic and racial groups. This article addresses racial and ethnic disparities regarding rates of fecundity and infertility, access to care, and assisted reproductive technology outcomes. PMID:27054308

  4. Hate crimes on campus: racial/ethnic diversity and campus safety.

    PubMed

    Stotzer, Rebecca L; Hossellman, Emily

    2012-03-01

    Colleges and universities across the US have prioritized minority enrollments in their recruitment strategies, but theories offer to possible outcomes of increasing diversity on campus-increased racial harmony or increased racial tension. This study examines the impact of racial diversity on the reported number of hate crimes that occur on campus. Findings suggest that those schools that are most successful in recruiting the hardest to recruit minorities (Black and Latino students) report fewer hate crimes on campus. Implications for campus climate and racial dynamics on campus, as well as future research, are discussed. PMID:22007114

  5. Racial identity, social context, and race-related social cognition in African Americans during middle childhood.

    PubMed

    Rowley, Stephanie J; Burchinal, Margaret R; Roberts, Joanne E; Zeisel, Susan A

    2008-11-01

    This study examined the effect of changes in racial identity, cross-race friendships, same-race friendships, and classroom racial composition on changes in race-related social cognition from 3rd to 5th grade for 73 African American children. The goal of the study was to determine the extent to which preadolescent racial identity and social context predict expectations of racial discrimination in cross-race social interactions (social expectations). Expectations of racial discrimination were assessed using vignettes of cross-race social situations involving an African American child in a social interaction with European Americans. There were 3 major findings. First, expectations for discrimination declined slightly from 3rd to 5th grade. Second, although racial composition of children's classrooms, number of European American friends, gender, and family poverty status were largely unrelated to social expectations, having more African American friends was associated with expecting more discrimination in cross-racial interactions from 3rd to 5th grade. Third, increases in racial centrality were related to increases in discrimination expectations, and increases in public regard were associated with decreases in discrimination expectations. These data suggest that as early as 3rd grade, children are forming attitudes about their racial group that have implications for their cross-race social interactions. PMID:18999320

  6. Racial segregation and quality of care disparity in US nursing homes.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Momotazur; Foster, Andrew D

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we examine the contributions of travel distance and preferences for racial homogeneity as sources of nursing home segregation and racial disparities in nursing home quality. We first theoretically characterize the distinctive implications of these mechanisms for nursing home racial segregation. We then use this model to structure an empirical analysis of nursing home sorting. We find little evidence of differential willingness to pay for quality by race among first-time nursing home entrants, but do find significant distance and race-based preference effects. Simulation exercises suggest that both effects contribute importantly to racial disparities in nursing home quality. PMID:25461895

  7. Racial Segregation and Quality of Care Disparity in US Nursing Homes

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Momotazur; Foster, Andrew D.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we examine the contributions of travel distance and preferences for racial homogeneity as sources of nursing home segregation and racial disparities in nursing home quality. We first theoretically characterize the distinctive implications of these mechanisms for nursing home racial segregation. We then use this model to structure an empirical analysis of nursing home sorting. We find little evidence of differential willingness to pay for quality by race among first-time nursing home entrants, but do find significant distance and race-based preference effects. Simulation exercises suggest that both effects contribute importantly to racial disparities in nursing home quality. PMID:25461895

  8. Effects of racialized tracking on racial gaps in science self-efficacy, identity, engagement, and aspirations: Connection to science and school segregation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Briana L.

    Given the concentration of economic growth and power in science fields and the current levels of racial stratification in schooling, this study examined (1) the effects of race on students' connectedness to science and career aspirations, (2) the extent to which these effects were moderated by school racial composition and racialized tracking, and (3) the differences in modeling effects using separate variables for race and gender (i.e., White, Black, Hispanic, female) versus race/gender (e.g., White female, Black male, etc.). Using the lens of racial formation theory, this study situated access to science knowledge as a racial project, conferring and denying access to resources along racial lines. Reviews of the literature on science self-efficacy, identity, engagement, and career aspirations revealed an under-emphasis on school institutional factors, such as racial composition and racialized tracking (which are important in sociological literature), as shaping student outcomes. The study analyzed data from the nationally representative High School Longitudinal Study that surveyed students in 2009 during their freshman year in high school and again in 2012 during most students' junior year (n = 6,998). Affective ratings (in self-efficacy, identity, engagement) and career aspirations for students measured in 2012 were examined as dependent variables and a variable for racialized tracking was estimated given schools' placement of students in advanced science coursework in 2012. Although school racial composition was not found to moderate race on outcome effects, primary analyses demonstrated that the presence of racialized tracking in the students' schools did moderate these effects. Overall these results suggested that the student subgroups most often at a disadvantage compared to White students for the science outcomes studied were Hispanic males and females; Black students' ratings and aspirations were largely on par or exceeded those of their White counterparts

  9. Racial Discrimination and Ethnic Disparities in Sleep Disturbance: the 2002/03 New Zealand Health Survey

    PubMed Central

    Paine, Sarah-Jane; Harris, Ricci; Cormack, Donna; Stanley, James

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: Research on the relationship between racial discrimination and sleep is limited. The aims of this study were to: (1) examine the independent relationship between ethnicity, sex, age, socioeconomic position, experience of racial discrimination and self-reported sleep disturbances, and (2) determine the statistical contribution of experience of racial discrimination to ethnic disparities in sleep disturbances. Methods: The study used data from the 2002/03 New Zealand Health Survey, a nationally-representative, population-based survey of New Zealand adults (≥ 15 years). The sample included 4,108 self-identified Māori (indigenous New Zealanders) and 6,261 European adults. Outcome variables were difficulty falling asleep, frequent nocturnal awakenings, and early morning awakenings. Experiences of racial discrimination across five domains were used to assess overall racial discrimination “ever” and the level of exposure to racial discrimination. Socioeconomic position was measured using neighborhood deprivation, education, and equivalized household income. Results: Māori had a higher prevalence of each sleep disturbance item than Europeans. Reported experiences of racial discrimination were independently associated with each sleep disturbance item, adjusted for ethnicity, sex, age group, and socioeconomic position. Sequential logistic regression models showed that racial discrimination and socioeconomic position explained most of the disparity in difficulty falling asleep and frequent nocturnal awakening between Māori and Europeans; however, ethnic differences in early morning awakenings remained. Conclusions: Racial discrimination may play an important role in ethnic disparities in sleep disturbances in New Zealand. Activities to improve the sleep health of non-dominant ethnic groups should consider the potentially multifarious ways in which racial discrimination can disturb sleep. Citation: Paine SJ, Harris R, Cormack D, Stanley J. Racial

  10. Racial Differences in the Human Endogenous Circadian Period

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Mark R.; Burgess, Helen J.; Fogg, Louis F.; Eastman, Charmane I.

    2009-01-01

    The length of the endogenous period of the human circadian clock (tau) is slightly greater than 24 hours. There are individual differences in tau, which influence the phase angle of entrainment to the light/dark (LD) cycle, and in doing so contribute to morningness-eveningness. We have recently reported that tau measured in subjects living on an ultradian LD cycle averaged 24.2 hours, and is similar to tau measured using different experimental methods. Here we report racial differences in tau. Subjects lived on an ultradian LD cycle (1.5 hours sleep, 2.5 hours wake) for 3 days. Circadian phase assessments were conducted before and after the ultradian days to determine the change in circadian phase, which was attributed to tau. African American subjects had a significantly shorter tau than subjects of other races. We also tested for racial differences in our previous circadian phase advancing and phase delaying studies. In the phase advancing study, subjects underwent 4 days of a gradually advancing sleep schedule combined with a bright light pulse upon awakening each morning. In the phase delaying study, subjects underwent 4 days of a gradually delaying sleep schedule combined with evening light pulses before bedtime. African American subjects had larger phase advances and smaller phase delays, relative to Caucasian subjects. The racial differences in tau and circadian phase shifting have important implications for understanding normal phase differences between individuals, for developing solutions to the problems of jet lag and shift work, and for the diagnosis and treatment of circadian rhythm based sleep disorders such as advanced and delayed sleep phase disorder. PMID:19564915

  11. Metropolitan racial residential segregation and cardiovascular mortality: exploring pathways.

    PubMed

    Greer, Sophia; Kramer, Michael R; Cook-Smith, Jessica N; Casper, Michele L

    2014-06-01

    Racial residential segregation has been associated with an increased risk for heart disease and stroke deaths. However, there has been little research into the role that candidate mediating pathways may play in the relationship between segregation and heart disease or stroke deaths. In this study, we examined the relationship between metropolitan statistical area (MSA)-level segregation and heart disease and stroke mortality rates, by age and race, and also estimated the effects of various educational, economic, social, and health-care indicators (which we refer to as pathways) on this relationship. We used Poisson mixed models to assess the relationship between the isolation index in 265 U.S. MSAs and county-level (heart disease, stroke) mortality rates. All models were stratified by race (non-Hispanic black, non-Hispanic white), age group (35-64 years, ≥ 65 years), and cause of death (heart disease, stroke). We included each potential pathway in the model separately to evaluate its effect on the segregation-mortality association. Among blacks, segregation was positively associated with heart disease mortality rates in both age groups but only with stroke mortality rates in the older age group. Among whites, segregation was marginally associated with heart disease mortality rates in the younger age group and was positively associated with heart disease mortality rates in the older age group. Three of the potential pathways we explored attenuated relationships between segregation and mortality rates among both blacks and whites: percentage of female-headed households, percentage of residents living in poverty, and median household income. Because the percentage of female-headed households can be seen as a proxy for the extent of social disorganization, our finding that it has the greatest attenuating effect on the relationship between racial segregation and heart disease and stroke mortality rates suggests that social disorganization may play a strong role in the

  12. Thirty Years of Racial/Ethnic Identity Development Research: An Examination of Black College Students Racial/Ethnic Identity Development and Acculturation and How It Affects Their Attitudes toward Professional Help-Seeking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harbour, Edwanike C.

    2009-01-01

    After thirty years of racial/ethnic identity development (R/EID) studies, research has shown little other than how racial identity is a reflection of one's political affiliation with a racial group. Recent research has shown that R/EID of college students affects psychological well-being (Kwan & Sodowsky, 1997; Yoo & Lee, 2005). However, Black…

  13. Racial Disparities in Treatment Rates for Chronic Hepatitis C

    PubMed Central

    Vutien, Philip; Hoang, Joseph; Brooks, Louis; Nguyen, Nghia H.; Nguyen, Mindie H.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Chronic hepatitis C (CHC) disproportionately affects racial minorities in the United States (US). Although prior studies have reported lower treatment rates in Blacks than in Caucasians, the rates of other minorities remain understudied. We aimed to examine antiviral treatment rates by race and to evaluate the effect of other demographic, medical, and psychiatric factors on treatment rates. We performed a population-based study of adult CHC patients identified via ICD-9CM query from OptumInsight's Data Mart from January 2009 to December 2013. Antiviral treatment was defined by pharmaceutical claims for interferon and/or pegylated-interferon. A total of 73,665 insured patients were included: 51,282 Caucasians, 10,493 Blacks, 8679 Hispanics, and 3211 Asians. Caucasians had the highest treatment rate (10.7%) followed by Blacks (8.8%), Hispanics (8.8%), and Asians (7.9%, P < .001). Hispanics had the highest cirrhosis rates compared with Caucasians, Blacks, and Asians (20.7% vs 18.3%, 17.1%, and 14.3%, respectively). Caucasians were the most likely to have a psychiatric comorbidity (20.1%) and Blacks the most likely to have a medical comorbidity (44%). Asians were the least likely to have a psychiatric (6.4%) or medical comorbidity (26.9%). On multivariate analysis, racial minority was a significant predictor of nontreatment with odds ratios of 0.82 [confidence interval (CI): 0.74–0.90] for Blacks, 0.87 (CI: 0.78–0.96) for Hispanics, and 0.73 (CI: 0.62–0.86) for Asians versus Caucasians. Racial minorities had lower treatment rates than Caucasians. Despite fewer medical and psychiatric comorbidities and higher incomes and educational levels, Asians had the lowest treatment rates. Hispanics also had lower treatment rates than Caucasians despite having higher rates of cirrhosis. Future studies should aim to identify underlying racial-related barriers to hepatitis C virus treatment besides socioeconomic status and medical or psychiatric comorbidities

  14. Racial and Ethnic Disparities in the Use of Health Services

    PubMed Central

    Ashton, Carol M; Haidet, Paul; Paterniti, Debora A; Collins, Tracie C; Gordon, Howard S; O'Malley, Kimberly; Petersen, Laura A; Sharf, Barbara F; Suarez-Almazor, Maria E; Wray, Nelda P; Street, Richard L

    2003-01-01

    African Americans and Latinos use services that require a doctor's order at lower rates than do whites. Racial bias and patient preferences contribute to disparities, but their effects appear small. Communication during the medical interaction plays a central role in decision making about subsequent interventions and health behaviors. Research has shown that doctors have poorer communication with minority patients than with others, but problems in doctor-patient communication have received little attention as a potential cause, a remediable one, of health disparities. We evaluate the evidence that poor communication is a cause of disparities and propose some remedies drawn from the communication sciences. PMID:12542590

  15. Racial-ethnic biases, time pressure, and medical decisions.

    PubMed

    Stepanikova, Irena

    2012-09-01

    This study examined two types of potential sources of racial-ethnic disparities in medical care: implicit biases and time pressure. Eighty-one family physicians and general internists responded to a case vignette describing a patient with chest pain. Time pressure was manipulated experimentally. Under high time pressure, but not under low time pressure, implicit biases regarding blacks and Hispanics led to a less serious diagnosis. In addition, implicit biases regarding blacks led to a lower likelihood of a referral to specialist when physicians were under high time pressure. The results suggest that when physicians face stress, their implicit biases may shape medical decisions in ways that disadvantage minority patients. PMID:22811465

  16. "As Nature Has Formed Them": The History and Current Status of Racial Difference Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skiba, Russell

    2012-01-01

    Background/Context: Research in the latter half of the 20th century purporting to show significant racial differences in intelligence and social behavior appears to pit civil rights concerns against the freedom of scientific inquiry. The core hypotheses and presumptions of recent research on racial difference are not new, however, but spring from…

  17. A Counternarrative Autoethnography Exploring School Districts' Role in Reproducing Racism: Willful Blindness to Racial Inequities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khalifa, Muhammad A.; Briscoe, Felecia M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Racialized suspension gaps are logically and empirically associated with racial achievement gaps and both gaps indicate the endurance of racism in American education. In recent U.S. Department of Education and the U.S. Office of Civil Rights data, it was revealed that nationally, Black boys are four times more likely to be suspended…

  18. "That Box Doesn't Belong to You": Racial Ethos and Community-Based Ethnic Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Du, Liang

    2011-01-01

    By expanding Bourdieusian concepts of class ethos and "habitus" in the field of racial analysis, the article closely examines the shaping of a racial/ethnic ethos among a particular group of Chinese Americans. The findings suggest that the community ethos is affected both by a self-consciousness about the positioning of Chinese Americans in the…

  19. Racial/Ethnic Differences in Internalizing and Externalizing Symptoms in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaughlin, Katie A.; Hilt, Lori M.; Nolen-Hoeksema, Susan

    2007-01-01

    The prevalence of most adult psychiatric disorders varies across racial/ethnic groups and has important implications for prevention and intervention efforts. Research on racial/ethnic differences in the prevalence of internalizing and externalizing symptoms and disorders in adolescents has been less consistent or generally lacking. The current…

  20. The Role of Student Affairs Practitioners in Improving Campus Racial Climate: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karkouti, Ibrahim Mohamad

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the racial conflict that occurred at the University of Michigan (UMI) earlier last year when Black students expressed their frustrations with the underrepresentation, racial discrimination and disparaging remarks against African Americans on campus (Jaschik, 2014). Because student affairs is the service most…

  1. The Associations of Intergroup Interactions and School Racial Socialization with Academic Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrd, Christy M.

    2015-01-01

    School racial climate is an important aspect of the school environment that can have significant implications for youths' development. However, existing research is limited by conceptual and methodological concerns that restrict the ability of researchers and educators to identify "what" about and "how" the racial climate…

  2. Campus Racial Climate: A Litmus Test for Faculty Satisfaction at Four-Year Colleges and Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Victorino, Christine A.; Nylund-Gibson, Karen; Conley, Sharon

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on a study that investigated the relationship between three dimensions of campus racial climate and faculty satisfaction with a large, nationally representative faculty sample (N = 29,169), using a multilevel structural equation model. Results indicate that campus racial climate has a large and highly significant effect upon…

  3. "Stick with Yourselves; It's What's Normal": The Intergroup Racial Attitudes of Senior, White, Fraternity Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Demetri L.; Zimmerman, Hilary B.; Terrell, Tanner N.; Marcotte, Beth A.

    2015-01-01

    Substantive cross-racial interaction on college campuses has been known to have positive effects on student learning and development (Chang, Astin, & Kim, 2004). However, literature shows that students from different minoritized racial groups often remain separated from majority White groups, such as fraternities, thus prohibiting each group…

  4. THE CONSEQUENCES OF RACIAL ISOLATION IN THE PUBLIC SCHOOLS--ANOTHER LOOK.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PETTIGREW, THOMAS F.

    TO EXAMINE THE CONSEQUENCES OF SCHOOL RACIAL ISOLATION, THIS PAPER REVIEWS THE FINDINGS OF TWO RECENT FEDERAL SURVEYS OF PUBLIC SCHOOL SEGREGATION, "RACIAL ISOLATION IN THE PUBLIC SCHOOLS" AND "EQUALITY OF EDUCATIONAL OPPORTUNITY," AS WELL AS DATA FROM SEVERAL OTHER STUDIES. THE MATERIAL IS PRESENTED UNDER THE RUBRICS OF (1) THE CHIEF CORRELATES…

  5. Health and Social Issues Associated with Racial, Ethnic, and Cultural Disparities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Jerry C.; Smith, Nancy H.

    2002-01-01

    The evidence of racial and ethnic disparities in health outcomes is overwhelming. Excess rates of death, morbidity, and disability are prevalent among racial and ethnic minority elders. Effective collaboration with community organizations is a crucial component of efforts to reduce and eliminate disparities. (Contains 39 references.) (Author/JOW)

  6. Racial Profiling as Institutional Practice: Theorizing the Experiences of Black Male Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iverson, Susan V.; Jaggers, Dametraus

    2015-01-01

    This article draws upon racial profiling literature as an analytic lens with data collected in a qualitative study of Black males at one university. The authors argue that racial profiling provides a system of assumptions and rules that inform decisions made and attach to interactions between Black males and their faculty, staff, and peers. The…

  7. Addressing Racialized Multicultural Discourses in an EAP Textbook: Working toward a Critical Pedagogies Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chun, Christian W.

    2016-01-01

    Racialized multicultural discourses emerge in the TESOL classroom via textbook representations of immigrant success stories and perceived racial and cultural differences among students. Although liberal multicultural discourses may be well intentioned, these discourses warrant closer examination for the ways in which they can essentialize cultural…

  8. Racially Minoritized Students at U.S. Four-Year Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Dafina-Lazarus

    2013-01-01

    Racially minoritized students attending U.S. colleges and universities are often compared to their White peers in research studies, generally emphasizing their cultural deficits, masking minority group achievement, and homogenizing within group variations. This article reports data for racially minoritized students who participated in the national…

  9. Exploring the Relationships among Race, Class, Gender, and Middle School Students' Perceptions of School Racial Climate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, Natasha D.; Aber, Mark S.

    2009-01-01

    Although school climate has been thought to be especially important for racial minority and poor students (Booker, 2006; Haynes, Emmons, & Ben-Avie, 1997), little research has explored the significance of racial climate for these students. Furthermore, research in the area has tended to treat race, socioeconomic class, and gender separately,…

  10. Social Boundaries and Marital Assimilation: Interpreting Trends in Racial and Ethnic Intermarriage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qian, Zhenchao; Lichter, Daniel T.

    2007-01-01

    Interracial/interethnic marriage in America is a barometer of racial/ethnic relations and intergroup social distance. Using data from the 5-percent Public Use Microdata Sample of the 1990 and 2000 censuses, we interpret trends in intermarriage in light of new assimilation theory, recent changes in racial classification, and rapid demographic…

  11. The Story of Schooling: Critical Race Theory and the Educational Racial Contract

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonardo, Zeus

    2013-01-01

    This article is an engagement of methodology as an ideologico-racial practice through Critical Race Theory's practice of storytelling. It is a conceptual extension of this practice as explained through Charles Mills' use of the "racial contract (RC) as methodology" in order to explain the Herrenvolk Education--one standard for…

  12. The Influence of Multicultural Training on Perceived Multicultural Counseling Competencies and Implicit Racial Prejudice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castillo, Linda G.; Brossart, Daniel F.; Reyes, Carla J.; Conoley, Collie W.; Phoummarath, Marion J.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the impact of multicultural training on multicultural counseling competencies and implicit racial prejudice. Results of a multilevel modeling analysis showed that only the multicultural counseling course was related to a decrease in implicit racial prejudice and an increase in cultural self-awareness. Implications for…

  13. How Children Develop Racial Awareness. ERIC/EECE Short Report-2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Elementary and Early Childhood Education, Urbana, IL.

    In contrast to the three-stage theory of attitude development proposed by Goodman (1964), Dr. Phyllis A. Katz, director of the Institute for Research on Social Problems, suggests that eight overlapping but separable steps occur in the acquisition of racial beliefs. The major points in Katz's schema are: (1) early observation of racial cues; (2)…

  14. Refusing to Leave Desegregation Behind: From Graduates of Racially Diverse Schools to the Supreme Court

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Amy Stuart; Duran, Jacquelyn; White, Terrenda

    2008-01-01

    Background/Context: In light of the June 2007 U.S. Supreme Court decision in the Louisville and Seattle voluntary school desegregation cases, making it more difficult for district officials to racially balance their schools, this article presents an analysis of prior research on the long-term effects of attending racially diverse schools on their…

  15. Taking a Diasporic Stance: Puerto Rican Mothers Educating Children in a Racially Integrated Neighborhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rolon-Dow, Rosalie

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the perspectives of second-generation Puerto Rican mothers as they discuss their experiences educating their children in a working class, lower-middle class, racially diverse neighborhood. The article examines the racialization processes that the women and their families face, despite experiencing geographic and socioeconomic…

  16. Use of Racial Identity Development Theory to Explore Cultural Competence among Early Childhood Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Heejeong Sophia; West-Olatunji, Cirecie; Thomas, M. Shelley

    2011-01-01

    In order to explore early childhood educators' cultural competence through a lens of racial identity development theory, a case study was conducted with four White Kindergarten teachers. Participants were surveyed and interviewed to understand their racial identity development as well as perspectives of teaching culturally diverse early childhood…

  17. Essentialist Thinking Predicts Decrements in Children's Memory for Racially Ambiguous Faces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaither, Sarah E.; Schultz, Jennifer R.; Pauker, Kristin; Sommers, Samuel R.; Maddox, Keith B.; Ambady, Nalini

    2014-01-01

    Past research shows that adults often display poor memory for racially ambiguous and racial outgroup faces, with both face types remembered worse than own-race faces. In the present study, the authors examined whether children also show this pattern of results. They also examined whether emerging essentialist thinking about race predicts…

  18. 5 CFR 4.2 - Prohibition against racial, political or religious discrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Prohibition against racial, political or... SERVICE RULES PROHIBITED PRACTICES (RULE IV) § 4.2 Prohibition against racial, political or religious... the race, political affiliation, or religious beliefs of any such employee, eligible, or...

  19. 5 CFR 4.2 - Prohibition against racial, political or religious discrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Prohibition against racial, political or... SERVICE RULES PROHIBITED PRACTICES (RULE IV) § 4.2 Prohibition against racial, political or religious... the race, political affiliation, or religious beliefs of any such employee, eligible, or...

  20. 5 CFR 4.2 - Prohibition against racial, political or religious discrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Prohibition against racial, political or... SERVICE RULES PROHIBITED PRACTICES (RULE IV) § 4.2 Prohibition against racial, political or religious... the race, political affiliation, or religious beliefs of any such employee, eligible, or...

  1. 5 CFR 4.2 - Prohibition against racial, political or religious discrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Prohibition against racial, political or... SERVICE RULES PROHIBITED PRACTICES (RULE IV) § 4.2 Prohibition against racial, political or religious... the race, political affiliation, or religious beliefs of any such employee, eligible, or...

  2. 5 CFR 4.2 - Prohibition against racial, political or religious discrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Prohibition against racial, political or... SERVICE RULES PROHIBITED PRACTICES (RULE IV) § 4.2 Prohibition against racial, political or religious... the race, political affiliation, or religious beliefs of any such employee, eligible, or...

  3. Status and Trends in the Education of Racial and Ethnic Minorities. NCES 2007-039

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KewalRamani, Angelina; Gilbertson, Lauren; Fox, Mary Ann; Provasnik, Stephen

    2007-01-01

    "Status and Trends in the Education of Racial and Ethnic Minorities" examines the educational progress and challenges that racial and ethnic minorities face in the United States. This report shows that over time larger numbers of minorities have completed high school and continued their education in college. Despite these gains, progress has…

  4. "Navigating the Different Spaces": Experiences of Inclusion and Isolation among Racially Minoritized Faculty in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spafford, Marlee M.; Nygaard, Vicki L.; Gregor, Fran; Boyd, Marcia A.

    2006-01-01

    The intersection of multiple identities (e.g., racialization, gender, class) strongly determines an individual's social location. In-depth interviews with 42 racially minoritized academics in Canadian universities allowed U.S. to begin to grasp the challenges faced by those who must negotiate the different spaces in an academy that is…

  5. Changes in Racial Identity among African American College Students Following the Election of Barack Obama

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller-Rowell, Thomas E.; Burrow, Anthony L.; Ong, Anthony D.

    2011-01-01

    The current study considered the influence of the 2008 presidential election on the racial identity of African American college students (M[subscript age] = 19.3 years; 26.3% male). The design of the study consisted of 2 components: longitudinal and daily. The longitudinal component assessed 3 dimensions of racial identity (centrality, private…

  6. Conceptualizing a Case of Indirect Racism Using the White Racial Identity Development Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniels, Jeffrey A.

    2001-01-01

    Describes how counselors might use a model of White racial identity development to conceptualize and treat a White client who has experienced racism directed toward his ethnic minority friend. Specific attention is paid to both the client's and the counselor's White racial statuses and how these interact within the counseling process. (Contains 15…

  7. Ethnic and Racial Identity during Adolescence and into Young Adulthood: An Integrated Conceptualization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J.; Quintana, Stephen M.; Lee, Richard M.; Cross, William E., Jr.; Rivas-Drake, Deborah; Schwartz, Seth J.; Syed, Moin; Yip, Tiffany; Seaton, Eleanor

    2014-01-01

    Although ethnic and racial identity (ERI) are central to the normative development of youth of color, there have been few efforts to bring scholars together to discuss the theoretical complexities of these constructs and provide a synthesis of existing work. The Ethnic and Racial Identity in the 21st Century Study Group was assembled for this…

  8. See no evil: color blindness and perceptions of subtle racial discrimination in the workplace.

    PubMed

    Offermann, Lynn R; Basford, Tessa E; Graebner, Raluca; Jaffer, Salman; De Graaf, Sumona Basu; Kaminsky, Samuel E

    2014-10-01

    Workplace discrimination has grown more ambiguous, with interracial interactions often perceived differently by different people. The present study adds to the literature by examining a key individual difference variable in the perception of discrimination at work, namely individual color-blind attitudes. We examined relationships between 3 dimensions of color-blind attitudes (Racial Privilege, Institutional Discrimination, and Blatant Racial Issues) and perceptions of racial microaggressions in the workplace as enacted by a White supervisor toward a Black employee (i.e., discriminatory actions ranging from subtle to overt). Findings showed that observer views on institutional discrimination fully mediated, and blatant racial issues partially mediated, the relationships between racial group membership and the perception of workplace microaggressions. Non-Hispanic Whites endorsed color blindness as institutional discrimination and blatant racial issues significantly more than members of racioethnic minority groups, and higher levels of color-blind worldviews were associated with lower likelihoods of perceiving microaggressions. Views on racial privilege did not differ significantly between members of different racial groups or affect microaggression perceptions. Implications for organizations concerned about promoting more inclusive workplaces are discussed. PMID:25111553

  9. Predictors of Career Indecision in Three Racial/Ethnic Groups of College Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Frederick G.; Ann-Yi, Sujin

    2006-01-01

    This study examines the contributions of career-related barrier and social support perceptions, barrier-related coping beliefs, and career decision-making self-efficacy beliefs to the prediction of career indecision in three racial/ethnic groups of college women. Results indicate that although there are no racial/ethnic differences across scores…

  10. Cultural Mistrust, Ethnic Identity, Racial Identity, and Self-Esteem among Ethnically Diverse Black University Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phelps, Rosemary E.; Taylor, Janice D.; Gerard, Phyllis A.

    2001-01-01

    Examines cultural mistrust, ethnic identity, racial identity, and self-esteem among Black university students (N=160). African American students' scores were statistically different from those of African and West Indian/Caribbean students on cultural mistrust, racial identity, and ethnic identity measures. There were no statistically significant…

  11. Racial Context, Black Immigration and the U.S. Black/White Health Disparity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Read, Jen'nan Ghazal; Emerson, Michael O.

    2005-01-01

    The United States' black/white health gap is an important consequence of racial inequality. The gap is large, shows little signs of declining, and explanations have been limited by lack of theory and data. A new direction that offers potential for theoretical development is a focus on black immigrants, a group that shares the same racial status as…

  12. Experiences and processes affecting racial identity development: preliminary results from the biracial sibling project.

    PubMed

    Root, M P

    1998-01-01

    Siblings of mixed racial heritage often identify differently from one another. In a study of 20 sibling pairs, 4 types of experiences surfaced that appear to influence the identity process: hazing, family dysfunction, other salient identities, and the impact of integration. These experiences were explored within the framework of the ecological model of racial identity development. PMID:9713163

  13. Native American Racial Identity Development and College Adjustment at Two-Year Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Joshua C.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, a series of simultaneous multiple regression analyses were conducted to examine the relationship between racial identity development and college adjustment for a sample of 76 Choctaw community college students in the South. Results indicated that 3 of the 4 racial identity statuses (dissonance, immersion-emersion, and…

  14. Useful and Dangerous Discourse: Deconstructing Racialized Knowledge about African-American Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Keffrelyn D.; Brown, Anthony L.

    2012-01-01

    Drawing from Michel Foucault's notion of "useful" and "dangerous" discourse coupled with the theory of racial knowledge, this article examines how two common counter-discourses about African-American students operate and create racial knowledge in education practice. By "counter-discourse", the authors refer to knowledge, theories, and histories…

  15. Racial Identity and Academic Achievement in the Neighborhood Context: A Multilevel Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrd, Christy M.; Chavous, Tabbye M.

    2009-01-01

    Increasingly, researchers have found relationships between a strong, positive sense of racial identity and academic achievement among African American youth. Less attention, however, has been given to the roles and functions of racial identity among youth experiencing different social and economic contexts. Using hierarchical linear modeling, the…

  16. Testing the Cross-Racial Generality of Spearman's Hypothesis in Two Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartmann, Peter; Kruuse, Nanna Hye Sun; Nyborg, Helmuth

    2007-01-01

    Spearman's hypothesis states that racial differences in IQ between Blacks (B) and Whites (W) are due primarily to differences in the "g" factor. This hypothesis is often confirmed, but it is less certain whether it generalizes to other races. We therefore tested its cross-racial generality by comparing American subjects of European descent (W) to…

  17. Racial/Ethnic Differences in Use of Health Care Services for Diabetes Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandler, Raeven Faye; Monnat, Shannon M.

    2015-01-01

    Research demonstrates consistent racial/ethnic disparities in access to and use of health care services for a variety of chronic conditions. Yet we know little about whether these disparities exist for use of health care services for diabetes management. Racial/ethnic minorities disproportionately suffer from diabetes, complications from diabetes,…

  18. An Assessment of a University's Undergraduate Racial/Ethnic Climate: Implications for Fostering Student Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ancis, Julie R.; Gallant, Christine; Henry, Ronald J.

    2008-01-01

    This article presents results of a racial/ethnic climate study conducted at Georgia State University (GSU). The study was designed to assess undergraduate student perceptions of the university's racial/ethnic climate. This included assessing student's overall level of satisfaction, satisfaction with GSU services and facilities, experiences with…

  19. Testing the Factorial Invariance of the Black Racial Identity Scale across Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lott, Joe L., II

    2011-01-01

    Given that over 50 studies have been published using the Black Racial Identity Scale (BRIAS), the study of its dimensions and structural components are important to understanding Black people and the evolution of Black racial identity theory. Unconstrained and constrained confirmatory factor analysis models were estimated across males and females…

  20. Discovering Race in a "Post-Racial" World: Teaching Race through Primetime Television

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khanna, Nikki; Harris, Cherise A.

    2015-01-01

    Teaching students about race remains a challenging task for instructors, made even more difficult in the context of a growing "post-racial" discourse. Given this challenge, it is important for instructors to find engaging ways to help students understand the continuing significance of race and racial/ethnic inequality. In this article,…