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Sample records for rad17 rad24 rad53

  1. Yeast Rad17/Mec3/Ddc1: A sliding clamp for the DNA damage checkpoint

    PubMed Central

    Majka, Jerzy; Burgers, Peter M. J.

    2003-01-01

    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae Rad24 and Rad17 checkpoint proteins are part of an early response to DNA damage in a signal transduction pathway leading to cell cycle arrest. Rad24 interacts with the four small subunits of replication factor C (RFC) to form the RFC-Rad24 complex. Rad17 forms a complex with Mec3 and Ddc1 (Rad17/3/1) and shows structural similarities with the replication clamp PCNA. This parallelism with a clamp-clamp loader system that functions in DNA replication has led to the hypothesis that a similar clamp-clamp loader relationship exists for the DNA damage response system. We have purified the putative checkpoint clamp loader RFC-Rad24 and the putative clamp Rad17/3/1 from a yeast overexpression system. Here, we provide experimental evidence that, indeed, the RFC-Rad24 clamp loader loads the Rad17/3/1 clamp around partial duplex DNA in an ATP-dependent process. Furthermore, upon ATP hydrolysis, the Rad17/3/1 clamp is released from the clamp loader and can slide across more than 1 kb of duplex DNA, a process which may be well suited for a search for damage. Rad17/3/1 showed no detectable exonuclease activity. PMID:12604797

  2. Rad53 kinase activation-independent replication checkpoint function of the N-terminal forkhead-associated (FHA1) domain.

    PubMed

    Pike, Brietta L; Tenis, Nora; Heierhorst, Jörg

    2004-09-17

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae Rad53 has crucial functions in many aspects of the cellular response to DNA damage and replication blocks. To coordinate these diverse roles, Rad53 has two forkhead-associated (FHA) phosphothreonine-binding domains in addition to a kinase domain. Here, we show that the conserved N-terminal FHA1 domain is essential for the function of Rad53 to prevent the firing of late replication origins in response to replication blocks. However, the FHA1 domain is not required for Rad53 activation during S phase, and as a consequence of defective downstream signaling, Rad53 containing an inactive FHA1 domain is hyperphosphorylated in response to replication blocks. The FHA1 mutation dramatically hypersensitizes strains with defects in the cell cycle-wide checkpoint pathways (rad9Delta and rad17Delta) to DNA damage, but it is largely epistatic with defects in the replication checkpoint (mrc1Delta). Altogether, our data indicate that the FHA1 domain links activated Rad53 to downstream effectors in the replication checkpoint. The results reveal an important mechanistic difference to the homologous Schizosaccharomyces pombe FHA domain that is required for Mrc1-dependent activation of the corresponding Cds1 kinase. Surprisingly, despite the severely impaired replication checkpoint and also G(2)/M checkpoint functions, the FHA1 mutation by itself leads to only moderate viability defects in response to DNA damage, highlighting the importance of functionally redundant pathways. PMID:15271990

  3. RAD53, DUN1 and PDS1 define two parallel G2/M checkpoint pathways in budding yeast.

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, R; Putnam, C W; Weinert, T

    1999-01-01

    Eukaryotic checkpoint genes regulate multiple cellular responses to DNA damage. In this report, we examine the roles of budding yeast genes involved in G2/M arrest and tolerance to UV exposure. A current model posits three gene classes: those encoding proteins acting on damaged DNA (e.g. RAD9 and RAD24), those transducing a signal (MEC1, RAD53 and DUN1) or those participating more directly in arrest (PDS1). Here, we define important features of the pathways subserved by those genes. MEC1, which we find is required for both establishment and maintenance of G2/M arrest, mediates this arrest through two parallel pathways. One pathway requires RAD53 and DUN1 (the 'RAD53 pathway'); the other pathway requires PDS1. Each pathway independently contributes approximately 50% to G2/M arrest, effects demonstrable after cdc13-induced damage or a double-stranded break inflicted by the HO endonuclease. Similarly, both pathways contribute independently to tolerance of UV irradiation. How the parallel pathways might interact ultimately to achieve arrest is not yet understood, but we do provide evidence that neither the RAD53 nor the PDS1 pathway appears to maintain arrest by inhibiting adaptation. Instead, we think it likely that both pathways contribute to establishing and maintaining arrest. PMID:10357828

  4. Molecular basis of the essential s phase function of the rad53 checkpoint kinase.

    PubMed

    Hoch, Nicolas C; Chen, Eric S-W; Buckland, Robert; Wang, Shun-Chung; Fazio, Alessandro; Hammet, Andrew; Pellicioli, Achille; Chabes, Andrei; Tsai, Ming-Daw; Heierhorst, Jörg

    2013-08-01

    The essential yeast kinases Mec1 and Rad53, or human ATR and Chk1, are crucial for checkpoint responses to exogenous genotoxic agents, but why they are also required for DNA replication in unperturbed cells remains poorly understood. Here we report that even in the absence of DNA-damaging agents, the rad53-4AQ mutant, lacking the N-terminal Mec1 phosphorylation site cluster, is synthetic lethal with a deletion of the RAD9 DNA damage checkpoint adaptor. This phenotype is caused by an inability of rad53-4AQ to activate the downstream kinase Dun1, which then leads to reduced basal deoxynucleoside triphosphate (dNTP) levels, spontaneous replication fork stalling, and constitutive activation of and dependence on S phase DNA damage checkpoints. Surprisingly, the kinase-deficient rad53-K227A mutant does not share these phenotypes but is rendered inviable by additional phosphosite mutations that prevent its binding to Dun1. The results demonstrate that ultralow Rad53 catalytic activity is sufficient for normal replication of undamaged chromosomes as long as it is targeted toward activation of the effector kinase Dun1. Our findings indicate that the essential S phase function of Rad53 is comprised by the combination of its role in regulating basal dNTP levels and its compensatory kinase function if dNTP levels are perturbed. PMID:23754745

  5. Molecular Basis of the Essential S Phase Function of the Rad53 Checkpoint Kinase

    PubMed Central

    Hoch, Nicolas C.; Chen, Eric S.-W.; Buckland, Robert; Wang, Shun-Chung; Fazio, Alessandro; Hammet, Andrew; Pellicioli, Achille; Chabes, Andrei; Tsai, Ming-Daw

    2013-01-01

    The essential yeast kinases Mec1 and Rad53, or human ATR and Chk1, are crucial for checkpoint responses to exogenous genotoxic agents, but why they are also required for DNA replication in unperturbed cells remains poorly understood. Here we report that even in the absence of DNA-damaging agents, the rad53-4AQ mutant, lacking the N-terminal Mec1 phosphorylation site cluster, is synthetic lethal with a deletion of the RAD9 DNA damage checkpoint adaptor. This phenotype is caused by an inability of rad53-4AQ to activate the downstream kinase Dun1, which then leads to reduced basal deoxynucleoside triphosphate (dNTP) levels, spontaneous replication fork stalling, and constitutive activation of and dependence on S phase DNA damage checkpoints. Surprisingly, the kinase-deficient rad53-K227A mutant does not share these phenotypes but is rendered inviable by additional phosphosite mutations that prevent its binding to Dun1. The results demonstrate that ultralow Rad53 catalytic activity is sufficient for normal replication of undamaged chromosomes as long as it is targeted toward activation of the effector kinase Dun1. Our findings indicate that the essential S phase function of Rad53 is comprised by the combination of its role in regulating basal dNTP levels and its compensatory kinase function if dNTP levels are perturbed. PMID:23754745

  6. Asf1 facilitates dephosphorylation of Rad53 after DNA double-strand break repair.

    PubMed

    Tsabar, Michael; Waterman, David P; Aguilar, Fiona; Katsnelson, Lizabeth; Eapen, Vinay V; Memisoglu, Gonen; Haber, James E

    2016-05-15

    To allow for sufficient time to repair DNA double-stranded breaks (DSBs), eukaryotic cells activate the DNA damage checkpoint. In budding yeast, Rad53 (mammalian Chk2) phosphorylation parallels the persistence of the unrepaired DSB and is extinguished when repair is complete in a process termed recovery or when the cells adapt to the DNA damage checkpoint. A strain containing a slowly repaired DSB does not require the histone chaperone Asf1 to resume cell cycle progression after DSB repair. When a second, rapidly repairable DSB is added to this strain, Asf1 becomes required for recovery. Recovery from two repairable DSBs also depends on the histone acetyltransferase Rtt109 and the cullin subunit Rtt101, both of which modify histone H3 that is associated with Asf1. We show that dissociation of histone H3 from Asf1 is required for efficient recovery and that Asf1 is required for complete dephosphorylation of Rad53 when the upstream DNA damage checkpoint signaling is turned off. Our data suggest that the requirements for recovery from the DNA damage checkpoint become more stringent with increased levels of damage and that Asf1 plays a histone chaperone-independent role in facilitating complete Rad53 dephosphorylation following repair. PMID:27222517

  7. Hsp90 induces increased genomic instability toward DNA-damaging agents by tuning down RAD53 transcription.

    PubMed

    Khurana, Nidhi; Laskar, Shyamasree; Bhattacharyya, Mrinal K; Bhattacharyya, Sunanda

    2016-08-01

    It is well documented that elevated body temperature causes tumors to regress upon radiotherapy. However, how hyperthermia induces DNA damage sensitivity is not clear. We show that a transient heat shock and particularly the concomitant induction of Hsp90 lead to increased genomic instability under DNA-damaging conditions. Using Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model eukaryote, we demonstrate that elevated levels of Hsp90 attenuate efficient DNA damage signaling and dictate preferential use of the potentially mutagenic double-strand break repair pathway. We show that under normal physiological conditions, Hsp90 negatively regulates RAD53 transcription to suppress DNA damage checkpoint activation. However, under DNA damaging conditions, RAD53 is derepressed, and the increased level of Rad53p triggers an efficient DNA damage response. A higher abundance of Hsp90 causes increased transcriptional repression on RAD53 in a dose-dependent manner, which could not be fully derepressed even in the presence of DNA damage. Accordingly, cells behave like a rad53 loss-of-function mutant and show reduced NHEJ efficiency, with a drastic failure to up-regulate RAD51 expression and manifestly faster accumulation of CLN1 and CLN2 in DNA-damaged G1, cells leading to premature release from checkpoint arrest. We further demonstrate that Rad53 overexpression is able to rescue all of the aforementioned deleterious effects caused by Hsp90 overproduction. PMID:27307581

  8. Differential hRad17 expression by histologic subtype of ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In the search for unique ovarian cancer biomarkers, ovarian specific cDNA microarray analysis identified hRad17, a cell cycle checkpoint protein, as over-expressed in ovarian cancer. The aim of this study was to validate this expression. Methods Immunohistochemistry was performed on 72 serous, 19 endometrioid, 10 clear cell, and 6 mucinous ovarian cancers, 9 benign ovarian tumors, and 6 normal ovarian tissue sections using an anti-hRad17 antibody. Western blot analysis and quantitative PCR were performed using cell lysates and total RNA prepared from 17 ovarian cancer cell lines and 6 normal ovarian epithelial cell cultures (HOSE). Results Antibody staining confirmed upregulation of hRad17 in 49.5% of ovarian cancer cases. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated that only 42% of serous and 47% of endometrioid subtypes showed overexpression compared to 80% of clear cell and 100% of mucinous cancers. Western blot confirmed overexpression of hRad17 in cancer cell lines compared to HOSE. Quantitative PCR demonstrated an upregulation of hRad17 RNA by 1.5-7 fold. hRad17 RNA expression differed by subtype. Conclusions hRad17 is over-expressed in ovarian cancer. This over-expression varies by subtype suggesting a role in the pathogenesis of these types. Functional studies are needed to determine the potential role of this protein in ovarian cancer. PMID:21450056

  9. Chemogenetic profiling identifies RAD17 as synthetically lethal with checkpoint kinase inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Shen, John Paul; Srivas, Rohith; Gross, Andrew; Li, Jianfeng; Jaehnig, Eric J.; Sun, Su Ming; Bojorquez-Gomez, Ana; Licon, Katherine; Sivaganesh, Vignesh; Xu, Jia L.; Klepper, Kristin; Yeerna, Huwate; Pekin, Daniel; Qiu, Chu Ping; van Attikum, Haico; Sobol, Robert W.; Ideker, Trey

    2015-01-01

    Chemical inhibitors of the checkpoint kinases have shown promise in the treatment of cancer, yet their clinical utility may be limited by a lack of molecular biomarkers to identify specific patients most likely to respond to therapy. To this end, we screened 112 known tumor suppressor genes for synthetic lethal interactions with inhibitors of the CHEK1 and CHEK2 checkpoint kinases. We identified eight interactions, including the Replication Factor C (RFC)-related protein RAD17. Clonogenic assays in RAD17 knockdown cell lines identified a substantial shift in sensitivity to checkpoint kinase inhibition (3.5-fold) as compared to RAD17 wild-type. Additional evidence for this interaction was found in a large-scale functional shRNA screen of over 100 genotyped cancer cell lines, in which CHEK1/2 mutant cell lines were unexpectedly sensitive to RAD17 knockdown. This interaction was widely conserved, as we found that RAD17 interacts strongly with checkpoint kinases in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In the setting of RAD17 knockdown, CHEK1/2 inhibition was found to be synergistic with inhibition of WEE1, another pharmacologically relevant checkpoint kinase. Accumulation of the DNA damage marker γH2AX following chemical inhibition or transient knockdown of CHEK1, CHEK2 or WEE1 was magnified by knockdown of RAD17. Taken together, our data suggest that CHEK1 or WEE1 inhibitors are likely to have greater clinical efficacy in tumors with RAD17 loss-of-function. PMID:26437225

  10. Chemogenetic profiling identifies RAD17 as synthetically lethal with checkpoint kinase inhibition.

    PubMed

    Shen, John Paul; Srivas, Rohith; Gross, Andrew; Li, Jianfeng; Jaehnig, Eric J; Sun, Su Ming; Bojorquez-Gomez, Ana; Licon, Katherine; Sivaganesh, Vignesh; Xu, Jia L; Klepper, Kristin; Yeerna, Huwate; Pekin, Daniel; Qiu, Chu Ping; van Attikum, Haico; Sobol, Robert W; Ideker, Trey

    2015-11-01

    Chemical inhibitors of the checkpoint kinases have shown promise in the treatment of cancer, yet their clinical utility may be limited by a lack of molecular biomarkers to identify specific patients most likely to respond to therapy. To this end, we screened 112 known tumor suppressor genes for synthetic lethal interactions with inhibitors of the CHEK1 and CHEK2 checkpoint kinases. We identified eight interactions, including the Replication Factor C (RFC)-related protein RAD17. Clonogenic assays in RAD17 knockdown cell lines identified a substantial shift in sensitivity to checkpoint kinase inhibition (3.5-fold) as compared to RAD17 wild-type. Additional evidence for this interaction was found in a large-scale functional shRNA screen of over 100 genotyped cancer cell lines, in which CHEK1/2 mutant cell lines were unexpectedly sensitive to RAD17 knockdown. This interaction was widely conserved, as we found that RAD17 interacts strongly with checkpoint kinases in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In the setting of RAD17 knockdown, CHEK1/2 inhibition was found to be synergistic with inhibition of WEE1, another pharmacologically relevant checkpoint kinase. Accumulation of the DNA damage marker γH2AX following chemical inhibition or transient knockdown of CHEK1, CHEK2 or WEE1 was magnified by knockdown of RAD17. Taken together, our data suggest that CHEK1 or WEE1 inhibitors are likely to have greater clinical efficacy in tumors with RAD17 loss-of-function. PMID:26437225

  11. FHA domain boundaries of the dun1p and rad53p cell cycle checkpoint kinases.

    PubMed

    Hammet, A; Pike, B L; Mitchelhill, K I; Teh, T; Kobe, B; House, C M; Kemp, B E; Heierhorst, J

    2000-04-14

    Dun1p and Rad53p of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae are members of a conserved family of cell cycle checkpoint protein kinases that contain forkhead-associated (FHA) domains. Here, we demonstrate that these FHA domains contain 130-140 residues, and are thus considerably larger than previously predicted by sequence comparisons (55-75 residues). In vivo, expression of the proteolytically defined Dun1p FHA domain, but not a fragment containing only the predicted domain boundaries, inhibited the transcriptional induction of repair genes following replication blocks. This indicates that the non-catalytic FHA domain plays an important role in the transcriptional function of the Dun1p protein kinase. PMID:10767410

  12. Sae2 Function at DNA Double-Strand Breaks Is Bypassed by Dampening Tel1 or Rad53 Activity

    PubMed Central

    Gnugnoli, Marco; Menin, Luca; Clerici, Michela; Longhese, Maria Pia

    2015-01-01

    The MRX complex together with Sae2 initiates resection of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) to generate single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) that triggers homologous recombination. The absence of Sae2 not only impairs DSB resection, but also causes prolonged MRX binding at the DSBs that leads to persistent Tel1- and Rad53-dependent DNA damage checkpoint activation and cell cycle arrest. Whether this enhanced checkpoint signaling contributes to the DNA damage sensitivity and/or the resection defect of sae2Δ cells is not known. By performing a genetic screen, we identify rad53 and tel1 mutant alleles that suppress both the DNA damage hypersensitivity and the resection defect of sae2Δ cells through an Sgs1-Dna2-dependent mechanism. These suppression events do not involve escaping the checkpoint-mediated cell cycle arrest. Rather, defective Rad53 or Tel1 signaling bypasses Sae2 function at DSBs by decreasing the amount of Rad9 bound at DSBs. As a consequence, reduced Rad9 association to DNA ends relieves inhibition of Sgs1-Dna2 activity, which can then compensate for the lack of Sae2 in DSB resection and DNA damage resistance. We propose that persistent Tel1 and Rad53 checkpoint signaling in cells lacking Sae2 increases the association of Rad9 at DSBs, which in turn inhibits DSB resection by limiting the activity of the Sgs1-Dna2 resection machinery. PMID:26584331

  13. Sds22 participates in Glc7 mediated Rad53 dephosphorylation in MMS-induced DNA damage in Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Yao, Guangyin; Wan, Junhua; Mu, Chunhua; Liu, Qizheng; Wang, Yue; Sang, Jianli

    2016-08-01

    The protein kinase Rad53 and its orthologs play a fundamental role in regulating the DNA damage checkpoint in eukaryotes. Rad53 is activated by phosphorylation in response to DNA damage and deactivated by dephosphorylation after the damage is repaired. However, the phosphatases involved in Rad53 deactivation are not entirely understood. In this study, by investigating the consequences of overexpressing SDS22, a gene encoding a regulatory subunit of the PP1 phosphatase Glc7, in the human fungal pathogen Candida albicans, we discovered that Sds22 plays an important role in Rad53 dephosphorylation and thus the deactivation of the DNA damage checkpoint. Sds22 cellular levels increase when cells are exposed to DNA damaging agents and decrease after removing the genotoxins. Depletion of Glc7 has similar phenotypes. We provide evidence that Sds2 acts through inhibitory physical association with Glc7. Our findings provide novel insights into the mechanisms for the control of DNA damage checkpoint. Furthermore, SDS22 overexpression reduces C. albicans virulence in a mouse model of systemic infection, suggesting potential targets for developing antifungal drugs. PMID:27328280

  14. Diphosphothreonine-specific interaction between an SQ/TQ cluster and an FHA domain in the Rad53-Dun1 kinase cascade.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyun; Yuan, Chunhua; Hammet, Andrew; Mahajan, Anjali; Chen, Eric S-W; Wu, Ming-Ru; Su, Mei-I; Heierhorst, Jörg; Tsai, Ming-Daw

    2008-06-20

    Forkhead-associated (FHA) domains recognize phosphothreonines, and SQ/TQ cluster domains (SCDs) contain concentrated phosphorylation sites for ATM/ATR-like DNA-damage-response kinases. The Rad53-SCD1 has dual functions in regulating the activation of the Rad53-Dun1 checkpoint kinase cascade but with unknown molecular mechanisms. Here we present structural, biochemical, and genetic evidence that Dun1-FHA possesses an unprecedented diphosphothreonine-binding specificity. The Dun1-FHA has >100-fold increased affinity for diphosphorylated relative to monophosphorylated Rad53-SCD1 due to the presence of two separate phosphothreonine-binding pockets. In vivo, any single threonine of Rad53-SCD1 is sufficient for Rad53 activation and RAD53-dependent survival of DNA damage, but two adjacent phosphothreonines in the Rad53-SCD1 and two phosphothreonine-binding sites in the Dun1-FHA are necessary for Dun1 activation and DUN1-dependent transcriptional responses to DNA damage. The results uncover a phospho-counting mechanism that regulates the specificity of SCD, and provide mechanistic insight into a role of multisite phosphorylation in DNA-damage signaling. PMID:18570878

  15. Role of the N-terminal forkhead-associated domain in the cell cycle checkpoint function of the Rad53 kinase.

    PubMed

    Pike, B L; Hammet, A; Heierhorst, J

    2001-04-27

    Forkhead-associated (FHA) domains are multifunctional phosphopeptide-binding modules and are the hallmark of the conserved family of Rad53-like checkpoint protein kinases. Rad53-like kinases, including the human tumor suppressor protein Chk2, play crucial roles in cell cycle arrest and activation of repair processes following DNA damage and replication blocks. Here we show that ectopic expression of the N-terminal FHA domain (FHA1) of the yeast Rad53 kinase causes a growth defect by arresting the cell cycle in G(1). This phenotype was highly specific for the Rad53-FHA1 domain and not observed with the similar Rad53-FHA2, Dun1-FHA, and Chk2-FHA domains, and it was abrogated by mutations that abolished binding to a phosphothreonine-containing peptide in vitro. Furthermore, replacement of the RAD53 gene with alleles containing amino acid substitutions in the FHA1 domain resulted in an increased DNA damage sensitivity in vivo. Taken together, these data demonstrate that the FHA1 domain contributes to the checkpoint function of Rad53, possibly by associating with a phosphorylated target protein in response to DNA damage in G(1). PMID:11278522

  16. Rad53-dependent phosphorylation of Swi6 and down-regulation of CLN1 and CLN2 transcription occur in response to DNA damage in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Sidorova, Julia M.; Breeden, Linda L.

    1997-01-01

    Budding yeast possesses a checkpoint-dependent mechanism of delaying G1 progression in response to UV and ionizing radiation DNA damage. We have shown that after a pulse of DNA damage in G1 with the alkylating agent MMS, there is also a MEC1-, RAD53-, and RAD9-dependent delay in G1. This delay occurs at or before Start, as the MMS-treated cells do not bud, remain sensitive to α-factor, and have low CLN1 and CLN2 transcript levels for a longer time than untreated cells. We further show that MMS directly and reversibly down-regulates CLN1 and CLN2 transcript levels. The initial drop in CLN transcript levels in MMS is not RAD53 dependent, but the kinetics of reaccumulation of CLN messages as cells recover from the damage is faster in rad53-11 cells than in wild type cells. This is not an indirect effect of faster progression through G1, because CLN transcripts reaccumulate faster in rad53-11 mutants arrested in G1 as well. In addition, the recovery of CLN mRNA levels can be also hastened by a SWI6 deletion or by overexpression of the truncated Swi4 (Swi4-t) that lacks the carboxy-terminal domain through which Swi4 associates with Swi6. This indicates that both Rad53 and Swi6 are negative regulators of CLN expression after DNA damage. Finally, Swi6 undergoes an MMS-inducible, RAD53-dependent phosphorylation in G1 cells, and Rad53, immunoprecipitated from MMS-treated cells, phosphorylates Swi6 in vitro. On the basis of these observations, we suggest that the Rad53-dependent phosphorylation of Swi6 may delay the transition to S phase by inhibiting CLN transcription. PMID:9367985

  17. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction studies of FHA domains of Dun1 and Rad53 protein kinases.

    PubMed

    Blanchard, H; Fontes, M R; Hammet, A; Pike, B L; Teh, T; Gleichmann, T; Gooley, P R; Kobe, B; Heierhorst, J

    2001-03-01

    Forkhead-associated (FHA) domains are modular protein-protein interaction domains of approximately 130 amino acids present in numerous signalling proteins. FHA-domain-dependent protein interactions are regulated by phosphorylation of target proteins and FHA domains may be multifunctional phosphopeptide-recognition modules. FHA domains of the budding yeast cell-cycle checkpoint protein kinases Dun1p and Rad53p have been crystallized. Crystals of the Dun1-FHA domain exhibit the symmetry of the space group P6(1)22 or P6(5)22, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 127.3, c = 386.3 A; diffraction data have been collected to 3.1 A resolution on a synchrotron source. Crystals of the N-terminal FHA domain (FHA1) of Rad53p diffract to 4.0 A resolution on a laboratory X-ray source and have Laue-group symmetry 4/mmm, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 61.7, c = 104.3 A. PMID:11223532

  18. Mdt1, a Novel Rad53 FHA1 Domain-Interacting Protein, Modulates DNA Damage Tolerance and G2/M Cell Cycle Progression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Pike, Brietta L.; Yongkiettrakul, Suganya; Tsai, Ming-Daw; Heierhorst, Jörg

    2004-01-01

    The Rad53 kinase plays a central role in yeast DNA damage checkpoints. Rad53 contains two FHA phosphothreonine-binding domains that are required for Rad53 activation and possibly downstream signaling. Here we show that the N-terminal Rad53 FHA1 domain interacts with the RNA recognition motif, coiled-coil, and SQ/TQ cluster domain-containing protein Mdt1 (YBl051C). The interaction of Rad53 and Mdt1 depends on the structural integrity of the FHA1 phosphothreonine-binding site as well as threonine-305 of Mdt1. Mdt1 is constitutively threonine phosphorylated and hyperphosphorylated in response to DNA damage in vivo. DNA damage-dependent Mdt1 hyperphosphorylation depends on the Mec1 and Tel1 checkpoint kinases, and Mec1 can directly phosphorylate a recombinant Mdt1 SQ/TQ domain fragment. MDT1 overexpression is synthetically lethal with a rad53 deletion, whereas mdt1 deletion partially suppresses the DNA damage hypersensitivity of checkpoint-compromised strains and generally improves DNA damage tolerance. In the absence of DNA damage, mdt1 deletion leads to delayed anaphase completion, with an elongated cell morphology reminiscent of that of G2/M cell cycle mutants. mdt1-dependent and DNA damage-dependent cell cycle delays are not additive, suggesting that they act in the same pathway. The data indicate that Mdt1 is involved in normal G2/M cell cycle progression and is a novel target of checkpoint-dependent cell cycle arrest pathways. PMID:15024067

  19. DNA replication stress differentially regulates G1/S genes via Rad53-dependent inactivation of Nrm1

    PubMed Central

    Travesa, Anna; Kuo, Dwight; de Bruin, Robertus A M; Kalashnikova, Tatyana I; Guaderrama, Marisela; Thai, Kevin; Aslanian, Aaron; Smolka, Marcus B; Yates, John R; Ideker, Trey; Wittenberg, Curt

    2012-01-01

    MBF and SBF transcription factors regulate a large family of coordinately expressed G1/S genes required for early cell-cycle functions including DNA replication and repair. SBF is inactivated upon S-phase entry by Clb/CDK whereas MBF targets are repressed by the co-repressor, Nrm1. Using genome-wide expression analysis of cells treated with methyl methane sulfonate (MMS), hydroxyurea (HU) or camptothecin (CPT), we show that genotoxic stress during S phase specifically induces MBF-regulated genes. This occurs via direct phosphorylation of Nrm1 by Rad53, the effector checkpoint kinase, which prevents its binding to MBF target promoters. We conclude that MBF-regulated genes are distinguished from SBF-regulated genes by their sensitivity to activation by the S-phase checkpoint, thereby, providing an effective mechanism for enhancing DNA replication and repair and promoting genome stability. PMID:22333915

  20. Genetic polymorphism at codon 546 of the human RAD17 contributes to the risk for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Yasuda, Yukiko; Sakai, Akiko; Ito, Sachio; Mita, Yuichiro; Sonoyama, Takayuki; Tanabe, Shunsuke; Shirakawa, Yasuhiro; Naomoto, Yoshio; Katayama, Hiroshi; Shimizu, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    Human RAD17, a human homolog of the Schizosaccharomyces pombe cell cycle checkpoint gene RAD17, plays a significant role in activating checkpoint signals in response to DNA damage. We evaluated the association of hRAD17 Leu546Arg (rs1045051), a missense single nucleotide polymorphism, with the risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in relation to smoking and alcohol consumption history in 154 esophageal squamous cell carcinoma male patients and 695 cancer-free male controls by a case-control study conducted in Japan. The results showed that the hRAD17 Arg/Arg genotype compared to the Leu/Leu and Leu/Arg genotypes was significantly associated with the risk of the esophageal squamous cell carcinoma with an adjusted odds ratios of 2.22 (95% CI: 1.19-4.16 P=0.013). In stratified studies, the risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma was markedly higher in light drinkers (less than 23 g ethanol/day) with the Arg/Arg genotype than in heavy drinkers (excess of 23 g ethanol/day) with the Arg/Arg genotype (OR=2.83, 95% CI: 1.05-7.61, P=0.04). We concluded that the genetic variant of hRAD17 Leu546Arg polymorphism exerts a significant effect on esophageal squamous cell carcinoma risk among Japanese men. PMID:27186329

  1. The KYxxL motif in Rad17 protein is essential for the interaction with the 9-1-1 complex.

    PubMed

    Fukumoto, Yasunori; Ikeuchi, Masayoshi; Nakayama, Yuji; Yamaguchi, Naoto

    2016-09-01

    ATR-dependent DNA damage checkpoint is the major DNA damage checkpoint against UV irradiation and DNA replication stress. The Rad17-RFC and Rad9-Rad1-Hus1 (9-1-1) complexes interact with each other to contribute to ATR signaling, however, the precise regulatory mechanism of the interaction has not been established. Here, we identified a conserved sequence motif, KYxxL, in the AAA+ domain of Rad17 protein, and demonstrated that this motif is essential for the interaction with the 9-1-1 complex. We also show that UV-induced Rad17 phosphorylation is increased in the Rad17 KYxxL mutants. These data indicate that the interaction with the 9-1-1 complex is not required for Rad17 protein to be an efficient substrate for the UV-induced phosphorylation. Our data also raise the possibility that the 9-1-1 complex plays a negative regulatory role in the Rad17 phosphorylation. We also show that the nucleotide-binding activity of Rad17 is required for its nuclear localization. PMID:27387238

  2. Stimulation of Sister Chromatid Exchanges and Mutation by Aflatoxin B1-DNA Adducts in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Requires MEC1 (ATR), RAD53, and DUN1

    PubMed Central

    Fasullo, Michael; Sun, Mingzeng; Egner, Patricia

    2008-01-01

    The hepatocarcinogen aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a potent recombinagen but weak mutagen in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. AFB1 exposure induces DNA damage-inducible genes, such as RAD51 and those encoding ribonucleotide reductase (RNR), through a MEC1 (ATR homolog)-dependent pathway. Previous studies have indicated that MEC1 is required for both AFB1-associated recombination and mutation, and suggested that AFB1-DNA adducts are common substrates for recombination and mutagenesis. However, little is known about the downstream effectors of MEC1 required for genotoxic events associated with AFB1 exposure. Here we show that AFB1 exposure increases frequencies of RAD51-dependent unequal sister chromatid exchange (SCE) and activates Rad53 (CHK2). We found that MEC1, RAD53, and DUN1 are required for both AFB1-associated mutation and SCE. Deletion of SML1, which encodes an inhibitor of RNR, did not suppress the DUN1-dependent requirement for AFB1-associated genetic events, indicating that higher dNTP levels could not suppress the dun1 phenotype. We identified AFB1-DNA adducts and show that approximately the same number of adducts are obtained in both wild type and rad53 mutants. Since DUN1 is not required for UV-associated mutation and recombination, these studies define a distinct role for DUN1 in AFB1-associated mutagenesis and recombination. We speculate that AFB1-associated DNA adducts stall DNA replication, a consequence of which can either be mutation or recombination. PMID:18228255

  3. Genetic and physical interaction of Ssp1 CaMKK and Rad24 14-3-3 during low pH and osmotic stress in fission yeast

    PubMed Central

    Freitag, Silja I.; Wong, Jimson; Young, Paul G.

    2014-01-01

    The Ssp1 calmodulin kinase kinase (CaMKK) is necessary for stress-induced re-organization of the actin cytoskeleton and initiation of growth at the new cell end following division in Schizosaccharomyces pombe. In addition, it regulates AMP-activated kinase and functions in low glucose tolerance. ssp1− cells undergo mitotic delay at elevated temperatures and G2 arrest in the presence of additional stressors. Following hyperosmotic stress, Ssp1-GFP forms transient foci which accumulate at the cell membrane and form a band around the cell circumference, but not co-localizing with actin patches. Hyperosmolarity-induced localization to the cell membrane occurs concomitantly with a reduction of its interaction with the 14-3-3 protein Rad24, but not Rad25 which remains bound to Ssp1. The loss of rad24 in ssp1− cells reduces the severity of hyperosmotic stress response and relieves mitotic delay. Conversely, overexpression of rad24 exacerbates stress response and concomitant cell elongation. rad24− does not impair stress-induced localization of Ssp1 to the cell membrane, however this response is almost completely absent in cells overexpressing rad24. PMID:24451546

  4. Phosphorylation-dependent inhibition of Cdc42 GEF Gef1 by 14-3-3 protein Rad24 spatially regulates Cdc42 GTPase activity and oscillatory dynamics during cell morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Das, Maitreyi; Nuñez, Illyce; Rodriguez, Marbelys; Wiley, David J.; Rodriguez, Juan; Sarkeshik, Ali; Yates, John R.; Buchwald, Peter; Verde, Fulvia

    2015-01-01

    Active Cdc42 GTPase, a key regulator of cell polarity, displays oscillatory dynamics that are anticorrelated at the two cell tips in fission yeast. Anticorrelation suggests competition for active Cdc42 or for its effectors. Here we show how 14-3-3 protein Rad24 associates with Cdc42 guanine exchange factor (GEF) Gef1, limiting Gef1 availability to promote Cdc42 activation. Phosphorylation of Gef1 by conserved NDR kinase Orb6 promotes Gef1 binding to Rad24. Loss of Rad24–Gef1 interaction increases Gef1 protein localization and Cdc42 activation at the cell tips and reduces the anticorrelation of active Cdc42 oscillations. Increased Cdc42 activation promotes precocious bipolar growth activation, bypassing the normal requirement for an intact microtubule cytoskeleton and for microtubule-dependent polarity landmark Tea4-PP1. Further, increased Cdc42 activation by Gef1 widens cell diameter and alters tip curvature, countering the effects of Cdc42 GTPase-activating protein Rga4. The respective levels of Gef1 and Rga4 proteins at the membrane define dynamically the growing area at each cell tip. Our findings show how the 14-3-3 protein Rad24 modulates the availability of Cdc42 GEF Gef1, a homologue of mammalian Cdc42 GEF DNMBP/TUBA, to spatially control Cdc42 GTPase activity and promote cell polarization and cell shape emergence. PMID:26246599

  5. The set1Delta mutation unveils a novel signaling pathway relayed by the Rad53-dependent hyperphosphorylation of replication protein A that leads to transcriptional activation of repair genes.

    PubMed

    Schramke, V; Neecke, H; Brevet, V; Corda, Y; Lucchini, G; Longhese, M P; Gilson, E; Géli, V

    2001-07-15

    SET domain proteins are present in chromosomal proteins involved in epigenetic control of transcription. The yeast SET domain protein Set1p regulates chromatin structure, DNA repair, and telomeric functions. We investigated the mechanism by which the absence of Set1p increases DNA repair capacities of checkpoint mutants. We show that deletion of SET1 induces a response relayed by the signaling kinase Rad53p that leads to the MEC1/TEL1-independent hyperphosphorylation of replication protein A middle subunit (Rfa2p). Consequently, the binding of Rfa2p to upstream repressing sequences (URS) of repair genes is decreased, thereby leading to their derepression. Our results correlate the set1Delta-dependent phosphorylation of Rfa2p with the transcriptional induction of repair genes. Moreover, we show that the deletion of the amino-terminal region of Rfa2p suppresses the sensitivity to ultraviolet radiation of a mec3Delta checkpoint mutant, abolishes the URS-mediated repression, and increases the expression of repair genes. This work provides an additional link for the role of Rfa2p in the regulation of the repair capacity of the cell and reveals a role for the phosphorylation of Rfa2p and unveils unsuspected connections between chromatin, signaling pathways, telomeres, and DNA repair. PMID:11459833

  6. The checkpoint clamp activates Mec1 kinase during initiation of the DNA damage checkpoint

    PubMed Central

    Majka, Jerzy; Niedziela-Majka, Anita; Burgers, Peter M. J.

    2007-01-01

    SUMMARY Yeast Mec1/Ddc2 protein kinase, the ortholog of human ATR/ATRIP, plays a central role in the DNA-damage checkpoint. The PCNA-like clamp Rad17/Mec3/Ddc1 (the 9-1-1 complex in human) and its loader Rad24-RFC are also essential components of this signal transduction pathway. Here we have studied the role of the clamp in regulating Mec1, and delineate how the signal generated by DNA lesions is transduced to the Rad53 effector kinase. The checkpoint clamp greatly activates the kinase activity of Mec1, but only if the clamp is appropriately loaded upon partial duplex DNA. Activated Mec1 phosphorylates the Ddc1 and Mec3 subunits of the clamp, the Rad24 subunit of the loader, and the Rpa1 and Rpa2 subunits of RPA. Phosphorylation of Rad53, and of human PHAS-1, a non-specific target, also requires a properly loaded clamp. Phosphorylation and binding studies with individual clamp subunits indicate that the Ddc1 subunit mediates the functional interactions with Mec1. PMID:17189191

  7. The checkpoint clamp activates Mec1 kinase during initiation of the DNA damage checkpoint.

    PubMed

    Majka, Jerzy; Niedziela-Majka, Anita; Burgers, Peter M J

    2006-12-28

    Yeast Mec1/Ddc2 protein kinase, the ortholog of human ATR/ATRIP, plays a central role in the DNA damage checkpoint. The PCNA-like clamp Rad17/Mec3/Ddc1 (the 9-1-1 complex in human) and its loader Rad24-RFC are also essential components of this signal transduction pathway. Here we have studied the role of the clamp in regulating Mec1, and we delineate how the signal generated by DNA lesions is transduced to the Rad53 effector kinase. The checkpoint clamp greatly activates the kinase activity of Mec1, but only if the clamp is appropriately loaded upon partial duplex DNA. Activated Mec1 phosphorylates the Ddc1 and Mec3 subunits of the clamp, the Rad24 subunit of the loader, and the Rpa1 and Rpa2 subunits of RPA. Phosphorylation of Rad53, and of human PHAS-1, a nonspecific target, also requires a properly loaded clamp. Phosphorylation and binding studies with individual clamp subunits indicate that the Ddc1 subunit mediates the functional interactions with Mec1. PMID:17189191

  8. Rad53 homologue forkhead-associated kinase A (FhkA) and Ca2+-binding protein 4a (CBP4a) are nucleolar proteins that differentially redistribute during mitosis in Dictyostelium

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background During mitosis most nucleolar proteins redistribute to other locales providing an opportunity to study the relationship between nucleolar protein localization and function. Dictyostelium is a model organism for the study of several fundamental biological processes and human diseases but only two nucleolar proteins have been studied during mitosis: NumA1 and Snf12. Both of them are linked to the cell cycle. To acquire a better understanding of nucleolar protein localization and dynamics in Dictyostelium we studied the nucleolar localization of two additional proteins during mitosis: Snf12-linked forkhead-associated kinase A (FhkA), which is involved in the cell cycle, and Ca2+-binding protein 4a (CBP4a), which is a binding partner of NumA1. Methods Polyclonal antibodies were produced in-house. Cells were fixed and probed with either anti-FhkA or anti-CBP4a in order to determine cellular localization during interphase and throughout the stages of mitosis. Colocalization with DAPI nuclear stain allowed us to determine the location of the nucleus and nucleolus while colocalization with anti-α-tubulin allowed us to determine the cell cycle stage. Results Here we verify two novel nucleolar proteins, Rad53 homologue FhkA which localized around the edge of the nucleolus and CBP4a which was detected throughout the entire nucleolus. Treatment with the Ca2+ chelator BAPTA (5 mM) showed that the nucleolar localization of CBP4a is Ca2+-dependent. In response to actinomycin D (0.05 mg/mL) CBP4a disappeared from the nucleolus while FhkA protruded from the nucleus, eventually pinching off as cytoplasmic circles. FhkA and CBP4a redistributed differently during mitosis. FhkA redistributed throughout the entire cell and at the nuclear envelope region from prometaphase through telophase. In contrast, during prometaphase CBP4a relocated to many large, discrete “CBP4a islands” throughout the nucleoplasm. Two larger “CBP4a islands” were also detected specifically

  9. Genetic control of recombination partner preference in yeast meiosis. Isolation and characterization of mutants elevated for meiotic unequal sister-chromatid recombination.

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, D A; Stahl, F W

    1999-01-01

    Meiotic exchange occurs preferentially between homologous chromatids, in contrast to mitotic recombination, which occurs primarily between sister chromatids. To identify functions that direct meiotic recombination events to homologues, we screened for mutants exhibiting an increase in meiotic unequal sister-chromatid recombination (SCR). The msc (meiotic sister-chromatid recombination) mutants were quantified in spo13 meiosis with respect to meiotic unequal SCR frequency, disome segregation pattern, sporulation frequency, and spore viability. Analysis of the msc mutants according to these criteria defines three classes. Mutants with a class I phenotype identified new alleles of the meiosis-specific genes RED1 and MEK1, the DNA damage checkpoint genes RAD24 and MEC3, and a previously unknown gene, MSC6. The genes RED1, MEK1, RAD24, RAD17, and MEC1 are required for meiotic prophase arrest induced by a dmc1 mutation, which defines a meiotic recombination checkpoint. Meiotic unequal SCR was also elevated in a rad17 mutant. Our observation that meiotic unequal SCR is elevated in meiotic recombination checkpoint mutants suggests that, in addition to their proposed monitoring function, these checkpoint genes function to direct meiotic recombination events to homologues. The mutants in class II, including a dmc1 mutant, confer a dominant meiotic lethal phenotype in diploid SPO13 meiosis in our strain background, and they identify alleles of UBR1, INP52, BUD3, PET122, ELA1, and MSC1-MSC3. These results suggest that DMC1 functions to bias the repair of meiosis-specific double-strand breaks to homologues. We hypothesize that the genes identified by the class II mutants function in or are regulators of the DMC1-promoted interhomologue recombination pathway. Class III mutants may be elevated for rates of both SCR and homologue exchange. PMID:10511544

  10. Reconstitution of a MEC1-independent checkpoint in yeast by expression of a novel human fork head cDNA.

    PubMed Central

    Pati, D; Keller, C; Groudine, M; Plon, S E

    1997-01-01

    A novel human cDNA, CHES1 (checkpoint suppressor 1), has been isolated by suppression of the mec1-1 checkpoint mutation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. CHES1 suppresses a number of DNA damage-activated checkpoint mutations in S. cerevisiae, including mec1, rad9, rad24, dun1, and rad53. CHES1 suppression of sensitivity to DNA damage is specific for checkpoint-defective strains, in contrast to DNA repair-defective strains. Presence of CHES1 but not a control vector resulted in G2 delay after UV irradiation in checkpoint-defective strains, with kinetics, nuclear morphology, and cycloheximide resistance similar to those of a wild-type strain. CHES1 can also suppress the lethality, UV sensitivity, and G2 checkpoint defect of a mec1 null mutation. In contrast to this activity, CHES1 had no measurable effect on the replication checkpoint as assayed by hydroxyurea sensitivity of a mec1 strain. Sequence analysis demonstrates that CHES1 is a novel member of the fork head/Winged Helix family of transcription factors. Suppression of the checkpoint-defective phenotype requires a 200-amino-acid domain in the carboxy terminus of the protein which is distinct from the DNA binding site. Analysis of CHES1 activity is most consistent with activation of an alternative MEC1-independent checkpoint pathway in budding yeast. PMID:9154802

  11. Mutations in recombinational repair and in checkpoint control genes suppress the lethal combination of srs2Delta with other DNA repair genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Klein, H L

    2001-01-01

    The SRS2 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae encodes a DNA helicase that is active in the postreplication repair pathway and homologous recombination. srs2 mutations are lethal in a rad54Delta background and cause poor growth or lethality in rdh54Delta, rad50Delta, mre11Delta, xrs2Delta, rad27Delta, sgs1Delta, and top3Delta backgrounds. Some of these genotypes are known to be defective in double-strand break repair. Many of these lethalities or poor growth can be suppressed by mutations in other genes in the DSB repair pathway, namely rad51, rad52, rad55, and rad57, suggesting that inhibition of recombination at a prior step prevents formation of a lethal intermediate. Lethality of the srs2Delta rad54Delta and srs2Delta rdh54Delta double mutants can also be rescued by mutations in the DNA damage checkpoint functions RAD9, RAD17, RAD24, and MEC3, indicating that the srs2 rad54 and srs2 rdh54 mutant combinations lead to an intermediate that is sensed by these checkpoint functions. When the checkpoints are intact the cells never reverse from the arrest, but loss of the checkpoints releases the arrest. However, cells do not achieve wild-type growth rates, suggesting that unrepaired damage is still present and may lead to chromosome loss. PMID:11156978

  12. Checkpoint-dependent RNR induction promotes fork restart after replicative stress.

    PubMed

    Morafraile, Esther C; Diffley, John F X; Tercero, José Antonio; Segurado, Mónica

    2015-01-01

    The checkpoint kinase Rad53 is crucial to regulate DNA replication in the presence of replicative stress. Under conditions that interfere with the progression of replication forks, Rad53 prevents Exo1-dependent fork degradation. However, although EXO1 deletion avoids fork degradation in rad53 mutants, it does not suppress their sensitivity to the ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) inhibitor hydroxyurea (HU). In this case, the inability to restart stalled forks is likely to account for the lethality of rad53 mutant cells after replication blocks. Here we show that Rad53 regulates replication restart through the checkpoint-dependent transcriptional response, and more specifically, through RNR induction. Thus, in addition to preventing fork degradation, Rad53 prevents cell death in the presence of HU by regulating RNR-expression and localization. When RNR is induced in the absence of Exo1 and RNR negative regulators, cell viability of rad53 mutants treated with HU is increased and the ability of replication forks to restart after replicative stress is restored. PMID:25601385

  13. Checkpoint-dependent RNR induction promotes fork restart after replicative stress

    PubMed Central

    Morafraile, Esther C.; Diffley, John F. X.; Tercero, José Antonio; Segurado, Mónica

    2015-01-01

    The checkpoint kinase Rad53 is crucial to regulate DNA replication in the presence of replicative stress. Under conditions that interfere with the progression of replication forks, Rad53 prevents Exo1-dependent fork degradation. However, although EXO1 deletion avoids fork degradation in rad53 mutants, it does not suppress their sensitivity to the ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) inhibitor hydroxyurea (HU). In this case, the inability to restart stalled forks is likely to account for the lethality of rad53 mutant cells after replication blocks. Here we show that Rad53 regulates replication restart through the checkpoint-dependent transcriptional response, and more specifically, through RNR induction. Thus, in addition to preventing fork degradation, Rad53 prevents cell death in the presence of HU by regulating RNR-expression and localization. When RNR is induced in the absence of Exo1 and RNR negative regulators, cell viability of rad53 mutants treated with HU is increased and the ability of replication forks to restart after replicative stress is restored. PMID:25601385

  14. Dissection of Rad9 BRCT Domain Function In The Mitotic Checkpoint Response To Telomere Uncapping

    PubMed Central

    Nnakwe, Chinonye C.; Altaf, Mohammed; Côté, Jacques; Kron, Stephen J.

    2009-01-01

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, destabilizing telomeres, via inactivation of telomeric repeat binding factor Cdc13, induces a cell cycle checkpoint that arrests cells at the metaphase to anaphase transition—much like the response to an unrepaired DNA double-strand break (DSB). Throughout the cell cycle, the multi-domain adaptor protein Rad9 is required for activation of checkpoint effector kinase Rad53 in response to DSBs and is similarly necessary for checkpoint signaling in response to telomere uncapping. Rad53 activation in G1 and S phase depends on Rad9 association with modified chromatin adjacent to DSBs, which is mediated by Tudor domains binding histone H3 di-methylated at K79 and BRCT domains to histone H2A phosphorylated at S129. Nonetheless, Rad9 Tudor or BRCT mutants can initiate a checkpoint response to DNA damage in nocodazole-treated cells. Mutations affecting di-methylation of H3 K79, or its recognition by Rad9 enhance 5' strand resection upon telomere uncapping, and potentially implicate Rad9 chromatin binding in the checkpoint response to telomere uncapping. Indeed, we report that Rad9 binds to sub-telomeric chromatin, upon telomere uncapping, up to 10 kb from the telomere. Rad9 binding occurred within 30 min after inactivating Cdc13, preceding Rad53 phosphorylation. In turn, Rad9 Tudor and BRCT domain mutations blocked chromatin binding and led to attenuated checkpoint signaling as evidenced by decreased Rad53 phosphorylation and impaired cell cycle arrest. Our work identifies a role for Rad9 chromatin association, during mitosis, in the DNA damage checkpoint response to telomere uncapping, suggesting that chromatin binding may be an initiating event for checkpoints throughout the cell cycle. PMID:19880356

  15. Maintenance of the DNA-Damage Checkpoint Requires DNA-Damage-Induced Mediator Protein Oligomerization

    PubMed Central

    Usui, Takehiko; Foster, Steven S.; Petrini, John H.J.

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY Oligomeric assembly of Brca1 C-terminal (BRCT) domain-containing mediator proteins occurs at sites of DNA damage. However, the functional significance and regulation of such assemblies are not well understood. In this study, we defined the molecular mechanism of DNA-damage-induced oligomerization of the S. cerevisiae BRCT protein Rad9. Our data suggest that Rad9’s tandem BRCT domain mediates Rad9 oligomerization via its interaction with its own Mec1/Tel1-phosphorylated SQ/TQ cluster domain (SCD). Rad53 activation is unaffected by mutations that impair Rad9 oligomerization, but checkpoint maintenance is lost, indicating that oligomerization is required to sustain checkpoint signaling. Once activated, Rad53 phosphorylates the Rad9 BRCT domain, which attenuates the BRCT-SCD interaction. Failure to phosphorylate the Rad9 BRCT results in cytologically visible Rad9 foci. This suggests a feedback loop wherein Rad53 activity and Rad9 oligomerization are regulated to tune the DNA-damage response. PMID:19187758

  16. The Yeast Copper Response Is Regulated by DNA Damage

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Kangzhen; Addinall, Stephen G.; Lydall, David

    2013-01-01

    Copper is an essential but potentially toxic redox-active metal, so the levels and distribution of this metal are carefully regulated to ensure that it binds to the correct proteins. Previous studies of copper-dependent transcription in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae have focused on the response of genes to changes in the exogenous levels of copper. We now report that yeast copper genes are regulated in response to the DNA-damaging agents methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) and hydroxyurea by a mechanism(s) that requires the copper-responsive transcription factors Mac1 and AceI, copper superoxide dismutase (Sod1) activity, and the Rad53 checkpoint kinase. Furthermore, in copper-starved yeast, the response of the Rad53 pathway to MMS is compromised due to a loss of Sod1 activity, consistent with the model that yeast imports copper to ensure Sod1 activity and Rad53 signaling. Crucially, the Mac1 transcription factor undergoes changes in its redox state in response to changing levels of copper or MMS. This study has therefore identified a novel regulatory relationship between cellular redox, copper homeostasis, and the DNA damage response in yeast. PMID:23959798

  17. Hug1 is an intrinsically disordered protein that inhibits ribonucleotide reductase activity by directly binding Rnr2 subunit.

    PubMed

    Meurisse, Julie; Bacquin, Agathe; Richet, Nicolas; Charbonnier, Jean-Baptiste; Ochsenbein, Françoise; Peyroche, Anne

    2014-12-01

    Rad53 is a conserved protein kinase with a central role in DNA damage response and nucleotide metabolism. We observed that the expression of a dominant-lethal form of RAD53 leads to significant expression changes for at least 16 genes, including the RNR3 and the HUG1 genes, both of which are involved in the control of nucleotide metabolism. We established by multiple biophysical and biochemical approaches that Hug1 is an intrinsically disordered protein that directly binds to the small RNR subunit Rnr2. We characterized the surface of interaction involved in Hug1 binding to Rnr2, and we thus defined a new binding region to Rnr2. Moreover, we show that Hug1 is deleterious to cell growth in the context of reduced RNR activity. This inhibitory effect of Hug1 on RNR activity depends on the binding of Hug1 to Rnr2. We propose a model in which Hug1 modulates Rnr2-Rnr1 association by binding Rnr2. We show that Hug1 accumulates under various physiological conditions of high RNR induction. Hence, both the regulation and the mode of action of Hug1 are different from those of the small protein inhibitors Dif1 and Sml1, and Hug1 can be considered as a regulator for fine-tuning of RNR activity. PMID:25378334

  18. DRC1, DNA replication and checkpoint protein 1, functions with DPB11 to control DNA replication and the S-phase checkpoint in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Wang, H; Elledge, S J

    1999-03-30

    In addition to DNA polymerase complexes, DNA replication requires the coordinate action of a series of proteins, including regulators Cdc28/Clb and Dbf4/Cdc7 kinases, Orcs, Mcms, Cdc6, Cdc45, and Dpb11. Of these, Dpb11, an essential BRCT repeat protein, has remained particularly enigmatic. The Schizosaccharomyces pombe homolog of DPB11, cut5, has been implicated in the DNA replication checkpoint as has the POL2 gene with which DPB11 genetically interacts. Here we describe a gene, DRC1, isolated as a dosage suppressor of dpb11-1. DRC1 is an essential cell cycle-regulated gene required for DNA replication. We show that both Dpb11 and Drc1 are required for the S-phase checkpoint, including the proper activation of the Rad53 kinase in response to DNA damage and replication blocks. Dpb11 is the second BRCT-repeat protein shown to control Rad53 function, possibly indicating a general function for this class of proteins. DRC1 and DPB11 show synthetic lethality and reciprocal dosage suppression. The Drc1 and Dpb11 proteins physically associate and function together to coordinate DNA replication and the cell cycle. PMID:10097122

  19. Genotoxic Stress Prevents Ndd1-Dependent Transcriptional Activation of G2/M-Specific Genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Yelamanchi, Syam Kumar; Veis, Jiri; Anrather, Dorothea; Klug, Helene

    2014-01-01

    Downregulation of specific transcripts is one of the mechanisms utilized by eukaryotic checkpoint systems to prevent cell cycle progression. Here we identified and explored such a mechanism in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. It involves the Mec1-Rad53 kinase cascade, which attenuates G2/M-specific gene transcription upon genotoxic stress. This inhibition is achieved via multiple Rad53-dependent inhibitory phosphorylations on the transcriptional activator Ndd1 that prevent its chromatin recruitment via interactions with the forkhead factor Fkh2. Relevant modification sites on Ndd1 were identified by mass spectrometry, and corresponding alanine substitutions were able to suppress a methyl methanesulfonate-induced block in Ndd1 chromatin recruitment. Whereas effective suppression by these Ndd1 mutants is achieved for DNA damage, this is not the case under replication stress conditions, suggesting that additional mechanisms must operate under such conditions. We propose that budding yeast cells prevent the normal transcription of G2/M-specific genes upon genotoxic stress to precisely coordinate the timing of mitotic and postmitotic events with respect to S phase. PMID:24324010

  20. Mec1/ATR regulates the generation of single-stranded DNA that attenuates Tel1/ATM signaling at DNA ends

    PubMed Central

    Clerici, Michela; Trovesi, Camilla; Galbiati, Alessandro; Lucchini, Giovanna; Longhese, Maria Pia

    2014-01-01

    Tel1/ATM and Mec1/ATR checkpoint kinases are activated by DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). Mec1/ATR recruitment to DSBs requires the formation of RPA-coated single-stranded DNA (ssDNA), which arises from 5′–3′ nucleolytic degradation (resection) of DNA ends. Here, we show that Saccharomyces cerevisiae Mec1 regulates resection of the DSB ends. The lack of Mec1 accelerates resection and reduces the loading to DSBs of the checkpoint protein Rad9, which is known to inhibit ssDNA generation. Extensive resection is instead inhibited by the Mec1-ad mutant variant that increases the recruitment near the DSB of Rad9, which in turn blocks DSB resection by both Rad53-dependent and Rad53-independent mechanisms. The mec1-ad resection defect leads to prolonged persistence at DSBs of the MRX complex that causes unscheduled Tel1 activation, which in turn impairs checkpoint switch off. Thus, Mec1 regulates the generation of ssDNA at DSBs, and this control is important to coordinate Mec1 and Tel1 signaling activities at these breaks. PMID:24357557

  1. Colocalization of Sensors Is Sufficient to Activate the DNA Damage Checkpoint in the Absence of Damage

    PubMed Central

    Bonilla, Carla Yaneth; Melo, Justine Amy

    2010-01-01

    Summary Previous work on the DNA damage checkpoint in Saccharomyces cerevisiae has shown that two complexes independently sense DNA lesions: the kinase Mec1-Ddc2 and the PCNA-like 9-1-1 complex. To test whether colocalization of these components is sufficient for checkpoint activation, we fused these checkpoint proteins to the LacI repressor and artificially colocalized these fusions by expressing them in cells harboring Lac operator arrays. We observed Rad53 and Rad9 phosphorylation, Sml1 degradation, and metaphase delay, demonstrating that colocalization of these sensors is sufficient to activate the checkpoint in the absence of DNA damage. Our tethering system allowed us to establish that CDK functions in the checkpoint pathway downstream of damage processing and checkpoint protein recruitment. This CDK dependence is likely, at least in part, through Rad9, since mutation of CDK consensus sites compromised its checkpoint function. PMID:18471973

  2. Analysis of ssDNA Gaps and DSBs in Genetically Unstable Yeast Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Jie; Raghuraman, M.K.; Feng, Wenyi

    2015-01-01

    DNA replication defects are an underlying cause of genome instability, which could stem from alterations in replication intermediates such as extensive single-stranded DNA (ssDNA). Under replication stress, ssDNA is a precursor of the ultimate double-strand breaks (DSBs). Indeed, mutations that render the cell incapable of mediating and protecting the replication forks produce ssDNA genome-wide at high frequency and cause lethality when encountering DNA damage or replication perturbation. Here we describe two related microarray-based methods to query genetically unstable yeast cultures, such as the mec1 and rad53 mutants. These mutants are defective in central protein kinases in the checkpoint pathway. To induce ssDNA and DSB formation in these mutants, we utilize hydroxyurea, a drug that causes nucleotide shortage in the cell. PMID:24906332

  3. Concerted activities of Mcm4, Sld3, and Dbf4 in control of origin activation and DNA replication fork progression.

    PubMed

    Sheu, Yi-Jun; Kinney, Justin B; Stillman, Bruce

    2016-03-01

    Eukaryotic chromosomes initiate DNA synthesis from multiple replication origins in a temporally specific manner during S phase. The replicative helicase Mcm2-7 functions in both initiation and fork progression and thus is an important target of regulation. Mcm4, a helicase subunit, possesses an unstructured regulatory domain that mediates control from multiple kinase signaling pathways, including the Dbf4-dependent Cdc7 kinase (DDK). Following replication stress in S phase, Dbf4 and Sld3, an initiation factor and essential target of Cyclin-Dependent Kinase (CDK), are targets of the checkpoint kinase Rad53 for inhibition of initiation from origins that have yet to be activated, so-called late origins. Here, whole-genome DNA replication profile analysis is used to access under various conditions the effect of mutations that alter the Mcm4 regulatory domain and the Rad53 targets, Sld3 and Dbf4. Late origin firing occurs under genotoxic stress when the controls on Mcm4, Sld3, and Dbf4 are simultaneously eliminated. The regulatory domain of Mcm4 plays an important role in the timing of late origin firing, both in an unperturbed S phase and in dNTP limitation. Furthermore, checkpoint control of Sld3 impacts fork progression under replication stress. This effect is parallel to the role of the Mcm4 regulatory domain in monitoring fork progression. Hypomorph mutations in sld3 are suppressed by a mcm4 regulatory domain mutation. Thus, in response to cellular conditions, the functions executed by Sld3, Dbf4, and the regulatory domain of Mcm4 intersect to control origin firing and replication fork progression, thereby ensuring genome stability. PMID:26733669

  4. The checkpoint-dependent nuclear accumulation of Rho1p exchange factor Rgf1p is important for tolerance to chronic replication stress

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz, Sofía; Manjón, Elvira; García, Patricia; Sunnerhagen, Per; Sánchez, Yolanda

    2014-01-01

    Guanine nucleotide exchange factors control many aspects of cell morphogenesis by turning on Rho-GTPases. The fission yeast exchange factor Rgf1p (Rho gef1) specifically regulates Rho1p during polarized growth and localizes to cortical sites. Here we report that Rgf1p is relocalized to the cell nucleus during the stalled replication caused by hydroxyurea (HU). Import to the nucleus is mediated by a nuclear localization sequence at the N-terminus of Rgf1p, whereas release into the cytoplasm requires two leucine-rich nuclear export sequences at the C-terminus. Moreover, Rgf1p nuclear accumulation during replication arrest depends on the 14-3-3 chaperone Rad24p and the DNA replication checkpoint kinase Cds1p. Both proteins control the nuclear accumulation of Rgf1p by inhibition of its nuclear export. A mutant, Rgf1p-9A, that substitutes nine serine potential phosphorylation Cds1p sites for alanine fails to accumulate in the nucleus in response to replication stress, and this correlates with a severe defect in survival in the presence of HU. In conclusion, we propose that the regulation of Rgf1p could be part of the mechanism by which Cds1p and Rad24p promote survival in the presence of chronic replication stress. It will be of general interest to understand whether the same is true for homologues of Rgf1p in budding yeast and higher eukaryotes. PMID:24478458

  5. Functional Identification of Tumor Suppressor Genes Through an in vivo RNA Interference Screen in a Mouse Lymphoma Model

    PubMed Central

    Bric, Anka; Miething, Cornelius; Bialucha, Carl Uli; Scuoppo, Claudio; Zender, Lars; Krasnitz, Alexander; Xuan, Zhenyu; Zuber, Johannes; Wigler, Michael; Hicks, James; McCombie, Richard W.; Hemann, Michael T.; Hannon, Gregory J.; Powers, Scott; Lowe, Scott W.

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY Short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) capable of stably suppressing gene function by RNA interference (RNAi) can mimic tumor suppressor gene loss in mice. By selecting for shRNAs capable of accelerating lymphomagenesis in a well-characterized mouse lymphoma model, we identified over ten candidate tumor suppressors, including Sfrp1, Numb, Mek1, and Angiopoietin 2. Several components of the DNA damage response machinery were also identified, including Rad17, which acts as a haploinsufficient tumor suppressor that responds to oncogenic stress and whose loss is associated with poor prognosis in human patients. Our results emphasize the utility of in vivo RNAi screens, identify and validate a diverse set of tumor suppressors, and have therapeutic implications. PMID:19800577

  6. Rapid induction of Alternative Lengthening of Telomeres by depletion of the histone chaperone ASF1

    PubMed Central

    O’Sullivan, Roderick J.; Arnoult, Nausica; Lackner, Daniel H.; Oganesian, Liana; Haggblom, Candy; Corpet, Armelle; Almouzni, Genevieve; Karlseder, Jan

    2013-01-01

    The mechanism of activation of the Alternative Lengthening of Telomeres (ALT) pathway of mammalian chromosome end maintenance has remained an unresolved issue. We have discovered that co-depletion of the histone chaperones ASF1a and ASF1b in human cells induced all hallmarks of ALT in both primary and cancer cells. These included the formation of ALT associated PML bodies (APBs), extra-chromosomal telomeric DNA species an elevated frequency of telomeric sister chromatid exchanges (t-SCE) events and inter-telomeric exchange of an integrated tag. The induction of ALT characteristics in this setting led to the simultaneous suppression of telomerase. We identified that ALT induction is positively regulated by RAD17 and BLM, while negatively regulated by EXO1 and DNA2. The induction of ALT phenotypes as a consequence of ASF1 depletion strongly support the hypothesis that ALT is a consequence of a histone management dysfunction. PMID:24413054

  7. Intramolecular Binding of the Rad9 C Terminus in the Checkpoint Clamp Rad9-Hus1-Rad1 Is Closely Linked with Its DNA Binding.

    PubMed

    Takeishi, Yukimasa; Iwaya-Omi, Rie; Ohashi, Eiji; Tsurimoto, Toshiki

    2015-08-01

    The human checkpoint clamp Rad9-Hus1-Rad1 (9-1-1) is loaded onto chromatin by its loader complex, Rad17-RFC, following DNA damage. The 120-amino acid (aa) stretch of the Rad9 C terminus (C-tail) is unstructured and projects from the core ring structure (CRS). Recent studies showed that 9-1-1 and CRS bind DNA independently of Rad17-RFC. The DNA-binding affinity of mutant 9(ΔC)-1-1, which lacked the Rad9 C-tail, was much higher than that of wild-type 9-1-1, suggesting that 9-1-1 has intrinsic DNA binding activity that manifests in the absence of the C-tail. C-tail added in trans interacted with CRS and prevented it from binding to DNA. We narrowed down the amino acid sequence in the C-tail necessary for CRS binding to a 15-aa stretch harboring two conserved consecutive phenylalanine residues. We prepared 9-1-1 mutants containing the variant C-tail deficient for CRS binding, and we demonstrated that the mutant form restored DNA binding as efficiently as 9(ΔC)-1-1. Furthermore, we mapped the sequence necessary for TopBP1 binding within the same 15-aa stretch, demonstrating that TopBP1 and CRS share the same binding region in the C-tail. Indeed, we observed their competitive binding to the C-tail with purified proteins. The importance of interaction between 9-1-1 and TopBP1 for DNA damage signaling suggests that the competitive interactions of TopBP1 and CRS with the C-tail will be crucial for the activation mechanism. PMID:26088138

  8. Identifying and Characterizing Alternative Molecular Markers for the Symbiotic and Free-Living Dinoflagellate Genus Symbiodinium

    PubMed Central

    Pochon, Xavier; Putnam, Hollie M.; Burki, Fabien; Gates, Ruth D.

    2012-01-01

    Dinoflagellates in the genus Symbiodinium are best known as endosymbionts of corals and other invertebrate as well as protist hosts, but also exist free-living in coastal environments. Despite their importance in marine ecosystems, less than 10 loci have been used to explore phylogenetic relationships in this group, and only the multi-copy nuclear ribosomal Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) regions 1 and 2 have been used to characterize fine-scale genetic diversity within the nine clades (A–I) that comprise the genus. Here, we describe a three-step molecular approach focused on 1) identifying new candidate genes for phylogenetic analysis of Symbiodinium spp., 2) characterizing the phylogenetic relationship of these candidate genes from DNA samples spanning eight Symbiodinium clades (A–H), and 3) conducting in-depth phylogenetic analyses of candidate genes displaying genetic divergences equal or higher than those within the ITS-2 of Symbiodinium clade C. To this end, we used bioinformatics tools and reciprocal comparisons to identify homologous genes from 55,551 cDNA sequences representing two Symbiodinium and six additional dinoflagellate EST libraries. Of the 84 candidate genes identified, 7 Symbiodinium genes (elf2, coI, coIII, cob, calmodulin, rad24, and actin) were characterized by sequencing 23 DNA samples spanning eight Symbiodinium clades (A–H). Four genes displaying higher rates of genetic divergences than ITS-2 within clade C were selected for in-depth phylogenetic analyses, which revealed that calmodulin has limited taxonomic utility but that coI, rad24, and actin behave predictably with respect to Symbiodinium lineage C and are potential candidates as new markers for this group. The approach for targeting candidate genes described here can serve as a model for future studies aimed at identifying and testing new phylogenetically informative genes for taxa where transcriptomic and genomics data are available. PMID:22238660

  9. Hst3 is regulated by Mec1-dependent proteolysis and controls the S phase checkpoint and sister chromatid cohesion by deacetylating histone H3 at lysine 56.

    PubMed

    Thaminy, Safia; Newcomb, Benjamin; Kim, Jessica; Gatbonton, Tonibelle; Foss, Eric; Simon, Julian; Bedalov, Antonio

    2007-12-28

    The SIR2 homologues HST3 and HST4 have been implicated in maintenance of genome integrity in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We find that Hst3 has NAD-dependent histone deacetylase activity in vitro and that it functions during S phase to deacetylate the core domain of histone H3 at lysine 56 (H3K56). In response to genotoxic stress, Hst3 undergoes rapid Mec1-dependent phosphorylation and is targeted for ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis, thus providing a mechanism for the previously observed checkpoint-dependent accumulation of Ac-H3K56 at sites of DNA damage. Loss of Hst3-mediated regulation of H3K56 acetylation results in a defect in the S phase DNA damage checkpoint. The pathway that regulates H3K56 acetylation acts in parallel with the Rad9 pathway to transmit a DNA damage signal from Mec1 to Rad53. We also observe that loss of Hst3 function impairs sister chromatid cohesion (SCC). Both S phase checkpoint and SCC defects are phenocopied by H3K56 point mutants. Our findings demonstrate that Hst3-regulated H3K56 acetylation safeguards genome stability by controlling the S phase DNA damage response and promoting SCC. PMID:17977840

  10. Quantitative BrdU immunoprecipitation method demonstrates that Fkh1 and Fkh2 are rate-limiting activators of replication origins that reprogram replication timing in G1 phase.

    PubMed

    Peace, Jared M; Villwock, Sandra K; Zeytounian, John L; Gan, Yan; Aparicio, Oscar M

    2016-03-01

    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae Forkhead Box (FOX) proteins, Fkh1 and Fkh2, regulate diverse cellular processes including transcription, long-range DNA interactions during homologous recombination, and replication origin timing and long-range origin clustering. We hypothesized that, as stimulators of early origin activation, Fkh1 and Fkh2 abundance limits the rate of origin activation genome-wide. Existing methods, however, are not well-suited to quantitative, genome-wide measurements of origin firing between strains and conditions. To overcome this limitation, we developed qBrdU-seq, a quantitative method for BrdU incorporation analysis of replication dynamics, and applied it to show that overexpression of Fkh1 and Fkh2 advances the initiation timing of many origins throughout the genome resulting in a higher total level of origin initiations in early S phase. The higher initiation rate is accompanied by slower replication fork progression, thereby maintaining a normal length of S phase without causing detectable Rad53 checkpoint kinase activation. The advancement of origin firing time, including that of origins in heterochromatic domains, was established in late G1 phase, indicating that origin timing can be reset subsequently to origin licensing. These results provide novel insights into the mechanisms of origin timing regulation by identifying Fkh1 and Fkh2 as rate-limiting factors for origin firing that determine the ability of replication origins to accrue limiting factors and have the potential to reprogram replication timing late in G1 phase. PMID:26728715

  11. A conserved Polϵ binding module in Ctf18-RFC is required for S-phase checkpoint activation downstream of Mec1.

    PubMed

    García-Rodríguez, Luis J; De Piccoli, Giacomo; Marchesi, Vanessa; Jones, Richard C; Edmondson, Ricky D; Labib, Karim

    2015-10-15

    Defects during chromosome replication in eukaryotes activate a signaling pathway called the S-phase checkpoint, which produces a multifaceted response that preserves genome integrity at stalled DNA replication forks. Work with budding yeast showed that the 'alternative clamp loader' known as Ctf18-RFC acts by an unknown mechanism to activate the checkpoint kinase Rad53, which then mediates much of the checkpoint response. Here we show that budding yeast Ctf18-RFC associates with DNA polymerase epsilon, via an evolutionarily conserved 'Pol ϵ binding module' in Ctf18-RFC that is produced by interaction of the carboxyl terminus of Ctf18 with the Ctf8 and Dcc1 subunits. Mutations at the end of Ctf18 disrupt the integrity of the Pol ϵ binding module and block the S-phase checkpoint pathway, downstream of the Mec1 kinase that is the budding yeast orthologue of mammalian ATR. Similar defects in checkpoint activation are produced by mutations that displace Pol ϵ from the replisome. These findings indicate that the association of Ctf18-RFC with Pol ϵ at defective replication forks is a key step in activation of the S-phase checkpoint. PMID:26250113

  12. Yeast Dun1 Kinase Regulates Ribonucleotide Reductase Inhibitor Sml1 in Response to Iron Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Sanvisens, Nerea; Romero, Antonia M.; An, Xiuxiang; Zhang, Caiguo; de Llanos, Rosa; Martínez-Pastor, María Teresa; Bañó, M. Carmen

    2014-01-01

    Iron is an essential micronutrient for all eukaryotic organisms because it participates as a redox-active cofactor in many biological processes, including DNA replication and repair. Eukaryotic ribonucleotide reductases (RNRs) are Fe-dependent enzymes that catalyze deoxyribonucleoside diphosphate (dNDP) synthesis. We show here that the levels of the Sml1 protein, a yeast RNR large-subunit inhibitor, specifically decrease in response to both nutritional and genetic Fe deficiencies in a Dun1-dependent but Mec1/Rad53- and Aft1-independent manner. The decline of Sml1 protein levels upon Fe starvation depends on Dun1 forkhead-associated and kinase domains, the 26S proteasome, and the vacuolar proteolytic pathway. Depletion of core components of the mitochondrial iron-sulfur cluster assembly leads to a Dun1-dependent diminution of Sml1 protein levels. The physiological relevance of Sml1 downregulation by Dun1 under low-Fe conditions is highlighted by the synthetic growth defect observed between dun1Δ and fet3Δ fet4Δ mutants, which is rescued by SML1 deletion. Consistent with an increase in RNR function, Rnr1 protein levels are upregulated upon Fe deficiency. Finally, dun1Δ mutants display defects in deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate (dNTP) biosynthesis under low-Fe conditions. Taken together, these results reveal that the Dun1 checkpoint kinase promotes RNR function in response to Fe starvation by stimulating Sml1 protein degradation. PMID:24958100

  13. Posttranscriptional regulation of the RAD5 DNA repair gene by the Dun1 kinase and the Pan2-Pan3 poly(A)-nuclease complex contributes to survival of replication blocks.

    PubMed

    Hammet, Andrew; Pike, Brietta L; Heierhorst, Jörg

    2002-06-21

    The yeast Dun1 kinase has complex checkpoint functions including DNA damage-dependent cell cycle arrest in G(2)/M, transcriptional induction of repair genes, and regulation of postreplicative DNA repair pathways. Here we report that the Dun1 forkhead-associated domain interacts with the Pan3 subunit of the poly(A)-nuclease complex and that dun1pan2 and dun1pan3 double mutants are dramatically hypersensitive to replicational stress. This phenotype was independent of the function of Dun1 in regulating deoxyribonucleotide levels as it was also observed in strains lacking the ribonucleotide reductase inhibitor Sml1. dun1pan2 mutants initially arrested normally in response to replication blocks but died in the presence of persistent replication blocks with considerably delayed kinetics compared with mutants lacking the Rad53 kinase, indicating that the double mutation does not compromise the intra-S phase checkpoint. Interestingly, the RAD5 gene involved in error-free postreplication repair pathways was specifically up-regulated in dun1pan2 double mutants. Moreover, inducible overexpression of RAD5 mimicked the double mutant phenotype by hypersensitizing dun1 mutants to replication blocks. The data indicate that Dun1 and Pan2-Pan3 cooperate to regulate the stoichiometry and thereby the activity of postreplication repair complexes, suggesting that posttranscriptional mechanisms complement the transcriptional response in the regulation of gene expression by checkpoint signaling pathways in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. PMID:11953437

  14. Analysis of origin recognition complex in saccharomyces cerevisiae by use of Degron mutants.

    PubMed

    Makise, Masaki; Matsui, Nanako; Yamairi, Fumiko; Takahashi, Naoko; Takehara, Masaya; Asano, Teita; Mizushima, Tohru

    2008-04-01

    Origin recognition complex (ORC), a six-protein complex (Orc1p-Orc6p), may deeply involve in initiation of chromosomal DNA replication. However, since most temperature-sensitive orc mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae show the accumulation of cells with nearly 2C DNA content, the exact stage at which ORC acts is not fully understood. In this study, we constructed a heat-inducible degron mutant for each ORC subunit. As well as each targeted subunit, other subunits of ORC were also rapidly degraded under non-permissive conditions. In the orc5 degron mutant, incubation under the non-permissive conditions caused accumulation of cells with nearly 2C DNA content, and phosphorylation of Rad53p. When Orc5p (ORC) is depleted, this inhibits G1/S transition and formation of a pre-replicative complex (pre-RC). For pre-RC to form, and G1/S transition to proceed, Orc5p (ORC) must be present in late G1, rather than early G1, or G2/M. Block and release experiments revealed that Orc5p (ORC) is not necessary for S and G2/M phase progression. We therefore propose that ORC is necessary for the G1/S transition and pre-RC formation, and accumulation of cells with nearly 2C DNA content seen in various orc mutants is due to inefficient pre-RC formation, and/or induction of checkpoint systems. PMID:18211918

  15. Dissociation of the H3K36 demethylase Rph1 from chromatin mediates derepression of environmental stress-response genes under genotoxic stress in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Chung-Yi; Wang, Long-Chi; Lo, Wan-Sheng

    2013-01-01

    Cells respond to environmental signals by altering gene expression through transcription factors. Rph1 is a histone demethylase containing a Jumonji C (JmjC) domain and belongs to the C2H2 zinc-finger protein family. Here we investigate the regulatory network of Rph1 in yeast by expression microarray analysis. More than 75% of Rph1-regulated genes showed increased expression in the rph1-deletion mutant, suggesting that Rph1 is mainly a transcriptional repressor. The binding motif 5′-CCCCTWA-3′, which resembles the stress response element, is overrepresented in the promoters of Rph1-repressed genes. A significant proportion of Rph1-regulated genes respond to DNA damage and environmental stress. Rph1 is a labile protein, and Rad53 negatively modulates Rph1 protein level. We find that the JmjN domain is important in maintaining protein stability and the repressive effect of Rph1. Rph1 is directly associated with the promoter region of targeted genes and dissociated from chromatin before transcriptional derepression on DNA damage and oxidative stress. Of interest, the master stress-activated regulator Msn2 also regulates a subset of Rph1-repressed genes under oxidative stress. Our findings confirm the regulatory role of Rph1 as a transcriptional repressor and reveal that Rph1 might be a regulatory node connecting different signaling pathways responding to environmental stresses. PMID:23985319

  16. Profiling DNA damage-induced phosphorylation in budding yeast reveals diverse signaling networks.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Chunshui; Elia, Andrew E H; Naylor, Maria L; Dephoure, Noah; Ballif, Bryan A; Goel, Gautam; Xu, Qikai; Ng, Aylwin; Chou, Danny M; Xavier, Ramnik J; Gygi, Steven P; Elledge, Stephen J

    2016-06-28

    The DNA damage response (DDR) is regulated by a protein kinase signaling cascade that orchestrates DNA repair and other processes. Identifying the substrate effectors of these kinases is critical for understanding the underlying physiology and mechanism of the response. We have used quantitative mass spectrometry to profile DDR-dependent phosphorylation in budding yeast and genetically explored the dependency of these phosphorylation events on the DDR kinases MEC1, RAD53, CHK1, and DUN1. Based on these screens, a database containing many novel DDR-regulated phosphorylation events has been established. Phosphorylation of many of these proteins has been validated by quantitative peptide phospho-immunoprecipitation and examined for functional relevance to the DDR through large-scale analysis of sensitivity to DNA damage in yeast deletion strains. We reveal a link between DDR signaling and the metabolic pathways of inositol phosphate and phosphatidyl inositol synthesis, which are required for resistance to DNA damage. We also uncover links between the DDR and TOR signaling as well as translation regulation. Taken together, these data shed new light on the organization of DDR signaling in budding yeast. PMID:27298372

  17. Telomerase is essential to alleviate pif1-induced replication stress at telomeres.

    PubMed

    Chang, Michael; Luke, Brian; Kraft, Claudine; Li, Zhijian; Peter, Matthias; Lingner, Joachim; Rothstein, Rodney

    2009-11-01

    Pif1, an evolutionarily conserved helicase, negatively regulates telomere length by removing telomerase from chromosome ends. Pif1 has also been implicated in DNA replication processes such as Okazaki fragment maturation and replication fork pausing. We find that overexpression of Saccharomyces cervisiae PIF1 results in dose-dependent growth inhibition. Strong overexpression causes relocalization of the DNA damage response factors Rfa1 and Mre11 into nuclear foci and activation of the Rad53 DNA damage checkpoint kinase, indicating that the toxicity is caused by accumulation of DNA damage. We screened the complete set of approximately 4800 haploid gene deletion mutants and found that moderate overexpression of PIF1, which is only mildly toxic on its own, causes growth defects in strains with mutations in genes involved in DNA replication and the DNA damage response. Interestingly, we find that telomerase-deficient strains are also sensitive to PIF1 overexpression. Our data are consistent with a model whereby increased levels of Pif1 interfere with DNA replication, causing collapsed replication forks. At chromosome ends, collapsed forks result in truncated telomeres that must be rapidly elongated by telomerase to maintain viability. PMID:19704012

  18. Functions of Saccharomyces cerevisiae 14-3-3 proteins in response to DNA damage and to DNA replication stress.

    PubMed Central

    Lottersberger, Francisca; Rubert, Fabio; Baldo, Veronica; Lucchini, Giovanna; Longhese, Maria Pia

    2003-01-01

    Two members of the 14-3-3 protein family, involved in key biological processes in different eukaryotes, are encoded by the functionally redundant Saccharomyces cerevisiae BMH1 and BMH2 genes. We produced and characterized 12 independent bmh1 mutant alleles, whose presence in the cell as the sole 14-3-3 source causes hypersensitivity to genotoxic agents, indicating that Bmh proteins are required for proper response to DNA damage. In particular, the bmh1-103 and bmh1-266 mutant alleles cause defects in G1/S and G2/M DNA damage checkpoints, whereas only the G2/M checkpoint is altered by the bmh1-169 and bmh1-221 alleles. Impaired checkpoint responses correlate with the inability to maintain phosphorylated forms of Rad53 and/or Chk1, suggesting that Bmh proteins might regulate phosphorylation/dephosphorylation of these checkpoint kinases. Moreover, several bmh1 bmh2Delta mutants are defective in resuming DNA replication after transient deoxynucleotide depletion, and all display synthetic effects when also carrying mutations affecting the polalpha-primase and RPA DNA replication complexes, suggesting a role for Bmh proteins in DNA replication stress response. Finally, the bmh1-169 bmh2Delta and bmh1-170 bmh2Delta mutants show increased rates of spontaneous gross chromosomal rearrangements, indicating that Bmh proteins are required to suppress genome instability. PMID:14704161

  19. The N-terminus of Mcm10 is important for interaction with the 9-1-1 clamp and in resistance to DNA damage

    PubMed Central

    Alver, Robert C.; Zhang, Tianji; Josephrajan, Ajeetha; Fultz, Brandy L.; Hendrix, Chance J.; Das-Bradoo, Sapna; Bielinsky, Anja-Katrin

    2014-01-01

    Accurate replication of the genome requires the evolutionarily conserved minichromosome maintenance protein, Mcm10. Although the details of the precise role of Mcm10 in DNA replication are still debated, it interacts with the Mcm2-7 core helicase, the lagging strand polymerase, DNA polymerase-α and the replication clamp, proliferating cell nuclear antigen. Loss of these interactions caused by the depletion of Mcm10 leads to chromosome breakage and cell cycle checkpoint activation. However, whether Mcm10 has an active role in DNA damage prevention is unknown. Here, we present data that establish a novel role of the N-terminus of Mcm10 in resisting DNA damage. We show that Mcm10 interacts with the Mec3 subunit of the 9-1-1 clamp in response to replication stress evoked by UV irradiation or nucleotide shortage. We map the interaction domain with Mec3 within the N-terminal region of Mcm10 and demonstrate that its truncation causes UV light sensitivity. This sensitivity is not further enhanced by a deletion of MEC3, arguing that MCM10 and MEC3 operate in the same pathway. Since Rad53 phosphorylation in response to UV light appears to be normal in N-terminally truncated mcm10 mutants, we propose that Mcm10 may have a role in replication fork restart or DNA repair. PMID:24972833

  20. Nonsense-mediated decay regulates key components of homologous recombination

    PubMed Central

    Janke, Ryan; Kong, Jeremy; Braberg, Hannes; Cantin, Greg; Yates, John R.; Krogan, Nevan J.; Heyer, Wolf-Dietrich

    2016-01-01

    Cells frequently experience DNA damage that requires repair by homologous recombination (HR). Proteins involved in HR are carefully coordinated to ensure proper and efficient repair without interfering with normal cellular processes. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Rad55 functions in the early steps of HR and is regulated in response to DNA damage through phosphorylation by the Mec1 and Rad53 kinases of the DNA damage response. To further identify regulatory processes that target HR, we performed a high-throughput genetic interaction screen with RAD55 phosphorylation site mutants. Genes involved in the mRNA quality control process, nonsense-mediated decay (NMD), were found to genetically interact with rad55 phospho-site mutants. Further characterization revealed that RAD55 transcript and protein levels are regulated by NMD. Regulation of HR by NMD extends to multiple targets beyond RAD55, including RAD51, RAD54 and RAD57. Finally, we demonstrate that loss of NMD results in an increase in recombination rates and resistance to the DNA damaging agent methyl methanesulfonate, suggesting this pathway negatively regulates HR under normal growth conditions. PMID:27001511

  1. Chromosome-wide histone deacetylation by sirtuins prevents hyperactivation of DNA damage-induced signaling upon replicative stress

    PubMed Central

    Simoneau, Antoine; Ricard, Étienne; Weber, Sandra; Hammond-Martel, Ian; Wong, Lai Hong; Sellam, Adnane; Giaever, Guri; Nislow, Corey; Raymond, Martine; Wurtele, Hugo

    2016-01-01

    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome encodes five sirtuins (Sir2 and Hst1–4), which constitute a conserved family of NAD-dependent histone deacetylases. Cells lacking any individual sirtuin display mild growth and gene silencing defects. However, hst3Δ hst4Δ double mutants are exquisitely sensitive to genotoxins, and hst3Δ hst4Δ sir2Δ mutants are inviable. Our published data also indicate that pharmacological inhibition of sirtuins prevents growth of several fungal pathogens, although the biological basis is unclear. Here, we present genome-wide fitness assays conducted with nicotinamide (NAM), a pan-sirtuin inhibitor. Our data indicate that NAM treatment causes yeast to solicit specific DNA damage response pathways for survival, and that NAM-induced growth defects are mainly attributable to inhibition of Hst3 and Hst4 and consequent elevation of histone H3 lysine 56 acetylation (H3K56ac). Our results further reveal that in the presence of constitutive H3K56ac, the Slx4 scaffolding protein and PP4 phosphatase complex play essential roles in preventing hyperactivation of the DNA damage-response kinase Rad53 in response to spontaneous DNA damage caused by reactive oxygen species. Overall, our data support the concept that chromosome-wide histone deacetylation by sirtuins is critical to mitigate growth defects caused by endogenous genotoxins. PMID:26748095

  2. Chromosome-wide histone deacetylation by sirtuins prevents hyperactivation of DNA damage-induced signaling upon replicative stress.

    PubMed

    Simoneau, Antoine; Ricard, Étienne; Weber, Sandra; Hammond-Martel, Ian; Wong, Lai Hong; Sellam, Adnane; Giaever, Guri; Nislow, Corey; Raymond, Martine; Wurtele, Hugo

    2016-04-01

    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome encodes five sirtuins (Sir2 and Hst1-4), which constitute a conserved family of NAD-dependent histone deacetylases. Cells lacking any individual sirtuin display mild growth and gene silencing defects. However, hst3Δ hst4Δ double mutants are exquisitely sensitive to genotoxins, and hst3Δ hst4Δ sir2Δmutants are inviable. Our published data also indicate that pharmacological inhibition of sirtuins prevents growth of several fungal pathogens, although the biological basis is unclear. Here, we present genome-wide fitness assays conducted with nicotinamide (NAM), a pan-sirtuin inhibitor. Our data indicate that NAM treatment causes yeast to solicit specific DNA damage response pathways for survival, and that NAM-induced growth defects are mainly attributable to inhibition of Hst3 and Hst4 and consequent elevation of histone H3 lysine 56 acetylation (H3K56ac). Our results further reveal that in the presence of constitutive H3K56ac, the Slx4 scaffolding protein and PP4 phosphatase complex play essential roles in preventing hyperactivation of the DNA damage-response kinase Rad53 in response to spontaneous DNA damage caused by reactive oxygen species. Overall, our data support the concept that chromosome-wide histone deacetylation by sirtuins is critical to mitigate growth defects caused by endogenous genotoxins. PMID:26748095

  3. Dpb11 Controls the Association between DNA Polymerases α and ɛ and the Autonomously Replicating Sequence Region of Budding Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Masumoto, Hiroshi; Sugino, Akio; Araki, Hiroyuki

    2000-01-01

    Dpb11 is required for chromosomal DNA replication and the S-phase checkpoint in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Here, we report detection of a physical complex containing Dpb11 and DNA polymerase ɛ (Dpb11-Polɛ complex). During the S phase of the cell cycle, Dpb11 associated preferentially with DNA fragments containing autonomously replicating sequences (ARSs), at the same time as Polɛ associated with these fragments. Association of Dpb11 and Polɛ with these fragments was mutually dependent, suggesting that the Dpb11-Polɛ complex associates with the ARS. Moreover, Dpb11 was required for the association of Polα-primase with the fragments. Thus, it seems likely that association of the Dpb11-Polɛ complex with the ARS fragments is required for the association of the Polα-primase complex. Hydroxyurea inhibits late-origin firing in S. cerevisiae, and the checkpoint genes, RAD53 and MEC1, are involved in this inhibition. In the presence of hydroxyurea at temperatures permissive for cell growth, Polɛ in dpb11-1 cells associated with early- and late-origin fragments. In wild-type cells, however, it associated only with early-origin fragments. This indicates that Dpb11 may also be involved in the regulation of late-origin firing. Overall, these results suggest that Dpb11 controls the association between DNA polymerases α and ɛ and the ARS. PMID:10733584

  4. Requirement of the FATC domain of protein kinase Tel1 for localization to DNA ends and target protein recognition

    PubMed Central

    Ogi, Hiroo; Goto, Greicy H.; Ghosh, Avik; Zencir, Sevil; Henry, Everett; Sugimoto, Katsunori

    2015-01-01

    Two large phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase–related protein kinases (PIKKs), ATM and ATR, play a central role in the DNA damage response pathway. PIKKs contain a highly conserved extreme C-terminus called the FRAP-ATM-TRRAP-C-terminal (FATC) domain. In budding yeast, ATM and ATR correspond to Tel1 and Mec1, respectively. In this study, we characterized functions of the FATC domain of Tel1 by introducing substitution or truncation mutations. One substitution mutation, termed tel1-21, and a truncation mutation, called tel1-ΔC, did not significantly affect the expression level. The tel1-21 mutation impaired the cellular response to DNA damage and conferred moderate telomere maintenance defect. In contrast, the tel1-ΔC mutation behaved like a null mutation, conferring defects in both DNA damage response and telomere maintenance. Tel1-21 protein localized to DNA ends as effectively as wild-type Tel1 protein, whereas Tel1-ΔC protein failed. Introduction of a hyperactive TEL1-hy mutation suppressed the tel1-21 mutation but not the tel1-ΔC mutation. In vitro analyses revealed that both Tel1-21 and Tel1-ΔC proteins undergo efficient autophosphorylation but exhibit decreased kinase activities toward the exogenous substrate protein, Rad53. Our results show that the FATC domain of Tel1 mediates localization to DNA ends and contributes to phosphorylation of target proteins. PMID:26246601

  5. Nonsense-mediated decay regulates key components of homologous recombination.

    PubMed

    Janke, Ryan; Kong, Jeremy; Braberg, Hannes; Cantin, Greg; Yates, John R; Krogan, Nevan J; Heyer, Wolf-Dietrich

    2016-06-20

    Cells frequently experience DNA damage that requires repair by homologous recombination (HR). Proteins involved in HR are carefully coordinated to ensure proper and efficient repair without interfering with normal cellular processes. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Rad55 functions in the early steps of HR and is regulated in response to DNA damage through phosphorylation by the Mec1 and Rad53 kinases of the DNA damage response. To further identify regulatory processes that target HR, we performed a high-throughput genetic interaction screen with RAD55 phosphorylation site mutants. Genes involved in the mRNA quality control process, nonsense-mediated decay (NMD), were found to genetically interact with rad55 phospho-site mutants. Further characterization revealed that RAD55 transcript and protein levels are regulated by NMD. Regulation of HR by NMD extends to multiple targets beyond RAD55, including RAD51, RAD54 and RAD57 Finally, we demonstrate that loss of NMD results in an increase in recombination rates and resistance to the DNA damaging agent methyl methanesulfonate, suggesting this pathway negatively regulates HR under normal growth conditions. PMID:27001511

  6. Xbp1 Directs Global Repression of Budding Yeast Transcription during the Transition to Quiescence and Is Important for the Longevity and Reversibility of the Quiescent State

    PubMed Central

    Miles, Shawna; Li, Lihong; Davison, Jerry; Breeden, Linda L.

    2013-01-01

    Pure populations of quiescent yeast can be obtained from stationary phase cultures that have ceased proliferation after exhausting glucose and other carbon sources from their environment. They are uniformly arrested in the G1 phase of the cell cycle, and display very high thermo-tolerance and longevity. We find that G1 arrest is initiated before all the glucose has been scavenged from the media. Maintaining G1 arrest requires transcriptional repression of the G1 cyclin, CLN3, by Xbp1. Xbp1 is induced as glucose is depleted and it is among the most abundant transcripts in quiescent cells. Xbp1 binds and represses CLN3 transcription and in the absence of Xbp1, or with extra copies of CLN3, cells undergo ectopic divisions and produce very small cells. The Rad53-mediated replication stress checkpoint reinforces the arrest and becomes essential when Cln3 is overproduced. The XBP1 transcript also undergoes metabolic oscillations under glucose limitation and we identified many additional transcripts that oscillate out of phase with XBP1 and have Xbp1 binding sites in their promoters. Further global analysis revealed that Xbp1 represses 15% of all yeast genes as they enter the quiescent state and over 500 of these transcripts contain Xbp1 binding sites in their promoters. Xbp1-repressed transcripts are highly enriched for genes involved in the regulation of cell growth, cell division and metabolism. Failure to repress some or all of these targets leads xbp1 cells to enter a permanent arrest or senescence with a shortened lifespan. PMID:24204289

  7. Exo1 phosphorylation status controls the hydroxyurea sensitivity of cells lacking the Pol32 subunit of DNA polymerases delta and zeta

    PubMed Central

    Doerfler, Lillian; Schmidt, Kristina H.

    2015-01-01

    Exo1 belongs to the Rad2 family of structure-specific nucleases and possesses 5′-3′ exonuclease activity on double-stranded DNA substrates. Exo1 interacts physically with the DNA mismatch repair (MMR) proteins Msh2 and Mlh1 and is involved in the excision of the mispaired nucleotide. Independent of its role in MMR, Exo1 contributes to long-range resection of DNA double-strand break (DSB) ends to facilitate their repair by homologous recombination (HR), and was recently identified as a component of error-free DNA damage tolerance pathways. Here we show that Exo1 activity increases the hydroxyurea sensitivity of cells lacking Pol32, a subunit of DNA polymerases δ and ζ Both, phospho-mimicking and dephospho-mimicking exo1 mutants act as hypermorphs, as evidenced by an increase in HU sensitivity of pol32Δ cells, suggesting that they are trapped in an active form and that phosphorylation of Exo1 at residues S372, S567, S587, S692 is necessary, but insufficient, for the accurate regulation of Exo1 activity at stalled replication forks. In contrast, neither phosphorylation status is important for Exo1's role in MMR or in the suppression of genome instability in cells lacking Sgs1 helicase. This ability of an EXO1 deletion to suppress the HU hypersensitivity of pol32Δ cells is in contrast to the negative genetic interaction between deletions of EXO1 and POL32 in MMS-treated cells as well as the role of EXO1 in DNA-damage treated rad53 and mec1 mutants. PMID:25457771

  8. Inner nuclear membrane protein Lem2 facilitates Rad3-mediated checkpoint signaling under replication stress induced by nucleotide depletion in fission yeast.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yong-Jie

    2016-04-01

    DNA replication checkpoint is a highly conserved cellular signaling pathway critical for maintaining genome integrity in eukaryotes. It is activated when DNA replication is perturbed. In Schizosaccharomyces pombe, perturbed replication forks activate the sensor kinase Rad3 (ATR/Mec1), which works cooperatively with mediator Mrc1 and the 9-1-1 checkpoint clamp to phosphorylate the effector kinase Cds1 (CHK2/Rad53). Phosphorylation of Cds1 promotes autoactivation of the kinase. Activated Cds1 diffuses away from the forks and stimulates most of the checkpoint responses under replication stress. Although this signaling pathway has been well understood in fission yeast, how the signaling is initiated and thus regulated remains incompletely understood. Previous studies have shown that deletion of lem2(+) sensitizes cells to the inhibitor of ribonucleotide reductase, hydroxyurea. However, the underlying mechanism is still not well understood. This study shows that in the presence of hydroxyurea, Lem2 facilitates Rad3-mediated checkpoint signaling for Cds1 activation. Without Lem2, all known Rad3-dependent phosphorylations critical for replication checkpoint signaling are seriously compromised, which likely causes the aberrant mitosis and drug sensitivity observed in this mutant. Interestingly, the mutant is not very sensitive to DNA damage and the DNA damage checkpoint remains largely intact, suggesting that the main function of Lem2 is to facilitate checkpoint signaling in response to replication stress. Since Lem2 is an inner nuclear membrane protein, these results also suggest that the replication checkpoint may be spatially regulated inside the nucleus, a previously unknown mechanism. PMID:26746798

  9. The C Terminus of the Histone Chaperone Asf1 Cross-Links to Histone H3 in Yeast and Promotes Interaction with Histones H3 and H4

    PubMed Central

    Dennehey, Briana K.; Noone, Seth; Liu, Wallace H.; Smith, Luke

    2013-01-01

    The central histone H3/H4 chaperone Asf1 comprises a highly conserved globular core and a divergent C-terminal tail. While the function and structure of the Asf1 core are well known, the function of the tail is less well understood. Here, we have explored the role of the yeast (yAsf1) and human (hAsf1a and hAsf1b) Asf1 tails in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We show, using a photoreactive, unnatural amino acid, that Asf1 tail residue 210 cross-links to histone H3 in vivo and, further, that loss of C-terminal tail residues 211 to 279 weakens yAsf1-histone binding affinity in vitro nearly 200-fold. Via several yAsf1 C-terminal truncations and yeast-human chimeric proteins, we found that truncations at residue 210 increase transcriptional silencing and that the hAsf1a tail partially substitutes for full-length yAsf1 with respect to silencing but that full-length hAsf1b is a better overall substitute for full-length yAsf1. In addition, we show that the C-terminal tail of Asf1 is phosphorylated at T270 in yeast. Loss of this phosphorylation site does not prevent coimmunoprecipitation of yAsf1 and Rad53 from yeast extracts, whereas amino acid residue substitutions at the Asf1-histone H3/H4 interface do. Finally, we show that residue substitutions in yAsf1 near the CAF-1/HIRA interface also influence yAsf1's function in silencing. PMID:23184661

  10. Hyper-Acetylation of Histone H3K56 Limits Break-Induced Replication by Inhibiting Extensive Repair Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Che, Jun; Smith, Stephanie; Kim, Yoo Jung; Shim, Eun Yong; Myung, Kyungjae; Lee, Sang Eun

    2015-01-01

    Break-induced replication (BIR) has been implicated in restoring eroded telomeres and collapsed replication forks via single-ended invasion and extensive DNA synthesis on the recipient chromosome. Unlike other recombination subtypes, DNA synthesis in BIR likely relies heavily on mechanisms enabling efficient fork progression such as chromatin modification. Herein we report that deletion of HST3 and HST4, two redundant de-acetylases of histone H3 Lysine 56 (H3K56), inhibits BIR, sensitizes checkpoint deficient cells to deoxyribonucleotide triphosphate pool depletion, and elevates translocation-type gross chromosomal rearrangements (GCR). The basis for deficiency in BIR and gene conversion with long gap synthesis in hst3Δ hst4Δ cells can be traced to a defect in extensive DNA synthesis. Distinct from other cellular defects associated with deletion of HST3 and HST4 including thermo-sensitivity and elevated spontaneous mutagenesis, the BIR defect in hst3Δ hst4Δ cannot be offset by the deletion of RAD17 or MMS22, but rather by the loss of RTT109 or ASF1, or in combination with the H3K56R mutation, which also restores tolerance to replication stress in mrc1 mutants. Our studies suggest that acetylation of H3K56 limits extensive repair synthesis and interferes with efficient fork progression in BIR. PMID:25705897

  11. DNA damage checkpoints in mammals.

    PubMed

    Niida, Hiroyuki; Nakanishi, Makoto

    2006-01-01

    DNA damage is a common event and probably leads to mutation or deletion within chromosomal DNA, which may cause cancer or premature aging. DNA damage induces several cellular responses including DNA repair, checkpoint activity and the triggering of apoptotic pathways. DNA damage checkpoints are associated with biochemical pathways that end delay or arrest of cell-cycle progression. These checkpoints engage damage sensor proteins, such as the Rad9-Rad1-Hus1 (9-1-1) complex, and the Rad17-RFC complex, in the detection of DNA damage and transduction of signals to ATM, ATR, Chk1 and Chk2 kinases. Chk1 and Chk2 kinases regulate Cdc25, Wee1 and p53 that ultimately inactivate cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks) which inhibit cell-cycle progression. In this review, we discuss the molecular mechanisms by which DNA damage is recognized by sensor proteins and signals are transmitted to Cdks. We classify the genes involved in checkpoint signaling into four categories, namely sensors, mediators, transducers and effectors, although their proteins have the broad activity, and thus this classification is for convenience and is not definitive. PMID:16314342

  12. A Network of Conserved Synthetic Lethal Interactions for Exploration of Precision Cancer Therapy.

    PubMed

    Srivas, Rohith; Shen, John Paul; Yang, Chih Cheng; Sun, Su Ming; Li, Jianfeng; Gross, Andrew M; Jensen, James; Licon, Katherine; Bojorquez-Gomez, Ana; Klepper, Kristin; Huang, Justin; Pekin, Daniel; Xu, Jia L; Yeerna, Huwate; Sivaganesh, Vignesh; Kollenstart, Leonie; van Attikum, Haico; Aza-Blanc, Pedro; Sobol, Robert W; Ideker, Trey

    2016-08-01

    An emerging therapeutic strategy for cancer is to induce selective lethality in a tumor by exploiting interactions between its driving mutations and specific drug targets. Here we use a multi-species approach to develop a resource of synthetic lethal interactions relevant to cancer therapy. First, we screen in yeast ∼169,000 potential interactions among orthologs of human tumor suppressor genes (TSG) and genes encoding drug targets across multiple genotoxic environments. Guided by the strongest signal, we evaluate thousands of TSG-drug combinations in HeLa cells, resulting in networks of conserved synthetic lethal interactions. Analysis of these networks reveals that interaction stability across environments and shared gene function increase the likelihood of observing an interaction in human cancer cells. Using these rules, we prioritize ∼10(5) human TSG-drug combinations for future follow-up. We validate interactions based on cell and/or patient survival, including topoisomerases with RAD17 and checkpoint kinases with BLM. PMID:27453043

  13. Prognostic implications of the DNA damage response pathway in glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Seol, Ho Jun; Yoo, Hae Yong; Jin, Juyoun; Joo, Kyeung Min; Kong, Doo-Sik; Yoon, Su Jin; Yang, Heekyoung; Kang, Wonyoung; Lim, Do-Hoon; Park, Kwan; Kim, Jong Hyun; Lee, Jung-Ii; Nam, Do-Hyun

    2011-08-01

    Genomic instability and resistance to genotoxic therapies for glioblastoma (GBM) suggest aberrant DNA damage response (DDR), since DDR maintains the genomic integrity against genotoxic insults including anti-tumor therapies. To elucidate the biological and clinical meaning of DDR in GBM, we retrospectively investigated the immunohistochemical expression of DDR proteins (ATM, Chk1, Chk2, TopBP1, Rad17, p53, Nbs1, MDC1, γH2AX and RPA1) in 69 GBM surgical samples and their relation with GBM patient survival. Remarkably, higher expression of ATM revealed significantly longer overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) (p<0.05). Upon multivariate analysis, expression level of ATM was an independent factor for longer OS (p=0.020) and longer PFS (p=0.019). Since ATM induces cell cycle arrest or apoptosis through cell cycle regulators in response to genotoxic insults, these results indicate that aberrant DDR signaling through ATM in GBM may be associated with resistance to genotoxic anti-tumor therapeutics. Conclusively, we emphasize that the identification of DDR machinery, which can be involved in unstable genomic status or genotoxic therapies in GBM, is very important to predict patient outcome. PMID:21617879

  14. Intensity modulated radiotherapy induces pro-inflammatory and pro-survival responses in prostate cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    EL-SAGHIRE, HOUSSEIN; VANDEVOORDE, CHARLOT; OST, PIET; MONSIEURS, PIETER; MICHAUX, ARLETTE; DE MEERLEER, GERT; BAATOUT, SARAH; THIERENS, HUBERT

    2014-01-01

    Intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) is one of the modern conformal radiotherapies that is widely used within the context of cancer patient treatment. It uses multiple radiation beams targeted to the tumor, however, large volumes of the body receive low doses of irradiation. Using γ-H2AX and global genome expression analysis, we studied the biological responses induced by low doses of ionizing radiation in prostate cancer patients following IMRT. By means of different bioinformatics analyses, we report that IMRT induced an inflammatory response via the induction of viral, adaptive, and innate immune signaling. In response to growth factors and immune-stimulatory signaling, positive regulation in the progression of cell cycle and DNA replication were induced. This denotes pro-inflammatory and pro-survival responses. Furthermore, double strand DNA breaks were induced in every patient 30 min after the treatment and remaining DNA repair and damage signaling continued after 18–24 h. Nine genes belonging to inflammatory responses (TLR3, SH2D1A and IL18), cell cycle progression (ORC4, SMC2 and CCDC99) and DNA damage and repair (RAD17, SMC6 and MRE11A) were confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR. This study emphasizes that the risk assessment of health effects from the out-of-field low doses during IMRT should be of concern, as these may increase the risk of secondary cancers and/or systemic inflammation. PMID:24435511

  15. Telomere Dysfunction Induced Foci (TIF) Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Mender, Ilgen; Shay, Jerry W.

    2016-01-01

    Telomerase maintains telomeric DNA in eukaryotes during early developments, ~90% of cancer cells and some proliferative stem like cells. Telomeric repeats at the end of chromosomes are associated with the shelterin complex. This complex consists of TRF1, TRF2, Rap1, TIN2, TPP1, POT1 which protect DNA from being recognized as DNA double-stranded breaks. Critically short telomeres or impaired shelterin proteins can cause telomere dysfunction, which eventually induces DNA damage responses at the telomeres. DNA damage responses can be identified by antibodies to 53BP1, gammaH2AX, Rad17, ATM, and Mre11. DNA damage foci at uncapped telomeres are referred to as Telomere dysfunction-Induced Foci (TIFs) (de Lange, 2005; Takai et al., 2003). The TIF assay is based on the co-localization detection of DNA damage by an antibody against DNA damage markers, such as gamma-H2AX, and telomeres using an antibody against one of the shelterin proteins such as TRF2 (Takai et al., 2003; de Lange, 2002; Karlseder et al., 1999). The method we describe here can be used in normal human and cancer cells. Other commonly used methods-Telomere Restriction Fragment (TRF) Analysis (Mender and Shay, 2015b) and Telomere Repeat Amplification Protocol (TRAP) (Mender and Shay, 2015a)- in telomere biology can be found by clicking on the indicated links.

  16. Inhibition of Transforming Growth Factor-Beta1 SignalingAttenuates Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated Activity in Response toGenotoxic Stress

    SciTech Connect

    Kirshner, Julia; Jobling, Michael F.; Pajares, Maria Jose; Ravani, Shraddha A.; Glick, Adam; Lavin, Martin F.; Koslov, Sergei; Shiloh, Yosef; Barcellos-Hoff, Mary Helen

    2006-01-01

    Ionizing radiation causes DNA damage that elicits a cellular program of damage control coordinated by the kinase activity of ataxia telangiectasia mutated protein (ATM). Transforming growth factor {beta} (TGF{beta})-1, which is activated by radiation, is a potent and pleiotropic mediator of physiologic and pathologic processes. Here we show that TGF{beta} inhibition impedes the canonical cellular DNA damage stress response. Irradiated Tgf{beta}I null murine epithelial cells or human epithelial cells treated with a small-molecule inhibitor of TGF{beta} type I receptor kinase exhibit decreased phosphorylation of Chk2, Rad17, and p53; reduced H2AX radiation-induced foci; and increased radiosensitivity compared with TGF{beta} competent cells. We determined that loss of TGF{beta} signaling in epithelial cells truncated ATM autophosphorylation and significantly reduced its kinase activity, without affecting protein abundance. Addition of TGF{beta} restored functional ATM and downstream DNA damage responses. These data reveal a heretofore undetected critical link between the microenvironment and ATM, which directs epithelial cell stress responses, cell fate, and tissue integrity. Thus, Tgf{beta}I, in addition to its role in homoeostatic growth control, plays a complex role in regulating responses to genotoxic stress, the failure of which would contribute to the development of cancer; conversely, inhibiting TGF{beta} may be used to advantage in cancer therapy.

  17. Clamping the Mec1/ATR checkpoint kinase into action.

    PubMed

    Majka, Jerzy; Burgers, Peter M J

    2007-05-15

    The yeast checkpoint protein kinase Mec1, the ortholog of human ATR, is the essential upstream regulator of the cell cycle checkpoint in response to DNA damage and to stalling of DNA replication forks. The activity of Mec1/ATR is not directly regulated by the DNA substrates that signal checkpoint activation. Rather the signal appears to be transduced to Mec1 by factors that interact with the signaling DNA substrates. One of these factors, the DNA damage checkpoint clamp Rad17-Mec3-Ddc1 (human 9-1-1) is loaded onto gapped DNA resulting from the partial repair of DNA damage, and the Ddc1 subunit of this complex activates Mec1. In vertebrate cells, the TopBP1 protein (Cut5 in S. pombe and Dpb11 in S. cervisiae) that is also required for establishment of the replication fork, functions during replication fork dysfunction to activate ATR. Both mechanisms of activation generally upregulate the kinase activity towards all downstream targets. PMID:17495536

  18. Blueprint XAS: a Matlab-based toolbox for the fitting and analysis of XAS spectra.

    PubMed

    Delgado-Jaime, Mario Ulises; Mewis, Craig Philip; Kennepohl, Pierre

    2010-01-01

    Blueprint XAS is a new Matlab-based program developed to fit and analyse X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) data, most specifically in the near-edge region of the spectrum. The program is based on a methodology that introduces a novel background model into the complete fit model and that is capable of generating any number of independent fits with minimal introduction of user bias [Delgado-Jaime & Kennepohl (2010), J. Synchrotron Rad. 17, 119-128]. The functions and settings on the five panels of its graphical user interface are designed to suit the needs of near-edge XAS data analyzers. A batch function allows for the setting of multiple jobs to be run with Matlab in the background. A unique statistics panel allows the user to analyse a family of independent fits, to evaluate fit models and to draw statistically supported conclusions. The version introduced here (v0.2) is currently a toolbox for Matlab. Future stand-alone versions of the program will also incorporate several other new features to create a full package of tools for XAS data processing. PMID:20029122

  19. Ccr4-not complex mRNA deadenylase activity contributes to DNA damage responses in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Traven, Ana; Hammet, Andrew; Tenis, Nora; Denis, Clyde L; Heierhorst, Jörg

    2005-01-01

    DNA damage checkpoints regulate gene expression at the transcriptional and post-transcriptional level. Some components of the yeast Ccr4-Not complex, which regulates transcription as well as transcript turnover, have previously been linked to DNA damage responses, but it is unclear if this involves transcriptional or post-transcriptional functions. Here we show that CCR4 and CAF1, which together encode the major cytoplasmic mRNA deadenylase complex, have complex genetic interactions with the checkpoint genes DUN1, MRC1, RAD9, and RAD17 in response to DNA-damaging agents hydroxyurea (HU) and methylmethane sulfonate (MMS). The exonuclease-inactivating ccr4-1 point mutation mimics ccr4Delta phenotypes, including synthetic HU hypersensitivity with dun1Delta, demonstrating that Ccr4-Not mRNA deadenylase activity is required for DNA damage responses. However, ccr4Delta and caf1Delta DNA damage phenotypes and genetic interactions with checkpoint genes are not identical, and deletions of some Not components that are believed to predominantly function at the transcriptional level rather than mRNA turnover, e.g., not5Delta, also lead to increased DNA damage sensitivity and synthetic HU hypersensitivity with dun1Delta. Taken together, our data thus suggest that both transcriptional and post-transcriptional functions of the Ccr4-Not complex contribute to the DNA damage response affecting gene expression in a complex manner. PMID:15466434

  20. Ccr4-Not Complex mRNA Deadenylase Activity Contributes to DNA Damage Responses in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Traven, Ana; Hammet, Andrew; Tenis, Nora; Denis, Clyde L.; Heierhorst, Jörg

    2005-01-01

    DNA damage checkpoints regulate gene expression at the transcriptional and post-transcriptional level. Some components of the yeast Ccr4-Not complex, which regulates transcription as well as transcript turnover, have previously been linked to DNA damage responses, but it is unclear if this involves transcriptional or post-transcriptional functions. Here we show that CCR4 and CAF1, which together encode the major cytoplasmic mRNA deadenylase complex, have complex genetic interactions with the checkpoint genes DUN1, MRC1, RAD9, and RAD17 in response to DNA-damaging agents hydroxyurea (HU) and methylmethane sulfonate (MMS). The exonuclease-inactivating ccr4-1 point mutation mimics ccr4Δ phenotypes, including synthetic HU hypersensitivity with dun1Δ, demonstrating that Ccr4-Not mRNA deadenylase activity is required for DNA damage responses. However, ccr4Δ and caf1Δ DNA damage phenotypes and genetic interactions with checkpoint genes are not identical, and deletions of some Not components that are believed to predominantly function at the transcriptional level rather than mRNA turnover, e.g., not5Δ, also lead to increased DNA damage sensitivity and synthetic HU hypersensitivity with dun1Δ. Taken together, our data thus suggest that both transcriptional and post-transcriptional functions of the Ccr4-Not complex contribute to the DNA damage response affecting gene expression in a complex manner. PMID:15466434

  1. Telomere damage induced by the G-quadruplex ligand RHPS4 has an antitumor effect

    PubMed Central

    Salvati, Erica; Leonetti, Carlo; Rizzo, Angela; Scarsella, Marco; Mottolese, Marcella; Galati, Rossella; Sperduti, Isabella; Stevens, Malcolm F.G.; D’Incalci, Maurizio; Blasco, Maria; Chiorino, Giovanna; Bauwens, Serge; Horard, Béatrice; Gilson, Eric; Stoppacciaro, Antonella; Zupi, Gabriella; Biroccio, Annamaria

    2007-01-01

    Functional telomeres are required for the replicability of cancer cells. The G-rich strand of telomeric DNA can fold into a 4-stranded structure known as the G-quadruplex (G4), whose stabilization alters telomere function limiting cancer cell growth. Therefore, the G4 ligand RHPS4 may possess antitumor activity. Here, we show that RHPS4 triggers a rapid and potent DNA damage response at telomeres in human transformed fibroblasts and melanoma cells, characterized by the formation of several telomeric foci containing phosphorylated DNA damage response factors γ-H2AX, RAD17, and 53BP1. This was dependent on DNA repair enzyme ATR, correlated with delocalization of the protective telomeric DNA–binding protein POT1, and was antagonized by overexpression of POT1 or TRF2. In mice, RHPS4 exerted its antitumor effect on xenografts of human tumor cells of different histotype by telomere injury and tumor cell apoptosis. Tumor inhibition was accompanied by a strong DNA damage response, and tumors overexpressing POT1 or TRF2 were resistant to RHPS4 treatment. These data provide evidence that RHPS4 is a telomere damage inducer and that telomere disruption selectively triggered in malignant cells results in a high therapeutic index in mice. They also define a functional link between telomere damage and antitumor activity and reveal the key role of telomere-protective factors TRF2 and POT1 in response to this anti-telomere strategy. PMID:17932567

  2. Cdc7 kinase mediates Claspin phosphorylation in DNA replication checkpoint.

    PubMed

    Kim, J M; Kakusho, N; Yamada, M; Kanoh, Y; Takemoto, N; Masai, H

    2008-05-29

    Cdc7 kinase is evolutionarily conserved and is involved in initiation and progression of DNA replication. However, roles of Cdc7 in checkpoint responses remain largely unknown. In this study, we show that deletion of the Cdc7 genes in mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells abrogates hydroxyurea (HU)- or UV-induced activation of Chk1. HU-induced Chk1 activation is also impaired in human cancer cell lines in which Cdc7 is depleted by siRNA, and Cdc7-depleted cells are more sensitive to HU treatment. In contrast, ATR and Rad17 are relocated to chromatin in these cells following HU treatment, indicating that stalled DNA replication forks are detected normally. Cdc7-depleted cells exhibit defects in chromatin association and phosphorylation of Claspin, suggesting that Cdc7 exerts its effect at least partially through Claspin. Consistent with this prediction, Cdc7 interacts with and phosphorylates Claspin. We propose that Cdc7 is required for activation of the ATR-Chk1 checkpoint pathway through regulation of Claspin. PMID:18084324

  3. Inhibition of TGFbeta1 Signaling Attenutates ATM Activity inResponse to Genotoxic Stress

    SciTech Connect

    Kirshner, Julia; Jobling, Michael F.; Pajares, Maria Jose; Ravani, Shraddha A.; Glick, Adam B.; Lavin, Martin J.; Koslov, Sergei; Shiloh, Yosef; Barcellos-Hoff, Mary Helen

    2006-09-15

    Ionizing radiation causes DNA damage that elicits a cellular program of damage control coordinated by the kinase activity of ataxia telangiectasia mutated protein (ATM). Transforming growth factor {beta}1 (TGF{beta}), which is activated by radiation, is a potent and pleiotropic mediator of physiological and pathological processes. Here we show that TGF{beta} inhibition impedes the canonical cellular DNA damage stress response. Irradiated Tgf{beta}1 null murine epithelial cells or human epithelial cells treated with a small molecule inhibitor of TGF{beta} type I receptor kinase exhibit decreased phosphorylation of Chk2, Rad17 and p53, reduced {gamma}H2AX radiation-induced foci, and increased radiosensitivity compared to TGF{beta} competent cells. We determined that loss of TGF{beta} signaling in epithelial cells truncated ATM autophosphorylation and significantly reduced its kinase activity, without affecting protein abundance. Addition of TGF{beta} restored functional ATM and downstream DNA damage responses. These data reveal a heretofore undetected critical link between the microenvironment and ATM that directs epithelial cell stress responses, cell fate and tissue integrity. Thus, TGF{beta}1, in addition to its role in homoeostatic growth control, plays a complex role in regulating responses to genotoxic stress, the failure of which would contribute to the development of cancer; conversely, inhibiting TGF{beta} may be used to advantage in cancer therapy.

  4. Src Family Kinases Promote Silencing of ATR-Chk1 Signaling in Termination of DNA Damage Checkpoint*

    PubMed Central

    Fukumoto, Yasunori; Morii, Mariko; Miura, Takahito; Kubota, Sho; Ishibashi, Kenichi; Honda, Takuya; Okamoto, Aya; Yamaguchi, Noritaka; Iwama, Atsushi; Nakayama, Yuji; Yamaguchi, Naoto

    2014-01-01

    The DNA damage checkpoint arrests cell cycle progression to allow time for repair. Once DNA repair is completed, checkpoint signaling is terminated. Currently little is known about the mechanism by which checkpoint signaling is terminated, and the disappearance of DNA lesions is considered to induce the end of checkpoint signaling; however, here we show that the termination of checkpoint signaling is an active process promoted by Src family tyrosine kinases. Inhibition of Src activity delays recovery from the G2 phase DNA damage checkpoint following DNA repair. Src activity is required for the termination of checkpoint signaling, and inhibition of Src activity induces persistent activation of ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM)- and Rad3-related (ATR) and Chk1 kinases. Src-dependent nuclear protein tyrosine phosphorylation and v-Src expression suppress the ATR-mediated Chk1 and Rad17 phosphorylation induced by DNA double strand breaks or DNA replication stress. Thus, Src family kinases promote checkpoint recovery through termination of ATR- and Chk1-dependent G2 DNA damage checkpoint. These results suggest a model according to which Src family kinases send a termination signal between the completion of DNA repair and the initiation of checkpoint termination. PMID:24634213

  5. Potential spoilage yeasts in winery environments: Characterization and proteomic analysis of Trigonopsis cantarellii.

    PubMed

    Portugal, Cauré; Pinto, Luís; Ribeiro, Miguel; Tenorio, Carmen; Igrejas, Gilberto; Ruiz-Larrea, Fernanda

    2015-10-01

    Wine microbiota is complex and includes a wide diversity of yeast species. Few of them are able to survive under the restrictive conditions of dry red wines. In our study we detected and identified seven yeast species of the order Saccharomycetales that can be considered potential spoilers of wines due to physiological traits such as acidogenic metabolism and off-odor generation: Arthroascus schoenii, Candida ishiwadae, Meyerozyma guilliermondii, Pichia holstii, Pichia manshurica, Trigonopsis cantarellii, and Trigonopsis variabilis. Based on the prevalence of T. cantarellii isolates in the wine samples of our study, we further characterized this species, determined molecular and phenotypic features, and performed a proteomic analysis to identify differentially expressed proteins at mid-exponential growth phase in the presence of ethanol in the culture broth. This yeast species is shown to be able to grow in the presence of ethanol by expressing heat shock proteins (Hsp70, Hsp71) and a DNA damage-related protein (Rad24), and to be able to confer spoilage characteristics on wine. PMID:26119188

  6. MRI of radiation injury to the brain

    SciTech Connect

    Curnes, J.T.; Laster, D.W.; Ball, M.R.; Moody, D.M.; Witcofski, R.L.

    1986-07-01

    Nine patients with a history of radiation of 2400-6000 rad (24-60 Gy) to the brain were examined by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT). MRI demonstrated abnormalities in the periventricular white matter in all patients. The abnormal periventricular signal was characterized by a long T2 and was demonstrated best on coronal spin-echo (SE) 1000/80 images. A characteristic scalloped appearance at the junction of the gray-white matter was seen on MR images of seven patients, and represented extensive white-matter damage involving the more peripheral arcuate fiber systems. This differs from transependymal absorption, which is seen best on SE 3000/80 images and has a smooth peripheral margin. Cranial CT demonstrated white-matter lucencies in six cases but generally failed to display the extent of white-matter injury demonstrated by MRI. MRI is uniquely suited to detect radiation injury to the brain because of its extreme sensitivity to white-matter edema.

  7. Spatial control of translation repression and polarized growth by conserved NDR kinase Orb6 and RNA-binding protein Sts5.

    PubMed

    Nuñez, Illyce; Rodriguez Pino, Marbelys; Wiley, David J; Das, Maitreyi E; Chen, Chuan; Goshima, Tetsuya; Kume, Kazunori; Hirata, Dai; Toda, Takashi; Verde, Fulvia

    2016-01-01

    RNA-binding proteins contribute to the formation of ribonucleoprotein (RNP) granules by phase transition, but regulatory mechanisms are not fully understood. Conserved fission yeast NDR (Nuclear Dbf2-Related) kinase Orb6 governs cell morphogenesis in part by spatially controlling Cdc42 GTPase. Here we describe a novel, independent function for Orb6 kinase in negatively regulating the recruitment of RNA-binding protein Sts5 into RNPs to promote polarized cell growth. We find that Orb6 kinase inhibits Sts5 recruitment into granules, its association with processing (P) bodies, and degradation of Sts5-bound mRNAs by promoting Sts5 interaction with 14-3-3 protein Rad24. Many Sts5-bound mRNAs encode essential factors for polarized cell growth, and Orb6 kinase spatially and temporally controls the extent of Sts5 granule formation. Disruption of this control system affects cell morphology and alters the pattern of polarized cell growth, revealing a role for Orb6 kinase in the spatial control of translational repression that enables normal cell morphogenesis. PMID:27474797

  8. Spatial control of translation repression and polarized growth by conserved NDR kinase Orb6 and RNA-binding protein Sts5

    PubMed Central

    Nuñez, Illyce; Rodriguez Pino, Marbelys; Wiley, David J; Das, Maitreyi E; Chen, Chuan; Goshima, Tetsuya; Kume, Kazunori; Hirata, Dai; Toda, Takashi; Verde, Fulvia

    2016-01-01

    RNA-binding proteins contribute to the formation of ribonucleoprotein (RNP) granules by phase transition, but regulatory mechanisms are not fully understood. Conserved fission yeast NDR (Nuclear Dbf2-Related) kinase Orb6 governs cell morphogenesis in part by spatially controlling Cdc42 GTPase. Here we describe a novel, independent function for Orb6 kinase in negatively regulating the recruitment of RNA-binding protein Sts5 into RNPs to promote polarized cell growth. We find that Orb6 kinase inhibits Sts5 recruitment into granules, its association with processing (P) bodies, and degradation of Sts5-bound mRNAs by promoting Sts5 interaction with 14-3-3 protein Rad24. Many Sts5-bound mRNAs encode essential factors for polarized cell growth, and Orb6 kinase spatially and temporally controls the extent of Sts5 granule formation. Disruption of this control system affects cell morphology and alters the pattern of polarized cell growth, revealing a role for Orb6 kinase in the spatial control of translational repression that enables normal cell morphogenesis. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.14216.001 PMID:27474797

  9. Atrazine Triggers DNA Damage Response and Induces DNA Double-Strand Breaks in MCF-10A Cells

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Peixin; Yang, John; Ning, Jie; Wang, Michael; Song, Qisheng

    2015-01-01

    Atrazine, a pre-emergent herbicide in the chloro-s-triazine family, has been widely used in crop lands and often detected in agriculture watersheds, which is considered as a potential threat to human health. Although atrazine and its metabolites showed an elevated incidence of mammary tumors in female Sprague–Dawley (SD) rats, no molecular evidence was found relevant to its carcinogenesis in humans. This study aims to determine whether atrazine could induce the expression of DNA damage response-related proteins in normal human breast epithelial cells (MCF-10A) and to examine the cytotoxicity of atrazine at a molecular level. Our results indicate that a short-term exposure of MCF-10A to an environmentally-detectable concentration of atrazine (0.1 µg/mL) significantly increased the expression of tumor necrosis factor receptor-1 (TNFR1) and phosphorylated Rad17 in the cells. Atrazine treatment increased H2AX phosphorylation (γH2AX) and the formation of γH2AX foci in the nuclei of MCF-10A cells. Atrazine also sequentially elevated DNA damage checkpoint proteins of ATM- and RAD3-related (ATR), ATRIP and phospho-Chk1, suggesting that atrazine could induce DNA double-strand breaks and trigger the DNA damage response ATR-Chk1 pathway in MCF-10A cells. Further investigations are needed to determine whether atrazine-triggered DNA double-strand breaks and DNA damage response ATR-Chk1 pathway occur in vivo. PMID:26114388

  10. Impaired Cytogenetic Damage Repair and Cell Cycle Regulation in Response to Ionizing Radiation in Human Fibroblast Cells with Individual Knock-down of 25 Genes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Ye; Rohde, Larry; Emami, Kamal; Hammond, Dianne; Casey, Rachael; Mehta, Satish; Jeevarajan, Antony; Pierson, Duane; Wu, Honglu

    2008-01-01

    Changes of gene expression profile are one of the most important biological responses in living cells after ionizing radiation (IR) exposure. Although some studies have demonstrated that genes with upregulated expression induced by IR may play important roles in DNA damage sensing, cell cycle checkpoint and chromosomal repair, the relationship between the regulation of gene expression by IR and its impact on cytogenetic responses to ionizing radiation has not been systematically studied. In our present study, the expression of 25 genes selected based on their transcriptional changes in response to IR or from their known DNA repair roles were individually knocked down by siRNA transfection in human fibroblast cells. Chromosome aberrations (CA) and micronuclei (MN) formation were measured as the cytogenetic endpoints. Our results showed that the yield of MN and/or CA formation were significantly increased by suppressed expression of 5 genes that included Ku70 in the DSB repair pathway; XPA in the NER pathway; RPA1 in the MMR pathway; RAD17 and RBBP8 in cell cycle control. Knocked-down expression of 4 genes including MRE11A, RAD51 in the DSB pathway, and SESN1 and SUMO1 showed significant inhibition of cell cycle progression, possibly because of severe impairment of DNA damage repair. Furthermore, loss of XPA, p21 and MLH1 expression resulted in both enhanced cell cycle progression and significantly higher yield of cytogenetic damage, indicating the involvement of these gene products in both cell cycle control and DNA damage repair. Of these 11 genes that affected the cytogenetic response, 9 were up-regulated in the cells exposed to gamma radiation, suggesting that genes transcriptionally modulated by IR were critical to regulating the biological consequences after IR. Failure to express these IR-responsive genes, such as by gene mutation, could seriously change the outcome of the post IR scenario and lead to carcinogenesis.

  11. 5-ASA Affects Cell Cycle Progression in Colorectal Cells by Reversibly Activating a Replication Checkpoint

    PubMed Central

    LUCIANI, M. GLORIA; CAMPREGHER, CHRISTOPH; FORTUNE, JOHN M.; KUNKEL, THOMAS A.; GASCHE, CHRISTOPH

    2007-01-01

    Background & Aims Individuals with inflammatory bowel disease are at risk of developing colorectal cancer (CRC). Epidemiologic, animal, and laboratory studies suggest that 5-amino-salicylic acid (5-ASA) protects from the development of CRC by altering cell cycle progression and by inducing apoptosis. Our previous results indicate that 5-ASA improves replication fidelity in colorectal cells, an effect that is active in reducing mutations. In this study, we hypothesized that 5-ASA restrains cell cycle progression by activating checkpoint pathways in colorectal cell lines, which would prevent tumor development and improve genomic stability. Methods CRC cells with different genetic backgrounds such as HT29, HCT116, HCT116p53−/−, HCT116+chr3, and LoVo were treated with 5-ASA for 2–96 hours. Cell cycle progression, phosphorylation, and DNA binding of cell cycle checkpoint proteins were analyzed. Results We found that 5-ASA at concentrations between 10 and 40 mmol/L affects cell cycle progression by inducing cells to accumulate in the S phase. This effect was independent of the hMLH1, hMSH2, and p53 status because it was observed to a similar extent in all cell lines under investigation. Moreover, wash-out experiments demonstrated reversibility within 48 hours. Although p53 did not have a causative role, p53 Ser15 was strongly phosphorylated. Proteins involved in the ATM-and-Rad3-related kinase (ATR)-dependent S-phase checkpoint response (Chk1 and Rad17) were also phosphorylated but not ataxia telengectasia mutated kinase. Conclusions Our data demonstrate that 5-ASA causes cells to reversibly accumulate in S phase and activate an ATR-dependent checkpoint. The activation of replication checkpoint may slow down DNA replication and improve DNA replication fidelity, which increases the maintenance of genomic stability and counteracts carcinogenesis. PMID:17241873

  12. Atrazine Triggers DNA Damage Response and Induces DNA Double-Strand Breaks in MCF-10A Cells.

    PubMed

    Huang, Peixin; Yang, John; Ning, Jie; Wang, Michael; Song, Qisheng

    2015-01-01

    Atrazine, a pre-emergent herbicide in the chloro-s-triazine family, has been widely used in crop lands and often detected in agriculture watersheds, which is considered as a potential threat to human health. Although atrazine and its metabolites showed an elevated incidence of mammary tumors in female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats, no molecular evidence was found relevant to its carcinogenesis in humans. This study aims to determine whether atrazine could induce the expression of DNA damage response-related proteins in normal human breast epithelial cells (MCF-10A) and to examine the cytotoxicity of atrazine at a molecular level. Our results indicate that a short-term exposure of MCF-10A to an environmentally-detectable concentration of atrazine (0.1 µg/mL) significantly increased the expression of tumor necrosis factor receptor-1 (TNFR1) and phosphorylated Rad17 in the cells. Atrazine treatment increased H2AX phosphorylation (γH2AX) and the formation of γH2AX foci in the nuclei of MCF-10A cells. Atrazine also sequentially elevated DNA damage checkpoint proteins of ATM- and RAD3-related (ATR), ATRIP and phospho-Chk1, suggesting that atrazine could induce DNA double-strand breaks and trigger the DNA damage response ATR-Chk1 pathway in MCF-10A cells. Further investigations are needed to determine whether atrazine-triggered DNA double-strand breaks and DNA damage response ATR-Chk1 pathway occur in vivo. PMID:26114388

  13. Non-DBS DNA Repair Genes Regulate Radiation-induced Cytogenetic Damage Repair and Cell Cycle Progression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Ye; Rohde, Larry H.; Emami, Kamal; Casey, Rachael; Wu, Honglu

    2008-01-01

    Changes of gene expression profile are one of the most important biological responses in living cells after ionizing radiation (IR) exposure. Although some studies have shown that genes up-regulated by IR may play important roles in DNA damage repair, the relationship between the regulation of gene expression by IR, particularly genes not known for their roles in DSB repair, and its impact on cytogenetic responses has not been systematically studied. In the present study, the expression of 25 genes selected on the basis of their transcriptional changes in response to IR was individually knocked down by transfection with small interfering RNA in human fibroblast cells. The purpose of this study is to identify new roles of these selected genes on regulating DSB repair and cell cycle progression , as measured in the micronuclei formation and chromosome aberration. In response to IR, the formation of MN was significantly increased by suppressed expression of 5 genes: Ku70 in the DSB repair pathway, XPA in the NER pathway, RPA1 in the MMR pathway, and RAD17 and RBBP8 in cell cycle control. Knocked-down expression of 4 genes (MRE11A, RAD51 in the DSB pathway, SESN1, and SUMO1) significantly inhibited cell cycle progression, possibly because of severe impairment of DNA damage repair. Furthermore, loss of XPA, P21, or MLH1 expression resulted in both significantly enhanced cell cycle progression and increased yields of chromosome aberrations, indicating that these gene products modulate both cell cycle control and DNA damage repair. Most of the 11 genes that affected cytogenetic responses are not known to have clear roles influencing DBS repair. Nine of these 11 genes were up-regulated in cells exposed to gamma radiation, suggesting that genes transcriptionally modulated by IR were critical to regulate the biological consequences after IR.

  14. Rfc4 Interacts with Rpa1 and Is Required for Both DNA Replication and DNA Damage Checkpoints in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hee-Sook; Brill, Steven J.

    2001-01-01

    The large subunit of replication protein A (Rpa1) consists of three single-stranded DNA binding domains and an N-terminal domain (Rpa1N) of unknown function. To determine the essential role of this domain we searched for mutations that require wild-type Rpa1N for viability in yeast. A mutation in RFC4, encoding a small subunit of replication factor C (RFC), was found to display allele-specific interactions with mutations in the gene encoding Rpa1 (RFA1). Mutations that map to Rpa1N and confer sensitivity to the DNA synthesis inhibitor hydroxyurea, such as rfa1-t11, are lethal in combination with rfc4-2. The rfc4-2 mutant itself is sensitive to hydroxyurea, and like rfc2 and rfc5 strains, it exhibits defects in the DNA replication block and intra-S checkpoints. RFC4 and the DNA damage checkpoint gene RAD24 were found to be epistatic with respect to DNA damage sensitivity. We show that the rfc4-2 mutant is defective in the G1/S DNA damage checkpoint response and that both the rfc4-2 and rfa1-t11 strains are defective in the G2/M DNA damage checkpoint. Thus, in addition to its essential role as part of the clamp loader in DNA replication, Rfc4 plays a role as a sensor in multiple DNA checkpoint pathways. Our results suggest that a physical interaction between Rfc4 and Rpa1N is required for both roles. PMID:11340166

  15. Small ubiquitin-related modifier ligase activity of Mms21 is required for maintenance of chromosome integrity during the unperturbed mitotic cell division cycle in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Rai, Ragini; Varma, Satya P M V; Shinde, Nikhil; Ghosh, Shilpa; Kumaran, Srikala P; Skariah, Geena; Laloraya, Shikha

    2011-04-22

    The SUMO ligase activity of Mms21/Nse2, a conserved member of the Smc5/6 complex, is required for resisting extrinsically induced genotoxic stress. We report that the Mms21 SUMO ligase activity is also required during the unchallenged mitotic cell cycle in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. SUMO ligase-defective cells were slow growing and spontaneously incurred DNA damage. These cells required caffeine-sensitive Mec1 kinase-dependent checkpoint signaling for survival even in the absence of extrinsically induced genotoxic stress. SUMO ligase-defective cells were sensitive to replication stress and displayed synthetic growth defects with DNA damage checkpoint-defective mutants such as mec1, rad9, and rad24. MMS21 SUMO ligase and mediator of replication checkpoint 1 gene (MRC1) were epistatic with respect to hydroxyurea-induced replication stress or methyl methanesulfonate-induced DNA damage sensitivity. Subjecting Mms21 SUMO ligase-deficient cells to transient replication stress resulted in enhancement of cell cycle progression defects such as mitotic delay and accumulation of hyperploid cells. Consistent with the spontaneous activation of the DNA damage checkpoint pathway observed in the Mms21-mediated sumoylation-deficient cells, enhanced frequency of chromosome breakage and loss was detected in these mutant cells. A mutation in the conserved cysteine 221 that is engaged in coordination of the zinc ion in Loop 2 of the Mms21 SPL-RING E3 ligase catalytic domain resulted in strong replication stress sensitivity and also conferred slow growth and Mec1 dependence to unchallenged mitotically dividing cells. Our findings establish Mms21-mediated sumoylation as a determinant of cell cycle progression and maintenance of chromosome integrity during the unperturbed mitotic cell division cycle in budding yeast. PMID:21324902

  16. Cytogenetic Response to Ionizing Radiation Exposure in Human Fibroblasts with Suppressed Expression of Non-DSB Repair Genes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Ye; Rohde, Larry H.; Emami, Kamal; Hammond, Dianne; Mehta, Satish K.; Jeevarajan, Antony S.; Pierson, Duane L.; Wu, Honglu

    2009-01-01

    Changes of gene expression profile are one of the most important biological responses in living cells after ionizing radiation (IR) exposure. Although some studies have shown that genes up-regulated by IR may play important roles in DNA damage repair, the relationship between the regulation of gene expression by IR, particularly genes not known for their roles in double-strand break (DSB) repair, and its impact on cytogenetic responses has not been well studied. The purpose of this study is to identify new roles of IR inducible genes in radiation-induced chromosome aberrations and micronuclei formation. In the study, the expression of 25 genes selected on the basis of their transcriptional changes in response to IR was individually knocked down by small interfering RNA in human fibroblast cells. Frequencies of micronuclei (MN) formation and chromosome aberrations were measured to determine the efficiency of cytogenetic repair, and the fraction of bi-nucleated cells in the MN analysis was used as a marker for cell cycle progression. In response to gamma radiation, the formation of MN was significantly increased by suppressed expression of five genes: Ku70 (DSB repair pathway), XPA (nucleotide excision repair pathway), RPA1 (mismatch repair pathway), RAD17 and RBBP8 (cell cycle control). Knocked-down expression of four genes (MRE11A, RAD51 in the DSB pathway, SESN1, and SUMO1) significantly inhibited cell cycle progression, possibly because of severe impairment of DNA damage repair. Moreover, decreased XPA, p21, or MLH1 expression resulted in both significantly enhanced cell cycle progression and increased yields of chromosome aberrations, indicating that these gene products modulate both cell cycle control and DNA damage repair. Nine of these eleven genes, whose knock-down expression affected cytogenetic repair, were up-regulated in cells exposed to gamma radiation, suggesting that genes transcriptionally modulated by IR were critical to regulate IR